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Biomimetic Nanotechnology: A Powerful Means to address Global Challenges  

CERN Document Server

Biomimetic nanotechnology is a prominent research area at the meeting place of life sciences with engineering and physics: it is a continuously growing field that deals with knowledge transfer from biology to nanotechnology. Biomimetic nanotechnology is a field that has the potential to substantially support successful mastering of major global challenges. The Millennium Project was commissioned by the United Nations Secretary-General in 2002 to develop a concrete action plan for the world to reverse the grinding poverty, hunger and disease affecting billions of people. It states 15 Global Challenges: sustainable development, water, population and resources, democratization, long-term perspectives, information technology, the rich-poor gap, health, capacity to decide, peace and conflict, status of women, transnational crime, energy, science and technology and global ethics. The possible contributions to master these challenges with the help of biomimetic nanotechnology will be discussed in detail.

Gebeshuber, Ille C

2010-01-01

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Design Guidelines to Address Global Challenges: Lessons from Global Action Networks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Traditional organizations appear to be incapable of adequately addressing critical global issues such as war, climate change, and economic inequality. Addressing these issues suggests the need for organizational innovation to develop global social contracts. Successful innovation must address four integration imperatives: (1 integrate effort and resources across organizational sectors (business, government, civil society and sense-making, (2 create successful individual to global aggregations, (3 integrate the short and long term, and (4 integrate major issue areas. A new type of organization, Global Action Networks, aims for this integration. Based upon analysis of this new type of organization, five design principles for global social contract organizations are proposed.

Steve Waddell

2012-12-01

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Global Challenge  

Science.gov (United States)

In the Global Challenge, teams of US high school students collaborate with international counterparts from October to May to address global climate change and compete for prizes and scholarship awards. Students strengthen skills in math, science, engineering, and critical thinking while learning about global business practices. The current Global Challenge is to create science, technology, engineering, mathematics, and business solutions that address climate change and the future of energy. Students ages 14-17 who participate in the competition have the opportunity to receive assistance in admissions to colleges and universities and win praise and acclaim as well as awards.

Craig DeLuca, The Arno Group, LLC

2007-10-31

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Status of Global Threat Reduction Initiative's Activities Underway to Address Major Domestic Radiological Security Challenges - 12105  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During their service lives, radioactive sealed sources are used for a wide variety of essential purposes. However, each year, thousands of radioactive sealed sources that pose a potential risk to national security, health, and safety become disused and unwanted in the United States. Due to their concentrated activity and portability, these sources could be used in radiological dispersal devices ('dirty bombs'). For more than a decade, the National Nuclear Security Administration and the U.S. Department of Energy, through the Global Threat Reduction Initiative Offsite Source Recovery Project (GTRI/OSRP), have facilitated the removal and disposition of thousands of disused/unwanted sources worldwide. However, the ability of GTRI/OSRP to continue its work is critically dependent on the ability to transport and appropriately dispose of these sources. On that front, GTRI/OSRP progress includes development of two prototype Type B transport containers and significant efforts toward certification, increased commercial disposal access for risk-significant sealed sources at commercial sites, and cooperation through the International Atomic Energy Agency to increase source repatriation. Disused sealed sources continue to pose a national security concern. The impact of a dirty bomb detonation could be costly both financially and to those exposed to the resulting radiation. However, significant progress has been made since 2008 on each of the challenges identified in the DHS Sealed Source Security Workshop. Not only will there be increased opportunity for commercial disposal of many sizes and types of sealed sources, but also stakeholders are studying front-end solutions to the problem of disused sealed sources, such as financial assurance and recycle. The lack of sealed source transport containers is also likely to be mitigated with the development and certification by NNSA of two new Type B models. Internationally, increased efforts at source repatriation will mitigate the threat posed by disused sealed sources abroad. Sealed sources provide irreplaceable benefits to those who use them or who benefit from their use; now stakeholders are rising to the challenge of ensuring that those benefits are safely and securely realized. (authors)

5

What Strategies Do Urban Superintendents Utilize to Address Global Challenges in the Implementation of 21st Century Skills  

Science.gov (United States)

Urban superintendents are charged with the responsibility of educating students in a rapidly changing world driven by technological advances, boundless information, international markets, and global pressures that demand of people that they be innovative thinkers and creative problem solvers to address the myriad of issues that will undoubtedly…

Synyard, Julie Ashley

2010-01-01

6

Addressing the workforce pipeline challenge  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A secure and affordable energy supply is essential for achieving U.S. national security, in continuing U.S. prosperity and in laying the foundations to enable future economic growth. To meet this goal the next generation energy workforce in the U.S., in particular those needed to support instrumentation, controls and advanced operations and maintenance, is a critical element. The workforce is aging and a new workforce pipeline, to support both current generation and new build has yet to be established. The paper reviews the challenges and some actions being taken to address this need.

Leonard Bond; Kevin Kostelnik; Richard Holman

2006-11-01

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Addressing verification challenges [International safeguards symposium on addressing verification challenges  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In his welcome address the Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Mr. M. ElBaradei, stated that safeguards activities are probably the most difficult task entrusted to an international organization and to determine all the details of a country's nuclear programme is a daunting challenge that raises a number of questions. There is an increase in nuclear power around the globe as a result of shortages of energy and concerns about energy independence and climate change. On the one hand, this is good, because without energy there is no hope for development on the other hand, however, it means that nuclear know-how and nuclear technology will continue to spread to more and more countries. There is also an increase in the number of countries interested in developing nuclear fuel cycle capabilities: sensitive fuel cycle activities, reprocessing and above all uranium enrichment. It even seems that some countries might be hedging their bets in order to have the know-how should they need to develop their own deterrence. Verifying enrichment or reprocessing facilities is quite difficult, and the so-called conversion time is extremely short. Thus, the IAEA is dealing with what is called 'virtual nuclear weapon States'. The IAEA has been talking for a number of years about the need to develop a new international or multinational approach to the fuel cycle in order to avoid a situation with nine nuclear weapon States and another 20 or 30 States having thates and another 20 or 30 States having the capacity to develop nuclear weapons in a very short period of time. There is a need to remember that there is a linkage between nuclear disarmament and non-proliferation. Furthermore safeguards activities, though fundamentally technical in nature, are carried out in a political charged environment. The security dimension - that is, nuclear terrorism - also presents a new challenge, because State systems of accounting for and control of nuclear material are no longer simply tools for safeguards, but now provide information relevant to physical protection as well. The IAEA does not receive all information they would need, for example systematic information from the Nuclear Suppliers Group on exports and imports. Other challenges are financial resources (IAEA's budget: $ 130 million) and the IAEA laboratories in Vienna which are not equipped for state- of-the-art analysis of environmental samples. There is also need for transparency measures in certain situations - for example, interviewing people and having access to documents. Another challenge is how to deal with countries having already begun weaponization activities, how to verify that weapons have been dismantled, weaponization structures have been destroyed and custody has been taken of weapon design information. The IAEA recently moved from a system based on facility verification to a State level safeguards approach. The IAEA has also introduced an integrated safeguards approach, which is more cost effective and enables the IAEA to provide better assurances. Environmental sampling and satellite monitoring are new tools that the IAEA is now using almost routinely. Moreover, the IAEA is continuing to work with the Member States to develop new verification tools. Each of the issues discussed presents its own challenge and there is hope for input and new ideas provided by the participants. The real purpose of the symposium is to determine how the IAEA can continue to be effective and relevant, and a valuable instrument to help the international community deal with nuclear weapons proliferation

8

Addressing capability computing challenges of high-resolution global climate modelling at the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility  

Science.gov (United States)

During 2013, high-resolution climate model simulations accounted for over 100 million "core hours" using Titan at the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF). The suite of climate modeling experiments, primarily using the Community Earth System Model (CESM) at nearly 0.25 degree horizontal resolution, generated over a petabyte of data and nearly 100,000 files, ranging in sizes from 20 MB to over 100 GB. Effective utilization of leadership class resources requires careful planning and preparation. The application software, such as CESM, need to be ported, optimized and benchmarked for the target platform in order to meet the computational readiness requirements. The model configuration needs to be "tuned and balanced" for the experiments. This can be a complicated and resource intensive process, especially for high-resolution configurations using complex physics. The volume of I/O also increases with resolution; and new strategies may be required to manage I/O especially for large checkpoint and restart files that may require more frequent output for resiliency. It is also essential to monitor the application performance during the course of the simulation exercises. Finally, the large volume of data needs to be analyzed to derive the scientific results; and appropriate data and information delivered to the stakeholders. Titan is currently the largest supercomputer available for open science. The computational resources, in terms of "titan core hours" are allocated primarily via the Innovative and Novel Computational Impact on Theory and Experiment (INCITE) and ASCR Leadership Computing Challenge (ALCC) programs, both sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science. Titan is a Cray XK7 system, capable of a theoretical peak performance of over 27 PFlop/s, consists of 18,688 compute nodes, with a NVIDIA Kepler K20 GPU and a 16-core AMD Opteron CPU in every node, for a total of 299,008 Opteron cores and 18,688 GPUs offering a cumulative 560,640 equivalent cores. Scientific applications, such as CESM, are also required to demonstrate a "computational readiness capability" to efficiently scale across and utilize 20% of the entire system. The 0,25 deg configuration of the spectral element dynamical core of the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM-SE), the atmospheric component of CESM, has been demonstrated to scale efficiently across more than 5,000 nodes (80,000 CPU cores) on Titan. The tracer transport routines of CAM-SE have also been ported to take advantage of the hybrid many-core architecture of Titan using GPUs [see EGU2014-4233], yielding over 2X speedup when transporting over 100 tracers. The high throughput I/O in CESM, based on the Parallel IO Library (PIO), is being further augmented to support even higher resolutions and enhance resiliency. The application performance of the individual runs are archived in a database and routinely analyzed to identify and rectify performance degradation during the course of the experiments. The various resources available at the OLCF now support a scientific workflow to facilitate high-resolution climate modelling. A high-speed center-wide parallel file system, called ATLAS, capable of 1 TB/s, is available on Titan as well as on the clusters used for analysis (Rhea) and visualization (Lens/EVEREST). Long-term archive is facilitated by the HPSS storage system. The Earth System Grid (ESG), featuring search & discovery, is also used to deliver data. The end-to-end workflow allows OLCF users to efficiently share data and publish results in a timely manner.

Anantharaj, Valentine; Norman, Matthew; Evans, Katherine; Taylor, Mark; Worley, Patrick; Hack, James; Mayer, Benjamin

2014-05-01

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Global challenges in energy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Environmental and security concerns are stimulating global interest in hydrogen power, renewable energy, and advanced transportation technologies, but no significant movement away from oil and a carbon-based world economy is expected soon. Over the longer-term, however, a transition from fossil fuels to a non-carbon-based economy will likely occur, affecting the type of environment future generations may encounter. Key challenges will face the world's energy industry over the next few decades to ensure a smooth transition-challenges which will require government and industry solutions beginning as early as today. This paper identifies four critical challenges in energy and the choices which will have to be made on how best to confront growing pollution caused by fossil fuels and how to facilitate an eventual revolutionary-like transition to a non-carbon-based global economy

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Model fusion : challenges to be addressed  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Model Fusion is a working technology that is producing excellent results. The projects that have been completed successfully to date have clearly demonstrated something of the real potential and power of the technology. However, to achieve the full potential of the vision there are substantial challenges to be addressed. These include ontology and semantics, scale, the handling of uncertainty, ready access to appropriate datasets, managing intrusion, and culture change to na...

Giles, Jeremy

2011-01-01

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World Bank: Global Challenges  

Science.gov (United States)

The World Bank works to combat poverty and to increase development opportunities around the world, but they also have selected six strategic themes that focus in on global development. First-time visitors to the site can listen to World Bank President Robert B. Zoellick talk about these themes, and they may also wish to follow along with the accompanying slideshow. Themes include global public goods, the Arab world, and middle-income countries. By clicking on one of these themes, visitors can read comprehensive reports, working papers, or take a look at presentations that explore these areas in greater detail. Many of these information sources are contained within a "Highlights" area. Visitors with a penchant for economic development, international political economy, or international affairs will find this site very useful. It's also easy to see how these materials might be used in a classroom setting to spark discussion or debate about some of these very timely matters.

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Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. New Mexico  

Science.gov (United States)

America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

2010-01-01

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Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. Iowa  

Science.gov (United States)

America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

2010-01-01

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Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. Kentucky  

Science.gov (United States)

America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

2010-01-01

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The Global Business of Chemistry: Prospects and Challenges  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The global business of chemistry has faced numerous challenges in recent years. This article addresses the near-term business environment in which the industry will operate as well as the implications for the global business of chemistry during 2006 and 2007.

Swift, T. K.

2006-01-01

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Addressing Earth Science Data Access Challenges through User Experience Research  

Science.gov (United States)

The NASA Capacity Building Program (Earth Science Division, Applied Sciences Program) works to enhance end-user capabilities to employ Earth observation and Earth science (EO/ES) data in decision-making. Open data access and user-tailored data delivery strategies are critical elements towards this end. User Experience (UX) and User Interface (UI) research methods can offer important contributions towards addressing data access challenges, particularly at the interface of science application/product development and product transition to end-users. This presentation focuses on developing nation contexts and describes methods, results, and lessons learned from two recent UX/UI efforts conducted in collaboration with NASA: the SERVIRglobal.net redesign project and the U.S. Water Partnership (USWP) Portal development effort. SERVIR, a collaborative venture among NASA, USAID, and global partners, seeks to improve environmental management and climate change response by helping governments and other stakeholders integrate EO and geospatial technologies into decision-making. The USWP, a collaboration among U.S. public and private sectors, harnesses U.S.-based resources and expertise to address water challenges in developing nations. SERVIR's study, conducted from 2010-2012, assessed and tested user needs, preferences, and online experiences to generate a more user-friendly online data portal at SERVIRglobal.net. The portal provides a central access interface to data and products from SERVIR's network of hubs in East Africa, the Hindu Kush Himalayas, and Mesoamerica. The second study, conducted by the USWP Secretariat and funded by the U.S. Department of State, seeks to match U.S.-based water information resources with developing nation stakeholder needs. The USWP study utilizes a multi-pronged approach to identify key design requirements and to understand the existing water data portal landscape. Adopting UX methods allows data distributors to design customized UIs that help users find, interpret, and obtain appropriate content quickly. The data access challenge for both SERVIR and USWP consisted of organizing a wide range of content for their respective user bases, which are diverse, international, and in some cases loosely characterized. The UX/UI design approach generated profiles of prototypical users and corresponding task flows and organizational schemes for their preferred types of content. Wireframe acceptance testing by SERVIR helped elicit and optimize how users interact with the information online. These approaches produced customized UIs and knowledge management strategies to address the data access challenges faced by each user type. Both studies revealed critical considerations for user experiences in developing nations (e.g., low-bandwidth internet connections, rolling power outages at data storage or network centers). For SERVIR, these findings influenced not only the portal infrastructure; they also informed the transition of the platform to a Cloud-based model, as well as the development of custom data delivery tools such as SMS and other mobile solutions. While SERVIR's data access solutions are customized for the network's community of users, they are also standardized and interoperable according to GEO and ISO standards, providing a model for other initiatives such as the ongoing USWP Portal development effort.

Hemmings, S. N.; Banks, B.; Kendall, J.; Lee, C. M.; Irwin, D.; Toll, D. L.; Searby, N. D.

2013-12-01

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Innovative approaches for addressing old challenges in component importance measures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Importance measures (IM) are component related indices that allow assessing how a component in a system affects one or more system level performance functions. While several IM have been presented in the literature, challenges still remain with respect to the following: (1) multiple ranking—multiple perspective, (2) multi-component importance and, (3) multi-function importance. To address these challenges, this paper proposes set of innovative solutions based on several available techniques: Hasse diagram, Copeland score and Multi-objective optimization. As such, the purpose of this research is twofold: first propose solutions and second foster new research to address these challenges. Each of the proposed solutions is exemplified with a working example.

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Global mobile IPv6 addressing using transition mechanisms  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The adoption of the Internet Protocol in mobile and wireless technologies has considerably increased the number of hosts that can potentially access the global Internet. IPv6 is considered the long term solution for the IPv4 address shortage problem, but the transition from IPv4 to IPv6 is supposed [...] to be very gradual. Therefore, there will be a long time during which both protocol versions will coexist. To facilitate transition, the IETF has set up a work group called NGTRANS (Next Generation TRANSition) which specifies mechanisms for supporting interoperability between IPv4 and IPv6. This paper describes a new approach for implementing mobile networks with global Internet connectivity using transition mechanisms. It consists in virtually assigning IPv6 addresses to IPv4 hosts without modifying end-user devices by introducing a transparent gateway in the mobile network. The mobile hosts with virtual IPv6 addresses are uniquely addressed through the global IPv4 Internet by using IPv6 addresses from the standard 6to4 addressing scheme or Fully Qualified Domain Names (FQDN). This "extended" transition mechanism permits to deploy mobile networks with global Internet connectivity without requiring public IPv4 addresses, using legacy IPv4 user devices. The mobile hosts with virtual IPv6 addresses can communicate to other hosts with virtual IPv6 addresses or with "true " IPv6 networks.

Edgard, Jamhour; Simone, Storoz; Carlos, Maziero.

2003-04-01

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'Caring schools' – a solution for addressing challenging behaviour in schools?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Media reports suggest that challenging behaviour is no longer the exception to the rule in South African schools. Furthermore, such problem behaviour is increasingly violent in nature, thus constituting a particular cause for concern. In this article the concept of caring schools” is explored as a means of addressing learners’ challenging behaviour. A research study was undertaken at eight South African primary schools. The conclusions drawn from this research were verified by the correlative research findings of other researchers, as ascertained from the literature study. A key element of this research was the identification of attributes associated with caring schools and the impact thereof on learners’ behaviour patterns. From the findings of this research study it is concluded that caring schools represent a possible solution for dealing with challenging behaviour in South African schools.

F.H. Weeks

2008-07-01

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Addressing verification challenges. Proceedings of an international safeguards symposium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The symposium on international safeguards, Addressing Verification Challenges, was held in Vienna from 16 to 20 October 2006, with the aim of assessing the challenges to the IAEA safeguards system that have emerged, or intensified, since the previous IAEA safeguards symposium in 2001. Some 500 nuclear safeguards and verification experts from more than 60 countries and international organizations attended the event. In all, 129 papers were presented in 21 sessions. There were 14 keynote speeches and 110 oral presentations. A total of 65 papers were presented as posters. In addition, 16 commercial suppliers of safeguards relevant equipment and technology presented their wares and capabilities. The symposium was organized by the IAEA in cooperation with the Institute of Nuclear Materials Management (INMM) and the European Safeguards Research and Development Association (ESARDA). The symposium provided an important forum at which related issues could be discussed, the IAEA could showcase some of its ongoing work and the experts present could provide inputs of fresh thinking. The IAEA Safeguards Symposium 2006 was developed to cover five topics: current challenges to the safeguards system, further strengthening of safeguards practices and approaches, improving the collection and analysis of safeguards information, advances in safeguards techniques and technology, and future challenges. These proceedings contain the addresses given at the opening session, the technical plenat the opening session, the technical plenary session and the closing session. The summary provides an overview of the oral presentations at the 21 sessions of the symposium. Each individual paper is indexed separately

 
 
 
 
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Catholic Social Teaching: Addressing Globalization in Catholic Business Education  

Science.gov (United States)

Although business schools are increasingly aware of the importance of globalization in educating future business leaders, their business programs have addressed globalization from a limited perspective that fails to provide students with a broader understanding of its impact on societies and its moral consequences. The conventional approach to the…

Ball, James B.; Martinez, Zaida; Toyne, Brian

2009-01-01

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GLOBALIZATION AND THE NEW ENERGY CHALLENGES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A New Global Energy Economy is emerging, in which energy demand and supply issues will make regions of the world much more dependent upon each other. International extensive energetic interdependence on energy resources and networks grows in the global economy. Some $22 trillion of investment in supply infrastructure is needed to meet projected global demand until 2030. Mobilising all this investment will be challenging. Adherence to these policies will ensure that the global energy investments materializes, the necessary infrastructure is built, and the lengthening worldwide energy supply chain operates in security. Strong global energy policy is needed to move the world into a more sustainable energy path.

Preda (AndreescuMihaela

2008-05-01

23

ISLAM: Local and Global Challenges  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Indeed, in maintaining their local values when faced with globalchallenges, Muslims, as a social entity, and Islam, as a set of dogma, havegiven birth to new phenomena, e.g. new interpretation of Islam withina new context. Additionally, this era of globalization has led religions,including Islam, to renew their gambit to cope reality, e.g. in the practicallife (sociological, political, economical and anthropological aspects),intellectual endeavors (philosop...

Editor Al-Jami'ah: Journal of Islamic Studies

2011-01-01

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ISLAM: Local and Global Challenges  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Indeed, in maintaining their local values when faced with globalchallenges, Muslims, as a social entity, and Islam, as a set of dogma, havegiven birth to new phenomena, e.g. new interpretation of Islam withina new context. Additionally, this era of globalization has led religions,including Islam, to renew their gambit to cope reality, e.g. in the practicallife (sociological, political, economical and anthropological aspects,intellectual endeavors (philosophical and theological aspects, and in therenewal of dogmatic teachings (hermeneutical aspects.

Editor Al-Jami'ah: Journal of Islamic Studies

2011-02-01

25

Addressing the challenges of patient-centred design  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Patient-centred design is a relatively new term, but a longstanding concept in clinical practice. This discussion looks at patient-centred design and explores the relationships of patient-centred design to universal design, user-centred design and the newer human-centred design. It also explores why interdisciplinary approaches are needed for patient-centred design and how interdisciplinary collaboration works to address the challenges of patient centred design. Successful patient-centred solutions can grow from collaborations which include shared visions, understanding of both the nature and degree of variation in the patient,materials, and the designed solution, clear regular communication among all parties with careful definition of terms, and respect for the inherent cultures of all disciplines involved.

Karen LaBat

2009-11-01

26

Antimicrobial resistance: the global public health challenge  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Antimicrobial resistance is one of the biggest challenges to face global public health at the beginning of the third millennium. Antimicrobial resistance and its global spread threaten the continued effectiveness of many medicines used today to treat the sick. Antibiotic resistance is usually associated with significant morbidity, longer hospitalization, excess costs and mortality. Many factors contribute to the unnecessary use of antibiotics including the knowledge and beliefs of doctors ...

Deshpande, Jayant D.; Mohini Joshi

2011-01-01

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Cultural dimensions of learning: Addressing the challenges of multicultural instruction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The growing multicultural nature of education and training environments makes it critical that instructors and instructional designers, especially those working in online learning environments, develop skills to deliver culturally sensitive and culturally adaptive instruction. This article explores research into cultural differences to identify those dimensions of culture that are most likely to impact instructional situations. It presents these in the cultural dimensions of learning framework (CDLF, which describes a set of eight cultural parameters regarding social relationships, epistemological beliefs, and temporal perceptions, and illustrates their spectrums of variability as they might be exhibited in instructional situations. The article also explores the literature on instructional design and culture for guidelines on addressing the cross-cultural challenges faced by instructional providers. It suggests that these challenges can be overcome through increased awareness, culturally sensitive communication, modified instructional design processes, and efforts to accommodate the most critical cultural differences. Finally, it describes the use of the CDLF questionnaire as a tool to illuminate the range of preferences existing among learners and to discover the potential range of strategies and tactics that might be useful for a given set of learners.

Patrick Parrish

2010-05-01

28

Uranium discussion paper: embracing facts and addressing the challenges  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Events in recent months have prompted Australians to reassess their attitude towards uranium mining. These include the debate over takeover bids for our largest uranium deposit at Olympic Dam, Canberra's decision to take control of mining in the Northern Territory, and progress in negotiating a bilateral agreement for selling uranium to China. On an international level, increasing concern over global warming, and burgeoning energy demand from developing countries, has led many people to come to view nuclear power as an energy alternative that is both attractive and necessary. It is essential that professional, informed and expert opinion be sought to drive the debate and the way forward. Australia's uranium mining and exploration industry is now leading edge and it's time public debate evolved along with it. The extent to which the issue is manipulated for political point scoring is a disservice to the country and perhaps to democracy. It impedes the evolution of a coherent, consistent and intelligent policy on a range of issues that we, as a country with the largest deposit of a sustainable source of energy in a time of accelerating global energy demands, need to address

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The Global Outlook for Small Reactors: Opportunities, Challenges and Implementation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The fascinating topic of small nuclear is becoming more prevalent on the nuclear agenda. The discussions are generally focused within the country of technical origin. In this presentation 'The global outlook for small reactors' Rolls-Royce along with energy business analysts Douglas-Westwood present their shared views on the global opportunities for Small Reactor deployment in the context of the wider energy market. The presentation will: provide a compressive overview of trends and dynamics relating to Small Reactors in the context of the current world energy market, identify specific Small Reactor opportunities and areas of interest, address the challenges and potential solutions for Small Reactor deployment and operation.(author).

30

Is prophetic discourse adequate to address global economic justice?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article outlined key features of prophetic discourse and investigated whether this form of moral discourse adequately addresses issues of economic injustice. It is shown that the strength of prophetic discourse is its ability to denounce instances of injustice whilst at the same time announcing a God-willed alternative future. The ‘preferential option for the poor’ in Latin American liberation theologies is treated as a case study of the influence of prophetic discourse in contexts of perceived economic injustice. Also the core weaknesses of prophetic discourse are investigated, specifically its incomplete moral argument, weak moral analyses, silence on transition measures, and its inability to take a positive stance on reforms in the system from which itself benefits. In the final section it is concluded that prophetic discourse plays an indispensable role in addressing issues of global economic justice, but – taken by itself – it is not an adequate form of moral discourse to address concrete matters of justice.

How to cite this article: Naudé, P.J., 2011, ‘Is prophetic discourse adequate to address global economic justice?’, HTS Teologiese Studies/ Theological Studies 67(1, Art. #1014, 8 pages. DOI: 10.4102/hts.v67i1.1014

Piet J. Naudé

2011-06-01

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The Challenges and Potential of Nuclear Energy for Addressing Climate Change  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The response to climate change and the stabilization of atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations has major implications for the global energy system. Stabilization of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations requires a peak and an indefinite decline of global CO2 emissions. Nuclear energy, along with other technologies, has the potential to contribute to the growing demand for energy without emitting CO2. Nuclear energy is of particular interest because of its global prevalence and its current significant contribution, nearly 20%, to the world’s electricity supply. We have investigated the value of nuclear energy in addressing climate change, and have explored the potential challenges for the rapid and large-scale expansion of nuclear energy as a response to climate change. The scope of this study is long-term and the modeling time frame extends out a century because the nature of nuclear energy and climate change dictate that perspective. Our results indicate that the value of the nuclear technology option for addressing climate change is denominated in trillions of dollars. Several-fold increases to the value of the nuclear option can be expected if there is limited availability of competing carbon-free technologies, particularly fossil-fuel based technologies that can capture and sequester carbon. Challenges for the expanded global use of nuclear energy include the global capacity for nuclear construction, proliferation, uranium availability, and waste disposal. While the economic costs of nuclear fuel and power are important, non-economic issues transcend the issues of costs. In this regard, advanced nuclear technologies and new vision for the global use of nuclear energy are important considerations for the future of nuclear power and climate change.

Kim, Son H.; Edmonds, James A.

2007-10-24

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The Challenges and Potential of Nuclear Energy for Addressing Climate Change  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The response to climate change and the stabilization of atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations has major implications for the global energy system. Stabilization of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations requires a peak and an indefinite decline of global CO2 emissions. Nuclear energy, along with other technologies, has the potential to contribute to the growing demand for energy without emitting CO2. Nuclear energy is of particular interest because of its global prevalence and its current significant contribution, nearly 20%, to the world's electricity supply. We have investigated the value of nuclear energy in addressing climate change, and have explored the potential challenges for the rapid and large-scale expansion of nuclear energy as a response to climate change. The scope of this study is long-term and the modeling time frame extends out a century because the nature of nuclear energy and climate change dictate that perspective. Our results indicate that the value of the nuclear technology option for addressing climate change is denominated in trillions of dollars. Several-fold increases to the value of the nuclear option can be expected if there is limited availability of competing carbon-free technologies, particularly fossil-fuel based technologies that can capture and sequester carbon. Challenges for the expanded global use of nuclear energy include the global capacity for nuclear construction, proliferation, uranium availability, and waste disption, uranium availability, and waste disposal. While the economic costs of nuclear fuel and power are important, non-economic issues transcend the issues of costs. In this regard, advanced nuclear technologies and new vision for the global use of nuclear energy are important considerations for the future of nuclear power and climate change.

33

Facing safety and security challenges: Specific regulatory perspectives (Opening address)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The subject matter of our conference is closely connected with one of the major directions of the G8 Summit to be held later this year - the concept of ensuring the safety and security of global energy supplies, i.e. ensuring the availability of reliable and sustainable energy resources to all the countries that need those for their further development. Atomic energy has been playing a substantial role in the implementation of this concept and in the long term, when the supplies of fossil fuels start depleting, its role and scope of use will be getting more significant. The main and indispensable prerequisite for such large scale use of atomic energy is the assurance of nuclear and environmental safety at all stages of the nuclear fuel cycle. Moreover, physical protection of nuclear facilities, fissile materials and radioactive substances has recently assumed special or one could say paramount importance, which is connected with the problem of proliferation and the terrorist threat. Ensuring nuclear and radiation safety has always been addressed in parallel with the development of nuclear technologies right from inception and is reflected in the level of scientific knowledge in this field that existed at each point in time. The lessons learnt from the accidents and incidents that occurred, have stimulated corresponding scientific and technological developments, improvement of regulatory standards and the establishment of continuously improving regulatory systems for nnuously improving regulatory systems for nuclear safety and radiation safety

34

Addressing Grand Challenges in Earth Observation Science: The Earth Observation Data Centre for Water Resources Monitoring  

Science.gov (United States)

Earth observation is entering a new era where the increasing availability of free and open global satellite data sets combined with the computing power offered by modern information technologies opens up the possibility to process high-resolution data sets at global scale and short repeat intervals in a fully automatic fashion. This will not only boost the availability of higher level earth observation data in purely quantitative terms, but can also be expected to trigger a step change in the quality and usability of earth observation data. However, the technical, scientific, and organisational challenges that need to be overcome to arrive at this point are significant. First of all, Petabyte-scale data centres are needed for storing and processing complete satellite data records. Second, innovative processing chains that allow fully automatic processing of the satellite data from the raw sensor records to higher-level geophysical products need to be developed. Last but not least, new models of cooperation between public and private actors need to be found in order to live up to the first two challenges. This paper offers a discussion of how the Earth Observation Data Centre for Water Resources Monitoring (EODC) - a catalyser for an open and international cooperation of public and private organisations - will address these three grand challenges with the aim to foster the use of earth observation for monitoring of global water resources.

Wagner, W.; Fröhlich, J.; Wotawa, G.; Stowasser, R.; Staudinger, M.; Hoffmann, C.; Walli, A.; Federspiel, C.; Aspetsberger, M.; Atzberger, C.; Briese, C.; Notarnicola, C.; Zebisch, M.; Boresch, A.; Enenkel, M.; Kidd, R.; von Beringe, A.; Hasenauer, S.; Naeimi, V.; Mücke, W.

2014-09-01

35

EMSO: A Distributed Infrastructure for Addressing Geohazards and Global Ocean Change  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The European Multidisciplinary Seafloor and water-column Observatory (EMSO; http://www.emso-eu.org is addressing the next challenge in Earth-ocean science: how to coordinate data acquisition, analysis, archiving, access, and response to geohazards across provincial, national, regional, and international boundaries. Such coordination is needed to optimize the use of current and planned ocean observatory systems to (1 address national and regional public safety concerns about geohazards (e.g., earthquakes, submarine landslides, tsunamis and (2 permit broadening of their scope toward monitoring environmental change on global ocean scales.

Mairi Best

2014-06-01

36

Who governs energy? The challenges facing global energy governance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article conceptualizes the energy problems facing society from a global governance perspective. It argues that a notion of 'global energy governance,' taken to mean international collective action efforts undertaken to manage and distribute energy resources and provide energy services, offers a meaningful and useful framework for assessing energy-related challenges. The article begins by exploring the concepts of governance, global governance, and global energy governance. It then examines some of the existing institutions in place to establish and carry out rules and norms governing global energy problems and describes the range of institutional design options available to policymakers. It briefly traces the role of a selection of these institutions, from inter-governmental organizations to summit processes to multilateral development banks to global action networks, in responding to energy issues, and points out their strengths and weaknesses. The article concludes by analyzing how the various approaches to global governance differ in their applicability to addressing the conundrums of global energy problems. (author)

Florini, Ann; Sovacool, Benjamin K. [Centre on Asia and Globalisation, Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore, Singapore 259772 (Singapore)

2009-12-15

37

The Global Energy Challenge : A Contextual Framework  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This report gives a brief overview of the global energy challenge and subsequently outlines how and where renewable energy could be developed to solve these issues. The report does not go into a lot of detail on these issues and hence, it is meant as an overview only. The report begins by outlining the causes of global climate change, concluding that energy-related emissions are the primary contributors to the problem. As a result, global energy production is analysed in more detail, discussing how it has evolved over the last 30 years and also, how it is expected to evolve in the coming 30 years. Afterwards, the security of the world’s energy supply is investigated and it becomes clear that there is both an inevitable shortage of fossil fuels and a dangerous separation of supply and demand. The final topic discussed is renewable energy, since it is one sustainable solution to the global energy challenge and to conclude, a brief summary is provided.

Connolly, David

2011-01-01

38

Is prophetic discourse adequate to address global economic justice?  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english This article outlined key features of prophetic discourse and investigated whether this form of moral discourse adequately addresses issues of economic injustice. It is shown that the strength of prophetic discourse is its ability to denounce instances of injustice whilst at the same time announcing [...] a God-willed alternative future. The ‘preferential option for the poor’ in Latin American liberation theologies is treated as a case study of the influence of prophetic discourse in contexts of perceived economic injustice. Also the core weaknesses of prophetic discourse are investigated, specifically its incomplete moral argument, weak moral analyses, silence on transition measures, and its inability to take a positive stance on reforms in the system from which itself benefits. In the final section it is concluded that prophetic discourse plays an indispensable role in addressing issues of global economic justice, but - taken by itself - it is not an adequate form of moral discourse to address concrete matters of justice.

Piet J., Naud.

39

REGULATORY CHALLENGES IN GLOBAL PHARMACEUTICAL MARKET  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The global pharmaceutical industry “looks like the epitome of a modern, mature industry that has found a comfortable way to make profits by the billion: it’s global, hi-tech, and has the ultimate customer, the health care budget of the world’s richest countries. A number of factors contributed to the globalization of the pharmaceutical industry. Chief among these are the convergence of medical science and practice under the influence of modern communication technology and increased and information exchange. The global success of the Swiss pharmaceutical industry is only due to the high level of investment in research and development and the other fact is the favorable regulatory frame work. For the development of a new drug and generics pharmaceutical company have to face number of regulatory challenges such as bioequivalence, patent expiry, newer antibiotics ,and the complexity involved in the regulated market etc. Regulatory processes are also undergoing international harmonization. As international market becomes more important, pharmaceutical companies will require greater corporation among national regulators to get life saving products which will help them to market faster and reduce regulatory compliance.

Vibhu Yadav et al.

2012-01-01

40

Global climate change: the quantifiable sustainability challenge.  

Science.gov (United States)

Population growth and the pressures spawned by increasing demands for energy and resource-intensive goods, foods, and services are driving unsustainable growth in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Recent GHG emission trends are consistent with worst-case scenarios of the previous decade. Dramatic and near-term emission reductions likely will be needed to ameliorate the potential deleterious impacts of climate change. To achieve such reductions, fundamental changes are required in the way that energy is generated and used. New technologies must be developed and deployed at a rapid rate. Advances in carbon capture and storage, renewable, nuclear and transportation technologies are particularly important; however, global research and development efforts related to these technologies currently appear to fall short relative to needs. Even with a proactive and international mitigation effort, humanity will need to adapt to climate change, but the adaptation needs and damages will be far greater if mitigation activities are not pursued in earnest. In this review, research is highlighted that indicates increasing global and regional temperatures and ties climate changes to increasing GHG emissions. GHG mitigation targets necessary for limiting future global temperature increases are discussed, including how factors such as population growth and the growing energy intensity of the developing world will make these reduction targets more challenging. Potential technological pathways for meeting emission reduction targets are examined, barriers are discussed, and global and US. modeling results are presented that suggest that the necessary pathways will require radically transformed electric and mobile sectors. While geoengineering options have been proposed to allow more time for serious emission reductions, these measures are at the conceptual stage with many unanswered cost, environmental, and political issues. Implications: This paper lays out the case that mitigating the potential for catastrophic climate change will be a monumental challenge, requiring the global community to transform its energy system in an aggressive, coordinated, and timely manner. If this challenge is to be met, new technologies will have to be developed and deployed at a rapid rate. Advances in carbon capture and storage, renewable, nuclear, and transportation technologies are particularly important. Even with an aggressive international mitigation effort, humanity will still need to adapt to significant climate change. PMID:25282995

Princiotta, Frank T; Loughlin, Daniel H

2014-09-01

 
 
 
 
41

Strategies to Address Common Challenges When Teaching in an Active Learning Classroom  

Science.gov (United States)

This chapter provides practical strategies for addressing common challenges that arise for teachers in active learning classrooms. Our strategies come from instructors with experience teaching in these environments.

Petersen, Christina I.; Gorman, Kristen S.

2014-01-01

42

Pandemic influenza: A global challenge for social marketing marketing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recent years have seen increased attention and concern regarding the potential for pandemic influenza, following large-scale outbreaks of swine flu and bird flu. Governments and health agencies have time to develop social marketing strategies and specific messages that have the potential to minimize fear, refute or inoculate against misinformation that the public may encounter, and enhance the likelihood of the public taking the recommended preventive and remedial actions should these become necessary. This paper presents an overview of how social marketing can be used to tackle the global challenge of pandemic influenza. The potential pandemic influenza poses a major challenge for social marketers (along with governments, health services, and businesses. There are a number of critical factors about a potential pandemic influenza that make it fundamentally different to the majority of issues to which social marketing has previously been applied. The underlying principles of social marketing are equally applicable to a global infectious disease outbreak (such as pandemic influenza. Even if the current strains do not become pandemic, social marketers should use this impetus to develop the skills and resources to address future communicable disease outbreaks. This paper applies the concepts of social marketing to a unique health issue which has the potential to become one of the largest global public health crises in history, but which can be tackled with effective global social marketing.

Sandra C. Jones

2012-10-01

43

Oral health in Libya: addressing the future challenges  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Libya is a vast country situated in North Africa, having a relatively better functioning economy with a scanty population. This article is the first known attempt to review the current state of oral health care in Libya and to explore the present trends and future challenges. Libyan health system, oral health care, and human resources with the present status of dental education are reviewed comprehensively. A bibliographic study of oral health research and publications has been carried out. T...

Peeran, Syed Wali; Altaher, Omar Basheer; Peeran, Syed Ali; Alsaid, Fatma Mojtaba; Mugrabi, Marei Hamed; Ahmed, Aisha Mojtaba; Grain, Abdulgader

2014-01-01

44

Addressing the Challenge: Cataloguing Electronic Books in Academic Libraries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective ? This paper explores the various issues and challenges arising from e?book cataloguing experienced at the University of Windsor’s Leddy Library and the Ontario Council of University Libraries (OCUL). This discussion uses an evidence based approach to identify and resolve issues relevant to academic libraries as well as to consortia. With the ever rising popularity of e?books within academic libraries, cataloguing librarians are actively seeking more effective methods...

Shuzhen Zhao; Wei Zhao

2010-01-01

45

Global panorama of energy access: Current situation, challenges and outlook  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Globally 1.3 billion people do not have access to electricity. If this figure is projected to decline 1 billion by 2030, the global population who relies on the traditional use of biomass for cooking is expected to substantially increase, from 2.6 billion to 2.7 billion people. In its commitment to energy access, ENEA published a synthesis on the current situation and the further development perspectives of energy access worldwide, a crucial issue of human and economic development and an opportunity for the private sector. This synthesis present the ecosystem of the actors involved in the improvement of energy access and the technical solutions that serve the needs of this high-potential market. The five main challenges energy access has to address are presented in this publication: energy prices, equipment financing, distribution, change of scale and environmental performances.

Galichon, Ines; Lacroix, Olivier; Wiedmer, Damien

2014-07-15

46

The nuclear renaissance - Opportunities and challenges [Keynote address  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nuclear energy must be part of the solution to meet future electricity demand and it must be done cost effectively, without damaging our environment. The challenges presented by the new prospects for nuclear energy require the management of (a) closing the looming gap between uranium supply and demand (b) closing the technical and political challenges in exploration and mine development and (c) finding and developing innovations throughout the nuclear fuel cycle that make good economic and environmental sense. The talk elaborates on the increasing uranium consumption, the near time uranium supply challenges, identifies production expansion, and discusses world uranium exploration and advances in mining and milling. It is stressed that the IAEA should play an important role in collecting and disseminating up-to-date information concerning the latest technological advances - through periodic conferences and technical meetings. The organization should gather and compile accurate uranium supply information. In its existing compilation that forms the IAEA Red Book, the Estimated Additional Resources (EAR) categories have long been inconsistently reported by member countries, reducing reliability and in some cases overstating or understating the supply potential of important regions. The usefulness of IAEA's supply estimates would be improved by the development of a single, consistent approach to the estimation of uranium potential, which member countries would then be enco which member countries would then be encouraged to adopt. Countries that have abundant resources should be encouraged by the agency to open up their lands to foreign investment for uranium exploration and development. The IAEA should present the case for improved investment climates, educating restrictive jurisdictions about current industry practices and standards, and lobbying for consistent and reasonable licencing processes that reflect science-based assessments of risk. The key note speaker encourages the IAEA to fill its role as an industry promoter both within the organization and to the world. Countries that enjoy the benefits of nuclear power have a large, but largely neglected, role in encouraging open, supportive, and consistent policies for the beneficial and peaceful use of nuclear technology

47

Independent oversight: The challenges of effective nuclear regulation (Opening address)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The origins of the global safety regime can be traced back to the aftermath of the 1986 Chernobyl accident, when worldwide consensus emerged on two points related to nuclear safety: first, the need for effective international cooperation; and second, the need to effectively separate nuclear power development from nuclear safety oversight functions. At the IAEA, this led to a sweeping re-evaluation of its role in international nuclear safety cooperation, and a sustained effort to assist Member States in upgrading their safety programmes on all fronts. Ultimately, this reform led to the creation of the Department of Nuclear Safety in 1996, and the recognition of safety - encompassing nuclear facility safety, radiation safety, transport safety and waste safety - as one of the three pillars of the IAEA. During the following year, legally binding safety instruments were developed including the Convention on Nuclear Safety, the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel and Radioactive Waste, and the Early Notification and Assistance Conventions. In the years since, the implementation of these instruments has been notable. Most recently, two non-binding Codes of Conduct have been developed, one on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources, and the other on the Safety of Research Reactors. In a similar way, the development of a global security regime was triggered by the tragic events of 11 September 2001, and successive terrorist events in Europe and Asia. These evenrist events in Europe and Asia. These events gave rise to sweeping reviews of security measures in many fields, including the nuclear industry. The results were seen in a commendable worldwide effort to upgrade national and international nuclear security measures. They were also seen in United Nations Security Council resolutions, the Convention on Nuclear Terrorism and, more recently, the strengthening of the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Materials. Today, many of the principal elements of a global nuclear safety and security regime are in place: namely, the international instruments, the body of international safety standards and security guidelines, strong governmental and legal infrastructures, and the strong interest in knowledge management and sharing through growing nuclear safety networks

48

Aneesur Rahman Prize for Computational Physics Lecture: Addressing Dirac's Challenge  

Science.gov (United States)

After the invention of quantum mechanics, P. A. M. Dirac made the following observation: ``The underlying physical laws necessary for the mathematical theory of a large part of physics and the whole of chemistry are thus completely known, and the difficulty is only that the exact application of these laws leads to equations much too complicated to be soluble. It therefore becomes desirable that approximate practical methods of applying quantum mechanics should be developed, which can lead to an explanation of the main features of complex atomic systems...'' The creation of ``approximate practical methods" in response to Dirac's challenge has included the one electron picture, density functional theory and the pseudopotential concept. The combination of such methods in conjunction with contemporary computational platforms and new algorithms offer the possibility of predicting properties of materials solely from knowledge of the atomic species present. I will give an overview of progress in this field with an emphasis on materials at the nanoscale.

Chelikowsky, James

2013-03-01

49

Antimicrobial resistance: the global public health challenge  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Antimicrobial resistance is one of the biggest challenges to face global public health at the beginning of the third millennium. Antimicrobial resistance and its global spread threaten the continued effectiveness of many medicines used today to treat the sick. Antibiotic resistance is usually associated with significant morbidity, longer hospitalization, excess costs and mortality. Many factors contribute to the unnecessary use of antibiotics including the knowledge and beliefs of doctors and consumers, direct patient requests, perceptions of patient demand, culture and norms and advertisements and other promotional literature distributed by the pharmaceutical companies. Self-medication with antimicrobials is often cited as a major factor contributing to drug resistance. The microorganisms employ several mechanisms in attaining multidrug resistance such as they no longer rely on a glycoprotein cell wall; enzymatic deactivation of antibiotics, decreased cell wall permeability to antibiotics and altered target sites of antibiotic. Efflux mechanisms to remove antibiotics and increased mutation rate are some of the other important mechanism for the antimicrobial resistance. Optimal use of existing antimicrobial agents, using alternative treatment options, reducing the need for antimicrobials by increasing immunity, education of health professionals and patients, antibiotic policies and implementation of infection control measures are the strategies aimed at prevention of emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance.

Jayant D Deshpande

2011-04-01

50

Peptide immunotherapy for childhood allergy - addressing translational challenges  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Allergic sensitisation usually begins early in life. The number of allergens a patient is sensitised to can increase over time and the development of additional allergic conditions is increasingly recognised. Targeting allergic disease in childhood is thus likely to be the most efficacious means of reducing the overall burden of allergic disease. Specific immunotherapy involves administering protein allergen to tolerise allergen reactive CD4+ T cells, thought key in driving allergic responses. Yet specific immunotherapy risks allergic reactions including anaphylaxis as a consequence of preformed allergen-specific IgE antibodies binding to the protein, subsequent cross-linking and mast cell degranulation. CD4+ T cells direct their responses to short "immunodominant" peptides within the allergen. Such peptides can be given therapeutically to induce T cell tolerance without facilitating IgE cross-linking. Peptide immunotherapy (PIT offers attractive treatment potential for allergic disease. However, PIT has not yet been shown to be effective in children. This review discusses the immunological mechanisms implicated in PIT and briefly covers outcomes from adult PIT trials. This provides a context for discussion of the challenges for the application of PIT, both generally and more specifically in relation to children.

Mackenzie Karen J

2011-11-01

51

Wireless LAN Security: Addressing Challenges, Attacks and Solutions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available With tremendous growth and advancement in wireless technology and excessive use of internet in all the applications, security has become one of the most crucial and most demanding factor in wireless LAN, no matter if it is an individual, home or a business network. Regardless of different benefits of wireless LANs like mobility, flexibility, reduced cost of ownership and scalability, WLAN also have security issues that must be properly dealt with. Security involves protection ofdata and nodes from different types of attacks, unauthorized access and misuse of data and systems. Security basically is an overall strategy rather than a technology. It is all about the level of effort one can put into the network for securing it or the level of risk one is willing to tolerate . All the components exist in order to secure the wireless network. This paper will discuss different challenges in a wireless LAN, different types of attacks and different security considerations and strategies which will help an individual user and enterprises in securing their wireless LAN. It also emphasizes on the importance of training and knowledge of safe and reliable wireless network usage.

Gurpreet Kaur#1 , Kirandeep Kaur

2013-05-01

52

Addressing the Challenge: Cataloguing Electronic Books in Academic Libraries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective ? This paper explores the various issues and challenges arising from e?book cataloguing experienced at the University of Windsor’s Leddy Library and the Ontario Council of University Libraries (OCUL. This discussion uses an evidence based approach to identify and resolve issues relevant to academic libraries as well as to consortia. With the ever rising popularity of e?books within academic libraries, cataloguing librarians are actively seeking more effective methods of managing this new electronic medium, including the development of new cataloguing policies and procedures. This paper will explore the various issues and challenges surrounding e?book cataloguing and processing within academic libraries, and will identify new policies and procedures that may be used to effectively assist in e?book management.Methods ? This paper presents a case study of e?book cataloguing practices undertaken by a Canadian academic library and the consortium with which it is affiliated. Towards this end, the University of Windsor’s Leddy Library will be the prime focus of this study, with its establishment of a new e?book MARC records database. The research is based on the results of the e?book MARC project undertaken by the Leddy Library and the Ontario Council of University Libraries (OCUL.Through analysis of various suppliers’ MARC records and the actual implementation of the e?book MARC project, the authors developed and evaluated a new approach to e?book cataloguing for use in academic libraries.Results ? This practice?based approach towards the development of a new method of e?book cataloguing required continual modification and examination of e?book MARC records within the target library. The Leddy Library’s e?book MARC project provided an excellent opportunity to test the library’s existing cataloguing standards and procedures for print format, while at the same time, identifying related e?books issues. The new policies and procedures for e?book cataloguing that followed were developed as a direct result of the authors’ cataloguing experiences and the information gained by examination of other academic libraries’ e?book cataloguing processes. This paper also provides an evaluation regarding the quality of suppliers’ MARC records. Results of this study should serve to increase the efficiency and effectiveness of cataloguing in academic libraries.Conclusions ? This paper identifies key issues regarding the cataloguing of e?books in academic libraries. Throughout, the authors have provided an evidence based approach. The hope is that the results will provide a useful framework for other academic libraries to build upon when developing their respective e?book cataloguing databases. E?books are effective resources, and academic libraries need to adapt to this new electronic medium in order to assist patrons in their discovery and usage.

Shuzhen Zhao

2010-03-01

53

1998 ICA Presidential Address: Communication Structures and Processes in Globalization.  

Science.gov (United States)

Asserts that space-time compression, global consciousness through reflexivity, and disembedding mechanisms that restructure human relations constitute the major dynamics of globalization that have been theorized to date. States that globalism provides an important opportunity to expand academic relevance to issues that are central to the entire…

Monge, Peter

1998-01-01

54

Shrinking cities: urban challenges of globalization.  

Science.gov (United States)

Urban shrinkage is not a new phenomenon. It has been documented in a large literature analyzing the social and economic issues that have led to population flight, resulting, in the worse cases, in the eventual abandonment of blocks of housing and neighbourhoods. Analysis of urban shrinkage should take into account the new realization that this phenomenon is now global and multidimensional — but also little understood in all its manifestations. Thus, as the world's population increasingly becomes urban, orthodox views of urban decline need redefinition. The symposium includes articles from 10 urban analysts working on 30 cities around the globe. These analysts belong to the Shrinking Cities International Research Network (SCIRN), whose collaborative work aims to understand different types of city shrinkage and the role that different approaches, policies and strategies have played in the regeneration of these cities. In this way the symposium will inform both a rich diversity of analytical perspectives and country-based studies of the challenges faced by shrinking cities. It will also disseminate SCIRN's research results from the last 3 years. PMID:22518881

Martinez-Fernandez, Cristina; Audirac, Ivonne; Fol, Sylvie; Cunningham-Sabot, Emmanuèle

2012-01-01

55

Biological approaches for addressing the grand challenge of providing access to clean drinking water  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract The U.S. National Academy of Engineering (NAE) recently published a document presenting "Grand Challenges for Engineering". This list was proposed by leading engineers and scientists from around the world at the request of the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF). Fourteen topics were selected for these grand challenges, and at least seven can be addressed using the tools and methods of biological engineering. Here we describe how biological engineers can address the chal...

Gerba Charles P; Riley Mark R; Elimelech Menachem

2011-01-01

56

Megacities and Large Urban Complexes - WMO Role in Addressing Challenges and Opportunities  

Science.gov (United States)

Megacities and Large Urban Complexes - WMO Role in Addressing Challenges and Opportunities Deon E. Terblanche and Liisa Jalkanen dterblanche@wmo.int ljalkanen@wmo.int World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, Switzerland The 21st Century could amongst others, become known as the century in which our species has evolved from Homo sapiens to Homo urbanus. By now the urban population has surpassed the rural population and the rate of urbanization will continue at such a pace that by 2050 urban dwellers could outnumber their rural counterpart by more than two to one. Most of this growth in urban population will occur in developing countries and along coastal areas. Urbanization is to a large extent the outcome of humans seeking a better life through improved opportunities presented by high-density communities. Megacities and large urban complexes provide more job opportunities and social structures, better transport and communication links and a relative abundance of physical goods and services when compared to most rural areas. Unfortunately these urban complexes also present numerous social and environmental challenges. Urban areas differ from their surroundings by morphology, population density, and with high concentration of industrial activities, energy consumption and transport. They also pose unique challenges to atmospheric modelling and monitoring and create a multi-disciplinary spectrum of potential threats, including air pollution, which need to be addressed in an integrated way. These areas are also vulnerable to the changing climate and its implications to sea-level and extreme events, air quality and related health impacts. Many urban activities are significantly impacted by weather events that would not be considered to be of high impact in less densely populated areas. For instance, moderate precipitation events can cause flooding and landslides as modified urban catchments generally have higher run-off to rainfall ratios than their more pristine rural counterparts. The urban environment also provides numerous opportunities. One example being the better use of weather and environmental predictions to proactively optimize the functioning of the urban environment in terms of the use of energy, goods and services. Another is the providing of air quality forecasting services to benefit the health of the population. To address the challenges and opportunities facing megacities and large urban complexes, WMO has established the Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) Urban Research Meteorology and Environment (GURME). Air pollution questions in urban areas, in particular megacities, is the main focus, building observational and modelling capabilities in developing countries through pilot projects and transfer of scientific expertise. GURME contributes to improving capabilities to handle meteorological and related features of air pollution by addressing end-to-end aspects of air quality, linking observational capabilities with the needs of chemical weather prediction, with the goal of providing high quality air quality services. Using examples from around the world but with specific reference to Africa, the unique challenges and opportunities related to megacities and large urban complexes, as perceived by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) are highlighted.

Terblanche, Deon; Jalkanen, Liisa

2013-04-01

57

Addressing the Grand Challenge of atmospheric carbon dioxide: geologic sequestration vs. biological recycling  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract On February 15, 2008, the National Academy of Engineering unveiled their list of 14 Grand Challenges for Engineering. Building off of tremendous advancements in the past century, these challenges were selected for their role in assuring a sustainable existence for the rapidly increasing global community. It is no accident that the first five Challenges on the list involve the development of sustainable energy sources and management of environmental resources. While the focu...

Stuart Ben J

2011-01-01

58

The Challenge of Globalization: Preparing Teachers for a Global Age  

Science.gov (United States)

Globalization changes everything. When young people affect and are affected by issues, changes, and events across the world, they need to be given the tools to participate in global discourse and decision making. With their incredible consumer power, today's preK-12 students are already influencing global economic, technological, and environmental…

Merryfield, Merry M.

2008-01-01

59

Rising China: Global Challenges (China Update)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Where the last three decades of the 20th century witnessed a China rising on to the global economic stage, the first three decades of the 21st century are almost certain to bring with them the completion of that rise, not only in economic, but also political and geopolitical terms. China’s integration into the global economy has brought one-fifth of the global population into the world trading system, which has increased global market potential and integration to an unprecedented level. The...

Song, Ligang; Golley, Jane

2011-01-01

60

Probing Matter-Field and Atom-Number Correlations in Optical Lattices by Global Nondestructive Addressing  

CERN Document Server

We show that light scattering from an ultracold gas reveals not only density correlations, but also matter-field interference at its shortest possible distance in an optical lattice, which defines key properties such as tunneling and matter-field phase gradients. This signal can be enhanced by concentrating probe light between lattice sites rather than at density maxima. As addressing between two single sites is challenging, we focus on global nondestructive scattering, allowing probing order parameters, matter-field quadratures and their squeezing. The scattering angular distribution displays peaks even if classical diffraction is forbidden and we derive generalized Bragg conditions. Light scattering distinguishes all phases in the Mott insulator - superfluid - Bose glass phase transition.

Kozlowski, Wojciech; Mekhov, Igor B

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Nuclear Education and training: addressing a global need  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There is growing concern about the difficulties nuclear institutions in many OECD/NEA member countries are experiencing in recruiting qualified specialists. Recent studies have also shown that nuclear education and training have been suffering declines of various degrees. If no action is taken on this issue, the nuclear sector risks facing a shortage of qualified human resources to ensure the appropriate regulation and operation of existing nuclear facilities as well as the construction of new ones in those countries wishing to do so. The NEA Steering Committee for Nuclear Energy issued a statement on this subject in October 2007, the complete text of which is available at: www.nea.fr/html/general/press/2007/2007-05.html. The NEA has for many years been involved in efforts to define and address the need for qualified human resources. In this regard, the Agency: 1- carries out assessments of requirements and availability of qualified human resources in the nuclear field, 2- enhances nuclear education programmes, such as the International School of Nuclear Law, and 3- encourages large, high-profile international research and development programmes. These areas are addressed in the NEA Strategic Plan as well as in the specific NEA programmes discussed below. The presentation will focus on ways to address the issue of qualified human resources, share information about what others are doing, and discuss what we might do collectively. (author)

62

Addressing Pre-service Teachers Ideas About Global Climate Change  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite the scientific consensus about global climate change (GCC) and the potential risk, the media often portrays the science as controversial and as a debate (Kellstedt, Zahran, & Vedlitz, 2008; Washington & Cook, 2011). According to a recent report, young adults are divided on the issue of global warming (Feldman, Nisbet, Leiserowitz, & Maibach, 2010). Understanding both the science and the nature of this issue is especially important for future teachers. Also, given that K-12 students have numerous alternative conceptions or lack of prior knowledge, it is critical that teachers have an understanding of the fundamental science underlying climate change. This study examines undergraduate science methods students' views of GCC, the relationship between students' views and their knowledge of GCC, and the impact of the course instructional approach. Students' views of GCC were assessed using the Views of Global Climate Change instrument (VGCC), a survey developed by the authors of this study (Lambert et al., 2010). The survey was developed to specifically measure students' views on: 1) their knowledge of GCC, 2) causes of GCC, 3) evidence (or indicators) of GCC, 4) impacts of GCC, 5) actions or solutions, 6) influence of politics on the issue of GCC, 7) scientific consensus, 8) trust of sources of information, and 9) concern about GCC. The Knowledge of Global Climate Change instrument (KGCC) (Lambert, Bleicher, & Lindgren, 2011) was employed to measure students' understanding of the greenhouse effect, carbon cycle, causes, and consequences of GCC. Pre-surveys indicated that 49% of the students felt that human activity was the main cause of climate change. At the conclusion of the course, 72% of the students thought that humans were causing climate change, and students' overall views about global warming significantly shifted toward being more concerned. Students' knowledge of the greenhouse effect, carbon cycle, causes, and impacts also increased significantly. While the results were significant, with students' knowledge increasing by almost 30% on the overall score, students revealed several alternative conceptions. Given the short span of the course, the students were able to learn a number of specific concepts related to GCC and to develop views more aligned with the current scientific research. Throughout the course, students learned about GCC with the aid of a study guide for understanding the science underlying weather and GCC. They also participated in a series of inquiry-based investigations focusing on GCC topics. Students, however, still held or developed some alternative conceptions about the underlying science. The continued development of better tools to assess students' views and knowledge of climate change is crucial to reveal and identify alternative conceptions. Ultimately, such instruments will lead to improved instruction to develop student climate change understanding that is more aligned to that of the scientific community.

Lutz, R. V.; Lambert, J. L.; Bleicher, R. E.; Lindgren, J.; Edwards, A.; Soden, B.

2011-12-01

63

The Cloud Adoption Toolkit: Addressing the Challenges of Cloud Adoption in Enterprise  

CERN Document Server

Cloud computing promises a radical shift in the provisioning of computing resource within enterprise. This paper: i) describes the challenges that decision-makers face when attempting to determine the feasibility of the adoption of cloud computing in their organisations; ii) illustrates a lack of existing work to address the feasibility challenges of cloud adoption in enterprise; iii) introduces the Cloud Adoption Toolkit that provides a framework to support decision-makers in identifying their concerns, and matching these concerns to appropriate tools/techniques that can be used to address them. The paper adopts a position paper methodology such that case study evidence is provided, where available, to support claims. We conclude that the Cloud Adoption Toolkit, whilst still under development, shows signs that it is a useful tool for decision-makers as it helps address the feasibility challenges of cloud adoption in enterprise.

Greenwood, David; Smith, James; Sommerville, Ian

2010-01-01

64

An electric utility program to address global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation believes that despite the incomplete and uncertain state of scientific knowledge concerning global atmospheric change, the plausible negative effects of accelerated global warming, known as open-quotes the Greenhouse Effect,close quotes are so large that purdent actions can and should be taken now to reduce so-called greenhouse gas emissions. Thus, the corporation has adopted a Greenhouse Warming Action Program based on strategies recommended by the National Academy of Sciences and the corporation's Integrated Electric Resource Plan. The program is a logical outgrowth of the company's policy statement on protection of the environment and is designed to surpass the Rio Earth Summit's goal of stabilizing greenhouse gas emissions. Central to the Action Program are increased use of natural gas, aggressive expansion of energy efficiency programs, and maximized generation from hydroelectric and nuclear energy sources. Additional elements include preventing releases of CFC's through customer incentive recycling programs; a forest conservation program of managing lands on a sustainable yield basis, environmentally-conscious use of paper products, and waste paper and cardboard recycling; promoting commercialization of low emitting vehicles; and developing and demonstrating low-CO2 technologies such as wind turbines and photo-voltaic cells. Niagara Mohawk believes that acting now to implement such a policy is a responsible step that msuch a policy is a responsible step that makes sense from both scientific and business perspectives. Moreover, voluntary action now by utilities and other segments of the private sector is the best way to avoid the need for future regulation by government designed to achieve the same end. We intend to do our part to stabilize and reduce greenhouse gas emissions, while recognizing that our contribution is only a small fraction of total global greenhouse gas emissions

65

Financial regulation and risk management: addressing risk challenges in a changing financial environment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Amongst other things, this paper aims to address complexities and challenges faced by regulators in identifying and assessing risk, problems arising from different perceptions of risk, and solutions aimed at countering problems of risk regulation. It will approach these issues through an assessment of explanations put forward to justify the growing importance of risks, well known risk theories such as cultural theory, risk society theory and governmentality theory. In addressing the problems ...

Ojo, Marianne

2006-01-01

66

Addressing sources of uncertainty in a global terrestrial carbon model  

Science.gov (United States)

Several sources of uncertainty exist in the parameterization of the land carbon cycle in current Earth System Models (ESMs). For example, recently implemented interactions between the carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) cycles lead to diverse changes in land-atmosphere C fluxes simulated by different models. Further, although soil organic matter decomposition is commonly parameterized as a first-order decay process, the formulation of the microbial response to changes in soil moisture and soil temperature varies tremendously between models. Here, we examine the sensitivity of historical land-atmosphere C fluxes simulated by an ESM to these two major sources of uncertainty. We implement three soil moisture (SMRF) and three soil temperature (STRF) respiration functions in the CABLE-CASA-CNP land biogeochemical component of the coarse resolution CSIRO Mk3L climate model. Simulations are undertaken using three degrees of biogeochemical nutrient limitation: C-only, C and N, and C and N and P. We first bring all 27 possible combinations of a SMRF with a STRF and a biogeochemical mode to a steady-state in their biogeochemical pools. Then, transient historical (1850-2005) simulations are driven by prescribed atmospheric CO2 concentrations used in the fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). Similarly to some previously published results, representing N and P limitation on primary production reduces the global land carbon sink while some regions become net C sources over the historical period (1850-2005). However, the uncertainty due to the SMRFs and STRFs does not decrease relative to the inter-annual variability in net uptake when N and P limitations are added. Differences in the SMRFs and STRFs and their effect on the soil C balance can also change the sign of some regional sinks. We show that this response is mostly driven by the pool size achieved at the end of the spin-up procedure. Further, there exists a six-fold range in the level at which global soil C equilibrates in models with the same biogeochemical interactions. As we did not modify the photosynthesis component between these simulations, we can attribute this range to differences in heterotrophic respiration introduced by the various shapes of the SMRF and STRF. This roughly matches the range of global soil C simulated by available CMIP5 models and we therefore see the formulation of these response functions as a potential major source of uncertainty in projections of global soil C feedback on climate change. Our results add to recent concerns on the relevance of the current first-order parameterization of soil carbon decomposition in ESMs, but also highlight issues in terms of how they are initialized. More research is therefore required in that area in order to produce reliable projections of land-atmosphere fluxes and future climate.

Exbrayat, J.; Pitman, A. J.; Zhang, Q.; Abramowitz, G.; Wang, Y.

2013-12-01

67

The World Nuclear University: Addressing global needs. London, 4 September 2003. Inauguration ceremony, World Nuclear University  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For some time, there has been a growing awareness of the need for succession planning in the nuclear industry, to ensure that we cultivate a new generation of young people with the proper education and skills to replace the aging nuclear workforce as its members retire. Today's inauguration of the 'World Nuclear University' (WNU) is the most substantive action taken to date to address this need. This is a challenge, because the widespread perception clearly exists that nuclear energy is a dying field. The IAEA, with its constituency of 135 Member States, is hopeful that this will truly become a World Nuclear University. Almost 2 billion people, nearly one third of the population of the planet, remain without access to modern energy supplies - a shortfall that could be addressed, at least in part, by nuclear energy. But any major expansion in the future use of nuclear power will only be feasible if the nuclear industry is successful in developing innovative reactor and fuel cycle technology - as well as operational and regulatory approaches - that effectively address concerns related to cost competitiveness, safety and security, proliferation resistance and waste disposal. And global development needs go well beyond the electricity sector. The IAEA's recognition of these situations underlies our assistance to Member States, through which we try to address areas of high national priority wherever nuclear technology provides the best option for success. A significant part of that effort lies in the development of human capacity - through training and education in how to apply nuclear technology safely and effectively. 'Atoms for Peace' is a vision nearly five decades old, focused on using nuclear science for the advancement of humankind. It is my hope that this 'World Nuclear University' can be an effective instrument towards the achievement of that vision

68

Addressing Human Capital Challenges: Assessing the Experiences of Four Countries in the Arab Region. Research Brief  

Science.gov (United States)

This research brief describes an analysis of the reform efforts of four Arab region nations (Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates) in response to human capital challenges they face in preparing their people to work in a global environment. (Contains 3 tables.) [For associated report, see ED503118.

Gonzalez, Gabriella; Karoly, Lynn A.; Constant, Louay; Salem, Hanine; Goldman, Charles A.

2008-01-01

69

Effective Adaptation to Global and Humanitarian Challenges  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Problem If current trends in disasters are anything to go by, we can expect more complex disasters in the future as a population, perhaps already weakened by conflict, climate or disease, is hit by a natural disaster.  This then requires a multifaceted and complex intervention of humanitarian actors. Therefore, the adaptations increasingly require identification of themes to mitigate the complex vulnerabilities that come with these challenges like reforms, collaboration and specialization of...

Oginski, Pawel; Ssengonzi, Rockie

2012-01-01

70

The Flipped Class: A Method to Address the Challenges of an Undergraduate Statistics Course  

Science.gov (United States)

Undergraduate statistics courses are perceived as challenging by both students and instructors. Students' attitudes, motivation, math anxiety, and preparedness can negatively impact the student and instructor experience and have the potential to negatively impact student learning. This article describes an attempt to address some of these…

Wilson, Stephanie Gray

2013-01-01

71

Addressing Global Disparities in the Burden of Noncommunicable Diseases: Call for Papers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The PLOS Medicine editors issue a call for papers on addressing global disparities in non-communicable diseases–CVD, cancer, COPD, asthma, diabetes, mental health disorders, and substance abuse–for 2013.

2012-01-01

72

Addressing global warming and biodiversity through forest restoration and coastal wetlands creation  

Science.gov (United States)

The Climate Challenge is a partnership between the Department of Energy and the electric utility industry to reduce, avoid, and sequester greenhouse gases. A portion of the initiative, the sequestration of greenhouse gases, is the focus of this presentation. Over 4 million acres of bottomland hardwood forests were cleared for agriculture in the Mississippi River Valley in the 1970s. Reestablishing these forests would improve depleted wildlife habitats, serve as wildlife corridors, increase biodiversity, and decrease soil erosion. Louisiana is losing coastal wetlands at a rate of approximately 25 square miles/year. This coastal erosion is due to a number of factors and many efforts are currently underway to address the matter. One such effort is the use of material generated in the dredging of navigational canals; however, this material is low in nutrient value, making the regeneration of marsh grasses more difficult. In addition, bottomland hardwood forests and coastal wetland grasses are excellent 'carbon sinks' because they take carbon dioxide out of the atmosphere and store it in living plant tissue. Entergy Services, Inc. is an electric utility with a service territory that comprises portions of both the Lower Mississippi River Valley and the Gulf of Mexico coastline. This provides an opportunity to positively address both habitat losses noted above while at the same time addressing global warming, forest fragmentation, and biodiversity. Entergy, through its affiliation with the UtiliTree Carbon Company, is participating in projects that will investigate the feasibility of using bottomland hardwood reforestation on cleared marginal farmlands now managed by the Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries and the US Fish and Wildlife Service. Entergy has also begun a research project with the Environmental Protection Agency and the State of Louisiana. The research is a compost demonstration project that will utilize wood waste generated through our tree-trimming program as a compost material that will be mixed with low nutrient dredge material to create new coastal wetlands. Taken together, Entergy's initiatives will be able to address global warming through carbon sequestration, restore fragmented forest habitats, reduce coastal erosion and improve the quality of a vital coastal aquatic nursery habitat. Efforts will be made to manage the created habitats for biodiversity. Pulling all these ideas together creates an effect in which the whole is greater than the sum of the parts. In such a synergy of ideas, there are no losers and the winners are both industry participants and the environment. PMID:10549153

Williams

1999-10-18

73

The role and challenges of the food industry in addressing chronic disease  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Summary Increasingly, food companies play an important role in stemming the rising burden of nutrition-related chronic diseases. Concrete actions taken by these companies include global public commitments to address food reformulation, consumer information, responsible marketing, promotion of healthy lifestyles, and public-private partnerships. These actions are reviewed together with eleven specific PepsiCo goals and commitments that address products, the marketplace, and communities at large. Interim progress on these goals and commitments are discussed as well as constraints hampering faster progress. Further disease prevention depends on increasing implementation of private-public initiatives.

Kehoe Stephen

2010-05-01

74

Wildland urban interface: Addressing the challenges of implementing FireSmart in the city of Calgary  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

As the City of Calgary expands into rural areas, communities will encounter Wildland Urban Interface (WUI), which is defined as any area where structures are located near or among combustible wildland fuels. With the exception of Calgary, much of Alberta and British Columbia have implemented FireSmart principles that reduce the risk of WUI fires. This study provides recommendations as to how the City of Calgary can address the challenges of implementing FireSmart principles. This study combin...

Mcfadden, Ryan

2005-01-01

75

Energy Sustainability: A Key Toto Addressing Environmental, Economic and Societal Challenges  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sustainability is a critically important goal for human activity and development, particularly in the area of energy. Energy resources are critical for economic development and living standards, but their use causes significant environmental impacts. Given the pervasiveness of energy use, energy sustainability is a key to addressing environmental, economic and societal challenges. To achieve energy sustainability, many factors that need to be including harnessing sustainable energy sources, u...

Rosen, Marc A.; Yousef Nazzal

2013-01-01

76

Global Energy Transitions and the Challenge of Climate Change  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Global emissions of greenhouse-gases have increased markedly as a result of human activities since pre-industrial times. This increase in emissions has lead to unequivocal global warming, which is evident from observations of increases in global average air and ocean temperatures, widespread melting of snow and ice, and rising global average sea level. Reducing the risk of irreversible climate impacts requires thus the mitigation of global GHG emissions aiming at the long-term stabilization of atmospheric GHG concentrations. Achieving this goal translates into the need of reducing emissions to virtually zero over long time-frames. Yet international agreement on a long-term climate policy target remains a distant prospect, due to both scientific uncertainty and political disagreement on the appropriate balance between mitigation costs and reduced risks of dangerous impacts. At the same time, growing emissions of greenhouse gases continue to increase the amount of climate change we are committed to over the long term. Over the next few decades, these growing emissions may make some potentially desirable long term goals unattainable. Recent analysis conducted at IIASA indicates the need of major energy transitions over the next few decades. For example, staying below the target suggested by the European Union of 2 C warming (with just a 50% likelihood) will require the massive deployment of zero-carbon energy by 2050, and a tippling of the contribution of zero-carbon energy globally to more than 60% by that time. Although there are large uncertainties with respect to the deployment of individual future technologies, there is strong evidence that no single mitigation measure alone would be sufficient for achieving the stabilization of GHG concentrations at low levels. A wide portfolio of technologies across all GHG-intensive sectors is needed for cost-effective emissions reductions. The bulk of these emissions reductions would need to come from the energy sector, with the forest and agricultural sectors playing an important role for the cost-effectiveness. Energy-related measures range from energy conservation and efficiency improvements to shifts away from carbon-intensive coal to cleaner fuels (such as natural gas, renewable, and nuclear), as well as 'add-on' technologies such as carbon capture and storage. Other important measures include changes in agricultural practices to reduce CH4 and N2O emissions, and enhancement of terrestrial sink activities in the forest sector. Reducing the risks of climate change significantly, requires fundamental structural changes of the energy system in the long term, combined with accelerated technology diffusion and early investments over the next few decades. In addition, appropriate and effective investment incentives need to be in place for development, acquisition, transfer, and deployment of new technologies. Achieving a trend-reversal of presently declining trends of R and D expenditures in environmentally friendly energy technologies will thus be central for addressing the climate change challenge.(author)

77

Beyond the Financial Crisis: Addressing risk challenges in a changing financial environment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Paper presented at "Strategies For Solving Global Crises Conference: The Financial Crisis and Beyond" (October 2009). Also published in "Corporate Finance: Governance, Corporate Control & Organization Journals" (July 2010) The Financial Crisis has not only highlighted the importance of addressing issues such as liquidity risk – it has also brought to the fore the need to focus on unregulated instruments such as hedge funds, which are of systemic importance to the financial industry....

Ojo, Marianne

2009-01-01

78

An Evaluation of Global Address Space Languages: Co-Array Fortran and Unified Parallel C  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Co-array Fortran (CAF) and Unified Parallel C (UPC) are two emerging languages for single-program, multiple-data global address space programming. These languages boost programmer productivity by providing shared variables for communication instead of message passing. However, the performance of these emerging languages still has room for improvement. In this paper, we study the performance of variants of the NAS MG, CG, SP, and BT benchmarks on several modern cluster architectures to identify challenges that must be met to deliver top performance. We compare CAF and UPC variants of these programs with the original Fortran+MPI code. Today, CAF and UPC programs deliver scalable performance on clusters only when written to use bulk communication. However, our experiments uncovered some significant performance bottlenecks limiting UPC performance on all platforms. We account for the root causes of these performance anomalies and show that they can be remedied with additional compiler improvements, in particular we show that many of these obstacles can be resolved with adequate optimizations by the backend C compilers.

Coarfa, Cristian; Dotsenko, Yuri; Mellor-Crummey, John M.; Cantonnet, Franois; El-Ghazawi, Tarek; Mohanti, Ashrujit; Yao, Yiyi; Chavarría-Miranda, Daniel

2005-06-10

79

Product safety and security in the global supply chain: Issues, challenges and research opportunities  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A number of high profile product safety events and recalls have heightened public attention to the safety and security of the products that people consume and use. While product safety isn’t a new topic, the effect of the global supply chain in creating or exacerbating safety risks and vulnerabilities is both timely and relevant. In this essay we focus on how the field of operations management can provide fresh perspectives and insights in addressing the challenges of product safety and sec...

Marucheck, Ann; Greis, Noel; Mena, Carlos; Cai, Linning

2011-01-01

80

The Challenge Of Strategic Management In Global Competition  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The role of strategic leadership in the 21st century's global economy is complex,challenging, and filled with competitive opportunities and threats. Globalizationcontinues to affect organizations at different levels. Strategic leaders in organizationsrequire a more diverse range of quality to effectively tackle emerging global challengessuch as free flow of capital and labor, changing technologies and cultural dynamics.Further, global effects are not confined to global organizations. When strategicleadership processes are difficult for competitors to understand and, hence, to imitate,the firm has created a competitive advantage.This study integrates essential strategic leader characteristics necessary to effectivelymanage globalization and steer the organization towards better strategic focus withrespect to environmental confusion.

Madhavi Sadashiv Patgaonkar

2012-07-01

 
 
 
 
81

Ergonomics and sustainability--challenges from global supply chains.  

Science.gov (United States)

The development of globalised supply chains is a major challenge for sustainability. For several years, there has been discussion within the profession whether and how ergonomics and human factors can play a role. Based on our research, we have identified five major challenges from global supply chains especially related to the social aspects of sustainability: (1) criteria for social sustainability, (2) the role of key performance indicators in the management of supply chains, (3) the constant changes in supply chains, (4) the challenge in establishing participation, and (5) the development of agency and regulatory mechanisms. There are obviously no clear and simple solutions to these challenges. One possible avenue for progress might lie in acquiring a greater understanding of the challenges from global supply chains and developing a strategy which combines social and long-term business sustainability. Starting from such a basis, the next step would be to find ways for the ergonomics and human factors community to create international collaboration which can impact specific global supply chains. PMID:22317319

Hasle, Peter; Jensen, Per Langaa

2012-01-01

82

Ergonomics and sustainability – challenges from global supply chains  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The development of globalised supply chains is a major challenge for sustainability. For several years, there has been discussion within the profession whether and how ergonomics and human factors can play a role. Based on our research, we have identified five major challenges from global supply chains especially related to the social aspects of sustainability: (1) criteria for social sustainability, (2) the role of key performance indicators in the management of supply chains, (3) the constant changes in supply chains, (4) the challenge in establishing participation, and (5) the development of agency and regulatory mechanisms. There are obviously no clear and simple solutions to these challenges. One possible avenue for progress might lie in acquiring a greater understanding of the challenges from global supply chains and developing a strategy which combines social and long-term business sustainability. Starting from such a basis, the next step would be to find ways for the ergonomics and human factors community to create international collaboration which can impact specific global supply chains.

Hasle, Peter; Jensen, Per Langaa

2012-01-01

83

Challenges of creating synergy between global mental health and cultural psychiatry.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article addresses four major challenges for efforts to create synergy between the global mental health movement and cultural psychiatry. First, although they appear to share domains of mutual interest, the worlds of global mental health and cultural psychiatry have distinct lineages. Expanding their horizons by learning from adjacent disciplines would be mutually beneficial. A second challenge concerns the conceptualization of a new classification system for mental health problems. Adopting a classification system that integrates new insights from socio-neurobiology and from a networks perspective could bring cultural psychiatry and global mental health closer and change the way each field addresses the mental health gap, which constitutes the third challenge. I summarize attempts to achieve comprehensive mental health coverage around the globe and question whether the strategies employed to achieve these goals have been successful, both in high- (HIC) and low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). In LMIC, the dominant strategy needs to be complemented by mobilization of other community resources including local practitioners. A fourth challenge is the lack of mathematical models to guide action and research and solve major preoccupations such as access to care or multi-level analyses in complex ecological or health systems. PMID:25361690

de Jong, Joop T V M

2014-12-01

84

Proposal for Modi?cations to the OSCAR Architecture to Address Challenges in Distributed System Management  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

OSCAR, a tool for the deployment and the management of clusters, has historically provided a simple Graphical User Interface (GUI) that aims to hide technical details associated with the management of such distributed platforms. The OSCAR GUI followed a fairly monolithic architecture, which was difficult to extend. Thankfully, OSCAR developers have made deep modifications to the overall OSCAR architecture to be much more modular, and as a result it is fairly simple to support OSCAR on new Linux distributions. However, a few questions remain. Is the present OSCAR architecture suitable to address current challenges needed for the management of distributed systems? For instance, is OSCAR providing a tool set that answers the needs of system administrators? This document presents a criticism of the present OSCAR architecture in order to identify current challenges related to distributed system management. Based on this analysis, we propose a modified version of the OSCAR architecture that emphasizes simplicity and incremental enhancements.

Vallee, Geoffroy R [ORNL; Naughton, III, Thomas J [ORNL; Scott, Stephen L [ORNL

2008-01-01

85

Symposium on international safeguards: Addressing verification challenges. Book of extended synopses  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A safeguards symposium has traditionally been organized by the Safeguards Department approximately every four years. The 2006 symposium addresses challenges to IAEA safeguards that have emerged or grown more serious since 2001. The increase in size and flexibility of uranium enrichment plants, for instance, and the spread of enrichment technology to a wider circle of States, pose challenges to traditional safeguards approaches. The procurement and supply networks discovered in 2004, dealing in sensitive nuclear technology and information, have serious implications for the future effectiveness of IAEA safeguards. The symposium will provide an opportunity for the IAEA and Member States to discuss options for dealing constructively with trade in sensitive nuclear technology. Reflecting developments since 2001, the 2006 symposium will focus on current challenges to the safeguards system, improving collection and analysis of safeguards information (analysis, processing tools, satellite imagery), advances in safeguards techniques and technology (future technology, neutron techniques, spent fuel verification, reprocessing, environmental sampling, containment and surveillance), further strengthening safeguards practices and approaches (safeguards approaches, integrated safeguards, R/SSAC, destructive analysis, non-destructive analysis, enrichment, reprocessing, spent fuel transfer) and future challenges. This publication contains 183 extended synopses, each of them was indexed separately

86

Discovery Channel Telescope software progress report: addressing early commissioning and operations challenges  

Science.gov (United States)

The Discovery Channel Telescope is a 4.3m astronomical research telescope in northern Arizona constructed through a partnership between Discovery Communications and Lowell Observatory. In transition from construction phase to commissioning and operations, we faced a variety of software challenges, both foreseen and unforeseen, and addressed those with a variety of solutions including, isolation of the control systems network, development of an Operations Log application, extension of the interface to instrumentation software, improvements to engineering data analysis, provisions to avoid failure modes, and enhanced user experience. We describe these solutions and present an overview of the current project status.

Lacasse, Michael; Lotz, Paul J.

2014-07-01

87

Global Challenges, Efforts, and Controversies in Neonatal Care.  

Science.gov (United States)

Simple low-cost, evidence-based interventions such as clean delivery practices, immediate warming, umbilical cord care, and neonatal resuscitation could prevent 40% to 70% of newborn deaths globally, but many obstacles preclude the provision of those basic interventions for all newborns, particularly in low-resource regions. Global efforts have led to widespread development of neonatal clinical practice guidelines, training programs, and policies. Because of a shortage of health care resources, standards of care have been redefined to meet the needs of underserved populations. This article provides an overview of the challenges, efforts, and controversies surrounding neonatal health in low-resource settings. PMID:25459772

St Clair, Nicole E; Batra, Maneesh; Kuzminski, Jacquelyn; Lee, Anne Cc; O'Callahan, Cliff

2014-12-01

88

Using the cloud to facilitate global software development challenges  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

With the expansion of national markets beyond geographical limits, success of any business often depends on using software for competitive advantage. Furthermore, as technological boundaries are expanding, projects distributed across different geographical locations have become a norm for the software solution providers. Nevertheless, when implementing Global Software Development (GSD), organizations continue to face challenges in adhering to the development life cycle. The advent of the inte...

Hashmi, Sajid Ibrahim; Clerc, Viktor; Razavian, Maryam; Manteli, Christina; Tamburri, Damian Andrew; Lago, Patricia; Di Nitto, Elisabetta; Richardson, Ita

2011-01-01

89

Global Development of Organic Agriculture: Challenges and Prospects  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Preface: Modern agriculture and food systems, including organic agriculture, are undergoing a technological and structural modernization and are faced with a growing globalization. Organic agriculture (OA) can be seen as pionering efforts to create sustainable development based on other principles than mainstream agriculture. There are however large differences between the challenges connected to, on the one hand, modern farming and consumption in high-income countries and, on the other ha...

2006-01-01

90

Minimal intervention dentistry: part 2. Strategies for addressing restorative challenges in older patients.  

Science.gov (United States)

Minimal intervention dentistry (MID), a modern, evidence-based approach to caries management in dentate patients, uses a medical model whereby disease is controlled by the "oral physician" and an affiliated dental team. Geriatric MID helps clinicians to address the ever-increasing restorative challenges presented by older patients, including erosion, abrasion, demineralization, rampant coronal and root caries, retained roots, recurrent caries (necessitating crowns and other repairs), subgingival caries, "wet" oral environments, salivary dysfunction, disruptive behaviours, poor compliance with preventive care, high plaque levels, and financial and other restrictions on care options. The main components of a geriatric approach to MID are assessment of the risk of disease, with a focus on early detection and prevention; external and internal remineralization; use of a range of restorations, dental materials, and equipment; and surgical intervention only when required and only after disease has been controlled. This second in a series of 2 articles describes direct restorative strategies to address the challenges of geriatric caries management, including choice of material, placement of glass ionomers, sandwich technique, techniques for the management of erosion and abrasion, tunnel and slot preparations, techniques for "wet" subgingival environments, vital pulp therapy and geriatric atraumatic restorative technique. PMID:16772068

Chalmers, Jane M

2006-06-01

91

A Novel Addressing Scheme for PMIPv6 Based Global IP-WSNs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available IP based Wireless Sensor Networks (IP-WSNs are being used in healthcare, home automation, industrial control and agricultural monitoring. In most of these applications global addressing of individual IP-WSN nodes and layer-three routing for mobility enabled IP-WSN with special attention to reliability, energy efficiency and end to end delay minimization are a few of the major issues to be addressed. Most of the routing protocols in WSN are based on layer-two approaches. For reliability and end to end communication enhancement the necessity of layer-three routing for IP-WSNs is generating significant attention among the research community, but due to the hurdle of maintaining routing state and other communication overhead, it was not possible to introduce a layer-three routing protocol for IP-WSNs. To address this issue we propose in this paper a global addressing scheme and layer-three based hierarchical routing protocol. The proposed addressing and routing approach focuses on all the above mentioned issues. Simulation results show that the proposed addressing and routing approach significantly enhances the reliability, energy efficiency and end to end delay minimization. We also present architecture, message formats and different routing scenarios in this paper.

Md. Motaharul Islam

2011-08-01

92

A novel addressing scheme for PMIPv6 based global IP-WSNs.  

Science.gov (United States)

IP based Wireless Sensor Networks (IP-WSNs) are being used in healthcare, home automation, industrial control and agricultural monitoring. In most of these applications global addressing of individual IP-WSN nodes and layer-three routing for mobility enabled IP-WSN with special attention to reliability, energy efficiency and end to end delay minimization are a few of the major issues to be addressed. Most of the routing protocols in WSN are based on layer-two approaches. For reliability and end to end communication enhancement the necessity of layer-three routing for IP-WSNs is generating significant attention among the research community, but due to the hurdle of maintaining routing state and other communication overhead, it was not possible to introduce a layer-three routing protocol for IP-WSNs. To address this issue we propose in this paper a global addressing scheme and layer-three based hierarchical routing protocol. The proposed addressing and routing approach focuses on all the above mentioned issues. Simulation results show that the proposed addressing and routing approach significantly enhances the reliability, energy efficiency and end to end delay minimization. We also present architecture, message formats and different routing scenarios in this paper. PMID:22164084

Islam, Md Motaharul; Huh, Eui-Nam

2011-01-01

93

Securing classification and regulatory approval for deepwater projects: management challenges in a global environment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As the offshore industry continues to develop and move into increasingly deeper waters, technological boundaries are being pushed to new limits. Along with these advances, the design, fabrication and installation of deepwater oil and gas projects has become an increasingly global endeavor. After providing an overview of the history and role of Classification Societies, this paper reviews the challenges of securing classification and regulatory approval in a global environment. Operational, procedural and technological changes which one Classification Society; the American Bureau of Shipping, known as ABS, has implemented to address these challenges are presented. The result of the changes has been a more customized service aiming at faster and more streamlined classification approval process. (author)

Feijo, Luiz P.; Burton, Gareth C. [American Bureau of Shipping (ABS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

2008-07-01

94

Coping with global environmental change, disasters and security. Threats, challenges, vulnerabilities and risks  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This policy-focused Global Environmental and Human Security Handbook for the Anthropo-cene (GEHSHA) addresses new security threats, challenges, vulnerabilities and risks posed by global environmental change and disasters. In 6 forewords, 5 preface essays 95 peer reviewed chapcountries analyse in 10 parts concepts of military and political hard security and economic, social, environmental soft security with a regional focus on the Near East, North and Sub-Sahara Africa and Asia and on hazards in urban centres. The major focus is on coping with global environmental change: climate change, desertification, water, food and health and with hazards and strategies on social vulnerability and resilience building and scientific, international, regional and national political strategies, policies and measures including early warning of conflicts and hazards. The book proposes a political geo-ecology and discusses a 'Fourth Green Revolution' for the Anthropocene era of earth history. (orig.)

Brauch, Hans Guenter [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany). Dept. of Political and Social Sciences; UNU-EHS, Bonn (DE). College of Associated Scientists and Advisors (CASA); Oswald Spring, Ursula [National Univ. of Mexico, Cuernavaca (MX). Regional Multidisciplinary Research Centre (CRIM); Mesjasz, Czeslaw [Cracow Univ. of Exonomics (Poland). Faculty of Management; Grin, John [Amsterdam Univ. (Netherlands). Dept. of Political Science; Dutch Knowledge network for Systems Innovations and Transitions (KSI), Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kameri-Mbote, Patricia [Strathmore Univ., Nairobi (Kenya). Dept. of Law; International Environmental Law Research Centre, Nairobi (Kenya); Chourou, Bechir [Univ. of Tunis-Carthage, Hammam-Chatt (Tunisia); Dunay, Pal [Geneva Centre for Security Policy (Switzerland). International Training Course in Security Policy; Birkmann, Joern (eds.) [United Nations Univ. (UNU), Bonn (DE). Inst. for Environment and Human Security (EHS)

2011-07-01

95

A Novel Addressing Scheme for PMIPv6 Based Global IP-WSNs  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

IP based Wireless Sensor Networks (IP-WSNs) are being used in healthcare, home automation, industrial control and agricultural monitoring. In most of these applications global addressing of individual IP-WSN nodes and layer-three routing for mobility enabled IP-WSN with special attention to reliability, energy efficiency and end to end delay minimization are a few of the major issues to be addressed. Most of the routing protocols in WSN are based on layer-two approaches. For reliability and e...

Md. Motaharul Islam; Eui-Nam Huh

2011-01-01

96

Global Energy Challenges of the 21. Century and Nuclear Energy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper considers the world energy demand till the middle of the century, as well as possible forecasting solution for this challenge. On the base of the mathematical model developed in the Kurchatov Institute in 2003- 2006, the vision of the global nuclear energy system and its potential contribution in the energy mix was analyzed. The rate of rapprochement between specific energy consumptions in different countries of the world is a key parameter determining the energy market strain. It was shown that a continuation of the current world trends of this rapprochement would result in an energy resource deficit already in the nearest future. The energy mix picture would contain an 'unsatisfied demand' area of about 10 000 Mtoe of total energy to be consumed by the mid-century Supposing that the mankind has to meet the 'unsatisfied demand' by nuclear energy, the global energy challenges of the 21. century energy do not impose any upper limit on nuclear energy development, the scale of which would be determined by development opportunities. Russia, as one of the pioneers of the First Nuclear Era, possesses great experience of solving the key issues of nuclear energy of the 20. century, and is capable to play an important role in dealing with the challenges faced by nuclear in the 21. century. (authors)

97

Re-thinking wastewater landscapes: combining innovative strategies to address tomorrow's urban wastewater treatment challenges.  

Science.gov (United States)

Most major cities worldwide face urban water management challenges relating to drinking supply, stormwater and wastewater treatment, and ecological preservation. In light of climate change and finite natural resources, addressing these challenges in sustainable ways will require innovative solutions arising from interdisciplinary collaboration. This article summarizes five major urban water management strategies that bridge the fields of engineering, ecology, landscape architecture, and urban planning. A conceptual implementation of these strategies is demonstrated through a design for a small constructed wetland treatment system in San Francisco, California. The proposed decentralized system described in this article consists of a detention basin, vegetated and open free water surface wetlands, and ultraviolet disinfection. In wet weather, the system would detain and treat combined sewer discharges (CSD), and in dry weather it would treat residential greywater for toilet flushing and irrigation in a nearby neighborhood. It is designed to adapt over time to changing climatic conditions and treatment demands. Importantly, this proposal demonstrates how constructed wetland engineers can incorporate multiple benefits into their systems, offering a vision of how wastewater infrastructure can be an attractive community, educational, recreational, and habitat amenity through the integration of engineering, ecology, and landscape design. PMID:19759449

Smith, B R

2009-01-01

98

Ethics in occupational health: deliberations of an international workgroup addressing challenges in an African context  

Science.gov (United States)

Background International codes of ethics play an important role in guiding professional practice in developing countries. In the occupational health setting, codes developed by international agencies have substantial import on protecting working populations from harm. This is particularly so under globalisation which has transformed processes of production in fundamental ways across the globe. As part of the process of revising the Ethical Code of the International Commission on Occupational Health, an Africa Working Group addressed key challenges for the relevance and cogency of an ethical code in occupational health for an African context through an iterative consultative process. Discussion Firstly, even in the absence of strong legal systems of enforcement, and notwithstanding the value of legal institutionalisation of ethical codes, guidelines alone may offer advantageous routes to enhancing ethical practice in occupational health. Secondly, globalisation has particularly impacted on health and safety at workplaces in Africa, challenging occupational health professionals to be sensitive to, and actively redress imbalance of power. Thirdly, the different ways in which vulnerability is exemplified in the workplace in Africa often places the occupational health professional in invidious positions of Dual Loyalty. Fourth, the particular cultural emphasis in traditional African societies on collective responsibilities within the community impacts directly on how consent should be sought in occupational health practice, and how stigma should be dealt with, balancing individual autonomy with ideas of personhood that are more collective as in the African philosophy of ubuntu. To address stigma, practitioners need to be additionally sensitive to how power imbalances at the workplace intersect with traditional cultural norms related to solidarity. Lastly, particularly in the African context, the inseparability of workplace and community means that efforts to address workplace hazards demand that actions for occupational health extend beyond just the workplace. Summary A stronger articulation of occupational health practice with advocacy for prevention should be an ethical norm. Ethical codes should ideally harmonize and balance individual and community needs so as to provide stronger moral authority guidelines. There is a need to consider an African Charter on Bioethics as complementary and strengthening of existing codes for the region. PMID:24957477

2014-01-01

99

[Challenges of food and nutrition in a global context].  

Science.gov (United States)

Today, in the global context, food and nutrition must face multiple challenges, but new knowledge provides windows of opportunity for effective actions. On one side it is urgently necessary to implement applied research and intervention politics that effectively contribute to the global diffusion of food security and safety. This could take advantage of new technologies, among which genetic engineering. On the other side, it is now clear that a better understanding of diet-mediated gene-environment interactions represent the key for the improvement of health in both developed and developing populations. Interactions between diet and genome should be viewed in an evolutionary perspective and should be studied taking advantage of the emerging disciplines of nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics. New knowledge about the relationships between diet and chronic diseases such as atherosclerosis and, in particular, cancer will provide ample opportunities for actions finalized to disease prevention throughout the world. PMID:17263041

Mariani-Costantini, Renato; Mariani-Costantini, Aldo

2006-10-01

100

High level radioactive waste (HLW) disposal a global challenge  

CERN Document Server

High Level Radioactive Waste (HLW) Disposal, A Global Challenge presents the most recent information on proposed methods of disposal for the most dangerous radioactive waste and for assessing their function from short- and long-term perspectives. It discusses new aspects of the disposal of such waste, especially HLW.The book is unique in the literature in making it clear that, due to tectonics and long-term changes in rock structure, rock can serve only as a ""mechanical support to the chemical apparatus"" and that effective containment of hazardous elements can only be managed by properly des

PUSCH, R; NAKANO, M

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Global and regional shocks: Challenges to Asian economies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Two major economic problems are currently shadowing Asian economies. On the one hand, the slowdown in the US economy, ignited by the subprime mortgage crisis, may not be confined to the US region and may affect Asian countries as well. On the other hand, the recent fuel and food price increases, a global shock in nature, are also likely to influence most Asian economies that are heavily dependent on oil imports. In this short article, by summarizing recent studies on these issues, I address h...

Shin, Kwanho

2008-01-01

102

Global and national challenges for the energy sector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The International Energy Agency is predicting nearly 60% growth in global primary energy use over the next 20 years. This continuing growth of energy demand sets many challenges for the energy sector as well as others. In some industrialised countries like Finland, economic growth has recently been based mostly on services and light industries, e.g. manufacturing of information and communication technology, and therefore the energy intensity has been decreasing. However, in absolute terms the demand for energy is still growing steadily in Finland, especially for electricity. This increasing demand for energy will result in more and more pressures being applied to the environment. Energy production and consumption have many negative environmental impacts, and one of the largest global challenges is the mitigation of climate change. In many countries, especially in developing ones, fossil fuels remain the predominant primary energy source and the share of fossil fuels in the global primary energy mix is likely to increase and reach as much as 90% by 2020. Thus, CO{sub 2} emissions are projected to grow even faster than primary energy use. Ultimately, the curbing of global greenhouse gas emissions will fail without the participation of developing countries. These issues pose serious challenges for the design of climate change policies. Meeting the challenges related to climate change will necessitate the use of many different kinds of abatement measures. For example, a series of very extensive energy saving measures, a significant increase in the share of renewable energy sources, more advanced nuclear power technologies, and effective CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration technologies will all be needed in the near future in both developed and developing countries in order to slow down climate change. In most cases, however, the implementation of these technological measures requires some constraints or economic incentives. On the other hand, the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions opens up new possibilities and business opportunities for the energy and other sectors. In the coming decades, the depletion of conventional oil and natural gas reserves in some regions may lead to geopolitical concerns regarding the security of energy supplies and will also result in prices becoming increasingly volatile. Generally speaking, global dependence on the oil reserves of the Middle East is increasing all the time. Given today's consumption levels, the current oil reserves would last an average of about 40 years and those of natural gas about 60 years, even though these figures may increase due to the development of recovery technology and the discovery of new reserves. However, the importance of coal will probably increase in the longer term due to its much greater reserves. Europe's self-sufficiency in energy supply will decrease due to the depletion of its own fossil fuel reserves. In the case of Finland, the development of self-sufficiency depends mainly on the choice of energy source for the new electricity generating capacity. A high dependency on imported fossil fuels and potentially increasing volatility of market prices may present some risks for economies. Increased dependency on imports in Europe and especially in the USA will naturally result in growth of global energy trade movements. In the longer term, global energy trade will probably shift to secondary energy commodities like methanol or hydrogen. Deregulation of energy markets has been emerging in many countries in order to increase the efficiency of the energy sector and the competitiveness of various economies. However, there are some problems with deregulated electricity markets. These are, for example, the possibility of under-investment in electricity generating capacity, an increase in the volatility of market prices and concerns regarding the quality of electricity. The functionality of open markets will be improved by increasing real-time metering and by better designing the rules of operation. It is expected that by 2030, all ELT Member States wil

Tuhkanen, S.; Hirvonen, R.; Savolainen, I.; Honkatukia, J.

2002-07-01

103

The global nutrient challenge. From science to public engagement  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Among the many environment and development challenges facing humanity, it is fair to say that nutrients do not currently feature so regularly in the newspapers, radio and television. The media tends to prefer easy single issues which affect our daily lives in a clear-cut way. The role of carbon in climate change is a good example. We all depend on climate. Burning fossil fuels makes more carbon dioxide, tending to change temperature and rainfall patterns, to which we can easily relate. The science is complex, but it is a simple message for the public to understand. It does not take long to think of several other easily grasped threats, like urban air pollution, poor drinking water, or even the occurrence of horsemeat in food chains. It is perhaps for these reasons that the role of nutrients in environmental change has received much less public attention. After all, nutrients - including nitrogen, phosphorus and many micronutrients - play multiple roles in our world; they affect many biogeochemical processes and they lead to a plethora of interacting threats. If we are not careful, we can quickly get buried in the complexity of the different ways in which our lives are affected by these elements. The outcome is that it can become hard to convey the science of global nutrient cycles in a way that the public can understand. These are points about which we have given substantial thought as we contributed to a recently launched report Our Nutrient World: The challenge to produce more food and energy with less pollution (Sutton et al., 2013). The report was commissioned by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and conducted by the Global Partnership on Nutrient Management in cooperation with the International Nitrogen Initiative. The commission was not to provide a full scientific assessment, but rather to develop a global overview of the challenges associated with nutrient management. Drawing on existing knowledge, the aim was to distill the nature of the nutrient challenge answering clearly: why should anyone care, how has the problem got worse, what is already being done, and what still needs to be done? In scientific terms we realised that 'nutrient management' is a good descriptor. Humans manage nitrogen and phosphorus for the benefit of society, and through better management can find ways to reduce the unintended threats. But we also recognized that 'nutrient management' does not reflect the power language that makes for an easy sell to a wider public. In developing the global overview, we therefore needed to think carefully about how to package and communicate our messages. This was particularly important for nutrients because of one of the conclusions of the overview: that a lack of public awareness of the global nutrient challenge represents one of the major barriers to change. In short, if the world is going to learn to manage its nutrients better, then the world's citizens need to be motivated to make it happen.

Sutton, M.A.; Howard, C.M. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Bleeker, A. [Energy research Centre of the Netherlands, Petten (Netherlands); Datta, A. [United Nations Environment Programme, Nairobi (Kenya)

2013-04-15

104

Planetary Atmosphere and Surfaces Chamber (PASC): A Platform to Address Various Challenges in Astrobiology  

Science.gov (United States)

The study of planetary environments of astrobiological interest has become a major challenge. Because of the obvious technical and economical limitations on in situ planetary exploration, laboratory simulations are one of the most feasible research options to make advances both in planetary science and in developing a consistent description of the origin of life. With this objective in mind, we applied vacuum technology to the design of versatile vacuum chambers devoted to the simulation of planetary atmospheres' conditions. These vacuum chambers are able to simulate atmospheres and surface temperatures representative of the majority of planetary objects, and they are especially appropriate for studying the physical, chemical and biological changes induced in a particular sample by in situ irradiation or physical parameters in a controlled environment. Vacuum chambers are a promising potential tool in several scientific and technological fields, such as engineering, chemistry, geology and biology. They also offer the possibility of discriminating between the effects of individual physical parameters and selected combinations thereof. The implementation of our vacuum chambers in combination with analytical techniques was specifically developed to make feasible the in situ physico-chemical characterization of samples. Many wide-ranging applications in astrobiology are detailed herein to provide an understanding of the potential and flexibility of these experimental systems. Instruments and engineering technology for space applications could take advantage of our environment-simulation chambers for sensor calibration. Our systems also provide the opportunity to gain a greater understanding of the chemical reactivity of molecules on surfaces under different environments, thereby leading to a greater understanding of interface processes in prebiotic chemical reactions and facilitating studies of UV photostability and photochemistry on surfaces. Furthermore, the stability and presence of certain minerals on planetary surfaces and the potential habitability of microorganisms under various planetary environmental conditions can be studied using our apparatus. Therefore, these simulation chambers can address multiple different challenging and multidisciplinary astrobiological studies.

Mateo-Marti, Eva

2014-08-01

105

NKS - The Nordic region's cooperative network for addressing challenges in nuclear safety and emergency preparedness  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Based on the foundation of a common cultural and historical heritage and a long tradition of collaboration, NKS aims to facilitate a common Nordic view on nuclear and radiation safety. A common understanding of rules, practice and measures, and national differences in this context, is here an essential requirement. Problems can generally be tackled quicker, more efficiently, more consistently and at a lower cost through collaboration, bearing in mind that key competencies are not equally distributed in the different Nordic countries. For instance common Nordic challenges emerge in relation to nuclear installations, where nuclear power plants are in operation in Finland and Sweden, and research reactors have been operated in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. There is an obvious benefit in exchanging ideas and technologies in relation to plant operation, and since a number of reactors in different Nordic countries are under decommissioning, a collaborative benefit can also be realised in that context. Sweden also has a nuclear fuel production plant, and its collaboration with other Nordic nuclear installations can also be beneficial. Further, a number of large radiological installations are projected in Nordic areas (e.g., the MAX-LAB/MAX IV synchrotron radiation source and the European spallation source ESS), where Nordic organisations are collaborating in addressing, e.g., potential environmental implications. On the emergency preparedness side, the Fukushima accident in March 2011 was a reminder that large accidents at nuclear installations can lead to widespread radioactive contamination in the environment. In order to respond to nuclear or radiological emergencies, should they affect Nordic populations, it is necessary to maintain an operational emergency preparedness. By continuously improving detection, response and decision aiding tools while maintaining an informal collaborative network between relevant stakeholders in the Nordic countries (including nuclear power plant experts), the capacity and capability to respond optimally to an emergency is enhanced. Today's emergency preparedness also needs to address prevention against and response to nuclear and radiological terror attacks. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

106

Performance Characterization of Global Address Space Applications: A Case Study with NWChem  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The use of global address space languages and one-sided communication for complex applications is gaining attention in the parallel computing community. However, lack of good evaluative methods to observe multiple levels of performance makes it difficult to isolate the cause of performance deficiencies and to understand the fundamental limitations of system and application design for future improvement. NWChem is a popular computational chemistry package which depends on the Global Arrays/ ARMCI suite for partitioned global address space functionality to deliver high-end molecular modeling capabilities. A workload characterization methodology was developed to support NWChem performance engineering on large-scale parallel platforms. The research involved both the integration of performance instrumentation and measurement in the NWChem software, as well as the analysis of one-sided communication performance in the context of NWChem workloads. Scaling studies were conducted for NWChem on Blue Gene/P and on two large-scale clusters using different generation Infiniband interconnects and x86 processors. The performance analysis and results show how subtle changes in the runtime parameters related to the communication subsystem could have significant impact on performance behavior. The tool has successfully identified several algorithmic bottlenecks which are already being tackled by computational chemists to improve NWChem performance.

Hammond, Jeffrey R.; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Shende, Sameer; Romero, Nichols A.; Malony, Allen D.

2012-02-01

107

Climate change and forest diseases: using todays knowledge to address future challenges  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The health of the earths forests and urban green spaces is increasingly challenged by the outcomes of human activities, including global climate change. As climate changes, the role and impact of diseases on trees in both forest ecosystems and in urban settings will also change. Knowledge of relationships between climate variables and diseases affecting forest and urban trees is reviewed, with specific emphasis on those affecting foliage, shoots, and stems. Evidence that forest diseases are already responding to the earths changing climate is examined (e.g., Dothistroma needle blight in northern British Columbia) as are predicted scenarios for future changes in impact on forests by other tree diseases. Outbreaks of tree diseases caused by native and alien pathogens are predicted to become more frequent and intense this and other general predictions about the effects of climate change on forest and tree diseases are discussed. Despite the uncertainty that accompanies such predictions it is imperative that researchers, forest and urban tree managers, and policy makers work together to develop and implement management strategies that enhance the resilience of the worlds forests and urbanized trees. Strategies discussed include monitoring, forecasting, planning, and mitigation. (Author) 60 refs.

Sturrock, R. N.

2012-11-01

108

Can Adaptive Comanagement Help to Address the Challenges of Climate Change Adaptation?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A shift is taking place within environmental governance that draws attention to modes and instruments that respond to system dynamics, uncertainty, and contested values. Adaptive comanagement is one process being advanced to make governance operational as it emphasizes collaboration among diverse actors, functions across scales and levels, and fosters learning though iterative feedback. Although extensive experience with adaptive comanagement has been gained in relation to other environmental and resource issues, its potential contribution to the governance of adaption is largely unexplored. This paper probes how adaptive comanagement might offer support to climate change adaptation and identifies gaps in knowledge requiring attention. In drawing upon existing literature and applied experiences, it is argued that adaptive comanagement may contribute to climate change adaptation by building generalized adaptive capacity as well as providing a novel institutional arrangement to generate adaptive responses. At the same time, several questions emerge about adaptive comanagement in this context. Considerations are thus discussed for adaptive comanagement scholarship and application in addressing the challenge of climate change adaptation.

Ryan Plummer

2013-12-01

109

Global sourcing model : successes and challenges in the case of company X in packaging industry  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Global sourcing has been seen the most important part of supply chain management (SCM) in economics. It is considered as the most typical way to demonstrate attributions of globalization from concept to practice. Many companies have gained many successes, but they have also encountered challenges when applying global sourcing in business. To determine the factors of success as well as challenges of global sourcing, this Master thesis clarifies characteristics of global sourcing model from...

Khoang, Quoc Huy

2013-01-01

110

Hyperresolution Global Land Surface Modeling: Meeting a Grand Challenge for Monitoring Earth's Terrestrial Water  

Science.gov (United States)

Monitoring Earth's terrestrial water conditions is critically important to many hydrological applications such as global food production; assessing water resources sustainability; and flood, drought, and climate change prediction. These needs have motivated the development of pilot monitoring and prediction systems for terrestrial hydrologic and vegetative states, but to date only at the rather coarse spatial resolutions (approx.10-100 km) over continental to global domains. Adequately addressing critical water cycle science questions and applications requires systems that are implemented globally at much higher resolutions, on the order of 1 km, resolutions referred to as hyperresolution in the context of global land surface models. This opinion paper sets forth the needs and benefits for a system that would monitor and predict the Earth's terrestrial water, energy, and biogeochemical cycles. We discuss six major challenges in developing a system: improved representation of surface-subsurface interactions due to fine-scale topography and vegetation; improved representation of land-atmospheric interactions and resulting spatial information on soil moisture and evapotranspiration; inclusion of water quality as part of the biogeochemical cycle; representation of human impacts from water management; utilizing massively parallel computer systems and recent computational advances in solving hyperresolution models that will have up to 10(exp 9) unknowns; and developing the required in situ and remote sensing global data sets. We deem the development of a global hyperresolution model for monitoring the terrestrial water, energy, and biogeochemical cycles a grand challenge to the community, and we call upon the international hydrologic community and the hydrological science support infrastructure to endorse the effort.

Wood, Eric F.; Roundy, Joshua K.; Troy, Tara J.; van Beek, L. P. H.; Bierkens, Marc F. P.; 4 Blyth, Eleanor; de Roo, Ad; Doell. Petra; Ek, Mike; Famiglietti, James; Gochis, David; van de Giesen, Nick; Houser, Paul; Jaffe, Peter R.; Kollet, Stefan; Lehner, Bernhard; Lettenmaier, Dennis P.; Peters-Lidard, Christa; Sivpalan, Murugesu; Sheffield, Justin; Wade, Andrew; Whitehead, Paul

2011-01-01

111

Hyperresolution global land surface modeling: Meeting a grand challenge for monitoring Earth's terrestrial water  

Science.gov (United States)

Monitoring Earth's terrestrial water conditions is critically important to many hydrological applications such as global food production; assessing water resources sustainability; and flood, drought, and climate change prediction. These needs have motivated the development of pilot monitoring and prediction systems for terrestrial hydrologic and vegetative states, but to date only at the rather coarse spatial resolutions (˜10-100 km) over continental to global domains. Adequately addressing critical water cycle science questions and applications requires systems that are implemented globally at much higher resolutions, on the order of 1 km, resolutions referred to as hyperresolution in the context of global land surface models. This opinion paper sets forth the needs and benefits for a system that would monitor and predict the Earth's terrestrial water, energy, and biogeochemical cycles. We discuss six major challenges in developing a system: improved representation of surface-subsurface interactions due to fine-scale topography and vegetation; improved representation of land-atmospheric interactions and resulting spatial information on soil moisture and evapotranspiration; inclusion of water quality as part of the biogeochemical cycle; representation of human impacts from water management; utilizing massively parallel computer systems and recent computational advances in solving hyperresolution models that will have up to 109 unknowns; and developing the required in situ and remote sensing global data sets. We deem the development of a global hyperresolution model for monitoring the terrestrial water, energy, and biogeochemical cycles a "grand challenge" to the community, and we call upon the international hydrologic community and the hydrological science support infrastructure to endorse the effort.

Wood, Eric F.; Roundy, Joshua K.; Troy, Tara J.; van Beek, L. P. H.; Bierkens, Marc F. P.; Blyth, Eleanor; de Roo, Ad; DöLl, Petra; Ek, Mike; Famiglietti, James; Gochis, David; van de Giesen, Nick; Houser, Paul; Jaffé, Peter R.; Kollet, Stefan; Lehner, Bernhard; Lettenmaier, Dennis P.; Peters-Lidard, Christa; Sivapalan, Murugesu; Sheffield, Justin; Wade, Andrew; Whitehead, Paul

2011-05-01

112

Economic optimization of a global strategy to address the pandemic threat.  

Science.gov (United States)

Emerging pandemics threaten global health and economies and are increasing in frequency. Globally coordinated strategies to combat pandemics, similar to current strategies that address climate change, are largely adaptive, in that they attempt to reduce the impact of a pathogen after it has emerged. However, like climate change, mitigation strategies have been developed that include programs to reduce the underlying drivers of pandemics, particularly animal-to-human disease transmission. Here, we use real options economic modeling of current globally coordinated adaptation strategies for pandemic prevention. We show that they would be optimally implemented within 27 y to reduce the annual rise of emerging infectious disease events by 50% at an estimated one-time cost of approximately $343.7 billion. We then analyze World Bank data on multilateral "One Health" pandemic mitigation programs. We find that, because most pandemics have animal origins, mitigation is a more cost-effective policy than business-as-usual adaptation programs, saving between $344.0.7 billion and $360.3 billion over the next 100 y if implemented today. We conclude that globally coordinated pandemic prevention policies need to be enacted urgently to be optimally effective and that strategies to mitigate pandemics by reducing the impact of their underlying drivers are likely to be more effective than business as usual. PMID:25512538

Pike, Jamison; Bogich, Tiffany; Elwood, Sarah; Finnoff, David C; Daszak, Peter

2014-12-30

113

Global Water Governance in the Context of Global and Multilevel Governance: Its Need, Form, and Challenges  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To complement this Special Feature on global water governance, we focused on a generic challenge at the global level, namely, the degree to which water issues need to be dealt with in a centralized, concentrated, and hierarchical manner. We examined water ecosystem services and their impact on human well-being, the role of policies, indirect and direct drivers in influencing these services, and the administrative level(s at which the provision of services and potential trade-offs can be dealt with. We applied a politics of scale perspective to understand motivations for defining a problem at the global or local level and show that the multilevel approach to water governance is evolving and inevitable. We argue that a centralized overarching governance system for water is unlikely and possibly undesirable; however, there is a need for a high-level think tank and leadership to develop a cosmopolitan perspective to promote sustainable water development.

Joyeeta Gupta

2013-12-01

114

Technology solutions for a global business. Opportunities and challenges  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Shell's relationship with Norway goes back a long way and is very important to our future as well, as is evident from this presentation, which describes some of the pressures on a global energy business like Shell. It also deals with the fundamental importance of technology in the way we respond to those pressures. The power of innovation, and of partnerships, in keeping us at the front of the wave and, using our experiences, it is described how we at Shell deal with these issues. It also gives some examples of the benefits that have come out of our partnerships here in Norway, and the challenges and opportunities confronting those partnerships in the future.

Warren, Tim

2000-07-01

115

17th Workshop on MHD Stability Control: addressing the disruption challenge for ITER  

Science.gov (United States)

This annual workshop on magnetohydrodynamic stability control was held on 5-7 November 2012 at Columbia University in the city of New York, in the aftermath of a violent hydrodynamic instability event termed 'Hurricane Sandy'. Despite these challenging circumstances, Columbia University managed an excellent meeting, enabling the full participation of the community. This Workshop has been held since 1996 to help in the development of understanding and control of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities for future fusion reactors. It covers a wide range of stability topics—from disruptions, to tearing modes, error fields, edge-localized modes (ELMs), resistive wall modes (RWMs) and ideal MHD—spanning many device types (tokamaks, stellarators and reversed field pinches) to identify commonalities in the physics and a means of control. The theme for 2012 was 'addressing the disruption challenge for ITER', and thus the first day had a heavy focus on both the avoidance and mitigation of disruptions in ITER. Key elements included understanding how to apply 3D fields to maintain stability, as well as managing the disruption process itself through mitigating loads in the thermal quench and handling so called 'runaway electrons'. This culminated in a panel discussion on the disruption mitigation strategy for ITER, which noted that heat load asymmetries during the thermal quench appear to be an artifact of MHD processes, and that runaway electron generation may be inevitable, suggesting research should focus on control and dissipation of the runaway beam. The workshop was combined this year with the annual US-Japan MHD Workshop, with a special section looking more deeply at 'Fundamentals of 3D Perturbed Equilibrium Control', with interesting sessions on 3D equilibrium reconstruction, RWM physics, novel control concepts such as non-magnetic sensing, adaptive control, q Physics and Controlled Fusion , we present several of the invited and contributed papers from the 2012 workshop, which have been subject to the normal refereeing procedures of the journal. These give a sense of the exceptional quality of the presentations at this workshop, which may be found at: http://fusion.gat.com/conferences/mhd12/. The Program Committee deeply appreciates the participation and support our community continues to show in this workshop, which provides an unparalleled opportunity for in-depth discussion of MHD issues. We would also like to thank our hosts Columbia University, and in particular Professor Gerald Navratil, for outstanding support and facilities in the face of Hurricane Sandy's adversity. The meeting thanked outgoing Program Chair, Dr Richard Buttery from General Atomics, and welcomed next year's Program Chair, Professor David Maurer from Auburn University. The next meeting will be held in Santa Fe 18-20 November 2013.

Buttery, Richard

2013-08-01

116

Climate change, global risks, challenges and decisions. Synthesis report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) meeting to be held in Copenhagen in December 2009 (the 15th Conference of the Parties, COP-15) will be a critical step in developing a global response to the threat of climate change caused by human activities. The primary scientific input to those negotiations is the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), published in 2007. The IPCC report has already been instrumental in increasing both public and political awareness of the societal risks associated with unchecked emission of greenhouse gases. Since the production of the IPCC report, new knowledge has emerged that furthers understanding of the impacts of human influence on the climate and the response options and approaches that are available to tackle this complex issue. To bring this new knowledge together, the International Alliance of Research Universities organised an international scientific congress on climate change, Climate Change: Global Risks, Challenges and Decisions, which was held in Copenhagen from 10-12 March 2009. Participants came from nearly 80 different countries and contributed with more than 1400 scientific presentations. Abstracts for all of the scientific presentations made can be found at www.iop.org/EJ/volume/1755-1315/6, and a transcript of the closing plenary session can be found at environmentalresearchweb.org/cws/article/opinion/39126. This synthesis report presents an up-to-dathis synthesis report presents an up-to-date overview of a broad range of research relevant to climate change - including fundamental climate science, the impacts of a changing climate on society and environment, and the many tools and approaches available to deal effectively with the challenge of climate change. (LN)

117

Dublin Ireland: a city addressing challenging water supply, management, and governance issues  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The population of Dublin City and its suburbs currently stands at 1.3 million and is projected to reach 2.1 million by 2022. There is pressure on its water supply system (inadequate catchment sources, ageing infrastructure including treatment facilities, and distribution network with little or no spare capacity despite Ireland's relatively high rainfall that is well distributed throughout the year; albeit the greatest rainfall occurs in the west and southwest and at some remove from Dublin. The current governance approach to addressing the projected water supply deficit relies heavily on a combination of identifying new supply sources to secure the long-term water supply needs of the city together with an intense drive toward achieving "demand-side" reduced usage and conservation targets in accordance with EU benchmarks for various individual and sectoral users. This potentially emerging crisis of water scarcity in Dublin, with drivers including population growth, greater industrial and institutional demands, migration, and climate change, has generated one of the most significant public water works projects proposed in Irish history, which is to abstract raw water from the Shannon River Basin in the midland region and, following treatment, pump it to a storage reservoir in a cut-away bog before piping to the Greater Dublin Area. The preparations for this scheme have brought to the forefront some longstanding Irish water resources governance issues and challenges. This provides a unique opportunity and imperative at this time to take a more comprehensive look at the decision-making process in this regard, one done in the context of new European and national policies requiring incorporation of integrated planning to sustain ecosystem services, water resources management, water services management, and flood defense principles, and one taking account of the current unprecedented state of flux in which water resources management institutions in Ireland, and in particular Dublin, find themselves following years of unconsolidated legislation and stand-alone institutions.

Mary Kelly-Quinn

2014-12-01

118

Enabling a Highly-Scalable Global Address Space Model for Petascale Computing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Over the past decade, the trajectory to the petascale has been built on increased complexity and scale of the underlying parallel architectures. Meanwhile, software de- velopers have struggled to provide tools that maintain the productivity of computational science teams using these new systems. In this regard, Global Address Space (GAS) programming models provide a straightforward and easy to use addressing model, which can lead to improved produc- tivity. However, the scalability of GAS depends directly on the design and implementation of the runtime system on the target petascale distributed-memory architecture. In this paper, we describe the design, implementation, and optimization of the Aggregate Remote Memory Copy Interface (ARMCI) runtime library on the Cray XT5 2.3 PetaFLOPs computer at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. We optimized our implementation with the flow intimation technique that we have introduced in this paper. Our optimized ARMCI implementation improves scalability of both the Global Arrays (GA) programming model and a real-world chemistry application NWChem from small jobs up through 180,000 cores.

Apra, Edoardo [ORNL; Vetter, Jeffrey S [ORNL; Yu, Weikuan [ORNL

2010-01-01

119

Developing sustainable global health technologies: Insight from an initiative to address neonatal hypothermia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Relative to drugs, diagnostics, and vaccines, efforts to develop other global health technologies, such as medical devices, are limited and often focus on the short-term goal of prototype development instead of the long-term goal of a sustainable business model. To develop a medical device to address neonatal hypothermia for use in resource-limited settings, we turned to principles of design theory: (1) define the problem with consideration of appropriate integration into relevant health policies, (2) identify the users of the technology and the scenarios in which the technology would be used, and (3) use a highly iterative product design and development process that incorporates the perspective of the user of the technology at the outset and addresses scalability. In contrast to our initial idea, to create a single device, the process guided us to create two separate devices, both strikingly different from current solutions. We offer insights from our initial experience that may be helpful to others engaging in global health technology development. PMID:25355235

Gupta, Rajesh; Patel, Rajan; Murty, Naganand; Panicker, Rahul; Chen, Jane

2015-02-01

120

Scalable Transparent Checkpoint-Restart of Global Address Space Applications on Virtual Machines over Infiniband  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Checkpoint-Restart is one of the most used software approaches to achieve fault-tolerance in high-end clusters. While standard techniques typically focus on user-level solutions, the advent of virtualization software has enabled efficient and transparent system-level approaches. In this paper, we present a scalable transparent system-level solution to address fault-tolerance for applications based on global address space (GAS) programming models on Infiniband clusters. In addition to handling communication, the solution addresses transparent checkpoint of user-generated files. We exploit the support for the Infiniband network in the Xen virtual machine environment. We have developed a version of the Aggregate Remote Memory Copy Interface (ARMCI) one-sided communication library capable of suspending and resuming applications. We present efficient and scalable mechanisms to distribute checkpoint requests and to backup virtual machines memory images and file systems. We tested our approach in the context of NWChem, a popular computational chemistry suite. We demonstrated that NWChem can be executed, without any modification to the source code, on a virtualized 8-node cluster with very little overhead (below 3%). We observe that the total checkpoint time is limited by disk I/O. Finally, we measured system-size depended components of the checkpoint time on up to 1024 cores (128 nodes), demonstrating the scalability of our approach in medium/large-scale systems.

Villa, Oreste; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Nieplocha, Jaroslaw; Brown, David ML

2009-05-18

 
 
 
 
121

Big Data Challenges in Global Seismic 'Adjoint Tomography' (Invited)  

Science.gov (United States)

The challenge of imaging Earth's interior on a global scale is closely linked to the challenge of handling large data sets. The related iterative workflow involves five distinct phases, namely, 1) data gathering and culling, 2) synthetic seismogram calculations, 3) pre-processing (time-series analysis and time-window selection), 4) data assimilation and adjoint calculations, 5) post-processing (pre-conditioning, regularization, model update). In order to implement this workflow on modern high-performance computing systems, a new seismic data format is being developed. The Adaptable Seismic Data Format (ASDF) is designed to replace currently used data formats with a more flexible format that allows for fast parallel I/O. The metadata is divided into abstract categories, such as "source" and "receiver", along with provenance information for complete reproducibility. The structure of ASDF is designed keeping in mind three distinct applications: earthquake seismology, seismic interferometry, and exploration seismology. Existing time-series analysis tool kits, such as SAC and ObsPy, can be easily interfaced with ASDF so that seismologists can use robust, previously developed software packages. ASDF accommodates an automated, efficient workflow for global adjoint tomography. Manually managing the large number of simulations associated with the workflow can rapidly become a burden, especially with increasing numbers of earthquakes and stations. Therefore, it is of importance to investigate the possibility of automating the entire workflow. Scientific Workflow Management Software (SWfMS) allows users to execute workflows almost routinely. SWfMS provides additional advantages. In particular, it is possible to group independent simulations in a single job to fit the available computational resources. They also give a basic level of fault resilience as the workflow can be resumed at the correct state preceding a failure. Some of the best candidates for our particular workflow are Kepler and Swift, and the latter appears to be the most serious candidate for a large-scale workflow on a single supercomputer, remaining sufficiently simple to accommodate further modifications and improvements.

Tromp, J.; Bozdag, E.; Krischer, L.; Lefebvre, M.; Lei, W.; Smith, J.

2013-12-01

122

Strategies to Address Challenging Behaviour in Young Children with Down Syndrome  

Science.gov (United States)

Children with Down syndrome are at an increased risk for engaging in challenging behaviour that may present problems within community, leisure, and educational settings, and, in many instances, precludes them from accessing these environments. Factors contributing to the occurrence of challenging behaviours include characteristics associated with…

Feeley, Kathleen; Jones, Emily

2008-01-01

123

THE EUROPEAN UNION AS A GLOBAL PLAYER: PROSPECTS AND CHALLENGES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Strengthening the external action of the Union has emerged as a powerful expectation shared both by a large majority of members of the Convention on the future of Europe, and more significantly by public opinion when it has been consulted on this issue. Although there is a consensual desire for Europe to speak with a stronger voice in global affairs, the ways and means to achieve this objective still divide those called to clarify the path to be followed. The European Union is already a significant presence in world politics by its considerable share in the international trade, or its dominant contribution to development aid. Many criticise on the other hand the lack of consistency in the more classical dimensions of foreign policy, or the lack of credibility in the capacity to act attributed to the absence of defence capabilities. Such concerns are currently addressed in the larger debate on the future of Europe, either within the dedicated framework, the European Convention convened to design the future of the EU, or outside the Convention, both among politicians and academics. It is generally considered and accepted that Europe will gain in political influence once the unification of the continent is completed, i.e. the current enlargement objectives are achieved. It goes without saying that devising and making operational appropriate instruments and capacities to act coherently outside its borders are a necessity as well. Institutional guarantees that Europe could in the future continue to influence the course of events in world affairs are becoming imperative. This article will explore some of the proposals in that sense. It will also address the place for Romania as a future EU member state in the new architecture of Europe and its possible contribution to the Common Foreign and Security Policy.

Lazar Comanescu

2002-07-01

124

VGB-congress power plants 2013. Security of supply - from challenges to solutions. Opening address  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The VGB Congress 'Power Plants 2013' took place in Masstricht/NL from September 25 to 27, 2013 under the motto 'Security of Supply - From Challenges to Solutions'. Experts from 31 countries attended the largest European congress for power and heat generation to discuss and inform about current issues. The congress comprised the sections 'Security of Supply: A Common European Challenge', 'Technical Solutions for our Future Electricity Generation', 'Operational Experience as Key Competence' and 'Thinking Ahead: Projects and Visions 2020+' where participants and lecturers dealt with the future challenges of European power supply. (orig.)

125

Climate Change - Global Risks, Challenges & Decisions : Synthesis Report  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Past societies have reacted when they understood that their own activities were causing deleterious environmental change by controlling or modifying the offending activities. The scientific evidence has now become overwhelming that human activities, especially the combustion of fossil fuels, are influencing the climate in ways that threaten the well-being and continued development of human society. If humanity is to learn from history and to limit these threats, the time has come for stronger control of the human activities that are changing the fundamental conditions for life on Earth. To decide on effective control measures, an understanding of how human activities are changing the climate, and of the implications of unchecked climate change, needs to be widespread among world and national leaders, as well as in the public. The purpose of this report is to provide, for a broad range of audiences, an update of the newest understanding of climate change caused by human activities, the social and environmental implications of this change, and the options available for society to respond to the challenges posed by climate change. This understanding is communicated through six key messages.  The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) meeting to be held in Copenhagen in December 2009 (the 15th Conference of the Parties, COP-15) will be a critical step in developing a global response to the threat of climate change caused by human activities. The primary scientific input to those negotiations is the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), published in 2007. The IPCC report has already been instrumental in increasing both public and political awareness of the societal risks associated with unchecked emission of greenhouse gases. Since the production of the IPCC report, new knowledge has emerged that furthers understanding of the impacts of human influence on the climate and the response options and approaches that are available to tackle this complex issue. To bring this new knowledge together, the International Alliance of Research Universitiesi organised an international scientific congress on climate change, Climate Change: Global Risks, Challenges and Decisions, which was held in Copenhagen from 10-12 March 2009. Participation in the Congress was open to all. Most of the approximately 2500 people attending the Congress were researchers, many of whom have also been contributors to the IPCC reports. Participants came from nearly 80 different countries and contributed with more than 1400 scientific presentations. Abstracts for all of the scientific presentations made can be found at www.iop.org/EJ/volume/1755-1315/6 , and a transcript of the closing plenary session can be found at environmentalresearchweb.org/cws/article/opinion/39126. This synthesis report presents an up-to-date overview of a broad range of research relevant to climate change - including fundamental climate science, the impacts of a changing climate on society and environment,and the many tools and approaches available to deal effectively with the challenge of climate change. The report has been produced by a writing team comprised of members of the Scientific Steering Committee for the IARU Congress and individuals invited to give the writing team academic and geographic breadth. It is based on the 16 plenary talks given at the Congress as well as input from over 80 chairs and cochairs of the 58 parallel sessions held at the Congress. The names of the plenary speakers and the chairs and co-chairs of the parallel sessions can be found on the inside cover of this volume. The writing team has, in addition to presentations at the Congress, drawn upon recent publications in the scientific literature to create this synthesis. This report has been critically reviewed by representatives of the Earth System Science Partnership (ESSP), by the parallel session chairs and co-chairs, and by up to four independent researchers from each IARU university. This extensive review process has been implemented to

Richardson, Katherine; Steffen, Will

2009-01-01

126

New Challenges for Urban History: Culture, Networks, Globalization  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Urban history is a very lively and dynamic research field, showing strict parallelism with the fast increasing of the urban population. Today, competitiveness is one of the key aims for cities in the globalized world. Factors such as accessibility and infrastructure, industry, human capital, innovation, and investment, green spaces, affordable housing, business support and quality of education are necessaries. However, the OECD recognizes three dilemmas in this strategic vision, concerning the spill over of metro-regions, the public strategic vision, and the relationship between economic dynamism and the liveable city. Today urban historians are facing some general challenges: comparative aspects are needed; also interdisciplinarity to develop cooperation between disciplines; and for maintaining the professional status of academic urban history. The expanding networks between towns and cities, and the meeting places as conferences and exhibitions are considered, as they are the multitudinous challenges and threats, especially for those cities suffering continuously of major natural and man-made disasters. Moreover, new amalgams of hazard are being created in metropolitan areas with overlapping natural, technological, biological and social risks, exposing more people and places, needing safety and security.

La historia urbana es un campo de investigación muy vivo y dinámico, mostrando un paralelismo estricto con el rápido incremento de la población urbana. La competencia es hoy uno de los objetivos claves para las ciudades en el mundo globalizado. Factores tales como la accesibilidad y las infraestructuras, la industria, el capital humano, la innovación y la inversión, los espacios verdes, la vivienda accesible, el apoyo a los negocios y la calidad de la educación son necesarios. Sin embargo, la OCDE reconoce tres dilemas en esa visión estratégica, el desarrollo de las metrópolis, la visión estratégica pública y la relación entre el dinamismo económico y la habitabilidad de la ciudad. Hoy se enfrentan los historiadores urbanos a algunos retos generales: la necesidad de aspectos comparativos, también la interdisciplinariedad para desarrollar la cooperación entre disciplinas y para mantener el status profesional de la historia urbana académica. Las redes expansivas entre pueblos y ciudades, y los lugares de encuentro como conferencias y exposiciones son considerados, así como los múltiples retos y amenazas, especialmente para aquellas ciudades que sufren continuamente los mayores desastres por la naturaleza o el hombre. Más aun, nuevas combinaciones de azares están siendo creados en las áreas metropolitanas con riesgos superpuestos naturales, tecnológicos, biológicos y sociales, exponiendo más gentes y lugares, que necesitan seguridad y protección.

Hietala, Marjatta

2012-12-01

127

Food security for Africa: an urgent global challenge  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract In 2012, food insecurity is still a major global concern as 1 billion people are suffering from starvation, under-, and malnutrition, and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO has concluded that we are still far from reaching millennium development goal (MDG number 1: to halve extreme poverty and hunger by 2015. In sub-Saharan Africa, the number of people suffering from hunger is estimated at 239 million, and this figure could increase in the near future. There are many examples of food insecurity in sub-Saharan Africa, some of them having reached catastrophic dimensions, for example, in the Horn of Africa or southern Madagascar. Food insecurity is not just about insufficient food production, availability, and intake, it is also about the poor quality or nutritional value of the food. The detrimental situation of women and children is particularly serious, as well as the situation among female teenagers, who receive less food than their male counterparts in the same households. Soaring food prices and food riots are among the many symptoms of the prevailing food crisis and insecurity. Climate change and weather vagaries, present and forecast, are generally compounding food insecurity and drastically changing farming activities, as diagnosed by the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR in June 2011. The key cause of food insecurity is inadequate food production. Since the global food crisis of 2007–2008, there has been an increasing awareness throughout the world that we must produce more and better food; and we should not be derailed from this goal, despite some relief brought by the good cereal harvests in 2011–2012. This is particularly true in sub-Saharan Africa, which needs and wants to make its own green revolution. The African challenge indeed is key to mitigating food insecurity in the world. Commitments were made by the heads of states and governments of the African Union to double the part of their domestic budgets devoted to agriculture in 2010–2011, so as to reach 10%. Technical solutions exist and there are indeed, throughout Africa, good examples of higher-yielding and sustainable agriculture. But good practices have to spread throughout the continent, while at the same time social and economic measures, as well as political will, are indispensable ingredients of Africa’s green revolution. It is also necessary that international donors fulfil their commitment to help African farmers and rural communities and protect them against unfair trade, competition, and dumping of cheap agrifood products from overseas.

Sasson Albert

2012-04-01

128

Multiscale Modeling in Computational Biomechanics: Determining Computational Priorities and Addressing Current Challenges  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Abstract In this article, we describe some current multiscale modeling issues in computational biomechanics from the perspective of the musculoskeletal and respiratory systems and mechanotransduction. First, we outline the necessity of multiscale simulations in these biological systems. Then we summarize challenges inherent to multiscale biomechanics modeling, regardless of the subdiscipline, followed by computational challenges that are system-specific. We discuss some of the current tools that have been utilized to aid research in multiscale mechanics simulations, and the priorities to further the field of multiscale biomechanics computation.

Tawhai, Merryn; Bischoff, Jeff; Einstein, Daniel R.; Erdemir, Ahmet; Guess, Trent; Reinbolt, Jeff

2009-05-01

129

Exam Preparation and Grades: A System for Addressing Questions, Challenges and Problems  

Science.gov (United States)

The system presented solves questions, challenges, and problems with preparing exams and grading. It includes detailed instructions, rationales, web pages, examples, and EXCEL spreadsheet templates. Use these components to keep grades, show grade distributions, calculate cumulative grades, make grade predictions based on assumptions of student performance, and inform students

PhD Augustine G DiGiovanna (Salisbury University Biological Sciences)

2004-06-15

130

Addressing Challenges in Web Accessibility for the Blind and Visually Impaired  

Science.gov (United States)

Searching for relevant information on the web is an important aspect of distance learning. This activity is a challenge for visually impaired distance learners. While sighted people have the ability to filter information in a fast and non sequential way, blind persons rely on tools that process the information in a sequential way. Learning is…

Guercio, Angela; Stirbens, Kathleen A.; Williams, Joseph; Haiber, Charles

2011-01-01

131

Using a Sampling Strategy to Address Psychometric Challenges in Tutorial-Based Assessments  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction: Tutorial-based assessment, despite providing a good match with the philosophy adopted by educational programmes that emphasize small group learning, remains one of the greatest challenges for educators working in this context. The current study was performed in an attempt to assess the psychometric characteristics of tutorial-based…

Eva, Kevin W.; Solomon, Patty; Neville, Alan J.; Ladouceur, Michael; Kaufman, Karyn; Walsh, Allyn; Norman, Geoffrey R.

2007-01-01

132

Challenges created by data dissemination and access restrictions when attempting to address community concerns: individual privacy versus public wellbeing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Population health data are vital for the identification of public health problems and the development of public health strategies. Challenges arise when attempts are made to disseminate or access anonymised data that are deemed to be potentially identifiable. In these situations, there is debate about whether the protection of an individual's privacy outweighs potentially beneficial public health initiatives developed using potentially identifiable information. While these issues have an impact at planning and policy levels, they pose a particular dilemma when attempting to examine and address community concerns about a specific health problem. Methods: Research currently underway in northern Canadian communities on the frequency of Helicobacter pylori infection and associated diseases, such as stomach cancer, is used in this article to illustrate the challenges that data controls create on the ability of researchers and health officials to address community concerns. Results: Barriers are faced by public health professionals and researchers when endeavouring to address community concerns; specifically, provincial cancer surveillance departments and community-driven participatory research groups face challenges related to data release or access that inhibit their ability to effectively address community enquiries. The resulting consequences include a limited ability to address misinformation or to alleviate concerns when dealing with health problems in small communities. Conclusions: The development of communication tools and building of trusting relationships are essential components of a successful investigation into community health concerns. It may also be important to consider that public wellbeing may outweigh the value of individual privacy in these situations. As such, a re-evaluation of data disclosure policies that are applicable in these circumstances should be considered.

Amy Colquhoun

2012-05-01

133

Challenges confronting road freight transport and the use of vehicle-pavement interaction analysis in addressing these challenges  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Traditional arguments for maintaining riding quality of pavement are expanded in this paper to examine the effects of deteriorating riding quality on vehicle operating costs, freight damage and logistics. The objectives of this paper are to analyse the effects of different levels of riding quality o [...] n a truck and its freight, and to discuss potential applications of the analysis in terms of effectiveness of the freight transport system. The paper discusses needs and drivers influencing freight transport costs, vehicle-pavement interaction concepts, and the potential physical effects and costs from roads with deteriorating riding quality. A case study is presented analysing vehicle-pavement interaction for selected roadways in California. It is concluded that investments in pavement and freight transport industry improvements can be investigated by applying vehicle-pavement interaction analysis to evaluate damage to pavement, vehicle and freight that would result from alternative levels of pavement riding quality. The paper recommends that existing concepts, tools and resources such as dedicated truck lanes and vehicle-pavement interaction analysis can help to improve the freight transport system. A framework is proposed to better understand the scale of potential impacts of riding quality from localised effects to larger-scale influences, including costs to customers and global competitiveness.

W J vd M, Steyn; C L, Monismith; W A, Nokes; J T, Harvey; T J, Holland; N, Burmas.

2012-04-01

134

Challenges confronting road freight transport and the use of vehicle-pavement interaction analysis in addressing these challenges  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Traditional arguments for maintaining riding quality of pavement are expanded in this paper to examine the effects of deteriorating riding quality on vehicle operating costs, freight damage and logistics. The objectives of this paper are to analyse the effects of different levels of riding quality on a truck and its freight, and to discuss potential applications of the analysis in terms of effectiveness of the freight transport system. The paper discusses needs and drivers influencing freight transport costs, vehicle-pavement interaction concepts, and the potential physical effects and costs from roads with deteriorating riding quality. A case study is presented analysing vehicle-pavement interaction for selected roadways in California. It is concluded that investments in pavement and freight transport industry improvements can be investigated by applying vehicle-pavement interaction analysis to evaluate damage to pavement, vehicle and freight that would result from alternative levels of pavement riding quality. The paper recommends that existing concepts, tools and resources such as dedicated truck lanes and vehicle-pavement interaction analysis can help to improve the freight transport system. A framework is proposed to better understand the scale of potential impacts of riding quality from localised effects to larger-scale influences, including costs to customers and global competitiveness.

W J vd M Steyn

2012-04-01

135

Sustainable Methods of Addressing Challenges Facing Small Holder Tea Sector in Kenya: A Supply Chain Management Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This Conceptual paper addresses the challenges facing the small holder tea sector in Kenya. It provides background information about tea growing in Kenya, its export performance, and organizational structure. It then categorizes the main challenges into five and provides some solutions to the challenges, borrowing from some supply chain management practices to culminate into competitive strategies. In the face of declining and shifting competitiveness of the small holder tea sector in Kenya, this paper identifies the special role of supplier and customer relationships, value addition, information technology, information sharing, flexibility in internal operations/processes, upgrading of tea seedlings, proper coordination, institutionalization, policy reforms, training, monitoring marketing environment, strategic decisions, irrigation, venturing in new markets through partnership, and civil society involvement as competitive supply chain strategies.

Elias Kiarie Kagira

2012-05-01

136

Smart Home Wireless Sensor Nodes : Addressing the Challenges using Smart Objects and Artificial Intelligence  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Smart homes are further development of intelligent buildings and home automation, where context awareness and autonomous behaviour are added. They are based on a combination of the Internet and emerging technologies like wireless sensor nodes. These wireless sensor nodes are challenging because they consume battery power, they use network bandwidth, and they produce wireless interferences. Currently, different methods exist for handling these challenges. These methods are, however, based on adjusting the transmitter frequency and using duty-cycling in combination with sleep mode approaches. This paper introduces an approach that considerably lowers the wireless sensor node power consumption and the amount of transmitted sensor events. It uses smart objects that include artificial intelligence to efficiently process the sensor event on location and thereby saves the costly wireless transportation of these events. In this paper it has been shown that this approach provides huge savings of power consumption and network load, which in turn reduces the interference level.

Lynggaard, Per

137

Using a complex system approach to address world challenges in Food and Agriculture  

CERN Document Server

World food supply is crucial to the well-being of every human on the planet in the basic sense that we need food to live. It also has a profound impact on the world economy, international trade and global political stability. Furthermore, consumption of certain types and amounts foods can affect health, and the choice of livestock and plants for food production can impact sustainable use of global resources. There are communities where insufficient food causes nutritional deficiencies, and at the same time other communities eating too much food leading to obesity and accompanying diseases. These aspects reflect the utmost importance of agricultural production and conversion of commodities to food products. Moreover, all factors contributing to the food supply are interdependent, and they are an integrative part of the continuously changing, adaptive and interdependent systems in the world around us. The properties of such interdependent systems usually cannot be inferred from the properties of its parts. In a...

van Mil, H G J; Windhab, E J; Perrot, N; van der Linden, E

2013-01-01

138

Will REDD+work? The need for interdisciplinary research to address key challenges  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this article, we draw on the contributions to this issue to address the question ‘Will REDD+ work?’. We do so by differentiating between how, where and when REDD+ might work. The article shows how issues of scope, scale and pace of REDD+ are related, and how interdisciplinary research can help to distill the lessons learned from REDD+ efforts currently underway. Important research areas include the drivers of deforestation and forest degradation, monitoring, reporting and verification,...

Visseren-hamakers, I. J.; Gupta, A.; Herold, M.; Pen?a Claros, M.; Vijge, M. J.

2012-01-01

139

Agri-food business: global challenges - innovative solutions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The rise of a western-style middle class in many successful emerging economies like China currently is inducing deep structural changes on agricultural world markets and within the global agri-food business. As a result of both higher incomes and concerns over product safety and quality the global demand for high-quality and safe food products is increasing significantly. In order to meet the new required quality, globally minimum quality standards are rising and private standards emerging. A...

Glauben, Thomas; Hanf, Jon H.; Kopsidis, Michael; Pieniadz, Agata; Reinsberg, Klaus

2008-01-01

140

Nuclear power and the global challenges of energy security, 6 September 2007, London, England, World Nuclear Association Annual Symposium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the Atoms for Peace speech given by US President Eisenhower in 1953 - the speech that paved the way for the creation of the IAEA - he declared that a special purpose of Atoms for Peace would be 'to provide abundant electrical energy in the power-starved areas of the world'. That vision has yet to be realized. And it should not be taken to mean that nuclear power is the solution for all countries, or for all developing countries. But I would reiterate what I said at the outset - that the global challenges of security and development are interlinked, and that addressing the energy security needs of all countries will be a key to progress on both fronts. It is incumbent upon us to see to it that nuclear power will fulfil its potential in addressing these challenges

 
 
 
 
141

New generation of Sour Service Drill Pipe allows addressing highly sour field challenges  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Drill pipes are commonly produced by assembling pipe and tool joints through friction welding. The weld, as a result of this process, presents some challenges for preserving corrosion resistance due to some metallurgical factors such as heterogeneous microstructure, different chemical compositions between the tool joint and the pipe body and heterogeneous mechanical properties close to the welded line. Hence a new drill pipe configuration have been developed including modified chemical composition and modified manufacturing process. These modifications allow for the improvement of mechanical properties performance and corrosion resistance in the welded zone.

Thomazic A.

2013-11-01

142

Replicating a self-affirmation intervention to address gender differences: Successes and challenges  

Science.gov (United States)

We previously reported on the success of a psychological intervention implemented to reduce gender differences in achievement in an introductory college physics course. In this prior study, we found that the gender gap on exams and the FMCE among students who completed two 15-minute self-affirmation writing exercises was significantly reduced compared to the gender gap among students who completed neutral writing exercises. In a follow-up study we replicated the self-affirmation intervention in a later semester of the same course, with the same instructor. In this paper, we report the details and preliminary results of the replication study, where we find similar patterns along exams and course grades, but do not observe these patterns along the FMCE. We begin to investigate the critical features of replicating educational interventions, finding that replicating educational interventions is challenging, complex, and involves potentially subtle factors, some of which we explore and others that require further research.

Kost-Smith, Lauren E.; Pollock, Steven J.; Finkelstein, Noah D.; Cohen, Geoffrey L.; Ito, Tiffany A.; Miyake, Akira

2012-02-01

143

Current issues and challenges in global analysis of parton distributions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new implementation of precise perturbative QCD calculation of deep inelastic scattering structure functions and cross sections, incorporating heavy quark mass effects, is applied to the global analysis of the full HERA I data sets on NC and CC cross sections, in conjunction with other experiments. Improved agreement between the NLO QCD theory and the global data sets are obtained. Comparison of the new results to that of previous analysis based on conventional zero-mass parton formalism is made. Exploratory work on implications of new fixed-target neutrino scattering and Drell-Yan data on global analysis is also discussed. (author)

144

Global climate change: Implications, challenges, and mitigation measures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This book presents a perspective of the potential problem of global climate change induced by human activity. The editors have presented viewpoints of experts (advocates and skeptics) representing the issues of climate change. Possible results from long-term global change discussed in this book include mass migrations of plants and animals; changes in crop yields; flood and drought; and economic, political, and cultural changes. The text contains 20 chapters on the impact of global climate change and 10 chapters on the mitigation of effects and policy development

145

Poverty and Environmental Degradation Challenges within the Global Economy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Since the end of the second World War, the link between deepening poverty and environmental degradation has increased in visibility despite the efforts of the United Nations and other international agencies. Focuses on globalization, poverty, and the environment. (DDR)

Mabogunje, Akin L.

2002-01-01

146

CHALLENGES AND OUTLOOK OF INDIAN ECONOMY – A GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available India and China- First, the outlook from a global perspective, India clearly is one of the fastest growing emerging economies of the world, next to China, having the potential to overtake China in the medium-term. Though in recent times there has been a sharp deceleration in growth of India but these are for domestic reasons rather than global compulsions. Some of the distinct advantages which India has over China are:

Roshankumar M. Bhigania

2014-04-01

147

Opening Statement - Angel Gurria [International Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Energy in the 21. Century: Addressing Energy Needs and Environmental Challenges, Beijing (China), 20-22 April 2009  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is a great honour to open this International Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Energy. It is also a privilege for the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency to co-sponsor this conference. I wish to thank both our hosts, the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Government of China, represented by the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology and the China Atomic Energy Authority, for convening us today to advance on our common goal: to secure clean and peaceful nuclear power for the 21st century. The global crisis has exposed not only the paramount challenges of today?s global economy and the remarkable level of interdependence among our nations. It has also confronted us with our duty to define the kind of global economy we need for tomorrow. It is our responsibility to devise sound policies for a stronger, cleaner and fairer global economy. Clean and affordable energy, including access to safe and secure nuclear power, should be a central element of our efforts. This is essential not only for a sustainable economy, but also for the future of our planet. The crisis has prompted us to act immediately and in concert. Take the example of our hosts, the Government of China. In the face of the economic slowdown, they responded rapidly and in a comprehensive fashion. Importantly, they increased government spending, and stimulated domestic demand, and are looking into effective ways to enhance social policies. The turmoil showed that China and all of us need to be more inhat China and all of us need to be more involved in international economic cooperation. We are profoundly affected by the policies implemented by each of our countries. There is no better example than energy to illustrate our interdependence. Holding this meeting in Beijing shows the importance China places on international cooperation and recognizes the role China could play in designing clean and safe energy solutions for the future. For me, coming to Beijing is also an opportunity to stress the high significance of the OECD partnership with China. Our organization is now more open and plural, welcoming new members and having launched an ?enhanced engagement? process with the most important emerging economies. Forging a more structured and stronger partnership with China is fundamental in such a process. It is based on our mutual interest to develop global solutions to global challenges, such as nuclear energy in the 21st century. Thus, I urge you to look into three important issues, which we should address in the years to come, namely, security, financing and development of nuclear energy

148

Trends and EIE higher education response to the current global technical challenges  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The European Association for Education in Electrical and Information Engineering (EAEEIE) has been for 20 years and still is dedicated to supporting Electrical and Information Engineering (EIE) across Europe. Its new Strategic Alignment of Electrical and Information Engineering in European Higher Education Institutions (SALEIE), an EU supported project, gathers together a global team aiming to provide higher education models in the EIE disciplines that can respond to the key global technical challenges. This paper deals with findings within the SALEIE project's work package WP3 (Global Challenges), namely: state-of-the-art in implementation of the Bologna recommendation for Bachelor and Master, technical challenges that the EIE higher education faces nowadays, and existing models in EIE higher education and their degree of response to key global technical challenges.

Poboroniuc, Marian; Livint, Gheorghe

2014-01-01

149

Addressing challenges in single species assessments via a simple state-space assessment model.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Single-species and age-structured fish stock assessments still remains the main tool for managing fish stocks. A simple state-space assessment model is presented as an alternative to (semi) deterministic procedures and the full parametric statistical catch at age models. It offers a solution to some of the key challenges of these models. Compared to the deterministic procedures it solves a list of problems originating from falsely assuming that age classified catches are known without errors and allows quantification of uncertainties of estimated quantities of interest. Compared to full parametric statistical catch at age models the state-space assessment model avoids the problem of fishing mortality being restricted to a parametric structure (e.g. multiplicative), and problems related to having a high number of model parameters compared to the number of observations. The main criticism of state-space assessment models is that they tend to be more conservative (react slower to changes) than the alternatives. A solution to this criticism is offered by introducing a mixture distribution for the transitions steps. The model presented is used for several commercially important stocks at the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea

Nielsen, Anders

150

Drilling and completion of horizontal wells in a diatomite formation : a systematic approach to addressing challenges  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes a method to significantly improve zonal isolation between subzones of horizontal wells with particular reference to the challenge of drilling and completing horizontal wells in the diatomaceous Opal A Monterey Formation in California's Belridge Field. In soft formations such as this, cementing can be complicated by cutting-bed deposition, lost circulation and gas migration. Cement jobs might not be able to effectively contain proppant fracture treatments within the target zones. Although the various subzones in each well are fractured separately, the lack of containment means that production results are difficult to interpret since it is impossible to determine which fracture stage is producing the fluids. It is possible to improve hole geometry without cutting bed accumulation by reducing the number of wiper trips and using better drilling fluids and improved directional drilling techniques and tools. Fully automated foamed cementing technology is used to achieve complete zonal isolation and full cement returns to the surface. Special logging methods are used to evaluate the cement jobs. These methods included cutting edge cement-bond logging tools with nontraditional interpretation algorithms. Tracer materials are also incorporated in proppant fracture treatments to ensure that fractures are maintained in the appropriate zones. The paper presents detailed descriptions and case study data to demonstrate the major improvements in drilling horizontal wells in this difficult field. 13 refs., 2 tabs., 9 figs.

Bour, D.L.; McMillon, M.; Hansen, M. [Halliburton Energy Services, Bakersfield, CA (United States); Helmer, K.; Denke, L. [AERA Energy LLC, Bakersfield, CA (United States)

2002-06-01

151

Addressing the challenge: current and future directions in ovarian cancer therapy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Numerous ovarian gene therapy strategies are in clinical phases based on concepts of replacement/ knock out of deregulated gene, suicide gene strategies, strengthening of the immune response against a tumor, inhibition of tumor angiogenesis and growth factors. Non-viral delivery systems have potential advantages over currently widely used viral vectors and other classical vectors for delivering therapeutic gene of interest. The present review provides a comprehensive overview of potential of various delivery systems currently in use. Non-viral formulations used in ovarian gene therapy include injecting naked DNA, liposomes, polyplexes, lipopolyplexes, nanoparticles, gene gun and ultrasound/microbubble mediated gene delivery. In addition to improving vector delivery, the DNA constructs need to be optimised for both efficient and long-term transgene expression. Minicircles using minimal immunological defined gene expression (MIDGE) technology, are a promising future alternative to plasmid for use in non-viral ovarian gene therapy in terms of biosafety, improved gene transfer, potential bioavailability, minimal size and little immune reaction. The review explores the best route of administration for ovarian cancer gene therapy given its peritoneal dissemination which poses a major challenge in treating ovarian cancer patients. Enhancement of therapeutic index can be further achieved by overcoming barriers both at cellular and nuclear levels. Selective tumor targeting with minimal toxicity using folate modified, incorporating nuclear localization signal and PEGylated stealth liposome's represents a popular approach and needs to be exploited in ovarian gene therapy. PMID:20021329

Kaur, Tranum; Slavcev, Roderick A; Wettig, Shawn D

2009-12-01

152

PM2.5 opened a door to public participation addressing environmental challenges in China.  

Science.gov (United States)

China has long been regarded as a centralized society where the public has little influence on decision-making. Such a top-down management scheme is perceived as a major obstacle to address complicated environment issues. The recent public campaign in China to urge creation of a nationwide PM2.5 monitoring network and mitigation plan provides an unprecedented case of how the public participated and influenced policy-making in a centralized society. This paper reviews key incidents in the campaign chronologically. Here we identify information technology, public awareness of air quality's health impacts and the fact air quality affects everyone as public goods as the major factors promoting public participation. This case demonstrates that public participation can happen in a centralized, top-down society such as China. Continued environmental deterioration may stimulate similar campaigns for other issues. We anticipate this essay to be a starting point for more studies on how environmental issues stimulate incremental social change by making people involved in decision-making process, especially in societies where they are rarely able to do so. PMID:25499795

Huang, Ganlin

2015-02-01

153

Management games in learning process of business skills : case: global management challenge Finland  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The subject of this thesis is management games in learning process of business skills, Case: Global Management Challenge Finland. The thesis seeks to find out how different management games are used worldwide in learning business skills, it introduces the biggest strategic and management game: Global Management Challenge, studies the case of this game in Finland, discusses how management games could help students learn different business skills and proposes future training programs for thi...

Yuan, Yichuan

2011-01-01

154

Addressing the Challenges of Multi-Domain Data Integration with the SemantEco Framework  

Science.gov (United States)

Data integration across multiple domains will continue to be a challenge with the proliferation of big data in the sciences. Data origination issues and how data are manipulated are critical to enable scientists to understand and consume disparate datasets as research becomes more multidisciplinary. We present the SemantEco framework as an exemplar for designing an integrative portal for data discovery, exploration, and interpretation that uses best practice W3C Recommendations. We use the Resource Description Framework (RDF) with extensible ontologies described in the Web Ontology Language (OWL) to provide graph-based data representation. Furthermore, SemantEco ingests data via the software package csv2rdf4lod, which generates data provenance using the W3C provenance recommendation (PROV). Our presentation will discuss benefits and challenges of semantic integration, their effect on runtime performance, and how the SemantEco framework assisted in identifying performance issues and improved query performance across multiple domains by an order of magnitude. SemantEco benefits from a semantic approach that provides an 'open world', which allows data to incrementally change just as it does in the real world. SemantEco modules may load new ontologies and data using the W3C's SPARQL Protocol and RDF Query Language via HTTP. Modules may also provide user interface elements for applications and query capabilities to support new use cases. Modules can associate with domains, which are first-class objects in SemantEco. This enables SemantEco to perform integration and reasoning both within and across domains on module-provided data. The SemantEco framework has been used to construct a web portal for environmental and ecological data. The portal includes water and air quality data from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and species observation counts for birds and fish from the Avian Knowledge Network and the Santa Barbara Long Term Ecological Research, respectively. We provide regulation ontologies using OWL2 datatype facets to detect out-of-range measurements for environmental standards set by the EPA, i.a. Users adjust queries using module-defined facets and a map presents the resulting measurement sites. Custom icons identify sites that violate regulations, making them easy to locate. Selecting a site gives the option of charting spatially proximate data from different domains over time. Our portal currently provides 1.6 billion triples of scientific data in RDF. We segment data by ZIP code and reasoning over 2157 measurements with our EPA regulation ontology that contains 131 regulations takes 2.5 seconds on a 2.4 GHz Intel Core 2 Quad with 8 GB of RAM. SemantEco's modular design and reasoning capabilities make it an exemplar for building multidisciplinary data integration tools that provide data access to scientists and the general population alike. Its provenance tracking provides accountability and its reasoning services can assist users in interpreting data. Future work includes support for geographical queries using the Open Geospatial Consortium's GeoSPARQL standard.

Patton, E. W.; Seyed, P.; McGuinness, D. L.

2013-12-01

155

The forgotten D : challenges of addressing forest degradation in complex mosaic landscapes under REDD+  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

International climate negotiations have stressed the importance of considering emissions from forest degradation under the planned REDD+ (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation + enhancing forest carbon stocks) mechanism. However, most research, pilot-REDD+ projects and carbon certification agencies have focused on deforestation and there appears to be a gap in knowledge on complex mosaic landscapes containing degraded forests, smallholder agriculture, agroforestry and plantations. In this paper we therefore review current research on how avoided forest degradation may affect emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) and expected co-benefits in terms of biodiversity and livelihoods.There are still high uncertainties in measuring and monitoring emissions of carbon and other GHG from mosaic landscapes with forest degradation since most research has focused on binary analyses of forest vs. deforested land. Studies on the impacts of forest degradation on biodiversity contain mixed results and there is little empirical evidence on the influence of REDD+ on local livelihoods and tenure security, partly due to the lack of actual payment schemes.Governance structures are also more complex in landscapes with degraded forests as there are often multiple owners and types of rights to land and trees. Recent technological advances in remote sensing have improved estimation of carbon stock changes but establishment of historic reference levels is still challenged by the availability of sensor systems and ground measurements during the reference period. The inclusion of forest degradation in REDD+ calls for a range of new research efforts to enhance our knowledge of how to assess the impacts of avoided forest degradation. A first step will be to ensure that complex mosaic landscapes can be recognised under REDD+ on their own merits.

Mertz, Ole; Müller, Daniel

2012-01-01

156

Struggles Against Bilateral FTAs: Challenges for Transnational Global Justice Activism  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The past decade has seen major movements and mobilizations against the new crop of bilateral free trade and investment agreements being pursued by governments in the wake of the failure of global (World Trade Organization and regional (e.g. Free Trade Area of the Americas negotiations, and the defeat of an attempted Multilateral Agreement on Investment in the 1990s.  However, in spite of much scholarly, non-governmental organization (NGO and activist focus on transnational global justice activism, many of these movements, such as the major multi-sectoral popular struggle over the recently-concluded US-Korea Free Trade Agreement, are hardly acknowledged in North America and Europe.  With a shift in emphasis pushing liberalization and deregulation of trade and investment increasingly favouring lower-profile bilateral agreements, this article maps the resistance movements to these latest shifts in global free market capitalist relations and discusses the disconnect between these (mainly Southern struggles and dominant scholarly and NGO conceptions of global justice and the global justice movement as well as questions of knowledge production arising from these movements.

Aziz Choudry

2012-11-01

157

Global climate change--The technology challenge: China  

Science.gov (United States)

Population growth and developmental pressures, spawned by an increasing demand for resource intensive goods, foods and services, are altering the planet in ways that threaten the long-term well-being of humans and other species. Global climate change and its associated impacts is...

158

The Global Challenge of Antimicrobial Resistance: Insights from Economic Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The prevalence of antimicrobial resistance (AR limits the therapeutic options for treatment of infections, and increases the social benefit from disease prevention. Like an environmental resource, antimicrobials require stewardship. The effectiveness of an antimicrobial agent is a global public good. We argue for greater use of economic analysis as an input to policy discussion about AR, including for understanding the incentives underlying health behaviors that spawn AR, and to supplement other methods of tracing the evolution of AR internationally. We also discuss integrating antimicrobial stewardship into global health governance.The prevalence of antimicrobial resistance (AR limits the therapeutic options for treatment of infections, and increases the social benefit from disease prevention. Like an environmental resource, antimicrobials require stewardship. The effectiveness of an antimicrobial agent is a global public good. We argue for greater use of economic analysis as an input to policy discussion about AR, including for understanding the incentives underlying health behaviors that spawn AR, and to supplement other methods of tracing the evolution of AR internationally. We also discuss integrating antimicrobial stewardship into global health governance.

Richard J. Zeckhauser

2010-08-01

159

Facing safety and security challenges: A national and international perspective (Opening address)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This international conference on Effective Nuclear Regulatory Systems is more than a gathering of senior regulators and of nuclear technologists; it is truly an international assembly of those who implement nuclear safety, security and emergency preparedness. The sessions should have a definitive underlying theme and purpose that support the objectives of the conference. A common understanding of the purpose of regulation in general and nuclear regulation in particular, should provide the connectivity between every one of us, independent of country or organization. A good starting point for the common understanding of regulation would be to note that regulation is done for the well-being of our people, for the common good, with full consideration of the national interests, and of international law and agreements. Nuclear regulation is a disciplined national tool for establishing predictable safety and security frameworks. It works by establishing and improving technical and legal structures to define the acceptable safety case that serves the public interest. Senior nuclear regulators, you and I, are coming together, in Moscow, in winter, in 2006, to make a statement regarding our responsibilities and to deliver a series of products, sustained by a common understanding of nuclear regulation. Moreover, we are here because we care about our nations and because we can and want to work together, better. In this regard, I present for your thoughtful consideration here, as or your thoughtful consideration here, as a purpose, the objective stated by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in its current strategic plan: to enable the use and management of radioactive materials and nuclear fuels for beneficial civilian purposes in a manner that protects public health and safety and the environment, promotes the security of our nation, and provides for regulatory actions that are open, effective, efficient, realistic and timely. With that purpose in mind, it becomes clear why our presence here today is important. In fact, as inevitable as day and night, there is supply and there is demand. Unfortunately, there are also imbalances that may occur in supply and demand. The world is again experiencing that almost forgotten enemy: expensive and/or unreliable energy supply. Many times we have seen that society is disrupted and people suffer when energy is costly, scarce, or not available. The solutions to economic and reliable energy supply are surely important worldwide. In the case of the USA, dependence on energy is somewhat unique; solutions are needed for the short term and solutions are needed that will endure the test of time and crises. Therefore, the USA, like many other countries, is reviewing the strategic, economic, and environmental considerations of the nation's overall energy supply and openly considering the contributions of nuclear power to meet its present and future energy needs. In fact, in the USA, President Bush and the Congress have taken positive steps to ensure that nation's energy mix includes the reliability of supply, the environmental benefits, and the steady costs that are now ascribed to operating nuclear power plants. Maintaining the requisite focus on safety and security, the NRC has the obligation and responsibility to respond to the needs of the country. Although our particular needs may differ, you are surely being asked to be ready to implement a set of effective regulatory tools that are responsive to the energy, economic, and security demands of the present and the near future. I believe that we can agree that every nation of the world would be better served by reducing imbalances in the energy supply and demand, and by supporting safe, economical and environmentally friendly electrical energy supply that meets the global demand

160

The Global Fund's resource allocation decisions for HIV programmes : addressing those in need  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Between 2002 and 2010, the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria's investment in HIV increased substantially to reach US$12 billion. We assessed how the Global Fund's investments in HIV programmes were targeted to key populations in relation to disease burden and national income.

Avdeeva, Olga; Lazarus, Jeff

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Lessons learned and present day challenges of addressing 20th century radiation legacies of Russia and the United States  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Decommissioning of nuclear submarines, disposal of highly enriched uranium and defense plutonium as well as processing of high-level wastes are among the most challenging issues of addressing radiation legacy of the 20th century. USA and Russia are the two primary countries that have to deal with the challenge and where most of the fissile materials to be processed are concentrated, nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste are stored, and multiple industrial sites and nuclear weapons production facilities are located. In the US, CH2M HILL is managing two of the most important nuclear projects being conducted by the US Department of Energy at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site and at the DOE Hanford Site (177 underground tanks at this site contain 60 percent of the United States' high-level radioactive wastes). Within the framework of the Russian Federal special program 'Radioactive Waste and Spent Nuclear Materials Management, Utilization and Disposal for 1996-2005' works were carried out on the Karachai lake covering with soil, highly active radwaste vitrification and fractionation at the 'Mayak' combine. Currently there is a discussion of launching joint Russian-American initiatives including comparative studies of environmental and public health impacts from high-level waste vitrification and plutonium stabilization processes in Russia and high-level waste removal from tanks in the USA and of continuing comprehensive research with the RADSITE project (USA, European Union, Japan, China and India) using coordinated approaches in 2000-2003. This paper presents comparative studies, technical approaches, and regulatory strategies to address the challenges of managing and closing highly enriched uranium, plutonium, and high level waste sites. (author)

162

Contemporary Business Education: a Solution for Global Leadership Challenges  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Education and professional development is considered central issues in civil service development and public administration reform. While this may be true, the content of such programs bears equal influence in skill acquirement, which in turn, has an impact on managerial performance (Perry, 1989). The contemporary economic and social environment poses numerous and complex challenges to public leaders, who need to be equipped with the adequate set of skills and competencies in order to have a p...

Tudor Cristian ?icl?u

2014-01-01

163

SALEIE: An EU project aiming to propose new EIE curricula oriented to key global technical challenges  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

For the last two decades The European Association for Education in Electrical and Information Engineering (EAEEIE) has been dedicated and continue to support the Electrical and Information Engineering (EIE) education in Europe. SALEIE (Strategic Alignment of Electrical and Information Engineering in European Higher Education Institutions) is one of its new EU projects which coagulate a global team aiming to provide higher education models in the EIE disciplines that can respond to the key global technical challenges. The SALEIE project's work package WP3 (Global Challenges) is related to: state-of-the-art in implementation of the Bologna recommendation for Bachelor and Master, EIE connected technical, existing models in EIE higher education and their degree of response to key global technical challenges as well as some examples of curriculum models which see the day light during the SALEIE workshops. That is the subject that the proposed paper deals on.

Poboroniuc, Marian-Silviu; Friesel, Anna

2014-01-01

164

MEDICAL TOURISM INDUSTRY CHALLENGES IN THE CONTEXT OF GLOBALIZATION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Medical tourism is not a new concept, even though there is still no international consensus on the name of this phenomenon that is manifesting itself for thousands of years. It is defined by moving patients in various countries to obtain medical care and combined with certain tourist facilities. Increased flow of patients seeking treatment abroad is a global phenomenon linked to economic growth which generates income revenue and a high level of education. Internationally, medical tourism increases by 20% per year, global market for medical tourism at present is estimated to be about 100 billion dollars. This study tries to highlight a conceptual analysis of medical tourism, the targeting of medical tourism flows and major destinations and the proposed tourism development strategies based on the experience of several countries medical.

Carmen, IORDACHE

2014-07-01

165

Contemporary Business Education: a Solution for Global Leadership Challenges  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Education and professional development is considered central issues in civil service development and public administration reform. While this may be true, the content of such programs bears equal influence in skill acquirement, which in turn, has an impact on managerial performance (Perry, 1989. The contemporary economic and social environment poses numerous and complex challenges to public leaders, who need to be equipped with the adequate set of skills and competencies in order to have a proper response. The present paper aims to find out the whether the current educational programs from the business field can be a solution for preparing the next generation of public (and private leaders. My argument is that the latest developments in public management reform (New Public Management, Good Governance and Public Entrepreneurship combined with new demands for effectiveness, efficiency and high quality public services could increase the relevance of such programs. In support for this I presented a series of research results that point to a set of common leadership challenges that transcend the public-private divide. Finally I explored the offerings of the top 5 MBA programs in the world to see whether this is reflected in their educational programs. Not surprisingly, three out of the five programs analysed offer dual degree programs that combine business and public management education as a solution for the leadership challenges that lay ahead.

Tudor Cristian ?icl?u

2014-08-01

166

Food security for Africa: an urgent global challenge  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract In 2012, food insecurity is still a major global concern as 1 billion people are suffering from starvation, under-, and malnutrition, and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) has concluded that we are still far from reaching millennium development goal (MDG) number 1: to halve extreme poverty and hunger by 2015. In sub-Saharan Africa, the number of people suffering from hunger is estimated at 239 million, and this figure could increase in the ne...

Sasson Albert

2012-01-01

167

One Health: The global challenge of epidemic and endemic leishmaniasis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract 'One Health' proposes the unification of medical and veterinary sciences with the establishment of collaborative ventures in clinical care, surveillance and control of cross-species disease, education, and research into disease pathogenesis, diagnosis, therapy and vaccination. The concept encompasses the human population, domestic animals and wildlife, and the impact that environmental changes ('environmental health') such as global warming will have on these populations. V...

Day Michael J; Palatnik-de-Sousa Clarisa B.

2011-01-01

168

MEDICAL TOURISM INDUSTRY CHALLENGES IN THE CONTEXT OF GLOBALIZATION  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Medical tourism is not a new concept, even though there is still no international consensus on the name of this phenomenon that is manifesting itself for thousands of years. It is defined by moving patients in various countries to obtain medical care and combined with certain tourist facilities. Increased flow of patients seeking treatment abroad is a global phenomenon linked to economic growth which generates income revenue and a high level of education. Internationally, medical tourism inc...

Carmen, Iordache; Iuliana, Ciochina

2014-01-01

169

New Challenges for Urban History: Culture, Networks, Globalization  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Urban history is a very lively and dynamic research field, showing strict parallelism with the fast increasing of the urban population. Today, competitiveness is one of the key aims for cities in the globalized world. Factors such as accessibility and infrastructure, industry, human capital, innovation, and investment, green spaces, affordable housing, business support and quality of education are necessaries. However, the OECD recognizes three dilemmas in this strategic vision, concerning th...

Hietala, Marjatta

2012-01-01

170

Global warming and drainage development: perspective and challenges  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Irrigated agriculture is expected to play a major role in reaching the broader development objectives of achieving food security and improvements in the quality of life, while conserving the environment, in both the developed and developing countries. Especially as we are faced with the prospect of global population growth from almost 6 billion today to at least 8 billion by 2025. In this context, the constraints posed by land and water scarcity and the associated need to increase the carryin...

Wrachien, D.; Feddes, R. A.

2004-01-01

171

Preserving the global environment: The challenge of shared leadership  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This book brings together essays commissioned as background reading for an April 1990 conference on the global environment co-sponsored by the American Assembly and the World Resources Institute. Among the topic areas covered are the following: technical aspects of energy policy and climatic change; harnessing the power of the marketplace; international cooperation; international regulatory regimes; world economic climate; deforestation and species loss; human population growth

172

Knowledge capabilities for sustainable development in global classrooms - local challenges  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Young Masters Programme provides young people around the worldwith a net–based global–local learning environment for sustainable development. The present study investigates certain aspects of the implementation of this programme in the secondary schools of a Swedish municipality, in the context of the Lund Calling project. The research focuses on critical abilities to act globally, referred to as “knowledge capabilities”, and how they relate to the implementation process of initiating global learning for sustainabledevelopment (GLSD. A phenomenographic approach and semi–structuredinterviews were used in the investigation of the experiences of secondary school pupils, teachers and headmasters who participated in the project. Participants’ experiences of the changes carried out are described in relation to examples of knowledge capabilities needed for GLSD. Critical knowledge capabilities found to have been developed through the implementation were: to take command, and to collaborate. Critical knowledge capabilities perceived asnecessary, but not developed through the programme were: to be prepared, to act in a transdisciplinary manner, and to lead for a holistic understanding.

Elise Anderberg

2011-01-01

173

A Framework for Addressing the Global Obesity Epidemic Locally: The Child Health Ecological Surveillance System (CHESS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Childhood obesity has reached epidemic levels in the developed world. Recent research and commentary suggest that an ecological approach is required to address childhood obesity, given the multidimensional nature of the problem. We propose a Canadian prototype, the Child Health Ecological Surveillance System, for a regional health authority to address the growing obesity epidemic. This prototype could potentially be used in other jurisdictions to address other child health issues. We present 8 guiding principles for the development and implementation of a regional framework for action.

Ronald C. Plotnikoff, PhD

2008-07-01

174

Global Citizenship Demands New Approaches to Teaching and Learning: AASCU's Global Challenges Initiative  

Science.gov (United States)

Today's college graduates are entering an interconnected world in which globalization will affect nearly every facet of their lives. In turn, college and university mission statements increasingly include the intent to educate "global citizens" among their fundamental commitments. Yet U.S. students' global knowledge and…

Summit, Jennifer

2013-01-01

175

International policies to address the greenhouse effect. Encouraging developing country participation in global greenhouse control strategies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The conditions under which developing country governments are likely to feel motivated to take real action in addressing the greenhouse gas problem and the international mechanisms that are likely to succeed are briefly outlined

176

Makerere University College of Health Sciences’ role in addressing challenges in health service provision at Mulago National Referral Hospital  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Mulago National Referral Hospital (MNRH, Uganda’s primary tertiary and teaching hospital, and Makerere University College of Health Sciences (MakCHS have a close collaborative relationship. MakCHS students complete clinical rotations at MNRH, and MakCHS faculty partner with Mulago staff in clinical care and research. In 2009, as part of a strategic planning process, MakCHS undertook a qualitative study to examine care and service provision at MNRH, identify challenges, gaps, and solutions, and explore how MakCHS could contribute to improving care and service delivery at MNRH. Methods Key informant interviews (n=23 and focus group discussions (n=7 were conducted with nurses, doctors, administrators, clinical officers and other key stakeholders. Interviews and focus groups were tape recorded and transcribed verbatim, and findings were analyzed through collaborative thematic analysis. Results Challenges to care and service delivery at MNRH included resource constraints (staff, space, equipment, and supplies, staff inadequacies (knowledge, motivation, and professionalism, overcrowding, a poorly functioning referral system, limited quality assurance, and a cumbersome procurement system. There were also insufficiencies in the teaching of professionalism and communication skills to students, and patient care challenges that included lack of access to specialized services, risk of infections, and inappropriate medications. Suggestions for how MakCHS could contribute to addressing these challenges included strengthening referral systems and peripheral health center capacity, and establishing quality assurance mechanisms. The College could also strengthen the teaching of professionalism, communication and leadership skills to students, and monitor student training and develop courses that contribute to continuous professional development. Additionally, the College could provide in-service education for providers on professionalism, communication skills, strategies that promote evidence-based practice and managerial leadership skills. Conclusions Although there are numerous barriers to delivery of quality health services at MNRH, many barriers could be addressed by strengthening the relationship between the Hospital and MakCHS. Strategic partnerships and creative use of existing resources, both human and financial, could improve the quality of care and service delivery at MNRH. Improving services and providing more skills training could better prepare MakCHS graduates for leadership roles in other health care facilities, ultimately improving health outcomes throughout Uganda.

Sekandi Juliet

2011-03-01

177

Big Data challenges and solutions in building the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS)  

Science.gov (United States)

The Group on Earth Observation (GEO) is a voluntary partnership of governments and international organizations launched in response to calls for action by the 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development and by the G8 (Group of Eight) leading industrialized countries. These high-level meetings recognized that international collaboration is essential for exploiting the growing potential of Earth observations to support decision making in an increasingly complex and environmentally stressed world. To this aim is constructing the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) on the basis of a 10-Year Implementation Plan for the period 2005 to 2015 when it will become operational. As a large-scale integrated system handling large datasets as those provided by Earth Observation, GEOSS needs to face several challenges related to big data handling and big data infrastructures management. Referring to the traditional multiple Vs characteristics of Big Data (volume, variety, velocity, veracity and visualization) it is evident how most of them can be found in data handled by GEOSS. In particular, concerning Volume, Earth Observation already generates a large amount of data which can be estimated in the range of Petabytes (1015 bytes), with Exabytes (1018) already targeted. Moreover, the challenge is related not only to the data size, but also to the large amount of datasets (not necessarily having a big size) that systems need to manage. Variety is the other main challenge since datasets coming from different sensors, processed for different use-cases are published with highly heterogeneous metadata and data models, through different service interfaces. Innovative multidisciplinary applications need to access and use those datasets in a harmonized way. Moreover Earth Observation data are growing in size and variety at an exceptionally fast rate and new technologies and applications, including crowdsourcing, will even increase data volume and variety in the next future. The current implementation of GEOSS already addresses several big data challenges. In particular, the brokered architecture adopted in the GEOSS Common Infrastructure with the deployment of the GEO DAB (Discovery and Access Broker) allows to connect more than 20 big EO infrastructures while keeping them autonomous as required by their own mandate and governance. They make more than 60 million of unique resources discoverable and accessible through the GEO Portal. Through the GEO DAB, users are able to seamlessly discover resources provided by different infrastructures, and access them in a harmonized way, collecting datasets from different sources on a Common Environment (same coordinate reference system, spatial subset, format, etc.). Through the GEONETCast system, GEOSS is also providing a solution related to the Velocity challenge, for delivering EO resources to developing countries with low bandwidth connections. Several researches addressing other Big data Vs challenges in GEOSS are on-going, including quality representation for Veracity (as in the FP7 GeoViQua project), brokering big data analytics platforms for Velocity, and support of other EO resources for Variety (such as modelling resources in the Model Web).

Mazzetti, Paolo; Nativi, Stefano; Santoro, Mattia; Boldrini, Enrico

2014-05-01

178

Addressing the Photometric Calibration Challenge: Explicit Determination of the Instrumental Response and Atmospheric Response Functions, and Tying it All Together  

CERN Document Server

Photometric calibration is currently the dominant source of systematic uncertainty in exploiting type Ia supernovae to determine the nature of the dark energy. We review our ongoing program to address this calibration challenge by performing measurements of both the instrumental response function and the optical transmission function of the atmosphere. A key aspect of this approach is to complement standard star observations by using NIST-calibrated photodiodes as a metrology foundation for optical flux measurements. We present our first attempt to assess photometric consistency between synthetic photometry and observations, by comparing predictions based on a NIST-diode-based determination of the PanSTARRS-1 instrumental response and empirical atmospheric transmission measurements, with fluxes we obtained from observing spectrophotometric standards.

Stubbs, Christopher W

2012-01-01

179

Global health care challenge: Indian experiences and new prescriptions  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Globally, there has been an unparalleled growth in the plant-derived medicinally useful formulations, drugs and health-care products, its market covering more than 60% products derived from plant origin. India exhibits remarkable outlook in modern medicines that are based on natural products besides [...] traditional system of Indian medicines. Almost, 70% modern medicines in India are derived from natural products. Medicinal plants play a central role not only as traditional medicines but also as trade commodities, meeting the demand of distant markets. Ironically, India has a very small share (1.6%) of this ever-growing global market. To compete with the growing market, there is urgency to expeditiously utilize and scientifically validate more medicinally useful plants while conserving these species, which seems a difficult task ahead. This paper begins with an overview of the value of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants and discusses its usefulness in the traditional medicines. Then it briefly assesses the potential of medicinally useful plants and prospects of modern medicines and health care products derived from plant origin and based on the knowledge of alternative system of medicine in India. It thereafter concisely touches upon India’s varied biodiversity, comparative Research and Development strength, strong pharmaceutical manufacturing base and traditional wisdom in medicines to improve its market potential. In the conclusion, there are major recommendations to help India evolve as a major drugs and herbal based health care products leader in the world market.

Sandhya, Wakdikar.

2004-12-15

180

The Global Fund's resource allocation decisions for HIV programmes: addressing those in need  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Between 2002 and 2010, the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria's investment in HIV increased substantially to reach US$12 billion. We assessed how the Global Fund's investments in HIV programmes were targeted to key populations in relation to disease burden and national income. Methods We conducted an assessment of the funding approved by the Global Fund Board for HIV programmes in Rounds 1-10 (2002-2010 in 145 countries. We used the UNAIDS National AIDS Spending Assessment framework to analyze the Global Fund investments in HIV programmes by HIV spending category and type of epidemic. We examined funding per capita and its likely predictors (HIV adult prevalence, HIV prevalence in most-at-risk populations and gross national income per capita using stepwise backward regression analysis. Results About 52% ($6.1 billion of the cumulative Global Fund HIV funding was targeted to low- and low-middle-income countries. Around 56% of the total ($6.6 billion was channelled to countries in sub-Saharan Africa. The majority of funds were for HIV treatment (36%; $4.3 billion and prevention (29%; $3.5 billion, followed by health systems and community systems strengthening and programme management (22%; $2.6 billion, enabling environment (7%; $0.9 billion and other activities. The Global Fund investment by country was positively correlated with national adult HIV prevalence. About 10% ($0.4 billion of the cumulative HIV resources for prevention targeted most-at-risk populations. Conclusions There has been a sustained scale up of the Global Fund's HIV support. Funding has targeted the countries and populations with higher HIV burden and lower income. Prevention in most-at-risk populations is not adequately prioritized in most of the recipient countries. The Global Fund Board has recently modified eligibility and prioritization criteria to better target most-at-risk populations in Round 10 and beyond. More guidance is being provided for Round 11 to strategically focus demand for Global Fund financing in the present resource-constrained environment.

Avdeeva Olga

2011-10-01

 
 
 
 
181

Energy policy: challenges of a global vision; Politique energetique: les enjeux d'une vision globale  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This is the proceedings of the 2. parliamentary gathering on energy held on 14 October 1999. The document presents the talks by Mr Michel Destot (as special rapporteur of the Industry's budget in National Assembly) and Laurent Fabius, President of National Assembly, and Jean-Claude Gayssot, Minister of Equipment, Transport and Dwelling, at the opening session, three round tables, the colloquium synthesis and the closing session. The round tables addressed the following issues: - 1. International and long-term approach guided predominantly by energy demand; - 2. Energy solutions in the struggle against greenhouse effect; - 3. Challenges of opening the European energy market (internationalization and decentralization). At the first round table, Yves Martin, President of the technical section of General Council of Mines, structured his introductory report emphasizing the specific issues of three time horizons: the present, characterized by abundant energy offer; the horizon of 10 to 20 years, that of the energy suppliers which is orienting their investments; the horizon of more than half a century, corresponding to responses of far-reaching actions imposed by energy demand and which must be the object of governments' policies. Jean-Yves Le Deaut, deputy of Meurthe-et-Moselle discussed the risks of climate change, resources' exhaustion, nuclear power and the issue of developing the renewable energies. The problems raised by energy demand by the year 2050 to met the needs of an earth population of 9 billions were mentioned by Philippe Trepant, the president of French Union of oil industries. Energy problems from a globalization standpoint were discussed also by Benjamin Dessus, Director of Ecodev program of CNRS. Policy in the field of mastering greenhouse gas releases was mentioned in the talk by Michel Mousel, president of Inter-ministerial Mission for greenhouse effect. In the frame of 2. round table questions relating to energy management, renewable, gas, and nuclear energies were addressed by a number of deputies and officials and representatives from ADEME, Framatome, Paris University and Union for renewable energies. Finally, at the 3. round table, focusing the economic aspects of the internationalization and decentralization of the energy market, several participants discussed questions related to integration, securing the supplies, access to power distribution grids, role of public service, energy market evolution, etc. In his summarizing talk Mr Michel Destot underlined the significant progress made in achieving a genuine French energy culture, able to ensure a long-term, diverse and balanced energy policy covering, at the same time, the environmental, economic, and employment components.

Destot, Michel [ed.] [Depute de l' Isere, Assemblee Nationale, Paris (France)

2000-02-18

182

Organic electronics: Addressing challenges  

Science.gov (United States)

Although promising, the use of organic semiconductors has not yet revolutionized consumer electronics. Synthesis of high-performance materials, enhanced control of morphology and smart exploitation of unique photophysical phenomena are the way forward to overcome the technological hurdles of this field.

Anthony, John E.

2014-08-01

183

Challenge and opportunity: the ALI/III global principles project  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english This article deals with an international project to establish the extent to which it is feasible to achieve a worldwide acceptance of the Principles of Cooperation among the NAFTA Countries together with the Guidelines Applicable to Court-to-Court Communications in Cross-Border Cases. This contribut [...] ion explains the process whereby the American Law Institute and the International Insolvency Institute (1) developed principles of cooperation with regard to cross-border insolvency; (2) established acceptance of these principles in jurisdictions across the world, subject to any necessary local modifications; and (3) obtained the endorsement of leading domestic associations, courts, and other groups in those jurisdictions. This article may contribute to the development the South African cross-border insolvency law. The inclusion of the challenges of harmonisation of private international law is also contributing to current debate.

IF, Fletcher.

2008-03-01

184

Global change: The new challenge for the fossil carbon industries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Human population growth, at 90 million more per year and at least 10 billion next century, is forcing a re-examination of our values and technologies. Technology concerns are energy, food production, water and air quality, and waste disposal. All of these involve exact knowledge of the outer few km of our planet because this film forms the basis of all our resources. A great new challenge faces people with expertise in the fine structure and dynamics of the porous-cracked outer layers of earth. Much of this expertise is centered in the fossil carbon industries. All must be involved in the problems of water supply, soil conservation, waste disposal, and clean energy production. Perhaps the greatest question facing the fossil fuel industry concerns whether greenhouse gas emissions can be reduced

185

Media, cultural diversity and globalization: challenges and opportunities.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper explores the role media play in safeguarding cultural diversity, promoting cultural dialogue, facilitating the exercise of cultural rights,fostering cultural understanding and cultivating intercultural citizenship in the age of globalization. The paper highlights several interconnected leverage points: media content, practices, processes, ownership, education, structures, and policies. It argues that fostering cultural diversity in and through the media can go a long way toward bringing a civic discourse which favors tolerance and facilitates co-existence. It can contribute to the breaking down of cultural barriers, the initiation of cultural dialogues, the empowerment of marginalized groups, and the practice of good governance. At the same time, this paper argues, the celebration of difference does not preclude the valuation of a common cultural core or a common humanity which brings people together in spite of their differences. PMID:21744674

Zayani, Mohamed

2011-01-01

186

Principles of Positive Behaviour Supports: Using the FBA as a Problem-Solving Approach to Address Challenging Behaviours beyond Special Populations  

Science.gov (United States)

The Functional Behavioural Assessment (FBA) is an investigative process that examines the context of challenging behaviours in the classroom. Information gleaned from the FBA process is used to develop a behaviour intervention plan to address the challenging behaviour and teach a socially acceptable replacement behaviour. However, the FBA has…

Moreno, Gerardo; Bullock, Lyndal M.

2011-01-01

187

Addressing AACSB Global and Technology Requirements: Exploratory Assessment of a Marketing Management Assignment  

Science.gov (United States)

The Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB) standards mandate knowledge of global and technology issues. Businesses desire employees with ability to analyze international markets and to be adept with technology. Taxpayers supporting public universities and organizations hiring business school graduates expect accountability…

Greene, Scott; Bao, Yongchuan

2009-01-01

188

Opening Address [FR09: International Conference on Fast Reactors and Related Fuel Cycles: Challenges and Opportunities, Kyoto (Japan), 7-11 December 2009  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Good morning, distinguished delegates, ladies and gentlemen. I would like to express my deep gratitude for your presence at the 'International Conference on Fast Reactors and Related Fuel Cycles: Challenges and Opportunities' organized by the IAEA. I would like to make a brief opening address on behalf of MEXT1. Firstly, I would like to welcome all who have travelled the long distance to Japan, and to express my thanks to people in Japan for their usual acceptance and for their cooperation on the research, development and use of nuclear technology. I would also like to thank the staff of the IAEA, the Japan Atomic Energy Agency and the commissions for their commitment to organizing this meeting. Today, humankind faces global issues on a scale never before seen, including global warming and energy resource security. Under such circumstances, ensuring the energy supply is essential for solving both the energy problem and global climate change simultaneously. This is increasingly being recognized all over the world. Sharing the recognition, we promote research, development and the use of nuclear energy as the major source of electrical power. We are aiming at the establishment of the fast breeder reactor cycle, which will ensure a long term energy supply, through efficient use of uranium resources. At MEXT, we continue to promote research and development in order to achieve the early commercialization of the fast breeder reactor cycle, by utilizing the prototyer reactor cycle, by utilizing the prototype Monju fast breeder reactor. We are now doing our utmost to restart Monju by the end of March 2010, with the acceptance and cooperation of the local community. After the restart, we will enhance the reliability of Monju as an operational power plant, drawing upon operational experience. At the same time, we will continue research and development of radioactive waste reduction for topics such as minor actinide burning, as well as the enhancement of nuclear non-proliferation. We hope that Monju will play an important role, not only domestically, but also globally as one of the few high-end fast reactors. This makes Monju a major global centre in the area of nuclear fuel cycle research and development. In this conference, we can share the fruits of each country's and each organization's research and development for the purpose of realizing the nuclear fuel cycle, which is the important international political theme. Finally, I would like to express my wishes that this conference contributes to the stimulation of further research and development on the fast reactor cycle through active discussions and, ultimately, brings significant benefits to all countries. Thank you for your kind attention. (author)

189

Global warming presents new challenges for maize pest management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It has been conjectured that global warming will increase the prevalence of insect pests in many agro-ecosystems. In this paper, we quantitatively assess four of the key pests of maize, one of the most important systems in North American grain production. Using empirically generated estimates of pest overwintering thresholds and degree-day requirements, along with climate change projections from a high-resolution climate model, we project potential future ranges for each of these pests in the United States. Our analysis suggests the possibility of increased winter survival and greater degree-day accumulations for each of the pests surveyed. We find that relaxed cold limitation could expand the range of all four pest taxa, including a substantial range expansion in the case of corn earworm (H. zea), a migratory, cold-intolerant pest. Because the corn earworm is a cosmopolitan pest that has shown resistance to insecticides, our results suggest that this expansion could also threaten other crops, including those in high-value areas of the western United States. Because managing significant additional pressure from this suite of established pests would require additional pest management inputs, the projected decreases in cold limitation and increases in heat accumulation have the potential to significantly alter the pest management landscape for North American maize production. Further, these range expansions could have substantial economic impacts through increased seed l economic impacts through increased seed and insecticide costs, decreased yields, and the downstream effects of changes in crop yield variability.

190

The European Commission and the global verification challenge  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A. Piebalgs highlighted the interests and activities that the IAEA and the European Commission share, for example, the promotion of nuclear research and development, the dissemination of technological information, the promulgation of safety standards and safeguards implementation. The European Commission is adapting its safeguards to meet existing conditions, building complementarity with the IAEA and developing the next stage of the relationship for integrated safeguards. In the latter context, the IAEA and the European Commission have always been able to cooperate successfully, and it is very gratifying that high level contact between them has recently resumed. He was pleased to note that the additional protocol to the existing safeguards agreements is in force for all 25 Member States of the European Union. In his view, a comprehensive safeguards agreement and an additional protocol to this agreement (based on the Model Additional Protocol as documented in INFCIRC/540 (Corrected)) represent the current global nonproliferation standard. Looking to the expansion of nuclear energy, safeguards are crucial to nuclear non-proliferation, while nuclear safety and security are also important dimensions. Any expansion of nuclear energy will require attention on all three fronts. The European Commission stands ready to strengthen its cooperation with, and support of, the IAEA on all three fronts

191

Injuries and violence: a global public health challenge  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Injuries and violence are a significant cause of mortality and physical disability. Injuries killed five million people worldwide each year [1]. The level of this dilemma, however, differs significantly by age, sex, region and economic development [2]. Globally, road traffic injury mortalities, self-inflicted injury mortality and interpersonal violence, war, drowning, and exposure to fire are the leading cause of deaths among people aged 15-44 years [3]. This special issue aims to assess the magnitude of this problem, identify risk factors and explore prevention strategies to alleviate the burden of injuries and violence. There is a dire need to increase the knowledge of the extent of problem, and associated risk factors that needs to be targeted for prevention. Erosa et al., examined reports of verbal and physical abuse from family caregivers of adults with severe physical, neurological and developmental disabilities, and found that caregivers who reported some form of abuse reported significantly greater distress and burden than caregivers who did not report any abuse. Grice et al., found that reported histories of work-related physical assault and work-related threat were associated with elevated risks of current work-related physical assault. Ahmad, systematically reviewed and summarized current scientific knowledge on the use of interactive computer-assisted screening to detect intimate partner violence (IPV.

Muazzam Nasrullah

2010-06-01

192

Global Challenges for the Environment, Water Clean and Economic Advantages  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The fast development of industry, agriculture technology, with increasing population grows increasingly standard of living is also increasing demand for clean water and environmental pollution grows each time taking process of uncontrolled release of CO2 into the atmosphere and increase the industrial waste. Rulers need to do a better coordination of CO2 in the atmosphere management, waste management, water. Sustainability of public health, protection of the environment and the economy are key factors for environment and clean water. Collecting more water behind dams and especially in aquifers through artificial recharge is necessary to save water in times of excess water for use at the time of his absence. Storage of CO2 in safe places as under the oceans countries semptyexplorer oil from storage in mines or explorer. Use should be carefully planned and take measures to prevent adverse health effects in the case of groundwater contamination. Some countries may save water by importing most food and energy commodities and other countries that possess more water, so basically they also get water was needed to produce these goods.Water "virtual". Local water can then be used for high social,environmental, or economic or saved for the future. Climate change and global warming caused by carbon dioxide emissions are difficult to predict in space and time. The wars in the future will be developed for clean water and not for gold and oil.

Hidajete Nikqi , AdemDreshaj,

2013-09-01

193

Global warming presents new challenges for maize pest management  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It has been conjectured that global warming will increase the prevalence of insect pests in many agro-ecosystems. In this paper, we quantitatively assess four of the key pests of maize, one of the most important systems in North American grain production. Using empirically generated estimates of pest overwintering thresholds and degree-day requirements, along with climate change projections from a high-resolution climate model, we project potential future ranges for each of these pests in the United States. Our analysis suggests the possibility of increased winter survival and greater degree-day accumulations for each of the pests surveyed. We find that relaxed cold limitation could expand the range of all four pest taxa, including a substantial range expansion in the case of corn earworm (H. zea), a migratory, cold-intolerant pest. Because the corn earworm is a cosmopolitan pest that has shown resistance to insecticides, our results suggest that this expansion could also threaten other crops, including those in high-value areas of the western United States. Because managing significant additional pressure from this suite of established pests would require additional pest management inputs, the projected decreases in cold limitation and increases in heat accumulation have the potential to significantly alter the pest management landscape for North American maize production. Further, these range expansions could have substantial economic impacts through increased seed and insecticide costs, decreased yields, and the downstream effects of changes in crop yield variability.

Diffenbaugh, Noah S [Purdue Climate Change Research Center and Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Purdue University, 550 Stadium Mall Drive, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2051 (United States); Krupke, Christian H [Department of Entomology, Purdue University, 901 West State Street, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); White, Michael A [Department of Watershed Sciences, Utah State University, 5210 Old Main Hall, Logan, UT 84322-5210 (United States); Alexander, Corinne E [Department of Agricultural Economics, Purdue University, 403 West State Street, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2056 (United States)], E-mail: diffenbaugh@purdue.edu

2008-10-15

194

Antimicrobial resistance: addressing the global threat through greater awareness and transformative action.  

Science.gov (United States)

Antimicrobial therapies have played an unquestionably important role in advancing modern medical and surgical care, treating animals, reducing the global burden of communicable disease, and prolonging human life expectancy. These transformational benefits are threatened because of the rapidly advancing phenomenon of antimicrobial resistance. As a result of complex factors across many sectors and international actors, the global impact of antimicrobial resistance is an escalating economic and health crisis. This article draws on the collective expertise and summit report of the Antimicrobial Resistance Working Group from the 2013 World Innovation Summit for Health, in Doha, Qatar. It defines a framework of principles and tasks for key policy makers to raise international awareness of antimicrobial resistance and lead transformative action through policy-driven improvements in sanitation, antimicrobial conservation, agricultural practices, and research and development. PMID:25201667

Keown, Oliver P; Warburton, Will; Davies, Sally C; Darzi, Ara

2014-09-01

195

Multiple Determinants, Common Vulnerabilities, and Creative Responses: Addressing the AIDS Pandemic in Diverse Populations Globally  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The AIDS epidemic has been fueled by global inequities. Ranging from gender inequality and underdevelopment to homophobia impeding health care access for men who have sex with men (MSM), imbalanced resource allocations and social biases have potentiated the epidemic’s spread. However, recognition of culturally specific aspects of each microepidemic has yielded development of community-based organizations, which have resulted in locally effective responses to AIDS. This effective approach to...

Mayer, Kenneth H.; Pape, Jean William; Wilson, Phill; Diallo, Dazon Dixon; Saavedra, Jorge; Mimiaga, Matthew J.; Koenig, Serena; Farmer, Paul

2012-01-01

196

Training Solutions to the Global Challenges of a Nuclear Renaissance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

From East Asia to the United States and all over Europe, the nuclear re-birth is generating demands the training simulation vendors had not faced before. Companies involved in the planning, design, construction and operation of new plants increasingly require simulation tools to satisfy very different needs, all of them on a large scale: education and support of inexperienced newcomer staff, human factors analysis and control room design, e-learning, verification and validation of I and C systems or training and licensing of crews before the actual installations are complete. There is a full set of applications already available to the whole industry to satisfy these needs. End-user friendly Thunder Real-Time Executive (T-REX), poised to become the standard simulation platform for U.S. plants, makes it possible to provide full-scope simulator and simulator exercises to students and others on a memory stick or over the internet. AREVA EPR full-scope training simulator, based on the ALICES integrated object-oriented simulation environment, becomes an engineering simulator for the Flamanville 3 plant under construction in Normandy; the same will happen to the Taishan 1 and 2 simulators in Guangdong (China) while UniStar plans to apply this approach to the future EPR's to be built in the United States. SIREP PWR Basic Principle Simulator, with simplified models which can run on an ordinary PC, is used at GDF SUEZ offices in Brussels to implement their Nuclear Trainees Prols to implement their Nuclear Trainees Program. EDF Training Department chooses On-line Micro Simulation (MicroSel), which can be managed with Learning Management Systems, for classroom and stand-alone learning of the basic characteristics of French reactors. All these are examples of how extensive R and D and innovation programs implemented by the simulator providers, some of them under way here in Spain, will help to overcome some of the challenges of the current nuclear expansion.

197

The physics of global climate change: challenges for research  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Full text: There are major issues in our scientific understanding of the functioning of our planet Earth. The growing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases, changing in surface albedo, changes in distribution and lifetime of clouds, alteration in aerosol properties and distribution, are all key issues in the radiation balance that controls the climate of our planet. Earth is a non linear highly complex system. Since the industrial revolution, concentration of greenhouse gases, in particular carbon dioxide and methane have increase by 30 to 100%. The fraction of infrared radiation trapped in the atmosphere has increased by about 1.6 watts/m{sup 2}. This additional energy has increased the average temperature by 0.79 degrees centigrade, with certain regions. But, we know very little of the physics, chemistry and biology that controls emissions, sinks and effects in Earth climate. Every week new important scientific findings are published in this area, and models that could predict the future of Earth climate are quite primitive and lack key issues. The hard science of global change is closely associated with socio-economic issues. Humanity have taken the main control role on Earth climate, and the potential for an average increase in temperature of 3 to 5 degrees is large, although there are tentative to limit the average temperature growth to 2 degrees. But even with this ambitious target, Amazonia and the Arctic will probably be much hotter than 3-4 degrees, with important feedbacks in the climate system. The talk will deal with these issues and new research that is needed to increase our knowledge on how the climate of our planet works and which climate we could have in the next decades. (author)

Artaxo, Paulo [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica. Dept. de Fisica Aplicada

2009-07-01

198

The physics of global climate change: challenges for research  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: There are major issues in our scientific understanding of the functioning of our planet Earth. The growing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases, changing in surface albedo, changes in distribution and lifetime of clouds, alteration in aerosol properties and distribution, are all key issues in the radiation balance that controls the climate of our planet. Earth is a non linear highly complex system. Since the industrial revolution, concentration of greenhouse gases, in particular carbon dioxide and methane have increase by 30 to 100%. The fraction of infrared radiation trapped in the atmosphere has increased by about 1.6 watts/m2. This additional energy has increased the average temperature by 0.79 degrees centigrade, with certain regions. But, we know very little of the physics, chemistry and biology that controls emissions, sinks and effects in Earth climate. Every week new important scientific findings are published in this area, and models that could predict the future of Earth climate are quite primitive and lack key issues. The hard science of global change is closely associated with socio-economic issues. Humanity have taken the main control role on Earth climate, and the potential for an average increase in temperature of 3 to 5 degrees is large, although there are tentative to limit the average temperature growth to 2 degrees. But even with this ambitious target, Amazonia and the Arctic will probably be much hotter than 3-4 degrwill probably be much hotter than 3-4 degrees, with important feedbacks in the climate system. The talk will deal with these issues and new research that is needed to increase our knowledge on how the climate of our planet works and which climate we could have in the next decades. (author)

199

Global warming what are the challenges for Copenhagen?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Kyoto Protocol was adopted in 1997 and, following a long ratification process, went into effect in 2005. Under the Protocol, 200 countries have committed to reducing their greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) by 2012. What conclusions can we draw from developments thus far, as we await the December conference in Copenhagen to determine a follow-up to the Kyoto Protocol? The work of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has given us more accurate knowledge on global warming issues. In its latest report, published in 2007, the IPCC reveals that eleven of the past twelve years studied - 1995 to 2006 - were among the warmest yet recorded since 1850, when this type of data collection began. From 1906 to 2005, global temperatures rose by 0.74 deg. C, and the average rate of increase has more than doubled over the past fifty years. To help companies and countries achieve their GHG emissions reduction targets, the Kyoto Protocol provides for a carbon trading system based on carbon reduction credits (CRC), the exchange currency in a carbon credit market. When a company reduces its emissions below regulatory levels, it can have the 'excess' reduction certified and converted into carbon credits, which it can then sell to a company that has not yet reached its reduction targets. Japan has already used clean technologies and energy saving measures to achieve energy efficiency in the past. Its energy structure is fairly close to that of France, which has a 0% emissionso that of France, which has a 0% emissions goal. In Japan, nuclear power also accounts for a significant share of the electric power program. The Japanese government recently announced that it was increasing its carbon reduction goal from 6% to an ambitious 25%. China and the United States are the world's leading greenhouse gas emitters. When China ratified the Kyoto Protocol in 2002, it was considered to be a developing country and as such has no emissions reduction obligations. Since then, China has moved closer to the Protocol principles, creating a national climate change group in 2007 and launching its own national climate change program. The program's goal is to lower China's energy consumption per unit of GDP by 20% by 2010 compared with its 2005 level. Under a medium to long-term sustainable development plan, the share of sustainable energies in the overall energy mix will increase to 10% by 2010 and to 15% by 2020. Before the Copenhagen conference, China indicated that it was expecting the United States and Europe to commit to reducing their emissions by 40% and to devote 1% of their GDP to technology transfer towards developing countries by 2020. The Bush Administration used the argument that 'the American way of life is not negotiable' to justify the refusal of the United States to adhere to the Kyoto Protocol. Today, the United States returns to the discussion table in a more open frame of mind. The administration of Barack Obama has decided to become more involved and cooperate more with China and India on climate change. In late June, the American president succeeded in getting his climate change bill through the US House of Representatives. The climate bill, which is still up before the Senate, aims to reduce GHG emissions (particularly CO2) by 17% before 2020 compared with the 2005 level. It also promotes the development of clean energies and provides for the creation of a cap and trade emissions trading system. Under this system, emissions allowances are either sold or given to the most vulnerable industries. The sales revenue would be used to fund the development of clean energies, among other things. The EU-15 member states are close to reaching the targets set at Kyoto. What about EU-27 member states? At the late September summit in Pittsburgh, the G20 countries, which include the most industrialized countries as well as the large emerging countries of China, India and Brazil, agreed to phase out subsidies for fossil energy sources over the medium term, but without setting a deadline. According to the press release issued at the end of th

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NKS - The Nordic region's cooperative network for addressing challenges in nuclear safety and emergency preparedness  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Based on the foundation of a common cultural and historical heritage and a long tradition of collaboration, NKS aims to facilitate a common Nordic view on nuclear and radiation safety. A common understanding of rules, practice and measures, and national differences in this context, is here an essential requirement. Problems can generally be tackled quicker, more efficiently, more consistently and at a lower cost through collaboration, bearing in mind that key competencies are not equally distributed in the different Nordic countries. For instance common Nordic challenges emerge in relation to nuclear installations, where nuclear power plants are in operation in Finland and Sweden, and research reactors have been operated in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. There is an obvious benefit in exchanging ideas and technologies in relation to plant operation, and since a number of reactors in different Nordic countries are under decommissioning, a collaborative benefit can also be realised in that context. Sweden also has a nuclear fuel production plant, and its collaboration with other Nordic nuclear installations can also be beneficial. Further, a number of large radiological installations are projected in Nordic areas (e.g., the MAX-LAB/MAX IV synchrotron radiation source and the European spallation source ESS), where Nordic organisations are collaborating in addressing, e.g., potential environmental implications. On the emergency preparedness side, the Fukushima accident in March 2011 was a reminder that large accidents at nuclear installations can lead to widespread radioactive contamination in the environment. In order to respond to nuclear or radiological emergencies, should they affect Nordic populations, it is necessary to maintain an operational emergency preparedness. By continuously improving detection, response and decision aiding tools while maintaining an informal collaborative network between relevant stakeholders in the Nordic countries (including nuclear power plant experts), the capacity and capability to respond optimally to an emergency is enhanced. Today's emergency preparedness also needs to address prevention against and response to nuclear and radiological terror attacks. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

Andersson, K.G. [NKS/Technical University of Denmark (Denmark); Andgren, K. [NKS/Vattenfall R and D (Sweden); Leino, K. [NKS/Fortum Power and Heat Oy (Finland); Magnusson, S. [NKS/Icelandic Radiation Safety Authority (Iceland); Physant, F. [NKS/FRIT, Roskilde (Denmark)

2014-07-01

 
 
 
 
201

Joint enterprise and the role of the intermediator : Challenges managing groupware in global virtual teams  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Managing groupware technologies in global virtual teams is viewed as a process of integrating technology and collaboration. This involves a continual negotia-tion of the team’s goals, processes, and technology. We investigate organizational factors constraining this integration process, by analyzing the failure of inte-grating groupware into two global virtual teams within industry. We present an empirically driven interpretive case study conducted in a large distributed global or-ganization. Based on the empirical observations, we reveal two organizational factors challenging the inte-gration process: The importance of joint enterprise and the role of the intermediator.

BjØrn, Pernille; Simonsen, Jesper

2005-01-01

202

An integrated framework to address climate change (ESCAPE) and further developments of the global and regional climate modules (MAGICC)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

ESCAPE (the Evaluation of Strategies to address Climate change by Adapting to and Preventing Emissions) is an integrated climate change assessment model constructed between 1990 and 1992 for DG XI of the Commission of the European Community by a consortium of research institutes headed by the Climatic Research Unit (CRU). It has been designed to enable the user to generate future scenarios of greenhouse gas emissions (through an energy-economic model), examine their impact on global climate and sea level (through two independent global climate models), and illustrate some of the consequences of this global climate change at a regional scale for the European Community (through a regional climate scenario generator and impact models). We provide a very brief overview of the ESCAPE model which, although innovative, suffers from a number of major limitations. Subsequent work in the CRU has concentrated on improvements to the global climate module and work has also commenced on an improved regional climate scenario generating module. These improvements will lead to a new integrated climate change assessment model, MAGICC (Model for the Assessment of Greenhouse gas Induced Climate Change) which can easily be incorporated into new larger integrated frameworks developed by other institutes. (Author)

203

SMART GRIDS: A prologue & unscrew challenges that needs to be addressed, A Short Survey on how to make Grids Smarter:  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A Smart Grid (SG1 is an intellectual and logical electricity network that integrates the actions of all users connected to it and makes use of sophisticated and highly advanced information, control, and communications technologies to save energy, reduce expenditure and increase reliability and transparency. A smart grid can reduce energy cost; it makes energy usage efficient that result in a short term solution for the energy crisis. It also helps the distribution systems for better energy management and control. The field of Information & Communication Technology (ICT4 and computer technology can play a major role in this hazardous situation all over the world. This paper presents current research issues and challenges that need to be addressed for reliable, efficient and flexible load distribution (LD2 and management for smart grid design. The paper also presents some security & privacy issues that inform the grid station (GS3 about consumer’s habits and personnel information. The article also tries to highlight major research issues in smart grid technology, which are helpful for the new researchers to find new research directions in this field & technology.

Muhammad Zakarya

2013-07-01

204

Toward Learning Societies and the Global Challenges for Learning with ICT  

Science.gov (United States)

The Knowledge Age is at hand, and with it, new worldwide demands for Learning Societies. The shape of learning-with-ICT to come--new lifelong skills, new kinds of learners, new learning theory, new global ways of learning, and new learning tools--are all highlighted. The top ten challenges for using ICT to help invent the Learning Societies of the…

Trilling, Bernie

2007-01-01

205

Technical Session: International Energy Agency. Our Energy Future - Addressing the Dual Challenges of Climate Change and Energy Security  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Distinguished Ministers, guests, ladies and gentlemen, it is an honor for me to take part in this important conference and I thank Mr. Sokolov and the IAEA for providing me with the opportunity to be here today In this session we are discussing 'Energy Resources and the Environment'. Using this important occasion, I would like to share with you the IEA's view on the world's energy future. In the regard, we are facing two challenges; Energy Security and climate change. In the energy sector, climate change mitigation and energy security go hand in hand. Investment in clean energy technologies will ensure better energy security while at the same time mitigating climate change. And nuclear power has a key role to play in this regard. Though the current economic downturn results world energy demand shrinking in short term, in longer term, it is inevitable to see strong demand increase if only existing policies were to remain in place until 2030 (our so called 'Reference Scenario' or 'business as usual model'). Our World Energy Outlook 2008 published November last year demonstrates that world primary energy demand will grow by 45% from 2006 to 2030, which is an average annual growth rate of 1.6%. Though it is not shown in the graph, it is important to note that non-OECD countries account for 87% of global energy demand growth between 2006 and 2030. The increase in China's energy demand outpaces that of all other countries and regions. Huge inflows of capital are needed to ms. Huge inflows of capital are needed to meet such demand growth and replace existing and future supply facilities that will be retired,. This shows the cumulative investment in energy supply needed to 2030 in the business as usual scenario. It amounts to $26.3 trillion (in year-2007 dollars) from 2007 to 2030; Electricity generation represents half of this. Oil and gas account for almost all of the remainder; 63% of this total will be needed in non-OECD countries - clearly highlighting that the investment challenge is a global issue. As energy production accounts for 60% of CO2 emissions, this energy demand growth will obviously have huge implications for climate change. In our WEO-2008 business as usual scenario shown here, global CO2 emissions from energy will jump by 45% between 2006 and 2030 to 40.6 giga-tonnes (growth rate of 1.6% pa). This trajectory puts the world on track for a global temperature increase of around 6 degrees. In light of the CO2 challenge, WEO-2008 set out two alternative energy policy scenarios to take the world to a lower emissions future: 550 ppm, and 450 ppm of CO2 in the atmosphere. This graph shows trajectories for energy-related CO2 emissions to 2030 in the different scenarios, assuming 3.3% global GDP growth to 2030. We must reduce emissions from: 40.6 Gt in 2030 (in RS) - to reach 33 Gt in the 550 ppm scenario with a temperature rise of 3oC; 26 Gt in the 450 ppm scenario with a temperature rise of around 2oC ... would eventually mean a 50% reduction of current levels of CO2 by 2050. This will require a 'revolution' of the energy sector. In particular, measures in three areas are vital: 1. Energy efficiency: 54% in the 450ppm scenario. 2. CCS (particularly in the 450 ppm scenario) after 2020. 3. Diversification of the energy mix through the use of nuclear power and renewables. Let me also emphasize here that these scenarios also enhance our energy security, by ensuring energy is used efficiently and by diversifying energy portfolios. Widespread deployment of low-carbon technologies and energy efficiency requires much investment if we are to reduce CO2 emissions and ensure a secure energy future. Business as usual scenario, investment of $26.3 trillion is needed in energy infrastructure just to meet growing demand and production decline. But in the two low emissions scenarios, significant additional investment of $9 trillion is needed in power plants and in more efficient energy-related capital stock. This additional investment amounts to 0.6% of world GDP on average per year. In addition, the price of carbon in the 450 ppm s

206

Addressing Challenges of regional climate modeling over the Greater Horn of Africa: Africa Regional Climate Model Inter-comparison Project (AFRMIP)  

Science.gov (United States)

The Greater Horn of Africa (GHA) has distinct climate characteristics compared to the rest of the continent. The GHA is replete with complex terrain comprising of some of the known tropical glacier covered high mountains of Kilimanjaro, Kenya and Rwenzori as well as the Great Rift Valley System (GRVS). The region also has several freshwater lakes that include Lake Victoria (second largest freshwater lake), and Lake Tanganyika (the second largest deepest freshwater lake). As a whole the complex GHA terrain presents an enabling environment where local and large scale climate systems frequently interact to create highly variable climate in both space and time. At the same time, inter-annual variability of the GHA climate is linked to perturbations in the global SSTs, especially over the equatorial Pacific and Indian Ocean basins, and to some extent, the Atlantic Ocean. These three global oceans, all at the same time or each at different times, intriguingly influence the interannual variability of the GHA climate. Interactions and feedbacks among these multiple climate drivers over the region present challenges in quantitative understanding of regional climate variability and changes based on typical empirical techniques. Therefore, there is need to also employ physically-based, regional climate models (RCMs) that can offer scope and capability to unveil cause-effect relationships between regional climate variability and individual or combination of processes. However, representation of the multiple sources of forcing to the GHA climate also poses a great challenge to RCMs as well. This presentation will give an overview of the AFRMIP project, whose primary objective is to undertake a systematic and comprehensive audit of the deficiencies and uncertainties in regional model simulations of the GHA climate. The project specifically seeks to build a coalition of a regional climate modeling community to address the following issues; (i) representation of the GHA-relevant physical processes in the current RCMs (ii) appropriate adjustments to current physics parameterizations in order to customize RCMs for optimal simulation of the GHA climate (ii) representation of natural variability and anthropogenic changes over the GHA by different RCMs.

Anyah, R.

2009-04-01

207

Global change and mercury cycling: challenges for implementing a global mercury treaty.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Minamata Convention aims to protect human health and the environment from anthropogenic emissions and releases of mercury. In the present study, the provisions of the Minamata Convention are examined to assess their influence on global biogeochemical cycling of Hg. Although the convention's scope covers all major categories of atmospheric emissions, the degree to which it will affect future emissions trajectories remains unclear. A box model analysis shows that future global biogeochemical cycling under projected technological provisions would result mainly in avoided increases and that estimated differences in atmospheric concentrations resulting from policies would be on the order of 1% to 2% per year. Present experience suggests that scientific knowledge is not currently sufficient to attribute causes to changes of this magnitude. Enhancements to capacity to measure the effectiveness of the Minamata Convention are suggested, including both measurement and modeling. PMID:24038450

Selin, Noelle E

2014-06-01

208

Globalization : the challenge of the 1990s for the chemical industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The challenges facing the chemical industry in Canada were discussed. In recent years, Canada has scored low in polls measuring public confidence in the chemical industry. The industry is also suffering from continuing recession, global competition, increased environmental demands and strict legislation. The impact of globalization, total quality management, free trade, environmental concerns, and government policies on the chemical industry were reviewed. In the view of this author (President and CEO of Dow Chemicals) globalization is not a matter of choice, it is an industry imperative. Survival in the globalized economy will require not only to be successful competitors, but even more importantly to be successful cooperators with other stakeholders, and successful in forming partnerships with customers

209

GLOBALIZATION AND INTEGRATION INTO THE ECONOMIC AND MONETARY UNION-CHALLENGES FOR BANKS OPERATING IN ROMANIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper aims to present recent evolution, but also the consequences of globalization of the banking sector, considering different approaches of this phenomenon. Over time, the banking field has undergone important changes in both the applicable law of this area, and through the technologies used in satisfying the customers’ needs. The development of international markets has led to new opportunities and challenges for banks that transformed the domestic financial market into an arena where only the best survive and grow. On these grounds and in strict relation to positive and negative effects of globalization, we can speak of a constant evolution of its most important subsystems - the financial subsystems of the global economy. In this paper special importance is given to the banking field, the article presenting arguments through which this complex phenomenon called globalization may have important consequences on financial supervision and regulation.

CORALIA EMILIA POPA

2012-01-01

210

Opening address  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In on of the three 'pillars' of the overall IAEA mission, the 'safety pillar', the IAEA seeks to contribute towards a vision of a strong, sustainable and visible global safety regime by pursuing three main objectives: to establish and maintain a set of safety standards that are universally accepted as global standards; to integrate fully these safety standards and the various mechanisms to provide for their application; and to promote self-sustaining regional and global networks of safety knowledge and experience. The purpose of this conference is to foster the exchange of information, but this is not an end in itself. The aim of this conference is to clarify the key issues within the larger global picture and set out a road map for the future direction and priorities for work on safety standards for decommissioning and for applying those standards. The word 'decommissioning' is often treated as though it was synonymous with dismantling nuclear reactors and returning to a 'green field' site, and we quite deliberately intended to challenge that interpretation. The subject of this conference is one that no country can ignore. All countries whether or not they have nuclear power programs or research reactors - make use of at least some applications involving radiation sources or radioactive materials, in medicine, industry, agriculture and research. All of these countries will need to terminate these activities safely. Decommissioning is also a subject that has suffered oning is also a subject that has suffered from being addressed in a piecemeal and sometimes ad hoc fashion.The IAEA must take its share of responsibility for this: IAEA has published safety standards on particular aspects of decommissioning, and more general safety standards on the regulatory control of practices, on operational safety, on occupational radiation protection, on the management of different types of radioactive waste and discharges, and we are developing standards on the management of very low activity wastes and of contaminated areas. Yet, the IAEA has not succeeded in bringing all these elements together into safety standards to cover the entire process of decommissioning and the termination of practices. Similarly, the IAEA has recently been involved in the organization of international conferences on the remediation of contaminated areas and of an international workshop on the regulatory aspects of decommissioning. Within the IAEA, one step towards a more holistic approach to the issue was taken by establishing a Technical Group on Decommissioning (TEGDE)

211

The Cultural Challenges of Managing Global Project Teams: a Study of Brazilian Multinationals  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english The internationalization of Brazilian companies brings a new reality: the need for implementation of global projects that bring, in turn, the challenge of managing multicultural teams. Since this is a recent phenomenon with little theoretical development, this study sought to understand the relation [...] ships between cultural characteristics and management teams of global projects in Brazilian multinationals. To carry this discussion forward, we studied six cases of Brazilian multinational companies, with the aim of deepening the understanding of the management of global teams, involving the planning, deployment, development and management of human resources. Among the projects studied, it was found that there is very little concern with the specific issue of multiculturalism and little inter-cultural incentive to the development of team members, which ends up hindering the construction of a global mindset, important for the Brazilian multinational companies to perform successfully abroad. Faced with this situation, each of the managerial processes mentioned were presented with a number of actions to be undertaken by the project manager in three different dimensions: the project itself, the organization and the global environment. The work contributes, thus, to enable Brazilian multinational companies to manage their global teams in order to maximize the advantages of global teams, such as increased creativity and innovative capacity, but avoid the problems that multiculturalism can bring, ranging from conflicts between people to project failure.

Ivete, Rodrigues; Roberto, Sbragia.

2013-02-01

212

The Cultural Challenges of Managing Global Project Teams: A Study of Brazilian Multinationals  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The internationalization of Brazilian companies brings a new reality: the need for implementation of global projects that bring, in turn, the challenge of managing multicultural teams. Since this is a recent phenomenon with little theoretical development, this study sought to understand the relationships between cultural characteristics and management teams of global projects in Brazilian multinationals. To carry this discussion forward, we studied six cases of Brazilian multinational companies, with the aim of deepening the understanding of the management of global teams, involving the planning, deployment, development and management of human resources. Among the projects studied, it was found that there is very little concern with the specific issue of multiculturalism and little inter-cultural incentive to the development of team members, which ends up hindering the construction of a global mindset, important for the Brazilian multinational companies to perform successfully abroad. Faced with this situation, each of the managerial processes mentioned were presented with a number of actions to be undertaken by the project manager in three different dimensions: the project itself, the organization and the global environment. The work contributes, thus, to enable Brazilian multinational companies to manage their global teams in order to maximize the advantages of global teams, such as increased creativity and innovative capacity, but avoid the problems that multiculturalism can bring, ranging from conflicts between people to project failure.

Ivete Rodrigues

2013-04-01

213

Education of teachers and educators for the challenges related to the globalization of civilizational risks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper makes an attempt to formulate the theoretical framework for a more fruitful cooperation between social sciences, specially the cooperation between pedagogy, psychology, sociology, social ecology and political sciences. Special attention is paid to the comprehension of the process including the globalization of civilizational risks with contradictions related to the growing-up of children and teenagers in a contemporary society; it also pays attention to new challenges facing education of teachers and educators in these conditions. This analysis of the global framework discusses significant goals necessary to educate teachers and educators in this spirit of the world.

Miškovi? Milan M.

2003-01-01

214

The UK Government's global partnership programme - Its achievements over the past five years and challenges ahead  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Through the Global Partnership the UK continues to make a significant contribution to improve national and global security. Over the past year the UK has continued to implement a wide range of projects across the breadth of its Global Partnership Programme. As well as ensuring the Programme is robust and capable of dealing with new challenges, the UK has cooperated with other donor countries to help them progress projects associated with submarine dismantling, scientist redirection, enhancing nuclear security and Chemical Weapons Destruction. The Global Partnership, although only five years old, has already achieved a great deal. Some 23 states, plus the European Union, are now working closer together under the Global Partnership, and collectively have enhanced global regional and national security by reducing the availability of Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) materials and expertise to both states of concern and terrorists. Considerable progress has already been made in, for example: - Improving the security of fissile materials, dangerous biological agents and chemical weapons stocks; - Reducing the number of sites containing radioactive materials; - Working towards closure of reactors still producing weapon-grade plutonium; - Improving nuclear safety to reduce the risks of further, Chernobyl style accidents; - Constructing facilities for destroying Chemical Weapons stocks, and starting actual destruction; - Providing sustainable employment for former WMD scientitainable employment for former WMD scientists to reduce the risk that their expertise will be misused by states or terrorists. By contributing to many of these activities, the UK has helped to make the world safer. This paper reports on the UK's practical and sustainable contribution to the Global Partnership and identifies a number of challenges that remain if it is to have a wider impact on reducing the threats from WMD material. (authors)

215

Combining Multidisciplinary Science, Quantitative Reasoning and Social Context to Teach Global Sustainability and Prepare Students for 21st Grand Challenges  

Science.gov (United States)

The Earth's seven billion humans are consuming a growing proportion of the world's ecosystem products and services. Human activity has also wrought changes that rival the scale of many natural geologic processes, e.g. erosion, transport and deposition, leading to recognition of a new geological epoch, the Anthropocene. Because of these impacts, several natural systems have been pushed beyond the planetary boundaries that made the Holocene favorable for the expansion of humanity. Given these human-induced stresses on natural systems, global citizens will face an increasing number of grand challenges. Unfortunately, traditional discipline-based introductory science courses do little to prepare students for these complex, scientifically-based and technologically-centered challenges. With NSF funding, an introductory, integrated science course stressing quantitative reasoning and social context has been created at UW. The course (GEOL1600: Global Sustainability: Managing the Earth's Resources) is a lower division course designed around the energy-water-climate (EWC) nexus and integrating biology, chemistry, Earth science and physics. It melds lectures, lecture activities, reading questionnaires and labs to create a learning environment that examines the EWT nexus from a global through regional context. The focus on the EWC nexus, while important socially and intended to motivate students, also provides a coherent framework for identifying which disciplinary scientific principles and concepts to include in the course: photosynthesis and deep time (fossil fuels), biogeochemical cycles (climate), chemical reactions (combustion), electromagnetic radiation (solar power), nuclear physics (nuclear power), phase changes and diagrams (water and climate), etc. Lecture activities are used to give students the practice they need to make quantitative skills routine and automatic. Laboratory exercises on energy (coal, petroleum, nuclear power), water (in Bangladesh), energy production and water (shale gas hydrofracing and oil sand production) and climate (scientific modeling, carbon emission management) address EWC issues in international, national and regional contexts while reflecting the news headlines of the day.

Myers, J. D.

2011-12-01

216

Global Sustainable Development Agenda: An Implication for Conservation Challenges in Cross River State, Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The pristine rainforest of Cross River State of Nigeria is ecologically a region of species endemism and one of the 25 biodiversity hotspots in the world. Globally, there has been a drive for sustainability of these valuable ecosystems. The world Commission on Environment and Development articulates this drive and offers clarifications on the instruments to achieve the goals of sustainable development. However, in many countries such as Nigeria and other African countries, the challenges of a...

Oliver Okey Oji Enuoh; Bisong, Francis E.

2014-01-01

217

Japanese Higher Education Institutions in the 21st Century: The Challenge of Globalization and Internationalization  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Higher education institutions in Japan are facing unprecedented challenges today due to the following three factors:the decrease in the size of college age cohorts in the coming years; heightened expectations in the modes of instructional delivery through the advances of information and communication technologies (ICT); global competition for college students worldwide especially from English-speaking countries. This paper examines internationalization of higher education in Japan in terms of...

Aoki, Kumiko

2005-01-01

218

The Diabetic foot: A global threat and a huge challenge for Greece  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The diabetic foot continues to be a major cause of morbidity, posing a global threat. Substantial progress has been now accomplished in the treatment of foot lesions, but further improvement is required. Treatment options may be classified into established measures (revascularisation, casting and debridement) and new modalities. All therapeutic measures should be provided by specialised dedicated multidisciplinary foot clinics. In particular, the diabetic foot is a huge challenge for Greece. ...

Papanas, N.; Maltezos, E.

2009-01-01

219

Global Sustainable Development Agenda: An Implication for Conservation Challenges in Cross River State, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The pristine rainforest of Cross River State of Nigeria is ecologically a region of species endemism and one of the 25 biodiversity hotspots in the world. Globally, there has been a drive for sustainability of these valuable ecosystems. The world Commission on Environment and Development articulates this drive and offers clarifications on the instruments to achieve the goals of sustainable development. However, in many countries such as Nigeria and other African countries, the challenges of achieving the global goal of sustainable development are enormous, given the urge for economic and infrastructural development, and the challenging needs of a burgeoning human population. Natural resources conservation in the above circumstances remain an uphill task. In the developed world, advancement in technology and industrial development also poses a serious problem to the global sustainability agenda. From the Nigerian perspective, with Cross River State harboring more than 50 percent of the remaining pristine rainforest, the challenges to sustainable development include inter alia ineffective implementation of international environmental treaties, high rates of deforestation, biodiversity loss, weak institutions, non-resettlement of enclave communities of parks, and lack of commitment on the part of stakeholders. This paper therefore recommends that forest ecological restoration, biodiversity conservation in parks and protected areas, and industrial strengthening should be pursued as core strategies of sustainable development in Nigeria.

Oliver Okey Oji Enuoh

2014-07-01

220

Addressing Challenging Behaviour in Children with Down Syndrome: The Use of Applied Behaviour Analysis for Assessment and Intervention  

Science.gov (United States)

Children with Down syndrome are at an increased risk for engaging in challenging behaviour that may be part of a behavioural phenotype characteristic of Down syndrome. The methodology of applied behaviour analysis has been demonstrated effective with a wide range of challenging behaviours, across various disabilities. Applications to children with…

Feeley, Kathlee M.; Jones, Emily A.

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Born Global Challenges and Performance - A Study on Competences, Routines, and Corporate Governance Structure of Born Global Software Companies in Sweden and Norway  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Problem: How do the born global firms overcome challenges and sustain performance in international markets through their competences, routines, and corporate governance structure? Purpose: The purpose of this thesis is to explore the competences, routines, and corporate governance structure of born global companies, and understand their role in overcoming challenges of early internationalization and sustaining performance in international markets from early days. Method: This research is cond...

Tunca, Burak; Yuditskaya, Evgenia

2009-01-01

222

Lessons Learned and Present Day Challenges of Addressing 20th Century Radiation Legacies of Russia and the United States  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The decommissioning of nuclear submarines, disposal of highly-enriched uranium and weapons-grade plutonium, and processing of high-level radioactive wastes represent the most challenging issues facing the cleanup of 20th century radiation legacy wastes and facilities. The US and Russia are the two primary countries dealing with these challenges, because most of the world's fissile inventory is being processed and stored at multiple industrial sites and nuclear weapons production facilities in these countries

223

Global challenges as inspiration: a classroom strategy to foster social responsibility.  

Science.gov (United States)

Social responsibility is at the heart of the Engineer's Creed embodied in the pledge that we will dedicate [our] professional knowledge and skill to the advancement and betterment of human welfare... [placing] public welfare above all other considerations. However, half century after the original creed was written, we find ourselves in a world with great technological advances and great global-scale technologically-enabled peril. These issues can be naturally integrated into the engineering curriculum in a way that enhances the development of the technological skill set. We have found that these global challenges create a natural opportunity to foster social responsibility within the engineering students whom we educate. In freshman through senior-level materials engineering courses, we used five guiding principles to shape several different classroom activities and assignments. Upon testing an initial cohort of 28 students had classroom experiences based on these five principles, we saw a shift in attitude: before the experience, 18% of the cohort viewed engineers as playing an active role in solving global problems; after the experiences, 79% recognized the engineer's role in solving global-scale problems. In this paper, we present how global issues can be used to stimulate thinking for socially-responsible engineering solutions. We set forth five guiding principles that can foster the mindset for socially responsible actions along with examples of how these principles translate into classroom activities. PMID:16609724

Vanasupa, Linda; Slivovsky, Lynn; Chen, Katherine C

2006-04-01

224

Biological Sciences for the 21st Century: Meeting the Challenges of Sustainable Development in an Era of Global Change  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The symposium was held 10-12 May, 2007 at the Capitol Hilton Hotel in Washington, D. C. The 30 talks explored how some of today's key biological research developments (such as biocomplexity and complex systems analysis, bioinformatics and computational biology, the expansion of molecular and genomics research, and the emergence of other comprehensive or system wide analyses, such as proteomics) contribute to sustainability science. The symposium therefore emphasized the challenges facing agriculture, human health, sustainable energy, and the maintenance of ecosystems and their services, so as to provide a focus and a suite of examples of the enormous potential contributions arising from these new developments in the biological sciences. This symposium was the first to provide a venue for exploring how the ongoing advances in the biological sciences together with new approaches for improving knowledge integration and institutional science capacity address key global challenges to sustainability. The speakers presented new research findings, and identified new approaches and needs in biological research that can be expected to have substantial impacts on sustainability science.

Joel Cracraft; Richard O' Grady

2007-05-12

225

Transmissibility of the Ice Bucket Challenge among globally influential celebrities: retrospective cohort study  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives To estimate the transmissibility of the Ice Bucket Challenge among globally influential celebrities and to identify associated risk factors. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting Social media (YouTube, Facebook, Twitter, Instagram). Participants David Beckham, Cristiano Ronaldo, Benedict Cumberbatch, Stephen Hawking, Mark Zuckerberg, Oprah Winfrey, Homer Simpson, and Kermit the Frog were defined as index cases. We included contacts up to the fifth generation seeded from each index case and enrolled a total of 99 participants into the cohort. Main outcome measures Basic reproduction number R0, serial interval of accepting the challenge, and odds ratios of associated risk factors based on fully observed nomination chains; R0 is a measure of transmissibility and is defined as the number of secondary cases generated by a single index in a fully susceptible population. Serial interval is the duration between onset of a primary case and onset of its secondary cases. Results Based on the empirical data and assuming a branching process we estimated a mean R0 of 1.43 (95% confidence interval 1.23 to 1.65) and a mean serial interval for accepting the challenge of 2.1 days (median 1 day). Higher log (base 10) net worth of the participants was positively associated with transmission (odds ratio 1.63, 95% confidence interval 1.06 to 2.50), adjusting for age and sex. Conclusions The Ice Bucket Challenge was moderately transmissible among a group of globally influential celebrities, in the range of the pandemic A/H1N1 2009 influenza. The challenge was more likely to be spread by richer celebrities, perhaps in part reflecting greater social influence. PMID:25514905

Chan, Brandford H Y; Leung, Gabriel M; Lau, Eric H Y; Pang, Herbert

2014-01-01

226

A Short Study of Iranian Organizations' Needs in the Area of Globalization: Opportunities, Challenges and Relative Advantages  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Globalization and liberalization in developing countries is a lengthy process that has been a long time in the making. Some countries have accepted the reality of globalization while other undeveloped nations have yet to fully embrace this shift. For some, this has been in part due to fears among some underdeveloped nations that embracing globalization and becoming increasingly connected to a global economic network would put them in a bad position with relation to other powerful countries and multinational firms. Iran is an example of a developing country trying to be competitive in an increasingly global economy. The aim of this paper is to identify the needs for Iran and Iranian organizations in the process of globalization, focusing on opportunities, challenges, relative advantages and practical guides.Keywords: Globalization; Local development; Opportunities and Challenges

Mohammad Reza Noruzi

2010-09-01

227

Using global aerosol models and satellite data for air quality studies: Challenges and data needs  

Science.gov (United States)

Aerosol particles, also known as PM2.5 (particle diameter less than 2.5 pm) and PM10 (particle diameter less than 10 pm), are one of the key atmospheric components that determines air quality. Yet, air quality forecasts for PM are still in their infancy and remain a challenging task. It is difficult to simply relate PM levels to local meteorological conditions, and large uncertainties exist in regional air quality model emission inventories and initial and boundary conditions. Especially challenging are periods when a significant amount of aerosol comes from outside the regional modeling domain through long-range transport. In the past few years, NASA has launched several satellites with global aerosol measurement capabilities, providing large-scale chemical weather pictures. NASA has also supported development of global models which simulate atmospheric transport and transformation processes of important atmospheric gas and aerosol species. I will present the current modeling and satellite capabilities for PM2.5 studies, the possibilities and challenges in using satellite data for PM2.5 forecasts, and the needs of future remote sensing data for improving air quality monitoring and modeling.

Chin, Mian

2006-01-01

228

How can we exploit above-belowground interactions to assist in addressing the challenges of food security?  

Science.gov (United States)

Can above-belowground interactions help address issues of food security? We address this question in this manuscript, and review the intersection of above-belowground interactions and food security. We propose that above-belowground interactions could address two strategies identified by Godfray etal. (2010): reducing the Yield Gap, and Increasing Production Limits. In particular, to minimize the difference between potential and realized production (The Yield Gap) above-belowground interactions could be manipulated to reduce losses to pests and increase crop growth (and therefore yields). To Increase Production Limits we propose two mechanisms: utilizing intercropping (which uses multiple aspects of above-belowground interactions) and breeding for traits that promote beneficial above-belowground interactions, as well as breeding mutualistic organisms to improve their provided benefit. As a result, if they are managed correctly, there is great potential for above-belowground interactions to contribute to food security. PMID:24198821

Orrell, Peter; Bennett, Alison E

2013-01-01

229

How can we exploit above–belowground interactions to assist in addressing the challenges of food security?  

Science.gov (United States)

Can above–belowground interactions help address issues of food security? We address this question in this manuscript, and review the intersection of above–belowground interactions and food security. We propose that above–belowground interactions could address two strategies identified by Godfray etal. (2010): reducing the Yield Gap, and Increasing Production Limits. In particular, to minimize the difference between potential and realized production (The Yield Gap) above–belowground interactions could be manipulated to reduce losses to pests and increase crop growth (and therefore yields). To Increase Production Limits we propose two mechanisms: utilizing intercropping (which uses multiple aspects of above–belowground interactions) and breeding for traits that promote beneficial above–belowground interactions, as well as breeding mutualistic organisms to improve their provided benefit. As a result, if they are managed correctly, there is great potential for above–belowground interactions to contribute to food security. PMID:24198821

Orrell, Peter; Bennett, Alison E.

2013-01-01

230

Addressing the Challenges of a New Digital Technologies Curriculum: MOOCs as a Scalable Solution for Teacher Professional Development  

Science.gov (United States)

England and Australia have introduced new learning areas, teaching computer science to children from the first year of school. This is a significant milestone that also raises a number of big challenges: the preparation of teachers and the development of resources" at a national scale." Curriculum change is not easy for teachers, in any…

Vivian, Rebecca; Falkner, Katrina; Falkner, Nickolas

2014-01-01

231

Transportability of tertiary qualifications and CPD: A continuing challenge for the global health workforce  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background In workforces that are traditionally mobile and have long lead times for new supply, such as health, effective global indicators of tertiary education are increasingly essential. Difficulties with transportability of qualifications and cross-accreditation are now recognised as key barriers to meeting the rapidly shifting international demands for health care providers. The plethora of mixed education and service arrangements poses challenges for employers and regulators, let alone patients; in determining equivalence of training and competency between individuals, institutions and geographical locations. Discussion This paper outlines the shortfall of the current indicators in assisting the process of global certification and competency recognition in the health care workforce. Using Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD data we highlight how International standardisation in the tertiary education sector is problematic for the global health workforce. Through a series of case studies, we then describe a model which enables institutions to compare themselves internally and with others internationally using bespoke or prioritised parameters rather than standards. Summary The mobility of the global health workforce means that transportability of qualifications is an increasing area of concern. Valid qualifications based on workplace learning and assessment requires at least some variables to be benchmarked in order to judge performance.

Saltman Deborah C

2012-07-01

232

Accelerating the global nuclear renaissance: the central challenge of sustainable development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The rebirth of nuclear energy has become an unmistakable reality that is gathering speed and momentum on the full world stage. All around the world, old-school anti-nuclear environmentalism is being eclipsed by a new realism that recognises nuclear energy's essential virtue: its capacity to deliver cleanly generated power safely, reliably, and on a massive scale. For serious environmentalists, the real challenge is that nuclear energy is not yet growing fast enough to play its needed role in the clean-energy revolution our world so desperately needs. A fair assessment shows that not one of the commonly cited ''public concerns'' poses a reasonable obstacle to a global expansion of nuclear power: Proliferation, Operational Safety, Cost Reduction, Waste Management. In three areas, governments must take decisive action to grow the nuclear industry: (1) Construct a comprehensive global regime to curtail greenhouse emissions; (2) Elevate nuclear investment to a national and international policy priority; and (3) Support educational development of the nuclear profession for an expanded global role. The global nuclear industry will be indispensable if humanity is to preserve the environment that enabled civilisation to evolve. Governments must emerge from postures of timidity and equivocation to act decisively in support of that industry. Our world is in dire peril, and we have no time to lose

233

Globalization and environmental challenges. Reconceptualizing security in the 21{sup st} century  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Put quite simply, the twin impacts of globalization and environmental degradation pose new security dangers and concerns. In this comprehensive new work on global security thinking, 91 authors from five continents and many disciplines, from science and practice, assess the worldwide reassessment of the meaning of security triggered by the end of the Cold War and globalization, as well as the multifarious impacts of global environmental change in the early 21st century. Chapters address the theoretical, philosophical, ethical and religious and spatial context of security. They analyze the relationship between security, peace, development and environment. The authors move on to review the rethinking of security in international law, economics and political science, as well as in the key political, military and economic milieux. The book also examines the environmental security dimension and the adaptation of the institutional security concepts of the UN, EU and NATO, and analyzes the effect of change on regional security. Finally, it posits alternative security futures and draws conclusions for future research and action. (orig.)

Brauch, Hans Guenter [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany). Dept. of Political and Social Sciences; Oswald Spring, Ursula [National Univ. of Mexico (UNAM), Mexico City (MX). Centro Regional de Investigaciones Multidisciplinarias (CRIM); Mesjasz, Czeslaw [Cracow Univ. of Economics (Poland). Faculty of Management; Grin, John [Amsterdam Univ. (Netherlands). Dept. of Political Science; Dunay, Pal [Geneva Centre for Security Policy (Switzerland); Chadha Behera, Navnita [Jamia Millia Islamia Univ., New Delhi (India). Nelson Mandela Center for Peace and Conflict Resolution; Chourou, Bechir [Univ. of Tunis-Carthage, Hammam-Chatt (Tunisia); Kameri-Mbote, Patricia [Nairobi Univ. (Kenya), Dept. of Private Law; Liotta, P.H. (eds.) [Salve Regina Univ., Newport, RI (United States). Pell Center for International Relations and Public Policy

2008-07-01

234

Addressing the challenges of a new digital technologies curriculum: MOOCs as a scalable solution for teacher professional development  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

England and Australia have introduced new learning areas, teaching computer science to children from the first year of school. This is a significant milestone that also raises a number of big challenges: the preparation of teachers and the development of resources at a national scale. Curriculum change is not easy for teachers, in any context, and to ensure teachers are supported, scaled solutions are required. One educational approach that has gained traction for delivering content to large-...

Rebecca Vivian; Katrina Falkner; Nickolas Falkner

2014-01-01

235

Peak water from glaciers: advances and challenges in a global perspective (Arne Richter Award for Outstanding Young Scientists Lecture)  

Science.gov (United States)

Mountain glaciers show a high sensitivity to changes in climate forcing. In a global perspective, their anticipated retreat will pose far-reaching challenges to the manage- ment of fresh water resources and will raise sea levels significantly within only a few decades. Different model frameworks have been applied to simulate melt water con- tributions of glaciers outside the two ice sheets for the recent IPCC report. However, these models depend on strongly simplified, and often empirical descriptions of the driving processes hampering the reliability of the results. For example, glacier retreat is parameterized with volume-area scaling thus neglecting the glacier's actual geome- try and the surface elevation feedback. Frontal ablation of tidewater and lake-calving glaciers, an important mass loss component for a third of the world's glacier area, is not accounted for. Thus, a transition from the physically-based mass balance-ice flow models developed for single glaciers to the application at the global scale is urgently needed. The chal- lenges are manifold but can be tackled with the new data sets, methods and process- understanding that have emerged during the last years. Here, we present a novel glacier model for calculating the response of surface mass balance and 3D glacier geometry for each individual glacier around the globe. Our approach accounts for feedbacks due to glacier retreat and includes models for mass loss due to frontal ablation and the refreezing of water in the snow/firn. The current surface geometry and thickness distribution for each of the world's roughly 200'000 glaciers is extracted from the Randolph Glacier Inventory v3.2 and terrain models. Our simulations are driven with 14 Global Circulation Models from the CMIP5 project using the RCP4.5, RCP8.5 and RCP2.6 scenarios. Regionally specified cumulative global sea level rise due to glacier mass loss until 2100 is discussed in the light of model uncertainties and the advantages of using a physically- based approach. In particular, we focus on the timing of peak water from glacierized catchments in all climatic regions of the earth. The maximum rate of water release from glacial storage is subject to a high spatio-temporal variability. Peak water represents a crucial tipping point for sustained water supply even for regions with only a minor glacier coverage, and is relevant to the dynamics of sea level rise. Furthermore, we address the ratio between surface mass balance and frontal ablation of tidewater glaciers at the global scale.

Huss, Matthias; Hock, Regine

2014-05-01

236

The 2003 SARS Outbreak: Global Challenges and Innovative Infection Control Measure  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In early 2003, the global infection control community faced a great challenge, sudden acute respiratory syndrome (SARS. The rapid spread of SARS, its capacity to infect health care workers, and its many unknown features in the early days of the outbreak meant that health care workers were unsure of the most effective methods of infection control to prevent disease transmission. These conditions made designing appropriate, effective and standard infection control responses difficult. Innovation was necessary. This article provides a brief overview of global challenges in infection control and SARS. The author reports field observations and describes five selected examples of highly innovative, SARS-related infection control practices observed in three affected countries during the height of the 2003 outbreak. These examples relate to risk assessment, patient segregation, strategies to limit access to clinical areas, health care worker protection, and efforts to promote public confidence. Many of these strategies could be considered for use in the post-2003 SARS era, especially in preparation for an influenza or Avian influenza pandemic.

Cathryn Murphy

2006-01-01

237

Globalization Education and New Realities (Keynote Address, Midwest History of Education Society Annual Meeting, 2005, Chicago, Illinois)  

Science.gov (United States)

A central argument of this essay suggests that the truth of globalization is little known to the body politic as it is enmeshed in the dynamics of capitalist accumulation, avarice, and despotism. This project hopes to first locate, and then unmask the realities of globalization, warts and all. Gaining some knowledge of globalization, the…

Watkins, William H.

2006-01-01

238

The United Nations and Global Public Goods: Historical Contributions and Future Challenges.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Published by Palgrave MacmillanThis chapter explores the thesis that the United Nations’ (UN most important contribution to the production of global public goods has been its role in creating the space and capacity to generate shared values. Starting with the UN Charter itself, the chapter traces the evolution of this contribution through different historical phases. It analyses the impact of globalisation on the role of the UN; in particular it identifies the quality of porousness as a product of globalisation which is critical to understanding the current challenges faced by the UN as well as central to the global public goods agenda. Through this lens the author briefly reviews the evolution of the UN’s role in the fields of peace and security, human rights and development cooperation. He concludes by identifying eight levers for change that will determine the UN’s ability to contribute significantly to the global public goods: the generation of norms and shared values, the quality of leadership, improved governance, innovative financing, institutional realignment, the further consolidation of legal instruments, focus, and the power of networks.

Bruce Jenks

2012-03-01

239

Projected groundwater balance as a state indicator for addressing sustainability and management challenges of overexploited crystalline aquifers  

Science.gov (United States)

In India, particularly in semi-arid regions, groundwater levels are declining at alarming rates due to overexploitation and the sustainable exploitation of groundwater resources is in deep crisis. There is little or no information on groundwater sustainability indicators, which can signal towards the challenges in water management. In this study we downscaled an entire watershed into three zones based on the different hydrodynamic behaviour recorded at the borewell scale. A process-based simple, multi-parameter linear auto-regressive model was developed to predict groundwater levels, which uses recharge, groundwater withdrawal and irrigation return flow as input variables. A comprehensive and predictive long-term groundwater balance is used as a state indicator to evaluate the sustainability and management challenges in the watershed. Two groundwater withdrawal scenarios were designed to assess the impact of groundwater withdrawal on the groundwater balance. We found that geological heterogeneities play a crucial role in controlling groundwater fluctuations. The storage change in two different groundwater withdrawal scenarios shows gradually declining groundwater storage in both scenarios. A long-term assessment of the groundwater balance helps to analyse the state of the groundwater system and to locate priority zones for watershed interventions.

Sarah, S.; Ahmed, S.; Boisson, A.; Violette, S.; de Marsily, G.

2014-11-01

240

Addressing FinFET metrology challenges in 1X node using tilt-beam CD-SEM  

Science.gov (United States)

At 1X node, 3D FinFETS raise a number of new metrology challenges. Gate height and fin height are two of the most important parameters for process control. At present there is a metrology gap in inline in-die measurement of these parameters. In order to fill this metrology gap, in-column beam tilt has been developed and implemented on Applied Materials V4i+ top-down CD-SEM for height measurement. A low tilt (5°) beam and a high tilt (14°) beam have been calibrated to obtain two sets of images providing measurement of sidewall edge width to calculate height in the host. Evaluations are done with applications in both gate height and fin height. TEM correlation with R2 being 0.89 and precision of 0.81nm have been achieved on various in-die features in gate height application. Fin height measurement shows less accuracy (R2 being 0.77) and precision (1.49 nm) due to challenges brought by fin geometry, yet still promising as first attempt. Sensitivity to DOE offset, die-to-die and in-die variation is demonstrated in both gate height and fin height. Process defect is successfully captured from inline wafers with gate height measurement implemented in production. This is the first successful demonstration of inline in-die gate height measurement for 14nm FinFET process control.

Zhang, Xiaoxiao; Zhou, Hua; Ge, Zhenhua; Vaid, Alok; Konduparthi, Deepasree; Osorio, Carmen; Ventola, Stefano; Meir, Roi; Shoval, Ori; Kris, Roman; Adan, Ofer; Bar-Zvi, Maayan

2014-04-01

 
 
 
 
241

Special address  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The special address was delivered by the Parliamentary Secretary for the Minister of Environment Canada Mr. Serge Marcil. He stated that the forum represents a convergence of experts from the Environment, Energy, Economic sectors. The Prime Minister is determined to augment the energy production efficiency and increase the role of renewable energy. The Government of Canada will work with Quebec and all other provinces to become a global leader in proper energy production. (author)

242

Report on the INMM Workshop on preparing for nuclear arms reductions to address technical transparency and verification challenges  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In May 2011, a workshop was held to develop broader awareness of the technical and operational challenges that could be used to enhance effective transparency and/or verification in the medium to long-term. Building confidence in a broader multi-lateral engagement scenario adds even greater challenges than the traditional bi-lateral approaches. The multi-disciplinary group that attended included decision-makers needing to understand present and possible future technical capabilities, and the technical community needing clearer definition of possible requirements and operational constraints. In additional to traditional presentations, the group conducted an exercise to stimulate new perspectives on verification requirements for a scenario based on nuclear arms reductions at very low numbers of nuclear weapons. The workshop participants were divided into two groups and asked to explore the political and technical requirements needed for States to move towards significant arms reductions. Using a technique called 'back-casting' participants were asked to imagine a world without nuclear weapons and describe what would be needed to achieve levels of one thousand, one hundred, ten, and ultimately zero weapons in the world. Most participants agreed that a strong political commitment will be necessary and that complete disarmament will only be possible if states are convinced that nuclear weapons serve no purpose. Both groups believed that a time period of greater instability would be encountered when moving from 1000 to 100 nuclear weapons and that it would be imperative to accelerate quickly through this period. The group discussed the need to have an international body monitor the disarmament process to maintain legitimacy for the international community. One possibility could be the development of an intergovernmental panel on verification and disarmament to monitor and facilitate disarmament. The groups recognized the problem of fissile material disposition after warheads dismantlement. Controlling fissile materials is important since nuclear material could be a direct route to reconstitution of weapons. (A.C.)

243

Opening address [International conference on challenges faced by technical and scientific support organizations in enhancing nuclear safety  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In summary, I would like to leave you with several thoughts that could shape the outcome of your deliberations this week: (a) networking among TSOs to share safety related information, knowledge and resources, thus ensuring effective support for the regulators and improving safety; (b) identifying and addressing the safety research needs, and possibly the associated education and training; (c) ensuring adequate competence and independence of the TSOs in providing technical and scientific expertise/advice; (d) building and maintaining confidence among the communities of experts and the public; (e) increasing the role of TSOs in the establishment and revision of the IAEA safety standards and their application, and in the national efforts related to the implementation of conventions and codes of conduct; (f) supporting the creation and enhancement of the safety infrastructures in those countries with limited nuclear experience that are embarking on the use of nuclear power

244

Stigma, survivorship and solutions: Addressing the challenges of living with breast cancer in low-resource areas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Breast cancer in developing nations is characterised by late diagnosis. The causes are multifactorial and many are addressed in other articles in this edition of CME. Breast cancer is also seen in younger women. The late-presentation trend is slowly changing in some areas, and an increasing number o [...] f women are presenting with early disease. These patients, if managed appropriately, have a more favourable prognosis. As a result, developing nations must now begin to consider the concerns of breast cancer survivorship. In developed countries, there are a number of organisations that support breast cancer survivors. In this article, we highlight some of the psychosocial aspects of living with breast cancer in low-resource areas.

M, Mutebi; J, Edge.

2014-05-01

245

Globalização social: desafio do século XXI GLOBALIZATION SOCIAL: CHALLENGE OF THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A crítica de muitos à globalização é conseqüência dos rumos que ela está tomando. Embora a globalização seja um processo dinâmico em andamento, o seu avanço tem ocorrido de forma desequilibrada, gerando instabilidade política, econômica e social em várias regiões do planeta. O presente trabalho procura, de forma teórica, mostrar a falta da globalização social como um dos fatores que tem provocado desequilíbrio na dinâmica do processo de globalização. Pelo lado econômico, observa-se que a globalização ocorre de forma acelerada e já alcança os mais distantes pontos da face da Terra, ao passo que, pelo lado social, observa-se que a globalização está ausente em algumas regiões e, em outro tanto, ela ocorre de forma lenta e sem muito interesse. De nada vale os benefícios da globalização econômica se não existir a globalização social. Esse e o desafio do século XXI.The criticism of many of globalization is a consequence of directions it is taking. While globalization is a dynamic process in progress, its progress has occurred so unbalanced, creating politicalinstability, economic and social development in various regions of the planet. This paper demand, so theoretically, show the lack of social globalisation as one of the factors that have causedimbalance in the dynamics of the globalization process. On the economic side there is that globalization occurs so rapidly and have reached the most distant points of the face of theEarth, while the social side, there is that globalisation is absent in some regions, and in another both, it happens so slowly and without much interest. It is not worth the benefits of economicglobalization if there is the social globalisation. That and the challenge of the twenty-first century.

Antônio Carlos dos Santos

2010-08-01

246

The Nigerian University System and the Challenges of Capacity Building in a Globalized Economy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract: The scaring effects of globalization and the global economic shift have affected world economic order to the extent that the weak economies are still trying to grapple with the production processes. The necessity of international discourse, alignment and reorganization generated by the new economic order has not provided the needed solution. Rather, the process has continued to erode and reorder the traditional economic activities of the weak economies to the extent that there is unprecedented unemployment. This gives the impression that the university academic system, with the courses and programmes taught, is not structured in a flexible manner to arrest the situation. This paper on the synergy between the Nigerian university academic system and the challenges of capacity building in a globalized economy investigates why, in spite of the numerous international discourses, economic restructuring, etc. unemployment, especially among the products of universities, continues to escalate, economy continues to dwindle, political structures and governance continue to deteriorate. The observation is that the Nigerian university system has failed to achieve, among the beneficiaries, the expected capacity building, intellectual capital and knowledge necessary to drive the economy in this dispensation. The paper recommends inter alia, an overhaul of the Nigerian university system to take care of the critical requirements of current production processes, flexibilization of labour and employment, ensuring that the knowledge and skills acquired are information and communication technology oriented and the development of the power and energy sector because of its regeneration and multiplier effects on job and wealth creation.
Key words: Capacity Building; Flexibilization; Intellectual Capital; Nigerian University Academic System; Globalization

E. B. J. Iheriohanma

2011-06-01

247

El proceso de globalización y los retos del desarrollo humano / Globalization and human development challenges  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish A pesar de las numerosas publicaciones que existen sobre las implicaciones de la globalización en el desarrollo económico y social de los países, no hay consenso entre los autores sobre el tema y se presentan múltiples perspectivas para su discusión. En este documento se analiza este proceso de glob [...] alización destacando su relación con el desarrollo humano, para lo cual se realiza una revisión bibliográfica y de información estadística que permite reflexionar sobre la naturaleza de ambos conceptos y sus tendencias actuales y futuras. Como resultado se plantea que las tendencias del proceso de globalización pueden llegar a profundizar las desigualdades existentes en el nivel de desarrollo humano de los países, si continúa fundamentado en un soporte ideológico neoliberal y en un modelo de desarrollo capitalista, consumista, depredador, cortoplacista y excluyente. Se concluye que mientras persista el actual esquema de reproducción capitalista a escala global, el proceso de globalización tenderá a favorecer más a un pequeño grupo de países altamente desarrollados, en detrimento de la mayoría de la población del planeta, haciendo difícil superar los retos del desarrollo humano. Abstract in english Despite the amount of publications related to globalization and its implications in the social and economic development of countries, researchers have not yet reached consensus about the subject and multiple perspectives are presented for discussion. This paper analyzes the globalization process, em [...] phasizing its relationship with human development; to do so, bibliographical and statistical information were reviewed in order to discuss the nature of both concepts and their current and future trends. As a result, the paper explains how trends in the globalization process could stimulate deeper inequalities in the level of human development in countries if it continues to be based on a neoliberal ideological support and a capitalistic, consumption-based, predatory, excluding and short-term development model. Conclusions are that as long as the current scheme of capitalist reproduction on a global scale persists, the globalization process will tend to favour a small group of highly developed countries to the detriment of most people in the planet, making it difficult to overcome human development challenges.

Alberto, Romero; Mary A, Vera Colina.

2009-09-01

248

Addressing the challenges of a new digital technologies curriculum: MOOCs as a scalable solution for teacher professional development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available England and Australia have introduced new learning areas, teaching computer science to children from the first year of school. This is a significant milestone that also raises a number of big challenges: the preparation of teachers and the development of resources at a national scale. Curriculum change is not easy for teachers, in any context, and to ensure teachers are supported, scaled solutions are required. One educational approach that has gained traction for delivering content to large-scale audiences are massively open online courses (MOOCs; however, little is known about what constitutes effective MOOC design, particularly within professional development contexts. To prepare teachers in Australia, we decided to ride the wave of MOOCs, developing a MOOC to deliver free computing content and pedagogy to teachers with the integration of social media to support knowledge exchange and resource building. The MOOC was designed to meet teacher needs, allowing for flexibility, ad-hoc interactions, support and the open sharing of resources. In this paper, we describe the process of developing our initiative, participant engagement and experiences, so that others encountering similar changes and reforms may learn from our experience.

Rebecca Vivian

2014-08-01

249

Japanese Higher Education Institutions in the 21st Century: The Challenge of Globalization and Internationalization  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Higher education institutions in Japan are facing unprecedented challenges today due to the following three factors:the decrease in the size of college age cohorts in the coming years; heightened expectations in the modes of instructional delivery through the advances of information and communication technologies (ICT; global competition for college students worldwide especially from English-speaking countries. This paper examines internationalization of higher education in Japan in terms of:foreign faculty members in Japan, foreign tertiary students in Japan, Japanese students studying abroad, branch campuses of foreign colleges and universities in Japan, off-shore campuses of Japanese colleges and universities, and cross-border higher education through e-learning.

AOKI, Kumiko

2005-11-01

250

Reaching the last one per cent: progress and challenges in global polio eradication.  

Science.gov (United States)

Since its launch in 1988, the World Health Organization's Global Polio Eradication Initiative has reduced worldwide polio incidence by >99%. The most dramatic progress was achieved up to the year 2000, the original eradication target date, but subsequent years have seen only limited progress in preventing the last 1% of cases. Recent gains in India and Nigeria have been offset by continued endemicity in Pakistan and Afghanistan, and repeated reseeding of wild poliovirus into polio-free areas has led to large outbreaks and re-established transmission. Although wild poliovirus type 2 was eradicated in 1999 and wild poliovirus type 3 may be nearing eradication, the continued emergence of circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses, especially type 2, presents ongoing challenges to stopping all poliovirus transmission. PMID:22482715

Kew, Olen

2012-04-01

251

The global energy context -- chances and challenges for the 21st century  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Energy is the driving force towards economic and social development. Global demand for energy will keep growing for many years to come due to ongoing, although reduced population growth, and due to the needs of up to 2000 million people who are still without access to commercial energy. To meet this growing demand for energy, all options have to be kept open, with fossil fuels, nuclear and hydro dominating the energy mix for the next decades, and 'new' renewables coming in only slowly. Considering the resulting strain on the environment, and looking at existing disparities in energy supply, the next few decades will not be free of tensions. A turning point may appear in the mid 21st century with world population coming to a halt, distinctly improved energy efficiency in the Developing World, and with new technologies available. Thus, mainly challenges will determine the first half of the century, whereas chances are on hand for the second half of the century - if we act now. The single most important instrument to meet these challenges and to take advantage of the chances is a concentrated move towards energy efficiency and innovation, supported by market reform and appropriate regulation. (author)

252

The global energy context: Chances and challenges for the 21st century  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Energy is the driving force towards economic and social development. Global demand for energy will keep growing for many years to come due to ongoing, although reduced population growth, and due to the needs of up to 2 billion people who are still without access to commercial energy. To meet this growing demand for energy, all options have to be kept open, with fossil fuels, nuclear and hydro dominating the energy mix for the next decades, and 'new' renewables coming in only slowly. Considering the resulting strain on the environment, and looking at existing disparities in energy supply, the next few decades will not be free of tensions. A turning point may appear in the mid 21st century with world population coming to a halt, distinctly improved energy efficiency also in the Developing World, and with new technologies available. Thus, mainly challenges will determine the first half of the century, whereas chances are on hand for the second half of the century - if we act now. The single most important instrument to meet these challenges and to take advantage of the chances is a concentrated move towards energy efficiency and innovation, supported by market reform and appropriate regulation. (author)

253

The effect of globalization of drug manufacturing, production, and sourcing and challenges for American drug safety.  

Science.gov (United States)

Americans benefit from one of the safest drug supplies and one of the highest standards of consumer protection in the world. Over the past decade, though, a general trend toward globalization of the supply chains for finished pharmaceutical products and active pharmaceutical ingredients has created new challenges for the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in ensuring the safety and quality of the drug supply. Explosive growth in pharmaceutical manufacturing for the US market is particularly evident in the developing regions of Asia. Manufacturing sites in China and India now comprise approximately 40% of all FDA-registered foreign sites, having increased from 30% in 2002. (In 2001, when legislation first went into effect requiring registration of all foreign drug manufacturing sites, 140 registered sites in China listed 797 drug items for potential importation; as of 1 October 2007, that number had grown to 815 registered sites and well over 3,000 listed items.) In total in 2006, the United States received >145,000 line entries of imported drug products from >160 countries, up from only 1,300 line entries in 2000. FDA regulatory oversight resources (e.g., those allocated to inspection and testing of imports) are being challenged to keep up with the explosive growth of imported drugs. (In 2006, the FDA performed inspections at 212 foreign drug firms. This number has remained relatively consistent over the past 6 years, starting at 249 in 2001 and ranging from 190 to 260 on an annual basis.) PMID:18253142

Woo, J; Wolfgang, S; Batista, H

2008-03-01

254

Revisioning Education for All in the age of migration: Global challenges and opportunities for lifelong learning  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper revisits and revisions Education for All (EFA) in the age of global migration with the aim of developing more inclusive approaches towards social justice and equity in education. Drawing on cases of internal and international migration in China and Canada, this paper compares and contrasts policies and practices in the education of migrants and their children to discern common issues and challenges in both country contexts. The findings reveal that despite China's nine-year compulsory education law for all school-aged children, migrant children are often deprived of equitable learning opportunities, resulting in their being the most educationally marginalised in China. The case of Canada demonstrates some of the challenges facing immigrants in having their prior learning and work experience recognised. Lessons learned from this comparative analysis have important implications for the post-2015 EFA revisioning process in terms of developing a holistic, inclusive lifelong learning framework which ensures that the learning needs of both young and adult learners are met through access to equitable learning opportunities as well as recognition of their prior learning and experience.

Guo, Shibao

2014-08-01

255

Christo-Islamic Perspectives on Abortion and the Challenges of Globalization  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The world is witnessing a tremendous change in every sphere in every facet of its social, political, economic as well as in the religious sphere. These changes have affected the orientation of people towards certain behavioural patterns that were hitherto regarded as sacrosanct and but which has now witnessed and is still witnessing serious changes due to the effect of globalization and this has eroded religious beliefs and practices. One such is the issue of abortion which has been legalized in some nations of the world and there has generated a lot of controversies among different religious groups, individuals and Non-Governmental Organizations. The basis for this lies in the fact that human lives are regarded as sacred and should not be taken at the whims and caprices of people irrespective of the circumstance except when such causes serious danger to the life of the woman. The modern trend of committing abortion and even its legalization is regarded as preposterous and inhuman and urgent steps need to be taken to avert the danger(s caused by this dastardly act. Also religious groups need to rise to the challenges posed by this dastardly act in order to avert imminent danger to the global community.

Kehinde Emmanuel Obasola

2014-01-01

256

Opening address  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Honourable Representatives of His Majesty King Mohammed VI and of the Government of Morocco, representatives of sponsoring organizations, distinguished participants, on behalf of the Director General of the IAEA, it is my pleasure and privilege to welcome you to this International Conference on National Infrastructures for Radiation Safety: Towards Effective and Sustainable Systems. I would like to express my sincere appreciation to His Majesty King Mohammed VI for his patronage, to the Government of Morocco and the University Mohammed V, Agdal, for hosting this conference in the beautiful and historic city of Rabat, and to the local organizers for their diligent planning and gracious hospitality. I would also like to thank the four organizations that are co-operating with the IAEA in holding this conference: the World Health Organization, the Pan American Health Organization, the International Labour Organization, the European Commission and the OECD/Nuclear Energy Agency. National infrastructure for radiation safety has emerged as an issue of international concern over the last two decades. Systematic and strategic consideration of infrastructure has become widely recognized as an essential prerequisite for safety. The first IAEA conference to address the topic was in Munich, Germany, in 1990. The 1996 edition of the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (known as the Basic Sof Radiation Sources (known as the Basic Safety Standards or BSS) highlighted the issue, and the IAEA's technical co-operation Model Project for Upgrading Radiation Protection Infrastructure was introduced to help address it. The Model Project has helped, and continues to help, more than 85 IAEA Member States to work towards the goal of a radiation safety infrastructure in accordance with the Basic Safety Standards. A great deal has been achieved, but this work is not complete. Furthermore, not all States are members of the IAEA or the Model Project, and there are around 50 non-Member States that may need similar assistance. I would, therefore, like to extend a special welcome to representatives of those States that are not members of the IAEA, and to thank the United States of America for providing extrabudgetary support to make possible the participation of these States in this conference. The issue of orphan sources has been instrumental in stirring the international community into action. Initially, orphan sources were seen primarily as a safety issue. However, since the terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001 in the USA, the security dimension has brought an increased sense of urgency. Security considerations have also led to a greater recognition that national systems for the control of sources can only be fully effective if all States have effective systems, that is, if there is an effective global system of control. But there is a broader underlying reason why we need to continue to strengthen national infrastructures for radiation safety. Technologies that make use of radiation and radioactive material - in medicine, in research, in industry, in agriculture and water resource management - have expanded and spread all around the world, and continue to grow. These technologies bring great benefits - often desperately needed - but those benefits cannot be fully enjoyed unless the technologies can be used safely. Effective national infrastructures provide the foundation for the safe use of these technologies.I hope that the sharing of knowledge and experience at this conference will contribute to a 'virtuous circle' of continuous improvement. I look forward to the conference providing deeper and broader ideas for how the IAEA can be more effective in assisting in this very challenging area. I wish you well in your deliberations this week, and I look forward to hearing your findings. I invite the representatives of the four co-operating organizations to make their opening remarks, and I give the floor firstly to Mr. Repacholi, representing the World Healt

257

Global Monitoring of Water Supply and Sanitation: History, Methods and Future Challenges  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available International monitoring of drinking water and sanitation shapes awareness of countries’ needs and informs policy, implementation and research efforts to extend and improve services. The Millennium Development Goals established global targets for drinking water and sanitation access; progress towards these targets, facilitated by international monitoring, has contributed to reducing the global disease burden and increasing quality of life. The experiences of the MDG period generated important lessons about the strengths and limitations of current approaches to defining and monitoring access to drinking water and sanitation. The methods by which the Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP of WHO and UNICEF tracks access and progress are based on analysis of data from household surveys and linear regression modelling of these results over time. These methods provide nationally representative and internationally comparable insights into the drinking water and sanitation facilities used by populations worldwide, but also have substantial limitations: current methods do not address water quality, equity of access, or extra-household services. Improved statistical methods are needed to better model temporal trends. This article describes and critically reviews JMP methods in detail for the first time. It also explores the impact of, and future directions for, international monitoring of drinking water and sanitation.

Jamie Bartram

2014-08-01

258

The challenges for global harmonisation of food safety norms and regulations: issues for India.  

Science.gov (United States)

Safe and adequate food is a human right, safety being a prime quality attribute without which food is unfit for consumption. Food safety regulations are framed to exercise control over all types of food produced, processed and sold so that the customer is assured that the food consumed will not cause any harm. From the Indian perspective, global harmonisation of food regulations is needed to improve food and nutrition security, the food trade and delivery of safe ready-to-eat (RTE) foods at all places and at all times. The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) put forward to transform developing societies incorporate many food safety issues. The success of the MDGs, including that of poverty reduction, will in part depend on an effective reduction of food-borne diseases, particularly among the vulnerable group, which includes women and children. Food- and water-borne illnesses can be a serious health hazard, being responsible for high incidences of morbidity and mortality across all age groups of people. Global harmonisation of food regulations would assist in facilitating food trade within and outside India through better compliance, ensuring the safety of RTE catered foods, as well as addressing issues related to the environment. At the same time, regulations need to be optimum, as overregulation may have undue negative effects on the food trade. PMID:23553336

Prakash, Jamuna

2014-08-01

259

Global monitoring of water supply and sanitation: history, methods and future challenges.  

Science.gov (United States)

International monitoring of drinking water and sanitation shapes awareness of countries' needs and informs policy, implementation and research efforts to extend and improve services. The Millennium Development Goals established global targets for drinking water and sanitation access; progress towards these targets, facilitated by international monitoring, has contributed to reducing the global disease burden and increasing quality of life. The experiences of the MDG period generated important lessons about the strengths and limitations of current approaches to defining and monitoring access to drinking water and sanitation. The methods by which the Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP) of WHO and UNICEF tracks access and progress are based on analysis of data from household surveys and linear regression modelling of these results over time. These methods provide nationally representative and internationally comparable insights into the drinking water and sanitation facilities used by populations worldwide, but also have substantial limitations: current methods do not address water quality, equity of access, or extra-household services. Improved statistical methods are needed to better model temporal trends. This article describes and critically reviews JMP methods in detail for the first time. It also explores the impact of, and future directions for, international monitoring of drinking water and sanitation. PMID:25116635

Bartram, Jamie; Brocklehurst, Clarissa; Fisher, Michael B; Luyendijk, Rolf; Hossain, Rifat; Wardlaw, Tessa; Gordon, Bruce

2014-08-01

260

Global Monitoring of Water Supply and Sanitation: History, Methods and Future Challenges  

Science.gov (United States)

International monitoring of drinking water and sanitation shapes awareness of countries’ needs and informs policy, implementation and research efforts to extend and improve services. The Millennium Development Goals established global targets for drinking water and sanitation access; progress towards these targets, facilitated by international monitoring, has contributed to reducing the global disease burden and increasing quality of life. The experiences of the MDG period generated important lessons about the strengths and limitations of current approaches to defining and monitoring access to drinking water and sanitation. The methods by which the Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP) of WHO and UNICEF tracks access and progress are based on analysis of data from household surveys and linear regression modelling of these results over time. These methods provide nationally-representative and internationally-comparable insights into the drinking water and sanitation facilities used by populations worldwide, but also have substantial limitations: current methods do not address water quality, equity of access, or extra-household services. Improved statistical methods are needed to better model temporal trends. This article describes and critically reviews JMP methods in detail for the first time. It also explores the impact of, and future directions for, international monitoring of drinking water and sanitation. PMID:25116635

Bartram, Jamie; Brocklehurst, Clarissa; Fisher, Michael B.; Luyendijk, Rolf; Hossain, Rifat; Wardlaw, Tessa; Gordon, Bruce

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Opening Statement - Zhang Dejiang [International Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Energy in the 21. Century: Addressing Energy Needs and Environmental Challenges, Beijing (China), 20-22 April 2009  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nuclear science and technology is one of the greatest scientific and technological achievements of humankind in the 20th century. Nuclear science and technology is widely applied in various sectors, with over 50 years of development, such as energy, industry, agriculture, health and environmental protection, and is playing an important role in the prospering economy, and in improving peoples? livelihoods and promoting sustainable development. With global economic development and rising energy consumption, supply of traditional energy sources is becoming more stretched, and climate change is becoming an increasingly severe challenge. It is a common task of the international community to develop and utilize clean and renewable energy sources and properly address growing contradictions among economic development, energy development and environmental protection. Given its advantage as a clean, safe energy source that could be applied at a large scale, more and more countries are placing importance on nuclear energy. Accelerating the peaceful use of nuclear energy is the common wish and inevitable choice of many countries. China started the development of nuclear energy in the early 1950s, and with the efforts of over half a century, China has established a relatively complete nuclear industry system. The installed capacity of nuclear power has reached 9 100 MW(e), and nuclear power generation accounts for 2 per cent of the national total electricity generated. Nuclear enel total electricity generated. Nuclear energy is playing an incremental role in China?s economic development. However, nuclear energy utilization is rather insufficient in China, its development level is behind countries which are advanced in nuclear energy use such as the United States of America and France, and the rate of nuclear power generation in the total electricity generated still falls behind the world average level. China?s energy supply mix features a dominance of coal and a low proportion of clean energy. To achieve sustainable energy and socioeconomic development, China has formulated the energy development strategy of actively promoting energy conservation and optimizing the energy structure. Accelerating nuclear power development and enhancing the ratio of clean energy such as nuclear power in the aggregate energy supply is the priority of China?s energy development strategy. Currently, the peaceful use of nuclear energy has entered a stage of rapid development. A batch of new nuclear power projects are starting construction in coastal areas, preparation for other new projects is going on in an orderly manner, and demonstration projects of the introduction of third generation nuclear power technology are moving ahead smoothly. Scientific and research engineering programmes such as China?s experimental fast reactor, high temperature gas cooled reactor and thermal nuclear fusion device are making positive progress. The nuclear fuel cycle industry continues its development, and the ability to ensure supply of nuclear fuel is being enhanced. China has always attached great importance to nuclear safety in its promotion of nuclear energy utilization, and it has established a fairly complete nuclear safety legal, regulatory and emergency management system that is in line with international best practices. China has issued a series of instruments such as nuclear safety regulations, rules, guidelines and standards. Independent, strict and efficient nuclear safety supervision and management and scientific management of nuclear facility operators have been put in place to ensure safe and secure operation of nuclear facilities. All these efforts have led to a sound nuclear safety record and have boosted public confidence in nuclear energy

262

An overlook of the new global nuclear scenario and the emergent challenges  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this paper is to make a short overlook of the world nuclear renaissance and point out some emergent challenges. The presentation covers different subjects in which the nuclear energy shows great advantage to face concerns about climate change, energy demand growth, and relative cost of competing technologies in a global scenario. Additionally nuclear technology can deploy in a middle term an important potential development oriented to improve even more that nuclear design, safety, environment protection, economic and sustainability of the present nuclear reactors generation. The world nuclear energy scenario reveals a renaissance after a long period of lethargy. Now is the focus of considerable attention and debate about the risks and benefits of its expansion. Many countries are again planning ambitious nuclear programs. In the case of Argentina, a decision was taken to end the construction of Atucha 750 MWe power plant (NPP) and to begin the construction of another two NPP in the next decade. In the middle term and expansion of 60 % of the present world nuclear capabilities is foreseen. For the long term there could be much more if today's performance data is maintained or improved. It would require the nuclear industry to return immediately to the most rapid period of growth experienced in the past. The training of the young people is also an important challenge. But some countries are still reluctant due to the adverse local public opinion. In spite of the great accessibility and availability of the NPP confirmed by the global experience of the 350 operating nuclear power plants, the public acceptability is not confirmed. Some sectors of the society -with the support in some case of the media- are against the use of the nuclear energy. In this paper some reasons of the public concerns is explained and actions are mentioned to change its perceptions. At the end, the global society in front of the real means available to fulfill the growing energy demand and needs to protect the environments from catastrophic climate changes and limited fuel resources, must accept the great advantage of the NPP, the potential possibilities of the nuclear technology progress and the lowest risks of its expansion. (author)

263

Industry, university and government partnership to address research, education and human resource challenges for nuclear industry in Canada  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: This paper describes the outcome of an important recent initiative of Canadian nuclear industry to reinvigorate interest in education and collaborative research in prominent Canadian universities. This initiative has led to the formation of the University Network of Excellence in Nuclear Engineering (UNENE), incorporated in 2002. During the recent past, the slowdown in nuclear power development in Canada has curtailed the demand for new nuclear professionals down to a trickle. Without exciting job opportunities in sight the interest of prospective students in nuclear education and research has plunged. Consequently, with declining enrolment in nuclear studies and higher demand from competing disciplines, most universities have found it difficult to sustain nuclear programs. As such the available pool of graduating students is small and insufficient to meet emerging industry demand. With nuclear industry employees' average age hovering around mid-forties and practically no younger cohort to back up, nuclear industry faces the risk of knowledge loss and significant difficulty in recruiting new employees to replenish its depleting workforce. It is, therefore, justifiably concerned. Also, since nuclear generation is now the purview of smaller companies, their in-house capability for mid- to longer-term research is becoming inadequate. Recognizing the above challenges, Ontario Power Generation, Bruce Power and Atomic Energy of Canada Limited have formed an alliance with prominent Canadian universities and undertaken to invest money and offer in-kind support to accomplish three main objectives: Reinvigorate university-based nuclear engineering research by augmenting university resources by creating new industry supported research professorships and supporting research of other professors; Promote enrolment in graduate programs by supporting students and making use of a course-based Master of Engineering (M.Eng.) Program that is taught collectively by professors from all supported universities and which can be completed through part-time studies; Create a pool of nuclear expertise in universities that can be accessed by public and governments for impartial and trustworthy advice. The Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC), the Canadian Regulator, and Candu Owners Group are also participating in UNENE activities. Nuclear industries have linked with a select group of Canadian universities agreeable to committing to nuclear research and education and seeking investment from governments to match cash and in-kind contributions from industry. The University Network of Excellence in Nuclear Engineering (UNENE) was thus created involving universities of McMaster, Queen's, Toronto, Waterloo, Western Ontario and the new University of Ontario Institute of Technology. These universities are recipients of funds for setting up NSERC-UNENE Industry Research Chairs in Nuclear Engineering. Also, Ecole Polytechnique and the University of New Brunswick, supported respectively by Hydro Quebec and New Brunswick Power, and Royal Military College - operating a joint graduate program with Queen's University, are participants in UNENE. The following Industrial Research Chairs are either in place or approved to start within the next few months. In each case there is a provision for hiring a junior Research Chair. - Dr. John Luxat, Nuclear Safety Analysis and Thermal Hydraulics, McMaster University; - Dr. Rick Holt, Advanced Nuclear Materials, Queen's University; - Dr. Roger Newman, Nano-Engineering of Alloys for Nuclear Power Systems, University of Toronto; - Dr. Mahesh Pandey, Risk-Based Life Cycle Management of Engineering Systems, University of Waterloo; - Dr. Jin Jiang, Control, Instrumentation and Electrical Systems of Nuclear Power Plants, University of Western Ontario. Progress is being made to find a candidate and define a research program for an Industrial Research Chair:- Knowledge Management, University of Ontario Institute of Technology. Each of the above six NSERC-UNENE Industrial Research Chairs are tenured positions, funded

264

Piracy : a critical examination of the definition and scope of piracy and the issues arising therefrom that affect : the legal address of the crime globally.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Piracy: A critical examination of the definition and scope of piracy, and the legal issues arising there-from that affect the successful address of piracy globally. This thesis looks into the effectiveness of the existing legal maritime regime in fighting piracy worldwide. It goes to determine the extent to which the problem of modern day maritime piracy is related to the inadequacies brought about by the limitations in the definition of piracy as given by the United Nations Convention on the...

Neakoh, Raissa Timben

2011-01-01

265

Piracy :a critical examination of the definition and scope of piracy and the issues arising therefrom that affect : the legal address of the crime globally.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Piracy: A critical examination of the definition and scope of piracy, and the legal issues arising there-from that affect the successful address of piracy globally. This thesis looks into the effectiveness of the existing legal maritime regime in fighting piracy worldwide. It goes to determine the extent to which the problem of modern day maritime piracy is related to the inadequacies brought about by the limitations in the definition of piracy as given by the United Nations Convention on the...

Neakoh, Raissa Timben

2011-01-01

266

Ministerial Presentation: United States of America. Ambassador Schulte's Remarks on Behalf of Energy Secretary Chu [International Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Energy in the 21. Century: Addressing Energy Needs and Environmental Challenges, Beijing (China), 20-22 April 2009  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is a pleasure to participate in this second Ministerial Conference convened by the IAEA here in Beijing. Secretary of Energy Steven Chu has asked that I deliver this speech on his behalf. He sends his sincere regrets that he is unable to attend this event personally. As you know, this week is Earth Week, and the Secretary is very engaged promoting our energy and climate change agenda back in Washington. Let me assure you, however, that the United States views nuclear energy as an important part of our effort to put the world on the road to a low-carbon future. The global expansion of nuclear energy. It is now widely recognized that nuclear energy has the potential to curtail dependence on fossil fuels and greatly reduce greenhouse gas emissions while promoting greater energy security. Yet, given the stakes associated with the use (and potential misuse) of nuclear energy around the world, it is imperative that all nations with existing or new nuclear power programs play an active role in global efforts to address the safety, security, and safeguards implications of nuclear power. As President Obama recently stated, it is time we consider a new framework for civil nuclear cooperation, one that allows all interested countries to enjoy the benefits of nuclear energy while limiting the associated risks of nuclear weapons proliferation. This new framework should include measures that improve energy security, including an international fuel bank and related fuel services ional fuel bank and related fuel services arrangements. This conclusion reflects our recognition of the right of nations that comply with global nonproliferation norms to share in the benefits of peaceful nuclear uses. We also share a responsibility to maintain and strengthen global standards for safety, security and nonproliferation. Today, access to nuclear energy faces significant challenges-- the development of sound infrastructure, the reliable provision of nuclear fuel, and the safe and secure management of spent fuel and nuclear waste. If we succeed in meeting these challenges and discharging these responsibilities, I am confident we will also succeed in promoting the responsible development of nuclear energy. The IAEA and multilateral cooperation. Over 50 countries have informed the IAEA of their interest in nuclear power. In response to this, the Agency has developed a high-level framework to help states chart a safe, secure, and safeguarded path to nuclear power. The Milestones document, as it is now known, has become an essential reference on the desks of planners tasked with developing a national nuclear power infrastructure. The United States is a longstanding and strong supporter of the infrastructure development concepts detailed in the Milestones document. More broadly, the United States is committed to increasing the capabilities of the IAEA to better carry out all of its vital functions. Key among them is improved international safeguards. The United States has launched a program to build next generation safeguards technologies and a new community of safeguards experts; to assist full use of IAEA inspection authorities; and to foster a culture of safeguards, security and safety in nations using nuclear energy. Though a very valuable reference, the Milestones document was not intended for use as a detailed road map to nuclear power. It is the responsibility of each state to assess its own needs, identify its own priorities, and develop its own strategic objectives. However, states need not pursue these tasks alone, and there is plenty of guidance available through pursuit of civil nuclear cooperation. In addition to the vital role of the IAEA, other multilateral groups are addressing the challenges facing nuclear energy today. Forums such as the International Energy Agency, the Nuclear Energy Agency, the Generation IV International Forum, and the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (or GNEP) complement and build upon the important work of the IAEA. The international community through GNEP, as currently structured, has established two working g

267

How current assessments of Sustainability Performance by Best Practice in the UN Global Compact challenge legitimacy  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The Scandinavian countries have been strong supporters of the UN Global Compact (UNGC) since the official launch in year 2000. This is best evidenced by the level of adoption of the UNGC, which is the most widely adopted broad sustainability-reporting standard in Scandinavia (Kjaergaard, submitted - in review). And since the UNGC in 2010 introduced the differentiation framework to their reporting standard, a significant number of Scandinavian corporations has chosen to report on an Advanced Level and self-assess their Sustainability Performance. Hence, in times where international opinion makers like the Economist (2013) turn to Scandinavia as having the solutions to some of the global sustainability-related challenges, it might also be worth reversing the optics. One approach could be to take a closer look at whether this high level of support for the UNGC translates to a high level of Sustainability Performance? And how the current assessment of Sustainability Performance by Best Practice in the UN Global Compact challenge the legitimacy of both the corporation, the UNGC and governments attempting to facilitate sustainability and CSR engagement? Best Practice is a concept frequently used by authorities sources like governments, multi-national institutions etc. to showcase corporate sustainability practices in an attempt to inspire motivate or convince for corporate engagement. UNGC applies this discourse to a great extend and even goes as far as to integrate Best Practices as the core and decisive element in assessing Sustainability Performance with the criteria for Advanced Level reporting in the UNGC differentiation framework. Though, previous empirical research by Kjaergaard (submitted, in review) has demonstrated that although the introduction of this framework generally should be acknowledged, the way it is structured and measures sustainability performance is highly problematic. This has potential to lead to a number of undesirable outcomes for both the corporations and eventually the UNGC. Especially the use of Best Practices as determinants of the self-assessed Sustainability Performance on criterions is problematic when the framework does not weigh the Best Practices individually despite obvious differences in importance. Hence the same assessment score for a criterion can be achieved by adherence to either one of two potentially very different variables. Consequentially, corporations that apply best practices of higher importance are not acknowledged for doing so. Furthermore, since adherence to only one best practice for each criterion is required to be compliant with a criterion, then corporations are also not acknowledged by the framework for adhering to more and maybe more important Best Practices. These issues were identified by assessing the Sustainability Performance and analyzing the sustainability reports of 67 Nordic corporations, whom are signatories to the UN Global Compact. This study applies a theoretical perspective to the empirical findings by Kjaergard (submitted, in review). The study finds the UNGC reporting framework and the widespread support and adoption of it in Scandinavia to be indicative of emerging neoliberal tendencies in governmental approaches to CSR (Shamir, 2008). In a governmentality perspective these tendencies can be seen as unfolding when "government assumes the role of an enabling and empowering facilitator of CSR, not a regulatory enforcer" (Vallentin & Murillo, 2012). Whereas Scandinavian governments influence how widespread the adoption of sustainability reporting is, this study questions government’s success as a facilitator of CSR and sustainability, when viewed in a Sustainability Performance perspective. The empirical findings by Kjaergard (submitted, in review) demonstrate that with only relatively few exemptions, the Sustainability Performance of Nordic corporations in general is not on a high level. Though, that is when assessed towards the Best Practices essentially constituting the UNGC reporting framework, which Kjaergaard also questions the validity of. Thi

Kjærgaard, Thomas

268

An approach for the implementation of a global quality management system assuring both robust global processes and local flexibility: Paper presented at the 58th EOQ Congress "Managing Challenges in Quality Leadership", Gothenburg, Sweden, 11-12 June 2014  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The requirements for global enterprises have changed dramatically in recent years. Increasing customer demands, shorter product life cycles, increasing transport costs and more complex products and processes are just some of the current challenges in the global economy. These challenges reveal that thinking in closed systems is not up-to-date. Globally distributed business activities and value creation networks require a high systemic, integrative thinking, which points out global synergies a...

Meentken, Felix; Jochem, Roland

2014-01-01

269

How to Assess the European Union’s Influence in International Affairs: Addressing a Major Conceptual Challenge for EU Foreign Policy Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the discipline of European Union foreign policy analysis, quite a number of debates have focussed on determining what type of actor the EU is in international affairs (e.g. a normative power. While intellectually stimulating, these debates have regularly been held at too high a level of aggregation. Breaking the question about the EU’s clout in international affairs down to the micro-level, this contribution takes up a conceptual and methodological challenge that is currently unaddressed in the discipline: developing a method suited for studying the EU’s concrete foreign policy activities and their effects so as to assess its actual influence on global politics. Importing insights on the concept of influence from public policy analysis, it designs an analytical framework that allows for statements about whether, how, to what extent and - ultimately - under what conditions the EU exerts influence in one important arena of international affairs, namely international regimes.

Simon Schunz

2010-05-01

270

Globalization and climate change challenges the Arctic communities adaptability and increases vulnerability  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Globalization and climate change challenges the Arctic communities adaptability and increases vulnerability Kåre Hendriksen, PhD student, Aalborg University, Denmark The previous isolation of the Arctic will change as a wide range of areas increasingly are integrated into the globalized world. Parts of the Arctic are characterized by a relatively high material standard of living that is partially based on economic subsidies from the South, and for a number of Arctic consumers globalization appears primarily as a potential for improved supplies of consumer goods. The massive and growing pressure from multinational companies to exploit the Arctic mineral and oil resources as well as hydro-power in large scale industries appears to (local) governments as a potential for economic growth and thus reduced economic dependence on subsidies from the nation states the Arctic are dependent of. Coinciding climate changes cause an easier access for worldwide market as well as for the extraction of coastal oil and mineral resources. In an attempt to optimize the fishing fleet by economic measures it is centralized to larger units, and the exports of unprocessed fish and shellfish to low wage countries, carrying out the processing before export, are increasing. Although the local populations often are able to adapt to climate change and exploit new seasonal fluxions and species, these developments leaves a series of smaller settlements without proper basis for commercially viable activities and survival. Trusting that heavy industry and oil and mineral extraction can absorb the redundant labor from the subsistence activities and local economies and create economic growth (local) governments are installing economic and other policies leading to a further centralization of the population. There is not necessarily consistency between official political statements and the implemented measures. On top of this the population in smaller settlements has no frame or means to understand the impact of the discussed and applied interventions. They are therefore to some extent left behind and are not included in contemporary developments leaving them with a feeling of being powerless. The consequences of contemporary policies and the problems arising will be illustrated through examples from traditional hunting and fishing districts in Greenland.

Hendriksen, Kåre

2011-01-01

271

The formation of the global natural gas industry: definition, constraints and challenges; A formacao da industria global de gas natural: definicao, condicionantes e desafios  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study aims to investigate the real possibilities for the natural gas industry to become a global energy industry. So, it is necessary to define what global energy industry really means. In order to do a comparative analysis between the oil and natural gas industries, it is necessary to define three distinct stages of the evolution of an energy industry, namely internationalization, mundialization and globalization. This study analyzes the evolution of the oil industry trying to identify the main aspects that promoted changes and transformed the oil business into a global industry. Then, the evolution of the natural gas industry is analyzed, looking for similarities between the structural changes in both industries, and trying to determine what is the current stage of the natural gas industry. Despite the increase in the natural gas international trade and the prospects of growth of natural gas demand, there are still some challenges for this industry to effectively become global. Some of the challenges are the need of investments in production infrastructure, transportation and distribution sectors, the access to the main reserves, the uncertainty related to the demand evolution and the possible creation of a natural gas producers cartel, like the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC). (author)

Mathias, Melissa Cristina Pinto Pires

2008-03-15

272

Progress toward global interruption of wild poliovirus transmission, 2010-2013, and tackling the challenges to complete eradication.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite substantial progress, global polio eradication has remained elusive. Indigenous wild poliovirus (WPV) transmission in 4 endemic countries (Afghanistan, India, Nigeria, and Pakistan) persisted into 2010 and outbreaks from imported WPV continued. By 2013, most outbreaks in the interim were promptly controlled. The number of polio-affected districts globally has declined by 74% (from 481 in 2009 to 126 in 2013), including a 79% decrease in the number of affected districts in endemic countries (from 304 to 63). India is now polio-free. The challenges to success in the remaining polio-endemic countries include (1) threats to the security of vaccinators in each country and a ban on polio vaccination in areas of Afghanistan and Pakistan; (2) a risk of decreased government commitment; and (3) remaining surveillance gaps. Coordinated efforts under the International Health Regulations and efforts to mitigate the challenges provide a clear opportunity to soon secure global eradication. PMID:25316873

Wassilak, Steven G F; Oberste, M Steven; Tangermann, Rudolph H; Diop, Ousmane M; Jafari, Hamid S; Armstrong, Gregory L

2014-11-01

273

Addressing LISA Science Analysis Challenges  

CERN Document Server

The principal goal of the \\emph{LISA Science Analysis Workshop} is to encourage the development and maturation of science analysis technology in preparation for LISA science operations. Exactly because LISA is a pathfinder for a new scientific discipline -- gravitational wave astronomy -- LISA data processing and science analysis methodologies are in their infancy and require considerable maturation if they are to be ready to take advantage of LISA data. Here we offer some thoughts, in anticipation of the LISA Science Analysis Workshop, on analysis research problems that demonstrate the capabilities of different proposed analysis methodologies and, simultaneously, help to push those techniques toward greater maturity. Particular emphasis is placed on formulating questions that can be turned into well-posed problems involving tests run on specific data sets, which can be shared among different groups to enable the comparison of techniques on a well-defined platform.

Benacquista, M J; Larson, S L; Rubbo, L J; Benacquista, Matthew J.; Finn, Lee Samuel; Larson, Shane L.; Rubbo, Louis J.

2006-01-01

274

The European Union as a Global Trade Actor: Challenges and Opportunities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article reviews the challenges and opportunities confronting the European Union in its trade and broader commercial policies, in what is a period of transition. The article begins by evaluating the foundations of the EU’s ‘actorness’ in trade policy, and in particular by identifying three underlying logics of EU policy development: the ‘internal’ logic, the ‘external’ logic and the ‘identity’ logic. The interaction between these logics is seen as driving the ways in which the EU enters into global trade relationships, and as accounting for tensions and contradictions in a number of areas. Subsequent sections of the article deal with the images presented by the EU in trade policy, with the EU’s changing position in world trade, with the current trade agenda and the new agenda of broader commercial policy. The article finishes with a review of potential future issues in EU trade and commercial policies, and with a reassessment of the ‘three logics’ and their interaction.

Michael SMITH

2010-04-01

275

Language, culture, and task shifting--an emerging challenge for global mental health.  

Science.gov (United States)

Language is at the heart of mental health care. Many high-income countries have sophisticated interpreter services, but in low- and middle-income countries there are not sufficient professional services, let alone interpreter services, and task shifting is used. In this article, we discuss this neglected issue in the context of low- and middle-income countries, where task shifting has been suggested as a solution to the problem of scarce mental health resources. The large diversity of languages in low- and middle-income countries, exacerbated by wide-scale migration, has implications for the scale-up of services. We suggest that it would be useful for those who are working innovatively to develop locally delivered mental health programmes in low- and middle-income countries to explore and report on issues of language and how these have been addressed. We need to know more about local challenges, but also about local solutions which seem to work, and for this we need more information from the field than is currently available. PMID:24581319

Swartz, Leslie; Kilian, Sanja; Twesigye, Justus; Attah, Dzifa; Chiliza, Bonginkosi

2014-01-01

276

Meeting the Global Challenge through Production Offshoring : Trajectories and Strategic Implications of the Process  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This PhD study is concerned with the implications of globalisation for industrial firms from the traditional industrial triad of North America, Western Europe, and Japan. Taking the perspective of lead firms from advanced industrial economies, the study attempts to make a contribution to the current debates about how these firms could assert themselves in a world of far-reaching transformation. As the title of the study suggests, this contribution is made through focusing the discussion upon production offshoring, which is currently commanding attention of so many practitioners, academics and policy makers. Building on ground that is already well trodden within the academic literature, the study searches for novel multidisciplinary explanations about how the production function can be organised by lead firms on a global scale and, more importantly, what the strategic implications of this process are. While the study concentrates on the production function, the implications of the discussion stretch much wider; the study also reveals implications for other functions and the company as a whole, as well as it points towards broader societal implications. The study employs a qualitative methodology based on multiple case studies. By applying the process perspective to the offshoring phenomenon, this study develops a framework which can be distilled into a number of propositions addressing: 1) the unfolding of offshoring process in a firm over time, 2) factors affecting the trajectories of the process, 3) the role of peculiarities of the society and locality from where offshoring initiatives originate, 4) strategic implications of offshoring initiatives.

Slepniov, Dmitrij

2010-01-01

277

Myopia, an underrated global challenge to vision: where the current data takes us on myopia control.  

Science.gov (United States)

Myopia is the most frequent cause of distance impairment in the world and is creating an alarming global epidemic with deleterious ramifications for the quality of life and economic health of individuals and nations as a whole. In addition to being immediately disadvantageous, myopia increases the risk of serious disorders such as myopic macular degeneration, retinal detachment, glaucoma, and cataract and is a leading cause of visual impairment and blindness across many countries. The reduction in age of onset of myopia is of great concern since the earlier the onset, the more myopic the individual will become, with all the attendant increased risks of accompanying debilitating eye conditions. The economic burden is great; both in consequences of uncorrected refractive error and also in the provision of devices for correcting visual acuity. Earlier onset of myopia increases the lifetime economic burden related to loss of productivity and independence, leading to a reduced quality of life. Recent data suggest addressing accommodation per se has little direct amelioration of myopia progression. Pharmacological interventions that effect changes in the sclera show promising efficacy, whereas optical interventions based on a myopic shift in the retinal image are proving to effect up to 55% reduction in the rate of progression of myopia. Early contact lens and spectacle interventions that reduce the rate of progression of myopia are able to significantly reduce the burden of myopia. These non-pharmacological interventions show profound promise in reducing the overall associated morbidity of myopia. PMID:24357836

Holden, B; Sankaridurg, P; Smith, E; Aller, T; Jong, M; He, M

2014-02-01

278

Addressing Global Health, Development, and Social Inequalities through Research and Policy Analyses: the International Journal of MCH and AIDS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

One year after the birth of the International Journal of MCH and AIDS (IJMA), we continue to share the passion to document, and shine the light on the myriads of global health issues that debilitate developing countries.Although the focus of IJMA is on the social determinants of health and disease as well as on the disparities in the burden of communicable and non-communicable diseases affecting infants, children, women, adults, and families in developing countries, we would like to encourage...

Romuladus E Azuine, Drph; Gopal K Singh, Phd

2012-01-01

279

Global Forest Product Chains: Identifying challenges and opportunities for China through a global commodity chain sustainability analysis  

Subject: Analysis of the current global commodity chain of forest products and its implications for China ... Keywords: IISD, commodity chain, forestry, China, analysis, sustainability, import, export, ...Keywords: IISD, commodity chain, forestry, China, analysis, sustainability, import, export,

280

Global citizenship: A privilege and a responsibility. Vienna, 2 June 2003. Address to the American International School, Palais Ferstel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Good evening and thank you - Director Spradling, members of the faculty, alumni, family and friends of this graduating class, and especially the graduates of the American International School Vienna Class of 2003. Let me begin by thanking you for the invitation to share this important occasion with you. In my work, I frequently speak with diplomats and statesmen about how we can make our world a better place for 'future generations' - but I don't often get an opportunity like this one: to speak directly to you - the generation that holds the future in its hands. And I feel particularly fortunate to be speaking to such an international graduating class. As an Egyptian educated in the US, working in Vienna, with my children living in London, and an entire career devoted to international co-operation, I can tell you that I consider myself primarily a global citizen. And for me, thinking globally is now almost a must. This is because the world we live in has become highly interdependent. Many aspects of our modern life - Internet communication, the global marketplace, global warming, even the fights against disease and terrorism - point to the fact that the human race has entered a new era - a global era - and there is no turning back. To members of your generation, this might not seem like news. To your parents, the Internet feels like a new way of life (in fact - speaking for your parents, or perhaps your grandparents, we can still remember when television was a new and awesome thing) - but to you, global interaction and communication is a natural part of life. In fact, you especially are well equipped for this interdependent world - because the development of a global perspective is an essential feature of your educational environment here at the American International School. So you are 'ahead of the curve' in this regard. Yes, you are Brazilian, you are Indian, you are Iranian, you are Austrian, you are Japanese - you are one of the fifty nationalities that make up the rich cultural fabric of the AIS - but you are also global citizens. You have learned from the classroom, and equally important you have also learned from each other. As a result, your perspective is wider, your tolerance is greater, your understanding is deeper, and your world is smaller. And you are precisely the type of young people that our planet needs. Sure we all have differences, based on our cultural heritage, but what we choose to make of these differences can have a result that is crucial: either a harmonious and rich co-existence, or a planet marked by divergence and conflict. The European Union is a young but successful example of nations with different cultures, languages, and ethnic roots that have chosen to achieve strength through diversity. And over two hundred years ago, the United States was born with the same ideal - 13 colonies of immigrants coming from different backgrounds, who believed that by joining together they would be better able to go through the human journey. But for your generation, the vision of unity through diversity must be more than regional or national; it must be global. If there is any lesson from recent history, it should be that a global approach to our problems and to our future is the only approach. Nearly fifty years ago, after two devastating World Wars, the United Nations was created as a human project that aims to promote certain fundamental principles: respect for human rights and human dignity; the settlement of disputes through peaceful means; and economic and social development for all. During the Cold War the realization of this project was paralyzed in many ways. But the Cold War has been over for more than a decade, and still the international community is asking many of the same questions. How can we live in peace and harmony? How can we improve the living conditions for our neighbors around the globe? How can we learn to treat our differences with mutual respect? With the recent threats surrounding us, ranging from international terrorism to the conflicts in Afghanistan, Iraq, Congo, the Middle Ea

 
 
 
 
281

Testing Globalization-Disinflation Hypothesis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper addresses the globalization - disinflation hypothesis from the perspective of a open economy neo keynesian framework. This hypothesis proposes that globalization has changed the long-run inflation process, resulting in a global disinflation. If true, it makes us wonder about the merit of central banks in this phenomenon. Even more, challenges our knowledge that long-run inflation is ultimately a monetary issue. This paper explicitly addresses this hyphotesis, analyzing how differen...

Calani, Mauricio

2007-01-01

282

Addressing Global Health, Development, and Social Inequalities through Research and Policy Analyses: the International Journal of MCH and AIDS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One year after the birth of the International Journal of MCH and AIDS (IJMA, we continue to share the passion to document, and shine the light on the myriads of global health issues that debilitate developing countries.Although the focus of IJMA is on the social determinants of health and disease as well as on the disparities in the burden of communicable and non-communicable diseases affecting infants, children, women, adults, and families in developing countries, we would like to encourage our fellow researchers and policy makers in both the developing and developed countries to consider submitting work that examines cross-national variations in heath and social inequalities.Such a global focus allows us to identify and understand social, structural, developmental, and health policy determinants underlying health inequalities between nations.Global assessment of health and socioeconomic patterns reaffirms the role of broader societal-level factors such as human development, gender inequality, gross national product, income inequality, and healthcare infrastructure as the fundamental determinants of health inequalities between nations.This is also confirmed by our analysis of the WHO data that shows a strong negative association between levels of human development and infant and maternal mortality rates.Focusing on socioeconomic, demographic, and geographical inequalities within a developing country, on the other hand, should give us a sense of how big the problem of health inequity is within its own borders.Such an assessment, then, could lead to development of policy solutions to tackle health inequalities that are unique to that country.

Romuladus E. Azuine, DrPH, RN

2012-11-01

283

The Major Challenges Facing Teacher Education in an Increasingly Global Society  

Science.gov (United States)

Central to schools of education are the professional preparation and development of future educators, who will be responsible for preparing citizens to function and live in a global community. Globalization and schooling have the potential to successfully or unsuccessfully affect the skills that students need to succeed in an increasingly global

Paese, Paul C.

2008-01-01

284

Ethics in global surgery.  

Science.gov (United States)

Global surgery, while historically a small niche, is becoming a larger part of the global health enterprise. This article discusses the burden of global surgery, emphasizing the importance of addressing surgical needs in low- and middle-income countries. It describes the barriers to surgical care in the developing world, the ethical challenges that these barriers create, and strategies to overcome these barriers. It emphasizes the crucial role of preparation for global surgical interventions as a way to maximize benefits as well as minimize harms and ethical challenges. It ends with the cautionary statement that preparation does not eliminate ethical problems, so surgical volunteers must be prepared not only for the technical challenges of global surgery but also for the ethical challenges. PMID:24789014

Wall, Anji E

2014-07-01

285

Developing cyber-infrastructure for addressing grand challenge questions in Sun-Earth system science: First results of a testbed worldwide online conference series  

Science.gov (United States)

Software supporting an online conference series was developed with the purpose of catalyzing interdisciplinary investigations in Sun-Earth system science among large groups of researchers worldwide in celebration of the 50th anniversary of the International Geophysical Year in 2007. Transformative science in this area lies at the edges and intersections of individual elements (the Sun, heliosphere, magnetosphere, ionosphere and atmosphere) whose collective behavior determines the global system response. Continuing progress requires access to a vast developing cyber-infrastructure of large international data sets, high performance computing and advanced visualization. However, it also requires the development of new tools that bring these advances into contact with groups of interdisciplinary and international researchers so they can be used to attack grand challenge science issues in a manner not previously possible. This presentation describes the results of an eGY showcase project to develop a testbed online conference series for this purpose. The conference series is a collaborative effort between the CAWSES, IHY, eGY, ICESTAR, NASA/LWS and NSF Atmospheric Sciences Programs. Lessons learned in developing this first interface, as well as a discussion of key elements and how they worked will be presented.

Kozyra, J. U.; Barnes, R.; Fox, N. J.; Fox, P. A.; Kuznetsova, M. M.; Morrison, D.; Pallamraju, D.; Papitashvili, V.; Ridley, A.; Talaat, E. R.; Weiss, M.; Young, C. A.; Zanetti, L. J.

2006-12-01

286

The global partnership: its achievements, missed opportunities and potential to address future threats from the spread of CBRN materials and expertise - 59335  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Document available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: In 2002, the G8 launched the Global Partnership (GP) against the Spread of Weapons and Materials of Mass Destruction. The partnerships budget was placed at $20 billion over 10 years, and it was supported by some 23 countries and the European Union (EU).Though it has had little public recognition, the partnership has been one of the G8's most successful initiatives and has led to many benefits, including improved international security and addressing a sizeable proportion of the Cold War nuclear and chemical weapons arsenal in the Former Soviet Union. Its future, however, remains undecided, as its funding is set to expire in less than two years. In 2009 and 2010 Kings College London with generous funding support from the US John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, carried out a detailed evaluation of the achievements and benefits of the GP to date, its failings and lost opportunities, and potential future direction. Our findings indicate that the partnership has aided security in the Former Soviet Union and had a significant number of wider benefits with the potential to continue to do the same on a broader geographic level in future. As such, it is a valuable tool to assist the international community to work together to address global threats relating to chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear materials and related expertise and the G8 should take steps to renew its funding. (autould take steps to renew its funding. (authors)

287

Global challenges with scale-up of the integrated management of childhood illness strategy: results of a multi-country survey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The Integrated Management of Childhood Illness Strategy (IMCI, developed by WHO/UNICEF, aims to contribute to reducing childhood morbidity and mortality (MDG4 in resource-limited settings. Since 1996 more than 100 countries have adopted IMCI. IMCI case management training (ICMT is one of three IMCI components and training is usually residential over 11 consecutive days. Follow-up after ICMT is an essential part of training. We describe the barriers to rapid acceleration of ICMT and review country perspectives on how to address these barriers. Methods A multi-country exploratory cross-sectional questionnaire survey of in-service ICMT approaches, using quantitative and qualitative methods, was conducted in 2006-7: 27 countries were purposively selected from all six WHO regions. Data for this paper are from three questionnaires (QA, QB and QC, distributed to selected national focal IMCI persons/programme officers, course directors/facilitators and IMCI trainees respectively. QC only gathered data on experiences with IMCI follow-up. Results 33 QA, 163 QB and 272 QC were received. The commonest challenges to ICMT scale-up relate to funding (high cost and long duration of the residential ICMT, poor literacy of health workers, differing opinions about the role of IMCI in improving child health, lack of political support, frequent changes in staff or rules at Ministries of Health and lack of skilled facilitators. Countries addressed these challenges in several ways including increased advocacy, developing strategic linkages with other priorities, intensifying pre-service training, re-distribution of funds and shortening course duration. The commonest challenges to follow-up after ICMT were lack of funding (93.1% of respondents, inadequate funds for travelling or planning (75.9% and 44.8% respectively, lack of gas for travelling (41.4%, inadequately trained or few supervisors (41.4% and inadequate job aids for follow-up (27.6%. Countries addressed these by piggy backing IMCI follow-up with routine supervisory visits. Conclusions Financial challenges to ICMT scale-up and follow-up after training are common. As IMCI is accepted globally as one of the key strategies to meet MDG4 several steps need to be taken to facilitate rapid acceleration of ICMT, including reviewing core competencies followed by competency-driven shortened training duration or 'on the job' training, 'distance learning' or training using mobile phones. Linkages with other 'better-funded' programmes e.g. HIV or malaria need to be improved. Routine Primary Health Care (PHC supervision needs to include follow-up after ICMT.

Muhe Lulu M

2011-06-01

288

Introducing undergraduate students to global health challenges through web-based learning.  

Science.gov (United States)

Since many students cannot afford the expense of international travel, creative and active learning methods are needed to help students experience the increased awareness that results from exposure to global health concepts. The global health course described in this article uses a variety of web-based learning experiences and other interactive strategies to equip future nurses for leadership roles in global health. An emphasis on written communication is an important component of the course. PMID:16021937

White, Jerry L

2005-01-01

289

Global Warming, Technology Transfer and Trade in Carbon Energy: Challenge or Threat?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Is it possible to combat global climate change through North-to-South technology transfer even without a global climate treaty? Or do carbon leakage and the rebound effect imply that it is possible to take advantage of technological improvements under the umbrella of a global arrangement only? For answering these questions a world with full international cooperation is compared with a world, where countries act non-cooperatively. More precisely, in case of non-cooperation two cases are discus...

Mu?ller-fu?rstenberger, Georg; Stephan, Gunter

2012-01-01

290

Global nuclear industry views: challenges arising from the evolution of the optimisation principle in radiological protection.  

Science.gov (United States)

Over the last few decades, the steady progress achieved in reducing planned exposures of both workers and the public has been admirable in the nuclear sector. However, the disproportionate focus on tiny public exposures and radioactive discharges associated with normal operations came at a high price, and the quasi-denial of a risk of major accident and related weaknesses in emergency preparedness and response came at an even higher price. Fukushima has unfortunately taught us that radiological protection (RP) for emergency and post-emergency situations can be much more than a simple evacuation that lasts 24-48 h, with people returning safely to their homes soon afterwards. On optimisation of emergency and post-emergency exposures, the only 'show in town' in terms of international RP policy improvements has been the issuance of the 2007 Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). However, no matter how genuine these improvements are, they have not been 'road tested' on the practical reality of severe accidents. Post-Fukushima, there is a compelling case to review the practical adequacy of key RP notions such as optimisation, evacuation, sheltering, and reference levels for workers and the public, and to amend these notions with a view to making the international RP system more useful in the event of a severe accident. On optimisation of planned exposures, the reality is that, nowadays, margins for further reductions of public doses in the nuclear sector are very small, and the smaller the dose, the greater the extra effort needed to reduce the dose further. If sufficient caution is not exercised in the use of RP notions such as dose constraints, there is a real risk of challenging nuclear power technologies beyond safety reasons. For nuclear new build, it is the optimisation of key operational parameters of nuclear power technologies (not RP) that is of paramount importance to improve their overall efficiency. In pursuing further improvements in the international RP system, it should be clearly borne in mind that the system is generally based on protection against the risk of cancer and hereditary diseases. The system also protects against deterministic non-cancer effects on tissues and organs. In seeking refinements of such protective notions, ICRP is invited to pay increased attention to the fact that a continued balance must be struck between beneficial activities that cause exposures and protection. The global nuclear industry is committed to help overcome these key RP issues as part of the RP community's upcoming international deliberations towards a more efficient international RP system. PMID:23089026

Saint-Pierre, S

2012-01-01

291

The Global One Health Paradigm: Challenges and Opportunities for Tackling Infectious Diseases at the Human, Animal, and Environment Interface in Low-Resource Settings  

Science.gov (United States)

Zoonotic infectious diseases have been an important concern to humankind for more than 10,000 years. Today, approximately 75% of newly emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) are zoonoses that result from various anthropogenic, genetic, ecologic, socioeconomic, and climatic factors. These interrelated driving forces make it difficult to predict and to prevent zoonotic EIDs. Although significant improvements in environmental and medical surveillance, clinical diagnostic methods, and medical practices have been achieved in the recent years, zoonotic EIDs remain a major global concern, and such threats are expanding, especially in less developed regions. The current Ebola epidemic in West Africa is an extreme stark reminder of the role animal reservoirs play in public health and reinforces the urgent need for globally operationalizing a One Health approach. The complex nature of zoonotic diseases and the limited resources in developing countries are a reminder that the need for implementation of Global One Health in low-resource settings is crucial. The Veterinary Public Health and Biotechnology (VPH-Biotec) Global Consortium launched the International Congress on Pathogens at the Human-Animal Interface (ICOPHAI) in order to address important challenges and needs for capacity building. The inaugural ICOPHAI (Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2011) and the second congress (Porto de Galinhas, Brazil, 2013) were unique opportunities to share and discuss issues related to zoonotic infectious diseases worldwide. In addition to strong scientific reports in eight thematic areas that necessitate One Health implementation, the congress identified four key capacity-building needs: (1) development of adequate science-based risk management policies, (2) skilled-personnel capacity building, (3) accredited veterinary and public health diagnostic laboratories with a shared database, and (4) improved use of existing natural resources and implementation. The aim of this review is to highlight advances in key zoonotic disease areas and the One Health capacity needs. PMID:25393303

Gebreyes, Wondwossen A.; Dupouy-Camet, Jean; Newport, Melanie J.; Oliveira, Celso J. B.; Schlesinger, Larry S.; Saif, Yehia M.; Kariuki, Samuel; Saif, Linda J.; Saville, William; Wittum, Thomas; Hoet, Armando; Quessy, Sylvain; Kazwala, Rudovick; Tekola, Berhe; Shryock, Thomas; Bisesi, Michael; Patchanee, Prapas; Boonmar, Sumalee; King, Lonnie J.

2014-01-01

292

Managing Global Careers: Changes and Challenges for the 21st Century.  

Science.gov (United States)

Working internationally in an increasingly global economy, particularly as a manager, is different than it was just a few years ago. Many countries are now equipped to fill management positions internally. "Ex-pat" packages are few and far between. What does it really mean to work in a global marketplace? How easy is it to work abroad these days?…

Neault, Roberta A.

293

Improving the Pipeline of Women in STEM Fields: Addressing Challenges in Instruction, Engagement, and Evaluation of an Aerospace Workshop Series for Girl Scouts  

Science.gov (United States)

The Women in Aerospace and Technology Project (WATP) is a collaborative effort between the Girl Scouts of Eastern Pennsylvania, the American Helicopter Museum, Boeing Rotorcraft, Sikorsky Global Helicopters, Drexel University, West Chester University, and Arcadia University. The program aims to increase the representation of women in STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math) fields; the evaluation team identified a secondary goal to assess growth in participants' understanding of scientific inquiry. Girls, grades 4-12, were invited to join Girl Scout troops formed at the American Helicopter Museum to participate in a series of eight workshops on the physics and engineering of flight. Five college women majoring in physics and engineering were recruited as mentors for the girls. Lessons were written by local aerospace industry partners (including Boeing and Sikorsky); the mentors then taught the lessons and activities during the workshops. To evaluate the impact of this project, we collected data to answer two research questions: 1) In what ways does the program impact participants' attitudes towards science and interest in pursuing science as a career? 2) In what ways does the program impact participants' understanding of the nature of scientific inquiry? In this article we summarize results from two sources of data: before and after survey of attitudes about science and end-of-workshop informal questionnaires. Across the seven months of data collection, two challenges became apparent. First, our assessment goals, focusing on scientific interest and inquiry, seemed misaligned with the workshop curricula, which emphasized engineering and design. Secondly, there was little connection among activities within workshops and across the program.

Sealfon, C. D.; Plummer, J. D.

2012-08-01

294

Ministerial Presentation: United Kingdom [International Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Energy in the 21. Century: Addressing Energy Needs and Environmental Challenges, Beijing (China), 20-22 April 2009  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

I would firstly like to express gratitude to the Director General of the IAEA, Mohamed EIBaradei, for inviting Mike Q'Brien, the UK Minister of State for Energy, to address this conference. I know the Minister greatly respects the important work of the IAEA and would like to have been able to deliver this speech himself but, as I'm sure you can appreciate, there are many demands on his time with the fast moving developments in energy policy which is why he has asked me to make this speech on his behalf. Nuclear decision. As I'm sure you will be aware the UK government has taken the decision that it is in the public interest that new nuclear power stations should have a role to play in our country's future energy mix, alongside other low-carbon sources. This decision was reached in the context of the challenges of climate change and energy security. These are challenges that delegates in this room will be well familiar with. Adding urgency to these challenges in the UK is that 15% of electricity currently comes from nuclear power stations and that all but one of our power stations will shut by 2025. Significantly, the government believes that it is for energy companies to fund, develop and build new nuclear power stations in the UK and to meet the full cost of decommissioning and their full share of waste management costs. Our job in government is to work hard to create the right conditions for this investment. Our White Paper published in January last year set out a cpublished in January last year set out a clear work programme of the key steps both industry and Government need to take in the next ten years to enable new build to happen. This is a partnership and we are committed to working with industry to do everything we can to remove unnecessary regulatory burdens and increase investor certainty. Facilitative actions. This translates into a number of key actions Government is taking. Firstly, in the area of reactor licensing we have introduced a form of pre-licensing - the Generic Design Assessment. This is an upfront assessment of generic aspects of reactor design which leads to economies over larger fleets as well as reduced regulatory uncertainty. Secondly, on siting we have legislated to streamline the planning system so that those aspects of siting which are strategic in nature are considered at the national level with only site specific criteria considered at the local level. And thirdly, in relation to waste and decommissioning funding, we have legislated to ensure developers put money aside from day one for eventual clean up. But of course there is still more to do. Challenges. For example, we know that the UK regulator will need additional resources to deal with its predicted future workload, with or without new build, and we are considering ways to ensure that our nuclear regulatory arrangements remain world-class We know that we must assess nominated sites for strategic suitability and we must continue our work to set the price energy companies will pay for the disposal of waste. And throughout all of our work we must remain alive to the possibility of legal challenge. Timescale and Industry interest. Although there is still much to do and doubtless challenges ahead we are confident we will able to deliver what we have promised Our work will enable energy companies to: make planning applications from 2010, begin construction of the first new nuclear power station between 2013 and 2014, start operation between 2017 and 2020. As I said, we are confident we will deliver this framework and this confidence is reflected in the growing evidence of industry interest in the UK nuclear market. We started this year with EdF investing Pounds 12.5bn buying British Energy. We have seen eleven sites nominated for possibly hosting our new generation of nuclear power stations. [And an auction of potential sites for new nuclear power stations currently owned by the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority and EdF is still ongoing with those involved showing significant interest] [NWl] UK Offer. We also believe that the industry in

295

Regional leaders, global challenges: issues, interests and strategies : 12th International Summer School 2008  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

"In a world more and more characterized by multipolar structures, stability is an ever more evasive aim. Political theory tells us that multipolar systems are much less stable than bipolar or hegemonic ones. For the next generation of global political leaders it is paramount to understand how tectonic shifts in our present global order will influence the relative position of their own countries. The shifting parameters of rising powers, trends of regional cooperation and integration will set ...

2008-01-01

296

Wildlife crime in Africa - a global challenge: successful countermeasures must involve local populations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A series of high-ranking international meetings in 2013 drew global public attention to the dramatic collapse of elephant and rhinoceros populations in Africa, and to the connections between wildlife crime, terrorist networks and organised crime. On 12 February 2014 an international conference in London again took up the question of how to combat poaching and the illegal wildlife trade. Successful action against wildlife crime is a cross-cutting global task encompassing wildlife conservation,...

Hellwig-bo?tte, Margit

2014-01-01

297

Hyperresolution global land surface modeling: Meeting a grand challenge for monitoring Earth's terrestrial water  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Monitoring Earth’s terrestrial water conditions is critically important to many hydrological applications such as global food production; assessing water resources sustainability; and flood, drought, and climate change prediction. These needs have motivated the development of pilot monitoring and prediction systems for terrestrial hydrologic and vegetative states, but to date only at the rather coarse spatial resolutions (?10–100 km) over continental to global domains. Ad...

Wood, E. F.; Roundy, J. K.; Troy, T. J.; Beek, L. P. H.; Bierkens, M. F. P.; Blyth, E.; Roo, A. A.; Doll, P.; Ek, M.; Famiglietti, J.; Gochis, D.; Giesen, N.; Houser, P.; Jaffe, P. R.; Kollet, S.

2011-01-01

298

Opening Address [International Conference on Effective Nuclear Regulatory Systems: Further Enhancing the Global Nuclear Safety and Security Regime, Cape Town (South Africa), 14-18 December 2009  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nuclear energy is seen by many countries as providing a sustainable solution to energy security challenges. In this context, many developing countries are considering the establishment of nuclear power build programmes, while countries with mature nuclear programmes are considering the possibility of further expansion. The challenges facing countries that are embarking on this new venture include, inter alia, the development of policies, legislation as well as the establishment of appropriate institutions such as regulatory bodies with effective independence to take regulatory decisions. Regional and international cooperation and coordination are therefore of critical importance. Accordingly, the establishment of the Forum of Regulatory Bodies in Africa is a welcome initiative. We are pleased that the national nuclear programme in post-apartheid South Africa places us in a position to become active global participants in the safe use of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes. However, we all have an obligation to ensure that the presence of a plethora of cooperation mechanisms such as this body are as inclusive and as supportive as possible. This will help the global community of nations in reaping maximum benefits that surely should arise from these initiatives to ensure security of energy supply. We do not have the luxury to duplicate such bodies. The role of the International Atomic Energy Agency in nuclear safety and security cannot be over-emphasized. That alone isy cannot be over-emphasized. That alone is the reason that drove the liberation movement of the people of our country, and now the ruling party, fully to conform to all the treaties and conventions that have been drafted by this reputable institution of the peoples of the world. The same goes for the facilitation of cooperation and the sharing of knowledge and experience. The IAEA is invariably trusted to provide independent views and advice in order to strengthen safety and security while preserving the sovereignty, authority and responsibilities of Member States

299

Opening Address [FR09: International Conference on Fast Reactors and Related Fuel Cycles: Challenges and Opportunities, Kyoto (Japan), 7-11 December 2009  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Good morning, ladies and gentlemen. As Conference General Chair of the International Conference on Fast Reactors and Related Fuel Cycles (FR09) organized by the IAEA, and as a representative of the host organization for this conference, I would like to deliver an opening address. First of all, I would like to express my appreciation that so many participants, both from home and abroad, are attending this conference. Above all, I'm most grateful for the commitment that the International Advisory Committee, the International Scientific Programme Committee, the Local Organizational Committee and the Local Executive Committee members have shown in holding this year's conference, FR09. For this conference, about 750 participants have registered from 26 countries and three organizations (European Commission, OECD Nuclear Energy Agency, IAEA). I'm grateful that so many people are very interested in fast reactor development. Thinking back on the history of the conference of fast reactor systems, it all started back in 1974 in London. It then continued to be held every few years up until the fifth Kyoto conference in 1991. However, it has been suspended since then and so now, this year, the conference is being held for the first time in 18 years at the same location where we left off in 1991, the Kyoto International Conference Center. During this period, in the early 1990s, the FFTF and EBR-II experimental reactors in the United States of America were shut down. In ited States of America were shut down. In 1991, the construction of the SNR-300 prototype reactor in Germany was cancelled for both economic and political reasons, and in 1994, the operation of the PFR prototype reactor was stopped in the United Kingdom. Then, in 1998, the Super Phenix demonstration reactor in France was also shut down. In Japan, there was a sodium leak accident at the Monju prototype reactor in 1995 during a plant performance test. On the other hand, since 2000, the importance of nuclear energy has been recognized once again as a global energy source for the new century. In 2000, the Generation IV International Forum and the IAEA's International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles were launched as a new framework for multilateral nuclear cooperation. In 2006, the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership started. There has been a new trend in fast reactor development in the nuclear renaissance worldwide. It has been reported that China's CEFR experimental reactor is nearly reaching criticality. The BN-800 demonstration reactor in the Russian Federation and India's PFBR prototype reactor are in preparation for construction. In Japan, Monju, which has long been suspended, is now being prepared for its restart within this fiscal year, by the end of March 2010, and the FaCT project has been promoted as one of the key national technologies aiming at the commercialization of future sodium cooled fast reactor cycles. Thus, global fast reactor development has just overcome a period of 'winter-like' hardship and has entered a new stage of commercialization. There are two key phrases to describe the new period of fast reactor development: 'stop global warming' and 'prevent the threat of nuclear weapons'. Regarding the global warming issue, 12 years ago, that is, in 1997, the Kyoto Protocol was adopted at the Third Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (COP3), which was held in Kyoto. The COP15 was held in Copenhagen with the goal of forming a framework for greenhouse gas reduction after 2013. We are aiming to achieve the world common target of reducing by half the emission of greenhouse gases by 2050. It is impossible to reach a solution on this issue without a long standing nuclear energy supply. Particularly when considering the recent rapid increase in the price of natural uranium, the necessity for fast reactor development should again be internationally recognized from the viewpoint of achieving significant effective utilization of uranium resources and decreasing the impact on the glob

300

Opening Address by the Conference President [International Conference on Effective Nuclear Regulatory Systems: Further Enhancing the Global Nuclear Safety and Security Regime, Cape Town (South Africa), 14-18 December 2009  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Three years ago, the IAEA sponsored the first conference of government regulators to share their common perspectives and experience in addressing challenges of nuclear safety and security. The goal of the conference was to develop a global vision and to promote international cooperation. Representatives from more than 50 countries participated in that important gathering. The Moscow conference was the first of its kind, providing regulators a forum for exclusive focus on regulatory issues without limits of time, membership or subject matter. The conference discussed key cornerstones of effective regulation: the independence of the regulatory body, a firm foundation of adequate financial resources, skilled staff, quality management practices, and public confidence in the regulatory body and its decision making processes. Additionally, several key safety and security challenges were identified. We have a significant challenge to meet this week, and that is to use this unique regulatory forum to continue the progress that we made three years ago. I hope to see us converge around the four major themes of this conference and establish a concrete plan of action by the time we close on Thursday. Our four themes include: - Emerging regulatory challenges; - Regulatory independence and effectiveness; - Impact of multinational activities on the national responsibility for nuclear safety and security; - International safety and security communication and cooperation. A renewed inommunication and cooperation. A renewed interest in nuclear power worldwide has brought with it an increased focus on these regulatory issues, and I believe we all agree that a strong and effective regulatory program must be a prerequisite to any nuclear power programmes. At the conference this week, we will examine and discuss our priorities as regulators and work to identify and address the challenges we face - both individually and together - around safety and security. The work we do is critical for each of our countries and for the international community as a whole. I want to just touch briefly on the four themes for this week to set the stage. A robust regulatory programme has three essential components: legislation and the rules and regulations to ensure safety and security; adequate resources; and technical capability. One of the critical challenges for regulators of mature industries is the need to resist complacency. We must remain vigilant at all times about the safety and security of the existing fleet and nuclear materials. For those countries that are newcomers to nuclear power development, your greatest challenge may be to establish the infrastructure necessary for an effective and efficient regulatory programme. This is where the assistance of organizations such as this can be invaluable, in helping many of you to identify your regulatory needs and build your capacity; sharing experience, expertise, and lessons learned; and providing a foundation for international coordination and cooperation

 
 
 
 
301

Global nuclear renaissance - today's issues, challenges and differences relative to the first wave of nuclear plant projects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The development and negotiation of an Engineering, Procurement and Construction (EPC) contract is a multi-disciplined and time consuming process. Relative to the first wave on new nuclear build projects of the 1950's - 1970's, today's EPC contracts are more complex for a variety of reasons including more demanding regulatory and environmental requirements, global supply chain versus localization issues and different world wide economic considerations. This paper discusses the impacts of some of these challenges on developing an EPC contract in today's Nuclear Renaissance. (authors)

302

New Design of Biopharmaceuticals through the Use of Microalgae Addressed to Global Geopolitical and Economic Changes. Are You Ready for New Development in Biopharma?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Biopharma industry is enduring sweeping change in response to the financial crisis, but one aspect of the in-dustry that emerged relatively unscathed and that perhaps has directly benefited from the crisis is new revolutionary innova- tion solution. Identifying opportunities in the next wave of technologies for Biopharma, along with other policy initia- tives including financial crisis actions and climate policy, will affect on manufacturing biopharmaceutical products today and in the future in cost effective manner, and will be our adequate answer addressing to global geopolitical, economic and climate changes. It also underscores the search for new approach, evidenced by trends around new for- mulations to serve lower income patients. Microalgae biomass comes in many strains, and can be used by means of variety product developments. In the last years the key task of our R & D was to find a solution for these tasks. The bio- fuel market development dynamics include significant opportunity of microalgae raw material and microalgae proc- essing biomass rest of biodiesel manufacturing for Biopharma global growth in cost effective manner. Second new source of microalgae raw material for Biopharma include microalgae production through waste and wastewater cleaning. This should provide the opportunity to see the future in a new vision, where technology can serve as a revela- tion of the truth and where every endeavor is governed by reflection on and appreciation of the environment and thus leading to resolution of global tasks facing the world community and inclusion of microalgae in production and bio cycles open new cost effective ways for Biopharma companies and conservation of nature. A truly coherent microalgae raw material and Biopharma production policy has to find ways to bring these two traces closer for cost effective manufacturing, well being Biopharma economy and human health.

Armen B. Avagyan

2010-07-01

303

Ministerial Presentation: Canada [International Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Energy in the 21. Century: Addressing Energy Needs and Environmental Challenges, Beijing (China), 20-22 April 2009  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Government of Canada extends its appreciation to the IAEA, the OECD/NEA and the Government of the People's Republic of China for organizing this International Ministerial Conference. The Honourable Lisa Raitt, Minister of Natural Resources, has asked me to convey her regrets at not being able to be here today. Let me begin by saying that Canada fully supports the objectives of this meeting. We face both auspicious opportunities and significant challenges as we witness increasing interest in the use of nuclear technologies to meet development needs, satisfy energy demands and mitigate the threat of climate change. Four years after the Paris Ministerial Conference, we believe that the time is appropriate to take stock of the many developments since then, and to continue our dialogue on future actions to carry forward the positive momentum that nuclear power has witnessed in recent years. Canada recognizes the contributions made by safe, secure nuclear energy to global energy security, the economy and the environment. We believe that nuclear power has a vital role, both domestically and internationally. For Canada, nuclear energy is now, and will continue to be, an important part of our energy supply mix. Our nuclear industry, based on uranium supply and CANDU heavy water reactors, is making a substantial contribution to the Canadian economy. Canada currently has 17 operational nuclear power reactors that produce 15% of our electricity requirements. Nine CANDU reactolectricity requirements. Nine CANDU reactors are also operating in other countries around world. Canada also recognizes the contribution made to our environment by nuclear energy. By generating electricity from CANDU reactors, we are able to simultaneously reduce greenhouse gas emissions as well as other airborne pollutants. I think it is clear that nuclear energy will play an increasingly important role in striking a balance between our need for energy and our need to protect our environment, and that is certainly true in Canada where we have made an aggressive commitment to 90 and of our electricity being generated by non greenhouse gas emitting sources by 2020. There are prospects for new nuclear plant construction across Canada. In addition to the Ontario bid, the Government of New Brunswick is examining the feasibility of building a second reactor in the province; and the Governments of Alberta and Saskatchewan are both examining the potential use of nuclear power to meet their future energy needs. The major refurbishment programs underway and planned in Ontario, New Brunswick and Quebec will extend the life of CANDU reactors for 25-30 years, thereby ensuring an ongoing clean and reliable source of power for Canadians. With a solid domestic base, Canada has much to offer the international community and we look forward to sharing our capabilities as a responsible nuclear supplier country. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) is well prepared to advance Canadian technology and is currently pursuing the development of the third generation of CANDU reactor - the Advanced CANDU Reactor - an evolutionary technology based on the CANDU 6 design. The Government, as shareholder, stands fully behind AECL as it pursues commercial opportunities in home and global markets. In addition, the Government announced a review of AECL last year as part of our due diligence and our commitment to good governance and responsible management. Canada also has significant uranium resources, and currently produces 20% of the world's uranium, 85% of which is exported. These exports, including converted uranium, contribute to the reliable supply of nuclear fuel for power plants around the world. Exports of Canadian-origin uranium are subject to IAEA safeguards and bilateral nuclear cooperation agreements that assure it is used for peaceful purposes. Canada's uranium industry also operates under stringent environmental, health and safety regulations, and has an excellent environmental track record. As we look forward, we see a future which is as full of promise and optimism as it was

304

Multinational enterprises in an integrated global economy: a challenge for trans-national trade unions cooperation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hasta el momento, la globalización parece haber promovido una creciente inte-gración económica, permitiendo un aumento en los volúmenes de comercio, tanto globales como regionales, como también un aumento en la movilidad del capital. Las empresas multinacionales (EM, precisamente por la movilidad de su capital, logran ventajas, incidiendo en los mercados de trabajo y estimulando un ?circulo vicioso? en que sindicatos y gobiernos que participan en una ?carrera hacia abajo? en torno a la regulación de las condiciones de trabajo. Este artículo analiza los roles, estrategias y desafíos que enfrentan los sindicatos en el futuro inmediato, tanto al nivel regional (Europa como global.

Domenico Buccella

2007-01-01

305

Opening address  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The dawn of the nuclear age brought with it a new power, terrifying in its ability to destroy, awesome in its potential for good: it is the same stark contrast that confronts us today. On the one hand, as the technological expertise in handling its by-products develops, and with the growing realization of humanity's impact on its surroundings, nuclear power represents an important, climate friendly supply of energy. Moreover, its applications stretch far beyond civil nuclear power - food preservation and disease prevention are being revolutionized by nuclear technology, and, indeed, nuclear power will almost certainly be necessary if we are to continue our adventure of exploration beyond our solar system. However, if we are to continue to reap the benefits of the atom, we must keep in check its associated dangers, and prevent a technology with the power for so much good from falling into the hands of those that would use it to harm and destroy. Nuclear security plays a vital role in this endeavour.The Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, or NPT, has been a significant and, to many, an unexpected success in restraining nuclear proliferation and providing a secure framework for the peaceful transfer of nuclear technology. The United Kingdom continues to believe in the central importance of all aspects of the NPT, and regards it as the cornerstone of the non-proliferation regime. Alongside the NPT, the IAEA has played a crucial role in promoting and aidingyed a crucial role in promoting and aiding nuclear safety and security, championing the peaceful use of nuclear science and technology and encouraging and enforcing safeguards that protect nuclear material and prevent its diversion to harmful uses. Both the NPT and the operations of the IAEA face serious challenges. In our view, this is not a reason to be downhearted and to reject one of the best examples of effective multilateralism; rather, it amounts to a clear call for enhanced international efforts to strengthen the system and make it work better for the future. We are in London, but do not let anyone claim that nuclear security and nuclear nonproliferation are just the concern of the UK and a few of our allies and partners. The international nature of this conference, the central role in it of the IAEA, and the participation of representatives from so many countries, demonstrates better than any speech that we are dealing with global concerns. Only international action can meet the challenge

306

Preparing Information Systems (IS) Graduates to Meet the Challenges of Global IT Security: Some Suggestions  

Science.gov (United States)

Managing IT security and assurance is a top priority for organizations. Aware of the costs associated with a security or privacy breach, organizations are constantly vigilant about protecting their data and IT systems. In addition, organizations are investing heavily in IT resources to keep up with the challenges of managing their IT security and…

Sauls, Jeff; Gudigantala, Naveen

2013-01-01

307

Education: Past, Present and Future Global Challenges. Policy Research Working Paper 5616  

Science.gov (United States)

Progress in educational development in the world since 1900 has been slow and uneven between countries. Providing basic education for all children in developing countries has been and remains an unmet challenge of governments and international organizations alike. This is in sharp contrast to recent findings in the economics literature on the…

Patrinos, Harry Anthony; Psacharopoulos, George

2011-01-01

308

Territorial Intelligence of vulnerability systems 2 - Sustainable modelling of globalization challenge.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Globalization as progress of economic development has increased population socioeconomical vulnerability when unequal wealth distribution within economic development process constitutes the main rule, with widening the gap between rich and poors by environmental pricing. Econological vulnerability is therefore increasing too, as dangerous substance and techniques should produce polluted effluents and industrial or climatic risk increasing (Woloszyn, Quenault, Faburel, 2012). To illustrate and...

Woloszyn, Philippe

2012-01-01

309

Rising to the Challenge: Developing a Survey of Workplace Skills, Civic Engagement, and Global Awareness  

Science.gov (United States)

This chapter describes the ongoing development of a survey of students' workplace skills, civic engagement, and global awareness that colleges and universities can use to document their contributions to the public good. The student growth survey currently under development offers colleges and universities an opportunity to refocus the attention of…

Ouimet, Judith A.; Pike, Gary R.

2008-01-01

310

GlobePort Faces Global Business Challenges--Assessing the Organizational Side of Information Systems Projects  

Science.gov (United States)

Published studies have reported that Information System (IS) projects succeed or fail based on how effectively the organizational issues were understood and addressed in the specification, development and implementation stages of the project. This is particularly true in the design and delivery of Inter-Organizational Systems (IOS) that can affect…

Ghosh, Biswadip

2011-01-01

311

Keynote address  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Good morning ladies and gentlemen. I am truly honored to be your keynote speaker at the first International Oil Spill R ampersand D Forum. This Forum is cosponsored by the Coast Guard, on behalf of the OPA 90 Interagency Coordinating Committee on Oil Spill Research, and the International Maritime Organization. The fact that IMO is jointly sponsoring the Forum truly reflects the global nature of our concerns for the marine environment. I was asked to speak to you today because of my purview over the entire Coast Guard R ampersand D Program, a significant portion of which is oil spill related. Our environmental awareness was renewed on March 24, 1990 when the tankship Exxon Valdez ran aground on Bligh Reef in Prince William Sound, Alaska, and caused the largest vessel related oil spill in U.S. history. During the next 15 months there were three other large oil spills that threatened the U.S. shorelines. The U.S. flag tank vessel American Trader suffered a three foot diameter hole in a cargo tank near Huntington Beach California; the Mega Borg, a Norwegian flag tank vessel, exploded and caught fire off the coast of Texas in the Gulf of Mexico; and the Greek flag tanker World Prodigy ran aground in Narragensett Bay near Rhode Island. Each spill presented a unique set of challenges to our response operations. Despite intense response and cleanup actions, which included excellent international cooperation for the Exxon Valdez spill, it was apparent that existing world-wide it was apparent that existing world-wide catastrophic spill response capabilities could easily be exceeded and that there was no international mechanism which promoted and facilitated cooperations

312

Presidential address.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Secretary of India's Ministry of Health and Family Welfare serves as Chair of the Executive Council of the International Institute for Population Sciences in Bombay. She addressed its 35th convocation in 1993. Global population stands at 5.43 billion and increases by about 90 million people each year. 84 million of these new people are born in developing countries. India contributes 17 million new people annually. The annual population growth rate in India is about 2%. Its population size will probably surpass 1 billion by the 2000. High population growth rates are a leading obstacle to socioeconomic development in developing countries. Governments of many developing countries recognize this problem and have expanded their family planning programs to stabilize population growth. Asian countries that have done so and have completed the fertility transition include China, Japan, Singapore, South Korea, and Thailand. Burma, Malaysia, North Korea, Sri Lanka, and Vietnam have not yet completed the transition. Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Iran, Nepal, and Pakistan are half-way through the transition. High population growth rates put pressure on land by fragmenting finite land resources, increasing the number of landless laborers and unemployment, and by causing considerable rural-urban migration. All these factors bring about social stress and burden civic services. India has reduced its total fertility rate from 5.2 to 3.9 between 1971 and 1991. Some Indian states have already achieved replacement fertility. Considerable disparity in socioeconomic development exists among states and districts. For example, the states of Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh have female literacy rates lower than 27%, while that for Kerala is 87%. Overall, infant mortality has fallen from 110 to 80 between 1981 and 1990. In Uttar Pradesh, it has fallen from 150 to 98, while it is at 17 in Kerala. India needs innovative approaches to increase contraceptive prevalence rates and to reach replacement level fertility. PMID:12287408

Vohra, U

1993-07-01

313

Opening address  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This opening address covers two main areas: first, a snapshot of the continuing threat and the recent changes having been made to the United Kingdom's counterterrorism structures to respond to it; and second, how the United Kingdom is combating nuclear terrorism through a range of measures covering physical security, decreasing vulnerability to attack and increasing resilience. Combating the threat of nuclear terrorism requires an international effort. Radiological and fissile materials are present throughout the world and, as such, it should be secured wherever it is found. All countries are encouraged to continue to enhance security and protection mechanisms for radiological and fissile material; and to develop contingency plans should the worst happen. The United Kingdom has responded to the very serious and real threat by consolidating and strengthening elements of its counterterrorist planning via the creation in May this year of the Office for Security and Counter-Terrorism (OSCT). These changes have been coupled with an unprecedented level of investment to enable the delivery of the United Kingdom counterterrorist strategy - known as CONTEST - through which we aim to (a) stop terrorist attacks; (b) where it cannot be stopped, to mitigate its impact; (c) strengthen our overall protection against terrorist attack; (d) stop people becoming terrorists or supporting violent extremism. In the case of radiological and nuclear terrorism, it is not sufficient merely to terrorism, it is not sufficient merely to prepare for such an attack; one must also devote efforts to preventing such attacks in the first instance by intercepting dangerous materials before they reach their intended target; and by strengthening the protection of vulnerable places and detecting or mitigating any devices before they are placed or activated. As such, in terms of the United Kingdom's efforts on radiological and nuclear terrorism, there are three main strands to this work: physical protection of materials including the global threat reduction programme; decreasing vulnerability to attack; and increasing resilience should an incident occur

314

Soil erosion, climate change and global food security: challenges and strategies.  

Science.gov (United States)

An overview is presented of the determined degree of global land degradation (principally occurring through soil erosion), with some consideration of its possible impact on global food security. Most determinations of the extent of land degradation (e.g. GLASOD) have been made on the basis of "expert judgement" and perceptions, as opposed to direct measurements of this multifactorial phenomenon. More recently, remote sensing measurements have been made which indicate that while some regions of the Earth are "browning" others are "greening". The latter effect is thought to be due to fertilisation of the growth of biomass by increasing levels of atmospheric CO2, and indeed the total amount of global biomass was observed to increase by 3.8% during the years 1981-2003. Nonetheless, 24% of the Earth's surface had occasioned some degree of degradation in the same time period. It appears that while long-term trends in NDVI (normalised difference vegetation index) derivatives are only broad indicators of land degradation, taken as a proxy, the NDVI/NPP (net primary productivity) trend is able to yield a benchmark that is globally consistent and to illuminate regions in which biologically significant changes are occurring. Thus, attention may be directed to where investigation and action at the ground level is required, i.e. to potential "hot spots" of land degradation and/or erosion. The severity of land degradation through soil erosion, and an according catastrophic threat to the survival of humanity may in part have been overstated, although the rising human population will impose inexorable demands for what the soil can provide. However the present system of industrialised agriculture would not be possible without plentiful provisions of cheap crude oil and natural gas to supply fuels, pesticides, herbicides and fertilisers. It is only on the basis of these inputs that it has been possible for the human population to rise above 7 billion. Hence, if the cheap oil and gas supply fails, global agriculture fails too, with obvious consequences. Accordingly, on grounds of stabilising the climate, preserving the environment, and ensuring the robustness of the global food supply, maintaining and building good soil, in particular improving its SOM content and hence its structure, is highly desirable. Those regions of the world that are significantly degraded are unlikely to support a massive population increase (e.g. Africa, whose population is predicted to grow from its present 1.1 billion to 4.2 billion by 2100), in which case a die-off or mass migration might be expected, if population control is not included explicitly in future plans to achieve food security. PMID:25108995

Rhodes, Christopher J

2014-01-01

315

Papuan Bird's Head Seascape: emerging threats and challenges in the global center of marine biodiversity.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Bird's Head Seascape located in eastern Indonesia is the global epicenter of tropical shallow water marine biodiversity with over 600 species of corals and 1,638 species of coral reef fishes. The Seascape also includes critical habitats for globally threatened marine species, including sea turtles and cetaceans. Since 2001, the region has undergone rapid development in fisheries, oil and gas extraction, mining and logging. The expansion of these sectors, combined with illegal activities and poorly planned coastal development, is accelerating deterioration of coastal and marine environments. At the same time, regency governments have expanded their marine protected area networks to cover 3,594,702 ha of islands and coastal waters. Low population numbers, relatively healthy natural resources and a strong tenure system in eastern Indonesia provide an opportunity for government and local communities to collaboratively manage their resources sustainably to ensure long-term food security, while meeting their development aspirations. PMID:22863353

Mangubhai, Sangeeta; Erdmann, Mark V; Wilson, Joanne R; Huffard, Christine L; Ballamu, Ferdiel; Hidayat, Nur Ismu; Hitipeuw, Creusa; Lazuardi, Muhammad E; Muhajir; Pada, Defy; Purba, Gandi; Rotinsulu, Christovel; Rumetna, Lukas; Sumolang, Kartika; Wen, Wen

2012-11-01

316

Challenges in Developing Health Promoting Schools’ Project: Application of Global Traits in Local Realm  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Despite the importance of student health and school hygiene as an aspect of the infrastructure of community health, few feasibility studies have been conducted on school health programs in developing countries. This study examined possible barriers to and challenges of such programs from the executive perspective in East Azerbaijan Province in Iran. Methods: This qualitative study used the content analysis approach to recognize barriers to and challenges of health promoting school program from the executive perspective. Fourteen experts were selected in the areas of children and adolescents and school health, physical education and school headmasters. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews and analyzed using the content analysis method. Results: Five themes were extracted as major barriers and challenges: 1. Intraand inter-sectorial collaboration; 2. Policy and rule formulation; 3. Infrastructure and capacity; 4. Human resources; 5. Community involvement. Conclusion: The localized version of the current health promoting school program had major faults. If this program is considered to be a healthcare system priority, it should be revised to set effective policies for implementation and to sustain school health programs based on the capacities and objectives of each country.

Behrouz Fathi

2014-07-01

317

The Beat of Visions :The challenging features of a new global mode of production  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper explores how the visions of a future global political economy might shape its actual emergence. The emergence of powerful visions themselves seems to follow a pattern of discrete steps in historical time; it follows a beat of emancipation. In Europe the fundamental note was provided by the vision of enlightenment after the Dark Ages, which were kept in an ideological stalemate by religions. The beat of Luther’s early protestant secularization, Smith’s paleo-liberalism, Marx’ ...

Hanappi, Hardy

2010-01-01

318

Multiple global radiations in tadpole shrimps challenge the concept of ‘living fossils’  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

‘Living fossils’, a phrase first coined by Darwin, are defined as species with limited recent diversification and high morphological stasis over long periods of evolutionary time. Morphological stasis, however, can potentially lead to diversification rates being underestimated. Notostraca, or tadpole shrimps, is an ancient, globally distributed order of branchiopod crustaceans regarded as ‘living fossils’ because their rich fossil record dates back to the early Devonian and their morp...

Mathers, Thomas C.; Hammond, Robert L.; Jenner, Ronald A.; Bernd Hänfling; Africa Gómez

2013-01-01

319

Al-Qaida in the Islamic Maghrib: Algerian Challenge or Global Threat?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb, established in January 2007, is the latest in a long line of Algerian jihadi groups. Like many terrorist organizations, AQIM enjoys global media exposure on activist Internet sites, but unlike other al-Qaeda franchises, it has managed to maintain its indigenous leadership. The group has become known for fearsome suicide attacks, which were previously unheard of in Algeria, but has failed to incorporate the jihadi outfi ts from neighboring Morocco and Tunisia. ...

Filiu, Jean-pierre

2009-01-01

320

RFID and Data Capture Technologies in Global Service Supply Chains: Meeting the Information Management Challenge  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Data capture technologies such as RFID promise customer centric global service supply chains, but simultaneously threaten data overload. We argue that novel approaches to information management are required to successfully manage the data from sensor-based data capture technologies and to integrate them into successful inter-organizational service supply networks. We question the degree to which ICTs such as RFID as currently deployed support the customer orientation needed for successful ser...

Mairead Brady; Fellenz, Martin R.

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

LAND USE/COVER CHANGE IN RUSSIA WITHIN THE CONTEXT OF GLOBAL CHALLENGES  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper presents the results of a research project on Land Use/Cover Change (LUCC) in Russia in relations with global problems (climate change, environment and biodiversity degradation). The research was carried out at the Faculty of Geography, Moscow State University on the basis of the combination of remote sensing and in-field data of different spatial and temporal resolution. The original methodology of present-day landscape interpretation for land cover change study has been used. In R...

ELENA MILANOVA

2012-01-01

322

Christo-Islamic Perspectives on Abortion and the Challenges of Globalization  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The world is witnessing a tremendous change in every sphere in every facet of its social, political, economic as well as in the religious sphere. These changes have affected the orientation of people towards certain behavioural patterns that were hitherto regarded as sacrosanct and but which has now witnessed and is still witnessing serious changes due to the effect of globalization and this has eroded religious beliefs and practices. One such is the issue of abortion which has been legalized...

Kehinde Emmanuel Obasola

2014-01-01

323

The global social problem : challenges for a research school like CERES  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The text starts with a reminder of the historical roots of the debate about the social problem in early industrial England, and connects it with the current debate about social exclusion and poverty, with an example from South Africa. Poverty issues should be related to the debates about labour conditions and labour rewards and about the variety of capitalist transformations taking place in the era of globalisation and of global social polarisation. But understanding poverty also demands a mu...

Dietz, A. J.

2003-01-01

324

Accountability and global governance: challenging the state-centric conception of human rights  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper I analyze some conceptual difficulties associated with the demand that global institutions be made more democratically accountable. In the absence of a world state, it may seem inconsistent to insist that global institutions be accountable to all those subject to their decisions while also insisting that the members of these institutions, as representatives of states, simultaneously remain accountable to the citizens of their own countries for the special responsibilities they have toward them. This difficulty seems insurmountable in light of the widespread acceptance of a state-centric conception of human rights, according to which states and only states bear primary responsibility for the protection of their citizens’ rights. Against this conception, I argue that in light of the current structures of global governance the monistic ascription of human rights obligations to states is no longer plausible. Under current conditions, states are bound to fail in their ability to protect the human rights of their citizens whenever potential violations either stem from transnational regulations or are perpetrated by non-state actors. In order to show the plausibility of an alternative, pluralist conception of human rights obligations I turn to the current debate among scholars of international law regarding the human rights obligations of non-state actors. I document the various ways in which these obligations could be legally entrenched in global financial institutions such as the WTO, the IMF, and the World Bank. These examples indicate feasible methods for strengthening the democratic accountability of these institutions while also respecting the accountability that participating member states owe to their own citizens. I conclude that, once the distinctions between the obligations to respect, protect, and fulfill human rights are taken into account, no conceptual difficulty remains in holding states and non-state actors accountable for their respective human rights obligations.

Cristina Lafont

2010-09-01

325

(Local-) community for global challenges: carbon conversations, transition towns and governmental elisions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article addresses the narrowing interpretation of community when governmentalised: that of community’s elision with local. First it surveys five broad academic and policy interpretations of the community implied in low carbon transitions. These demonstrate the persistence of community’s broad and open-ended polysemy today. Second it looks more closely at the role community plays in UK environmental governance today, including specific evidence from two such government-funded communit...

Taylor Aiken, Gerald

2014-01-01

326

Growing water scarcity in agriculture: future challenge to global water security.  

Science.gov (United States)

As water is an essential component of the planetary life support system, water deficiency constitutes an insecurity that has to be overcome in the process of socio-economic development. The paper analyses the origin and appearance of blue as well as green water scarcity on different scales and with particular focus on risks to food production and water supply for municipalities and industry. It analyses water scarcity originating from both climatic phenomena and water partitioning disturbances on different scales: crop field, country level and the global circulation system. The implications by 2050 of water scarcity in terms of potential country-level water deficits for food self-reliance are analysed, and the compensating dependence on trade in virtual water for almost half the world population is noted. Planetary-scale conditions for sustainability of the global water circulation system are discussed in terms of a recently proposed Planetary Freshwater Boundary, and the consumptive water use reserve left to be shared between water requirements for global food production, fuelwood production and carbon sequestration is discussed. Finally, the importance of a paradigm shift in the further conceptual development of water security is stressed, so that adequate attention is paid to water's fundamental role in both natural and socio-economic systems. PMID:24080619

Falkenmark, Malin

2013-11-13

327

Responsibility, God and society: The cry of the Other in the sacred texts as a challenge towards responsible global citizenship  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article seeks to respond to the question: What role can the sacred texts play in the construction of a Christian identity that is responsible to the Other in a pluralistic global world? The sacred texts of the Judaic-Christian tradition offer not only an understanding of the wholly otherness of God, but also form the basis of our understanding and perception of humanity (anthropology, the world and ourselves (personhood/identity. This understanding is constructed in the context of responding to the call of the wholly Other and the others. Identities are traditionally constructed through the identification and exclusion of differences (otherness, thus leading to an ethic of exclusion and responsibility only to oneself/ourselves. Yet these identity-forming texts harbour a persistent otherness, which challenges these traditional identities by interrupting them with a call to responsibility toward the other. The otherness harboured in these texts takes various forms, namely: The otherness of the ancient world to our world, the otherness of the transcendental Other, and the otherness of the text itself, as there is always a différance that has not yet been heard. These various forms of otherness, of our identity-forming texts, deconstruct our identity constructions, thus calling us to a continuous responsibility towards the other. This call could form the basis of a Christian identity and ethic of global cosmopolitan citizenship that is always responding to the eschatological interruption by the other, who is not yet present or who has not been offered presence.

How to cite this article: Meylahn, J-A., 2009, Responsibility, God and society: The cry of the Other in the sacred texts as a challenge towards responsible global citizenship’, HTS Teologiese Studies/Theological Studies 65(1, Art. #131, 5 pages. DOI: 10.4102/hts.v65i1.131

Johann-Albrecht Meylahn

2009-03-01

328

Ministerial Presentation: Japan. Statement by H. E. Ms. Seiko Noda [International Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Energy in the 21. Century: Addressing Energy Needs and Environmental Challenges, Beijing (China), 20-22 April 2009  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On behalf of the Government of Japan, I would like to offer my warmest congratulations on the successful holding of the International Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Energy in the 21st Century, here in Beijing. The importance of nuclear energy as a measure against global warming. We are currently facing serious challenges. It is vital to the prosperity of humanity that all countries strive for coordination and cooperation to resolve those issues such as scarcity of food, poverty, and terrorism, in addition to the economic crisis which has shaken up the world economy since last year. In particular, measures against global warming are key issues, to which all countries must unite and respond promptly, effectively and sustainably over an extended period. At the Annual Meeting of the World Economic Forum (Davos Meeting) in this January, Prime Minister of Japan, Mr. Taro Aso, mentioned the goal of reducing the global greenhouse-gas emissions at least by half, by the year of 2050. He stressed that the Post-Kyoto framework should be all inclusive to achieve this goal, with all the big emitters joining as responsible partners. The current year is a crucial one, in which to establish the framework for 2013 and beyond. The cooperation of all countries is required more than ever. I believe that, in order to achieve a significant reduction in global greenhouse-gas emissions while ensuring secure energy supply, the expansion of the peaceful use of nuclear energy is essential, alful use of nuclear energy is essential, along with the maximum implementation of other effective measures such as energy conservation, energy efficiency improvement and the use of renewable energy. Recently, this role of nuclear energy has been widely recognized over the world. In the 4th Assessment Report, published in 2007 by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), nuclear energy, which emits minimal greenhouse gases, is described as one of major mitigation technologies in the energy supply area. The International Energy Agency (IEA) of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) suggested in its 'World Energy Outlook 2008' that the nuclear energy supply should be doubled in 2030 from the current figure, in order to achieve the 2050 target of halving the greenhouse-gas emissions. Last year at G8 Hokkaido-Toyako Summit, the Leaders pointed out in their declaration, that a growing number of countries have expressed their interests in nuclear power programs as a means to addressing climate change and energy security concerns. Approach toward the expansion of peaceful use of nuclear energy on a global scale. From the perspective of further promoting the peaceful use of nuclear energy on a global scale in a manner that ensures nuclear non-proliferation, nuclear safety and nuclear security, Japan is determined to play its important role as a leading country, focusing its effort on the following two approaches: Firstly, Japan will try to make it an internationally accepted common perception that the peaceful use of nuclear energy is an essential measure against global warming. This common perception would help the development of effective international frameworks for further promotion of the use of nuclear energy. Japan has been making efforts in the Forum for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia (FNCA), which is a cooperation of 10 countries in the region. At the Ministerial-Level Meeting in December 2007, a Joint Communique on 'the Peaceful Use of Nuclear Energy for Sustainable Development' was issued. In the communique, it was decided that they work towards raising global awareness that, in the Post-Kyoto framework, it is important to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy as a clean energy source, and to recognize that nuclear energy should be considered in the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). This joint communique was circulated within the IAEA member states as INFCIRC/725. Also in the ministerial-level Executive Committee of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) held in October 2008 in Paris, a joint statement of simil

329

Nutritional psychiatry research: an emerging discipline and its intersection with global urbanization, environmental challenges and the evolutionary mismatch.  

Science.gov (United States)

In 21st-century public health, rapid urbanization and mental health disorders are a growing global concern. The relationship between diet, brain function and the risk of mental disorders has been the subject of intense research in recent years. In this review, we examine some of the potential socioeconomic and environmental challenges detracting from the traditional dietary patterns that might otherwise support positive mental health. In the context of urban expansion, climate change, cultural and technological changes and the global industrialization and ultraprocessing of food, findings related to nutrition and mental health are connected to some of the most pressing issues of our time. The research is also of relevance to matters of biophysiological anthropology. We explore some aspects of a potential evolutionary mismatch between our ancestral past (Paleolithic, Neolithic) and the contemporary nutritional environment. Changes related to dietary acid load, advanced glycation end products and microbiota (via dietary choices and cooking practices) may be of relevance to depression, anxiety and other mental disorders. In particular, the results of emerging studies demonstrate the importance of prenatal and early childhood dietary practices within the developmental origins of health and disease concept. There is still much work to be done before these population studies and their mirrored advances in bench research can provide translation to clinical medicine and public health policy. However, the clear message is that in the midst of a looming global epidemic, we ignore nutrition at our peril. PMID:25060574

Logan, Alan C; Jacka, Felice N

2014-01-01

330

Nutritional psychiatry research: an emerging discipline and its intersection with global urbanization, environmental challenges and the evolutionary mismatch  

Science.gov (United States)

In 21st-century public health, rapid urbanization and mental health disorders are a growing global concern. The relationship between diet, brain function and the risk of mental disorders has been the subject of intense research in recent years. In this review, we examine some of the potential socioeconomic and environmental challenges detracting from the traditional dietary patterns that might otherwise support positive mental health. In the context of urban expansion, climate change, cultural and technological changes and the global industrialization and ultraprocessing of food, findings related to nutrition and mental health are connected to some of the most pressing issues of our time. The research is also of relevance to matters of biophysiological anthropology. We explore some aspects of a potential evolutionary mismatch between our ancestral past (Paleolithic, Neolithic) and the contemporary nutritional environment. Changes related to dietary acid load, advanced glycation end products and microbiota (via dietary choices and cooking practices) may be of relevance to depression, anxiety and other mental disorders. In particular, the results of emerging studies demonstrate the importance of prenatal and early childhood dietary practices within the developmental origins of health and disease concept. There is still much work to be done before these population studies and their mirrored advances in bench research can provide translation to clinical medicine and public health policy. However, the clear message is that in the midst of a looming global epidemic, we ignore nutrition at our peril. PMID:25060574

2014-01-01

331

Ministerial Presentation: Lithuania [International Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Energy in the 21. Century: Addressing Energy Needs and Environmental Challenges, Beijing (China), 20-22 April 2009  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Lithuania is a state that has nuclear power plant with two RBMK type reactors. The first one was shut down in the end of the year 2004 and the second one has to be closed at the end of this year. We are facing two main challenges for the Baltic States when tackling the issue of Security of Energy Supply: The energy systems of the Baltic States are interconnected between each other, but almost totally separated from the Western European energy systems. In addition, electricity supplies from the eastern neighbours are also limited. After the scheduled INPP closure at the end of 2009, the Baltic energy system as the 'Energy Island' may face electricity supply shortages; Natural gas and oil pipelines come to the Baltic States from one direction. All three countries depend on one supplier. The closure of Ignalina NPP will even worsen the situation with the increase of natural gas use for fossil fuel power plants. What solutions do we see? Development of electricity interconnections; Additional electricity generation capacities in the region; Supply of the natural gas to the region; Oil supply to the region. Nuclear energy development. We closely follow global energy trend which shows growing energy demands and consequently significant increase in future nuclear power contribution. National Energy Strategy of Lithuania foresees rapid economic grow which is the key factor having direct impact on energy consumption and at the same time on electricity demand. Nuclear power is e on electricity demand. Nuclear power is the largest source of energy in Lithuania, accounting for approx. 70% of the electricity produced. Lithuania has already announced its decision to expand nuclear power by building a new nuclear power plant jointly with Estonia, Latvia and Poland. The new plant titled as Visaginas Nuclear Power Plant is planned to be built in 2015 and located near existing Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant. Visaginas NPP is intended to secure energy supply to whole Baltic region. Given the fact that the project is regional, its implementation is more complex, complicated and slower than it appears. Implementation requires constant coordination among all partners participating in project. We are glad that there are already some steps accomplished which I want to share with you. After the political declaration of the three Baltic States on the construction of a common nuclear power plant Lithuania started to consider project related environmental issues. The Environmental Impact Assessment Program (EIA) was approved by the Lithuanian Ministry of Environment on November 15th, 2007 after extensive national and international commenting. In August 2008 EIA report has been prepared and presented to the public. Environmental impact assessment evaluated construction and operation of a new nuclear power plant in Lithuania with an approximate electric power of 3400 MW. The environmental impact assessment did not find any environmental or social impacts of such significance, caused by construction or operation of the new NPP, that they could not be accepted or mitigated to an acceptable level. Lithuania has established the National investor company LEO LT which is responsible for the implementation and development of New Nuclear Power Plant project. LEO LT is going to bear 100% of Lithuania's participation share in the project. The step forward to project implementation was establishing a new LEO LT subsidiary - 'Visaginas nuclear power plant'. A new subsidiary will perform all the new NPP project related preparatory works. While discussing nuclear power expansion we have to think about expansion of human resources as well. The National Energy Strategy gives the national priority to ensure timely preparation of specialists for work in the new nuclear power plant as of the phase of mounting its technological equipment. In this respect Lithuania has developed a National programme for the preparation of nuclear energy specialists for the years 2008-2015. Taking into account all those mentioned activities related to safe operation, decommissioning and fut

332

Ministerial Presentation: Jordan. Why Nuclear? [International Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Energy in the 21. Century: Addressing Energy Needs and Environmental Challenges, Beijing (China), 20-22 April 2009  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The recent renaissance of nuclear power in the industrialized countries is not the only factor driving the interest of nuclear power in developing countries. The necessity for nuclear power in developing countries, and in particular the Middle East, is most often misunderstood by the industrialized countries, due to the abundance of oil and gas in the region . However, large disparities exist between countries of the region with per-capita consumption 0.1 toe/yr for Sudan to 34 toe/yr for Qatar. The greatest expansion of energy demand over the coming decades will be in the developing world. Global predictions of energy demand and supply are misleading for policy or planning needs. Regional and, even better, national detailed projections are more accurate. A point of illustration is the Middle East, where the conventional opinion is of a 'rich' oil-producing region. On a country-by-country basis, it is clear that many countries in the Middle East, are actually suffering under the toll of high oil prices. A case in point is Jordan, where more than 20 percent of the national budget is spent to import energy. The uncertainty of energy supplies and their increasing costs are severely affecting the growth of my country's economy and its security. Jordan imports more than 95 percent of its energy needs. Hence, the development of secure alternative energy supplies is a top priority for the country. Jordan has limited options to substitute for oil products. The chief option istute for oil products. The chief option is imported natural gas, which can displace oil but is a short- to mid-term option and cannot be relied upon for the long term and should be used as a peaking source. Renewables will be developed to their fullest extent but have their well known limitations. Our vision is to utilize nuclear energy to transform Jordan from a net energy importer to a net electricity exporter by 2030. By that date, according to the National Nuclear Strategy, 30% of the Jordan's electricity needs will be met by nuclear power, with excess production to be made available for export. Jordan has been seriously exploring nuclear power as a long-term alternative for electricity generation, water desalination, and as insurance for both energy security and future volatility of oil and natural gas prices. Nuclear energy is an important alternative to fossil fuels and is a particularly important component in a low-carbon energy strategy. In this regard, I urge this Conference to call for the inclusion of nuclear energy in the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) of any future climate change negotiations. Nuclear power also maximizes and leverages Jordan's indigenous uranium resources. The Kingdom is endowed with rich uranium resources which have not been fully explored, with estimated reasonably assured resources of about 70,000 metric tons of uranium oxide in Central Jordan with additional quantities that could be extracted as byproduct of phosphoric acid production. There are, however, many challenges standing in the way of introducing nuclear power in Jordan such as the high investment cost, the need for skilled engineers and technicians, the limited suitable sites for power plants, the lack of adequate water sources for cooling, and the volatile regional political climate. Since 2001, Jordan has been developing a national strategy for civilian nuclear power. But only in January 2008, that Jordan's parliament empowered the Jordan Atomic Energy Commission (JAEC) to lead the national effort and implement the Kingdom's nuclear strategy ---to be the Nuclear Power Implementation Organization (NEPIO) for the country. Furthermore and In compliance with the best of international practices, the parliament established an independent Jordan Nuclear Regulatory Commission (JNRC), to promulgate the needed legal, regulatory, and security framework for the introduction of nuclear power. JAEC has concluded nuclear cooperation agreements with France, China, South Korea, Canada, and will conclude two soon with Russia and UK. One of our major challenges, and in fact a

333

El reto ético del agua | The Global Water Crisis’ ethical challenge  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El vigente modelo neoliberal de globalización, ajeno a los más elementales principios éticos, lejos de frenar la degradación ecológica, reducir los gradientes de riqueza y garantizar a los más pobres derechos fundamentales, como el acceso al agua potable, ha abierto al mercado la gestión de aguas como espacio de negocio, acelerando la depredación de los recursos hídricos y aumentando la vulnerabilidad de los más débiles. En síntesis, afrontamos una crisis global del agua que sin duda se agravará por efecto del cambio climático en curso si no se adoptan adecuadas políticas de adaptación que amortigüen la vulnerabilidad de la población, particularmente de las comunidades más pobres, ante los riesgos de sequía y de fuertes precipitaciones, que aumentarán en intensidad y frecuencia. Se requiere un nuevo enfoque ético, basado en principios de sostenibilidad, equidad y no-violencia. Nos encontramos ante la necesidad de promover una “Nueva Cultura del Agua” que recupere, desde la modernidad, la vieja sabiduría de culturas ancestrales que se basaba en la prudencia y en el respeto a la naturaleza. The neoliberal globalization design, alien to the most elementary ethical principles, far from slowing down the environmental degradation, reduce the wealth inequalities and guarantee fundamental right to the most poor, as the access to drinkable water, has open the water management to the market, as a business space, fostering then the water resources depredation and making weak people more vulnerable. In sum, we face a global water crisis that will get worse, mostly for vulnerable populations and particularly for the poorest communities, if the right politics of adaption are not adopted against droughts and rainfall that are going to be more intense and frequent. We need a new ethic scope, based on sustainability, equity and non violent principles. We face the need to promote a New Water Culture that recovers, from modernity, the old wisdom of ancient cultures based on prudence and respect for the nature.

Pedro ARROJO

2009-10-01

334

Pfizer and the Challenges of the Global Pharmaceutical Industry 2013 (B)  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This is part of a case series. The case focuses on describing and analysing the environment, profitability and competitiveness of the global pharmaceutical industry, and to evaluate the current and future strategy of Pfizer. It features a large number of tables with quantitative data that help solving the case study. This document complements the (A) case and covers a description of the 10 largest pharmaceutical firms and highlights a number of strategic manoeuvres of major players in the last years. At the end, the reader is referred back to the Pfizer situation and Pfizer’s recent strategic initiatives and responses to the market changes.

Nell, Phillip Christopher

335

Opening address  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: It is an honour for me to make this opening address on behalf of the European Commission which has cooperated with the International Atomic Energy Agency in organizing this Conference, and in particular on behalf of Hans Forsstroem from the Directorate-General, Research, who will arrive only later this week. Protection of the environment is, and will continue to be, an important consideration in the development and application of soundly based radiation protection standards. Current standards rest largely on the premise that, in protecting man, the environment is afforded an adequate level of protection. While this premise is broadly accepted by the radiation protection profession, it has come under increasing challenge in recent years. This challenge has not arisen because of any observable damage to the environment while operating within current standards. Rather, it has different origins including: - The robustness of the premise that protection of man affords protection of the environment, in particular the extent to which it is based on value judgements as opposed to rigorous scientific argument; - The more explicit inclusion of protection of the environment into national legislation on radiation protection and the need to demonstrate compliance; - A desire to achieve greater comparability between radiation and other pollutants. These trends were recognized by the Commission in the late 1990s and, as a result, the topic of protection of the environmentthe topic of protection of the environment was included as an important element of the European Union's 5th Research Framework Programme. Community support has been given to the FASSET project about which we will hear much during this Conference. This multinational project is providing much of the scientific basis underpinning and informing ongoing discussions on the development of a system of protection for the environment. Much, however, remains to be done to establish a well conceived and practicable system for protection of the environment, in particular one that is likely to find broad international acceptance. In this context, the topic was included as an important element of the Commission's 6th Research Framework Programme with the specific objective of 'establishing a robust conceptual and methodological basis for underpinning sound policy and standards for protection of the environment from radiation'. A contract is currently being negotiated to this purpose - the ERICA project which is expected to make a major contribution in this area. Progress within the ERICA project and initiatives being taken to develop standards in other quarters (e.g. IAEA, ICRP) will determine the need for further supporting RTD. In principle, within the next few years, an adequate scientific basis should be established for underpinning standards, albeit supported by further modest research of a confirmatory nature. The Commission has, at present, no plans to establish explicit standards for protection of the environment from radiation. You may be aware that we had included in the work programme of DG Environment the establishment of an Environmental Action Programme under the EURATOM Treaty (complementary to the 6th EAP under the EC Treaty). A follow-up to the Stakeholders' Conference on Approaches to the Management of Environmental Radioactivity of December 2002 was foreseen for 2004. However, in view of the preparation of this EURATOM EAP it cannot be guaranteed at the moment. But the Commission will continue to monitor developments in environmental radiation protection, in particular the results of its sponsored research and the activities of ICRP and IAEA. Should the need arise for standards at a European level, the Commission would respond in a timely manner. If and when it does, important considerations will be the adoption of a system that is robust, practicable, cost effective and proportionate to the problem at hand. A proper balance will need to be achieved between science and policy. I will end my opening remarks with these last thoughts which I hope will be ke

336

Opening address  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Berlin has become a modern, open and forward looking city filling its role as the German capital with self confidence and a very special charm. I really appreciate that this conference is being held here in Berlin. Supporting communication between science and the economy is one of our policy objectives, and we are also determined to develop Berlin's attraction for congresses and conferences. In the next week you will focus on the 'Safe Decommissioning for Nuclear Activities'. You work in an enormous field. Currently, there are more than 110 nuclear installations in the European Union in varying stages of decommissioning, and an additional 150 installations will be dismantled by the year 2020. This means that decommissioning will no longer be treated in a case by case fashion like, for example, the Greifswald Nuclear Power Plant or the Wismut remediation site, which some of you will visit on Friday. Rather, decommissioning will have to be turned into a full scale industrial process with standardized procedures. Each of these procedures has to be optimized, not only with respect to technical requirements but most importantly in a way that guarantees maximum safety for the workers, for the population and for the environment. Consequently, the focal points of this conference cover an extremely wide range, including: Strategies for the safe termination and the assessment of the adequacy of the current technology; Waste management and disposal; Release of materials from regnd disposal; Release of materials from regulatory control; Remediation of sites; Social impact of practice termination. Adequate coverage of all these issues is probably not made easier by the proposed enlargement of the European Union to include a number of Central European and Baltic countries. At an early stage, it is the scientific community, with its creativity and potential, which conceives novel approaches and designs new processes. But at a certain point the foundation for the successful handling of a complex problem must be enlarged and become more technical. Involving experts from all fields is then crucial for success. This perception is reflected in the goals of this meeting. It is designed as an extensive information exchange forum between decision makers, regulators, radiation and waste safety specialists, and the nuclear industry. It is this mix which promises high efficiency with respect to solving the problems that you are addressing. I am sure that the safe termination of practices involving radioactive materials during the decommissioning of nuclear installations is one of the major challenges that industrialized nations will have to face during the next decades

337

Multiple global radiations in tadpole shrimps challenge the concept of ‘living fossils’  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ‘Living fossils’, a phrase first coined by Darwin, are defined as species with limited recent diversification and high morphological stasis over long periods of evolutionary time. Morphological stasis, however, can potentially lead to diversification rates being underestimated. Notostraca, or tadpole shrimps, is an ancient, globally distributed order of branchiopod crustaceans regarded as ‘living fossils’ because their rich fossil record dates back to the early Devonian and their morphology is highly conserved. Recent phylogenetic reconstructions have shown a strong biogeographic signal, suggesting diversification due to continental breakup, and widespread cryptic speciation. However, morphological conservatism makes it difficult to place fossil taxa in a phylogenetic context. Here we reveal for the first time the timing and tempo of tadpole shrimp diversification by inferring a robust multilocus phylogeny of Branchiopoda and applying Bayesian divergence dating techniques using reliable fossil calibrations external to Notostraca. Our results suggest at least two bouts of global radiation in Notostraca, one of them recent, so questioning the validity of the ‘living fossils’ concept in groups where cryptic speciation is widespread.

Thomas C. Mathers

2013-04-01

338

Research misconduct: a grand global challenge for the 21st Century.  

Science.gov (United States)

Research misconduct is now acknowledged to be an important global issue for both researchers and the wider community. Guidance on the responsible conduct of research is now widespread, but many are still concerned by the apparent rising tide of serious cases of research misconduct, and perhaps the more worrying widespread presence of questionable research practices. I would suggest that guidance and training, while essential, are not sufficient. Additional interventions, including enhanced monitoring of research outputs and random audit using the available technology should be considered, as should the desirability of having a register of "licensed researchers." In addition, I would support a culture change in the research community in which researchers are encouraged to admit their mistakes; this should be accompanied by a spirit of forgiveness and programmed rehabilitation for the individual concerned. For multiple "premier league" offenders who are reluctant to face their misdemeanors, it is difficult to see how they could continue in the role of a researcher, and their "registration" should be revoked. Research is increasingly undertaken by researchers who cross national boundaries. The globalization of research demands greater collaboration between organizations that are responsible for ensuring standards of research integrity; the need for international standards and guidance has never been greater. PMID:24372677

Farthing, Michael J G

2014-03-01

339

Ministerial Presentation: Bangladesh. Statement by Arch. Yeafesh Osman [International Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Energy in the 21. Century: Addressing Energy Needs and Environmental Challenges, Beijing (China), 20-22 April 2009  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is indeed a great pleasure and honour for me to have the opportunity to participate in this august gathering of International Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Energy in the 21st century. At the outset I avail of this opportunity to express my heartfelt gratitude to Chinese Atomic Energy Agency (CAEA) and the Government of the People's Republic of China (PRC) for the initiative and interest of hosting this important event in Beijing. I express my profound sense of gratefulness for the firm commitment, moral, material and intellectual support of the IAEA and its Member States which enabled organization of this important conference. The history of IAEA is a history of solidarity and the joint actions of the member states, an icon of joint collaboration for 'Atom For Peace Program'. I am confident that this conference will allow the participants to address development and emerging issues relevant to the role of nuclear power in providing clean and sustainable energy for the 21st Century. The conference will also provide an opportunity to review the status and prospects of nuclear power to carry forward the positive momentum to further raise the profile of Nuclear Energy. Respected Delegates, We all share a common understanding that nuclear science and technology is now conceived as a potential instrument of change and can play a decisive and pivotal role in efforts of achieving the much coveted goal of poverty alleviation. For ensuring sustainable development energy s ensuring sustainable development energy security is the most important strategic issue for all in the 21st Century. Global warming from greenhouse gases caused by excessive and imprudent use of fossil fuels, is a problem we must overcome together to achieve sustainable development. Meanwhile, Asia is displaying a high growth rate in both population and economic development. Therefore, the low energy consumption per capita at present will see a rapid and constant increase in demand in the near future. As such, great importance is attached to the promotion of nuclear power programme and cooperation among Asian countries for their collective response to the future energy demand and expansion of Nuclear Power Program (NPP). We deem, IAEA should come up to face this reality that we share a common fate on this crowded planet. To attain the goals of cooperation, it is imperative to combine four elements: a clear objective, an effective technology, a clear implementation strategy, and last but not the least a source of funding. The greatest challenges of our generation are energy and food security, environment, population boom, and poverty. These are at the same time our most exciting opportunities too. Ours is the generation which has the potential to eradicate extreme poverty to a remarkably substantial degree. We can turn the tide against climate change and steer forward a reversing process of massive extinction of other species. Ours is the generation that can, and must solve the unresolved conundrum of combining economic well-being with energy security and environmental sustainability. We need Nuclear Technology and professionalism, but first of all we need a meaningful and effective collaboration and cooperation having interfaces among the concerned. Bangladesh is well aware of the new challenges that the nation has to confront in the present context of globalization as well as multiple problems arising with dynamics of time in domestic development. Our Honorable Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina MP has declared her government's firm determination to bring about a meaningful change in the country. Her vision is to develop a 'Digital Bangladesh' by 2021, a poverty free mid-level developed country. The present strategy of the Government comprises of a comprehensive package approach envisaging poverty reduction and socioeconomic development. For this reliable supply of energy and electricity is a precondition. It is worth mentioning that access to electricity is a constitutional right of the citizens of Bangladesh. Accordingly the government has the vision to provide

340

The challenge of globalization and democratization to the African Union: The case of Togo Crisis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Times have changed for African cold warrior dictatorships. It used to be that these cold warriors would kill, main and muscle their way into political leadership while the western world and their fellow African state look the other way. Thanks to the multinationals that supported them. The paper examines the political crisis in Togo through the Kantian Democratic Peace Theory. It assumes that the UN, and AU, ECOWAS and the international community are practical example of the Kantian "republican confederation" with overwhelming international political influence to bring pressure upon any one-republican member that threatens world peace. The paper holds that the political crisis in Togo was a threat to both regional and global peace and concludes that international pressure was responsible for the resignation of Faure Eyadema hence the restoration of constitutional order in Togo.

Ngboawaji Daniel Nte

2009-04-01

 
 
 
 
341

Digital Libraries in Nigeria in the Era of Global Change: A Perspective of the Major Challenges  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The world is witnessing a rapid and progressive transformation as a result of IT revolution, which has predominated all aspects of societal development. One of such transformations has manifested in the form of digital libraries. The evolution of digital libraries has ensured the emergence of global networked environment that has dramatically changed the face of libraries, their functions, services as well as their storage and delivery systems. In this perspective, the paper examines the status of digital libraries in Nigeria. It also analyzes the Nigerian information environment within the context of an escalating situation in terms of funding, infrastructure, and ICT policy. The paper concludes that if digital libraries in Nigeria are to survive, drastic and progressive action needs to be taken to overcome some the aforementioned issues. Governments and sponsoring bodies of libraries must provide all the necessary funding and support for library development especially the digital libraries.

Bappah Magaji Abubakar Abubakar

2010-12-01

342

Ministerial Presentation: France [International Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Energy in the 21. Century: Addressing Energy Needs and Environmental Challenges, Beijing (China), 20-22 April 2009  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Let me begin by offering my warmest thanks to our Chinese hosts, who have perfectly organised this important international conference. I would also like to thank Mohamed ElBaradei, Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency, as well as all of the participants - the calibre of those in attendance today is a clear sign of the world's interest in the IAEA and the peaceful use of nuclear energy. France attaches great importance to the work carried out within the framework of the IAEA. In fact, this conference in China is the second one of its kind, following the very successful one that was held in France in 2005. Nuclear energy's current success can be explained by the fact it represents one of the solutions to today's energy challenges. Today, there is no longer any doubt - climate change is threatening the planet. Fossil fuel resources are finite as well as the source of greenhouse gases. In both developed and developing countries, energy is one of the key factors in socio-economic development. In such a context, nuclear energy plays a crucial role. In 1974, my country made a large-scale shift over to nuclear energy for its electricity needs. Today, France boasts 58 nuclear reactors that produce 80% of our electricity. They have given us greater energy independence and security, and allowed us to limit our greenhouse gas emissions. Among the OECD countries, France is the fourth largest consumer of energy, but in terms of CO2 emissions per unit of GDP, w terms of CO2 emissions per unit of GDP, we are in 27th place. We emit 30 to 40% less carbon dioxide per inhabitant than our large European neighbours. In addition, France's decision to reprocess spent fuel in order to recycle useable components and optimise waste handling has allowed it to implement sustainable management of nuclear fuel. It is remarkable that between the 2005 Paris conference and today the development of nuclear energy around the world has continued unabated More and more nations have chosen or are considering choosing nuclear energy, particularly developing nations (cf. the declarations made during the conference) Efforts by multilateral bodies such as the IAEA and the OECD's Nuclear Energy Agency to help these states develop a peaceful and responsible use of nuclear energy are crucial. In particular, I would like to point out the IAEA's vital work that led to the publication of ''Milestones in the Development of a National Infrastructure for Nuclear Power''. France's public services, companies, universities and research centres contribute their expertise and play an active part in this international cooperation, the goal of which is to share the benefits of peaceful nuclear energy use, while strictly complying with safety, security and non-proliferation standards. For France, nuclear energy rests on a sound technological and economic foundation France acquired considerable experience with its first- and second- generation reactors, and today we are in a position to put ground- breaking advances to work within a tried and true technology; I am speaking of the third-generation EPR reactors, and France's global offer that encompasses every part of the nuclear cycle. We believe that the fourth-generation reactors are quite promising, and France is taking an active role in international R and D efforts concerning the systems of the future. We believe in the promising long term developments of the ITER project, hosted by France. The IAEA is providing a remarkable contribution to it. Finally, our experience, backed by a number of international studies, shows that nuclear energy is economically competitive and offers an attractive alternative to fossil fuels. All of these points explain why a number of States are anxious to develop this form of energy. However, we must always keep in mind that nuclear energy implies certain responsibilities, and must form part of an overarching energy strategy. I would like to point out straight away the strict compliance with the agreements made in the area of non-proliferation. In particular, I want to stress

343

Pfizer and the Challenges of the Global Pharmaceutical Industry 2013 (A)  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This is part of a case series. The case focuses on describing and analysing the environment, profitability and competitiveness of the global pharmaceutical industry, and to evaluate the current and future strategy of Pfizer. It features a large number of tables with quantitative data that help solving the case study. The case starts with a short description of recent important events that might mark a turning point for the whole industry. It then focuses on the overall market on drugs - structure, growth, blockbusters, and the influence of national health care systems. Furthermore, firms’ R&D efforts and the patenting system are presented including implications for prices and profits. The last section of the case text focuses on the two types of competition in the industry: between and within patents. The (B) case covers a description of the 10 largest pharmaceutical firms and highlights a number of strategic manoeuvres of major players in the last years. At the end, the reader is referred back to the Pfizer situation and Pfizer’s recent strategic initiatives and responses to the market changes.

Nell, Phillip Christopher

344

RFID and Data Capture Technologies in Global Service Supply Chains: Meeting the Information Management Challenge  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Data capture technologies such as RFID promise customer centric global service supply chains, but simultaneously threaten data overload. We argue that novel approaches to information management are required to successfully manage the data from sensor-based data capture technologies and to integrate them into successful inter-organizational service supply networks. We question the degree to which ICTs such as RFID as currently deployed support the customer orientation needed for successful service operations across supply chains, and identify difficulties inherent in current technology use along supply chains and in business systems. We argue for customer orientation at all stages of the supply chain, and identify the benefits of customer information that is available to all supply chain partners in real time, synchronized and updated in responsive and customer centric ways. We outline two general technical approaches, one that involves effective technical middleware along with intra- and inter-organizational coordination capabilities and another, considerably more revolutionary and ambitious in scope, that revolves around the idea of a centralized data clearinghouse.

Mairead Brady

2008-12-01

345

LAND USE/COVER CHANGE IN RUSSIA WITHIN THE CONTEXT OF GLOBAL CHALLENGES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a research project on Land Use/Cover Change (LUCC in Russia in relations with global problems (climate change, environment and biodiversity degradation. The research was carried out at the Faculty of Geography, Moscow State University on the basis of the combination of remote sensing and in-field data of different spatial and temporal resolution. The original methodology of present-day landscape interpretation for land cover change study has been used. In Russia the major driver of land use/land cover change is agriculture. About twenty years ago the reforms of Russian agriculture were started. Agricultural lands in many regions were dramatically impacted by changed management practices, resulted in accelerated erosion and reduced biodiversity. Between the natural factors that shape agriculture in Russia, climate is the most important one. The study of long-term and short-term LUCC dynamics permits the analysis of the present status and trends of evolution of natural and anthropogenic landscapes. A feasibility study had been undertaken for scale-dependent landscapes applicationsand study of land cover dynamics under ongoing changes in Russia

ELENA MILANOVA

2012-12-01

346

Social pharmacy as a field of study: the needs and challenges in global pharmacy education.  

Science.gov (United States)

The practice of pharmacy and, consequently, pharmacy curricula have undergone significant changes over the past years in response to a rapidly changing economic, political, and social environment. Within this context, the pharmacist's role had expanded to include more direct interaction with the public in terms of the provision of health information and advice on the safe and rational use of medications. To carry out these roles effectively, pharmacists need to be well prepared on how to deal with patients' behavior and psychology. The understanding of patient sociobehavioral aspects in the medication use process is paramount to achieving optimal clinical and humanistic outcomes from therapy. The concept of behavioral sciences and health psychology are embedded as the fundamental concepts in the field of social pharmacy, and thus it is imperative that this should be taught and nurtured to future pharmacy practitioners. Based on the growing needs for future pharmacists to be exposed to issues in social pharmacy, many pharmacy schools around the world have adopted this subject to be part of their standard curriculum. In this commentary, a discussion of the needs of social pharmacy courses in pharmacy curriculum will be addressed in the context of both developed and developing countries. PMID:21272536

Hassali, Mohamed Azmi; Shafie, Asrul Akmal; Al-Haddad, Mahmoud Sa'di; Abduelkarem, Abduelmula Rajab; Ibrahim, Mohamed Izham; Palaian, Subish; Abrika, Omar Saad Saleh

2011-12-01

347

Opening address  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Being fully aware of the IAEA's central and important roles in the field of nuclear security, Japan has cooperated closely with the IAEA in the field of nuclear security. One of Japan's efforts was holding a seminar on strengthening nuclear security in Asian countries in November 2006, making use of Japan's contribution to the IAEA Nuclear Security Fund. The seminar was organized for the first time in Asia to address nuclear security matters, in which more than 100 experts from 19 countries participated. Japan also hosted a seminar, aimed at promoting the accession to the international counterterrorism conventions and protocols, inviting government officials and experts from Asia Pacific countries. At the seminar, Japan presented its experience and lessons learned with regard to its ratification of relevant international conventions such as the International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism and the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material. Japan has also provided assistance for capacity building in the field of physical protection measures, and is preparing three projects for Asian countries through the IAEA Nuclear Security Fund. In Thailand, Japan has a project aimed at improving physical protection of nuclear research facilities. In Vietnam, Japan plans to host a workshop on radiation detection equipment for border officials and is also preparing for a seminar aimed at capacity building of control on nuclear material in Vilding of control on nuclear material in Vietnam. Japan is committed to continue its efforts to make the IAEA Comprehensive Safeguards Agreement together with an Additional Protocol the universally accepted verification standard for the peaceful use undertakings of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. Japan's basic policy on bilateral nuclear cooperation agreements is as follows. Considering the dual nature of nuclear material and technology, Japan is of the view that three Ss, that is, S for 'safeguards' (non-proliferation), S for 'safety' and S for 'security', are indispensable infrastructure for the introduction of nuclear power plants. Japan, therefore, regards these three Ss as a prerequisite when it starts bilateral talks for nuclear cooperation agreements with other countries. For the same reason, Japan has extended assistance to countries concerned to develop the necessary infrastructure to assure the three S's. Acknowledging the importance of the Additional Protocol in ensuring nuclear non-proliferation, Japan requests, as a matter of policy, that the Additional Protocol be concluded before Japan starts bilateral talks for nuclear cooperation agreements. Furthermore, in the framework of NSG, Japan proposes that conclusion of the Additional Protocol be a prerequisite for the export of nuclear related items. As the issue has global implications, Japan considers that the countries of the former Soviet Union deserve high priority attention, and has rendered assistance to these countries as well. Japan has also concluded bilateral agreements and carries out projects on denuclearization with Kazakhstan, Ukraine and Belarus. Japan has also extended assistance to these countries through the IAEA Nuclear Security Fund

348

Nuclear cooperation targets global challenges. States back main pillars of the IAEA's work to strengthen nuclear safety, verification and technology transfer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

States meeting at the 44th IAEA General Conference in Vienna have set a challenging agenda for international nuclear cooperation into the 21st century that targets issues of global safety, security, and sustainable development. They adopted resolutions endorsing the Agency's programmes for strengthening activities under its three main pillars of work - nuclear verification, safety, and technology - that are closely linked to major challenges before the world. The document presents the main actions taken during the conference

349

How to Assess the European Union’s Influence in International Affairs: Addressing a Major Conceptual Challenge for EU Foreign Policy Analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the discipline of European Union foreign policy analysis, quite a number of debates have focussed on determining what type of actor the EU is in international affairs (e.g. a normative power). While intellectually stimulating, these debates have regularly been held at too high a level of aggregation. Breaking the question about the EU’s clout in international affairs down to the micro-level, this contribution takes up a conceptual and methodological challenge that is currently unaddresse...

Simon Schunz

2010-01-01

350

Challenges in global improvement of oral cancer outcomes: findings from rural Northern India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background In India, 72% of the population resides in rural areas and 30-40% of cancers are found in the oral cavity. The majority of Haryana residents live in villages where inadequate medical facilities, no proper primary care infrastructure or cancer screening tools and high levels of illiteracy all contribute to poor oral cancer (OC outcomes. In this challenging environment, the objective of this study was to assess the association between various risk factors for OC among referrals for suscipious lesions and to design and pilot test a collaborative community-based effort to identify suspicious lesions for OC. Methods Setting: Community-based cross sectional OC screening. Participants: With help from the Department of Health (DOH, Haryana and the local communities, we visited three villages and recruited 761 participants of ages 45-95 years. Participants received a visual oral cancer examination and were interviewed about their dental/medical history and personal habits. Pregnant women, children and males/females below 45 years old with history of OC were excluded. Main outcome: Presence of a suspicious oral lesion. Results Out of 761 participants, 42 (5.5% were referred to a local dentist for follow-up of suspicious lesions. Males were referred more than females. The referral group had more bidi and hookah smokers than non smokers as compared to non referral group. The logistic regression analysis revealed that smoking bidi and hookah (OR = 3.06 and 4.42 were statistically significant predictors for suspicious lesions. Conclusions Tobacco use of various forms in rural, northern India was found to be quite high and a main risk factor for suspicious lesions. The influence of both the DOH and community participation was crucial in motivating people to seek care for OC.

Dangi Jyoti

2012-04-01

351

The Challenges of Developing a Framework for Global Water Cycle Monitoring and Prediction (Alfred Wegener Medal Lecture)  

Science.gov (United States)

The Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) Water Strategy ("From Observations to Decisions") recognizes that "water is essential for ensuring food and energy security, for facilitating poverty reduction and health security, and for the maintenance of ecosystems and biodiversity", and that water cycle data and observations are critical for improved water management and water security - especially in less developed regions. The GEOSS Water Strategy has articulated a number of goals for improved water management, including flood and drought preparedness, that include: (i) facilitating the use of Earth Observations for water cycle observations; (ii) facilitating the acquisition, processing, and distribution of data products needed for effective management; (iii) providing expertise, information systems, and datasets to the global, regional, and national water communities. There are several challenges that must be met to advance our capability to provide near real-time water cycle monitoring, early warning of hydrological hazards (floods and droughts) and risk assessment under climate change, regionally and globally. Current approaches to monitoring and predicting hydrological hazards are limited in many parts of the world, and especially in developing countries where national capacity is limited and monitoring networks are inadequate. This presentation describes the developments at Princeton University towards a seamless monitoring and prediction framework at all time scales that allows for consistent assessment of water variability from historic to current conditions, and from seasonal and decadal predictions to climate change projections. At the center of the framework is an experimental, global water cycle monitoring and seasonal forecast system that has evolved out of regional and continental systems for the US and Africa. The system is based on land surface hydrological modeling that is driven by satellite remote sensing precipitation to predict current hydrological conditions, flood potential and the state of drought. Seasonal climate model forecasts are downscaled and bias-corrected to drive the land surface model to provide hydrological forecasts and drought products out 6-9 months. The system relies on historic reconstructions of water variability over the 20th century, which forms the background climatology to which current conditions can be assessed. Future changes in water availability and drought risk are quantified based on bias-corrected and downscaled climate model projections that are used to drive the land surface models. For regions with lack of on-the-ground data we are field-testing low-cost environmental sensors and along with new satellite products for terrestrial hydrology and vegetation, integrating these into the system for improved monitoring and prediction. At every step there are scientific challenges whose solutions are only partially being solved. In addition there are challenges in delivering such systems as "climate services", especially to societies with low technical capacity such as rural agriculturalists in sub-Saharan Africa, but whose needs for such information are great. We provide an overview of the system and some examples of real-world applications to flood and drought events, with a focus on Africa.

Wood, Eric F.

2014-05-01

352

Inherited hypoxia: A new challenge for reoligotrophicated lakes under global warming  

Science.gov (United States)

Anthropocene is characterized by a worldwide spread of hypoxia, among other manifestations, which threatens aquatic ecosystem functions, services, and biodiversity. The primary cause of hypoxia onset in recent decades is human-triggered eutrophication. Global warming has also been demonstrated to contribute to the increase of hypoxic conditions. However, the precise role of both environmental forcings on hypoxia dynamics over the long term remains mainly unknown due to a lack of historical monitoring. In this study, we used an innovative paleolimnological approach on three large European lakes to quantify past hypoxia dynamics and to hierarchies the contributions of climate and nutrients. Even for lake ecosystems that have been well oxygenated over a millennia-long period, and regardless of past climatic fluctuations, a shift to hypoxic conditions occurred in the 1950s in response to an unprecedented rise in total phosphorus concentrations above 10 ± 5 µg P L-1. Following this shift, hypoxia never disappeared despite the fact that environmental policies succeeded in drastically reducing lake phosphorus concentrations. During that period, decadal fluctuations in hypoxic volume were great, ranging between 0.5 and 8% of the total lake volumes. We demonstrate, through statistical modeling, that these fluctuations were essentially driven by climatic factors, such as river discharge and air temperature. In lakes Geneva and Bourget, which are fed by large river systems, fluctuations in hypoxic volume were negatively correlated with river discharge. In contrast, the expansion of hypoxia has been related only to warmer air temperatures at Annecy, which is fed by small river systems. Hence, we outline a theoretical framework assuming that restored lake ecosystems have inherited hypoxia from the eutrophication period and have shifted to a new stable state with new key controls of water and ecosystem quality. We suggest that controlling river discharge may be a complementary strategy for local management of lakes fed by large river systems.

Jenny, Jean-Philippe; Arnaud, Fabien; Alric, Benjamin; Dorioz, Jean-Marcel; Sabatier, Pierre; Meybeck, Michel; Perga, Marie-Elodie

2014-12-01

353

Spatial and temporal overview of research in pediatric and congenital cardiology: trends and global challenges.  

Science.gov (United States)

Available information on the global distribution of research output in pediatric cardiology (PC) is sparse. This study took a bibliometric approach to characterize research output, assess the level of competition, describe the geographic distribution of the leading research centers in the field, and investigate determinants of research output. In addition, the study characterized the journals publishing PC research and identified temporal trends in research interest over time. Publications presenting original research in PC between 1995 and 2011 were identified. A total of 9,410 relevant articles were identified based on a PubMed search followed by subsequent electronic filtering and manual review. A dramatic increase in PC publications was seen during the study period (from 309 in 1995 to 1,075 in 2011). This was accompanied by an increase in impact factors and an overproportional rise in PC contributions relative to the general PubMed trend. Research in PC was shown to be highly competitive and becoming increasingly so (Herfindahl-Hirschman index of 1.64%). Research output correlated with gross domestic product, national levels of corruption, education, urbanization, geography, and presence of national centers of excellence. The data presented in this report allow benchmarking of different cities and countries and provide insights into the potential determinants of high-quality publications and the spectrum of publishing journals. The report also highlights the central role of subspecialty journals and shows that PC research output is related to national wealth, surrogates of appropriate use of resources, an adequate workforce, and education. Additionally, it emphasizes the potential beneficial effects of establishing centers of excellence in the field. PMID:24584212

Bräutigam, Martina; Kempny, Aleksander; Radke, Robert; Baumgartner, Helmut; Diller, Gerhard-Paul

2014-08-01

354

Role of sea ice in global biogeochemical cycles: emerging views and challenges  

Science.gov (United States)

Observations from the last decade suggest an important role of sea ice in the global biogeochemical cycles, promoted by (i) active biological and chemical processes within the sea ice; (ii) fluid and gas exchanges at the sea ice interface through an often permeable sea ice cover; and (iii) tight physical, biological and chemical interactions between the sea ice, the ocean and the atmosphere. Photosynthetic micro-organisms in sea ice thrive in liquid brine inclusions encased in a pure ice matrix, where they find suitable light and nutrient levels. They extend the production season, provide a winter and early spring food source, and contribute to organic carbon export to depth. Under-ice and ice edge phytoplankton blooms occur when ice retreats, favoured by increasing light, stratification, and by the release of material into the water column. In particular, the release of iron - highly concentrated in sea ice - could have large effects in the iron-limited Southern Ocean. The export of inorganic carbon transport by brine sinking below the mixed layer, calcium carbonate precipitation in sea ice, as well as active ice-atmosphere carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes, could play a central role in the marine carbon cycle. Sea ice processes could also significantly contribute to the sulphur cycle through the large production by ice algae of dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP), the precursor of sulphate aerosols, which as cloud condensation nuclei have a potential cooling effect on the planet. Finally, the sea ice zone supports significant ocean-atmosphere methane (CH4) fluxes, while saline ice surfaces activate springtime atmospheric bromine chemistry, setting ground for tropospheric ozone depletion events observed near both poles. All these mechanisms are generally known, but neither precisely understood nor quantified at large scales. As polar regions are rapidly changing, understanding the large-scale polar marine biogeochemical processes and their future evolution is of high priority. Earth system models should in this context prove essential, but they currently represent sea ice as biologically and chemically inert. Palaeoclimatic proxies are also relevant, in particular the sea ice proxies, inferring past sea ice conditions from glacial and marine sediment core records and providing analogues for future changes. Being highly constrained by marine biogeochemistry, sea ice proxies would not only contribute to but also benefit from a better understanding of polar marine biogeochemical cycles.

Vancoppenolle, Martin; Meiners, Klaus M.; Michel, Christine; Bopp, Laurent; Brabant, Frédéric; Carnat, Gauthier; Delille, Bruno; Lannuzel, Delphine; Madec, Gurvan; Moreau, Sébastien; Tison, Jean-Louis; van der Merwe, Pier

2013-11-01

355

Global warming what are the challenges for Copenhagen?; Rechauffement climatique. Quels enjeux pour Copenhague?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Kyoto Protocol was adopted in 1997 and, following a long ratification process, went into effect in 2005. Under the Protocol, 200 countries have committed to reducing their greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) by 2012. What conclusions can we draw from developments thus far, as we await the December conference in Copenhagen to determine a follow-up to the Kyoto Protocol? The work of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has given us more accurate knowledge on global warming issues. In its latest report, published in 2007, the IPCC reveals that eleven of the past twelve years studied - 1995 to 2006 - were among the warmest yet recorded since 1850, when this type of data collection began. From 1906 to 2005, global temperatures rose by 0.74 deg. C, and the average rate of increase has more than doubled over the past fifty years. To help companies and countries achieve their GHG emissions reduction targets, the Kyoto Protocol provides for a carbon trading system based on carbon reduction credits (CRC), the exchange currency in a carbon credit market. When a company reduces its emissions below regulatory levels, it can have the 'excess' reduction certified and converted into carbon credits, which it can then sell to a company that has not yet reached its reduction targets. Japan has already used clean technologies and energy saving measures to achieve energy efficiency in the past. Its energy structure is fairly close to that of France, which has a 0% emissions goal. In Japan, nuclear power also accounts for a significant share of the electric power program. The Japanese government recently announced that it was increasing its carbon reduction goal from 6% to an ambitious 25%. China and the United States are the world's leading greenhouse gas emitters. When China ratified the Kyoto Protocol in 2002, it was considered to be a developing country and as such has no emissions reduction obligations. Since then, China has moved closer to the Protocol principles, creating a national climate change group in 2007 and launching its own national climate change program. The program's goal is to lower China's energy consumption per unit of GDP by 20% by 2010 compared with its 2005 level. Under a medium to long-term sustainable development plan, the share of sustainable energies in the overall energy mix will increase to 10% by 2010 and to 15% by 2020. Before the Copenhagen conference, China indicated that it was expecting the United States and Europe to commit to reducing their emissions by 40% and to devote 1% of their GDP to technology transfer towards developing countries by 2020. The Bush Administration used the argument that 'the American way of life is not negotiable' to justify the refusal of the United States to adhere to the Kyoto Protocol. Today, the United States returns to the discussion table in a more open frame of mind. The administration of Barack Obama has decided to become more involved and cooperate more with China and India on climate change. In late June, the American president succeeded in getting his climate change bill through the US House of Representatives. The climate bill, which is still up before the Senate, aims to reduce GHG emissions (particularly CO{sub 2}) by 17% before 2020 compared with the 2005 level. It also promotes the development of clean energies and provides for the creation of a cap and trade emissions trading system. Under this system, emissions allowances are either sold or given to the most vulnerable industries. The sales revenue would be used to fund the development of clean energies, among other things. The EU-15 member states are close to reaching the targets set at Kyoto. What about EU-27 member states? At the late September summit in Pittsburgh, the G20 countries, which include the most industrialized countries as well as the large emerging countries of China, India and Brazil, agreed to phase out subsidies for fossil energy sources over the medium term, but without setting a deadline. According to the press release issued at the end of the

Anon.

2010-07-01

356

Coordinating Communities and Building Governance in the Development of Schematic and Semantic Standards: the Key to Solving Global Earth and Space Science Challenges in the 21st Century.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Information Age in Science is being driven partly by the data deluge as exponentially growing volumes of data are being generated by research. Such large volumes of data cannot be effectively processed by humans and efficient and timely processing by computers requires development of specific machine readable formats. Further, as key challenges in earth and space sciences, such as climate change, hazard prediction and sustainable development resources require a cross disciplinary approach, data from various domains will need to be integrated from globally distributed sources also via machine to machine formats. However, it is becoming increasingly apparent that the existing standards can be very domain specific and most existing data transfer formats require human intervention. Where groups from different communities do try combine data across the domain/discipline boundaries much time is spent reformatting and reorganizing the data and it is conservatively estimated that this can take 80% of a project's time and resources. Four different types of standards are required for machine to machine interaction: systems, syntactic, schematic and semantic. Standards at the systems (WMS, WFS, etc) and at the syntactic level (GML, Observation and Measurement, SensorML) are being developed through international standards bodies such as ISO, OGC, W3C, IEEE etc. In contrast standards at the schematic level (e.g., GeoSciML, LandslidesML, WaterML, QuakeML) and at the semantic level (ie ontologies and vocabularies) are currently developing rapidly, in a very uncoordinated way and with little governance. As the size of the community that can machine read each others data depends on the size of the community that has developed the schematic or semantic standards, it is essential that to achieve global integration of earth and space science data, the required standards need to be developed through international collaboration using accepted standard proceedures. Once developed the standards also require some form of governance to maintain and then extend the standard as the science evolves to meet new challenges. A standard that does have some governance is GeoSciML, a data transfer standard for geoscience map data. GeoSciML is currently being developed by a consortium of 7 countries under the auspices of the Commission for the Management of and Application of Geoscience Information (CGI), a commission of the International Union of Geological Sciences. Perhaps other `ML' or ontology and vocabulary development `teams' need to look to their international domain specific specialty societies for endorsement and governance. But the issue goes beyond Earth and Space Sciences, as increasingly cross and intra disciplinary science requires machine to machine interaction with other science disciplines such as physics, chemistry and astronomy. For example, for geochemistry do we develop GeochemistryML or do we extend the existing Chemical Markup Language? Again, the question is who will provide the coordination of the development of the required schematic and semantic standards that underpin machine to machine global integration of science data. Is this a role for ICSU or CODATA or who? In order to address this issue, Geoscience Australia and CSIRO established the Solid Earth and Environmental Grid Community website to enable communities to `advertise' standards development and to provide a community TWIKI where standards can be developed in a globally `open' environment.

Wyborn, L. A.

2007-12-01

357

IISD RS @ The European Forest-Based Sector: Bio-Responses to Address New Climate and Energy Challenges? - 6-8 November 2008 - Palais des congrès, Na  

... - 6-8 November 2008 - Palais des congrès, Nancy, France Energy Challenges? - 6-8 November 2008 - Palais des congrès, Nancy, France Palais ...des congrès, Nancy, France European Forests, Energy and Climate Bulletin Summary Report Monday, 10 November 2008 htm ... 6-8 November 2008 | Palais des Congrès, Nancy, France Frank Werner, Werner Environment & Development, outlined the results of a study carried ...rdquo; took place from 6-8 November 2008, in Nancy, France. It was held under the auspices of the French Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries ...

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Ministerial Presentation: China. The Development and Prospects of Nuclear Power in China [International Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Energy in the 21. Century: Addressing Energy Needs and Environmental Challenges, Beijing (China), 20-22 April 2009  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It's my pleasure to participate in this international Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Energy in the 21 st Century organized by lAEA. This conference is a magnificent meeting of the global nuclear energy industry. It is a good opportunity for officials and experts from member states to share experiences in nuclear power development and explore approaches to develop nuclear power for peaceful purposes in more safe and economical manners. Please allow me to present my compliments to Mr. Chairman, and on behalf of China National Energy Administration, I would like to express my sincere congratulations on the convening of this meeting. New and higher requirements for energy are being put forward with the continuous rapid growth of China's economy. In order to strengthen the macro-administration and to solve the problems emerged in the progress of development, China National Energy Administration was established in March, 2008. Starting from its very beginning, China National Energy Administration focuses on constructing a stable, economical, clean and safe energy supply system for China through scientific development, and the acceleration of nuclear power development tops the agenda of my Administration. As the competent department for nuclear power development in China, National Energy Administration is in charge of planning, industrial policy, and project review and approval, as well as formulating regulations and standards, promoting technology R and D, equipment manuomoting technology R and D, equipment manufacture and international cooperation etc. Over the past twelve months, a large number of activities have been carried out, such as the adjustment of nuclear power planning, arrangement of new projects, promotion of technical progress, development of human resources, assurance of equipment manufacture and uranium supply, etc.. Meanwhile, cooperative relationships with energy administrative departments of more than 40 countries and international organizations have been established. NEA is willing to cooperate with government departments responsible for energy administration, institutions, academies, industries in all countries, as well as the international organizations, in order to promote the deployment of nuclear power in the entire world. It has been nearly 30 years since China start to develop nuclear power in 1980s, and our nuclear power program has gone through the stages of Small-Batch construction and moderate scale construction to the current stage of fast development. At present, there are 11 units of nuclear power generators in operation with a total installed capacity of 9.1 Gigawatts, and another 24 units with a total capacity of 25.4 Gigawatts being under construction in mainland China. In 2007, China's State Council approved the Mid- and Long-Term Development Plan for Nuclear Power (2005-2020), which set the energy strategy of actively promoting nuclear power development. As mentioned in the Development Plan, the installed capacity of nuclear power will reach 40 Gigawatts with another 18 Gigawatts under construction by 2020. The issuance of the Development Plan stimulates the investments in nuclear power projects. And nowadays, people are increasingly aware of the important role that nuclear power plays in energy conservation, emission reduction, and environment protection, as well as addressing the challenge of global climate change. In order to optimize the energy mix and benefit from up-mentioned environmental advantages, the Chinese government has adopted nuclear power as one of the key measures and will seek to expand the deployment of nuclear power in mid- and long-term on the basis of careful research and study, and adequate demonstration. In order to achieve the development objectives, China will continue to follow the guiding principles of ''promoting international cooperation while relying mainly on independent efforts'', and to pay close attention to the construction of Generation III Self-reliance Program Supporting Project while constructing a batch of PWRs with the Modified Generation II

359

Responsibility, God and society: the cry of the other in the sacred texts as a challenge towards responsible global citizenship  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The article seeks to respond to the question: What role can the sacred texts play in the construction of a Christian identity that is responsible to the other in a pluralistic global world? The sacred texts of the Judaic-Christian tradition offer not only an understanding of the wholly otherness of [...] God, but also form the basis of our understanding and perception of humanity (anthropology), the world and ourselves (personhood/identity). This understanding is constructed in the context of responding to the call of the wholly Other and the others. Identities are traditionally constructed through the identification and exclusion of differences (otherness), thus leading to an ethic of exclusion and responsibility only to oneself/ourselves. Yet these identity-forming texts harbour a persistent otherness, which challenges these traditional identities by interrupting them with a call to responsibility toward the other. The otherness harboured in these texts takes various forms, namely: the otherness of the ancient world to our world, the otherness of the transcendental Other, and the otherness of the text itself, as there is always a différance that has not yet been heard. These various forms of otherness, of our identity-forming texts, deconstruct our identity constructions, thus calling us to a continuous responsibility towards the other. This call could form the basis of a Christian identity and ethic of global cosmopolitan citizenship that is always responding to the eschatological interruption by the other, who is not yet present or who has not been offered presence.

Johann-Albrecht, Meylahn.

360

Desafios globais contemporâneos: cenário de convergências no direito internacional / Global contemporary challenges: convergences scenario in international law  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O cenário internacional contemporâneo é caracterizado por uma multiplicidade de agentes e interesses, gerando uma complexa teia de relações econômicas, sociais e jurídicas. os desafios globais representados pelas inéditas relações exigem respostas rápidas e eficientes por parte do direito. Essa jorn [...] ada em busca das soluções para os conflitos emergentes do plano internacional requer uma releitura do significado da divisão entre as esferas pública e privada do direito. Seja através do crescimento dos fundos soberanos de riqueza, que traz à luz uma série de novos paradigmas no campo econômico, sobretudo a convergência entre o papel do estado e o papel do investidor internacional; seja através do encontro entre a necessidade de proteção aos direitos humanos e a harmonização do sistema multilateral de comércio internacional; seja através das interseções entre a governança global e a tutela dos direitos difusos, o direito internacional certamente caminha para a convergência. Abstract in english The contemporary international scenario is characterized by a multiplicity of actors and interests, creating a complex web of economic, social and legal relationships. The challenges represented by these new relationships need rapid and efficient responses by law. This journey seeking the solutions [...] to the conflicts arising from the international arena requires a reassessment of the meaning of the division between public and private spheres of law. Through the growth of sovereign wealth funds, which arises several new paradigms in the economic field, noticeably the convergence between the role of the state and the role of the international investor; through the encounter between the necessity to protect human rights and harmonize the multilateral international trade system, or through the intersections between global governance and the protection of diffuse rights, international law is certainly moving towards the convergence.

Ely Caetano, Xavier Junior; Clarissa, Brandão.

2009-12-01