WorldWideScience

Sample records for address global challenges

  1. Applying evolutionary biology to address global challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Scott P; Jørgensen, Peter Søgaard; Kinnison, Michael T; Bergstrom, Carl T; Denison, R Ford; Gluckman, Peter; Smith, Thomas B; Strauss, Sharon Y; Tabashnik, Bruce E

    2014-10-17

    Two categories of evolutionary challenges result from escalating human impacts on the planet. The first arises from cancers, pathogens, and pests that evolve too quickly and the second, from the inability of many valued species to adapt quickly enough. Applied evolutionary biology provides a suite of strategies to address these global challenges that threaten human health, food security, and biodiversity. This Review highlights both progress and gaps in genetic, developmental, and environmental manipulations across the life sciences that either target the rate and direction of evolution or reduce the mismatch between organisms and human-altered environments. Increased development and application of these underused tools will be vital in meeting current and future targets for sustainable development. PMID:25213376

  2. Biomimetic Nanotechnology: A Powerful Means to address Global Challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Gebeshuber, Ille C

    2010-01-01

    Biomimetic nanotechnology is a prominent research area at the meeting place of life sciences with engineering and physics: it is a continuously growing field that deals with knowledge transfer from biology to nanotechnology. Biomimetic nanotechnology is a field that has the potential to substantially support successful mastering of major global challenges. The Millennium Project was commissioned by the United Nations Secretary-General in 2002 to develop a concrete action plan for the world to reverse the grinding poverty, hunger and disease affecting billions of people. It states 15 Global Challenges: sustainable development, water, population and resources, democratization, long-term perspectives, information technology, the rich-poor gap, health, capacity to decide, peace and conflict, status of women, transnational crime, energy, science and technology and global ethics. The possible contributions to master these challenges with the help of biomimetic nanotechnology will be discussed in detail.

  3. Design Guidelines to Address Global Challenges: Lessons from Global Action Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Steve Waddell

    2012-01-01

    Traditional organizations appear to be incapable of adequately addressing critical global issues such as war, climate change, and economic inequality. Addressing these issues suggests the need for organizational innovation to develop global social contracts. Successful innovation must address four integration imperatives: (1) integrate effort and resources across organizational sectors (business, government, civil society) and sense-making, (2) create successful individual to global aggregati...

  4. Addressing Global Environmental Challenges through Interdisciplinary Biogeochemical Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paytan, A.

    2013-12-01

    Our planet is dynamic; energy and matter constantly move between the hydrosphere, atmosphere and lithosphere on time scales from seconds to millenia. These tight interactions - including those between organisms and their physical environment - are what make Earth habitable. However, as Rachel Carson wrote, 'Only within the moment of time represented by the present century has one species - man - acquired significant power to alter the nature of this world'. Globalization and explosive population growth have generated far-reaching environmental problems on a scale that humanity has never faced before. Fortunately, our species has also developed an unprecedented ability to provide science-based solutions. Since processes impacting the environment involve complex biological, physical, chemical and geological interactions and feedbacks, they require the integration of expertise from all these scientific disciplines as well as input from policy makers, social scientists, and economists. This talk presents four examples of current interdisciplinary research projects conducted in my lab, each one related to a theme from one of Carson's books (Under the Sea-wind, The Sea Around Us, The Edge of the Sea, and Silent Spring). These projects, and others like them, provide hope that we can move toward a sustainable relationship with the natural world by encouraging the best scientists to conduct interdisciplinary research with direct applications for environmental management and stewardship.

  5. The Challenges Facing the Multilateral Trading System in Addressing Global Public Policy Objectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Bellmann

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite a record-breaking 14.5 per cent increase in world merchandise exports, the effects of the financial crisis and global recession are still hampering faster economic recovery. Relatively high oil prices combined with persistent unemployment and measures designed to reduce budget deficits have undermined short-term growth prospects. While South–South trade continues to explode, trade imbalances – i.e. the gap between exports and imports – widened in 2010 compared to 2009 (though smaller than pre-crisis levels. Meanwhile, trade negotiations under the Doha Round have reached an impasse, generating uncertainties about the future of the World Trade Organization (WTO as a negotiating forum. Under these circumstances, should the system rethink its decision-making process founded upon the predominance of member states, the principle of consensus and the notion of single undertaking, as some critics have suggested? And, if so, how could such a reform agenda be initiated at the WTO? Moreover, beyond the negotiating function of the WTO, the paralysis of the system also raises urgent questions about the ability of the system to respond to pressing challenges of our times, such as trade and climate change, or food security and price volatility.

  6. Status of Global Threat Reduction Initiative's Activities Underway to Address Major Domestic Radiological Security Challenges - 12105

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During their service lives, radioactive sealed sources are used for a wide variety of essential purposes. However, each year, thousands of radioactive sealed sources that pose a potential risk to national security, health, and safety become disused and unwanted in the United States. Due to their concentrated activity and portability, these sources could be used in radiological dispersal devices ('dirty bombs'). For more than a decade, the National Nuclear Security Administration and the U.S. Department of Energy, through the Global Threat Reduction Initiative Offsite Source Recovery Project (GTRI/OSRP), have facilitated the removal and disposition of thousands of disused/unwanted sources worldwide. However, the ability of GTRI/OSRP to continue its work is critically dependent on the ability to transport and appropriately dispose of these sources. On that front, GTRI/OSRP progress includes development of two prototype Type B transport containers and significant efforts toward certification, increased commercial disposal access for risk-significant sealed sources at commercial sites, and cooperation through the International Atomic Energy Agency to increase source repatriation. Disused sealed sources continue to pose a national security concern. The impact of a dirty bomb detonation could be costly both financially and to those exposed to the resulting radiation. However, significant progress has been made since 2008 on each of the challenges identified in the DHS Sealed Source Security Workshop. Not only will there be increased opportunity for commercial disposal of many sizes and types of sealed sources, but also stakeholders are studying front-end solutions to the problem of disused sealed sources, such as financial assurance and recycle. The lack of sealed source transport containers is also likely to be mitigated with the development and certification by NNSA of two new Type B models. Internationally, increased efforts at source repatriation will mitigate the threat posed by disused sealed sources abroad. Sealed sources provide irreplaceable benefits to those who use them or who benefit from their use; now stakeholders are rising to the challenge of ensuring that those benefits are safely and securely realized. (authors)

  7. Addressing global health governance challenges through a new mechanism: the proposal for a Committee C of the World Health Assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kickbusch, Ilona; Hein, Wolfgang; Silberschmidt, Gaudenz

    2010-01-01

    The field of global health has reached a critical juncture, where both its visibility and the complexity of its challenges are unprecedented. The World Health Organization, as the only global health actor possessing both democratic and formal legal legitimacy, is best positioned to capitalize on this new, precarious situation in public health and respond with the governance innovation that is needed to bring the increasingly chaotic network of activities and entities affecting health outcomes under the fold of a centralized, standard-setting agency. One such proposed innovation to guide normative and strategic coordination in global health is the creation of a Committee C of the World Health Assembly that would promote consensus building and multi-stakeholder decision-making within the unique convening power of the World Health Organization. PMID:20880240

  8. Addressing the workforce pipeline challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A secure and affordable energy supply is essential for achieving U.S. national security, in continuing U.S. prosperity and in laying the foundations to enable future economic growth. To meet this goal the next generation energy workforce in the U.S., in particular those needed to support instrumentation, controls and advanced operations and maintenance, is a critical element. The workforce is aging and a new workforce pipeline, to support both current generation and new build has yet to be established. The paper reviews the challenges and some actions being taken to address this need. (authors)

  9. Addressing the workforce pipeline challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard Bond; Kevin Kostelnik; Richard Holman

    2006-11-01

    A secure and affordable energy supply is essential for achieving U.S. national security, in continuing U.S. prosperity and in laying the foundations to enable future economic growth. To meet this goal the next generation energy workforce in the U.S., in particular those needed to support instrumentation, controls and advanced operations and maintenance, is a critical element. The workforce is aging and a new workforce pipeline, to support both current generation and new build has yet to be established. The paper reviews the challenges and some actions being taken to address this need.

  10. GEOSS: Addressing Big Data Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nativi, S.; Craglia, M.; Ochiai, O.

    2014-12-01

    In the sector of Earth Observation, the explosion of data is due to many factors including: new satellite constellations, the increased capabilities of sensor technologies, social media, crowdsourcing, and the need for multidisciplinary and collaborative research to face Global Changes. In this area, there are many expectations and concerns about Big Data. Vendors have attempted to use this term for their commercial purposes. It is necessary to understand whether Big Data is a radical shift or an incremental change for the existing digital infrastructures. This presentation tries to explore and discuss the impact of Big Data challenges and new capabilities on the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) and particularly on its common digital infrastructure called GCI. GEOSS is a global and flexible network of content providers allowing decision makers to access an extraordinary range of data and information at their desk. The impact of the Big Data dimensionalities (commonly known as 'V' axes: volume, variety, velocity, veracity, visualization) on GEOSS is discussed. The main solutions and experimentation developed by GEOSS along these axes are introduced and analyzed. GEOSS is a pioneering framework for global and multidisciplinary data sharing in the Earth Observation realm; its experience on Big Data is valuable for the many lessons learned.

  11. Global threat reduction initiative efforts to address transportation challenges associated with the recovery of disused radioactive sealed sources - 10460

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proper disposition of disused radioactive sources is essential for their safe and secure management and necessary to preclude their use in malicious activities. Without affordable, timely transportation options, disused sealed sources remain in storage at hundreds of sites throughout the country and around the world. While secure storage is a temporary measure, the longer sources remain disused or unwanted the chances increase that they will become unsecured or abandoned. The Global Threat Reduction Initiative's Off-Site Source Recovery Project (GTRIlOSRP), recovers thousands of disused and unwanted sealed sources annually as part of GTRl's larger mission to reduce and protect high risk nuclear and radiological materials located at civilian sites worldwide. Faced with decreasing availability of certified transportation containers to support movement of disused and unwanted neutron- and beta/gamma-emitting radioactive sealed sources, GTRIlOSRP has initiated actions to ensure the continued success of the project in timely recovery and management of sealed radioactive sources. Efforts described in this paper to enhance transportation capabilities include: (smbullet) Addition of authorized content to existing and planned Type B containers to support the movement of non-special form and other Type B-quantity sealed sources; (smbullet) Procurement of vendor services for the design, development, testing and certification of a new Type B container to supification of a new Type B container to support transportation of irradiators, teletherapy heads or sources removed from these devices using remote handling capabilities such as the IAEA portable hot cell facility; (smbullet) Expansion of shielded Type A container inventory for transportation of gamma-emitting sources in activity ranges requiring use of shielding for conformity with transportation requirements; (smbullet) Approval of the S300 Type A fissile container for transport of Pu-239 sealed sources internationally; (smbullet) Technology transfer of field-sealable (non-welded) special form capsules for commercial use.

  12. Global challenges in energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental and security concerns are stimulating global interest in hydrogen power, renewable energy, and advanced transportation technologies, but no significant movement away from oil and a carbon-based world economy is expected soon. Over the longer-term, however, a transition from fossil fuels to a non-carbon-based economy will likely occur, affecting the type of environment future generations may encounter. Key challenges will face the world's energy industry over the next few decades to ensure a smooth transition-challenges which will require government and industry solutions beginning as early as today. This paper identifies four critical challenges in energy and the choices which will have to be made on how best to confront growing pollution caused by fossil fuels and how to facilitate an eventual revolutionary-like transition to a non-carbon-based global economy

  13. Advanced Cyberinfrastructure Investments Addressing Earth Science Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, A. L.; Spengler, S. J.; Zanzerkia, E. E.

    2014-12-01

    The National Science Foundation supports infrastructure development and research into Big Data challenges as part of its long-term cyberinfrastructure strategy. This strategy highlights the critical need to leverage and partner with other agencies, resources and service providers to the U.S. research community. The current cyberinfrastructure and research activities within NSF support advanced technology development, pilot demonstrations of new capabilities for the scientific community in general, and integration and interoperability of data resources across the Geoscience community. These activities include the Data Infrastructure Building Blocks, Big Data and EarthCube programs, among others. Investments are competitively solicited; the resulting portfolio of high performance computing, advanced information systems, new software capabilities, analytics and modeling supports a range of science disciplines. This presentation provides an overview of these research programs, highlighting some of the key investments in advanced analytics, coupled modeling, and seamless collaboration. Examples related to the geosciences, computer-aided discovery and hypothesis generation are highlighted.

  14. The Sustainable Hydrogen Economy: Addressing the Challenges Ahead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, John A.

    2006-10-01

    It is rapidly becoming apparent that energy is one of the most important issues facing our world today; in fact, in today's society energy is as important as food and water. Humankind finds itself faced the challenge of how to continue to power society, particularly in the face of the rapidly growing economies of emerging nations like India and China, and yet answer questions of sustainability, energy security, geopolitics and global environment. One of the major issues facing America and most other countries in the world is how to supply a transportation fuel, an energy carrier to replace gasoline. Hydrogen as an energy carrier, primarily derived from water, can address issues of sustainability, environmental emissions and energy security. The ``Hydrogen Economy'' then is the production of hydrogen, its distribution and utilization as an energy carrier. While the vision of a hydrogen economy has been around for over 130 years, the most recent push to use hydrogen as an energy carrier came as part of a US Presidential Initiative, announced in the 2003 State of the Union Address. It is important that we consider hydrogen in tandem with other technologies as an alternative to the once-abundant hydrocarbon resources on which our society depends. This talk will introduce sustainable energy systems, including fuel cell technology and discuss the vision, the barriers and possible pathways for the production and implementation of hydrogen into the energy infrastructure.

  15. Addressing malaria vector control challenges in South Sudan: proposed recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanda Emmanuel

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Upon the signing of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement in 2005, the Republic of South Sudan (RSS has faced a lot of challenges, such as a lack of infrastructure, human resources and an enormous burden of vector borne diseases including malaria. While a national malaria strategic plan 2006-2011 was developed, the vector control component has remained relatively weak. The strategy endorses the distribution of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs as the frontline intervention with other interventions recommended only when technical and institutional capacity is available. In 2006, a draft integrated vector management (IVM strategic plan 2007–2012 was developed but never implemented, resulting in minimal coordination, implementation and coverage of malaria vector control tools including their inherent impact. To address this challenge, the vector control team of the National Malaria Control Programme (NMCP is being strengthened. With the objective of building national capacity and technical collaboration for effective implementation of the IVM strategy, a national malaria vector control conference was held from 15-17th October 2012 in Juba. A range of NMCP partners, state ministries, acadaemia, private sector, national and international non-governmental organizations, including regional and global policymakers attended the meeting. The conference represented a major milestone and made recommendations revolving around the five key elements of the IVM approach. The meeting endorsed that vector control efforts in RSS be augmented with other interventions within the confines of the IVM strategy as a national approach, with strong adherence to its key elements.

  16. Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

  17. Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

  18. Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

  19. Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

  20. Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

  1. Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

  2. Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

  3. Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

  4. Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

  5. Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

  6. Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

  7. Addressing Earth Science Data Access Challenges through User Experience Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmings, S. N.; Banks, B.; Kendall, J.; Lee, C. M.; Irwin, D.; Toll, D. L.; Searby, N. D.

    2013-12-01

    The NASA Capacity Building Program (Earth Science Division, Applied Sciences Program) works to enhance end-user capabilities to employ Earth observation and Earth science (EO/ES) data in decision-making. Open data access and user-tailored data delivery strategies are critical elements towards this end. User Experience (UX) and User Interface (UI) research methods can offer important contributions towards addressing data access challenges, particularly at the interface of science application/product development and product transition to end-users. This presentation focuses on developing nation contexts and describes methods, results, and lessons learned from two recent UX/UI efforts conducted in collaboration with NASA: the SERVIRglobal.net redesign project and the U.S. Water Partnership (USWP) Portal development effort. SERVIR, a collaborative venture among NASA, USAID, and global partners, seeks to improve environmental management and climate change response by helping governments and other stakeholders integrate EO and geospatial technologies into decision-making. The USWP, a collaboration among U.S. public and private sectors, harnesses U.S.-based resources and expertise to address water challenges in developing nations. SERVIR's study, conducted from 2010-2012, assessed and tested user needs, preferences, and online experiences to generate a more user-friendly online data portal at SERVIRglobal.net. The portal provides a central access interface to data and products from SERVIR's network of hubs in East Africa, the Hindu Kush Himalayas, and Mesoamerica. The second study, conducted by the USWP Secretariat and funded by the U.S. Department of State, seeks to match U.S.-based water information resources with developing nation stakeholder needs. The USWP study utilizes a multi-pronged approach to identify key design requirements and to understand the existing water data portal landscape. Adopting UX methods allows data distributors to design customized UIs that help users find, interpret, and obtain appropriate content quickly. The data access challenge for both SERVIR and USWP consisted of organizing a wide range of content for their respective user bases, which are diverse, international, and in some cases loosely characterized. The UX/UI design approach generated profiles of prototypical users and corresponding task flows and organizational schemes for their preferred types of content. Wireframe acceptance testing by SERVIR helped elicit and optimize how users interact with the information online. These approaches produced customized UIs and knowledge management strategies to address the data access challenges faced by each user type. Both studies revealed critical considerations for user experiences in developing nations (e.g., low-bandwidth internet connections, rolling power outages at data storage or network centers). For SERVIR, these findings influenced not only the portal infrastructure; they also informed the transition of the platform to a Cloud-based model, as well as the development of custom data delivery tools such as SMS and other mobile solutions. While SERVIR's data access solutions are customized for the network's community of users, they are also standardized and interoperable according to GEO and ISO standards, providing a model for other initiatives such as the ongoing USWP Portal development effort.

  8. Addressing the Grand Challenge of atmospheric carbon dioxide: geologic sequestration vs. biological recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Ben J

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract On February 15, 2008, the National Academy of Engineering unveiled their list of 14 Grand Challenges for Engineering. Building off of tremendous advancements in the past century, these challenges were selected for their role in assuring a sustainable existence for the rapidly increasing global community. It is no accident that the first five Challenges on the list involve the development of sustainable energy sources and management of environmental resources. While the focus of this review is to address the single Grand Challenge of "develop carbon sequestration methods", is will soon be clear that several other Challenges are intrinsically tied to it through the principles of sustainability. How does the realm of biological engineering play a role in addressing these Grand Challenges?

  9. Natural Formulations Addressing Skin Challenges in Baby Care

    OpenAIRE

    Giada Maramaldi; Martino Meneghin; Giuseppe Antognazza; Michela Pollastri

    2013-01-01

    Addressing skin challenges in baby care formulations is quite a challenge itself, as the formulation not only needs to be active, but it should also meet specific requirements in terms of ingredients, agreability and rational of the formulation design. Object of this study was the realization of a few different cosmetic formulations blending soundly documented natural active ingredients in systems matching the most common requirements of the baby care products. Additionaly, compatibility evid...

  10. ADDRESSING THE RISKS OF GLOBAL PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema

    2011-01-01

    Offshoring various stages in the product development process – from engineering tasks like R&D and design to manufacturing activities - can impact the development process, the product and the organisation. Some of these impacts are positive while some are negative. The negative impacts are related to rework, misunderstandings, miscommunication and lower quality. This paper investigates how the organisation can reduce the negative aspects of offshoring by presenting two possible approaches; one which lessens the exposure to situations in which these negative impacts happen and another which addresses them in the decision phase so the organisation can develop appropriate strategies for these instances.

  11. Culture, Communication, and the Challenge of Globalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shome, Raka; Hegde, Radha S.

    2002-01-01

    Deals with the problematics that globalization poses for critical communication scholarship. Address how uneven patterns of global processes are enacted through cultural practices produced by the transnational flows of images and capital. Explores several areas of contemporary global growth with the overall objective of demonstrating the urgency…

  12. Innovative approaches for addressing old challenges in component importance measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Importance measures (IM) are component related indices that allow assessing how a component in a system affects one or more system level performance functions. While several IM have been presented in the literature, challenges still remain with respect to the following: (1) multiple ranking—multiple perspective, (2) multi-component importance and, (3) multi-function importance. To address these challenges, this paper proposes set of innovative solutions based on several available techniques: Hasse diagram, Copeland score and Multi-objective optimization. As such, the purpose of this research is twofold: first propose solutions and second foster new research to address these challenges. Each of the proposed solutions is exemplified with a working example.

  13. Who governs energy? The challenges facing global energy governance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article conceptualizes the energy problems facing society from a global governance perspective. It argues that a notion of 'global energy governance,' taken to mean international collective action efforts undertaken to manage and distribute energy resources and provide energy services, offers a meaningful and useful framework for assessing energy-related challenges. The article begins by exploring the concepts of governance, global governance, and global energy governance. It then examines some of the existing institutions in place to establish and carry out rules and norms governing global energy problems and describes the range of institutional design options available to policymakers. It briefly traces the role of a selection of these institutions, from inter-governmental organizations to summit processes to multilateral development banks to global action networks, in responding to energy issues, and points out their strengths and weaknesses. The article concludes by analyzing how the various approaches to global governance differ in their applicability to addressing the conundrums of global energy problems.

  14. Global mobile IPv6 addressing using transition mechanisms

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Edgard, Jamhour; Simone, Storoz; Carlos, Maziero.

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The adoption of the Internet Protocol in mobile and wireless technologies has considerably increased the number of hosts that can potentially access the global Internet. IPv6 is considered the long term solution for the IPv4 address shortage problem, but the transition from IPv4 to IPv6 is supposed [...] to be very gradual. Therefore, there will be a long time during which both protocol versions will coexist. To facilitate transition, the IETF has set up a work group called NGTRANS (Next Generation TRANSition) which specifies mechanisms for supporting interoperability between IPv4 and IPv6. This paper describes a new approach for implementing mobile networks with global Internet connectivity using transition mechanisms. It consists in virtually assigning IPv6 addresses to IPv4 hosts without modifying end-user devices by introducing a transparent gateway in the mobile network. The mobile hosts with virtual IPv6 addresses are uniquely addressed through the global IPv4 Internet by using IPv6 addresses from the standard 6to4 addressing scheme or Fully Qualified Domain Names (FQDN). This "extended" transition mechanism permits to deploy mobile networks with global Internet connectivity without requiring public IPv4 addresses, using legacy IPv4 user devices. The mobile hosts with virtual IPv6 addresses can communicate to other hosts with virtual IPv6 addresses or with "true " IPv6 networks.

  15. Global change and the groundwater management challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorelick, Steven M.; Zheng, Chunmiao

    2015-05-01

    With rivers in critical regions already exploited to capacity throughout the world and groundwater overdraft as well as large-scale contamination occurring in many areas, we have entered an era in which multiple simultaneous stresses will drive water management. Increasingly, groundwater resources are taking a more prominent role in providing freshwater supplies. We discuss the competing fresh groundwater needs for human consumption, food production, energy, and the environment, as well as physical hazards, and conflicts due to transboundary overexploitation. During the past 50 years, groundwater management modeling has focused on combining simulation with optimization methods to inspect important problems ranging from contaminant remediation to agricultural irrigation management. The compound challenges now faced by water planners require a new generation of aquifer management models that address the broad impacts of global change on aquifer storage and depletion trajectory management, land subsidence, groundwater-dependent ecosystems, seawater intrusion, anthropogenic and geogenic contamination, supply vulnerability, and long-term sustainability. The scope of research efforts is only beginning to address complex interactions using multiagent system models that are not readily formulated as optimization problems and that consider a suite of human behavioral responses.

  16. Catholic Social Teaching: Addressing Globalization in Catholic Business Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, James B.; Martinez, Zaida; Toyne, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Although business schools are increasingly aware of the importance of globalization in educating future business leaders, their business programs have addressed globalization from a limited perspective that fails to provide students with a broader understanding of its impact on societies and its moral consequences. The conventional approach to the…

  17. GLOBALIZATION AND THE NEW ENERGY CHALLENGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preda (AndreescuMihaela

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available A New Global Energy Economy is emerging, in which energy demand and supply issues will make regions of the world much more dependent upon each other. International extensive energetic interdependence on energy resources and networks grows in the global economy. Some $22 trillion of investment in supply infrastructure is needed to meet projected global demand until 2030. Mobilising all this investment will be challenging. Adherence to these policies will ensure that the global energy investments materializes, the necessary infrastructure is built, and the lengthening worldwide energy supply chain operates in security. Strong global energy policy is needed to move the world into a more sustainable energy path.

  18. Globalization and Its Challenges for Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Odell, Sandra J.

    2008-01-01

    There are serious implications of the global economy for teacher education. In this paper, the authors identify some of the influences of the global economy on education and teacher education, point out responses to these, and discuss some of the resultant challenges from the vantage point of the United States.

  19. Natural Formulations Addressing Skin Challenges in Baby Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giada Maramaldi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Addressing skin challenges in baby care formulations is quite a challenge itself, as the formulation not only needs to be active, but it should also meet specific requirements in terms of ingredients, agreability and rational of the formulation design. Object of this study was the realization of a few different cosmetic formulations blending soundly documented natural active ingredients in systems matching the most common requirements of the baby care products. Additionaly, compatibility evidences of the employed natural actives within the tested systems have also been observed. We are therefore presenting the formulation design of four different formulations for baby care: a baby wash, an immediate rash recovery, an after sun emulsion and a calming and soothing product, each one described for the rational of the actives it contains and provided with a detailed formulation design. Specific attention will be directed to those ingredients for which clinical data supporting the expected skin benefits are available.

  20. ISLAM: Local and Global Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editor Al-Jami'ah: Journal of Islamic Studies

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Indeed, in maintaining their local values when faced with globalchallenges, Muslims, as a social entity, and Islam, as a set of dogma, havegiven birth to new phenomena, e.g. new interpretation of Islam withina new context. Additionally, this era of globalization has led religions,including Islam, to renew their gambit to cope reality, e.g. in the practicallife (sociological, political, economical and anthropological aspects,intellectual endeavors (philosophical and theological aspects, and in therenewal of dogmatic teachings (hermeneutical aspects.

  1. CLIMATE CHANGE: FROM GLOBAL CONCERN TO REGIONAL CHALLENGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piet Rietveld

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to map out various research and policy challenges inherent in the need to cope with climate change. Therefore, four critical domains are identified which will most likely be seriously affected by climate change. Next, both the global/general and the regional/specific dimensions of these domains are described, with a view to the identification of a proactive research and policy constellation that might be put in effect to effectively address climate issues.

  2. Protecting the confidentiality of interim data: addressing current challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Thomas R

    2015-02-01

    There is compelling evidence supporting the importance of maintaining confidentiality of interim data in clinical trials designed to reliably address the benefit-to-risk profile of interventions. While this is widely recognized, creative approaches are needed to achieve this in challenging settings where interim data are released for regulatory review and action, even though the trial would be continued to address its primary hypothesis. An illustration is the recently emerging setting of cardiovascular safety trials in type 2 diabetes mellitus. At the first stage of such trials, if large relative increases in cardiovascular major morbidity/mortality can be ruled out, data can be released solely for the purpose of allowing regulatory decision making about marketing approval. The trial is then continued in the post-marketing setting to address the primary hypothesis regarding whether smaller relative increases can be ruled out. Active rather than passive approaches are needed to protect the integrity of cardiovascular safety trials. Given the importance to trial integrity of maintaining confidentiality of interim data such as the estimated relative effect on cardiovascular risk, a Data Access Plan should be in place in these trials to ensure such data are not revealed to study participants and their caregivers, investigators involved in trial conduct, the sponsor's management team, and the public, until trial completion. A Performance Standards Document also should be developed to pre-specify targeted and minimally acceptable levels for recruitment rate, best real-world achievable adherence, avoidance of cross-ins, and retention rate. This document should specify creative approaches for achieving these targets, oversight procedures during trial conduct to monitor performance levels, and actions to be taken if emerging data indicate minimally acceptable levels are not being reached. In settings where meaningful breaches in confidentiality have occurred, such oversight allows adverse effects on trial integrity to be detected earlier and more effectively addressed. PMID:25475877

  3. The Global Energy Challenge : A Contextual Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Connolly, David

    2011-01-01

    This report gives a brief overview of the global energy challenge and subsequently outlines how and where renewable energy could be developed to solve these issues. The report does not go into a lot of detail on these issues and hence, it is meant as an overview only. The report begins by outlining the causes of global climate change, concluding that energy-related emissions are the primary contributors to the problem. As a result, global energy production is analysed in more detail, discussi...

  4. Global Workforce Development - Addressing the Changing Geography of Investment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElvy, G. W.; Loudin, M. G.

    2005-12-01

    The Geography of professional workforce hiring is changing significantly and rapidly in the petroleum industry, mostly in response to shifting investment patterns. These geographical changes pose daunting challenges as well as new opportunities for philanthropic institutions such as the ExxonMobil Foundation, and especially for academia. Our Angolan affiliate illustrates the challenges brought about by investment in new areas. Although we will continue to require access to numerous Angolan Geoscience graduates who can fully participate in our global Geoscience community, there is only one Angolan institution that grants a relatively small number of Geoscience degrees. Our access to other locally-educated Angolan professional graduates is similarly limited. The Petroleum sector's response to this situation has been to seek indigenous students who are already enrolled, often in North American or European academic institutions, or to sponsor Angolan students there. If one multiplies our Angolan Geoscience example by the number of competing employers in Angola, and then by the number of countries around the world that are experiencing strong economic growth, the magnitude of the unfilled demand for international educational development seems daunting. However, several academic institutions have already taken the initiative and have provided educational, linguistic, and cultural pathways that encourage Angolans and others to obtain a world-class educational preparation on their respective campuses. This strategy has indeed begun to address the need for capacity-building for many indigenous students, and has aided various industries in their efforts to build indigenous workforces. Nevertheless, growing the capacity of indigenous academic infrastructure is also essential for the long term, and only a few academic institutions have begun to explore this educational frontier. Increased engagement and collaboration in international educational activities would clearly confer benefits on all the stakeholders, including universities, private industry, and various philanthropic institutions and governmental authorities. Continued economic growth around the world will be accompanied by growth in academic capacity, and it seems likely that the established academic institutions of today that nurture and influence academic growth outside of their own countries will become tomorrow's leading institutions.

  5. Ethical Challenges Regarding Globalization of Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivier, Bert

    2011-01-01

    This paper places the question of ethical challenges in relation to the process of globalization concerning international education and the mobility of international students worldwide. It focuses on five areas of justice, namely, social and political justice, administrative justice, distributive justice, cultural justice and ecological justice.…

  6. Addressing the challenges of patient-centred design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen LaBat

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Patient-centred design is a relatively new term, but a longstanding concept in clinical practice. This discussion looks at patient-centred design and explores the relationships of patient-centred design to universal design, user-centred design and the newer human-centred design. It also explores why interdisciplinary approaches are needed for patient-centred design and how interdisciplinary collaboration works to address the challenges of patient centred design. Successful patient-centred solutions can grow from collaborations which include shared visions, understanding of both the nature and degree of variation in the patient,materials, and the designed solution, clear regular communication among all parties with careful definition of terms, and respect for the inherent cultures of all disciplines involved.

  7. The Global Outlook for Small Reactors: Opportunities, Challenges and Implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fascinating topic of small nuclear is becoming more prevalent on the nuclear agenda. The discussions are generally focused within the country of technical origin. In this presentation 'The global outlook for small reactors' Rolls-Royce along with energy business analysts Douglas-Westwood present their shared views on the global opportunities for Small Reactor deployment in the context of the wider energy market. The presentation will: provide a compressive overview of trends and dynamics relating to Small Reactors in the context of the current world energy market, identify specific Small Reactor opportunities and areas of interest, address the challenges and potential solutions for Small Reactor deployment and operation.(author).

  8. Evaluating complex community-based health promotion: addressing the challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolley, Gwyneth

    2014-08-01

    Community-based health promotion is poorly theorised and lacks an agreed evidence-base. This paper examines characteristics of community-based health promotion and the challenges they present to evaluation. A review of health promotion evaluation leads to an exploration of more recent approaches, drawing on ideas from complexity theory and developmental evaluation. A reflexive analysis of three program evaluations previously undertaken as an evaluation consultant is used to develop a conceptual model to help in the design and conduct of health promotion evaluation. The model is further explored by applying it retrospectively to one evaluation. Findings suggest that the context-contingent nature of health promotion programs; turbulence in the community context and players; multiple stakeholders, goals and strategies; and uncertainty of outcomes all contribute to the complexity of interventions. Bringing together insights from developmental evaluation and complexity theory can help to address some evaluation challenges. The proposed model emphasises recognising and responding to changing contexts and emerging outcomes, providing rapid feedback and facilitating reflexive practice. This will enable the evaluator to gain a better understanding of the influence of context and other implementation factors in a complex setting. Use of the model should contribute to building cumulative evidence and knowledge in order to identify the principles of health promotion effectiveness that may be transferable to new situations. PMID:24755377

  9. Uranium discussion paper: embracing facts and addressing the challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Events in recent months have prompted Australians to reassess their attitude towards uranium mining. These include the debate over takeover bids for our largest uranium deposit at Olympic Dam, Canberra's decision to take control of mining in the Northern Territory, and progress in negotiating a bilateral agreement for selling uranium to China. On an international level, increasing concern over global warming, and burgeoning energy demand from developing countries, has led many people to come to view nuclear power as an energy alternative that is both attractive and necessary. It is essential that professional, informed and expert opinion be sought to drive the debate and the way forward. Australia's uranium mining and exploration industry is now leading edge and it's time public debate evolved along with it. The extent to which the issue is manipulated for political point scoring is a disservice to the country and perhaps to democracy. It impedes the evolution of a coherent, consistent and intelligent policy on a range of issues that we, as a country with the largest deposit of a sustainable source of energy in a time of accelerating global energy demands, need to address

  10. Is prophetic discourse adequate to address global economic justice?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piet J. Naudé

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This article outlined key features of prophetic discourse and investigated whether this form of moral discourse adequately addresses issues of economic injustice. It is shown that the strength of prophetic discourse is its ability to denounce instances of injustice whilst at the same time announcing a God-willed alternative future. The ‘preferential option for the poor’ in Latin American liberation theologies is treated as a case study of the influence of prophetic discourse in contexts of perceived economic injustice. Also the core weaknesses of prophetic discourse are investigated, specifically its incomplete moral argument, weak moral analyses, silence on transition measures, and its inability to take a positive stance on reforms in the system from which itself benefits. In the final section it is concluded that prophetic discourse plays an indispensable role in addressing issues of global economic justice, but – taken by itself – it is not an adequate form of moral discourse to address concrete matters of justice.

    How to cite this article: Naudé, P.J., 2011, ‘Is prophetic discourse adequate to address global economic justice?’, HTS Teologiese Studies/ Theological Studies 67(1, Art. #1014, 8 pages. DOI: 10.4102/hts.v67i1.1014

  11. The Global Energy Challenge : A Contextual Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, David

    2011-01-01

    This report gives a brief overview of the global energy challenge and subsequently outlines how and where renewable energy could be developed to solve these issues. The report does not go into a lot of detail on these issues and hence, it is meant as an overview only. The report begins by outlining the causes of global climate change, concluding that energy-related emissions are the primary contributors to the problem. As a result, global energy production is analysed in more detail, discussing how it has evolved over the last 30 years and also, how it is expected to evolve in the coming 30 years. Afterwards, the security of the world’s energy supply is investigated and it becomes clear that there is both an inevitable shortage of fossil fuels and a dangerous separation of supply and demand. The final topic discussed is renewable energy, since it is one sustainable solution to the global energy challenge and to conclude, a brief summary is provided.

  12. Public engagement on global health challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minhas Gunjeet S

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Experience with public engagement activities regarding the risks and benefits of science and technology (S&T is growing, especially in the industrialized world. However, public engagement in the developing world regarding S&T risks and benefits to explore health issues has not been widely explored. Methods This paper gives an overview about public engagement and related concepts, with a particular focus on challenges and benefits in the developing world. We then describe an Internet-based platform, which seeks to both inform and engage youth and the broader public on global water issues and their health impacts. Finally, we outline a possible course for future action to scale up this and similar online public engagement platforms. Results The benefits of public engagement include creating an informed citizenry, generating new ideas from the public, increasing the chances of research being adopted, increasing public trust, and answering ethical research questions. Public engagement also fosters global communication, enables shared experiences and methodology, standardizes strategy, and generates global viewpoints. This is especially pertinent to the developing world, as it encourages previously marginalized populations to participate on a global stage. One of the core issues at stake in public engagement is global governance of science and technology. Also, beyond benefiting society at large, public engagement in science offers benefits to the scientific enterprise itself. Conclusion Successful public engagement with developing world stakeholders will be a critical part of implementing new services and technologies. Interactive engagement platforms, such as the Internet, have the potential to unite people globally around relevant health issues.

  13. Global climate change: the quantifiable sustainability challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Princiotta, Frank T; Loughlin, Daniel H

    2014-09-01

    Population growth and the pressures spawned by increasing demands for energy and resource-intensive goods, foods, and services are driving unsustainable growth in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Recent GHG emission trends are consistent with worst-case scenarios of the previous decade. Dramatic and near-term emission reductions likely will be needed to ameliorate the potential deleterious impacts of climate change. To achieve such reductions, fundamental changes are required in the way that energy is generated and used. New technologies must be developed and deployed at a rapid rate. Advances in carbon capture and storage, renewable, nuclear and transportation technologies are particularly important; however, global research and development efforts related to these technologies currently appear to fall short relative to needs. Even with a proactive and international mitigation effort, humanity will need to adapt to climate change, but the adaptation needs and damages will be far greater if mitigation activities are not pursued in earnest. In this review, research is highlighted that indicates increasing global and regional temperatures and ties climate changes to increasing GHG emissions. GHG mitigation targets necessary for limiting future global temperature increases are discussed, including how factors such as population growth and the growing energy intensity of the developing world will make these reduction targets more challenging. Potential technological pathways for meeting emission reduction targets are examined, barriers are discussed, and global and US. modeling results are presented that suggest that the necessary pathways will require radically transformed electric and mobile sectors. While geoengineering options have been proposed to allow more time for serious emission reductions, these measures are at the conceptual stage with many unanswered cost, environmental, and political issues. Implications: This paper lays out the case that mitigating the potential for catastrophic climate change will be a monumental challenge, requiring the global community to transform its energy system in an aggressive, coordinated, and timely manner. If this challenge is to be met, new technologies will have to be developed and deployed at a rapid rate. Advances in carbon capture and storage, renewable, nuclear, and transportation technologies are particularly important. Even with an aggressive international mitigation effort, humanity will still need to adapt to significant climate change. PMID:25282995

  14. Time for a change: addressing R&D and commercialization challenges for antibacterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, David J; Miller, Linda Federici; Findlay, David; Anderson, James; Marks, Lynn

    2015-06-01

    The antibacterial therapeutic area has been described as the perfect storm. Resistance is increasing to the point that our hospitals encounter patients infected with untreatable pathogens, the overall industry pipeline is described as dry and most multinational pharmaceutical companies have withdrawn from the area. Major contributing factors to the declining antibacterial industry pipeline include scientific challenges, clinical/regulatory hurdles and low return on investment. This paper examines these challenges and proposes approaches to address them. There is a need for a broader scientific agenda to explore new approaches to discover and develop antibacterial agents. Additionally, ideas of how industry and academia could be better integrated will be presented. While promising progress in the regulatory environment has been made, more streamlined regulatory paths are still required and the solutions will lie in global harmonization and clearly defined guidance. Creating the right incentives for antibacterial research and development is critical and a new commercial model for antibacterial agents will be proposed. One key solution to help resolve both the problem of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and lack of new drug development are rapid, cost-effective, accurate point of care diagnostics that will transform antibacterial prescribing and enable more cost-effective and efficient antibacterial clinical trials. The challenges of AMR are too great for any one group to resolve and success will require leadership and partnerships among academia, industry and governments globally. PMID:25918443

  15. Pandemic influenza: A global challenge for social marketing marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra C. Jones

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have seen increased attention and concern regarding the potential for pandemic influenza, following large-scale outbreaks of swine flu and bird flu. Governments and health agencies have time to develop social marketing strategies and specific messages that have the potential to minimize fear, refute or inoculate against misinformation that the public may encounter, and enhance the likelihood of the public taking the recommended preventive and remedial actions should these become necessary. This paper presents an overview of how social marketing can be used to tackle the global challenge of pandemic influenza. The potential pandemic influenza poses a major challenge for social marketers (along with governments, health services, and businesses. There are a number of critical factors about a potential pandemic influenza that make it fundamentally different to the majority of issues to which social marketing has previously been applied. The underlying principles of social marketing are equally applicable to a global infectious disease outbreak (such as pandemic influenza. Even if the current strains do not become pandemic, social marketers should use this impetus to develop the skills and resources to address future communicable disease outbreaks. This paper applies the concepts of social marketing to a unique health issue which has the potential to become one of the largest global public health crises in history, but which can be tackled with effective global social marketing.

  16. A Framework for Addressing Challenges to Classroom Technology Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groff, Jennifer; Mouza, Chrystalla

    2008-01-01

    Creating effective learning environments with technology remains a challenge for teachers. Despite the tremendous push for educators to integrate technology into their classrooms, many have yet to do so and struggle to find consistent success with technology-based instruction. The challenges to effective technology integration have been…

  17. Global panorama of energy access: Current situation, challenges and outlook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galichon, Ines; Lacroix, Olivier; Wiedmer, Damien

    2014-07-15

    Globally 1.3 billion people do not have access to electricity. If this figure is projected to decline 1 billion by 2030, the global population who relies on the traditional use of biomass for cooking is expected to substantially increase, from 2.6 billion to 2.7 billion people. In its commitment to energy access, ENEA published a synthesis on the current situation and the further development perspectives of energy access worldwide, a crucial issue of human and economic development and an opportunity for the private sector. This synthesis present the ecosystem of the actors involved in the improvement of energy access and the technical solutions that serve the needs of this high-potential market. The five main challenges energy access has to address are presented in this publication: energy prices, equipment financing, distribution, change of scale and environmental performances.

  18. Preparing for Change: Challenges and Opportunities in a Global World

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara, Sabine

    2009-03-01

    Our world is becoming increasingly global. This may sound like a clich'e, yet it is true nonetheless, and poses unprecedented challenges for graduate education. For the new generation of researchers, teachers and professionals to be successful they must be prepared in more than the content area of their chosen field. They must also acquire proficiency in global awareness, cultural literacy, multicultural teamwork and language facility. These global skill sets form the basis for effective multicultural collaboration and will become increasingly important even for those who do not intend to study or work abroad. Knowledge has become more portable in the internet age; large data bases and reports can be accessed in real time from various locations around the globe; information is exchanged in multifaceted knowledge networks; collaborative research takes place within and outside of the traditional venue of the research university in the private sector, research institutes, and associations; research networks span multiple disciplines as progress invariably occurs at the intersection of previously discrete fields of inquiry. Global collaboration thus is no longer dependent on the physical proximity of collaborators but can take place anywhere any time. This then requires yet another set of skills, namely the ability to adapt to change, exhibit flexibility and transfer skills to a range of contexts and applications. Effective graduate education must address these realities and expose students to learning opportunities that will enable them to acquire these much needed global skills sets.

  19. Antimicrobial resistance: the global public health challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayant D Deshpande

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial resistance is one of the biggest challenges to face global public health at the beginning of the third millennium. Antimicrobial resistance and its global spread threaten the continued effectiveness of many medicines used today to treat the sick. Antibiotic resistance is usually associated with significant morbidity, longer hospitalization, excess costs and mortality. Many factors contribute to the unnecessary use of antibiotics including the knowledge and beliefs of doctors and consumers, direct patient requests, perceptions of patient demand, culture and norms and advertisements and other promotional literature distributed by the pharmaceutical companies. Self-medication with antimicrobials is often cited as a major factor contributing to drug resistance. The microorganisms employ several mechanisms in attaining multidrug resistance such as they no longer rely on a glycoprotein cell wall; enzymatic deactivation of antibiotics, decreased cell wall permeability to antibiotics and altered target sites of antibiotic. Efflux mechanisms to remove antibiotics and increased mutation rate are some of the other important mechanism for the antimicrobial resistance. Optimal use of existing antimicrobial agents, using alternative treatment options, reducing the need for antimicrobials by increasing immunity, education of health professionals and patients, antibiotic policies and implementation of infection control measures are the strategies aimed at prevention of emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance.

  20. Addressing malaria vector control challenges in South Sudan: proposed recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Chanda Emmanuel; Doggale Constantino; Pasquale Harriet; Azairwe Robert; Baba Samson; Mnzava Abraham

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Upon the signing of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement in 2005, the Republic of South Sudan (RSS) has faced a lot of challenges, such as a lack of infrastructure, human resources and an enormous burden of vector borne diseases including malaria. While a national malaria strategic plan 2006-2011 was developed, the vector control component has remained relatively weak. The strategy endorses the distribution of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) as the frontline intervention with oth...

  1. Oral health in Libya: addressing the future challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Peeran, Syed Wali; Altaher, Omar Basheer; Peeran, Syed Ali; Alsaid, Fatma Mojtaba; Mugrabi, Marei Hamed; Ahmed, Aisha Mojtaba; Grain, Abdulgader

    2014-01-01

    Libya is a vast country situated in North Africa, having a relatively better functioning economy with a scanty population. This article is the first known attempt to review the current state of oral health care in Libya and to explore the present trends and future challenges. Libyan health system, oral health care, and human resources with the present status of dental education are reviewed comprehensively. A bibliographic study of oral health research and publications has been carried out. T...

  2. Addressing the Challenge: Cataloguing Electronic Books in Academic Libraries

    OpenAIRE

    Shuzhen Zhao; Wei Zhao

    2010-01-01

    Objective ? This paper explores the various issues and challenges arising from e?book cataloguing experienced at the University of Windsor’s Leddy Library and the Ontario Council of University Libraries (OCUL). This discussion uses an evidence based approach to identify and resolve issues relevant to academic libraries as well as to consortia. With the ever rising popularity of e?books within academic libraries, cataloguing librarians are actively seeking more effective methods of man...

  3. Adoptive T cell therapy: Addressing challenges in cancer immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yee Cassian

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Adoptive T cell therapy involves the ex vivo selection and expansion of effector cells for the treatment of patients with cancer. In this review, the advantages and limitations of using antigen-specific T cells are discussed in counterpoint to vaccine strategies. Although vaccination strategies represent more readily available reagents, adoptive T cell therapy provides highly selected T cells of defined phenotype, specificity and function that may influence their biological behavior in vivo. Adoptive T cell therapy offers not only translational opportunities but also a means to address fundamental issues in the evolving field of cancer immunotherapy.

  4. Large system change challenges: addressing complex critical issues in linked physical and social domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, Steve; Cornell, Sarah; Hsueh, Joe; Ozer, Ceren; McLachlan, Milla; Birney, Anna

    2015-04-01

    Most action to address contemporary complex challenges, including the urgent issues of global sustainability, occurs piecemeal and without meaningful guidance from leading complex change knowledge and methods. The potential benefit of using such knowledge is greater efficacy of effort and investment. However, this knowledge and its associated tools and methods are under-utilized because understanding about them is low, fragmented between diverse knowledge traditions, and often requires shifts in mindsets and skills from expert-led to participant-based action. We have been engaged in diverse action-oriented research efforts in Large System Change for sustainability. For us, "large" systems can be characterized as large-scale systems - up to global - with many components, of many kinds (physical, biological, institutional, cultural/conceptual), operating at multiple levels, driven by multiple forces, and presenting major challenges for people involved. We see change of such systems as complex challenges, in contrast with simple or complicated problems, or chaotic situations. In other words, issues and sub-systems have unclear boundaries, interact with each other, and are often contradictory; dynamics are non-linear; issues are not "controllable", and "solutions" are "emergent" and often paradoxical. Since choices are opportunity-, power- and value-driven, these social, institutional and cultural factors need to be made explicit in any actionable theory of change. Our emerging network is sharing and building a knowledge base of experience, heuristics, and theories of change from multiple disciplines and practice domains. We will present our views on focal issues for the development of the field of large system change, which include processes of goal-setting and alignment; leverage of systemic transitions and transformation; and the role of choice in influencing critical change processes, when only some sub-systems or levels of the system behave in purposeful ways, while others are undeniably and unavoidably deterministic.

  5. Critical Zone Science and Global Societal Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldhaber, M. B.; Banwart, S. A.

    2014-12-01

    Earth's Critical Zone (CZ) is the thin outer veneer of our planet from the top of the tree canopy to the bottom of our drinking water aquifers that supports almost all human activity. Despite its fundamental importance to terrestrial life, understanding of the operation of the coupled geologic, hydrologic, topographic, and biotic CZ processes across time and space is far from complete. These interactions are complex and they establish a mechanistic 'chain of impact' that transmits the effects of environmental change throughout the CZ. Characterization of these processes is made more urgent by the fact that globally, the CZ is experiencing ever-increasing pressure from growth in human population and wealth. Within the next four decades, demand for food and fuel is expected to double along with a more than 50% increase in demand for clean water. Understanding, predicting and managing intensification of land use and associated economic services, while mitigating and adapting to rapid climate change, is now one of the most pressing societal challenges of the 21st century. In this talk we summarize the profound global societal impacts to the Earth's near surface arising from exponential human population growth, increasing affluence, and technological advance, to provide context for discussions on constructing an array of CZ observatories to both characterize fundamental critical zone processes and forecast the effects of planetary change. We will suggest goals and options relevant to planning for a future international array of CZ observatories and a research agenda that matches the urgency of the projected resource demands and environmental pressures of the coming four decades.

  6. Addressing the Challenges posed by Cybercrime: a South African Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fawzia Cassim

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1\\:*{behavior:url(#ieooui } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} The South African common law has proven to be ineffective in addressing cybercrime. The Electronic Communications and Transactions Act, Act 25 of 2002 (“ECT” was introduced to address inter alia cybercrime in South Africa. Whilst the advent of the ECT is lauded, there is room for improvement. To illustrate this, section 15 of the ECT which facilitates the admission of information in electronic format is laudable, but the criminal sanctions in the Act appear to be inadequate. Recent case law also reveals that the courts are adopting a cautious approach towards cybercrime cases. A call for a more clear and concise judicial guidance is required. The South African banking sector is also vulnerable to cybercrime. However, the establishment of organisations such as SABRIC to combat cybercrime in the banking industry is welcomed. Although South Africa has adopted the Council of Europe’s Convention in Cybercrime, it has not ratified the treaty. It is recommended that South Africa should ratify the treaty to avoid becoming an easy target for international cybercrime. This paper will deal with measures addressing cybercrime in South Africa and the way forward.

  7. The nuclear renaissance - Opportunities and challenges [Keynote address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear energy must be part of the solution to meet future electricity demand and it must be done cost effectively, without damaging our environment. The challenges presented by the new prospects for nuclear energy require the management of (a) closing the looming gap between uranium supply and demand (b) closing the technical and political challenges in exploration and mine development and (c) finding and developing innovations throughout the nuclear fuel cycle that make good economic and environmental sense. The talk elaborates on the increasing uranium consumption, the near time uranium supply challenges, identifies production expansion, and discusses world uranium exploration and advances in mining and milling. It is stressed that the IAEA should play an important role in collecting and disseminating up-to-date information concerning the latest technological advances - through periodic conferences and technical meetings. The organization should gather and compile accurate uranium supply information. In its existing compilation that forms the IAEA Red Book, the Estimated Additional Resources (EAR) categories have long been inconsistently reported by member countries, reducing reliability and in some cases overstating or understating the supply potential of important regions. The usefulness of IAEA's supply estimates would be improved by the development of a single, consistent approach to the estimation of uranium potential, which member countries would then be enco which member countries would then be encouraged to adopt. Countries that have abundant resources should be encouraged by the agency to open up their lands to foreign investment for uranium exploration and development. The IAEA should present the case for improved investment climates, educating restrictive jurisdictions about current industry practices and standards, and lobbying for consistent and reasonable licencing processes that reflect science-based assessments of risk. The key note speaker encourages the IAEA to fill its role as an industry promoter both within the organization and to the world. Countries that enjoy the benefits of nuclear power have a large, but largely neglected, role in encouraging open, supportive, and consistent policies for the beneficial and peaceful use of nuclear technology

  8. Rethinking global health challenges: towards a 'global compact' for reducing the burden of chronic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, R S

    2009-03-01

    Chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes and cancer, are the leading cause of death and disability in both the developed and developing world (excluding sub-Saharan Africa). At present, the global framework for action on chronic disease is strongly 'World Health Organization (WHO)-centric', defined by two WHO initiatives: the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, and the Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity and Health. This paper explores the difficulties of developing a collective response to global health challenges, and draws out some implications for chronic disease. It highlights how political partnerships and improved governance structures, economic processes, and international laws and standards function as three, concurrent pathways for encouraging policy implementation at country level and for building collective commitment to address the transnational determinants of chronic disease. The paper evaluates WHO's initiatives on chronic disease in terms of these pathways, and makes the case for a global compact on chronic disease as a possible structure for advancing WHO's free-standing goal of reducing mortality from chronic diseases by an additional 2% between 2005 and 2015. Beneath this overarching structure, the paper argues that global agencies, donor governments and other global health stakeholders could achieve greater impact by coordinating their efforts within a series of semi-autonomous 'policy channels' or 'workstreams'. These workstreams - including trade and agriculture, consumer health issues and workplace health promotion - could act as focal points for international cooperation, drawing in a wider range of health stakeholders within their areas of comparative advantage. PMID:19278695

  9. Aneesur Rahman Prize for Computational Physics Lecture: Addressing Dirac's Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelikowsky, James

    2013-03-01

    After the invention of quantum mechanics, P. A. M. Dirac made the following observation: ``The underlying physical laws necessary for the mathematical theory of a large part of physics and the whole of chemistry are thus completely known, and the difficulty is only that the exact application of these laws leads to equations much too complicated to be soluble. It therefore becomes desirable that approximate practical methods of applying quantum mechanics should be developed, which can lead to an explanation of the main features of complex atomic systems...'' The creation of ``approximate practical methods'' in response to Dirac's challenge has included the one electron picture, density functional theory and the pseudopotential concept. The combination of such methods in conjunction with contemporary computational platforms and new algorithms offer the possibility of predicting properties of materials solely from knowledge of the atomic species present. I will give an overview of progress in this field with an emphasis on materials at the nanoscale. After the invention of quantum mechanics, P. A. M. Dirac made the following observation: ``The underlying physical laws necessary for the mathematical theory of a large part of physics and the whole of chemistry are thus completely known, and the difficulty is only that the exact application of these laws leads to equations much too complicated to be soluble. It therefore becomes desirable that approximate practical methods of applying quantum mechanics should be developed, which can lead to an explanation of the main features of complex atomic systems...'' The creation of ``approximate practical methods'' in response to Dirac's challenge has included the one electron picture, density functional theory and the pseudopotential concept. The combination of such methods in conjunction with contemporary computational platforms and new algorithms offer the possibility of predicting properties of materials solely from knowledge of the atomic species present. I will give an overview of progress in this field with an emphasis on materials at the nanoscale. Support from the Department of Energy and the National Science Foundation is acknowledged.

  10. Challenges in Modeling of the Global Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janjic, Zavisa; Djurdjevic, Vladimir; Vasic, Ratko; Black, Tom

    2015-04-01

    The massively parallel computer architectures require that some widely adopted modeling paradigms be reconsidered in order to utilize more productively the power of parallel processing. For high computational efficiency with distributed memory, each core should work on a small subdomain of the full integration domain, and exchange only few rows of halo data with the neighbouring cores. However, the described scenario implies that the discretization used in the model is horizontally local. The spherical geometry further complicates the problem. Various grid topologies will be discussed and examples will be shown. The latitude-longitude grid with local in space and explicit in time differencing has been an early choice and remained in use ever since. The problem with this method is that the grid size in the longitudinal direction tends to zero as the poles are approached. So, in addition to having unnecessarily high resolution near the poles, polar filtering has to be applied in order to use a time step of decent size. However, the polar filtering requires transpositions involving extra communications. The spectral transform method and the semi-implicit semi-Lagrangian schemes opened the way for a wide application of the spectral representation. With some variations, these techniques are used in most major centers. However, the horizontal non-locality is inherent to the spectral representation and implicit time differencing, which inhibits scaling on a large number of cores. In this respect the lat-lon grid with a fast Fourier transform represents a significant step in the right direction, particularly at high resolutions where the Legendre transforms become increasingly expensive. Other grids with reduced variability of grid distances such as various versions of the cubed sphere and the hexagonal/pentagonal ("soccer ball") grids were proposed almost fifty years ago. However, on these grids, large-scale (wavenumber 4 and 5) fictitious solutions ("grid imprinting") with significant amplitudes can develop. Due to their large scales, that are comparable to the scales of the dominant Rossby waves, such fictitious solutions are hard to identify and remove. Another new challenge on the global scale is that the limit of validity of the hydrostatic approximation is rapidly being approached. Having in mind the sensitivity of extended deterministic forecasts to small disturbances, we may need global non-hydrostatic models sooner than we think. The unified Non-hydrostatic Multi-scale Model (NMMB) that is being developed at the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) as a part of the new NOAA Environmental Modeling System (NEMS) will be discussed as an example. The non-hydrostatic dynamics were designed in such a way as to avoid over-specification. The global version is run on the latitude-longitude grid, and the polar filter selectively slows down the waves that would otherwise be unstable. The model formulation has been successfully tested on various scales. A global forecasting system based on the NMMB has been run in order to test and tune the model. The skill of the medium range forecasts produced by the NMMB is comparable to that of other major medium range models. The computational efficiency of the global NMMB on parallel computers is good.

  11. Wireless LAN Security: Addressing Challenges, Attacks and Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurpreet Kaur#1 , Kirandeep Kaur

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available With tremendous growth and advancement in wireless technology and excessive use of internet in all the applications, security has become one of the most crucial and most demanding factor in wireless LAN, no matter if it is an individual, home or a business network. Regardless of different benefits of wireless LANs like mobility, flexibility, reduced cost of ownership and scalability, WLAN also have security issues that must be properly dealt with. Security involves protection ofdata and nodes from different types of attacks, unauthorized access and misuse of data and systems. Security basically is an overall strategy rather than a technology. It is all about the level of effort one can put into the network for securing it or the level of risk one is willing to tolerate . All the components exist in order to secure the wireless network. This paper will discuss different challenges in a wireless LAN, different types of attacks and different security considerations and strategies which will help an individual user and enterprises in securing their wireless LAN. It also emphasizes on the importance of training and knowledge of safe and reliable wireless network usage.

  12. High Performance Risk Aggregation: Addressing the Data Processing Challenge the Hadoop MapReduce Way

    OpenAIRE

    Yao, Zhimin; Varghese, Blesson; Rau-chaplin, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations employed for the analysis of portfolios of catastrophic risk process large volumes of data. Often times these simulations are not performed in real-time scenarios as they are slow and consume large data. Such simulations can benefit from a framework that exploits parallelism for addressing the computational challenge and facilitates a distributed file system for addressing the data challenge. To this end, the Apache Hadoop framework is chosen for the ...

  13. Megacities and Large Urban Complexes - WMO Role in Addressing Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terblanche, Deon; Jalkanen, Liisa

    2013-04-01

    Megacities and Large Urban Complexes - WMO Role in Addressing Challenges and Opportunities Deon E. Terblanche and Liisa Jalkanen dterblanche@wmo.int ljalkanen@wmo.int World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, Switzerland The 21st Century could amongst others, become known as the century in which our species has evolved from Homo sapiens to Homo urbanus. By now the urban population has surpassed the rural population and the rate of urbanization will continue at such a pace that by 2050 urban dwellers could outnumber their rural counterpart by more than two to one. Most of this growth in urban population will occur in developing countries and along coastal areas. Urbanization is to a large extent the outcome of humans seeking a better life through improved opportunities presented by high-density communities. Megacities and large urban complexes provide more job opportunities and social structures, better transport and communication links and a relative abundance of physical goods and services when compared to most rural areas. Unfortunately these urban complexes also present numerous social and environmental challenges. Urban areas differ from their surroundings by morphology, population density, and with high concentration of industrial activities, energy consumption and transport. They also pose unique challenges to atmospheric modelling and monitoring and create a multi-disciplinary spectrum of potential threats, including air pollution, which need to be addressed in an integrated way. These areas are also vulnerable to the changing climate and its implications to sea-level and extreme events, air quality and related health impacts. Many urban activities are significantly impacted by weather events that would not be considered to be of high impact in less densely populated areas. For instance, moderate precipitation events can cause flooding and landslides as modified urban catchments generally have higher run-off to rainfall ratios than their more pristine rural counterparts. The urban environment also provides numerous opportunities. One example being the better use of weather and environmental predictions to proactively optimize the functioning of the urban environment in terms of the use of energy, goods and services. Another is the providing of air quality forecasting services to benefit the health of the population. To address the challenges and opportunities facing megacities and large urban complexes, WMO has established the Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) Urban Research Meteorology and Environment (GURME). Air pollution questions in urban areas, in particular megacities, is the main focus, building observational and modelling capabilities in developing countries through pilot projects and transfer of scientific expertise. GURME contributes to improving capabilities to handle meteorological and related features of air pollution by addressing end-to-end aspects of air quality, linking observational capabilities with the needs of chemical weather prediction, with the goal of providing high quality air quality services. Using examples from around the world but with specific reference to Africa, the unique challenges and opportunities related to megacities and large urban complexes, as perceived by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) are highlighted.

  14. REGULATORY CHALLENGES IN GLOBAL PHARMACEUTICAL MARKET

    OpenAIRE

    Vibhu Yadav et al.

    2012-01-01

    The global pharmaceutical industry “looks like the epitome of a modern, mature industry that has found a comfortable way to make profits by the billion: it’s global, hi-tech, and has the ultimate customer, the health care budget of the world’s richest countries. A number of factors contributed to the globalization of the pharmaceutical industry. Chief among these are the convergence of medical science and practice under the influence of modern communication technology and increased and inform...

  15. Addressing the Grand Challenge of atmospheric carbon dioxide: geologic sequestration vs. biological recycling

    OpenAIRE

    Stuart Ben J

    2011-01-01

    Abstract On February 15, 2008, the National Academy of Engineering unveiled their list of 14 Grand Challenges for Engineering. Building off of tremendous advancements in the past century, these challenges were selected for their role in assuring a sustainable existence for the rapidly increasing global community. It is no accident that the first five Challenges on the list involve the development of sustainable energy sources and management of environmental resources. While the focus of this ...

  16. Ethical challenges of the globalization process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radenko Maric

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Whereas roots of globalization are far reaching, it is primarily a modern age phenomenon. Modern business operation and the world economy are characterized by domination of multinational corporations, strong presence of the government in economy and the long-term tendency towards globalization in manufacturing, trading and consumption in the world. Containing both risks and opportunities, globalization is a problem of manifold nature. For some it means regression and falling into “neocolonialism”, the others glorify it. It is logical to ask the following questions: What are the consequences of globalization for governments, nations, companies and individuals? What are the business, social and ethical issues it causes? In one word, is it possible to be ethical, to avoid and correct “bad” and keep “good” consequences of total phenomena as the globalization, and whether it is rewarding in the increasing market competition?

  17. Probing Matter-Field and Atom-Number Correlations in Optical Lattices by Global Nondestructive Addressing

    CERN Document Server

    Kozlowski, Wojciech; Mekhov, Igor B

    2014-01-01

    We show that light scattering from an ultracold gas reveals not only density correlations, but also matter-field interference at its shortest possible distance in an optical lattice, which defines key properties such as tunneling and matter-field phase gradients. This signal can be enhanced by concentrating probe light between lattice sites rather than at density maxima. As addressing between two single sites is challenging, we focus on global nondestructive scattering, allowing probing order parameters, matter-field quadratures and their squeezing. The scattering angular distribution displays peaks even if classical diffraction is forbidden and we derive generalized Bragg conditions. Light scattering distinguishes all phases in the Mott insulator - superfluid - Bose glass phase transition.

  18. Nuclear power development: Global challenges and strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article discusses the following global aspects of nuclear power development: the global energy issue; the potential of nuclear power; fuel cycle and reactor strategies (maximizing resource utilization, uranium fuel cycle, thorium fuel cycle, maximizing economic benefits, licensing, financing, maximizing environmental benefits); direction of IAEA programmes related to nuclear power development (nuclear power, nuclear fuel cycle, waste management technology, comparative assessment of different energy sources); attaining environmental goals

  19. Nuclear Education and training: addressing a global need

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is growing concern about the difficulties nuclear institutions in many OECD/NEA member countries are experiencing in recruiting qualified specialists. Recent studies have also shown that nuclear education and training have been suffering declines of various degrees. If no action is taken on this issue, the nuclear sector risks facing a shortage of qualified human resources to ensure the appropriate regulation and operation of existing nuclear facilities as well as the construction of new ones in those countries wishing to do so. The NEA Steering Committee for Nuclear Energy issued a statement on this subject in October 2007, the complete text of which is available at: www.nea.fr/html/general/press/2007/2007-05.html. The NEA has for many years been involved in efforts to define and address the need for qualified human resources. In this regard, the Agency: 1- carries out assessments of requirements and availability of qualified human resources in the nuclear field, 2- enhances nuclear education programmes, such as the International School of Nuclear Law, and 3- encourages large, high-profile international research and development programmes. These areas are addressed in the NEA Strategic Plan as well as in the specific NEA programmes discussed below. The presentation will focus on ways to address the issue of qualified human resources, share information about what others are doing, and discuss what we might do collectively. (author)

  20. GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE--THE TECHNOLOGY CHALLENGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide, have led to increasing atmospheric concentrations which are at least partly responsible for the roughly 0.7% degree C global warming earth has experienced since the industrial revolution. With industrial activit...

  1. Financial regulation and risk management: addressing risk challenges in a changing financial environment

    OpenAIRE

    Ojo, Marianne

    2006-01-01

    Amongst other things, this paper aims to address complexities and challenges faced by regulators in identifying and assessing risk, problems arising from different perceptions of risk, and solutions aimed at countering problems of risk regulation. It will approach these issues through an assessment of explanations put forward to justify the growing importance of risks, well known risk theories such as cultural theory, risk society theory and governmentality theory. In addressing the problems ...

  2. The World Nuclear University: Addressing global needs. London, 4 September 2003. Inauguration ceremony, World Nuclear University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For some time, there has been a growing awareness of the need for succession planning in the nuclear industry, to ensure that we cultivate a new generation of young people with the proper education and skills to replace the aging nuclear workforce as its members retire. Today's inauguration of the 'World Nuclear University' (WNU) is the most substantive action taken to date to address this need. This is a challenge, because the widespread perception clearly exists that nuclear energy is a dying field. The IAEA, with its constituency of 135 Member States, is hopeful that this will truly become a World Nuclear University. Almost 2 billion people, nearly one third of the population of the planet, remain without access to modern energy supplies - a shortfall that could be addressed, at least in part, by nuclear energy. But any major expansion in the future use of nuclear power will only be feasible if the nuclear industry is successful in developing innovative reactor and fuel cycle technology - as well as operational and regulatory approaches - that effectively address concerns related to cost competitiveness, safety and security, proliferation resistance and waste disposal. And global development needs go well beyond the electricity sector. The IAEA's recognition of these situations underlies our assistance to Member States, through which we try to address areas of high national priority wherever nuclear technology provides the best option for success. A significant part of that effort lies in the development of human capacity - through training and education in how to apply nuclear technology safely and effectively. 'Atoms for Peace' is a vision nearly five decades old, focused on using nuclear science for the advancement of humankind. It is my hope that this 'World Nuclear University' can be an effective instrument towards the achievement of that vision

  3. An electric utility program to address global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation believes that despite the incomplete and uncertain state of scientific knowledge concerning global atmospheric change, the plausible negative effects of accelerated global warming, known as open-quotes the Greenhouse Effect,close quotes are so large that purdent actions can and should be taken now to reduce so-called greenhouse gas emissions. Thus, the corporation has adopted a Greenhouse Warming Action Program based on strategies recommended by the National Academy of Sciences and the corporation's Integrated Electric Resource Plan. The program is a logical outgrowth of the company's policy statement on protection of the environment and is designed to surpass the Rio Earth Summit's goal of stabilizing greenhouse gas emissions. Central to the Action Program are increased use of natural gas, aggressive expansion of energy efficiency programs, and maximized generation from hydroelectric and nuclear energy sources. Additional elements include preventing releases of CFC's through customer incentive recycling programs; a forest conservation program of managing lands on a sustainable yield basis, environmentally-conscious use of paper products, and waste paper and cardboard recycling; promoting commercialization of low emitting vehicles; and developing and demonstrating low-CO2 technologies such as wind turbines and photo-voltaic cells. Niagara Mohawk believes that acting now to implement such a policy is a responsible step that msuch a policy is a responsible step that makes sense from both scientific and business perspectives. Moreover, voluntary action now by utilities and other segments of the private sector is the best way to avoid the need for future regulation by government designed to achieve the same end. We intend to do our part to stabilize and reduce greenhouse gas emissions, while recognizing that our contribution is only a small fraction of total global greenhouse gas emissions

  4. The role and challenges of the food industry in addressing chronic disease

    OpenAIRE

    Kehoe Stephen; Hargrove Rob; Bradley Dondeena; Khan Mehmood; Yach Derek; Mensah George

    2010-01-01

    Summary Increasingly, food companies play an important role in stemming the rising burden of nutrition-related chronic diseases. Concrete actions taken by these companies include global public commitments to address food reformulation, consumer information, responsible marketing, promotion of healthy lifestyles, and public-private partnerships. These actions are reviewed together with eleven specific PepsiCo goals and commitments that address products, the marketplace, and communities at larg...

  5. Wind energy global trends: Opportunities and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wind energy is one of the least cost and environmentally attractive new electricity source options for many parts of the world. Because of new wind turbine technology, reduced costs, short installation time, and environmental benefits, countries all over the world are beginning to once again develop one of the world's oldest energy technologies. A unique set of opportunities and challenges now faces the wind industry and its proponents. This paper discusses the potential and challenges of wind power. The US Department of Energy (DOE) is working closely with industry to develop new, improved wind turbine technology and to support both domestic and international deployment. The US DOE Wind Program is discussed within this context

  6. Effective Adaptation to Global and Humanitarian Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Oginski, Pawel; Ssengonzi, Rockie

    2012-01-01

    Problem If current trends in disasters are anything to go by, we can expect more complex disasters in the future as a population, perhaps already weakened by conflict, climate or disease, is hit by a natural disaster.  This then requires a multifaceted and complex intervention of humanitarian actors. Therefore, the adaptations increasingly require identification of themes to mitigate the complex vulnerabilities that come with these challenges like reforms, collaboration and specialization of...

  7. Public engagement on global health challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Minhas Gunjeet S; Persad Deepa L; Panjwani Dilzayn; Hadfield Tom; Saunders Vicki; Berndtson Kathryn; Masum Hassan; Cohen Emma RM; Daar Abdallah S.; Singh Jerome A; Singer Peter A.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Experience with public engagement activities regarding the risks and benefits of science and technology (S&T) is growing, especially in the industrialized world. However, public engagement in the developing world regarding S&T risks and benefits to explore health issues has not been widely explored. Methods This paper gives an overview about public engagement and related concepts, with a particular focus on challenges and benefits in the developing world. We then describe ...

  8. DIRECTIONS AND CHALLENGES IN GLOBAL AGRICULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela POPA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of global agricultural market has been at the forefront of professional studies. Expert opinions have quite differing views as to whether the world’s food production will be able to supply the huge demand of growing population. This scientific paper provides a general overview of global agricultural directions, including views on whether agricultural productivity increases will be able to keep with food demand increases and price trends. The scientific paper has focused on the present state of the agricultural market and on the analysis of the key factors defining the tasks of the agricultural sector in the near future, with a special attention to the case of Republic of Moldova.

  9. Regulatory challenges facing the global nuclear energy partnership

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In January 2006 the Department of Energy (DOE) announced the creation of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP), an ambitious plan to reshape the nuclear energy production sector both in the United States and worldwide. If fully realized in the United States, GNEP would entail the construction of a large number of sodium-cooled fast reactors utilizing actinide-based fuels, multiple commercial-scale reprocessing plants for both light-water and fast reactors, and fast reactor fuel fabrication plants. It appears likely that the first commercial-scale GNEP facilities, as well as a future full-scale GNEP complex, would fall under the licensing jurisdiction of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This will be a challenging endeavor for the NRC, primarily because the proposed GNEP facilities will in large part be based on novel and untested designs and processes that have not been developed on a commercial scale. In order to effectively regulate the GNEP complex, the NRC will have to quickly address the many technical and policy questions that will arise in any GNEP licensing scheme. This paper identifies some difficult issues that will be encountered in GNEP licensing by examining the potential implications of NRC's current policies and regulatory requirements, and analyzing the impacts of some emerging post-9/11 security issues. (author)

  10. Researching gender: the challenge of global diversity today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longman, Chia

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The text of this paper is based on a lecture given at the symposium of the Ghent African Platform “Researching Gender in/on Africa” at Ghent University in December 2009. It addresses some general challenges faced by ‘gender studies’ as an autonomous field versus ‘gender research’ as an integrated topic within mainstream disciplines in academia. Gender studies have sometimes superseded ‘women’s studies’ and expanded to cover the terrain of study of various forms of diversity including men’s and transgender studies. We will show that the ‘mainstreaming’ of gender in public policy at local, national and transnational levels is a development which may potentially lead to the loss of a – feminist – political edge. Secondly, while gender studies with their emphasis on socially constructed gender as opposed to biological essentialist understandings of ‘sex’ appear to face the challenge of a popular ‘new biological determinism’, it is shown that the binary model of sex/gender in fact has been criticised for some time now from within feminist theory and gender research. This is (selectively illustrated with research from four disciplines, including the work of African gender studies scholars, i.e. feminist philosophy, social sciences (in particularsocio-cultural anthropology, history and biology itself. This then shows how the accusation that gender studies would be ‘socially deterministic’ without attending to bodily matters or materiality is unfounded. Finally, it is argued that there is still a need for gender studies to become more culturally diverse, more global and transnational in its outlook, by becoming more deeply attuned to the way gender intersects with other forms of difference and taking into account postcolonial critiques of western feminist paternalism, without falling into the trap of cultural relativism.

  11. Energy, the global challenge, and materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Cahen

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available After some definitions to establish common ground and illustrate the issues in terms of orders of magnitude, we note that meeting the Energy challenge will require suitable materials. Luckily, we can count on the availability of natural resources for most materials. We briefly illustrate the connection between materials and energy and review the past and the present situations, to focus on the future. We wrap up by arguing that more than bare economics is required to use the fruits of science and technology towards a world order, built on sustainable energy (and materials resources.

  12. Understanding the challenges of global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evolution of the threat of global warming and the chronology of the last half century of efforts to prevent it from overwhelming humanity is chronicled. It was in the 1970s when it was first realized that the cumulative total of atmospheric carbon dioxide from fossil fuel burning had been steadily rising from the pre-industrial 280 ppmv (parts per million by volume) to 325 ppmv, approximately parallel with the rise of industrialization. Nevertheless, the first attempt at a global accord to reduce emissions was not made until 1992, when the Rio de Janeiro Earth Summit tried, but miserably failed to reach agreement, having been prevented from achieving anything of substance by a loose-knit group of nations and commercial interests. Binding agreements were finally reached at the next scheduled international meeting in Kyoto, Japan, in 1997. There is a detailed discussion of the Kyoto Protocols, the measures that Annex One nations such as Canada have to do to achieve the six per cent reductions targets below 1990 levels of emissions by 2010, and estimates of the costs involved. These discussions of proposed actions are balanced by a display of examples of the the growing volume of arguments advanced by opponents who not only disagree about what can be done to reduce emissions, but that there is anything that needs to be done at all. Central to their arguments is the denial that human activities are responsible for global warming, disregarding the overwhelming evidenceng, disregarding the overwhelming evidence by 3000+ leading scientists of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change that most of the global warming over the last 50 years is attributable to human activities. The rest of the article details what can and needs to be done to reverse the cumulative impact of greenhouse gas emissions, how we can produce the energy we need at the lowest environmental cost, and the types of energy (solar, wind, biomass, natural gas) that result in the smallest GHG emissions. Familiar arguments are recited to demonstrate the urgent need to move away from fossil fuels towards low emission and renewable sources, accompanied by examples of the Scandinavian experience to show that it is possible to enjoy a lifestyle similar to North American standards while reducing total average emissions to about six tonnes per person per year compared to the Canadian average of 16 tonnes per person per year. 2 tabs

  13. Regional initiatives to address the challenges of tuberculosis in children: perspectives from the Asia-Pacific region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Stephen M; Grzemska, Malgorzata; Brands, Annemieke; Nguyen, Huong; Amini, James; Triasih, Rina; Talukder, Khurshid; Ahmed, Shakil; Amanullah, Farhana; Kumar, Blessina; Tufail, Pervaiz; Detjen, Anne; Marais, Ben; Hennig, Cornelia; Islam, Tauhid

    2015-03-01

    Increasing attention is being given to the challenges of management and prevention of tuberculosis in children and adolescents. There have been a number of recent important milestones achieved at the global level to address this previously neglected disease. There is now a need to increase activities and build partnerships at the regional and national levels in order to address the wide policy-practice gaps for implementation, and to take the key steps outlined in the Roadmap for Child Tuberculosis published in 2013. In this article, we provide the rationale and suggest strategies illustrated with examples to improve diagnosis, management, outcomes and prevention for children with tuberculosis in the Asia-Pacific region, with an emphasis on the need for greatly improved recording and reporting. Effective collaboration with community engagement between the child health sector, the National Tuberculosis control Programmes, community-based services and the communities themselves are essential. PMID:25809775

  14. Addressing Challenging Behaviors in Head Start: A Closer Look at Program Policies and Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesenberry, Amanda C.; Hemmeter, Mary Louise; Ostrosky, Michaelene M.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, Head Start policies and procedures related to child guidance and addressing challenging behaviors were examined. Data were gathered from six Head Start programs in the Midwest, through interviews and document analysis. The findings provide a glimpse into how Head Start programs support children's social and emotional competence and…

  15. Canada and global warming: Meeting the challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canada accounts for ca 2% of total world emissions of greenhouse gases. Carbon dioxide emissions are by far the largest greenhouse gas source in Canada, primarily from energy consumption. On a per capita basis, Canada ranks second among industrialized countries in terms of energy related carbon dioxide emissions. Canada's northern geography and climate, its export-oriented economy with energy-intensive resource industries, and its relatively small population dispersed over a wide land mass contribute to this high per-capita value. The effects of global warming induced by greenhouse gases are outlined, including a reduction in water supplies, droughts affecting agriculture and forestry, and large-scale thawing of permafrost. A national strategy to respond to global warming has been developed which includes limiting and reducing greenhouse gas emissions, preparing for potential climatic changes, and improving scientific understanding and predictive capabilities with respect to climate change. Details of this strategy are outlined, including provincial and territorial strategies in partnership with the national strategy. 11 figs., 2 tabs

  16. Addressing Human Capital Challenges: Assessing the Experiences of Four Countries in the Arab Region. Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Gabriella; Karoly, Lynn A.; Constant, Louay; Salem, Hanine; Goldman, Charles A.

    2008-01-01

    This research brief describes an analysis of the reform efforts of four Arab region nations (Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates) in response to human capital challenges they face in preparing their people to work in a global environment. (Contains 3 tables.) [For associated report, see ED503118.

  17. Workshop Builds Strategies to Address Global Positioning System Vulnerabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Genene

    2011-01-01

    When we examine the impacts of space weather on society, do we really understand the risks? Can past experiences reliably predict what will happen in the future? As the complexity of technology increases, there is the potential for it to become more fragile, allowing for a single point of failure to bring down the entire system. Take the Global Positioning System (GPS) as an example. GPS positioning, navigation, and timing have become an integral part of daily life, supporting transportation and communications systems vital to the aviation, merchant marine, cargo, cellular phone, surveying, and oil exploration industries. Everyday activities such as banking, mobile phone operations, and even the control of power grids are facilitated by the accurate timing provided by GPS. Understanding the risks of space weather to GPS and the many economic sectors reliant upon it, as well as how to build resilience, was the focus of a policy workshop organized by the American Meteorological Society (AMS) and held on 13-14 October 2010 in Washington, D. C. The workshop brought together a select group of policy makers, space weather scientists, and GPS experts and users.

  18. Addressing global warming and biodiversity through forest restoration and coastal wetlands creation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams

    1999-10-18

    The Climate Challenge is a partnership between the Department of Energy and the electric utility industry to reduce, avoid, and sequester greenhouse gases. A portion of the initiative, the sequestration of greenhouse gases, is the focus of this presentation. Over 4 million acres of bottomland hardwood forests were cleared for agriculture in the Mississippi River Valley in the 1970s. Reestablishing these forests would improve depleted wildlife habitats, serve as wildlife corridors, increase biodiversity, and decrease soil erosion. Louisiana is losing coastal wetlands at a rate of approximately 25 square miles/year. This coastal erosion is due to a number of factors and many efforts are currently underway to address the matter. One such effort is the use of material generated in the dredging of navigational canals; however, this material is low in nutrient value, making the regeneration of marsh grasses more difficult. In addition, bottomland hardwood forests and coastal wetland grasses are excellent 'carbon sinks' because they take carbon dioxide out of the atmosphere and store it in living plant tissue. Entergy Services, Inc. is an electric utility with a service territory that comprises portions of both the Lower Mississippi River Valley and the Gulf of Mexico coastline. This provides an opportunity to positively address both habitat losses noted above while at the same time addressing global warming, forest fragmentation, and biodiversity. Entergy, through its affiliation with the UtiliTree Carbon Company, is participating in projects that will investigate the feasibility of using bottomland hardwood reforestation on cleared marginal farmlands now managed by the Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries and the US Fish and Wildlife Service. Entergy has also begun a research project with the Environmental Protection Agency and the State of Louisiana. The research is a compost demonstration project that will utilize wood waste generated through our tree-trimming program as a compost material that will be mixed with low nutrient dredge material to create new coastal wetlands. Taken together, Entergy's initiatives will be able to address global warming through carbon sequestration, restore fragmented forest habitats, reduce coastal erosion and improve the quality of a vital coastal aquatic nursery habitat. Efforts will be made to manage the created habitats for biodiversity. Pulling all these ideas together creates an effect in which the whole is greater than the sum of the parts. In such a synergy of ideas, there are no losers and the winners are both industry participants and the environment. PMID:10549153

  19. Global challenges in integrated coastal zone management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    Growing pressure from increasingly diverse human activities coupled with climate change impacts threaten the functional integrity of coastal ecosystems around the globe. A multi-disciplinary approach towards understanding drivers, pressures and impacts in the coastal zone requires effective integration of data and information in policy and management, combining expertise from nature and social science, to reach a balanced and sustainable development of the coastal zone. This important book comprises the proceedings of The International Symposium on Integrated Coastal Zone Management, which took place in Arendal, Norway between 3-7 July 2011. The main objective of the Symposium was to present current knowledge and to address issues on advice and management related to the coastal zone. The major themes of papers included in this book are: Coastal habitats and ecosystem services Adaptation/mitigation to change in coastal systems Coastal governance Linking science and management Comprising a huge wealth of information, this timely and well-edited volume is essential reading for all those involved in coastal zone management around the globe. All libraries in research establishments and universities where marine, aquatic and environmental sciences, and fisheries and aquatic sciences are studied and taught will need copies of this important volume on their shelves.

  20. Going Global: The Challenges for Knowledge-based Economies

    OpenAIRE

    Squicciarini, Mariagrazia; Loikkanen, Torsti

    2008-01-01

    The present volume aims to provide a comprehensive and systemic overview of the challenges that going global poses to knowledge based economies. Its focus is four-fold. 1) Firstly, it investigates why companies, especially high-tech firms, go global, i.e. which are the drivers that push companies to locate – R&D facilities in particular – elsewhere than in the home country. The analysis of the competitive advantages that enterprises seek in the host countries also includes the...

  1. Global Insecurity,Transparency and Sustainable Development:African Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Nwaobi, Godwin

    2013-01-01

    Notably, the 20th century was dominated by the legacy of devastating global wars, colonial struggles, and ideological conflicts as well as effort s to establish international systems that would foster global peace and prosperity. Yet, insecurity and corruption not only remain, they have become the primary development challenges of the 21st century. In particular, new threats such as organized crime, trafficking, civil unrest and terrorism have supplemented continued pre-occupation with conve...

  2. Economic optimization of a global strategy to address the pandemic threat

    OpenAIRE

    Pike, Jamison; Bogich, Tiffany; Elwood, Sarah; Finnoff, David C.; Daszak, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Emerging pandemics are increasing in frequency, threatening global health and economic growth. Global strategies to thwart pandemics can be classed as adaptive (reducing impact after a disease emerges) or mitigation (reducing the causes of pandemics). Our economic analysis shows that the optimal time to implement a globally coordinated adaptive policy is within 27 y and that given geopolitical challenges around pandemic control, these should be implemented urgently. Furthermore, we find that ...

  3. Global Energy Transitions and the Challenge of Climate Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Global emissions of greenhouse-gases have increased markedly as a result of human activities since pre-industrial times. This increase in emissions has lead to unequivocal global warming, which is evident from observations of increases in global average air and ocean temperatures, widespread melting of snow and ice, and rising global average sea level. Reducing the risk of irreversible climate impacts requires thus the mitigation of global GHG emissions aiming at the long-term stabilization of atmospheric GHG concentrations. Achieving this goal translates into the need of reducing emissions to virtually zero over long time-frames. Yet international agreement on a long-term climate policy target remains a distant prospect, due to both scientific uncertainty and political disagreement on the appropriate balance between mitigation costs and reduced risks of dangerous impacts. At the same time, growing emissions of greenhouse gases continue to increase the amount of climate change we are committed to over the long term. Over the next few decades, these growing emissions may make some potentially desirable long term goals unattainable. Recent analysis conducted at IIASA indicates the need of major energy transitions over the next few decades. For example, staying below the target suggested by the European Union of 2 C warming (with just a 50% likelihood) will require the massive deployment of zero-carbon energy by 2050, and a tippling of the contribution of zero-carbon energy globally to more than 60% by that time. Although there are large uncertainties with respect to the deployment of individual future technologies, there is strong evidence that no single mitigation measure alone would be sufficient for achieving the stabilization of GHG concentrations at low levels. A wide portfolio of technologies across all GHG-intensive sectors is needed for cost-effective emissions reductions. The bulk of these emissions reductions would need to come from the energy sector, with the forest and agricultural sectors playing an important role for the cost-effectiveness. Energy-related measures range from energy conservation and efficiency improvements to shifts away from carbon-intensive coal to cleaner fuels (such as natural gas, renewable, and nuclear), as well as 'add-on' technologies such as carbon capture and storage. Other important measures include changes in agricultural practices to reduce CH4 and N2O emissions, and enhancement of terrestrial sink activities in the forest sector. Reducing the risks of climate change significantly, requires fundamental structural changes of the energy system in the long term, combined with accelerated technology diffusion and early investments over the next few decades. In addition, appropriate and effective investment incentives need to be in place for development, acquisition, transfer, and deployment of new technologies. Achieving a trend-reversal of presently declining trends of R and D expenditures in environmentally friendly energy technologies will thus be central for addressing the climate change challenge.(author)

  4. Addressing challenges in preparation of 211At-labeled biomolecules for use in targeted alpha therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are significant challenges in the development of 211At-labeled biomolecules for application to targeted alpha therapy. Challenges that we have addressed include development of: (1) labeling methods to obtain high in vivo 211At-label stability, (2) approaches to consistently obtain high recovery yields of Na[211At]At from irradiated bismuth targets, (3) methods to optimize biomolecule labeling yields, (4) reagents for use of 211At in pretargeting approach to cancer therapy, and (5) 211At-labeled antibodies in conditioning for hematopoietic cell transplantation. (author)

  5. The role and challenges of the food industry in addressing chronic disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kehoe Stephen

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Summary Increasingly, food companies play an important role in stemming the rising burden of nutrition-related chronic diseases. Concrete actions taken by these companies include global public commitments to address food reformulation, consumer information, responsible marketing, promotion of healthy lifestyles, and public-private partnerships. These actions are reviewed together with eleven specific PepsiCo goals and commitments that address products, the marketplace, and communities at large. Interim progress on these goals and commitments are discussed as well as constraints hampering faster progress. Further disease prevention depends on increasing implementation of private-public initiatives.

  6. Acid Test: The Global Challenge of Ocean Acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-17

    "Acid Test", a film produced by NRDC, was made to raise awareness about the largely unknown problem of ocean acidification, which poses a fundamental challenge to life in the seas and the health of the entire planet. Like global warming, ocean acidification stems from the increase of carbon dioxide in the earth’s atmosphere since the start of the Industrial Revolution.

  7. Ergonomics and sustainability – challenges from global supply chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasle, Peter; Jensen, Per Langaa

    2012-01-01

    The development of globalised supply chains is a major challenge for sustainability. For several years, there has been discussion within the profession whether and how ergonomics and human factors can play a role. Based on our research, we have identified five major challenges from global supply chains especially related to the social aspects of sustainability: (1) criteria for social sustainability, (2) the role of key performance indicators in the management of supply chains, (3) the constant changes in supply chains, (4) the challenge in establishing participation, and (5) the development of agency and regulatory mechanisms. There are obviously no clear and simple solutions to these challenges. One possible avenue for progress might lie in acquiring a greater understanding of the challenges from global supply chains and developing a strategy which combines social and long-term business sustainability. Starting from such a basis, the next step would be to find ways for the ergonomics and human factors community to create international collaboration which can impact specific global supply chains.

  8. Wildland urban interface: Addressing the challenges of implementing FireSmart in the city of Calgary

    OpenAIRE

    McFadden, Ryan

    2005-01-01

    As the City of Calgary expands into rural areas, communities will encounter Wildland Urban Interface (WUI), which is defined as any area where structures are located near or among combustible wildland fuels. With the exception of Calgary, much of Alberta and British Columbia have implemented FireSmart principles that reduce the risk of WUI fires. This study provides recommendations as to how the City of Calgary can address the challenges of implementing FireSmart principles. This study combin...

  9. Beyond the Financial Crisis: Addressing risk challenges in a changing financial environment

    OpenAIRE

    Ojo, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    Paper presented at "Strategies For Solving Global Crises Conference: The Financial Crisis and Beyond" (October 2009). Also published in "Corporate Finance: Governance, Corporate Control & Organization Journals" (July 2010) The Financial Crisis has not only highlighted the importance of addressing issues such as liquidity risk – it has also brought to the fore the need to focus on unregulated instruments such as hedge funds, which are of systemic importance to the financial industry....

  10. City leadership: At the heart of the global challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliver, P.A.

    2008-09-30

    The world's attention is now focused on cities, and for good reasons. From a global perspective cities have become the engines of economic prosperity. In 2007, the collective Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of the top 10 cities exceeded the total GDP of 162 countries combined, with Tokyo alone generating a larger GDP than Canada. Cities have become the centers of population. In 1900, only 10% of the world's population lived in cities, but by 2007 the urban population had reached 50%, and the estimate for 2050 is that 75% of the world's population, over 7 billion people, will be living in cities. In parallel, cities have become the centers of consumption. In 2006, cities accounted for approximately 67% of global primary energy demand, a concentration that is expected to rise to 75% by 2030. The corollary to this concentration of population and consumption is the concentration of activities that lead to climate change. Cities now acount for over 70% of global carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions. Asia's cities are at the forefront of the global challenges of urbanization. While they are the location of many challenges, cities also present opportunities, particularly in finding solutions to the crucial global challenges of our time -- climate change, energy demand and water. Many of the world's greatest challenges, from environmental degradation to widening income gaps, are increasingly coming to be defined as urban challenges, given the rapid growth of cities. The author, who leads the World Economic Forum's SlimCity initiative, take a look at the options being explored by the public and private sectors.

  11. Nation state and the challenge of globalization: Project draft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obrenovi? Zoran G.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This project draft discusses the issues facing a nation state in the dynamic processes of globalization. First, the term globalization is tentatively defined as a decentralized process of condensation and homogenization of space and time. Then, the ambivalent structure of the globalization discourse, i.e. its semantic and pragmatic dimensions, are shown. The neo-liberal viewpoint is explored of the erosion and weakening of the nation state within the global capitalist power, both in terms of its (state's traditional functions, and in terms of its internal and external sovereignty. Against the neo-liberal thesis about the decline of the nation state many empirical arguments have been offered. Some of these are presented in this text. The main point of this argumentation consists in a general view that the decline of the nation state is strongly linked with the process of globalization. In view of the critical argumentation included in the paper, it is argued that in the environment of global processes only the societies which have a strong state behind them have a chance to succeed. Politics, not economy, still dominates international relations. Emphasis on state politics opens a new perspective in discussing the process of globalization. Current globalization processes cannot be judged accurately unless geopolitical interests and the changing balance of world power are understood. Finally, the paper points to the ideological nature of the neo-liberal discourse of globalization, questioning another basic assumption of the latter, namely, the idea that the process of globalization is at the same time a process of emancipation. By challenging the positing of a necessary link between globalization and emancipation we formulate a position that allows for a normative critique of current processes.

  12. Global challenges, efforts, and controversies in neonatal care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Clair, Nicole E; Batra, Maneesh; Kuzminski, Jacquelyn; Lee, Anne C C; O'Callahan, Cliff

    2014-12-01

    Simple low-cost, evidence-based interventions such as clean delivery practices, immediate warming, umbilical cord care, and neonatal resuscitation could prevent 40% to 70% of newborn deaths globally, but many obstacles preclude the provision of those basic interventions for all newborns, particularly in low-resource regions. Global efforts have led to widespread development of neonatal clinical practice guidelines, training programs, and policies. Because of a shortage of health care resources, standards of care have been redefined to meet the needs of underserved populations. This article provides an overview of the challenges, efforts, and controversies surrounding neonatal health in low-resource settings. PMID:25459772

  13. Researching gender: the challenge of global diversity today

    OpenAIRE

    Longman, Chia

    2010-01-01

    The text of this paper is based on a lecture given at the symposium of the Ghent African Platform “Researching Gender in/on Africa” at Ghent University in December 2009. It addresses some general challenges faced by ‘gender studies’ as an autonomous field versus ‘gender research’ as an integrated topic within mainstream disciplines in academia. Gender studies have sometimes superseded ‘women’s studies’ and expanded to cover the terrain of study of various forms of diversity ...

  14. The challenges of global environmental change for urban Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Simon, David

    2010-01-01

    Cities - especially those with substantial poor populations - will face increasingly severe challenges in tackling the impacts of global environmental change (GEC). As economic dynamos and increasingly important population concentrations, cities both contribute substantially, and often are very vulnerable, to the impacts of GEC. This applies strongly in Africa, one of the world's poorest regions. The inability of even a relatively wealthy and well protected city such as New Orleans in the USA...

  15. Challenges and Possibilities for World Literature, Global Literature, and Translation

    OpenAIRE

    Shields, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    In her article "Challenges and Possibilities for World Literature, Global Literature, and Translation" Kathleen Shields argues that Goethe's concept of Weltliteratur was grounded in translation practice: in creating a canon representing the best of each nation, translation occupied centre stage. Nation-building in Europe in the nineteenth century was combined with the idea of transnational literature where translation was an important tool of transmission and exchange, as well as a way of dec...

  16. European industrial relations: transnational relations and global challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Aliu, Armando

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates transnational relations and global challenges which the European Industrial Relations have been facing recently. The paper, methodologically, was structured with taking into account both socio- political and judicial arguments. The social theory, and ergo, the practice in Europe were analyzed according to Marxist point of view. Basically, industrial relations and employment relationship were examined from the perspectives of employees, employee representatives and nati...

  17. Securing classification and regulatory approval for deepwater projects: management challenges in a global environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feijo, Luiz P.; Burton, Gareth C. [American Bureau of Shipping (ABS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    As the offshore industry continues to develop and move into increasingly deeper waters, technological boundaries are being pushed to new limits. Along with these advances, the design, fabrication and installation of deepwater oil and gas projects has become an increasingly global endeavor. After providing an overview of the history and role of Classification Societies, this paper reviews the challenges of securing classification and regulatory approval in a global environment. Operational, procedural and technological changes which one Classification Society; the American Bureau of Shipping, known as ABS, has implemented to address these challenges are presented. The result of the changes has been a more customized service aiming at faster and more streamlined classification approval process. (author)

  18. Engaging undergraduates to solve global health challenges: a new approach based on bioengineering design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oden, Maria; Mirabal, Yvette; Epstein, Marc; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

    2010-09-01

    Recent reports have highlighted the need for educational programs to prepare students for careers developing and disseminating new interventions that improve global public health. Because of its multi-disciplinary, design-centered nature, the field of Biomedical Engineering can play an important role in meeting this challenge. This article describes a new program at Rice University to give undergraduate students from all disciplines a broad background in bioengineering and global health and provides an initial assessment of program impact. Working in partnership with health care providers in developing countries, students in the Beyond Traditional Borders (BTB) initiative learn about health challenges of the poor and put this knowledge to work immediately, using the engineering design process as a framework to formulate solutions to complex global health challenges. Beginning with a freshman design project and continuing through a capstone senior design course, the BTB curriculum uses challenges provided by partners in the developing world to teach students to integrate perspectives from multiple disciplines, and to develop leadership, communication, and teamwork skills. Exceptional students implement their designs under the guidance of clinicians through summer international internships. Since 2006, 333 students have designed more than 40 technologies and educational programs; 28 have been implemented in sub-Saharan Africa, Latin America, the Caribbean, southeast Asia, and the United States. More than 18,000 people have benefited from these designs. 95% of alumni who completed an international internship reported that participation in the program changed or strengthened their career plans to include a focus on global health medicine, research, and/or policy. Empowering students to use bioengineering design to address real problems is an effective way to teach the new generation of leaders needed to solve global health challenges. PMID:20387116

  19. Discovery Channel Telescope software progress report: addressing early commissioning and operations challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacasse, Michael; Lotz, Paul J.

    2014-07-01

    The Discovery Channel Telescope is a 4.3m astronomical research telescope in northern Arizona constructed through a partnership between Discovery Communications and Lowell Observatory. In transition from construction phase to commissioning and operations, we faced a variety of software challenges, both foreseen and unforeseen, and addressed those with a variety of solutions including, isolation of the control systems network, development of an Operations Log application, extension of the interface to instrumentation software, improvements to engineering data analysis, provisions to avoid failure modes, and enhanced user experience. We describe these solutions and present an overview of the current project status.

  20. Symposium on international safeguards: Addressing verification challenges. Book of extended synopses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A safeguards symposium has traditionally been organized by the Safeguards Department approximately every four years. The 2006 symposium addresses challenges to IAEA safeguards that have emerged or grown more serious since 2001. The increase in size and flexibility of uranium enrichment plants, for instance, and the spread of enrichment technology to a wider circle of States, pose challenges to traditional safeguards approaches. The procurement and supply networks discovered in 2004, dealing in sensitive nuclear technology and information, have serious implications for the future effectiveness of IAEA safeguards. The symposium will provide an opportunity for the IAEA and Member States to discuss options for dealing constructively with trade in sensitive nuclear technology. Reflecting developments since 2001, the 2006 symposium will focus on current challenges to the safeguards system, improving collection and analysis of safeguards information (analysis, processing tools, satellite imagery), advances in safeguards techniques and technology (future technology, neutron techniques, spent fuel verification, reprocessing, environmental sampling, containment and surveillance), further strengthening safeguards practices and approaches (safeguards approaches, integrated safeguards, R/SSAC, destructive analysis, non-destructive analysis, enrichment, reprocessing, spent fuel transfer) and future challenges. This publication contains 183 extended synopses, each of them was indexed separately

  1. Innovation via Global Route: Proposing a Reference Model for Chances and Challenges of Global Innovation Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Tiwari, Rajnish; Buse, Stephan; Herstatt, Cornelius

    2007-01-01

    Innovations have acquired a key-role in the growth and competition strategies of firms today. They are regarded as an essential tool to stimulate growth and enable firms to master the competition brought about by the forces of globalization. In developed countries they are thought to provide a vital buffer against challenges from low-cost producers from emerging countries. At the same time, innovations in today?s ?globalized? world are hardly feasible in isolation. World-wide economic ...

  2. A Novel Addressing Scheme for PMIPv6 Based Global IP-WSNs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Motaharul Islam

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available IP based Wireless Sensor Networks (IP-WSNs are being used in healthcare, home automation, industrial control and agricultural monitoring. In most of these applications global addressing of individual IP-WSN nodes and layer-three routing for mobility enabled IP-WSN with special attention to reliability, energy efficiency and end to end delay minimization are a few of the major issues to be addressed. Most of the routing protocols in WSN are based on layer-two approaches. For reliability and end to end communication enhancement the necessity of layer-three routing for IP-WSNs is generating significant attention among the research community, but due to the hurdle of maintaining routing state and other communication overhead, it was not possible to introduce a layer-three routing protocol for IP-WSNs. To address this issue we propose in this paper a global addressing scheme and layer-three based hierarchical routing protocol. The proposed addressing and routing approach focuses on all the above mentioned issues. Simulation results show that the proposed addressing and routing approach significantly enhances the reliability, energy efficiency and end to end delay minimization. We also present architecture, message formats and different routing scenarios in this paper.

  3. A novel addressing scheme for PMIPv6 based global IP-WSNs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Motaharul; Huh, Eui-Nam

    2011-01-01

    IP based Wireless Sensor Networks (IP-WSNs) are being used in healthcare, home automation, industrial control and agricultural monitoring. In most of these applications global addressing of individual IP-WSN nodes and layer-three routing for mobility enabled IP-WSN with special attention to reliability, energy efficiency and end to end delay minimization are a few of the major issues to be addressed. Most of the routing protocols in WSN are based on layer-two approaches. For reliability and end to end communication enhancement the necessity of layer-three routing for IP-WSNs is generating significant attention among the research community, but due to the hurdle of maintaining routing state and other communication overhead, it was not possible to introduce a layer-three routing protocol for IP-WSNs. To address this issue we propose in this paper a global addressing scheme and layer-three based hierarchical routing protocol. The proposed addressing and routing approach focuses on all the above mentioned issues. Simulation results show that the proposed addressing and routing approach significantly enhances the reliability, energy efficiency and end to end delay minimization. We also present architecture, message formats and different routing scenarios in this paper. PMID:22164084

  4. Coping with global environmental change, disasters and security. Threats, challenges, vulnerabilities and risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brauch, Hans Guenter [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany). Dept. of Political and Social Sciences; UNU-EHS, Bonn (DE). College of Associated Scientists and Advisors (CASA); Oswald Spring, Ursula [National Univ. of Mexico, Cuernavaca (MX). Regional Multidisciplinary Research Centre (CRIM); Mesjasz, Czeslaw [Cracow Univ. of Exonomics (Poland). Faculty of Management; Grin, John [Amsterdam Univ. (Netherlands). Dept. of Political Science; Dutch Knowledge network for Systems Innovations and Transitions (KSI), Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kameri-Mbote, Patricia [Strathmore Univ., Nairobi (Kenya). Dept. of Law; International Environmental Law Research Centre, Nairobi (Kenya); Chourou, Bechir [Univ. of Tunis-Carthage, Hammam-Chatt (Tunisia); Dunay, Pal [Geneva Centre for Security Policy (Switzerland). International Training Course in Security Policy; Birkmann, Joern (eds.) [United Nations Univ. (UNU), Bonn (DE). Inst. for Environment and Human Security (EHS)

    2011-07-01

    This policy-focused Global Environmental and Human Security Handbook for the Anthropo-cene (GEHSHA) addresses new security threats, challenges, vulnerabilities and risks posed by global environmental change and disasters. In 6 forewords, 5 preface essays 95 peer reviewed chapcountries analyse in 10 parts concepts of military and political hard security and economic, social, environmental soft security with a regional focus on the Near East, North and Sub-Sahara Africa and Asia and on hazards in urban centres. The major focus is on coping with global environmental change: climate change, desertification, water, food and health and with hazards and strategies on social vulnerability and resilience building and scientific, international, regional and national political strategies, policies and measures including early warning of conflicts and hazards. The book proposes a political geo-ecology and discusses a 'Fourth Green Revolution' for the Anthropocene era of earth history. (orig.)

  5. Addressing practical challenges in utility optimization of mobile wireless sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eswaran, Sharanya; Misra, Archan; La Porta, Thomas; Leung, Kin

    2008-04-01

    This paper examines the practical challenges in the application of the distributed network utility maximization (NUM) framework to the problem of resource allocation and sensor device adaptation in a mission-centric wireless sensor network (WSN) environment. By providing rich (multi-modal), real-time information about a variety of (often inaccessible or hostile) operating environments, sensors such as video, acoustic and short-aperture radar enhance the situational awareness of many battlefield missions. Prior work on the applicability of the NUM framework to mission-centric WSNs has focused on tackling the challenges introduced by i) the definition of an individual mission's utility as a collective function of multiple sensor flows and ii) the dissemination of an individual sensor's data via a multicast tree to multiple consuming missions. However, the practical application and performance of this framework is influenced by several parameters internal to the framework and also by implementation-specific decisions. This is made further complex due to mobile nodes. In this paper, we use discrete-event simulations to study the effects of these parameters on the performance of the protocol in terms of speed of convergence, packet loss, and signaling overhead thereby addressing the challenges posed by wireless interference and node mobility in ad-hoc battlefield scenarios. This study provides better understanding of the issues involved in the practical adaptation of the NUM framework. It also helps identify potential avenues of improvement within the framework and protocol.

  6. Particularities of the Nordic : Challenges to Equality Politics in a Globalized World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siim, Birte; Stoltz, Pauline

    2015-01-01

    The Nordic countries are in international rankings included as some of the most gender equal societies in the world (see e.g. the Global Gender Gap Index and the Gender Equality Index developed by the European Gender Equality Institute, EIGE), and scholars have demonstrated that the discourse and politics of women’s rights and gender equality has become an intrinsic part of the Nordic national identities and politics of belongings (Gullestad 2006). In spite of these achievements, Nordic scholars suggest that the increasing impact of globalization present major challenges for addressing multiple inequalities in power and resources (Melby et.al. 2008; Siim and Skjeie 2008). The chapter aims to analyse the challenge from globalization to the Nordic welfare and gender regimes and discuss the potentials and limits of this approach to equality from historical and comparative perspectives. The main research question is how to redesign equality politics to address intersecting inequalities according not only to gender and class, but also according to age, ethnicity and nationality. This in turn raises theoretical and normative questions about how to reframe the Nordic approach to equality and justice from intersectional and transnational perspectives.

  7. A Novel Addressing Scheme for PMIPv6 Based Global IP-WSNs

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Motaharul Islam; Eui-Nam Huh

    2011-01-01

    IP based Wireless Sensor Networks (IP-WSNs) are being used in healthcare, home automation, industrial control and agricultural monitoring. In most of these applications global addressing of individual IP-WSN nodes and layer-three routing for mobility enabled IP-WSN with special attention to reliability, energy efficiency and end to end delay minimization are a few of the major issues to be addressed. Most of the routing protocols in WSN are based on layer-two approaches. For reliability and e...

  8. Challenges and opportunities in mapping land use intensity globally

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuemmerle, Tobias; Erb, Karlheinz

    2013-01-01

    Future increases in land-based production will need to focus more on sustainably intensifying existing production systems. Unfortunately, our understanding of the global patterns of land use intensity is weak, partly because land use intensity is a complex, multidimensional term, and partly because we lack appropriate datasets to assess land use intensity across broad geographic extents. Here, we review the state of the art regarding approaches for mapping land use intensity and provide a comprehensive overview of available global-scale datasets on land use intensity. We also outline major challenges and opportunities for mapping land use intensity for cropland, grazing, and forestry systems, and identify key issues for future research. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. High level radioactive waste (HLW) disposal a global challenge

    CERN Document Server

    PUSCH, R; NAKANO, M

    2011-01-01

    High Level Radioactive Waste (HLW) Disposal, A Global Challenge presents the most recent information on proposed methods of disposal for the most dangerous radioactive waste and for assessing their function from short- and long-term perspectives. It discusses new aspects of the disposal of such waste, especially HLW.The book is unique in the literature in making it clear that, due to tectonics and long-term changes in rock structure, rock can serve only as a ""mechanical support to the chemical apparatus"" and that effective containment of hazardous elements can only be managed by properly des

  10. Energy Sustainability: A Key Toto Addressing Environmental, Economic and Societal Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc A. Rosen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability is a critically important goal for human activity and development, particularly in the area of energy. Energy resources are critical for economic development and living standards, but their use causes significant environmental impacts. Given the pervasiveness of energy use, energy sustainability is a key to addressing environmental, economic and societal challenges. To achieve energy sustainability, many factors that need to be including harnessing sustainable energy sources, utilizing sustainable energy carriers, increasing efficiency, reducing environmental impact and improving socioeconomic acceptability (e.g., community involvement, affordability, equity and land use. To demonstrate the factors and their importance to energy sustainability, the Red-Mediterranean-Dead Seas Canal Project is considered as a case study. Conclusions are provided related both to steps for energy sustainability.

  11. Open Traffic Data for Future Service Innovation: Addressing the Privacy Challenges of Driving Data

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Anna, Rohunen; Jouni, Markkula; Marikka, Heikkila; Jukka, Heikkila.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Following the present open data policies, traffic data are collected and increasingly made openly available by different organizations. Yet, expanding use of mobile technologies with tracking possibilities provides means to collect precise and rich information about individual vehicles and persons i [...] n traffic. This personal driving data, combined with other open traffic data, have a great potential for future open service innovation. However, information privacy presents a major challenge for collection and efficient utilization of the data. In this paper, we present a view of the near future development of personal driving data collection and usage for open traffic data production by addressing the privacy challenges. We review the existing privacy behavior models and present our empirical findings from driving data based service pilot studies. Our results show that, despite their privacy concerns, the data subjects are willing to disclose driving data for services, especially for some benefits in return. We identified the following key factors affecting data disclosure: informing of personal data processing, trust in organizations of the service ecosystem, and users' control over their data. Understanding of these factors helps mitigating the users' privacy concerns when personal data based services are designed and production of open data is planned.

  12. Technological challenges of addressing new and more complex migrating products from novel food packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, Ian C; Haighton, Lois A; Lynch, Barry S; Tafazoli, Shahrzad

    2009-12-01

    The risk assessment of migration products resulting from packaging material has and continues to pose a difficult challenge. In most jurisdictions, there are regulatory requirements for the approval or notification of food contact substances that will be used in packaging. These processes generally require risk assessment to ensure safety concerns are addressed. The science of assessing food contact materials was instrumental in the development of the concept of Threshold of Regulation and the Threshold of Toxicological Concern procedures. While the risk assessment process is in place, the technology of food packaging continues to evolve to include new initiatives, such as the inclusion of antimicrobial substances or enzyme systems to prevent spoilage, use of plastic packaging intended to remain on foods as they are being cooked, to the introduction of more rigid, stable and reusable materials, and active packaging to extend the shelf-life of food. Each new technology brings with it the potential for exposure to new and possibly novel substances as a result of migration, interaction with other chemical packaging components, or, in the case of plastics now used in direct cooking of products, degradation products formed during heating. Furthermore, the presence of trace levels of certain chemicals from packaging that were once accepted as being of low risk based on traditional toxicology studies are being challenged on the basis of reports of adverse effects, particularly with respect to endocrine disruption, alleged to occur at very low doses. A recent example is the case of bisphenol A. The way forward to assess new packaging technologies and reports of very low dose effects in non-standard studies of food contact substances is likely to remain controversial. However, the risk assessment paradigm is sufficiently robust and flexible to be adapted to meet these challenges. The use of the Threshold of Regulation and the Threshold of Toxicological Concern concepts may play a critical role in the risk assessment of new food packaging technologies in the future. PMID:19938328

  13. Addressing the terawatt challenge : Scalability in the supply of chemical elements for renewable energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesborg, Peter C. K.; Jaramillo, Thomas F.

    2012-01-01

    The energy infrastructure for fossil fuels is well-established, accounting for approximately 87% of the 16 TW of power consumed globally. For renewable and sustainable energy conversion technologies to play a relevant role at the terrestrial scale, they must be able to scale to the TW level of deployment. This would place a significant demand on the current and future supply of raw materials (chemical elements) used by those technologies. Oftentimes, the average crustal abundance of a chemical element is cited as a measure of its scalability, however another important metric for scalability is the existence (of lack thereof) of mineable ores with a high concentration of the targeted element. This paper aims to provide an overview of the availability of all elements. This is accomplished via a compilation of data for global primary production rates for each element, as a measure of availability at the present time. This work also addresses the potential future availability based on current and possible future primary sources.

  14. The global nutrient challenge. From science to public engagement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutton, M.A.; Howard, C.M. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Bleeker, A. [Energy research Centre of the Netherlands, Petten (Netherlands); Datta, A. [United Nations Environment Programme, Nairobi (Kenya)

    2013-04-15

    Among the many environment and development challenges facing humanity, it is fair to say that nutrients do not currently feature so regularly in the newspapers, radio and television. The media tends to prefer easy single issues which affect our daily lives in a clear-cut way. The role of carbon in climate change is a good example. We all depend on climate. Burning fossil fuels makes more carbon dioxide, tending to change temperature and rainfall patterns, to which we can easily relate. The science is complex, but it is a simple message for the public to understand. It does not take long to think of several other easily grasped threats, like urban air pollution, poor drinking water, or even the occurrence of horsemeat in food chains. It is perhaps for these reasons that the role of nutrients in environmental change has received much less public attention. After all, nutrients - including nitrogen, phosphorus and many micronutrients - play multiple roles in our world; they affect many biogeochemical processes and they lead to a plethora of interacting threats. If we are not careful, we can quickly get buried in the complexity of the different ways in which our lives are affected by these elements. The outcome is that it can become hard to convey the science of global nutrient cycles in a way that the public can understand. These are points about which we have given substantial thought as we contributed to a recently launched report Our Nutrient World: The challenge to produce more food and energy with less pollution (Sutton et al., 2013). The report was commissioned by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and conducted by the Global Partnership on Nutrient Management in cooperation with the International Nitrogen Initiative. The commission was not to provide a full scientific assessment, but rather to develop a global overview of the challenges associated with nutrient management. Drawing on existing knowledge, the aim was to distill the nature of the nutrient challenge answering clearly: why should anyone care, how has the problem got worse, what is already being done, and what still needs to be done? In scientific terms we realised that 'nutrient management' is a good descriptor. Humans manage nitrogen and phosphorus for the benefit of society, and through better management can find ways to reduce the unintended threats. But we also recognized that 'nutrient management' does not reflect the power language that makes for an easy sell to a wider public. In developing the global overview, we therefore needed to think carefully about how to package and communicate our messages. This was particularly important for nutrients because of one of the conclusions of the overview: that a lack of public awareness of the global nutrient challenge represents one of the major barriers to change. In short, if the world is going to learn to manage its nutrients better, then the world's citizens need to be motivated to make it happen.

  15. Hyperresolution Global Land Surface Modeling: Meeting a Grand Challenge for Monitoring Earth's Terrestrial Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Eric F.; Roundy, Joshua K.; Troy, Tara J.; van Beek, L. P. H.; Bierkens, Marc F. P.; 4 Blyth, Eleanor; de Roo, Ad; Doell. Petra; Ek, Mike; Famiglietti, James; Gochis, David; van de Giesen, Nick; Houser, Paul; Jaffe, Peter R.; Kollet, Stefan; Lehner, Bernhard; Lettenmaier, Dennis P.; Peters-Lidard, Christa; Sivpalan, Murugesu; Sheffield, Justin; Wade, Andrew; Whitehead, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Monitoring Earth's terrestrial water conditions is critically important to many hydrological applications such as global food production; assessing water resources sustainability; and flood, drought, and climate change prediction. These needs have motivated the development of pilot monitoring and prediction systems for terrestrial hydrologic and vegetative states, but to date only at the rather coarse spatial resolutions (approx.10-100 km) over continental to global domains. Adequately addressing critical water cycle science questions and applications requires systems that are implemented globally at much higher resolutions, on the order of 1 km, resolutions referred to as hyperresolution in the context of global land surface models. This opinion paper sets forth the needs and benefits for a system that would monitor and predict the Earth's terrestrial water, energy, and biogeochemical cycles. We discuss six major challenges in developing a system: improved representation of surface-subsurface interactions due to fine-scale topography and vegetation; improved representation of land-atmospheric interactions and resulting spatial information on soil moisture and evapotranspiration; inclusion of water quality as part of the biogeochemical cycle; representation of human impacts from water management; utilizing massively parallel computer systems and recent computational advances in solving hyperresolution models that will have up to 10(exp 9) unknowns; and developing the required in situ and remote sensing global data sets. We deem the development of a global hyperresolution model for monitoring the terrestrial water, energy, and biogeochemical cycles a grand challenge to the community, and we call upon the international hydrologic community and the hydrological science support infrastructure to endorse the effort.

  16. NKS - The Nordic region's cooperative network for addressing challenges in nuclear safety and emergency preparedness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the foundation of a common cultural and historical heritage and a long tradition of collaboration, NKS aims to facilitate a common Nordic view on nuclear and radiation safety. A common understanding of rules, practice and measures, and national differences in this context, is here an essential requirement. Problems can generally be tackled quicker, more efficiently, more consistently and at a lower cost through collaboration, bearing in mind that key competencies are not equally distributed in the different Nordic countries. For instance common Nordic challenges emerge in relation to nuclear installations, where nuclear power plants are in operation in Finland and Sweden, and research reactors have been operated in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. There is an obvious benefit in exchanging ideas and technologies in relation to plant operation, and since a number of reactors in different Nordic countries are under decommissioning, a collaborative benefit can also be realised in that context. Sweden also has a nuclear fuel production plant, and its collaboration with other Nordic nuclear installations can also be beneficial. Further, a number of large radiological installations are projected in Nordic areas (e.g., the MAX-LAB/MAX IV synchrotron radiation source and the European spallation source ESS), where Nordic organisations are collaborating in addressing, e.g., potential environmental implications. On the emergency preparedness side, the Fukushima accident in March 2011 was a reminder that large accidents at nuclear installations can lead to widespread radioactive contamination in the environment. In order to respond to nuclear or radiological emergencies, should they affect Nordic populations, it is necessary to maintain an operational emergency preparedness. By continuously improving detection, response and decision aiding tools while maintaining an informal collaborative network between relevant stakeholders in the Nordic countries (including nuclear power plant experts), the capacity and capability to respond optimally to an emergency is enhanced. Today's emergency preparedness also needs to address prevention against and response to nuclear and radiological terror attacks. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  17. Planetary Atmosphere and Surfaces Chamber (PASC: A Platform to Address Various Challenges in Astrobiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Mateo-Marti

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The study of planetary environments of astrobiological interest has become a major challenge. Because of the obvious technical and economical limitations on in situ planetary exploration, laboratory simulations are one of the most feasible research options to make advances both in planetary science and in developing a consistent description of the origin of life. With this objective in mind, we applied vacuum technology to the design of versatile vacuum chambers devoted to the simulation of planetary atmospheres’ conditions. These vacuum chambers are able to simulate atmospheres and surface temperatures representative of the majority of planetary objects, and they are especially appropriate for studying the physical, chemical and biological changes induced in a particular sample by in situ irradiation or physical parameters in a controlled environment. Vacuum chambers are a promising potential tool in several scientific and technological fields, such as engineering, chemistry, geology and biology. They also offer the possibility of discriminating between the effects of individual physical parameters and selected combinations thereof. The implementation of our vacuum chambers in combination with analytical techniques was specifically developed to make feasible the in situ physico-chemical characterization of samples. Many wide-ranging applications in astrobiology are detailed herein to provide an understanding of the potential and flexibility of these experimental systems. Instruments and engineering technology for space applications could take advantage of our environment-simulation chambers for sensor calibration. Our systems also provide the opportunity to gain a greater understanding of the chemical reactivity of molecules on surfaces under different environments, thereby leading to a greater understanding of interface processes in prebiotic chemical reactions and facilitating studies of UV photostability and photochemistry on surfaces. Furthermore, the stability and presence of certain minerals on planetary surfaces and the potential habitability of microorganisms under various planetary environmental conditions can be studied using our apparatus. Therefore, these simulation chambers can address multiple different challenging and multidisciplinary astrobiological studies.

  18. Planetary Atmosphere and Surfaces Chamber (PASC): A Platform to Address Various Challenges in Astrobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateo-Marti, Eva

    2014-08-01

    The study of planetary environments of astrobiological interest has become a major challenge. Because of the obvious technical and economical limitations on in situ planetary exploration, laboratory simulations are one of the most feasible research options to make advances both in planetary science and in developing a consistent description of the origin of life. With this objective in mind, we applied vacuum technology to the design of versatile vacuum chambers devoted to the simulation of planetary atmospheres' conditions. These vacuum chambers are able to simulate atmospheres and surface temperatures representative of the majority of planetary objects, and they are especially appropriate for studying the physical, chemical and biological changes induced in a particular sample by in situ irradiation or physical parameters in a controlled environment. Vacuum chambers are a promising potential tool in several scientific and technological fields, such as engineering, chemistry, geology and biology. They also offer the possibility of discriminating between the effects of individual physical parameters and selected combinations thereof. The implementation of our vacuum chambers in combination with analytical techniques was specifically developed to make feasible the in situ physico-chemical characterization of samples. Many wide-ranging applications in astrobiology are detailed herein to provide an understanding of the potential and flexibility of these experimental systems. Instruments and engineering technology for space applications could take advantage of our environment-simulation chambers for sensor calibration. Our systems also provide the opportunity to gain a greater understanding of the chemical reactivity of molecules on surfaces under different environments, thereby leading to a greater understanding of interface processes in prebiotic chemical reactions and facilitating studies of UV photostability and photochemistry on surfaces. Furthermore, the stability and presence of certain minerals on planetary surfaces and the potential habitability of microorganisms under various planetary environmental conditions can be studied using our apparatus. Therefore, these simulation chambers can address multiple different challenging and multidisciplinary astrobiological studies.

  19. Family health nursing: a response to the global health challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Paul; Duffy, Tim; Johnston, Brian; Banks, Pauline; Harkess-Murphy, Eileen; Martin, Colin R

    2013-02-01

    The European Family Health Nursing Project is a revitalized World Health Organization initiative led by the University of the West of Scotland. Partner countries include Armenia, Austria, Germany, Italy, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovenia, and Spain. European Union Lifelong Learning funding was received in 2011 to facilitate a consistency of approach in the development of a definition of family health nursing, required core competencies and capabilities, and consequent education and training requirements. Global health challenges have informed the development of the project: increasingly aging populations, the increasing incidence in noncommunicable diseases that are currently the main cause of death, and the significant progress made in the way health systems have developed to meet the demands in relation to access and equality of health services. Governments and policy makers should develop a health workforce based on the principles of teamwork and interdisciplinarity while recognizing the core contribution of the "specialist generalist" role in the primary care setting. PMID:23288887

  20. Addressing Challenges to the Design & Test of Operational Lighting Environments for the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Toni A.

    2014-01-01

    In our day to day lives, the availability of light, with which to see our environment, is often taken for granted. The designers of land based lighting systems use sunlight and artificial light as their toolset. The availability of power, quantity of light sources, and variety of design options are often unlimited. The accessibility of most land based lighting systems makes it easy for the architect and engineer to verify and validate their design ideas. Failures with an implementation, while sometimes costly, can easily be addressed by renovation. Consider now, an architectural facility orbiting in space, 260 miles above the surface of the earth. This human rated architectural facility, the International Space Station (ISS) must maintain operations every day, including life support and appropriate human comforts without fail. The facility must also handle logistics of regular shipments of cargo, including new passengers. The ISS requires accommodations necessary for human control of machine systems. Additionally, the ISS is a research facility and supports investigations performed inside and outside its livable volume. Finally, the facility must support remote operations and observations by ground controllers. All of these architectural needs require a functional, safe, and even an aesthetic lighting environment. At Johnson Space Center, our Habitability and Human Factors team assists our diverse customers with their lighting environment challenges, via physical test and computer based analysis. Because of the complexity of ISS operational environment, our team has learned and developed processes that help ISS operate safely. Because of the dynamic exterior lighting environment, uses computational modeling to predict the lighting environment. The ISS' orbit exposes it to a sunrise every 90 minutes, causing work surfaces to quickly change from direct sunlight to earthshine to total darkness. Proper planning of vehicle approaches, robotics operations, and crewed Extra Vehicular Activities are mandatory to ensure safety to the crew and all others involved. Innovation in testing techniques is important as well. The advent of Solid State Lighting technology and the lack of stable national and international standards for its implementation pose new challenges on how to design, test and verify individual light fixtures and the environment that uses them. The ISS will soon be replacing its internal fluorescent lighting system to a solid state LED system. The Solid State Lighting Assembly will be used not only for general lighting, but also as a medical countermeasure to control the circadian rhythm of the crew. The new light source has performance criteria very specific to its spectral fingerprint, creating new challenges that were originally not as significant during the original design of the ISS. This presentation will showcase findings and toolsets our team is using to assist in the planning of tasks, and design of operational lighting environments on the International Space Station.

  1. Climate change, global risks, challenges and decisions. Synthesis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) meeting to be held in Copenhagen in December 2009 (the 15th Conference of the Parties, COP-15) will be a critical step in developing a global response to the threat of climate change caused by human activities. The primary scientific input to those negotiations is the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), published in 2007. The IPCC report has already been instrumental in increasing both public and political awareness of the societal risks associated with unchecked emission of greenhouse gases. Since the production of the IPCC report, new knowledge has emerged that furthers understanding of the impacts of human influence on the climate and the response options and approaches that are available to tackle this complex issue. To bring this new knowledge together, the International Alliance of Research Universities organised an international scientific congress on climate change, Climate Change: Global Risks, Challenges and Decisions, which was held in Copenhagen from 10-12 March 2009. Participants came from nearly 80 different countries and contributed with more than 1400 scientific presentations. Abstracts for all of the scientific presentations made can be found at www.iop.org/EJ/volume/1755-1315/6, and a transcript of the closing plenary session can be found at environmentalresearchweb.org/cws/article/opinion/39126. This synthesis report presents an up-to-dathis synthesis report presents an up-to-date overview of a broad range of research relevant to climate change - including fundamental climate science, the impacts of a changing climate on society and environment, and the many tools and approaches available to deal effectively with the challenge of climate change. (LN)

  2. Can Adaptive Comanagement Help to Address the Challenges of Climate Change Adaptation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Plummer

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A shift is taking place within environmental governance that draws attention to modes and instruments that respond to system dynamics, uncertainty, and contested values. Adaptive comanagement is one process being advanced to make governance operational as it emphasizes collaboration among diverse actors, functions across scales and levels, and fosters learning though iterative feedback. Although extensive experience with adaptive comanagement has been gained in relation to other environmental and resource issues, its potential contribution to the governance of adaption is largely unexplored. This paper probes how adaptive comanagement might offer support to climate change adaptation and identifies gaps in knowledge requiring attention. In drawing upon existing literature and applied experiences, it is argued that adaptive comanagement may contribute to climate change adaptation by building generalized adaptive capacity as well as providing a novel institutional arrangement to generate adaptive responses. At the same time, several questions emerge about adaptive comanagement in this context. Considerations are thus discussed for adaptive comanagement scholarship and application in addressing the challenge of climate change adaptation.

  3. The Challenges of Home Enteral Tube Feeding: A Global Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omorogieva Ojo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review is to provide a global perspective of Home Enteral Tube Feeding (HETF and to outline some of the challenges of home enteral nutrition (HEN provisions. It is well established that the number of patients on HETF is on the increase worldwide due to advances in technology, development of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy techniques, and the shift in care provisions from acute to community settings. While the significance of home enteral nutrition in meeting the nutritional requirements of patients with poor swallowing reflexes and those with poor nutritional status is not in doubt, differences exist in terms of funding, standards, management approaches and the level of infrastructural development across the world. Strategies for alleviating some of the challenges militating against the effective delivery of HETF including the development of national and international standards, guidelines and policies for HETF, increased awareness and funding by government at all levels were discussed. Others, including development of HEN services, which should create the enabling environment for multidisciplinary team work, clinical audit and research, recruitment and retention of specialist staff, and improvement in patient outcomes have been outlined. However, more research is required to fully establish the cost effectiveness of the HEN service especially in developing countries and to compare the organization of HEN service between developing and developed countries.

  4. The Challenges of Home Enteral Tube Feeding: A Global Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojo, Omorogieva

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this review is to provide a global perspective of Home Enteral Tube Feeding (HETF) and to outline some of the challenges of home enteral nutrition (HEN) provisions. It is well established that the number of patients on HETF is on the increase worldwide due to advances in technology, development of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy techniques, and the shift in care provisions from acute to community settings. While the significance of home enteral nutrition in meeting the nutritional requirements of patients with poor swallowing reflexes and those with poor nutritional status is not in doubt, differences exist in terms of funding, standards, management approaches and the level of infrastructural development across the world. Strategies for alleviating some of the challenges militating against the effective delivery of HETF including the development of national and international standards, guidelines and policies for HETF, increased awareness and funding by government at all levels were discussed. Others, including development of HEN services, which should create the enabling environment for multidisciplinary team work, clinical audit and research, recruitment and retention of specialist staff, and improvement in patient outcomes have been outlined. However, more research is required to fully establish the cost effectiveness of the HEN service especially in developing countries and to compare the organization of HEN service between developing and developed countries. PMID:25856223

  5. The challenges of home enteral tube feeding: a global perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojo, Omorogieva

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this review is to provide a global perspective of Home Enteral Tube Feeding (HETF) and to outline some of the challenges of home enteral nutrition (HEN) provisions. It is well established that the number of patients on HETF is on the increase worldwide due to advances in technology, development of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy techniques, and the shift in care provisions from acute to community settings. While the significance of home enteral nutrition in meeting the nutritional requirements of patients with poor swallowing reflexes and those with poor nutritional status is not in doubt, differences exist in terms of funding, standards, management approaches and the level of infrastructural development across the world. Strategies for alleviating some of the challenges militating against the effective delivery of HETF including the development of national and international standards, guidelines and policies for HETF, increased awareness and funding by government at all levels were discussed. Others, including development of HEN services, which should create the enabling environment for multidisciplinary team work, clinical audit and research, recruitment and retention of specialist staff, and improvement in patient outcomes have been outlined. However, more research is required to fully establish the cost effectiveness of the HEN service especially in developing countries and to compare the organization of HEN service between developing and developed countries. PMID:25856223

  6. Climate change and forest diseases: using todays knowledge to address future challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sturrock, R. N.

    2012-11-01

    The health of the earths forests and urban green spaces is increasingly challenged by the outcomes of human activities, including global climate change. As climate changes, the role and impact of diseases on trees in both forest ecosystems and in urban settings will also change. Knowledge of relationships between climate variables and diseases affecting forest and urban trees is reviewed, with specific emphasis on those affecting foliage, shoots, and stems. Evidence that forest diseases are already responding to the earths changing climate is examined (e.g., Dothistroma needle blight in northern British Columbia) as are predicted scenarios for future changes in impact on forests by other tree diseases. Outbreaks of tree diseases caused by native and alien pathogens are predicted to become more frequent and intense this and other general predictions about the effects of climate change on forest and tree diseases are discussed. Despite the uncertainty that accompanies such predictions it is imperative that researchers, forest and urban tree managers, and policy makers work together to develop and implement management strategies that enhance the resilience of the worlds forests and urbanized trees. Strategies discussed include monitoring, forecasting, planning, and mitigation. (Author) 60 refs.

  7. Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission Applications: Activities, Challenges, and Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschbaum, Dalia; Hou, Arthur

    2012-01-01

    Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) is an international satellite mission to provide nextgeneration observations of rain and snow worldwide every three hours. NASA and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) will launch a "Core" satellite carrying advanced instruments that will set a new standard for precipitation measurements from space. The data they provide will be used to unify precipitation measurements made by an international network of partner satellites to quantify when, where, and how much it rains or snows around the world. The GPM mission will help advance our understanding of Earth's water and energy cycles, improve the forecasting of extreme events that cause natural disasters, and extend current capabilities of using satellite precipitation information to directly benefit society. Building upon the successful legacy of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), GPM's next-generation global precipitation data will lead to scientific advances and societal benefits within a range of hydrologic fields including natural hazards, ecology, public health and water resources. This talk will highlight some examples from TRMM's IS-year history within these applications areas as well as discuss some existing challenges and present a look forward for GPM's contribution to applications in hydrology.

  8. Economic optimization of a global strategy to address the pandemic threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, Jamison; Bogich, Tiffany; Elwood, Sarah; Finnoff, David C; Daszak, Peter

    2014-12-30

    Emerging pandemics threaten global health and economies and are increasing in frequency. Globally coordinated strategies to combat pandemics, similar to current strategies that address climate change, are largely adaptive, in that they attempt to reduce the impact of a pathogen after it has emerged. However, like climate change, mitigation strategies have been developed that include programs to reduce the underlying drivers of pandemics, particularly animal-to-human disease transmission. Here, we use real options economic modeling of current globally coordinated adaptation strategies for pandemic prevention. We show that they would be optimally implemented within 27 y to reduce the annual rise of emerging infectious disease events by 50% at an estimated one-time cost of approximately $343.7 billion. We then analyze World Bank data on multilateral "One Health" pandemic mitigation programs. We find that, because most pandemics have animal origins, mitigation is a more cost-effective policy than business-as-usual adaptation programs, saving between $344.0.7 billion and $360.3 billion over the next 100 y if implemented today. We conclude that globally coordinated pandemic prevention policies need to be enacted urgently to be optimally effective and that strategies to mitigate pandemics by reducing the impact of their underlying drivers are likely to be more effective than business as usual. PMID:25512538

  9. Managing differences: the central challenge of global strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghemawat, Pankaj

    2007-03-01

    The main goal of any international strategy should be to manage the large differences that arise at the borders of markets. Yet executives often fail to exploit market and production discrepancies, focusing instead on the tensions between standardization and localization. In this article, Pankaj Ghemawat presents a new framework that encompasses all three effective responses to the challenges of globalization. He calls it the AAA Triangle. The A's stand for the three distinct types of international strategy. Through adaptation, companies seek to boost revenues and market share by maximizing their local relevance. Through aggregation, they attempt to deliver economies of scale by creating regional, or sometimes global, operations. And through arbitrage, they exploit disparities between national or regional markets, often by locating different parts of the supply chain in different places--for instance, call centers in India, factories in China, and retail shops in Western Europe. Ghemawat draws on several examples that illustrate how organizations use and balance these strategies and describes the trade-offs they make as they do so. Because most enterprises should draw from all three A's to some extent, the framework can be used to develop a summary scorecard indicating how well the company is globalizing. However, given the tensions among the strategies, it's not enough simply to tick off the corresponding boxes. Strategic choice requires some degree of prioritization--and the framework can help with that as well. While it is possible to make progress on all three strategies, companies usually must focus on one or two when trying to build competitive advantage. PMID:17348170

  10. Can The Implementation Of E-Learning Technologies Help To Address Learning Challenges? Evidence From A Small Island University

    OpenAIRE

    Harshana Kasseeah

    2012-01-01

    This paper tries to explore the different ways in which online learning platforms can be used to address learning challenges for students at the University of Mauritius. The main challenges identified were in the form of large number of students in class, the lecturer being unable to give individual attention to each student and the inability to cover all material in the given time frame. Themain problems encountered by students were in the form of inability to ask questions due to the large ...

  11. 76 FR 10892 - Aquatic Ecosystems, Water Quality, and Global Change: Challenges of Conducting Multi-Stressor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-28

    ...vulnerability of water quality and aquatic...impacts of global change. Using a large...represent any Agency policy or determination...Aquatic Ecosystems, Water Quality, and Global Change: Challenges of...as long-term climate and...

  12. Global land cover mapping using Earth observation satellite data: Recent progresses and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Yifang; Gong, Peng; Giri, Chandra

    2015-05-01

    Land cover is an important variable for many studies involving the Earth surface, such as climate, food security, hydrology, soil erosion, atmospheric quality, conservation biology, and plant functioning. Land cover not only changes with human caused land use changes, but also changes with nature. Therefore, the state of land cover is highly dynamic. In winter snow shields underneath various other land cover types in higher latitudes. Floods may persist for a long period in a year over low land areas in the tropical and subtropical regions. Forest maybe burnt or clear cut in a few days and changes to bare land. Within several months, the coverage of crops may vary from bare land to nearly 100% crops and then back to bare land following harvest. The highly dynamic nature of land cover creates a challenge in mapping and monitoring which remains to be adequately addressed. As economic globalization continues to intensify, there is an increasing trend of land cover/land use change, environmental pollution, land degradation, biodiversity loss at the global scale, timely and reliable information on global land cover and its changes is urgently needed to mitigate the negative impact of global environment change.

  13. 17th Workshop on MHD Stability Control: addressing the disruption challenge for ITER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttery, Richard

    2013-08-01

    This annual workshop on magnetohydrodynamic stability control was held on 5-7 November 2012 at Columbia University in the city of New York, in the aftermath of a violent hydrodynamic instability event termed 'Hurricane Sandy'. Despite these challenging circumstances, Columbia University managed an excellent meeting, enabling the full participation of the community. This Workshop has been held since 1996 to help in the development of understanding and control of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities for future fusion reactors. It covers a wide range of stability topics—from disruptions, to tearing modes, error fields, edge-localized modes (ELMs), resistive wall modes (RWMs) and ideal MHD—spanning many device types (tokamaks, stellarators and reversed field pinches) to identify commonalities in the physics and a means of control. The theme for 2012 was 'addressing the disruption challenge for ITER', and thus the first day had a heavy focus on both the avoidance and mitigation of disruptions in ITER. Key elements included understanding how to apply 3D fields to maintain stability, as well as managing the disruption process itself through mitigating loads in the thermal quench and handling so called 'runaway electrons'. This culminated in a panel discussion on the disruption mitigation strategy for ITER, which noted that heat load asymmetries during the thermal quench appear to be an artifact of MHD processes, and that runaway electron generation may be inevitable, suggesting research should focus on control and dissipation of the runaway beam. The workshop was combined this year with the annual US-Japan MHD Workshop, with a special section looking more deeply at 'Fundamentals of 3D Perturbed Equilibrium Control', with interesting sessions on 3D equilibrium reconstruction, RWM physics, novel control concepts such as non-magnetic sensing, adaptive control, q Fusion , we present several of the invited and contributed papers from the 2012 workshop, which have been subject to the normal refereeing procedures of the journal. These give a sense of the exceptional quality of the presentations at this workshop, which may be found at: http://fusion.gat.com/conferences/mhd12/. The Program Committee deeply appreciates the participation and support our community continues to show in this workshop, which provides an unparalleled opportunity for in-depth discussion of MHD issues. We would also like to thank our hosts Columbia University, and in particular Professor Gerald Navratil, for outstanding support and facilities in the face of Hurricane Sandy's adversity. The meeting thanked outgoing Program Chair, Dr Richard Buttery from General Atomics, and welcomed next year's Program Chair, Professor David Maurer from Auburn University. The next meeting will be held in Santa Fe 18-20 November 2013.

  14. Big Data Challenges in Global Seismic 'Adjoint Tomography' (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tromp, J.; Bozdag, E.; Krischer, L.; Lefebvre, M.; Lei, W.; Smith, J.

    2013-12-01

    The challenge of imaging Earth's interior on a global scale is closely linked to the challenge of handling large data sets. The related iterative workflow involves five distinct phases, namely, 1) data gathering and culling, 2) synthetic seismogram calculations, 3) pre-processing (time-series analysis and time-window selection), 4) data assimilation and adjoint calculations, 5) post-processing (pre-conditioning, regularization, model update). In order to implement this workflow on modern high-performance computing systems, a new seismic data format is being developed. The Adaptable Seismic Data Format (ASDF) is designed to replace currently used data formats with a more flexible format that allows for fast parallel I/O. The metadata is divided into abstract categories, such as "source" and "receiver", along with provenance information for complete reproducibility. The structure of ASDF is designed keeping in mind three distinct applications: earthquake seismology, seismic interferometry, and exploration seismology. Existing time-series analysis tool kits, such as SAC and ObsPy, can be easily interfaced with ASDF so that seismologists can use robust, previously developed software packages. ASDF accommodates an automated, efficient workflow for global adjoint tomography. Manually managing the large number of simulations associated with the workflow can rapidly become a burden, especially with increasing numbers of earthquakes and stations. Therefore, it is of importance to investigate the possibility of automating the entire workflow. Scientific Workflow Management Software (SWfMS) allows users to execute workflows almost routinely. SWfMS provides additional advantages. In particular, it is possible to group independent simulations in a single job to fit the available computational resources. They also give a basic level of fault resilience as the workflow can be resumed at the correct state preceding a failure. Some of the best candidates for our particular workflow are Kepler and Swift, and the latter appears to be the most serious candidate for a large-scale workflow on a single supercomputer, remaining sufficiently simple to accommodate further modifications and improvements.

  15. Managing Radioactive Waste. Problems and Challenges in a Globalizing World

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-09-15

    Many countries are at a crossroads in terms of maintaining their energy supply. The existing resources of fossil fuels are dwindling, and global warming makes their use increasingly problematic. Nuclear power is now often regarded inevitable for future sustainability, energy security, and economic prosperity. There are, however, still unsolved problems regarding nuclear power. The fact that no country has established a final waste repository for spent nuclear fuel throws fundamental doubt on nuclear energy expansion. Also, the processes of globalization have transformed the nuclear industry towards increased privatization, concentration, and internationalization. This leads to uncertainties regarding the responsibility for nuclear waste management. In these circumstances is it of greatest importance that scholars from different disciplines, as well as policy makers and practitioners within the field, meet to share experiences. This conference had the general objective of producing knowledge about the challenges caused by global developmental trends, and what the management of nuclear waste implies for contemporary and future social development. Over 100 persons attended the conferences. Papers available at the conference site have been separately indexed. Several contributions were also made as PP-presentation, which are available at the site, among others the Keynote Speeches: Waiting for the Nuclear Renaissance: Exploring the Nexus of Expansion and Disposal in Europe (Jane Dawson); Applying the Risk Governance Framework: Institutional Requirements for Dealing with Nuclear Waste (Ortwin Renn); Learning to Listen: The Long Road to Legitimating Radioactive Waste Management Policies (Frans Berkhout); The Nuclear Waste Debate is Irrational but We Need Not Panic (Frank von Hippel). The conference was divided into the following sessions: Session A: Political characteristics matters; Session B: Radioactivity, geology, society. On a problem definition of HLW-management; Session C: What's at stake? Problematising matters of nuclear waste management; Session D: Knowledge integration and stakeholder communication I; Session D: Knowledge integration and stakeholder communication II; Session F: Acceptance and risk perceptions in repository siting; Session G: Hide, forget, regret? Towards sustainable ethics of HLW-management; Session H: What Future Governance - Local, National or International?; and, Session I: Demonstrating legitimacy, maintaining responsibility?

  16. Managing Radioactive Waste. Problems and Challenges in a Globalizing World

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many countries are at a crossroads in terms of maintaining their energy supply. The existing resources of fossil fuels are dwindling, and global warming makes their use increasingly problematic. Nuclear power is now often regarded inevitable for future sustainability, energy security, and economic prosperity. There are, however, still unsolved problems regarding nuclear power. The fact that no country has established a final waste repository for spent nuclear fuel throws fundamental doubt on nuclear energy expansion. Also, the processes of globalization have transformed the nuclear industry towards increased privatization, concentration, and internationalization. This leads to uncertainties regarding the responsibility for nuclear waste management. In these circumstances is it of greatest importance that scholars from different disciplines, as well as policy makers and practitioners within the field, meet to share experiences. This conference had the general objective of producing knowledge about the challenges caused by global developmental trends, and what the management of nuclear waste implies for contemporary and future social development. Over 100 persons attended the conferences. Papers available at the conference site have been separately indexed. Several contributions were also made as PP-presentation, which are available at the site, among others the Keynote Speeches: Waiting for the Nuclear Renaissance: Exploring the Nexus of Expansion and Disposal in Europe Nexus of Expansion and Disposal in Europe (Jane Dawson); Applying the Risk Governance Framework: Institutional Requirements for Dealing with Nuclear Waste (Ortwin Renn); Learning to Listen: The Long Road to Legitimating Radioactive Waste Management Policies (Frans Berkhout); The Nuclear Waste Debate is Irrational but We Need Not Panic (Frank von Hippel). The conference was divided into the following sessions: Session A: Political characteristics matters; Session B: Radioactivity, geology, society. On a problem definition of HLW-management; Session C: What's at stake? Problematising matters of nuclear waste management; Session D: Knowledge integration and stakeholder communication I; Session D: Knowledge integration and stakeholder communication II; Session F: Acceptance and risk perceptions in repository siting; Session G: Hide, forget, regret? Towards sustainable ethics of HLW-management; Session H: What Future Governance - Local, National or International?; and, Session I: Demonstrating legitimacy, maintaining responsibility?

  17. Can The Implementation Of E-Learning Technologies Help To Address Learning Challenges? Evidence From A Small Island University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harshana Kasseeah

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper tries to explore the different ways in which online learning platforms can be used to address learning challenges for students at the University of Mauritius. The main challenges identified were in the form of large number of students in class, the lecturer being unable to give individual attention to each student and the inability to cover all material in the given time frame. Themain problems encountered by students were in the form of inability to ask questions due to the large class size, lack of interaction with the lecturer and in some cases the lack of supplementary material. Findings indicate that online learning platforms can indeed be used to address learning challenges so that the online learning platforms supplement and complement traditional face-to-face lectures.

  18. Climate Change - Global Risks, Challenges & Decisions : Synthesis Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richardson, Katherine; Steffen, Will

    2009-01-01

    Past societies have reacted when they understood that their own activities were causing deleterious environmental change by controlling or modifying the offending activities. The scientific evidence has now become overwhelming that human activities, especially the combustion of fossil fuels, are influencing the climate in ways that threaten the well-being and continued development of human society. If humanity is to learn from history and to limit these threats, the time has come for stronger control of the human activities that are changing the fundamental conditions for life on Earth. To decide on effective control measures, an understanding of how human activities are changing the climate, and of the implications of unchecked climate change, needs to be widespread among world and national leaders, as well as in the public. The purpose of this report is to provide, for a broad range of audiences, an update of the newest understanding of climate change caused by human activities, the social and environmental implications of this change, and the options available for society to respond to the challenges posed by climate change. This understanding is communicated through six key messages.  The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) meeting to be held in Copenhagen in December 2009 (the 15th Conference of the Parties, COP-15) will be a critical step in developing a global response to the threat of climate change caused by human activities. The primary scientific input to those negotiations is the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), published in 2007. The IPCC report has already been instrumental in increasing both public and political awareness of the societal risks associated with unchecked emission of greenhouse gases. Since the production of the IPCC report, new knowledge has emerged that furthers understanding of the impacts of human influence on the climate and the response options and approaches that are available to tackle this complex issue. To bring this new knowledge together, the International Alliance of Research Universitiesi organised an international scientific congress on climate change, Climate Change: Global Risks, Challenges and Decisions, which was held in Copenhagen from 10-12 March 2009. Participation in the Congress was open to all. Most of the approximately 2500 people attending the Congress were researchers, many of whom have also been contributors to the IPCC reports. Participants came from nearly 80 different countries and contributed with more than 1400 scientific presentations. Abstracts for all of the scientific presentations made can be found at www.iop.org/EJ/volume/1755-1315/6 , and a transcript of the closing plenary session can be found at environmentalresearchweb.org/cws/article/opinion/39126. This synthesis report presents an up-to-date overview of a broad range of research relevant to climate change - including fundamental climate science, the impacts of a changing climate on society and environment,and the many tools and approaches available to deal effectively with the challenge of climate change. The report has been produced by a writing team comprised of members of the Scientific Steering Committee for the IARU Congress and individuals invited to give the writing team academic and geographic breadth. It is based on the 16 plenary talks given at the Congress as well as input from over 80 chairs and cochairs of the 58 parallel sessions held at the Congress. The names of the plenary speakers and the chairs and co-chairs of the parallel sessions can be found on the inside cover of this volume. The writing team has, in addition to presentations at the Congress, drawn upon recent publications in the scientific literature to create this synthesis. This report has been critically reviewed by representatives of the Earth System Science Partnership (ESSP), by the parallel session chairs and co-chairs, and by up to four independent researchers from each IARU university. This extensive review process has been implemented to

  19. Addressing the Challenges of Inquiry-Based Learning Through Technology and Curriculum Design

    OpenAIRE

    Edelson, Daniel C.; Gordin, Douglas N.; Pea, Roy D.

    1999-01-01

    Inquiry experiences can provide valuable opportunities for students to improve their understanding of both science content and scientific practices. However, the implementation of inquiry learning in classrooms presents a number of significant challenges. We have been exploring these challenges through a program of research on the use of scientific visualization technologies to support inquiry-based learning in the geosciences. In this article, we describe 5 significant challenges to implemen...

  20. OpenTopography: Addressing Big Data Challenges Using Cloud Computing, HPC, and Data Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, C. J.; Nandigam, V.; Phan, M.; Youn, C.; Baru, C.; Arrowsmith, R.

    2014-12-01

    OpenTopography (OT) is a geoinformatics-based data facility initiated in 2009 for democratizing access to high-resolution topographic data, derived products, and tools. Hosted at the San Diego Supercomputer Center (SDSC), OT utilizes cyberinfrastructure, including large-scale data management, high-performance computing, and service-oriented architectures to provide efficient Web based access to large, high-resolution topographic datasets. OT collocates data with processing tools to enable users to quickly access custom data and derived products for their application. OT's ongoing R&D efforts aim to solve emerging technical challenges associated with exponential growth in data, higher order data products, as well as user base. Optimization of data management strategies can be informed by a comprehensive set of OT user access metrics that allows us to better understand usage patterns with respect to the data. By analyzing the spatiotemporal access patterns within the datasets, we can map areas of the data archive that are highly active (hot) versus the ones that are rarely accessed (cold). This enables us to architect a tiered storage environment consisting of high performance disk storage (SSD) for the hot areas and less expensive slower disk for the cold ones, thereby optimizing price to performance. From a compute perspective, OT is looking at cloud based solutions such as the Microsoft Azure platform to handle sudden increases in load. An OT virtual machine image in Microsoft's VM Depot can be invoked and deployed quickly in response to increased system demand. OT has also integrated SDSC HPC systems like the Gordon supercomputer into our infrastructure tier to enable compute intensive workloads like parallel computation of hydrologic routing on high resolution topography. This capability also allows OT to scale to HPC resources during high loads to meet user demand and provide more efficient processing. With a growing user base and maturing scientific user community comes new requests for algorithms and processing capabilities. To address this demand, OT is developing an extensible service based architecture for integrating community-developed software. This "plugable" approach to Web service deployment will enable new processing and analysis tools to run collocated with OT hosted data.

  1. Getting People Involved: The Benefit of Intellectual Capital Management for Addressing HR Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pook, Katja

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to explore the benefits of intellectual capital assessment for facing current challenges of human resources work and organizational development. Design/methodology/approach: The paper takes findings of studies on challenges in HR work and maps them with features of intellectual capital assessment methods. It is thus a…

  2. Global marketing advertising with cultural differences : How can global companies better address cultural differences in marketing advertising in the Middle East?

    OpenAIRE

    Cimendag, Ismail; Yalcin, Erkan

    2012-01-01

    The authors realized the importance of being flexible in cultural values in the current environment of today’s economy. This environment is called ‘globalization’ that has become an interesting topic in the academic world. Beyond the different challenges, the most important challenge regarding to the thesis topic is the cultural challenge. The authors have combined these elements and  wanted to investigate how these factors influence marketing advertising in the Middle East. Hence, the...

  3. Food security for Africa: an urgent global challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasson Albert

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In 2012, food insecurity is still a major global concern as 1 billion people are suffering from starvation, under-, and malnutrition, and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO has concluded that we are still far from reaching millennium development goal (MDG number 1: to halve extreme poverty and hunger by 2015. In sub-Saharan Africa, the number of people suffering from hunger is estimated at 239 million, and this figure could increase in the near future. There are many examples of food insecurity in sub-Saharan Africa, some of them having reached catastrophic dimensions, for example, in the Horn of Africa or southern Madagascar. Food insecurity is not just about insufficient food production, availability, and intake, it is also about the poor quality or nutritional value of the food. The detrimental situation of women and children is particularly serious, as well as the situation among female teenagers, who receive less food than their male counterparts in the same households. Soaring food prices and food riots are among the many symptoms of the prevailing food crisis and insecurity. Climate change and weather vagaries, present and forecast, are generally compounding food insecurity and drastically changing farming activities, as diagnosed by the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR in June 2011. The key cause of food insecurity is inadequate food production. Since the global food crisis of 2007–2008, there has been an increasing awareness throughout the world that we must produce more and better food; and we should not be derailed from this goal, despite some relief brought by the good cereal harvests in 2011–2012. This is particularly true in sub-Saharan Africa, which needs and wants to make its own green revolution. The African challenge indeed is key to mitigating food insecurity in the world. Commitments were made by the heads of states and governments of the African Union to double the part of their domestic budgets devoted to agriculture in 2010–2011, so as to reach 10%. Technical solutions exist and there are indeed, throughout Africa, good examples of higher-yielding and sustainable agriculture. But good practices have to spread throughout the continent, while at the same time social and economic measures, as well as political will, are indispensable ingredients of Africa’s green revolution. It is also necessary that international donors fulfil their commitment to help African farmers and rural communities and protect them against unfair trade, competition, and dumping of cheap agrifood products from overseas.

  4. Developing Strategies for Islamic Banks to Face the Future Challenges of Financial Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Al Ajlouni, Ahmed

    2004-01-01

    Developing Strategies for Islamic Banks to Face the Future Challenges of Financial Globalization Ahmed Al-Ajlouni Abstract This study aims at forming strategic response to assess the ability of Islamic banks in benefiting from the opportunities that may be provided by financial globalization and limits its threats, through assessing the capability of Islamic banks to meet the requirements and challenges of financial globalization, then suggests the suitable strategies that may be ...

  5. Global Challenges to Liberal Democracy. Political Participation, Minorities and Migrations

    OpenAIRE

    Velasco Arroyo, Juan Carlos; Foisneau, Luc; Hiebaum, Christian; Merle, Jean-Christophe

    2013-01-01

    First Volume of the work "Spheres of Global Justice" (Springer, Dordrecht, 2013). Spheres of Global Justice is the collection of 63 lectures, which were given in the scope of the European Research and Training Network 'Applied Global Justice' (Framework Program of the European Commission, HPRN-CT-2002-0031). The Global Justice Network was a co-operation of 5 universities (Graz, Louvain, Saarbrücken, Tilburg, Zürich), two national research institutes (The French National Centre for...

  6. VGB-congress power plants 2013. Security of supply - from challenges to solutions. Opening address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The VGB Congress 'Power Plants 2013' took place in Masstricht/NL from September 25 to 27, 2013 under the motto 'Security of Supply - From Challenges to Solutions'. Experts from 31 countries attended the largest European congress for power and heat generation to discuss and inform about current issues. The congress comprised the sections 'Security of Supply: A Common European Challenge', 'Technical Solutions for our Future Electricity Generation', 'Operational Experience as Key Competence' and 'Thinking Ahead: Projects and Visions 2020+' where participants and lecturers dealt with the future challenges of European power supply. (orig.)

  7. The Specific Challenges of Globalization for Teaching and Vice Versa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David Geoffrey

    2000-01-01

    Contemporary globalization is a continuation of European colonialism, shaped by the Protestant capitalist ethic and technology. The changing mandates of teaching and education under the influence of globalization are identified. Possibilities for teaching in the age of globalization are explored under three themes: recovery of personal truth,…

  8. Global warming and the challenge of international cooperation: an interdisciplinary assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The book aims to explore the nature of potential climatic change. It seeks to assess the scientific, economic legal and political issues related to the threat of global warming from an interdisciplinary perspective. The seven chapters have the following titles: the challenge of global warming; global warming and ozone depletion - certainties and uncertainties; consequences of global climate change for Earth's biosphere; global energy use and global warming; problems and prospects of institutionalizing ecological interdependence in a world of local independence; political institutions and climate change; and policy options for responding to the threat of global warming. Six chapters are abstracted separately. 158 refs

  9. 75 FR 57006 - Addressing Policy and Logistical Challenges to Smart Grid Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    ...economy and the environment. In particular...Administration's analysis of policy challenges...consumer education, marketing and monthly savings...cost- benefit analysis? How does the...status quo to an environment in which...

  10. The adequacy of the current social plan to address retrenchment challenges in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Marteen Erasmus; Thulane Ngele

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the Social Plan Guidelines is to manage large-scale retrenchments and ameliorate their effects on employees. In this study a comprehensive literature review and two case studies were conducted to review the theoretical and practical application of the Social Plan. The research findings identified various challenges that inhibit the effective management of retrenchments. These challenges were analysed and interpreted and a new model to effectively manage retrenchments was develo...

  11. Using a complex system approach to address world challenges in Food and Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    van Mil, H. G. J.; Foegeding, E. A.; Windhab, E. J.; Perrot, N.; Linden, E., van der

    2013-01-01

    World food supply is crucial to the well-being of every human on the planet in the basic sense that we need food to live. It also has a profound impact on the world economy, international trade and global political stability. Furthermore, consumption of certain types and amounts foods can affect health, and the choice of livestock and plants for food production can impact sustainable use of global resources. There are communities where insufficient food causes nutritional de...

  12. Nuclear power and the global challenges of energy security, 6 September 2007, London, England, World Nuclear Association Annual Symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Atoms for Peace speech given by US President Eisenhower in 1953 - the speech that paved the way for the creation of the IAEA - he declared that a special purpose of Atoms for Peace would be 'to provide abundant electrical energy in the power-starved areas of the world'. That vision has yet to be realized. And it should not be taken to mean that nuclear power is the solution for all countries, or for all developing countries. But I would reiterate what I said at the outset - that the global challenges of security and development are interlinked, and that addressing the energy security needs of all countries will be a key to progress on both fronts. It is incumbent upon us to see to it that nuclear power will fulfil its potential in addressing these challenges

  13. Addressing risk challenges in a changing financial environment: the need for greater accountability in financial regulation and risk management

    OpenAIRE

    Ojo, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    The need for continuous monitoring and regulation is particularly attributed to, and justified by, the inevitable presence of risks and uncertainty – both in terms of certain externalities and indeterminacies which are capable of being reasonably quantified and those which are not. Amongst other goals, this paper aims to address complexities and challenges faced by regulators in identifying and assessing risk, problems arising from different perceptions of risk, and solutions aimed at c...

  14. Agri-food business: global challenges - innovative solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Glauben, Thomas; Hanf, Jon H.; Kopsidis, Michael; Pieniadz, Agata; Reinsberg, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    The rise of a western-style middle class in many successful emerging economies like China currently is inducing deep structural changes on agricultural world markets and within the global agri-food business. As a result of both higher incomes and concerns over product safety and quality the global demand for high-quality and safe food products is increasing significantly. In order to meet the new required quality, globally minimum quality standards are rising and private standards emerging. A...

  15. Radical Embodied Cognitive Neuroscience: Addressing “Grand Challenges” of the Mind Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis H Favela

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available It is becoming ever more accepted that investigations of mind span the brain, body, and environment. To broaden the scope of what is relevant in such investigations is to increase the amount of data scientists must reckon with. Thus, a major challenge facing scientists who study the mind is how to make big data intelligible both within and between fields. One way to face this challenge is to structure the data within a framework and to make it intelligible by means of a common theory. Radical embodied cognitive neuroscience can function as such a framework, with dynamical systems theory as its methodology, and self-organized criticality as its theory.

  16. An Overview of Interdisciplinary Research at Notre Dame Addressing "Grand Challenges" in the Midwest and Great Lakes Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlet, A. F.; Bolster, D.; Tank, J. L.; Hellmann, J.; Christopher, S. F.; Sharma, A.; Chiu, C. M.

    2014-12-01

    The Midwest and Great Lakes region face a number of "Grand Challenges" associated with climate, land use, agriculture, and water resources infrastructure. These include sustainability of agricultural systems and related impacts to food security and the regional economy; sustainability of Great Lakes water levels; changing storm statistics and impacts to stormwater management and flooding; water quality in rivers and downstream receiving water bodies related to non-point source pollution on agricultural lands and combined sewer overflows in urban areas; urban impacts related to aging infrastructure and climate change, and ecosystem management and restoration. In the context of water management, groundwater resources are poorly understood in comparison with surface water resources, and regional-scale simulation models are needed to address questions of sustainability both in terms of supply and water quality. Interdisciplinary research at the University of Notre Dame is attempting to address these research challenges via 1) integrated macro-scale groundwater and surface water modeling to address issues related to sustainable water supply, ecosystem restoration, and agricultural impacts; 2) development of high-resolution regional climate models dynamically coupled to the Great Lakes to address urban impacts, changing storm statistics and to quantify precipitation and evaporation over the Great Lakes; 3) and integrated macro-scale hydrology and water quality modeling to assess the large-scale performance of innovative land management BMPs on agricultural land (such as the two-stage ditch, cover crops, and dynamic drainage control) intended to improve water quality.

  17. Sustainable Methods of Addressing Challenges Facing Small Holder Tea Sector in Kenya: A Supply Chain Management Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Kiarie Kagira

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This Conceptual paper addresses the challenges facing the small holder tea sector in Kenya. It provides background information about tea growing in Kenya, its export performance, and organizational structure. It then categorizes the main challenges into five and provides some solutions to the challenges, borrowing from some supply chain management practices to culminate into competitive strategies. In the face of declining and shifting competitiveness of the small holder tea sector in Kenya, this paper identifies the special role of supplier and customer relationships, value addition, information technology, information sharing, flexibility in internal operations/processes, upgrading of tea seedlings, proper coordination, institutionalization, policy reforms, training, monitoring marketing environment, strategic decisions, irrigation, venturing in new markets through partnership, and civil society involvement as competitive supply chain strategies.

  18. The Challenge for America: A High Quality Teacher in Every Classroom. Annual Back to School Address.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Richard

    This speech highlights new ways to improve teacher quality. It was prepared following a national search for models of excellence that addressed the training needs of teachers at every stage of their careers. Section 1, "Missing the Mark in Recruiting New Teachers," discusses the need to prepare the next generation of teachers, since in the next 10…

  19. Year of Coordinated Observations, Modeling and Forecasting: Addressing the Challenge of Organized Tropical Convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waliser, Duane E.

    2006-01-01

    The multi-scale organization of tropical convection and scale interaction are grand challenges in the prediction of weather and climate. As part of a international effort UN Year of Planet Earth, this proposed effort to observe, model and forecast the effects of organized tropical convection is reviewed. This viewgraph presentation reviews the proposal.

  20. Narrative Research Addressing the Challenges of a Career in Professional Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankl, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to highlight the challenges that accomplished young athletes face as they aspire to become professional athletes. The data used in this study was derived from selected lived and told sport experiences of undergraduate and graduate kinesiology majors who were former competitive athletes. Additional data was derived…

  1. Addressing the Challenges Special Needs Students Face when Transitioning from the Classroom to the Workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliardi, Frank

    2010-01-01

    One of the biggest fears and challenges a parent of a child with special needs faces is navigating the post-22 landscape. When a child hits the age of 22, the Department of Elementary and Secondary Education (DESE) is no longer required to provide daily services and support. Whatever the abilities, or disabilities, of a child, every parent has the…

  2. Challenges confronting road freight transport and the use of vehicle-pavement interaction analysis in addressing these challenges

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    W J vd M, Steyn; C L, Monismith; W A, Nokes; J T, Harvey; T J, Holland; N, Burmas.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Traditional arguments for maintaining riding quality of pavement are expanded in this paper to examine the effects of deteriorating riding quality on vehicle operating costs, freight damage and logistics. The objectives of this paper are to analyse the effects of different levels of riding quality o [...] n a truck and its freight, and to discuss potential applications of the analysis in terms of effectiveness of the freight transport system. The paper discusses needs and drivers influencing freight transport costs, vehicle-pavement interaction concepts, and the potential physical effects and costs from roads with deteriorating riding quality. A case study is presented analysing vehicle-pavement interaction for selected roadways in California. It is concluded that investments in pavement and freight transport industry improvements can be investigated by applying vehicle-pavement interaction analysis to evaluate damage to pavement, vehicle and freight that would result from alternative levels of pavement riding quality. The paper recommends that existing concepts, tools and resources such as dedicated truck lanes and vehicle-pavement interaction analysis can help to improve the freight transport system. A framework is proposed to better understand the scale of potential impacts of riding quality from localised effects to larger-scale influences, including costs to customers and global competitiveness.

  3. Challenges confronting road freight transport and the use of vehicle-pavement interaction analysis in addressing these challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W J vd M Steyn

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Traditional arguments for maintaining riding quality of pavement are expanded in this paper to examine the effects of deteriorating riding quality on vehicle operating costs, freight damage and logistics. The objectives of this paper are to analyse the effects of different levels of riding quality on a truck and its freight, and to discuss potential applications of the analysis in terms of effectiveness of the freight transport system. The paper discusses needs and drivers influencing freight transport costs, vehicle-pavement interaction concepts, and the potential physical effects and costs from roads with deteriorating riding quality. A case study is presented analysing vehicle-pavement interaction for selected roadways in California. It is concluded that investments in pavement and freight transport industry improvements can be investigated by applying vehicle-pavement interaction analysis to evaluate damage to pavement, vehicle and freight that would result from alternative levels of pavement riding quality. The paper recommends that existing concepts, tools and resources such as dedicated truck lanes and vehicle-pavement interaction analysis can help to improve the freight transport system. A framework is proposed to better understand the scale of potential impacts of riding quality from localised effects to larger-scale influences, including costs to customers and global competitiveness.

  4. The adequacy of the current social plan to address retrenchment challenges in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marteen Erasmus

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the Social Plan Guidelines is to manage large-scale retrenchments and ameliorate their effects on employees. In this study a comprehensive literature review and two case studies were conducted to review the theoretical and practical application of the Social Plan. The research findings identified various challenges that inhibit the effective management of retrenchments. These challenges were analysed and interpreted and a new model to effectively manage retrenchments was developed. The new model is centred on a company’s business plan; the concept is a participative performance-driven governance approach between management and employees focusing on business results. The new model suggests that the employment relations management and corporate social investment of an organisation be utilised as vehicles to manage retrenchments effectively.

  5. Smart Home Wireless Sensor Nodes : Addressing the Challenges using Smart Objects and Artificial Intelligence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynggaard, Per

    Smart homes are further development of intelligent buildings and home automation, where context awareness and autonomous behaviour are added. They are based on a combination of the Internet and emerging technologies like wireless sensor nodes. These wireless sensor nodes are challenging because they consume battery power, they use network bandwidth, and they produce wireless interferences. Currently, different methods exist for handling these challenges. These methods are, however, based on adjusting the transmitter frequency and using duty-cycling in combination with sleep mode approaches. This paper introduces an approach that considerably lowers the wireless sensor node power consumption and the amount of transmitted sensor events. It uses smart objects that include artificial intelligence to efficiently process the sensor event on location and thereby saves the costly wireless transportation of these events. In this paper it has been shown that this approach provides huge savings of power consumption and network load, which in turn reduces the interference level.

  6. New generation of Sour Service Drill Pipe allows addressing highly sour field challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Thomazic A.; Rodrigues R.; Thebault F.; Mauries S.; Flores V.; Lambet E.

    2013-01-01

    Drill pipes are commonly produced by assembling pipe and tool joints through friction welding. The weld, as a result of this process, presents some challenges for preserving corrosion resistance due to some metallurgical factors such as heterogeneous microstructure, different chemical compositions between the tool joint and the pipe body and heterogeneous mechanical properties close to the welded line. Hence a new drill pipe configuration have been developed including modified chemical compos...

  7. Addressing Data Management on the Cloud: Tackling the Big Data Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas-Solar, Genoveva

    2013-01-01

    The increasing adoption of the cloud computing paradigm has motivated a redefinition of traditional data management methods. In particular, data storage management has been revisited, due to a growing interest in the challenges and opportunities associated to the NoSQL movement. Together with novel opportunities offered by the cloud for accessing hardware, and resources as an implicit commodity, the possibility of processing huge data collections for supporting a "science of data" has put dat...

  8. Identifying and addressing challenges for search and analysis of disparate surveillance video archives

    OpenAIRE

    Little, Suzanne; Clawson, Kathy; Mereu, Anna; Rodriguez, Aitor

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the challenges faced when bringing together multiple disparate surveillance video archives to support semantic analysis and search and describes the SAVASA framework for enabling better integration of CCTV archives. The proliferation of CCTV cameras managed by public institutions and private enterprise raises a number of issues relating to data security, privacy, ethics and technological difficulties in unifying the variety of data and formats. These are often the result ...

  9. Addressing the Dual Challenges of Meeting Demand for Minerals and Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Larry Grayson

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, excellent progress has been made globally in finding mineral resources, extracting them efficiently and effectively, dramatically reducing environmental degradation, and preventing adverse health and safety impacts on workers and stakeholders. The industry has realized tremendous advances in technology and applied science; has met changing and more stringent environmental performance criteria; has made remarkable reductions in fatality, illness, and lost-time accident rates; and has connected better than ever before with the communities in which mining, milling, and smelting are housed. A new era focused on continuous improvement in tackling key sustainable development parameters has come and is intensifying [1].  In order to maintain the social licenses needed to enlist broad public support for mining businesses, continued progress must be visible to national, provincial, and local governments as well as the people who live in the areas blessed with the mineral resources that the global economy and growing population will demand. [...

  10. Using a complex system approach to address world challenges in Food and Agriculture

    CERN Document Server

    van Mil, H G J; Windhab, E J; Perrot, N; van der Linden, E

    2013-01-01

    World food supply is crucial to the well-being of every human on the planet in the basic sense that we need food to live. It also has a profound impact on the world economy, international trade and global political stability. Furthermore, consumption of certain types and amounts foods can affect health, and the choice of livestock and plants for food production can impact sustainable use of global resources. There are communities where insufficient food causes nutritional deficiencies, and at the same time other communities eating too much food leading to obesity and accompanying diseases. These aspects reflect the utmost importance of agricultural production and conversion of commodities to food products. Moreover, all factors contributing to the food supply are interdependent, and they are an integrative part of the continuously changing, adaptive and interdependent systems in the world around us. The properties of such interdependent systems usually cannot be inferred from the properties of its parts. In a...

  11. Bereavement: addressing challenges faced by advanced cancer patients, their caregivers, and their physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutner, Jean S; Kilbourn, Kristin M

    2009-12-01

    Physicians who work with advanced cancer patients need to be aware of the process of grief and bereavement not only in terms of how it may impact the patient and family, but in how it can affect their own emotions and behavior. There are a number of simple things that physicians can do to normalize and promote adaptive grieving in advanced cancer patients and their families. Patients facing the end of life face enormous physical and existential challenges. Yet from this challenge there is the potential for enormous growth and a "good death" for the patient as well as an opportunity for the family to strengthen their relationship with the patient and find positive meaning in their caretaking activities. In addition to caring for the patient and family, physicians must be attentive to their own needs, which include acknowledging feelings of grief and loss and pursuing healthy venues that promote adaptive coping and decrease the risk of detachment and burnout. Despite the physical, emotional and spiritual demands of working with end-of-life patients and their families, being open and willing to face these challenges can lead to positive growth and increased meaning for all involved. PMID:19913188

  12. Adapting Cities to Climate Change: Understanding and Addressing the Development Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael D'Almeida Martins

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A mudança do clima e o aquecimento global passaram em curto espaço de tempo para o centro do debate público como o maior desa? o do séc. XXI. Apesar de parte considerável dos cientistas dedicados ao tema vir expressando sua preocupação com mudanças ambientais globais há várias décadas, tem sido difícil para governos em seus diferentes níveis encarar o assunto com a devida seriedade dado a complexidade do problema e o caráter abstrato e incerto de muitas dessas mudanças.

  13. Addressing China's grand challenge of achieving food security while ensuring environmental sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Yonglong; Jenkins, Alan; Ferrier, Robert C.; Bailey, Mark; Gordon, Iain J; Song, Shuai; Huang, Jikun; Jia, Shaofeng; Zhang, Fusuo; Liu, Xuejun; Feng, Zhaozhong; Zhang, Zhibin

    2015-01-01

    China’s increasingly urbanized and wealthy population is driving a growing and changing demand for food, which might not be met without significant increase in agricultural productivity and sustainable use of natural resources. Given the past relationship between lack of access to affordable food and political instability, food security has to be given a high priority on national political agendas in the context of globalization. The drive for increased food production has had a significant...

  14. Trends and EIE higher education response to the current global technical challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poboroniuc, Marian; Livint, Gheorghe

    2014-01-01

    The European Association for Education in Electrical and Information Engineering (EAEEIE) has been for 20 years and still is dedicated to supporting Electrical and Information Engineering (EIE) across Europe. Its new Strategic Alignment of Electrical and Information Engineering in European Higher Education Institutions (SALEIE), an EU supported project, gathers together a global team aiming to provide higher education models in the EIE disciplines that can respond to the key global technical challenges. This paper deals with findings within the SALEIE project's work package WP3 (Global Challenges), namely: state-of-the-art in implementation of the Bologna recommendation for Bachelor and Master, technical challenges that the EIE higher education faces nowadays, and existing models in EIE higher education and their degree of response to key global technical challenges.

  15. Implementation of the global plan for insecticide resistance management in malaria vectors: progress, challenges and the way forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mnzava, Abraham P; Knox, Tessa B; Temu, Emmanuel A; Trett, Anna; Fornadel, Christen; Hemingway, Janet; Renshaw, Melanie

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, there has been an increase in resistance of malaria vectors to insecticides, particularly to pyrethroids which are widely used in insecticide-treated nets. The Global Plan for Insecticide Resistance Management in malaria vectors (GPIRM), released in May 2012, is a collective strategy for the malaria community to tackle this challenge. This review outlines progress made to date and the challenges experienced in the implementation of GPIRM, and outlines focus areas requiring urgent attention. Whilst there has been some advancement, uptake of GPIRM at the national level has generally been poor for various reasons, including limited availability of vector control tools with new mechanisms of action as well as critical financial, human and infrastructural resource deficiencies. There is an urgent need for a global response plan to address these deficits and ensure the correct and efficient use of available tools in order to maintain the effectiveness of current vector control efforts whilst novel vector control tools are under development. Emphasis must be placed on enhancing national capacities (such as human and infrastructural resources) to enable efficient monitoring and management of insecticide resistance, and to support availability and accessibility of appropriate new vector control products. Lack of action by the global community to address the threat of insecticide resistance is unacceptable and deprives affected communities of their basic right of universal access to effective malaria prevention. Aligning efforts and assigning the needed resources will ensure the optimal implementation of GPIRM with the ultimate goal of maintaining effective malaria vector control. PMID:25899397

  16. Management games in learning process of business skills : case: global management challenge Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Yichuan

    2011-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is management games in learning process of business skills, Case: Global Management Challenge Finland. The thesis seeks to find out how different management games are used worldwide in learning business skills, it introduces the biggest strategic and management game: Global Management Challenge, studies the case of this game in Finland, discusses how management games could help students learn different business skills and proposes future training programs for thi...

  17. Protective Efficacy of a Global HIV-1 Mosaic Vaccine Against Heterologous SHIV Challenges in Rhesus Monkeys

    OpenAIRE

    Barouch, Dan H.; Stephenson, Kathryn E.; Borducchi, Erica N.; Smith, Kaitlin; Stanley, Kelly; Mcnally, Anna G.; Liu, Jinyan; Abbink, Peter; Maxfield, Lori F.; Seaman, Michael S.; Dugast, Anne-sophie; Alter, Galit; Ferguson, Melissa; Li, Wenjun; Earl, Patricia L.

    2013-01-01

    The global diversity of HIV-1 represents a critical challenge facing HIV-1 vaccine development. HIV-1 mosaic antigens are bioinformatically optimized immunogens designed for improved coverage of HIV-1 diversity. However, the protective efficacy of global HIV-1 vaccine antigens has not previously been evaluated. Here we demonstrate the capacity of bivalent HIV-1 mosaic antigens to protect rhesus monkeys against acquisition of heterologous challenges with the difficult-to-neutralize simian-huma...

  18. A framework for addressing implementation gap in global drowning prevention interventions: experiences from Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyder, Adnan A; Alonge, Olakunle; He, Siran; Wadhwaniya, Shirin; Rahman, Fazlur; El Arifeen, Shams

    2014-12-01

    Drowning is the commonest cause of injury-related deaths among under-five children worldwide, and 95% of deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) where there are implementation gaps in the drowning prevention interventions. This article reviews common interventions for drowning prevention, introduces a framework for effective implementation of such interventions, and describes the Saving of Lives from Drowning (SoLiD) Project in Bangladesh, which is based on this framework. A review of the systematic reviews on drowning interventions was conducted, and original research articles were pulled and summarized into broad prevention categories. The implementation framework builds upon two existing frameworks and categorizes the implementing process for drowning prevention interventions into four phases: planning, engaging, executing, and evaluating. Eleven key characteristics are mapped in these phases. The framework was applied to drowning prevention projects that have been undertaken in some LMICs to illustrate major challenges to implementation. The implementation process for the SoLiD Project in Bangladesh is used as an example to illustrate the practical utilization of the framework. Drowning interventions, such as pool fencing and covering of water hazards, are effective in high-income countries; however, most of these interventions have not been tested in LMICs. The critical components of the four phases of implementing drowning prevention interventions may include: (i) planning-global funding, political will, scale, sustainability, and capacity building; (ii) engaging-coordination, involvement of appropriate individuals; (iii) executing-focused action, multisectoral actions, quality of execution; and (iv) evaluating-rigorous monitoring and evaluation. Some of the challenges to implementing drowning prevention interventions in LMICs include insufficient funds, lack of technical capacity, and limited coordination among stakeholders and implementers. The SoLiD Project in Bangladesh incorporates some of these lessons and key features of the proposed framework. The framework presented in this paper was a useful tool for implementing drowning prevention interventions in Bangladesh and may be useful for adaptation in drowning and injury prevention programmes of other LMIC settings. PMID:25895188

  19. Globalization and ICTs : Potentials and Challenges for the Public Health Sector of Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mengiste, Shegaw Anagaw

    2013-01-01

    There has been much discussion of the role that recent advances in information and communication technologies (ICTs) could play in improving health systems in developing countries. There is no doubt that the advancement of ICTs has brought both brought opportunities and challenges to developing countries in their efforts to ensure socio-economic development and improve public governance. In the wake of globalization, developing countries have no choice but to take advantage of the opportunities and face the challenges. Despite the fact that many developing countries are taking actions to strengthen their ICT capabilities in both private and public sector organizations, the process has been limited mostly to national and provincial capitals leaving behind majority of the communities and institutions operating in remote areas. This paper took a case study of implementing computerized Health Information Systems (HIS) in the context of the Ethiopian public health care system and investigated the potentials of the new ICT based system and the challenges encountered at provincial and district levels. The findings also revealed that even those with access to modern ICT infrastructure do not get maximum benefit from ICT advancements due to inadequacies in data quality and lack of knowledge in data management and use for decision making and action. To this end, there is an urgent need for governments of most developing countries in general and for sub-Saharan African countries in particular to double their efforts to address constraints threatening to increase technology gap between urban minority and marginalized rural majority by setting up favorable policies and appropriate strategies. For example, the empirical analysis of this study revealed that in order to make IT-based systems work in the Ethiopian public health seating, there is an urgent need to develop proper strategies that took into account the local context.

  20. New generation of Sour Service Drill Pipe allows addressing highly sour field challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomazic A.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Drill pipes are commonly produced by assembling pipe and tool joints through friction welding. The weld, as a result of this process, presents some challenges for preserving corrosion resistance due to some metallurgical factors such as heterogeneous microstructure, different chemical compositions between the tool joint and the pipe body and heterogeneous mechanical properties close to the welded line. Hence a new drill pipe configuration have been developed including modified chemical composition and modified manufacturing process. These modifications allow for the improvement of mechanical properties performance and corrosion resistance in the welded zone.

  1. Opening Statement - Angel Gurria [International Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Energy in the 21. Century: Addressing Energy Needs and Environmental Challenges, Beijing (China), 20-22 April 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is a great honour to open this International Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Energy. It is also a privilege for the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency to co-sponsor this conference. I wish to thank both our hosts, the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Government of China, represented by the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology and the China Atomic Energy Authority, for convening us today to advance on our common goal: to secure clean and peaceful nuclear power for the 21st century. The global crisis has exposed not only the paramount challenges of today?s global economy and the remarkable level of interdependence among our nations. It has also confronted us with our duty to define the kind of global economy we need for tomorrow. It is our responsibility to devise sound policies for a stronger, cleaner and fairer global economy. Clean and affordable energy, including access to safe and secure nuclear power, should be a central element of our efforts. This is essential not only for a sustainable economy, but also for the future of our planet. The crisis has prompted us to act immediately and in concert. Take the example of our hosts, the Government of China. In the face of the economic slowdown, they responded rapidly and in a comprehensive fashion. Importantly, they increased government spending, and stimulated domestic demand, and are looking into effective ways to enhance social policies. The turmoil showed that China and all of us need to be more inhat China and all of us need to be more involved in international economic cooperation. We are profoundly affected by the policies implemented by each of our countries. There is no better example than energy to illustrate our interdependence. Holding this meeting in Beijing shows the importance China places on international cooperation and recognizes the role China could play in designing clean and safe energy solutions for the future. For me, coming to Beijing is also an opportunity to stress the high significance of the OECD partnership with China. Our organization is now more open and plural, welcoming new members and having launched an ?enhanced engagement? process with the most important emerging economies. Forging a more structured and stronger partnership with China is fundamental in such a process. It is based on our mutual interest to develop global solutions to global challenges, such as nuclear energy in the 21st century. Thus, I urge you to look into three important issues, which we should address in the years to come, namely, security, financing and development of nuclear energy

  2. Useful global-change scenarios: current issues and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scenarios are increasingly used to inform global-change debates, but their connection to decisions has been weak and indirect. This reflects the greater number and variety of potential users and scenario needs, relative to other decision domains where scenario use is more established. Global-change scenario needs include common elements, e.g., model-generated projections of emissions and climate change, needed by many users but in different ways and with different assumptions. For these common elements, the limited ability to engage diverse global-change users in scenario development requires extreme transparency in communicating underlying reasoning and assumptions, including probability judgments. Other scenario needs are specific to users, requiring a decentralized network of scenario and assessment organizations to disseminate and interpret common elements and add elements requiring local context or expertise. Such an approach will make global-change scenarios more useful for decisions, but not less controversial. Despite predictable attacks, scenario-based reasoning is necessary for responsible global-change decisions because decision-relevant uncertainties cannot be specified scientifically. The purpose of scenarios is not to avoid speculation, but to make the required speculation more disciplined, more anchored in relevant scientific knowledge when available, and more transparent.

  3. New Challenges for Higher Education: Global and Asia-Pacific Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jung Cheol; Harman, Grant

    2009-01-01

    With rapid socio-economic changes, twenty-first century higher education is facing major challenges to its governance systems, curriculum, mission focus, external relations, research, and financing. A theoretical framework to analyze these post-massification challenges is suggested, with a focus on the Asia-Pacific region as well as global issues.…

  4. Addressing methodological challenges in implementing the nursing home pain management algorithm randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersek, Mary; Polissar, Nayak; Du Pen, Anna; Jablonski, Anita; Herr, Keela; Neradilek, Moni B

    2015-01-01

    Background Unrelieved pain among nursing home (NH) residents is a well-documented problem. Attempts have been made to enhance pain management for older adults, including those in NHs. Several evidence-based clinical guidelines have been published to assist providers in assessing and managing acute and chronic pain in older adults. Despite the proliferation and dissemination of these practice guidelines, research has shown that intensive systems-level implementation strategies are necessary to change clinical practice and patient outcomes within a health-care setting. One promising approach is the embedding of guidelines into explicit protocols and algorithms to enhance decision making. Purpose The goal of the article is to describe several issues that arose in the design and conduct of a study that compared the effectiveness of pain management algorithms coupled with a comprehensive adoption program versus the effectiveness of education alone in improving evidence-based pain assessment and management practices, decreasing pain and depressive symptoms, and enhancing mobility among NH residents. Methods The study used a cluster-randomized controlled trial (RCT) design in which the individual NH was the unit of randomization. The Roger's Diffusion of Innovations theory provided the framework for the intervention. Outcome measures were surrogate-reported usual pain, self-reported usual and worst pain, and self-reported pain-related interference with activities, depression, and mobility. Results The final sample consisted of 485 NH residents from 27 NHs. The investigators were able to use a staggered enrollment strategy to recruit and retain facilities. The adaptive randomization procedures were successful in balancing intervention and control sites on key NH characteristics. Several strategies were successfully implemented to enhance the adoption of the algorithm. Limitations/Lessons The investigators encountered several methodological challenges that were inherent to both the design and implementation of the study. The most problematic issue concerned the measurement of outcomes in persons with moderate to severe cognitive impairment. It was difficult to identify valid, reliable, and sensitive outcome measures that could be applied to all NH residents regardless of the ability to self-report. Another challenge was the inability to incorporate advances in implementation science into the ongoing study Conclusions Methodological challenges are inevitable in the conduct of an RCT. The need to optimize internal validity by adhering to the study protocol is compromised by the emergent logistical issues that arise during the course of the study. PMID:22879574

  5. Global energy challenges over the next fifty years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two very different energy scenarios have been developed by Shell planners as an aid to strategic thinking about the long-term future. They both arise from the fundamental political and economic changes of the 1980s and early 1990s. 'New Frontiers' is a world in which global liberalization leads to high growth in energy demand, particularly in developing countries. In 'Barricades', countries and institutions reject globalization, and economic growth and energy use are much lower. The environment is a strong theme in both scenarios, but 'New Frontiers', because of its higher energy prices, is ultimately more favourable to the development of renewable energy sources. (author)

  6. Replicating a self-affirmation intervention to address gender differences: Successes and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kost-Smith, Lauren E.; Pollock, Steven J.; Finkelstein, Noah D.; Cohen, Geoffrey L.; Ito, Tiffany A.; Miyake, Akira

    2012-02-01

    We previously reported on the success of a psychological intervention implemented to reduce gender differences in achievement in an introductory college physics course. In this prior study, we found that the gender gap on exams and the FMCE among students who completed two 15-minute self-affirmation writing exercises was significantly reduced compared to the gender gap among students who completed neutral writing exercises. In a follow-up study we replicated the self-affirmation intervention in a later semester of the same course, with the same instructor. In this paper, we report the details and preliminary results of the replication study, where we find similar patterns along exams and course grades, but do not observe these patterns along the FMCE. We begin to investigate the critical features of replicating educational interventions, finding that replicating educational interventions is challenging, complex, and involves potentially subtle factors, some of which we explore and others that require further research.

  7. Improvement of GVSRM with Addressing the Interoperability Issues in Global Village

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Mollahoseini Ardakani

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In today's globally networked environment, enterprises need collaborating using Information Technology (IT and other tools to succeed in this dynamic and heterogeneous business environment. The Global Village Services Reference Model (GVSRM is a model based on SOSA (Service Oriented Strategies and Architectures ontology for global village services realization. In this model, three architectural abstraction layers have been considered for global village: ‘infrastructure for global village services’, ‘global village services provisioning’, and ‘using global village services’. Despite of relative completeness of this model, one of its obvious shortcomings is lack of attention to the crucial issue of interoperability in the global village. Based on this model, the grid of global village is comprised of VHGs (Virtual Holding Governance. The VHG is a temporary, scalable, dynamic cluster/association comprising of existing or newly service provider organizations which its aim is satisfying the requirements of global village actors through electronic processes. In this paper, we will propose a federated approach for interoperability among the VHGs of the global village and then improve the GVSRM by adding the corresponding interoperability components to it.

  8. Globalization of the Agricultural Economy: A Challenge or Opportunity before Indian Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    D. L. Jamge

    2012-01-01

    Since the new economic reforms of 1991, the Indian economy is going through the phase of globalization. At the same time Indian agriculture has also to with globalized economy. Globalization is becoming a challenge and also the opportunity before agriculture of India. So, the bank credit availability to agriculture and agro based industries must be improved. This would be favorable terms of trade, liberalized domestic and external trade for agricultural products attrac...

  9. GLOBAL CHALLENGES FOR SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT IN SLOVAKIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalana Bartosova

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on the evaluation of economic, social and environmental challenges of sustainable agriculture. The selected indicators of the economic challenges of sustainable agriculture imply that agriculture in Slovakia is not in long term be able to ensure competitiveness in the European market, gross agricultural output is characterized by a faster decline in animal production than in crop production and the value of import of agri-food commodities is higher than the value of export. According to selected indicators of social challenges of sustainable agriculture the number of persons working in agriculture has decreasing tendency in last years. The evaluation of selected indicators of environmental challenges of sustainable agriculture implies that area of organic agriculture is the most widely applied sub-measure within the measure agri-environmental payments. For ensuring the balance of the three mentioned dimensions of sustainable agriculture is necessary to increase of local production and consumption of local products, to ensure the protection of nature and landscape, to ensure rural development and to increase the employment opportunities in countryside.

  10. Science Education and Challenges of Globalization in Igbo Nation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezeudu, F. O.; Nkokelonye, C. U.; Adigwe, J. C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviewed the scientific contents in Igbo culture. Description of the Igbos who constitutes an ethnic group occupying southeastern Nigeria was made. It x-rayed the pre-colonial, colonial, and post-colonial culture of Igbo people and identified the scientific cultural activities, which can be harnessed to meet the challenges of modern day…

  11. The Global Classroom and the Educational Challenge of Cultural Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, Sonja S.

    2010-01-01

    Change in education is not going away; instead, it seems to be increasing exponentially. Technology has been the catalyst, and the changes with the greatest impact on education are the location and size of the classroom. The challenges associated with these changes involve working with students from potentially an unlimited number of countries and…

  12. LHC Computing Centres Join Forces for Global Grid Challenge

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Today, in a significant milestone for scientific grid computing, eight major computing centres successfully completed a challenge to sustain a continuous data flow of 600 megabytes per second (MB/s) on average for 10 days from CERN in Geneva, Switzerland to seven sites in Europe and the US

  13. Preparing the next generation of radiochemists for global challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear and radiochemists are needed to support the expansion of nuclear energy, nuclear medicine, and environmental management. In this presentation, the changing needs for educating future generations of radiochemists are described. Consideration of the global nature of these market sectors is given, along with observations and recommendations for changes in academic curricula and training opportunities. (author)

  14. Global climate change--The technology challenge: China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Population growth and developmental pressures, spawned by an increasing demand for resource intensive goods, foods and services, are altering the planet in ways that threaten the long-term well-being of humans and other species. Global climate change and its associated impacts is...

  15. The CharXive Challenge. Regulation of global carbon cycles by vegetation fires

    CERN Document Server

    Ball, R

    2010-01-01

    It is an open, but not unanswerable, question as to how much atmospheric CO2 is sequestered globally by vegetation fires. In this work I conceptualise the question in terms of the general CharXive Challenge, discuss a mechanism by which thermoconversion of biomass may regulate the global distribution of carbon between reservoirs, show how suppression of vegetation fires by human activities may increase the fraction of carbon in the atmospheric pool, and pose three specific CharXive Challenges of crucial strategic significance to our management of global carbon cycles.

  16. SALEIE: An EU project aiming to propose new EIE curricula oriented to key global technical challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poboroniuc, Marian-Silviu; Friesel, Anna

    2014-01-01

    For the last two decades The European Association for Education in Electrical and Information Engineering (EAEEIE) has been dedicated and continue to support the Electrical and Information Engineering (EIE) education in Europe. SALEIE (Strategic Alignment of Electrical and Information Engineering in European Higher Education Institutions) is one of its new EU projects which coagulate a global team aiming to provide higher education models in the EIE disciplines that can respond to the key global technical challenges. The SALEIE project's work package WP3 (Global Challenges) is related to: state-of-the-art in implementation of the Bologna recommendation for Bachelor and Master, EIE connected technical, existing models in EIE higher education and their degree of response to key global technical challenges as well as some examples of curriculum models which see the day light during the SALEIE workshops. That is the subject that the proposed paper deals on.

  17. Developing person-centred care: addressing contextual challenges through practice development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, Brendan; Dewing, Jan; McCance, Tanya

    2011-05-01

    Developing person-centred care is not a one-time event; rather it requires a sustained commitment from organisations to the ongoing facilitation of developments, a commitment both in clinical teams and across organizations. Contextual factors pose the greatest challenge to person-centredness and the development of cultures that can sustain person-centred care. We will begin with a general comment on 'context' and its meaning before exploring three particular factors that influence the practice context, namely, workplace culture, learning culture, and the physical environment. Next we explore a particular approach to developing person-centred care through emancipatory practice development. We highlight the importance of facilitation through emancipatory practice development programmes and describe how person-centred care can be developed through the presentation of a case study that illustrates the principles and processes of emancipatory practice development as well as the outcomes achieved. We conclude with an application to clinical practice. A key consideration for all organisations in the development of person-centred care is to move from what we suggest are 'person-centred moments' (individual, ad hoc experiences of person-centredness) to 'person-centred care' as an underpinning culture of teams and organisations. PMID:22088152

  18. Addressing challenges in single species assessments via a simple state-space assessment model.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders

    Single-species and age-structured fish stock assessments still remains the main tool for managing fish stocks. A simple state-space assessment model is presented as an alternative to (semi) deterministic procedures and the full parametric statistical catch at age models. It offers a solution to some of the key challenges of these models. Compared to the deterministic procedures it solves a list of problems originating from falsely assuming that age classified catches are known without errors and allows quantification of uncertainties of estimated quantities of interest. Compared to full parametric statistical catch at age models the state-space assessment model avoids the problem of fishing mortality being restricted to a parametric structure (e.g. multiplicative), and problems related to having a high number of model parameters compared to the number of observations. The main criticism of state-space assessment models is that they tend to be more conservative (react slower to changes) than the alternatives. A solution to this criticism is offered by introducing a mixture distribution for the transitions steps. The model presented is used for several commercially important stocks at the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea

  19. Addressing the Challenges of Anomaly Detection for Cyber Physical Energy Grid Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferragut, Erik M [ORNL; Laska, Jason A [ORNL; Melin, Alexander M [ORNL; Czejdo, Bogdan [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    The consolidation of cyber communications networks and physical control systems within the energy smart grid introduces a number of new risks. Unfortunately, these risks are largely unknown and poorly understood, yet include very high impact losses from attack and component failures. One important aspect of risk management is the detection of anomalies and changes. However, anomaly detection within cyber security remains a difficult, open problem, with special challenges in dealing with false alert rates and heterogeneous data. Furthermore, the integration of cyber and physical dynamics is often intractable. And, because of their broad scope, energy grid cyber-physical systems must be analyzed at multiple scales, from individual components, up to network level dynamics. We describe an improved approach to anomaly detection that combines three important aspects. First, system dynamics are modeled using a reduced order model for greater computational tractability. Second, a probabilistic and principled approach to anomaly detection is adopted that allows for regulation of false alerts and comparison of anomalies across heterogeneous data sources. Third, a hierarchy of aggregations are constructed to support interactive and automated analyses of anomalies at multiple scales.

  20. Evolution of nuclear reactor containments in India: Addressing the present day challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indigenously developed Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRs) that form the backbone of current stage of nuclear power development in India have seen continuous evolution of their containment systems. This evolution that has taken place over implementation of 18 PHWRs (200/220/540 MWe) has encompassed all aspects of containment design, viz. the structural system, energy management system, radio-activity management and hydrogen management system. As a part of ongoing efforts toward strengthening of safety performance, India is also ready with the design of Advance Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR), which represents a technology demonstrator for advanced reactor systems and for thorium utilization. This reactor has a number of improved passive safety features and it is capable of meeting the demanding safety challenges that future reactor system would be expected to meet as a result of emerging expectations in the background of accidents over the past three decades viz. those at Three Mile Island (1979), Chernobyl (1986) and most recently at Fukushima (2011). In this lecture I shall focus on the evolution of nuclear reactor containments in India and highlight the design, associated structural and thermal hydraulics safety assessment made over the years for the improvement of containment performance

  1. Addressing the Real-World Challenges in the Development of Propulsion IVHM Technology Experiment (PITEX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maul, William A.; Chicatelli, Amy; Fulton, Christopher E.; Balaban, Edward; Sweet, Adam; Hayden, Sandra Claire; Bajwa, Anupa

    2005-01-01

    The Propulsion IVHM Technology Experiment (PITEX) has been an on-going research effort conducted over several years. PITEX has developed and applied a model-based diagnostic system for the main propulsion system of the X-34 reusable launch vehicle, a space-launch technology demonstrator. The application was simulation-based using detailed models of the propulsion subsystem to generate nominal and failure scenarios during captive carry, which is the most safety-critical portion of the X-34 flight. Since no system-level testing of the X-34 Main Propulsion System (MPS) was performed, these simulated data were used to verify and validate the software system. Advanced diagnostic and signal processing algorithms were developed and tested in real-time on flight-like hardware. In an attempt to expose potential performance problems, these PITEX algorithms were subject to numerous real-world effects in the simulated data including noise, sensor resolution, command/valve talkback information, and nominal build variations. The current research has demonstrated the potential benefits of model-based diagnostics, defined the performance metrics required to evaluate the diagnostic system, and studied the impact of real-world challenges encountered when monitoring propulsion subsystems.

  2. Evolution of nuclear reactor containments in India: Addressing the present day challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakodkar, Anil, E-mail: kakodkar@barc.gov.in

    2014-04-01

    Indigenously developed Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRs) that form the backbone of current stage of nuclear power development in India have seen continuous evolution of their containment systems. This evolution that has taken place over implementation of 18 PHWRs (200/220/540 MWe) has encompassed all aspects of containment design, viz. the structural system, energy management system, radio-activity management and hydrogen management system. As a part of ongoing efforts toward strengthening of safety performance, India is also ready with the design of Advance Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR), which represents a technology demonstrator for advanced reactor systems and for thorium utilization. This reactor has a number of improved passive safety features and it is capable of meeting the demanding safety challenges that future reactor system would be expected to meet as a result of emerging expectations in the background of accidents over the past three decades viz. those at Three Mile Island (1979), Chernobyl (1986) and most recently at Fukushima (2011). In this lecture I shall focus on the evolution of nuclear reactor containments in India and highlight the design, associated structural and thermal hydraulics safety assessment made over the years for the improvement of containment performance.

  3. Vision for cross-layer optimization to address the dual challenges of energy and reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, Heather M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dehon, Andre [U. PENN; Carter, Nicholas P [INTEL

    2009-01-01

    We are rapidly approaching an inflection point where the conventional target of producing perfect, identical transistors that operate without upset can no longer be maintained while continuing to reduce the energy per operation. With power requirements already limiting chip performance, continuing to demand perfect, upset-free transistors would mean the end of scaling benefits. The big challenges in device variability and reliability are driven by uncommon tails in distributions, infrequent upsets, one-size-fits-all technology requirements, and a lack of information about the context of each operation. Solutions co-designed across traditional layer boundaries in our system stack can change the game, allowing architecture and software (a) to compensate for uncommon variation, environments, and events, (b) to pass down invariants and requirements for the computation, and (c) to monitor the health of collections of deVices. Cross-layer codesign provides a path to continue extracting benefits from further scaled technologies despite the fact that they may be less predictable and more variable. While some limited multi-layer mitigation strategies do exist, to move forward redefining traditional layer abstractions and developing a framework that facilitates cross-layer collaboration is necessary.

  4. Contemporary Business Education: a Solution for Global Leadership Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Tudor Cristian ?icl?u

    2014-01-01

    Education and professional development is considered central issues in civil service development and public administration reform. While this may be true, the content of such programs bears equal influence in skill acquirement, which in turn, has an impact on managerial performance (Perry, 1989). The contemporary economic and social environment poses numerous and complex challenges to public leaders, who need to be equipped with the adequate set of skills and competencies in order to have a p...

  5. MEDICAL TOURISM INDUSTRY CHALLENGES IN THE CONTEXT OF GLOBALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen, IORDACHE

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Medical tourism is not a new concept, even though there is still no international consensus on the name of this phenomenon that is manifesting itself for thousands of years. It is defined by moving patients in various countries to obtain medical care and combined with certain tourist facilities. Increased flow of patients seeking treatment abroad is a global phenomenon linked to economic growth which generates income revenue and a high level of education. Internationally, medical tourism increases by 20% per year, global market for medical tourism at present is estimated to be about 100 billion dollars. This study tries to highlight a conceptual analysis of medical tourism, the targeting of medical tourism flows and major destinations and the proposed tourism development strategies based on the experience of several countries medical.

  6. Contemporary Business Education: a Solution for Global Leadership Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tudor Cristian ?icl?u

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Education and professional development is considered central issues in civil service development and public administration reform. While this may be true, the content of such programs bears equal influence in skill acquirement, which in turn, has an impact on managerial performance (Perry, 1989. The contemporary economic and social environment poses numerous and complex challenges to public leaders, who need to be equipped with the adequate set of skills and competencies in order to have a proper response. The present paper aims to find out the whether the current educational programs from the business field can be a solution for preparing the next generation of public (and private leaders. My argument is that the latest developments in public management reform (New Public Management, Good Governance and Public Entrepreneurship combined with new demands for effectiveness, efficiency and high quality public services could increase the relevance of such programs. In support for this I presented a series of research results that point to a set of common leadership challenges that transcend the public-private divide. Finally I explored the offerings of the top 5 MBA programs in the world to see whether this is reflected in their educational programs. Not surprisingly, three out of the five programs analysed offer dual degree programs that combine business and public management education as a solution for the leadership challenges that lay ahead.

  7. MEDICAL TOURISM INDUSTRY CHALLENGES IN THE CONTEXT OF GLOBALIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen, Iordache; Iuliana, Ciochina

    2014-01-01

    Medical tourism is not a new concept, even though there is still no international consensus on the name of this phenomenon that is manifesting itself for thousands of years. It is defined by moving patients in various countries to obtain medical care and combined with certain tourist facilities. Increased flow of patients seeking treatment abroad is a global phenomenon linked to economic growth which generates income revenue and a high level of education. Internationally, medical tourism inc...

  8. New Challenges for Urban History: Culture, Networks, Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Hietala, Marjatta

    2012-01-01

    Urban history is a very lively and dynamic research field, showing strict parallelism with the fast increasing of the urban population. Today, competitiveness is one of the key aims for cities in the globalized world. Factors such as accessibility and infrastructure, industry, human capital, innovation, and investment, green spaces, affordable housing, business support and quality of education are necessaries. However, the OECD recognizes three dilemmas in this strategic vision, concerning th...

  9. Global warming and drainage development: perspective and challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Wrachien, D.; Feddes, R. A.

    2004-01-01

    Irrigated agriculture is expected to play a major role in reaching the broader development objectives of achieving food security and improvements in the quality of life, while conserving the environment, in both the developed and developing countries. Especially as we are faced with the prospect of global population growth from almost 6 billion today to at least 8 billion by 2025. In this context, the constraints posed by land and water scarcity and the associated need to increase the carryin...

  10. Groundwater and global hydrological change - current challenges and new insight

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Richard; Longuevergne, L.; Harding, R.; Todd, M.; Hewitson, B.; Lall, U.; Hiscock, K.; Treidel, H.; Dev Sharma, K.; Kukuric, N.; Stuckmeier, W.; Shamsuddha, M.

    2010-01-01

    As the world's largest accessible store of freshwater, groundwater plays a critical role in enabling communities to adapt to freshwater shortages derived from low or variable precipitation and high freshwater demand. As highlighted by the IPCC in 2001 (TAR) and 2007 (AR4), our knowledge of how groundwater systems respond to changes in climate and abstraction remains profoundly limited. Although new diagnostic tools such as the global aquifer map (WHYMAP) and satellite monitoring of changes in...

  11. Globalization and Loss of Plant Knowledge: Challenging the Paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    Vandebroek, Ina; Balick, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    The erosion of cultural knowledge and traditions as a result of globalization and migration is a commonly reported phenomenon. We compared one type of cultural knowledge about medicinal plants (number of plants reported to treat thirty common health conditions) among Dominican laypersons who self-medicate with plants and live in rural or urban areas of the Dominican Republic (DR), and those who have moved to New York City (NYC). Many plants used as medicines were popular Dominican food plants...

  12. Global trade and health: key linkages and future challenges.

    OpenAIRE

    Bettcher, D. W.; Yach, D.; Guindon, G. E.

    2000-01-01

    Globalization of trade, marketing and investment has important implications for public health, both negative and positive. This article considers the implications of the single package of World Trade Organization (WTO) agreements for public health research and policy, focusing on three themes: commodities, intellectual property rights, and health services. The main aims of the analysis are as follows: to identify how trade issues are associated with the transnationalization of health risks an...

  13. Food security for Africa: an urgent global challenge

    OpenAIRE

    Sasson Albert

    2012-01-01

    Abstract In 2012, food insecurity is still a major global concern as 1 billion people are suffering from starvation, under-, and malnutrition, and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) has concluded that we are still far from reaching millennium development goal (MDG) number 1: to halve extreme poverty and hunger by 2015. In sub-Saharan Africa, the number of people suffering from hunger is estimated at 239 million, and this figure could increase in the near future....

  14. One Health: The global challenge of epidemic and endemic leishmaniasis

    OpenAIRE

    Day Michael J; Palatnik-de-Sousa Clarisa B.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract 'One Health' proposes the unification of medical and veterinary sciences with the establishment of collaborative ventures in clinical care, surveillance and control of cross-species disease, education, and research into disease pathogenesis, diagnosis, therapy and vaccination. The concept encompasses the human population, domestic animals and wildlife, and the impact that environmental changes ('environmental health') such as global warming will have on these populations. Visceral le...

  15. Addressing the Challenges of Multi-Domain Data Integration with the SemantEco Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, E. W.; Seyed, P.; McGuinness, D. L.

    2013-12-01

    Data integration across multiple domains will continue to be a challenge with the proliferation of big data in the sciences. Data origination issues and how data are manipulated are critical to enable scientists to understand and consume disparate datasets as research becomes more multidisciplinary. We present the SemantEco framework as an exemplar for designing an integrative portal for data discovery, exploration, and interpretation that uses best practice W3C Recommendations. We use the Resource Description Framework (RDF) with extensible ontologies described in the Web Ontology Language (OWL) to provide graph-based data representation. Furthermore, SemantEco ingests data via the software package csv2rdf4lod, which generates data provenance using the W3C provenance recommendation (PROV). Our presentation will discuss benefits and challenges of semantic integration, their effect on runtime performance, and how the SemantEco framework assisted in identifying performance issues and improved query performance across multiple domains by an order of magnitude. SemantEco benefits from a semantic approach that provides an 'open world', which allows data to incrementally change just as it does in the real world. SemantEco modules may load new ontologies and data using the W3C's SPARQL Protocol and RDF Query Language via HTTP. Modules may also provide user interface elements for applications and query capabilities to support new use cases. Modules can associate with domains, which are first-class objects in SemantEco. This enables SemantEco to perform integration and reasoning both within and across domains on module-provided data. The SemantEco framework has been used to construct a web portal for environmental and ecological data. The portal includes water and air quality data from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and species observation counts for birds and fish from the Avian Knowledge Network and the Santa Barbara Long Term Ecological Research, respectively. We provide regulation ontologies using OWL2 datatype facets to detect out-of-range measurements for environmental standards set by the EPA, i.a. Users adjust queries using module-defined facets and a map presents the resulting measurement sites. Custom icons identify sites that violate regulations, making them easy to locate. Selecting a site gives the option of charting spatially proximate data from different domains over time. Our portal currently provides 1.6 billion triples of scientific data in RDF. We segment data by ZIP code and reasoning over 2157 measurements with our EPA regulation ontology that contains 131 regulations takes 2.5 seconds on a 2.4 GHz Intel Core 2 Quad with 8 GB of RAM. SemantEco's modular design and reasoning capabilities make it an exemplar for building multidisciplinary data integration tools that provide data access to scientists and the general population alike. Its provenance tracking provides accountability and its reasoning services can assist users in interpreting data. Future work includes support for geographical queries using the Open Geospatial Consortium's GeoSPARQL standard.

  16. Knowledge capabilities for sustainable development in global classrooms - local challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise Anderberg

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Young Masters Programme provides young people around the worldwith a net–based global–local learning environment for sustainable development. The present study investigates certain aspects of the implementation of this programme in the secondary schools of a Swedish municipality, in the context of the Lund Calling project. The research focuses on critical abilities to act globally, referred to as “knowledge capabilities”, and how they relate to the implementation process of initiating global learning for sustainabledevelopment (GLSD. A phenomenographic approach and semi–structuredinterviews were used in the investigation of the experiences of secondary school pupils, teachers and headmasters who participated in the project. Participants’ experiences of the changes carried out are described in relation to examples of knowledge capabilities needed for GLSD. Critical knowledge capabilities found to have been developed through the implementation were: to take command, and to collaborate. Critical knowledge capabilities perceived asnecessary, but not developed through the programme were: to be prepared, to act in a transdisciplinary manner, and to lead for a holistic understanding.

  17. Addressing technical challenges associated with the FDA's proposed rules for the UVA in vitro testing procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dueva-Koganov, Olga V; Rocafort, Colleen; Orofino, Steven; Osterwalder, Uli; Brito, Juan

    2009-01-01

    The proposed rules of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the UVA in vitro testing procedure were applied to the evaluation of various sunscreen formulations and the following technical challenges were observed: when proposed roughened quartz substrates were used, the required coefficient-of-variation criteria were not met, and the dynamic ranges of the available transmittance analyzers were exceeded for sunscreens with high SPF values. In the proposed rules, the FDA requested comment regarding the suitability of other possible substrates. In this research, two modifications to the FDA's proposed rules were evaluated: (a) the use of an alternative substrate, Vitro Skin N-19 (IMS, Inc.) instead of roughened quartz substrate and (b) an increase in application time from 10 seconds to 30 seconds to ensure a uniform distribution of sunscreen product over the application area of the substrate. These two modifications allowed meeting the required coefficient-of-variation criteria without exceeding the dynamic ranges of the available transmittance analyzers. The modified test conditions were utilized for the evaluation of six commercial sunscreens, which fulfilled criteria of "medium" or "high" categories-based on their UVAI/UV ratios. These findings were in agreement with the statement in the proposed rules that the FDA is aware of the difficulty for current sunscreen formulations to meet the "highest" category and believes that allowing such a category will foster additional research and development in this area. To determine if it was possible to achieve a UVA rating greater than 0.95, two experimental sunscreen prototypes with bisoctrizole (USAN), bemotrizinol (USAN), avobenzone, and octocrylene were tested under the modified test conditions and attained the "highest" category. It should be noted that bisoctrizole and bemotrizinol are being evaluated by the FDA under TEA and are not permitted in the US at this time, but they are approved for use in the rest of the world. PMID:20038348

  18. The forgotten D : challenges of addressing forest degradation in complex mosaic landscapes under REDD+

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertz, Ole; Müller, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    International climate negotiations have stressed the importance of considering emissions from forest degradation under the planned REDD+ (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation + enhancing forest carbon stocks) mechanism. However, most research, pilot-REDD+ projects and carbon certification agencies have focused on deforestation and there appears to be a gap in knowledge on complex mosaic landscapes containing degraded forests, smallholder agriculture, agroforestry and plantations. In this paper we therefore review current research on how avoided forest degradation may affect emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) and expected co-benefits in terms of biodiversity and livelihoods.There are still high uncertainties in measuring and monitoring emissions of carbon and other GHG from mosaic landscapes with forest degradation since most research has focused on binary analyses of forest vs. deforested land. Studies on the impacts of forest degradation on biodiversity contain mixed results and there is little empirical evidence on the influence of REDD+ on local livelihoods and tenure security, partly due to the lack of actual payment schemes.Governance structures are also more complex in landscapes with degraded forests as there are often multiple owners and types of rights to land and trees. Recent technological advances in remote sensing have improved estimation of carbon stock changes but establishment of historic reference levels is still challenged by the availability of sensor systems and ground measurements during the reference period. The inclusion of forest degradation in REDD+ calls for a range of new research efforts to enhance our knowledge of how to assess the impacts of avoided forest degradation. A first step will be to ensure that complex mosaic landscapes can be recognised under REDD+ on their own merits.

  19. Global Social Challenges: insights from the physical sciences and their relevance to the evolution of social science

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    The complex challenges confronting humanity today point to the need for new thinking and new theory in the social sciences which overcomes the limitations of compartmentalized, sectoral concepts, strategies and policies and mechanistic approaches to living social systems. The World Academy of Art & Science is convening a consortium of leading institutions and thinkers from different sectors to contribute ideas for formulation of a cohesive framework capable of addressing global social challenges in their totality and complex interrelationships. The objective of my presentation will be to explore the potential for collaboration between the physical and social sciences to arrive at a more cohesive and effective framework by exploring a series of questions, including - - Is an integrated science of society possible that transcends disciplinary boundaries based on common underlying principles as we find in the natural sciences? - To what extent can principles of natural science serve as valid models and a...

  20. Implementing ERP Systems Globally: Challenges and Lessons Learned for Asian Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Hawking

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Improved communication technology has seen growth in a convergence of global corporate activities. In an effort to improve their global operations many companies are implementing global information systems in particular Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP systems. Companies are faced with a number of complexities when implementing these systems in a single country and considerable research has been conducted on the critical success factors associated with ERP implementations. However very little research has been conducted on the issues associated with global implementations of ERP systems and in particular implementations within the Asian region. This research utilises industry presentations to identify challenges and best practice for global implementations from the Asian region. The challenges have been classified as either technological or cultural pertaining to particular countries. The identified factors provide a foundation for further investigation.

  1. Lessons learned and present day challenges of addressing 20th century radiation legacies of Russia and the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decommissioning of nuclear submarines, disposal of highly enriched uranium and defense plutonium as well as processing of high-level wastes are among the most challenging issues of addressing radiation legacy of the 20th century. USA and Russia are the two primary countries that have to deal with the challenge and where most of the fissile materials to be processed are concentrated, nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste are stored, and multiple industrial sites and nuclear weapons production facilities are located. In the US, CH2M HILL is managing two of the most important nuclear projects being conducted by the US Department of Energy at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site and at the DOE Hanford Site (177 underground tanks at this site contain 60 percent of the United States' high-level radioactive wastes). Within the framework of the Russian Federal special program 'Radioactive Waste and Spent Nuclear Materials Management, Utilization and Disposal for 1996-2005' works were carried out on the Karachai lake covering with soil, highly active radwaste vitrification and fractionation at the 'Mayak' combine. Currently there is a discussion of launching joint Russian-American initiatives including comparative studies of environmental and public health impacts from high-level waste vitrification and plutonium stabilization processes in Russia and high-level waste removal from tanks in the USA and of continuing comprehensive research with the RADSITE project (USA, European Union, Japan, China and India) using coordinated approaches in 2000-2003. This paper presents comparative studies, technical approaches, and regulatory strategies to address the challenges of managing and closing highly enriched uranium, plutonium, and high level waste sites. (author)

  2. The Global Fund's resource allocation decisions for HIV programmes : addressing those in need

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avdeeva, Olga; Lazarus, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    Between 2002 and 2010, the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria's investment in HIV increased substantially to reach US$12 billion. We assessed how the Global Fund's investments in HIV programmes were targeted to key populations in relation to disease burden and national income.

  3. Examining the global health arena: strengths and weaknesses of a convention approach to global health challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haffeld, Just Balstad; Siem, Harald; Røttingen, John-Arne

    2010-01-01

    The article comprises a conceptual framework to analyze the strengths and weaknesses of a global health convention. The analyses are inspired by Lawrence Gostin's suggested Framework Convention on Global Health. The analytical model takes a starting-point in events tentatively following a logic sequence: Input (global health funding), Processes (coordination, cooperation, accountability, allocation of aid), Output (definition of basic survival needs), Outcome (access to health services), and Impact (health for all). It then examines to what degree binding international regulations can create order in such a sequence of events. We conclude that a global health convention could be an appropriate instrument to deal with some of the problems of global health. We also show that some of the tasks preceding a convention approach might be to muster international support for supra-national health regulations, negotiate compromises between existing stakeholders in the global health arena, and to utilize WHO as a platform for further discussions on a global health convention. PMID:20880244

  4. Energy policy: challenges of a global vision; Politique energetique: les enjeux d'une vision globale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Destot, Michel [ed.] [Depute de l' Isere, Assemblee Nationale, Paris (France)

    2000-02-18

    This is the proceedings of the 2. parliamentary gathering on energy held on 14 October 1999. The document presents the talks by Mr Michel Destot (as special rapporteur of the Industry's budget in National Assembly) and Laurent Fabius, President of National Assembly, and Jean-Claude Gayssot, Minister of Equipment, Transport and Dwelling, at the opening session, three round tables, the colloquium synthesis and the closing session. The round tables addressed the following issues: - 1. International and long-term approach guided predominantly by energy demand; - 2. Energy solutions in the struggle against greenhouse effect; - 3. Challenges of opening the European energy market (internationalization and decentralization). At the first round table, Yves Martin, President of the technical section of General Council of Mines, structured his introductory report emphasizing the specific issues of three time horizons: the present, characterized by abundant energy offer; the horizon of 10 to 20 years, that of the energy suppliers which is orienting their investments; the horizon of more than half a century, corresponding to responses of far-reaching actions imposed by energy demand and which must be the object of governments' policies. Jean-Yves Le Deaut, deputy of Meurthe-et-Moselle discussed the risks of climate change, resources' exhaustion, nuclear power and the issue of developing the renewable energies. The problems raised by energy demand by the year 2050 to met the needs of an earth population of 9 billions were mentioned by Philippe Trepant, the president of French Union of oil industries. Energy problems from a globalization standpoint were discussed also by Benjamin Dessus, Director of Ecodev program of CNRS. Policy in the field of mastering greenhouse gas releases was mentioned in the talk by Michel Mousel, president of Inter-ministerial Mission for greenhouse effect. In the frame of 2. round table questions relating to energy management, renewable, gas, and nuclear energies were addressed by a number of deputies and officials and representatives from ADEME, Framatome, Paris University and Union for renewable energies. Finally, at the 3. round table, focusing the economic aspects of the internationalization and decentralization of the energy market, several participants discussed questions related to integration, securing the supplies, access to power distribution grids, role of public service, energy market evolution, etc. In his summarizing talk Mr Michel Destot underlined the significant progress made in achieving a genuine French energy culture, able to ensure a long-term, diverse and balanced energy policy covering, at the same time, the environmental, economic, and employment components.

  5. Global Warming Potential Implications and Methodological Challenges of Road Transport Emissions in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. C. Nwanya

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine the repercussions vehicular road transport emissions have on global warming potential (GWP, and the need to address the issue considering methodological challenges facing road transportation in Nigeria. Specific objectives of the study includes to determine the emission level in the country, to evaluate the GWP and to develop a emission mapping network on trunk A roads in Nigeria. Accurate information on these emissions is required to strengthen the mitigation and adaptation ability of the country to tackle climate change. The study relied on direct measurement technique supported by literature as well as questionnaires administered on the organised vehicle fleet operators and road traffic management agency as data gathering methods. Also, detailed analysis of questionnaires responses was carried out. Results show that road transport account for over 14% of greenhouse gases. Survey findings indicate that excessive smoke emission offence accounts for 1-2% of the annual road traffic offences in Nigeria. Using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS software version 16, five fitted simple linear regression models were developed. With these fitted models it is possible to map the gas concentrations on the kilometre travelled. Examination of the National Vehicle Identification Scheme (NVIS revealed a rise in the periodic plate number generation from yearly record of 788,169 in 2001 to 791,832 in 2009. Human capacity requirements, based on yearly Drivers Licence (DL processed, increased by 55% between 2000 and 2010. Three mutual strategies namely renewed urban and rural road transport infrastructure availability, regular fleet maintenance and capacities building for improved behavioural change of road users were recommended to help control road transport emissions. These measures if inflexibly implemented will change the transport sector from being a major global warming risk factor to that of Eco-friendly sector.

  6. Preparing Students for the Ethical Challenges of Global Citizenship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madelyn Flammia

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an approach to teaching ethical intercultural communication. This approach helps students become aware of their own ethnocentric attitudes and helps them move beyond those perspectives to develop a mindful approach to intercultural communication. The paper begins by introducing the concept of mindful communication and the challenges of developing of a code of ethical behavior for communicating across cultures. Then, strategies for reconciling cultural relativism and universalism are offered. Finally, the paper provides a set of guidelines for ethical behavior in intercultural encounters.

  7. Globalization of the Agricultural Economy: A Challenge or Opportunity before Indian Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. L. Jamge

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Since the new economic reforms of 1991, the Indian economy is going through the phase of globalization. At the same time Indian agriculture has also to with globalized economy. Globalization is becoming a challenge and also the opportunity before agriculture of India. So, the bank credit availability to agriculture and agro based industries must be improved. This would be favorable terms of trade, liberalized domestic and external trade for agricultural products attracted private investment in agriculture in recent years. It is likely that with the appropriate policy initiatives, the process of globalization of agro industries will accelerate in the future.

  8. One Health: The global challenge of epidemic and endemic leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Day Michael J

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract 'One Health' proposes the unification of medical and veterinary sciences with the establishment of collaborative ventures in clinical care, surveillance and control of cross-species disease, education, and research into disease pathogenesis, diagnosis, therapy and vaccination. The concept encompasses the human population, domestic animals and wildlife, and the impact that environmental changes ('environmental health' such as global warming will have on these populations. Visceral leishmaniasis is a perfect example of a small companion animal disease for which prevention and control might abolish or decrease the suffering of canine and human patients, and which aligns well with the One Health approach. In this review we discuss how surveillance for leishmaniases is undertaken globally through the control of anthroponootic visceral leishmaniasis (AVL and zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL. The ZVL epidemic has been managed to date by the culling of infected dogs, treatment of human cases and control of the sandfly vector by insecticidal treatment of human homes and the canine reservoir. Recently, preventive vaccination of dogs in Brazil has led to reduction in the incidence of the canine and human disease. Vaccination permits greater dog owner compliance with control measures than a culling programme. Another advance in disease control in Africa is provided by a surveillance programme that combines remote satellite sensing, ecological modelling, vector surveillance and geo-spatial mapping of the distribution of vectors and of the animal-to-animal or animal-to-human pathogen transmission. This coordinated programme generates advisory notices and alerts on emerging infectious disease outbreaks that may impede or avoid the spreading of visceral leishmaniasis to new areas of the planet as a consequence of global warming.

  9. A Framework for Addressing the Global Obesity Epidemic Locally: The Child Health Ecological Surveillance System (CHESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald C. Plotnikoff, PhD

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Childhood obesity has reached epidemic levels in the developed world. Recent research and commentary suggest that an ecological approach is required to address childhood obesity, given the multidimensional nature of the problem. We propose a Canadian prototype, the Child Health Ecological Surveillance System, for a regional health authority to address the growing obesity epidemic. This prototype could potentially be used in other jurisdictions to address other child health issues. We present 8 guiding principles for the development and implementation of a regional framework for action.

  10. Global health care challenge: Indian experiences and new prescriptions

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sandhya, Wakdikar.

    2004-12-15

    Full Text Available Globally, there has been an unparalleled growth in the plant-derived medicinally useful formulations, drugs and health-care products, its market covering more than 60% products derived from plant origin. India exhibits remarkable outlook in modern medicines that are based on natural products besides [...] traditional system of Indian medicines. Almost, 70% modern medicines in India are derived from natural products. Medicinal plants play a central role not only as traditional medicines but also as trade commodities, meeting the demand of distant markets. Ironically, India has a very small share (1.6%) of this ever-growing global market. To compete with the growing market, there is urgency to expeditiously utilize and scientifically validate more medicinally useful plants while conserving these species, which seems a difficult task ahead. This paper begins with an overview of the value of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants and discusses its usefulness in the traditional medicines. Then it briefly assesses the potential of medicinally useful plants and prospects of modern medicines and health care products derived from plant origin and based on the knowledge of alternative system of medicine in India. It thereafter concisely touches upon India’s varied biodiversity, comparative Research and Development strength, strong pharmaceutical manufacturing base and traditional wisdom in medicines to improve its market potential. In the conclusion, there are major recommendations to help India evolve as a major drugs and herbal based health care products leader in the world market.

  11. International policies to address the greenhouse effect. Encouraging developing country participation in global greenhouse control strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conditions under which developing country governments are likely to feel motivated to take real action in addressing the greenhouse gas problem and the international mechanisms that are likely to succeed are briefly outlined

  12. The Century-Long Challenge of Global Carbon Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socolow, R.

    2002-05-01

    The time scale of the global carbon management is a century, not a decade and not a millennium. A century is the ratio of 1000 billion metric tons of carbon [Gt(C)] to 10 Gt(C)/yr. 1000 Gt(C) is the future emissions that will lead to approximately a doubling of the pre-industrial atmospheric CO2 concentration, 280 ppm, assuming the total net ocean plus terrestrial sink remains at half the strength of this source - since 2.1 Gt (C) = 1 ppm, and the concentration today is already 370 ppm. Doubling is the most widely used boundary between acceptable and unacceptable Greenhouse-related environmental disruption, or, in the language of the Framework Convention on Climate Change, the onset of "dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system." And 10 Gt(C)/yr is a conservative estimate of the average annual fossil-fuel carbon source over the century; it is now between 6 and 7 Gt(C). Conventional oil and gas are not sufficiently abundant to generate a serious Greenhouse problem on their own. Well before their cumulative carbon emissions reach 1000 Gt(C), both are expected to become non-competitive as a result of growing costs of access (costs related to resources being very deep underground, or below very deep water, or very remote, or very small.) But several times 1000 Gt(C) of coal resources will probably be competitive with non-fossil fuel alternatives, as will "unconventional" oil and gas resources, such as tar sands. The world will not be saved from a serious Greenhouse problem by fossil fuel depletion. There are four mitigation strategies for avoiding dangerous interference with the climate system. Fossil fuels can cease to dominate the global energy system well before the end of the century, yielding large market share to some combination of renewable energy and nuclear (fission and fusion) energy sources. Fossil fuels can continue to dominate, but most of the carbon in the century's fossil fuels can be prevented from reaching the atmosphere (fossil-carbon sequestration). Carbon can be removed directly from the air by biological or chemical processes. Or the climate system can become so well understood that effective compensating actions can be implemented. If human beings implement none of these strategies, we will have chosen, in effect, to adapt to climate change. Not unlikely will be a mix of all four mitigation strategies plus adaptation. In recent years, as the intrinsic complexity and monumental scale of global carbon management has become better appreciated, new coalitions supportive of policies intended to mitigate climate change have emerged.

  13. Challenge and opportunity: the ALI/III global principles project

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    IF, Fletcher.

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with an international project to establish the extent to which it is feasible to achieve a worldwide acceptance of the Principles of Cooperation among the NAFTA Countries together with the Guidelines Applicable to Court-to-Court Communications in Cross-Border Cases. This contribut [...] ion explains the process whereby the American Law Institute and the International Insolvency Institute (1) developed principles of cooperation with regard to cross-border insolvency; (2) established acceptance of these principles in jurisdictions across the world, subject to any necessary local modifications; and (3) obtained the endorsement of leading domestic associations, courts, and other groups in those jurisdictions. This article may contribute to the development the South African cross-border insolvency law. The inclusion of the challenges of harmonisation of private international law is also contributing to current debate.

  14. Challenge and Opportunity: the ALI/III Global Principles Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IF Fletcher

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with an international project to establish the extent to which it is feasible to achieve a worldwide acceptance of the Principles of Cooperation among the NAFTA Countries together with the Guidelines Applicable to Court-to-Court Communications in Cross-Border Cases. This contribution explains the process whereby the American Law Institute and the International Insolvency Institute (1 developed principles of cooperation with regard to cross-border insolvency; (2 established acceptance of these principles in jurisdictions across the world, subject to any necessary local modifications; and (3 obtained the endorsement of leading domestic associations, courts, and other groups in those jurisdictions. This article may contribute to the development the South African cross-border insolvency law. The inclusion of the challenges of harmonisation of private international law is also contributing to current debate.

  15. Apollo 2: Solar energy meets the new global challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swenson, R. B [Santa Cruz, CA (United States)

    2000-07-01

    Humanity faces imminent and serious global oil shortages. It is urgent that the solar energy community respond aggressively to fulfill its central role in the transition from a transitory fossil-fuel economy to a sustainable solar future. The intention here is to explain and quantify the oil shortfall, to validate the renewable option, and to calculate the rate at which the capacity of the renewable energy industry must accelerate to counteract the predictable oil deficit. [Spanish] La humanidad se enfrenta a una seria e inminente escasez mundial de petroleo. Es urgente que la comunidad de energia solar responda agresivamente para satisfacer su rol central en la transicion de una economia transitoria de combustibles fosiles a un futuro solar sustentable. La intencion aqui es la de explicar y cuantificar el deficit de petroleo para validar esta opcion renovable y para calcular la velocidad a la que la industria de la energia renovable debe acelerar para contrarrestar el predecible deficit del petroleo.

  16. Makerere University College of Health Sciences’ role in addressing challenges in health service provision at Mulago National Referral Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sekandi Juliet

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mulago National Referral Hospital (MNRH, Uganda’s primary tertiary and teaching hospital, and Makerere University College of Health Sciences (MakCHS have a close collaborative relationship. MakCHS students complete clinical rotations at MNRH, and MakCHS faculty partner with Mulago staff in clinical care and research. In 2009, as part of a strategic planning process, MakCHS undertook a qualitative study to examine care and service provision at MNRH, identify challenges, gaps, and solutions, and explore how MakCHS could contribute to improving care and service delivery at MNRH. Methods Key informant interviews (n=23 and focus group discussions (n=7 were conducted with nurses, doctors, administrators, clinical officers and other key stakeholders. Interviews and focus groups were tape recorded and transcribed verbatim, and findings were analyzed through collaborative thematic analysis. Results Challenges to care and service delivery at MNRH included resource constraints (staff, space, equipment, and supplies, staff inadequacies (knowledge, motivation, and professionalism, overcrowding, a poorly functioning referral system, limited quality assurance, and a cumbersome procurement system. There were also insufficiencies in the teaching of professionalism and communication skills to students, and patient care challenges that included lack of access to specialized services, risk of infections, and inappropriate medications. Suggestions for how MakCHS could contribute to addressing these challenges included strengthening referral systems and peripheral health center capacity, and establishing quality assurance mechanisms. The College could also strengthen the teaching of professionalism, communication and leadership skills to students, and monitor student training and develop courses that contribute to continuous professional development. Additionally, the College could provide in-service education for providers on professionalism, communication skills, strategies that promote evidence-based practice and managerial leadership skills. Conclusions Although there are numerous barriers to delivery of quality health services at MNRH, many barriers could be addressed by strengthening the relationship between the Hospital and MakCHS. Strategic partnerships and creative use of existing resources, both human and financial, could improve the quality of care and service delivery at MNRH. Improving services and providing more skills training could better prepare MakCHS graduates for leadership roles in other health care facilities, ultimately improving health outcomes throughout Uganda.

  17. Health care voluntourism: addressing ethical concerns of undergraduate student participation in global health volunteer work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Daniel; Iltis, Ana S

    2014-12-01

    The popularity and availability of global health experiences has increased, with organizations helping groups plan service trips and companies specializing in "voluntourism," health care professionals volunteering their services through different organizations, and medical students participating in global health electives. Much has been written about global health experiences in resource poor settings, but the literature focuses primarily on the work of health care professionals and medical students. This paper focuses on undergraduate student involvement in short term medical volunteer work in resource poor countries, a practice that has become popular among pre-health professions students. We argue that the participation of undergraduate students in global health experiences raises many of the ethical concerns associated with voluntourism and global health experiences for medical students. Some of these may be exacerbated by or emerge in unique ways when undergraduates volunteer. Guidelines and curricula for medical student engagement in global health experiences have been developed. Guidelines specific to undergraduate involvement in such trips and pre-departure curricula to prepare students should be developed and such training should be required of volunteers. We propose a framework for such guidelines and curricula, argue that universities should be the primary point of delivery even when universities are not organizing the trips, and recommend that curricula should be developed in light of additional data. PMID:25079381

  18. Addressing the Photometric Calibration Challenge: Explicit Determination of the Instrumental Response and Atmospheric Response Functions, and Tying it All Together

    CERN Document Server

    Stubbs, Christopher W

    2012-01-01

    Photometric calibration is currently the dominant source of systematic uncertainty in exploiting type Ia supernovae to determine the nature of the dark energy. We review our ongoing program to address this calibration challenge by performing measurements of both the instrumental response function and the optical transmission function of the atmosphere. A key aspect of this approach is to complement standard star observations by using NIST-calibrated photodiodes as a metrology foundation for optical flux measurements. We present our first attempt to assess photometric consistency between synthetic photometry and observations, by comparing predictions based on a NIST-diode-based determination of the PanSTARRS-1 instrumental response and empirical atmospheric transmission measurements, with fluxes we obtained from observing spectrophotometric standards.

  19. Using Technology to Prepare Students for the Challenges of Global Citizenship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madelyn Flammia

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In the modern world, everyone must recognize that it is nearly impossible to separate many domestic and international problems and managing international challenges will take the efforts of all nations. As a result, each and every person must think like a global citizen and practice mindfulness in daily life. Using the complex interdependence model as a basis for examining citizen diplomacy, this paper suggests ways that new media can be used to introduce students to a global perspective on the world. Further, it provides faculty members with a set of guidelines for structuring projects that task students with the challenge of taking positive action to effect political and societal change.

  20. The future role of nuclear power in addressing global environmental problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decision makers have to increasingly balance the costs versus benefits of various energy choices against a background of global environmental deterioration. This is particularly so in the choice of long term electricity production strategies where these have to be balanced against the potential of a very severe disruption of the world's climate due to global warming. In this presentation, the threat of global warming is quantified and scenarios are developed of future predicted energy consumption patterns and their impact on international policies to curb global warming, are analyzed. The conclusion is reached that the threat of global warming is so severe that, on the macro level, an international accepted strategy of utilising a proper balance between all forms of electricity production, is a matter of priority and that all national energy choices should be taken against this framework. Such strategic decisions on the macro level must, however, also translate into the micro level of energy production on topics which include: - more efficient plant utilisation; - more effective risk management; correct choice and application of technology; and - better understanding of issues concerning safety, quality and environmental impact. (author)

  1. Global Change And Water Availability And Quality: Challenges Ahead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, M. C.; Ryker, S. J.

    2012-12-01

    The United States is in the midst of a continental-scale, multi-year water-resources experiment, in which society has not defined testable hypotheses or set the duration and scope of the experiment. What are we doing? We are expanding population at two to three times the national growth rate in our most water-scarce states, in the southwest, where water stress is already great and modeling predicts decreased streamflow by the middle of this century. We are expanding irrigated agriculture from the west into the east, particularly to the southeastern states, where increased competition for ground and surface water has urban, agricultural, and environmental interests at odds, and increasingly, in court. We are expanding our consumption of pharmaceutical and personal care products to historic high levels and disposing of them in surface and groundwater, through sewage treatment plants and individual septic systems that were not designed to treat them. These and other examples of our national-scale experiment are likely to continue well into the 21st century. This experiment and related challenges will continue and likely intensify as non-climatic and climatic factors, such as predicted rising temperature and changes in the distribution of precipitation in time and space, continue to develop.

  2. Challenges of Globalization and Quality Assurance in Nigerian University Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iniobong Ekong Nkang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The study was undertaken to examine the state of quality assurance mechanisms in Nigerian universities with a view to proffering measures that would enhance the quality of education obtained in the institutions. The population consisted of professors from federal universities in the south-south region of Nigeria, numbering 624. The stratified sampling technique was used in selecting a sample of 225 professors from the universities for the study. Two null hypotheses were formulated based on the variables of the study. These were tested at 0.05 alpha level, using t-test analysis. Data collection was done with the use of a structured questionnaire tagged “Quality Assurance in Nigerian University Education” (QANUE. The calculated t-values were less than the criticalt, leading to the retention of the two null hypotheses. It was therefore concluded that the quality of Nigerian University Education is low and cannot measure up globally due to the poor state of quality assurance mechanisms in the universities. Based on this, measures for improving the quality of Nigerian university education were recommended to include adequate funding, updated libraries, well equipped laboratories and workshops, provision of instructional materials and school infrastructure, lecturer motivation and proper supervision.

  3. Global Challenges for the Environment, Water Clean and Economic Advantages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidajete Nikqi , AdemDreshaj,

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The fast development of industry, agriculture technology, with increasing population grows increasingly standard of living is also increasing demand for clean water and environmental pollution grows each time taking process of uncontrolled release of CO2 into the atmosphere and increase the industrial waste. Rulers need to do a better coordination of CO2 in the atmosphere management, waste management, water. Sustainability of public health, protection of the environment and the economy are key factors for environment and clean water. Collecting more water behind dams and especially in aquifers through artificial recharge is necessary to save water in times of excess water for use at the time of his absence. Storage of CO2 in safe places as under the oceans countries semptyexplorer oil from storage in mines or explorer. Use should be carefully planned and take measures to prevent adverse health effects in the case of groundwater contamination. Some countries may save water by importing most food and energy commodities and other countries that possess more water, so basically they also get water was needed to produce these goods.Water "virtual". Local water can then be used for high social,environmental, or economic or saved for the future. Climate change and global warming caused by carbon dioxide emissions are difficult to predict in space and time. The wars in the future will be developed for clean water and not for gold and oil.

  4. Injuries and violence: a global public health challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muazzam Nasrullah

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Injuries and violence are a significant cause of mortality and physical disability. Injuries killed five million people worldwide each year [1]. The level of this dilemma, however, differs significantly by age, sex, region and economic development [2]. Globally, road traffic injury mortalities, self-inflicted injury mortality and interpersonal violence, war, drowning, and exposure to fire are the leading cause of deaths among people aged 15-44 years [3]. This special issue aims to assess the magnitude of this problem, identify risk factors and explore prevention strategies to alleviate the burden of injuries and violence. There is a dire need to increase the knowledge of the extent of problem, and associated risk factors that needs to be targeted for prevention. Erosa et al., examined reports of verbal and physical abuse from family caregivers of adults with severe physical, neurological and developmental disabilities, and found that caregivers who reported some form of abuse reported significantly greater distress and burden than caregivers who did not report any abuse. Grice et al., found that reported histories of work-related physical assault and work-related threat were associated with elevated risks of current work-related physical assault. Ahmad, systematically reviewed and summarized current scientific knowledge on the use of interactive computer-assisted screening to detect intimate partner violence (IPV.

  5. Global warming presents new challenges for maize pest management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been conjectured that global warming will increase the prevalence of insect pests in many agro-ecosystems. In this paper, we quantitatively assess four of the key pests of maize, one of the most important systems in North American grain production. Using empirically generated estimates of pest overwintering thresholds and degree-day requirements, along with climate change projections from a high-resolution climate model, we project potential future ranges for each of these pests in the United States. Our analysis suggests the possibility of increased winter survival and greater degree-day accumulations for each of the pests surveyed. We find that relaxed cold limitation could expand the range of all four pest taxa, including a substantial range expansion in the case of corn earworm (H. zea), a migratory, cold-intolerant pest. Because the corn earworm is a cosmopolitan pest that has shown resistance to insecticides, our results suggest that this expansion could also threaten other crops, including those in high-value areas of the western United States. Because managing significant additional pressure from this suite of established pests would require additional pest management inputs, the projected decreases in cold limitation and increases in heat accumulation have the potential to significantly alter the pest management landscape for North American maize production. Further, these range expansions could have substantial economic impacts through increased seed l economic impacts through increased seed and insecticide costs, decreased yields, and the downstream effects of changes in crop yield variability.

  6. Engaging Undergraduates to Solve Global Health Challenges: A New Approach Based on Bioengineering Design

    OpenAIRE

    Oden, Maria; Mirabal, Yvette; Epstein, Marc; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    Recent reports have highlighted the need for educational programs to prepare students for careers developing and disseminating new interventions that improve global public health. Because of its multi-disciplinary, design-centered nature, the field of Biomedical Engineering can play an important role in meeting this challenge. This article describes a new program at Rice University to give undergraduate students from all disciplines a broad background in bioengineering and global health and p...

  7. The Cultural Challenges of Managing Global Project Teams: A Study of Brazilian Multinationals

    OpenAIRE

    Ivete Rodrigues; Roberto Sbragia

    2013-01-01

    The internationalization of Brazilian companies brings a new reality: the need for implementation of global projects that bring, in turn, the challenge of managing multicultural teams. Since this is a recent phenomenon with little theoretical development, this study sought to understand the relationships between cultural characteristics and management teams of global projects in Brazilian multinationals. To carry this discussion forward, we studied six cases of Brazilian multinational compani...

  8. The CharXive Challenge. Regulation of global carbon cycles by vegetation fires

    OpenAIRE

    Ball, R.

    2010-01-01

    It is an open, but not unanswerable, question as to how much atmospheric CO2 is sequestered globally by vegetation fires. In this work I conceptualise the question in terms of the general CharXive Challenge, discuss a mechanism by which thermoconversion of biomass may regulate the global distribution of carbon between reservoirs, show how suppression of vegetation fires by human activities may increase the fraction of carbon in the atmospheric pool, and pose three specific C...

  9. Training Solutions to the Global Challenges of a Nuclear Renaissance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From East Asia to the United States and all over Europe, the nuclear re-birth is generating demands the training simulation vendors had not faced before. Companies involved in the planning, design, construction and operation of new plants increasingly require simulation tools to satisfy very different needs, all of them on a large scale: education and support of inexperienced newcomer staff, human factors analysis and control room design, e-learning, verification and validation of I and C systems or training and licensing of crews before the actual installations are complete. There is a full set of applications already available to the whole industry to satisfy these needs. End-user friendly Thunder Real-Time Executive (T-REX), poised to become the standard simulation platform for U.S. plants, makes it possible to provide full-scope simulator and simulator exercises to students and others on a memory stick or over the internet. AREVA EPR full-scope training simulator, based on the ALICES integrated object-oriented simulation environment, becomes an engineering simulator for the Flamanville 3 plant under construction in Normandy; the same will happen to the Taishan 1 and 2 simulators in Guangdong (China) while UniStar plans to apply this approach to the future EPR's to be built in the United States. SIREP PWR Basic Principle Simulator, with simplified models which can run on an ordinary PC, is used at GDF SUEZ offices in Brussels to implement their Nuclear Trainees Prols to implement their Nuclear Trainees Program. EDF Training Department chooses On-line Micro Simulation (MicroSel), which can be managed with Learning Management Systems, for classroom and stand-alone learning of the basic characteristics of French reactors. All these are examples of how extensive R and D and innovation programs implemented by the simulator providers, some of them under way here in Spain, will help to overcome some of the challenges of the current nuclear expansion.

  10. Addressing AACSB Global and Technology Requirements: Exploratory Assessment of a Marketing Management Assignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Scott; Bao, Yongchuan

    2009-01-01

    The Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB) standards mandate knowledge of global and technology issues. Businesses desire employees with ability to analyze international markets and to be adept with technology. Taxpayers supporting public universities and organizations hiring business school graduates expect accountability…

  11. Joint enterprise and the role of the intermediator : Challenges managing groupware in global virtual teams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    BjØrn, Pernille; Simonsen, Jesper

    2005-01-01

    Managing groupware technologies in global virtual teams is viewed as a process of integrating technology and collaboration. This involves a continual negotia-tion of the team’s goals, processes, and technology. We investigate organizational factors constraining this integration process, by analyzing the failure of inte-grating groupware into two global virtual teams within industry. We present an empirically driven interpretive case study conducted in a large distributed global or-ganization. Based on the empirical observations, we reveal two organizational factors challenging the inte-gration process: The importance of joint enterprise and the role of the intermediator.

  12. Global warming what are the challenges for Copenhagen?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Kyoto Protocol was adopted in 1997 and, following a long ratification process, went into effect in 2005. Under the Protocol, 200 countries have committed to reducing their greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) by 2012. What conclusions can we draw from developments thus far, as we await the December conference in Copenhagen to determine a follow-up to the Kyoto Protocol? The work of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has given us more accurate knowledge on global warming issues. In its latest report, published in 2007, the IPCC reveals that eleven of the past twelve years studied - 1995 to 2006 - were among the warmest yet recorded since 1850, when this type of data collection began. From 1906 to 2005, global temperatures rose by 0.74 deg. C, and the average rate of increase has more than doubled over the past fifty years. To help companies and countries achieve their GHG emissions reduction targets, the Kyoto Protocol provides for a carbon trading system based on carbon reduction credits (CRC), the exchange currency in a carbon credit market. When a company reduces its emissions below regulatory levels, it can have the 'excess' reduction certified and converted into carbon credits, which it can then sell to a company that has not yet reached its reduction targets. Japan has already used clean technologies and energy saving measures to achieve energy efficiency in the past. Its energy structure is fairly close to that of France, which has a 0% emissionso that of France, which has a 0% emissions goal. In Japan, nuclear power also accounts for a significant share of the electric power program. The Japanese government recently announced that it was increasing its carbon reduction goal from 6% to an ambitious 25%. China and the United States are the world's leading greenhouse gas emitters. When China ratified the Kyoto Protocol in 2002, it was considered to be a developing country and as such has no emissions reduction obligations. Since then, China has moved closer to the Protocol principles, creating a national climate change group in 2007 and launching its own national climate change program. The program's goal is to lower China's energy consumption per unit of GDP by 20% by 2010 compared with its 2005 level. Under a medium to long-term sustainable development plan, the share of sustainable energies in the overall energy mix will increase to 10% by 2010 and to 15% by 2020. Before the Copenhagen conference, China indicated that it was expecting the United States and Europe to commit to reducing their emissions by 40% and to devote 1% of their GDP to technology transfer towards developing countries by 2020. The Bush Administration used the argument that 'the American way of life is not negotiable' to justify the refusal of the United States to adhere to the Kyoto Protocol. Today, the United States returns to the discussion table in a more open frame of mind. The administration of Barack Obama has decided to become more involved and cooperate more with China and India on climate change. In late June, the American president succeeded in getting his climate change bill through the US House of Representatives. The climate bill, which is still up before the Senate, aims to reduce GHG emissions (particularly CO2) by 17% before 2020 compared with the 2005 level. It also promotes the development of clean energies and provides for the creation of a cap and trade emissions trading system. Under this system, emissions allowances are either sold or given to the most vulnerable industries. The sales revenue would be used to fund the development of clean energies, among other things. The EU-15 member states are close to reaching the targets set at Kyoto. What about EU-27 member states? At the late September summit in Pittsburgh, the G20 countries, which include the most industrialized countries as well as the large emerging countries of China, India and Brazil, agreed to phase out subsidies for fossil energy sources over the medium term, but without setting a deadline. According to the press release issued at the end of th

  13. Globalization and Its Challenges for Developing Countries: The Case of Turkish Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akar, Hanife

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the challenges faced by the Turkish higher education system and exposes the inequities and realities educators in a developing nation must struggle with as they try to find a prestigious spot in the knowledge-production industry. After a brief overview of the literature that illustrates how globalization penetrated into each…

  14. Challenges in Teaching English to Young Learners: Global Perspectives and Local Realities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copland, Fiona; Garton, Sue; Burns, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on data from a recent research international research project, this article focuses on the challenges faced by teachers of English to young learners against the backdrop of the global rise of English. A mixed-methods approach was used to obtain the data, including a survey, which was completed by 4,459 teachers worldwide, and case studies,…

  15. Multiple Determinants, Common Vulnerabilities, and Creative Responses: Addressing the AIDS Pandemic in Diverse Populations Globally

    OpenAIRE

    MAYER, KENNETH H.; Pape, Jean William; Wilson, Phill; Diallo, Dazon Dixon; Jorge SAAVEDRA; Mimiaga, Matthew J.; Koenig, Serena; Farmer, Paul

    2012-01-01

    The AIDS epidemic has been fueled by global inequities. Ranging from gender inequality and underdevelopment to homophobia impeding health care access for men who have sex with men (MSM), imbalanced resource allocations and social biases have potentiated the epidemic’s spread. However, recognition of culturally specific aspects of each microepidemic has yielded development of community-based organizations, which have resulted in locally effective responses to AIDS. This effective approach to...

  16. Building organizational technical capabilities: a new approach to address the office of environmental management cleanup challenges in the 21. century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Management (EM) is responsible for the nations nuclear weapons program legacy wastes cleanup. The EM cleanup efforts continue to progress, however the cleanup continues to be technologically complex, heavily regulated, long-term, and a high life cycle cost estimate (LCCE) effort. Over the past few years, the EM program has undergone several changes to accelerate its cleanup efforts with varying degrees of success. Several cleanup projects continued to experience schedule delays and cost growth. The schedule delays and cost growth have been attributed to several factors such as changes in technical scope, regulatory and safety considerations, inadequacy of acquisition approach and project management. This article will briefly review the background and schools of thought on strategic management and organizational change practiced in the United States over the last few decades to improve an organisation's competitive edge and cost performance. The article will briefly review examples such as the change at General Electric, and the recent experience obtained from the nuclear industry, namely the long-term response to the 1986 Chernobyl accident. The long-term response to Chernobyl, though not a case of organizational change, could provide some insight in the strategic management approaches used to address people issues. The article will discuss briefly EM attempts to accelerate cleanup over the past fewts to accelerate cleanup over the past few years, and the subsequent paradigm shift. The paradigm shift targets enhancing and/or creating organizational capabilities to achieve cost savings. To improve its ability to address the 21. century environmental cleanup challenges and achieve cost savings, EM has initiated new corporate changes to develop new and enhance existing capabilities. These new and enhanced organizational capabilities include a renewed emphasis on basics, especially technical capabilities including safety, project management, acquisition management and people. The new enhanced organizational capabilities coupled with more effective communications; oversight and decision-making processes are expected to help EM meet the 21. century challenges. This article will focus on some of the initiatives to develop and enhance organizational technical capabilities. Some of these development initiatives are a part of DOE corporate actions to respond to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) recommendations 93-3 and 2004-1. Other development initiatives have been tailored to meet EM specific needs for organizational capabilities such as case studies analysis and cost estimating. (authors)

  17. NKS - The Nordic region's cooperative network for addressing challenges in nuclear safety and emergency preparedness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, K.G. [NKS/Technical University of Denmark (Denmark); Andgren, K. [NKS/Vattenfall R and D (Sweden); Leino, K. [NKS/Fortum Power and Heat Oy (Finland); Magnusson, S. [NKS/Icelandic Radiation Safety Authority (Iceland); Physant, F. [NKS/FRIT, Roskilde (Denmark)

    2014-07-01

    Based on the foundation of a common cultural and historical heritage and a long tradition of collaboration, NKS aims to facilitate a common Nordic view on nuclear and radiation safety. A common understanding of rules, practice and measures, and national differences in this context, is here an essential requirement. Problems can generally be tackled quicker, more efficiently, more consistently and at a lower cost through collaboration, bearing in mind that key competencies are not equally distributed in the different Nordic countries. For instance common Nordic challenges emerge in relation to nuclear installations, where nuclear power plants are in operation in Finland and Sweden, and research reactors have been operated in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. There is an obvious benefit in exchanging ideas and technologies in relation to plant operation, and since a number of reactors in different Nordic countries are under decommissioning, a collaborative benefit can also be realised in that context. Sweden also has a nuclear fuel production plant, and its collaboration with other Nordic nuclear installations can also be beneficial. Further, a number of large radiological installations are projected in Nordic areas (e.g., the MAX-LAB/MAX IV synchrotron radiation source and the European spallation source ESS), where Nordic organisations are collaborating in addressing, e.g., potential environmental implications. On the emergency preparedness side, the Fukushima accident in March 2011 was a reminder that large accidents at nuclear installations can lead to widespread radioactive contamination in the environment. In order to respond to nuclear or radiological emergencies, should they affect Nordic populations, it is necessary to maintain an operational emergency preparedness. By continuously improving detection, response and decision aiding tools while maintaining an informal collaborative network between relevant stakeholders in the Nordic countries (including nuclear power plant experts), the capacity and capability to respond optimally to an emergency is enhanced. Today's emergency preparedness also needs to address prevention against and response to nuclear and radiological terror attacks. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  18. Technical challenges in designing post-marketing eCRFs to address clinical safety and pharmacovigilance needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhengwu

    2010-01-01

    To identify key challenges and propose technical considerations in designing electronic case report form (eCRF) for post-marketing studies, the author undertakes a comprehensive literature review of peer reviewed and grey literature to assess the key aspects, processes, standards, recommendations, and best practices in designing eCRFs based on industry experience in designing and supporting electronic data capture (EDC) studies. Literature search using strings on MEDLINE and PUBMED returned few papers directly related to CRF design. Health informatics and general practice journals were searched and results reviewed. Many conference, government commission, health professional and special interests group websites provide relevant information from practical experience - summarization of this information is presented. Further, we presented a list of concrete technical considerations in dealing with EDC technology/system limitations based on literature assessment and industry implementation experience. It is recognized that cross-functional teams be involved in eCRF design process and decision making. To summarize the keys in designing eCRFs to address post-market study safety and pharmacovigilance needs, the first is to identify required data elements from the study protocol supporting data analyses and reporting requirements. Secondly, accepted best practices, CDASH & CDISC guidelines, and company internal or therapeutic unit standard should be considered and applied. Coding (MedDRA & WHODD) mapping should be managed and implemented as well when possible. Finally, we need to be on top of the EDC technologies, challenge the technologies, drive EDC improvement via working with vendors, and utilize the technologies to drive clinical effectiveness. PMID:19900576

  19. Addressing the Global Burden of Chronic Kidney Disease Through Clinical and Translational Research

    OpenAIRE

    Ojo, Akinlolu

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, an estimated 200 million people have chronic kidney disease (CKD). In the United States, African Americans (AAs) have a four-fold excess risk of CKD compared to non-Hispanic white people and globally, people in the low-to-middle income countries of Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa have the highest rates of CKD. Annually, more than 500,000 individuals develop end-stage renal disease (or CKD stage 5) in Sub-Saharan Africa alone and the vast majority of these patients suffer premature mort...

  20. Prevention of preterm birth: harnessing science to address the global epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubens, Craig E; Sadovsky, Yoel; Muglia, Louis; Gravett, Michael G; Lackritz, Eve; Gravett, Courtney

    2014-11-12

    Preterm birth is a leading cause of infant morbidity and mortality worldwide, but current interventions to prevent prematurity are largely ineffective. Preterm birth is increasingly recognized as an outcome that can result from a variety of pathological processes. Despite current research efforts, the mechanisms underlying these processes remain poorly understood and are influenced by a range of biological and environmental factors. Research with modern techniques is needed to understand the mechanisms responsible for preterm labor and birth and identify targets for diagnostic and therapeutic solutions. This review evaluates the state of reproductive science relevant to understanding the causes of preterm birth, identifies potential targets for prevention, and outlines challenges and opportunities for translating research findings into effective interventions. PMID:25391484

  1. Technical Session: International Energy Agency. Our Energy Future - Addressing the Dual Challenges of Climate Change and Energy Security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Distinguished Ministers, guests, ladies and gentlemen, it is an honor for me to take part in this important conference and I thank Mr. Sokolov and the IAEA for providing me with the opportunity to be here today In this session we are discussing 'Energy Resources and the Environment'. Using this important occasion, I would like to share with you the IEA's view on the world's energy future. In the regard, we are facing two challenges; Energy Security and climate change. In the energy sector, climate change mitigation and energy security go hand in hand. Investment in clean energy technologies will ensure better energy security while at the same time mitigating climate change. And nuclear power has a key role to play in this regard. Though the current economic downturn results world energy demand shrinking in short term, in longer term, it is inevitable to see strong demand increase if only existing policies were to remain in place until 2030 (our so called 'Reference Scenario' or 'business as usual model'). Our World Energy Outlook 2008 published November last year demonstrates that world primary energy demand will grow by 45% from 2006 to 2030, which is an average annual growth rate of 1.6%. Though it is not shown in the graph, it is important to note that non-OECD countries account for 87% of global energy demand growth between 2006 and 2030. The increase in China's energy demand outpaces that of all other countries and regions. Huge inflows of capital are needed to ms. Huge inflows of capital are needed to meet such demand growth and replace existing and future supply facilities that will be retired,. This shows the cumulative investment in energy supply needed to 2030 in the business as usual scenario. It amounts to $26.3 trillion (in year-2007 dollars) from 2007 to 2030; Electricity generation represents half of this. Oil and gas account for almost all of the remainder; 63% of this total will be needed in non-OECD countries - clearly highlighting that the investment challenge is a global issue. As energy production accounts for 60% of CO2 emissions, this energy demand growth will obviously have huge implications for climate change. In our WEO-2008 business as usual scenario shown here, global CO2 emissions from energy will jump by 45% between 2006 and 2030 to 40.6 giga-tonnes (growth rate of 1.6% pa). This trajectory puts the world on track for a global temperature increase of around 6 degrees. In light of the CO2 challenge, WEO-2008 set out two alternative energy policy scenarios to take the world to a lower emissions future: 550 ppm, and 450 ppm of CO2 in the atmosphere. This graph shows trajectories for energy-related CO2 emissions to 2030 in the different scenarios, assuming 3.3% global GDP growth to 2030. We must reduce emissions from: 40.6 Gt in 2030 (in RS) - to reach 33 Gt in the 550 ppm scenario with a temperature rise of 3oC; 26 Gt in the 450 ppm scenario with a temperature rise of around 2oC ... would eventually mean a 50% reduction of current levels of CO2 by 2050. This will require a 'revolution' of the energy sector. In particular, measures in three areas are vital: 1. Energy efficiency: 54% in the 450ppm scenario. 2. CCS (particularly in the 450 ppm scenario) after 2020. 3. Diversification of the energy mix through the use of nuclear power and renewables. Let me also emphasize here that these scenarios also enhance our energy security, by ensuring energy is used efficiently and by diversifying energy portfolios. Widespread deployment of low-carbon technologies and energy efficiency requires much investment if we are to reduce CO2 emissions and ensure a secure energy future. Business as usual scenario, investment of $26.3 trillion is needed in energy infrastructure just to meet growing demand and production decline. But in the two low emissions scenarios, significant additional investment of $9 trillion is needed in power plants and in more efficient energy-related capital stock. This additional investment amounts to 0.6% of world GDP on average per year. In addition, the price of carbon in the 450 ppm s

  2. Globalization of labour markets challenges, adjustment and policy response in the EU and LDCS

    CERN Document Server

    Kuyvenhoven, Arie; Molle, Willem

    1997-01-01

    To the classical driving forces of migration such as poverty, oppression and war, yet another is being added: globalization. The trend toward globalization has created new opportunities for trade and investment. These have had positive implications for economic growth and living standards. However, they also confront developed and less developed countries (LCDs) with difficult policy choices. Developed Countries (DCs) have to find a compromise between competitiveness and high labour costs, and between trade liberalization and immigration controls. LCDs have to decide whether to export labour or goods, and to accept foreign resources for development rather than migration. While, in the literature, the impact of globalization has been largely studied from specialist perspectives, this volume offers a comprehensive view of the issue. In Globalization of Labour Markets: Challenges, Adjustment and Policy Response in the European Union and Less Developed Countries international experts: Explain the welfare implicat...

  3. GLOBALIZATION AND INTEGRATION INTO THE ECONOMIC AND MONETARY UNION-CHALLENGES FOR BANKS OPERATING IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CORALIA EMILIA POPA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to present recent evolution, but also the consequences of globalization of the banking sector, considering different approaches of this phenomenon. Over time, the banking field has undergone important changes in both the applicable law of this area, and through the technologies used in satisfying the customers’ needs. The development of international markets has led to new opportunities and challenges for banks that transformed the domestic financial market into an arena where only the best survive and grow. On these grounds and in strict relation to positive and negative effects of globalization, we can speak of a constant evolution of its most important subsystems - the financial subsystems of the global economy. In this paper special importance is given to the banking field, the article presenting arguments through which this complex phenomenon called globalization may have important consequences on financial supervision and regulation.

  4. Globalization : the challenge of the 1990s for the chemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The challenges facing the chemical industry in Canada were discussed. In recent years, Canada has scored low in polls measuring public confidence in the chemical industry. The industry is also suffering from continuing recession, global competition, increased environmental demands and strict legislation. The impact of globalization, total quality management, free trade, environmental concerns, and government policies on the chemical industry were reviewed. In the view of this author (President and CEO of Dow Chemicals) globalization is not a matter of choice, it is an industry imperative. Survival in the globalized economy will require not only to be successful competitors, but even more importantly to be successful cooperators with other stakeholders, and successful in forming partnerships with customers

  5. Opportunities and challenges in integrating the science and policy of global environmental change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundquist, E. T.

    2002-05-01

    The American Geophysical Union's Focus Group (formerly Committee) on Global Environmental Change seeks to foster the interdisciplinary interactions needed for scientific study and public understanding of global environmental change. The Focus Group is exploring ways to improve communication of scientific information to policy makers, and ways to better inform the research community about relevant public policy activities. Scientific information is increasingly influential in shaping public opinion about global environmental change. Likewise, societal concerns are increasingly prominent in the development of plans for scientific study of climate change and other global environmental issues. These developments emphasize the importance of conveying scientific information without political advocacy, and of formulating public policies that include broad advancement of scientific knowledge. This presentation will discuss these challenges and opportunities using examples from recent and pending legislation relevant to climate and carbon-cycle research. Suggestions will be made for ongoing efforts to enhance communications between the research community and policy makers.

  6. sPlot - the new global vegetation-plot database for addressing trait-environment relationships across the world's biomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purschke, Oliver; Dengler, Jürgen; Bruelheide, Helge; Chytrý, Milan; Jansen, Florian; Hennekens, Stephan; Jandt, Ute; Jiménez-Alfaro, Borja; Kattge, Jens; De Patta Pillar, Valério; Sandel, Brody; Winter, Marten

    2015-04-01

    The trait composition of plant communities is determined by abiotic, biotic and historical factors, but the importance of macro-climatic factors in explaining trait-environment relationships at the local scale remains unclear. Such knowledge is crucial for biogeographical and ecological theory but also relevant to devise management measures to mitigate the negative effects of climate change. To address these questions, an iDiv Working Group has established the first global vegetation-plot database (sPlot). sPlot currently contains ~700,000 plots from over 50 countries and all biomes, and is steadily growing. Approx. 70% of the most frequent species are represented by at least one trait in the global trait database TRY and gap-filled data will become available for the most common traits. We will give an overview about the structure and present content of sPlot in terms of spatial distribution, data properties and trait coverage. We will explain next steps and perspectives, present first cross-biome analyses of community-weighted mean traits and trait variability, and highlight some ecological questions that can be addressed with sPlot.

  7. Addressing Challenges of regional climate modeling over the Greater Horn of Africa: Africa Regional Climate Model Inter-comparison Project (AFRMIP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyah, R.

    2009-04-01

    The Greater Horn of Africa (GHA) has distinct climate characteristics compared to the rest of the continent. The GHA is replete with complex terrain comprising of some of the known tropical glacier covered high mountains of Kilimanjaro, Kenya and Rwenzori as well as the Great Rift Valley System (GRVS). The region also has several freshwater lakes that include Lake Victoria (second largest freshwater lake), and Lake Tanganyika (the second largest deepest freshwater lake). As a whole the complex GHA terrain presents an enabling environment where local and large scale climate systems frequently interact to create highly variable climate in both space and time. At the same time, inter-annual variability of the GHA climate is linked to perturbations in the global SSTs, especially over the equatorial Pacific and Indian Ocean basins, and to some extent, the Atlantic Ocean. These three global oceans, all at the same time or each at different times, intriguingly influence the interannual variability of the GHA climate. Interactions and feedbacks among these multiple climate drivers over the region present challenges in quantitative understanding of regional climate variability and changes based on typical empirical techniques. Therefore, there is need to also employ physically-based, regional climate models (RCMs) that can offer scope and capability to unveil cause-effect relationships between regional climate variability and individual or combination of processes. However, representation of the multiple sources of forcing to the GHA climate also poses a great challenge to RCMs as well. This presentation will give an overview of the AFRMIP project, whose primary objective is to undertake a systematic and comprehensive audit of the deficiencies and uncertainties in regional model simulations of the GHA climate. The project specifically seeks to build a coalition of a regional climate modeling community to address the following issues; (i) representation of the GHA-relevant physical processes in the current RCMs (ii) appropriate adjustments to current physics parameterizations in order to customize RCMs for optimal simulation of the GHA climate (ii) representation of natural variability and anthropogenic changes over the GHA by different RCMs.

  8. The Cultural Challenges of Managing Global Project Teams: a Study of Brazilian Multinationals

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ivete, Rodrigues; Roberto, Sbragia.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The internationalization of Brazilian companies brings a new reality: the need for implementation of global projects that bring, in turn, the challenge of managing multicultural teams. Since this is a recent phenomenon with little theoretical development, this study sought to understand the relation [...] ships between cultural characteristics and management teams of global projects in Brazilian multinationals. To carry this discussion forward, we studied six cases of Brazilian multinational companies, with the aim of deepening the understanding of the management of global teams, involving the planning, deployment, development and management of human resources. Among the projects studied, it was found that there is very little concern with the specific issue of multiculturalism and little inter-cultural incentive to the development of team members, which ends up hindering the construction of a global mindset, important for the Brazilian multinational companies to perform successfully abroad. Faced with this situation, each of the managerial processes mentioned were presented with a number of actions to be undertaken by the project manager in three different dimensions: the project itself, the organization and the global environment. The work contributes, thus, to enable Brazilian multinational companies to manage their global teams in order to maximize the advantages of global teams, such as increased creativity and innovative capacity, but avoid the problems that multiculturalism can bring, ranging from conflicts between people to project failure.

  9. The Cultural Challenges of Managing Global Project Teams: A Study of Brazilian Multinationals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivete Rodrigues

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The internationalization of Brazilian companies brings a new reality: the need for implementation of global projects that bring, in turn, the challenge of managing multicultural teams. Since this is a recent phenomenon with little theoretical development, this study sought to understand the relationships between cultural characteristics and management teams of global projects in Brazilian multinationals. To carry this discussion forward, we studied six cases of Brazilian multinational companies, with the aim of deepening the understanding of the management of global teams, involving the planning, deployment, development and management of human resources. Among the projects studied, it was found that there is very little concern with the specific issue of multiculturalism and little inter-cultural incentive to the development of team members, which ends up hindering the construction of a global mindset, important for the Brazilian multinational companies to perform successfully abroad. Faced with this situation, each of the managerial processes mentioned were presented with a number of actions to be undertaken by the project manager in three different dimensions: the project itself, the organization and the global environment. The work contributes, thus, to enable Brazilian multinational companies to manage their global teams in order to maximize the advantages of global teams, such as increased creativity and innovative capacity, but avoid the problems that multiculturalism can bring, ranging from conflicts between people to project failure.

  10. Addressing the Global Burden of Chronic Kidney Disease Through Clinical and Translational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojo, Akinlolu

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, an estimated 200 million people have chronic kidney disease (CKD). In the United States, African Americans (AAs) have a four-fold excess risk of CKD compared to non-Hispanic white people and globally, people in the low-to-middle income countries of Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa have the highest rates of CKD. Annually, more than 500,000 individuals develop end-stage renal disease (or CKD stage 5) in Sub-Saharan Africa alone and the vast majority of these patients suffer premature mortality. The health care costs and economic burden of CKD are huge and not sustainable even in advanced Western countries. A recent discovery on the role of Apolipoprotein 1 (APOL1) G1 and G2 renal risk variants in AAs has a huge potential to unravel the etiology of CKD in both AA and other black populations. Under the National Institutes of Health (NIH)?sponsored Human Heredity and Health in Africa (H3Africa) initiative, a large prospective genetic study of CKD is being conducted in 8000 participants in four African countries (Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, and Nigeria; for a total population of 320 million). This and other basic research studies in the United States could potentially shed great insight into the genetics and biologic mechanisms involved in the excess predilection of Africans and AAs to CKD. PMID:25125737

  11. Conference on "Multidisciplinary approaches to nutritional problems". Rank Prize Lecture. Global nutrition challenges for optimal health and well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uauy, Ricardo; Corvalan, Camila; Dangour, Alan D

    2009-02-01

    Optimal health and well-being are now considered the true measures of human development. Integrated strategies for infant, child and adult nutrition are required that take a life-course perspective to achieve life-long health. The major nutrition challenges faced today include: (a) addressing the pending burden of undernutrition (low birth weight, severe wasting, stunting and Zn, retinol, Fe, iodine and folic acid deficits) affecting those individuals living in conditions of poverty and deprivation; (b) preventing nutrition-related chronic diseases (obesity, diabetes, CVD, some forms of cancer and osteoporosis) that, except in sub-Saharan Africa, are the main causes of death and disability globally. This challenge requires a life-course perspective as effective prevention starts before conception and continues at each stage of life. While death is unavoidable, premature death and disability can be postponed by providing the right amount and quality of food and by maintaining an active life; (c) delaying or avoiding, via appropriate nutrition and physical activity interventions, the functional declines associated with advancing age. To help tackle these challenges, it is proposed that the term 'malnutrition in all its forms', which encompasses the full spectrum of nutritional disorders, should be used to engender a broader understanding of global nutrition problems. This term may prove particularly helpful when interacting with policy makers and the public. Finally, a greater effort by the UN agencies and private and public development partners is called for to strengthen local, regional and international capacity to support the much needed change in policy and programme activities focusing on all forms of malnutrition with a unified agenda. PMID:19012808

  12. Retos impuestos por la globalización a los sistemas educativos latinoamericanos / The Challenges of Globalization for Latin American Educational Systems

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juan, Cornejo Espejo.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Sin desconocer los beneficios de la globalización en el ámbito educativo, tampoco se pueden obviar los problemas que ha generado en América Latina, no sólo por las desigualdades en términos de calidad de la educación, sino también por los criterios economicistas, productivistas y de eficacia con que [...] se han pretendido evaluar todos los procesos educativos. Distintos especialistas parecen concordar que entre los grandes retos y desafíos que enfrentan los sistemas educativos de la región están: equidad, universalización del ciclo básico de enseñanza, disminución de las tasas de repitencia y deserción escolar, incorporación de nuevas tecnologías de la información, fortalecimiento de los vínculos con los mercados laborales, fortalecimiento de la ciudadanía, conciliación entre identidad local y globalización, entre otros. En este trabajo abordamos algunos efectos de la globalización en los cambios educativos, especialmente los desafíos que enfrentan los países latinoamericanos en el siglo XXI. Abstract in english In spite of the recognized benefits of globalization in the educational setting, we cannot ignore the problems it has generated in Latin America: not only because of inequalities in the quality of education, but also because of the use of criteria related to the economy, production and effectiveness [...] in an attempt to evaluate educational processes. Various specialists seem to agree that the major challenges faced by the region's educational systems include ensuring equality, universalizing basic education, decreasing dropout rates and grade repetition, incorporating new information technologies, strengthening links with employment markets, strengthening the community, and reconciling local identities and globalization. This article will address some of the effects of globalization on educational changes, especially the challenges faced by Latin American nations in the twenty-first century.

  13. The UK Government's global partnership programme - Its achievements over the past five years and challenges ahead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Through the Global Partnership the UK continues to make a significant contribution to improve national and global security. Over the past year the UK has continued to implement a wide range of projects across the breadth of its Global Partnership Programme. As well as ensuring the Programme is robust and capable of dealing with new challenges, the UK has cooperated with other donor countries to help them progress projects associated with submarine dismantling, scientist redirection, enhancing nuclear security and Chemical Weapons Destruction. The Global Partnership, although only five years old, has already achieved a great deal. Some 23 states, plus the European Union, are now working closer together under the Global Partnership, and collectively have enhanced global regional and national security by reducing the availability of Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) materials and expertise to both states of concern and terrorists. Considerable progress has already been made in, for example: - Improving the security of fissile materials, dangerous biological agents and chemical weapons stocks; - Reducing the number of sites containing radioactive materials; - Working towards closure of reactors still producing weapon-grade plutonium; - Improving nuclear safety to reduce the risks of further, Chernobyl style accidents; - Constructing facilities for destroying Chemical Weapons stocks, and starting actual destruction; - Providing sustainable employment for former WMD scientitainable employment for former WMD scientists to reduce the risk that their expertise will be misused by states or terrorists. By contributing to many of these activities, the UK has helped to make the world safer. This paper reports on the UK's practical and sustainable contribution to the Global Partnership and identifies a number of challenges that remain if it is to have a wider impact on reducing the threats from WMD material. (authors)

  14. Responding to the Global Financial and Economic Crisis: Meeting the Challenges in Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Arner, Douglas; Schou-zibell, Lotte

    2010-01-01

    The global financial and economic crisis marks an important turning point for finance and the Asian growth model. Regional consensus is now supporting economic rebalancing away from the dominant focus on exports to developed markets and towards more a more balanced economic structure supported by domestic and regional financial development. In relation to finance, the crisis highlights the necessity of addressing a range of issues across the region. First, Asian approaches to f...

  15. Constraining the global carbon budget from global to regional scales - The measurement challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Global Carbon Cycle can be modelled by a Bayesian synthesis inversion technique, where measured atmospheric CO2 concentrations and isotopic compositions are analysed by use of an atmospheric transport model and estimates of regional sources and sinks of atmospheric carbon. The uncertainty associated to carbon flux estimates even on a regional scale can be improved considerably using the inversion technique. In this approach, besides the necessary control on the precision of atmospheric transport models and on the constraints for surface fluxes, an important component is the calibration of atmospheric CO2 concentration and isotope measurements. The recent improved situation in respect to data comparability is discussed using results of conducted interlaboratory comparison exercises and larger scale calibration programs are proposed for the future to further improve the comparability of analytical data. (author)

  16. Ethical Challenges Facing Greenland in the Present Era of Globalization: Towards Global Responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Dahl Rendtorff

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the developments of ethics and politics in the Arctic region have again become an issue for international discussion. One main issue is the problem of climate change and sustainability of the Arctic region. This problem is linked to the issue of exploitation of natural resources in the Arctic region, not at least in Greenland. Indeed, the general issue is how we should define ethics of the environment and sustainability as a general principle for the Arctic region. It is important to discuss what is at stake and how we define the problem in relation to the different participating stakeholders. This paper deals with these problems as a case for global ethics and it proposes a vision of ethical and political responsibility for sustainable development in order to deal with such problems.

  17. Global Brain Blood-Oxygen Level Responses to Autonomic Challenges in Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    OpenAIRE

    Macey, Paul M; Kumar, Rajesh; Ogren, Jennifer A.; Woo, Mary A.; Harper, Ronald M

    2014-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is accompanied by brain injury, perhaps resulting from apnea-related hypoxia or periods of impaired cerebral perfusion. Perfusion changes can be determined indirectly by evaluation of cerebral blood volume and oxygenation alterations, which can be measured rapidly and non-invasively with the global blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal, a magnetic resonance imaging procedure. We assessed acute BOLD responses in OSA subjects to pressor challenges that elicit ...

  18. Sacred forests and the global challenge of biodiversity conservation: the case of Benin and Togo

    OpenAIRE

    Juhé-Beaulaton, Dominique

    2008-01-01

    Sacred forests and the global challenge of biodiversity conservation : the case of Benin and TogoAbstract In the study areas of south Benin and Togo, sacred forests are often the only remaining patches of forest vegetation. These forests are under threat from the growing demand for land and from cultural change. Following an outline of these changes since the arrival of Europeans in the region to provide historical and cultural context, the different stakeholders involved directly or indirect...

  19. Japanese Higher Education Institutions in the 21st Century: The Challenge of Globalization and Internationalization

    OpenAIRE

    Aoki, Kumiko

    2005-01-01

    Higher education institutions in Japan are facing unprecedented challenges today due to the following three factors:the decrease in the size of college age cohorts in the coming years; heightened expectations in the modes of instructional delivery through the advances of information and communication technologies (ICT); global competition for college students worldwide especially from English-speaking countries. This paper examines internationalization of higher education in Japan in terms of...

  20. Global Software Development:A Case Study of Knowledge Management Challenges and Industry Approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Dharmadas, Mugunthan

    2008-01-01

    Recent years, Global Software Development has been pervasive in the field of software development. Research literature describes empirically observed benefits and challenges, but it is descriptive and pragmatic, and offers little theoretic grounding of the findings. The literature recognizes communication and transfer of knowledge as one of the main issues haunting software development, causing poor implementation of projects and poor software quality. This report presents a case study ...

  1. Remarks on the Future of the European Union: Domestic and Global Challenges Ahead

    OpenAIRE

    András Inotai

    2011-01-01

    This paper highlights the main consequences that the crisis has put on the European Union, regarding four major areas: financial, macroeconomic, social and mental-ideological. Also, it aims to tackle some key challenges for the European Union: the revival of international trade; the prevention of the rise of protectionism on the global scale; the need to find a solution to the dilemma between continued stimulus and financial consolidation in general, and between the ambitious goals of the Eur...

  2. The global news challenge: Assessing changes in international broadcast news consumption in Africa and South Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Geniets, Anne

    2010-01-01

    The Global News Challenge – Assessing changes in international broadcast news consumption in Africa and South Asia: This report is the second stage of a three-phase project on ‘International News: Provision, Consumption and Trust in a Rapidly Changing Broadcasting Environment’. The project examines eight countries and aims to explore the increasingly competitive provision of news by international providers, changing patterns of consumption and use of these providers, and the ways in ...

  3. eHealth and Global Health: Investments Opportunities and Challenges for Industry in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iluyemi, Adesina; Briggs, Jim

    eHealth investments from developed countries to developing countries are expected to follow the emerging trend of eHealth for meeting global health problems. However, eHealth industry from developed countries will need to learn to make this impending venture a ‘win-win’ situation with profitable return on investments. This short paper highlights some of these challenges that must be overcome in order to achieve these objectives.

  4. The 2003 SARS Outbreak: Global Challenges and Innovative Infection Control Measure

    OpenAIRE

    Cathryn Murphy

    2006-01-01

    In early 2003, the global infection control community faced a great challenge, sudden acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). The rapid spread of SARS, its capacity to infect health care workers, and its many unknown features in the early days of the outbreak meant that health care workers were unsure of the most effective methods of infection control to prevent disease transmission. These conditions made designing appropriate, effective and standard infection control responses difficult. Innovati...

  5. Emulating Future Climate Projections from Global Climate Models: Methodologies and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, J.; Tebaldi, C.

    2014-12-01

    Pattern scaling methods have been used since the 1990s to estimate the results of global climate models (GCMs), in particular for emissions scenarios for which GCM simulations are not available. The basic method uses global mean surface temperature as the scaling variable, and relies on the assumption of a constant spatial pattern of change per unit global warming. This presentation will briefly review the status of pattern scaling science, using results from the published literature, and from a recent workshop held at NCAR. Successes and challenges will be illustrated of the use of pattern scaling to provide information on future changes for use by the impacts and integrated assessment modelling communities. This activity reflects anticipation of an enhanced role for emulation methods in a new process underway to produce integrated scenarios of future climate and societal change, which extends the number of scenarios of interest beyond the small set of RCPs used in GCM simulations for CMIP5. Relevant challenges include effects of non-linearities caused by: different responses to different levels of greenhouse gas forcing; different timescales of regional response for alternative forcing pathways leading to the same global temperature response; combining the effects of multiple individual forcing agents. Understanding and projecting the responses to forcing agents such as aerosols and land use is likely to be particularly important in emulating changes during the next few decades. Further challenges include how to represent uncertainties and multivariate changes robustly in order to provide a basis for realistic assessments of impacts and risks, and extensions to the basic pattern scaling paradigm. Such extensions include consideration of scaling variables other than global mean temperature, and the recent development of new approaches to emulation using alternative statistical techniques and different physical assumptions.

  6. Remarks on the Future of the European Union: Domestic and Global Challenges Ahead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    András Inotai

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights the main consequences that the crisis has put on the European Union, regarding four major areas: financial, macroeconomic, social and mental-ideological. Also, it aims to tackle some key challenges for the European Union: the revival of international trade; the prevention of the rise of protectionism on the global scale; the need to find a solution to the dilemma between continued stimulus and financial consolidation in general, and between the ambitious goals of the Europe 2020 project and the current fiscal restrictions; the growth of public support across Europe for a financial consolidation strategy based on cutting spending; the impact of the financial and macroeconomic crisis on several sectors; and the deficiencies of the „European construction” indicated by the global crisis. Furthermore, it proposes four main questions for which EU has to provide clear answers in order to become a real global player. The questions concern the „European identity”, the „European values”, the EU strategy paper establishing its mission for the next period and the importance of a strong leadership implementing the strategy. In the end, the most important challenge seems to be how the EU can remain a global economic actor and become a more influential political player in the network of rapidly changing international power relations.

  7. The global challenges and opportunities in the practice of rheumatology: White paper by the World Forum on Rheumatic and Musculoskeletal Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Maini, Mustafa; Adelowo, Femi; Al Saleh, Jamal; Al Weshahi, Yousef; Burmester, Gerd-Rüdiger; Cutolo, Maurizio; Flood, Joseph; March, Lyn; McDonald-Blumer, Heather; Pile, Kevin; Pineda, Carlos; Thorne, Carter; Kvien, Tore K

    2015-05-01

    Rheumatic and musculoskeletal diseases (RMDs) represent a multitude of degenerative, inflammatory and auto-immune conditions affecting millions of people worldwide. Persons with these diseases may potentially experience severe chronic pain, joint damage, increasing disability and even death. With an increasingly ageing population, the prevalence and burden of RMDs are predicted to increase, placing greater demands on the global practice of rheumatology and related healthcare budgets. Effective treatment of RMDs currently faces a number of challenges in both the developed and developing world, and individual countries may face more specific local challenges. However, limited understanding of the burden of RMDs amongst public health professionals and policy-makers means that these diseases are often not considered a public health priority. The objective of this review is to increase awareness of the RMDs and to identify opportunities to address RMD challenges on both a local and global scale. On 26 September 2014, rheumatology experts from five different continents met at the World Forum on Rheumatic and Musculoskeletal Diseases (WFRMD) to discuss and identify some key challenges for the RMDs community today. The outcomes are presented in this review, focusing on access to rheumatology services, diagnostics and therapies, rheumatology education and training and on clinical trials, as well as investigator-initiated and epidemiological research. The long-term vision of the WFRMD is to increase perception of the RMDs as a major burden to society and to explore potential opportunities to improve global and local RMD care. PMID:25501633

  8. Product innovation and commercialization in lean global start-ups: the challenges of turning uncertainties into risks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanev, Stoyan; Rasmussen, Erik Stavnsager

    The paper examines the distinctive characteristics of product innovation and commercialization in Lean Global Start-up (LGS) – new technology firms which have adopted a lean and global path from or near to their inception. It suggests an uncertainty vs risk framework which allows integrating two research streams – Born Global (BG) firms and lean start-ups. In addition to its integrative theoretical value, the paper offers insights for lean start-up managers dealing with the challenges of a global start.

  9. 2010 Panel on the Biomaterials Grand Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Reichert, William “monty”; Ratner, Buddy D.; Anderson, James; Coury, Art; Hoffman, Allan S.; Laurencin, Cato T.; Tirrell, David

    2010-01-01

    In 2009, the National Academy for Engineering issued the Grand Challenges for Engineering in the 21st Century comprised of 14 technical challenges that must be addressed to build a healthy, profitable, sustainable, and secure global community (http://www.engineeringchallenges.org). Although crucial, none of the NEA Grand Challenges adequately addressed the challenges that face the biomaterials community. In response to the NAE Grand Challenges, Monty Reichert of Duke University organized a pa...

  10. Biological Sciences for the 21st Century: Meeting the Challenges of Sustainable Development in an Era of Global Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joel Cracraft; Richard O' Grady

    2007-05-12

    The symposium was held 10-12 May, 2007 at the Capitol Hilton Hotel in Washington, D. C. The 30 talks explored how some of today's key biological research developments (such as biocomplexity and complex systems analysis, bioinformatics and computational biology, the expansion of molecular and genomics research, and the emergence of other comprehensive or system wide analyses, such as proteomics) contribute to sustainability science. The symposium therefore emphasized the challenges facing agriculture, human health, sustainable energy, and the maintenance of ecosystems and their services, so as to provide a focus and a suite of examples of the enormous potential contributions arising from these new developments in the biological sciences. This symposium was the first to provide a venue for exploring how the ongoing advances in the biological sciences together with new approaches for improving knowledge integration and institutional science capacity address key global challenges to sustainability. The speakers presented new research findings, and identified new approaches and needs in biological research that can be expected to have substantial impacts on sustainability science.

  11. A Short Study of Iranian Organizations' Needs in the Area of Globalization: Opportunities, Challenges and Relative Advantages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Noruzi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Globalization and liberalization in developing countries is a lengthy process that has been a long time in the making. Some countries have accepted the reality of globalization while other undeveloped nations have yet to fully embrace this shift. For some, this has been in part due to fears among some underdeveloped nations that embracing globalization and becoming increasingly connected to a global economic network would put them in a bad position with relation to other powerful countries and multinational firms. Iran is an example of a developing country trying to be competitive in an increasingly global economy. The aim of this paper is to identify the needs for Iran and Iranian organizations in the process of globalization, focusing on opportunities, challenges, relative advantages and practical guides.Keywords: Globalization; Local development; Opportunities and Challenges

  12. Addressing Challenging Behaviour in Children with Down Syndrome: The Use of Applied Behaviour Analysis for Assessment and Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeley, Kathlee M.; Jones, Emily A.

    2006-01-01

    Children with Down syndrome are at an increased risk for engaging in challenging behaviour that may be part of a behavioural phenotype characteristic of Down syndrome. The methodology of applied behaviour analysis has been demonstrated effective with a wide range of challenging behaviours, across various disabilities. Applications to children with…

  13. Towards An Oceanographic Component Of A Global Earth Observation System Of Systems: Progress And Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackleson, S. G.

    2012-12-01

    Ocean observatories (systems of coordinated sensors and platforms providing real-time in situ observations across multiple temporal and spatial scales) have advanced rapidly during the past several decades with the integration of novel hardware, development of advanced cyber-infrastructures and data management software, and the formation of researcher networks employing fixed, drifting, and mobile assets. These advances have provided persistent, real-time, multi-disciplinary observations representing even the most extreme environmental conditions, enabled unique and informative views of complicated ocean processes, and aided in the development of more accurate and higher fidelity ocean models. Combined with traditional ship-based and remotely sensed observations, ocean observatories have yielded new knowledge across a broad spectrum of earth-ocean scales that would likely not exist otherwise. These developments come at a critical time in human history when the demands of global population growth are creating unprecedented societal challenges associated with rapid climatic change and unsustainable consumption of key ocean resources. Successfully meeting and overcoming these challenges and avoiding the ultimate tragedy of the commons will require greater knowledge of environmental processes than currently exists, including interactions between the ocean, the overlying atmosphere, and the adjacent land and synthesizing new knowledge into effective policy and management structures. To achieve this, researchers must have free and ready access to comprehensive data streams (oceanic, atmospheric, and terrestrial), regardless of location and collection system. While the precedent for the concept of free and open access to environmental data is not new (it traces back to the International Geophysical Year, 1957), implementing procedures and standards on a global scale is proving to be difficult, both logistically and politically. Observatories have been implemented in many parts of the global ocean, inspiring researchers to begin planning and developing connected regional observing systems that are networked into a Global Ocean Observing System as part of a comprehensive Global Earth Observation System of Systems. However, much remains to be accomplished, especially in the areas of standardizing observation methods and metadata, implementing procedures to assure an acceptable level of data quality, and defining and producing key derived products. This paper will briefly discuss the evolution of ocean observatories, summarize current efforts to develop local, regional and global observing networks, and suggest future steps towards a global ocean observing system.

  14. Global Marketing of Readymade Garment Products from Bangladesh: Market Prospect and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahasanul Haque

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the global export market and its prospect and challenges for Bangladesh readymade garment products. The shift share method is used to identify the potential export market by selected seven major categories of readymade garment products on the basis of three-digit level Standards International Trade Classification (SITC for the period of 1987-93 and 1994-2000. The results of shift share analysis indicate that the USA, Canada and European Union (EU countries mainly offered the market opportunities for the export of garment products of Bangladesh. Asian countries have very negligible role in this respect. The challenges faced by the sector include: tough competition from other competitive countries such as India, Thailand, China and Vietnam, to slow progress of its high-technology adoption and slow inflow of foreign investment. Finally, in 2005, the MFA quota would be phased out.

  15. Emerging from the tragedies in bangladesh: a challenge to voluntarism in the global economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claeson, Björn Skorpen

    2015-02-01

    Under the regime of private company or multi-stakeholder voluntary codes of conduct and industry social auditing, workers have absorbed low wages and unsafe and abusive conditions; labor leaders and union members have become the targets of both government and factory harassment and violence; and trade union power has waned. Nowhere have these private systems of codes and audits so clearly failed to protect workers as in Bangladesh's apparel industry. However, international labor groups and Bangladeshi unions have succeeded in mounting a challenge to voluntarism in the global economy, persuading more than 180 companies to make a binding and enforceable commitment to workers' safety in an agreement with 12 unions. The extent to which this Bangladesh Accord will be able to influence the entrenched global regime of voluntary codes and weak trade unions remains an open question. But if the Accord can make progress in Bangladesh, it can help to inspire similar efforts in other countries and in other industries. PMID:25816167

  16. Lessons Learned and Present Day Challenges of Addressing 20th Century Radiation Legacies of Russia and the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The decommissioning of nuclear submarines, disposal of highly-enriched uranium and weapons-grade plutonium, and processing of high-level radioactive wastes represent the most challenging issues facing the cleanup of 20th century radiation legacy wastes and facilities. The US and Russia are the two primary countries dealing with these challenges, because most of the world's fissile inventory is being processed and stored at multiple industrial sites and nuclear weapons production facilities in these countries

  17. Accelerating the global nuclear renaissance: the central challenge of sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rebirth of nuclear energy has become an unmistakable reality that is gathering speed and momentum on the full world stage. All around the world, old-school anti-nuclear environmentalism is being eclipsed by a new realism that recognises nuclear energy's essential virtue: its capacity to deliver cleanly generated power safely, reliably, and on a massive scale. For serious environmentalists, the real challenge is that nuclear energy is not yet growing fast enough to play its needed role in the clean-energy revolution our world so desperately needs. A fair assessment shows that not one of the commonly cited ''public concerns'' poses a reasonable obstacle to a global expansion of nuclear power: Proliferation, Operational Safety, Cost Reduction, Waste Management. In three areas, governments must take decisive action to grow the nuclear industry: (1) Construct a comprehensive global regime to curtail greenhouse emissions; (2) Elevate nuclear investment to a national and international policy priority; and (3) Support educational development of the nuclear profession for an expanded global role. The global nuclear industry will be indispensable if humanity is to preserve the environment that enabled civilisation to evolve. Governments must emerge from postures of timidity and equivocation to act decisively in support of that industry. Our world is in dire peril, and we have no time to lose

  18. Transportability of tertiary qualifications and CPD: A continuing challenge for the global health workforce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saltman Deborah C

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In workforces that are traditionally mobile and have long lead times for new supply, such as health, effective global indicators of tertiary education are increasingly essential. Difficulties with transportability of qualifications and cross-accreditation are now recognised as key barriers to meeting the rapidly shifting international demands for health care providers. The plethora of mixed education and service arrangements poses challenges for employers and regulators, let alone patients; in determining equivalence of training and competency between individuals, institutions and geographical locations. Discussion This paper outlines the shortfall of the current indicators in assisting the process of global certification and competency recognition in the health care workforce. Using Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD data we highlight how International standardisation in the tertiary education sector is problematic for the global health workforce. Through a series of case studies, we then describe a model which enables institutions to compare themselves internally and with others internationally using bespoke or prioritised parameters rather than standards. Summary The mobility of the global health workforce means that transportability of qualifications is an increasing area of concern. Valid qualifications based on workplace learning and assessment requires at least some variables to be benchmarked in order to judge performance.

  19. Building a Course on Global Sustainability using the grand challenges of Energy-Water-Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, J. D.

    2012-12-01

    GEOL1600: Global Sustainability: Managing the Earth's Resources is a lower division integrated science course at the University of Wyoming that fulfills the university's science requirement. Course content and context has been developed using the grand challenge nexus of energy-water-and climate (EWC). The interconnection of these issues, their social relevance and timeliness has provided a framework that gives students an opportunity to recognize why STEM is relevant to their lives regardless of their ultimate professional career choices. The EWC nexus provides the filter to sieve the course's STEM content. It also provides an ideal mechanism by which the non-STEM perspectives important in grand challenge solutions can be seamlessly incorporated in the course. Through a combination of content and context, the relevance of these issues engage students in their own learning. Development of the course followed the Grand Challenge Scientific Literacy (GCSL) model independently developed by the author and two colleagues at the University of Wyoming. This course model stresses science principles centered on the nature of science (e.g., fundamental premises, habits of mind, critical thinking) and unifying scientific concepts (e.g., methods and tools, experimentation, modeling). Grand challenge principles identify the STEM and non-STEM concepts needed to understand the grand challenges, drawing on multiple STEM and non-STEM disciplines and subjects (i.e., economics, politics, unintended consequences, roles of stakeholders). Using the EWC nexus filter and building on the Grand Challenge Principles, specific content included in the course is selected is that most relevant to understanding the Grand Challenges, thereby stressing content depth over breadth. Because quantitative data and reasoning is critical to effectively evaluating challenge solutions, QR is a component of nearly all class activities, while engineering and technology aspects of grand challenges are explicitly stressed. Running concurrently through the course is a consideration of personal perspectives and their influence on student learning, particularly for controversial subjects. Organizationally, the course consists of three one hour lectures and a two hour lab each week. The lectures are used to introduce content and prepare the knowledge base students need for lab. Complementing traditional lectures are lecture worksheets (short activities applying topics previously presented in lecture) and lecture activities (more involved exercises that present a problem the students need to solve using previously learned scientific content and QR skills and tools). Labs focus on case studies set in global social contexts that are timely and relevant. Labs stress scientific skills (modeling groundwater flow) and also consider political and environmental issues, e.g. developing a policy to manage SO2 emissions from copper smelting. The ideas, concepts, educational materials and content developed in this course have been used as the basis for two Math Science Partnerships that have provided professional development for middle and high school science and math teachers and K-12 social, math and science teachers. These programs have worked with teachers to break down the barriers between disciplines and foster collaborative learning centered on socially relevant grand challenges.

  20. The 2003 SARS Outbreak: Global Challenges and Innovative Infection Control Measure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathryn Murphy

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In early 2003, the global infection control community faced a great challenge, sudden acute respiratory syndrome (SARS. The rapid spread of SARS, its capacity to infect health care workers, and its many unknown features in the early days of the outbreak meant that health care workers were unsure of the most effective methods of infection control to prevent disease transmission. These conditions made designing appropriate, effective and standard infection control responses difficult. Innovation was necessary. This article provides a brief overview of global challenges in infection control and SARS. The author reports field observations and describes five selected examples of highly innovative, SARS-related infection control practices observed in three affected countries during the height of the 2003 outbreak. These examples relate to risk assessment, patient segregation, strategies to limit access to clinical areas, health care worker protection, and efforts to promote public confidence. Many of these strategies could be considered for use in the post-2003 SARS era, especially in preparation for an influenza or Avian influenza pandemic.

  1. Addressing Gender Issues in the Historically Black College and University Community: A Challenge and Call to Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonner, Florence B.

    2001-01-01

    Black women struggle for parity with men and white women in the U.S. academy. Examines gender issues at historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs), noting patterns of gender inequity and discrimination. These disparities are confounded by and in conflict with issues of race. Addresses the consequence of lack of attention to gender…

  2. Addressing the empathy deficit: beliefs about the malleability of empathy predict effortful responses when empathy is challenging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, Karina; Zaki, Jamil; Dweck, Carol S

    2014-09-01

    Empathy is often thought to occur automatically. Yet, empathy frequently breaks down when it is difficult or distressing to relate to people in need, suggesting that empathy is often not felt reflexively. Indeed, the United States as a whole is said to be displaying an empathy deficit. When and why does empathy break down, and what predicts whether people will exert effort to experience empathy in challenging contexts? Across 7 studies, we found that people who held a malleable mindset about empathy (believing empathy can be developed) expended greater empathic effort in challenging contexts than did people who held a fixed theory (believing empathy cannot be developed). Specifically, a malleable theory of empathy--whether measured or experimentally induced--promoted (a) more self-reported effort to feel empathy when it is challenging (Study 1); (b) more empathically effortful responses to a person with conflicting views on personally important sociopolitical issues (Studies 2-4); (c) more time spent listening to the emotional personal story of a racial outgroup member (Study 5); and (d) greater willingness to help cancer patients in effortful, face-to-face ways (Study 6). Study 7 revealed a possible reason for this greater empathic effort in challenging contexts: a stronger interest in improving one's empathy. Together, these data suggest that people's mindsets powerfully affect whether they exert effort to empathize when it is needed most, and these data may represent a point of leverage in increasing empathic behaviors on a broad scale. PMID:25133727

  3. The United Nations and Global Public Goods: Historical Contributions and Future Challenges.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Jenks

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Published by Palgrave MacmillanThis chapter explores the thesis that the United Nations’ (UN most important contribution to the production of global public goods has been its role in creating the space and capacity to generate shared values. Starting with the UN Charter itself, the chapter traces the evolution of this contribution through different historical phases. It analyses the impact of globalisation on the role of the UN; in particular it identifies the quality of porousness as a product of globalisation which is critical to understanding the current challenges faced by the UN as well as central to the global public goods agenda. Through this lens the author briefly reviews the evolution of the UN’s role in the fields of peace and security, human rights and development cooperation. He concludes by identifying eight levers for change that will determine the UN’s ability to contribute significantly to the global public goods: the generation of norms and shared values, the quality of leadership, improved governance, innovative financing, institutional realignment, the further consolidation of legal instruments, focus, and the power of networks.

  4. Challenges in addressing counselling needs of MSM in highly stigmatized contexts: results of a qualitative study from Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Taegtmeyer, M.; Muhaari, A; DAVIES, A; Mwangome, M; van der Elst, EM; Graham, SM; Sanders, EJ

    2009-01-01

    The role of men who have sex with men (MSM) in the African HIV epidemic is gaining recognition yet capacity to address the HIV prevention needs of this group is limited. HIV testing and counselling is not only a critical entry point for biomedical HIV prevention interventions, such as pre-exposure prophylaxis, rectal microbicides and early treatment initiation, but is also an opportunity for focused risk reduction counselling that can support individuals living in difficult circumstances. For...

  5. New and improved proteomics technologies for understanding complex biological systems: Addressing a grand challenge in the life sciences

    OpenAIRE

    Hood, Leroy E; Gilbert S. Omenn; Moritz, Robert L.; Aebersold, Ruedi; Yamamoto, Keith R; Amos, Michael; Hunter-Cevera, Jennie; Locascio, Laurie

    2012-01-01

    This White Paper sets out a Life Sciences Grand Challenge for Proteomics Technologies to enhance our understanding of complex biological systems, link genomes with phenotypes, and bring broad benefits to the biosciences and the US economy. The paper is based on a workshop hosted by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in Gaithersburg, MD, 14–15 February 2011, with participants from many federal R&D agencies and research communities, under the aegis of the US National Scie...

  6. “Better” regulation through social entrepreneurship? - innovative and market-based approaches to address the digital challenge to copyright regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Richter, Wolf R.; Brown, Ian; Nicholls, Alex

    2010-01-01

    After the initial excitement about the Internet as a space outside of governmental control has evaporated and courts in several states have applied national laws to ‘Cyberspace’, there is now a consensus among scholars that regulators have in principle the authority and capacity to regulate the Internet. Nevertheless, the application of the established tools of regulation - legislation and adjudication - to the current challenges to copyright regulation posed by the Internet has proven to...

  7. High-skill mobility : addressing the challenges of a knowledge-based economy at times of crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Isaakyan, Irina; Triandafyllidou, Anna

    2013-01-01

    In the milieu of the current economic crisis, the most difficult challenge for high-skill migrants is their entry to and progression within the job markets of their host societies. Offering them the best opportunities for earning, career development and high quality of life; the OECD region remains the major zone of high-skill migration (HSM). There is a policy dilemma, however. On the one hand, the OECD countries need skilled migrants. On the other hand, the economic austerity caused by...

  8. The Forensic Curator: Digital Forensics as a Solution to Addressing the Curatorial Challenges Posed by Personal Digital Archives

    OpenAIRE

    Knight, Gareth

    2012-01-01

    The growth of computing technology during the previous three decades has resulted in a large amount of content being created in digital form. As their creators retire or pass away, an increasing number of personal data collections, in the form of digital media and complete computer systems, are being offered to the academic institutional archive. For the digital curator or archivist, the handling and processing of such digital material represents a considerable challenge, requiring developmen...

  9. Addressing the challenges of a new digital technologies curriculum: MOOCs as a scalable solution for teacher professional development

    OpenAIRE

    Rebecca Vivian; Katrina Falkner; Nickolas Falkner

    2014-01-01

    England and Australia have introduced new learning areas, teaching computer science to children from the first year of school. This is a significant milestone that also raises a number of big challenges: the preparation of teachers and the development of resources at a national scale. Curriculum change is not easy for teachers, in any context, and to ensure teachers are supported, scaled solutions are required. One educational approach that has gained traction for delivering content to large-...

  10. Makerere University College of Health Sciences’ role in addressing challenges in health service provision at Mulago National Referral Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Sekandi Juliet; Nshimye Edith; Kasangaki Arabat; Mbabali Speciosa; Tweheyo Raymond; Tugumisirize Joshua; Kizza Irene B; Groves Sara; Kennedy Caitlin E

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Mulago National Referral Hospital (MNRH), Uganda’s primary tertiary and teaching hospital, and Makerere University College of Health Sciences (MakCHS) have a close collaborative relationship. MakCHS students complete clinical rotations at MNRH, and MakCHS faculty partner with Mulago staff in clinical care and research. In 2009, as part of a strategic planning process, MakCHS undertook a qualitative study to examine care and service provision at MNRH, identify challenges,...

  11. The Nigerian University System and the Challenges of Capacity Building in a Globalized Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. B. J. Iheriohanma

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The scaring effects of globalization and the global economic shift have affected world economic order to the extent that the weak economies are still trying to grapple with the production processes. The necessity of international discourse, alignment and reorganization generated by the new economic order has not provided the needed solution. Rather, the process has continued to erode and reorder the traditional economic activities of the weak economies to the extent that there is unprecedented unemployment. This gives the impression that the university academic system, with the courses and programmes taught, is not structured in a flexible manner to arrest the situation. This paper on the synergy between the Nigerian university academic system and the challenges of capacity building in a globalized economy investigates why, in spite of the numerous international discourses, economic restructuring, etc. unemployment, especially among the products of universities, continues to escalate, economy continues to dwindle, political structures and governance continue to deteriorate. The observation is that the Nigerian university system has failed to achieve, among the beneficiaries, the expected capacity building, intellectual capital and knowledge necessary to drive the economy in this dispensation. The paper recommends inter alia, an overhaul of the Nigerian university system to take care of the critical requirements of current production processes, flexibilization of labour and employment, ensuring that the knowledge and skills acquired are information and communication technology oriented and the development of the power and energy sector because of its regeneration and multiplier effects on job and wealth creation.
    Key words: Capacity Building; Flexibilization; Intellectual Capital; Nigerian University Academic System; Globalization

  12. Opening Address [FR09: International Conference on Fast Reactors and Related Fuel Cycles: Challenges and Opportunities, Kyoto (Japan), 7-11 December 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Distinguished guests, ladies and gentlemen. It is my honour to address participants at this opening session of the International Conference on Fast Reactors and Related Fuel Cycles: Challenges and Opportunities, organized by the IAEA and hosted by the Japan Atomic Energy Agency. Fast reactor technology has the potential to ensure that energy resources which would last hundreds of years with the technology we are using today will actually last several thousand years. In other words, it can satisfy enormous increases in demand. This innovative technology also reduces the risk to the environment and helps to limit the burden that will be placed on future generations in the form of waste products. The coming year will be an exciting one for the development of fast spectrum nuclear reactors. We expect to reach several important milestones: (a) The first criticality of the China Experimental Fast Reactor; (b) The restart of the Monju prototype fast reactor in Japan; (c) The new insights we will gain through the end-of-life studies at the Phenix reactor in France. In the near future, new fast reactors will be commissioned: the 500 MW(e) Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor in India, the first in a series of five of the same type, and the BN-800 reactor in the Russian Federation. Moreover, China, France, India, Japan and the Republic of Korea are preparing advanced prototypes and demonstration or commercial reactors for the 2020-2030 period. Nuclear power is set to becom2030 period. Nuclear power is set to become an increasingly important part of the global energy mix in the coming decades as demand for energy grows. A number of countries in both the developed and developing world have told the IAEA that they are interested in introducing nuclear power. The 30 countries which already have nuclear power reactors are set to build more. This trend is likely to be accompanied by accelerated deployment of fast reactors. Continued advances in research and technology development are necessary to ensure improved economics and maintain high safety levels with increased simplification of fast reactors. The number of countries with fast reactor development programmes is increasing steadily. Emerging economies are joining the traditional fast reactor technology holders and pursuing important research and technology activities. The IAEA provides a unique collaborative framework to enable all these players to work together to ensure that innovative fast reactor technology progresses. We provide an 'umbrella' for knowledge preservation, information exchange and collaborative R and D in order to pool resources and expertise. Our Technical Working Group on Fast Reactors promotes the exchange of information on national and multinational programmes and new developments and experience. It aims to identify problems, help find solutions and facilitate practical application of fast neutron systems. In the Programme and Budget Cycle for 2010-2011, IAEA projects on innovative fast neutron systems will continue to focus on issues addressing fast reactor economics, enhanced safety characteristics, sustainability and public acceptance. As far as public acceptance is concerned, I believe there is a growing understanding throughout the world that clean, efficient and safe nuclear energy has a key role to play in meeting the growing demand for energy while minimizing damage to the environment. Fast reactor technology has a promising future. The IAEA will continue to work with all of you to help interested Member States to benefit from it and to establish, or further enhance, the necessary safety, security and safeguards infrastructure. Let me conclude by expressing my gratitude to all of the dedicated colleagues in the International Advisory Committee, the International Scientific Committee and the Local Organizing Committee who have worked hard to organize this conference. I wish you every success in your deliberations over the next few days. (author)

  13. Japanese Higher Education Institutions in the 21st Century: The Challenge of Globalization and Internationalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AOKI, Kumiko

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Higher education institutions in Japan are facing unprecedented challenges today due to the following three factors:the decrease in the size of college age cohorts in the coming years; heightened expectations in the modes of instructional delivery through the advances of information and communication technologies (ICT; global competition for college students worldwide especially from English-speaking countries. This paper examines internationalization of higher education in Japan in terms of:foreign faculty members in Japan, foreign tertiary students in Japan, Japanese students studying abroad, branch campuses of foreign colleges and universities in Japan, off-shore campuses of Japanese colleges and universities, and cross-border higher education through e-learning.

  14. Frontier Lecture in Hydrological Science: Advancing Hydrological Investigations by Addressing Some Challenges Posed by Dynamic Surface Soil Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, R.

    2005-12-01

    Soil is a key natural resource. Surface soil has importance for a variety of hydrological, environmental, ecological, climatological, and agricultural investigations. Compared to the attention given to water and air, public attention given to soil is miniscule. However, the importance of soil is becoming recognized more fully within the natural science community. Soil represents part of the vadose zone which is hydrologically connected to both surface water and groundwater. Soil science is at a critical time for refocusing attention to studies of soil hydrology in various ecosystems. A sociological challenge to the soil science community is to move past the era of specialists researching and teaching for the sake of communicating with other specialists. It is time to balance specialties with an integrated approach. A technical challenge to soil scientists is to quantify spatial and temporal variability of surface soil properties that impact hydrology and ecosystem products and services. In this seminar I will present a variety of reasons that encourage integrative investigations of the natural hydrologic environment. I will also introduce some new measurement methods that can quantify surface soil properties. It is time to embrace the beauty and importance of soil so that we scientists can more fully co-operate to study, teach, and manage hydrologic systems for the service of humanity

  15. Progress in aptamer-mediated drug delivery vehicles for cancer targeting and its implications in addressing chemotherapeutic challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jie; Huang, He; Dong, Shiwu; Ge, Liang; Zhang, Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Aptamers are novel oligonucleotides with flexible three-dimensional configurations that recognize and bind to their cognate targets, including tumor surface receptors, in a high-affinity and highly specific manner. Because of their unique intrinsic properties, a variety of aptamer-mediated nanovehicles have been developed to directionally transport anti-cancer drugs to tumor sites to minimize systemic cytotoxicity and to enhance permeation by these tumoricidal agents. Despite advances in the selection and synthesis of aptamers and in the conjugation and self-assembly of nanotechnologies, current chemotherapy and drug delivery systems face great challenges. These challenges are due to the limitations of aptamers and vehicles and because of complicated tumor mechanisms, including heterogeneity, anti-cancer drug resistance, and hypoxia-induced aberrances. In this review, we will summarize current approaches utilizing tumor surface hallmarks and aptamers and their roles and mechanisms in therapeutic nanovehicles targeting tumors. Delivery forms include nanoparticles, nanotubes, nanogels, aptamer-drug conjugates, and novel molecular trains. Moreover, the obstacles posed by the aforementioned issues will be highlighted, and possible solutions will be acknowledged. Furthermore, future perspectives will be presented, including cutting-edge integration with RNA interference nanotechnology and personalized chemotherapy, which will facilitate innovative approaches to aptamer-based therapeutics. PMID:25057317

  16. Projected groundwater balance as a state indicator for addressing sustainability and management challenges of overexploited crystalline aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah, S.; Ahmed, S.; Boisson, A.; Violette, S.; de Marsily, G.

    2014-11-01

    In India, particularly in semi-arid regions, groundwater levels are declining at alarming rates due to overexploitation and the sustainable exploitation of groundwater resources is in deep crisis. There is little or no information on groundwater sustainability indicators, which can signal towards the challenges in water management. In this study we downscaled an entire watershed into three zones based on the different hydrodynamic behaviour recorded at the borewell scale. A process-based simple, multi-parameter linear auto-regressive model was developed to predict groundwater levels, which uses recharge, groundwater withdrawal and irrigation return flow as input variables. A comprehensive and predictive long-term groundwater balance is used as a state indicator to evaluate the sustainability and management challenges in the watershed. Two groundwater withdrawal scenarios were designed to assess the impact of groundwater withdrawal on the groundwater balance. We found that geological heterogeneities play a crucial role in controlling groundwater fluctuations. The storage change in two different groundwater withdrawal scenarios shows gradually declining groundwater storage in both scenarios. A long-term assessment of the groundwater balance helps to analyse the state of the groundwater system and to locate priority zones for watershed interventions.

  17. Revisioning Education for All in the age of migration: Global challenges and opportunities for lifelong learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shibao

    2014-08-01

    This paper revisits and revisions Education for All (EFA) in the age of global migration with the aim of developing more inclusive approaches towards social justice and equity in education. Drawing on cases of internal and international migration in China and Canada, this paper compares and contrasts policies and practices in the education of migrants and their children to discern common issues and challenges in both country contexts. The findings reveal that despite China's nine-year compulsory education law for all school-aged children, migrant children are often deprived of equitable learning opportunities, resulting in their being the most educationally marginalised in China. The case of Canada demonstrates some of the challenges facing immigrants in having their prior learning and work experience recognised. Lessons learned from this comparative analysis have important implications for the post-2015 EFA revisioning process in terms of developing a holistic, inclusive lifelong learning framework which ensures that the learning needs of both young and adult learners are met through access to equitable learning opportunities as well as recognition of their prior learning and experience.

  18. Understanding the virtual team challenge – a discourse perspective on sensemaking in a global organisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Nils Braad; Kampf, Constance Elizabeth

    The literature on virtual teams describes knowledge sharing and trust-building challenges. However, few studies take into account the complexity of the work context in these virtual teams. Key factors affecting complexity include situations in which employees are involved in several teams and projects simultaneously; some virtual, some co-located. This multi-team membership complicates relationship-building within each individual team. To understand how employees make sense of this complex, or equivocal (Weick, 2001) environment, this paper adopts a discourse perspective combining Austin’s speech act theory (1975) and Gee’s discourse analysis (2011). This perspective is used to analyze 21 interviews to understand how employees construct meaning in semi-virtual multi-team environments. The analysis shows how a few autonomous employees are able to use their extended networks in a global organization to circumvent organizational strategic discourse. In this process, they build teams and communities based on trusted weak ties (Granovetter, 1973; Levin & Cross, 2004). Furthermore, the study shows how difficult it can be for management to listen in on and react to this discourse change. If management is unaware of this reconfiguration of discourses and relations it may challenge organizational leadership.

  19. The global energy context -- chances and challenges for the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy is the driving force towards economic and social development. Global demand for energy will keep growing for many years to come due to ongoing, although reduced population growth, and due to the needs of up to 2000 million people who are still without access to commercial energy. To meet this growing demand for energy, all options have to be kept open, with fossil fuels, nuclear and hydro dominating the energy mix for the next decades, and 'new' renewables coming in only slowly. Considering the resulting strain on the environment, and looking at existing disparities in energy supply, the next few decades will not be free of tensions. A turning point may appear in the mid 21st century with world population coming to a halt, distinctly improved energy efficiency in the Developing World, and with new technologies available. Thus, mainly challenges will determine the first half of the century, whereas chances are on hand for the second half of the century - if we act now. The single most important instrument to meet these challenges and to take advantage of the chances is a concentrated move towards energy efficiency and innovation, supported by market reform and appropriate regulation. (author)

  20. The global energy context: Chances and challenges for the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy is the driving force towards economic and social development. Global demand for energy will keep growing for many years to come due to ongoing, although reduced population growth, and due to the needs of up to 2 billion people who are still without access to commercial energy. To meet this growing demand for energy, all options have to be kept open, with fossil fuels, nuclear and hydro dominating the energy mix for the next decades, and 'new' renewables coming in only slowly. Considering the resulting strain on the environment, and looking at existing disparities in energy supply, the next few decades will not be free of tensions. A turning point may appear in the mid 21st century with world population coming to a halt, distinctly improved energy efficiency also in the Developing World, and with new technologies available. Thus, mainly challenges will determine the first half of the century, whereas chances are on hand for the second half of the century - if we act now. The single most important instrument to meet these challenges and to take advantage of the chances is a concentrated move towards energy efficiency and innovation, supported by market reform and appropriate regulation. (author)

  1. Global Monitoring of Water Supply and Sanitation: History, Methods and Future Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie Bartram

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available International monitoring of drinking water and sanitation shapes awareness of countries’ needs and informs policy, implementation and research efforts to extend and improve services. The Millennium Development Goals established global targets for drinking water and sanitation access; progress towards these targets, facilitated by international monitoring, has contributed to reducing the global disease burden and increasing quality of life. The experiences of the MDG period generated important lessons about the strengths and limitations of current approaches to defining and monitoring access to drinking water and sanitation. The methods by which the Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP of WHO and UNICEF tracks access and progress are based on analysis of data from household surveys and linear regression modelling of these results over time. These methods provide nationally representative and internationally comparable insights into the drinking water and sanitation facilities used by populations worldwide, but also have substantial limitations: current methods do not address water quality, equity of access, or extra-household services. Improved statistical methods are needed to better model temporal trends. This article describes and critically reviews JMP methods in detail for the first time. It also explores the impact of, and future directions for, international monitoring of drinking water and sanitation.

  2. Global Monitoring of Water Supply and Sanitation: History, Methods and Future Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartram, Jamie; Brocklehurst, Clarissa; Fisher, Michael B.; Luyendijk, Rolf; Hossain, Rifat; Wardlaw, Tessa; Gordon, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    International monitoring of drinking water and sanitation shapes awareness of countries’ needs and informs policy, implementation and research efforts to extend and improve services. The Millennium Development Goals established global targets for drinking water and sanitation access; progress towards these targets, facilitated by international monitoring, has contributed to reducing the global disease burden and increasing quality of life. The experiences of the MDG period generated important lessons about the strengths and limitations of current approaches to defining and monitoring access to drinking water and sanitation. The methods by which the Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP) of WHO and UNICEF tracks access and progress are based on analysis of data from household surveys and linear regression modelling of these results over time. These methods provide nationally-representative and internationally-comparable insights into the drinking water and sanitation facilities used by populations worldwide, but also have substantial limitations: current methods do not address water quality, equity of access, or extra-household services. Improved statistical methods are needed to better model temporal trends. This article describes and critically reviews JMP methods in detail for the first time. It also explores the impact of, and future directions for, international monitoring of drinking water and sanitation. PMID:25116635

  3. The challenges for global harmonisation of food safety norms and regulations: issues for India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Jamuna

    2014-08-01

    Safe and adequate food is a human right, safety being a prime quality attribute without which food is unfit for consumption. Food safety regulations are framed to exercise control over all types of food produced, processed and sold so that the customer is assured that the food consumed will not cause any harm. From the Indian perspective, global harmonisation of food regulations is needed to improve food and nutrition security, the food trade and delivery of safe ready-to-eat (RTE) foods at all places and at all times. The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) put forward to transform developing societies incorporate many food safety issues. The success of the MDGs, including that of poverty reduction, will in part depend on an effective reduction of food-borne diseases, particularly among the vulnerable group, which includes women and children. Food- and water-borne illnesses can be a serious health hazard, being responsible for high incidences of morbidity and mortality across all age groups of people. Global harmonisation of food regulations would assist in facilitating food trade within and outside India through better compliance, ensuring the safety of RTE catered foods, as well as addressing issues related to the environment. At the same time, regulations need to be optimum, as overregulation may have undue negative effects on the food trade. PMID:23553336

  4. Christo-Islamic Perspectives on Abortion and the Challenges of Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kehinde Emmanuel Obasola

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The world is witnessing a tremendous change in every sphere in every facet of its social, political, economic as well as in the religious sphere. These changes have affected the orientation of people towards certain behavioural patterns that were hitherto regarded as sacrosanct and but which has now witnessed and is still witnessing serious changes due to the effect of globalization and this has eroded religious beliefs and practices. One such is the issue of abortion which has been legalized in some nations of the world and there has generated a lot of controversies among different religious groups, individuals and Non-Governmental Organizations. The basis for this lies in the fact that human lives are regarded as sacred and should not be taken at the whims and caprices of people irrespective of the circumstance except when such causes serious danger to the life of the woman. The modern trend of committing abortion and even its legalization is regarded as preposterous and inhuman and urgent steps need to be taken to avert the danger(s caused by this dastardly act. Also religious groups need to rise to the challenges posed by this dastardly act in order to avert imminent danger to the global community.

  5. Stigma, survivorship and solutions: Addressing the challenges of living with breast cancer in low-resource areas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M, Mutebi; J, Edge.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer in developing nations is characterised by late diagnosis. The causes are multifactorial and many are addressed in other articles in this edition of CME. Breast cancer is also seen in younger women. The late-presentation trend is slowly changing in some areas, and an increasing number o [...] f women are presenting with early disease. These patients, if managed appropriately, have a more favourable prognosis. As a result, developing nations must now begin to consider the concerns of breast cancer survivorship. In developed countries, there are a number of organisations that support breast cancer survivors. In this article, we highlight some of the psychosocial aspects of living with breast cancer in low-resource areas.

  6. Addressing the challenges and opportunities for today's youth: toward an integrative model and its implications for research and intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Seth J; Pantin, Hilda; Coatsworth, J Douglas; Szapocznik, José

    2007-03-01

    This article calls for, and proposes some tenets of, model building in adolescent psychosocial development. Specifically, it is suggested that there is a need for a model that draws from the risk-protection approach, from which many prevention science approaches are drawn, and the applied developmental science perspective, from which many positive youth development approaches are drawn. The model to be built, and the integration it proposes, is based in the overlap between protective factors and developmental assets (drawn from the applied developmental science and positive youth development perspectives), as well as on the complementarity of the intrapersonal mechanisms proposed within the two perspectives. The article also poses important questions for future research and presents an empirical agenda for addressing these questions in the service of building and testing a model of adolescent psychosocial development and of integrating the prevention and positive youth development approaches to intervention and policy. PMID:17333381

  7. The Forensic Curator: Digital Forensics as a Solution to Addressing the Curatorial Challenges Posed by Personal Digital Archives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gareth Knight

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The growth of computing technology during the previous three decades has resulted in a large amount of content being created in digital form. As their creators retire or pass away, an increasing number of personal data collections, in the form of digital media and complete computer systems, are being offered to the academic institutional archive. For the digital curator or archivist, the handling and processing of such digital material represents a considerable challenge, requiring development of new processes and procedures. This paper outlines how digital forensic methods, developed by the law enforcement and legal community, may be applied by academic digital archives. It goes on to describe the strategic and practical decisions that should be made to introduce forensic methods within an existing curatorial infrastructure and how different techniques, such as forensic hashing, timeline analysis and data carving, may be used to collect information of a greater breadth and scope than may be gathered through manual activities.

  8. Report on the INMM Workshop on preparing for nuclear arms reductions to address technical transparency and verification challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In May 2011, a workshop was held to develop broader awareness of the technical and operational challenges that could be used to enhance effective transparency and/or verification in the medium to long-term. Building confidence in a broader multi-lateral engagement scenario adds even greater challenges than the traditional bi-lateral approaches. The multi-disciplinary group that attended included decision-makers needing to understand present and possible future technical capabilities, and the technical community needing clearer definition of possible requirements and operational constraints. In additional to traditional presentations, the group conducted an exercise to stimulate new perspectives on verification requirements for a scenario based on nuclear arms reductions at very low numbers of nuclear weapons. The workshop participants were divided into two groups and asked to explore the political and technical requirements needed for States to move towards significant arms reductions. Using a technique called 'back-casting' participants were asked to imagine a world without nuclear weapons and describe what would be needed to achieve levels of one thousand, one hundred, ten, and ultimately zero weapons in the world. Most participants agreed that a strong political commitment will be necessary and that complete disarmament will only be possible if states are convinced that nuclear weapons serve no purpose. Both groups believed that a time period of greater instability would be encountered when moving from 1000 to 100 nuclear weapons and that it would be imperative to accelerate quickly through this period. The group discussed the need to have an international body monitor the disarmament process to maintain legitimacy for the international community. One possibility could be the development of an intergovernmental panel on verification and disarmament to monitor and facilitate disarmament. The groups recognized the problem of fissile material disposition after warheads dismantlement. Controlling fissile materials is important since nuclear material could be a direct route to reconstitution of weapons. (A.C.)

  9. An overlook of the new global nuclear scenario and the emergent challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this paper is to make a short overlook of the world nuclear renaissance and point out some emergent challenges. The presentation covers different subjects in which the nuclear energy shows great advantage to face concerns about climate change, energy demand growth, and relative cost of competing technologies in a global scenario. Additionally nuclear technology can deploy in a middle term an important potential development oriented to improve even more that nuclear design, safety, environment protection, economic and sustainability of the present nuclear reactors generation. The world nuclear energy scenario reveals a renaissance after a long period of lethargy. Now is the focus of considerable attention and debate about the risks and benefits of its expansion. Many countries are again planning ambitious nuclear programs. In the case of Argentina, a decision was taken to end the construction of Atucha 750 MWe power plant (NPP) and to begin the construction of another two NPP in the next decade. In the middle term and expansion of 60 % of the present world nuclear capabilities is foreseen. For the long term there could be much more if today's performance data is maintained or improved. It would require the nuclear industry to return immediately to the most rapid period of growth experienced in the past. The training of the young people is also an important challenge. But some countries are still reluctant due to the adverse local public opinion. In spite of the great accessibility and availability of the NPP confirmed by the global experience of the 350 operating nuclear power plants, the public acceptability is not confirmed. Some sectors of the society -with the support in some case of the media- are against the use of the nuclear energy. In this paper some reasons of the public concerns is explained and actions are mentioned to change its perceptions. At the end, the global society in front of the real means available to fulfill the growing energy demand and needs to protect the environments from catastrophic climate changes and limited fuel resources, must accept the great advantage of the NPP, the potential possibilities of the nuclear technology progress and the lowest risks of its expansion. (author)

  10. Addressing verification challenges, 16 October 2006, Vienna, Austria, Symposium on International Safeguards (16-20 October 2006)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In his talk about Verification Challenges Dr. Mohamed ElBaradei, Director General of the IAEA, welcomed the participants of the Symposium on International Safeguards. He stated that safeguards is probably the most difficult task entrusted to an international organization and that a major increase in nuclear energy around the globe is expected which means that nuclear know-how is spread to more and more countries and can be applied to both peaceful purposes and also non-peaceful purposes. More and more countries want to go in for the nuclear fuel cycle including sensitive fuel cycle activities like enrichment and reprocessing, they become so-called 'virtual nuclear weapons States. There is the need to develop a new international or multinational approach to the fuel cycle so as to avoid ending up with not just nine nuclear weapon States but another 20 or 30 States which have the capacity to develop nuclear weapons in a very short span of time. He stressed the important linkage between disarmament and non-proliferation and remembered the audience that safeguards, although very much a technical activity, operates in a politically charged environment. The IAEA's job is to make sure that countries with comprehensive safeguards are conducting all their activities exclusively for peaceful purposes. The ability to discover possible undeclared activities is a key challenge the IAEA is facing. He mentioned that the IAEA does not get all the information they would need, for example the IAEA does not get systematic information from the Nuclear Suppliers Group on exports and imports. Without the Additional Protocol the IAEA is also hampered in its ability to detect undeclared activities, e.g in the R and D activities that do not directly involve nuclear material. Another key issue are financial resources. Transparency measures in certain situations are under considerations including interviewing people, having access to documents, things that are not strictly required by the Additional Protocol but without which the IAEA cannot move forward. Environmental sampling and satellite monitoring are new tools the IAEA is now using almost routinely. New verification tools are developed in co-operation with the Member States

  11. Global Challenges and Local Responses : Trade Unions in the Korean and Malaysian Auto Industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wad, Peter

    2005-01-01

    The paper aims to address the question whether the dynamic of autoworker unionism in South Korea and Malaysia was conditioned by, and eventually also influenced the globalization processes in the local auto industry? The conclusion is a contextualized "yes", and the core argument is the following: The financial crisis in 1997 was the dramatic peak of financial globalization in East Asia in the 1990s, and it did accelerate the existing trend in Korea towards centralized unionism in the auto industry, while it suspended the trend in the Malaysian auto industry towards decentralized unionism. Although the Korean and Malaysian unions were affected by the financial crisis from different structural and strategic positions, and were exposed to different national policies and corporate strategies of crisis management, the Korean unions and Malaysian unions generally followed, respectively, a more radical and militant and a more pragmatic and moderate strategy. In the global-local perspective we face two paradoxes. The first paradox is that in spite of the difference in union ideology, the outcome in terms of industrial relations (IR) institutions was rather similar in the sense that the auto industry contained a mixture of industrial and enterprise unions and formal or informal federations of these unions, and that collective bargaining was by and large undertaken bilaterally at the enterprise level. This situation was generated by a dynamic, which took the Malaysian system down from a centralized IR system within the low technology assembly industry (the globally subordinated local OEMs) to a rather decentralized IR system within the SOE-MNC controlled industry. The Korean system became more centralized through the confrontations between radical enterprise unions and authoritarian employers and authorities within an auto industry, which over time become much more indigenized, technologically advanced, export-oriented and diversified into multiple auto manufacturers and an under-wood of component suppliers. Yet, in both auto industries the large enterprise unions resisted organizational centralization, which could impede their autonomy. Due to the strength of unions of the market leading firms a breakthrough did happen neither in Korea nor in Malaysia, although the Koreans were a step ahead of the Malaysians having established a federation of metalworkers unions, including the important autoworkers unions. The second paradox is that the radicalism of the Korean autoworker unions was maintained during 1990s globalization of the auto industry, while radicalism was abandoned by the Malaysian autoworker unions in favor of union pragmatism, when the indigenization of the Malaysian auto industry unfolded since the early 1980s and a local auto supplier industry had been formed. This cross-country difference is partly explained by the different position held by the Korean and Malaysian auto companies in the global and local auto value chain. The radicalism and effectiveness of Korean autoworker unions sustained the development of dynamic efficiency among Korean auto manufacturing firms. In the same way, the intra-industry differences in wages and working conditions among auto manufacturing firms and components supplier firms were also related to the stratification of the domestic auto value chain, and this uneven distribution of benefits created obstacles of centralized unionization and collective bargaining. The centralized IR system in Malaysia evolved in an auto industry composed primarily of firms assembling imported CKD kits of components. The inequality of employment conditions between auto manufacturers and component suppliers was a driver of the strategy of centralized unionism and collective bargaining in Korea, while the inequality was not perceived as that significant by the Malaysian industrial union, since they had been dealing with these problems by the early 1990s. Keywords: Globalisation, trade unions, automobile industry, global value chain theory, East Asia, Malaysia, South Korea.

  12. Addressing the Challenges of Satellite and in-Situ Oceanographic Dataset Interoperability at the PO.Daac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsontos, V. M.; Huang, T.

    2014-12-01

    The earth science enterprise increasingly relies on the integration and synthesis of multivariate datasets from diverse observational platforms. NASA's ocean salinity missions, that include Aquarius/SAC-D and the SPURS (Salinity Processes in the Upper Ocean Regional Study) field campaign, illustrate the value of integrated observations in support of studies of the water cycle, environmental variability and climate. However, the inherent heterogeneity of resulting data and the disparate, distributed systems that serve them complicates their effective utilization for both earth science research and applications. Despite increased availability of oceanographic data online and improved protocols and tools for access, the fundamental problem of unified data access remains an impediment in part because of structural reasons (domain specific data providers) and in part because of specific technical issues. Key technical interoperability challenges include adherence to metadata and data format standards that are particularly acute for in-situ data and the lack of a unified metadata model facilitating archival and integration of both satellite and oceanographic field datasets. Here we report on new efforts at the PO.DAAC, NASA's physical oceanographic data center responsible for the archival and distribution of the satellite mission data that includes Aquarius, to extend our data management infrastructure to additionally support field campaign datasets such as those from SPURS. Integral to this are plans to develop a generalized data matchup service facilitating the reconciliation of multi-scale data exhibiting heterogeneous sampling geometries in support of mission Cal/Val and oceanographic research.

  13. Addressing the challenges of a new digital technologies curriculum: MOOCs as a scalable solution for teacher professional development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Vivian

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available England and Australia have introduced new learning areas, teaching computer science to children from the first year of school. This is a significant milestone that also raises a number of big challenges: the preparation of teachers and the development of resources at a national scale. Curriculum change is not easy for teachers, in any context, and to ensure teachers are supported, scaled solutions are required. One educational approach that has gained traction for delivering content to large-scale audiences are massively open online courses (MOOCs; however, little is known about what constitutes effective MOOC design, particularly within professional development contexts. To prepare teachers in Australia, we decided to ride the wave of MOOCs, developing a MOOC to deliver free computing content and pedagogy to teachers with the integration of social media to support knowledge exchange and resource building. The MOOC was designed to meet teacher needs, allowing for flexibility, ad-hoc interactions, support and the open sharing of resources. In this paper, we describe the process of developing our initiative, participant engagement and experiences, so that others encountering similar changes and reforms may learn from our experience.

  14. Opening address by conference president [International conference on challenges faced by technical and scientific support organizations in enhancing nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under the current global circumstances of steady and rapid economic growth combined with the need for environmental protection, the nuclear energy industry is encountering a renaissance. Accordingly, nuclear and radiation safety need to be increasingly promoted as high priorities. The governments of many countries attach great importance to nuclear safety and have carried out a great deal of work in such areas as improving the legal system for its regulation, promoting capacity building in its surveillance, establishing a healthy management system and developing a nuclear safety culture. Effective nuclear safety regulatory systems have been set up around the world after several decades. In order to enhance nuclear safety, it is necessary to establish technical and scientific support organizations (TSOs) in the field of nuclear safety. Such organizations, whether pertaining to the nuclear regulatory body or to the utilities, are gaining increased importance by providing the technical and scientific basis for safety decisions and activities. At present, TSOs are playing a crucial role in technical backup for nuclear regulatory bodies and utilities in all areas of nuclear and radiation safety

  15. Opening Statement - Zhang Dejiang [International Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Energy in the 21. Century: Addressing Energy Needs and Environmental Challenges, Beijing (China), 20-22 April 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear science and technology is one of the greatest scientific and technological achievements of humankind in the 20th century. Nuclear science and technology is widely applied in various sectors, with over 50 years of development, such as energy, industry, agriculture, health and environmental protection, and is playing an important role in the prospering economy, and in improving peoples? livelihoods and promoting sustainable development. With global economic development and rising energy consumption, supply of traditional energy sources is becoming more stretched, and climate change is becoming an increasingly severe challenge. It is a common task of the international community to develop and utilize clean and renewable energy sources and properly address growing contradictions among economic development, energy development and environmental protection. Given its advantage as a clean, safe energy source that could be applied at a large scale, more and more countries are placing importance on nuclear energy. Accelerating the peaceful use of nuclear energy is the common wish and inevitable choice of many countries. China started the development of nuclear energy in the early 1950s, and with the efforts of over half a century, China has established a relatively complete nuclear industry system. The installed capacity of nuclear power has reached 9 100 MW(e), and nuclear power generation accounts for 2 per cent of the national total electricity generated. Nuclear enel total electricity generated. Nuclear energy is playing an incremental role in China?s economic development. However, nuclear energy utilization is rather insufficient in China, its development level is behind countries which are advanced in nuclear energy use such as the United States of America and France, and the rate of nuclear power generation in the total electricity generated still falls behind the world average level. China?s energy supply mix features a dominance of coal and a low proportion of clean energy. To achieve sustainable energy and socioeconomic development, China has formulated the energy development strategy of actively promoting energy conservation and optimizing the energy structure. Accelerating nuclear power development and enhancing the ratio of clean energy such as nuclear power in the aggregate energy supply is the priority of China?s energy development strategy. Currently, the peaceful use of nuclear energy has entered a stage of rapid development. A batch of new nuclear power projects are starting construction in coastal areas, preparation for other new projects is going on in an orderly manner, and demonstration projects of the introduction of third generation nuclear power technology are moving ahead smoothly. Scientific and research engineering programmes such as China?s experimental fast reactor, high temperature gas cooled reactor and thermal nuclear fusion device are making positive progress. The nuclear fuel cycle industry continues its development, and the ability to ensure supply of nuclear fuel is being enhanced. China has always attached great importance to nuclear safety in its promotion of nuclear energy utilization, and it has established a fairly complete nuclear safety legal, regulatory and emergency management system that is in line with international best practices. China has issued a series of instruments such as nuclear safety regulations, rules, guidelines and standards. Independent, strict and efficient nuclear safety supervision and management and scientific management of nuclear facility operators have been put in place to ensure safe and secure operation of nuclear facilities. All these efforts have led to a sound nuclear safety record and have boosted public confidence in nuclear energy

  16. An approach for the implementation of a global quality management system assuring both robust global processes and local flexibility: Paper presented at the 58th EOQ Congress "Managing Challenges in Quality Leadership", Gothenburg, Sweden, 11-12 June 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Meentken, Felix; Jochem, Roland

    2014-01-01

    The requirements for global enterprises have changed dramatically in recent years. Increasing customer demands, shorter product life cycles, increasing transport costs and more complex products and processes are just some of the current challenges in the global economy. These challenges reveal that thinking in closed systems is not up-to-date. Globally distributed business activities and value creation networks require a high systemic, integrative thinking, which points out global synergies a...

  17. Opening address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Honourable Representatives of His Majesty King Mohammed VI and of the Government of Morocco, representatives of sponsoring organizations, distinguished participants, on behalf of the Director General of the IAEA, it is my pleasure and privilege to welcome you to this International Conference on National Infrastructures for Radiation Safety: Towards Effective and Sustainable Systems. I would like to express my sincere appreciation to His Majesty King Mohammed VI for his patronage, to the Government of Morocco and the University Mohammed V, Agdal, for hosting this conference in the beautiful and historic city of Rabat, and to the local organizers for their diligent planning and gracious hospitality. I would also like to thank the four organizations that are co-operating with the IAEA in holding this conference: the World Health Organization, the Pan American Health Organization, the International Labour Organization, the European Commission and the OECD/Nuclear Energy Agency. National infrastructure for radiation safety has emerged as an issue of international concern over the last two decades. Systematic and strategic consideration of infrastructure has become widely recognized as an essential prerequisite for safety. The first IAEA conference to address the topic was in Munich, Germany, in 1990. The 1996 edition of the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (known as the Basic Sof Radiation Sources (known as the Basic Safety Standards or BSS) highlighted the issue, and the IAEA's technical co-operation Model Project for Upgrading Radiation Protection Infrastructure was introduced to help address it. The Model Project has helped, and continues to help, more than 85 IAEA Member States to work towards the goal of a radiation safety infrastructure in accordance with the Basic Safety Standards. A great deal has been achieved, but this work is not complete. Furthermore, not all States are members of the IAEA or the Model Project, and there are around 50 non-Member States that may need similar assistance. I would, therefore, like to extend a special welcome to representatives of those States that are not members of the IAEA, and to thank the United States of America for providing extrabudgetary support to make possible the participation of these States in this conference. The issue of orphan sources has been instrumental in stirring the international community into action. Initially, orphan sources were seen primarily as a safety issue. However, since the terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001 in the USA, the security dimension has brought an increased sense of urgency. Security considerations have also led to a greater recognition that national systems for the control of sources can only be fully effective if all States have effective systems, that is, if there is an effective global system of control. But there is a broader underlying reason why we need to continue to strengthen national infrastructures for radiation safety. Technologies that make use of radiation and radioactive material - in medicine, in research, in industry, in agriculture and water resource management - have expanded and spread all around the world, and continue to grow. These technologies bring great benefits - often desperately needed - but those benefits cannot be fully enjoyed unless the technologies can be used safely. Effective national infrastructures provide the foundation for the safe use of these technologies.I hope that the sharing of knowledge and experience at this conference will contribute to a 'virtuous circle' of continuous improvement. I look forward to the conference providing deeper and broader ideas for how the IAEA can be more effective in assisting in this very challenging area. I wish you well in your deliberations this week, and I look forward to hearing your findings. I invite the representatives of the four co-operating organizations to make their opening remarks, and I give the floor firstly to Mr. Repacholi, representing the World Healt

  18. Planning for a Global Lingua Franca: Challenges for Feminist Language Planning in English(es) around the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauwels, Anne

    2011-01-01

    In this paper I outline the challenges for feminist language planning in the context of a global lingua franca--English. Drawing upon the views of speakers of "World Englishes" I discuss their reactions as well as reported practices in relation to gender-inclusive language use. This reveals the complexities of managing the tension between the…

  19. How current assessments of Sustainability Performance by Best Practice in the UN Global Compact challenge legitimacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Thomas

    The Scandinavian countries have been strong supporters of the UN Global Compact (UNGC) since the official launch in year 2000. This is best evidenced by the level of adoption of the UNGC, which is the most widely adopted broad sustainability-reporting standard in Scandinavia (Kjaergaard, submitted - in review). And since the UNGC in 2010 introduced the differentiation framework to their reporting standard, a significant number of Scandinavian corporations has chosen to report on an Advanced Level and self-assess their Sustainability Performance. Hence, in times where international opinion makers like the Economist (2013) turn to Scandinavia as having the solutions to some of the global sustainability-related challenges, it might also be worth reversing the optics. One approach could be to take a closer look at whether this high level of support for the UNGC translates to a high level of Sustainability Performance? And how the current assessment of Sustainability Performance by Best Practice in the UN Global Compact challenge the legitimacy of both the corporation, the UNGC and governments attempting to facilitate sustainability and CSR engagement? Best Practice is a concept frequently used by authorities sources like governments, multi-national institutions etc. to showcase corporate sustainability practices in an attempt to inspire motivate or convince for corporate engagement. UNGC applies this discourse to a great extend and even goes as far as to integrate Best Practices as the core and decisive element in assessing Sustainability Performance with the criteria for Advanced Level reporting in the UNGC differentiation framework. Though, previous empirical research by Kjaergaard (submitted, in review) has demonstrated that although the introduction of this framework generally should be acknowledged, the way it is structured and measures sustainability performance is highly problematic. This has potential to lead to a number of undesirable outcomes for both the corporations and eventually the UNGC. Especially the use of Best Practices as determinants of the self-assessed Sustainability Performance on criterions is problematic when the framework does not weigh the Best Practices individually despite obvious differences in importance. Hence the same assessment score for a criterion can be achieved by adherence to either one of two potentially very different variables. Consequentially, corporations that apply best practices of higher importance are not acknowledged for doing so. Furthermore, since adherence to only one best practice for each criterion is required to be compliant with a criterion, then corporations are also not acknowledged by the framework for adhering to more and maybe more important Best Practices. These issues were identified by assessing the Sustainability Performance and analyzing the sustainability reports of 67 Nordic corporations, whom are signatories to the UN Global Compact. This study applies a theoretical perspective to the empirical findings by Kjaergard (submitted, in review). The study finds the UNGC reporting framework and the widespread support and adoption of it in Scandinavia to be indicative of emerging neoliberal tendencies in governmental approaches to CSR (Shamir, 2008). In a governmentality perspective these tendencies can be seen as unfolding when "government assumes the role of an enabling and empowering facilitator of CSR, not a regulatory enforcer" (Vallentin & Murillo, 2012). Whereas Scandinavian governments influence how widespread the adoption of sustainability reporting is, this study questions government’s success as a facilitator of CSR and sustainability, when viewed in a Sustainability Performance perspective. The empirical findings by Kjaergard (submitted, in review) demonstrate that with only relatively few exemptions, the Sustainability Performance of Nordic corporations in general is not on a high level. Though, that is when assessed towards the Best Practices essentially constituting the UNGC reporting framework, which Kjaergaard also questions the validity of. Thi

  20. AI Grand Challenges for Education

    OpenAIRE

    Woolf, Beverly Park; University of Massachusetts; Lane, H. Chad; University of Southern California; Chaudhri, Vinay K.; SRI International; Kolodner, Janet L.; Georgia Institute of Technology

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on contributions that AI can make to address long-term educational goals. It describes five challenges that would support: (1) mentors for every learner; (2) learning twenty-first century skills; (3) interaction data to support learning; (4) universal access to global classrooms; and (5) lifelong and life-wide learning. A vision and brief research agenda are described for each challenge along with goals that lead to access to global educational resources and the reuse and...

  1. Piracy :a critical examination of the definition and scope of piracy and the issues arising therefrom that affect : the legal address of the crime globally.

    OpenAIRE

    Neakoh, Raissa Timben

    2011-01-01

    Piracy: A critical examination of the definition and scope of piracy, and the legal issues arising there-from that affect the successful address of piracy globally. This thesis looks into the effectiveness of the existing legal maritime regime in fighting piracy worldwide. It goes to determine the extent to which the problem of modern day maritime piracy is related to the inadequacies brought about by the limitations in the definition of piracy as given by the United Nations Convention on the...

  2. Piracy : a critical examination of the definition and scope of piracy and the issues arising therefrom that affect : the legal address of the crime globally.

    OpenAIRE

    Neakoh, Raissa Timben

    2011-01-01

    Piracy: A critical examination of the definition and scope of piracy, and the legal issues arising there-from that affect the successful address of piracy globally. This thesis looks into the effectiveness of the existing legal maritime regime in fighting piracy worldwide. It goes to determine the extent to which the problem of modern day maritime piracy is related to the inadequacies brought about by the limitations in the definition of piracy as given by the United Nations Convention on the...

  3. Industry, university and government partnership to address research, education and human resource challenges for nuclear industry in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: This paper describes the outcome of an important recent initiative of Canadian nuclear industry to reinvigorate interest in education and collaborative research in prominent Canadian universities. This initiative has led to the formation of the University Network of Excellence in Nuclear Engineering (UNENE), incorporated in 2002. During the recent past, the slowdown in nuclear power development in Canada has curtailed the demand for new nuclear professionals down to a trickle. Without exciting job opportunities in sight the interest of prospective students in nuclear education and research has plunged. Consequently, with declining enrolment in nuclear studies and higher demand from competing disciplines, most universities have found it difficult to sustain nuclear programs. As such the available pool of graduating students is small and insufficient to meet emerging industry demand. With nuclear industry employees' average age hovering around mid-forties and practically no younger cohort to back up, nuclear industry faces the risk of knowledge loss and significant difficulty in recruiting new employees to replenish its depleting workforce. It is, therefore, justifiably concerned. Also, since nuclear generation is now the purview of smaller companies, their in-house capability for mid- to longer-term research is becoming inadequate. Recognizing the above challenges, Ontario Power Generation, Bruce Power and Atomic Energy of Canada Limited have formed an alliance with prominent Canadian universities and undertaken to invest money and offer in-kind support to accomplish three main objectives: Reinvigorate university-based nuclear engineering research by augmenting university resources by creating new industry supported research professorships and supporting research of other professors; Promote enrolment in graduate programs by supporting students and making use of a course-based Master of Engineering (M.Eng.) Program that is taught collectively by professors from all supported universities and which can be completed through part-time studies; Create a pool of nuclear expertise in universities that can be accessed by public and governments for impartial and trustworthy advice. The Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC), the Canadian Regulator, and Candu Owners Group are also participating in UNENE activities. Nuclear industries have linked with a select group of Canadian universities agreeable to committing to nuclear research and education and seeking investment from governments to match cash and in-kind contributions from industry. The University Network of Excellence in Nuclear Engineering (UNENE) was thus created involving universities of McMaster, Queen's, Toronto, Waterloo, Western Ontario and the new University of Ontario Institute of Technology. These universities are recipients of funds for setting up NSERC-UNENE Industry Research Chairs in Nuclear Engineering. Also, Ecole Polytechnique and the University of New Brunswick, supported respectively by Hydro Quebec and New Brunswick Power, and Royal Military College - operating a joint graduate program with Queen's University, are participants in UNENE. The following Industrial Research Chairs are either in place or approved to start within the next few months. In each case there is a provision for hiring a junior Research Chair. - Dr. John Luxat, Nuclear Safety Analysis and Thermal Hydraulics, McMaster University; - Dr. Rick Holt, Advanced Nuclear Materials, Queen's University; - Dr. Roger Newman, Nano-Engineering of Alloys for Nuclear Power Systems, University of Toronto; - Dr. Mahesh Pandey, Risk-Based Life Cycle Management of Engineering Systems, University of Waterloo; - Dr. Jin Jiang, Control, Instrumentation and Electrical Systems of Nuclear Power Plants, University of Western Ontario. Progress is being made to find a candidate and define a research program for an Industrial Research Chair:- Knowledge Management, University of Ontario Institute of Technology. Each of the above six NSERC-UNENE Industrial Research Chairs are tenured positions, funded

  4. The formation of the global natural gas industry: definition, constraints and challenges; A formacao da industria global de gas natural: definicao, condicionantes e desafios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathias, Melissa Cristina Pinto Pires

    2008-03-15

    This study aims to investigate the real possibilities for the natural gas industry to become a global energy industry. So, it is necessary to define what global energy industry really means. In order to do a comparative analysis between the oil and natural gas industries, it is necessary to define three distinct stages of the evolution of an energy industry, namely internationalization, mundialization and globalization. This study analyzes the evolution of the oil industry trying to identify the main aspects that promoted changes and transformed the oil business into a global industry. Then, the evolution of the natural gas industry is analyzed, looking for similarities between the structural changes in both industries, and trying to determine what is the current stage of the natural gas industry. Despite the increase in the natural gas international trade and the prospects of growth of natural gas demand, there are still some challenges for this industry to effectively become global. Some of the challenges are the need of investments in production infrastructure, transportation and distribution sectors, the access to the main reserves, the uncertainty related to the demand evolution and the possible creation of a natural gas producers cartel, like the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC). (author)

  5. Ministerial Presentation: United States of America. Ambassador Schulte's Remarks on Behalf of Energy Secretary Chu [International Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Energy in the 21. Century: Addressing Energy Needs and Environmental Challenges, Beijing (China), 20-22 April 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is a pleasure to participate in this second Ministerial Conference convened by the IAEA here in Beijing. Secretary of Energy Steven Chu has asked that I deliver this speech on his behalf. He sends his sincere regrets that he is unable to attend this event personally. As you know, this week is Earth Week, and the Secretary is very engaged promoting our energy and climate change agenda back in Washington. Let me assure you, however, that the United States views nuclear energy as an important part of our effort to put the world on the road to a low-carbon future. The global expansion of nuclear energy. It is now widely recognized that nuclear energy has the potential to curtail dependence on fossil fuels and greatly reduce greenhouse gas emissions while promoting greater energy security. Yet, given the stakes associated with the use (and potential misuse) of nuclear energy around the world, it is imperative that all nations with existing or new nuclear power programs play an active role in global efforts to address the safety, security, and safeguards implications of nuclear power. As President Obama recently stated, it is time we consider a new framework for civil nuclear cooperation, one that allows all interested countries to enjoy the benefits of nuclear energy while limiting the associated risks of nuclear weapons proliferation. This new framework should include measures that improve energy security, including an international fuel bank and related fuel services ional fuel bank and related fuel services arrangements. This conclusion reflects our recognition of the right of nations that comply with global nonproliferation norms to share in the benefits of peaceful nuclear uses. We also share a responsibility to maintain and strengthen global standards for safety, security and nonproliferation. Today, access to nuclear energy faces significant challenges-- the development of sound infrastructure, the reliable provision of nuclear fuel, and the safe and secure management of spent fuel and nuclear waste. If we succeed in meeting these challenges and discharging these responsibilities, I am confident we will also succeed in promoting the responsible development of nuclear energy. The IAEA and multilateral cooperation. Over 50 countries have informed the IAEA of their interest in nuclear power. In response to this, the Agency has developed a high-level framework to help states chart a safe, secure, and safeguarded path to nuclear power. The Milestones document, as it is now known, has become an essential reference on the desks of planners tasked with developing a national nuclear power infrastructure. The United States is a longstanding and strong supporter of the infrastructure development concepts detailed in the Milestones document. More broadly, the United States is committed to increasing the capabilities of the IAEA to better carry out all of its vital functions. Key among them is improved international safeguards. The United States has launched a program to build next generation safeguards technologies and a new community of safeguards experts; to assist full use of IAEA inspection authorities; and to foster a culture of safeguards, security and safety in nations using nuclear energy. Though a very valuable reference, the Milestones document was not intended for use as a detailed road map to nuclear power. It is the responsibility of each state to assess its own needs, identify its own priorities, and develop its own strategic objectives. However, states need not pursue these tasks alone, and there is plenty of guidance available through pursuit of civil nuclear cooperation. In addition to the vital role of the IAEA, other multilateral groups are addressing the challenges facing nuclear energy today. Forums such as the International Energy Agency, the Nuclear Energy Agency, the Generation IV International Forum, and the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (or GNEP) complement and build upon the important work of the IAEA. The international community through GNEP, as currently structured, has established two working g

  6. Globalization and climate change challenges the Arctic communities adaptability and increases vulnerability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendriksen, Kåre

    2011-01-01

    Globalization and climate change challenges the Arctic communities adaptability and increases vulnerability Kåre Hendriksen, PhD student, Aalborg University, Denmark The previous isolation of the Arctic will change as a wide range of areas increasingly are integrated into the globalized world. Parts of the Arctic are characterized by a relatively high material standard of living that is partially based on economic subsidies from the South, and for a number of Arctic consumers globalization appears primarily as a potential for improved supplies of consumer goods. The massive and growing pressure from multinational companies to exploit the Arctic mineral and oil resources as well as hydro-power in large scale industries appears to (local) governments as a potential for economic growth and thus reduced economic dependence on subsidies from the nation states the Arctic are dependent of. Coinciding climate changes cause an easier access for worldwide market as well as for the extraction of coastal oil and mineral resources. In an attempt to optimize the fishing fleet by economic measures it is centralized to larger units, and the exports of unprocessed fish and shellfish to low wage countries, carrying out the processing before export, are increasing. Although the local populations often are able to adapt to climate change and exploit new seasonal fluxions and species, these developments leaves a series of smaller settlements without proper basis for commercially viable activities and survival. Trusting that heavy industry and oil and mineral extraction can absorb the redundant labor from the subsistence activities and local economies and create economic growth (local) governments are installing economic and other policies leading to a further centralization of the population. There is not necessarily consistency between official political statements and the implemented measures. On top of this the population in smaller settlements has no frame or means to understand the impact of the discussed and applied interventions. They are therefore to some extent left behind and are not included in contemporary developments leaving them with a feeling of being powerless. The consequences of contemporary policies and the problems arising will be illustrated through examples from traditional hunting and fishing districts in Greenland.

  7. Meeting the Global Challenge through Production Offshoring : Trajectories and Strategic Implications of the Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slepniov, Dmitrij

    2010-01-01

    This PhD study is concerned with the implications of globalisation for industrial firms from the traditional industrial triad of North America, Western Europe, and Japan. Taking the perspective of lead firms from advanced industrial economies, the study attempts to make a contribution to the current debates about how these firms could assert themselves in a world of far-reaching transformation. As the title of the study suggests, this contribution is made through focusing the discussion upon production offshoring, which is currently commanding attention of so many practitioners, academics and policy makers. Building on ground that is already well trodden within the academic literature, the study searches for novel multidisciplinary explanations about how the production function can be organised by lead firms on a global scale and, more importantly, what the strategic implications of this process are. While the study concentrates on the production function, the implications of the discussion stretch much wider; the study also reveals implications for other functions and the company as a whole, as well as it points towards broader societal implications. The study employs a qualitative methodology based on multiple case studies. By applying the process perspective to the offshoring phenomenon, this study develops a framework which can be distilled into a number of propositions addressing: 1) the unfolding of offshoring process in a firm over time, 2) factors affecting the trajectories of the process, 3) the role of peculiarities of the society and locality from where offshoring initiatives originate, 4) strategic implications of offshoring initiatives.

  8. Improving the Global Energy Industry by Integrating Macro-Technologies: Challenges and Opportunities for Corporations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose M. “Chema” Martínez-Val Piera

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Emerging energy technologies and market evolution of some energy products, particularly natural gas, can converge to produce a new global scenario closer to the objectives of Sustainable Development, with a smooth transition that would avoid social and economic upheavals and could open a new cycle of growth and wealth. The first steps of unconventional gas production have induced stabilization in the gas spot price that should be continued to guarantee stable prices in the long term. Another line of development that should start a second phase of consolidation and cost reduction is the field of Renewable Energies. Besides research and technology advancements, a new financial deal could substitute for subsidies and feed-in tariffs. Last but not least, electric vehicles and other emerging technologies from the demand side will also have a main role in this quest to re-structure the Energy sector, where a new hierarchy of energy goods and energy applications will appear, and a better integral use of energy will take place. A main consequence of that will be a significant reduction of CO2 emissions, and a cheaper cost of energy, although fiscal policies could swallow this advantage. In this transition, which would likely last thirty years or so, energy corporations will have to face challenges and opportunities to consolidate their working and value-adding status.

  9. How to Assess the European Union’s Influence in International Affairs: Addressing a Major Conceptual Challenge for EU Foreign Policy Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Schunz

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In the discipline of European Union foreign policy analysis, quite a number of debates have focussed on determining what type of actor the EU is in international affairs (e.g. a normative power. While intellectually stimulating, these debates have regularly been held at too high a level of aggregation. Breaking the question about the EU’s clout in international affairs down to the micro-level, this contribution takes up a conceptual and methodological challenge that is currently unaddressed in the discipline: developing a method suited for studying the EU’s concrete foreign policy activities and their effects so as to assess its actual influence on global politics. Importing insights on the concept of influence from public policy analysis, it designs an analytical framework that allows for statements about whether, how, to what extent and - ultimately - under what conditions the EU exerts influence in one important arena of international affairs, namely international regimes.

  10. Talking my language [As the nuclear industry goes global, communication becomes a bigger challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'It's like the United Nations here' has become a familiar cry in offices and industrial plants around the world. Today, companies competing in global marketplaces seek the most talented staff and local knowledge by employing from an international rather than a local labour pool. This shift towards multinational personnel has been facilitated by the emergence of English as a global common language, which, unlike previous 'world languages', has penetrated all continents and all levels of society. The nuclear industry has been no exception to this internationalizing trend, despite its roots in many countries in national military programmes. Contributory factors have been the worldwide liberalization of energy markets and the slowdown in nuclear power development during the 1980s and 1990s, following the Three Mile Island and Chernobyl accidents. With economic pressures driving the globalization of the nuclear industry, and with internationalization of certain proliferation sensitive fuel cycle facilities being strongly advocated, cross-cultural and English-language competence will become evermore important for managers and engineers at nuclear facilities. This is related to economic pressures driving the globalization of the nuclear industry, and the strong advocacy for internationalization of certain proliferation-sensitive fuel cycle facilities. Those working in international organizations sometimes forget that such competences are still not the norm in industry, and c are still not the norm in industry, and can be difficult to acquire working on an isolated nuclear facility, remote from multicultural urban centres. They will become more common, as the English language assumes the importance of a basic skill alongside numeracy and literacy in education systems, and foreign travel and migration become more common. In the interim, it is essential that human resource managers offer appropriate training, and that professional translation and interpreting services be provided where necessary. A good way for future and existing managers to improve their cross-cultural competence, while learning about the various facets of nuclear energy, is to participate in one of the World Nuclear University (WNU) programmes. For example, the six week Summer Institute (SI) in Daejeon, South Korea in July- August 2007 will be attended by over a hundred young nuclear professionals and graduate students from over 35 countries. This is in addition to the 163 WNU 'Fellows' from 40 countries who have attended previous institutes in Idaho Falls and Stockholm. The WNU-SI comprises lectures by some of the world's foremost experts from the IAEA and industry, along with challenging leadership development tasks and technical tours. Other events being organized by the WNU Coordinating Centre in London for 2007 and 2008 also emphasize participation by a wide cross-section of learners from both developed and developing countries. They include forums for nuclear policy-makers and scientific advisers, and induction courses for executives joining the nuclear industry from other areas

  11. Challenger

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    Close-up view of the liftoff of the Shuttle Challenger on mission STS-51L taken from camera site 39B-2/T3. From this camera position, a cloud of grey-brown smoke can be seen on the right side of the Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) on a line directly across from the letter 'U' in United States. This was the first visible sign that an SRB joint breach may have occured. On January 28, 1986 frigid overnight temperatures caused normally pliable rubber O-ring seals and putty that are designed to seal and establish joint integrity between the Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) joint segments, to become hard and non- flexible. At the instant of SRB ignition, tremendous stresses and pressures occur within the SRB casing and especially at the joint attachmentment points. The failure of the O-rings and putty to 'seat' properly at motor ignition, caused hot exhaust gases to blow by the seals and putty. During Challenger's ascent, this hot gas 'blow by' ultimately cut a swath completely through the steel booster casing; and like a welder's torch, began cutting into the External Tank (ET). It is believed that the ET was compromised in several locations starting in the aft at the initial point where SRB joint failure occured. The ET hydrogen tank is believed to have been breached first, with continuous rapid incremental failure of both the ET and SRB. A chain reaction of events occurring in milliseconds culminated in a massive explosion. The orbiter Challenger was instantly ejected by the blast and went askew into the supersonic air flow. These aerodynamic forces caused structural shattering and complete destruction of the orbiter. Though it was concluded that the G-forces experienced during orbiter ejection and break-up were survivable, impact with the ocean surface was not. Tragically, all seven crewmembers perished.

  12. Communicating the Urgency and Challenge of Global Climate Change: Lessons Learned and New Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilling, L.; Moser, S. C.

    2004-12-01

    Climate change can sometimes be characterized as a "creeping environmental problem"--it is complex and long-term, involves long system lags, lacks the immediacy of everyday experience and thus is hard to perceive, and feels overwhelming to most individuals. Climate change thus does not typically attain the status of an urgent concern, taking priority over other matters for individuals, organizations or in the policy arena. We review the major reasons behind this lack of urgency, and document the observed consequences of previous communication strategies, including lack of public understanding, indifference, confusion, fear and uncertainty. We find that certain emotional motivators such as fear and guilt, while oft-employed, do not actually result in improved recognition of the urgency of the issue, nor do they typically result in action. Rather, positive and engaging approaches may be more likely to achieve this goal. We propose seven strategies to improve the communication of climate change and its urgency: 1) Abide by basic communication rules and heed the warnings of communication experts; 2) Address the emotional and the temporal components of "urgency"; 3) Increase the persuasiveness of the message; 4) Use trusted messengers-broaden the circle; 5) Use opportunities well; 6) Tap into individual and cultural strengths and values; and 7) Unite and Conquer. The multi-faceted nature of the proposed strategies reflects the unique challenges of the climate change issue as well as the need to engage all levels and sectors of societies in the solution, from individuals, to businesses, to governments. These strategies and results emerged from a multi-disciplinary, academic/practitioner workshop on the topic held at NCAR in summer 2004.

  13. Building a shared understanding of the skills and competences in order to respond to the current global technical challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friesel, Anna; Ward, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    A pan-European team, including the representatives from 45 European universities, is working on an EU supported project to firstly explore and then provide models for ways in which Higher Education Institutions of Europe in the Electrical and Information Engineering disciplines can respond to current challenges. This paper presents the objectives and actual results of the EU supported project which runs from October 2012 to November 2015, named SALEIE - Strategic Alignment of Electrical and Information Engineering in European Higher Education Institutions. We describe in this paper the preliminary results of the project's work packages WP3 (Global Challenges) and WP4 (Widening Participation and Student Support).

  14. Does the development of new medicinal products in the European Union address global and regional health concerns?

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez-Martín Elena; Garci?a-alte?s, Anna; Catala?-lo?pez, Ferra?n; Gènova-Maleras Ricard; Morant-Ginestar Consuelo

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Since 1995, approval for many new medicinal products has been obtained through a centralized procedure in the European Union. In recent years, the use of summary measures of population health has become widespread. We investigated whether efforts to develop innovative medicines are focusing on the most relevant conditions from a global public health perspective. Methods We reviewed the information on new medicinal products approved by centralized procedure from 1995 to 200...

  15. Addressing Global Health, Development, and Social Inequalities through Research and Policy Analyses: the International Journal of MCH and AIDS

    OpenAIRE

    Romuladus E Azuine, Drph; Gopal K Singh, Phd

    2012-01-01

    One year after the birth of the International Journal of MCH and AIDS (IJMA), we continue to share the passion to document, and shine the light on the myriads of global health issues that debilitate developing countries.Although the focus of IJMA is on the social determinants of health and disease as well as on the disparities in the burden of communicable and non-communicable diseases affecting infants, children, women, adults, and families in developing countries, we would like to encourage...

  16. Issues of Social Memory and their Challenges in the Global Age

    OpenAIRE

    Ha?as, El?bieta

    2008-01-01

    Abstract The social experience of time is investigated in connection with the transformation of global power relations expressed symbolically. Collective memory in postmodernity is featured as a temporal distinctiveness of the global age. Consequently, problems of the politics of memory, followed by conflicts of memory come to the fore. Symptomatic for postmodernity in the context of globalization is the phenomenon of reshaping problems of memory into social problems. The global po...

  17. Substantive Global Challenges to Development of the World Economy and their Influence upon the Economic Security of a State ????????????????? ?????????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ????????? ? ?? ??????? ?? ????????????? ???????????? ???????????

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivashina Alexander F.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The article studies substantive global challenges to development of the world economy under the conditions of intensification of the processes of integration, trans-nationalisation and globalisation of the world economy as the highest stage of its internationalisation in the planetary scale. It reveals and analyses main challenges to development of the global economy and studies their influence upon economic security of a state. It conducts a deep objective scientific analysis and system comprehension of new world realities from the point of view of main provisions of the modern institutional economic theory. It reveals and justifies essential aspects and existing contradictions of the developing processes of globalisation, internationalisation and trans-nationalisation. It pays a special attention to the study of influence of the said processes upon functioning of subjects of the world economic system. It analyses further prospects, directions, rates and general trends of the socio-economic development of national economies of the countries of the world.? ?????? ??????????? ????????????????? ?????????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ????????? ? ???????? ???????? ????????? ??????????, ??????????????????? ? ???????????? ??????? ????????? ??? ?????? ?????? ?? ??????????????????? ? ??????????? ????????. ???????? ? ???????????????? ???????? ?????? ???????? ?????????? ????????? ? ??????????? ?? ??????? ?? ????????????? ???????????? ???????????. ????????? ??????????? ??????????? ??????? ?????? ? ????????? ?????????? ????? ??????? ?????? ? ??????? ???????? ????????? ??????????? ????????????????? ????????????? ??????. ???????? ? ?????????? ?????????? ??????? ? ???????????? ???????????? ?????????? ????????? ????????? ????????????, ??????????????????? ? ???????????????????. ?????? ???????? ??????? ???????????? ??????? ?????????????? ????????? ?? ???????????????? ????????? ??????? ????????????? ???????. ???????????????? ?????????? ???????????, ???????????, ????? ? ????? ?????????????? ?????????-?????????????? ???????? ???????????? ???????? ????? ????.

  18. Global citizenship: A privilege and a responsibility. Vienna, 2 June 2003. Address to the American International School, Palais Ferstel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Good evening and thank you - Director Spradling, members of the faculty, alumni, family and friends of this graduating class, and especially the graduates of the American International School Vienna Class of 2003. Let me begin by thanking you for the invitation to share this important occasion with you. In my work, I frequently speak with diplomats and statesmen about how we can make our world a better place for 'future generations' - but I don't often get an opportunity like this one: to speak directly to you - the generation that holds the future in its hands. And I feel particularly fortunate to be speaking to such an international graduating class. As an Egyptian educated in the US, working in Vienna, with my children living in London, and an entire career devoted to international co-operation, I can tell you that I consider myself primarily a global citizen. And for me, thinking globally is now almost a must. This is because the world we live in has become highly interdependent. Many aspects of our modern life - Internet communication, the global marketplace, global warming, even the fights against disease and terrorism - point to the fact that the human race has entered a new era - a global era - and there is no turning back. To members of your generation, this might not seem like news. To your parents, the Internet feels like a new way of life (in fact - speaking for your parents, or perhaps your grandparents, we can still remember when television was a new and awesome thing) - but to you, global interaction and communication is a natural part of life. In fact, you especially are well equipped for this interdependent world - because the development of a global perspective is an essential feature of your educational environment here at the American International School. So you are 'ahead of the curve' in this regard. Yes, you are Brazilian, you are Indian, you are Iranian, you are Austrian, you are Japanese - you are one of the fifty nationalities that make up the rich cultural fabric of the AIS - but you are also global citizens. You have learned from the classroom, and equally important you have also learned from each other. As a result, your perspective is wider, your tolerance is greater, your understanding is deeper, and your world is smaller. And you are precisely the type of young people that our planet needs. Sure we all have differences, based on our cultural heritage, but what we choose to make of these differences can have a result that is crucial: either a harmonious and rich co-existence, or a planet marked by divergence and conflict. The European Union is a young but successful example of nations with different cultures, languages, and ethnic roots that have chosen to achieve strength through diversity. And over two hundred years ago, the United States was born with the same ideal - 13 colonies of immigrants coming from different backgrounds, who believed that by joining together they would be better able to go through the human journey. But for your generation, the vision of unity through diversity must be more than regional or national; it must be global. If there is any lesson from recent history, it should be that a global approach to our problems and to our future is the only approach. Nearly fifty years ago, after two devastating World Wars, the United Nations was created as a human project that aims to promote certain fundamental principles: respect for human rights and human dignity; the settlement of disputes through peaceful means; and economic and social development for all. During the Cold War the realization of this project was paralyzed in many ways. But the Cold War has been over for more than a decade, and still the international community is asking many of the same questions. How can we live in peace and harmony? How can we improve the living conditions for our neighbors around the globe? How can we learn to treat our differences with mutual respect? With the recent threats surrounding us, ranging from international terrorism to the conflicts in Afghanistan, Iraq, Congo, the Middle Ea

  19. World environmental policy. Conceptual approaches of German political science in response to the challenges of Global Change; Weltumweltpolitik - Global Change als Herausforderung fuer die deutsche Politikwissenschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biermann, F. [Potsdam-Institut fuer Klimafolgenforschung (PIK), Potsdam (Germany); Dingwerth, K. [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany). Fachbereich Politik- und Sozialwissenschaften

    2001-12-01

    This paper describes, first, the international community of social scientists working on global change, and elaborates on possible contributions to this community by German political scientists. Second, the paper examines three new conceptual approaches to analysing global change, namely the Syndromes of Global Change approach, Earth System Analysis, and Sustainability Science. The paper then elaborates on a number of ways in which German political science could respond to the academic and political challenges posed by global change. It concludes by emphasizing the need for a new approach, focusing on 'world environmental policy analysis' that would bridge traditional (environmental) policy analysis, international relations research, and comparative politics. (orig.) [German] Der Aufsatz beschreibt die Wissenschaftslandschaft der internationalen sozialwissenschaftlichen Global-Change-Forschung mit besonderem Augenmerk auf moegliche Beitraege der deutschen Politologie. Mit den 'Syndromen des Globalen Wandels', der 'Erdsystemanalyse' und der 'Nachhaltigkeitswissenschaft' werden drei neuere konzeptionelle Innovationen vorgestellt, mit denen der Herausforderung des Globalen Wandels begegnet werden soll. Anschliessend werden Wege skizziert, wie die Politikwissenschaft auf die neuen gesellschaftlichen und wissenschaftlichen Probleme des Globalen Wandels reagieren koennte. Eine Schlussfolgerung ist ein Plaedoyer fuer die Entwicklung einer eigenstaendigen Weltumweltpolitik-Analyse an der Schnittstelle von traditioneller Policy-Analyse, Internationalen Beziehungen/Aussenpolitik sowie Komparatistik. (orig./CB)

  20. The global financial crisis: Countercyclical fiscal policy issues and challenges in Malaysia, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Singapore

    OpenAIRE

    Doraisarni, Anita

    2011-01-01

    Several countries have employed countercyclical fiscal policy to ameliorate the impact of the global financial crisis. This study identifies some of the issues and policy implications associated with this policy response in developing countries. Included are case studies of four developing countries in the Asian region - Malaysia, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Singapore. The findings point to a rich diversity in both the size and composition of fiscal stimulus and the challenges which are c...

  1. Addressing Global Health, Development, and Social Inequalities through Research and Policy Analyses: the International Journal of MCH and AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romuladus E. Azuine, DrPH, RN

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available One year after the birth of the International Journal of MCH and AIDS (IJMA, we continue to share the passion to document, and shine the light on the myriads of global health issues that debilitate developing countries.Although the focus of IJMA is on the social determinants of health and disease as well as on the disparities in the burden of communicable and non-communicable diseases affecting infants, children, women, adults, and families in developing countries, we would like to encourage our fellow researchers and policy makers in both the developing and developed countries to consider submitting work that examines cross-national variations in heath and social inequalities.Such a global focus allows us to identify and understand social, structural, developmental, and health policy determinants underlying health inequalities between nations.Global assessment of health and socioeconomic patterns reaffirms the role of broader societal-level factors such as human development, gender inequality, gross national product, income inequality, and healthcare infrastructure as the fundamental determinants of health inequalities between nations.This is also confirmed by our analysis of the WHO data that shows a strong negative association between levels of human development and infant and maternal mortality rates.Focusing on socioeconomic, demographic, and geographical inequalities within a developing country, on the other hand, should give us a sense of how big the problem of health inequity is within its own borders.Such an assessment, then, could lead to development of policy solutions to tackle health inequalities that are unique to that country.

  2. Does the development of new medicinal products in the European Union address global and regional health concerns?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvarez-Martín Elena

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 1995, approval for many new medicinal products has been obtained through a centralized procedure in the European Union. In recent years, the use of summary measures of population health has become widespread. We investigated whether efforts to develop innovative medicines are focusing on the most relevant conditions from a global public health perspective. Methods We reviewed the information on new medicinal products approved by centralized procedure from 1995 to 2009, information that is available to the public in the European Commission Register of medicinal products and the European Public Assessment Reports from the European Medicines Agency. Morbidity and mortality data were included for each disease group, according to the Global Burden of Disease project. We evaluated the association between authorized medicinal products and burden of disease measures based on disability-adjusted life years (DALYs in the European Union and worldwide. Results We considered 520 marketing authorizations for medicinal products and 338 active ingredients. New authorizations were seen to increase over the period analyzed. There was a positive, high correlation between DALYs and new medicinal product development (? = 0.619, p = 0.005 in the European Union, and a moderate correlation for middle-low-income countries (? = 0.497, p = 0.030 and worldwide (? = 0.490, p = 0.033. The most neglected conditions at the European level (based on their attributable health losses were neuropsychiatric diseases, cardiovascular diseases, respiratory diseases, sense organ conditions, and digestive diseases, while globally, they were perinatal conditions, respiratory infections, sense organ conditions, respiratory diseases, and digestive diseases. Conclusions We find that the development of new medicinal products is higher for some diseases than others. Pharmaceutical industry leaders and policymakers are invited to consider the implications of this imbalance by establishing work plans that allow for the setting of future priorities from a public health perspective.

  3. Global challenges with scale-up of the integrated management of childhood illness strategy: results of a multi-country survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhe Lulu M

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Integrated Management of Childhood Illness Strategy (IMCI, developed by WHO/UNICEF, aims to contribute to reducing childhood morbidity and mortality (MDG4 in resource-limited settings. Since 1996 more than 100 countries have adopted IMCI. IMCI case management training (ICMT is one of three IMCI components and training is usually residential over 11 consecutive days. Follow-up after ICMT is an essential part of training. We describe the barriers to rapid acceleration of ICMT and review country perspectives on how to address these barriers. Methods A multi-country exploratory cross-sectional questionnaire survey of in-service ICMT approaches, using quantitative and qualitative methods, was conducted in 2006-7: 27 countries were purposively selected from all six WHO regions. Data for this paper are from three questionnaires (QA, QB and QC, distributed to selected national focal IMCI persons/programme officers, course directors/facilitators and IMCI trainees respectively. QC only gathered data on experiences with IMCI follow-up. Results 33 QA, 163 QB and 272 QC were received. The commonest challenges to ICMT scale-up relate to funding (high cost and long duration of the residential ICMT, poor literacy of health workers, differing opinions about the role of IMCI in improving child health, lack of political support, frequent changes in staff or rules at Ministries of Health and lack of skilled facilitators. Countries addressed these challenges in several ways including increased advocacy, developing strategic linkages with other priorities, intensifying pre-service training, re-distribution of funds and shortening course duration. The commonest challenges to follow-up after ICMT were lack of funding (93.1% of respondents, inadequate funds for travelling or planning (75.9% and 44.8% respectively, lack of gas for travelling (41.4%, inadequately trained or few supervisors (41.4% and inadequate job aids for follow-up (27.6%. Countries addressed these by piggy backing IMCI follow-up with routine supervisory visits. Conclusions Financial challenges to ICMT scale-up and follow-up after training are common. As IMCI is accepted globally as one of the key strategies to meet MDG4 several steps need to be taken to facilitate rapid acceleration of ICMT, including reviewing core competencies followed by competency-driven shortened training duration or 'on the job' training, 'distance learning' or training using mobile phones. Linkages with other 'better-funded' programmes e.g. HIV or malaria need to be improved. Routine Primary Health Care (PHC supervision needs to include follow-up after ICMT.

  4. The global one health paradigm: challenges and opportunities for tackling infectious diseases at the human, animal, and environment interface in low-resource settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebreyes, Wondwossen A; Dupouy-Camet, Jean; Newport, Melanie J; Oliveira, Celso J B; Schlesinger, Larry S; Saif, Yehia M; Kariuki, Samuel; Saif, Linda J; Saville, William; Wittum, Thomas; Hoet, Armando; Quessy, Sylvain; Kazwala, Rudovick; Tekola, Berhe; Shryock, Thomas; Bisesi, Michael; Patchanee, Prapas; Boonmar, Sumalee; King, Lonnie J

    2014-11-01

    Zoonotic infectious diseases have been an important concern to humankind for more than 10,000 years. Today, approximately 75% of newly emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) are zoonoses that result from various anthropogenic, genetic, ecologic, socioeconomic, and climatic factors. These interrelated driving forces make it difficult to predict and to prevent zoonotic EIDs. Although significant improvements in environmental and medical surveillance, clinical diagnostic methods, and medical practices have been achieved in the recent years, zoonotic EIDs remain a major global concern, and such threats are expanding, especially in less developed regions. The current Ebola epidemic in West Africa is an extreme stark reminder of the role animal reservoirs play in public health and reinforces the urgent need for globally operationalizing a One Health approach. The complex nature of zoonotic diseases and the limited resources in developing countries are a reminder that the need for implementation of Global One Health in low-resource settings is crucial. The Veterinary Public Health and Biotechnology (VPH-Biotec) Global Consortium launched the International Congress on Pathogens at the Human-Animal Interface (ICOPHAI) in order to address important challenges and needs for capacity building. The inaugural ICOPHAI (Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2011) and the second congress (Porto de Galinhas, Brazil, 2013) were unique opportunities to share and discuss issues related to zoonotic infectious diseases worldwide. In addition to strong scientific reports in eight thematic areas that necessitate One Health implementation, the congress identified four key capacity-building needs: (1) development of adequate science-based risk management policies, (2) skilled-personnel capacity building, (3) accredited veterinary and public health diagnostic laboratories with a shared database, and (4) improved use of existing natural resources and implementation. The aim of this review is to highlight advances in key zoonotic disease areas and the One Health capacity needs. PMID:25393303

  5. Addressing challenges of training a new generation of clinician-innovators through an interdisciplinary medical technology design program: Bench-to-Bedside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftus, Patrick D; Elder, Craig T; D'Ambrosio, Troy; Langell, John T

    2015-01-01

    Graduate medical education has traditionally focused on training future physicians to be outstanding clinicians with basic and clinical science research skills. This focus has resulted in substantial knowledge gains, but a modest return on investment based on direct improvements in clinical care. In today's shifting healthcare landscape, a number of important challenges must be overcome to not only improve the delivery of healthcare, but to prepare future physicians to think outside the box, focus on and create healthcare innovations, and navigate the complex legal, business and regulatory hurdles of bringing innovation to the bedside. We created an interdisciplinary and experiential medical technology design competition to address these challenges and train medical students interested in moving new and innovative clinical solutions to the forefront of medicine. Medical students were partnered with business, law, design and engineering students to form interdisciplinary teams focused on developing solutions to unmet clinical needs. Over the course of six months teams were provided access to clinical and industry mentors, $500 prototyping funds, development facilities, and non-mandatory didactic lectures in ideation, design, intellectual property, FDA regulatory requirements, prototyping, market analysis, business plan development and capital acquisition. After four years of implementation, the program has supported 396 participants, seen the development of 91 novel medical devices, and launched the formation of 24 new companies. From our perspective, medical education programs that develop innovation training programs and shift incentives from purely traditional basic and clinical science research to also include high-risk innovation will see increased student engagement in improving healthcare delivery and an increase in the quality and quantity of innovative solutions to medical problems being brought to market. PMID:25984273

  6. Problems and Challenges of Global Sourcing : A Study of Chinese Manufacturing Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Chunnan; Tian, Yue

    2010-01-01

    Background:Scholars tend to view global sourcing as a one-way street, whereby multinational manufacturers from developed countries purchase low-cost materials and products from developing countries. Undoubtedly, one of the purchasing bases for them is China because of its abundant resources and cheap labor. That is why China is aptly called the “Global Factory.” Conversely, few Chinese manufactures currently adopt a global sourcing strategy. However, the higher demand for technical qualit...

  7. Joint enterprise and the role of the intermediator : Challenges managing groupware in global virtual teams

    OpenAIRE

    Bjørn, Pernille; Simonsen, Jesper

    2005-01-01

    Managing groupware technologies in global virtual teams is viewed as a process of integrating technology and collaboration. This involves a continual negotia-tion of the team’s goals, processes, and technology. We investigate organizational factors constraining this integration process, by analyzing the failure of inte-grating groupware into two global virtual teams within industry. We present an empirically driven interpretive case study conducted in a large distributed global or-ganizatio...

  8. The global partnership: its achievements, missed opportunities and potential to address future threats from the spread of CBRN materials and expertise - 59335

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Document available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: In 2002, the G8 launched the Global Partnership (GP) against the Spread of Weapons and Materials of Mass Destruction. The partnerships budget was placed at $20 billion over 10 years, and it was supported by some 23 countries and the European Union (EU).Though it has had little public recognition, the partnership has been one of the G8's most successful initiatives and has led to many benefits, including improved international security and addressing a sizeable proportion of the Cold War nuclear and chemical weapons arsenal in the Former Soviet Union. Its future, however, remains undecided, as its funding is set to expire in less than two years. In 2009 and 2010 Kings College London with generous funding support from the US John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, carried out a detailed evaluation of the achievements and benefits of the GP to date, its failings and lost opportunities, and potential future direction. Our findings indicate that the partnership has aided security in the Former Soviet Union and had a significant number of wider benefits with the potential to continue to do the same on a broader geographic level in future. As such, it is a valuable tool to assist the international community to work together to address global threats relating to chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear materials and related expertise and the G8 should take steps to renew its funding. (autould take steps to renew its funding. (authors)

  9. A faith-based community partnership to address HIV/AIDS in the southern United States: implementation, challenges, and lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abara, Winston; Coleman, Jason D; Fairchild, Amanda; Gaddist, Bambi; White, Jacob

    2015-02-01

    Though race and region are not by themselves risk factors for HIV infection, regional and racial disparities exist in the burden of HIV/AIDS in the US. Specifically, African Americans in the southern US appear to bear the brunt of this burden due to a complex set of upstream factors like structural and cultural influences that do not facilitate HIV/AIDS awareness, HIV testing, or sexual risk-reduction techniques while perpetuating HIV/AIDS-related stigma. Strategies proposed to mitigate the burden among this population have included establishing partnerships and collaborations with non-traditional entities like African American churches and other faith-based organizations. Though efforts to partner with the African American church are not necessarily novel, most of these efforts do not present a model that focuses on building the capacity of the African American church to address these upstream factors and sustain these interventions. This article will describe Project Fostering AIDS Initiatives That Heal (F.A.I.T.H), a faith-based model for successfully developing, implementing, and sustaining locally developed HIV/AIDS prevention interventions in African American churches in South Carolina. This was achieved by engaging the faith community and the provision of technical assistance, grant funding and training for project personnel. Elements of success, challenges, and lessons learned during this process will also be discussed. PMID:24173601

  10. The Challenge of Nissology: A Global Outlook on the World Archipelago - Part II: The Global and Scientific Vocation of Nissology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Depraetere

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Islands are the rule and not the exception. One major objective for nissology – defined as the study of islands and islandness - in the 21st century should be to debunk the unfair prejudice that ‘island studies’ continues to suffer at present time. To do so, a systematic treatment of the island phenomenon needs to be undertaken and this should be backed up by substantial theoretical underpinnings. In seeking to turn the dominant continental paradigm on its head, islands not only deserve to be “studied on their own terms”; they also become the deus ex machina of a holistic understanding of the world archipelago and its ongoing globalization. This vision should contribute towards bridging the gap between ‘continentalists’ who tend to consider islands only as epiphenomena of larger land trends, and ‘island studies’ practitioners. This paper, the second of two segments, focuses mainly on the contribution of islands to global cultural and biological diversity, and concludes with an appeal for a more rigorous, pan-epistemic treatment of island studies.

  11. Global Monitoring of Water Supply and Sanitation: History, Methods and Future Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Jamie Bartram; Clarissa Brocklehurst; Fisher, Michael B.; Rolf Luyendijk; Rifat Hossain; Tessa Wardlaw; Bruce Gordon

    2014-01-01

    International monitoring of drinking water and sanitation shapes awareness of countries’ needs and informs policy, implementation and research efforts to extend and improve services. The Millennium Development Goals established global targets for drinking water and sanitation access; progress towards these targets, facilitated by international monitoring, has contributed to reducing the global disease burden and increasing quality of life. The experiences of the MDG period generated importa...

  12. Global cooperation on Geodesy - Challenges in terms of organization and infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opseth, Per Erik; Kutterer, Hansjoerg

    2015-04-01

    The work on global geodetic reference frames has since ancient time formed the necessary basis for evolution of a modern and well-functioning society. Today geolocation is about to become a megatrend and in such a context precise position determination turns to play a key role. Trends point in the direction of a global geodetic reference frame that covers all purposes for the entire globe. A global reference frame with an accuracy of 1 mm and a stability of 0.1 mm/year is a necessary tool for satellite provided precise positioning, studies of the changing world and an efficient development of the developing countries. A key goal of the Global Geodetic Observing System (GGOS) of the International Association of Geodesy (IAG) is to fulfill these requirements. Global cooperation on Geodesy in science and administration has successfully been going on for decades. Nevertheless, the situation today is still not secure since the success has always been dependent on voluntary contributions from agencies in committed countries. As the coordinating body to link the IAG services GGOS can serve as a key to ensure a sustainable infrastructure and thus to advance the global reference frame. After more than 10 years of GGOS and looking at the intergovernmental efforts in the frame of the United Nations initiative GGIM it is time to evaluate the situation from a strategic perspective.

  13. A holistic, multi-scale dynamic downscaling framework for climate impact assessments and challenges of addressing finer-scale watershed dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jongho; Ivanov, Valeriy Y.

    2015-03-01

    We present a state-of-the-art holistic, multi-scale dynamic downscaling approach suited to address climate change impacts on hydrologic metrics and hydraulic regime of surface flow at the "scale of human decisions" in ungauged basins. The framework rests on stochastic and physical downscaling techniques that permit one-way crossing 106-100 m scales, with a specific emphasis on 'nesting' hydraulic assessments within a coarser-scale hydrologic model. Future climate projections for the location of Manchester watershed (MI) are obtained from an ensemble of General Circulation Models of the 3rd phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project database and downscaled to a "point" scale using a weather generator. To represent the natural variability of historic and future climates, we generated continuous time series of 300 years for the locations of 3 meteorological stations located in the vicinity of the ungauged basin. To make such a multi-scale approach computationally feasible, we identified the months of May and August as the periods of specific interest based on ecohydrologic considerations. Analyses of historic and future simulation results for the identified periods show that the same median rainfall obtained by accounting for climate natural variability triggers hydrologically-mediated non-uniqueness in flow variables resolved at the hydraulic scale. An emerging challenge is that uncertainty initiated at the hydrologic scale is not necessarily preserved at smaller-scale flow variables, because of non-linearity of underlying physical processes, which ultimately can mask climate uncertainty. We stress the necessity of augmenting climate-level uncertainties of emission scenario, multi-model, and natural variability with uncertainties arising due to non-linearities in smaller-scale processes.

  14. Opening Address by the Conference President [International Conference on Effective Nuclear Regulatory Systems: Further Enhancing the Global Nuclear Safety and Security Regime, Cape Town (South Africa), 14-18 December 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three years ago, the IAEA sponsored the first conference of government regulators to share their common perspectives and experience in addressing challenges of nuclear safety and security. The goal of the conference was to develop a global vision and to promote international cooperation. Representatives from more than 50 countries participated in that important gathering. The Moscow conference was the first of its kind, providing regulators a forum for exclusive focus on regulatory issues without limits of time, membership or subject matter. The conference discussed key cornerstones of effective regulation: the independence of the regulatory body, a firm foundation of adequate financial resources, skilled staff, quality management practices, and public confidence in the regulatory body and its decision making processes. Additionally, several key safety and security challenges were identified. We have a significant challenge to meet this week, and that is to use this unique regulatory forum to continue the progress that we made three years ago. I hope to see us converge around the four major themes of this conference and establish a concrete plan of action by the time we close on Thursday. Our four themes include: - Emerging regulatory challenges; - Regulatory independence and effectiveness; - Impact of multinational activities on the national responsibility for nuclear safety and security; - International safety and security communication and cooperation. A renewed inommunication and cooperation. A renewed interest in nuclear power worldwide has brought with it an increased focus on these regulatory issues, and I believe we all agree that a strong and effective regulatory program must be a prerequisite to any nuclear power programmes. At the conference this week, we will examine and discuss our priorities as regulators and work to identify and address the challenges we face - both individually and together - around safety and security. The work we do is critical for each of our countries and for the international community as a whole. I want to just touch briefly on the four themes for this week to set the stage. A robust regulatory programme has three essential components: legislation and the rules and regulations to ensure safety and security; adequate resources; and technical capability. One of the critical challenges for regulators of mature industries is the need to resist complacency. We must remain vigilant at all times about the safety and security of the existing fleet and nuclear materials. For those countries that are newcomers to nuclear power development, your greatest challenge may be to establish the infrastructure necessary for an effective and efficient regulatory programme. This is where the assistance of organizations such as this can be invaluable, in helping many of you to identify your regulatory needs and build your capacity; sharing experience, expertise, and lessons learned; and providing a foundation for international coordination and cooperation

  15. Global nuclear renaissance - today's issues, challenges and differences relative to the first wave of nuclear plant projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development and negotiation of an Engineering, Procurement and Construction (EPC) contract is a multi-disciplined and time consuming process. Relative to the first wave on new nuclear build projects of the 1950's - 1970's, today's EPC contracts are more complex for a variety of reasons including more demanding regulatory and environmental requirements, global supply chain versus localization issues and different world wide economic considerations. This paper discusses the impacts of some of these challenges on developing an EPC contract in today's Nuclear Renaissance. (authors)

  16. Ministerial Presentation: United Kingdom [International Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Energy in the 21. Century: Addressing Energy Needs and Environmental Challenges, Beijing (China), 20-22 April 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    I would firstly like to express gratitude to the Director General of the IAEA, Mohamed EIBaradei, for inviting Mike Q'Brien, the UK Minister of State for Energy, to address this conference. I know the Minister greatly respects the important work of the IAEA and would like to have been able to deliver this speech himself but, as I'm sure you can appreciate, there are many demands on his time with the fast moving developments in energy policy which is why he has asked me to make this speech on his behalf. Nuclear decision. As I'm sure you will be aware the UK government has taken the decision that it is in the public interest that new nuclear power stations should have a role to play in our country's future energy mix, alongside other low-carbon sources. This decision was reached in the context of the challenges of climate change and energy security. These are challenges that delegates in this room will be well familiar with. Adding urgency to these challenges in the UK is that 15% of electricity currently comes from nuclear power stations and that all but one of our power stations will shut by 2025. Significantly, the government believes that it is for energy companies to fund, develop and build new nuclear power stations in the UK and to meet the full cost of decommissioning and their full share of waste management costs. Our job in government is to work hard to create the right conditions for this investment. Our White Paper published in January last year set out a cpublished in January last year set out a clear work programme of the key steps both industry and Government need to take in the next ten years to enable new build to happen. This is a partnership and we are committed to working with industry to do everything we can to remove unnecessary regulatory burdens and increase investor certainty. Facilitative actions. This translates into a number of key actions Government is taking. Firstly, in the area of reactor licensing we have introduced a form of pre-licensing - the Generic Design Assessment. This is an upfront assessment of generic aspects of reactor design which leads to economies over larger fleets as well as reduced regulatory uncertainty. Secondly, on siting we have legislated to streamline the planning system so that those aspects of siting which are strategic in nature are considered at the national level with only site specific criteria considered at the local level. And thirdly, in relation to waste and decommissioning funding, we have legislated to ensure developers put money aside from day one for eventual clean up. But of course there is still more to do. Challenges. For example, we know that the UK regulator will need additional resources to deal with its predicted future workload, with or without new build, and we are considering ways to ensure that our nuclear regulatory arrangements remain world-class We know that we must assess nominated sites for strategic suitability and we must continue our work to set the price energy companies will pay for the disposal of waste. And throughout all of our work we must remain alive to the possibility of legal challenge. Timescale and Industry interest. Although there is still much to do and doubtless challenges ahead we are confident we will able to deliver what we have promised Our work will enable energy companies to: make planning applications from 2010, begin construction of the first new nuclear power station between 2013 and 2014, start operation between 2017 and 2020. As I said, we are confident we will deliver this framework and this confidence is reflected in the growing evidence of industry interest in the UK nuclear market. We started this year with EdF investing Pounds 12.5bn buying British Energy. We have seen eleven sites nominated for possibly hosting our new generation of nuclear power stations. [And an auction of potential sites for new nuclear power stations currently owned by the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority and EdF is still ongoing with those involved showing significant interest] [NWl] UK Offer. We also believe that the industry in

  17. Legal Challenges to the International Deployment of Government Public Health and Medical Personnel during Public Health Emergencies: Impact on National and Global Health Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Brent; Sherman, Susan; Barraza, Leila; Marinissen, Maria Julia

    2015-03-01

    International deployment of government public health and medical personnel is often necessary to respond to emergencies and enhance global health security. However, there are unique legal challenges for donors and recipient countries. Here, we summarize some of those challenges and existing international fora that may help to identify solutions. PMID:25846178

  18. Opening Address [International Conference on Effective Nuclear Regulatory Systems: Further Enhancing the Global Nuclear Safety and Security Regime, Cape Town (South Africa), 14-18 December 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear energy is seen by many countries as providing a sustainable solution to energy security challenges. In this context, many developing countries are considering the establishment of nuclear power build programmes, while countries with mature nuclear programmes are considering the possibility of further expansion. The challenges facing countries that are embarking on this new venture include, inter alia, the development of policies, legislation as well as the establishment of appropriate institutions such as regulatory bodies with effective independence to take regulatory decisions. Regional and international cooperation and coordination are therefore of critical importance. Accordingly, the establishment of the Forum of Regulatory Bodies in Africa is a welcome initiative. We are pleased that the national nuclear programme in post-apartheid South Africa places us in a position to become active global participants in the safe use of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes. However, we all have an obligation to ensure that the presence of a plethora of cooperation mechanisms such as this body are as inclusive and as supportive as possible. This will help the global community of nations in reaping maximum benefits that surely should arise from these initiatives to ensure security of energy supply. We do not have the luxury to duplicate such bodies. The role of the International Atomic Energy Agency in nuclear safety and security cannot be over-emphasized. That alone isy cannot be over-emphasized. That alone is the reason that drove the liberation movement of the people of our country, and now the ruling party, fully to conform to all the treaties and conventions that have been drafted by this reputable institution of the peoples of the world. The same goes for the facilitation of cooperation and the sharing of knowledge and experience. The IAEA is invariably trusted to provide independent views and advice in order to strengthen safety and security while preserving the sovereignty, authority and responsibilities of Member States

  19. Global Learning and Sustainable Development. Teaching Contemporary Themes in Secondary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadsby, Helen, Ed.; Bullivant, Andrea, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    Global learning and sustainable development encompass some of the key ideas and challenges facing the world today: challenges such as climate change, globalization and interdependence. Schools increasingly recognize the role of education in addressing these issues with young people, but exploring global issues across the curriculum requires a…

  20. Preparing Information Systems (IS) Graduates to Meet the Challenges of Global IT Security: Some Suggestions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauls, Jeff; Gudigantala, Naveen

    2013-01-01

    Managing IT security and assurance is a top priority for organizations. Aware of the costs associated with a security or privacy breach, organizations are constantly vigilant about protecting their data and IT systems. In addition, organizations are investing heavily in IT resources to keep up with the challenges of managing their IT security and…

  1. Global Challenges and Role of Information and their influence to Integrated tourism.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cudlínová, Eva; Lapka, Miloslav

    Paris : Université de Versailles St.QuentinenYvelines, 2002 - (O'Neill, R.), s. 0-10 [Environment and Development. Globalisation & the Challenges for Local & International Governance.. Sousse - Tunisko (TN), 06.03.2002-09.03.2002] Grant ostatní: QLRT(XE) 1999-31211 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6087904 Keywords : globalisation * information * economy Subject RIV: DO - Wilderness Conservation

  2. New Design of Biopharmaceuticals through the Use of Microalgae Addressed to Global Geopolitical and Economic Changes. Are You Ready for New Development in Biopharma?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armen B. Avagyan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The Biopharma industry is enduring sweeping change in response to the financial crisis, but one aspect of the in-dustry that emerged relatively unscathed and that perhaps has directly benefited from the crisis is new revolutionary innova- tion solution. Identifying opportunities in the next wave of technologies for Biopharma, along with other policy initia- tives including financial crisis actions and climate policy, will affect on manufacturing biopharmaceutical products today and in the future in cost effective manner, and will be our adequate answer addressing to global geopolitical, economic and climate changes. It also underscores the search for new approach, evidenced by trends around new for- mulations to serve lower income patients. Microalgae biomass comes in many strains, and can be used by means of variety product developments. In the last years the key task of our R & D was to find a solution for these tasks. The bio- fuel market development dynamics include significant opportunity of microalgae raw material and microalgae proc- essing biomass rest of biodiesel manufacturing for Biopharma global growth in cost effective manner. Second new source of microalgae raw material for Biopharma include microalgae production through waste and wastewater cleaning. This should provide the opportunity to see the future in a new vision, where technology can serve as a revela- tion of the truth and where every endeavor is governed by reflection on and appreciation of the environment and thus leading to resolution of global tasks facing the world community and inclusion of microalgae in production and bio cycles open new cost effective ways for Biopharma companies and conservation of nature. A truly coherent microalgae raw material and Biopharma production policy has to find ways to bring these two traces closer for cost effective manufacturing, well being Biopharma economy and human health.

  3. Opening Address [FR09: International Conference on Fast Reactors and Related Fuel Cycles: Challenges and Opportunities, Kyoto (Japan), 7-11 December 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Good morning, ladies and gentlemen. As Conference General Chair of the International Conference on Fast Reactors and Related Fuel Cycles (FR09) organized by the IAEA, and as a representative of the host organization for this conference, I would like to deliver an opening address. First of all, I would like to express my appreciation that so many participants, both from home and abroad, are attending this conference. Above all, I'm most grateful for the commitment that the International Advisory Committee, the International Scientific Programme Committee, the Local Organizational Committee and the Local Executive Committee members have shown in holding this year's conference, FR09. For this conference, about 750 participants have registered from 26 countries and three organizations (European Commission, OECD Nuclear Energy Agency, IAEA). I'm grateful that so many people are very interested in fast reactor development. Thinking back on the history of the conference of fast reactor systems, it all started back in 1974 in London. It then continued to be held every few years up until the fifth Kyoto conference in 1991. However, it has been suspended since then and so now, this year, the conference is being held for the first time in 18 years at the same location where we left off in 1991, the Kyoto International Conference Center. During this period, in the early 1990s, the FFTF and EBR-II experimental reactors in the United States of America were shut down. In ited States of America were shut down. In 1991, the construction of the SNR-300 prototype reactor in Germany was cancelled for both economic and political reasons, and in 1994, the operation of the PFR prototype reactor was stopped in the United Kingdom. Then, in 1998, the Super Phenix demonstration reactor in France was also shut down. In Japan, there was a sodium leak accident at the Monju prototype reactor in 1995 during a plant performance test. On the other hand, since 2000, the importance of nuclear energy has been recognized once again as a global energy source for the new century. In 2000, the Generation IV International Forum and the IAEA's International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles were launched as a new framework for multilateral nuclear cooperation. In 2006, the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership started. There has been a new trend in fast reactor development in the nuclear renaissance worldwide. It has been reported that China's CEFR experimental reactor is nearly reaching criticality. The BN-800 demonstration reactor in the Russian Federation and India's PFBR prototype reactor are in preparation for construction. In Japan, Monju, which has long been suspended, is now being prepared for its restart within this fiscal year, by the end of March 2010, and the FaCT project has been promoted as one of the key national technologies aiming at the commercialization of future sodium cooled fast reactor cycles. Thus, global fast reactor development has just overcome a period of 'winter-like' hardship and has entered a new stage of commercialization. There are two key phrases to describe the new period of fast reactor development: 'stop global warming' and 'prevent the threat of nuclear weapons'. Regarding the global warming issue, 12 years ago, that is, in 1997, the Kyoto Protocol was adopted at the Third Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (COP3), which was held in Kyoto. The COP15 was held in Copenhagen with the goal of forming a framework for greenhouse gas reduction after 2013. We are aiming to achieve the world common target of reducing by half the emission of greenhouse gases by 2050. It is impossible to reach a solution on this issue without a long standing nuclear energy supply. Particularly when considering the recent rapid increase in the price of natural uranium, the necessity for fast reactor development should again be internationally recognized from the viewpoint of achieving significant effective utilization of uranium resources and decreasing the impact on the glob

  4. Underpinning Land Management : a major challenge for the global surveying profession

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    This paper provides an overall understanding of the concept of land administration systems for dealing with rights, restrictions and responsibilities in future spatially enabled government. Further, the paper presents the role of FIG with regard to building the capacity in this area and responding to the global agenda.

  5. Grand Challenges in Global Mental Health: Integration in Research, Policy, and Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Collins, Pamela Y.; Insel, Thomas R.; Chockalingam, Arun; Daar, Abdallah; Maddox, Yvonne T.

    2013-01-01

    In the first article of a five-part series providing a global perspective on integrating mental health, Pamela Collins and colleagues set the scene for why mental health care should be combined with priority programs on maternal and child health, non-communicable diseases, and HIV, and how this might be done.

  6. HRD Challenges Faced in the Post-Global Financial Crisis Period--Insights from the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeble-Ramsay, Diane Rose; Armitage, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The paper aims to report initial empirical research that examines UK employees' perceptions of the changing nature of work since the Global Financial Crisis (GFC) to consider how the financial context may have constrained HRD practice and more sustainable approaches. Design/methodology/approach: Focus group research was facilitated…

  7. Territorial intelligence of vulnerability systems 2 : Sustainable modelling of globalization challenge

    OpenAIRE

    Woloszyn, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Globalization as progress of economic development has increased population socioeconomical vulnerability when unequal wealth distribution within economic development process constitutes the main rule, with widening the gap between rich and poors by environmental pricing. Econological vulnerability is therefore increasing too, as dangerous substance and techniques should produce polluted effluents and industrial or climatic risk increasing (Woloszyn, Quenault, Faburel, 2012). To illustrate and...

  8. The First Global Patient Safety Challenge "Clean Care is Safer Care": from launch to current progress and achievements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegranzi, Benedetta; Storr, Julie; Dziekan, Gerald; Leotsakos, Agnès; Donaldson, Liam; Pittet, Didier

    2007-06-01

    Healthcare-associated infection is a major safety issue affecting the quality of care of hundreds of millions of patients every year in both developed and developing countries. To meet the goal of ensuring patient safety across healthcare settings around the globe, the World Health Organization launched the World Alliance for Patient Safety in October 2004. Healthcare-associated infections were identified as a fundamental work priority and selected as the topic of the First Global Patient Safety Challenge launched by the Alliance. Under the banner "Clean Care is Safer Care", the Challenge aims at implementing several actions to reduce healthcare-associated infections worldwide, regardless of the level of development of healthcare systems and the availability of resources. Implementation strategies include the integration of multiple interventions in the areas of blood safety, injection safety, clinical procedure safety, and water, sanitation and waste management, with the promotion of hand hygiene in healthcare as the cornerstone. Several initiatives have been undertaken to raise global awareness and to obtain country commitment to support action on this issue. The new Guidelines on Hand Hygiene in Health Care, including the most consistent scientific evidence available, have been issued in an advanced draft form. An implementation strategy is proposed therein to provide solutions to overcome obstacles to improvement in compliance with hand hygiene practices, together with a range of practical tools for use in healthcare settings. The latter are currently undergoing testing in several pilot sites to evaluate feasibility, acceptability and sustainability. PMID:17540254

  9. Soil erosion, climate change and global food security: challenges and strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Christopher J

    2014-01-01

    An overview is presented of the determined degree of global land degradation (principally occurring through soil erosion), with some consideration of its possible impact on global food security. Most determinations of the extent of land degradation (e.g. GLASOD) have been made on the basis of "expert judgement" and perceptions, as opposed to direct measurements of this multifactorial phenomenon. More recently, remote sensing measurements have been made which indicate that while some regions of the Earth are "browning" others are "greening". The latter effect is thought to be due to fertilisation of the growth of biomass by increasing levels of atmospheric CO2, and indeed the total amount of global biomass was observed to increase by 3.8% during the years 1981-2003. Nonetheless, 24% of the Earth's surface had occasioned some degree of degradation in the same time period. It appears that while long-term trends in NDVI (normalised difference vegetation index) derivatives are only broad indicators of land degradation, taken as a proxy, the NDVI/NPP (net primary productivity) trend is able to yield a benchmark that is globally consistent and to illuminate regions in which biologically significant changes are occurring. Thus, attention may be directed to where investigation and action at the ground level is required, i.e. to potential "hot spots" of land degradation and/or erosion. The severity of land degradation through soil erosion, and an according catastrophic threat to the survival of humanity may in part have been overstated, although the rising human population will impose inexorable demands for what the soil can provide. However the present system of industrialised agriculture would not be possible without plentiful provisions of cheap crude oil and natural gas to supply fuels, pesticides, herbicides and fertilisers. It is only on the basis of these inputs that it has been possible for the human population to rise above 7 billion. Hence, if the cheap oil and gas supply fails, global agriculture fails too, with obvious consequences. Accordingly, on grounds of stabilising the climate, preserving the environment, and ensuring the robustness of the global food supply, maintaining and building good soil, in particular improving its SOM content and hence its structure, is highly desirable. Those regions of the world that are significantly degraded are unlikely to support a massive population increase (e.g. Africa, whose population is predicted to grow from its present 1.1 billion to 4.2 billion by 2100), in which case a die-off or mass migration might be expected, if population control is not included explicitly in future plans to achieve food security. PMID:25108995

  10. Environmentally Conscious Architecture: Local–Global, Traditional–Innovative, and Cultural Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Ute Poerschke; Susanne Gampfer

    2013-01-01

    The editorial introduces the articles brought together in this Special Issue of Buildings, particularly their interpretation of the meaning, content, and goals of environmentally conscious architecture. The special issue goes beyond addressing mere energy efficient building by reflecting on the relationship of architecture to context, ethics and aesthetics, and to specific climate, cultural and/or economic conditions. The contributions cover various perspectives, which partially arise ...

  11. Challenges in global biodiversity conservation and solutions that cross sociology, politics, economics and ecology

    OpenAIRE

    Hoban, Sean; Vernesi, Cristiano

    2012-01-01

    The study and practice of conservation biology is inherently interdisciplinary, addresses short and long time-scales and occurs within complex human–natural interfaces. Zoos and aquaria, in partnership with researchers, other non-government organizations, government, industry and educators, are combining knowledge of species and ecosystems with economics, psychology and law to create solutions for conserving biodiversity. From 22 to 25 May, the Conservation Forum of the European Association...

  12. Responsibility, God and society: The cry of the Other in the sacred texts as a challenge towards responsible global citizenship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johann-Albrecht Meylahn

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The article seeks to respond to the question: What role can the sacred texts play in the construction of a Christian identity that is responsible to the Other in a pluralistic global world? The sacred texts of the Judaic-Christian tradition offer not only an understanding of the wholly otherness of God, but also form the basis of our understanding and perception of humanity (anthropology, the world and ourselves (personhood/identity. This understanding is constructed in the context of responding to the call of the wholly Other and the others. Identities are traditionally constructed through the identification and exclusion of differences (otherness, thus leading to an ethic of exclusion and responsibility only to oneself/ourselves. Yet these identity-forming texts harbour a persistent otherness, which challenges these traditional identities by interrupting them with a call to responsibility toward the other. The otherness harboured in these texts takes various forms, namely: The otherness of the ancient world to our world, the otherness of the transcendental Other, and the otherness of the text itself, as there is always a différance that has not yet been heard. These various forms of otherness, of our identity-forming texts, deconstruct our identity constructions, thus calling us to a continuous responsibility towards the other. This call could form the basis of a Christian identity and ethic of global cosmopolitan citizenship that is always responding to the eschatological interruption by the other, who is not yet present or who has not been offered presence.

    How to cite this article: Meylahn, J-A., 2009, Responsibility, God and society: The cry of the Other in the sacred texts as a challenge towards responsible global citizenship’, HTS Teologiese Studies/Theological Studies 65(1, Art. #131, 5 pages. DOI: 10.4102/hts.v65i1.131

  13. Ministerial Presentation: Canada [International Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Energy in the 21. Century: Addressing Energy Needs and Environmental Challenges, Beijing (China), 20-22 April 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Government of Canada extends its appreciation to the IAEA, the OECD/NEA and the Government of the People's Republic of China for organizing this International Ministerial Conference. The Honourable Lisa Raitt, Minister of Natural Resources, has asked me to convey her regrets at not being able to be here today. Let me begin by saying that Canada fully supports the objectives of this meeting. We face both auspicious opportunities and significant challenges as we witness increasing interest in the use of nuclear technologies to meet development needs, satisfy energy demands and mitigate the threat of climate change. Four years after the Paris Ministerial Conference, we believe that the time is appropriate to take stock of the many developments since then, and to continue our dialogue on future actions to carry forward the positive momentum that nuclear power has witnessed in recent years. Canada recognizes the contributions made by safe, secure nuclear energy to global energy security, the economy and the environment. We believe that nuclear power has a vital role, both domestically and internationally. For Canada, nuclear energy is now, and will continue to be, an important part of our energy supply mix. Our nuclear industry, based on uranium supply and CANDU heavy water reactors, is making a substantial contribution to the Canadian economy. Canada currently has 17 operational nuclear power reactors that produce 15% of our electricity requirements. Nine CANDU reactolectricity requirements. Nine CANDU reactors are also operating in other countries around world. Canada also recognizes the contribution made to our environment by nuclear energy. By generating electricity from CANDU reactors, we are able to simultaneously reduce greenhouse gas emissions as well as other airborne pollutants. I think it is clear that nuclear energy will play an increasingly important role in striking a balance between our need for energy and our need to protect our environment, and that is certainly true in Canada where we have made an aggressive commitment to 90 and of our electricity being generated by non greenhouse gas emitting sources by 2020. There are prospects for new nuclear plant construction across Canada. In addition to the Ontario bid, the Government of New Brunswick is examining the feasibility of building a second reactor in the province; and the Governments of Alberta and Saskatchewan are both examining the potential use of nuclear power to meet their future energy needs. The major refurbishment programs underway and planned in Ontario, New Brunswick and Quebec will extend the life of CANDU reactors for 25-30 years, thereby ensuring an ongoing clean and reliable source of power for Canadians. With a solid domestic base, Canada has much to offer the international community and we look forward to sharing our capabilities as a responsible nuclear supplier country. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) is well prepared to advance Canadian technology and is currently pursuing the development of the third generation of CANDU reactor - the Advanced CANDU Reactor - an evolutionary technology based on the CANDU 6 design. The Government, as shareholder, stands fully behind AECL as it pursues commercial opportunities in home and global markets. In addition, the Government announced a review of AECL last year as part of our due diligence and our commitment to good governance and responsible management. Canada also has significant uranium resources, and currently produces 20% of the world's uranium, 85% of which is exported. These exports, including converted uranium, contribute to the reliable supply of nuclear fuel for power plants around the world. Exports of Canadian-origin uranium are subject to IAEA safeguards and bilateral nuclear cooperation agreements that assure it is used for peaceful purposes. Canada's uranium industry also operates under stringent environmental, health and safety regulations, and has an excellent environmental track record. As we look forward, we see a future which is as full of promise and optimism as it was

  14. MACRO ENVIRONMENT – A CHALLENGE IN THE WAY OF THE BANKING SERVICES’ GLOBALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura OLTEANU

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available At present companies are continuously growing. The strong competition determines their extension. Extension determines new challenges companies must face. This becomes possible through a permanent adaptation. Adaptation can be realized by knowing the markets that companies are going to carry out their activities on, by knowing the external environmental factors. The factors of the external envirronment are those factors which influence the companies – demographical, sociocultural, political-legislative, economic, technological factors.

  15. The global burden of liver disease: a challenge for methods and for public health

    OpenAIRE

    Byass, Peter

    2014-01-01

    New Global Burden of Disease estimates for liver cirrhosis, published in BMC Medicine, suggest that cirrhosis caused over a million deaths in 2010, with a further million due to liver cancer and acute hepatitis. Cause-specific mortality data were very sparse for some regions, particularly in Africa, with no relevant mortality data for 58/187 countries. Liver disease involves infectious, malignant and chronic aetiologies with overlapping symptoms. Where available mortality data come from verba...

  16. Challenges to global mineral resource security and options for future supply

    OpenAIRE

    Lusty, P. A. J.; Gunn, A. G.

    2014-01-01

    Minerals are vital to support economic growth and the functioning of modern society. Demand for minerals is increasing as global population expands and minerals are used in a greater range of applications, particularly associated with the deployment of new technologies. While concerns about future mineral scarcity have been expressed, these are generally unfounded and based on over-simplistic analysis. This paper considers recent debate around security of mineral supply and technical, geoscie...

  17. Christo-Islamic Perspectives on Abortion and the Challenges of Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Kehinde Emmanuel Obasola

    2014-01-01

    The world is witnessing a tremendous change in every sphere in every facet of its social, political, economic as well as in the religious sphere. These changes have affected the orientation of people towards certain behavioural patterns that were hitherto regarded as sacrosanct and but which has now witnessed and is still witnessing serious changes due to the effect of globalization and this has eroded religious beliefs and practices. One such is the issue of abortion which has been legalized...

  18. Legal and Regulatory Issues and Challenges Inhibiting Globalization of Islamic Banking System

    OpenAIRE

    Sekoni, Abiola

    2015-01-01

    Arguably the Islamic finance system has become an accepted phenomenon in the international financial system. The recent unprecedented rapid growth of Islamic financial system is gradually changing the status of the Islamic banking system as an alternative to the conventional counterpart to a mainstream contender. Due to its universal growing acceptance and popularity many countries are embarking on legal and regulatory reforms to sustain the global development of the system. This has generate...

  19. Climate change, air pollution and global challenges : understanding and perspectives from forest research.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mattysek, R.; Clarke, N.; Cudlín, Pavel; Mikkelsen, T. N.; Tuovinen, J.-P.; Wieser, G.; Paoletti, E.

    Amsterdam : Elsevier, 2013 - (Matyssek, R.; Clarke, N.; CudlÍn, P.; Mikkelsen, T.; Tuovinen, J.; Wieser, G.; Paoletti, E.), s. 3-16 ISBN 978-0-08-098349-3. - (Developments in environmental science. 13) Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : demand for resources * global perspective * land-use change * population growth of mankind * process-based research * socio-economic risks Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  20. Al-Qaida in the Islamic Maghrib: Algerian Challenge or Global Threat?

    OpenAIRE

    Filiu, Jean-Pierre

    2009-01-01

    Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb, established in January 2007, is the latest in a long line of Algerian jihadi groups. Like many terrorist organizations, AQIM enjoys global media exposure on activist Internet sites, but unlike other al-Qaeda franchises, it has managed to maintain its indigenous leadership. The group has become known for fearsome suicide attacks, which were previously unheard of in Algeria, but has failed to incorporate the jihadi outfi ts from neighboring Morocco and Tunisia. ...

  1. The Beat of Visions :The challenging features of a new global mode of production

    OpenAIRE

    Hanappi, Hardy

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores how the visions of a future global political economy might shape its actual emergence. The emergence of powerful visions themselves seems to follow a pattern of discrete steps in historical time; it follows a beat of emancipation. In Europe the fundamental note was provided by the vision of enlightenment after the Dark Ages, which were kept in an ideological stalemate by religions. The beat of Luther’s early protestant secularization, Smith’s paleo-liberalism, Marx’ ...

  2. Role of sea ice in global biogeochemical cycles: Emerging views and challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Vancoppenolle, M; Meiners, K.M.; C.; Michel; Bopp, L; Brabant, F.; Carnat, G.; Delille, Bruno; Lannuzel, D.; Madec, G.; Moreau, S.; Tison, J.-L.; van der Merwe, P.

    2013-01-01

    Observations from the last decade suggest an important role of sea ice in the global biogeochemical cycles, promoted by (i) active biological and chemical processes within the sea ice; (ii) fluid and gas exchanges at the sea ice interface through an often permeable sea ice cover; and (iii) tight physical, biological and chemical interactions between the sea ice, the ocean and the atmosphere. Photosynthetic micro-organisms in sea ice thrive in liquid brine inclusions encased in a pure ice matr...

  3. Role of sea ice in global biogeochemical cycles: emerging views and challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Vancoppenolle, M.; Meiners, K. M.; Michel, C.; Bopp, L.; Brabant, F.; Carnat, G.; Delille, Bruno; Lannuzel, D.; Madec, G.; Moreau, S.; Tison, J. -l; Merwe, P.

    2013-01-01

    Observations from the last decade suggest an important role of sea ice in the global biogeochemical cycles, promoted by (i) active biological and chemical processes within the sea ice; (ii) fluid and gas exchanges at the sea ice interface through an often permeable sea ice cover; and (iii) tight physical, biological and chemical interactions between the sea ice, the ocean and the atmosphere. Photosynthetic micro-organisms in sea ice thrive in liquid brine inclusions encased in a pure ice matr...

  4. The global social problem : challenges for a research school like CERES

    OpenAIRE

    Dietz, A. J.

    2003-01-01

    The text starts with a reminder of the historical roots of the debate about the social problem in early industrial England, and connects it with the current debate about social exclusion and poverty, with an example from South Africa. Poverty issues should be related to the debates about labour conditions and labour rewards and about the variety of capitalist transformations taking place in the era of globalisation and of global social polarisation. But understanding poverty also demands a mu...

  5. Growing pains: How risk perception and risk communication research can help to manage the challenges of global population growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Ian G J; Johnson, Johnnie E V

    2014-08-01

    In 2011, the global human population reached 7 billion and medium variant projections indicate that it will exceed 9 billion before 2045. Theoretical and empirical perspectives suggest that this growth could lead to an increase in the likelihood of adverse events (e.g., food shortages, climate change, etc.) and/or the severity of adverse events (e.g., famines, natural disasters, etc.). Several scholars have posited that the size to which the global population grows and the extent to which this growth increases the likelihood of adverse outcomes will largely be shaped by individuals' decisions (in households, organizations, governments, etc.). In light of the strong relationship between perceived risk and decision behaviors, it is surprising that there remains a dearth of empirical research that specifically examines the perceived risks of population growth and how these perceptions might influence related decisions. In an attempt to motivate this important strand of research, this article examines the major risks that may be exacerbated by global population growth and draws upon empirical work concerning the perception and communication of risk to identify potential directions for future research. The article also considers how individuals might perceive both the risks and benefits of population growth and be helped to better understand and address the related issues. The answers to these questions could help humanity better manage the emerging consequences of its continuing success in increasing infant survival and adult longevity. PMID:24593179

  6. Nutritional psychiatry research: an emerging discipline and its intersection with global urbanization, environmental challenges and the evolutionary mismatch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Alan C; Jacka, Felice N

    2014-01-01

    In 21st-century public health, rapid urbanization and mental health disorders are a growing global concern. The relationship between diet, brain function and the risk of mental disorders has been the subject of intense research in recent years. In this review, we examine some of the potential socioeconomic and environmental challenges detracting from the traditional dietary patterns that might otherwise support positive mental health. In the context of urban expansion, climate change, cultural and technological changes and the global industrialization and ultraprocessing of food, findings related to nutrition and mental health are connected to some of the most pressing issues of our time. The research is also of relevance to matters of biophysiological anthropology. We explore some aspects of a potential evolutionary mismatch between our ancestral past (Paleolithic, Neolithic) and the contemporary nutritional environment. Changes related to dietary acid load, advanced glycation end products and microbiota (via dietary choices and cooking practices) may be of relevance to depression, anxiety and other mental disorders. In particular, the results of emerging studies demonstrate the importance of prenatal and early childhood dietary practices within the developmental origins of health and disease concept. There is still much work to be done before these population studies and their mirrored advances in bench research can provide translation to clinical medicine and public health policy. However, the clear message is that in the midst of a looming global epidemic, we ignore nutrition at our peril. PMID:25060574

  7. Carbon dioxide utilization for global sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Addressing global environmental problems, such as global warming is essential to global sustainability. Continued research leads to advancement in standard methods and produces new data. Carbon Dioxide Utilization for Global Sustainability: Proceedings of the 7th ICCDU (International Conference on Carbon Dioxide Utilization) reflects the most recent research results, as well as stimulating scientific discussions with new challenges in advancing the development of carbon dioxide utilization

  8. Global environmental change and the biology of arbuscular mycorrhizas: gaps and challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fitter, A.H.; Heinemeyer, A.

    2004-01-01

    Our ability to make predictions about the impact of global environmental change on arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and on their role in regulating biotic response to such change is seriously hampered by our lack of knowledge of the basic biology of these ubiquitous organisms. Current information suggests that responses to elevated atmospheric CO2 will be largely controlled by host-plant responses, but that AM fungi will respond directly to elevated soil temperature. Field studies, however, suggest that changes in vegetation in response to environmental change may play the largest role in determining the structure of the AM fungal community. Nevertheless, the direct response of AM fungi to temperature may have large implications for rates of C cycling. New evidence shows that AM fungal hyphae may be very short lived, potentially acting as a rapid route by which C may cycle back to the atmospohere; we need, therefore, to measure the impact of soil temperature on hyphal turnover. There is also an urgent need to discover the extent to which AM fungal species are differentially adapted to abiotic environmental factors, as they apparently are to plant hosts. If they do show such an adaptation, and if the number of species is much greater than the number currently described (150), as seems almost certain, then there is the potential for several new fields of study, including community ecology and biogeography of AM fungi, and these will give us new insights into the impacts of global environmental change on AM fungi in moderating the impacts of global environmental change on ecosystems.

  9. El reto ético del agua | The Global Water Crisis’ ethical challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro ARROJO

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available El vigente modelo neoliberal de globalización, ajeno a los más elementales principios éticos, lejos de frenar la degradación ecológica, reducir los gradientes de riqueza y garantizar a los más pobres derechos fundamentales, como el acceso al agua potable, ha abierto al mercado la gestión de aguas como espacio de negocio, acelerando la depredación de los recursos hídricos y aumentando la vulnerabilidad de los más débiles. En síntesis, afrontamos una crisis global del agua que sin duda se agravará por efecto del cambio climático en curso si no se adoptan adecuadas políticas de adaptación que amortigüen la vulnerabilidad de la población, particularmente de las comunidades más pobres, ante los riesgos de sequía y de fuertes precipitaciones, que aumentarán en intensidad y frecuencia. Se requiere un nuevo enfoque ético, basado en principios de sostenibilidad, equidad y no-violencia. Nos encontramos ante la necesidad de promover una “Nueva Cultura del Agua” que recupere, desde la modernidad, la vieja sabiduría de culturas ancestrales que se basaba en la prudencia y en el respeto a la naturaleza. The neoliberal globalization design, alien to the most elementary ethical principles, far from slowing down the environmental degradation, reduce the wealth inequalities and guarantee fundamental right to the most poor, as the access to drinkable water, has open the water management to the market, as a business space, fostering then the water resources depredation and making weak people more vulnerable. In sum, we face a global water crisis that will get worse, mostly for vulnerable populations and particularly for the poorest communities, if the right politics of adaption are not adopted against droughts and rainfall that are going to be more intense and frequent. We need a new ethic scope, based on sustainability, equity and non violent principles. We face the need to promote a New Water Culture that recovers, from modernity, the old wisdom of ancient cultures based on prudence and respect for the nature.

  10. Pfizer and the Challenges of the Global Pharmaceutical Industry 2013 (B)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nell, Phillip Christopher

    This is part of a case series. The case focuses on describing and analysing the environment, profitability and competitiveness of the global pharmaceutical industry, and to evaluate the current and future strategy of Pfizer. It features a large number of tables with quantitative data that help solving the case study. This document complements the (A) case and covers a description of the 10 largest pharmaceutical firms and highlights a number of strategic manoeuvres of major players in the last years. At the end, the reader is referred back to the Pfizer situation and Pfizer’s recent strategic initiatives and responses to the market changes.

  11. Global Challenges and New Approaches in the Common Agricultural Policy 2014 - 2020

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bánhegyi Gabriella

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Unfavorable environmental issues raise attention globally toward the concept of sustainability. Agriculture is not only a sector influenced greatly by environmental conditions, but at the same time, as the most important utilizer of land, a major shaper of the environmental conditions. When forming agricultural policies special attention should be paid to issues such as climate change, scarcity of fresh water, food shortage and biodiversity loss — just to name some of them. The new European general strategy for the upcoming 7 years period has brought new measures for the agricultural policy as well, environment and sustainability being among the top issues.

  12. Customer Communication Challenges and Solutions in Globally Distributed Agile Software Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikkarainen, Minna; Korkala, Mikko

    Working in the globally distributed market is one of the key trends among the software organizations all over the world. [1-5]. Several factors have contributed to the growth of distributed software development; time-zone independent ”follow the sun” development, access to well-educated labour, maturation of the technical infrastructure and reduced costs are some of the most commonly cited benefits of distributed development [3, 6-8]. Furthermore, customers are often located in different countries because of the companies’ internationalization purposes or good market opportunities.

  13. Ministerial Presentation: Republic of Korea [International Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Energy in the 21. Century: Addressing Energy Needs and Environmental Challenges, Beijing (China), 20-22 April 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    I would first like to extend my sincere appreciation and gratitude for allowing me to speak in this forum where the most influential decision-makers of the energy policy and the experts in nuclear power have gathered together to discuss the important energy issues facing us today. This forum is indeed crucial, and should be held on a continuing basis if we are to solve the colossal challenges we face in energy, as represented by the depletion of fossil fuel energy and the climate change. I sincerely hope that this forum will take a serious look at the future role of nuclear power as the global energy source, and provide a basis for a meaningful discussion on issues related to energy on a global scale. Due to the recent fluctuation in oil prices and issues related to climate change, the world is paying a renewed attention to nuclear energy that is not only a stable source of energy but produces less greenhouse gas. The Korean government announced the national agenda, so-called ''Low-carbon, Green-growth'' to join the global efforts to tackle climate change. The Korean government recognizes the importance of nuclear power technology in achieving the Low-carbon Green-growth strategy and strongly supports its research and development activities. As part of our effort for this, Korea will lower the national dependency rate on fossil fuels such as oil and gas, while significantly increasing the share of nuclear energy and renewable energy. It has been half a century since nenergy. It has been half a century since nuclear power was first introduced to Korea. So far, the Korean government has heavily invested in research and development of nuclear energy, believing in the unlimited possibility of nuclear power. As a result, Korea started the commercial operation of Gori No. 1 nuclear power plant in 1978 which has grown to 20 nuclear power plants to this day. Today, Korea ranks 6th in the world in nuclear energy development. Korea has gone through continuous innovation in nuclear energy technology during the past 30 years. As a result, we have developed and is currently utilizing Korea Standard Type nuclear plant OPR-1000 as well as high-efficiency advanced nuclear fuel. More recently, we were able to enjoy significant achievement by developing the next-generation nuclear reactor APR-1400. Korea has actively participated in the international cooperation project for the development of future nuclear reactor system, which is for making nuclear power a sustainable energy source for the future with improved safety and environmental friendliness. Korea has established the ''Long-term Plan for Developing Future Nuclear Energy System'' in December 2008 and actively participated in the Generation IV International Forum (GIF) which is a program initiated by IAEA for developing future nuclear powered energy system. Korea will continue to be strongly committed to the peaceful and efficient use of nuclear energy and work with international community to contribute to the development of nuclear power facility and nuclear fuel cycle. Distinguished guests! As you are well aware, the rights to use nuclear power are bestowed only to those that have earned international trust and transparency by faithfully observing bilateral and multi-lateral agreements. Korea has made efforts to build trust and transparency in the international community by using nuclear power in a safe and peaceful manner. We are implementing national-level measures to strengthen the nuclear power control system including revision of legal framework and organizational restructuring, as well as faithfully observing the obligations outlined by IAEA in the Full-scope Safeguard Agreement and Additional Protocol. Korea will continue to pursue safe use of nuclear power in Korea as well as work towards gaining international trust through the international verification process in order to enhance our status as the advanced country in the use of nuclear energy technology. The world has been utilizing nuclear energy for the last 50 years. The role of nuclear energy has become more importa

  14. Ministerial Presentation: Japan. Statement by H. E. Ms. Seiko Noda [International Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Energy in the 21. Century: Addressing Energy Needs and Environmental Challenges, Beijing (China), 20-22 April 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On behalf of the Government of Japan, I would like to offer my warmest congratulations on the successful holding of the International Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Energy in the 21st Century, here in Beijing. The importance of nuclear energy as a measure against global warming. We are currently facing serious challenges. It is vital to the prosperity of humanity that all countries strive for coordination and cooperation to resolve those issues such as scarcity of food, poverty, and terrorism, in addition to the economic crisis which has shaken up the world economy since last year. In particular, measures against global warming are key issues, to which all countries must unite and respond promptly, effectively and sustainably over an extended period. At the Annual Meeting of the World Economic Forum (Davos Meeting) in this January, Prime Minister of Japan, Mr. Taro Aso, mentioned the goal of reducing the global greenhouse-gas emissions at least by half, by the year of 2050. He stressed that the Post-Kyoto framework should be all inclusive to achieve this goal, with all the big emitters joining as responsible partners. The current year is a crucial one, in which to establish the framework for 2013 and beyond. The cooperation of all countries is required more than ever. I believe that, in order to achieve a significant reduction in global greenhouse-gas emissions while ensuring secure energy supply, the expansion of the peaceful use of nuclear energy is essential, alful use of nuclear energy is essential, along with the maximum implementation of other effective measures such as energy conservation, energy efficiency improvement and the use of renewable energy. Recently, this role of nuclear energy has been widely recognized over the world. In the 4th Assessment Report, published in 2007 by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), nuclear energy, which emits minimal greenhouse gases, is described as one of major mitigation technologies in the energy supply area. The International Energy Agency (IEA) of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) suggested in its 'World Energy Outlook 2008' that the nuclear energy supply should be doubled in 2030 from the current figure, in order to achieve the 2050 target of halving the greenhouse-gas emissions. Last year at G8 Hokkaido-Toyako Summit, the Leaders pointed out in their declaration, that a growing number of countries have expressed their interests in nuclear power programs as a means to addressing climate change and energy security concerns. Approach toward the expansion of peaceful use of nuclear energy on a global scale. From the perspective of further promoting the peaceful use of nuclear energy on a global scale in a manner that ensures nuclear non-proliferation, nuclear safety and nuclear security, Japan is determined to play its important role as a leading country, focusing its effort on the following two approaches: Firstly, Japan will try to make it an internationally accepted common perception that the peaceful use of nuclear energy is an essential measure against global warming. This common perception would help the development of effective international frameworks for further promotion of the use of nuclear energy. Japan has been making efforts in the Forum for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia (FNCA), which is a cooperation of 10 countries in the region. At the Ministerial-Level Meeting in December 2007, a Joint Communique on 'the Peaceful Use of Nuclear Energy for Sustainable Development' was issued. In the communique, it was decided that they work towards raising global awareness that, in the Post-Kyoto framework, it is important to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy as a clean energy source, and to recognize that nuclear energy should be considered in the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). This joint communique was circulated within the IAEA member states as INFCIRC/725. Also in the ministerial-level Executive Committee of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) held in October 2008 in Paris, a joint statement of simil

  15. Opening address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This opening address covers two main areas: first, a snapshot of the continuing threat and the recent changes having been made to the United Kingdom's counterterrorism structures to respond to it; and second, how the United Kingdom is combating nuclear terrorism through a range of measures covering physical security, decreasing vulnerability to attack and increasing resilience. Combating the threat of nuclear terrorism requires an international effort. Radiological and fissile materials are present throughout the world and, as such, it should be secured wherever it is found. All countries are encouraged to continue to enhance security and protection mechanisms for radiological and fissile material; and to develop contingency plans should the worst happen. The United Kingdom has responded to the very serious and real threat by consolidating and strengthening elements of its counterterrorist planning via the creation in May this year of the Office for Security and Counter-Terrorism (OSCT). These changes have been coupled with an unprecedented level of investment to enable the delivery of the United Kingdom counterterrorist strategy - known as CONTEST - through which we aim to (a) stop terrorist attacks; (b) where it cannot be stopped, to mitigate its impact; (c) strengthen our overall protection against terrorist attack; (d) stop people becoming terrorists or supporting violent extremism. In the case of radiological and nuclear terrorism, it is not sufficient merely to terrorism, it is not sufficient merely to prepare for such an attack; one must also devote efforts to preventing such attacks in the first instance by intercepting dangerous materials before they reach their intended target; and by strengthening the protection of vulnerable places and detecting or mitigating any devices before they are placed or activated. As such, in terms of the United Kingdom's efforts on radiological and nuclear terrorism, there are three main strands to this work: physical protection of materials including the global threat reduction programme; decreasing vulnerability to attack; and increasing resilience should an incident occur

  16. Keynote address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Good morning ladies and gentlemen. I am truly honored to be your keynote speaker at the first International Oil Spill R ampersand D Forum. This Forum is cosponsored by the Coast Guard, on behalf of the OPA 90 Interagency Coordinating Committee on Oil Spill Research, and the International Maritime Organization. The fact that IMO is jointly sponsoring the Forum truly reflects the global nature of our concerns for the marine environment. I was asked to speak to you today because of my purview over the entire Coast Guard R ampersand D Program, a significant portion of which is oil spill related. Our environmental awareness was renewed on March 24, 1990 when the tankship Exxon Valdez ran aground on Bligh Reef in Prince William Sound, Alaska, and caused the largest vessel related oil spill in U.S. history. During the next 15 months there were three other large oil spills that threatened the U.S. shorelines. The U.S. flag tank vessel American Trader suffered a three foot diameter hole in a cargo tank near Huntington Beach California; the Mega Borg, a Norwegian flag tank vessel, exploded and caught fire off the coast of Texas in the Gulf of Mexico; and the Greek flag tanker World Prodigy ran aground in Narragensett Bay near Rhode Island. Each spill presented a unique set of challenges to our response operations. Despite intense response and cleanup actions, which included excellent international cooperation for the Exxon Valdez spill, it was apparent that existing world-wide it was apparent that existing world-wide catastrophic spill response capabilities could easily be exceeded and that there was no international mechanism which promoted and facilitated cooperations

  17. Ontario's petroleum legacy : the birth, evolution and challenges of a global industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book provided a historical account of Ontario's role in the global oil industry, from the coming in of the first wells at Oil Springs in the mid-19th century when the primary fuel sources were wood, coal, and water. In 1858, oil seeps in Enniskillen Township, Lambton County, Ontario revealed the existence of petroleum, which encouraged the first drilling of wells and the development of the global industry. The book explored issues related to imperialism, resource development, local history and the colonial land policies surrounding the oil boom. Details of the Petrolia oil discovery were included along with the accomplishments of the entrepreneurs who were instrumental in developing the petroleum industry in Ontario. The major elements surrounding the development of Canada's oil and gas industry were presented, beginning with the coal-oil-refining industry which paved the way for the development of the oil industry; the early oilmen from Oil Springs and Petrolia who drilled for oil; the development of the oil and gas industry's position today as a major strength of the Canadian economy; and the environmental and climate change issues that currently confront the industry. After 150 years, the oil fields at Petrolia and Oil Springs still produce commercial quantities of crude oil from at least 650 active wells. refs., figs

  18. From global change science to action with social sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, C. P.; Mooney, Sian; Allen, D.; Beller-Simms, Nancy; Fish, T.; Grambsch, A.; Hohenstein, W.; Jacobs, Kathy; Kenney, Melissa A.; Lane, Meredith A.; Langner, L.; Larson, E.; McGinnis, D. L.; Moss, Richard H.; Nichols, L. G.; Nierenberg, Claudia; Seyller, E. A.; Stern, Paul; Winthrop, R.

    2014-08-01

    US efforts to integrate social and biophysical sciences to address the issue of global change exist within a wider movement to understand global change as a societal challenge and to inform policy. Insights from the social sciences can help transform global change research into action.

  19. Global absolute quantification of a proteome: Challenges in the deployment of a QconCAT strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownridge, Philip; Holman, Stephen W; Gaskell, Simon J; Grant, Christopher M; Harman, Victoria M; Hubbard, Simon J; Lanthaler, Karin; Lawless, Craig; O'Cualain, Ronan; Sims, Paul; Watkins, Rachel; Beynon, Robert J

    2011-08-01

    In this paper, we discuss the challenge of large-scale quantification of a proteome, referring to our programme that aims to define the absolute quantity, in copies per cell, of at least 4000 proteins in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We have based our strategy on the well-established method of stable isotope dilution, generating isotopically labelled peptides using QconCAT technology, in which artificial genes, encoding concatenations of tryptic fragments as surrogate quantification standards, are designed, synthesised de novo and expressed in bacteria using stable isotopically enriched media. A known quantity of QconCAT is then co-digested with analyte proteins and the heavy:light isotopologues are analysed by mass spectrometry to yield absolute quantification. This workflow brings issues of optimal selection of quantotypic peptides, their assembly into QconCATs, expression, purification and deployment. PMID:21710569

  20. Ministerial Presentation: Lithuania [International Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Energy in the 21. Century: Addressing Energy Needs and Environmental Challenges, Beijing (China), 20-22 April 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lithuania is a state that has nuclear power plant with two RBMK type reactors. The first one was shut down in the end of the year 2004 and the second one has to be closed at the end of this year. We are facing two main challenges for the Baltic States when tackling the issue of Security of Energy Supply: The energy systems of the Baltic States are interconnected between each other, but almost totally separated from the Western European energy systems. In addition, electricity supplies from the eastern neighbours are also limited. After the scheduled INPP closure at the end of 2009, the Baltic energy system as the 'Energy Island' may face electricity supply shortages; Natural gas and oil pipelines come to the Baltic States from one direction. All three countries depend on one supplier. The closure of Ignalina NPP will even worsen the situation with the increase of natural gas use for fossil fuel power plants. What solutions do we see? Development of electricity interconnections; Additional electricity generation capacities in the region; Supply of the natural gas to the region; Oil supply to the region. Nuclear energy development. We closely follow global energy trend which shows growing energy demands and consequently significant increase in future nuclear power contribution. National Energy Strategy of Lithuania foresees rapid economic grow which is the key factor having direct impact on energy consumption and at the same time on electricity demand. Nuclear power is e on electricity demand. Nuclear power is the largest source of energy in Lithuania, accounting for approx. 70% of the electricity produced. Lithuania has already announced its decision to expand nuclear power by building a new nuclear power plant jointly with Estonia, Latvia and Poland. The new plant titled as Visaginas Nuclear Power Plant is planned to be built in 2015 and located near existing Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant. Visaginas NPP is intended to secure energy supply to whole Baltic region. Given the fact that the project is regional, its implementation is more complex, complicated and slower than it appears. Implementation requires constant coordination among all partners participating in project. We are glad that there are already some steps accomplished which I want to share with you. After the political declaration of the three Baltic States on the construction of a common nuclear power plant Lithuania started to consider project related environmental issues. The Environmental Impact Assessment Program (EIA) was approved by the Lithuanian Ministry of Environment on November 15th, 2007 after extensive national and international commenting. In August 2008 EIA report has been prepared and presented to the public. Environmental impact assessment evaluated construction and operation of a new nuclear power plant in Lithuania with an approximate electric power of 3400 MW. The environmental impact assessment did not find any environmental or social impacts of such significance, caused by construction or operation of the new NPP, that they could not be accepted or mitigated to an acceptable level. Lithuania has established the National investor company LEO LT which is responsible for the implementation and development of New Nuclear Power Plant project. LEO LT is going to bear 100% of Lithuania's participation share in the project. The step forward to project implementation was establishing a new LEO LT subsidiary - 'Visaginas nuclear power plant'. A new subsidiary will perform all the new NPP project related preparatory works. While discussing nuclear power expansion we have to think about expansion of human resources as well. The National Energy Strategy gives the national priority to ensure timely preparation of specialists for work in the new nuclear power plant as of the phase of mounting its technological equipment. In this respect Lithuania has developed a National programme for the preparation of nuclear energy specialists for the years 2008-2015. Taking into account all those mentioned activities related to safe operation, decommissioning and fut

  1. Hunting and fishing settlements in Upernavik district of Northern Greenland : challenged by climate, centralization and globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendriksen, Kåre; JØrgensen, Ulrik

    2014-01-01

    Inuit in the Upernavik district of Northern Greenland has in generations used the winter sea ice as the basis for the essential hunting of seals, white- and narwhales. Since the late 1980’ies hunting has been combined with increasing fishery of Greenland halibut during summer from dinghies and in the winter from the sea ice serving the subsistence of 400 families. These living conditions are now under heavy pressures from a set of interacting rapid changes in the natural environment and socio-economic institutions resulting from climate changes, modernization and globalization, where the Greenlandic government intent to allocate a larger part of the halibut quota to larger vessels not located in the district and at the same time reduce quota for dinghy and dog sledge based fishing due to limited or even misleading data of the local subsistence and money economy.

  2. Ministerial Presentation: Bangladesh. Statement by Arch. Yeafesh Osman [International Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Energy in the 21. Century: Addressing Energy Needs and Environmental Challenges, Beijing (China), 20-22 April 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is indeed a great pleasure and honour for me to have the opportunity to participate in this august gathering of International Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Energy in the 21st century. At the outset I avail of this opportunity to express my heartfelt gratitude to Chinese Atomic Energy Agency (CAEA) and the Government of the People's Republic of China (PRC) for the initiative and interest of hosting this important event in Beijing. I express my profound sense of gratefulness for the firm commitment, moral, material and intellectual support of the IAEA and its Member States which enabled organization of this important conference. The history of IAEA is a history of solidarity and the joint actions of the member states, an icon of joint collaboration for 'Atom For Peace Program'. I am confident that this conference will allow the participants to address development and emerging issues relevant to the role of nuclear power in providing clean and sustainable energy for the 21st Century. The conference will also provide an opportunity to review the status and prospects of nuclear power to carry forward the positive momentum to further raise the profile of Nuclear Energy. Respected Delegates, We all share a common understanding that nuclear science and technology is now conceived as a potential instrument of change and can play a decisive and pivotal role in efforts of achieving the much coveted goal of poverty alleviation. For ensuring sustainable development energy s ensuring sustainable development energy security is the most important strategic issue for all in the 21st Century. Global warming from greenhouse gases caused by excessive and imprudent use of fossil fuels, is a problem we must overcome together to achieve sustainable development. Meanwhile, Asia is displaying a high growth rate in both population and economic development. Therefore, the low energy consumption per capita at present will see a rapid and constant increase in demand in the near future. As such, great importance is attached to the promotion of nuclear power programme and cooperation among Asian countries for their collective response to the future energy demand and expansion of Nuclear Power Program (NPP). We deem, IAEA should come up to face this reality that we share a common fate on this crowded planet. To attain the goals of cooperation, it is imperative to combine four elements: a clear objective, an effective technology, a clear implementation strategy, and last but not the least a source of funding. The greatest challenges of our generation are energy and food security, environment, population boom, and poverty. These are at the same time our most exciting opportunities too. Ours is the generation which has the potential to eradicate extreme poverty to a remarkably substantial degree. We can turn the tide against climate change and steer forward a reversing process of massive extinction of other species. Ours is the generation that can, and must solve the unresolved conundrum of combining economic well-being with energy security and environmental sustainability. We need Nuclear Technology and professionalism, but first of all we need a meaningful and effective collaboration and cooperation having interfaces among the concerned. Bangladesh is well aware of the new challenges that the nation has to confront in the present context of globalization as well as multiple problems arising with dynamics of time in domestic development. Our Honorable Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina MP has declared her government's firm determination to bring about a meaningful change in the country. Her vision is to develop a 'Digital Bangladesh' by 2021, a poverty free mid-level developed country. The present strategy of the Government comprises of a comprehensive package approach envisaging poverty reduction and socioeconomic development. For this reliable supply of energy and electricity is a precondition. It is worth mentioning that access to electricity is a constitutional right of the citizens of Bangladesh. Accordingly the government has the vision to provide

  3. Ministerial Presentation: Jordan. Why Nuclear? [International Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Energy in the 21. Century: Addressing Energy Needs and Environmental Challenges, Beijing (China), 20-22 April 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recent renaissance of nuclear power in the industrialized countries is not the only factor driving the interest of nuclear power in developing countries. The necessity for nuclear power in developing countries, and in particular the Middle East, is most often misunderstood by the industrialized countries, due to the abundance of oil and gas in the region . However, large disparities exist between countries of the region with per-capita consumption 0.1 toe/yr for Sudan to 34 toe/yr for Qatar. The greatest expansion of energy demand over the coming decades will be in the developing world. Global predictions of energy demand and supply are misleading for policy or planning needs. Regional and, even better, national detailed projections are more accurate. A point of illustration is the Middle East, where the conventional opinion is of a 'rich' oil-producing region. On a country-by-country basis, it is clear that many countries in the Middle East, are actually suffering under the toll of high oil prices. A case in point is Jordan, where more than 20 percent of the national budget is spent to import energy. The uncertainty of energy supplies and their increasing costs are severely affecting the growth of my country's economy and its security. Jordan imports more than 95 percent of its energy needs. Hence, the development of secure alternative energy supplies is a top priority for the country. Jordan has limited options to substitute for oil products. The chief option istute for oil products. The chief option is imported natural gas, which can displace oil but is a short- to mid-term option and cannot be relied upon for the long term and should be used as a peaking source. Renewables will be developed to their fullest extent but have their well known limitations. Our vision is to utilize nuclear energy to transform Jordan from a net energy importer to a net electricity exporter by 2030. By that date, according to the National Nuclear Strategy, 30% of the Jordan's electricity needs will be met by nuclear power, with excess production to be made available for export. Jordan has been seriously exploring nuclear power as a long-term alternative for electricity generation, water desalination, and as insurance for both energy security and future volatility of oil and natural gas prices. Nuclear energy is an important alternative to fossil fuels and is a particularly important component in a low-carbon energy strategy. In this regard, I urge this Conference to call for the inclusion of nuclear energy in the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) of any future climate change negotiations. Nuclear power also maximizes and leverages Jordan's indigenous uranium resources. The Kingdom is endowed with rich uranium resources which have not been fully explored, with estimated reasonably assured resources of about 70,000 metric tons of uranium oxide in Central Jordan with additional quantities that could be extracted as byproduct of phosphoric acid production. There are, however, many challenges standing in the way of introducing nuclear power in Jordan such as the high investment cost, the need for skilled engineers and technicians, the limited suitable sites for power plants, the lack of adequate water sources for cooling, and the volatile regional political climate. Since 2001, Jordan has been developing a national strategy for civilian nuclear power. But only in January 2008, that Jordan's parliament empowered the Jordan Atomic Energy Commission (JAEC) to lead the national effort and implement the Kingdom's nuclear strategy ---to be the Nuclear Power Implementation Organization (NEPIO) for the country. Furthermore and In compliance with the best of international practices, the parliament established an independent Jordan Nuclear Regulatory Commission (JNRC), to promulgate the needed legal, regulatory, and security framework for the introduction of nuclear power. JAEC has concluded nuclear cooperation agreements with France, China, South Korea, Canada, and will conclude two soon with Russia and UK. One of our major challenges, and in fact a

  4. Diversity of devices along with diversity of data formats as a new challenge in global teaching and learning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, Razia; Christ, Andreas; Meyrueis, Patrick

    2014-07-01

    The popularity of mobile communication devices is increasing day by day among students, especially for e-learning activities. "Always-ready-to-use" feature of mobile devices is a key motivation for students to use it even in a short break for a short time. This leads to new requirements regarding learning content presentation, user interfaces, and system architecture for heterogeneous devices. To support diverse devices is not enough to establish global teaching and learning system, it is equally important to support various formats of data along with different sort of devices having different capabilities in terms of processing power, display size, supported data formats, operating system, access method of data etc. Not only the existing data formats but also upcoming data formats, such as due to research results in the area of optics and photonics, virtual reality etc should be considered. This paper discusses the importance, risk and challenges of supporting heterogeneous devices to provide heterogeneous data as a learning content to make global teaching and learning system literally come true at anytime and anywhere. We proposed and implemented a sustainable architecture to support device and data format independent learning system.

  5. The big picture - a North American gas consumer's challenge in a global market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    World methanol uses, production capacity for 1996 to 2000, and the overall fundamental facts about methanol consumption and supply are reviewed. Results suggest that the use of methanol as a fuel is growing rapidly and it is also tied directly with the MTBE fuel oxygenate. Methanol is competing directly with liquefied natural gas, particularly as the average cash cost of production is decreasing. Fundamentals of methanol economics are outlined, showing that with minor exceptions, methanol pricing reflects commodity products in general. There is no historical reason to expect that these fundamentals will change in the near future. In view of that, the best strategy to maintain market share is to be the lowest cost producer, keeping up efforts to enlarge markets, focusing on reliability of the product, and on economics of scale, technology and finance. Reducing capital and operating cost, and paying close attention to freight costs are equally important strategy components. Issues concerning traditional gas purchasing strategies for North American chemical companies, factors responsible for gas price volatility, and approaches to gas purchasing are also addressed. tabs., figs

  6. Global climate change: Some implications, opportunities, and challenges for US forestry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is widely agreed that the concentration of greenhouse gases in the earth's atmosphere is increasing, that this increase is a consequence of man's activities, and that there is significant risk that this will lead to changes in the earth's climate. The question is now being discussed what, if anything, we should be doing to minimize and/or adapt to changes in climate. Virtually every statement on this matter; from the US Office of Technology Assessment, to the National Academy of Science, to the Nairobi Declaration on Climatic Change, includes some recommendation for planting and protecting forests. In fact, forestry is intimately involved in the climate change debate for several reasons: changing climate patterns will affect existing forests, tropical deforestation is one of the major sources of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere, reforestation projects could remove additional carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and there is renewed interest in wood-based or other renewable fuels to replace fossil fuels. Part of the enthusiasm for forestry-related strategies in a greenhouse context is the perception that forests not only provide greenhouse benefits but also serve other desirable social objectives. This discussion will explore the current range of thinking in this area and try to stimulate additional thinking on the rationality of the forestry-based approaches and the challenges posed for US forestry

  7. Global challenges in the risk assessment of nanomaterials: relevance to South Africa

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mary, Gulumian; Eileen D., Kuempel; Kai, Savolainen.

    Full Text Available Internationally, there are efforts to develop standardised toxicity testing and risk assessment methods for engineered nanomaterials (ENMs). To this end, health risk assessments need to be conducted on ENMs synthesised in South Africa. Country-specific risk characterisation requires specific exposur [...] e assessments for those ENMs for which the likelihood exists for occupational and environmental exposure in that country. A challenge in hazard identification and risk assessment related to ENMs, regardless of country of origin, is that data on toxicity, carcinogenicity, pharmacokinetics, and occupational or environmental exposure are generally not available for most ENMs. Although the mechanisms previously identified as important in the toxicity and carcinogenicity of particles and fibres may be applicable, the possibility exists that the unusual physicochemical properties of ENMs may give rise to unique, and as yet unidentified, adverse effects. Moreover, generalised exposure scenarios that consider the life cycle of the agent have not been developed and are needed for the complete risk characterisation of ENMs. As health risk assessment is both resource and labour intensive, it is imperative to identify the aims of such an exercise prior to embarking on large-scale projects, to ensure that the data most useful for public health decision-making is provided. Identifying priorities in South Africa, in coordination with international efforts, can facilitate the effective use of research efforts for risk assessment and risk management decision-making.

  8. Learning in the cloud: a new challenge for a global teaching system in optics and photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, Razia; Christ, Andreas; Feisst, Markus; Curticapean, Dan

    2014-07-01

    Nowadays, it is assumed of many applications, companies and parts of the society to be always available online. However, according to [Times, Oct, 31 2011], 73% of the world population do not use the internet and thus aren't "online" at all. The most common reasons for not being "online" are expensive personal computer equipment and high costs for data connections, especially in developing countries that comprise most of the world's population (e.g. parts of Africa, Asia, Central and South America). However it seems that these countries are leap-frogging the "PC and landline" age and moving directly to the "mobile" age. Decreasing prices for smart phones with internet connectivity and PC-like operating systems make it more affordable for these parts of the world population to join the "always-online" community. Storing learning content in a way accessible to everyone, including mobile and smart phones, seems therefore to be beneficial. This way, learning content can be accessed by personal computers as well as by mobile and smart phones and thus be accessible for a big range of devices and users. A new trend in the Internet technologies is to go to "the cloud". This paper discusses the changes, challenges and risks of storing learning content in the "cloud". The experiences were gathered during the evaluation of the necessary changes in order to make our solutions and systems "cloud-ready".

  9. Nuclear cooperation targets global challenges. States back main pillars of the IAEA's work to strengthen nuclear safety, verification and technology transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    States meeting at the 44th IAEA General Conference in Vienna have set a challenging agenda for international nuclear cooperation into the 21st century that targets issues of global safety, security, and sustainable development. They adopted resolutions endorsing the Agency's programmes for strengthening activities under its three main pillars of work - nuclear verification, safety, and technology - that are closely linked to major challenges before the world. The document presents the main actions taken during the conference

  10. Transdisciplinary Challenges for Sustainable Management of Mediterranean Landscapes in the Global Information Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zev Naveh

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The present chaotic transformation from the industrial to the global information society is accelerating the ecological, social and economic unsustainability. The rapidly growing unsustainable, fossil energy powered urbanindustrial technosphere and their detrimental impacts on nature and human well-being are threatening the solar energy powered natural and seminatural biosphere landscapes and their vital ecosystem services. A sustainability revolution is therefore urgently needed, requiring a shift from the „fossil age“ to the „solar age“ of a new world economy, coupled with more sustainable lifestyles and consumption patterns. The sustainable future of viable multifunctional biosphere landscapes of the Mediterranean Region and elsewhere and their biological and cultural richness can only be ensured by a post-industrial symbiosis between nature and human society. For this purpose a mindset shift of scientists and professionals from narrow disciplinarity to transdisciplinarity is necessary, dealing with holistic land use planning and management, in close cooperation with land users and stakeholders. To conserve and restore the rapidly vanishing and degrading Mediterranean uplands and highest biological ecological and cultural landscape ecodiversity, their dynamic homeorhetic flow equilibrium, has to be maintained by continuing or simulating all anthropogenic processes of grazing, browsing by wild and domesticated ungulates. Catastrophic wildfires can be prevented only by active fire and fuel management, converting highly inflammable pine forests and dense shrub thickets into floristically enriched, multi- layered open woodlands and recreation forests.

  11. Pfizer and the Challenges of the Global Pharmaceutical Industry 2013 (A)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nell, Phillip Christopher

    This is part of a case series. The case focuses on describing and analysing the environment, profitability and competitiveness of the global pharmaceutical industry, and to evaluate the current and future strategy of Pfizer. It features a large number of tables with quantitative data that help solving the case study. The case starts with a short description of recent important events that might mark a turning point for the whole industry. It then focuses on the overall market on drugs - structure, growth, blockbusters, and the influence of national health care systems. Furthermore, firms’ R&D efforts and the patenting system are presented including implications for prices and profits. The last section of the case text focuses on the two types of competition in the industry: between and within patents. The (B) case covers a description of the 10 largest pharmaceutical firms and highlights a number of strategic manoeuvres of major players in the last years. At the end, the reader is referred back to the Pfizer situation and Pfizer’s recent strategic initiatives and responses to the market changes.

  12. RFID and Data Capture Technologies in Global Service Supply Chains: Meeting the Information Management Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mairead Brady

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Data capture technologies such as RFID promise customer centric global service supply chains, but simultaneously threaten data overload. We argue that novel approaches to information management are required to successfully manage the data from sensor-based data capture technologies and to integrate them into successful inter-organizational service supply networks. We question the degree to which ICTs such as RFID as currently deployed support the customer orientation needed for successful service operations across supply chains, and identify difficulties inherent in current technology use along supply chains and in business systems. We argue for customer orientation at all stages of the supply chain, and identify the benefits of customer information that is available to all supply chain partners in real time, synchronized and updated in responsive and customer centric ways. We outline two general technical approaches, one that involves effective technical middleware along with intra- and inter-organizational coordination capabilities and another, considerably more revolutionary and ambitious in scope, that revolves around the idea of a centralized data clearinghouse.

  13. Environmental challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contents include the following: Development and the Environment: A Global Balance; Evolution of the World Bank's Environmental Policy; Accounting for the Environment; Public Policy and the Environment; Managing Drylands; Environmental Action Plans in Africa; Agroforestry in Sub-Saharan Africa; Irrigation and the Environmental Challenge; Curbing Pollution in Developing Countries; Global Warming and the Developing World; and The Global Environment Facility

  14. Opening address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berlin has become a modern, open and forward looking city filling its role as the German capital with self confidence and a very special charm. I really appreciate that this conference is being held here in Berlin. Supporting communication between science and the economy is one of our policy objectives, and we are also determined to develop Berlin's attraction for congresses and conferences. In the next week you will focus on the 'Safe Decommissioning for Nuclear Activities'. You work in an enormous field. Currently, there are more than 110 nuclear installations in the European Union in varying stages of decommissioning, and an additional 150 installations will be dismantled by the year 2020. This means that decommissioning will no longer be treated in a case by case fashion like, for example, the Greifswald Nuclear Power Plant or the Wismut remediation site, which some of you will visit on Friday. Rather, decommissioning will have to be turned into a full scale industrial process with standardized procedures. Each of these procedures has to be optimized, not only with respect to technical requirements but most importantly in a way that guarantees maximum safety for the workers, for the population and for the environment. Consequently, the focal points of this conference cover an extremely wide range, including: Strategies for the safe termination and the assessment of the adequacy of the current technology; Waste management and disposal; Release of materials from regnd disposal; Release of materials from regulatory control; Remediation of sites; Social impact of practice termination. Adequate coverage of all these issues is probably not made easier by the proposed enlargement of the European Union to include a number of Central European and Baltic countries. At an early stage, it is the scientific community, with its creativity and potential, which conceives novel approaches and designs new processes. But at a certain point the foundation for the successful handling of a complex problem must be enlarged and become more technical. Involving experts from all fields is then crucial for success. This perception is reflected in the goals of this meeting. It is designed as an extensive information exchange forum between decision makers, regulators, radiation and waste safety specialists, and the nuclear industry. It is this mix which promises high efficiency with respect to solving the problems that you are addressing. I am sure that the safe termination of practices involving radioactive materials during the decommissioning of nuclear installations is one of the major challenges that industrialized nations will have to face during the next decades

  15. The Challenges of Developing a Framework for Global Water Cycle Monitoring and Prediction (Alfred Wegener Medal Lecture)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Eric F.

    2014-05-01

    The Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) Water Strategy ("From Observations to Decisions") recognizes that "water is essential for ensuring food and energy security, for facilitating poverty reduction and health security, and for the maintenance of ecosystems and biodiversity", and that water cycle data and observations are critical for improved water management and water security - especially in less developed regions. The GEOSS Water Strategy has articulated a number of goals for improved water management, including flood and drought preparedness, that include: (i) facilitating the use of Earth Observations for water cycle observations; (ii) facilitating the acquisition, processing, and distribution of data products needed for effective management; (iii) providing expertise, information systems, and datasets to the global, regional, and national water communities. There are several challenges that must be met to advance our capability to provide near real-time water cycle monitoring, early warning of hydrological hazards (floods and droughts) and risk assessment under climate change, regionally and globally. Current approaches to monitoring and predicting hydrological hazards are limited in many parts of the world, and especially in developing countries where national capacity is limited and monitoring networks are inadequate. This presentation describes the developments at Princeton University towards a seamless monitoring and prediction framework at all time scales that allows for consistent assessment of water variability from historic to current conditions, and from seasonal and decadal predictions to climate change projections. At the center of the framework is an experimental, global water cycle monitoring and seasonal forecast system that has evolved out of regional and continental systems for the US and Africa. The system is based on land surface hydrological modeling that is driven by satellite remote sensing precipitation to predict current hydrological conditions, flood potential and the state of drought. Seasonal climate model forecasts are downscaled and bias-corrected to drive the land surface model to provide hydrological forecasts and drought products out 6-9 months. The system relies on historic reconstructions of water variability over the 20th century, which forms the background climatology to which current conditions can be assessed. Future changes in water availability and drought risk are quantified based on bias-corrected and downscaled climate model projections that are used to drive the land surface models. For regions with lack of on-the-ground data we are field-testing low-cost environmental sensors and along with new satellite products for terrestrial hydrology and vegetation, integrating these into the system for improved monitoring and prediction. At every step there are scientific challenges whose solutions are only partially being solved. In addition there are challenges in delivering such systems as "climate services", especially to societies with low technical capacity such as rural agriculturalists in sub-Saharan Africa, but whose needs for such information are great. We provide an overview of the system and some examples of real-world applications to flood and drought events, with a focus on Africa.

  16. The global state of palliative care-progress and challenges in cancer care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reville, Barbara; Foxwell, Anessa M

    2014-07-01

    All persons have a right to palliative care during cancer treatment and at the end-of-life. The World Health Organization (WHO) defines palliative care as a medical specialty that addresses physical, psychological, social, legal, and spiritual domains of care by an interdisciplinary team of professional and lay health care providers. Widespread adoption of this universal definition will aid policy development and educational initiatives on a national level. The need for palliative care is expanding due to the aging of the world's population and the increase in the rate of cancer in both developed and developing countries. However, in one third of the world there is no access to palliative care for persons with serious or terminal illness. Palliative care improves symptoms, most frequently pain, and improves quality of life for patients and their families, especially in the terminal disease phase. Accessibility to palliative care services, adequately trained health care professionals, availability of essential medicines, and gaps in education vary greatly throughout the world. Pain management is an integral concept in the practice of palliative care; however, opioiphobia, insufficient supply of opioids, and regulatory restrictions contribute to undue suffering for millions. Ongoing advocacy efforts call for increased awareness, palliative care integration with cancer care, and public and professional education. Enacting necessary change will require the engagement of health ministries and the recognition of the unique needs and resources of each country. The aim of this review is to examine progress in palliative care development and explore some of the barriers influencing cancer care across the globe. PMID:25841689

  17. Challenges in global improvement of oral cancer outcomes: findings from rural Northern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dangi Jyoti

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In India, 72% of the population resides in rural areas and 30-40% of cancers are found in the oral cavity. The majority of Haryana residents live in villages where inadequate medical facilities, no proper primary care infrastructure or cancer screening tools and high levels of illiteracy all contribute to poor oral cancer (OC outcomes. In this challenging environment, the objective of this study was to assess the association between various risk factors for OC among referrals for suscipious lesions and to design and pilot test a collaborative community-based effort to identify suspicious lesions for OC. Methods Setting: Community-based cross sectional OC screening. Participants: With help from the Department of Health (DOH, Haryana and the local communities, we visited three villages and recruited 761 participants of ages 45-95 years. Participants received a visual oral cancer examination and were interviewed about their dental/medical history and personal habits. Pregnant women, children and males/females below 45 years old with history of OC were excluded. Main outcome: Presence of a suspicious oral lesion. Results Out of 761 participants, 42 (5.5% were referred to a local dentist for follow-up of suspicious lesions. Males were referred more than females. The referral group had more bidi and hookah smokers than non smokers as compared to non referral group. The logistic regression analysis revealed that smoking bidi and hookah (OR = 3.06 and 4.42 were statistically significant predictors for suspicious lesions. Conclusions Tobacco use of various forms in rural, northern India was found to be quite high and a main risk factor for suspicious lesions. The influence of both the DOH and community participation was crucial in motivating people to seek care for OC.

  18. Inherited hypoxia: A new challenge for reoligotrophicated lakes under global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenny, Jean-Philippe; Arnaud, Fabien; Alric, Benjamin; Dorioz, Jean-Marcel; Sabatier, Pierre; Meybeck, Michel; Perga, Marie-Elodie

    2014-12-01

    The Anthropocene is characterized by a worldwide spread of hypoxia, among other manifestations, which threatens aquatic ecosystem functions, services, and biodiversity. The primary cause of hypoxia onset in recent decades is human-triggered eutrophication. Global warming has also been demonstrated to contribute to the increase of hypoxic conditions. However, the precise role of both environmental forcings on hypoxia dynamics over the long term remains mainly unknown due to a lack of historical monitoring. In this study, we used an innovative paleolimnological approach on three large European lakes to quantify past hypoxia dynamics and to hierarchies the contributions of climate and nutrients. Even for lake ecosystems that have been well oxygenated over a millennia-long period, and regardless of past climatic fluctuations, a shift to hypoxic conditions occurred in the 1950s in response to an unprecedented rise in total phosphorus concentrations above 10 ± 5 µg P L-1. Following this shift, hypoxia never disappeared despite the fact that environmental policies succeeded in drastically reducing lake phosphorus concentrations. During that period, decadal fluctuations in hypoxic volume were great, ranging between 0.5 and 8% of the total lake volumes. We demonstrate, through statistical modeling, that these fluctuations were essentially driven by climatic factors, such as river discharge and air temperature. In lakes Geneva and Bourget, which are fed by large river systems, fluctuations in hypoxic volume were negatively correlated with river discharge. In contrast, the expansion of hypoxia has been related only to warmer air temperatures at Annecy, which is fed by small river systems. Hence, we outline a theoretical framework assuming that restored lake ecosystems have inherited hypoxia from the eutrophication period and have shifted to a new stable state with new key controls of water and ecosystem quality. We suggest that controlling river discharge may be a complementary strategy for local management of lakes fed by large river systems.

  19. Coordinating Communities and Building Governance in the Development of Schematic and Semantic Standards: the Key to Solving Global Earth and Space Science Challenges in the 21st Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyborn, L. A.

    2007-12-01

    The Information Age in Science is being driven partly by the data deluge as exponentially growing volumes of data are being generated by research. Such large volumes of data cannot be effectively processed by humans and efficient and timely processing by computers requires development of specific machine readable formats. Further, as key challenges in earth and space sciences, such as climate change, hazard prediction and sustainable development resources require a cross disciplinary approach, data from various domains will need to be integrated from globally distributed sources also via machine to machine formats. However, it is becoming increasingly apparent that the existing standards can be very domain specific and most existing data transfer formats require human intervention. Where groups from different communities do try combine data across the domain/discipline boundaries much time is spent reformatting and reorganizing the data and it is conservatively estimated that this can take 80% of a project's time and resources. Four different types of standards are required for machine to machine interaction: systems, syntactic, schematic and semantic. Standards at the systems (WMS, WFS, etc) and at the syntactic level (GML, Observation and Measurement, SensorML) are being developed through international standards bodies such as ISO, OGC, W3C, IEEE etc. In contrast standards at the schematic level (e.g., GeoSciML, LandslidesML, WaterML, QuakeML) and at the semantic level (ie ontologies and vocabularies) are currently developing rapidly, in a very uncoordinated way and with little governance. As the size of the community that can machine read each others data depends on the size of the community that has developed the schematic or semantic standards, it is essential that to achieve global integration of earth and space science data, the required standards need to be developed through international collaboration using accepted standard proceedures. Once developed the standards also require some form of governance to maintain and then extend the standard as the science evolves to meet new challenges. A standard that does have some governance is GeoSciML, a data transfer standard for geoscience map data. GeoSciML is currently being developed by a consortium of 7 countries under the auspices of the Commission for the Management of and Application of Geoscience Information (CGI), a commission of the International Union of Geological Sciences. Perhaps other `ML' or ontology and vocabulary development `teams' need to look to their international domain specific specialty societies for endorsement and governance. But the issue goes beyond Earth and Space Sciences, as increasingly cross and intra disciplinary science requires machine to machine interaction with other science disciplines such as physics, chemistry and astronomy. For example, for geochemistry do we develop GeochemistryML or do we extend the existing Chemical Markup Language? Again, the question is who will provide the coordination of the development of the required schematic and semantic standards that underpin machine to machine global integration of science data. Is this a role for ICSU or CODATA or who? In order to address this issue, Geoscience Australia and CSIRO established the Solid Earth and Environmental Grid Community website to enable communities to `advertise' standards development and to provide a community TWIKI where standards can be developed in a globally `open' environment.

  20. Ministerial Presentation: France [International Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Energy in the 21. Century: Addressing Energy Needs and Environmental Challenges, Beijing (China), 20-22 April 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Let me begin by offering my warmest thanks to our Chinese hosts, who have perfectly organised this important international conference. I would also like to thank Mohamed ElBaradei, Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency, as well as all of the participants - the calibre of those in attendance today is a clear sign of the world's interest in the IAEA and the peaceful use of nuclear energy. France attaches great importance to the work carried out within the framework of the IAEA. In fact, this conference in China is the second one of its kind, following the very successful one that was held in France in 2005. Nuclear energy's current success can be explained by the fact it represents one of the solutions to today's energy challenges. Today, there is no longer any doubt - climate change is threatening the planet. Fossil fuel resources are finite as well as the source of greenhouse gases. In both developed and developing countries, energy is one of the key factors in socio-economic development. In such a context, nuclear energy plays a crucial role. In 1974, my country made a large-scale shift over to nuclear energy for its electricity needs. Today, France boasts 58 nuclear reactors that produce 80% of our electricity. They have given us greater energy independence and security, and allowed us to limit our greenhouse gas emissions. Among the OECD countries, France is the fourth largest consumer of energy, but in terms of CO2 emissions per unit of GDP, w terms of CO2 emissions per unit of GDP, we are in 27th place. We emit 30 to 40% less carbon dioxide per inhabitant than our large European neighbours. In addition, France's decision to reprocess spent fuel in order to recycle useable components and optimise waste handling has allowed it to implement sustainable management of nuclear fuel. It is remarkable that between the 2005 Paris conference and today the development of nuclear energy around the world has continued unabated More and more nations have chosen or are considering choosing nuclear energy, particularly developing nations (cf. the declarations made during the conference) Efforts by multilateral bodies such as the IAEA and the OECD's Nuclear Energy Agency to help these states develop a peaceful and responsible use of nuclear energy are crucial. In particular, I would like to point out the IAEA's vital work that led to the publication of ''Milestones in the Development of a National Infrastructure for Nuclear Power''. France's public services, companies, universities and research centres contribute their expertise and play an active part in this international cooperation, the goal of which is to share the benefits of peaceful nuclear energy use, while strictly complying with safety, security and non-proliferation standards. For France, nuclear energy rests on a sound technological and economic foundation France acquired considerable experience with its first- and second- generation reactors, and today we are in a position to put ground- breaking advances to work within a tried and true technology; I am speaking of the third-generation EPR reactors, and France's global offer that encompasses every part of the nuclear cycle. We believe that the fourth-generation reactors are quite promising, and France is taking an active role in international R and D efforts concerning the systems of the future. We believe in the promising long term developments of the ITER project, hosted by France. The IAEA is providing a remarkable contribution to it. Finally, our experience, backed by a number of international studies, shows that nuclear energy is economically competitive and offers an attractive alternative to fossil fuels. All of these points explain why a number of States are anxious to develop this form of energy. However, we must always keep in mind that nuclear energy implies certain responsibilities, and must form part of an overarching energy strategy. I would like to point out straight away the strict compliance with the agreements made in the area of non-proliferation. In particular, I want to stress

  1. Rabies Vaccines: Its Role, Challenges, Considerations and Implications for the Global Control and Possible Eradication of Rabies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okonko Iheanyi Omezuruike

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This review reports on the rabies vaccines: Its role, considerations and implications for the global control and possible eradication of rabies. Attempts to control human rabies have a long history; animal and human vaccines provide efficient weapons for prevention. Vaccines are one of the m ost effective public health interventions. Vaccines are the basis of the medical and veterinary medical future. Rabies vaccine is made from killed rabies virus. Rabies vaccine can prevent rabies. It is offered to people at high risk of exposure. The primary intention of vaccine is to produce stimulation to the cellular immune system, via the production of antibodies. Methods for Rabies Virus (RABV manipulation have changed fundamentally from random attenuation to defined modifications. In 2001, WHO issued a resolution for the complete replacement of nerve tissue vaccines by 2006 with cell-culture rabies vaccines? In recent years, purified and concentrated Vero cell rabies vaccines using the 3aG and CTN-1 strains have been developed. The Purified Vero Rabies Vaccines (PVRV, is also being developed to meet the increasing demand for human rabies vaccine. However, for animals, all fixed RABV strains recommended by WHO, such as PVRV, Challenge Virus Standard (CVS, Flury-Low Egg Passage (LEP, High Egg Passage (HEP, Evelyn-Rokitnicki-Abelseth (ERA, and SAD variants, have been successfully used in industrialized countries, where rabies is well controlled. Any potent rabies vaccine will protect against rabies. A vaccine, like any medicine, is capable of causing serious problems, such as severe allergic reactions, though the risk of causing serious harm, or death, is extremely small and very rare. As international concerns increased, several corrective actions have been implemented in many countries since 2005, which aimed at improving vaccination protocols and a consistent vaccination strategy aiming to eliminate the residual focus. However, we should bear in mind that vaccination is still the key to prevent rabies in small animals and transmission to human beings. It is hoped that the various strategies, well coordinated and corrective actions and initiatives for global control of rabies, to make important contributions in stemming the magnitudes, roles and implications of vaccines for global control and possible eradication of rabies and other rabies-related viruses which poses threat to global public health.

  2. Global warming what are the challenges for Copenhagen?; Rechauffement climatique. Quels enjeux pour Copenhague?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2010-07-01

    The Kyoto Protocol was adopted in 1997 and, following a long ratification process, went into effect in 2005. Under the Protocol, 200 countries have committed to reducing their greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) by 2012. What conclusions can we draw from developments thus far, as we await the December conference in Copenhagen to determine a follow-up to the Kyoto Protocol? The work of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has given us more accurate knowledge on global warming issues. In its latest report, published in 2007, the IPCC reveals that eleven of the past twelve years studied - 1995 to 2006 - were among the warmest yet recorded since 1850, when this type of data collection began. From 1906 to 2005, global temperatures rose by 0.74 deg. C, and the average rate of increase has more than doubled over the past fifty years. To help companies and countries achieve their GHG emissions reduction targets, the Kyoto Protocol provides for a carbon trading system based on carbon reduction credits (CRC), the exchange currency in a carbon credit market. When a company reduces its emissions below regulatory levels, it can have the 'excess' reduction certified and converted into carbon credits, which it can then sell to a company that has not yet reached its reduction targets. Japan has already used clean technologies and energy saving measures to achieve energy efficiency in the past. Its energy structure is fairly close to that of France, which has a 0% emissions goal. In Japan, nuclear power also accounts for a significant share of the electric power program. The Japanese government recently announced that it was increasing its carbon reduction goal from 6% to an ambitious 25%. China and the United States are the world's leading greenhouse gas emitters. When China ratified the Kyoto Protocol in 2002, it was considered to be a developing country and as such has no emissions reduction obligations. Since then, China has moved closer to the Protocol principles, creating a national climate change group in 2007 and launching its own national climate change program. The program's goal is to lower China's energy consumption per unit of GDP by 20% by 2010 compared with its 2005 level. Under a medium to long-term sustainable development plan, the share of sustainable energies in the overall energy mix will increase to 10% by 2010 and to 15% by 2020. Before the Copenhagen conference, China indicated that it was expecting the United States and Europe to commit to reducing their emissions by 40% and to devote 1% of their GDP to technology transfer towards developing countries by 2020. The Bush Administration used the argument that 'the American way of life is not negotiable' to justify the refusal of the United States to adhere to the Kyoto Protocol. Today, the United States returns to the discussion table in a more open frame of mind. The administration of Barack Obama has decided to become more involved and cooperate more with China and India on climate change. In late June, the American president succeeded in getting his climate change bill through the US House of Representatives. The climate bill, which is still up before the Senate, aims to reduce GHG emissions (particularly CO{sub 2}) by 17% before 2020 compared with the 2005 level. It also promotes the development of clean energies and provides for the creation of a cap and trade emissions trading system. Under this system, emissions allowances are either sold or given to the most vulnerable industries. The sales revenue would be used to fund the development of clean energies, among other things. The EU-15 member states are close to reaching the targets set at Kyoto. What about EU-27 member states? At the late September summit in Pittsburgh, the G20 countries, which include the most industrialized countries as well as the large emerging countries of China, India and Brazil, agreed to phase out subsidies for fossil energy sources over the medium term, but without setting a deadline. According to the press release issued at the end of the

  3. Security of oil and gas supply. A technology challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liermann, N. [OGP International Association of Oil and Gas Producers, Brussels (Belgium)

    2006-07-01

    Unprecedented energy demand and the increase in the world price of crude oil has led to questioning about the future availability and sources of oil and gas supplies. This paper addresses six key topics: (1) Global energy demand (2) Global oil and gas resources (3) Investment, demand growth and spare capacity (4) Indigenous production (5) Technology challenges.

  4. Science Education and the Challenges Facing Its Integration into the 21st Century School System in a Globalized World: A Case of Igbo Nation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezeudu, F. O.; Nkokelonye, C. U.; Ezeudu, S. A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a study of historical foundations of science education in Igboland, its nature and scope as well as the challenges facing its integration into the 21st century school system in a globalized world. The authors found that there were many scientific activities in Igbo culture, but many problems hinder their integration into the basic…

  5. Iran and the Challenges of Cultural and Language in the Age of Globalization: A Survey in Ardabil City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad-Bagher Sepehri

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Culture and linguistic Diversity is one of fundamental features in human societies. This diversity in one hand encompasses Preservation and Propagation Culture existing and in the other hand accepting against other cultures. Today we are faced with globalization and within its attention to issues with culture and language changes and developments facing. In the globalization environment, Cultures with interaction and communication with each other and the impact and positive mutual regret, they can grow better. The right culture and native language, having the right to education and access to media in their language and culture preservation of human heritage, such cases are striking. Iran, a country of long and multi-ethnic diversity, language and religion is evident in it. Today in the atmosphere of globalization all of issues are changing. Democratic countries largely provide areas for cultural survival and development but in Iran Persian language is the only official language and other ethnic groups are deprived of respect. Lack of attention to cultures and non-Persian languages and the same race and languages of the Iranian border provinces with most neighboring countries, the increasing tendency of people to cross-border and overseas media have made cultural and linguistic challenges in Iran. This article is result of a research in relation to ethnic, cultural and linguistic diversity and are issues and challenges arising from them.
    Key words: Globalization; Culture Diversity; Language Diversity; Media; Iran's Ethnics

    Resumé: La culture et la diversité linguistique est l'une des caractéristiques fondamentales des sociétés humaines. Cette diversité englobe d'une part la préservation et la propagation de la culture existante et d'autre part elle est contre l'acceptation des autres cultures. Aujourd'hui nous sommes confrontés à la mondialisation et nous devons faire attention aux problèmes de changements et développements culturels et linguistiques. Dans un environnement de mondialisation, les différentes cultures peuvent mieux se développer avec l'interaction, la communication, l'impact positif et le regret mutuel entre elles. Il y a des cas frappangts de la bonne culture et la langue maternelle qui ont le droit à l'éducation et l'accès aux médias pour la préservation de langue et de la culture du patrimoine humain. C'est évident en Iran, un pays de longue histoire, de diversité multi-ethnique, linguistique et religieuse.. Aujourd'hui dans une atmosphère de mondialisation; tous les problèmes sont en évolution. Les pays démocratiques peuvent offrir des zones vagues pour la survie et le développement culturel, mais en Iran la langue persane est la seule langue officielle et les autres groupes ethniques sont privés de respect. Le manque d'attention aux cultures et aux langues non persanes dans les provinces frontalières iraniennes avec la plupart des pays voisins et la tendance croissante de la population de choisir les médias transfrontaliers et étrangers de ces pays qui utilisent la même langue que ces groupes d'iraniens a fait des défis culturels et linguistiques en Iran. Cet article est le résultat d'une recherche en matière de diversité ethnique, culturelle et linguistique et des enjeux et défis qui en découlent.
    Mots-clés: Mondialisation; DiversitÉ Culturelle; DiversitÉ Linguistique; MÉDias; ÉThniques En Iran

  6. Addressing practical challenges for biodiversity offsetting in the UK. Summary report for policy makers on the first 'Towards no net loss, and beyond' workshop, 22 June 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Howard, B.M.; Margerison, C.

    2010-01-01

    This report summarises the views and ideas expressed during a workshop to identify practical challenges for the further implementation of biodiversity offsetting in the UK, and to work out how these may be resolved. The event involved 41 participants from a wide range of organisations. It was organised by the Natural Capital Initiative; an independent forum for discussion of policy and practice aligned with the ecosystem approach. ‘Biodiversity offsetting’ means the delivery of measurable...

  7. How to Assess the European Union’s Influence in International Affairs: Addressing a Major Conceptual Challenge for EU Foreign Policy Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Simon Schunz

    2010-01-01

    In the discipline of European Union foreign policy analysis, quite a number of debates have focussed on determining what type of actor the EU is in international affairs (e.g. a normative power). While intellectually stimulating, these debates have regularly been held at too high a level of aggregation. Breaking the question about the EU’s clout in international affairs down to the micro-level, this contribution takes up a conceptual and methodological challenge that is currently unaddresse...

  8. Desafios globais contemporâneos: cenário de convergências no direito internacional / Global contemporary challenges: convergences scenario in international law

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ely Caetano, Xavier Junior; Clarissa, Brandão.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O cenário internacional contemporâneo é caracterizado por uma multiplicidade de agentes e interesses, gerando uma complexa teia de relações econômicas, sociais e jurídicas. os desafios globais representados pelas inéditas relações exigem respostas rápidas e eficientes por parte do direito. Essa jorn [...] ada em busca das soluções para os conflitos emergentes do plano internacional requer uma releitura do significado da divisão entre as esferas pública e privada do direito. Seja através do crescimento dos fundos soberanos de riqueza, que traz à luz uma série de novos paradigmas no campo econômico, sobretudo a convergência entre o papel do estado e o papel do investidor internacional; seja através do encontro entre a necessidade de proteção aos direitos humanos e a harmonização do sistema multilateral de comércio internacional; seja através das interseções entre a governança global e a tutela dos direitos difusos, o direito internacional certamente caminha para a convergência. Abstract in english The contemporary international scenario is characterized by a multiplicity of actors and interests, creating a complex web of economic, social and legal relationships. The challenges represented by these new relationships need rapid and efficient responses by law. This journey seeking the solutions [...] to the conflicts arising from the international arena requires a reassessment of the meaning of the division between public and private spheres of law. Through the growth of sovereign wealth funds, which arises several new paradigms in the economic field, noticeably the convergence between the role of the state and the role of the international investor; through the encounter between the necessity to protect human rights and harmonize the multilateral international trade system, or through the intersections between global governance and the protection of diffuse rights, international law is certainly moving towards the convergence.

  9. Globalization: a challenge to education and cultural diversity Globalización: desafíos para la educación y la diversidad cultural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Marín

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This article attemps to approach the problem of globalization and its consequences on the preservation of biodiversity and cultural diversity. These reflections are based on the historical perspective of the westernization of the world which began with the European colonial domination in the XVth century. The Westwern etghnocentric domination in the grip of neo-liberal ideology, including economic and financial rule and the control of information and communications by multinational companies, tries to impose a cultural standardization. Globalization is greatly limited by the fact that it does no offersociety a viable model. Education, as a means of transmitting world visions, knowledge and values, is facing a historical challenge in protecting and preservinge cultural diversity.Resúmen. Este articulo trata de abordar los problemas de la Globalización y las consecuencias y desafíos que plantea, sobre la biodiversidad, la diversidad cultural y la educación. Nuestra reflexión está fundamentada en la perspectiva histórica de la occidentalización del mundo, iniciada por la dominación colonial europea desde el siglo XV. Esta dominación del etnocentrismo occidental bajo una ideología neo-liberal, que abarca desde el dominio económico-financiero, el control de la información y el de las coomunicaciones por las grandes empresas multinacionales, trata de imponer un standardización cultural. La Globalización tiene su limitación más grave en el hecho de no poseer un modelo de sociedad viable. La educación, concebida como la transmisión de visiones del mundo, de saberes y de sistema de valores, tiene un enorme desafío histórico en la defensa y en la preservación de la diversidad cultural.

  10. Una visión global de las lenguas criollas: perspectivas y retos de la criollística / A global vision of creole languages: perspectives and challenges of Creole studies

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Javier Enrique, García León.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente artículo es analizar los diferentes postulados que se han desarrollado acerca de las lenguas criollas con el fin de obtener una visión global de este fenómeno. En la primera parte, se estudian las diferentes definiciones existentes de los pidgins y los criollos al igual que [...] sus clasificaciones. Posteriormente, se analizan las principales teorías acerca del surgimiento de estas lenguas para luego mirar sus características principales. En la tercera parte, se cuestionan aspectos como el continuo lingüístico poscriollo y la descriollización a la luz de nuevos estudios. Finalmente, se hace un breve análisis de la criollística como disciplina y se plantean los nuevos retos que tendrá que afrontar. Se concluye que las lenguas criollas son sistemas de comunicación particulares debido a su forma de surgimiento y características lingüísticas, además se determinó que es necesario reevaluar algunos elementos teóricos que han generado un entendimiento parcial del fenómeno lingüístico aquí descrito. Se espera que este artículo contribuya a la disciplina de lenguas en contacto, específicamente al estudio de las lenguas criollas, y genere debates teóricos que ayuden a un mejor entendimiento de este tipo de códigos lingüísticos. Abstract in english The objective of this article is to analyse the different hypotheses which have developed around creole languages with the intention of gaining a global vision of this phenomenon. In the first part, the varying definitions of pidgin and creole languages currently in existence will be examined. Follo [...] wing this, the principal theories around the development of these languages will be analysed in order to look at their principal characteristics. In the third part, aspects such as post-creole linguistic continuum and de-Creolisation will be examined, taking into account new studies. Finally, a brief analysis of Creole studies as a discipline is conducted and we consider new challenges which must be confronted. It is concluded that creole languages are particular communication systems due to the way in which they developed and also to their linguistic characteristics. Furthermore, it is determined that it is necessary to re-evaluate certain theoretical elements which have given rise to a partial understanding of the linguistic phenomenon described here. It is hoped that this article will contribute to the field of language contact, and specifically to the study of creole languages, and that it will generate theoretical debates which will help to achieve a better understanding of this type of linguistic codes.

  11. Ministerial Presentation: China. The Development and Prospects of Nuclear Power in China [International Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Energy in the 21. Century: Addressing Energy Needs and Environmental Challenges, Beijing (China), 20-22 April 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It's my pleasure to participate in this international Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Energy in the 21 st Century organized by lAEA. This conference is a magnificent meeting of the global nuclear energy industry. It is a good opportunity for officials and experts from member states to share experiences in nuclear power development and explore approaches to develop nuclear power for peaceful purposes in more safe and economical manners. Please allow me to present my compliments to Mr. Chairman, and on behalf of China National Energy Administration, I would like to express my sincere congratulations on the convening of this meeting. New and higher requirements for energy are being put forward with the continuous rapid growth of China's economy. In order to strengthen the macro-administration and to solve the problems emerged in the progress of development, China National Energy Administration was established in March, 2008. Starting from its very beginning, China National Energy Administration focuses on constructing a stable, economical, clean and safe energy supply system for China through scientific development, and the acceleration of nuclear power development tops the agenda of my Administration. As the competent department for nuclear power development in China, National Energy Administration is in charge of planning, industrial policy, and project review and approval, as well as formulating regulations and standards, promoting technology R and D, equipment manuomoting technology R and D, equipment manufacture and international cooperation etc. Over the past twelve months, a large number of activities have been carried out, such as the adjustment of nuclear power planning, arrangement of new projects, promotion of technical progress, development of human resources, assurance of equipment manufacture and uranium supply, etc.. Meanwhile, cooperative relationships with energy administrative departments of more than 40 countries and international organizations have been established. NEA is willing to cooperate with government departments responsible for energy administration, institutions, academies, industries in all countries, as well as the international organizations, in order to promote the deployment of nuclear power in the entire world. It has been nearly 30 years since China start to develop nuclear power in 1980s, and our nuclear power program has gone through the stages of Small-Batch construction and moderate scale construction to the current stage of fast development. At present, there are 11 units of nuclear power generators in operation with a total installed capacity of 9.1 Gigawatts, and another 24 units with a total capacity of 25.4 Gigawatts being under construction in mainland China. In 2007, China's State Council approved the Mid- and Long-Term Development Plan for Nuclear Power (2005-2020), which set the energy strategy of actively promoting nuclear power development. As mentioned in the Development Plan, the installed capacity of nuclear power will reach 40 Gigawatts with another 18 Gigawatts under construction by 2020. The issuance of the Development Plan stimulates the investments in nuclear power projects. And nowadays, people are increasingly aware of the important role that nuclear power plays in energy conservation, emission reduction, and environment protection, as well as addressing the challenge of global climate change. In order to optimize the energy mix and benefit from up-mentioned environmental advantages, the Chinese government has adopted nuclear power as one of the key measures and will seek to expand the deployment of nuclear power in mid- and long-term on the basis of careful research and study, and adequate demonstration. In order to achieve the development objectives, China will continue to follow the guiding principles of ''promoting international cooperation while relying mainly on independent efforts'', and to pay close attention to the construction of Generation III Self-reliance Program Supporting Project while constructing a batch of PWRs with the Modified Generation II

  12. The Imperative of Virtue in the Age of Global Technology and Globalized Mass Culture: A Liberal-Humanist Response to the Heideggerian Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalsky, Borys M.

    2011-01-01

    How has the globalization of technology contributed to the globalization of the war against the Enlightenment liberal humanism of Western civilization--in particular, to the globalization of the war between religion and science--and with what problematic moral, cultural, and spiritual consequences? Liberal-humanist and Heideggerian perspectives on…

  13. President's address of the 65th annual scientific meeting of the Japanese Association for Thoracic Surgery: challenges for advanced esophageal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Hiromasa

    2013-04-01

    Advanced esophageal tumors have been a challenge for surgery since the very beginning, and these challenges continue still today. In the early period of three-field lymphadenectomy (late 1980s), there was no special attention paid to tracheal necrosis after such an extended operation. In 1988, we reported functional mediastinal dissection preserving the right bronchial artery to prevent such complications. In 1993, we reported that the survival after three-field lymphadenectomy was better than that after en-bloc esophagectomy, and then the lymph node compartment classification based on the metastatic rate and the survival rate. This concept was introduced into the 9th edition of the Guidelines for Clinical and Pathologic Studies on Carcinoma of the Esophagus published in 1999. In early 1980s, combined resection of the neighboring organs was initiated for a locally advanced esophageal cancer. Almost all patients who underwent such an operation, however, died of metastasis in the short-term after surgery without any additional treatment. In 1987, we reported several types of tracheal repair using the latissimus dorsi muscle flap, as a less-invasive surgery that enabled adjuvant or additive therapy, after resection of the trachea involved by cancer. Then in 2004, we demonstrated that the canine aorta could be resected even immediately after aortic stenting. This suggests that an esophageal cancer involving the aorta can be resected using a new technique. To meet the challenges posed by advanced esophageal cancer, the help of other specialized fields besides esophageal surgery is needed: "The specialist must know everything of something, something of everything." PMID:23404311

  14. Gender regimes and the challenges of macroeconomic paradigm in Serbia in the light of the global economic crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ?uri?-Kuzmanovi? Tatjana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on the causes and gender effects of the current global economic crisis, its particular effects in the Republic of Serbia and on the possibilities of overcoming the crisis. Using feminist development economics perspective this paper offers criticism of neo-liberalism with respect to the crisis. The strong imbalance in the relationships between work and capital is explained as a result of neoliberal deregulation and separation of the market economy from social and natural reproduction, as well as ignoration of the hierarchical relation established between paid work and care as unpaid work performed mainly by women. With regard to Serbia, when foreign capital is lacking, privatization funds are empty and the structure deficit is significant, the economy has faced decrease in income, rise in unemployment, fall in aggregate demand and women and children suffer the most. A new gender sensitive development strategy should re-address the current unequal power relationship, so that all people can exercise choices that would lead them to a fulfilled life.

  15. Manufacturing Concepts of the Future – Upcoming Technologies Solving Upcoming Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadar, Ronen; Bilberg, Arne

    This paper presents an examination of Western European manufacturers’ future challenges as can be predicted today. Some of the challenges analyzed in the paper are: globalization, individualism and customization and agility challenges. Hereafter, the paper presents a broad analysis on manufacturing concepts and technologies that are being developed today which may be used to solve manufacturing challenges in the future, such as: (self) reconfigurable manufacturing systems, (focused) flexible manufacturing systems, and AI inspired manufacturing. The paper will try to offer a critical point of view on manufacturing challenges, concepts, and technologies, and is meant to address both academia and industry. Keywords: Reconfigurable manufacturing systems, manufacturing challenges, cognitive factory, mass-customization

  16. Addressing diabetes at the crossroads of global pandemic and regional culture: Comment on "The curse of wealth – Middle Eastern countries need to address the rapidly rising burden of diabetes"

    OpenAIRE

    Hsu, William C.; Gabbay, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    As diabetes and obesity rates continue to climb at astronomical rates in the Middle East, future generations are at an even greater risk for diabetes and the associated complications. Many factors are at play and it is clear that creative solutions are needed to retool provider resources in the Middle East towards prevention of diabetes and its complications while leveraging technology to maximize outreach within the accepted cultural norms. Only by building the capacity to address the curren...

  17. HIV/AIDS: global trends, global funds and delivery bottlenecks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadingham Jacqui

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Globalisation affects all facets of human life, including health and well being. The HIV/AIDS epidemic has highlighted the global nature of human health and welfare and globalisation has given rise to a trend toward finding common solutions to global health challenges. Numerous international funds have been set up in recent times to address global health challenges such as HIV. However, despite increasingly large amounts of funding for health initiatives being made available to poorer regions of the world, HIV infection rates and prevalence continue to increase world wide. As a result, the AIDS epidemic is expanding and intensifying globally. Worst affected are undoubtedly the poorer regions of the world as combinations of poverty, disease, famine, political and economic instability and weak health infrastructure exacerbate the severe and far-reaching impacts of the epidemic. One of the major reasons for the apparent ineffectiveness of global interventions is historical weaknesses in the health systems of underdeveloped countries, which contribute to bottlenecks in the distribution and utilisation of funds. Strengthening these health systems, although a vital component in addressing the global epidemic, must however be accompanied by mitigation of other determinants as well. These are intrinsically complex and include social and environmental factors, sexual behaviour, issues of human rights and biological factors, all of which contribute to HIV transmission, progression and mortality. An equally important factor is ensuring an equitable balance between prevention and treatment programmes in order to holistically address the challenges presented by the epidemic.

  18. Cat herding on a global scale - the challenge of building a vocabulary for the geology of Europe with compatibility to a global ontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asch, Kristine

    2010-05-01

    The OneGeology Europe (1G-E) project is delivering a web accessible, semantically and technically interoperable geological dataset for the whole of Europe at a 1 : 1 million scale, and attempting to make as much progress as possible in harmonising that dataset. The initiative is based on the foundation of geological data held by each geological survey in Europe. These data differ considerably with respect to their content, description and geometry. To make these data interoperable is a substantial task and OneGeology-Europe Work Package 3 is delivering, as the essential foundation, the terms and classification system - the 1G-E Geology Data Specification (Asch et al., in preparation). This is going to include a vocabulary to describe lithology, age and genesis of the rocks and the tectonic structures and the term definitions and relations. This specification will be the base for the Geological Surveys participating in OneGeology-Europe to describe the geology of their country within the project. However, Europe is not an island, neither are the rocks of Europe unique, and the vocabulary is being developed on the base of the existing vocabulary of the global IUGS-CGI Concept Definition Task Group: a global group of experts which is developing a vocabulary for the GeoSciML model. As a result of scrutiny of the existing global base and examination of the needs of European geology, new terms were added, new concepts introduced, definitions altered and adapted. The outcome is that what is being developed to describe the geology of Europe is going to be a part of what can be used to describe geological units globally. However, the challenges in patricular regarding "Lithology" are considerable. An example for the terminology of sedimentary rock types would be the definition of "arenite: is it a "pure" sandstone with less than 10 % matrix or a type of clastic sedimentary rock with sand grain size and less than 10 or 15% matrix (depending on the reference). This then leads to another question - Which classification should be adopted for the definition of "grain size": Wentworth (1922), Folk (1962), ISO 14688-1 (2003) or even another one? However, the quotation of F. J. Pettijohn (1975): "The classification of the sedimentary rocks is a problem on which much thought has been expended and one for which no mutually satisfactory or complete solution has yet been found" does not only apply to sedimentary rock types; there are numerous "bones of classication contentions" also for igneous and metamorphic rock types. Based on the vocabulary specification OneG-E will identify the generic and specific geometric and semantic harmonisation issues and will then "rework" these existing national datasets to make significant progress towards a harmonised dataset - a crucial step towards INSPIRE goals. The standards, architecture and framework developed here can then be "up-scaled" to more detailed levels and progressively deployed for higher resolution geological data. The work on the OneG-E data vocabulary is contributing to enrich and improve the global CGI vocabulary and ontology and will provide a solid base for the description of geology of each EC country when the EC INSPIRE Directive's specification is defined. References Asch, K., Bavec, M., Bergman, S., Perez Cerdan, F., Declercq, P.Y., Janjou, D., Kacer, S., Klicker, M., Nironen, M., Pantaloni, M., Schubert, C. (in preparation): OneGeology-Europe Scientific/Semantic Data Specification and - Generic Specification for Spatial Geological Data in Europe. ECP-2007-GEO-317001 Folk, R.L. (1962): Spectral subdivision of limestone types. In Ham, W.E., ed.: Classification of Carbonate Rocks - A Symposium. American Association of Petroleum Geologists Memoir 1: 62-84 ISO 14688-1 (2002): Geotechnical investigation and testing - Identification and classification of soil - Part 1: Identification and description Pettijohn, F.J. (1975): Sedimentary Rocks.- 3rd ed.; Harper & Row Publishers (New York, Evanston, San Francisco,

  19. Ministerial Presentation: Sudan [International Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Energy in the 21. Century: Addressing Energy Needs and Environmental Challenges, Beijing (China), 20-22 April 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    First, I would like to thank the IAEA and OECD for sponsoring this conference and the government of China for hosting the conference. It gives me great pleasure to address this conference. This is a very important conference dealing with nuclear power in the 21st century. Sudan as a developing nation experiences an increase in the energy demand of its people. This is due to an increase industrialization and urbanization. Sudan with the assistance of the IAEA has initiated a planning study for long term energy supply and demand. This study showed that by the year 2020 an energy gap between energy supply and demand will occur. According to this study Sudan need to consider the nuclear option as part of an energy mix. Accordingly, Sudan with the help of the IAEA has started a technical cooperation program aiming at understanding the necessary infrastructure needed for a nuclear power program. To implement this program two committees were formed. A technical committee to address the technical requirement for the project and a high administrative committee to give the necessary political support. Utilizing nuclear energy for peaceful purposes requires strong commitment towards issues of safety, security and safeguards of nuclear and radioactive material. As part of the infrastructure requirement, in Sudan we started the amendments of the legal and regulatory framework. A new atomic energy act is being drafted. The most important features of this act are that: It provide foatures of this act are that: It provide for the establishment of a separate independent regulatory authority which will deal with all regulatory aspects of radioactive sources and nuclear material. The act also covers areas like emergency preparedness, nuclear security, liability and others. The legal requirement of nuclear program is the adherences to certain international legal instrument. A national committee from the ministries of justice, foreign affairs and science and technology was formed to advice on the country position regarding the required legal framework. A nuclear power program requires a highly trained manpower. We started on some programs that would lead to the creation of the critical manpower required for this undertaking. Under Sudan academy of Sciences we implemented M.Sc. programs on: Radiation protection; Nuclear instrumentation and electronics; Nuclear Science and technology. A bachelor degree in nuclear engineering will start soon at Sudan university of Science and Technology. To support these educational programs and to train more in areas like reactor operation, reactor engineering and reactor physics, Sudan has discussed with the IAEA the possibility of acquiring a zero power reactor which will help as a training tool for the needed scientists and engineers. However, considering the nineteen issues under the three mile stones for the preparation of the necessary infrastructure required for a knowledgeable decision on the introduction of nuclear power, there are areas need to be addressed by the international community. An assured supply of fuel which is not subjected to discriminative measures apart from purely technical ones is still controversial. The spend fuel processing and the waste management is also a gray area. Further the availability of small and medium reactors that suit better the capacity on grids in developing country is far from available. By this allow me to conclude my speech and I wish the conference all the success. Thank you for your attention.

  20. A Short Study of Iranian Organizations' Needs in the Area of Globalization: Opportunities, Challenges and Relative Advantages

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Reza Noruzi; Westover, Jonathan H.

    2010-01-01

    Globalization and liberalization in developing countries is a lengthy process that has been a long time in the making. Some countries have accepted the reality of globalization while other undeveloped nations have yet to fully embrace this shift. For some, this has been in part due to fears among some underdeveloped nations that embracing globalization and becoming increasingly connected to a global economic network would put them in a bad position with relation to other powerful countries an...