WorldWideScience

Sample records for address interior space

  1. Colour-emotion associations in interior spaces

    Helvacıoğlu, Elif

    2011-01-01

    Colour as an effective design tool influences people’s emotions in interior spaces. Depending on the assumption that colour has an impact on human psychology, this study stresses the need for further studies that comprise colour and emotion association in interior space in order to provide healthier spaces for inhabitants. Emotional reactions to colour in a living room were investigated by using self report measure. Pure red, green and blue were chosen to be investigated as ...

  2. Generators with interior degeneracy on spaces of L^2 type

    Genni Fragnelli

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We consider operators in divergence and in nondivergence form with degeneracy at the interior of the space domain. Characterizing the domain of the operators, we prove that they generate positive analytic semigroups on spaces of L^2 type. Finally, some applications to linear and semilinear parabolic evolution problems and to linear hyperbolic ones are presented.

  3. The Application of Natural Light in the Interior Space

    刘晓雯

    2013-01-01

    Residential space has developed greatly in 20 century,especially on the bright and open space require-ments,has become the epitome of the Modernism and the Spirit of the age.Excessive adapt to the glass curtain wall to achieve bright space seems to have become one of the architecture and law of the house today, but very few people to pay attention to research in the residential light,specially the problem of natural light. The effective use of natural light is playing a huge positive role and affecting our design field.The natural light researching has become an indispensable important goal of design, and it has deeply influenced the architecture and interior space of quality.

  4. Innovation in Deep Space Habitat Interior Design: Lessons Learned From Small Space Design in Terrestrial Architecture

    Simon, Matthew A.; Toups, Larry

    2014-01-01

    Increased public awareness of carbon footprints, crowding in urban areas, and rising housing costs have spawned a 'small house movement' in the housing industry. Members of this movement desire small, yet highly functional residences which are both affordable and sensitive to consumer comfort standards. In order to create comfortable, minimum-volume interiors, recent advances have been made in furniture design and approaches to interior layout that improve both space utilization and encourage multi-functional design for small homes, apartments, naval, and recreational vehicles. Design efforts in this evolving niche of terrestrial architecture can provide useful insights leading to innovation and efficiency in the design of space habitats for future human space exploration missions. This paper highlights many of the cross-cutting architectural solutions used in small space design which are applicable to the spacecraft interior design problem. Specific solutions discussed include reconfigurable, multi-purpose spaces; collapsible or transformable furniture; multi-purpose accommodations; efficient, space saving appliances; stowable and mobile workstations; and the miniaturization of electronics and computing hardware. For each of these design features, descriptions of how they save interior volume or mitigate other small space issues such as confinement stress or crowding are discussed. Finally, recommendations are provided to provide guidance for future designs and identify potential collaborations with the small spaces design community.

  5. No Address Space Operating System Prototype and Its Performance Test

    LIU Fuyan; YOU Jinyuan

    2001-01-01

    In this paper,we first analyze datastorage models in typical operating systems,the re-lation between distributed shared memory and datastorage model,as well as the relation between mem-ory hierarchy and data storage model.Then we pro-pose the concept of No Address Space Operating Sys-tem,discuss an implementation prototype,and ana-lyze its performance and advantages.We believe thatthe concept of process virtual address space should beabandoned in operating systems,instructions shouldaccess files directly,and processes should run on files.Compared with other operating systems,No AddressSpace Operating System has many advantages andshould be adopted in computer systems.

  6. Time- and space-resolved spectroscopy of dynamic hohlraum interiors

    A dynamic hohlraum is created when an annular z-pinch plasma implodes onto a cylindrical 0.014 g/cc 6-mm-diameter CH2 foam. The impact launches a radiating shock that propagates toward the axis at ∼350 (micro)m/ns. The radiation trapped by the tungsten z-pinch plasma forms a ∼200 eV hohlraum that provides X-rays for indirect drive inertial confinement fusion capsule implosion experiments. We are developing the ability to diagnose the hohlraum interior using emission and absorption spectroscopy of Si atoms added as a tracer to the central portion of the foam. Time- and space-resolved Si spectra are recorded with an elliptical crystal spectrometer viewing the cylindrical hohlraum end-on. A rectangular aperture at the end of the hohlraum restricts the field of view so that the 1D spectrometer resolution corresponds approximately to the hohlraum radial direction. This enables distinguishing between spectra from the unshocked radiation-heated foam and from the shocked foam. Typical spectral lines observed include the Si Lyα with its He-like satellites and the He-like resonance sequence including Heα, Heβ, and Heγ, along with some of their associated Li-like satellites. Work is in progress to infer the hohlraum conditions using collisional-radiative modeling that accounts for the radiation environment and includes both opacity effects and detailed Stark broadening calculations. These 6-mm-scale radiation-heated plasmas might eventually also prove suitable for testing Stark broadening line profile calculations or for opacity measurements

  7. 41 CFR 102-74.325 - Are designated smoking areas authorized in interior space?

    2010-07-01

    ... areas authorized in interior space? 102-74.325 Section 102-74.325 Public Contracts and Property... authorized in interior space? No, unless specifically established by an agency head as provided by § 102-74.320(d). A previous exception for designated smoking areas is being eliminated. All designated...

  8. Achieving Load Balance by Separating IP Address Spaces

    Sanqi Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a load balance approach by separating the host and router IP addresses into two spaces. In addition, in our approach, we propose a scheduling algorithm, named Edge Stream Balance (ESB, which is used by the proposed multipath routing scheme based on the address space separation. Each router can schedule each stream that is initiated by the connected host onto the proper path to the destination host by ESB dynamically. The multiple paths between any pair of hosts can be obtained by the connected routers by using the address separating mechanism. The merit of our approach is that: it balances the network traffic dynamically while being free of traffic demand assumption and offline flow optimization. The path of each stream is selected by each router individually other than using central system based on the address separation. The time complexity of ESB is much lower than the linear programming (LP and integer linear programming (ILP which are used in flow optimization. Simulation results show that on average of all simulated scenarios, compared to the existing single path routing which is based on the address separating, the unused link ratio (ULR reduces by 82%. And in the relative sense, the traffic across the network is balanced 31%.

  9. 41 CFR 102-73.200 - What types of special purpose space may the Department of the Interior lease?

    2010-07-01

    ... purpose space may the Department of the Interior lease? 102-73.200 Section 102-73.200 Public Contracts and... § 102-73.200 What types of special purpose space may the Department of the Interior lease? The Department of the Interior is delegated authority to lease the following types of special purpose space:...

  10. INVESTIGATIONS ON THE QUALITY OF THE INTERIOR ORIENTATION AND ITS IMPACT IN OBJECT SPACE FOR UAV PHOTOGRAMMETRY

    H. Hastedt

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available With respect to the usual processing chain in UAV photogrammetry the consideration of the camera’s influencing factors on the accessible accuracy level is of high interest. In most applications consumer cameras are used due to their light weight. They usually allow only for automatic zoom or restricted options in manual modes. The stability and long-term validity of the interior orientation parameters are open to question. Additionally, common aerial flights do not provide adequate images for self-calibration. Nonetheless, processing software include self-calibration based on EXIF information as a standard setting. The subsequent impact of the interior orientation parameters on the reconstruction in object space cannot be neglected. With respect to the suggested key issues different investigations on the quality of interior orientation and its impact in object space are addressed. On the one hand the investigations concentrate on the improvement in accuracy by applying pre-calibrated interior orientation parameters. On the other hand, image configurations are investigated that allow for an adequate self-calibration in UAV photogrammetry. The analyses on the interior orientation focus on the estimation quality of the interior orientation parameters by using volumetric test scenarios as well as planar pattern as they are commonly used in computer vision. This is done by using a Olympus Pen E-PM2 camera and a Canon G1X as representative system cameras. For the analysis of image configurations a simulation based approach is applied. The analyses include investigations on varying principal distance and principal point to evaluate the system’s stability.

  11. Investigations on the Quality of the Interior Orientation and its Impact in Object Space for Uav Photogrammetry

    Hastedt, H.; Luhmann, T.

    2015-08-01

    With respect to the usual processing chain in UAV photogrammetry the consideration of the camera's influencing factors on the accessible accuracy level is of high interest. In most applications consumer cameras are used due to their light weight. They usually allow only for automatic zoom or restricted options in manual modes. The stability and long-term validity of the interior orientation parameters are open to question. Additionally, common aerial flights do not provide adequate images for self-calibration. Nonetheless, processing software include self-calibration based on EXIF information as a standard setting. The subsequent impact of the interior orientation parameters on the reconstruction in object space cannot be neglected. With respect to the suggested key issues different investigations on the quality of interior orientation and its impact in object space are addressed. On the one hand the investigations concentrate on the improvement in accuracy by applying pre-calibrated interior orientation parameters. On the other hand, image configurations are investigated that allow for an adequate self-calibration in UAV photogrammetry. The analyses on the interior orientation focus on the estimation quality of the interior orientation parameters by using volumetric test scenarios as well as planar pattern as they are commonly used in computer vision. This is done by using a Olympus Pen E-PM2 camera and a Canon G1X as representative system cameras. For the analysis of image configurations a simulation based approach is applied. The analyses include investigations on varying principal distance and principal point to evaluate the system's stability.

  12. Addressing the Influence of Space Weather on Airline Navigation

    Sparks, Lawrence

    2012-01-01

    The advent of satellite-based augmentation systems has made it possible to navigate aircraft safely using radio signals emitted by global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) such as the Global Positioning System. As a signal propagates through the earth's ionosphere, it suffers delay that is proportional to the total electron content encountered along the raypath. Since the magnitude of this total electron content is strongly influenced by space weather, the safety and reliability of GNSS for airline navigation requires continual monitoring of the state of the ionosphere and calibration of ionospheric delay. This paper examines the impact of space weather on GNSS-based navigation and provides an overview of how the Wide Area Augmentation System protects its users from positioning error due to ionospheric disturbances

  13. Methods for intelligent mapping of the IPv6 address space

    LaFever, Blake W.

    2015-01-01

    Due to the rapid growth of the Internet, the available pool of unique addresses in version four of the Internet Protocol (IPv4) is nearly depleted. As a result, the next generation protocol, IPv6, is now widely implemented and rapidly being adopted. This thesis examines new methods for active mapping of the IPv6 topology, i.e., router and link discovery. Better characterization of the IPv6 topology can provide the Department of Defense and other federal agencies the ability to defend networks...

  14. Addressing Human System Risks to Future Space Exploration

    Paloski, W. H.; Francisco, D. R.; Davis, J. R.

    2015-01-01

    NASA is contemplating future human exploration missions to destinations beyond low Earth orbit, including the Moon, deep-space asteroids, and Mars. While we have learned much about protecting crew health and performance during orbital space flight over the past half-century, the challenges of these future missions far exceed those within our current experience base. To ensure success in these missions, we have developed a Human System Risk Board (HSRB) to identify, quantify, and develop mitigation plans for the extraordinary risks associated with each potential mission scenario. The HSRB comprises research, technology, and operations experts in medicine, physiology, psychology, human factors, radiation, toxicology, microbiology, pharmacology, and food sciences. Methods: Owing to the wide range of potential mission characteristics, we first identified the hazards to human health and performance common to all exploration missions: altered gravity, isolation/confinement, increased radiation, distance from Earth, and hostile/closed environment. Each hazard leads to a set of risks to crew health and/or performance. For example the radiation hazard leads to risks of acute radiation syndrome, central nervous system dysfunction, soft tissue degeneration, and carcinogenesis. Some of these risks (e.g., acute radiation syndrome) could affect crew health or performance during the mission, while others (e.g., carcinogenesis) would more likely affect the crewmember well after the mission ends. We next defined a set of design reference missions (DRM) that would span the range of exploration missions currently under consideration. In addition to standard (6-month) and long-duration (1-year) missions in low Earth orbit (LEO), these DRM include deep space sortie missions of 1 month duration, lunar orbital and landing missions of 1 year duration, deep space journey and asteroid landing missions of 1 year duration, and Mars orbital and landing missions of 3 years duration. We then

  15. Sub-nm-spaced frequency-addressed qubits

    Full text: Rare-earth-ions doped inorganic crystals have properties which makes them attractive for use as quantum computing hardware. The ions are naturally trapped, in a solid, with sub nm separations, which give large interactions and potentially allow fast gates, but they can still be separately addressed since different ions have different optical resonance frequency. The qubit state is stored in two of the hyperfine levels, which can have coherence times up to 33 s. The interaction that enables multi-qubit gates can be turned on at will and is based on that the permanent dipole moment changes as a control ion is transferred to the optically excited state which in turn Stark-shifts a target qubit out of resonance. Initially the crystal has inhomogeneously broadened, GHz wide, absorption lines. Using optical pumping all ions within a frequency interval can be removed and then a peak of equivalent ions, each belonging to one instance of many parallel quantum computers can be positioned within the non-absorbing region. This qubit has then been efficiently transferred between different qubit states using robust complex hyperbolic secant pulses. We have also managed to distil out pairs of qubits that interacts strongly. In the ensemble approach all qubits have to be represented in all instances of quantum computers. This can scale unfavourably for large systems. One way of enhancing the scalability is to move towards using a single instance quantum computer. It has been shown that a single rare-earth-ion can be read out with fluorescence. We have investigated a scheme which is based on that a specialized readout ion, of a different species than the qubit ions, is doped in such a low concentration that there is only one such ion within a focal spot. When a qubit ion lying close to the readout ion is excited this will shift the readout ion out of resonance and the fluorescence will stop. With a searching strategy a set of interacting ions suitable as single instance

  16. Illumination of interior spaces by bended hollow light guides: Application of the theoretical light propagation method

    Darula, Stanislav; Kocifaj, Miroslav; Kittler, Richard [ICA, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava (Slovakia); Kundracik, Frantisek [Department of Experimental Physics, FMPI, Comenius University, Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2010-12-15

    To ensure comfort and healthy conditions in interior spaces the thermal, acoustics and daylight factors of the environment have to be considered in the building design. Due to effective energy performance in buildings the new technology and applications also in daylight engineering are sought such as tubular light guides. These allow the transport of natural light into the building core reducing energy consumption. A lot of installations with various geometrical and optical properties can be applied in real buildings. The simplest set of tubular light guide consists of a transparent cupola, direct tube with high reflected inner surface and a ceiling cover or diffuser redistributing light into the interior. Such vertical tubular guide is often used on flat roofs. When the roof construction is inclined a bend in the light guide system has to be installed. In this case the cupola is set on the sloped roof which collects sunlight and skylight from the seen part of the sky hemisphere as well as that reflected from the ground and opposite facades. In comparison with the vertical tube some additional light losses and distortions of the propagated light have to be expected in bended tubular light guides. Recently the theoretical model of light propagation was already published and its applications are presented in this study solving illuminance distributions on the ceiling cover interface and further illuminance distribution on the working plane in the interior. (author)

  17. Recording and Modelling of MONUMENTS' Interior Space Using Range and Optical Sensors

    Georgiadis, Charalampos; Patias, Petros; Tsioukas, Vasilios

    2016-06-01

    Three dimensional modelling of artefacts and building interiors is a highly active research field in our days. Several techniques are being utilized to perform such a task, spanning from traditional surveying techniques and photogrammetry to structured light scanners, laser scanners and so on. New technological advancements in both hardware and software create new recording techniques, tools and approaches. In this paper we present a new recording and modelling approach based on the SwissRanger SR4000 range camera coupled with a Canon 400D dSLR camera. The hardware component of our approach consists of a fixed base, which encloses the range and SLR cameras. The two sensors are fully calibrated and registered to each other thus we were able to produce colorized point clouds acquired from the range camera. In this paper we present the initial design and calibration of the system along with experimental data regarding the accuracy of the proposed approach. We are also providing results regarding the modelling of interior spaces and artefacts accompanied with accuracy tests from other modelling approaches based on photogrammetry and laser scanning.

  18. INTERIOR SPACE IN THE PORTRAITS OF THE MASTERS OF FRENCH ROSSIKA IN THE END OF THE XVIII - EARLY XIX CENTURIES

    Maria Valeryevna Nepopalova

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The interior in a portrait plays an important role in creation of secular space. Russian interior in late 18th – early 19th centuries reflected the trends of different styles, the influence of European culture and the continuity of the ancient heritage. Rossika reflected the life of Russian society in different ways - from creation of ideals and symbolic interpretations of the environment to transmission of traditions, customs and the ways of life, comfort and warm atmosphere of Russian homes and tastes of the aristocracy. Along with the traditional images of ceremonial interior, the French masters reflected the interiors of a cabinet and chamber type. The works of Rossika reflect the Enlightenment epoch with its humanistic ideals and ideas of the noble way of life and scientific progress. The interiors in the portraits of French Rossika are marked with the versatile language of classicism, laconic expressiveness of the composite space, special attention to the social symbolism. The entourage details of the portraits by French painters disclose the idea of the works, reflecting the diverse interaction of the personality with the social environment. The interiors reflect the historical situation and the conceptual ideas of those times, describing the trends of style and fashion in aristocratic circles. The high artistic level reflects the cultural continuity of the heritage of Rossika portraits and its link with the entire civilized world.

  19. Remodeling of the interior of preschool institutions in the context of improvement of ambient value and quality of space

    Nikolić Vojislav

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the attitude that in conceiving, designing and equipping of the areas where children stay, the areas’ quality becomes enriched, this paper treats the remodeling of the interior in the revitalization process of the existing preschool institutions. The issue was handled using the input of the critique and the studies of the psychological aspects of children’s stay in preschool institutions. The basic goal of the research is finding of a practical model of interior space renovation in the preschool facilities in Nis, as in a typical urban environment. The innovation potential was analyzed on proposed remodeling of the interior of kindergarten „Bajka". The conclusions from this research can be used as guidelines for remodeling of the interior of other kindergartens built in the same period. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 036045: Revitalization of preschool facilities in Serbia - The program and methods of environmental, functional, and energy efficiency improvement

  20. Scientific problems addressed by the Spektr-UV space project (world space Observatory—Ultraviolet)

    Boyarchuk, A. A.; Shustov, B. M.; Savanov, I. S.; Sachkov, M. E.; Bisikalo, D. V.; Mashonkina, L. I.; Wiebe, D. Z.; Shematovich, V. I.; Shchekinov, Yu. A.; Ryabchikova, T. A.; Chugai, N. N.; Ivanov, P. B.; Voshchinnikov, N. V.; Gomez de Castro, A. I.; Lamzin, S. A.; Piskunov, N.; Ayres, T.; Strassmeier, K. G.; Jeffrey, S.; Zwintz, S. K.; Shulyak, D.; Gérard, J.-C.; Hubert, B.; Fossati, L.; Lammer, H.; Werner, K.; Zhilkin, A. G.; Kaigorodov, P. V.; Sichevskii, S. G.; Ustamuich, S.; Kanev, E. N.; Kil'pio, E. Yu.

    2016-01-01

    The article presents a review of scientific problems and methods of ultraviolet astronomy, focusing on perspective scientific problems (directions) whose solution requires UV space observatories. These include reionization and the history of star formation in the Universe, searches for dark baryonic matter, physical and chemical processes in the interstellar medium and protoplanetary disks, the physics of accretion and outflows in astrophysical objects, from Active Galactic Nuclei to close binary stars, stellar activity (for both low-mass and high-mass stars), and processes occurring in the atmospheres of both planets in the solar system and exoplanets. Technological progress in UV astronomy achieved in recent years is also considered. The well advanced, international, Russian-led Spektr-UV (World Space Observatory—Ultraviolet) project is described in more detail. This project is directed at creating a major space observatory operational in the ultraviolet (115-310 nm). This observatory will provide an effective, and possibly the only, powerful means of observing in this spectral range over the next ten years, and will be an powerful tool for resolving many topical scientific problems.

  1. So you've got IPv6 address space. Can you defend it?

    Sande, Mikal

    2014-01-01

    Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) is the successor of Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4). IPv6 will become the next standard networking protocol on the Internet. It brings with it a great increase in address space, changes to network operations, and new network security concerns. In this thesis we examine IPv6 from a security perspective. The security of IPv6 is important to all protocols that use IPv6 on the Internet. The goal of this thesis is to introduce the reader to existing IPv6 secur...

  2. GASP: A Performance Analysis Tool Interface for Global AddressSpace Programming Models, Version 1.5

    Leko, Adam; Bonachea, Dan; Su, Hung-Hsun; George, Alan D.; Sherburne, Hans; George, Alan D.

    2006-09-14

    Due to the wide range of compilers and the lack of astandardized performance tool interface, writers of performance toolsface many challenges when incorporating support for global address space(GAS) programming models such as Unified Parallel C (UPC), Titanium, andCo-Array Fortran (CAF). This document presents a Global Address SpacePerformance tool interface (GASP) that is flexible enough to be adaptedinto current global address space compiler and runtime infrastructureswith little effort, while allowing performance analysis tools to gathermuch information about the performance of global address spaceprograms.

  3. Making Discursive Spaces: a collaboration between disabled and deaf artists and interior architecture students

    Boys, Jos

    2007-01-01

    This website explores some new ways of thinking about, and responding to, architecture and accessibility. It tries to capture some interesting ‘discursive spaces’ around disability and building design, based on a creative collaboration between deaf and disabled artists and interior architecture students from the School of Architecture and Design, University of Brighton during May 2007. The website can also be downloaded as a pdf, and works as an evaluation report for the (Arts Council SE fund...

  4. Hybrid Prediction Method for Aircraft Interior Noise Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal discusses the development and application of new methods of structural-acoustic analysis in order to address existing problems in aircraft interior...

  5. Space factor of "excess" heat generation in the Earth and planetary interiors. Article 2. Space-time patterns of distribution of the heat generating zones in the Earth interior

    Makarenko, O. M.

    Besides radiogenic energy, the "supplementary" energy source occurs in the Earth interior. This source is of cosmic origin and modulated by position and direction of the Solar system motion in the Galaxy. It can be called as "cosmic furnace", which works in the Earth internal and outer cores as well as in mantle. The specific thermal generation per unit of volume is about 10 W/km3 in the Earth mantle and some 50 W/km3 in the Earth core. Excess heat generation occurs mainly in the latitudinal zone between 650 of northern latitude and 650 of southern latitude. More active heat generation occurs in the northern and southern hemispheres alternately with intervals about 200 million years that is equal to the period of revolution about the Galaxy center. The latitudinal zone of maximal heat generation moves in time along the sinusoidal curve in accordance with displacement of projection of the Solar system apex on the Earth surface. Maximal intensity of heat generation occurs when projection of the Earth motion in the Galaxy achieves the Earth equator (every 100 million years). At this particular time the direction of the Solar system motion in the Galaxy is in the plane of ecliptic and heat generation - of maximal intensity. This results in existence of equatorial hot belt in the Earth interior, distinctly exhibited in the core and mantle. The fact of alternate heating of the Earth semi-spheres allows us to assume that heat-generating factor influencing our planet from galactic space is absorbed largely while passing through the planetary interior.

  6. Combining annual daylight simulation with photobiology data to assess the relative circadian efficacy of interior spaces

    Pechacek, C. S.; Andersen, Marilyne; Lockley, S. W.

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies have attempted to link environmental cues, such as lighting, with human performance and health, and initial findings seem to indicate a positive correlation between the two. The technical question this paper addresses is the use of Daylight Autonomy (DA) to simulate the probabilistic and temporal potential of daylight for human health needs. It will isolate one topic: human circadian rhythm organization as a proxy for human health. We use outcomes of photobiology research to de...

  7. Addressing Challenges to the Design & Test of Operational Lighting Environments for the International Space Station

    Clark, Toni A.

    2014-01-01

    In our day to day lives, the availability of light, with which to see our environment, is often taken for granted. The designers of land based lighting systems use sunlight and artificial light as their toolset. The availability of power, quantity of light sources, and variety of design options are often unlimited. The accessibility of most land based lighting systems makes it easy for the architect and engineer to verify and validate their design ideas. Failures with an implementation, while sometimes costly, can easily be addressed by renovation. Consider now, an architectural facility orbiting in space, 260 miles above the surface of the earth. This human rated architectural facility, the International Space Station (ISS) must maintain operations every day, including life support and appropriate human comforts without fail. The facility must also handle logistics of regular shipments of cargo, including new passengers. The ISS requires accommodations necessary for human control of machine systems. Additionally, the ISS is a research facility and supports investigations performed inside and outside its livable volume. Finally, the facility must support remote operations and observations by ground controllers. All of these architectural needs require a functional, safe, and even an aesthetic lighting environment. At Johnson Space Center, our Habitability and Human Factors team assists our diverse customers with their lighting environment challenges, via physical test and computer based analysis. Because of the complexity of ISS operational environment, our team has learned and developed processes that help ISS operate safely. Because of the dynamic exterior lighting environment, uses computational modeling to predict the lighting environment. The ISS' orbit exposes it to a sunrise every 90 minutes, causing work surfaces to quickly change from direct sunlight to earthshine to total darkness. Proper planning of vehicle approaches, robotics operations, and crewed

  8. 室内建筑空间设计多元化发展与创建%Creation and Diversified Development of Interior Building Space Design

    高曙妹

    2014-01-01

    本文针对当今我国室内建筑空间设计的现状进行了探讨,分析了未来空间设计的多元化的发展趋势,对如何发展我国室内建筑空间设计提出了建设性的意见,以促成室内建筑空间设计与所处时代或者阶段相适宜。%This paper discussed the current status of Chinaʼs interior building space design, analyzed the Diversified devel- opment trend of space design in the future, and put forward constructive suggestions on how to develop the interior buil- ding space design in China, in order to facilitate interior arch- itectural space design to be appropriated to the times or to the stage.

  9. Time-space Kriging to address the spatiotemporal misalignment in the large datasets.

    Liang, Dong; Kumar, Naresh

    2013-06-01

    This paper presents a Bayesian hierarchical spatiotemporal method of interpolation, termed as Markov Cube Kriging (MCK). The classical Kriging methods become computationally prohibitive, especially for large datasets due to the O(n(3)) matrix decomposition. MCK offers novel and computationally efficient solutions to address spatiotemporal misalignment, mismatch in the spatiotemporal scales and missing values across space and time in large spatiotemporal datasets. MCK is flexible in that it allows for non-separable spatiotemporal structure and nonstationary covariance at the hierarchical spatiotemporal scales. Employing MCK we developed estimates of daily concentration of fine particulates matter ≤2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) at 2.5 km spatial grid for the Cleveland Metropolitan Statistical Area, 2000 to 2009. Our validation and cross-validation suggest that MCK achieved robust prediction of spatiotemporal random effects and underlying hierarchical and nonstationary spatiotemporal structure in air pollution data. MCK has important implications for environmental epidemiology and environmental sciences for exposure quantification and collocation of data from different sources, available at different spatiotemporal scales. PMID:24039539

  10. Message Passing vs. Shared Address Space on a Cluster of SMPs

    Shan, Hongzhang; Singh, Jaswinder Pal; Oliker, Leonid; Biswas, Rupak

    2000-01-01

    The convergence of scalable computer architectures using clusters of PCs (or PC-SMPs) with commodity networking has become an attractive platform for high end scientific computing. Currently, message-passing and shared address space (SAS) are the two leading programming paradigms for these systems. Message-passing has been standardized with MPI, and is the most common and mature programming approach. However message-passing code development can be extremely difficult, especially for irregular structured computations. SAS offers substantial ease of programming, but may suffer from performance limitations due to poor spatial locality, and high protocol overhead. In this paper, we compare the performance of and programming effort, required for six applications under both programming models on a 32 CPU PC-SMP cluster. Our application suite consists of codes that typically do not exhibit high efficiency under shared memory programming. due to their high communication to computation ratios and complex communication patterns. Results indicate that SAS can achieve about half the parallel efficiency of MPI for most of our applications: however, on certain classes of problems SAS performance is competitive with MPI. We also present new algorithms for improving the PC cluster performance of MPI collective operations.

  11. Message passing vs. shared address space on a cluster of SMPs

    The emergence of scalable computer architectures using clusters of PCs or PC-SMPs with commodity networking has made them attractive platforms for high-end scientific computing. Currently, message passing (MP) and shared address space (SAS) are the two leading programming paradigms for these systems. MP has been standardized with MPI, and is the most common and mature parallel programming approach. However, MP code development can be extremely difficult, especially for irregularly structured computations. SAS offers substantial ease of programming, but may suffer from performance limitations due to poor spatial locality and high protocol overhead. In this paper, they compare the performance of and programming effort required for six applications under both programming models on a 32-CPU PC-SMP cluster. Our application suite consists of codes that typically do not exhibit scalable performance under shared-memory programming due to their high communication-to-computation ratios and complex communication patterns. Results indicate that SAS can achieve about half the parallel efficiency of MPI for most of the applications; however, on certain classes of problems, SAS performance is competitive with MPI

  12. Message Passing and Shared Address Space Parallelism on an SMP Cluster

    Shan, Hongzhang; Singh, Jaswinder P.; Oliker, Leonid; Biswas, Rupak; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Currently, message passing (MP) and shared address space (SAS) are the two leading parallel programming paradigms. MP has been standardized with MPI, and is the more common and mature approach; however, code development can be extremely difficult, especially for irregularly structured computations. SAS offers substantial ease of programming, but may suffer from performance limitations due to poor spatial locality and high protocol overhead. In this paper, we compare the performance of and the programming effort required for six applications under both programming models on a 32-processor PC-SMP cluster, a platform that is becoming increasingly attractive for high-end scientific computing. Our application suite consists of codes that typically do not exhibit scalable performance under shared-memory programming due to their high communication-to-computation ratios and/or complex communication patterns. Results indicate that SAS can achieve about half the parallel efficiency of MPI for most of our applications, while being competitive for the others. A hybrid MPI+SAS strategy shows only a small performance advantage over pure MPI in some cases. Finally, improved implementations of two MPI collective operations on PC-SMP clusters are presented.

  13. Design Development of a Combined Deployment and Pointing System for the International Space Station Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer Telescope

    Budinoff, Jason; Gendreau, Keith; Arzoumanian, Zaven; Baker, Charles; Berning, Robert; Colangelo, TOdd; Holzinger, John; Lewis, Jesse; Liu, Alice; Mitchell, Alissa; Monroe, Chuck; Pugh, Richard; Wiley, Roger

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the design of a unique suite of mechanisms that make up the Deployment and Pointing System (DAPS) for the Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER/SEXTANT) instrument, an X-Ray telescope, which will be mounted on the International Space Station (ISS). The DAPS system uses four stepper motor actuators to deploy the telescope box, latch it in the deployed position, and allow it to track sky targets. The DAPS gimbal architecture provides full-hemisphere coverage, and is fully re-stowable. The compact design of the mechanism allowed the majority of total instrument volume to be used for science. Override features allow DAPS to be stowed by ISS robotics.

  14. GOLF - NG spectrometer, a space prototype for studying the dynamics of the deep solar interior

    Chieze, S T; Ballot, J; Barriere, J C; Thomas, P D; Delbart, A; Desforges, D; García, R A; Granelli, R; Mathur, S; Nunio, F; Piret, Y; Pallé, P L; Jimenez, A J; Reyes, S J J; Robillot, J M; Fossat, E; Eff-Darwich, A; Gelly, B; Chieze, Sylvaine Turck; Carton, Pierre Henri; Ballot, Jerome; Barriere, Jean Christophe; Thomas, Philippe Daniel; Delbart, Alain; Desforges, Daniel; Garcia, Rafael A.; Granelli, Remi; Mathur, Savita; Nunio, Francois; Piret, Yves; Palle, Pere. L.; Jimenez, Antonio. J.; Reyes, Sebastian J. Jimenez; Robillot, Jean Maurice; Fossat, Eric; Darwich, Antonio. M. Eff; Gelly, Bernard

    2005-01-01

    The GOLFNG (Global Oscillations at Low Frequency New Generation) instrument is devoted to the search for solar gravity and acoustic modes, and also chromospheric modes from space. This instrument which is a successor to GOLF/SOHO will contribute to improve our knowledge of the dynamics of the solar radiative zone. It is a 15 points resonant scattering spectrometer, working on the D1 sodium line. A ground-based prototype is under construction to validate the difficult issues. It will be installed at the Teide Observatory, on Tenerife in 2006 to analyse the separation of the effects of the magnetic turbulence of the line from the solar oscillations. We are prepared to put a space version of this instrument including a capability of identification of the modes, in orbit during the next decade. This instrument should be included in the ILWS program as it offers a key to the improvement of our knowledge of the solar core in combination with observations from SDO and PICARD. We hope to determine the core rotation a...

  15. How Dynamic is the ISPs Address Space? Towards Internet-Wide DHCP Churn Estimation

    Moreira Moura, G.C.; Ganan, C.H.G.; Lone, Q.B.; Poursaied, P.; Asghari, H.; Van Eeten, M.J.G.

    2015-01-01

    IP address counts are typically used as a surrogate metric for the number of hosts in a network, as in the case of ISP rankings based on botnet infected addresses. However, due to effects of dynamic IP address allocation, such counts tend to overestimate the number of hosts, sometimes by an order of

  16. Southern Regional Science in Interstitial Space: Fellows Address: Southern regional Science Association, April 2004

    Henry, Mark S.

    2004-01-01

    Regional science has a variety of characteristics that distinguish it from its sister social sciences: it works the boundaries of economics, geography, planning studies, and sociology; space is its focus; spatial dependence is a core concern; comparative advantage remains a key concept for understanding how space will develop. Facing new and old challenges from global competition, lagging regions of the U.S., and especially in the rural South, will need new ideas from regional science on how ...

  17. Image, Interaction and Representation: Some Artistic Projects that Address Space

    Legrady, George

    2014-01-01

    This video was recorded live at the annual Spatial Lightning Talks on February 25, 2014 at the Mosher Alumni House, UC Santa Barbara. Each speaker was allotted three minutes to present a topic related to space —geographic or otherwise.

  18. IAB presidential address: bioethics in a globalized world: creating space for flourishing human relationships.

    Biller-Andorno, Nikola

    2011-10-01

    Bioethics in a globalized world is meeting a number of challenges - fundamentalism in its different forms, and a focus on economic growth neglecting issues such as equity and sustainability, being prominent among them. How well are we as bioethicists equipped to make meaningful contributions in these times? The paper identifies a number of restraints and proceeds to probe potential resources such as the capability approach, care ethics, cosmopolitanism, and pragmatism. These elements serve to outline a perspective that focuses on the preconditions for flourishing human relationships as a way to address bioethical challenges in a globalized world. PMID:21929701

  19. IP Addressing

    2006-01-01

    tut quiz anim This interactive tutorial covers the following: The concept of halving a binary number space., Using the halving concept to explain how the Internet IP space is segmented into the A, B, and C address classifications., How the first octet ranges for the A, B, and C IP space are produced.In this tutorial, explanations are illustrated by simple animations. Students are asked to observe number patterns, and check their observations against automated 'answers.' There is a qu...

  20. 购物中心内部商业空间量化分析研究%Quantization Research of Interior Commercial Space of Shopping Malls

    李小滴; 王侃

    2013-01-01

    The study presents three quantization factors to evaluate the interior commercial space of Shopping Mall. After comprehensive analysis of cases, we proved that three factors are effective and reasonable in evaluating the characteristics of interior commercial space. In the early design stages, they are able to help architects to construct space model conceptually. They also have positive effects on business line, layout and space combination design.%通过研究提出了3个对购物中心内部商业空间量化分析的因子,对实例综合分析后,证明了3个因子能够对购物中心内部商业空间的特性进行有效的理性评价,并能够在前期设计阶段帮助建筑师对商业内部空间形式进行思维建构,对购物中心内部商业动线、商业布局、空间组合的宏观调控和合理设计有积极的作用.

  1. The interior rotation of a sample of gamma Doradus stars from ensemble modelling of their gravity mode period spacings

    Van Reeth, T; Aerts, C

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT. Gamma Doradus stars (hereafter gamma Dor stars) are known to exhibit gravity- and/or gravito-intertial modes that probe the inner stellar region near the convective core boundary. The non-equidistant spacing of the pulsation periods is an observational signature of the stars' evolution and current internal structure and is heavily influenced by rotation. AIMS. We aim to constrain the near-core rotation rates for a sample of gamma Dor stars, for which we have detected period spacing patterns. METHODS. We combined the asymptotic period spacing with the traditional approximation of stellar pulsation to fit the observed period spacing patterns using chi-squared optimisation. The method was applied to the observed period spacing patterns of a sample of stars and used for ensemble modelling. RESULTS. For the majority of stars with an observed period spacing pattern we successfully determined the rotation rates and the asymptotic period spacing values, though the uncertainty margins on the latter were typic...

  2. The perfect boring situation-Addressing the experience of monotony during crewed deep space missions through habitability design

    Peldszus, Regina; Dalke, Hilary; Pretlove, Stephen; Welch, Chris

    2014-01-01

    In contemporary orbital missions, workloads are so high and varied that crew may rarely experience stretches of monotony. However, in historical long duration missions, occurrences of monotony were, indeed, reported anecdotally by crew. Of the effective countermeasures that appear to be at hand, many rely on visual or logistical proximity to the Earth, and are not feasible in the remote context of an extended deep space mission scenario. There, particularly in- and outbound cruising stages would be characterised by longer, comparably uneventful periods of low workload, coupled with confinement and unchanging vehicle surroundings. While the challenge of monotony has been pointed out as an exploration-related research area, it has received less explicit attention from a habitation design perspective than other human behaviour and performance issues. The paper addresses this gap through a literature review of the theory and application of design-based mitigation strategies. It outlines models of emergence of monotony, situates the phenomenon in a remote mission context as a problem of sensory, social and spatio-temporal isolation, and discusses proposed countermeasures related to habitability. The scope of the literature is extended to primary sources in the form of a qualitative review of six onboard diaries from orbital and simulator missions, highlighting a range of habitat-related design themes. These are translated into the autonomous deep space setting with the overall rationale of integrating affordances into onboard habitation systems and placing emphasis on reinforcing positive situational characteristics.

  3. Investigation of the interior of primordial asteroids and the origin of the Earth's water: The INSIDER space mission

    Vernazza, P.; Lamy, P.

    2014-07-01

    Today's asteroid belt may not only be populated by objects that formed in situ, typically between 2.2 and 3.3 au, but also by bodies that formed over a very large range of heliocentric distances. It is currently proposed that both the early (700 Myrs after Solar System formation) dynamical evolution of the Solar System was governed by giant planet migrations that led to the insertion of inner (1--3 au) as well as outer (4--13 au) small bodies in the asteroid belt. Taken altogether, the current dynamical models are able to explain many striking features of the asteroid belt including i) its incredible compositional diversity deduced mainly from spectroscopic observations and meteorites measurements, and ii) the evidence of radial mixing experienced by the various asteroid classes (e.g., S-, C-types) after their formation. In a broad stroke, the idea that the asteroid belt is a condensed version of the primordial Solar System is progressively emerging. The asteroid belt therefore presents the double advantage of being easily accessible and of offering crucial tests for the formation models of the Solar System by exploring the building blocks predicted by models of i) the telluric planets, ii) the giant planet cores, iii) the giant planets' satellites, and iv) outer small bodies such TNOs and comets. It also appears as an ideal place to search for the origin of Earth's water. Up to now, only a few asteroid classes (e.g., several S-types) have been visited by spacecraft and the focus of these in situ measurements has been mainly to give a geological context to ground based observations as well as strengthen/validate their interpretation. Most of the tantalizing discoveries of asteroid missions have been realized via images of the objects surfaces. Time has come for asteroid space science to reach a new milestone by extending the reconnaissance of the Belt's diversity and addressing new science questions. The scientific objectives of the INSIDER mission, to be proposed

  4. Design of Dwellings and Interior Family Space in China: Understanding the History of Change and Opportunities for Improved Sustainability Practices

    Adrian Pitts

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews briefly the recent history of dwelling design in China. It notes the rapid changes that have taken place since the 1980s and identifies the way contemporary procurement processes leave out the final fit-out and decoration/refurbishment. A range of stakeholders were interviewed, and access was gained to drawings and other technical data that indicated how the secondary processes were carried out. These are largely ungoverned by regulation in the same way necessary for initial design. The key group is the occupants who drive the fit-out and decoration according to personal and cultural requirements, but often with less than perfect understanding of sustainability. The interior design industry has developed rapidly over the same period and was initially lacking in professional knowledge and understanding (something which can still be found. Advice provided to dwelling occupants was based more on appearance than function and efficiency. Over the same period, beneficial modifications to construction processes have been introduced in relation to structural design, and it should be possible to do the same for sustainability-related design issues. The paper advocates: more regulation; better assessment techniques; more information and guidance for home-owners; and a greater focus on energy issues.

  5. Understanding Jupiter's Interior

    Militzer, Burkhard; Wahl, Sean M; Hubbard, William

    2016-01-01

    This article provides an overview of how models of giant planet interiors are constructed. We review measurements from past space missions that provide constraints for the interior structure of Jupiter. We discuss typical three-layer interior models that consist of a dense central core and an inner metallic and an outer molecular hydrogen-helium layer. These models rely heavily on experiments, analytical theory, and first-principle computer simulations of hydrogen and helium to understand their behavior up to the extreme pressures ~10 Mbar and temperatures ~10,000 K. We review the various equations of state used in Jupiter models and compare them with shock wave experiments. We discuss the possibility of helium rain, core erosion and double diffusive convection may have important consequences for the structure and evolution of giant planets. In July 2016 the Juno spacecraft entered orbit around Jupiter, promising high-precision measurements of the gravitational field that will allow us to test our understandi...

  6. Mirador - Earth Surface and Interior

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Earth Science data access made simple. The goal of the Earth Surface and Interior focus area is to assess, mitigate and forecast the natural hazards that affect...

  7. Common benefit from a perspective of "Non-traditional Partners": A proposed agenda to address the status quo in Global Space Governance

    Aganaba-Jeanty, Timiebi

    2015-12-01

    It is presupposed that there is a dominant position in interpreting the freedom of Outer Space which has not given much real significance to the idea of common benefit. The reason that this causes difficulty is that there is an ambiguity to common benefit. This dominant position however sees the issue of benefit sharing in the context of the perceived tension between established space faring nations and emerging and aspirant States and the idea that freedom could take on a different meaning depending on where one is on the scale of development. It fails to recognize that solutions to contemporary and historical governance challenges have been much less oriented towards the interests of less developed States or new entrants, making the accrual and sharing of benefits dependent on the free will of those States able to carry out a variety of space activities independently. As a result of this, the debate around common benefit is exploited to seek individual benefit derived for a State as opposed to what our effort to use space collectively can generate. In recent times, the issue has not received much attention. This is because it is believed to be partly resolved through normative frameworks such as Article 1 of the Outer Space Treaty and the Space Benefits Declaration. While an attempt to re-address historical contentious issues, asserted to be resolved, may appear illusory or futile; such analysis can be useful depending on the account that the reader believes should be given to the normative character of human nature. To this end, the writings of legal, political and social theorists and methodologies from Critical Legal Schools may prove insightful for a deeper contextualization of the historical debate, the current understanding of the freedoms of Outer Space as well as unearth future perspectives to aid in addressing the current pressing space related issue of our time: Sustainability of Space Activities. This article proposes three main issue areas to

  8. Addressing fear of crime in public space: gender differences in reaction to safety measures in train transit.

    Yavuz, Nilay; Welch, Eric W

    2010-01-01

    Research has identified several factors that affect fear of crime in public space. However, the extent to which gender moderates the effectiveness of fear-reducing measures has received little attention. Using data from the Chicago Transit Authority Customer Satisfaction Survey of 2003, this study aims to understand whether train transit security practices and service attributes affect men and women differently. Findings indicate that, while the presence of video cameras has a lower effect on women's feelings of safety compared with men, frequent and on-time service matters more to male passengers. Additionally, experience with safety-related problems affects women significantly more than men. Conclusions discuss the implications of the study for theory and gender-specific policies to improve perceptions of transit safety. PMID:20976976

  9. 14 CFR 125.113 - Cabin interiors.

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cabin interiors. 125.113 Section 125.113 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS....113 Cabin interiors. (a) Upon the first major overhaul of an airplane cabin or refurbishing of...

  10. 14 CFR 121.215 - Cabin interiors.

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cabin interiors. 121.215 Section 121.215 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Airworthiness Requirements § 121.215 Cabin interiors....

  11. 窗帘织物与室内空间环境的配套设计%Matching design of curtain and interior space environment

    范丽霞; 李月; 姚佳; 张声诚; 张红霞

    2012-01-01

    According to analysis on matching design of curtain and interior space environment, this thesis concludes the matching design of curtain concentrated on color matching method, the matching method of patterns and the matching method uniform styles. In addition, it also discusses the methods and skills of each matching design of curtain. After mastering and applying patterns of textiles flexibly, color as well as the matching design law of structures, this thesis designs coordinated, uniform and changeable products, which helps to meet demands for fashionable rhythm and diversification of home textiles in modern market and provided customers with one-stop service of home textiles with integrity, coherence and matching property. Meanwhile, it designs two sets of curtain fabric matching with the bedroom environment, which are suitable for the use of spring and summer, autumn and winter, providing reference for the development of curtain matching design for the companies.%通过对窗帘织物与室内空间环境配套设计方法的分析,将窗帘织物的配套设计重点归纳为色彩配套法、图案配套法和款式统一配套法.探讨了窗帘织物的各类配套设计方法与技巧,通过掌握并灵活运用纺织品图案、色彩及结构的配套设计规律,设计出协调统一而又不失变化的产品,有助于适应现代市场整体家纺时尚化的节奏和多元化的需求,给消费者提供整体、连贯、配套的家用纺织品一站式服务.同时,设计开发了春夏季、秋冬季两个系列的窗帘配套设计方案,为窗帘生产企业进行配套开发提供参考.

  12. SUITS/SWUSV: a small-size mission to address solar spectral variability, space weather and solar-climate relations

    Damé, Luc; Keckhut, Philippe; Hauchecorne, Alain; Meftah, Mustapha; Bekki, Slimane

    2016-07-01

    We present the SUITS/SWUSV microsatellite mission investigation: "Solar Ultraviolet Influence on Troposphere/Stratosphere, a Space Weather & Ultraviolet Solar Variability" mission. SUITS/SWUSV was developed to determine the origins of the Sun's activity, understand the flaring process (high energy flare characterization) and onset of CMEs (forecasting). Another major objective is to determine the dynamics and coupling of Earth's atmosphere and its response to solar variability (in particular UV) and terrestrial inputs. It therefore includes the prediction and detection of major eruptions and coronal mass ejections (Lyman-Alpha and Herzberg continuum imaging) the solar forcing on the climate through radiation and their interactions with the local stratosphere (UV spectral irradiance measures from 170 to 400 nm). The mission is proposed on a sun-synchronous polar orbit 18h-6h (for almost constant observing) and proposes a 7 instruments model payload of 65 kg - 65 W with: SUAVE (Solar Ultraviolet Advanced Variability Experiment), an optimized telescope for FUV (Lyman-Alpha) and MUV (200-220 nm Herzberg continuum) imaging (sources of variability); SOLSIM (Solar Spectral Irradiance Monitor), a spectrometer with 0.65 nm spectral resolution from 170 to 340 nm; SUPR (Solar Ultraviolet Passband Radiometers), with UV filter radiometers at Lyman-Alpha, Herzberg, MgII index, CN bandhead and UV bands coverage up to 400 nm; HEBS (High Energy Burst Spectrometers), a large energy coverage (a few tens of keV to a few hundreds of MeV) instrument to characterize large flares; EPT-HET (Electron-Proton Telescope - High Energy Telescope), measuring electrons, protons, and heavy ions over a large energy range; ERBO (Earth Radiative Budget and Ozone) NADIR oriented; and a vector magnetometer. Complete accommodation of the payload has been performed on a PROBA type platform very nicely. Heritage is important both for instruments (SODISM and PREMOS on PICARD, LYRA on PROBA-2, SOLSPEC on ISS

  13. Keynote Address

    Griffin, Mike

    2006-01-01

    Biography: Nominated by President George W. Bush and confirmed by the United States Senate, Michael Griffin began his duties as the 11th Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration on April 14, 2005. As Administrator, he leads the NASA team and manages its resources to advance the U.S. Vision for Space Exploration. Prior to being nominated as NASA Administrator, Griffin was serving as Space Department Head at Johns Hopkins University's Applied Physics Laboratory in Laur...

  14. Keynote Address

    Lord, Gen. Lance

    2006-01-01

    Biography: Gen. Lance W. Lord is Commander, Air Force Space Command, Peterson Air Force Base, Colo. He is responsible for the development, acquisition and operation of the Air Force's space and missile systems. The general oversees a global network of satellite command and control, communications, missile warning and launch facilities, and ensures the combat readiness of America's intercontinental ballistic missile force. He leads more than 39,700 space professionals who provide combat forces...

  15. Architecture, or the Presence of an Interior

    Hedrick, Martin Joseph

    2014-01-01

    An object or thing with no interiority is sculpture. Architecture begins with the making of an interior. The real character of Architecture is revealed in the distinguishing qualities of the interior: the arrangement of spaces, the heights of the ceilings and the placement of walls, the entrance of light, the colors, the textures, the patterns and the surfaces. Emphasis on and development of these formal elements elevates a work from the world of building into the realm of Architecture. The s...

  16. Data structure, method and system for address lookup

    Stefanakis, G.; Sourdis, I.; Nedeltchev, G.G.; De Smet, R.

    2010-01-01

    Method and computer system for constructing a decision tree for use in address lookup of a requested address in an address space. The address space is arranged as a set of basic address ranges. Each basic address range is defined by a lower and an upper bound address, and an address in the address space is represented by a predetermined number of bits.

  17. A Competitive Study on the Interior Environment and the Interior Circulation Design of Malaysian Museums and Elderly Satisfaction

    Raed M. Elottol; Azizi Bahauddin

    2011-01-01

    The study explains how the interior environment, the circulation design quality, and visitors’ satisfaction are related in the context of interior environment and design of museums in Malaysia. The research intends to examine the interior circulation design that interacts with the interior environment and space planning in museums. This is to understand the relationship between the elderly visitors’ satisfaction and the interior circulation design. This paper plans to answer critical question...

  18. Inaugural Address

    Syed Yousaf Raza Gilani

    2008-01-01

    Sardar Aseff Ahmad Ali, Deputy Chairman, Planning Commission, Dr Rashid Amjad, President, Pakistan Society of Development Economists, Honourable Ministers, Excellencies, Ladies and Gentlemen! It is indeed a privilege and honour to address this distinguished gathering of economists. I am very happy that this meeting is being attended by internationally acclaimed economists and academics from both within and outside the country. I am especially heartened to see that students of economics from a...

  19. Keynote address

    This paper addresses various aspects of the bases underlying the nuclear third party liability regime, and also analyses the distinction between danger and risk and the manner in which damage caused by flood, mass unemployment (economic damage mainly) and certain diseases is dealt with in the absence of liability provisions similar to those applicable to nuclear incidents. It also is suggested that the State because of its duty under the Basic Law to ensure adequate energy supplies, should be co-responsible for liability questions along with the nuclear operator. (NEA)

  20. Interior intrusion detection systems

    Rodriguez, J.R.; Matter, J.C. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Dry, B. (BE, Inc., Barnwell, SC (United States))

    1991-10-01

    The purpose of this NUREG is to present technical information that should be useful to NRC licensees in designing interior intrusion detection systems. Interior intrusion sensors are discussed according to their primary application: boundary-penetration detection, volumetric detection, and point protection. Information necessary for implementation of an effective interior intrusion detection system is presented, including principles of operation, performance characteristics and guidelines for design, procurement, installation, testing, and maintenance. A glossary of sensor data terms is included. 36 figs., 6 tabs.

  1. Interior intrusion detection systems

    The purpose of this NUREG is to present technical information that should be useful to NRC licensees in designing interior intrusion detection systems. Interior intrusion sensors are discussed according to their primary application: boundary-penetration detection, volumetric detection, and point protection. Information necessary for implementation of an effective interior intrusion detection system is presented, including principles of operation, performance characteristics and guidelines for design, procurement, installation, testing, and maintenance. A glossary of sensor data terms is included. 36 figs., 6 tabs

  2. Welcome Address

    2001-01-01

    @@  On behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute, I welcome you to Beijing and to the Third Asian Conference on Food Safety and Nutrition. Many of you will remember the first Asian conference on Food Safety held in Kuala Lumpur in 1990 and the second held in Bangkok in 1994. These meetings have been so successful that ILSI made the commitment to host such a conference periodically in order to provide a forum to share the latest information and to set new goals and priorities.   This year, we have broadened the scope of the agenda to include issues on nutrition. I want to thank all of our co-sponsors and members of the Planning Committee for preparing such a comprehensive and timely program. Some of the issues and challenges facing Asia that will be addressed at this meeting are:

  3. Opening address

    The impact of the Chernobyl accident on health has been dramatic but different than expected. It has posed a tremendous health, social and economic burden on the people of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. Now the picture of the impact of the accident on health and environment is clearer and the agenda can further move towards development and focused health programmes. The work of the Chernobyl Forum, which allowed this important objective to be reached, is an example of the multiplied added value that different United Nations agencies working together can achieve when addressing complex problems affecting large communities in an independent, comprehensive and credible way. This model should be the basis for future action with the Member States towards reconstruction, development and better health

  4. Optically measuring interior cavities

    Stone, Gary Franklin

    2009-11-03

    A method of measuring the three-dimensional volume or perimeter shape of an interior cavity includes the steps of collecting a first optical slice of data that represents a partial volume or perimeter shape of the interior cavity, collecting additional optical slices of data that represents a partial volume or perimeter shape of the interior cavity, and combining the first optical slice of data and the additional optical slices of data to calculate of the three-dimensional volume or perimeter shape of the interior cavity.

  5. Advanced Acoustic Blankets for Improved Aircraft Interior Noise Reduction Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this project advanced acoustic blankets for improved low frequency interior noise control in aircraft will be developed and demonstrated. The improved...

  6. Inaugural address

    Joshi, P. S.

    2014-03-01

    From jets to cosmos to cosmic censorship P S Joshi Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400005, India E-mail: psj@tifr.res.in 1. Introduction At the outset, I should like to acknowledge that part of the title above, which tries to capture the main flavour of this meeting, and has been borrowed from one of the plenary talks at the conference. When we set out to make the programme for the conference, we thought of beginning with observations on the Universe, but then we certainly wanted to go further and address deeper questions, which were at the very foundations of our inquiry, and understanding on the nature and structure of the Universe. I believe, we succeeded to a good extent, and it is all here for you in the form of these Conference Proceedings, which have been aptly titled as 'Vishwa Mimansa', which could be possibly translated as 'Analysis of the Universe'! It is my great pleasure and privilege to welcome you all to the ICGC-2011 meeting at Goa. The International Conference on Gravitation and Cosmology (ICGC) series of meetings are being organized by the Indian Association for General Relativity and Gravitation (IAGRG), and the first such meeting was planned and conducted in Goa in 1987, with subsequent meetings taking place at a duration of about four years at various locations in India. So, it was thought appropriate to return to Goa to celebrate the 25 years of the ICGC meetings. The recollections from that first meeting have been recorded elsewhere here in these Proceedings. The research and teaching on gravitation and cosmology was initiated quite early in India, by V V Narlikar at the Banares Hindu University, and by N R Sen in Kolkata in the 1930s. In course of time, this activity grew and gained momentum, and in early 1969, at the felicitation held for the 60 years of V V Narlikar at a conference in Ahmedabad, P C Vaidya proposed the formation of the IAGRG society, with V V Narlikar being the first President. This

  7. Opening address

    Full text: The International Labour Organization (ILO), is very pleased to be associated with this International Conference on National Infrastructures for Radiation Safety. On behalf of the Director General, Mr. J. Somavia, I would like to congratulate the national organizer and host, the University Mohammed V, Agdal, and the Government of Morocco, the IAEA and the other co-operating organizations: the World Health Organization, the Pan American Health Organization, the European Commission and the OECD/Nuclear Energy Agency for taking this initiative. When flying here to Morocco yesterday, I read newspaper reports about the results of the investigations related to the disaster of the Columbia space shuttle. The findings were as follows: the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), must establish a safety culture within itself. NASA was well aware of the problem of falling insulation material but did not take it seriously before the disaster. The workers in the Chernobyl power plant knew the hazards and safety rules but did not take them seriously. Every day, more than 5000 people die from occupational accidents and work related diseases as the hazards are not taken seriously. Some of them are caused by ionizing radiation. We in the ILO expect enterprises and workplaces to follow proper occupational safety and health management systems so as to avoid accidents, diseases and other problems at work. Equally, we must expect national leadership, sound nationwide management, for radiation safety, which means: National policy setting, which usually results in national standards and laws; National structures and mechanisms, that is, who is in charge of what; Responsibilities and accountabilities set, and resources allocated; National action plans, a national programme;Implementation of these plans;Follow-up, monitoring, review, feedback to enhance the process using selected indicators; Continuous improvement in measurable steps at national level

  8. Opening Address

    Yamada, T.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, it is my great honor and pleasure to present an opening address of the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3). On the behalf of the organizing committee, I certainly welcome all your visits to KGU Kannai Media Center belonging to Kanto Gakuin University, and stay in Yokohama. In particular, to whom come from abroad more than 17 countries, I would appreciate your participations after long long trips from your homeland to Yokohama. The first international workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics", called SOTANCP, was held in Strasbourg, France, in 2008, and the second one was held in Brussels, Belgium, in 2010. Then the third workshop is now held in Yokohama. In this period, we had the traditional 10th cluster conference in Debrecen, Hungary, in 2012. Thus we have the traditional cluster conference and SOTANCP, one after another, every two years. This obviously shows our field of nuclear cluster physics is very active and flourishing. It is for the first time in about 10 years to hold the international workshop on nuclear cluster physics in Japan, because the last cluster conference held in Japan was in Nara in 2003, about 10 years ago. The president in Nara conference was Prof. K. Ikeda, and the chairpersons were Prof. H. Horiuchi and Prof. I. Tanihata. I think, quite a lot of persons in this room had participated at the Nara conference. Since then, about ten years passed. So, this workshop has profound significance for our Japanese colleagues. The subjects of this workshop are to discuss "the state of the art in nuclear cluster physics" and also discuss the prospect of this field. In a couple of years, we saw significant progresses of this field both in theory and in experiment, which have brought better and new understandings on the clustering aspects in stable and unstable nuclei. I think, the concept of clustering has been more important than ever. This is true also in the

  9. Opening address

    Full text: Honourable Representatives of His Majesty King Mohammed VI and of the Government of Morocco, representatives of sponsoring organizations, distinguished participants, on behalf of the Director General of the IAEA, it is my pleasure and privilege to welcome you to this International Conference on National Infrastructures for Radiation Safety: Towards Effective and Sustainable Systems. I would like to express my sincere appreciation to His Majesty King Mohammed VI for his patronage, to the Government of Morocco and the University Mohammed V, Agdal, for hosting this conference in the beautiful and historic city of Rabat, and to the local organizers for their diligent planning and gracious hospitality. I would also like to thank the four organizations that are co-operating with the IAEA in holding this conference: the World Health Organization, the Pan American Health Organization, the International Labour Organization, the European Commission and the OECD/Nuclear Energy Agency. National infrastructure for radiation safety has emerged as an issue of international concern over the last two decades. Systematic and strategic consideration of infrastructure has become widely recognized as an essential prerequisite for safety. The first IAEA conference to address the topic was in Munich, Germany, in 1990. The 1996 edition of the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (known as the Basic Safety Standards or BSS) highlighted the issue, and the IAEA's technical co-operation Model Project for Upgrading Radiation Protection Infrastructure was introduced to help address it. The Model Project has helped, and continues to help, more than 85 IAEA Member States to work towards the goal of a radiation safety infrastructure in accordance with the Basic Safety Standards. A great deal has been achieved, but this work is not complete. Furthermore, not all States are members of the IAEA or the Model

  10. Opening address

    This opening address covers two main areas: first, a snapshot of the continuing threat and the recent changes having been made to the United Kingdom's counterterrorism structures to respond to it; and second, how the United Kingdom is combating nuclear terrorism through a range of measures covering physical security, decreasing vulnerability to attack and increasing resilience. Combating the threat of nuclear terrorism requires an international effort. Radiological and fissile materials are present throughout the world and, as such, it should be secured wherever it is found. All countries are encouraged to continue to enhance security and protection mechanisms for radiological and fissile material; and to develop contingency plans should the worst happen. The United Kingdom has responded to the very serious and real threat by consolidating and strengthening elements of its counterterrorist planning via the creation in May this year of the Office for Security and Counter-Terrorism (OSCT). These changes have been coupled with an unprecedented level of investment to enable the delivery of the United Kingdom counterterrorist strategy - known as CONTEST - through which we aim to (a) stop terrorist attacks; (b) where it cannot be stopped, to mitigate its impact; (c) strengthen our overall protection against terrorist attack; (d) stop people becoming terrorists or supporting violent extremism. In the case of radiological and nuclear terrorism, it is not sufficient merely to prepare for such an attack; one must also devote efforts to preventing such attacks in the first instance by intercepting dangerous materials before they reach their intended target; and by strengthening the protection of vulnerable places and detecting or mitigating any devices before they are placed or activated. As such, in terms of the United Kingdom's efforts on radiological and nuclear terrorism, there are three main strands to this work: physical protection of materials including the global

  11. Keynote address

    This keynote address describes the reasons why Ontario restructured its electricity sector to include open market competition. Much effort, time, money and expertise have been devoted to developing the Ontario competitive market. The 1997 White Paper issued by the Ontario Ministry of Energy, Science and Technology was the first paper to express the urgent need for change because the old system was failing. Prices increased by 60 per cent between 1986 and 1993. Although governments imposed a price freeze, it is recognized that such prices freezes cannot be sustained. Between 1980 and 1986, Ontario Hydro's debt rose from $12 billion to over $30 billion. The cause was attributed to poor business performance which was putting the taxpayers at risk. The author states that the potential and social benefits of competitive electricity markets are significant. Opening the power markets improves the efficiency of electricity systems and offers significant benefits. It is noted that restructuring does not mean deregulation. The Ontario Energy Board and the Independent Market Operator continue to regulate the market to ensure its proper operation and to protect consumers. In a properly functioning competitive market, prices change in response to market conditions. Electricity prices have generally declined where competitive markets have been introduced in other jurisdictions around the world. The author also cautions that it is easy to create unfounded fears about a competitive market and cited California as an example. California's problems arose from a lack of generating capacity, regulation which discouraged new power generation, inadequate transmission capacity, lack of snow in the northeast where hydropower is produced, and a consumer price cap that encouraged power consumption at a time when supply was short. The author notes that these factors do not exist in Ontario and that the competitive market should not be abandoned

  12. Keynote address

    DOE biomass R ampersand D programs have the potential to provide America with both plentiful, clean-burning domestic transportation fuels and cost-competitive industrial and utility fuels, benefiting energy security in the United States. Biofuels developed under our programs will also help improve air quality, reduce greenhouse gases, reduce the large daily quantities of waste we produce, and revitalize rural America. These research motivations have been documented in the National Energy Strategy. DOE looks forward to expanding its biofuels research program and to forging a partnership with private sector for cost-shared commercialization of new fuels and vehicle technologies. Many alternative fuels (e.g., ethanol, methanol, compressed natural gas, propane, or electricity) are candidates for gaining market share. Indeed, there may be significant regional variation in the future fuel mix. Alcohol fuels from biomass, particularly ethanol, have the potential to make a major contribution. Currently, ethanol in the United States is almost entirely made from corn; and the limitations of that process are well known (e.g., costly feedstock, end product requiring subsidy to be competitive, use of fossil fuels in renewable feedstock production and processing, and potential adverse impact of corn ethanol production on the price of food). To address these concerns, the DOE biofuels program is pursuing an ambitious research program to develop the technologies needed to convert these crops into alternative transportation fuels, primarily cellulose-based ethanol and methanol. Program R ampersand D has reduced the estimated cost per gallon of cellulose-based ethanol from $3.60 in 1980 to the current $1.35, with a program goal of $0.60 by the year 2000. DOE is also investigating the thermochemical conversion of biomass to methanol. The program goal is to achieve commercial production of methanol (like ethanol) at the gasoline equivalent of $0.90 per gallon by the year 2000. 4 figs

  13. Presidential address.

    Vohra, U

    1993-07-01

    The Secretary of India's Ministry of Health and Family Welfare serves as Chair of the Executive Council of the International Institute for Population Sciences in Bombay. She addressed its 35th convocation in 1993. Global population stands at 5.43 billion and increases by about 90 million people each year. 84 million of these new people are born in developing countries. India contributes 17 million new people annually. The annual population growth rate in India is about 2%. Its population size will probably surpass 1 billion by the 2000. High population growth rates are a leading obstacle to socioeconomic development in developing countries. Governments of many developing countries recognize this problem and have expanded their family planning programs to stabilize population growth. Asian countries that have done so and have completed the fertility transition include China, Japan, Singapore, South Korea, and Thailand. Burma, Malaysia, North Korea, Sri Lanka, and Vietnam have not yet completed the transition. Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Iran, Nepal, and Pakistan are half-way through the transition. High population growth rates put pressure on land by fragmenting finite land resources, increasing the number of landless laborers and unemployment, and by causing considerable rural-urban migration. All these factors bring about social stress and burden civic services. India has reduced its total fertility rate from 5.2 to 3.9 between 1971 and 1991. Some Indian states have already achieved replacement fertility. Considerable disparity in socioeconomic development exists among states and districts. For example, the states of Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh have female literacy rates lower than 27%, while that for Kerala is 87%. Overall, infant mortality has fallen from 110 to 80 between 1981 and 1990. In Uttar Pradesh, it has fallen from 150 to 98, while it is at 17 in Kerala. India needs innovative approaches to increase contraceptive prevalence rates

  14. Opening address

    The opening address by the host country started by thanking to the International Atomic Energy Agency for holding this important scientific event in in Morocco. The themes to be considered by this conference are among the priorities of the Scientific Research Department in its endeavour to promote scientific research in the field of nuclear science and technology for peaceful uses in Morocco. By so doing, this Department is following and supporting the efforts being made by our country to provide training, and elaborate rules and regulations, and to create infrastructure, acquire material and, equipment and encourage qualified and active researchers. Hence, the convening of this conference responds to a strategic interest of our country, which, similar to other countries, is committed to the achievement of comprehensive and sustainable development for the protection of human kind and the environment. This is considered nowadays as a strategic and vital objective as it entails the protection of people from radiation and against all kinds of professional risks and health hazards. Morocco attaches great importance to radiation safety issues. Our country adhered to all international conventions related to nuclear safety. It is in the process of adapting its internal regulations to international norms and standards, and it is making progress towards the establishment of a national safety body which meets those norms and standards, with the assistance of the IAEA. For this purpose, a standing committee for the follow-up of nuclear affairs has been created on the basis of Royal Instructions, and placed under the authority of the Prime Minister. Its task is to serve as a think-tank on nuclear safety issues and to make proposals on ways and means of reinforcing radiation safety measures. It goes without saying that the peaceful uses of nuclear energy must meet the safety standards elaborated by the IAEA. However, we are convinced that the elaboration of safety standards

  15. Opening address

    and become more technical. Involving experts from all fields is then crucial for success. This perception is reflected in the goals of this meeting. It is designed as an extensive information exchange forum between decision makers, regulators, radiation and waste safety specialists, and the nuclear industry. It is this mix which promises high efficiency with respect to solving the problems that you are addressing. I am sure that the safe termination of practices involving radioactive materials during the decommissioning of nuclear installations is one of the major challenges that industrialized nations will have to face during the next decades

  16. Welcome Address

    Kiku, H.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, It is an honor for me to present my welcome address in the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3), as the president of Kanto Gakuin University. Particularly to those from abroad more than 17 countries, I am very grateful for your participation after long long trips from your home to Yokohama. On the behalf of the Kanto Gakuin University, we certainly welcome your visit to our university and stay in Yokohama. First I would like to introduce Kanto Gakuin University briefly. Kanto Gakuin University, which is called KGU, traces its roots back to the Yokohama Baptist Seminary founded in 1884 in Yamate, Yokohama. The seminary's founder was Albert Arnold Bennett, alumnus of Brown University, who came to Japan from the United States to establish a theological seminary for cultivating and training Japanese missionaries. Now KGU is a major member of the Kanto Gakuin School Corporation, which is composed of two kindergartens, two primary schools, two junior high schools, two senior high schools as well as KGU. In this university, we have eight faculties with graduate school including Humanities, Economics, Law, Sciences and Engineering, Architecture and Environmental Design, Human and Environmental Studies, Nursing, and Law School. Over eleven thousands students are currently learning in our university. By the way, my major is the geotechnical engineering, and I belong to the faculty of Sciences and Engineering in my university. Prof. T. Yamada, here, is my colleague in the same faculty. I know that the nuclear physics is one of the most active academic fields in the world. In fact, about half of the participants, namely, more than 50 scientists, come from abroad in this conference. Moreover, I know that the nuclear physics is related to not only the other fundamental physics such as the elementary particle physics and astrophysics but also chemistry, medical sciences, medical cares, and radiation metrology

  17. Opening address

    Nuclear terrorism has been recognized as a potential threat to human security and economic prosperity since at least the 1970s. Evidence of Al Qaeda's interest in acquiring nuclear material came to light during the 1990s. However, it is since the attacks of 11 September 2001 that the risk of nuclear terrorist acts has come to be a widespread public and governmental concern, for understandable reasons, and that efforts to combat illicit trafficking, which could lead to nuclear or other radioactive materials falling into the hands of terrorists, have intensified. Six years on, it makes sense to take stock of what has been achieved in the combat to stem illicit trafficking and of where further actions - actions of individual States and cooperative international actions - might usefully be initiated. The IAEA has maintained an Illicit Trafficking Database since 1995. Information reported to this database confirms that concerns about illicit trafficking in nuclear material are justified. Database information points to persistent theft and loss of radioactive sources. States' international obligations relevant to international nuclear trafficking are based on the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material (CPPNM), the International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism, the United Nations Security Council Resolution 1540, which deals with weapons of mass destruction, including nuclear weapons and non-State actors, and the United Nations Security Council Resolution 1375, which requires all States to take the necessary steps to prevent the commission of terrorist acts, including early warning to other States. In addition to these legally binding instruments, there is the non-binding Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources, which Member States of the IAEA agreed in 2003. The Code addresses the establishment of an adequate system of regulatory control, from the production of radioactive sources to their final

  18. Opening address

    Being fully aware of the IAEA's central and important roles in the field of nuclear security, Japan has cooperated closely with the IAEA in the field of nuclear security. One of Japan's efforts was holding a seminar on strengthening nuclear security in Asian countries in November 2006, making use of Japan's contribution to the IAEA Nuclear Security Fund. The seminar was organized for the first time in Asia to address nuclear security matters, in which more than 100 experts from 19 countries participated. Japan also hosted a seminar, aimed at promoting the accession to the international counterterrorism conventions and protocols, inviting government officials and experts from Asia Pacific countries. At the seminar, Japan presented its experience and lessons learned with regard to its ratification of relevant international conventions such as the International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism and the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material. Japan has also provided assistance for capacity building in the field of physical protection measures, and is preparing three projects for Asian countries through the IAEA Nuclear Security Fund. In Thailand, Japan has a project aimed at improving physical protection of nuclear research facilities. In Vietnam, Japan plans to host a workshop on radiation detection equipment for border officials and is also preparing for a seminar aimed at capacity building of control on nuclear material in Vietnam. Japan is committed to continue its efforts to make the IAEA Comprehensive Safeguards Agreement together with an Additional Protocol the universally accepted verification standard for the peaceful use undertakings of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. Japan's basic policy on bilateral nuclear cooperation agreements is as follows. Considering the dual nature of nuclear material and technology, Japan is of the view that three Ss, that is, S for 'safeguards' (non-proliferation), S for 'safety

  19. The Earth's Interior

    Anderson, Don L.

    1992-01-01

    Seismologists have developed many methods for studying the structure and composition of the Earth's interior. Tens of thousands of earthquakes occur every year and each one sends out seismic waves in all directions. The bigger events send waves into the deep interior and these are used to infer the three-dimensional structure of our planet. Large earthquakes also generate surface waves which travel repeatedly around the surface and constructively interfere to generate ...

  20. 14 CFR 91.613 - Materials for compartment interiors.

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Materials for compartment interiors. 91.613 Section 91.613 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... compartment interiors. (a) No person may operate an airplane that conforms to an amended or supplemental...

  1. Planetary Interiors and Geodesy

    Dehant, Veronique

    2013-04-01

    Lander and orbiter, even rover at the surface of planets or moons of the solar system help in determining their interior properties. First of all orbiters feel the gravity of the planet and its change. In particular, the tidal mass redistribution induces changes in the acceleration of the spacecraft orbiting around a planet. The Love number k2 has been determined for Venus, Mars and the Earth, as well as for Titan and will be deduced for instance for Mercury (MESSENGER and BepiColombo missions) and for the Galilean satellite from new missions such as JUICE (Jupiter Icy satellite Explorer). The properties of the interior can also be determined from the observation of the rotation of the celestial body. Radar observation from the Earth ground stations of Mercury has allowed Margo et al. (2012, JGR) to determine the moments of inertia of Mercury with an unprecedented accuracy. Rovers such as the MERs (Mars Exploration Rovers) allow as well to obtain the precession and nutation of Mars from which the moments of inertia of the planet and its core can be deduced. Future missions such as InSIGHT (Interior exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy, and Heat Transport) will further help in the determination of Mars interior and evolution.

  2. INTERIOR EGG QUALITY

    Without a high quality product, it is difficult for an industry to survive. This is no different for the shell egg processor. Many factors can influence shell egg interior quality. These influences occur during egg production and processing. Physiological stress, nutritional stress, heat stress,...

  3. Measure Guideline: Summary of Interior Ducts in New Construction, Including an Efficient, Affordable Method to Install Fur-Down Interior Ducts

    Beal, D. [BA-PIRC, Cocoa, FL (United States); McIlvaine, J. [BA-PIRC, Cocoa, FL (United States); Fonorow, K. [BA-PIRC, Cocoa, FL (United States); Martin, E. [BA-PIRC, Cocoa, FL (United States)

    2011-11-01

    This document illustrates guidelines for the efficient installation of interior duct systems in new housing, including the fur-up chase method, the fur-down chase method, and interior ducts positioned in sealed attics or sealed crawl spaces.

  4. Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer (NICE)

    Gendreau, Keith C.; Arzoumanian, Zaven

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation contains an overview of the mission of the Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer (NICE), a proposed International Space Station (ISS) payload dedicated ot the study of neutron stars. There are also reviews of the Science Objectives of the payload,the science measurements, the design and the expected performance for the instruments for NICE,

  5. Ecologism in Interior Design

    Ruizhou Liu; Yunkai Xu

    2008-01-01

    With the progress of our mankind, great changes have taken place in economy as well as our society, so have the natural environment and ecological system in which we live. Nowadays, we are faced with decreasing natural environment, forest, species, clean water, air and cultivable land. In addition, some urgent issues such as global warming, exhausted energy and widespread rubbish force us to reflect on our future life style. In this situation, interior designers are expected to introduce ecol...

  6. Interior Design Supports Art Education: A Case Study

    Clemons, Stephanie A.

    2006-01-01

    Interior design, as a field of study, is a rapidly growing area of interest--particularly for teenagers in the United States. Part of this interest stems from the proliferation of design-related reality shows available through television media. Some art educators and curriculum specialists in the nation perceive the study of interior spaces as a…

  7. Mood perception of interior colors in a gym

    Ohno, Haruyo; Koizumi, Naoko

    2002-06-01

    When people enter a gym, they feel more like exercising in some cases than other cases. The interior color of the space may be a contributing factor. This paper discusses how the interior color of a gym affects female subjects in their twenties and forties to fifties both physiologically and psychologically.

  8. Address Points - Volusia County Addresses (Point)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Situs Addresses for Volusia County. Maintained by Growth and Resource Management. Addresses are determined by the cities for their jurisdiction and by the County...

  9. Inequivalence of interior and exterior dynamical problems

    We begin a series of notes with the review of the historical distinction by Lagrange, Hamilton, Jacobi and other Founding Fathers of analytic dynamics, between the exteriordynamical problem, consisting of motion in vacuum under action-at-a-distance interactions, and the interior dynamical problem, consisting of motion within a resistive medium with the additional presence of contact, nonlinear, nonlocal and nonhamiltonian internal forces. After recalling some of the historical reasons that led to the contemporary, virtually complete restriction of research to the exterior problem, we show that the interior dynamical problem cannot be reduced to the exterior one. This establishes the open character of the central objective of these notes: the identification of the space-time symmetries and relativities that are applicable to interior, nonlinear, nonlocal and nonhamiltonian systems. (author). 29 refs

  10. The Old Industrial Building Heritages Interior Space Design of the Bar%旧工业建筑遗产改造中的酒吧室内空间设计

    马金娜

    2015-01-01

    随着经济的发展和产业的不断转型,建国初期建造的很多工业厂房已不再使用,大部分被搁置或拆除.这些旧工业厂房作为国有资源的重要组成部分,搁置或拆除都不是处理工业遗产最好的方式,如果搁置会造成国有资源的浪费,如果拆除会使整个城市的历史文脉出现断层,如果将其改造成一些新兴的文化园区或经济产业园区,就能较大程度上解决资源浪费等现象.酒吧业作为餐饮业重要的分支,是改造中不可缺少的一个设计所向,所以在设计改造中必须利用好旧工业建筑遗产的建筑形体特点和空间构成特点,并引入新的酒吧设计模式,使改造后的酒吧室内空间融入到整个大环境中.%Along with the development of economy, industrial transformation, built in the early years of the founding of the many industrial workshop is no longer used, most of the suspended or dismantled, these old industrial build-ing as an important part of state-owned resources, suspended or removed are not the best way to deal with indus-trial heritage, if put aside will cause the state-owned resources waste, if removed can cause a fault, the city's his-toric context if it into some emerging cultural park or economic industrial park, can solve the phenomenon such as waste of resources to a great extent. The emergence of new cultural park and industrial park will drive the develop-ment of business, such as restaurants around, pubs, as an important branch of catering industry, is indispensable in transforming a design direction, so the reform of the design should make good use of the old industrial building heritage architecture form and space composition characteristics, and the introduction of new bar design model, the modified bar into the interior space environment.

  11. Interior of the Moon

    Weber, Renee C.

    2013-01-01

    A variety of geophysical measurements made from Earth, from spacecraft in orbit around the Moon, and by astronauts on the lunar surface allow us to probe beyond the lunar surface to learn about its interior. Similarly to the Earth, the Moon is thought to consist of a distinct crust, mantle, and core. The crust is globally asymmetric in thickness, the mantle is largely homogeneous, and the core is probably layered, with evidence for molten material. This chapter will review a range of methods used to infer the Moon's internal structure, and briefly discuss the implications for the Moon's formation and evolution.

  12. The Earth's Magnetic Interior

    Petrovsky, Eduard; Harinarayana, T; Herrero-Bervera, Emilio

    2011-01-01

    This volume combines review and solicited contributions, related to scientific studies of Division I of IAGA presented recently at its Scientific Assembly in Sopron in 2009. The book is aimed at intermediate to advanced readers dealing with the Earth's magnetic field generation, its historical records in rocks and geological formations - including links to geodynamics and magnetic dating, with magnetic carriers in earth materials, electromagnetic induction and conductivity studies of the Earth interior with environmental applications of rock magnetism and electromagnetism. The aim of the book

  13. Nanoscale content-addressable memory

    Davis, Bryan (Inventor); Principe, Jose C. (Inventor); Fortes, Jose (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A combined content addressable memory device and memory interface is provided. The combined device and interface includes one or more one molecular wire crossbar memories having spaced-apart key nanowires, spaced-apart value nanowires adjacent to the key nanowires, and configurable switches between the key nanowires and the value nanowires. The combination further includes a key microwire-nanowire grid (key MNG) electrically connected to the spaced-apart key nanowires, and a value microwire-nanowire grid (value MNG) electrically connected to the spaced-apart value nanowires. A key or value MNGs selects multiple nanowires for a given key or value.

  14. Vehicle Interior Noise Prediction Using Energy Finite Element Analysis Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — It is proposed to develop and implement a computational technique based on Energy Finite Element Analysis (EFEA) for interior noise prediction of advanced aerospace...

  15. Vehicle Interior Noise Prediction Using Energy Finite Element Analysis Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Prediction and enhancement of vehicle interior noise due to high frequency excitation, based on computer simulation, allows the application of the technology at the...

  16. The lunar interior

    Anderson, D. L.; Kovach, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    The compressional velocities are estimated for materials in the lunar interior and compared with lunar seismic results. The lower crust has velocities appropriate for basalts or anorthosites. The high velocities associated with the uppermost mantle imply high densities and a change in composition to a lighter assemblage at depths of the order of 120 km. Calcium and aluminum are probably important components of the upper mantle and are deficient in the lower mantle. Much of the moon may have accreted from material similar in composition to eucrites. The important mineral of the upper mantle is garnet; possible accessory minerals are kyanite, spinel, and rutile. If the seismic results stand up, the high velocity layer in the moon is more likely to be a high pressure form of anorthosite than eclogite, pyroxenite, or dunite. The thickness of the layer is of the order of 50 km. Cosmic abundances can be maintained if the lower mantle is ferromagnesium silicate with minimal amounts of calcium and aluminum. Achondrites such as eucrites and howardites have more of the required characteristics of the lunar interior than carbonaceous chondrites. A density inversion in the moon is a strong possibility.

  17. NASA SMD E/PO Community Addresses the needs of the Higher Ed Community: Introducing Slide sets for the Introductory Earth and Space Science Instructor

    Buxner, S.; Meinke, B. K.; Brain, D.; Schneider, N. M.; Schultz, G. R.; Smith, D. A.; Grier, J.; Shipp, S. S.

    2014-12-01

    The NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) Science Education and Public Outreach (E/PO) community and Forums work together to bring the cutting-edge discoveries of NASA Astrophysics and Planetary Science missions to the introductory astronomy college classroom. These mission- and grant-based E/PO programs are uniquely poised to foster collaboration between scientists with content expertise and educators with pedagogy expertise. We present two new opportunities for college instructors to bring the latest NASA discoveries in Space Science into their classrooms. The NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) Astrophysics Education and Public Outreach Forum is coordinating the development of a pilot series of slide sets to help Astronomy 101 instructors incorporate new discoveries in their classrooms. The "Astro 101 slide sets" are presentations 5-7 slides in length on a new development or discovery from a NASA Astrophysics mission relevant to topics in introductory astronomy courses. We intend for these slide sets to help Astronomy 101 instructors include new developments (discoveries not yet in their textbooks) into the broader context of the course. In a similar effort to keep the astronomy classroom apprised of the fast moving field of planetary science, the Division of Planetary Sciences (DPS) has developed the Discovery slide sets, which are 3-slide presentations that can be incorporated into college lectures. The slide sets are targeted at the Introductory Astronomy undergraduate level. Each slide set consists of three slides which cover a description of the discovery, a discussion of the underlying science, and a presentation of the big picture implications of the discovery, with a fourth slide includes links to associated press releases, images, and primary sources. Topics span all subdisciplines of planetary science, and sets are available in Farsi and Spanish. The NASA SMD Planetary Science Forum has recently partnered with the DPS to continue producing the

  18. Ecologism in Interior Design

    Ruizhou Liu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available With the progress of our mankind, great changes have taken place in economy as well as our society, so have the natural environment and ecological system in which we live. Nowadays, we are faced with decreasing natural environment, forest, species, clean water, air and cultivable land. In addition, some urgent issues such as global warming, exhausted energy and widespread rubbish force us to reflect on our future life style. In this situation, interior designers are expected to introduce ecological ideas into their design to push it to a higher and advanced level, which will consequently promote the transformation of the employment of resources in architecture from the consumptive type to the recycled one.

  19. Interiors of the Planets [Book Review

    Stevenson, D. J.

    1981-01-01

    The number of scientists devoted to the problems of planetary interiors (especially for planets other than the Earth) is small, appropriately so in view of the limited data base. However, the recent results from deep space missions together with recent rapid advances in high pressure physics are providing planetary modelers with well-constrained problems and solutions of limited ambiguity. These advances are important and interesting for a wide community of planetary and oth...

  20. Allegheny County Address Points

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains address points which represent physical address locations assigned by the Allegheny County addressing authority. Data is updated by County...

  1. Interior design and healing architecture

    Mogensen, Jeppe; Poulsen, Søren Bolvig; Hansen, Allan Grutt

    2015-01-01

    and materials are rather limited. To compliment research in hospital interior design with particular focus on the use of interior textiles, this pilot study explores if the patients’ preferences for more home-like hospital interiors can be linked to a preference for textile-based furniture and...... materials. Through a mixed-method study, 43 patients from the outpatient-lung department at Hospital Vendsyssel, Denmark were presented with different types of furniture and materials and were asked about their preferences. Additional questions on their experience of the hospital interior were asked to...... guide the interpretation of the quantitative and qualitative data. 21% of the participants requested interior design improvements, and had a pronounced preference for the textile-based furniture and materials. For this particular group, the link between home-like hospital interiors and textile materials...

  2. Interior design conceptual basis

    Sully, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Maximizing reader insights into interior design as a conceptual way of thinking, which is about ideas and how they are formulated. The major themes of this book are the seven concepts of planning, circulation, 3D, construction, materials, colour and lighting, which covers the entire spectrum of a designer’s activity. Analysing design concepts from the view of the range of possibilities that the designer can examine and eventually decide by choice and conclusive belief the appropriate course of action to take in forming that particular concept, the formation and implementation of these concepts is taken in this book to aid the designer in his/her professional task of completing a design proposal to the client. The purpose of this book is to prepare designers to focus on each concept independently as much as possible, whilst acknowledging relative connections without unwarranted influences unfairly dictating a conceptual bias, and is about that part of the design process called conceptual analysis. It is assu...

  3. Active structural acoustic control of aircraft interior flow noise via the use of active trim panels

    Mahnken, Brian W.

    1996-01-01

    Modem jet aircraft interior noise can be categorized into two main types: tonal noise caused by engine imbalance or blade passage, and mid frequency broadband noise resulting from turbulent flow. This project addresses aircraft interior flow noise caused by a flow separation over the crown of the aircraft. The noise control approach is to mount piezoelectric actuators to the aircraft interior cockpit crown trim panel and use them to actively control aircraft interior noise with...

  4. The Space House TM : Space Technologies in Architectural Design

    Gampe, F.; Raitt, D.

    2002-01-01

    The word "space" has always been associated with and had a profound impact upon architectural design. Until relatively recently, however, the term has been used in a different sense to that understood by the aerospace community - for them, space was less abstract, more concrete and used in the context of space flight and space exploration, rather than, say, an empty area or space requiring to be filled by furniture. However, the two senses of the word space have now converged to some extent. Interior designers and architects have been involved in designing the interior of Skylab, the structure of the International Space Station, and futuristic space hotels. Today, architects are designing, and builders are building, houses, offices and other structures which incorporate a plethora of new technologies, materials and production processes in an effort not only to introduce innovative and adventurous ideas but also in an attempt to address environmental and social issues. Foremost among these new technologies and materials being considered today are those that have been developed for and by the space industry. This paper examines some of these space technologies, such as energy efficient solar cells, durable plastics, air and water filtration techniques, which have been adapted to both provide power while reducing energy consumption, conserve resources and so on. Several of these technologies have now been employed by the European Space Agency to develop a Space House TM - the first of its kind, which will be deployed not so much on planets like Mars, but rather here on Earth. The Space House TM, which exhibits many innovative features such as high strength light-weight carbon composites, active noise-damped, (glass and plastic) windows, low-cost solar arrays and latent heat storage, air and water purification systems will be described.

  5. 43 CFR Appendix B to Part 2 - Internet Addresses

    2010-10-01

    ... Regulations (43 CFR, Part 2, Subparts A and B): http://www.doi.gov/foia/foiaregs.html 7. DOI FOIA Policy and... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Internet Addresses B Appendix B to Part 2... INFORMATION ACT Pt. 2, App. B Appendix B to Part 2—Internet Addresses 1. Department of the Interior (DOI)...

  6. LIVING SPACE INTERIOR DESIGN RESEARCH BASED ON THE ENVIRONMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY%基于环境心理学的居住空间室内设计研究

    王小同

    2015-01-01

    环境心理学作为一门新兴学科,在现代室内设计中发挥着指导性的作用。本文在研究室内设计中人的心理和行为需求的基础之上去探讨如何让创造出更加符合人的各种需求的室内家居环境。%As a new subject,the environmental psychology plays a guiding role in the modern interior design. Based on the study of interior design in the psychological and behavioral requirements, the article wants to explore how to create the indoor household environment that in line with the people of the various needs.

  7. The Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer

    Gendreau, Keith C.

    2008-01-01

    The Neutron star Interior Composition Explorer (NICE) will be a Mission of Opportunity dedicated to the study of neutron stars, the only places in the universe where all four fundamental forces of nature are simultaneously in play. NICE will explore the exotic states of matter within neutron stars, revealing their interior and surface compositions through rotation resolved X-ray spectroscopy. Absolute time-referenced data will allow NICE to probe the extreme physical environments associated with neutron stars, leveraging observations across the electromagnetic spectrum to answer decades-old questions about one of the most powerful cosmic accelerators known. Finally, NICE will definitively measure stabilities of pulsars as clocks, with implications for navigation, a pulsar-based timescale, and gravitational-wave detection. NICE will fly on the International Space Station, while GLAST is on orbit and post-RXTE, and will allow for the discovery of new high-energy pulsars and provide continuity in X-ray timing astrophysics.

  8. Omicron space habitat—research stage II

    Doule, Ondřej; Šálený, Vratislav; Hérin, Benoît; Rousek, Tomáš

    2012-01-01

    The design presented in this paper is in response to the revolution in private space activities, the increasing public interest in commercial flights to space and the utilization of structures such as space hotels or private orbital habitats. The baseline for the Omicron design concept is the Russian Salyut derived space station module. Salyut was the first space station to orbit the Earth. Its unique design and technical features were what made the development of space stations Salyut 1-7, MIR and the International Space Station (ISS) Zwezda service module possible. Due to its versatility and the reliable operating launch vehicle Proton, this space module series has the potential to be adapted for space hotel development. This paper proposes a conceptual design of the space habitat called Omicron, with particular focus on interior design for the microgravity environment. The Omicron concepts address the needs of space tourism with a strong emphasis on the safety and comfort of the spaceflight participants. The Omicron habitat supports three inhabitants in nominal conditions (e.g., two passengers and one astronaut). The habitat provides a flexible interior, facilities and spaces dynamically transforming in order to accommodate various types of activities, which will be performed in an organically formed interior supporting spatial orientation and movement in microgravity. The future development potential of Omicron is also considered. The baseline version is composed solely of one rigid module with an inverted cupola for observations. An alternative version offers more space using an inflatable structure. Finally, a combination of multiple Omicron modules enables the creation of a larger orbital habitat. The Omicron's subsystems support a few days visit by trained passengers. The transport to the habitat would be provided e.g., by the Soyuz TMA spacecraft carried by the Soyuz launch vehicle in the early stage of Omicron's development, before a fully reusable

  9. E6 Addressing Scheme and Network Architecture

    Dmitry Anatolyevich Zaitsev; Sergey Ivanovich Bolshakov

    2012-01-01

    The paper describes new E6 addressing scheme for the creation of world-wide networks totally constructed on the base of Ethernet technology. Hierarchic E6 addresses with the length of 6 octets are used instead of both Ethernet MAC-addresses and IP-addresses that allows the routing within world-wide networks and cuts overhead of TCP, IP headers; the address space is extended in 16K times regarding IP addresses. Standard Ethernet LLC2 facilities are employed for guaranteed delivery of informati...

  10. Reach Address Database (RAD)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Reach Address Database (RAD) stores the reach address of each Water Program feature that has been linked to the underlying surface water features (streams,...

  11. Graviatoms with de Sitter Interior

    Irina Dymnikova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a graviatom with de Sitter interior as a new candidate to atomic dark matter generically related to a vacuum dark energy through its de Sitter vacuum interior. It is a gravitationally bound quantum system consisting of a nucleus represented by a regular primordial black hole (RPBH, its remnant or gravitational vacuum soliton G-lump, and a charged particle. We estimate probability of formation of RPBHs and G-lumps in the early Universe and evaluate energy spectrum and electromagnetic radiation of graviatom which can in principle bear information about a fundamental symmetry scale responsible for de Sitter interior and serve as its observational signatures.

  12. Orbits and Interiors of Planets

    Batygin, Konstantin

    2012-05-01

    The focus of this thesis is a collection of problems of timely interest in orbital dynamics and interior structure of planetary bodies. The first three chapters are dedicated to understanding the interior structure of close-in, gaseous extrasolar planets (hot Jupiters). In order to resolve a long-standing problem of anomalously large hot Jupiter radii, we proposed a novel magnetohydrodynamic mechanism responsible for inflation. The mechanism relies on the electro-magnetic interactions between fast atmospheric flows and the planetary magnetic field in a thermally ionized atmosphere, to induce electrical currents that flow throughout the planet. The resulting Ohmic dissipation acts to maintain the interior entropies, and by extension the radii of hot Jupiters at an enhanced level. Using self-consistent calculations of thermal evolution of hot Jupiters under Ohmic dissipation, we demonstrated a clear tendency towards inflated radii for effective temperatures that give rise to significant ionization of K and Na in the atmosphere, a trend fully consistent with the observational data. Furthermore, we found that in absence of massive cores, low-mass hot Jupiters can over-flow their Roche-lobes and evaporate on Gyr time-scales, possibly leaving behind small rocky cores. Chapters four through six focus on the improvement and implications of a model for orbital evolution of the solar system, driven by dynamical instability (termed the "Nice" model). Hydrodynamical studies of the orbital evolution of planets embedded in protoplanetary disks suggest that giant planets have a tendency to assemble into multi-resonant configurations. Following this argument, we used analytical methods as well as self-consistent numerical N-body simulations to identify fully-resonant primordial states of the outer solar system, whose dynamical evolutions give rise to orbital architectures that resemble the current solar system. We found a total of only eight such initial conditions, providing

  13. Interior Alaska Bouguer Gravity Anomaly

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A 1 kilometer Complete Bouguer Anomaly gravity grid of interior Alaska. Only those grid cells within 10 kilometers of a gravity data point have gravity values....

  14. Interior Alaska Bouguer Gravity Anomaly

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A 1 kilometer Complete Bouguer Anomaly gravity grid of interior Alaska. All grid cells within the rectangular data area (from 61 to 66 degrees North latitude and...

  15. Desain Interior Gedung Kesenian Jakarta

    Sri Rachmayanti

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the interior design of Gedung Kesenian Jakarta in detail. Another thing is to obtain complete data and analyze the interior design development of GKJ. This study will described in terms of design style and different designs since the early period of this building, the arrival of the Dutch until the present era. Besides aesthetic of interior design, it will review technical factors in the building that related to its interior design, such as acoustic, air conditioning, lighting system, sound system. This research is based on data literartures and interviews with the GKJ. In conclusion, it will discuss the existence of GKJ in relation to local identity, culture and heritage.

  16. Interior View of Drafting Room in ERB

    1942-01-01

    Interior view of Drafting Room in Engine Research Building showing men at work at the Aircraft Engine Research Laboratory. This building was considered the research heart of NACA Lewis. It was built by the Sam W. Emerson Company and was completed in 1942. It is a multipurpose flexible space covering more than 4.25 acres and can be changed according to research priorities. The Aircraft Engine Research Center, Cleveland Ohio, is now known as the John H. Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field.

  17. Effects of Light in Interior Landscape Design

    TUNA, Aysun; YAZGAN, Murat Ertuğrul; ALİASGHARİ KHABBAZİ, Parisa

    2015-01-01

    Light, especially sunlight, plays an important role spiritually and materially in our lives today. In the interior design, artificial light is used since the sunlight is not enough for all dimensions of the space and the activities are limited to the morning hours. All plants need for light as an energy source of Photosynthesis. In the lack of light, nutrient material decreases gradually and plant dies. Plants have an inclination to face to the source of light and only in such a case they bec...

  18. Department of the Interior Climate Science Centers

    Jones, Sonya A.

    2011-01-01

    What is a Climate Science Center? On September 14, 2009, the Secretary of the Interior signed a Secretarial Order (No. 3289) entitled, "Addressing the Impacts of Climate Change on America's Water, Land, and Other Natural and Cultural Resources." The Order effectively established the U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI) Climate Science Centers (CSCs), which will integrate DOI science and management expertise with similar contributions from our partners to provide information to support adaptation and mitigation efforts on both public and private lands, across the United States and internationally.The Southeast CSC, hosted by NC State University (NCSU), will collaborate with a number of other universities, State and Federal agencies, and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) with interest and expertise in climate science. The primary partner for the Southeast CSC will be the Landscape Conservation Cooperatives (LCCs) in the Southeast, including the Appalachian, Gulf Coastal Plains and Ozarks, Gulf Coast Prairie, Peninsular Florida, and the South Atlantic. CSC collaborations are focused on common science priorities, addressing priority partner needs, minimizing redundancies in science, sharing scientific findings, and expanding understanding of climate change impacts in the Southeast.

  19. Quantum state of the black hole interior

    Brustein, Ram

    2015-01-01

    If a black hole (BH) is initially in an approximately pure state and it evaporates by a unitary process, then the emitted radiation will be in a highly quantum state. As the purifier of this radiation, the state of the BH interior must also be in some highly quantum state. So that, within the interior region, the mean-field approximation cannot be valid and the state of the BH cannot be described by some semiclassical metric. On this basis, we model the state of the BH interior as a collection of a large number of excitations that are packed into closely spaced but single-occupancy energy levels; a sort-of "Fermi sea" of all light-enough particles. This highly quantum state is surrounded by a semiclassical region that lies close to the horizon and has a non-vanishing energy density. It is shown that such a state looks like a BH from the outside and decays via gravitational pair production in the near-horizon region at a rate that agrees with the Hawking rate. We also consider the fate of a classical object th...

  20. PCX, Interior-Point Linear Programming Solver

    1 - Description of program or function: PCX solves linear programming problems using the Mehrota predictor-corrector interior-point algorithm. PCX can be called as a subroutine or used in stand-alone mode, with data supplied from an MPS file. The software incorporates modules that can be used separately from the linear programming solver, including a pre-solve routine and data structure definitions. 2 - Methods: The Mehrota predictor-corrector method is a primal-dual interior-point method for linear programming. The starting point is determined from a modified least squares heuristic. Linear systems of equations are solved at each interior-point iteration via a sparse Cholesky algorithm native to the code. A pre-solver is incorporated in the code to eliminate inefficiencies in the user's formulation of the problem. 3 - Restriction on the complexity of the problem: There are no size limitations built into the program. The size of problem solved is limited by RAM and swap space on the user's computer

  1. Scenic Interior Space of Building:the Picturesque Garden and Early Modern Architecture Contact%风景室内化的建筑空间--英国“如画式”园林与早期现代建筑空间的联系

    鲁越; 韩佼; 张乘风

    2013-01-01

    英格兰“如画式”园林空间对现代建筑空间有着深远的影响。其蜿蜒的道路体系、与周围环境的交相呼应以及对整体景观效果的表达,都与现代建筑有着千丝万缕的联系。通过对密斯、柯布西耶等建筑大师思想、作品的剖析,阐述了这种“如画式”传统与早期现代建筑间的联系。建筑可以由内及外对室内空间进行重新排列组合,并且室外空间序列可以逐渐延伸到建筑平面和室内设计中。同时也为理解现代建筑空间的丰富内涵提供了重要的理论支持,为“风景室内化”趋势提供了丰富的案例依据。%England's picturesque garden space has a profound impact on modern architectural space . Its winding road systems, correspondences to the surrounding environment and expressions of the overall landscape effects prove that it has an inextricable link with the modern architecture.This paper analyzes Mies, Le Corbusier's and other master architects' thoughts and works, elaborates the relationship between picturesque style tradition and early modern architecture. Architecture can rearrange and combine the interior space from inside and outside, and the outdoor space sequence can gradually extend to the architectural plane and interior design. This paper also provides the important theory support for understanding the connotation of modern architectural space and offers plenty case basis for the "scenic interior" trend .

  2. Estimation of environmental noise impacts within architectural spaces

    Public Law 91-596, ''Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970,'' Dec. 29, 1970, stimulated interest in modeling the impacts of interior noise on employees, as well as the intelligibility of interior public-address and other speech intra-communication systems. The classical literature on this topic has primarily featured a statistical uniform diffuse-field model. This was pioneered by Leo L. Beranek in the 1950s, based on energy-density formulations at the former Bell Telephone (AT and T) Laboratories in the years from 1930 to 1950. This paper compares the classical prediction approach to the most recent statistical methods. Such models were developed in the late 1970s and included innovations such as consideration of irregularly shaped (e.g., L-shaped) interior room spaces and coupled spaces

  3. Measure Guideline: Summary of Interior Ducts in New Construction, Including an Efficient, Affordable Method to Install Fur-Down Interior Ducts

    Beal, D.; McIlvaine , J.; Fonorow, K.; Martin, E.

    2011-11-01

    This document illustrates guidelines for the efficient installation of interior duct systems in new housing, including the fur-up chase method, the fur-down chase method, and interior ducts positioned in sealed attics or sealed crawl spaces. This document illustrates guidelines for the efficient installation of interior duct systems in new housing. Interior ducts result from bringing the duct work inside a home's thermal and air barrier. Architects, designers, builders, and new home buyers should thoroughly investigate any opportunity for energy savings that is as easy to implement during construction, such as the opportunity to construct interior duct work. In addition to enhanced energy efficiency, interior ductwork results in other important advantages, such as improved indoor air quality, increased system durability and increased homeowner comfort. While the advantages of well-designed and constructed interior duct systems are recognized, the implementation of this approach has not gained a significant market acceptance. This guideline describes a variety of methods to create interior ducts including the fur-up chase method, the fur-down chase method, and interior ducts positioned in sealed attics or sealed crawl spaces. As communication of the intent of an interior duct system, and collaboration on its construction are paramount to success, this guideline details the critical design, planning, construction, inspection, and verification steps that must be taken. Involved in this process are individuals from the design team; sales/marketing team; and mechanical, insulation, plumbing, electrical, framing, drywall and solar contractors.

  4. Variational Principle for Planetary Interiors

    Zeng, Li

    2016-01-01

    In the past few years, the number of confirmed planets has grown above 2000. It is clear that they represent a diversity of structures not seen in our own solar system. In addition to very detailed interior modeling, it is valuable to have a simple analytical framework for describing planetary structures. Variational principle is a fundamental principle in physics, entailing that a physical system follows the trajectory which minimizes its action. It is alternative to the differential equation formulation of a physical system. Applying this principle to planetary interior can beautifully summarize the set of differential equations into one, which provides us some insight into the problem. From it, a universal mass-radius relation, an estimate of error propagation from equation of state to mass-radius relation, and a form of virial theorem applicable to planetary interiors are derived.

  5. Dewatering tailings impoundments : interior drains

    For the design of a new uranium tailings impoundment in the western United States, it was proposed that an interior drainage system be considered to economically and reliably minimize potential short- and long-term environmental impacts. The objectives were to decrease the effective hydraulic head on the clay liner, to dewater and stabilize the tailings, and to increase the amount of water recycled to the mill. In addition, desaturation of the impoundment would induce capillary pressure (negative porewater pressure), further reducing the potential movement of dissolved pollutants. This paper presents saturated and unsaturated seepage principles and reviews the concept, criteria and design of the various interior drainage systems considered

  6. Addressivity in cogenerative dialogues

    Hsu, Pei-Ling

    2014-03-01

    Ashraf Shady's paper provides a first-hand reflection on how a foreign teacher used cogens as culturally adaptive pedagogy to address cultural misalignments with students. In this paper, Shady drew on several cogen sessions to showcase his journey of using different forms of cogens with his students. To improve the quality of cogens, one strategy he used was to adjust the number of participants in cogens. As a result, some cogens worked and others did not. During the course of reading his paper, I was impressed by his creative and flexible use of cogens and at the same time was intrigued by the question of why some cogens work and not others. In searching for an answer, I found that Mikhail Bakhtin's dialogism, especially the concept of addressivity, provides a comprehensive framework to address this question. In this commentary, I reanalyze the cogen episodes described in Shady's paper in the light of dialogism. My analysis suggests that addressivity plays an important role in mediating the success of cogens. Cogens with high addressivity function as internally persuasive discourse that allows diverse consciousnesses to coexist and so likely affords productive dialogues. The implications of addressivity in teaching and learning are further discussed.

  7. INTERIORITY

    Hvejsel, Marie Frier

    of furnishing ‘gestures’ requiring of the envelope itself to guide, reveal, cover, caress and embrace us. These ‘gestures’ unite function and emotion by describing at once a physical movement and a feeling which is intrinsic of the spatial envelope itself. - The explanatory level has resulted in the...... Danish prefab housing manufacturer Boel Living A/S. Hence, this cooperation has been the starting point for pursuing a methodological linking of theory and practice, through a number of research loops, moving from theory development to practical application and vice versa. Together the 2 volumes...... signifying our experience of domestic architectural quality applicaple as a critical means within the practical realm of domestic architectural practice. In addition the result of the thesis can be seen as a contribution to a future discussion of the role of the architect in the general domestic...

  8. Computer-assisted ergonomic analysis for vehicle interior design

    Punte, P.A.J.; Oudenhuijzen, A.J.K.

    2000-01-01

    TNO Human Factors is involved in the process of designing and testing a new concept for driver workplaces in passenger cars, i.e. with a horizontally fixed driver seat and adjustable pedals, steering wheel and instrument panel. This new concept is intended to achieve an interior space and arrangemen

  9. PhD Thesis: Functional Textiles in Hospital Interiors

    Mogensen, Jeppe Emil

    The PhD thesis explores the possibilities and design qualities of using functional textiles in the interior of hospital environments, and is the result of a three-year collaboration between Aalborg University, Department of Civil Engineering, and VIA University College, VIA Design. The thesis...... main design qualities that may improve the patients’ experience of the hospital interior, and in the experimental studies these aesthetic quali- ties are contextualised in empirical studies conducted at two Danish hospitals. Through these different studies, the PhD thesis addresses the technical and...

  10. IP Address Management Principles and Practice

    Rooney, Timothy

    2010-01-01

    This book will be the first covering the subject of IP address management (IPAM). The practice of IPAM includes the application of network management disciplines to IP address space and associated network services, namely DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) and DNS (Domain Name System). The consequence of inaccurately configuring DHCP is that end users may not be able to obtain IP addresses to access the network. Without proper DNS configuration, usability of the network will greatly suffer as the name-to-address lookup process may fail. Imagine having to navigate to a website or send a

  11. Addressing the nuclear misconception

    There is a perception, fostered and encouraged by the anti-nuclear groups, that the nuclear industry generates large quantities of waste with no idea how to deal with it, that it is unsafe, uneconomic, and environmentally damaging. The task is to change these perceptions, by demonstrating that the industry is not a problem in itself, but in fact provides solutions to problems. This paper, while primarily concerned with waste, addresses all of these issues as each has a bearing on the perception of the industry and therefore must be considered when addressing the issue of waste. The paper concludes that evidence exists to support the industry view, but that the mission of the industry should be to change the perception of the industry, by influencing and working together with its stake holders to address their concerns, rather than merely presenting more and more facts. (author)

  12. Addressing the nuclear misconception

    There is a perception, fostered and encouraged by the anti-nuclear groups, that the nuclear industry generates large quantities of waste with no idea how to deal with it, is unsafe, uneconomic, and environmentally damaging. The task of the industry is to change the perception by demonstrating that the industry provides solutions to problems, and is not a problem in itself. This paper, whilst primarily concerned with waste, addresses all of these issues as each has a bearing on the perception of the industry and therefore must be considered when addressing the issue of waste. The paper concludes that evidence exists to support the industry, but that the mission of the industry should be to change the perception of it, by influencing and working together with its stakeholders to address their concerns, rather than merely presenting more and more facts. (author)

  13. Convective Overshoot in Stellar Interior

    Zhang, Q. S.

    2015-07-01

    In stellar interiors, the turbulent thermal convection transports matters and energy, and dominates the structure and evolution of stars. The convective overshoot, which results from the non-local convective transport from the convection zone to the radiative zone, is one of the most uncertain and difficult factors in stellar physics at present. The classical method for studying the convective overshoot is the non-local mixing-length theory (NMLT). However, the NMLT bases on phenomenological assumptions, and leads to contradictions, thus the NMLT was criticized in literature. At present, the helioseismic studies have shown that the NMLT cannot satisfy the helioseismic requirements, and have pointed out that only the turbulent convection models (TCMs) can be accepted. In the first part of this thesis, models and derivations of both the NMLT and the TCM were introduced. In the second part, i.e., the work part, the studies on the TCM (theoretical analysis and applications), and the development of a new model of the convective overshoot mixing were described in detail. In the work of theoretical analysis on the TCM, the approximate solution and the asymptotic solution were obtained based on some assumptions. The structure of the overshoot region was discussed. In a large space of the free parameters, the approximate/asymptotic solutions are in good agreement with the numerical results. We found an important result that the scale of the overshoot region in which the thermal energy transport is effective is 1 HK (HK is the scale height of turbulence kinetic energy), which does not depend on the free parameters of the TCM. We applied the TCM and a simple overshoot mixing model in three cases. In the solar case, it was found that the temperature gradient in the overshoot region is in agreement with the helioseismic requirements, and the profiles of the solar lithium abundance, sound speed, and density of the solar models are also improved. In the low-mass stars of open

  14. Addressing Sexual Harassment

    Young, Ellie L.; Ashbaker, Betty Y.

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses ways on how to address the problem of sexual harassment in schools. Sexual harassment--simply defined as any unwanted and unwelcome sexual behavior--is a sensitive topic. Merely providing students, parents, and staff members with information about the school's sexual harassment policy is insufficient; schools must take…

  15. Functional textiles in hospital interiors

    Mogensen, Jeppe

    This PhD thesis explores the possibilities and design qualities of using functional textiles in the interior of hospital environments, and is the result of a three years collaboration between Aalborg University, Department of Civil Engineering, and VIA University College, VIA Design. The project is...... overall related to the construction of new Danish hospitals, where the design concept healing architecture is introduced in a national context, representing the vision of a promoted healing process of hospitalised patients, supported by design related influence. Past research studies provides evidence...... that the physical environments affect the patients’ level of stress and influence their process of recovery and healing. However, although research in this field of hospital design has increased substantially in recent years, knowledge on the use of new materials and textiles in hospital interiors is...

  16. Black Hole: The Interior Spacetime

    Ong, Yen Chin

    2016-01-01

    The information loss paradox is often discussed from the perspective of the observers who stay outside of a black hole. However, the interior spacetime of a black hole can be rather nontrivial. We discuss the open problems regarding the volume of a black hole, and whether it plays any role in information storage. We also emphasize the importance of resolving the black hole singularity, if one were to resolve the information loss paradox.

  17. The Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER) mission: post-CDR status update

    Arzoumanian, Zaven; Gendreau, Keith; Nicer Team

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER), in development for deployment to the International Space Station as an external attached payload, will address decades-old questions about the structure, dynamics, and energetics of neutron stars through high-precision timing of the soft X-ray emissions of rotation- and accretion-powered pulsars. NICER's performance in timing, spectroscopy, and high-throughput sensitivity to 0.2-12 keV X-rays represents a substantial enhancement over existing capabilities, enabling a rich diversity of investigations in both neutron star science as well as broader X-ray astrophysics, the latter through a proposed Guest Observer program. Having successfully passed its Critical Design Review in September 2014, the NICER development team is proceeding with implementation of flight systems. This talk briefly summarizes the NICER design and the status of hardware fabrication and testing, currently on pace to deliver the NICER payload for its planned launch in late 2016.

  18. The Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER)

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.; Gendreau, K.; Arzoumanian, Z.

    2014-01-01

    The Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER) is an approved NASA Explorer Mission of Opportunity dedicated to the study of the extraordinary gravitational, electromagnetic, and nuclear-physics environments embodied by neutron stars. Scheduled to be launched in 2016 as an International Space Station payload, NICER will explore the exotic states of matter, using rotation-resolved spectroscopy of the thermal and non-thermal emissions of neutron stars in the soft (0.2-12 keV) X-ray band. Grazing-incidence "concentrator" optics coupled with silicon drift detectors, actively pointed for a full hemisphere of sky coverage, will provide photon-counting spectroscopy and timing registered to GPS time and position, with high throughput and relatively low background. The NICER project plans to implement a Guest Observer Program, which includes competitively selected user targets after the first year of flight operations. I will describe NICER and discuss ideas for potential Be/X-ray binary science.

  19. Wall grid structure for interior scene synthesis

    Xu, Wenzhuo

    2015-02-01

    We present a system for automatically synthesizing a diverse set of semantically valid, and well-arranged 3D interior scenes for a given empty room shape. Unlike existing work on layout synthesis, that typically knows potentially needed 3D models and optimizes their location through cost functions, our technique performs the retrieval and placement of 3D models by discovering the relationships between the room space and the models\\' categories. This is enabled by a new analytical structure, called Wall Grid Structure, which jointly considers the categories and locations of 3D models. Our technique greatly reduces the amount of user intervention and provides users with suggestions and inspirations. We demonstrate the applicability of our approach on three types of scenarios: conference rooms, living rooms and bedrooms.

  20. Bioreactors Addressing Diabetes Mellitus

    Minteer, Danielle M.; Gerlach, Jorg C; Marra, Kacey G.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of bioreactors in biochemical engineering is a well-established process; however, the idea of applying bioreactor technology to biomedical and tissue engineering issues is relatively novel and has been rapidly accepted as a culture model. Tissue engineers have developed and adapted various types of bioreactors in which to culture many different cell types and therapies addressing several diseases, including diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2. With a rising world of bioreactor develop...

  1. Holographic content addressable storage

    Chao, Tien-Hsin; Lu, Thomas; Reyes, George

    2015-03-01

    We have developed a Holographic Content Addressable Storage (HCAS) architecture. The HCAS systems consists of a DMD (Digital Micromirror Array) as the input Spatial Light Modulator (SLM), a CMOS (Complementary Metal-oxide Semiconductor) sensor as the output photodetector and a photorefractive crystal as the recording media. The HCAS system is capable of performing optical correlation of an input image/feature against massive reference data set stored in the holographic memory. Detailed system analysis will be reported in this paper.

  2. Addressing mathematics & statistics anxiety

    Kotecha, Meena

    2015-01-01

    This paper should be of interest to mathematics and statistics educators ranging from pre-university to university education sectors. It will discuss some features of the author’s teaching model developed over her longitudinal study conducted to understand and address mathematics and statistics anxiety, which is one of the main barriers to engaging with these subjects especially in non-specialist undergraduates. It will demonstrate how a range of formative assessments are used to kindle, as w...

  3. Infrared imaging of fossil fuel power plant boiler interiors

    Howard, James W.; Cranton, Brian W.; Armstrong, Karen L.; Hammaker, Robert G.

    1997-08-01

    Fossil fuel power plant boilers operate continuously for months at a time, typically shutting down only for routine maintenance or to address serious equipment failures. These shutdowns are very costly, and diagnostic tools and techniques which could be used to minimize shutdown duration and frequency are highly desirable. Due to the extremely hostile environment in these boilers, few tools exist to inspect and monitor operating boiler interiors. This paper presents the design of a passively cooled, infrared borescope used to inspect the interior of operating boilers. The borescope operates at 3.9 micrometer, where flame is partially transparent. The primary obstacles overcome in the instrument design were the harsh industrial environment surrounding the boilers and the high temperatures encountered inside the boilers. A portable yet durable lens system and enclosure was developed to work with a scanning radiometer to address these two problems by both shielding the radiometer from the environment and by extending the optical train into a snout designed to be inserted into access ports on the sides of the boiler. In this manner, interior images of the boiler can be made while keeping the radiometer safely outside the boiler. The lens views a 40 degree field of view through any 2.5' or larger opening in a foot thick boiler wall. Three of these borescopes have been built, and high resolution images of boiler interiors have been obtained.

  4. Space Station Human Factors Research Review. Volume 3: Space Station Habitability and Function: Architectural Research

    Cohen, Marc M. (Editor); Eichold, Alice (Editor); Heers, Susan (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    Articles are presented on a space station architectural elements model study, space station group activities habitability module study, full-scale architectural simulation techniques for space stations, and social factors in space station interiors.

  5. Deep Interior: Probing the Structure of Primitive Bodies

    Asphaug, Erik; Scheeres, Daniel; Safaeinili, Ali

    Deep Interior is a mature Discovery-class mission concept focused on probing the geophysical behavior of primitive bodies, from the mechanics of their exterior materials to the structures of their interiors. Its theme is to discover how small bodies work - to learn the natural origin and evolution of asteroids, comets and other primitive bodies through radar reflection tomography and through detailed observations of the local and global effects of cratering. Learning the structure and mechanical response of asteroids and comets is also a precursor to resource utilization and hazardous asteroid mitigation. Overall the mission is aligned with NASA strategic sub-goal 3C, to advance scientific knowledge of the origin and history of the solar system ... and the hazards and resources present as humans explore space. Deep Interior deploys no complex landers or sub-spacecraft; the scientific instruments are a radar and a camera. A blast cratering experiments triggered by grenades leads to a low cost seismological investigation which complements the radar investigation. A desired addition is an imaging spectrometer. The science instruments are high heritage, as are the navigation techniques for orbiting and station-keeping. The mission conducts the following investigations at one or more asteroids: Radar Reflection Tomography (RRT). The first science phase is to operate a penetrating radar during each several-month rendezvous, deployed in reflection mode in the manner of ongoing radar investigations underway by Mars Express, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, and Kaguya. The RRT technique (Safaeinili et al., MAPS 2002) is analogous to performing a "CAT scan" from orbit: closely sampled radar echoes are processed to yield volumetric maps of mechanical and compositional boundaries, and to measure interior dielectric properties. Deep Interior utilizes a polar orbit (or station keeping) while the asteroid spins underneath; the result is to "peel the apple" with thousands of unique

  6. Department of the Interior : Bison Conservation Initiative

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This framework for managing bison by the Department of the Interior (DOI) bureaus articulates a basis for improved management of the species and provides a...

  7. Address delivered in Vilnius

    Piłsudski, Józef

    2013-01-01

    Title: Przemówienie w Wilnie 20 kwietnia 1922 roku (Address delivered in Vilnius, 20 April, 1922) Originally published: Pisma-mowy-rozkazy, vol. V, Warsaw, Instytut Józefa Piłsudskiego, 1933, pp. 255–260. Language: PolishThe excerpt used is from the original About the author Józef Piłsudski [1867, Zułów (in the district of Święciany, Lit. Zalave/Švenčionys, present-day Lithuania) – 1935, Warsaw]: politician. Piłsudski was born to a family belonging to the Polish-speaking gentry in the Lithuan...

  8. State Skill Standards: Housing and Interior Design

    Nevada Department of Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Meeting the Housing and Interior Design Standards will provide students with skills for personal family life and towards becoming a professional in the interior design field. The mission of Housing and Interior Design education is to prepare students for family life, work life, and careers in the fashion industry by creating opportunities to…

  9. 24 CFR 3280.108 - Interior passage.

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Interior passage. 3280.108 Section... DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Planning Considerations § 3280.108 Interior passage. (a) Interior doors having passage hardware without a privacy lock, or with a privacy lock...

  10. The new candidate IPV6 address size prediction

    Khaldoun Batiha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available IPv4 protocol is now no more sufficient due to its limited address space where this protocol uses only 32-bit for addressing. IPv6 protocol is the next protocol which was introduced as a new protocol that provide a huge address space .In This paper we discussed the significant overhead in the IPv6 standard packet due to its 128 bits address size, so we develop three different studies in order to generate a prediction of exhibition date for several address sizes so we can suggest another size for address size in IPv6 to improve the overall performance of the internet and tolerate the overhead by reducing the address size. In the same time this size should accommodate the accelerated growth in needs for unassigned blocks of addresses for very long time.   Keywords: Ipv4 Protocol, Ipv6 Protocol, Addressing Types, Ipv6 Header, Exhibition Date, Address Pool.

  11. High Sensitivity Pulsed Laser Vibrometer for Aircraft Interior Noise Monitoring Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose an innovative pulsed laser vibrometer technology for the monitoring of interior noise inside an aircraft. The optical speckle-tolerant nature of the...

  12. Addressing the Crisis in Fundamental Physics

    Stubbs, Christopher W

    2007-01-01

    I present the case for fundamental physics experiments in space playing an important role in addressing the current "dark energy'' crisis. If cosmological observations continue to favor a value of the dark energy equation of state parameter w=-1, with no change over cosmic time, then we will have difficulty understanding this new fundamental physics. We will then face a very real risk of stagnation unless we detect some other experimental anomaly. The advantages of space-based experiments could prove invaluable in the search for the a more complete understanding of dark energy. This talk was delivered at the start of the Fundamental Physics Research in Space Workshop in May 2006.

  13. Space space space

    Trembach, Vera

    2014-01-01

    Space is an introduction to the mysteries of the Universe. Included are Task Cards for independent learning, Journal Word Cards for creative writing, and Hands-On Activities for reinforcing skills in Math and Language Arts. Space is a perfect introduction to further research of the Solar System.

  14. Development and Applications of Interior Tomography - Multi-source Interior Tomography for Ultrafast Performance

    Wang, Ge; Ritman, Erik; Ye, Yangbo; Katsevich, Alexander; Yu, Hengyong; Cao, Guohua; Zhou, Otto

    2010-01-01

    Conventional tomography allows excellent reconstruction of an object from non-truncated projections. The long-standing interior problem is to reconstruct an interior ROI accurately only from local projection segments. Interior tomography solves the interior problem with practical knowledge such as a known sub-region or a sparsity model using compressive sensing. Advantages of interior tomography include radiation dose reduction (no x-rays go outside an ROI), scattering artifact suppression (n...

  15. TMS320VC5416DSP存储空间配置方法研究%Study on the Configuration Method for the Memory Space Address in TMS320VC5416 DSP

    胡洪坡; 梁书剑; 张德兴; 王铁军

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces the memory structure of TMS320VC5416 DSP. on this basis analyzes the mapping relation between memory space and physical memory, in the end, gives the configuration method of the memory space.%文章介绍了TMS320VC5416 DSP芯片的存储结构,在此基础上重点分析了其存储空间与物理存储器的映射关系,最后给出了存储空间配置方法的一般步骤.

  16. Mercury's interior from MESSENGER geodetic measurements

    Genova, Antonio; Mazarico, Erwan; Goossens, Sander; Lemoine, Frank G.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.; Solomon, Sean C.

    2016-04-01

    The MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft completed more than 4 years of operations in orbit about Mercury. One of the main mission goals was the determination of the interior structure of Mercury enabled by geodetic observations of the topography, gravity field, rotation, and tides by the Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA) and radio science system. MLA acquired over 25 million individual measurements of Mercury's shape that are mostly limited to the northern hemisphere because of MESSENGER's eccentric orbit. However, the lack of laser altimetry in the southern hemisphere has been partly compensated by ˜400 occultations of spacecraft radio signals. X-band radio tracking data collected by the NASA Deep Space Network (DSN) allowed the determination of Mercury's gravity field to spherical harmonic degree and order 100, the planet's obliquity, and the Love number k2. The combination of altimetry and radio measurements provides a powerful tool for the investigation of Mercury's orientation and tides, which enable a better understanding of the interior structure of the planet. The MLA measurements have been assembled into a digital elevation model (DEM) of the northern hemisphere. We then used individual altimetric measurements from the spacecraft for orbit determination, together with the radio tracking, over a continuous span of time using a batch least-squares filter. All observations were combined to recover directly the gravity field coefficients, obliquity, librations, and tides by minimizing the discrepancies between the computed observables and actual measurements. We will present the estimated 100×100 gravity field model, the obliquity, the Love number k2, and, for the first time, the tidal phase lag φ and the amplitude of the longitudinal libration from radio and altimetry data. The k2 phase provides information on Mercury's dissipation and mantle viscosity and allows a determination of the Q factor. A refinement of

  17. Discovery of IPv6 router interface addresses via heuristic methods

    Gray, Matthew D.

    2015-01-01

    With the assignment of the last available blocks of public IPv4 addresses from Internet Assigned Numbers Authority, there is continued pressure for widespread IPv6 adoption. Because the IPv6 address space is orders of magnitude larger than the IPv4 address space, researchers need new methods and techniques to accurately measure and characterize growth in IPv6. This thesis focuses on IPv6 router infrastructure and examines the possibility of using heuristic methods in order to discover IPv6 ro...

  18. Conference President's address

    The objective of the Conference is to promote the development of a coherent international policy on the protection of the environment from the effects of ionizing radiation and to foster information exchange on this subject. The organizers, the IAEA in cooperation with United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), the European Commission (EC) and the International Union of Radioecology (IUR), as well as the hosts of the conference, the Government of Sweden through the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI), are pleased that so nearly 300 delegates from 53 countries have been nominated by their governments to attend this meeting. Another objective is to discuss the implications of the ICRP's proposal for a framework to assess radiation effects in the environment. A framework for radiological protection of the environment must be practical and simple, as should be international standards for discharges into the environment that take account of such an approach. This is a task for the IAEA, in cooperation with other international organizations. This conference therefore provides an opportunity for you to influence the development of both ICRP and IAEA policy in this area. The background session today will give information on the current situation as well as social and political drivers for change. A number of organizations will provide an insight to the present status of international policies on the radiological protection related to releases to the environment. During the course of the conference, there will be five topical sessions that will cover selected subjects related to protection of the environment, such as stakeholders' views, case studies, approaches for non-radioactive pollutants, the state of current scientific knowledge and, finally, the implications of ICRP proposals for international safety standards. Keynote speakers will address key issues within each topical session, and a rapporteur will summarize the

  19. Interior insulation in existing; Innendaemmung im Bestand

    Geburtig, Gerd (ed.)

    2010-07-01

    Within the third expert meeting of the regional German group of the International Association for Science and Technology of Building and Maintenance and Monuments Preservation (WTA, Pfaffenhofen, Federal Republic of Germany) in November 2009 in Weimar (Federal Republic of Germany) the following lectures were held: (a) Interior insulation according to WTA - The leaflet 6-4 (Anatol Worch); (b) Dimensioning of interior insulation (Hartwig M. Kuenzel); (c) Interior insulation in the field of monument conservation (Roswitha Kaiser); (d) Possibilities of interior insulation (Frank Essmann); (e) Interior insulation - everything considered? (Uwe Gronau); (f) Interior insulation - considered under another view (Georg Dittie); (g) Built practice - this is it (Manuela Kramp); (h) Some practical considerations (Klaus Graupner).

  20. Humidity buffering of interior spaces by porous, absorbent insulation

    Padfield, Tim

    1999-01-01

    indoor humidity ofwool, vapour barrier and plasterboard, separately and in combination. Paint is not included in thetests. The response of a wall to a sudden injection of water vapour, as would happen in a kitchenor bathroom, is also studied. In this event the main moderator of the RH is the plaster...

  1. Interior space design colors and effects on psychological

    迟亦然

    2015-01-01

    The problem of relationship between human and environment is becoming more and more get the attention of people today. Similarly, from the relation between human and environment to a high degree of understanding of environmental development and creation, but also in recent years environmental art a great progress in understanding the. Indoor color in addition to the visual impact of the environment, but also directly affect people’s emotions, psychology. The scientific use of color is conducive to work, is helpful to health, color can properly deal with the functional requirements of the United States can achieve results. Indoor color in addition to color rules must comply with the general, but also changes with the times and different aesthetic view.

  2. Concrete as secondary containment for interior wall embedded waste lines

    Throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex are numerous facilities that handle hazardous waste solutions. Secondary containment of tank systems and their ancillary piping is a major concern for existing facilities. The Idaho Division of Environmental Quality was petitioned in 1990 for an Equivalent Device determination regarding secondary containment of waste lines embedded in interior concrete walls. The petition was granted, however it expires in 1996. To address the secondary containment issue, additional studies were undertaken. One study verified the hypothesis that an interior wall pipe leak would follow the path of least resistance through the naturally occurring void found below a rigidly supported pipe and pass into an adjacent room where detection could occur, before any significant deterioration of the concrete takes place. Other tests demonstrated that with acidic waste solutions rebar and cold joints are not an accelerated path to the environment. The results from these latest studies confirm that the subject configuration meets all the requirements of secondary containment

  3. Generalized multiscale finite element method. Symmetric interior penalty coupling

    Efendiev, Yalchin R.

    2013-12-01

    Motivated by applications to numerical simulations of flows in highly heterogeneous porous media, we develop multiscale finite element methods for second order elliptic equations. We discuss a multiscale model reduction technique in the framework of the discontinuous Galerkin finite element method. We propose two different finite element spaces on the coarse mesh. The first space is based on a local eigenvalue problem that uses an interior weighted L2-norm and a boundary weighted L2-norm for computing the "mass" matrix. The second choice is based on generation of a snapshot space and subsequent selection of a subspace of a reduced dimension. The approximation with these multiscale spaces is based on the discontinuous Galerkin finite element method framework. We investigate the stability and derive error estimates for the methods and further experimentally study their performance on a representative number of numerical examples. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

  4. Observations of IPv6 Addresses

    Malone, David

    2008-01-01

    IPv6 addresses are longer than IPv4 addresses, and are so capable of greater expression. Given an IPv6 address, conventions and standards allow us to draw conclusions about how IPv6 is being used on the node with that address. We show a technique for analysing IPv6 addresses and apply it to a number of datasets. The datasets include addresses seen at a busy mirror server, at an IPv6-enabled TLD DNS server and when running traceroute across the production IPv6 network. The technique quantif...

  5. Fast Access to Space Tourism

    Favata', P.; Martineau, N.

    2002-01-01

    creating a revolutionary space-orbiting habitat dedicated to tourism. Up to now, such proposals have focused on two approaches. The first accounts for financial and technological constraints on space flight and living, and sacrifices creativity for practicality. The second is more utopic in nature and proposes projects, which are imaginative but unfeasible in the near future. This proposal is innovative because it considers the current obstacles to space tourism and utilizes existing technologies and infrastructures, but also includes the forethinking of futuristic commercial projects. Project Objectives: NASA claims that commercialization of space activities is so difficult that it will require decades more funding of so-called space-technology development. The benefits of this project show that this is not true. First, safety has been addressed because this proposal utilizes already space tested and assured technologies. Second, the project demonstrates potential for significant economic profit within the near future. Because we are using the least expensive technology available, we have limited start up costs. We forecast up to forty flights per year, with a potential capacity of eighty tourists. The design objectives focus on the proposal of a new approach to space tourism. These include: the expansion of the living space in the interiors, innovative and creative interior design, increased concern for the physiological and psychological comfort of tourists, and attention to entertainment possibilities. Project Content: The efficiency of the launch and configuration phase is one of the strengths of the proposed project. We propose the use of the Zenith 2 launcher, a large two-stage vehicle developed in the Soviet Union in the early 1980s, for the configuration of the orbiting platform. Following the Russian outfitting philosophy, once in orbit, the platform is already functional. The interior design is based on advanced lightweight inflatable technologies which

  6. Black Hole Interior in Quantum Gravity.

    Nomura, Yasunori; Sanches, Fabio; Weinberg, Sean J

    2015-05-22

    We discuss the interior of a black hole in quantum gravity, in which black holes form and evaporate unitarily. The interior spacetime appears in the sense of complementarity because of special features revealed by the microscopic degrees of freedom when viewed from a semiclassical standpoint. The relation between quantum mechanics and the equivalence principle is subtle, but they are still consistent. PMID:26047218

  7. Lather (Interior Systems Mechanic). Occupational Analyses Series.

    Chapman, Mike; Chapman, Carol; MacLean, Margaret

    This analysis covers tasks performed by a lather, an occupational title some provinces and territories of Canada have also identified as drywall and acoustical mechanic; interior systems installer; and interior systems mechanic. A guide to analysis discusses development, structure, and validation method; scope of the occupation; trends; and…

  8. Interior Design Students Perceptions of Sustainability

    Stark, Johnnie; Park, Jin Gyu

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This longitudinal study assessed student perceptions of sustainable design issues in the context of an accredited interior design program. Although literature exists documenting the integration of sustainable strategies into interior design curriculum, more analysis is needed to determine the impact of program experiences on students'…

  9. Department of Interior Semiannual Regulatory Agenda

    2010-04-26

    ...: Action Date FR Cite Final Action 04/00/10 Regulatory Flexibility Analysis Required: Yes Agency Contact... idle facilities. Timetable: Action Date FR Cite NPRM 12/00/10 NPRM Comment Period End 02/00/11... Part IX Department of the Interior Semiannual Regulatory Agenda ] DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...

  10. Evaluations of fiber optic sensors for interior applications

    Sandoval, M.W.; Malone, T.P.

    1996-02-01

    This report addresses the testing and evaluation of commercial fiber optic intrusion detection systems in interior applications. The applications include laying optical fiber cable above suspended ceilings to detect removal of ceiling tiles, embedding optical fibers inside a tamper or item monitoring blanket that could be placed over an asset, and installing optical fibers on a door to detect movement or penetration. Detection capability of the fiber optic sensors as well as nuisance and false alarm information were focused on during the evaluation. Fiber optic sensor processing, system components, and system setup are described.

  11. Electrical conductivity of the lunar interior - Theory, error sources, and estimates

    Goldstein, B. E.

    1979-01-01

    Estimates of the electrical conductivity of the lunar interior were previously obtained by comparison of magnetometer data at the lunar surface and in near lunar space. In studies based on solar wind observations, IR was assumed that fields induced in the lunar interior by time-varying external fields are confined by the solar wind within the lunar interior on the dayside and within a cylindrical plasma cavity on the nightside. In the present paper, the induced fields are calculated for a more realistic conical plasma cavity geometry.

  12. Visualizing interior and exterior jet aircraft noise

    Moondra, Manmohan S.

    In today's competitive aerospace industry, the quest for quiet has drawn significant attention to both the interior and exterior design of an airplane. Understanding the noise generation mechanisms of a jet aircraft is a crucial first step toward developing the most cost-effective noise and vibrations abatement methods. In this investigation, the Helmholtz Equation Least Squares (HELS) based nearfield acoustic holography will be used to understand noise transmission caused by jet engine and turbulence into the fuselage of a jet aircraft cruising at 30,000 ft. Modern propulsive jet engines produce exterior noise sources with a high amplitude noise field and complicated characteristics, which makes them very difficult to characterize. In particular, there are turbulent eddies that are moving through the jet at high speeds along the jet boundary. These turbulent eddies in the shear layer produce a directional and frequency dependent noise. The original HELS approach assumes a spherical source at the origin and computes the acoustic field based on spherical emission from this source. This assumption of one source at the origin is not sufficient to characterize a complex source like a jet. As such, a modified HELS approach is introduced that will help improve the source characterization as it is not dependent on a single source at the origin but a number of virtual sources throughout the space. Custom microphones are created to take acoustic pressure measurements around the jet engine. These measured acoustic pressures are then taken as input to the modified HELS algorithm to visualize the noise pattern of a subsonic jet engine.

  13. Computer vision based room interior design

    Ahmad, Nasir; Hussain, Saddam; Ahmad, Kashif; Conci, Nicola

    2015-12-01

    This paper introduces a new application of computer vision. To the best of the author's knowledge, it is the first attempt to incorporate computer vision techniques into room interior designing. The computer vision based interior designing is achieved in two steps: object identification and color assignment. The image segmentation approach is used for the identification of the objects in the room and different color schemes are used for color assignment to these objects. The proposed approach is applied to simple as well as complex images from online sources. The proposed approach not only accelerated the process of interior designing but also made it very efficient by giving multiple alternatives.

  14. Bounds on positive interior transmission eigenvalues

    This paper contains lower bounds on the counting function of the positive eigenvalues of the interior transmission problem when the latter is elliptic. In particular, these bounds justify the existence of an infinite set of interior transmission eigenvalues and provide asymptotic estimates from above on the counting function for the large values of the wave number. They also lead to certain important upper estimates on the first few interior transmission eigenvalues. We consider the classical transmission problem as well as the case when the inhomogeneous medium contains an obstacle. (paper)

  15. Port virtual addressing for PC

    Instruments for nuclear signal measurements based on add-on card for a personal computer (PC) are designed often. Then one faces the problem of the addressing of data input/output devices which show an integration level or intelligence that makes the use of several port address indispensable, and these are limited in the PC. The virtual addressing offers the advantage of the occupation of few addresses to accede to many of these devices. The principles of this technique and the appliances of a solution in radiometric in a radiometric card based on programmed logic are discussed in this paper

  16. Reclaiming unused IPv4 addresses

    IT Department

    2016-01-01

    As many people might know, the number of IPv4 addresses is limited and almost all have been allocated (see here and here for more information).   Although CERN has been allocated some 340,000 addresses, the way these are allocated across the site is not as efficient as we would like. As we face an increasing demand for IPv4 addresses with the growth in virtual machines, the IT Department’s Communication Systems Group will be reorganising address allocation during 2016 to make more efficient use of the IPv4 address ranges that have been allocated to CERN. We aim, wherever possible, to avoid giving out fixed IP addresses, and have all devices connected to the campus network obtain an address dynamically each time they connect. As a first stage, starting in February, IP addresses that have not been used for more than 9 months will be reclaimed. No information about the devices concerned will be deleted from LANDB, but a new IP address will have to be requested if they are ever reconnected to t...

  17. Sensor-based interior modeling

    Robots and remote systems will play crucial roles in future decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) of nuclear facilities. Many of these facilities, such as uranium enrichment plants, weapons assembly plants, research and production reactors, and fuel recycling facilities, are dormant; there is also an increasing number of commercial reactors whose useful lifetime is nearly over. To reduce worker exposure to radiation, occupational and other hazards associated with D ampersand D tasks, robots will execute much of the work agenda. Traditional teleoperated systems rely on human understanding (based on information gathered by remote viewing cameras) of the work environment to safely control the remote equipment. However, removing the operator from the work site substantially reduces his efficiency and effectiveness. To approach the productivity of a human worker, tasks will be performed telerobotically, in which many aspects of task execution are delegated to robot controllers and other software. This paper describes a system that semi-automatically builds a virtual world for remote D ampersand D operations by constructing 3-D models of a robot's work environment. Planar and quadric surface representations of objects typically found in nuclear facilities are generated from laser rangefinder data with a minimum of human interaction. The surface representations are then incorporated into a task space model that can be viewed and analyzed by the operator, accessed by motion planning and robot safeguarding algorithms, and ultimately used by the operator to instruct the robot at a level much higher than teleoperation

  18. Phobos interior structure from its gravity field

    Le Maistre, S.; Rosenblatt, P.; Rivoldini, A.

    2015-10-01

    Phobos origin remains mysterious. It could be a captured asteroid, or an in-situ object co-accreted with Mars or formed by accretion from a disk of impact ejecta.Although it is not straightforward to relate its interior properties to its origin, it is easy to agree that the interior properties of any body has to be accounted for to explain its life's history. What event could explain such an internal structure? Where should this object formed to present such interior characteristics and composition? We perform here numerical simulations to assess the ability of a gravity experiment to constrain the interior structure of the martian moon Phobos, which could in turn allow distinguishing among the competing scenarios for the moon's origin.

  19. Material Ramah Lingkungan untuk Interior Rumah Tinggal

    Dila Hendrassukma

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Housing is one of the biggest contributors in polluting the ozone layer and consuming the natural resources in making one. Home interior takes part in the over-produced material used for covering the interior elements, such as floor, wall, ceiling, and furniture. The article conducting is to study the green aspect of building materials to find alternative material to beautify the house that is not harming the earth. The result is options of eco material to be used in the making of greener home interior. It is materials that can be renewed, recycled, and low in embodied energy. Materials used in home interior have impact to the natures. Thus, awareness in choosing the right material to decorate the house is very important.

  20. Seismic View of the Solar Interior

    H. M. Antia

    2002-03-01

    The interior of the Sun is not directly observable to us. Nevertheless, it is possible to infer the physical conditions prevailing in the solar interior with the help of theoretical models coupled with observational input provided by measured frequencies of solar oscillations. The frequencies of these solar oscillations depend on the internal structure and dynamics of the Sun and from the knowledge of these frequencies it is possible to infer the internal structure as well as the large scale flows inside the Sun, in the same way as the observations of seismic waves on the surface of Earth help us in the study of its interior. With the accumulation of seismic data over the last six years it has also become possible to study temporal variations in the solar interior. Some of these seismic inferences would be described.

  1. Project management in interior design services

    Şahinoglu, Alp

    1997-01-01

    Ankara : Bilkent University, Department of Interior Architecture and Environmental Design and Institute of Fine Arts, 1997. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 1997. Includes bibliographical references. In this study, the concept of project management is analyzed within the framework of interior design services. Project management has been defined as the managing and coordination of all human and physical resources, in order to accomplish the predetermined goals (aim of the proj...

  2. Interior Design and Navigation in Virtual Reality

    Tingvall, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    This thesis examined how virtual reality could be used in interior design. The thesis was limited to virtual reality experienced using a head mounted display. The Method was to integrate virtual reality into an existing interior design software called CET Designer. After investigating the available commercial virtual reality hardware and software Oculus SDK and OpenVR was chosen. Unity 3D was used as a prototyping tool for experimenting with different interaction and navigation methods. An use...

  3. Charges in the hydrophobic interior of proteins

    Isom, Daniel G.; Castañeda, Carlos A.; Cannon, Brian R.; Velu, Priya D.; García-Moreno E., Bertrand

    2010-01-01

    Charges are inherently incompatible with hydrophobic environments. Presumably for this reason, ionizable residues are usually excluded from the hydrophobic interior of proteins and are found instead at the surface, where they can interact with bulk water. Paradoxically, ionizable groups buried in the hydrophobic interior of proteins play essential roles, especially in biological energy transduction. To examine the unusual properties of internal ionizable groups we measured the pKa of glutamic...

  4. Decorative Materials in the Application of Interior Design

    高超

    2013-01-01

      Abstact:With the accelerating of urbanization process, people is becoming more and more about life and living and work space environment and facility requirements more and more high, people on indoor and outdoor when deco-rating, pays more attention to adopt economic, environmental protection and practical decoration materials used in modern indoor and outdoor decoration, thus promoting the rapid development of decoration industry. Decoration materials has become the carrier of the interior design, any design and ideas need through the choice of materials and build on.

  5. Notation for national and international telephone numbers, e-mail addresses and Web addresses

    International Telecommunication Union. Geneva

    2001-01-01

    Recommendation E.123 defines a standard way to write telephone numbers, e-mail addresses, and web addresses. It recommends the following formats (when dialing the area code is optional for local calling): Telephone number: National notation (042) 123 4567 International notation +31 (0)42 123 4567 E-mail address: name@provider.com Internet address / URL: www.company.com It also recommends that a hypen (-), space ( ), or period (.) can be used to visually separate groups of numbers. The parentheses are used to indicate digits that are sometimes not dialed. a slash (/) is used to indicate alternate numbers. This information is important if you want to make sure people know how to dail a phone number in a specific country.

  6. An address by AECL's president

    This complete address given by Reid Morden, the President of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, at the June 1997 meeting of the Canadian Nuclear Association. In his address, Morden discusses Canada's success in at home and abroad. He also corrects myths about nuclear energy

  7. European Space Agency Sentinel-2

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sentinel-2A satellite is operated by the European Space Agency (ESA). The Sentinel Multispectral Instrument (MSI) acquires 13 spectral bands ranging from...

  8. Volatiles in Earths interior (Invited)

    Keppler, H.

    2010-12-01

    much more water than chlorine and therefore become concentrated. From available data on the salinities of fluids released from the slab and the Cl/H2O ratio in primitive melt inclusions from arc volcanoes, we can estimate that the ratio of rock to fluid that must have reached chemical equilibrium must exceed 1000, implying that fluids percolate by pervasive flow through the mantle wedge. The relative abundance of noble gases on Earth, particularly the depletion of Xe relative to Ar must be due to some process occurring very early in Earth history. We show new experimental results (Shcheka & Keppler, in prep.) that demonstrate that argon is highly compatible in MgSiO3 perowskite, with concentrations reaching more than 1 wt. % at 24 GPa and 1600 C, while xenon solubility is negligible. We therefore suggest that during the crystallization of a magma ocean, argon was preferentially incorporated into perovskite, while most noble gases from the atmosphere were lost to space. Mantle convection later released argon, but not xenon from the deep mantle to the surface and therefore produced the high Ar/Xe ratio in Earths atmosphere. The depletion of Xe relative to Ar is therefore likely to be characteristic for a planet that underwent fractionation of silicate perovskite from a magma ocean.

  9. An Experience of Science Theatre to Introduce Earth Interior and Natural Hazards to Children

    Musacchio, Gemma; Lanza, Tiziana; D'Addezio, Giuliana

    2015-01-01

    The present paper describes an experience of science theatre addressed to children of primary and secondary school, with the main purpose of making them acquainted with a topic, the interior of the Earth, largely underestimated in compulsory school curricula worldwide. A not less important task was to encourage a positive attitude towards natural…

  10. Internationalizing an Interior Design Course: A Model for Global FCS Curricula

    Charlson, Julie; Vouchilas, Gus

    2010-01-01

    Accreditation for Family and Consumer Sciences and for Interior Design programs includes standards to globalize education of undergraduate students. An integrative approach to planning curriculum relates the concept of global interdependence to the development of critical thinking skills for student decision-making. This was addressed in modifying…

  11. The State of Environmentally Sustainable Interior Design Practice

    Mihyun Kang; Denise A. Guerin

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: Research that investigates how interior designers use environmentally sustainable interior design criteria in their design solutions has not been done. To provide a base to develop education strategies for sustainable interior design, this study examined the state of environmentally sustainable interior design practice. Approach: A national, Internet-based survey of interior design practitioners was conducted. To collect data, the random sample of US interior design practit...

  12. International partnership in lunar missions: Inaugural address

    Dr A P J Abdul Kalam

    2005-12-01

    I am delighted to participate in the 6th International Conference on Exploration and Utilization of the Moon organized by the Physical Research Laboratory,Ahmedabad.I greet the organizers, eminent planetary exploration and space scientists from India and abroad,academicians,industrialists,engineers,entrepreneurs and distinguished guests.I understand that the International Lunar Conference is a forum to discuss scienti fic results of the ongoing and future space missions related to lunar exploration.This conference will also be utilized to develop understanding on various strategies,initiatives and missions leading to a permanent human presence on our Moon as the future objective.I am happy to note that interactions that took place in the earlier conferences have been bene ficial to participating countries through the intense sharing of scientific knowledge,data and hands-on mission experiences of various space agencies pursuing lunar exploration programmes.I find that nearly 100 scientific papers are being presented in this conference and that the Moon missions being planned and conducted by all the space faring nations of the world are being presented,reviewed and discussed.I note with excitement that many key issues related to space science and Moon missions are being addressed in this conference.These deliberations are important for the world space science community.This will enable you to obtain a comprehensive picture of the goals and policies of all nations striving towards a common vision of space research,being made available for the bene fit of all mankind.Indeed this augurs well for progress towards universal peace and harmony that is a cherished goal of the people of the world as a whole.

  13. [FY 2014 progress report]: Addressing Structural Uncertainty in a Decision-Making Framework to Inform Scaup Conservation Planning

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This progress report for the Addressing Structural Uncertainty in a DecisionMaking Framework to Inform Scaup Conservation Planning project covers activities during...

  14. Capillary flow in an interior corner

    Weislogel, Mark M.; Lichter, Seth

    1998-10-01

    The design of fluids management processes in the low-gravity environment of space requires an accurate description of capillarity-controlled flow in containers. Here we consider the spontaneous redistribution of fluid along an interior corner of a container due to capillary forces. The analytical portion of the work presents an asymptotic formulation in the limit of a slender fluid column, slight surface curvature along the flow direction z, small inertia, and low gravity. The scaling introduced explicitly accounts for much of the variation of flow resistance due to geometry and so the effects of corner geometry can be distinguished from those of surface curvature. For the special cases of a constant height boundary condition and a constant flow condition, the similarity solutions yield that the length of the fluid column increases as t1/2 and t3/5, respectively. In the experimental portion of the work, measurements from a 2.2 s drop tower are reported. An extensive data set, collected over a previously unexplored range of flow parameters, includes estimates of repeatability and accuracy, the role of inertia and column slenderness, and the effects of corner angle, container geometry, and fluid properties. At short times, the fluid is governed by inertia (t[less, similar]tLc). Afterwards, an intermediate regime (tLc[less, similar]t[less, similar] tH) can be shown to be modelled by a constant-flow-like similarity solution. For t[gt-or-equal, slanted]tH it is found that there exists a location zH at which the interface height remains constant at a value h(zH, t)=H which can be shown to be well predicted. Comprehensive comparison is made between the analysis and measurements using the constant height boundary condition. As time increases, it is found that the constant height similarity solution describes the flow over a lengthening interval which extends from the origin to the invariant tip solution. For t[dbl greater-than sign]tH, the constant height solution

  15. Urban climate studies: addressing the role of urban green spaces

    Gonçalves, Artur (Ed.); Ribeiro, A.C.; Maia, Filipe; Pinto, M.V.; Feliciano, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Cities present a wide range of climate transformations resulting from changes induced by buildings and other artificial structures, including such effects as the urban heat island (UHI) and the changes in the ventilation patterns. Under these conditions, urban climate analysis is increasingly considered as a necessary activity that should be part of the urban planning practice. Although there has been a wide development of climate studies across different countries, further improvement is...

  16. Planetary deep interiors, geodesy, and habitability

    Dehant, Veronique

    2014-05-01

    The evolution of planets is driven by the composition, structure, and thermal state of their internal core, mantle, lithosphere, crust, and by interactions with possible ocean and atmosphere. This presentation puts in perspective the fundamental understanding of the relationships and interactions between those different planetary reservoirs and their evolution through time. It emphasizes on the deep interior part of terrestrial planets and moons. The core of a planet, when composed of liquid iron alloy, may provide magnetic field and further interaction with the magnetosphere, ingredients believed to be important for the evolution of an atmosphere and of a planet in general. The deep interior is believed to be of high importance for its habitability. Lander and orbiter, even rover at the surface of planets or moons of the solar system help in determining their interior properties. First of all orbiters feel the gravity of the planet and its variations. In particular, the tidal mass redistribution induces changes in the acceleration of the spacecraft orbiting around a planet. The Love number k2 has been determined for Venus, Mars, and the Earth, as well as for Titan and will be deduced for Mercury and for some of the Galilean satellites from new missions such as JUICE (Jupiter Icy satellite Explorer). The properties of the interior can also be determined from the observation of the rotation of the celestial body. Radar observation from the Earth ground stations of Mercury has allowed Margo et al. (2012, JGR) to determine the moments of inertia of Mercury with an unprecedented accuracy. Rovers such as the MERs (Mars Exploration Rovers) allow as well to obtain the precession and nutation of Mars from which the moments of inertia of the planet and its core can be deduced. Future missions such as the InSIGHT (Interior exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy, and Heat Transport) NASA mission will further help in the determination of Mars interior and evolution

  17. The Prefabricated Interior Design Studio: An Exploration into the History and Sustainability of Interior Prefabrication

    Schneiderman, Deborah; Freihoefer, Kara

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the integration of prefabrication into an interior design studio. A review of the literature revealed that while there is a paucity of categorical research focused on this subject, the subject is historically significant with an abundance of evidence regarding the prefabrication of the interior environment dating back…

  18. A study of helicopter interior noise reduction

    Howlett, J. T.; Clevenson, S. A.

    1975-01-01

    The interior noise levels of existing helicopters are discussed along with an ongoing experimental program directed towards reducing these levels. Results of several noise and vibration measurements on Langley Research Center's Civil Helicopter Research Aircraft are presented, including measurements taken before and after installation of an acoustically-treated cabin. The predominant noise source in this helicopter is the first stage planetary gear-clash in the main gear box, both before and after installation of the acoustically treated cabin. Noise reductions of up to 20 db in some octave bands may be required in order to obtain interior noise levels comparable to commercial jet transports.

  19. Material Ramah Lingkungan untuk Interior Rumah Tinggal

    Dila Hendrassukma

    2011-01-01

    Housing is one of the biggest contributors in polluting the ozone layer and consuming the natural resources in making one. Home interior takes part in the over-produced material used for covering the interior elements, such as floor, wall, ceiling, and furniture. The article conducting is to study the green aspect of building materials to find alternative material to beautify the house that is not harming the earth. The result is options of eco material to be used in the making of greener hom...

  20. Interior point algorithms theory and analysis

    Ye, Yinyu

    2011-01-01

    The first comprehensive review of the theory and practice of one of today's most powerful optimization techniques. The explosive growth of research into and development of interior point algorithms over the past two decades has significantly improved the complexity of linear programming and yielded some of today's most sophisticated computing techniques. This book offers a comprehensive and thorough treatment of the theory, analysis, and implementation of this powerful computational tool. Interior Point Algorithms provides detailed coverage of all basic and advanced aspects of the subject.

  1. IP ADDRESS AUTOCONFIGURATION FOR WIRELESS AD HOC NETWORKS

    阿姆贾德

    2002-01-01

    A novel mechanism was specified by which a node in ad hoc network may autoconfigure an IP address which is unique throughout the mobile ad hoc network. This new algorithm imposes less and constant overhead and delay in obtaining an IP address, and fully utilizes the available addresses space of an ad hoc network, and independent of the existing routing protocol, and less prone to security threats. Moreover, a new Join/Leave mechanism was proposed as an enhancement to the new IP address autoconfiguration algorithm, to support the overall operation of the existing routing protocol of wireless ad hoc networks.

  2. A Life’s Addresses

    Balle, Søren Hattesen

    2006-01-01

    number of different aspects of Koch’s own life such as marijuana, the Italian language, World War Two, etc. In this way, the book quite conventionally inscribes itself in the tradition of post-enlightenment apostrophic poetry as characterized by Culler, just as all its poems belong to the favourite......, are literally troped as and addressed in the manner of so many acquaintances, personal connections, relatives, friends, lovers, and family members in Koch’s life. My main claim is that Koch’s poetics in New Addresses is one that slightly dislocates the romantic dichotomy between the world of things...

  3. Transverse Phase Space Reconstruction and Emittance Measurement of Intense Electron Beams using a Tomography Technique

    Tomography is the technique of reconstructing an image from its projections. It is widely used in the medical community to observe the interior of the human body by processing multiple x-ray images taken at different angles, A few pioneering researchers have adapted tomography to reconstruct detailed phase space maps of charged particle beams. Some questions arise regarding the limitations of tomography technique for space charge dominated beams. For instance is the linear space charge force a valid approximation? Does tomography equally reproduce phase space for complex, experimentally observed, initial particle distributions? Does tomography make any assumptions about the initial distribution? This study explores the use of accurate modeling with the particle-in-cell code WARP to address these questions, using a wide range of different initial distributions in the code. The study also includes a number of experimental results on tomographic phase space mapping performed on University of Maryland Electron Ring (UMER)

  4. Solar Powered Automobile Interior Climate Control System

    Howard, Richard T. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    There is provided a climate control system for a parked vehicle that includes a solar panel, thermostatic switch, fans, and thermoelectric coolers. The solar panel can serve as the sole source of electricity for the system. The system affords convenient installation and removal by including solar panels that are removably attached to the exterior of a vehicle. A connecting wire electrically connects the solar panels to a housing that is removably mounted to a partially opened window on the vehicle. The thermostatic switch, fans, and thermoelectric coolers are included within the housing. The thermostatic switch alternates the direction of the current flow through the thermoelectric coolers to selectively heat or cool the interior of the vehicle. The interior surface of the thermoelectric coolers are in contact with interior heat sinks that have air circulated across them by an interior fan. Similarly, the exterior surface of the thermoelectric coolers are in contact with exterior heat sinks that have air circulated across them by an exterior fan.

  5. The interiors of the giant planets - 1983

    The last few years brought progress in understanding the interiors of the giant planets especially of the two larger ones which have been visited by Pioneer and Voyager spacecraft. An analysis of the formation of the giant planets also helped to clarify certain important common features. The presently available model of Jupiter is still based on certain somewhat bothersome approximations but it appears to satisfy the main observational constraints. Saturn's interior is much better understood than it was previously although the quantitative aspects of the role of the miscibility gap in the hydrogen-helium system have not yet been entirely resolved. Much attention has been directed at the interiors of Uranus and Neptune and the outstanding question appears to be the location and the amount of ices and methane present in their outer layers. Both the two- and the three-layer models are moderately successful. Serious difficulties arise from the considerable uncertainties concerning the rotational periods of both planets. Also the estimates of the internal heat fluxes and of the magnetic fields of both planets are not sufficiently certain. It is hoped that the forthcoming flyby of these two planets by a Voyager spacecraft will provide important new data for a future study of their interiors. (Auth.)

  6. 24 CFR 3280.107 - Interior privacy.

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Interior privacy. 3280.107 Section 3280.107 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued... DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Planning Considerations § 3280.107...

  7. 49 CFR 179.12 - Interior heater systems.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interior heater systems. 179.12 Section 179.12... Design Requirements § 179.12 Interior heater systems. (a) Interior heater systems shall be of approved... each compartment. (b) Each interior heater system shall be hydrostatically tested at not less than...

  8. Keynote Address: Rev. Mark Massa

    Massa, Mark S.

    2011-01-01

    Rev. Mark S. Massa, S.J., is the dean and professor of Church history at the School of Theology and Ministry at Boston College. He was invited to give a keynote to begin the third Catholic Higher Education Collaborative Conference (CHEC), cosponsored by Boston College and Fordham University. Fr. Massa's address posed critical questions about…

  9. Agenda to address climate change

    This document looks at addressing climate change in the 21st century. Topics covered are: Responding to climate change; exploring new avenues in energy efficiency; energy efficiency and alternative energy; residential sector; commercial sector; industrial sector; transportation sector; communities; renewable energy; understanding forests to mitigate and adapt to climate change; the Forest Carbon budget; mitigation and adaptation

  10. Introduction to IP address management

    Rooney, Tim

    2010-01-01

    "The book begins with a basic overview of IP networking, followed by chapters describing each of the three core IPAM technologies: IPv4 and IPv6 addressing, DHCP, and DNS. The next three chapters describe IPAM management techniques and practice, followed by chapters on IPv4-IPv6 co-existence, security and the IPAM business case"--

  11. Communities Address Barriers to Connectivity.

    Byers, Anne

    1996-01-01

    Rural areas lag behind urban areas in access to information technologies. Public institutions play a critical role in extending the benefits of information technologies to those who would not otherwise have access. The most successful rural telecommunications plans address barriers to use, such as unawareness of the benefits, technophobia, the…

  12. Improved Secure Address Resolution Protocol

    Abhishek Samvedi; Sparsh Owlak; Vijay Kumar Chaurasia

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, an improved secure address resolution protocol is presented where ARP spoofing attack is prevented. The proposed methodology is a centralised methodology for preventing ARP spoofing attack. In the proposed model there is a central server on a network or subnet which prevents ARP spoofing attack.

  13. Understanding the Interior Evolution of Mercury from Its Tectonic History

    Byrne, P. K.; Klimczak, C.; Sengor, A. M. C.; Hauck, S. A., II; Solomon, S. C.

    2015-12-01

    The surface of Mercury provides compelling insight into the planet's interior. Excluding impact craters and basins, the most prominent landforms on Mercury are tectonic; these features are distributed globally and crosscut all major surface units. More than seven years of flyby and orbital observations by the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft show that tectonism on Mercury is overwhelmingly shortening in nature; extensional structures occur only within volcanically flooded impact craters and basins, in part the result of thermal contraction of thick plains units. Shortening structures show no coherent, planet-wide pattern, although many have an approximately north-south orientation, and some form fold-and-thrust belts thousands of kilometers long. Even so, their widespread distribution points to a global source of stress, primarily from global contraction in response to secular interior cooling. Some of the largest such landforms are 2-3 km in relief and hundreds of kilometers long, their underlying thrust faults penetrating 30-40 km into the lithosphere. Shortening landforms as small as hundreds of meters in length have been identified during MESSENGER's low-altitude campaign; the crisp morphology of these features indicates that thrust faulting, and thus global contraction, continued until the geologically recent. Displacement-length scaling analysis shows that Mercury's shortening landforms have accommodated a reduction in planetary radius of up to 7 km since the end of the late heavy bombardment. Such a magnitude of contraction is more consistent with models of global contraction from interior cooling and partial core crystallization than pre-MESSENGER estimates of tectonic shortening. Notably, the emplacement of major volcanic plains deposits on Mercury ended globally by 3.6 Ga, consistent with the onset of a state of net horizontal lithospheric compression that served to inhibit the vertical ascent and

  14. Enceladus' Interior: A Liquid Circulation Model

    Matson, Dennis L.; Johnson, Torrence; Lunine, Jonathan; Castillo-Rogez, Julie

    We are studying a model for Enceladus' interior in which the water, gas, dust and heat are supplied to the plumes by a relatively deeply circulating brine solution. Data indicates such a source for the erupting material. On the basis of ammonia in the plume gas Waite et al. [1] suggested that the jets might originate from a liquid water region under Enceladus' icy surface. Postberg et al. [2] noted that the presence of ". . . grains that are rich in sodium salts (0.5-2 percent by mass). . . can arise only if the plumes originate from liquid water." Waite et al. [1] also regard the some of the plume chemicals as evidence for interactions with an ice layer presumably overlying the liquid water reservoir. They suggest that this could be in the form of dissociation of clathrate hydrates [3]. Additionally, there is a large heat flow of more than 15 GW [4, 5] coming out of Enceladus' south polar region. We consider a model that brings heat and chemical species up to the surface from a reservoir or "ocean" located below the ice crust that may be many tens of kilometers thick. Water transits to the surface via vertical conduits. The Cassini INMS data suggest that the water has a relatively large gas content of order a few percent. As the water travels upward and the pressure is released, exolving gases form bubbles. Since the bubbly liquid is less dense than the ice, it moves upward. (This part of the model is a variant of the "Perrier Ocean" Europa model of Crawford and Stevenson [6]. A similar model was studied for Ganymede by Murchie and Head [7].) Postberg et al. [2] model the plume eruptions that result from the water, gases, salts, and other chemicals that our circulation model provides. In the near-surface reservoir feeding the plumes, bubbles reaching the surface of the water pop and throw a very fine spray. Some of these very small droplets of brine exit with the plume gas and provide the observed salt-rich dust particles [2]. Much of the water-borne heat is

  15. Titan's interior constrained from its obliquity and tidal Love number

    Baland, Rose-Marie; Coyette, Alexis; Yseboodt, Marie; Beuthe, Mikael; Van Hoolst, Tim

    2016-04-01

    In the last few years, the Cassini-Huygens mission to the Saturn system has measured the shape, the obliquity, the static gravity field, and the tidally induced gravity field of Titan. The large values of the obliquity and of the k2 Love number both point to the existence of a global internal ocean below the icy crust. In order to constrain interior models of Titan, we combine the above-mentioned data as follows: (1) we build four-layer density profiles consistent with Titan's bulk properties; (2) we determine the corresponding internal flattening compatible with the observed gravity and topography; (3) we compute the obliquity and tidal Love number for each interior model; (4) we compare these predictions with the observations. Previously, we found that Titan is more differentiated than expected (assuming hydrostatic equilibrium), and that its ocean is dense and less than 100 km thick. Here, we revisit these conclusions using a more complete Cassini state model, including: (1) gravitational and pressure torques due to internal tidal deformations; (2) atmosphere/lakes-surface exchange of angular momentum; (3) inertial torque due to Poincaré flow. We also adopt faster methods to evaluate Love numbers (i.e. the membrane approach) in order to explore a larger parameter space.

  16. Recent Advances in Modeling Stellar Interiors

    Guzik, Joyce Ann

    2010-01-01

    Advances in stellar interior modeling are being driven by new data from large-scale surveys and high-precision photometric and spectroscopic observations. Here we focus on single stars in normal evolutionary phases; we will not discuss the many advances in modeling star formation, interacting binaries, supernovae, or neutron stars. We review briefly: 1) updates to input physics of stellar models; 2) progress in two and three-dimensional evolution and hydrodynamic models; 3) insights from oscillation data used to infer stellar interior structure and validate model predictions (asteroseismology). We close by highlighting a few outstanding problems, e.g., the driving mechanisms for hybrid gamma Dor/delta Sct star pulsations, the cause of giant eruptions seen in luminous blue variables such as eta Car and P Cyg, and the solar abundance problem.

  17. Recent advances in modeling stellar interiors (u)

    Guzik, Joyce Ann [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    Advances in stellar interior modeling are being driven by new data from large-scale surveys and high-precision photometric and spectroscopic observations. Here we focus on single stars in normal evolutionary phases; we will not discuss the many advances in modeling star formation, interacting binaries, supernovae, or neutron stars. We review briefly: (1) updates to input physics of stellar models; (2) progress in two and three-dimensional evolution and hydrodynamic models; (3) insights from oscillation data used to infer stellar interior structure and validate model predictions (asteroseismology). We close by highlighting a few outstanding problems, e.g., the driving mechanisms for hybrid {gamma} Dor/{delta} Sct star pulsations, the cause of giant eruptions seen in luminous blue variables such as {eta} Car and P Cyg, and the solar abundance problem.

  18. Constraining Ceres' interior from its Rotational Motion

    Rambaux, Nicolas; Dehant, Véronique; Kuchynka, Petr

    2011-01-01

    Context. Ceres is the most massive body of the asteroid belt and contains about 25 wt.% (weight percent) of water. Understanding its thermal evolution and assessing its current state are major goals of the Dawn Mission. Constraints on internal structure can be inferred from various observations. Especially, detailed knowledge of the rotational motion can help constrain the mass distribution inside the body, which in turn can lead to information on its geophysical history. Aims. We investigate the signature of the interior on the rotational motion of Ceres and discuss possible future measurements performed by the spacecraft Dawn that will help to constrain Ceres' internal structure. Methods. We compute the polar motion, precession-nutation, and length-of-day variations. We estimate the amplitudes of the rigid and non-rigid response for these various motions for models of Ceres interior constrained by recent shape data and surface properties. Results. As a general result, the amplitudes of oscillations in the r...

  19. Interior Models of Uranus and Neptune

    Helled, Ravit; Podolak, Morris; Schubert, Gerald

    2010-01-01

    'Empirical' models (pressure vs. density) of Uranus and Neptune interiors constrained by the gravitational coefficients J_2, J_4, the planetary radii and masses, and Voyager solid-body rotation periods are presented. The empirical pressure-density profiles are then interpreted in terms of physical equations of state of hydrogen, helium, ice (H_2O), and rock (SiO_2) to test the physical plausibility of the models. The compositions of Uranus and Neptune are found to be similar with somewhat different distributions of the high-Z material. The big difference between the two planets is that Neptune requires a non-solar envelope while Uranus is best matched with a solar composition envelope. Our analysis suggests that the heavier elements in both Uranus' and Neptune's interior might increase gradually towards the planetary centers. Indeed it is possible to fit the gravitational moments without sharp compositional transitions.

  20. INTERIOR MODELS OF URANUS AND NEPTUNE

    'Empirical' models (pressure versus density) of Uranus and Neptune interiors constrained by the gravitational coefficients J2, J4, the planetary radii and masses, and Voyager solid-body rotation periods are presented. The empirical pressure-density profiles are then interpreted in terms of physical equations of state of hydrogen, helium, ice (H2O), and rock (SiO2) to test the physical plausibility of the models. The compositions of Uranus and Neptune are found to be similar with somewhat different distributions of the high-Z material. The big difference between the two planets is that Neptune requires a non-solar envelope, while Uranus is best matched with a solar composition envelope. Our analysis suggests that the heavier elements in both Uranus' and Neptune's interior might increase gradually toward the planetary centers. Indeed it is possible to fit the gravitational moments without sharp compositional transitions.

  1. Solar Interior Rotation and its Variation

    Howe Rachel

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This article surveys the development of observational understanding of the interior rotation of the Sun and its temporal variation over approximately forty years, starting with the 1960s attempts to determine the solar core rotation from oblateness and proceeding through the development of helioseismology to the detailed modern picture of the internal rotation deduced from continuous helioseismic observations during solar cycle 23. After introducing some basic helioseismic concepts, it covers, in turn, the rotation of the core and radiative interior, the “tachocline” shear layer at the base of the convection zone, the differential rotation in the convection zone, the near-surface shear, the pattern of migrating zonal flows known as the torsional oscillation, and the possible temporal variations at the bottom of the convection zone. For each area, the article also briefly explores the relationship between observations and models.

  2. Gravitational Higgs Mechanism in Neutron Star Interiors

    Coates, Andrew; Sotiriou, Thomas P

    2016-01-01

    We suggest that nonminimally coupled scalar fields can lead to modifications of the microphysics in the interiors of relativistic stars. As a concrete example, we consider the generation of a non-zero photon mass in such high-density environments. This is achieved by means of a light gravitational scalar, and the scalarization phase transition in scalar-tensor theories of gravitation. Two distinct models are presented, and phenomenological implications are briefly discussed.

  3. DESIGNING TIMELESS PATTERNS FOR INTERIOR TEXTILE INDUSTRIES

    Bashyal, Anita

    2012-01-01

    This project was conducted in collaboration with a Helsinki based design studio, Saara Renvall Design. The task was to design patterns for interior textiles. This thesis describes about the processes that took place during creating the ideas for three different textile patterns. The whole thesis can be divided into two parts. The thesis first describes about a material research which was conducted to gather the information about textile patterns from different periods and ethnic groups. The...

  4. The interior transmission spectrum in one dimension

    This paper seeks conditions on acoustic profiles c(x) and b(x) which imply the existence of intervals free of transmission eigenvalues. The existence of intervals free of transmission eigenvalues has important implications in the question of unique recovery of the acoustic profile for inverse acoustic scattering theory using the linear sampling method and for the inverse source problem in thermoacoustic tomography. We examine the interior transmission spectrum relative to two acoustic profiles on the unit interval. This research includes the case when the difference of the two acoustic profiles changes sign and is, to the author's knowledge, the only work to date on the interior transmission spectrum allowing this behavior. It is shown that for a large class of acoustic profiles the transmission spectrum is asymptotically sparse. The spectrum exhibits three distinct types of behavior dependent on the relation of the two acoustic profiles. Numerical examples of each type of behavior are given which show how the transmission eigenvalues are distributed depending on the relation between c(x) and b(x). Our method of study is to reduce the interior transmission problem on [0, 1] to a problem of finding roots of a determinant of fundamental solutions to a Sturm–Liouville problem. The asymptotic expansion of solutions of the Sturm–Liouville problem then allows us to analyze properties of the transmission spectrum for large values of the wavenumber. (paper)

  5. Interior corner problem for the neutron diffusion equation

    The qualitative and quantitative behavior of the solution of the neutron diffusion equation at interior corners of two different materials is investigated. This is done by assuming regionwise constant coefficients and sources, reducing the problem to dimensionless form and solving the Neumann problem over a circular disk. The general analytic solution is given, as well as special solutions. A series of parameter studies have been made which include the extreme cases that can occur in neutron diffusion. The results including eigenvalues, eigenfunctions, Fourier coefficients and flux profiles are tabulated and presented in graphical form. It is shown how to select appropriate function spaces to obtain good numerical methods for coarse network calculations. (33 figures, 25 tables) (U.S.)

  6. Addressing the workforce pipeline challenge

    A secure and affordable energy supply is essential for achieving U.S. national security, in continuing U.S. prosperity and in laying the foundations to enable future economic growth. To meet this goal the next generation energy workforce in the U.S., in particular those needed to support instrumentation, controls and advanced operations and maintenance, is a critical element. The workforce is aging and a new workforce pipeline, to support both current generation and new build has yet to be established. The paper reviews the challenges and some actions being taken to address this need. (authors)

  7. Addressing the workforce pipeline challenge

    Leonard Bond; Kevin Kostelnik; Richard Holman

    2006-11-01

    A secure and affordable energy supply is essential for achieving U.S. national security, in continuing U.S. prosperity and in laying the foundations to enable future economic growth. To meet this goal the next generation energy workforce in the U.S., in particular those needed to support instrumentation, controls and advanced operations and maintenance, is a critical element. The workforce is aging and a new workforce pipeline, to support both current generation and new build has yet to be established. The paper reviews the challenges and some actions being taken to address this need.

  8. Addressing concrete cracking in NPPs

    The phenomenon of concrete cracking is one of the most frequently encountered deterioration at NPPs as it has been shown by a wide Survey of NPPs performed by IAEA in 1994-95 It can be due to a multitude of causes such as the normal ageing process (shrinkage, creep, prestressing force loss) as well as exposure to the environment (temperature variation, moisture, freeze/thaw, etc) The above mentioned Survey has also shown that in 64% of cases, no action was taken or required. It became also obvious that there is a lack of guidance as when remedial actions are needed. The paper describes, with the help of a Flow Chart, the various stages to be considered, from the first step of identification of cracks, to the definition of causes, evaluation of extent of damage, evaluation of effect/implications (safety, reliability), to the final step of deciding if repair action is required. Finally, based upon a wide literature survey the paper proposes in a Chart format, Criteria for addressing concrete cracks in NPPs., when taking in considerations all these factors. This paper discusses the process which should lead to the selection of an effective repair method and proposes, based upon worldwide standards and literature, criteria which should lead to the decision whether to repair or not concrete cracks, after the cracks have been identified and evaluated, addressing the entire range of aspects involved. (author)

  9. Addressing firefighter safety around solar PV systems

    Harris, B. [Sustainable Energy Technologies, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2010-11-15

    The article discussed new considerations for installing photovoltaic (PV) systems that address the needs of fire service personnel. The presence of a PV system presents a multitude of dangers for firefighters, including electrical shock, the inhalation of toxic gases from being unable to cut a hole through the roof, falling debris and flying glass, and dead loading on a compromised structure and tripping on conduits. Mapping systems should be modified so that buildings with PV systems are identified for first responders, including firefighters who should learn that solar modules present an electrical hazard during the day but not at night; covering PV modules with foam or salvage covers may not shut the system down to a safe level; it takes a few moments for the power in PV modules to reduce to zero; and PV modules or conduit should never be cut, broke, chopped, or walked upon. The California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection recommends creating pathways and allowing easier access to the roof by setting the modules back from roof edges, creating a structurally sound pathway for firefighters to walk on and space to cut ventilation holes. However, the setback rule makes the economics of solar installation less viable for residential applications. The technological innovations aimed at addressing system safety all focus on limiting firefighter contact with live electrical components to within the extra-low-voltage (ELV) band. Some of the inverters on the market that support ELV system architecture were described. 1 fig.

  10. Integrated optical addressing of an ion qubit

    Mehta, Karan K; McConnell, Robert; Ram, Rajeev J; Sage, Jeremy M; Chiaverini, John

    2015-01-01

    Scalable implementation of the optics required to control trapped atomic ions' quantum states will be required to construct large-scale ion trap quantum information processors. All experiments in ion traps so far have employed approaches cumbersome to scale to even a few tens of qubits, with the majority relying on manipulation of free space beams with bulk optics. Here we demonstrate lithographically defined nanophotonic dielectric waveguides integrated within a linear surface-electrode ion trap chip, and qubit addressing at multiple locations via focusing grating couplers that emit through openings in the trap electrodes to an ion trapped 50 $\\mu$m above the chip. We perform quantum coherent operations using visible light routed in and emitted from silicon nitride waveguides and couplers, on the optical qubit transition in individual $^{88}$Sr$^+$ ions. The addressing beam is focused near the ion position with a 2 $\\mu$m 1/$e^2$-radius along the trap axis, and we measure crosstalk errors between $10^{-2}$ a...

  11. The potential use of domestic safeguards interior monitors in International Safeguards

    An important future element of International Safeguards instrumentation is expected to be the merging of containment/surveillance and nondestructive assay equipment with domestic physical protection equipment into integrated systems, coupled with remote monitoring. Instrumentation would include interior monitoring and assessment and entry/exit monitoring. Of particular importance is the application of interior monitors in spaces of declared inactivity; for example, in nuclear material storage locations that are entered infrequently. The use of modern interior monitors in International Safeguards offers potential for improving effectiveness and efficiency. Within the context of increased cooperation, one can readily envision increased interaction between International Safeguards and Domestic Safeguards, including increased joint use of State System of Accounting and Control data

  12. Seismology of the Sun : Inference of Thermal, Dynamic and Magnetic Field Structures of the Interior

    Hiremath, K M

    2012-01-01

    Recent overwhelming evidences show that the sun strongly influences the Earth's climate and environment. Moreover existence of life on this Earth mainly depends upon the sun's energy. Hence, understanding of physics of the sun, especially the thermal, dynamic and magnetic field structures of its interior, is very important. Recently, from the ground and space based observations, it is discovered that sun oscillates near 5 min periodicity in millions of modes. This discovery heralded a new era in solar physics and a separate branch called helioseismology or seismology of the sun has started. Before the advent of helioseismology, sun's thermal structure of the interior was understood from the evolutionary solution of stellar structure equations that mimicked the present age, mass and radius of the sun. Whereas solution of MHD equations yielded internal dynamics and magnetic field structure of the sun's interior. In this presentation, I review the thermal, dynamic and magnetic field structures of the sun's inter...

  13. Addressing failures in exascale computing

    Snir, Marc; Wisniewski, Robert W.; Abraham, Jacob A.; Adve, Sarita; Bagchi, Saurabh; Balaji, Pavan; Belak, Jim; Bose, Pradip; Cappello, Franck; Carlson, William; Chien, Andrew A.; Coteus, Paul; Debardeleben, Nathan A.; Diniz, Pedro; Engelmann, Christian; Erez, Mattan; Saverio, Fazzari; Geist, Al; Gupta, Rinku; Johnson, Fred; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Leyffer, Sven; Liberty, Dean; Mitra, Subhasish; Munson, Todd; Schreiber, Robert; Stearly, Jon; Van Hensbergen, Eric

    2014-05-01

    We present here a report produced by a workshop on “Addressing Failures in Exascale Computing” held in Park City, Utah, August 4–11, 2012. The charter of this workshop was to establish a common taxonomy about resilience across all the levels in a computing system; discuss existing knowledge on resilience across the various hardware and software layers of an exascale system; and build on those results, examining potential solutions from both a hardware and software perspective and focusing on a combined approach. The workshop brought together participants with expertise in applications, system software, and hardware; they came from industry, government, and academia; and their interests ranged from theory to implementation. The combination allowed broad and comprehensive discussions and led to this document, which summarizes and builds on those discussions.

  14. Addressing Failures in Exascale Computing

    Snir, Marc [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Wisniewski, Robert [Intel Corporation; Abraham, Jacob [unknown; Adve, Sarita [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Bagchi, Saurabh [Purdue University; Balaji, Pavan [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Belak, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Bose, Pradip [IBM T. J. Watson Research Center; Cappello, Franck [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Carlson, Bill [unknown; Chien, Andrew [University of Chicago; Coteus, Paul [IBM T. J. Watson Research Center; DeBardeleben, Nathan [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Diniz, Pedro [University of Southern California; Engelmann, Christian [ORNL; Erez, Mattan [University of Texas at Austin; Fazzari, Saverio [Booz Allen Hamilton; Geist, Al [ORNL; Gupta, Rinku [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Johnson, Fred [Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), Oak Ridge, TN; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Leyffer, Sven [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Liberty, Dean [AMD; Mitra, Subhasish [Stanford University; Munson, Todd [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Schreiber, Rob [HP Labs; Stearley, Jon [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL); Van Hensbergen, Eric [ARM

    2014-01-01

    We present here a report produced by a workshop on Addressing failures in exascale computing' held in Park City, Utah, 4-11 August 2012. The charter of this workshop was to establish a common taxonomy about resilience across all the levels in a computing system, discuss existing knowledge on resilience across the various hardware and software layers of an exascale system, and build on those results, examining potential solutions from both a hardware and software perspective and focusing on a combined approach. The workshop brought together participants with expertise in applications, system software, and hardware; they came from industry, government, and academia, and their interests ranged from theory to implementation. The combination allowed broad and comprehensive discussions and led to this document, which summarizes and builds on those discussions.

  15. Addressing viral resistance through vaccines

    Laughlin, Catherine; Schleif, Amanda; Heilman, Carole A

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is a serious healthcare concern affecting millions of people around the world. Antiviral resistance has been viewed as a lesser threat than antibiotic resistance, but it is important to consider approaches to address this growing issue. While vaccination is a logical strategy, and has been shown to be successful many times over, next generation viral vaccines with a specific goal of curbing antiviral resistance will need to clear several hurdles including vaccine design, evaluation and implementation. This article suggests that a new model of vaccination may need to be considered: rather than focusing on public health, this model would primarily target sectors of the population who are at high risk for complications from certain infections. PMID:26604979

  16. Burning and browsing effects on willow growth in interior Alaska

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The dominant species in mature forests of interior Alaska is either white spruce (Picea glauca} or black spruce (P. mariana), with wood shrubs present at lower...

  17. The Interior of Numerical Ranges of Op erators

    DOU Yan-ni; LI Chen-xin; LI Rong; DU Hong-ke

    2015-01-01

    In this note, some properties of the interior of numerical ranges of operators are established, and an alternative proof of Embry’s theorem associated with the interior of a numerical ranges of an operator is given(see [3]).

  18. Avian populations and habitat use in interior Alaska taiga

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Avian community structure, habitat occupancy levels, and species habitat use patterns were examined in the woody habitats of interior Alaska taiga. Some birds...

  19. A constructive Galois connection between closure and interior

    Ciraulo, Francesco; Sambin, Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    We construct a Galois connection between closure and interior operators on a given set. All arguments are intuitionistically valid. Our construction is an intuitionistic version of the classical correspondence between closure and interior operators via complement.

  20. Interior Structure and Tidal Response of Mercury

    Steinke, Teresa; Sohl, Frank; Hussmann, Hauke; Knapmeyer, Martin; Wagner, Frank Walter

    2013-04-01

    Recent determinations of Mercury's mean density, polar moment of inertia factor, and the inertia of its solid outer shell provide strong constraints on the radius of its liquid core. We present an ensemble of spherically symmetric interior structure models that all satisfy the observational constraints. The models consist of a pure iron solid inner core, a liquid Fe-FeS outer core, a peridotite mantle and a crust predominantly composed of plagioclase. The sulfur content in the outer core, the iron and magnesium content of the mantle, and the crustal thickness vary throughout the ensemble. Comparison of observed and predicted moments of inertia yields admissible ranges for the outer core radius and the mantle density. From this model ensemble we derive geophysical observables that would allow further constraining the interior structure of Mercury in future experiments. The moment of inertia constraints allow for both forsterite and fayalite rich mantle compositions. Variations of mantle density trade off with crustal thickness and core composition. This non-uniqueness could be resolved using seismic travel time observations: since the P wave velocity of a fayalite mantle is significantly lower than that of the plagioclase-rich crust, a shadow zone arises as a clear discriminant between the two end-member compositions. The planet's response to solar tidal forcing strongly depends on its interior structure and rheological properties and can be parameterized in terms of the surface body tide Love numbers k2 and h2, respectively. We employ the frequency-dependent Maxwell rheology to calculate the body tide Love numbers for the main tidal period (87.97 days) using the density, rigidity and viscosity profiles of our structural models. We obtain values between 0.38 and 0.65 for k2 and between 0.70 and 1.12 for h2, respectively, thereby indicating the substantial tidal response of Mercury's interior. Furthermore we find that, via viscosity and rigidity, both k2 and h2 are

  1. Interior Models of Uranus and Neptune

    Helled, Ravit; Anderson, John D.; Podolak, Morris; Schubert, Gerald

    2010-01-01

    'Empirical' models (pressure vs. density) of Uranus and Neptune interiors constrained by the gravitational coefficients J_2, J_4, the planetary radii and masses, and Voyager solid-body rotation periods are presented. The empirical pressure-density profiles are then interpreted in terms of physical equations of state of hydrogen, helium, ice (H_2O), and rock (SiO_2) to test the physical plausibility of the models. The compositions of Uranus and Neptune are found to be similar with somewhat dif...

  2. Perspectives on the Interior of the Sun

    S. Μ. Chitre

    2000-09-01

    The interior of the Sun is not directly accessible to observations. Nonetheless, it is possible to infer the physical conditions inside the Sun with the help of structure equations governing its equilibrium and with the powerful observational tools provided by the neutrino fluxes and oscillation frequencies. The helioseismic data show that the internal constitution of the Sun can be adequately represented by a standard solar model. It turns out that a cooler solar core is not a viable solution for the measured deficit of neutrino fluxes, and the resolution of the solar neutrino puzzle should be sought in the realm of particle physics.

  3. Measuring Jupiter's water abundance by Juno: the link between interior and formation models

    Helled, Ravit; Lunine, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    The JUNO mission to Jupiter is planned to measure the water abundance in Jupiter's atmosphere below the cloud layer. This measurement is important because it can be used to reveal valuable information on Jupiter's origin and its composition. In this paper we discuss the importance of this measurement, the challenges in its interpretation, and address how it can be connected to interior and formation models of Jupiter.

  4. Measuring Jupiter's water abundance by Juno: the link between interior and formation models

    Helled, Ravit; Lunine, Jonathan

    2014-07-01

    The Juno mission to Jupiter is planned to measure the water abundance in Jupiter's atmosphere below the cloud layer. This measurement is important because it can be used to reveal valuable information on Jupiter's origin and its composition. In this paper, we discuss the importance of this measurement, the challenges in its interpretation, and address how it can be connected to interior and formation models of Jupiter.

  5. Building Footprints - Montana Structures/Addresses Framework

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — The Montana Structures/Addresses Framework is a statewide spatial database of structure and address points in the State of Montana. The Montana Structures/Addresses...

  6. 77 FR 45650 - Interior Fire Program Assessment 2012

    2012-08-01

    ... Office of the Secretary Interior Fire Program Assessment 2012 AGENCY: Office of Wildland Fire, Interior... Assessment 2012; and (2) potential options being considered as a result of the Interior Fire Program Assessment 2012. DATES: See the SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION section of this notice for consultation...

  7. 24 CFR 3285.803 - Interior close-up.

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Interior close-up. 3285.803 Section... DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Exterior and Interior Close-Up § 3285.803 Interior close-up. (a) All shipping blocking, strapping, or bracing must be removed from appliances, windows,...

  8. Interior design students win two IDEC Student Design Competition awards

    Watson-Bloch, Cathy

    2005-01-01

    Interior Design students in the School of Architecture + Design at Virginia Tech won two of the four awards presented in the 2004-2005 Interior Design Educators Council (IDEC) Student Design Competition. Winners were selected at the International IDEC Conference in Savannah, Ga. with Virginia Tech Interior Design students winning second place and honorable mention.

  9. 49 CFR 38.97 - Interior circulation, handrails and stanchions.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interior circulation, handrails and stanchions. 38....97 Interior circulation, handrails and stanchions. (a) Where provided, handrails or stanchions within... an accessible entrance. The diameter or width of the gripping surface of interior handrails...

  10. 49 CFR 38.115 - Interior circulation, handrails and stanchions.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interior circulation, handrails and stanchions. 38... § 38.115 Interior circulation, handrails and stanchions. (a) Where provided, handrails or stanchions... an accessible entrance. The diameter or width of the gripping surface of interior handrails...

  11. Connecting boundary and interior - "Gauss's law" for graphs

    Chan, Ching King; Szeto, Kwok Yip

    2011-01-01

    The Gauss's law, in an abstract sense, is a theorem that relates quantities on the boundary (flux) to the interior (charge) of a surface. An identity for soap froths were proved with the same boundary-interior relation. In this article, we try to construct a definition of flux for other graphs, such that a similar boundary-interior relation can be satisfied.

  12. 49 CFR 238.435 - Interior fittings and surfaces.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interior fittings and surfaces. 238.435 Section... II Passenger Equipment § 238.435 Interior fittings and surfaces. (a) Each seat back and seat.... (d)(1) Other interior fittings shall be attached to the passenger car body with sufficient...

  13. Validation and Sensitivity Analysis of 3D Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Imaging of the Interior of Primitive Solar System Bodies: Comets and Asteroids Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To probe the interior of a comet, we are going to employ Radar Reflection Imager (RRI) Instrument on an orbiting platform. While orbiting around the comet at a safe...

  14. The Application of Colors in Interior Design%居室空间环境中的色彩应用

    魏德君

    2016-01-01

    随着现代居室理念的不断变化,色彩已成为居室空间中不可缺少的重要元素被大众所关注,人们在探究居住空间色彩应用方法与规律的渴求上也与日俱增。本文即是沿着这一脉络将居室色彩应用进行系统阐述,具体从居室空间环境中色彩的重要意义,居室空间环境中色彩的对比与调和应用,不同居室空间环境色彩的应用四个方面对居室空间环境色彩进行详实的分析。%With the constant changes of living concept, color has become indispensable element in interior space and people are making more and more efforts to exploring the methods and rules of applying color to interior space. This paper systematically expounds the application of colors in interior space by discussing the signiifcance of color in indoor environment, the use of contrast colors and matched colors in interior design and the colors that are suitable for different interior space.

  15. Asymmetric interiors for small black holes

    Kabat, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    We develop the representation of infalling observers and bulk fields in the CFT as a way to understand the black hole interior in AdS. We first discuss properties of CFT states which are dual to black holes. Then we show that in the presence of a Killing horizon bulk fields can be decomposed into pieces we call ingoing and outgoing. The ingoing field admits a simple operator representation in the CFT, even inside a small black hole at late times, which leads to a simple CFT description of infalling geodesics. This means classical infalling observers will experience the classical geometry in the interior. The outgoing piece of the field is more subtle. In an eternal two-sided geometry it can be represented as an operator on the left CFT. In a stable one-sided geometry it can be described using entanglement via the PR construction. But in an evaporating black hole trans-horizon entanglement changes at the Page time, which means that for old black holes the PR construction fails and the outgoing field does not s...

  16. Conditional stability for a single interior measurement

    An inverse problem to identify unknown coefficients of a partial differential equation by a single interior measurement is considered. The equation considered in this paper is a strongly elliptic second order scalar equation which can have complex coefficients in a bounded domain with C2 boundary. We are given a single interior measurement. This means that we know a given solution of the forward equation in this domain. The equation includes some model equations arising from acoustics, viscoelasticity and hydrology. We assume that the coefficients are piecewise analytic. Our major result is the local Hölder stability estimate for identifying the unknown coefficients. If the unknown coefficient is a complex coefficient in the principal part of the equation, we assumed a condition which we name admissibility assumption for the real part and imaginary part of the difference of two complex coefficients. This admissibility assumption is automatically satisfied if the complex coefficients are real valued. For identifying either the real coefficient in the principal part or the coefficient of the 0th order of the equation, the major result implies global uniqueness for the identification. (paper)

  17. Exploring the interior structure of Venus with balloons and satellites

    Mimoun, David; Cutts, Jim; Stevenson, Dave

    2015-04-01

    Although present daily in our sky as the brightest object at dusk and dawn, many characteristics of Venus remains a mystery. Its dense atmosphere hides the surface from orbital viewing, and the extreme conditions experienced at its surface (460°C, almost 100 bar of pressure at the surface) pose a formidable challenge to the sustained survival and operation of planetary landers. Despite their sharply contrasting atmospheres, Venus is not very different from Earth in size, its composition should be very similar, its orbit is very close to be circular and it is only a little closer to the Sun ( 0.7 A.U). So what are the processes that turned the twin sister of our planet into such a different object? And how can we better understand the processes that have shaped the terrestrial planets, and to understand their formation history? With its harsh surface environment, conventional seismology on Venus, requiring seismometers to be deployed at the surface for months or even years seems impractical. In June 2014, the Keck Institute for Space Studies (KISS) at the California Institute of Technology sponsored a one-week workshop with 30 specialists in the key techniques and technologies relevant to investigating Venus's interior structure focusing on alternative approaches to seismology . As the vertical component of surface motion on Venus is very efficiently coupled into the atmosphere as infrasonic waves, especially at low frequency, several alternative approaches to detecting seismic events can be considered. Seismo-acoustic waves propagate upwards producing pressure fluctuations in the middle atmosphere of Venus and the seismic wave energy is ultimately dissipated by local heating, ionospheric perturbation, or airglow. These atmospheric perturbations can therefore be recorded either in-situ (with a barometer network, deployed on balloons floating in the cloud layer near 55 km) or remotely via optical imaging or electromagnetic sounding deployed on a spacecraft. A report

  18. Gender: addressing a critical focus.

    Thornton, L; Wegner, M N

    1995-01-01

    The definition of gender was addressed at the Fourth World Conference on Women (Beijing, China). After extensive debate, the definition developed by the UN Population Fund in 1995 was adopted: "a set of qualities and behaviors expected from a female or male by society." The sustainability of family planning (FP) programs depends on acknowledgment of the role gender plays in contraceptive decision-making and use. For example, programs must consider the fact that women in many cultures do not make FP decisions without the consent of their spouse. AVSC is examining providers' gender-based ideas about clients and the effects of these views on the quality of reproductive health services. Questions such as how service providers can encourage joint responsibility for contraception without requiring spousal consent or how they can make men feel comfortable about using a male method in a society where FP is considered a woman's issue are being discussed. Also relevant is how service providers can discuss sexual matters openly with female clients in cultures that do not allow women to enjoy their sexuality. Another concern is the potential for physical violence to a client as a result of the provision of FP services. PMID:12294397

  19. Results on fuzzy soft topological spaces

    J Mahanta; P. K. Das

    2012-01-01

    B. Tanay et. al. introduced and studied fuzzy soft topological spaces. Here we introduce fuzzy soft point and study the concept of neighborhood of a fuzzy soft point in a fuzzy soft topological space. We also study fuzzy soft closure and fuzzy soft interior. Separation axioms and connectedness are introduced and investigated for fuzzy soft topological spaces.

  20. A Tool for the Automated Design and Evaluation of Habitat Interior Layouts

    Simon, Matthew A.; Wilhite, Alan W.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of space habitat design is to minimize mass and system size while providing adequate space for all necessary equipment and a functional layout that supports crew health and productivity. Unfortunately, development and evaluation of interior layouts is often ignored during conceptual design because of the subjectivity and long times required using current evaluation methods (e.g., human-in-the-loop mockup tests and in-depth CAD evaluations). Early, more objective assessment could prevent expensive design changes that may increase vehicle mass and compromise functionality. This paper describes a new interior design evaluation method to enable early, structured consideration of habitat interior layouts. This interior layout evaluation method features a comprehensive list of quantifiable habitat layout evaluation criteria, automatic methods to measure these criteria from a geometry model, and application of systems engineering tools and numerical methods to construct a multi-objective value function measuring the overall habitat layout performance. In addition to a detailed description of this method, a C++/OpenGL software tool which has been developed to implement this method is also discussed. This tool leverages geometry modeling coupled with collision detection techniques to identify favorable layouts subject to multiple constraints and objectives (e.g., minimize mass, maximize contiguous habitable volume, maximize task performance, and minimize crew safety risks). Finally, a few habitat layout evaluation examples are described to demonstrate the effectiveness of this method and tool to influence habitat design.

  1. Goddard Institute for Space Studies

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Research at the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) emphasizes a broad study of global change, which is an interdisciplinary initiative addressing...

  2. The place of conservation in the settlement of Alaska native land claims: An address to the Alaska Chapter, the Sierra Club

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This address summarizes claims of Alaska Natives against the United States government. These claims include withdrawals of land for federal purposes, such as...

  3. Addressing verification challenges [International safeguards symposium on addressing verification challenges

    In his welcome address the Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Mr. M. ElBaradei, stated that safeguards activities are probably the most difficult task entrusted to an international organization and to determine all the details of a country's nuclear programme is a daunting challenge that raises a number of questions. There is an increase in nuclear power around the globe as a result of shortages of energy and concerns about energy independence and climate change. On the one hand, this is good, because without energy there is no hope for development on the other hand, however, it means that nuclear know-how and nuclear technology will continue to spread to more and more countries. There is also an increase in the number of countries interested in developing nuclear fuel cycle capabilities: sensitive fuel cycle activities, reprocessing and above all uranium enrichment. It even seems that some countries might be hedging their bets in order to have the know-how should they need to develop their own deterrence. Verifying enrichment or reprocessing facilities is quite difficult, and the so-called conversion time is extremely short. Thus, the IAEA is dealing with what is called 'virtual nuclear weapon States'. The IAEA has been talking for a number of years about the need to develop a new international or multinational approach to the fuel cycle in order to avoid a situation with nine nuclear weapon States and another 20 or 30 States having the capacity to develop nuclear weapons in a very short period of time. There is a need to remember that there is a linkage between nuclear disarmament and non-proliferation. Furthermore safeguards activities, though fundamentally technical in nature, are carried out in a political charged environment. The security dimension - that is, nuclear terrorism - also presents a new challenge, because State systems of accounting for and control of nuclear material are no longer simply tools for safeguards, but

  4. Building a next generation Internet with source address validation architecture

    WU JianPing; REN Gang; LI Xing

    2008-01-01

    The IP packet forwarding of current Internet is mainly destination based. In the forwarding process, the source IP address is not checked in most cases.This causes serious security, management and accounting problems. Based on the drastically increased IPv6 address space, a "source address validation architecture" (SAVA) is proposed in this paper, which can guarantee that every packet received and forwarded holds an authenticated source IP address. The design goals of the architecture are lightweight, loose coupling, "multi-fence support" and incremental deployment. This paper discusses the design and implementation for the architecture, including inter-AS, intra-AS and local subnet. The performance and scalability of SAVA are described. This architecture is deployed into the CNGI-CERNET2infrastructure--a large-scale native IPv6 backbone network of the China Next Generation Internet project. We believe that the SAVA will help the transition to a new, more secure and dependable Internet.

  5. Magnetic investigations for studying planetary interiors

    A. De Santis

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available Most of the magnetic methods used for investigating planetary interiors are based on the reasonable hypothesis that the mechanism for the origin of the field is an Earth-like hydromagnetic dynamo: in this case the planet has an electrically conducting fluid shell within it as in the case of the Earth's core. The present paper describes several techniques of planetary magnetic investigation which give important clues on the internal constitution of planets. Some considerations on the possible mechanisms for maintaining a dynamo and simple concepts with the help of a few non-dimensional numbers are also introduced and discussed. Then some fundamental relationships are given in order to relate the planetary magnetism to other physical parameters, such as angular rotation, core dimensions etc. It finally summarizes some results available for the planets of the Solar System.

  6. On the interior of (quantum) black holes

    Different approaches to quantum gravity conclude that black holes may possess an inner horizon, in addition to the (quantum corrected) outer ‘Schwarzschild’ horizon. In this Letter we assume the existence of this inner horizon and explain the physical process that might lead to the tunneling of particles through it. It is shown that the tunneling would produce a flux of particles with a spectrum that deviates from the pure thermal one. Under the appropriate approximation the extremely high temperature of this horizon is calculated for an improved quantum black hole. It is argued that the flux of particles tunneled through the horizons affects the dynamics of the black hole interior leading to an endogenous instability

  7. An address geocoding solution for Chinese cities

    Zhang, Xuehu; Ma, Haoming; Li, Qi

    2006-10-01

    We introduce the challenges of address geocoding for Chinese cities and present a potential solution along with a prototype system that deal with these challenges by combining and extending current geocoding solutions developed for United States and Japan. The proposed solution starts by separating city addresses into "standard" addresses which meet a predefined address model and non-standard ones. The standard addresses are stored in a structured relational database in their normalized forms, while a selected portion of the non-standard addresses are stored as aliases to the standard addresses. An in-memory address index is then constructed from the address database and serves as the basis for real-time address matching. Test results were obtained from two trials conducted in the city Beijing. On average 80% matching rate were achieved. Possible improvements to the current design are also discussed.

  8. Tunable Interior Rotorcraft Noise Control Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — CRG has recently developed a new class of shape memory polymers (SMP) that are electrically activated, as opposed to the more mature thermally activated SMPs....

  9. La temperatura del interior de la tierra

    Eslava R. Jesús A.

    1993-10-01

    Full Text Available The problem of defining the Earth interior temperature is analized from Heat Flow observations and the acceptance of convection processes in the mantle. Comparative analyses of thermal, adiabatic, and melting point profiles, allow to obtain the optimum temperature profile, wich fits the seismic model of a liquid external core.

    EI problema de definir la temperatura del interior de la Tierra, se analiza a partir de las observaciones del flujo térmico y la aceptación de procesos de convección en el manto.

    Análisis comparativos de perfiles térmicos, adiabáticos y de puntos de fusión, permiten obtener un perfil óptimo de distribución de temperaturas, que además satisface la observación sísmica de un núcleo externo líquido.

  10. Genomics in Space Life Sciences

    Jade Q. Clement; Hiroki Yokota

    2008-01-01

    @@ Since the early days of manned spaceflight, hazardous effects of the space environment on living organisms have been disputed. With the continuous manning of the International Space Station, the planned Chinese space station, and renewed interest in returning to the Moon and sending manned flights to Mars, identifying and addressing the potential outcomes of long-term space exposures is critically important.

  11. On Analog of Fourier Transform in Interior of the Light Cone

    Tatyana Shtepina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce an analog of Fourier transform Fhρ in interior of light cone that commutes with the action of the Lorentz group. We describe some properties of Fhρ, namely, its action on pseudoradial functions and functions being products of pseudoradial function and space hyperbolic harmonics. We prove that Fhρ-transform gives a one-to-one correspondence on each of the irreducible components of quasiregular representation. We calculate the inverse transform too.

  12. Merry-Go-Round : How to Improve Elderly Care with Interior Architecture

    Riitijoki, Sade

    2016-01-01

    This thesis investigates a solution for elderly care interior design in Vantaa, Finland, to a yet unbuilt building. Design has been conducted in collaboration with L Architects Ltd. This thesis presents a schematic design and produces the necessary documents and visualizations to communicate the concept. To execute the design, I will delve into the relationship between elderly and space by participation and involvement methods. The state of senior care is dire, and therefore a current top...

  13. Interior point methods for optimal control problems with pointwise state constraints

    Kruse, Florian

    2014-01-01

    This work presents a new approach for the solution of pointwise state constrained optimal control problems that are governed by linear elliptic partial differential equations. The main idea of this approach is to replace the state constraints by a single constraint using a smoothed minimum function. The resulting interior point methods are analysed in an infinite-dimensional setting using in parts the concept of self-concordance, which is generalized to Banach spaces. ...

  14. The Earth’s Interior: A New Frontier and a New Challenge for Earth Scientists

    Anderson, D L; Dziewonski, W. A.

    1985-01-01

    In this era of space exploration, deep expeditions to the ocean bottom and far viewing telescopes, the Earth's interior has emerged as one of the most challenging frontier areas for scientific investigation. Exploration of the crust, by seismic and other means, is well underway but our view of the underlying mantle and core is fuzzy. Plate tectonic theory has revolutionized Earth Science but we still do not understand the driving mechanism or why global processes chang...

  15. Space Pharmacology

    Wotring, Virginia E

    2012-01-01

    Space Pharmacology” is a review of the current knowledge regarding the use of pharmaceuticals during spaceflights. It is a comprehensive review of the literature, addressing each area of pharmacokinetics and each major physiological system in turn. Every section begins with a topic overview, and is followed by a discussion of published data from spaceflight, and from ground experiments meant to model the spaceflight situation. Includes a discussion looking forward to the new medical challenges we are likely to face on longer duration exploration missions. This book is a snapshot of our current knowledge that also highlights areas of unknown.

  16. Towards understanding how surface life can affect interior geological processes: a non-equilibrium thermodynamics approach

    J. G. Dyke

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Life has significantly altered the Earth's atmosphere, oceans and crust. To what extent has it also affected interior geological processes? To address this question, three models of geological processes are formulated: mantle convection, continental crust uplift and erosion and oceanic crust recycling. These processes are characterised as non-equilibrium thermodynamic systems. Their states of disequilibrium are maintained by the power generated from the dissipation of energy from the interior of the Earth. Altering the thickness of continental crust via weathering and erosion affects the upper mantle temperature which leads to changes in rates of oceanic crust recycling and consequently rates of outgassing of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Estimates for the power generated by various elements in the Earth system are shown. This includes, inter alia, surface life generation of 264 TW of power, much greater than those of geological processes such as mantle convection at 12 TW. This high power results from life's ability to harvest energy directly from the sun. Life need only utilise a small fraction of the generated free chemical energy for geochemical transformations at the surface, such as affecting rates of weathering and erosion of continental rocks, in order to affect interior, geological processes. Consequently when assessing the effects of life on Earth, and potentially any planet with a significant biosphere, dynamical models may be required that better capture the coupled nature of biologically-mediated surface and interior processes.

  17. Multi Sensor Approach to Address Sustainable Development

    Habib, Shahid

    2007-01-01

    The main objectives of Earth Science research are many folds: to understand how does this planet operates, can we model her operation and eventually develop the capability to predict such changes. However, the underlying goals of this work are to eventually serve the humanity in providing societal benefits. This requires continuous, and detailed observations from many sources in situ, airborne and space. By and large, the space observations are the way to comprehend the global phenomena across continental boundaries and provide credible boundary conditions for the mesoscale studies. This requires a multiple sensors, look angles and measurements over the same spot in accurately solving many problems that may be related to air quality, multi hazard disasters, public health, hydrology and more. Therefore, there are many ways to address these issues and develop joint implementation, data sharing and operating strategies for the benefit of the world community. This is because for large geographical areas or regions and a diverse population, some sound observations, scientific facts and analytical models must support the decision making. This is crucial for the sustainability of vital resources of the world and at the same time to protect the inhabitants, endangered species and the ecology. Needless to say, there is no single sensor, which can answer all such questions effectively. Due to multi sensor approach, it puts a tremendous burden on any single implementing entity in terms of information, knowledge, budget, technology readiness and computational power. And, more importantly, the health of planet Earth and its ability to sustain life is not governed by a single country, but in reality, is everyone's business on this planet. Therefore, with this notion, it is becoming an impractical problem by any single organization/country to bear this colossal responsibility. So far, each developed country within their means has proceeded along satisfactorily in implementing

  18. Addressing contrasting cognitive models in scientific collaboration

    Diviacco, P.

    2012-04-01

    If the social aspects of scientific communities and their internal dynamics is starting to be recognized and acknowledged in the everyday lives of scientists, it is rather difficult for them to find tools that could support their activities consistently with this perspective. Issues span from gathering researchers to mutual awareness, from information sharing to building meaning, with the last one being particularly critical in research fields as the geo-sciences, that deal with the reconstruction of unique, often non-reproducible, and contingent processes. Reasoning here is, in fact, mainly abductive, allowing multiple and concurrent explanations for the same phenomenon to coexist. Scientists bias one hypothesis over another not only on strictly logical but also on sociological motivations. Following a vision, scientists tend to evolve and isolate themselves from other scientists creating communities characterized by different cognitive models, so that after some time these become incompatible and scientists stop understanding each other. We address these problems as a communication issue so that the classic distinction into three levels (syntactic, semantic and pragmatic) can be used. At the syntactic level, we highlight non-technical obstacles that condition interoperability and data availability and transparency. At the semantic level, possible incompatibilities of cognitive models are particularly evident, so that using ontologies, cross-domain reconciliation should be applied. This is a very difficult task to perform since the projection of knowledge by scientists, in the designated community, is political and thus can create a lot of tension. The strategy we propose to overcome these issues pertains to pragmatics, in the sense that it is intended to acknowledge the cultural and personal factors each partner brings into the collaboration and is based on the idea that meaning should remain a flexible and contingent representation of possibly divergent views

  19. Methods for generating addressable focus cues in stereoscopic displays

    Liu, Sheng

    Conventional stereoscopic displays present a pair of stereoscopic images on a single and fixed image plane decoupled with the vergence and accommodation responses of the viewer. In consequence, these displays lack the capability of correctly rendering focus cues (i.e. accommodation and retinal blur) and may induce the discrepancy between accommodation and convergence. A number of visual artifacts associated with incorrect focus cues in stereoscopic displays have been reported, limiting the applicability of these displays for demanding applications and daily usage. In this dissertation, methods and apparatus for generating addressable focus cues in conventional stereoscopic displays are proposed. Focus cues can be addressed throughout a volumetric space, either through dynamically varying the focal distance of a display enabled by an active optical element or by multiplexing a stack of 2-D image planes. Optimal depth-weighted fusing functions are developed to fuse a number of discrete image planes into a seamless volumetric space with continuous and near-correct focus cues similar to the real world counterparts. The optical design, driving methodology, and prototype implementation of the addressable focus displays are presented and discussed. Experimental results demonstrate continuously addressable focus cues from infinity to as close as the near eye distance. Experiments to further evaluate the depth perception in the display prototype are conducted. Preliminary results suggest that the perceived distance and accommodative response of the viewer match with the addressable accommodation cues rendered by the display, approximating the real-world viewing condition.

  20. IPv6 addressing proxy: mapping native addressing from legacy technologies and devices to the Internet of Things (IPv6).

    Jara, Antonio J; Moreno-Sanchez, Pedro; Skarmeta, Antonio F; Varakliotis, Socrates; Kirstein, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Sensors utilize a large number of heterogeneous technologies for a varied set of application environments. The sheer number of devices involved requires that this Internet be the Future Internet, with a core network based on IPv6 and a higher scalability in order to be able to address all the devices, sensors and things located around us. This capability to connect through IPv6 devices, sensors and things is what is defining the so-called Internet of Things (IoT). IPv6 provides addressing space to reach this ubiquitous set of sensors, but legacy technologies, such as X10, European Installation Bus (EIB), Controller Area Network (CAN) and radio frequency ID (RFID) from the industrial, home automation and logistic application areas, do not support the IPv6 protocol. For that reason, a technique must be devised to map the sensor and identification technologies to IPv6, thus allowing homogeneous access via IPv6 features in the context of the IoT. This paper proposes a mapping between the native addressing of each technology and an IPv6 address following a set of rules that are discussed and proposed in this work. Specifically, the paper presents a technology-dependent IPv6 addressing proxy, which maps each device to the different subnetworks built under the IPv6 prefix addresses provided by the internet service provider for each home, building or user. The IPv6 addressing proxy offers a common addressing environment based on IPv6 for all the devices, regardless of the device technology. Thereby, this offers a scalable and homogeneous solution to interact with devices that do not support IPv6 addressing. The IPv6 addressing proxy has been implemented in a multi-protocol Sensors 2013, 13 6688 card and evaluated successfully its performance, scalability and interoperability through a protocol built over IPv6. PMID:23686145

  1. IPv6 Addressing Proxy: Mapping Native Addressing from Legacy Technologies and Devices to the Internet of Things (IPv6

    Peter Kirstein

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Sensors utilize a large number of heterogeneous technologies for a varied set of application environments. The sheer number of devices involved requires that this Internet be the Future Internet, with a core network based on IPv6 and a higher scalability in order to be able to address all the devices, sensors and things located around us. This capability to connect through IPv6 devices, sensors and things is what is defining the so-called Internet of Things (IoT. IPv6 provides addressing space to reach this ubiquitous set of sensors, but legacy technologies, such as X10, European Installation Bus (EIB, Controller Area Network (CAN and radio frequency ID (RFID from the industrial, home automation and logistic application areas, do not support the IPv6 protocol. For that reason, a technique must be devised to map the sensor and identification technologies to IPv6, thus allowing homogeneous access via IPv6 features in the context of the IoT. This paper proposes a mapping between the native addressing of each technology and an IPv6 address following a set of rules that are discussed and proposed in this work. Specifically, the paper presents a technology-dependent IPv6 addressing proxy, which maps each device to the different subnetworks built under the IPv6 prefix addresses provided by the internet service provider for each home, building or user. The IPv6 addressing proxy offers a common addressing environment based on IPv6 for all the devices, regardless of the device technology. Thereby, this offers a scalable and homogeneous solution to interact with devices that do not support IPv6 addressing. The IPv6 addressing proxy has been implemented in a multi-protocol Sensors 2013, 13 6688 card and evaluated successfully its performance, scalability and interoperability through a protocol built over IPv6.

  2. Role of expression techniques in interior architecture education

    Özker, Serpil

    2014-01-01

    The Interior Architecture education is examined based on "sketching and presentation" within the framework of "design" by looking into the application patterns, materials used, education, processes and results of these two methods and by providing relevant examples. In the study discusses the knowledge of design, universities providing education, interior architecture presentation process, perspective and focuses on the role of expression techniques in the interior Architecture education. In ...

  3. Marketing and selling techniques for interior design services

    Çetinkaya, Kaan

    1995-01-01

    Ankara : Department of Interior Architecture and Environmental Design and Institute of Fine Arts of Bilkent University, 1995. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 1995. Includes bibliographical references leaves 76-79. Throughout the thesis marketing and selling techniques for interior design services are examined. The emergence of marketing professional services and the reasons that create the needs for marketing interior design services are stated. Methods of analyzing client n...

  4. A Novel Approach for TNA Address Management

    2003-01-01

    We present a new scheme to allocate/de-allocate Transport Network Assigned (TN A) address using Link Management Protocol (LMP) and to register/resolution these addresses using Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) for Automatically Switched Optical Network (ASON).

  5. Using computer graphics to design Space Station Freedom viewing

    Goldsberry, Betty S.; Lippert, Buddy O.; Mckee, Sandra D.; Lewis, James L., Jr.; Mount, Francis E.

    1993-01-01

    Viewing requirements were identified early in the Space Station Freedom program for both direct viewing via windows and indirect viewing via cameras and closed-circuit television (CCTV). These requirements reside in NASA Program Definition and Requirements Document (PDRD), Section 3: Space Station Systems Requirements. Currently, analyses are addressing the feasibility of direct and indirect viewing. The goal of these analyses is to determine the optimum locations for the windows, cameras, and CCTV's in order to meet established requirements, to adequately support space station assembly, and to operate on-board equipment. PLAID, a three-dimensional computer graphics program developed at NASA JSC, was selected for use as the major tool in these analyses. PLAID provides the capability to simulate the assembly of the station as well as to examine operations as the station evolves. This program has been used successfully as a tool to analyze general viewing conditions for many Space Shuttle elements and can be used for virtually all Space Station components. Additionally, PLAID provides the ability to integrate an anthropometric scale-modeled human (representing a crew member) with interior and exterior architecture.

  6. Interior of black holes and information recovery

    Kawai, Hikaru; Yokokura, Yuki

    2016-02-01

    We analyze time evolution of a spherically symmetric collapsing matter from a point of view that black holes evaporate by nature. We first consider a spherical thin shell that falls in the metric of an evaporating Schwarzschild black hole of which the radius a (t ) decreases in time. The important point is that the shell can never reach a (t ) but it approaches a (t )-a (t )d/a (t ) d t . This situation holds at any radius because the motion of a shell in a spherically symmetric system is not affected by the outside. In this way, we find that the collapsing matter evaporates without forming a horizon. Nevertheless, a Hawking-like radiation is created in the metric, and the object looks the same as a conventional black hole from the outside. We then discuss how the information of the matter is recovered. We also consider a black hole that is adiabatically grown in the heat bath and obtain the interior metric. We show that it is the self-consistent solution of Gμ ν=8 π G ⟨Tμ ν⟩ and that the four-dimensional Weyl anomaly induces the radiation and a strong angular pressure. Finally, we analyze the internal structures of the charged and the slowly rotating black holes.

  7. Borehole locations on seven interior salt domes

    This report is designed as an inventory of all wells known to have been drilled within a five-mile radius of each of seven salt domes within the Interior Salt Basin in east Texas, northern Louisiana and Mississippi. There are 72 boreholes that entered salt above an elevation of -3000 feet mean sea level. For these, details of location, drilling dates, depth of casing and cement, elevation of top of caprock and salt, etc., are given on tables in the appendix. Of the seven domes, Oakwood has the largest number of boreholes, thirty-eight (including two sidetracked wells) that enter the salt stock above -3000 feet mean sea level; another dome in northeast Texas, Keechi, has eight; in northern Louisiana, Rayburn's has four and Vacherie has five; in southern Mississippi, Cypress Creek has seven, Lampton has one, and Richton has nine. In addition, all wells known outside the supra-domal area, but within a five-mile radius of the center of the 7 domes are separately catalogued

  8. Full Waveform Inversion of Solar Interior Flows

    Hanasoge, Shravan M

    2014-01-01

    The inference of flows of material in the interior of the Sun is a subject of major interest in helioseismology. Here we apply techniques of Full Waveform Inversion (FWI) to synthetic data to test flow inversions. In this idealized setup, we do not model seismic realization noise, training the focus entirely on the problem of whether a chosen supergranulation flow model can be seismically recovered. We define the misfit functional as a sum of L_2 norm deviations in travel times between prediction and observation, as measured using short-distance f and p_1 filtered and large-distance unfiltered $p$ modes. FWI allows for the introduction of measurements of choice and iteratively improving the background model, while monitoring the evolution of the misfit in all desired categories. Although the misfit is seen to uniformly reduce in all categories, convergence to the true model is very slow, possibly because it is trapped in a local minimum. The primary source of error is inaccurate depth localization, which, owi...

  9. Magnetism and the interior of the moon

    Dyal, P.; Parkin, C. W.; Daily, W. D.

    1974-01-01

    During the time period 1961-1972, 11 magnetometers were sent to the moon. The primary purpose of this paper is to review the results of lunar magnetometer data analysis, with emphasis on the lunar interior. Magnetic fields have been measured on the lunar surface at the Apollo 12, 14, 15, and 16 landing sites. The remanent field values at these sites are 38, 103 (maximum), 3, and 327 gammas (maximum), respectively. Simultaneous magnetic field and solar plasma pressure measurements show that the Apollo 12 and 16 remanent fields are compressed during times of high plasma dynamic pressure. Apollo 15 and 16 subsatellite magnetometers have mapped in detail the field above portions of the lunar surface and have placed an upper limit on the global permanent dipole moment. Satellite and surface measurements show strong evidence that the lunar crust is magnetized over much of the lunar globe. Magnetic fields are stronger in highland regions than in mare regions and stronger on the lunar far side than on the near side. The largest magnetic anomaly measured to date is between the craters Van de Graaff and Aitken on the lunar far side.

  10. SAVI: The IETF Standard in Address Validation

    Bagnulo, Marcelo; García-Martínez, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    In this article we describe Source Address Validation Implementation (SAVI), a security architecture being standardized by the IETF to prevent source address spoofing within a link. SAVI devices, usually layer 2 switches, create bindings between the IP address of a node and a property of the host¿s network attachment, such as the port through which the packet is received. Bindings are created by monitoring the packet exchange associated with IP address configuration mechanisms such as DHCP, S...

  11. Address allocation to mobile ad hoc networks

    Sakander, Zeeshan

    2006-01-01

    Addressing in MANETs is of significant importance, as a mobile device cannot participate in unicast communications until it is assigned a conflict-free IP address. All routing protocols assume nodes to be configured a priori with a unique IP address. Allocating addresses to mobile nodes is a fundamental and difficult problem. Unlike infrastructure based networks, MANETs support autonomous and spontaneous networking and therefore, should be capable of self-organization and self-configuration. ...

  12. Framework to Analyse Automotive Interiors with a Focus on Ergonomics

    Kajaria Nikhil

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The small car market in India is increasing by leaps and bounds. The market for small cars now occupies a substantial share of around 70% of the annual car production in India of about one million. The main players in the car market like Tata Motors, Maruti Udyog and Hyundai etc. are fiercely competitive and are trying to outdo each other in terms of design and technology. However, ultimately the focus of a manufacturer is providing customer satisfaction which is driven by comfort and ease of use. Automotive ergonomics is the study of how automotive can be designed better for human use. The human factor aspect of designing automobiles is first considered at the Vehicle Packaging stage. The term Vehicle Packaging comes to use whenever a new model is in the early stage of study. It is a method to safeguard and protect space for the human user and necessary components that make up the vehicle being designed. The improvement in the vehicle ergonomics requires a basic understanding of the problems that arise due to the conventional automotive interior design.

  13. Innovative Seismological Techniques for Investigating the Interior Structure of Venus

    Stevenson, D. J.; Cutts, J. A.; Mimoun, D.

    2014-12-01

    The formation, evolution and structure of Venus remain a mystery more than fifty years after the first visit by a robotic spacecraft. Radar images have revealed a surface that is much younger than those of the Moon, Mercury and Mars as well as a variety of enigmatic volcanic and tectonic features quite unlike those generated by plate tectonics on Earth. To understand how Venus works as a planet it is necessary to probe the interior of Venus. To accomplish this seismology must play a key role. Conventional seismology employs sensors in contact with the planetary surface but for Venus theses sensors must tolerate the Venus environment (460oC and 90 bars) for up to a year. The dense atmosphere of Venus, which efficiently couples seismic energy into the atmosphere as infrasonic waves, enables an alternative: detection of infrasonic waves in the upper atmosphere using either high altitude balloons or orbiting spacecraft. In June 2014, the Keck Institute for Space Studies (KISS) at the California Institute of Technology sponsored a one week workshop with 30 specialists in the key techniques and technologies that can bring these technique to readiness. In this paper, we describe the key synergies with earth science drawing on methods from terrestrial seismology and oceanography and identify key technical issues that need to be solved as well as important precursor measurements that should be made.

  14. 32 CFR 516.7 - Mailing addresses.

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Mailing addresses. 516.7 Section 516.7 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS LITIGATION General § 516.7 Mailing addresses. Mailing addresses for organizations referenced...

  15. The effect of temperature evolution on the interior structure of H2O-rich planets

    For most planets in the range of radii from 1 to 4 R ⊕, water is a major component of the interior composition. At high pressure H2O can be solid, but for larger planets, like Neptune, the temperature can be too high for this. Mass and age play a role in determining the transition between solid and fluid (and mixed) water-rich super-Earth. We use the latest high-pressure and ultra-high-pressure phase diagrams of H2O, and by comparing them with the interior adiabats of various planet models, the temperature evolution of the planet interior is shown, especially for the state of H2O. It turns out that the bulk of H2O in a planet's interior may exist in various states such as plasma, superionic, ionic, Ice VII, Ice X, etc., depending on the size, age, and cooling rate of the planet. Different regions of the mass-radius phase space are also identified to correspond to different planet structures. In general, super-Earth-size planets (isolated or without significant parent star irradiation effects) older than about 3 Gyr would be mostly solid

  16. The effect of temperature evolution on the interior structure of H${}_{2}$O-rich planets

    Zeng, Li

    2014-01-01

    For most planets in the range of radii from 1 to 4 R$_{\\oplus}$, water is a major component of the interior composition. At high pressure H${}_{2}$O can be solid, but for larger planets, like Neptune, the temperature can be too high for this. Mass and age play a role in determining the transition between solid and fluid (and mixed) water-rich super-Earth. We use the latest high-pressure and ultra-high-pressure phase diagrams of H${}_{2}$O, and by comparing them with the interior adiabats of various planet models, the temperature evolution of the planet interior is shown, especially for the state of H${}_{2}$O. It turns out that the bulk of H${}_{2}$O in a planet's interior may exist in various states such as plasma, superionic, ionic, Ice VII, Ice X, etc., depending on the size, age and cooling rate of the planet. Different regions of the mass-radius phase space are also identified to correspond to different planet structures. In general, super-Earth-size planets (isolated or without significant parent star i...

  17. Mrs. Chandrasekhar addresses the media in TRW Media Hospitality Tent

    1999-01-01

    Mrs. Lalitha Chandrasekhar (right), wife of the late Indian- American Nobel Laureate Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar, addresses the media and other invited guests in the TRW Media Hospitality Tent at the NASA Press Site at KSC as Dr. Alan Bunner, Science Program Director, Structure and Evolution of the Universe, Office of Space Science, NASA Headquarters, Washington, D.C., looks on. The name 'Chandra,' a shortened version of her husband's name which he preferred among friends and colleagues, was chosen in a contest to rename the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility. 'Chandra' also means 'Moon' or 'luminous' in Sanskrit. The observatory is scheduled to be launched aboard Columbia on Space Shuttle mission STS-93.

  18. Warp drive space-time

    González-Díaz, Pedro F.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper the problem of the quantum stability of the two-dimensional warp drive spacetime moving with an apparent faster than light velocity is considered. We regard as a maximum extension beyond the event horizon of that spacetime its embedding in a three-dimensional Minkowskian space with the topology of the corresponding Misner space. It is obtained that the interior of the spaceship bubble becomes then a multiply connected nonchronal region with closed spacelike curves and that the m...

  19. Improving IPV6 Addressing Types and Size

    Khaldoun Batiha

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available IPv6 protocol is the next candidate protocol after IPv4 protocolthatused foralong time. For this protocoltheaddressing types and address sizeare discussedto list some modifications that could improve itsperformancethrough the internet. Atthe same time, we prove that multicast addressing type is the mostimportant addressing type since it can mimic any other addressing type. Finally,a short studyis developedin order to reduce the current IPv6 address size to haveless overhead in the basic header packet, thisreductionomitsabout 40% of the over all basic IPv6 basic packet overhead.

  20. Characterization of the Interior Density Structure of Near Earth Objects with Muons

    Prettyman, T. H.; Sykes, M. V.; Miller, R. S.; Pinsky, L. S.; Empl, A.; Nolan, M. C.; Koontz, S. L.; Lawrence, D. J.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Reddell, B. D.

    2015-12-01

    Near Earth Objects (NEOs) are a diverse population of short-lived asteroids originating from the main belt and Jupiter family comets. Some have orbits that are easy to access from Earth, making them attractive as targets for science and exploration as well as a potential resource. Some pose a potential impact threat. NEOs have undergone extensive collisional processing, fragmenting and re-accreting to form rubble piles, which may be compositionally heterogeneous (e.g., like 2008 TC3, the precursor to Almahata Sitta). At present, little is known about their interior structure or how these objects are held together. The wide range of inferred NEO macroporosities hint at complex interiors. Information about their density structure would aid in understanding their formation and collisional histories, the risks they pose to human interactions with their surfaces, the constraints on industrial processing of NEO resources, and the selection of hazard mitigation strategies (e.g., kinetic impactor vs nuclear burst). Several methods have been proposed to characterize asteroid interiors, including radar imaging, seismic tomography, and muon imaging (muon radiography and tomography). Of these, only muon imaging has the potential to determine interior density structure, including the relative density of constituent fragments. Muons are produced by galactic cosmic ray showers within the top meter of asteroid surfaces. High-energy muons can traverse large distances through rock with little deflection. Muons transmitted through an Itokawa-sized asteroid can be imaged using a compact hodoscope placed on or near the surface. Challenges include background rejection and correction for variations in muon production with surface density. The former is being addressed by hodoscope design. Surface density variations can be determined via radar or muon limb imaging. The performance of muon imaging is evaluated for prospective NEO interior-mapping missions.

  1. Full waveform inversion of solar interior flows

    The inference of flows of material in the interior of the Sun is a subject of major interest in helioseismology. Here, we apply techniques of full waveform inversion (FWI) to synthetic data to test flow inversions. In this idealized setup, we do not model seismic realization noise, training the focus entirely on the problem of whether a chosen supergranulation flow model can be seismically recovered. We define the misfit functional as a sum of L 2 norm deviations in travel times between prediction and observation, as measured using short-distance filtered f and p 1 and large-distance unfiltered p modes. FWI allows for the introduction of measurements of choice and iteratively improving the background model, while monitoring the evolution of the misfit in all desired categories. Although the misfit is seen to uniformly reduce in all categories, convergence to the true model is very slow, possibly because it is trapped in a local minimum. The primary source of error is inaccurate depth localization, which, due to density stratification, leads to wrong ratios of horizontal and vertical flow velocities (cross talk). In the present formulation, the lack of sufficient temporal frequency and spatial resolution makes it difficult to accurately localize flow profiles at depth. We therefore suggest that the most efficient way to discover the global minimum is to perform a probabilistic forward search, involving calculating the misfit associated with a broad range of models (generated, for instance, by a Monte Carlo algorithm) and locating the deepest minimum. Such techniques possess the added advantage of being able to quantify model uncertainty as well as realization noise (data uncertainty).

  2. Reconciling interiors: The screen as installation

    Charlton, James

    2003-01-01

    In examining the failure of contemporary art to understand the relationship between the screen and the sculptural context in which it is seen,this paper critiques current notions of the screen and compares them to the spatial modalities of installation art. Firstly identifying the screen as a product of parts ? the apparatus,the image and the space ? the essay draws together arguments presented by artists and theorists and exposes the strategies and assumptions that enable the viewer to e...

  3. The Interior of Enceladus from Gravity and Topography

    Iess, L.

    2015-12-01

    The combination of gravity and topography has been the method of choice to obtain quantitative information on the interior of Enceladus, but its application was challenging because of the small mass of the moon and the short gravitational interaction time with the Cassini spacecraft. The main observable quantity used in the estimation of the gravity field was the spacecraft range rate, measured by the antennas of NASA's Deep Space Network to an accuracy of about 0.03 mm/s (at 60 s integration time). In spite of these challenges and thanks to the careful design of three gravity flybys, Cassini was able to catch the essential features of Enceladus's gravity field, in particular to estimate its quadrupole and detect the sought-for hemispherical asymmetry [1]. Crucial for the correct fit of the Doppler data was the inclusion in the dynamical model of the drag acceleration from the plume's neutral particles. Although the largest quadrupole coefficients indicate only a mild deviation from hydrostatic equilibrium (J2/C22=3.55±0.05), a reliable determination of the MOIF uses J3 to separate the hydrostatic and non-hydrostatic components of the quadrupole field. The application of this method results in a MOIF (0.336) compatible with a differentiated structure. (An admittance analysis leads to a similar value.) The magnitude and the sign of J3 indicate that the gravity anomaly associated to the striking topographic depression (-1 km) in the southern polar regions is largely compensated by denser material at depth. The obvious (but not the only) interpretation points to a liquid water mass, denser than the surrounding ice and sandwiched between the ice shell and the rocky core. The gravity field and the topography provide also rough estimate of the size of the water mass and the depth at which it is located. Starting from the consideration that the hydrostatic J2/C22 ratio for a fast rotator like Enceladus is about 3.25 and not 10/3, a recent work [2] offers some adjustments

  4. The challenge to explore the Brazilian interior basins; O desafio da exploracao das bacias interiores brasileiras

    Bacoccoli, Giuseppe [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia; Guimaraes, Paulo Buarque [Organizacao da Industria do Petroleo (ONIP), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Due to the development of the fields, already discovered in the deep waters of the Southeastern Atlantic Margin, the Brazilian domestic production will shortly be equivalent to the consumption. Despite reaching this goal, the exploration of large interior basins is still considered a challenge. Surprisingly, after the discoveries in the Solimoes Basin, as well after the opening of the Brazilian Petroleum Sector in 1997, the present level of the exploration activities in these basins is far below the previous historical averages. The available data are still now considered too scarce, to perform a proper evaluation. Apparently, a vicious circle has been established: due to the a priori low attractiveness new data are not acquired and because the lack of new data the attractiveness cannot be modified nor improved. The Parnaiba Basin is usually mentioned as an example of this poor amount of data. A modest coverage of ancient 2D seismic lines, and obsolete aero magnetic survey and thirty one exploratory wells, mostly located without geophysical support, represents all the available data in this vast basin with an area over 600,000 sq km. Recent regional geologic interpretations in such interior basins, as in Solimoes, Parana and also Parnaiba, are pointing out the presence of remarkable intraplate tectonic events, successively reactivated along the geologic time. It is now intended that these events can play an important role in the control of the petroleum system and in focalizing the new exploration activities. However, efforts should be applied in the revision of some regulatory rules, in Brazil, in order to better stimulate the onshore exploration and particularly the exploration of the interior basins. As recommended by the new Brazilian Petroleum Law, part of the government takes shall be effectively applied to acquire more geologic and geophysical data in the onshore areas (author)

  5. Virtual Interior Design Based On VRML AND JAVA

    Qi, Shaoliang

    Virtual reality has been involved in a wide range of academic and commercial applications. It can give users a natural feeling of the environment by creating realistic virtual worlds. In this paper, we use vrml and java to discuss the virtual interior design. EAI and JASI are used to realize the interaction between user and virtual interior scene.

  6. Interior-Point Methods for Linear Programming: A Review

    Singh, J. N.; Singh, D.

    2002-01-01

    The paper reviews some recent advances in interior-point methods for linear programming and indicates directions in which future progress can be made. Most of the interior-point methods belong to any of three categories: affine-scaling methods, potential reduction methods and central path methods. These methods are discussed together with…

  7. AMOUNT OF FOREST INTERIOR AT A 65 HECTARE SCALE

    Forests provide economic and ecological value. High amounts of forest interior indicates a highly connected forest, which generally enhances those economic and ecological values. INT65 is the percent of forest that is classified as interior using a 65 ha scale.

  8. AMOUNT OF FUTURE FOREST INTERIOR AT A 2 HECTARE SCALE

    Forests provide economic and ecological value. High amounts of forest interior indicates a highly connected forest, which generally enhances those economic and ecological values. INT2 is the percent of forest that is classified as interior using a 2 ha scale.

  9. AMOUNT OF FUTURE FOREST INTERIOR AT A 65 HECTARE SCALE

    Forests provide economic and ecological value. High amounts of forest interior indicates a highly connected forest, which generally enhances those economic and ecological values. INT65 is the percent of forest that is classified as interior using a 65 ha scale.

  10. Interior Design Education within a Human Ecological Framework

    Kaup, Migette L.; Anderson, Barbara G.; Honey, Peggy

    2007-01-01

    An education based in human ecology can greatly benefit interior designers as they work to understand and improve the human condition. Design programs housed in colleges focusing on human ecology can improve the interior design profession by taking advantage of their home base and emphasizing the human ecological framework in the design curricula.…

  11. 49 CFR 38.155 - Interior circulation, handrails and stanchions.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interior circulation, handrails and stanchions. 38.155 Section 38.155 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH... § 38.155 Interior circulation, handrails and stanchions. (a) Handrails and stanchions shall be...

  12. 36 CFR 1192.155 - Interior circulation, handrails and stanchions.

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interior circulation, handrails and stanchions. 1192.155 Section 1192.155 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND... TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Over-the-Road Buses and Systems § 1192.155 Interior circulation, handrails and...

  13. 49 CFR 238.233 - Interior fittings and surfaces.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interior fittings and surfaces. 238.233 Section... I Passenger Equipment § 238.233 Interior fittings and surfaces. (a) Each seat in a passenger car... determined by the railroad: (1) Longitudinal: 8g; (2) Vertical: 4g; and (3) Lateral: 4g. (c) Other...

  14. 36 CFR 1192.115 - Interior circulation, handrails and stanchions.

    2010-07-01

    ... process, to the extent permitted by 49 CFR part 231. ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interior circulation... TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Intercity Rail Cars and Systems § 1192.115 Interior circulation, handrails and...

  15. 36 CFR 1192.97 - Interior circulation, handrails and stanchions.

    2010-07-01

    ... process, to the extent permitted by 49 CFR part 231. ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interior circulation... TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Commuter Rail Cars and Systems § 1192.97 Interior circulation, handrails and...

  16. Active Noise Control of the Heavy Truck Interior Cab

    2008-01-01

    In order to control the noise of the heavy truck interior cab effectively, the active noise control methods are employed. First, an interior noise field test for the heavy truck is performed, and frequencies of interior noise of this vehicle are analyzed. According to the spectrum analysis of acquired noise signal, it is found out that the main frequencies of interior noise are less than 800Hz. Then the least squares lattice (LSL) algorithm is used as signal processing algorithm of the controller and a closed-loop control DSP system, based on TMS 320VC5416, is developed. The residual signal at driver's ear is used as feedback signal. Lastly, the developed ANC system is loaded into the heavy truck cab, and controlling the noise at driver's ear for that truck at different driving speeds is attempted. The noise control test results indicate that the cab interior noise is reduced averagely by 0.9 dBA at different driving speeds.

  17. Qualitative and quantitative assessment of interior moisture buffering by enclosures

    Janssen, Hans; Roels, Staf

    2009-01-01

    The significance of interior humidity in attaining sustainable, durable, healthy and comfortable buildings is increasingly recognised. Given their significant interaction, interior humidity appraisals need a qualitative and/or quantitative assessment of interior moisture buffering. While the...... effective moisture penetration depth and effective capacitance models allow quantified assessment, their reliance on the ‘moisture penetration depth’ necessitates comprehensive material properties and hampers their application to multi-dimensional interior objects. On the other hand, while various recently...... suggested protocols for the simple and fast measurement of the moisture buffer potential of interior elements allow qualitative assessment, none of these are currently dependable for a wide range of moisture production regimes. In response to these flaws, this paper introduces the production...

  18. Hesitant fuzzy topological spaces and some properties

    KARATAŞ, Serkan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, at first, we define inclusion relation on hesitant fuzzy sets. Then, we introduce hesitant fuzzy topological spaces and its fundamental properties such as interior, closure, exterior, boundary of a hesitant fuzzy set. Moreover, we investigate some mappings on hesitant fuzzy sets, especially continuous hesitant fuzzy mappings on hesitant fuzzy topological spaces.

  19. The problem of exact interior solutions for rotating rigid bodies in general relativity

    Wahlquist, H. D.

    1993-01-01

    The (3 + 1) dyadic formalism for timelike congruences is applied to derive interior solutions for stationary, axisymmetric, rigidly rotating bodies. In this approach the mathematics is formulated in terms of three-space-covariant, first-order, vector-dyadic, differential equations for a and Omega, the acceleration and angular velocity three-vectors of the rigid body; for T, the stress dyadic of the matter; and for A and B, the 'electric' and 'magnetic' Weyl curvature dyadics which describe the gravitational field. It is shown how an appropriate ansatz for the forms of these dyadics can be used to discover exact rotating interior solutions such as the perfect fluid solution first published in 1968. By incorporating anisotropic stresses, a generalization is found of that previous solution and, in addition, a very simple new solution that can only exist in toroidal configurations.

  20. Buchdahl-Vaidya-Tikekar model for stellar interior in pure Lovelock gravity - II

    Molina, Alfred; Khugaev, Avas

    2016-01-01

    For a given Lovelock order $N$, it turns out that static fluid solutions of the pure Lovelock equation for a star interior have the universal behavior in all $n\\geq 2N+2$ dimensions relative to an appropriately defined variable and the Vaidya-Tikekar parameter $K$, indicating deviation from sphericity of $3$-space geometry. We employ the Buchdahl metric ansatz which encompasses almost all the known physically acceptable models including in particular the Vaidya-Tikekar and Finch-Skea. Further for a given star radius, the constant density star, always described by the Schwarzschild interior solution, defines the most compact state of distribution while the other end is marked by the Finch-Skea model, and all the other physically tenable models lie in between these two limiting distributions.

  1. IP MASQUERADING: A Network Address Translation Technique

    Chiranji Lal Chowdhary; Prashant P.J.

    2010-01-01

    IP Masquerade, called "IPMASQ" or "MASQ" for short, is a form of Network Address Translation (NAT) which allows internally connected computers that do not have one or more registered Internet IP addresses to communicate to the Internet via the server's Internet IP address. Since IPMASQ is a generic technology, you can connect the server's internal and external to other computers through LAN technologies like Ethernet, Token Ring, and FDDI, as well as dialup connections line PPP or SLIP links....

  2. Organization of Control Units with Operational Addressing

    Alexander A. Barkalov; Roman M. Babakov; Larysa A. Titarenko

    2012-01-01

    The using of operational addressing unit as the block of control unit is proposed. The new structure model of Moore finite-state machine with reduced hardware amount is developed. The generalized structure of operational addressing unit is suggested. An example of synthesis process for Moore finite-state machine with operational addressing unit is given. The analytical researches of proposed structure of control unit are executed.

  3. Mrs. Chandrasekhar addresses the media in TRW Media Hospitality Tent

    1999-01-01

    Mrs. Lalitha Chandrasekhar (at podium), wife of the late Indian- American Nobel Laureate Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar, addresses the media and other invited guests in the TRW Media Hospitality Tent at the NASA Press Site at KSC. Other participants in the program (seated facing the audience, left to right) are the winners of the contest to rename the telescope, Jatila van der Veen, academic coordinator and lecturer, Physics Dept., University of Santa Barbara, Calif., and Tyrel Johnson, high school student, Laclede, Idaho; Joanne Maguire, vice-president and general manager, TRW Space & Laser Programs Division; and Dr. Alan Bunner, Science Program Director, Structure and Evolution of the Universe, Office of Space Science, NASA Headquarters, Washington, D.C. The name 'Chandra,' a shortened version of Chandrasekhar, was the name the Nobel Laureate preferred among friends and colleagues. 'Chandra' also means 'Moon' or 'luminous' in Sanskrit. The observatory is scheduled to be launched aboard Columbia on Space Shuttle mission STS-93.

  4. 78 FR 65356 - Notice of Mailing/Street Address Change for the BLM-Utah West Desert District and Salt Lake Field...

    2013-10-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management Notice of Mailing/Street Address Change for the BLM-Utah West Desert District... mailing/street address for the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), West Desert District and Salt Lake...

  5. Black hole interior in the holographic correspondence and the information paradox.

    Papadodimas, Kyriakos; Raju, Suvrat

    2014-02-01

    We show that, within the AdS/CFT correspondence, recent formulations of the information paradox can be reduced to a question about the existence of certain kinds of operators in the conformal field theory (CFT). We describe a remarkably simple construction of these operators on a given state of the CFT. Our construction leads to a smooth horizon, addresses the strong subadditivity paradox, while preserving locality within effective field theory, and reconciles the existence of the interior with the growth of states with energy in the CFT. We also extend our construction to nonequilibrium states. PMID:24580584

  6. Novel Duplicate Address Detection with Hash Function.

    Song, GuangJia; Ji, ZhenZhou

    2016-01-01

    Duplicate address detection (DAD) is an important component of the address resolution protocol (ARP) and the neighbor discovery protocol (NDP). DAD determines whether an IP address is in conflict with other nodes. In traditional DAD, the target address to be detected is broadcast through the network, which provides convenience for malicious nodes to attack. A malicious node can send a spoofing reply to prevent the address configuration of a normal node, and thus, a denial-of-service attack is launched. This study proposes a hash method to hide the target address in DAD, which prevents an attack node from launching destination attacks. If the address of a normal node is identical to the detection address, then its hash value should be the same as the "Hash_64" field in the neighboring solicitation message. Consequently, DAD can be successfully completed. This process is called DAD-h. Simulation results indicate that address configuration using DAD-h has a considerably higher success rate when under attack compared with traditional DAD. Comparative analysis shows that DAD-h does not require third-party devices and considerable computing resources; it also provides a lightweight security resolution. PMID:26991901

  7. 75 FR 36677 - Notice of Relocation/Change of Address for the Bureau of Land Management, Office of Pipeline...

    2010-06-28

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Relocation/Change of Address for the Bureau of Land Management, Office of Pipeline Monitoring, Alaska State Office AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Bureau of Land Management (BLM), Office of Pipeline Monitoring, located at 411...

  8. Measurement, analysis, and prediction of aircraft interior noise

    Howlett, J. T.; Williams, L. H.; Catherines, J. J.; Jha, S. K.

    1976-01-01

    Considerations of comfort of passengers and crew in light aircraft and helicopters indicate substantial benefits may be obtained by the reduction of interior noise levels. This paper discusses an ongoing research effort to reduce interior noise in such vehicles. Data from both field and laboratory studies for a light aircraft are presented. The laboratory data indicate that structural vibration is an efficient source of interior noise and should be considered in the reduction of interior noise. Flight data taken on a helicopter before and after installation of acoustic treatment demonstrate that over 30 dB of noise reduction can be obtained in certain portions of the spectra. However, subjective evaluations of the treated vehicle indicate that further reductions in interior noise are desirable. An existing interior noise prediction method which was developed for large jet transports was applied to study low-frequency noise in a light aircraft fuselage. The results indicate that improvements in the analytical model may be necessary for the prediction of interior noise of light aircraft.

  9. Interior's Climate Science Centers: Focus or Fail

    Udall, B.

    2012-12-01

    After a whirlwind two years of impressive and critical infrastructure building, the Department of Interior's Climate Science Centers are now in a position to either succeed or fail. The CSCs have a number of difficult structural problems including too many constituencies relative to the available resources, an uneasy relationship among many of the constituencies including the DOI agencies themselves, a need to do science in a new, difficult and non-traditional way, and a short timeframe to produce useful products. The CSCs have built a broad and impressive network of scientists and stakeholders. These entities include science providers of the universities and the USGS, and decision makers from the states, tribes, DOI land managers and other federal agencies and NGOs. Rather than try to support all of these constituencies the CSCs would be better served by refocusing on a core mission of supporting DOI climate related decision making. The CSCs were designed to service the climate science needs of DOI agencies, many of which lost their scientific capabilities in the 1990s due to a well-intentioned but ultimately harmful re-organization at DOI involving the now defunct National Biological Survey. Many of these agencies would like to have their own scientists, have an uneasy relationship with the nominal DOI science provider, the USGS, and don't communicate effectively among themselves. The CSCs must not succumb to pursuing science in either the traditional mode of the USGS or in the traditional mode of the universities, or worse, both of them. These scientific partners will need to be flexible, learn how to collaborate and should expect to see fewer resources. Useful CSC processes and outputs should start with the recommendations of the 2009 NRC Report Informing Decisions in a Changing Climate: (1) begin with users' needs; (2) give priority to process over products; (3) link information producers and users; (4) build connections across disciplines and organizations

  10. Ecohydrology of Interior Alaska boreal forest systems

    Cable, J.; Bolton, W. R.

    2012-12-01

    The ecohydrology of boreal forest ecosystems of Interior Alaska is not well understood largely because of challenges posed by the presence of discontinuous permafrost. Near-surface permafrost results in storage-dominated systems with cold, poorly drained soils, and slow growing, low statured coniferous trees (Picea mariana) or CDE's. The transition to permafrost-free areas can occur over a few meters and is accompanied by a vegetation community dominated by large deciduous trees (Populus sp. and Betula sp.) or DDE's. Typically, areas with permafrost are on north facing slopes and valley bottoms, and areas without permafrost are south facing. In Alaska's boreal forest, the permafrost is very warm and vulnerable to the effects of climate change. Once permafrost begins to thaw, the vegetation community shifts from coniferous to deciduous dominated. Streamflow in watersheds with a larger permafrost distribution tends to be higher and more responsive to precipitation events than in watersheds with low permafrost distribution. In fact, precipitation events in the low permafrost areas do not infiltrate past the rooting zone of the deciduous trees (~5-40 cm). This suggests that the deciduous trees may remove water from the system via uptake and transpiration. We focus on how vegetation water use affects boreal forest hydrology in areas of discontinuous permafrost. Specifically, we ask: what are the patterns of vegetation water use in areas with and without permafrost? This study focuses on the CDE and DDE systems. Our research sites are established on low and high locations on each aspect (south facing DDE, north facing CDE) to capture the variability associated with the different hillside drainage properties. At each of the four sites during the growing season, we measured various aspects of plant water use dynamics, including water flux, water content, water sources, depth of water uptake in the soil, and water stress. We use a Bayesian framework to analyze the data. We

  11. An Experimental of IPv6 Address Assignment for Global Unicast Address Using NS-3

    Dr. P. Sumathi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6 is the next generation protocol and in the near future, routers are going to become more faster and new technologies are going to reduce the Internet delay. IPv6 global unicast address is similar to IPv4 public address and globally routable. This Global unicast address assignment process provides new function called Stateless Address Auto Configuration (SLAAC is a significant feature for host itself generating and configuring own addresses to enable communication. In this paper aims to describe experimental about IPv6 address assignment for global unicast address and evaluation of a host using various parameters such as Default router IP address, Throughput, Average End to End Delay and Domain Name Server (DNS IP address. The study was carried out using an open source Network Simulator (NS-3 to study and analyses the behavior of IPv6 address assignment.

  12. Lunar Crater Interiors with High Circular Polarization Signatures

    Weitz, C. M.; Campbell, B. A.; Morgan, G.

    2015-12-01

    We analyzed 12.6-cm Earth-based radar images of the Moon to search for older craters (pre-Copernican) that display high values of the circular polarization ratio (CPR) on their interior walls. These craters have highly eroded rims and ejecta, indicating that there must be a source exposed within the crater interior that is continuously creating a rougher surface. Of particular interest are craters between 10-25 km in diameter that occur in smooth plains in the highlands, where competent layers are not expected as they are for the mare. After identifying these high-CPR interiors in pre-Copernican craters, we studied LROC NAC and Kaguya TC images to search for possible albedo and layering on crater interior walls that might signal the presence of anomalous material. Our results indicate that high-CPR craters generally have boulder fields clustered around their upper interior walls. We divide the high-CPR craters into three types: (1) craters on the layered mare lava flows; (2) craters in the highlands that correlate to mapped locations of smooth plains; and (3) craters on the highlands that are not associated with smooth plains. Most of the high-CPR craters in the highlands are associated with Eratosthenian-period craters, and most of these are also on smooth plains, indicating that impact melt sheets are a likely source for the boulders exposed on their interior walls. Statistical analyses will be performed after incorporating multiple lunar datasets into GIS to quantify these preliminary interpretations. Figure 1. Example of high-CPR crater Zagut A located on smooth plains in the highlands. LROC images showing boulders on (a) northern crater interior wall and (b) southern crater interior wall. (c) Stronlgy enhanced values of CPR are observed for the interior of Zagut A.

  13. A Novel Approach for TNA Address Management

    Xiaodong Wang; Yaohui Jin; Weishen Hu; Shenli Zhu

    2003-01-01

    We present a new scheme to allocate/de- allocate Transport Network Assigned (TNA) address using Link ManagementProtocol (LMP) and to register/resolution these addresses using Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) forAutomatically Switched Optical Network (ASON).

  14. Tradition and Change in Swedish Address Forms.

    Mitchell, Stephen A.

    In most European languages, choice of address form classifies the relation between speakers. The first theoretical framework for analyzing address form usage was established by Brown and Gilman (1960) in their investigation of the semantics of pronoun use in a wide variety of Indo-European languages, which concluded that Europeans use the informal…

  15. Approaches for Resolving Dynamic IP Addressing.

    Foo, Schubert; Hui, Siu Cheung; Yip, See Wai; He, Yulan

    1997-01-01

    A problem with dynamic Internet protocol (IP) addressing arises when the Internet connection is through an Internet provider since the IP address is allocated only at connection time. This article examines a number of online and offline methods for resolving the problem. Suggests dynamic domain name system (DNS) and directory service look-up are…

  16. 7 CFR 1730.3 - RUS addresses.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false RUS addresses. 1730.3 Section 1730.3 Agriculture... ELECTRIC SYSTEM OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE General § 1730.3 RUS addresses. (a) Persons wishing to obtain...) Documents required to be submitted to RUS under this part are to be sent to the office of the...

  17. An Experimental of IPv6 Address Assignment for Global Unicast Address Using NS-3

    DR.P.SUMATHI; Dr. Saroj Patel; Prabhakaran,, Dorairaj

    2015-01-01

    Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) is the next generation protocol and in the near future, routers are going to become more faster and new technologies are going to reduce the Internet delay. IPv6 global unicast address is similar to IPv4 public address and globally routable. This Global unicast address assignment process provides new function called Stateless Address Auto Configuration (SLAAC) is a significant feature for host itself generating and configuring own addresses to enable communi...

  18. Technology Solutions Case Study: Durable Interior Foundation Insulation Retrofits for Cold Climates, Cloquet, Minnesota

    None

    2015-04-01

    Thermal and moisture problems in existing basements create a unique challenge as the exterior face of the wall is not easily or inexpensively accessible. This approach by the NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership team addresses thermal and moisture management from the interior face of the wall without disturbing the exterior soil and landscaping. It is effective at reducing energy loss through the wall principally during the heating season. The team conducted experiments at the Cloquet Residential Research Facility to test the heat and moisture performance of four hollow masonry block wall systems and two rim-joist systems. These systems were retrofitted with interior insulation in compliance with the 2012 IECC. The research showed for the first time that, for masonry block walls in a cold climate, a solid bond beam or equivalent provides adequate resistance to moisture transport from a hollow core to the rim-joist cavity. Thus, a solid top course is a minimum requirement for an interior retrofit insulation system.

  19. Interior noise reduction in a large civil helicopter

    Howlett, J. T.; Clevenson, S. A.; Rypf, J. A.; Snyder, W. J.

    1977-01-01

    The results of an evaluation of the effectiveness of current noise reduction technology in attaining acceptable levels of interior noise in a large (about 20,000 kg) passenger-carrying helicopter are presented. The helicopter studied is a modified CH-53A with a specially designed, acoustically treated passenger cabin. The acoustic treatment reduced the average A-weighted interior noise levels from 115 db to 87 db. The study suggests selected improvements in the acoustic treatment which could result in additional reduction in cabin noise levels. The resulting levels would be only slightly greater than the interior noise levels of current narrow-body jet transports.

  20. Decline of forest interior conditions in the conterminous United States

    Kurt H. Riitters; James D. Wickham

    2012-01-01

    Forest fragmentation threatens the sustainability of forest interior environments, thereby endangering subordinate ecological attributes and functions. We analyzed the spatial patterns of forest loss and gain for the conterminous United States from 2001 to 2006 to determine whether forest interior environments were maintained at five spatial scales. A 1.1% net loss of total forest area translated to net losses of 3.2% to 10.5% of forest interior area over spatial scales of 4.41 ha to 5,310 ha...

  1. Smoothed Analysis of Interior-Point Algorithms: Termination

    Spielman, Daniel A.; Teng, Shang-Hua

    2003-01-01

    We perform a smoothed analysis of the termination phase of an interior-point method. By combining this analysis with the smoothed analysis of Renegar's interior-point algorithm by Dunagan, Spielman and Teng, we show that the smoothed complexity of an interior-point algorithm for linear programming is $O (m^{3} \\log (m/\\sigma))$. In contrast, the best known bound on the worst-case complexity of linear programming is $O (m^{3} L)$, where $L$ could be as large as $m$. We include an introduction ...

  2. Algoritmo del elipsoide interior para programación lineal

    Salamanca Fernández, Ángel; Juan Ruiz, Jesús

    1991-01-01

    En este artículo se desarrolla un algoritmo de puntos interiores para programación lineal a partir de consideraciones geométricas. En cada iteración del método se dispone de un punto interior al politopo. Con centro en dicho punto se obtiene un elipsoide interior a dicho politopo. La optimización de la función objetivo lineal sobre el elipsoide se obtiene mediante la solución de un problema de mínimos cuadrados. El punto resultante se adopta para la siguiente iteración. Se proponen dos método...

  3. The lunar interior. [compressional velocities of interior materials compared with lunar seismic results

    Anderson, D. L.; Kovach, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    The compressional velocities are estimated for materials thought to be important in the lunar interior and compared with lunar seismic results. The lower lunar crust has velocities appropriate for basalts or anorthosites. Anorthosite is preferred if lunar basalts result from a small degree of partial melting. The high velocities associated with the uppermost mantle imply high densities and a change to a lighter assemblage at depths of the order of 120 km. Ca- and Al-rich minerals are important components of both the lower crust and the upper mantle. Most of the moon may have accreted from refractory material rich in Ca, Al, U, and the rare-earth elements. The important mineral of the upper mantle is garnet; possible accessory minerals are kyanite, spinel and rutile. If the seismic results stand up, the high-velocity layer in the moon is more likely to be a high-pressure form of anorthosite than eclogite, pyroxenite, or dunite.

  4. Interior Evolution of Ceres Revealed by Dawn

    Raymond, Carol A.; Park, Ryan S.; Konopliv, Alex S.; Bland, Michael T.; Marchi, Simone; Castillo-Rogez, Julie C.; McCord, Thomas B.; Jaumann, Ralf; Russell, Christopher T.; Prettyman, Thomas H.

    2015-11-01

    Dawn's exploration of Ceres has revealed its geophysical characteristics, informing the processes that have shaped it. Dawn has determined the average diameter of Ceres to be 940 km, smaller than the previously estimated 975 km [1]. This implies a density of 2160 kg/m3, indicating that Ceres is less differentiated than predicted [2]. The low-degree gravity field is consistent with the body being in hydrostatic equilibrium and the magnitude of J2 implies some central condensation. Ceres' entire surface is cratered, implying the lack of a thick (10's of km) water ice layer at the surface. Variability in Ceres' crater morphology indicates that the near-surface layer has variable strength and rheology, likely due to heterogeneity in the near-surface mixture of rock, ice and salt. The lack of a number of expected large impact basins on Ceres can be interpreted to be the result of viscous relaxation, resurfacing or a combination of both. These data provide insights into Ceres' thermal evolution and mechanical properties, which appear to be unique to this warm, icy body.[1] Thomas, P. C., et al., Differentiation of the asteroid Ceres as revealed by its shape, Nature, 437, 224-226, 2005; [2] McCord et al., Ceres: Its Origin, Evolution and Structure and Dawn's Potential Contribution, Space Sci Rev DOI 10.1007/s11214-010-9729-9, 2011.

  5. Address forms in Chinese audit opinions

    Ziye; Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Although forms of address are widely used in textual and other types of disclosure,empirical evidence of their effects is rare.China provides a unique setting in which to test the economic consequences of the forms of address used in audit reports.From 2003 to 2011,about 60%of auditors surveyed addressed their clients by their real names in audit opinions,while the others used honorifics.Based on a sample of Chinese audit opinions,I report the following findings.First,the announcement of an audit opinion that uses the client’s real name elicits a greater market response than the announcement of an opinion featuring an honorific form of address.Second,the effects of real-name forms of address are stronger in firms with weak board governance.Third,the association between audit fees and audit risk factors,such as loss-making,is stronger in firms that are addressed by their real names in audit reports.I conclude from these findings that the forms of address used in audit opinions may reveal private information on audit quality.The results of this study are consistent with the power-solidarity effect described by sociolinguists.

  6. Morphology and Disease Information from Waterfowl, Interior Alaska, 2010

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set includes data from five waterfowl species (northern pintail, American wigeon, lesser scaup, green-winged teal and mallard) that were captured in...

  7. Connecting horizon pixels and interior voxels of a black hole

    In this paper we discuss to what extent one can infer details of the interior structure of a black hole based on its horizon. Recalling that black hole thermal properties are connected to the non-classical nature of gravity, we circumvent the restrictions of the no-hair theorem by postulating that the black hole interior is singularity free due to violations of the usual energy conditions. Further these conditions allow one to establish a one-to-one, holographic projection between Planckian areal “bits” on the horizon and “voxels”, representing the gravitational degrees of freedom in the black hole interior. We illustrate the repercussions of this idea by discussing an example of the black hole interior consisting of a de Sitter core postulated to arise from the local graviton quantum vacuum energy. It is shown that the black hole entropy can emerge as the statistical entropy of a gas of voxels

  8. Morphology and Disease Information from Waterfowl, Interior Alaska, 2010

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set includes data from three waterfowl species (northern pintail, American wdgeon, lesser scaup, green-winged teal and mallard) that were captured in...

  9. Interior-Point Method for Nonlinear Nonconvex Optimization

    Matonoha, Ctirad; Lukšan, Ladislav; Vlček, Jan

    Hamburg : TUHH, 2008. s. 20-20. [GAMM Workshop /8./. 11.09.2008-12.09.2008, Hamburg] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : nonlinear programming * interior point methods * indefinite systems * regularization

  10. Amount of Future Forest Interior at a 2 Hectare Scale

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Forests provide economic and ecological value. High amounts of forest interior indicates a highly connected forest, which generally enhances those economic and...

  11. Dynamical measurements of the interior structure of exoplanets

    Giant gaseous planets often reside on orbits in sufficient proximity to their host stars for the planetary quadrupole gravitational field to become non-negligible. In presence of an additional planetary companion, a precise characterization of the system's orbital state can yield meaningful constraints on the transiting planet's interior structure. However, such methods can require a very specific type of system. This paper explores the dynamic range of applicability of these methods and shows that interior structure calculations are possible for a wide array of orbital architectures. The HAT-P-13 system is used as a case study, and the implications of perturbations arising from a third distant companion on the feasibility of an interior calculation are discussed. We find that the method discussed here is likely to be useful in studying other planetary systems, allowing the possibility of an expanded survey of the interiors of exoplanets.

  12. Local address and emergency contact details

    2013-01-01

    The HR Department would like to remind members of the personnel that they are responsible for ensuring that their personal data concerning local address and preferred emergency contact details remains valid and up-to-date.   Both are easily accessible via the links below: Local address: https://edh.cern.ch/Document/Personnel/LocalAddressChange   Emergency contacts: https://edh.cern.ch/Document/Personnel/EC   Please take a few minutes to check your details and modify if necessary. Thank you in advance. HR Department Head Office

  13. The Memory Palace:Telling the Story of the Interior

    Hollis, Edward

    2012-01-01

    This book chapter originated as an invited keynote paper at the Interior Educators 'Interior Futures 'conference at Northumbria University in 2011. The paper was blind peer revwied for publication. The content of the paper represents a process of reflection on my practice as a writer and the designer of narrative structures and building stories, and in it, for the first time, I was able to articulate the relationship between the narrative structures of my first book 'The Secret Lives of Buil...

  14. Improvement of Interior Ballistic Performance Utilizing Particle Swarm Optimization

    El Sadek, Hazem; Zhang, Xiaobing; Rashad, Mahmoud; Cheng, Cheng

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the interior ballistic propelling charge design using the optimization methods to select the optimum charge design and to improve the interior ballistic performance. The propelling charge consists of a mixture propellant of seven-perforated granular propellant and one-hole tubular propellant. The genetic algorithms and some other evolutionary algorithms have complex evolution operators such as crossover, mutation, encoding, and decoding. These evolution operators have ...

  15. First Record of Diamondback Moth (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) from Interior Alaska

    Populations of Plutella xylostella, the diamondback moth, and subsequent crop damage was detected during 2005 at three locations in interior Alaska (64°50’22N, 148°07’52W; 64°51’22N, 147°51’04W; 64°42’01N, 148°51’42W). This represents the first record of diamondback moth in interior Alaska. Due to...

  16. A Continuation Method for Weakly Contractive Mappings under the Interior Condition

    Ariza-Ruiz David

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, Frigon proved that, for weakly contractive maps, the property of having a fixed point is invariant by a certain class of homotopies, obtaining as a consequence a Leray-Schauder alternative for this class of maps in a Banach space. We prove here that the Leray-Schauder condition in the aforementioned result can be replaced by a modification of it, the interior condition. We also show that our arguments work for a certain class of generalized contractions, thus complementing a result of Agarwal and O'Regan.

  17. Response of Mercury's Magnetosphere to Solar Wind Forcing: Results of Global MHD Simulations with Coupled Planetary Interior

    Jia, Xianzhe; Slavin, James; Poh, Gangkai; Toth, Gabor; Gombosi, Tamas

    2016-04-01

    As the innermost planet, Mercury arguably undergoes the most direct space weathering interactions due to its weak intrinsic magnetic field and its close proximity to the Sun. It has long been suggested that two processes, i.e., erosion of the dayside magnetosphere due to intense magnetopause reconnection and the shielding effect of the induction currents generated at the conducting core, compete against each other in governing the large-scale structure of Mercury's magnetosphere. An outstanding question concerning Mercury's space weather is which of the two processes is more important. To address this question, we have developed a global MHD model in which Mercury's interior is electromagnetically coupled to the surrounding space environment. As demonstrated in Jia et al. (2015), the new modeling capability allows for self-consistently characterizing the dynamical response of the Mercury system to time-varying external conditions. To assess the relative importance of induction and magnetopause reconnection in controlling the magnetospheric configuration, especially under strong solar driving conditions, we have carried out multiple global simulations that adopt a wide range of solar wind dynamic pressure and IMF conditions. We find that, while the magnetopause standoff distance decreases with increasing solar wind pressure, just as expected, its dependence on the solar wind pressure follows closely a power-law relationship with an index of ~ -1/6, rather than a steeper power-law falling-off expected for the case with only induction present. This result suggests that for the range of solar wind conditions examined, the two competing processes, namely induction and reconnection, appear to play equally important roles in determining the global configuration of Mercury's magnetosphere, consistent with the finding obtained by Slavin et al. (2014) based on MESSENGER observations. We also find that the magnetic perturbations produced by the magnetospheric current systems

  18. 43 CFR 35.39 - Appeal to the Secretary of the Interior.

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Appeal to the Secretary of the Interior. 35.39 Section 35.39 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior ADMINISTRATIVE REMEDIES FOR FRAUDULENT CLAIMS AND STATEMENTS § 35.39 Appeal to the Secretary of the Interior. (a)...

  19. Space Acquired Photo = Gemini, Skylab, Shuttle Large Format Camera: 1965 - 1984

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Space Acquired Photography includes imagery from the Shuttle Large Format Camera, Skylab, and Gemini missions. The Space Acquired archive contains...

  20. Scout-view assisted interior micro-CT

    Sharma, Kriti Sen; Holzner, Christian; Vasilescu, Dragoş M.; Jin, Xin; Narayanan, Shree; Agah, Masoud; Hoffman, Eric A.; Yu, Hengyong; Wang, Ge

    2013-06-01

    Micro computed tomography (micro-CT) is a widely-used imaging technique. A challenge of micro-CT is to quantitatively reconstruct a sample larger than the field-of-view (FOV) of the detector. This scenario is characterized by truncated projections and associated image artifacts. However, for such truncated scans, a low resolution scout scan with an increased FOV is frequently acquired so as to position the sample properly. This study shows that the otherwise discarded scout scans can provide sufficient additional information to uniquely and stably reconstruct the interior region of interest. Two interior reconstruction methods are designed to utilize the multi-resolution data without significant computational overhead. While most previous studies used numerically truncated global projections as interior data, this study uses truly hybrid scans where global and interior scans were carried out at different resolutions. Additionally, owing to the lack of standard interior micro-CT phantoms, we designed and fabricated novel interior micro-CT phantoms for this study to provide means of validation for our algorithms. Finally, two characteristic samples from separate studies were scanned to show the effect of our reconstructions. The presented methods show significant improvements over existing reconstruction algorithms.

  1. Scout-view assisted interior micro-CT

    Micro computed tomography (micro-CT) is a widely-used imaging technique. A challenge of micro-CT is to quantitatively reconstruct a sample larger than the field-of-view (FOV) of the detector. This scenario is characterized by truncated projections and associated image artifacts. However, for such truncated scans, a low resolution scout scan with an increased FOV is frequently acquired so as to position the sample properly. This study shows that the otherwise discarded scout scans can provide sufficient additional information to uniquely and stably reconstruct the interior region of interest. Two interior reconstruction methods are designed to utilize the multi-resolution data without significant computational overhead. While most previous studies used numerically truncated global projections as interior data, this study uses truly hybrid scans where global and interior scans were carried out at different resolutions. Additionally, owing to the lack of standard interior micro-CT phantoms, we designed and fabricated novel interior micro-CT phantoms for this study to provide means of validation for our algorithms. Finally, two characteristic samples from separate studies were scanned to show the effect of our reconstructions. The presented methods show significant improvements over existing reconstruction algorithms. (paper)

  2. Interior microelectrolysis oxidation of polyester wastewater and its treatment technology

    This paper has investigated the effects of interior microelectrolysis pretreatment on polyester wastewater treatment and analyzed its mechanism on COD and surfactant removal. The efficiency of interior microelectrolysis is mainly influenced by solution pH, aeration and reaction time. Contaminants can be removed not only by redox reaction and flocculation in the result of ferrous and ferric hydroxides but also by electrophoresis under electric fields created by electron flow. pH confirms the chemical states of surfactants, Fe(II)/Fe(III) ratio and the redox potential, and thus influences the effects of electrophoresis, flocculation and redox action on contaminant removal. Anaerobic and aerobic batch tests were performed to study the degradation of polyester wastewater. The results imply that interior microelectrolysis and anaerobic pretreatment are lacking of effectiveness if applied individually in treating polyester wastewater in spite of their individual advantages. The interior microelectrolysis-anaerobic-aerobic process was investigated to treat polyester wastewater with comparison with interior microelectrolysis-aerobic process and anaerobic-aerobic process. High COD removal efficiencies have been gotten by the combination of interior microelectrolysis with anaerobic technology and aerobic technology. The results also imply that only biological treatment was less effective in polyester wastewater treatment.

  3. Pendokumentasian Aplikasi Ragam Hias Budaya Betawi pada Desain Interior Ruang Publik Cafe Betawi

    Amarena Nediari

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Various ornaments of Indonesia come from the ethnic groups from all over the archipelago. Ornament is a tangible culture which has specific meaning and purposes. Its meaning does not change throughout the ages. Betawi culture has become cultural roots for most people in Jakarta which also as the capital city of Indonesia. Betawi culture is seen in a wide variety of dance, batik, decorative ornaments, and culinary. Betawi ornament can also be seen in the architecture and public areas since the geometrical shape is very easy to apply as interior element. The application of Betawi ornaments in a restaurant interior represents the idea of dining area in Betawi house. The study of Betawi ornaments was conducted by documentation of decorative elements in a restaurant as a public space. Objective of this research is to preserve various ornaments of Betawi culture. So that, the data can be valuable as an inspiration for designing restaurant interior with Betawi style. Generally, value of the ornaments has specific purposes related to Betawis cultural and social customs. Therefore, the application needs to consider more about the purpose of the symbol of the ornament.

  4. Interior Noise Predictions in the Preliminary Design of the Large Civil Tiltrotor (LCTR2)

    Grosveld, Ferdinand W.; Cabell, Randolph H.; Boyd, David D.

    2013-01-01

    A prediction scheme was established to compute sound pressure levels in the interior of a simplified cabin model of the second generation Large Civil Tiltrotor (LCTR2) during cruise conditions, while being excited by turbulent boundary layer flow over the fuselage, or by tiltrotor blade loading and thickness noise. Finite element models of the cabin structure, interior acoustic space, and acoustically absorbent (poro-elastic) materials in the fuselage were generated and combined into a coupled structural-acoustic model. Fluctuating power spectral densities were computed according to the Efimtsov turbulent boundary layer excitation model. Noise associated with the tiltrotor blades was predicted in the time domain as fluctuating surface pressures and converted to power spectral densities at the fuselage skin finite element nodes. A hybrid finite element (FE) approach was used to compute the low frequency acoustic cabin response over the frequency range 6-141 Hz with a 1 Hz bandwidth, and the Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) approach was used to predict the interior noise for the 125-8000 Hz one-third octave bands.

  5. The generation of floor plans with circulation spaces

    I Baybars

    1982-01-01

    Floor plans with interior courtyards, circulation spaces, and prespecified number of exterior rooms, are generated. The approach is graph theoretic, that is, underlying graphs are generated and, then, based on those graphs, the floor plans are constructed.

  6. Census Bureau Planned Acquisition: Address Data

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The Census Bureau updates and maintains address data to support the correct allocation of population and housing for censuses and surveys. Boundaries, streets,...

  7. Addressing Your Child's Weight at the Doctor

    ... Beverage Toolkit Addressing your Child's Weight at the Doctor Updated:Aug 4,2014 The discussion of weight ... tips on how to make talking with your doctor about weight and childhood obesity less daunting: Come ...

  8. Radiation and occupational health: opening address

    The part of address discusses the following issue: benefits of radiological protection in Malaysia, traceability and accountability as assurance of the validity of radiation measurement, Laboratory Accreditation Scheme, Atomic Energy Licensing Act

  9. Address Points, Published in unknown, SWGRC.

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Address Points dataset as of unknown. Data by this publisher are often provided in Geographic coordinate system; in a Not Sure projection; The extent of these...

  10. Measuring the Density Matrix by Local Addressing

    Kis, Z

    2001-01-01

    We introduce a procedure to measure the density matrix of a material system. The density matrix is addressed locally in this scheme by applying a sequence of delayed light pulses. The procedure is based on the stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP) technique. It is shown that a series of population measurements on the target state of the population transfer process yields unambiguous information about the populations and coherences of the addressed states, which therefore can be determined.

  11. Instrument Mixes Addressing Mercury Emissions to Air

    OECD

    2007-01-01

    This study deals with "instruments used to address mercury emissions to air", by which is meant all legislation, regulation and other measures intended to control or reduce anthropogenic, atmospheric mercury emissions. As the links are complex between actual inputs of mercury to society (consumption for intended use and mobilisation of mercury-impurities via industrial processes) and the final release sources, all types of measures addressing any phase in the life-cycle of mercury which may u...

  12. Addressing non-tariff measures in ASEAN

    Gloria O. Pasadilla

    2013-01-01

    Intra-ASEAN trade has increased six-fold since 1993 but greater integration challenge looms in addressing non-tariff measures. The paper discusses the various ASEAN work programs on NTMs and assesses the incidence of Members' NTMs on various products. Various ways of accelerating the reduction of non-tariff barriers are discussed, including dispute settlement mechanisms. The paper highlights the importance of a unilateral approach in addressing NTMs and the use of regulatory impact analysis t...

  13. Addressing Non-tariff Measures in ASEAN

    Gloria O. Pasadilla

    2013-01-01

    Intra-ASEAN trade has increased six-fold since 1993 but greater integration challenge looms in addressing non-tariff measures. The paper discusses the various ASEAN work programs on NTMs and assesses the incidence of Members‘ NTMs on various products. Various ways of accelerating the reduction of non-tariff barriers are discussed, including dispute settlement mechanisms. The paper highlights the importance of a unilateral approach in addressing NTMs and the use of regulatory impact analysis t...

  14. FPGA Implementation of Content Addressable Memory

    A. M. V. Pathi; M. Premchand; Ramesh Chandra; B. Prudhvi Raj

    2013-01-01

    Content Addressable Memory (CAM) is a special type of computer memory used in certain very high speed searching applications. It is also known as associative memory or associative storage or associative array. Content Addressable Memory (CAM) is frequently used in applications, such as lookup tables, databases, associative computing and networking, that requires high-speed searches due to its ability to improve application performance by using parallel comparison to reduce search time. Althou...

  15. Address Points, address, Published in 2008, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Juab County.

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Address Points dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2008. It is described as 'address'....

  16. Space tourism risks: A space insurance perspective

    Bensoussan, Denis

    2010-06-01

    Space transportation is inherently risky to humans, whether they are trained astronauts or paying tourists, given that spaceflight is still in its relative infancy. However, this is easy to forget when subjected to the hype often associated with space tourism and the ventures seeking to enter that market. The development of commercial spaceflight constitutes a challenge as much as a great opportunity to the insurance industry as new risks emerge and standards, policies and procedures to minimise/mitigate and cover them still to be engineered. Therefore the creation of a viable and affordable insurance regime for future space tourists is a critical step in the development of a real space tourism market to address burning risk management issues that may otherwise ultimately hamper this nascent industry before it has a chance to prove itself.

  17. Mars: interior structure and excitation of free oscillations

    Gudkova, T. V.; Zharkov, V. N.

    2004-05-01

    Based on available chemical models of the planet [Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London 349 (1994) 285; Supply and loss of volatile constituents during the accretion of terrestrial planets, in: S.K. Attreya, J.B. Pollack, M.S. Matthews (Eds.), Origin and Evolution of Planetary and Satellite Atmospheres, Univ. Arizona Press, pp. 268-288; Icarus 126 (1997) 373; Phys. Earth Planet. Inter. 112 (1999) 43; Space Sci. Rev. 92 (2000) 34], a new set of global models of the Martian interior has been constructed. A model comprises four submodels—a model of the outer porous layer, a model of the crust, a model of the mantle and a model of the core. The first 10-11 km layer is considered as an averaged transition from regolith to consolidated rock. The mineral composition of the crustal basaltic rock varies with depth because of the gabbro-eclogite phase transition. As a starting point for mantle modeling the experimental data obtained by Bertka and Fei [J. Geophys. Res. 102 (1997) 525; Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 157 (1998) 79] along the areotherm have been used, iron content of the mantle being varied. The measured or estimated up to now elastic properties for a set of mantle minerals are used. Seismic velocities determined from new high P- T data on elastic properties are 2-3% lower than the velocities calculated earlier. New high P-T measurements of the density of Fe (γ-Fe), FeS and FeH enable us to refine the core model. Taking into account available chemical models and the fact that noticeable amount of hydrogen could enter the Martian core during its formation [Solar Syst. Res., 30 (1996) 456], such parameters as a ferric number of the mantle (Fe#), sulfur and hydrogen content in the core are varied. The following tendency is seen: the presence of hydrogen leads to the increase of the Fe/Si ratio and decreases Fe# in the mantle due to the increase of the core radius. The higher sulfur and hydrogen content in the core and the smaller mantle Fe#, the less likely a perovskite layer

  18. Interior Layered Deposits in Tithonium Chasma Reveal Diverse Compositions

    2008-01-01

    This image of layered deposits in Tithonium Chasma was taken by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) at 1537 UTC (11:37 a.m. EDT) on August 31, 2007, near 5.0 degrees south latitude, 270.3 degrees east longitude. CRISM's image was taken in 544 colors covering 0.36-3.92 micrometers, and shows features as small as 20 meters (66 feet) across. The region covered is just over 8.5 kilometers (5.3 miles) wide at its narrowest point. Tithonium Chasma lies at the western end of the Valles Marineris canyon system. It extends approximately east-west for roughly 810 kilometers (503 miles), varies in width from approximately 10 to 110 kilometers (6 to 68 miles), and cuts into the Martian surface to a maximum depth of roughly 6 kilometers (4 miles). Many of the canyon-forming processes found on Mars are readily illustrated in Tithonium Chasma. These features offer a window into the geologic history of the planet. Landslides have enlarged the canyon's walls and formed debris deposits that ring the trough's interior. The chasma's floor is composed of layered deposits which may be volcanic or sedimentary in origin. One of CRISM's tasks is to determine the mineralogy of these deposits. The top panel in the montage above shows the location of the CRISM image on a mosaic taken by the Mars Odyssey spacecraft's Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS). The CRISM data covers an eroded terrace of these interior layered deposits, and is centered along the edge of a knob of eroded wall material just to the southwest. The lower two images are renderings of data draped over topography without vertical exaggeration. These images provide a view of the knob's elevation relative to the surrounding terrain. The lower left image is in infrared false color, and shows light-colored material exposed on the flanks of the layered deposits. The upper right image shows measures of the strengths of different mineral signatures in the red, green, and blue image planes, and

  19. 41 CFR 102-79.35 - What elements must Federal agencies address in their planning effort for establishing fitness...

    2010-07-01

    ... Federal agencies address in their planning effort for establishing fitness programs? 102-79.35 Section 102... Utilization of Space Fitness Centers § 102-79.35 What elements must Federal agencies address in their planning effort for establishing fitness programs? Federal agencies must address the following elements in...

  20. The Field of Welfare Work Addressing "the immigrant" since 1970

    Øland, Trine

    The main objective of this paper is to present and discuss preliminary results of the research project “The space of professional interventions and agents addressing ”the immigrant” in Denmark 1970- ”. The paper will clarify the way in which different groups of welfare state professionals act......, assess and facilitate processes around “the immigrant” on behalf of the public interest. The research question guiding the paper is: What characterises the variety of welfare state work and welfare state professionals engaged in interventions targeting “the immigrant” since 1970, and what activities...

  1. 46 CFR 67.113 - Managing owner designation; address; requirement to report change of address.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Managing owner designation; address; requirement to... Required for Vessel Documentation § 67.113 Managing owner designation; address; requirement to report change of address. The owner of each vessel must designate a managing owner on the Application...

  2. IP address management : augmenting Sandia's capabilities through open source tools.

    Nayar, R. Daniel

    2005-08-01

    Internet Protocol (IP) address management is an increasingly growing concern at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the networking community as a whole. The current state of the available IP addresses indicates that they are nearly exhausted. Currently SNL doesn't have the justification to obtain more IP address space from Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA). There must exist a local entity to manage and allocate IP assignments efficiently. Ongoing efforts at Sandia have been in the form of a multifunctional database application notably known as Network Information System (NWIS). NWIS is a database responsible for a multitude of network administrative services including IP address management. This study will explore the feasibility of augmenting NWIS's IP management capabilities utilizing open source tools. Modifications of existing capabilities to better allocate available IP address space are studied.

  3. Technology Solutions Case Study: Impact of Infiltration and Ventilation on Measured Space Conditioning Energy and Moisture Levels in the Hot-Humid Climate

    None

    2014-04-01

    Air infiltration and ventilation in residential buildings is a very large part of the heating loads, but empirical data regarding the impact on space cooling has been lacking. Moreover, there has been little data on how building tightness might relate to building interior moisture levels in homes in a hot and humid climate. To address this need, BA-PIRC conducted research to assess the moisture and cooling load impacts of airtightness and mechanical ventilation in two identical laboratory homes in the hot-humid climate over the cooling season.

  4. Impact of Infiltration and Ventilation on Measured Space Conditioning Energy and Moisture Levels in the Hot-Humid Climate, Cocoa, Florida (Fact Sheet)

    2014-04-01

    Air infiltration and ventilation in residential buildings is a very large part of the heating loads, but empirical data regarding the impact on space cooling has been lacking. Moreover, there has been little data on how building tightness might relate to building interior moisture levels in homes in a hot and humid climate. To address this need, BA-PIRC has conducted research to assess the moisture and cooling load impacts of airtightness and mechanical ventilation in two identical laboratory homes in the hot-humid climate over the cooling season. ​

  5. Interior crises in quasiperiodically forced period-doubling systems

    As a representative model for quasiperiodically forced period-doubling systems, we consider the quasiperiodically forced logistic map, and investigate the dynamical mechanism for the interior crises. For small quasiperiodic forcing ε, a chaotic attractor abruptly widens via a 'standard' interior crisis when it collides with a smooth unstable torus. However, as ε passes a threshold value, the smooth unstable torus loses its accessibility from the interior of the basin of the attractor. For this case, we use the rational approximation to the quasiperiodic forcing, and find that a nonstandard interior crisis occurs for a nonchaotic attractor (smooth torus or strange nonchaotic attractor) as well as a chaotic attractor when it collides with an invariant 'ring-shaped' unstable set. Particularly, we note that a three-band smooth torus transforms into a single-band intermittent strange nonchaotic attractor through the nonstandard interior crisis. The intermittent strange nonchaotic attractor is also characterized in terms of the average interburst time and the local Lyapunov exponent

  6. Improvement of Interior Ballistic Performance Utilizing Particle Swarm Optimization

    Hazem El Sadek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the interior ballistic propelling charge design using the optimization methods to select the optimum charge design and to improve the interior ballistic performance. The propelling charge consists of a mixture propellant of seven-perforated granular propellant and one-hole tubular propellant. The genetic algorithms and some other evolutionary algorithms have complex evolution operators such as crossover, mutation, encoding, and decoding. These evolution operators have a bad performance represented in convergence speed and accuracy of the solution. Hence, the particle swarm optimization technique is developed. It is carried out in conjunction with interior ballistic lumped-parameter model with the mixture propellant. This technique is applied to both single-objective and multiobjective problems. In the single-objective problem, the optimization results are compared with genetic algorithm and the experimental results. The particle swarm optimization introduces a better performance of solution quality and convergence speed. In the multiobjective problem, the feasible region provides a set of available choices to the charge’s designer. Hence, a linear analysis method is adopted to give an appropriate set of the weight coefficients for the objective functions. The results of particle swarm optimization improved the interior ballistic performance and provided a modern direction for interior ballistic propelling charge design of guided projectile.

  7. The Stellar Imager (SI) - A Mission to Resolve Stellar Surfaces, Interiors, and Magnetic Activity

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jørgen; Carpenter, Kenneth G.; Schrijver, Carolus J.; Karovska, Margarita; Si Team

    2011-01-01

    The Stellar Imager (SI) is a space-based, UV/Optical Interferometer (UVOI) designed to enable 0.1 milli-arcsecond (mas) spectral imaging of stellar surfaces and of the Universe in general. It will also probe via asteroseismology flows and structures in stellar interiors. SI will enable the development and testing of a predictive dynamo model for the Sun, by observing patterns of surface activity and imaging of the structure and differential rotation of stellar interiors in a population study of Sun-like stars to determine the dependence of dynamo action on mass, internal structure and flows, and time. SI's science focuses on the role of magnetism in the Universe and will revolutionize our understanding of the formation of planetary systems, of the habitability and climatology of distant planets, and of many magneto-hydrodynamically controlled processes in the Universe. SI is a "Landmark/Discovery Mission" in the 2005 Heliophysics Roadmap, an implementation of the UVOI in the 2006 Astrophysics Strategic Plan, and a NASA Vision Mission ("NASA Space Science Vision Missions" (2008), ed. M. Allen). We present here the science goals of the SI Mission, a mission architecture that could meet those goals, and the technology development needed to enable this mission. Additional information on SI can be found at: http://hires.gsfc.nasa.gov/si/.

  8. Well-posedness of the conductivity reconstruction from an interior current density in terms of Schauder theory

    Kim, Yong-Jung

    2015-06-23

    We show the well-posedness of the conductivity image reconstruction problem with a single set of interior electrical current data and boundary conductivity data. Isotropic conductivity is considered in two space dimensions. Uniqueness for similar conductivity reconstruction problems has been known for several cases. However, the existence and the stability are obtained in this paper for the first time. The main tool of the proof is the method of characteristics of a related curl equation.

  9. Sources and sinks of carbon in boreal ecosystems of interior Alaska: a review

    Douglas, Thomas A.; Jones, Miriam C.; Hiemstra, Christopher A.

    2014-01-01

    Boreal regions store large quantities of carbon but are increasingly vulnerable to carbon loss due to disturbance and climate warming. The boreal region, underlain by discontinuous permafrost, presents a challenging landscape for itemizing current and potential carbon sources and sinks in the boreal soil and vegetation. The roles of fire, forest succession, and the presence (or absence) of permafrost on carbon cycle, vegetation, and hydrologic processes have been the focus of multidisciplinary research in this area for the past 20 years. However, projections of a warming future climate, an increase in fire severity and extent, and the potential degradation of permafrost could lead to major landscape process changes over the next 20 to 50 years. This provides a major challenge for predicting how the interplay between land management activities and impacts of climate warming will affect carbon sources and sinks in Interior Alaska. To assist land managers in adapting and managing for potential changes in the Interior Alaska carbon cycle we developed this review paper incorporating an overview of the climate, ecosystem processes, vegetation types, and soil regimes in Interior Alaska with a focus on ramifications for the carbon cycle. Our objective is to provide a synthesis of the most current carbon storage estimates and measurements to support policy and land management decisions on how to best manage carbon sources and sinks in Interior Alaska. To support this we have surveyed relevant peer reviewed estimates of carbon stocks in aboveground and belowground biomass for Interior Alaska boreal ecosystems. We have also summarized methane and carbon dioxide fluxes from the same ecosystems. These data have been converted into the same units to facilitate comparison across ecosystem compartments. We identify potential changes in the carbon cycle with climate change and human disturbance including how compounding disturbances can affect the boreal system. Finally, we provide

  10. Strategies for Addressing Spreadsheet Compliance Challenges

    Weber, Brandon

    2006-01-01

    Most organizations today use spreadsheets in some form or another to support critical business processes. However the financial resources, and developmental rigor dedicated to them are often minor in comparison to other enterprise technology. The increasing focus on achieving regulatory and other forms of compliance over key technology assets has made it clear that organizations must regard spreadsheets as an enterprise resource and account for them when developing an overall compliance strategy. This paper provides the reader with a set of practical strategies for addressing spreadsheet compliance from an organizational perspective. It then presents capabilities offered in the 2007 Microsoft Office System which can be used to help customers address compliance challenges.

  11. Addressing techniques of liquid crystal displays

    Ruckmongathan, Temkar N

    2014-01-01

    Unique reference source that can be used from the beginning to end of a design project to aid choosing an appropriate LCD addressing technique for a given application This book will be aimed at design engineers who are likely to embed LCD drivers and controllers in many systems including systems on chip. Such designers face the challenge of making the right choice of an addressing technique that will serve them with best performance at minimal cost and complexity. Readers will be able to learn about various methods available for driving matrix LCDs and the comparisons at the end of each chap

  12. Welfare work addressing immigrants and refugees

    Øland, Trine

    integrationist visions in their quest to protect immigrants’ and refugees’ fundamental wellbeing and status as human beings with equal rights, group life and history. These opposing elements generate ambiguity and contradiction within integrationist welfare work. The ambition of the presentation is to enquire......In this presentation I will discuss the ways in which welfare workers addressing immigrants and refugees (re)produce integrationist visions, symbolizing society as an integrated whole and immigrants/refugees as a distraction to that whole. Paradoxically, welfare workers also oppose these......, nurses and more) addressing immigrants and refugees and their families and descendants in the Danish welfare nation-state....

  13. Wireless Communications in Space

    2004-01-01

    In 1992, NASA and the U.S. Department of Defense jointly commissioned the research and development of a technology solution to address the challenges and requirements of communicating with their spacecraft. The project yielded an international consortium composed of representatives from the space science community, industry, and academia. This group of experts developed a broad suite of protocols specifically designed for space-based communications, known today as Space Communications Protocol Standards (SCPS). Having been internationally standardized by the Consultative Committee on Space Data Systems and the International Standards Organization, SCPS is distributed as open source technology by NASA s Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). The protocols are used for every national space mission that takes place today.

  14. Atmosphere-interior exchange on hot rocky exoplanets

    Kite, Edwin S; Schaefer, Laura; Gaidos, Eric

    2016-01-01

    We provide estimates of atmospheric pressure and surface composition on short-period rocky exoplanets with dayside magma pools and silicate vapor atmospheres. Atmospheric pressure tends toward vapor-pressure equilibrium with surface magma, and magma-surface composition is set by the competing effects of fractional vaporization and surface-interior exchange. We use basic models to show how surface-interior exchange is controlled by the planet's temperature, mass, and initial composition. We assume that mantle rock undergoes bulk melting to form the magma pool, and that winds flow radially away from the substellar point. With these assumptions, we find that: (1) atmosphere-interior exchange is fast when the planet's bulk-silicate FeO concentration is low, and slow when FeO concentration is high; (2) magma pools are compositionally well-mixed for substellar temperatures $\\lesssim$ 2400 K, but compositionally variegated and rapidly variable for substellar temperatures $\\gtrsim$ 2400 K; (3) currents within the mag...

  15. Spatial Analysts of Interior “Soft Decoration”%家居"软装"空间探析

    曹玉飞

    2011-01-01

    解读了家居"软装"空间的定义,分析出"软装饰"可达到藏拙露巧、空间重划、空间重组、空间填充的目的,从而弥补家庭硬质装修的不足,起到细化家居空间、完善家居空间功能等作用.说明"轻装修、重装饰"将是家居装修新的发展方向.%By interpreting the definition of “soft decoration”, this study puts forward that such a decoration way can keep the weakness unexposed, highlight the smart designs, re-divide and recombine interior spaces and fill empty spaces, so that deficiencies of hard decoration in a house can be made up, by playing the role of soft decoration in refining interior spaces and improving their functions. Moreover, it is proposed that “devoting less in hard decoration but more in soft decoration” will be a new trend of interior decoration.

  16. A feature refinement approach for statistical interior CT reconstruction.

    Hu, Zhanli; Zhang, Yunwan; Liu, Jianbo; Ma, Jianhua; Zheng, Hairong; Liang, Dong

    2016-07-21

    Interior tomography is clinically desired to reduce the radiation dose rendered to patients. In this work, a new statistical interior tomography approach for computed tomography is proposed. The developed design focuses on taking into account the statistical nature of local projection data and recovering fine structures which are lost in the conventional total-variation (TV)-minimization reconstruction. The proposed method falls within the compressed sensing framework of TV minimization, which only assumes that the interior ROI is piecewise constant or polynomial and does not need any additional prior knowledge. To integrate the statistical distribution property of projection data, the objective function is built under the criteria of penalized weighed least-square (PWLS-TV). In the implementation of the proposed method, the interior projection extrapolation based FBP reconstruction is first used as the initial guess to mitigate truncation artifacts and also provide an extended field-of-view. Moreover, an interior feature refinement step, as an important processing operation is performed after each iteration of PWLS-TV to recover the desired structure information which is lost during the TV minimization. Here, a feature descriptor is specifically designed and employed to distinguish structure from noise and noise-like artifacts. A modified steepest descent algorithm is adopted to minimize the associated objective function. The proposed method is applied to both digital phantom and in vivo Micro-CT datasets, and compared to FBP, ART-TV and PWLS-TV. The reconstruction results demonstrate that the proposed method performs better than other conventional methods in suppressing noise, reducing truncated and streak artifacts, and preserving features. The proposed approach demonstrates its potential usefulness for feature preservation of interior tomography under truncated projection measurements. PMID:27362527

  17. A feature refinement approach for statistical interior CT reconstruction

    Hu, Zhanli; Zhang, Yunwan; Liu, Jianbo; Ma, Jianhua; Zheng, Hairong; Liang, Dong

    2016-07-01

    Interior tomography is clinically desired to reduce the radiation dose rendered to patients. In this work, a new statistical interior tomography approach for computed tomography is proposed. The developed design focuses on taking into account the statistical nature of local projection data and recovering fine structures which are lost in the conventional total-variation (TV)—minimization reconstruction. The proposed method falls within the compressed sensing framework of TV minimization, which only assumes that the interior ROI is piecewise constant or polynomial and does not need any additional prior knowledge. To integrate the statistical distribution property of projection data, the objective function is built under the criteria of penalized weighed least-square (PWLS-TV). In the implementation of the proposed method, the interior projection extrapolation based FBP reconstruction is first used as the initial guess to mitigate truncation artifacts and also provide an extended field-of-view. Moreover, an interior feature refinement step, as an important processing operation is performed after each iteration of PWLS-TV to recover the desired structure information which is lost during the TV minimization. Here, a feature descriptor is specifically designed and employed to distinguish structure from noise and noise-like artifacts. A modified steepest descent algorithm is adopted to minimize the associated objective function. The proposed method is applied to both digital phantom and in vivo Micro-CT datasets, and compared to FBP, ART-TV and PWLS-TV. The reconstruction results demonstrate that the proposed method performs better than other conventional methods in suppressing noise, reducing truncated and streak artifacts, and preserving features. The proposed approach demonstrates its potential usefulness for feature preservation of interior tomography under truncated projection measurements.

  18. How Sociology Texts Address Gun Control

    Tonso, William R.

    2004-01-01

    William R. Tonso has chosen an issue that he knows something about to examine how sociology textbooks address controversy. Appealing for gun control is fashionable, but it is at odds with a fondness that ordinary Americans have for their firearms--one that is supported by a growing body of research on deterrence to crime. There are two sides to…

  19. The Conversational Frame in Public Address.

    Branham, Robert James; Pearce, W. Barnett

    1996-01-01

    Explores the diverse forms and motives of the conversational frame in public address. Argues that, by framing their remarks and transactions with their listeners as conversational, orators may attempt to reconstruct or seem to reconstruct speaker-audience relationships and to position themselves and their audiences within networks of reciprocal…

  20. Registering Names and Addresses for Information Technology.

    Knapp, Arthur A.

    The identification of administrative authorities and the development of associated procedures for registering and accessing names and addresses of communications data systems are considered in this paper. It is noted that, for data communications systems using standards based on the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Reference Model specified by…

  1. IP Address Use in Internetworking Routing

    2003-01-01

    tut quiz present anim This interactive tutorial covers the following: How routers use the elements of the IP address to forward packets of information., How information travels through the Internet.The interactions consists of pop-up definitions of terms, animations and self-check questions. EC3760 Introduction to Information Operations Engineering

  2. 37 CFR 301.2 - Official addresses.

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 301.2 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT ROYALTY BOARD, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS GENERAL...., and be addressed as follows: Copyright Royalty Board, Library of Congress, James Madison Memorial... Royalty Board, Library of Congress, James Madison Memorial Building, 101 Independence Avenue,...

  3. Addressing Issues Related to Technology and Engineering

    Technology Teacher, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Michael Hacker and David Burghardt, codirectors of Hoftra University's Center for Technological Literacy. Hacker and Burghardt address issues related to technology and engineering. They argue that teachers need to be aware of the problems kids are facing, and how to present these problems in an engaging…

  4. Addressing production stops in the food industry

    Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee; Herbert, Luke Thomas; Jacobsen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the challenges in the food industry which causes the production lines to stop, illustrated by a case study of an SME size company in the baked goods sector in Denmark. The paper proposes key elements this sector needs to be aware of to effectively address production stops......, and gives examples of the unique challenges faced by the SME food industry....

  5. Addressing South Africa's Engineering Skills Gaps

    Hall, Jonathan; Sandelands, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to provide a case study of how engineering skills gaps are being addressed by Murray & Roberts in South Africa. Design/methodology/approach: The paper focuses on skills challenges in South Africa from a reflective practitioner perspective, exploring a case example from an industry leader. Findings: The paper explores how…

  6. Road Map to Address Cognitive Health

    2014-06-09

    In this podcast, CDC’s Dr. Lynda Anderson highlights the important roles that states and communities can play in addressing cognitive health as part of overall health.  Created: 6/9/2014 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 6/9/2014.

  7. 37 CFR 251.1 - Official addresses.

    2010-07-01

    ... ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES AND PROCEDURES COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES OF PROCEDURE... Copyright Arbitration Royalty Panels (CARPs) must be addressed as follows: (a) If hand delivered by a... Friday between 8:30 a.m. and 5 p.m. (b) If hand delivered by a commercial courier (excluding...

  8. Addressing Student Debt in the Classroom

    Perkins, David; Johnston, Tim; Lytle, Rick

    2016-01-01

    Student debt is a national concern. The authors address debt in the classroom to enhance students' understanding of the consequences of debt and the need for caution when financing their education. However, student feedback indicates this understanding has a delayed effect on borrowing behavior and underscores the importance of making difficult…

  9. Conference on Boundary and Interior Layers : Computational and Asymptotic Methods

    2015-01-01

    This volume offers contributions reflecting a selection of the lectures presented at the international conference BAIL 2014, which was held from 15th to 19th September 2014 at the Charles University in Prague, Czech Republic. These are devoted to the theoretical and/or numerical analysis of problems involving boundary and interior layers and methods for solving these problems numerically. The authors are both mathematicians (pure and applied) and engineers, and bring together a large number of interesting ideas. The wide variety of topics treated in the contributions provides an excellent overview of current research into the theory and numerical solution of problems involving boundary and interior layers.  .

  10. Qualidade do ar interior em instalações desportivas

    Marques, Liliana Rute Dias

    2013-01-01

    A Qualidade do Ar Interior (QAI) tem vindo a despertar cada vez mais o interesse da comunidade científica, pelo facto das sociedades modernas passarem a grande maioria do seu dia em ambientes interiores, sendo o ar que respiramos um fator determinante na saúde e bem-estar do ser humano. Os indivíduos que praticam desporto estão em particular risco de inalar poluentes, não só porque durante a atividade desportiva estão sujeitos a maiores taxas de consumo de ar mas também ao f...

  11. The effect of interior aircraft noise on pilot performance.

    Lindvall, Johan; Västfjall, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    This study examined the effect of the interior sounds of an aircraft cockpit on ratings of affect and expected performance decrement. While exposed to 12 interior aircraft sounds, of which half were modified to correspond to what is experienced with an active noise reduction (ANR) headset, 23 participants rated their affective reactions and how they believed their performance on various tasks would be affected. The results suggest that implementation of ANR-technique has a positive effect on ratings of expected performance. In addition, affective reactions to the noise are related to ratings of expected performance. The implications of these findings for both research and pilot performance are discussed. PMID:24032324

  12. Seismic Study of Magnetic Field in the Solar Interior

    H. M. Antia

    2008-03-01

    Magnetic field in the solar interior contributes to the even order splitting coefficients, but it is not possible to separate the effect of magnetic field from those due to other deviations from spherical symmetry. Results obtained using GONG and MDI data are discussed. Limits on possible magnetic field in the solar core and in the tachocline region are obtained. There is some signal from possible magnetic field in the convection zone, but evidence of possible temporal variation in the solar interior is only marginal.

  13. Evaluation of physical protection elements for interior applications

    Considerable emphasis has been given in recent years to the threat of sabotage or theft by an insider at nuclear facilities, a threat inherently different from that by outsiders. Special safeguards compatible with facility operations, safety, and maintenance programs are needed to counter the insider's unique knowledge and access to vital material and equipment. To help identify elements that meet these needs, field evaluations were performed on an interior access control system, piping sensors, interior video motion detectors, and valve monitoring devices. Both technical and operational evaluation data were obtained from tests in a realistic operating environment. Safeguards elements and operational test results and evaluations are described

  14. Diffeomorphisms having rotation sets with non-empty interior

    In 1991 Llibre and MacKay proved that if f is a 2-torus homeomorphism isotopic to identity and the rotation set of f has a non-empty interior then f has positive topological entropy. Here, we give a partial converse theorem. We show that the interior of the rotation set of a 2-torus C1+α diffeomorphism isotopic to identity of positive topological entropy is not empty, under the additional hypothesis that f has a suitable finite covering that is topologically transitive. We also give examples that show that these hypotheses are necessary

  15. Distributed Interior-point Method for Loosely Coupled Problems

    Pakazad, Sina Khoshfetrat; Hansson, Anders; Andersen, Martin Skovgaard

    require many iterations to converge. In order to alleviate this issue, we propose algorithms that combine the Newton and interior-point methods with proximal splitting methods for solving such problems. Particularly, the algorithm for solving unconstrained loosely coupled problems, is based on Newton......’s method and utilizes proximal splitting to distribute the computations for calculating the Newton step at each iteration. A combination of this algorithm and the interior-point method is then used to introduce a distributed algorithm for solving constrained loosely coupled problems. We also provide...

  16. The history of space exploration

    Collins, Martin J.; Kraemer, Sylvia K.

    1994-01-01

    Presented are the acknowledgements and introduction sections of the book 'Space: Discovery and Exploration.' The goal of the book is to address some basic questions of American space history, including how this history compares with previous eras of exploration, why the space program was initiated when it was, and how the U.S. space program developed. In pursuing these questions, the intention is not to provide exhaustive answers, but to point the reader toward a more varied picture of how our venture in space has intersected with American government, politics, business, and science.

  17. Functions in the space R2(E at boundary points of the interior

    Edwin Wolf

    1983-01-01

    Full Text Available Let E be a compact subset of the complex plane ℂ. We denote by R(E the algebra consisting of (the restrictions to E of rational functions with poles off E. Let m denote 2-dimensional Lebesgue measure. For p≥1, let Rp(E be the closure of R(E in Lp(E,dm.

  18. SPACE ANTHROPOMORPHOUS ROBOTS APPLICATION PROBLEMS

    Лопота, А. В.; Кондратьев, А. С.; ТИМОФЕЕВ А.Н.; Шардыко, И. В.

    2015-01-01

    The Space Robotics has two main areas of interest: Orbital Robotics and Planetary Rovers. Orbital Robotics includes manipulation and mobility for scenarios such as International Space Station operations and satellite servicing. Planetary Rovers address scenarios such as Mars and lunar exploration from mobile robot on the surface. Humanoid robots could be useful for future dangerous missions. In this paper reviews tendencies of the development of space robotics, special attention is given to t...

  19. The Attitudes of Interior Design Students towards Sustainability

    Ruff, Caimen Leigh; Olson, Margot A.

    2009-01-01

    To measure attitudes toward environmental issues, interior design students responded to a four-part survey: demographics, ecology, sustainability, and comments. The ecology section was composed of modifications of questions from the New Ecological Paradigm Scale (Dunlap et al. "Journal of Environmental Education," 9:10-19, 2000). The researchers…

  20. HF Doppler Acoustic Imaging of the Ocean Surface and Interior

    Pinkel, Robert; Smith, Jerome A.

    2004-11-01

    HF phased array Doppler sonar represents a new tool for obtaining Three-dimensional (r,q,t) images of the oceanic surface and interior velocity field. While the capabilities of the approach are unique, the design constraints are also unusual. Examples of both are presented in this work.

  1. Some Geometric Inequalities Relating to an Interior Point in Triangle

    Wu, Yu-Dong; Zhang, Zhi-Hua; Liang, Chun-Lei

    2010-01-01

    In this short note, by using one of Li and Liu's theorems [K.-H. Li, "The solution of CIQ. 39," "Commun. Stud. Inequal." 11(1) (2004), p. 162 (in Chinese)], "s-R-r" method, Cauchy's inequality and the theory of convex function, we solve some geometric inequalities conjectures relating to an interior point in triangle. (Contains 1 figure.)

  2. THE INTERIOR LAYER SOLUTION TO NONLOCAL REACTION DIFFUSION EQUATIONS

    2011-01-01

    An initial boundary value problem of semilinear nonlocal reaction diffusion equations is considered.Under some suitable conditions,using the asymptotic theory,the existence and asymptotic behavior of the interior layer solution to the initial boundary value problem are studied.

  3. Hygrothermal Performance Study of an Innovative Interior Thermal Insulation System

    Pavlík, Zbyšek; Černý, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Hygrothermal Performance Study of an Innovative Interior Thermal Insulation System correspondance: Corresponding author. Tel.: +420 2 2435 4429; fax: +420 2 2435 4446. (Cerny, Robert) (Cerny, Robert) Czech Technical University in Prague--> , Faculty of Civil Engineering--> , Department of Materials Engineering and Chemistry--> , Thakurova 7--> , 166 29 Prague 6--> - CZECH REPUBLIC...

  4. Exact solution for the interior of a black hole

    T.M. Nieuwenhuizen

    2008-01-01

    Within the Relativistic Theory of Gravitation it is shown that the equation of state p = rho holds near the center of a black hole. For the stiff equation of state p = rho - rho(c) the interior metric is solved exactly. It is matched with the Schwarzschild metric, which is deformed in a narrow range

  5. The Integration of Interior Architecture Education with Digital Design Approaches

    Yazicioglu, Deniz Ayse

    2011-01-01

    It is inevitable that as a result of progress in technology and the changes in the ways with which design is conceived, interior architecture schools should be updated according to these requirements and that new educational processes should be tried out. It is for this reason that the scope and aim of this study have been determined as being the…

  6. Beacons - serveis de proximitat: sistema de posicionament a interiors

    Ariñez Soriano, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    El projecte tracta sobre el posicionament en interiors utilitzant una combinació de les tecnologies WiFi i Bluetooth Low Energy combinades amb l'algorisme de fingerprint i Support Vector Machines. Project is about indoor positioning system using a combination of technologies WiFi and Bluetooth Low Energy combinates with fingerprint algorithm and Support Vector Machines.

  7. NASTRAN application for the prediction of aircraft interior noise

    Marulo, Francesco; Beyer, Todd B.

    1987-08-01

    The application of a structural-acoustic analogy within the NASTRAN finite element program for the prediction of aircraft interior noise is presented. Some refinements of the method, which reduce the amount of computation required for large, complex structures, are discussed. Also, further improvements are proposed and preliminary comparisons with structural and acoustic modal data obtained for a large, composite cylinder are presented.

  8. Clothing and Interiors, Production and Services. Ohio's Competency Analysis Profile.

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    Developed through a modified DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) process involving business, industry, labor, and community agency representatives in Ohio, this document is a comprehensive and verified employer competency profile for occupations in clothing, fashion merchandising, and interior design. The list contains units (with and without…

  9. Isolated neutron stars and studies of their interiors

    Popov, S B

    2011-01-01

    In these lectures presented at Baikal summer school on physics of elementary particles and astrophysics 2011, I present a wide view of neutron star astrophysics with special attention paid to young isolated compact objects and studies of the properties of neutron star interiors using astronomical methods.

  10. Radon measurements in the interior of the great pyramid

    Radon concentration measurements were made in the interior of the great pyramid of ''Cheops'' at Giza. Measurements were carried out using CR-39 as a solid state nuclear track detector. The CR-39 sheets were placed inside the Queen's and King's chambers and along the ascending corridor leading to them. An evaluation of the radon concentration is presented and discussed. (author)

  11. Modelling of Building Interiors with Mobile Phone Sensor Data

    Julian Rosser

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Creating as-built plans of building interiors is a challenging task. In this paper we present a semi-automatic modelling system for creating residential building interior plans and their integration with existing map data to produce building models. Taking a set of imprecise measurements made with an interactive mobile phone room mapping application, the system performs spatial adjustments in accordance with soft and hard constraints imposed on the building plan geometry. The approach uses an optimisation model that exploits a high accuracy building outline, such as can be found in topographic map data, and the building topology to improve the quality of interior measurements and generate a standardised output. We test our system on building plans of five residential homes. Our evaluation shows that the approach enables construction of accurate interior plans from imprecise measurements. The experiments report an average accuracy of 0.24 m, close to the 0.20 m recommended by the CityGML LoD4 specification.

  12. U-CrAc Flexible Interior Doctrine, Agile Learning Environments

    Poulsen, Søren Bolvig; Rosenstand, Claus Andreas Foss

    2012-01-01

    The research domain of this article is flexible learning environment for immediate use. The research question is: How can the learning environment support an agile learning process? The research contribution of this article is a flexible interior doctrine. The research method is action research...

  13. Group Projects in Interior Design Studio Classes: Peer Feedback Benefits

    Jurado, Juan A.

    2011-01-01

    Group projects have been shown to be effective for providing peer feedback in classrooms. While students in regular enrollment classes benefit from peer feedback, low-enrollment classes face many challenges. This study compares peer feedback effectiveness between two interior design studio classes with different design projects. In one class,…

  14. Interior Point Methods for Large-Scale Nonlinear Programming

    Lukšan, Ladislav; Matonoha, Ctirad; Vlček, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 4-5 (2005), s. 569-582. ISSN 1055-6788 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1030405 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : nonlinear programming * interior point methods * KKT systems * indefinite preconditioners * filter methods * algorithms Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.477, year: 2005

  15. Interior-Point Algorithms for Linear-Programming Decoding

    Vontobel, Pascal O.

    2008-01-01

    Interior-point algorithms constitute a very interesting class of algorithms for solving linear-programming problems. In this paper we study efficient implementations of such algorithms for solving the linear program that appears in the linear-programming decoder formulation.

  16. Improving FCS Accountability: Increasing STEM Awareness with Interior Design Modules

    Etheredge, Jessica; Moody, Dana; Cooper, Ashley

    2014-01-01

    This paper demonstrates ways in which family and consumer sciences (FCS) educators can explore more opportunities to integrate Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) principles into secondary education curriculum. Interior design is used as a case study for creating learning modules that incorporate STEM principles in a creative and…

  17. Interior environment of the buildings hit by floods

    Pasek, J.; Tribulova, T.; Frankl, Jiří

    Bratislava : STU – Nakladateľstvo STU, 2013 - (Hanuliak, P.; Minarovicova, K.), s. 196-201 ISBN 978-80-227-4070-8. [International Conference Buildings and Environment 2013. Bratislava (SK), 17.10.2013] Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : floodwater * interior environment of buildings * safety of buildings * contamination Subject RIV: JN - Civil Engineering

  18. Young Children's Color Preferences in the Interior Environment

    Read, Marilyn A.; Upington, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    This study focuses on children's color preferences in the interior environment. Previous studies highlight young children's preferences for the colors red and blue. The methods of this study used a rank ordering technique and a semi-structured interview process with 3-, 4-, and 5-year-old children. Findings reveal that children prefer the color…

  19. Interior-Point Method for Nonlinear Programming with Complementarity Constraints

    Lukšan, Ladislav; Matonoha, Ctirad; Vlček, Jan

    Philadelphia : SIAM, 2011. s. 96-96. [SIAM Conference on Optimization. 16.05.2011-19.05.2011, Darmstadt] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : nonlinear programming * complementarity constraints * interior point method * preconditioning Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  20. CANE: The Content Addressed Network Environment

    Gardner-Stephen, Paul

    2007-01-01

    The fragmented nature and asymmetry of local and remote file access and network access, combined with the current lack of robust authenticity and privacy, hamstrings the current internet. The collection of disjoint and often ad-hoc technologies currently in use are at least partially responsible for the magnitude and potency of the plagues besetting the information economy, of which spam and email borne virii are canonical examples. The proposed replacement for the internet, Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6), does little to tackle these underlying issues, instead concentrating on addressing the technical issues of a decade ago. This paper introduces CANE, a Content Addressed Network Environment, and compares it against current internet and related technologies. Specifically, CANE presents a simple computing environment in which location is abstracted away in favour of identity, and trust is explicitly defined. Identity is cryptographically verified and yet remains pervasively open in nature. It is argued tha...

  1. Addressing food waste reduction in Denmark

    Halloran, Afton Marina Szasz; Clement, Jesper; Kornum, Niels;

    2014-01-01

    environmental challenge. Using the case of Denmark, this paper analyses causes of food waste, and discusses how different stakeholders address the prevention and reuse of the €1.18. billion of annual edible food waste. Currently, the majority of food waste is still incinerated with energy recovery. However......Global food demand is driven by population and economic growth, and urbanization. One important instrument to meet this increasing demand and to decrease the pressure on food production is to minimize food losses and food waste. Food waste and loss is a major societal, economic, nutritional and......, improvements in technology have made it more efficient to utilize food waste for biogas and compost, which improves nutrient cycling through the food system. Major efforts to address food waste in Denmark have mainly been promoted through civil society groups with governmental support, as well as by industry...

  2. FPGA Implementation of Content Addressable Memory

    A. M. V. Pathi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Content Addressable Memory (CAM is a special type of computer memory used in certain very high speed searching applications. It is also known as associative memory or associative storage or associative array. Content Addressable Memory (CAM is frequently used in applications, such as lookup tables, databases, associative computing and networking, that requires high-speed searches due to its ability to improve application performance by using parallel comparison to reduce search time. Although the use of parallel comparison results in reduced search time, it also significantly increases power consumption. This project proposes a Parameter Extractor, based on ones-count approach. The major contribution of this project is that it proposed ones-count Parameter Extractor can achieve faster search capability compared to the conventional CAM

  3. Addressing consumerization of IT risks with nudging

    Iryna Yevseyeva; James Turland; Charles Morisset; Lynne Coventry; Thomas Groß

    2015-01-01

    In this work we address the main issues of Information Technology (IT) consumerization that are related to security risks, and vulnerabilities of devices used within Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) strategy in particular. We propose a ‘soft’ mitigation strategy for user actions based on nudging, widely applied to health and social behavior influence. In particular, we propose a complementary, less strict, more flexible Information Security policies, based on risk assessment of device vulnerabili...

  4. Addressing the UN Millennium Development Goals

    David Ojcius

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The United Nations Summit on the Millennium Development Goals concluded on 22 September 2010 with the adoption of a global action plan to achieve the eight anti-poverty goals by their 2015 target date and the announcement of major new commitments for women's and children's health and other initiatives against poverty, hunger and disease. FACTS Reports is determined to play an important role in communicating about specific field actions that address one or more of the Millenium Development Goa...

  5. Addressing the UN Millennium Development Goals

    David Ojcius; Jan Wallander

    2010-01-01

    The United Nations Summit on the Millennium Development Goals concluded on 22 September 2010 with the adoption of a global action plan to achieve the eight anti-poverty goals by their 2015 target date and the announcement of major new commitments for women's and children's health and other initiatives against poverty, hunger and disease. FACTS Reports is determined to play an important role in communicating about specific field actions that address one or more of the Millenium Development Goa...

  6. Forest Policies Addressing Climate Change in China

    2010-01-01

    As a developing country with a large population and a fragile ecological environment, China is particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change. Beginning with the Rio Conference of 1992 China has played a progressively enhanced role in combating climate change. A series of policies and measures to address climate change have been taken in the overall context of national sustainable development strategy, making positive contributions to the mitigation and adaptation to climate change, among ...

  7. Partnerships as panacea for addressing global problems?

    Kolk, Ans

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThis chapter examines partnerships and their peculiarities, based on recent research from various disciplines, in the context of the large problems faced by (global) society. These problems are very complex, often cross national boundaries, and cannot easily be 'solved' by one single actor. Previous 'unilateral' attempts to address them have not been particularly successful, and there are limits to what a single actor can do. Cooperation also enables different actors to leverage t...

  8. 50 CFR 229.12 - Consultation with the Secretary of the Interior.

    2010-10-01

    ... Interior. 229.12 Section 229.12 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC... Secretary of the Interior. The Assistant Administrator will consult with the Secretary of the Interior prior... population stocks of marine mammals for which the Secretary of the Interior is responsible under the Act....

  9. Addressing language barriers to healthcare in India.

    Narayan, Lalit

    2013-01-01

    In spite of a growing recognition of the importance of doctor-patient communication, the issue of language barriers to healthcare has received very little attention in India. The Indian population speaks over 22 major languages with English used as the lingua franca for biomedicine. Large-scale internal migration has meant that health workers are encountering increasing instances of language discordance within clinical settings. Research done predominantly in the West has shown language discordance to significantly affect access to care, cause problems of comprehension and adherence, and decrease the satisfaction and quality of care. Addressing language barriers to healthcare in India requires a stronger political commitment to providing non-discriminatory health services, especially to vulnerable groups such as illiterate migrant workers. Research will have to address three broad areas: the ways in which language barriers affect health and healthcare, the efficacy of interventions to overcome language barriers, and the costs of language barriers and efforts to overcome them. There is a need to address such barriers in health worker education and clinical practice. Proven strategies such as hiring multilingual healthcare workers, providing language training to health providers, employing in situ translators or using telephone interpretation services will have to be evaluated for their appropriateness to the Indian context. Internet-based initiatives, the proliferation of mobile phones and recent advances in machine translation promise to contribute to the solution. PMID:24758452

  10. Innovative Legal Approaches to Address Obesity

    Pomeranz, Jennifer L; Teret, Stephen P; Sugarman, Stephen D; Rutkow, Lainie; Brownell, Kelly D

    2009-01-01

    Context: The law is a powerful public health tool with considerable potential to address the obesity issue. Scientific advances, gaps in the current regulatory environment, and new ways of conceptualizing rights and responsibilities offer a foundation for legal innovation. Methods: This article connects developments in public health and nutrition with legal advances to define promising avenues for preventing obesity through the application of the law. Findings: Two sets of approaches are defined: (1) direct application of the law to factors known to contribute to obesity and (2) original and innovative legal solutions that address the weak regulatory stance of government and the ineffectiveness of existing policies used to control obesity. Specific legal strategies are discussed for limiting children's food marketing, confronting the potential addictive properties of food, compelling industry speech, increasing government speech, regulating conduct, using tort litigation, applying nuisance law as a litigation strategy, and considering performance-based regulation as an alternative to typical regulatory actions. Finally, preemption is an overriding issue and can play both a facilitative and a hindering role in obesity policy. Conclusions: Legal solutions are immediately available to the government to address obesity and should be considered at the federal, state, and local levels. New and innovative legal solutions represent opportunities to take the law in creative directions and to link legal, nutrition, and public health communities in constructive ways. PMID:19298420

  11. Matching Alternative Addresses: a Semantic Web Approach

    Ariannamazi, S.; Karimipour, F.; Hakimpour, F.

    2015-12-01

    Rapid development of crowd-sourcing or volunteered geographic information (VGI) provides opportunities for authoritatives that deal with geospatial information. Heterogeneity of multiple data sources and inconsistency of data types is a key characteristics of VGI datasets. The expansion of cities resulted in the growing number of POIs in the OpenStreetMap, a well-known VGI source, which causes the datasets to outdate in short periods of time. These changes made to spatial and aspatial attributes of features such as names and addresses might cause confusion or ambiguity in the processes that require feature's literal information like addressing and geocoding. VGI sources neither will conform specific vocabularies nor will remain in a specific schema for a long period of time. As a result, the integration of VGI sources is crucial and inevitable in order to avoid duplication and the waste of resources. Information integration can be used to match features and qualify different annotation alternatives for disambiguation. This study enhances the search capabilities of geospatial tools with applications able to understand user terminology to pursuit an efficient way for finding desired results. Semantic web is a capable tool for developing technologies that deal with lexical and numerical calculations and estimations. There are a vast amount of literal-spatial data representing the capability of linguistic information in knowledge modeling, but these resources need to be harmonized based on Semantic Web standards. The process of making addresses homogenous generates a helpful tool based on spatial data integration and lexical annotation matching and disambiguating.

  12. The Juno and Cassini gravity measurements: probing the interior dynamics of Jupiter and Saturn

    Kaspi, Y.; Galanti, E.; Hubbard, W. B.; Davighi, J. E.

    2015-10-01

    During 2016-2017 both the Juno and Cassini spacecraft will enter into close-by polar orbits of Jupiter and Saturn, respectively. Using Doppler tracking from Earth these flybys will allow high precision gravity measurements of these planets [1]. These will include high order gravity harmonics (at least up to J10), and the yet to be measured odd gravity spectrum. As the dynamics of deep flows relate to perturbations in the density of the planets, this data can be used to probe for the first time the atmospheric and interior flows on these planets [4, 5, 8]. Particularly, this may allow addressing one of the longest-standing questions in planetary atmospheric dynamics regarding the depth of the observed strong east-west jets-streams on Jupiter and Saturn. In this talk we review different approaches to analyze the gravity measurements, discuss the proposed models relating the gravity fields to the dynamics, and the implications of the results for understanding the mechanisms governing the interiors and atmospheres of Jupiter and Saturn.

  13. Walrus Bayesian State-space Model Output from the Bering Sea and Chukchi Sea, 2008-2012

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — State-space models offer researchers an objective approach to modeling complex animal location datasets, and state-space model behavior classifications are often...

  14. Space industrialization: A national perspective

    Reis, V. H.

    1984-01-01

    Space industrialization (or commercialization) has the potential to be a major player in America's space program. If this potential is to be realized, however, industrialization efforts must be considered within the context of the other major portions of the space program: shuttle, space station, and civil remote sensing. Further, development efforts must be based upon a sound scientific and technical understanding of the products and processes, and there must be a trained cadre of dedicated individuals willing to devote time and effort to this effort. There remain considerable risks and uncertainties. Given all this, the best path to follow would seem to be a long term, balanced commitment, emphasizing government, industry, and academia partnerships. Several points are addressed: (1) the place of space industrialization in the overall national space program; (2) the meaning of space industrialization with respect to the historic, national aims of space; and (3) specifically what is being industrialized.

  15. Ombud's corner: space invaders

    Sudeshna Datta-Cockerill

    2015-01-01

    When normal communication breaks down and there is no sharing anymore, office-mates can become ‘space invaders’. Very often, the situation can be resolved effectively by taking just a few simple steps...   The lack of office space at CERN is a permanent issue that the various departments regularly have to address. As a result, very often this precious space where we spend the entire day has to be shared with other colleagues. Office-mates may come from different backgrounds and cultures and may have very different habits and behaviours; they may also have different activities during the day, sometimes requiring unusual, (perhaps even strange?) interactions with the space they occupy; finally, their presence might be irregular, making it very difficult for us to establish a stable relationship. Mark and Claire share an office as well as some professional activities. In the beginning, the relationship seems to work normally but, over time, the communication between them ste...

  16. An Efficient Addressing Scheme and Its Routing Algorithm for a Large-Scale Wireless Sensor Network

    Yongwan Park; Jeonghee Choi; Jaehyen Kim; Soojung Hur

    2008-01-01

    Abstract So far, various addressing and routing algorithms have been extensively studied for wireless sensor networks (WSNs), but many of them were limited to cover less than hundreds of sensor nodes. It is largely due to stringent requirements for fully distributed coordination among sensor nodes, leading to the wasteful use of available address space. As there is a growing need for a large-scale WSN, it will be extremely challenging to support more than thousands of nodes, using existing st...

  17. Tree-Combined Trie: A Compressed Data Structure for Fast IP Address Lookup

    Muhammad Tahir; Shakil Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    For meeting the requirements of the high-speed Internet and satisfying the Internet users, building fast routers with high-speed IP address lookup engine is inevitable. Regarding the unpredictable variations occurred in the forwarding information during the time and space, the IP lookup algorithm should be able to customize itself with temporal and spatial conditions. This paper proposes a new dynamic data structure for fast IP address lookup. This novel data structure is a dynamic mixture of...

  18. Chemical heterogeneities in the interior of terrestrial bodies

    Plesa, Ana-Catalina; Maurice, Maxime; Tosi, Nicola; Breuer, Doris

    2016-04-01

    Mantle chemical heterogeneities that can strongly influence the interior dynamics have been inferred for all terrestrial bodies of the Solar System and range from local to global scale. Seismic data for the Earth, differences in surface mineral compositions observed in data sets from space missions, and isotopic variations identified in laboratory analyses of meteorites or samples indicate chemically heterogeneous systems. One way to generate large scale geochemical heterogeneities is through the fractional crystallization of a liquid magma ocean. The large amount of energy available in the early stages of planetary evolution can cause melting of a significant part or perhaps even the entire mantle of a terrestrial body resulting in a liquid magma ocean. Assuming fractional crystallization, magma ocean solidification proceeds from the core-mantle boundary to the surface where dense cumulates tend to form due to iron enrichment in the evolving liquid. This process leads to a gravitationally unstable mantle, which is prone to overturn. Following cumulate overturn, a stable stratification may be reached that prevents efficient material transport. As a consequence, mantle reservoirs may be kept separate, possibly for the entire thermo-chemical evolution of a terrestrial body. Scenarios assuming fractional crystallization of a liquid magma ocean have been suggested to explain lavas with distinct composition on Mercury's surface [1], the generation of the Moon's mare basalts by sampling a reservoir consisting of overturned ilmenite-bearing cumulates [2], and the preservation of Mars' geochemical reservoirs as inferred by isotopic analysis of the SNC meteorites [3]. However, recent studies have shown that the style of the overturn as well as the subsequent density stratification are of extreme importance for the subsequent thermo-chemical evolution of a planetary body and may have a major impact on the later surface tectonics and volcanic history. The rapid formation of a

  19. Los Espacios interiores de la Vivienda y el diseño de interiores en Hoteles para el turismo.

    Yunior Vázquez Rodríguez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Desde hace más de dos décadas y como ya se hace costumbre según se ha comprobado en muchos casos, el diseño de interiores por lo general se emplea en las obras para el turismo y en alguna otra de gran interés por su importancia o significación determinada. Esto no quiere decir que las obras de la vivienda no deban de ser diseñadas en sus espacios interiores y mucho menos que sean obras de baja importancia. En muchos de nuestros hoteles de Varadero podemos encontrar elementos de diseño interior que vienen de la arquitectura vernácula, sobre todo de la vivienda de madera y tejas, del pasado siglo (casi extinguida en este polo turístico, así como nuevos elementos de modernidad y nuevos materiales, los cuales pueden ser utilizados en los proyectos de viviendas que hoy se proyectan y se construyen en Cuba. El aspecto económico es uno de los que más elimina esta etapa de diseño dentro de los proyectos, sin embargo, en ocasiones se hacen los proyectos de arquitectura y el diseño de interiores queda solucionado con algún comentario donde se refiere a colores y algunas terminaciones solamente, pero esto no incluye muebles, falsos techos, texturas ni otros elementos decorativos que componen el hábitat de las personas. En el trabajo se describirá el diseño de interiores y las características más importantes de dos ejemplos de instalaciones turísticas seleccionadas. En ellos se podrá observar con claridad nuestra identidad cultural en el interiorismo, el cual nos servirá como apoyo para la realización de proyectos de viviendas.

  20. A Task Force to Address Bullying.

    Keller, Ronald; Budin, Wendy C; Allie, Tammy

    2016-02-01

    Bullying in the workplace can create a dysfunctional environment that is associated with serious physical and psychological harm to the person being bullied. Nurses' experience with bullying has gained considerable attention in recent years, and warrants further discussion. Nurse leaders need to develop and implement effective bullying prevention initiatives that will foster the functioning of a professional and productive staff in a healthy work environment. The aim of this article is to review workplace bullying as experienced by nurses, and describe how nurses at a Magnet-designated academic medical center developed and implemented a bullying task force to address the problem. PMID:26817556

  1. Grid Added Value to Address Malaria

    Breton, V; Hofmann, M

    2008-01-01

    Through this paper, we call for a distributed, internet-based collaboration to address one of the worst plagues of our present world, malaria. The spirit is a non-proprietary peer-production of information-embedding goods. And we propose to use the grid technology to enable such a world wide "open source" like collaboration. The first step towards this vision has been achieved during the summer on the EGEE grid infrastructure where 46 million ligands were docked for a total amount of 80 CPU years in 6 weeks in the quest for new drugs.

  2. Building technology services that address student needs.

    Le Ber, Jeanne M; Lombardo, Nancy T; Wimmer, Erin

    2015-01-01

    A 16-question technology use survey was conducted to assess incoming health sciences students' knowledge of and interest in current technologies, and to identify student device and tool preferences. Survey questions were developed by colleagues at a peer institution and then edited to match this library's student population. Two years of student responses have been compiled, compared, and reviewed as a means for informing library decisions related to technology and resource purchases. Instruction and event programming have been revised to meet student preferences. Based on the number of students using Apple products, librarians are addressing the need to become more proficient with this platform. PMID:25611437

  3. HEP technologies to address medical imaging challenges

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    Developments in detector technologies aimed at solving challenges in present and future CERN experiments, particularly at the LHC, have triggered exceptional advances in the performance of medical imaging devices, allowing for a spectacular progress in in-vivo molecular imaging procedures, which are opening the way for tailored therapies of major diseases. This talk will briefly review the recent history of this prime example of technology transfer from HEP experiments to society, will describe the technical challenges being addressed by some ongoing projects, and will present a few new ideas for further developments and their foreseeable impact.

  4. Three Fingered Jack: Productively Addressing Platform Diversity

    Sheffield, David Bradley

    2013-01-01

    Moore's Law has given the application designer a large palette of potential computational substrates. The application designer can potential map his or her application onto specialized task-specific accelerators for either energy or performance benefits; however, the design space for task-specific accelerators is large. At one extreme is the conventional microprocessor, easy to program but relatively low-performance and energy inefficient. At the other extreme is custom, fixed-function hardwa...

  5. Staging Sociotechnical Spaces

    Clausen, Christian; Yoshinaka, Yutaka

    2007-01-01

    The management of innovation and product development is increasingly facing complex challenges of staging design processes across heterogeneous organisational spaces, with multiple actor-concerns and sources of knowledge. This paper addresses how insights from the Actor-Network Theory and politic...... of product development. The concept of socio-technical spaces is further illustrated through actual examples from industry dealing with early conceptualisation in product development and the role played by management concepts in the configuration of spaces.......The management of innovation and product development is increasingly facing complex challenges of staging design processes across heterogeneous organisational spaces, with multiple actor-concerns and sources of knowledge. This paper addresses how insights from the Actor-Network Theory and political...... process theory may contribute to a reflexive understanding of design as the staging of socio-technical relations and processes cutting across boundaries of diverse organisational, political and knowledge domains. This idea is pursued through the notion of ‘socio-technical spaces’. Socio-technical space...

  6. Single-spin addressing in an atomic Mott insulator

    Weitenberg, Christof; Endres, Manuel; Sherson, Jacob;

    2011-01-01

    Ultracold atoms in optical lattices provide a versatile tool with which to investigate fundamental properties of quantum many-body systems. In particular, the high degree of control of experimental parameters has allowed the study of many interesting phenomena, such as quantum phase transitions and...... quantum spin dynamics. Here we demonstrate how such control can be implemented at the most fundamental level of a single spin at a specific site of an optical lattice. Using a tightly focused laser beam together with a microwave field, we were able to flip the spin of individual atoms in a Mott insulator...... with sub-diffraction-limited resolution, well below the lattice spacing. The Mott insulator provided us with a large two-dimensional array of perfectly arranged atoms, in which we created arbitrary spin patterns by sequentially addressing selected lattice sites after freezing out the atom distribution...

  7. Trends in space activities in 2014: The significance of the space activities of governments

    Paikowsky, Deganit; Baram, Gil; Ben-Israel, Isaac

    2016-01-01

    This article addresses the principal events of 2014 in the field of space activities, and extrapolates from them the primary trends that can be identified in governmental space activities. In 2014, global space activities centered on two vectors. The first was geopolitical, and the second relates to the matrix between increasing commercial space activities and traditional governmental space activities. In light of these two vectors, the article outlines and analyzes trends of space exploration, human spaceflights, industry and technology, cooperation versus self-reliance, and space security and sustainability. It also reviews the space activities of the leading space-faring nations.

  8. Space weather & telecommunications

    Goodman, John M

    2006-01-01

    This book is both a survey of practical concepts for forecasting the performance of various telecommunication systems as well as a balanced treatment of space-weather phenomena that give rise to telecommunication impairment episodes. It bridges the gap in the relationship that exists between the following two disciplines: space weather and telecommunication system performance. There are a number of books that address one of the two disciplines in some detail, but only merely mention the other as an afterthought. In this book the author has married the two disciplines so that the readership can

  9. Results Analysis of IP Address Auto- Configuration in Wireless Manets

    S.Zahoor Ul Huq; S. Shabana Begum; Dr. K.E.Sreenivasa Murthy; Prof. B. Satyanaryana

    2011-01-01

    The main task of an address allocation protocol is to manage the address allocation to the nodes in the ad hoc MANETs. All routing protocols assume nodes to be configured a priori with a uniqueIP address. Allocating addresses to mobile nodes is a fundamental and difficult problem. A mobile device cannot participate in unicast communications until it is assigned a conflict-free IP address. So addressing in MANETs is of significant importance, and the address configuration process should be fas...

  10. Constraint-aware interior layout exploration for pre-cast concrete-based buildings

    Liu, Han

    2013-05-03

    Creating desirable layouts of building interiors is a complex task as designers have to manually adhere to various local and global considerations arising from competing practical and design considerations. In this work, we present an interactive design tool to create desirable floorplans by computationally conforming to such design constraints. Specifically, we support three types of constraints: (i) functional constraints such as number of rooms, connectivity among the rooms, target room areas, etc.; (ii) design considerations such as user modifications and preferences, and (iii) fabrication constraints such as cost and convenience of manufacturing. Based on user specifications, our system automatically generates multiple floor layouts with associated 3D geometry that all satisfy the design specifications and constraints, thus exposing only the desirable family of interior layouts to the user. In this work, we focus on pre-cast concrete-based constructions, which lead to interesting discrete and continuous optimization possibilities. We test our framework on a range of complex real-world specifications and demonstrate the control and expressiveness of the exposed design space relieving the users of the task of manually adhering to non-local functional and fabrication constraints. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  11. HEATING AND LIGHTING DEVISES IN THE INTERIOR OF UKRAINIAN’S FALK HOUSING

    YEGOROVA V.S.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement. Housing belongs to the most important elements of the traditional culture of the Ukrainian people. The essential and defining element of both ancient and modern housing are heating and lighting devices. The importance of the problem is that not everyone knows the elements of the national housing of Ukrainian interior designing for lighting and heating. The furnace, bench, stove belong to the composing of traditional heating systems of folk housing of Ukraine. Varieties of sources, means, methods and devices were torch, candles, lanterns, lamps by which people light the room in the daytime or evening time. Purpose. Share a variety of heating and lighting devises in the interior of peasant houses of Ukraine to research the materials from which they were made, to determine the particular use. Conclusion. The main heating device of Ukrainians is a traditional oven. However, it should be noted that the space heating function was performed as stove and bench. Different devises of light: torch, flame, candle, lamp, are known in the system of artificial lighting of premises of ancient Ukrainians.

  12. Structural Acoustic Prediction and Interior Noise Control Technology

    Mathur, G. P.; Chin, C. L.; Simpson, M. A.; Lee, J. T.; Palumbo, Daniel L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This report documents the results of Task 14, "Structural Acoustic Prediction and Interior Noise Control Technology". The task was to evaluate the performance of tuned foam elements (termed Smart Foam) both analytically and experimentally. Results taken from a three-dimensional finite element model of an active, tuned foam element are presented. Measurements of sound absorption and sound transmission loss were taken using the model. These results agree well with published data. Experimental performance data were taken in Boeing's Interior Noise Test Facility where 12 smart foam elements were applied to a 757 sidewall. Several configurations were tested. Noise reductions of 5-10 dB were achieved over the 200-800 Hz bandwidth of the controller. Accelerometers mounted on the panel provided a good reference for the controller. Configurations with far-field error microphones outperformed near-field cases.

  13. Chemical processes in the deep interior of Uranus.

    Chau, Ricky; Hamel, Sebastien; Nellis, William J

    2011-01-01

    The unusual magnetic fields of the planets Uranus and Neptune represent important observables for constraining and developing deep interior models. Models suggests that the unusual non-dipolar and non-axial magnetic fields of these planets originate from a thin convective and conducting shell of material around a stably stratified fluid core. Here, we present an experimental and computational study of the physical properties of a fluid representative of the interior of Uranus and Neptune. Our electrical conductivity results confirm that the core cannot be well mixed if it is to generate non-axisymmetric magnetic fields. The molecular dynamics simulations highlight the importance of chemistry on the properties of this complex mixture, including the formation of large clusters of carbon and nitrogen and a possible mechanism for a compositional gradient, which may lead to a stably stratified core. PMID:21343921

  14. Imaging the Earth's Interior: the Angular Distribution of Terrestrial Neutrinos

    Fields, Brian D

    2004-01-01

    Decays of radionuclides throughout the Earth's interior produce geothermal heat, but also are a source of antineutrinos. The (angle-integrated) geoneutrino flux places an integral constraint on the terrestrial radionuclide distribution. In this paper, we calculate the angular distribution of geoneutrinos, which opens a window on the differential radionuclide distribution. We develop the general formalism for the neutrino angular distribution, and we present the inverse transformation which recovers the terrestrial radioisotope distribution given a measurement of the neutrino angular distribution. Thus, geoneutrinos not only allow a means to image the Earth's interior, but offering a direct measure of the radioactive Earth, both (1) revealing the Earth's inner structure as probed by radionuclides, and (2) allowing for a complete determination of the radioactive heat generation as a function of radius. We present the geoneutrino angular distribution for the favored Earth model which has been used to calculate g...

  15. Preliminary Results on Lunar Interior Properties from the GRAIL Mission

    Williams, James G.; Konopliv, Alexander S.; Asmar, Sami W.; Lemoine, H. Jay; Melosh, H. Jay; Neumann, Gregory A.; Phillips, Roger J.; Smith, David E.; Solomon, Sean C.; Watkins, Michael M.; Wieczorek, Mark A.; Zuber, Maria T.; Andrews-Hanna, Jeffrey C.; Head, James W.; Kiefer, Walter S.; Matsuyama, Isamu; McGovern, Patrick J.; Nimmo, Francis; Weber, Renee C.; Boggs, D. H.; Goossens, Sander J.; Kruizinga, Gerhard L.; Mazarico, Erwan; Park, Ryan S.; Yuan, Dah-Ning

    2013-01-01

    The Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission has provided lunar gravity with unprecedented accuracy and resolution. GRAIL has produced a high-resolution map of the lunar gravity field while also determining tidal response. We present the latest gravity field solution and its preliminary implications for the Moon's interior structure, exploring properties such as the mean density, moment of inertia of the solid Moon, and tidal potential Love number k2. Lunar structure includes a thin crust, a deep mantle, a fluid core, and a suspected solid inner core. An accurate Love number mainly improves knowledge of the fluid core and deep mantle. In the future GRAIL will search for evidence of tidal dissipation and a solid inner core.

  16. Modal response of interior mass based upon external measurements

    Modal response testing has been used to predict the motion of interior masses of a system in which only external instrumentation is allowed. Testing of this form may occasionally be necessary in validation of a computer model, but also has potential as a tool for validating individual assemblies in a QA process. Examination of the external frequency response and mode shapes can offer insight into interior response. The interpretation of these results is improved through parallel analytical solutions. A simple, three-mass model has been examined experimentally and analytically to demonstrate modal theory. These results show the limitations of the external measurement in predicting internal response due to transmissibility. A procedure for utilizing external testing is described. The question posed through this research is whether or not modal correlation analysis can be adapted for use in systems for which instrumentation of critical components is missing

  17. SpaceNet: Modeling and Simulating Space Logistics

    Lee, Gene; Jordan, Elizabeth; Shishko, Robert; de Weck, Olivier; Armar, Nii; Siddiqi, Afreen

    2008-01-01

    This paper summarizes the current state of the art in interplanetary supply chain modeling and discusses SpaceNet as one particular method and tool to address space logistics modeling and simulation challenges. Fundamental upgrades to the interplanetary supply chain framework such as process groups, nested elements, and cargo sharing, enabled SpaceNet to model an integrated set of missions as a campaign. The capabilities and uses of SpaceNet are demonstrated by a step-by-step modeling and simulation of a lunar campaign.

  18. Sinking of Ne-22 in Liquid White Dwarf Interiors

    Deloye, Christopher J.; Bildsten, Lars

    2002-01-01

    We assess the impact of the trace element Ne-22 on the cooling and seismology of a liquid C/O white dwarf (WD). Due to this element's neutron excess, it sinks towards the interior as the liquid WD cools. The gravitational energy released slows the WD's cooling by 0.5-1.6 Gyr. In addition the Ne-22 abundance gradient changes the periods of the high radial order g-modes at the 1% level.

  19. Primal Interior Point Method for Minimization of Generalized Minimax Functions

    Lukšan, Ladislav; Matonoha, Ctirad; Vlček, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 4 (2010), s. 697-721. ISSN 0023-5954 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/09/1957 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : unconstrained optimization * large-scale optimization * nonsmooth optimization * generalized minimax optimization * interior-point methods * modified Newton methods * variable metric methods * global convergence * computational experiments Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.461, year: 2010 http://dml.cz/handle/10338.dmlcz/140779

  20. Study of materials performance model for aircraft interiors

    Leary, K.; Skratt, J.

    1980-01-01

    A demonstration version of an aircraft interior materials computer data library was developed and contains information on selected materials applicable to aircraft seats and wall panels, including materials for the following: panel face sheets, bond plies, honeycomb, foam, decorative film systems, seat cushions, adhesives, cushion reinforcements, fire blocking layers, slipcovers, decorative fabrics and thermoplastic parts. The information obtained for each material pertains to the material's performance in a fire scenario, selected material properties and several measures of processability.

  1. Interior micro-CT with an offset detector

    Sharma, Kriti Sen [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States); Gong, Hao [VT-WFU School of Biomedical Engingeering and Sciences, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States); Ghasemalizadeh, Omid [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States); Yu, Hengyong [VT-WFU School of Biomedical Engineering and Sciences, Wake Forest University Health Sciences, Winston-Salem, North Carolina 27157 (United States); Wang, Ge [Biomedical Imaging Center/Cluster CBIS/BME, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States); Cao, Guohua, E-mail: ghcao@vt.edu [VT-WFU School of Biomedical Engineering and Sciences, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: The size of field-of-view (FOV) of a microcomputed tomography (CT) system can be increased by offsetting the detector. The increased FOV is beneficial in many applications. All prior investigations, however, have been focused to the case in which the increased FOV after offset-detector acquisition can cover the transaxial extent of an object fully. Here, the authors studied a new problem where the FOV of a micro-CT system, although increased after offset-detector acquisition, still covers an interior region-of-interest (ROI) within the object. Methods: An interior-ROI-oriented micro-CT scan with an offset detector poses a difficult reconstruction problem, which is caused by both detector offset and projection truncation. Using the projection completion techniques, the authors first extended three previous reconstruction methods from offset-detector micro-CT to offset-detector interior micro-CT. The authors then proposed a novel method which combines two of the extended methods using a frequency split technique. The authors tested the four methods with phantom simulations at 9.4%, 18.8%, 28.2%, and 37.6% detector offset. The authors also applied these methods to physical phantom datasets acquired at the same amounts of detector offset from a customized micro-CT system. Results: When the detector offset was small, all reconstruction methods showed good image quality. At large detector offset, the three extended methods gave either visible shading artifacts or high deviation of pixel value, while the authors’ proposed method demonstrated no visible artifacts and minimal deviation of pixel value in both the numerical simulations and physical experiments. Conclusions: For an interior micro-CT with an offset detector, the three extended reconstruction methods can perform well at a small detector offset but show strong artifacts at a large detector offset. When the detector offset is large, the authors’ proposed reconstruction method can outperform the three

  2. Estimation of parameters of interior permanent magnet synchronous motors

    Hwang, C C; Pan, C T; Chang, T Y

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a magnetic circuit model to the estimation of machine parameters of an interior permanent magnet synchronous machine. It extends the earlier work of Hwang and Cho that focused mainly on the magnetic aspects of motor design. The proposed model used to calculate EMF, d- and q-axis reactances. These calculations are compared to those from finite element analysis and measurement with good agreement.

  3. Ageostrophic instability in rotating, stratified interior vertical shear flows

    Wang, Peng; Mcwilliams, James C.; Menesguen, Claire

    2014-01-01

    The linear instability of several rotating, stably stratified, interior vertical shear flows (U) over bar (z) is calculated in Boussinesq equations. Two types of baroclinic, ageostrophic instability, AI1 and AI2, are found in odd-symmetric (U) over bar (z) for intermediate Rossby number (R-0). AI1 has zero frequency; it appears in a continuous transformation of the unstable mode properties between classic baroclinic instability (BCI) and centrifugal instability (CI). It begins to occur at int...

  4. Simulation of the Planetary Interior Differentiation Processes in the Laboratory

    Fei, Yingwei

    2013-01-01

    A planetary interior is under high-pressure and high-temperature conditions and it has a layered structure. There are two important processes that led to that layered structure, (1) percolation of liquid metal in a solid silicate matrix by planet differentiation, and (2) inner core crystallization by subsequent planet cooling. We conduct high-pressure and high-temperature experiments to simulate both processes in the laboratory. Formation of percolative planetary core depends on the efficienc...

  5. Penalty interior-point method fails to converge.

    Leyffer, S.; Mathematics and Computer Science

    2005-08-01

    Equilibrium equations in the form of complementarity conditions often appear as constraints in optimization problems. Problems of this type are commonly referred to as mathematical programs with complementarity constraints (MPCCs). A popular method for solving MPCCs is the penalty interior-point algorithm (PIPA). This paper presents an example for which PIPA converges to a nonstationary point, providing a counterexample to the established theory. The reasons for this adverse behavior are discussed.

  6. Penalty Interior-Point Method Fails to Converge

    Leyffer, Sven

    2003-01-01

    Equilibrium equations in the form of complementarity conditions often appear as constraints in optimization problems. Problems of this type are commonly referred to as mathematical programs with complementarity constraints (MPCCs). A popular method for solving MPCCs is the penalty interior-point algorithm (PIPA). This paper presents a small example for which PIPA converges to a nonstationary point, providing a counterexample to the established theory. The reasons for this adverse behavior are...

  7. Distinctive ocean interior changes during the recent warming slowdown

    Lijing Cheng; Fei Zheng; Jiang Zhu

    2015-01-01

    The earth system experiences continuous heat input, but a “climate hiatus” of upper ocean waters has been observed in this century. This leads to a question: where is the extra heat going? Using four in situ observation datasets, we explore the ocean subsurface temperature changes from 2004 to 2013. The observations all show that the ocean has continued to gain heat in this century, which is indicative of anthropogenic global warming. However, a distinctive pattern of change in the interior o...

  8. Interior design of a two-dimensional semiclassic black hole

    Levanony, Dana; 10.1103/PhysRevD.80.084008

    2009-01-01

    We look into the inner structure of a two-dimensional dilatonic evaporating black hole. We establish and employ the homogenous approximation for the black-hole interior. The field equations admit two types of singularities, and their local asymptotic structure is investigated. One of these singularities is found to develop, as a spacelike singularity, inside the black hole. We then study the internal structure of the evaporating black hole from the horizon to the singularity.

  9. Sheep production and stray dogs attacks in Beira Interior - Portugal

    Rodrigues, J.P.V.; Andrade, L.P.; Carvalho, J.; Ferreira, A.; Monteiro, J.S.T.; Alberto, D.

    2008-01-01

    Livestock production in extensive systems (mainly with sheep) if faced with a high level of attacks/predation done by stray dogs, wolves and other carnivores. In the region, sheep predation by stray dogs is recognised; foxes and Egyptians mongooses also attack lambs. The incidente of attacks on livestock animals was evaluated in Beira Interior, Portugal, based on inquiries (n=156) with the last actualisation in 2007.

  10. Interior micro-CT with an offset detector

    Purpose: The size of field-of-view (FOV) of a microcomputed tomography (CT) system can be increased by offsetting the detector. The increased FOV is beneficial in many applications. All prior investigations, however, have been focused to the case in which the increased FOV after offset-detector acquisition can cover the transaxial extent of an object fully. Here, the authors studied a new problem where the FOV of a micro-CT system, although increased after offset-detector acquisition, still covers an interior region-of-interest (ROI) within the object. Methods: An interior-ROI-oriented micro-CT scan with an offset detector poses a difficult reconstruction problem, which is caused by both detector offset and projection truncation. Using the projection completion techniques, the authors first extended three previous reconstruction methods from offset-detector micro-CT to offset-detector interior micro-CT. The authors then proposed a novel method which combines two of the extended methods using a frequency split technique. The authors tested the four methods with phantom simulations at 9.4%, 18.8%, 28.2%, and 37.6% detector offset. The authors also applied these methods to physical phantom datasets acquired at the same amounts of detector offset from a customized micro-CT system. Results: When the detector offset was small, all reconstruction methods showed good image quality. At large detector offset, the three extended methods gave either visible shading artifacts or high deviation of pixel value, while the authors’ proposed method demonstrated no visible artifacts and minimal deviation of pixel value in both the numerical simulations and physical experiments. Conclusions: For an interior micro-CT with an offset detector, the three extended reconstruction methods can perform well at a small detector offset but show strong artifacts at a large detector offset. When the detector offset is large, the authors’ proposed reconstruction method can outperform the three

  11. Exact interior solutions in 2 + 1-dimensional spacetime

    We provide a new class of exact solutions for the interior in 2 + 1-dimensional spacetime. The solutions obtained for the perfect fluid model both with and without cosmological constant (Λ) are found to be regular and singularity free. It assumes very simple analytical forms that help us to study the various physical properties of the configuration. Solutions without Λ are found to be physically acceptable. (orig.)

  12. Interior-Point Method for Nonlinear Programming with Complementarity Constraints

    Matonoha, Ctirad; Lukšan, Ladislav; Vlček, Jan

    Essex : IMA, 2010. s. 26-26. [IMA International Conference on Numerical Linear Algebra and Optimisation /2./. 13.09.2010-15.09.2010, Birmingham] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/09/1957 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : nonlinear programming * complementarity constraints * interior-point methods * indefinite systems * indefinite preconditioners * preconditioned conjugate gradient method * merit function Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  13. Architecture and life support systems for a rotating space habitat

    Misra, Gaurav

    Life Support Systems are critical to sustain human habitation of space over long time periods. As orbiting space habitats become operational in the future, support systems such as atmo-sphere, food, water etc. will play a very pivotal role in sustaining life. To design a long-duration space habitat, it's important to consider the full gamut of human experience of the environment. Long-term viability depends on much more than just the structural or life support efficiency. A space habitat isn't just a machine; it's a life experience. To be viable, it needs to keep the inhabitants satisfied with their condition. This paper provides conceptual research on several key factors that influence the growth and sustainability of humans in a space habitat. Apart from the main life support system parameters, the architecture (both interior and exterior) of the habitat will play a crucial role in influencing the liveability in the space habitat. In order to ensure the best possible liveability for the inhabitants, a truncated (half cut) torus is proposed as the shape of the habitat. This structure rotating at an optimum rpm will en-sure 1g pseudo gravity to the inhabitants. The truncated torus design has several advantages over other proposed shapes such as a cylinder or a sphere. The design provides minimal grav-ity variation (delta g) in the living area, since its flat outer pole ensures a constant gravity. The design is superior in economy of structural and atmospheric mass. Interior architecture of the habitat addresses the total built environment, drawing from diverse disciplines includ-ing physiology, psychology, and sociology. Furthermore, factors such as line of sight, natural sunlight and overhead clearance have been discussed in the interior architecture. Substantial radiation shielding is also required in order to prevent harmful cosmic radiations and solar flares from causing damage to inhabitants. Regolith shielding of 10 tons per meter square is proposed for the

  14. Addressing submarine geohazards through scientific drilling

    Camerlenghi, A.

    2009-04-01

    Natural submarine geohazards (earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, landslides, volcanic island flank collapses) are geological phenomena originating at or below the seafloor leading to a situation of risk for off-shore and on-shore structures and the coastal population. Addressing submarine geohazards means understanding their spatial and temporal variability, the pre-conditioning factors, their triggers, and the physical processes that control their evolution. Such scientific endeavour is nowadays considered by a large sector of the international scientific community as an obligation in order to contribute to the mitigation of the potentially destructive societal effects of submarine geohazards. The study of submarine geohazards requires a multi-disciplinary scientific approach: geohazards must be studied through their geological record; active processes must be monitored; geohazard evolution must be modelled. Ultimately, the information must be used for the assessment of vulnerability, risk analysis, and development of mitigation strategies. In contrast with the terrestrial environment, the oceanic environment is rather hostile to widespread and fast application of high-resolution remote sensing techniques, accessibility for visual inspection, sampling and installation of monitoring stations. Scientific Drilling through the IODP (including the related pre site-survey investigations, sampling, logging and in situ measurements capability, and as a platform for deployment of long term observatories at the surface and down-hole) can be viewed as the centre of gravity of an international, coordinated, multi-disciplinary scientific approach to address submarine geohazards. The IODP Initial Science Plan expiring in 2013 does not address openly geohazards among the program scientific objectives. Hazards are referred to mainly in relation to earthquakes and initiatives towards the understanding of seismogenesis. Notably, the only drilling initiative presently under way is the

  15. Space Basics

    Herbert, Dexter (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    In this education video series, 'Liftoff to Learning', astronauts (Bruce Melnick, Thomas Akers, William Shepherd, Robert Cabana, and Richard Richards) describe the historical beginnings of space exploration from the time of Robert H. Goddard (considered the Father of Rocketry), who, in 1929, invented the first propellant rocket, the prototype of modern liquid propellant rockets, up to the modern Space Shuttles. The questions - where is space, what is space, and how do astronauts get to, stay in, and come back from space are answered through historical footage, computer graphics, and animation. The space environment effects, temperature effects, and gravitational effects on the launching, orbiting, and descent of the Shuttles are discussed. Included is historical still photos and film footage of past space programs and space vehicles.

  16. Space Curves

    Peskine, Christian; Sernesi, Edoardo

    1987-01-01

    The main topics of the conference on "Curves in Projective Space" were good and bad families of projective curves, postulation of projective space curves and classical problems in enumerative geometry.

  17. Management of Smart Spaces

    van der Meer, Sven; Jennings, Brendan

    2004-01-01

    This paper introduces the M-Zones (www.m-zones.org) approach for the integrated management of networks, distributed services and applications within Smart Spaces. The main objective of this approach is to facilitate the realisation of software, systems and services that address composition, scalability, reliability and robustness and self-adaptation. It focuses on middleware for management, control and use of fully distributed resources. The term “integrated management” is used to highlight t...

  18. Hybrid interior point training of modular neural networks.

    Szymanski, P T; Lemmon, M; Bett, C J

    1998-03-01

    Modular neural networks use a single gating neuron to select the outputs of a collection of agent neurons. Expectation-maximization (EM) algorithms provide one way of training modular neural networks to approximate non-linear functionals. This paper introduces a hybrid interior-point (HIP) algorithm for training modular networks. The HIP algorithm combines an interior-point linear programming (LP) algorithm with a Newton-Raphson iteration in such a way that the computational efficiency of the interior point LP methods is preserved. The algorithm is formally proven to converge asymptotically to locally optimal networks with a total computational cost that scales in a polynomial manner with problem size. Simulation experiments show that the HIP algorithm produces networks whose average approximation error is better than that of EM-trained networks. These results also demonstrate that the computational cost of the HIP algorithm scales at a slower rate than the EM-procedure and that, for small-size networks, the total computational costs of both methods are comparable. PMID:12662833

  19. Transient simulation in interior flow field of lobe pump

    The subject of this paper is mainly focused on the development and control of the double folium and trifolium lobe pump profiles by using the principle of involute engagement and use CAD to get an accurate involute profile. We use the standard k-ε turbulence model and PISO algorithm based on CFD software FLUENT. The dynamic mesh and UDF technology is introduced to simulate the interior flow field inside a lobe pump, and the variation of interior flow field under the condition of the lobe rotating is analyzed. We also analyse the influence produced by the difference in lobes, and then reveal which lobe is best. The results show that dynamic variation of the interior flow field is easily obtained by dynamic mesh technology and the distribution of its pressure and velocity. Because of the small gaps existing between the rotors and pump case, the higher pressure area will flow into the lower area though the small gaps which cause the working area keep with higher pressure all the time. Both of the double folium and trifolium are existing the vortex during the rotting time and its position, size and shape changes all the time. The vortexes even disappear in a circle period and there are more vortexes in double folium lobe pump. The velocity and pressure pulsation of trifolium pump are lower than that of the double folium

  20. Concepts for particle foam based ultralight automotive interior parts

    Trassl, C.; Altstädt, V.; Schreier, P.

    2014-05-01

    The described concepts for modern automotive interior parts are based on polypropylene (PP). These interior parts have a core of expanded polypropylene particle foam (EPP) and a decorative layer of a thermoplastic polyolefin elastomer (TPO) film. Compared with conventional solutions in the field of automotive interior parts, they are characterised mainly due to the avoidance of material mixtures so that they have better recycling properties and are significantly lighter in spite of comparable crash behaviour. Because of the optimized combination of positive component properties (specifically, the rigidity of the carrier, lower density combined with the better crash behaviour of the EPP foam core and good haptic and optical properties of the film), the multi-material system compensates the disadvantages of the individual components. In addition, the integration of all process steps into a new single-step manufacturing process combined with the elimination of an additional surface treatment means that the new ultra-light concept should lead to a significant reduction in the costs and cycle time.