WorldWideScience

Sample records for address global challenges

  1. Addressing Global Data Sharing Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alter, George C; Vardigan, Mary

    2015-07-01

    This issue of the Journal of Empirical Research on Human Research Ethics highlights the ethical issues that arise when researchers conducting projects in low- and middle-income countries seek to share the data they produce. Although sharing data is considered a best practice, the barriers to doing so are considerable and there is a need for guidance and examples. To that end, the authors of this article reviewed the articles in this special issue to identify challenges common to the five countries and to offer some practical advice to assist researchers in navigating this "uncharted territory," as some termed it. Concerns around informed consent, data management, data dissemination, and validation of research contributions were cited frequently as particularly challenging areas, so the authors focused on these four topics with the goal of providing specific resources to consult as well as examples of successful projects attempting to solve many of the problems raised. PMID:26297753

  2. Addressing global change challenges for Central Asian socio-ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Jiaguo; Bobushev, Temirbek S.; Kulmatov, Rashid; Groisman, Pavel; Gutman, Garik

    2012-06-01

    Central Asia is one of the most vulnerable regions on the planet earth to global climate change, depending on very fragile natural resources. The Soviet legacy has left the five countries (Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan) with a highly integrated system but they are facing great challenges with tensions that hinder regional coordination of food and water resources. With increasing climate variability and warming trend in the region, food and water security issues become even more crucial now and, if not addressed properly, could affect the regional stability. The long-term drivers of these two most critical elements, food and water, are climate change; the immediate and probably more drastic factors affecting the food and water security are land uses driven by institutional change and economic incentives. As a feedback, changes in land use and land cover have directly implications on water uses, food production, and lifestyles of the rural community in the region. Regional and international efforts have been made to holistically understand the cause, extent, rate and societal implications of land use changes in the region. Much of these have been understood, or under investigation by various projects, but solutions or research effort to develop solutions, to these urgent regional issues are lacking. This article, serves as an introduction to the special issue, provides a brief overview of the challenges facing the Central Asian countries and various international efforts in place that resulted in the publications of this special issue.

  3. Biomimetic Nanotechnology: A Powerful Means to address Global Challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Gebeshuber, Ille C

    2010-01-01

    Biomimetic nanotechnology is a prominent research area at the meeting place of life sciences with engineering and physics: it is a continuously growing field that deals with knowledge transfer from biology to nanotechnology. Biomimetic nanotechnology is a field that has the potential to substantially support successful mastering of major global challenges. The Millennium Project was commissioned by the United Nations Secretary-General in 2002 to develop a concrete action plan for the world to reverse the grinding poverty, hunger and disease affecting billions of people. It states 15 Global Challenges: sustainable development, water, population and resources, democratization, long-term perspectives, information technology, the rich-poor gap, health, capacity to decide, peace and conflict, status of women, transnational crime, energy, science and technology and global ethics. The possible contributions to master these challenges with the help of biomimetic nanotechnology will be discussed in detail.

  4. Design Guidelines to Address Global Challenges: Lessons from Global Action Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Steve Waddell

    2012-01-01

    Traditional organizations appear to be incapable of adequately addressing critical global issues such as war, climate change, and economic inequality. Addressing these issues suggests the need for organizational innovation to develop global social contracts. Successful innovation must address four integration imperatives: (1) integrate effort and resources across organizational sectors (business, government, civil society) and sense-making, (2) create successful individual to global aggregati...

  5. Addressing Global Environmental Challenges through Interdisciplinary Biogeochemical Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paytan, A.

    2013-12-01

    Our planet is dynamic; energy and matter constantly move between the hydrosphere, atmosphere and lithosphere on time scales from seconds to millenia. These tight interactions - including those between organisms and their physical environment - are what make Earth habitable. However, as Rachel Carson wrote, 'Only within the moment of time represented by the present century has one species - man - acquired significant power to alter the nature of this world'. Globalization and explosive population growth have generated far-reaching environmental problems on a scale that humanity has never faced before. Fortunately, our species has also developed an unprecedented ability to provide science-based solutions. Since processes impacting the environment involve complex biological, physical, chemical and geological interactions and feedbacks, they require the integration of expertise from all these scientific disciplines as well as input from policy makers, social scientists, and economists. This talk presents four examples of current interdisciplinary research projects conducted in my lab, each one related to a theme from one of Carson's books (Under the Sea-wind, The Sea Around Us, The Edge of the Sea, and Silent Spring). These projects, and others like them, provide hope that we can move toward a sustainable relationship with the natural world by encouraging the best scientists to conduct interdisciplinary research with direct applications for environmental management and stewardship.

  6. The importance of fungi and mycology for addressing major global challenges*

    OpenAIRE

    Lange, Lene

    2014-01-01

    In the new bioeconomy, fungi play a very important role in addressing major global challenges, being instrumental for improved resource efficiency, making renewable substitutes for products from fossil resources, upgrading waste streams to valuable food and feed ingredients, counteracting life-style diseases and antibiotic resistance through strengthening the gut biota, making crop plants more robust to survive climate change conditions, and functioning as host organisms for production of new...

  7. The importance of fungi and mycology for addressing major global challenges*.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Lene

    2014-12-01

    In the new bioeconomy, fungi play a very important role in addressing major global challenges, being instrumental for improved resource efficiency, making renewable substitutes for products from fossil resources, upgrading waste streams to valuable food and feed ingredients, counteracting life-style diseases and antibiotic resistance through strengthening the gut biota, making crop plants more robust to survive climate change conditions, and functioning as host organisms for production of new biological drugs. This range of new uses of fungi all stand on the shoulders of the efforts of mycologists over generations: the scientific discipline mycology has built comprehensive understanding within fungal biodiversity, classification, evolution, genetics, physiology, ecology, pathogenesis, and nutrition. Applied mycology could not make progress without this platform. To unfold the full potentials of what fungi can do for both environment and man we need to strengthen the field of mycology on a global scale. The current mission statement gives an overview of where we are, what needs to be done, what obstacles to overcome, and which potentials are within reach. It further provides a vision for how mycology can be strengthened: The time is right to make the world aware of the immense importance of fungi and mycology for sustainable global development, where land, water and biological materials are used in a more efficient and more sustainable manner. This is an opportunity for profiling mycology by narrating the role played by fungi in the bioeconomy. Greater awareness and appreciation of the role of fungi can be used to build support for mycology around the world. Support will attract more talent to our field of study, empower mycologists around the world to generate more funds for necessary basic research, and strengthen the global mycology network. The use of fungi for unlocking the full potentials of the bioeconomy relies on such progress. The fungal kingdom can be an inspiration for even more. PMID:25734035

  8. Addressing the "Global Health Tax" and "Wild Cards": Practical Challenges to Building Academic Careers in Global Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazuelos, Daniel; Dhillon, Ranu

    2016-01-01

    Among many possible benefits, global health efforts can expand the skills and experience of U.S. clinicians, improve health for communities in need, and generate innovations in care delivery with relevance everywhere. Yet, despite high rates of interest among students and medical trainees to include global health opportunities in their training, there is still no clear understanding of how this interest will translate into viable and sustained global health careers after graduation. Building on a growing conversation about how to support careers in academic global health, this Perspective describes the practical challenges faced by physicians pursuing these careers after they complete training. Writing from their perspective as junior faculty at one U.S. academic health center with a dedicated focus on global health training, the authors describe a number of practical issues they have found to be critical both for their own career development and for the advice they provide their mentees. With a particular emphasis on the financial, personal, professional, and logistical challenges that young "expat" global health physicians in academic institutions face, they underscore the importance of finding ways to support these career paths, and propose possible solutions. Such investments would not only respond to the rational and moral imperatives of global health work and advance the mission of improving human health but also help to fully leverage the potential of what is already an unprecedented movement within academic medicine. PMID:26244256

  9. Status of Global Threat Reduction Initiative's Activities Underway to Address Major Domestic Radiological Security Challenges - 12105

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During their service lives, radioactive sealed sources are used for a wide variety of essential purposes. However, each year, thousands of radioactive sealed sources that pose a potential risk to national security, health, and safety become disused and unwanted in the United States. Due to their concentrated activity and portability, these sources could be used in radiological dispersal devices ('dirty bombs'). For more than a decade, the National Nuclear Security Administration and the U.S. Department of Energy, through the Global Threat Reduction Initiative Offsite Source Recovery Project (GTRI/OSRP), have facilitated the removal and disposition of thousands of disused/unwanted sources worldwide. However, the ability of GTRI/OSRP to continue its work is critically dependent on the ability to transport and appropriately dispose of these sources. On that front, GTRI/OSRP progress includes development of two prototype Type B transport containers and significant efforts toward certification, increased commercial disposal access for risk-significant sealed sources at commercial sites, and cooperation through the International Atomic Energy Agency to increase source repatriation. Disused sealed sources continue to pose a national security concern. The impact of a dirty bomb detonation could be costly both financially and to those exposed to the resulting radiation. However, significant progress has been made since 2008 on each of the challenges identified in the DHS Sealed Source Security Workshop. Not only will there be increased opportunity for commercial disposal of many sizes and types of sealed sources, but also stakeholders are studying front-end solutions to the problem of disused sealed sources, such as financial assurance and recycle. The lack of sealed source transport containers is also likely to be mitigated with the development and certification by NNSA of two new Type B models. Internationally, increased efforts at source repatriation will mitigate the threat posed by disused sealed sources abroad. Sealed sources provide irreplaceable benefits to those who use them or who benefit from their use; now stakeholders are rising to the challenge of ensuring that those benefits are safely and securely realized. (authors)

  10. 2015 Presidential Address: 75 Years of Battling Diabetes-Our Global Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagogo-Jack, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    This address was delivered by Samuel Dagogo-Jack, MD, President, Medicine & Science, of the American Diabetes Association (ADA), at the Association's 75th Scientific Sessions in Boston, MA, on 7 June 2015. Dr. Dagogo-Jack is a professor of medicine and the director of the Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism and the director of the Clinical Research Center at The University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN, where he holds the A.C. Mullins Endowed Chair in Translational Research. He has been an ADA volunteer since 1991 and has served on several national committees and chaired the Association's Research Grant Review Committee. At the local level, he has served on community leadership boards in St. Louis, MO, and Tennessee. A physician-scientist, Dr. Dagogo-Jack's current research focuses on the interaction of genetic and environmental factors in the prediction and prevention of prediabetes, diabetes, and diabetes complications. He is the principal investigator of the Pathobiology of Prediabetes in a Biracial Cohort (POP-ABC) study and also directs The University of Tennessee site for the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial/Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (DCCT/EDIC) and the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP)/DPP Outcomes Study (DPPOS). Dr. Dagogo-Jack earned his medical and research doctorate degrees from the University of Ibadan College of Medicine in Nigeria, holds a master's of science from the University of Newcastle upon Tyne in England, and completed his postdoctoral fellowship training in metabolism at the Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis in Missouri. A board-certified endocrinologist, Dr. Dagogo-Jack has been elected to the Association of American Physicians and is the 2015 recipient of the Banting Medal for Leadership from the ADA. The ADA and Diabetes Care thank Dr. Dagogo-Jack for his outstanding leadership and service to the Association. PMID:26696655

  11. Addressing the terawatt challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesborg, Peter C. K.; Jaramillo, Thomas F.

    2012-01-01

    The energy infrastructure for fossil fuels is well-established, accounting for approximately 87% of the 16 TW of power consumed globally. For renewable and sustainable energy conversion technologies to play a relevant role at the terrestrial scale, they must be able to scale to the TW level of...

  12. Global challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A major challenge now facing the world is the supply of energy needed for growth and development in a manner which is not only economically viable but also environmentally acceptable and sustainable in view of the demands of and risks to future generations. The internationally most significant pollutants from energy production through fossil fuels are SO2 and NOx which cause acid rain, and CO2 which is the most significant contributor to the greenhouse effect. Nuclear power, now providing about 17% of the world's electricity and 5% of the primary energy already is making a notable contribution to avoiding these emissions. While the industrialized countries will need more energy and especially electricity in the future, the needs of the developing countries are naturally much larger and present a tremendous challenge to the shaping of the world's future energy supply system. The advanced countries will have to accept special responsibilities, as they can most easily use advanced technologies and they have been and remain the main contributors to the environmental problems we now face. Energy conservation and resort to new renewable energy sources, though highly desirable, appear inadequate alone to meet the challenges. The world can hardly afford to do without an increased use of nuclear power, although it is strongly contested in many countries. The objections raised against the nuclear option focus on safety, waste management and disposal problems and the risk for proliferation of nuclear weapons. These issues are not without their problems. The risk of proliferation exists but will not appreciably diminish with lesser global reliance on nuclear power. The waste issue is more of a political than a technical problem. The use of nuclear power, or any other energy source, will never be at zero risk, but the risks are constantly reduced by new techniques and practices. The IAEA sees it as one of its priority tasks to promote such techniques. (author)

  13. GEOSS: Addressing Big Data Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nativi, S.; Craglia, M.; Ochiai, O.

    2014-12-01

    In the sector of Earth Observation, the explosion of data is due to many factors including: new satellite constellations, the increased capabilities of sensor technologies, social media, crowdsourcing, and the need for multidisciplinary and collaborative research to face Global Changes. In this area, there are many expectations and concerns about Big Data. Vendors have attempted to use this term for their commercial purposes. It is necessary to understand whether Big Data is a radical shift or an incremental change for the existing digital infrastructures. This presentation tries to explore and discuss the impact of Big Data challenges and new capabilities on the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) and particularly on its common digital infrastructure called GCI. GEOSS is a global and flexible network of content providers allowing decision makers to access an extraordinary range of data and information at their desk. The impact of the Big Data dimensionalities (commonly known as 'V' axes: volume, variety, velocity, veracity, visualization) on GEOSS is discussed. The main solutions and experimentation developed by GEOSS along these axes are introduced and analyzed. GEOSS is a pioneering framework for global and multidisciplinary data sharing in the Earth Observation realm; its experience on Big Data is valuable for the many lessons learned.

  14. Addressing the workforce pipeline challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A secure and affordable energy supply is essential for achieving U.S. national security, in continuing U.S. prosperity and in laying the foundations to enable future economic growth. To meet this goal the next generation energy workforce in the U.S., in particular those needed to support instrumentation, controls and advanced operations and maintenance, is a critical element. The workforce is aging and a new workforce pipeline, to support both current generation and new build has yet to be established. The paper reviews the challenges and some actions being taken to address this need. (authors)

  15. Addressing the workforce pipeline challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard Bond; Kevin Kostelnik; Richard Holman

    2006-11-01

    A secure and affordable energy supply is essential for achieving U.S. national security, in continuing U.S. prosperity and in laying the foundations to enable future economic growth. To meet this goal the next generation energy workforce in the U.S., in particular those needed to support instrumentation, controls and advanced operations and maintenance, is a critical element. The workforce is aging and a new workforce pipeline, to support both current generation and new build has yet to be established. The paper reviews the challenges and some actions being taken to address this need.

  16. Addressing verification challenges [International safeguards symposium on addressing verification challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In his welcome address the Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Mr. M. ElBaradei, stated that safeguards activities are probably the most difficult task entrusted to an international organization and to determine all the details of a country's nuclear programme is a daunting challenge that raises a number of questions. There is an increase in nuclear power around the globe as a result of shortages of energy and concerns about energy independence and climate change. On the one hand, this is good, because without energy there is no hope for development on the other hand, however, it means that nuclear know-how and nuclear technology will continue to spread to more and more countries. There is also an increase in the number of countries interested in developing nuclear fuel cycle capabilities: sensitive fuel cycle activities, reprocessing and above all uranium enrichment. It even seems that some countries might be hedging their bets in order to have the know-how should they need to develop their own deterrence. Verifying enrichment or reprocessing facilities is quite difficult, and the so-called conversion time is extremely short. Thus, the IAEA is dealing with what is called 'virtual nuclear weapon States'. The IAEA has been talking for a number of years about the need to develop a new international or multinational approach to the fuel cycle in order to avoid a situation with nine nuclear weapon States and another 20 or 30 States having the capacity to develop nuclear weapons in a very short period of time. There is a need to remember that there is a linkage between nuclear disarmament and non-proliferation. Furthermore safeguards activities, though fundamentally technical in nature, are carried out in a political charged environment. The security dimension - that is, nuclear terrorism - also presents a new challenge, because State systems of accounting for and control of nuclear material are no longer simply tools for safeguards, but now provide information relevant to physical protection as well. The IAEA does not receive all information they would need, for example systematic information from the Nuclear Suppliers Group on exports and imports. Other challenges are financial resources (IAEA's budget: $ 130 million) and the IAEA laboratories in Vienna which are not equipped for state- of-the-art analysis of environmental samples. There is also need for transparency measures in certain situations - for example, interviewing people and having access to documents. Another challenge is how to deal with countries having already begun weaponization activities, how to verify that weapons have been dismantled, weaponization structures have been destroyed and custody has been taken of weapon design information. The IAEA recently moved from a system based on facility verification to a State level safeguards approach. The IAEA has also introduced an integrated safeguards approach, which is more cost effective and enables the IAEA to provide better assurances. Environmental sampling and satellite monitoring are new tools that the IAEA is now using almost routinely. Moreover, the IAEA is continuing to work with the Member States to develop new verification tools. Each of the issues discussed presents its own challenge and there is hope for input and new ideas provided by the participants. The real purpose of the symposium is to determine how the IAEA can continue to be effective and relevant, and a valuable instrument to help the international community deal with nuclear weapons proliferation

  17. Future regulatory challenges. Keynote address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Committee on Nuclear Regulatory Activities (CNRA) of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) is an international committee made up of senior representatives from regulatory bodies. It was created in 1989 to guide the NEA's programme concerning regulations, licensing and inspection of nuclear installations. It acts as a forum for the exchange of information and experience among regulatory organizations and for the review of developments which could affect regulatory requirements. A report was produced by a Working Party on Future Regulatory Challenges which the CNRA established at the end of 1996 to consider issues that could present a challenge to nuclear regulatory bodies over the next 10 years and to make recommendations to address any concerns. The Working Party decided to sort the perceived challenges into four categories: (1) Technical issues with potential regulatory impact included ageing of plants, backfitting of plants and requests for plant life extension, maximizing output from existing reactors and decommissioning of plants; (2) Socio-economic and political issues with potential regulatory impact included economic deregulation of the electricity market, privatization of national companies, mergers between utilities and restructuring of the electricity supply industries and risk informed/performance based regulation; (3) Organizational, management and human issues with potential regulatory impact included regulatory effectiveness, licensee responsibility, response and self-assessment, expertise and the inter-face between regulatory authorities and the public; (4) International issues with potential regulatory impact included development of co-operation between safety authorities and co-operation' with, and assistance to, safety authorities in countries where regulatory organizations need to be strengthened. (author)

  18. Global threat reduction initiative efforts to address transportation challenges associated with the recovery of disused radioactive sealed sources - 10460

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitworth, Julie [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Abeyta, Cristy L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Griffin, Justin M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Matzke, James L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pearson, Michael W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cuthbertson, Abigail [NNSA; Rawl, Richard [ORNL; Singley, Paul [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    Proper disposition of disused radioactive sources is essential for their safe and secure management and necessary to preclude their use in malicious activities. Without affordable, timely transportation options, disused sealed sources remain in storage at hundreds of sites throughout the country and around the world. While secure storage is a temporary measure, the longer sources remain disused or unwanted the chances increase that they will become unsecured or abandoned. The Global Threat Reduction Initiative's Off-Site Source Recovery Project (GTRIlOSRP), recovers thousands of disused and unwanted sealed sources annually as part of GTRl's larger mission to reduce and protect high risk nuclear and radiological materials located at civilian sites worldwide. Faced with decreasing availability of certified transportation containers to support movement of disused and unwanted neutron- and beta/gamma-emitting radioactive sealed sources, GTRIlOSRP has initiated actions to ensure the continued success of the project in timely recovery and management of sealed radioactive sources. Efforts described in this paper to enhance transportation capabilities include: {sm_bullet} Addition of authorized content to existing and planned Type B containers to support the movement of non-special form and other Type B-quantity sealed sources; {sm_bullet} Procurement of vendor services for the design, development, testing and certification of a new Type B container to support transportation of irradiators, teletherapy heads or sources removed from these devices using remote handling capabilities such as the IAEA portable hot cell facility; {sm_bullet} Expansion of shielded Type A container inventory for transportation of gamma-emitting sources in activity ranges requiring use of shielding for conformity with transportation requirements; {sm_bullet} Approval of the S300 Type A fissile container for transport of Pu-239 sealed sources internationally; {sm_bullet} Technology transfer of field-sealable (non-welded) special form capsules for commercial use.

  19. Global threat reduction initiative efforts to address transportation challenges associated with the recovery of disused radioactive sealed sources - 10460

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proper disposition of disused radioactive sources is essential for their safe and secure management and necessary to preclude their use in malicious activities. Without affordable, timely transportation options, disused sealed sources remain in storage at hundreds of sites throughout the country and around the world. While secure storage is a temporary measure, the longer sources remain disused or unwanted the chances increase that they will become unsecured or abandoned. The Global Threat Reduction Initiative's Off-Site Source Recovery Project (GTRIlOSRP), recovers thousands of disused and unwanted sealed sources annually as part of GTRl's larger mission to reduce and protect high risk nuclear and radiological materials located at civilian sites worldwide. Faced with decreasing availability of certified transportation containers to support movement of disused and unwanted neutron- and beta/gamma-emitting radioactive sealed sources, GTRIlOSRP has initiated actions to ensure the continued success of the project in timely recovery and management of sealed radioactive sources. Efforts described in this paper to enhance transportation capabilities include: (smbullet) Addition of authorized content to existing and planned Type B containers to support the movement of non-special form and other Type B-quantity sealed sources; (smbullet) Procurement of vendor services for the design, development, testing and certification of a new Type B container to support transportation of irradiators, teletherapy heads or sources removed from these devices using remote handling capabilities such as the IAEA portable hot cell facility; (smbullet) Expansion of shielded Type A container inventory for transportation of gamma-emitting sources in activity ranges requiring use of shielding for conformity with transportation requirements; (smbullet) Approval of the S300 Type A fissile container for transport of Pu-239 sealed sources internationally; (smbullet) Technology transfer of field-sealable (non-welded) special form capsules for commercial use.

  20. Addressing capability computing challenges of high-resolution global climate modelling at the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anantharaj, Valentine; Norman, Matthew; Evans, Katherine; Taylor, Mark; Worley, Patrick; Hack, James; Mayer, Benjamin

    2014-05-01

    During 2013, high-resolution climate model simulations accounted for over 100 million "core hours" using Titan at the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF). The suite of climate modeling experiments, primarily using the Community Earth System Model (CESM) at nearly 0.25 degree horizontal resolution, generated over a petabyte of data and nearly 100,000 files, ranging in sizes from 20 MB to over 100 GB. Effective utilization of leadership class resources requires careful planning and preparation. The application software, such as CESM, need to be ported, optimized and benchmarked for the target platform in order to meet the computational readiness requirements. The model configuration needs to be "tuned and balanced" for the experiments. This can be a complicated and resource intensive process, especially for high-resolution configurations using complex physics. The volume of I/O also increases with resolution; and new strategies may be required to manage I/O especially for large checkpoint and restart files that may require more frequent output for resiliency. It is also essential to monitor the application performance during the course of the simulation exercises. Finally, the large volume of data needs to be analyzed to derive the scientific results; and appropriate data and information delivered to the stakeholders. Titan is currently the largest supercomputer available for open science. The computational resources, in terms of "titan core hours" are allocated primarily via the Innovative and Novel Computational Impact on Theory and Experiment (INCITE) and ASCR Leadership Computing Challenge (ALCC) programs, both sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science. Titan is a Cray XK7 system, capable of a theoretical peak performance of over 27 PFlop/s, consists of 18,688 compute nodes, with a NVIDIA Kepler K20 GPU and a 16-core AMD Opteron CPU in every node, for a total of 299,008 Opteron cores and 18,688 GPUs offering a cumulative 560,640 equivalent cores. Scientific applications, such as CESM, are also required to demonstrate a "computational readiness capability" to efficiently scale across and utilize 20% of the entire system. The 0,25 deg configuration of the spectral element dynamical core of the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM-SE), the atmospheric component of CESM, has been demonstrated to scale efficiently across more than 5,000 nodes (80,000 CPU cores) on Titan. The tracer transport routines of CAM-SE have also been ported to take advantage of the hybrid many-core architecture of Titan using GPUs [see EGU2014-4233], yielding over 2X speedup when transporting over 100 tracers. The high throughput I/O in CESM, based on the Parallel IO Library (PIO), is being further augmented to support even higher resolutions and enhance resiliency. The application performance of the individual runs are archived in a database and routinely analyzed to identify and rectify performance degradation during the course of the experiments. The various resources available at the OLCF now support a scientific workflow to facilitate high-resolution climate modelling. A high-speed center-wide parallel file system, called ATLAS, capable of 1 TB/s, is available on Titan as well as on the clusters used for analysis (Rhea) and visualization (Lens/EVEREST). Long-term archive is facilitated by the HPSS storage system. The Earth System Grid (ESG), featuring search & discovery, is also used to deliver data. The end-to-end workflow allows OLCF users to efficiently share data and publish results in a timely manner.

  1. Addressing the challenges of adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, J A

    2002-02-01

    Adherence to antiretroviral therapy is a crucial determinant of treatment success. Studies have unequivocally demonstrated the close association between adherence and plasma HIV RNA levels, CD4 cell counts, and mortality in patients with HIV infection and disease. Adherence levels of > or =95% are required to maintain virologic suppression. However, actual adherence rates are often far lower; most studies show that 40% to 60% of patients are members of the multidisciplinary team should ideally employ these strategies in combination. Efforts should be made to educate and motivate patients, simplify treatment regimens and tailor them to individual lifestyles, prepare for and manage side effects, and address the concrete issues that may be a barrier to adherence. Recruiting an adherence monitor, providing memory aids to medication taking, and anticipating course corrections can also help patients achieve the adherence rates needed for successful treatment of HIV infection and disease. PMID:11832696

  2. The Global Energy Challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, David

    2011-01-01

    This report gives a brief overview of the global energy challenge and subsequently outlines how and where renewable energy could be developed to solve these issues. The report does not go into a lot of detail on these issues and hence, it is meant as an overview only. The report begins by outlining...... the causes of global climate change, concluding that energy-related emissions are the primary contributors to the problem. As a result, global energy production is analysed in more detail, discussing how it has evolved over the last 30 years and also, how it is expected to evolve in the coming 30...... years. Afterwards, the security of the world’s energy supply is investigated and it becomes clear that there is both an inevitable shortage of fossil fuels and a dangerous separation of supply and demand. The final topic discussed is renewable energy, since it is one sustainable solution to the global...

  3. Strategies for Addressing Spreadsheet Compliance Challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Weber, Brandon

    2006-01-01

    Most organizations today use spreadsheets in some form or another to support critical business processes. However the financial resources, and developmental rigor dedicated to them are often minor in comparison to other enterprise technology. The increasing focus on achieving regulatory and other forms of compliance over key technology assets has made it clear that organizations must regard spreadsheets as an enterprise resource and account for them when developing an overall compliance strategy. This paper provides the reader with a set of practical strategies for addressing spreadsheet compliance from an organizational perspective. It then presents capabilities offered in the 2007 Microsoft Office System which can be used to help customers address compliance challenges.

  4. The challenge of global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chapter outlines the science of global warming, the likely consequences of global warming and some of the major challenges in dealing with global climate change. Some of the major international organisations concerned with environmental issues are listed. International agreements might be used to limit emissions of greenhouse gases. 32 refs., 2 tabs

  5. An Experimental of IPv6 Address Assignment for Global Unicast Address Using NS-3

    OpenAIRE

    DR.P.SUMATHI; Dr. Saroj Patel; Prabhakaran

    2015-01-01

    Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) is the next generation protocol and in the near future, routers are going to become more faster and new technologies are going to reduce the Internet delay. IPv6 global unicast address is similar to IPv4 public address and globally routable. This Global unicast address assignment process provides new function called Stateless Address Auto Configuration (SLAAC) is a significant feature for host itself generating and configuring own addresses to enable communi...

  6. Addressing South Africa’s urban challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayne M. Rogerson

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available South Africa is among the most urbanized countries in Africa and has an urban population that is growing rapidly. The country’s urban challenges sometimes are considered as distinctive and separate to those of rest of Africa because of the apartheid legacy of a fragmented and racially splintered urban landscape. Nevertheless, 20 years after democratic transition the issues that confront its cities increasingly exhibit a set of sustainability challenges that typify those problems of many other fast-growing African urban areas. This introduction locates the collection of articles as a contribution to the expanding corpus of scholarship on urban South Africa.

  7. An Experimental of IPv6 Address Assignment for Global Unicast Address Using NS-3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. P. Sumathi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6 is the next generation protocol and in the near future, routers are going to become more faster and new technologies are going to reduce the Internet delay. IPv6 global unicast address is similar to IPv4 public address and globally routable. This Global unicast address assignment process provides new function called Stateless Address Auto Configuration (SLAAC is a significant feature for host itself generating and configuring own addresses to enable communication. In this paper aims to describe experimental about IPv6 address assignment for global unicast address and evaluation of a host using various parameters such as Default router IP address, Throughput, Average End to End Delay and Domain Name Server (DNS IP address. The study was carried out using an open source Network Simulator (NS-3 to study and analyses the behavior of IPv6 address assignment.

  8. Advanced Cyberinfrastructure Investments Addressing Earth Science Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, A. L.; Spengler, S. J.; Zanzerkia, E. E.

    2014-12-01

    The National Science Foundation supports infrastructure development and research into Big Data challenges as part of its long-term cyberinfrastructure strategy. This strategy highlights the critical need to leverage and partner with other agencies, resources and service providers to the U.S. research community. The current cyberinfrastructure and research activities within NSF support advanced technology development, pilot demonstrations of new capabilities for the scientific community in general, and integration and interoperability of data resources across the Geoscience community. These activities include the Data Infrastructure Building Blocks, Big Data and EarthCube programs, among others. Investments are competitively solicited; the resulting portfolio of high performance computing, advanced information systems, new software capabilities, analytics and modeling supports a range of science disciplines. This presentation provides an overview of these research programs, highlighting some of the key investments in advanced analytics, coupled modeling, and seamless collaboration. Examples related to the geosciences, computer-aided discovery and hypothesis generation are highlighted.

  9. ADDRESSING THE RISKS OF GLOBAL PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema

    Offshoring various stages in the product development process – from engineering tasks like R&D and design to manufacturing activities - can impact the development process, the product and the organisation. Some of these impacts are positive while some are negative. The negative impacts are relate...... addresses them in the decision phase so the organisation can develop appropriate strategies for these instances....

  10. Addressing malaria vector control challenges in South Sudan: proposed recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanda Emmanuel

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Upon the signing of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement in 2005, the Republic of South Sudan (RSS has faced a lot of challenges, such as a lack of infrastructure, human resources and an enormous burden of vector borne diseases including malaria. While a national malaria strategic plan 2006-2011 was developed, the vector control component has remained relatively weak. The strategy endorses the distribution of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs as the frontline intervention with other interventions recommended only when technical and institutional capacity is available. In 2006, a draft integrated vector management (IVM strategic plan 2007–2012 was developed but never implemented, resulting in minimal coordination, implementation and coverage of malaria vector control tools including their inherent impact. To address this challenge, the vector control team of the National Malaria Control Programme (NMCP is being strengthened. With the objective of building national capacity and technical collaboration for effective implementation of the IVM strategy, a national malaria vector control conference was held from 15-17th October 2012 in Juba. A range of NMCP partners, state ministries, acadaemia, private sector, national and international non-governmental organizations, including regional and global policymakers attended the meeting. The conference represented a major milestone and made recommendations revolving around the five key elements of the IVM approach. The meeting endorsed that vector control efforts in RSS be augmented with other interventions within the confines of the IVM strategy as a national approach, with strong adherence to its key elements.

  11. ADDRESSING ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING CHALLENGES WITH COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper discusses the status and application of Computational Fluid Dynamics )CFD) models to address environmental engineering challenges for more detailed understanding of air pollutant source emissions, atmospheric dispersion and resulting human exposure. CFD simulations ...

  12. Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

  13. Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

  14. Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

  15. Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

  16. Global Challenges and Local Responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wad, Peter

    2005-01-01

    : The financial crisis in 1997 was the dramatic peak of financial globalization in East Asia in the 1990s, and it did accelerate the existing trend in Korea towards centralized unionism in the auto industry, while it suspended the trend in the Malaysian auto industry towards decentralized unionism....... Although the Korean and Malaysian unions were affected by the financial crisis from different structural and strategic positions, and were exposed to different national policies and corporate strategies of crisis management, the Korean unions and Malaysian unions generally followed, respectively, a more......The paper aims to address the question whether the dynamic of autoworker unionism in South Korea and Malaysia was conditioned by, and eventually also influenced the globalization processes in the local auto industry? The conclusion is a contextualized "yes", and the core argument is the following...

  17. Addressing Earth Science Data Access Challenges through User Experience Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmings, S. N.; Banks, B.; Kendall, J.; Lee, C. M.; Irwin, D.; Toll, D. L.; Searby, N. D.

    2013-12-01

    The NASA Capacity Building Program (Earth Science Division, Applied Sciences Program) works to enhance end-user capabilities to employ Earth observation and Earth science (EO/ES) data in decision-making. Open data access and user-tailored data delivery strategies are critical elements towards this end. User Experience (UX) and User Interface (UI) research methods can offer important contributions towards addressing data access challenges, particularly at the interface of science application/product development and product transition to end-users. This presentation focuses on developing nation contexts and describes methods, results, and lessons learned from two recent UX/UI efforts conducted in collaboration with NASA: the SERVIRglobal.net redesign project and the U.S. Water Partnership (USWP) Portal development effort. SERVIR, a collaborative venture among NASA, USAID, and global partners, seeks to improve environmental management and climate change response by helping governments and other stakeholders integrate EO and geospatial technologies into decision-making. The USWP, a collaboration among U.S. public and private sectors, harnesses U.S.-based resources and expertise to address water challenges in developing nations. SERVIR's study, conducted from 2010-2012, assessed and tested user needs, preferences, and online experiences to generate a more user-friendly online data portal at SERVIRglobal.net. The portal provides a central access interface to data and products from SERVIR's network of hubs in East Africa, the Hindu Kush Himalayas, and Mesoamerica. The second study, conducted by the USWP Secretariat and funded by the U.S. Department of State, seeks to match U.S.-based water information resources with developing nation stakeholder needs. The USWP study utilizes a multi-pronged approach to identify key design requirements and to understand the existing water data portal landscape. Adopting UX methods allows data distributors to design customized UIs that help users find, interpret, and obtain appropriate content quickly. The data access challenge for both SERVIR and USWP consisted of organizing a wide range of content for their respective user bases, which are diverse, international, and in some cases loosely characterized. The UX/UI design approach generated profiles of prototypical users and corresponding task flows and organizational schemes for their preferred types of content. Wireframe acceptance testing by SERVIR helped elicit and optimize how users interact with the information online. These approaches produced customized UIs and knowledge management strategies to address the data access challenges faced by each user type. Both studies revealed critical considerations for user experiences in developing nations (e.g., low-bandwidth internet connections, rolling power outages at data storage or network centers). For SERVIR, these findings influenced not only the portal infrastructure; they also informed the transition of the platform to a Cloud-based model, as well as the development of custom data delivery tools such as SMS and other mobile solutions. While SERVIR's data access solutions are customized for the network's community of users, they are also standardized and interoperable according to GEO and ISO standards, providing a model for other initiatives such as the ongoing USWP Portal development effort.

  18. Global mobile IPv6 addressing using transition mechanisms

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Edgard, Jamhour; Simone, Storoz; Carlos, Maziero.

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The adoption of the Internet Protocol in mobile and wireless technologies has considerably increased the number of hosts that can potentially access the global Internet. IPv6 is considered the long term solution for the IPv4 address shortage problem, but the transition from IPv4 to IPv6 is supposed [...] to be very gradual. Therefore, there will be a long time during which both protocol versions will coexist. To facilitate transition, the IETF has set up a work group called NGTRANS (Next Generation TRANSition) which specifies mechanisms for supporting interoperability between IPv4 and IPv6. This paper describes a new approach for implementing mobile networks with global Internet connectivity using transition mechanisms. It consists in virtually assigning IPv6 addresses to IPv4 hosts without modifying end-user devices by introducing a transparent gateway in the mobile network. The mobile hosts with virtual IPv6 addresses are uniquely addressed through the global IPv4 Internet by using IPv6 addresses from the standard 6to4 addressing scheme or Fully Qualified Domain Names (FQDN). This "extended" transition mechanism permits to deploy mobile networks with global Internet connectivity without requiring public IPv4 addresses, using legacy IPv4 user devices. The mobile hosts with virtual IPv6 addresses can communicate to other hosts with virtual IPv6 addresses or with "true " IPv6 networks.

  19. Catholic Social Teaching: Addressing Globalization in Catholic Business Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, James B.; Martinez, Zaida; Toyne, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Although business schools are increasingly aware of the importance of globalization in educating future business leaders, their business programs have addressed globalization from a limited perspective that fails to provide students with a broader understanding of its impact on societies and its moral consequences. The conventional approach to the…

  20. The global business of chemistry:prospects and challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Swift, T.K. (Thomas)

    2006-01-01

    The global business of chemistry has faced numerous challenges in recent years. This article addresses the near-term business environment in which the industry will operate as well as the implications for the global business of chemistry during 2006 and 2007.

  1. Global climate change the technology challenge

    CERN Document Server

    Princiotta, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Avoiding potentially catastrophic impacts of global warming means changing the current 3% CO2 global emission growth rate to a 1 - 3% declining rate. This book assesses the mitigation challenge, and considers ways to protect the planet from climate change.

  2. Addressing strategy execution challenges to lead sustainable change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirey, Maria R

    2011-01-01

    This department highlights change management strategies that may be successful in strategically planning and executing organizational change initiatives. With the goal of presenting practical approaches helpful to nurse leaders advancing organizational change, content includes evidence-based projects, tools, and resources that mobilize and sustain organizational change initiatives. In this article, the author discusses strategy execution challenges that must be addressed to lead sustainable change. PMID:21157236

  3. 'Caring schools' – a solution for addressing challenging behaviour in schools?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.H. Weeks

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Media reports suggest that challenging behaviour is no longer the exception to the rule in South African schools. Furthermore, such problem behaviour is increasingly violent in nature, thus constituting a particular cause for concern. In this article the concept of “caring schools” is explored as a means of addressing learners’ challenging behaviour. A research study was undertaken at eight South African primary schools. The conclusions drawn from this research were verified by the correlative research findings of other researchers, as ascertained from the literature study. A key element of this research was the identification of attributes associated with caring schools and the impact thereof on learners’ behaviour patterns. From the findings of this research study it is concluded that caring schools represent a possible solution for dealing with challenging behaviour in South African schools.

  4. Global Workforce Development - Addressing the Changing Geography of Investment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElvy, G. W.; Loudin, M. G.

    2005-12-01

    The Geography of professional workforce hiring is changing significantly and rapidly in the petroleum industry, mostly in response to shifting investment patterns. These geographical changes pose daunting challenges as well as new opportunities for philanthropic institutions such as the ExxonMobil Foundation, and especially for academia. Our Angolan affiliate illustrates the challenges brought about by investment in new areas. Although we will continue to require access to numerous Angolan Geoscience graduates who can fully participate in our global Geoscience community, there is only one Angolan institution that grants a relatively small number of Geoscience degrees. Our access to other locally-educated Angolan professional graduates is similarly limited. The Petroleum sector's response to this situation has been to seek indigenous students who are already enrolled, often in North American or European academic institutions, or to sponsor Angolan students there. If one multiplies our Angolan Geoscience example by the number of competing employers in Angola, and then by the number of countries around the world that are experiencing strong economic growth, the magnitude of the unfilled demand for international educational development seems daunting. However, several academic institutions have already taken the initiative and have provided educational, linguistic, and cultural pathways that encourage Angolans and others to obtain a world-class educational preparation on their respective campuses. This strategy has indeed begun to address the need for capacity-building for many indigenous students, and has aided various industries in their efforts to build indigenous workforces. Nevertheless, growing the capacity of indigenous academic infrastructure is also essential for the long term, and only a few academic institutions have begun to explore this educational frontier. Increased engagement and collaboration in international educational activities would clearly confer benefits on all the stakeholders, including universities, private industry, and various philanthropic institutions and governmental authorities. Continued economic growth around the world will be accompanied by growth in academic capacity, and it seems likely that the established academic institutions of today that nurture and influence academic growth outside of their own countries will become tomorrow's leading institutions.

  5. Culture, Communication, and the Challenge of Globalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shome, Raka; Hegde, Radha S.

    2002-01-01

    Deals with the problematics that globalization poses for critical communication scholarship. Address how uneven patterns of global processes are enacted through cultural practices produced by the transnational flows of images and capital. Explores several areas of contemporary global growth with the overall objective of demonstrating the urgency…

  6. IAB presidential address: bioethics in a globalized world: creating space for flourishing human relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biller-Andorno, Nikola

    2011-10-01

    Bioethics in a globalized world is meeting a number of challenges - fundamentalism in its different forms, and a focus on economic growth neglecting issues such as equity and sustainability, being prominent among them. How well are we as bioethicists equipped to make meaningful contributions in these times? The paper identifies a number of restraints and proceeds to probe potential resources such as the capability approach, care ethics, cosmopolitanism, and pragmatism. These elements serve to outline a perspective that focuses on the preconditions for flourishing human relationships as a way to address bioethical challenges in a globalized world. PMID:21929701

  7. Is prophetic discourse adequate to address global economic justice?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piet J. Naudé

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This article outlined key features of prophetic discourse and investigated whether this form of moral discourse adequately addresses issues of economic injustice. It is shown that the strength of prophetic discourse is its ability to denounce instances of injustice whilst at the same time announcing a God-willed alternative future. The ‘preferential option for the poor’ in Latin American liberation theologies is treated as a case study of the influence of prophetic discourse in contexts of perceived economic injustice. Also the core weaknesses of prophetic discourse are investigated, specifically its incomplete moral argument, weak moral analyses, silence on transition measures, and its inability to take a positive stance on reforms in the system from which itself benefits. In the final section it is concluded that prophetic discourse plays an indispensable role in addressing issues of global economic justice, but – taken by itself – it is not an adequate form of moral discourse to address concrete matters of justice.

  8. Global change and the groundwater management challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorelick, Steven M.; Zheng, Chunmiao

    2015-05-01

    With rivers in critical regions already exploited to capacity throughout the world and groundwater overdraft as well as large-scale contamination occurring in many areas, we have entered an era in which multiple simultaneous stresses will drive water management. Increasingly, groundwater resources are taking a more prominent role in providing freshwater supplies. We discuss the competing fresh groundwater needs for human consumption, food production, energy, and the environment, as well as physical hazards, and conflicts due to transboundary overexploitation. During the past 50 years, groundwater management modeling has focused on combining simulation with optimization methods to inspect important problems ranging from contaminant remediation to agricultural irrigation management. The compound challenges now faced by water planners require a new generation of aquifer management models that address the broad impacts of global change on aquifer storage and depletion trajectory management, land subsidence, groundwater-dependent ecosystems, seawater intrusion, anthropogenic and geogenic contamination, supply vulnerability, and long-term sustainability. The scope of research efforts is only beginning to address complex interactions using multiagent system models that are not readily formulated as optimization problems and that consider a suite of human behavioral responses.

  9. Global neurotrauma research challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubiano, Andrés M; Carney, Nancy; Chesnut, Randall; Puyana, Juan Carlos

    2015-11-19

    Traumatic injury to the brain or spinal cord is one of the most serious public health problems worldwide. The devastating impact of 'trauma', a term used to define the global burden of disease related to all injuries, is the leading cause of loss of human potential across the globe, especially in low- and middle-income countries. Enormous challenges must be met to significantly advance neurotrauma research around the world, specifically in underserved and austere environments. Neurotrauma research at the global level needs to be contextualized: different regions have their own needs and obstacles. Interventions that are not considered a priority in some regions could be a priority for others. The introduction of inexpensive and innovative interventions, including mobile technologies and e-health applications, focused on policy management improvement are essential and should be applicable to the needs of the local environment. The simple transfer of a clinical question from resource-rich environments to those of low- and middle-income countries that lack sophisticated interventions may not be the best strategy to address these countries' needs. Emphasis on promoting the design of true 'ecological' studies that include the evaluation of human factors in relation to the process of care, analytical descriptions of health systems, and how leadership is best applied in medical communities and society as a whole will become crucial. PMID:26580327

  10. Addressing the challenges of thermal imaging for firefighting applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostrzewa, Joseph; Meyer, William H.; Poe, George; Terre, William A.; Salapow, Thomas M.; Raimondi, John

    2003-09-01

    By providing visibility through smoke and absolute darkness, thermal imaging has the potential to radically improve the effectiveness and safety of the modern firefighter. Some of the roles of thermal imaging are assisting in detection of victims; navigating through dark, smoke-filled structures; detecting indications of imminent flash-over/roll-over; identifying and attacking the seat and extension of a fire; and surveying for lingering hot spots after a fire is nearly extinguished. In many respects, thermal imaging is ideally suited for these functions. However, firefighting applications present the infrared community some unique and challenging design constraints, not the least of which is an operating environment that is in some ways more harsh than most aerospace applications. While many previous papers have described the benefits of thermal imaging for firefighters, this paper describes several specific engineering challenges of this application. These include large ambient temperature range, rapidly changing scene dynamics, extreme demands on AGC, and large dynamic range requirements. This paper describes these and other challenges in detail and explains how they were addressed and overcome in the design of Evolution 5000, a state-of-the-art thermal imager designed and manufactured by Mine Safety Appliances (MSA) using Indigo System"s Omega miniature uncooled camera core.

  11. Who governs energy? The challenges facing global energy governance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article conceptualizes the energy problems facing society from a global governance perspective. It argues that a notion of 'global energy governance,' taken to mean international collective action efforts undertaken to manage and distribute energy resources and provide energy services, offers a meaningful and useful framework for assessing energy-related challenges. The article begins by exploring the concepts of governance, global governance, and global energy governance. It then examines some of the existing institutions in place to establish and carry out rules and norms governing global energy problems and describes the range of institutional design options available to policymakers. It briefly traces the role of a selection of these institutions, from inter-governmental organizations to summit processes to multilateral development banks to global action networks, in responding to energy issues, and points out their strengths and weaknesses. The article concludes by analyzing how the various approaches to global governance differ in their applicability to addressing the conundrums of global energy problems.

  12. Protecting the confidentiality of interim data: addressing current challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Thomas R

    2015-02-01

    There is compelling evidence supporting the importance of maintaining confidentiality of interim data in clinical trials designed to reliably address the benefit-to-risk profile of interventions. While this is widely recognized, creative approaches are needed to achieve this in challenging settings where interim data are released for regulatory review and action, even though the trial would be continued to address its primary hypothesis. An illustration is the recently emerging setting of cardiovascular safety trials in type 2 diabetes mellitus. At the first stage of such trials, if large relative increases in cardiovascular major morbidity/mortality can be ruled out, data can be released solely for the purpose of allowing regulatory decision making about marketing approval. The trial is then continued in the post-marketing setting to address the primary hypothesis regarding whether smaller relative increases can be ruled out. Active rather than passive approaches are needed to protect the integrity of cardiovascular safety trials. Given the importance to trial integrity of maintaining confidentiality of interim data such as the estimated relative effect on cardiovascular risk, a Data Access Plan should be in place in these trials to ensure such data are not revealed to study participants and their caregivers, investigators involved in trial conduct, the sponsor's management team, and the public, until trial completion. A Performance Standards Document also should be developed to pre-specify targeted and minimally acceptable levels for recruitment rate, best real-world achievable adherence, avoidance of cross-ins, and retention rate. This document should specify creative approaches for achieving these targets, oversight procedures during trial conduct to monitor performance levels, and actions to be taken if emerging data indicate minimally acceptable levels are not being reached. In settings where meaningful breaches in confidentiality have occurred, such oversight allows adverse effects on trial integrity to be detected earlier and more effectively addressed. PMID:25475877

  13. Low Intensity Conflict: Global Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motley, James Berry

    1987-01-01

    Examines the increase in low intensity conflict (LIC) such as terrorism and subversion, since World War II and discusses the United States ability to deal with it. States that LICs continue to increase, making U.S. involvement inevitable. Describes necessary preparations and actions for meeting this challenge. (GEA)

  14. Addressing the challenges of patient-centred design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen LaBat

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Patient-centred design is a relatively new term, but a longstanding concept in clinical practice. This discussion looks at patient-centred design and explores the relationships of patient-centred design to universal design, user-centred design and the newer human-centred design. It also explores why interdisciplinary approaches are needed for patient-centred design and how interdisciplinary collaboration works to address the challenges of patient centred design. Successful patient-centred solutions can grow from collaborations which include shared visions, understanding of both the nature and degree of variation in the patient,materials, and the designed solution, clear regular communication among all parties with careful definition of terms, and respect for the inherent cultures of all disciplines involved.

  15. Uranium discussion paper: embracing facts and addressing the challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Events in recent months have prompted Australians to reassess their attitude towards uranium mining. These include the debate over takeover bids for our largest uranium deposit at Olympic Dam, Canberra's decision to take control of mining in the Northern Territory, and progress in negotiating a bilateral agreement for selling uranium to China. On an international level, increasing concern over global warming, and burgeoning energy demand from developing countries, has led many people to come to view nuclear power as an energy alternative that is both attractive and necessary. It is essential that professional, informed and expert opinion be sought to drive the debate and the way forward. Australia's uranium mining and exploration industry is now leading edge and it's time public debate evolved along with it. The extent to which the issue is manipulated for political point scoring is a disservice to the country and perhaps to democracy. It impedes the evolution of a coherent, consistent and intelligent policy on a range of issues that we, as a country with the largest deposit of a sustainable source of energy in a time of accelerating global energy demands, need to address

  16. GLOBALIZATION AND THE NEW ENERGY CHALLENGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preda (AndreescuMihaela

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available A New Global Energy Economy is emerging, in which energy demand and supply issues will make regions of the world much more dependent upon each other. International extensive energetic interdependence on energy resources and networks grows in the global economy. Some $22 trillion of investment in supply infrastructure is needed to meet projected global demand until 2030. Mobilising all this investment will be challenging. Adherence to these policies will ensure that the global energy investments materializes, the necessary infrastructure is built, and the lengthening worldwide energy supply chain operates in security. Strong global energy policy is needed to move the world into a more sustainable energy path.

  17. Integrated strategy to address Hanford's deep vadose zone remediation challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A vast majority of Hanford's remaining in-ground contaminants reside in the vadose zone of the Central Plateau, where reprocessing operations occurred. The vadose zone is comprised of about 75 meters of water-unsaturated sediments above groundwater. If left untreated, these contaminants could reach groundwater and could remain a threat for centuries. Much of this contamination resides deep in the vadose zone, below the effective depth of tradition surface remedy influence. In 2008, the Department of Energy initiated deep vadose zone treatability testing to seek remedies for technetium-99 and uranium contamination. These tests include the application of desiccation for technetium-99 and reactive gas technologies for uranium. To complement these efforts, the Department of Energy has initiated a 'defense-in-depth' approach to address the unique challenges for characterization and remediation of the deep vadose zone. This defense-in-depth approach will implement multiple approaches to understand and control contaminant flux from the deep vadose zone to the groundwater. Among these approaches is an increased investment in science and technology solutions to resolve deep vadose zone challenges including characterization, prediction, remediation, and monitoring. (author)

  18. ISLAM: Local and Global Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editor Al-Jami'ah: Journal of Islamic Studies

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Indeed, in maintaining their local values when faced with globalchallenges, Muslims, as a social entity, and Islam, as a set of dogma, havegiven birth to new phenomena, e.g. new interpretation of Islam withina new context. Additionally, this era of globalization has led religions,including Islam, to renew their gambit to cope reality, e.g. in the practicallife (sociological, political, economical and anthropological aspects,intellectual endeavors (philosophical and theological aspects, and in therenewal of dogmatic teachings (hermeneutical aspects.

  19. Addressing professional resource challenges facing modern utilities with technological solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldie, T. [Hydro One Networks Inc., Toronto, ON (Canada); Hodder, S. [GE Digital Energy, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    The challenges facing electric utilities regarding a shortage of highly qualified labour to maintain, refurbish and expand electrical infrastructure can be attributed to a wave of retirements in skilled employees, a shortage of entry-level workers and a rapidly increasing workload caused by investment in electricity infrastructure. Two solutions were presented for finding and sustaining an adequate personnel base. The first involved developing local talent, both entry-level and mid-career staff to ensure that work continuity and workplace safety are maintained. The second involved the implementation of technological solutions to help optimize the use of existing and future labour resources. This paper presented the human resource programs developed by Hydro One, the largest electrical transmission and distribution utility in the province of Ontario. Their initiatives include raising the profile of the utility work environment through strategic partnerships with educational institutions and developing in house offerings to supplement existing academic programs. This paper also presented a technical solution to address the resources challenges specifically associated with power system protection and control. The solution targets professional and skilled trades involved in the design, installation and maintenance of automated substations and protection and control systems. It is based on the premise that resource optimization can be achieved by reducing inconsistent design and construction practices and replacing these designs with highly standardized materials with digital communications using IEC 61850. This new technology should attract young professionals to the power engineering field while still maintaining a high comfort level with the established professional workforce. 5 refs., 4 figs.

  20. Is prophetic discourse adequate to address global economic justice?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piet J. Naudé

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This article outlined key features of prophetic discourse and investigated whether this form of moral discourse adequately addresses issues of economic injustice. It is shown that the strength of prophetic discourse is its ability to denounce instances of injustice whilst at the same time announcing a God-willed alternative future. The ‘preferential option for the poor’ in Latin American liberation theologies is treated as a case study of the influence of prophetic discourse in contexts of perceived economic injustice. Also the core weaknesses of prophetic discourse are investigated, specifically its incomplete moral argument, weak moral analyses, silence on transition measures, and its inability to take a positive stance on reforms in the system from which itself benefits. In the final section it is concluded that prophetic discourse plays an indispensable role in addressing issues of global economic justice, but – taken by itself – it is not an adequate form of moral discourse to address concrete matters of justice.

  1. Strengthening health information systems to address health equity challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lexi Bambas Nolen

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Special studies and isolated initiatives over the past several decades in low-, middle- and high-income countries have consistently shown inequalities in health among socioeconomic groups and by gender, race or ethnicity, geographical area and other measures associated with social advantage. Significant health inequalities linked to social (disadvantage rather than to inherent biological differences are generally considered unfair or inequitable. Such health inequities are the main object of health development efforts, including global targets such as the Millennium Development Goals, which require monitoring to evaluate progress. However, most national health information systems (HIS lack key information needed to assess and address health inequities, namely, reliable, longitudinal and representative data linking measures of health with measures of social status or advantage at the individual or small-area level. Without empirical documentation and monitoring of such inequities, as well as country-level capacity to use this information for effective planning and monitoring of progress in response to interventions, movement towards equity is unlikely to occur. This paper reviews core information requirements and potential databases and proposes short-term and longer term strategies for strengthening the capabilities of HIS for the analysis of health equity and discusses HIS-related entry points for supporting a culture of equity-oriented decision-making and policy development.

  2. Antimicrobial resistance: the global public health challenge

    OpenAIRE

    Deshpande, Jayant D; Mohini Joshi

    2011-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is one of the biggest challenges to face global public health at the beginning of the third millennium. Antimicrobial resistance and its global spread threaten the continued effectiveness of many medicines used today to treat the sick. Antibiotic resistance is usually associated with significant morbidity, longer hospitalization, excess costs and mortality. Many factors contribute to the unnecessary use of antibiotics including the knowledge and beliefs of doctors and...

  3. The Challenges and Potential of Nuclear Energy for Addressing Climate Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The response to climate change and the stabilization of atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations has major implications for the global energy system. Stabilization of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations requires a peak and an indefinite decline of global CO2 emissions. Nuclear energy, along with other technologies, has the potential to contribute to the growing demand for energy without emitting CO2. Nuclear energy is of particular interest because of its global prevalence and its current significant contribution, nearly 20%, to the world's electricity supply. We have investigated the value of nuclear energy in addressing climate change, and have explored the potential challenges for the rapid and large-scale expansion of nuclear energy as a response to climate change. The scope of this study is long-term and the modeling time frame extends out a century because the nature of nuclear energy and climate change dictate that perspective. Our results indicate that the value of the nuclear technology option for addressing climate change is denominated in trillions of dollars. Several-fold increases to the value of the nuclear option can be expected if there is limited availability of competing carbon-free technologies, particularly fossil-fuel based technologies that can capture and sequester carbon. Challenges for the expanded global use of nuclear energy include the global capacity for nuclear construction, proliferation, uranium availability, and waste disposal. While the economic costs of nuclear fuel and power are important, non-economic issues transcend the issues of costs. In this regard, advanced nuclear technologies and new vision for the global use of nuclear energy are important considerations for the future of nuclear power and climate change.

  4. Ethical Challenges Regarding Globalization of Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivier, Bert

    2011-01-01

    This paper places the question of ethical challenges in relation to the process of globalization concerning international education and the mobility of international students worldwide. It focuses on five areas of justice, namely, social and political justice, administrative justice, distributive justice, cultural justice and ecological justice.…

  5. The global conduct of cancer clinical trials: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, Carlos H; Werutsky, Gustavo; Martinez-Mesa, Jeovany

    2015-01-01

    The nature of clinical research has changed substantially over the last 2 decades, evolving from being centered almost exclusively in developed countries to a more global scenario that is increasingly involving less developed regions of the world. Pharmaceutical companies and some academic cooperative groups have been conducting challenging, large pivotal registration studies with multinational participation. The much more needed globalization of academic research demands particular attention and represents a worthwhile subject for a more profound discussion. The requirement of large sample sizes and the potential for fast recruitment leading to a speedy completion of clinical studies are probably the most important factors that have fueled globalization of studies. Reduced operational costs and the ability to expedite the regulatory approval of drugs in various countries or regions are also important drivers. Globalization of research should be seen as having a much wider effect in the societies involved, in particular, when we consider public health, economic, social, and ethical implications. Most importantly, the process of expanding the network of clinical research sites also fosters the integration and the development of closer relationships among investigators at a global level. We consider this an essential element that should remain a prominent element in the discussion. In this article, we address the underlying reasons for globalization and we highlight some of the scientific and ethical concerns arising as a consequence. Finally, some strategies to address and mitigate the challenges of conducting multinational clinical research are proposed. PMID:25993164

  6. CLIMATE CHANGE: FROM GLOBAL CONCERN TO REGIONAL CHALLENGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piet Rietveld

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to map out various research and policy challenges inherent in the need to cope with climate change. Therefore, four critical domains are identified which will most likely be seriously affected by climate change. Next, both the global/general and the regional/specific dimensions of these domains are described, with a view to the identification of a proactive research and policy constellation that might be put in effect to effectively address climate issues.

  7. The Global Outlook for Small Reactors: Opportunities, Challenges and Implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fascinating topic of small nuclear is becoming more prevalent on the nuclear agenda. The discussions are generally focused within the country of technical origin. In this presentation 'The global outlook for small reactors' Rolls-Royce along with energy business analysts Douglas-Westwood present their shared views on the global opportunities for Small Reactor deployment in the context of the wider energy market. The presentation will: provide a compressive overview of trends and dynamics relating to Small Reactors in the context of the current world energy market, identify specific Small Reactor opportunities and areas of interest, address the challenges and potential solutions for Small Reactor deployment and operation.(author).

  8. Addressing the Challenges posed by Cybercrime: A South African Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Fawzia Cassim

    2010-01-01

    The South African common law has proven to be ineffective in addressing cybercrime. The Electronic Communications and Transactions Act, Act 25 of 2002 (“ECT”) was introduced to address inter alia cybercrime in South Africa. Whilst the advent of the ECT is lauded, there is room for improvement. To illustrate this, section 15 of the ECT which facilitates the admission of information in electronic format is laudable, but the criminal sanctions in the Act appear to be inadequate. Recent case la...

  9. Integrated telehealth: putting it all together and addressing the challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harum, Hishamuddin

    2004-01-01

    The Integrated Telehealth Project of Malaysia is considered a principal enabler for the nation's Vision 2020 as well as the National Health Vision. Being in such an unenviable position, of being not only the pioneer for such an integrated project, but also with no benchmark to compare with, the project implementers have faced manifold challenges along the way. This chapter deals with some of the challenges and lessons learnt that have accumulated as the project progressed. PMID:15747966

  10. 1998 ICA Presidential Address: Communication Structures and Processes in Globalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monge, Peter

    1998-01-01

    Asserts that space-time compression, global consciousness through reflexivity, and disembedding mechanisms that restructure human relations constitute the major dynamics of globalization that have been theorized to date. States that globalism provides an important opportunity to expand academic relevance to issues that are central to the entire…

  11. Preventing and Addressing Challenging Behavior: Common Questions and Practical Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmeter, Mary Louise; Ostrosky, Michaelene M.; Corso, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to offer preschool teachers strategies for preventing challenging behavior and supporting the development of social skills and emotional competencies. This article is framed in a question and answer format using questions from teachers who the authors have worked with in the past. These questions and strategies are…

  12. Don't Expel that Child!: Addressing Challenging Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisalli, Linda

    2006-01-01

    Most directors of early learning programs have had to deal with children whose challenging behaviors are sources of frustration for teachers, other children, and parents of other children. Too often the assumption is made that a child who is aggressive, disruptive, and/or destructive must by definition have some combination of "an anger problem,"…

  13. Time for a change: addressing R&D and commercialization challenges for antibacterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, David J; Miller, Linda Federici; Findlay, David; Anderson, James; Marks, Lynn

    2015-06-01

    The antibacterial therapeutic area has been described as the perfect storm. Resistance is increasing to the point that our hospitals encounter patients infected with untreatable pathogens, the overall industry pipeline is described as dry and most multinational pharmaceutical companies have withdrawn from the area. Major contributing factors to the declining antibacterial industry pipeline include scientific challenges, clinical/regulatory hurdles and low return on investment. This paper examines these challenges and proposes approaches to address them. There is a need for a broader scientific agenda to explore new approaches to discover and develop antibacterial agents. Additionally, ideas of how industry and academia could be better integrated will be presented. While promising progress in the regulatory environment has been made, more streamlined regulatory paths are still required and the solutions will lie in global harmonization and clearly defined guidance. Creating the right incentives for antibacterial research and development is critical and a new commercial model for antibacterial agents will be proposed. One key solution to help resolve both the problem of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and lack of new drug development are rapid, cost-effective, accurate point of care diagnostics that will transform antibacterial prescribing and enable more cost-effective and efficient antibacterial clinical trials. The challenges of AMR are too great for any one group to resolve and success will require leadership and partnerships among academia, industry and governments globally. PMID:25918443

  14. Addressing the Challenges posed by Cybercrime: A South African Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fawzia Cassim

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The South African common law has proven to be ineffective in addressing cybercrime. The Electronic Communications and Transactions Act, Act 25 of 2002 (“ECT” was introduced to address inter alia cybercrime in South Africa. Whilst the advent of the ECT is lauded, there is room for improvement. To illustrate this, section 15 of the ECT which facilitates the admission of information in electronic format is laudable, but the criminal sanctions in the Act appear to be inadequate. Recent case law also reveals that the courts are adopting a cautious approach towards cybercrime cases. A call for a more clear and concise judicial guidance is required. The South African banking sector is also vulnerable to cybercrime. However, the establishment of organisations such as SABRIC to combat cybercrime in the banking industry is welcomed. Although South Africa has adopted the Council of Europe’s Convention in Cybercrime, it has not ratified the treaty. It is recommended that South Africa should ratify the treaty to avoid becoming an easy target for international cybercrime. This paper will deal with measures addressing cybercrime in South Africa and the way forward.

  15. Who governs energy? The challenges facing global energy governance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Florini, Ann; Sovacool, Benjamin K. [Centre on Asia and Globalisation, Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore, Singapore 259772 (Singapore)

    2009-12-15

    This article conceptualizes the energy problems facing society from a global governance perspective. It argues that a notion of 'global energy governance,' taken to mean international collective action efforts undertaken to manage and distribute energy resources and provide energy services, offers a meaningful and useful framework for assessing energy-related challenges. The article begins by exploring the concepts of governance, global governance, and global energy governance. It then examines some of the existing institutions in place to establish and carry out rules and norms governing global energy problems and describes the range of institutional design options available to policymakers. It briefly traces the role of a selection of these institutions, from inter-governmental organizations to summit processes to multilateral development banks to global action networks, in responding to energy issues, and points out their strengths and weaknesses. The article concludes by analyzing how the various approaches to global governance differ in their applicability to addressing the conundrums of global energy problems. (author)

  16. Oral health in Libya: addressing the future challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Peeran, Syed Wali; Altaher, Omar Basheer; Peeran, Syed Ali; Alsaid, Fatma Mojtaba; Mugrabi, Marei Hamed; Ahmed, Aisha Mojtaba; Grain, Abdulgader

    2014-01-01

    Libya is a vast country situated in North Africa, having a relatively better functioning economy with a scanty population. This article is the first known attempt to review the current state of oral health care in Libya and to explore the present trends and future challenges. Libyan health system, oral health care, and human resources with the present status of dental education are reviewed comprehensively. A bibliographic study of oral health research and publications has been carried out. T...

  17. Addressing the Challenge: Cataloguing Electronic Books in Academic Libraries

    OpenAIRE

    Shuzhen Zhao; Wei Zhao

    2010-01-01

    Objective ? This paper explores the various issues and challenges arising from e?book cataloguing experienced at the University of Windsor’s Leddy Library and the Ontario Council of University Libraries (OCUL). This discussion uses an evidence based approach to identify and resolve issues relevant to academic libraries as well as to consortia. With the ever rising popularity of e?books within academic libraries, cataloguing librarians are actively seeking more effective methods of managing th...

  18. Adoptive T cell therapy: Addressing challenges in cancer immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yee Cassian

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Adoptive T cell therapy involves the ex vivo selection and expansion of effector cells for the treatment of patients with cancer. In this review, the advantages and limitations of using antigen-specific T cells are discussed in counterpoint to vaccine strategies. Although vaccination strategies represent more readily available reagents, adoptive T cell therapy provides highly selected T cells of defined phenotype, specificity and function that may influence their biological behavior in vivo. Adoptive T cell therapy offers not only translational opportunities but also a means to address fundamental issues in the evolving field of cancer immunotherapy.

  19. The nuclear renaissance - Opportunities and challenges [Keynote address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear energy must be part of the solution to meet future electricity demand and it must be done cost effectively, without damaging our environment. The challenges presented by the new prospects for nuclear energy require the management of (a) closing the looming gap between uranium supply and demand (b) closing the technical and political challenges in exploration and mine development and (c) finding and developing innovations throughout the nuclear fuel cycle that make good economic and environmental sense. The talk elaborates on the increasing uranium consumption, the near time uranium supply challenges, identifies production expansion, and discusses world uranium exploration and advances in mining and milling. It is stressed that the IAEA should play an important role in collecting and disseminating up-to-date information concerning the latest technological advances - through periodic conferences and technical meetings. The organization should gather and compile accurate uranium supply information. In its existing compilation that forms the IAEA Red Book, the Estimated Additional Resources (EAR) categories have long been inconsistently reported by member countries, reducing reliability and in some cases overstating or understating the supply potential of important regions. The usefulness of IAEA's supply estimates would be improved by the development of a single, consistent approach to the estimation of uranium potential, which member countries would then be encouraged to adopt. Countries that have abundant resources should be encouraged by the agency to open up their lands to foreign investment for uranium exploration and development. The IAEA should present the case for improved investment climates, educating restrictive jurisdictions about current industry practices and standards, and lobbying for consistent and reasonable licencing processes that reflect science-based assessments of risk. The key note speaker encourages the IAEA to fill its role as an industry promoter both within the organization and to the world. Countries that enjoy the benefits of nuclear power have a large, but largely neglected, role in encouraging open, supportive, and consistent policies for the beneficial and peaceful use of nuclear technology

  20. Addressing the Challenges posed by Cybercrime: a South African Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fawzia Cassim

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1\\:*{behavior:url(#ieooui } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} The South African common law has proven to be ineffective in addressing cybercrime. The Electronic Communications and Transactions Act, Act 25 of 2002 (“ECT” was introduced to address inter alia cybercrime in South Africa. Whilst the advent of the ECT is lauded, there is room for improvement. To illustrate this, section 15 of the ECT which facilitates the admission of information in electronic format is laudable, but the criminal sanctions in the Act appear to be inadequate. Recent case law also reveals that the courts are adopting a cautious approach towards cybercrime cases. A call for a more clear and concise judicial guidance is required. The South African banking sector is also vulnerable to cybercrime. However, the establishment of organisations such as SABRIC to combat cybercrime in the banking industry is welcomed. Although South Africa has adopted the Council of Europe’s Convention in Cybercrime, it has not ratified the treaty. It is recommended that South Africa should ratify the treaty to avoid becoming an easy target for international cybercrime. This paper will deal with measures addressing cybercrime in South Africa and the way forward.

  1. The Global Terrorism Database: Accomplishments and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary LaFree

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides an update on the Global Terrorism Database (GTD, an open source event database that now includes information on over 82,000 domestic and international terrorist attacks since 1970. [1] GTD was launched by computerizing data originally collected by the Pinkerton Global Intelligence Service (PGIS.[2] Following computerization, the research team has continued working to update and validate the data. This paper describes original data collection efforts and the strategies employed to improve the quality and comprehensiveness of the data, addressing also the strengths and weaknesses of Open Source data in general and the GTD in particular. The paper also provides descriptive statistics on the contents of the most recently available version of the GTD and offer observations about the future of event databases. 

  2. REGULATORY CHALLENGES IN GLOBAL PHARMACEUTICAL MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vibhu Yadav et al.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The global pharmaceutical industry “looks like the epitome of a modern, mature industry that has found a comfortable way to make profits by the billion: it’s global, hi-tech, and has the ultimate customer, the health care budget of the world’s richest countries. A number of factors contributed to the globalization of the pharmaceutical industry. Chief among these are the convergence of medical science and practice under the influence of modern communication technology and increased and information exchange. The global success of the Swiss pharmaceutical industry is only due to the high level of investment in research and development and the other fact is the favorable regulatory frame work. For the development of a new drug and generics pharmaceutical company have to face number of regulatory challenges such as bioequivalence, patent expiry, newer antibiotics ,and the complexity involved in the regulated market etc. Regulatory processes are also undergoing international harmonization. As international market becomes more important, pharmaceutical companies will require greater corporation among national regulators to get life saving products which will help them to market faster and reduce regulatory compliance.

  3. Global climate change: the quantifiable sustainability challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Princiotta, Frank T; Loughlin, Daniel H

    2014-09-01

    Population growth and the pressures spawned by increasing demands for energy and resource-intensive goods, foods, and services are driving unsustainable growth in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Recent GHG emission trends are consistent with worst-case scenarios of the previous decade. Dramatic and near-term emission reductions likely will be needed to ameliorate the potential deleterious impacts of climate change. To achieve such reductions, fundamental changes are required in the way that energy is generated and used. New technologies must be developed and deployed at a rapid rate. Advances in carbon capture and storage, renewable, nuclear and transportation technologies are particularly important; however, global research and development efforts related to these technologies currently appear to fall short relative to needs. Even with a proactive and international mitigation effort, humanity will need to adapt to climate change, but the adaptation needs and damages will be far greater if mitigation activities are not pursued in earnest. In this review, research is highlighted that indicates increasing global and regional temperatures and ties climate changes to increasing GHG emissions. GHG mitigation targets necessary for limiting future global temperature increases are discussed, including how factors such as population growth and the growing energy intensity of the developing world will make these reduction targets more challenging. Potential technological pathways for meeting emission reduction targets are examined, barriers are discussed, and global and US. modeling results are presented that suggest that the necessary pathways will require radically transformed electric and mobile sectors. While geoengineering options have been proposed to allow more time for serious emission reductions, these measures are at the conceptual stage with many unanswered cost, environmental, and political issues. Implications: This paper lays out the case that mitigating the potential for catastrophic climate change will be a monumental challenge, requiring the global community to transform its energy system in an aggressive, coordinated, and timely manner. If this challenge is to be met, new technologies will have to be developed and deployed at a rapid rate. Advances in carbon capture and storage, renewable, nuclear, and transportation technologies are particularly important. Even with an aggressive international mitigation effort, humanity will still need to adapt to significant climate change. PMID:25282995

  4. Aneesur Rahman Prize for Computational Physics Lecture: Addressing Dirac's Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelikowsky, James

    2013-03-01

    After the invention of quantum mechanics, P. A. M. Dirac made the following observation: ``The underlying physical laws necessary for the mathematical theory of a large part of physics and the whole of chemistry are thus completely known, and the difficulty is only that the exact application of these laws leads to equations much too complicated to be soluble. It therefore becomes desirable that approximate practical methods of applying quantum mechanics should be developed, which can lead to an explanation of the main features of complex atomic systems...'' The creation of ``approximate practical methods'' in response to Dirac's challenge has included the one electron picture, density functional theory and the pseudopotential concept. The combination of such methods in conjunction with contemporary computational platforms and new algorithms offer the possibility of predicting properties of materials solely from knowledge of the atomic species present. I will give an overview of progress in this field with an emphasis on materials at the nanoscale. Support from the Department of Energy and the National Science Foundation is acknowledged.

  5. Peptide immunotherapy for childhood allergy - addressing translational challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mackenzie Karen J

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Allergic sensitisation usually begins early in life. The number of allergens a patient is sensitised to can increase over time and the development of additional allergic conditions is increasingly recognised. Targeting allergic disease in childhood is thus likely to be the most efficacious means of reducing the overall burden of allergic disease. Specific immunotherapy involves administering protein allergen to tolerise allergen reactive CD4+ T cells, thought key in driving allergic responses. Yet specific immunotherapy risks allergic reactions including anaphylaxis as a consequence of preformed allergen-specific IgE antibodies binding to the protein, subsequent cross-linking and mast cell degranulation. CD4+ T cells direct their responses to short "immunodominant" peptides within the allergen. Such peptides can be given therapeutically to induce T cell tolerance without facilitating IgE cross-linking. Peptide immunotherapy (PIT offers attractive treatment potential for allergic disease. However, PIT has not yet been shown to be effective in children. This review discusses the immunological mechanisms implicated in PIT and briefly covers outcomes from adult PIT trials. This provides a context for discussion of the challenges for the application of PIT, both generally and more specifically in relation to children.

  6. Wireless LAN Security: Addressing Challenges, Attacks and Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurpreet Kaur#1 , Kirandeep Kaur

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available With tremendous growth and advancement in wireless technology and excessive use of internet in all the applications, security has become one of the most crucial and most demanding factor in wireless LAN, no matter if it is an individual, home or a business network. Regardless of different benefits of wireless LANs like mobility, flexibility, reduced cost of ownership and scalability, WLAN also have security issues that must be properly dealt with. Security involves protection ofdata and nodes from different types of attacks, unauthorized access and misuse of data and systems. Security basically is an overall strategy rather than a technology. It is all about the level of effort one can put into the network for securing it or the level of risk one is willing to tolerate . All the components exist in order to secure the wireless network. This paper will discuss different challenges in a wireless LAN, different types of attacks and different security considerations and strategies which will help an individual user and enterprises in securing their wireless LAN. It also emphasizes on the importance of training and knowledge of safe and reliable wireless network usage.

  7. Addressing China’s grand challenge of achieving food security while ensuring environmental sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yonglong; Jenkins, Alan; Ferrier, Robert C.; Bailey, Mark; Gordon, Iain J.; Song, Shuai; Huang, Jikun; Jia, Shaofeng; Zhang, Fusuo; Liu, Xuejun; Feng, Zhaozhong; Zhang, Zhibin

    2015-01-01

    China’s increasingly urbanized and wealthy population is driving a growing and changing demand for food, which might not be met without significant increase in agricultural productivity and sustainable use of natural resources. Given the past relationship between lack of access to affordable food and political instability, food security has to be given a high priority on national political agendas in the context of globalization. The drive for increased food production has had a significant impact on the environment, and the deterioration in ecosystem quality due to historic and current levels of pollution will potentially compromise the food production system in China. We discuss the grand challenges of not only producing more food but also producing it sustainably and without environmental degradation. In addressing these challenges, food production should be considered as part of an environmental system (soil, air, water, and biodiversity) and not independent from it. It is imperative that new ways of meeting the demand for food are developed while safeguarding the natural resources upon which food production is based. We present a holistic approach to both science and policy to ensure future food security while embracing the ambition of achieving environmental sustainability in China. It is a unique opportunity for China to be a role model as a new global player, especially for other emerging economies.

  8. Addressing the Challenge: Cataloguing Electronic Books in Academic Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuzhen Zhao

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective ? This paper explores the various issues and challenges arising from e?book cataloguing experienced at the University of Windsor’s Leddy Library and the Ontario Council of University Libraries (OCUL. This discussion uses an evidence based approach to identify and resolve issues relevant to academic libraries as well as to consortia. With the ever rising popularity of e?books within academic libraries, cataloguing librarians are actively seeking more effective methods of managing this new electronic medium, including the development of new cataloguing policies and procedures. This paper will explore the various issues and challenges surrounding e?book cataloguing and processing within academic libraries, and will identify new policies and procedures that may be used to effectively assist in e?book management.Methods ? This paper presents a case study of e?book cataloguing practices undertaken by a Canadian academic library and the consortium with which it is affiliated. Towards this end, the University of Windsor’s Leddy Library will be the prime focus of this study, with its establishment of a new e?book MARC records database. The research is based on the results of the e?book MARC project undertaken by the Leddy Library and the Ontario Council of University Libraries (OCUL.Through analysis of various suppliers’ MARC records and the actual implementation of the e?book MARC project, the authors developed and evaluated a new approach to e?book cataloguing for use in academic libraries.Results ? This practice?based approach towards the development of a new method of e?book cataloguing required continual modification and examination of e?book MARC records within the target library. The Leddy Library’s e?book MARC project provided an excellent opportunity to test the library’s existing cataloguing standards and procedures for print format, while at the same time, identifying related e?books issues. The new policies and procedures for e?book cataloguing that followed were developed as a direct result of the authors’ cataloguing experiences and the information gained by examination of other academic libraries’ e?book cataloguing processes. This paper also provides an evaluation regarding the quality of suppliers’ MARC records. Results of this study should serve to increase the efficiency and effectiveness of cataloguing in academic libraries.Conclusions ? This paper identifies key issues regarding the cataloguing of e?books in academic libraries. Throughout, the authors have provided an evidence based approach. The hope is that the results will provide a useful framework for other academic libraries to build upon when developing their respective e?book cataloguing databases. E?books are effective resources, and academic libraries need to adapt to this new electronic medium in order to assist patrons in their discovery and usage.

  9. Biological approaches for addressing the grand challenge of providing access to clean drinking water

    OpenAIRE

    Gerba Charles P; Riley Mark R; Elimelech Menachem

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The U.S. National Academy of Engineering (NAE) recently published a document presenting "Grand Challenges for Engineering". This list was proposed by leading engineers and scientists from around the world at the request of the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF). Fourteen topics were selected for these grand challenges, and at least seven can be addressed using the tools and methods of biological engineering. Here we describe how biological engineers can address the challenge of p...

  10. Addressing Pre-service Teachers Ideas About Global Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, R. V.; Lambert, J. L.; Bleicher, R. E.; Lindgren, J.; Edwards, A.; Soden, B.

    2011-12-01

    Despite the scientific consensus about global climate change (GCC) and the potential risk, the media often portrays the science as controversial and as a debate (Kellstedt, Zahran, & Vedlitz, 2008; Washington & Cook, 2011). According to a recent report, young adults are divided on the issue of global warming (Feldman, Nisbet, Leiserowitz, & Maibach, 2010). Understanding both the science and the nature of this issue is especially important for future teachers. Also, given that K-12 students have numerous alternative conceptions or lack of prior knowledge, it is critical that teachers have an understanding of the fundamental science underlying climate change. This study examines undergraduate science methods students' views of GCC, the relationship between students' views and their knowledge of GCC, and the impact of the course instructional approach. Students' views of GCC were assessed using the Views of Global Climate Change instrument (VGCC), a survey developed by the authors of this study (Lambert et al., 2010). The survey was developed to specifically measure students' views on: 1) their knowledge of GCC, 2) causes of GCC, 3) evidence (or indicators) of GCC, 4) impacts of GCC, 5) actions or solutions, 6) influence of politics on the issue of GCC, 7) scientific consensus, 8) trust of sources of information, and 9) concern about GCC. The Knowledge of Global Climate Change instrument (KGCC) (Lambert, Bleicher, & Lindgren, 2011) was employed to measure students' understanding of the greenhouse effect, carbon cycle, causes, and consequences of GCC. Pre-surveys indicated that 49% of the students felt that human activity was the main cause of climate change. At the conclusion of the course, 72% of the students thought that humans were causing climate change, and students' overall views about global warming significantly shifted toward being more concerned. Students' knowledge of the greenhouse effect, carbon cycle, causes, and impacts also increased significantly. While the results were significant, with students' knowledge increasing by almost 30% on the overall score, students revealed several alternative conceptions. Given the short span of the course, the students were able to learn a number of specific concepts related to GCC and to develop views more aligned with the current scientific research. Throughout the course, students learned about GCC with the aid of a study guide for understanding the science underlying weather and GCC. They also participated in a series of inquiry-based investigations focusing on GCC topics. Students, however, still held or developed some alternative conceptions about the underlying science. The continued development of better tools to assess students' views and knowledge of climate change is crucial to reveal and identify alternative conceptions. Ultimately, such instruments will lead to improved instruction to develop student climate change understanding that is more aligned to that of the scientific community.

  11. Large system change challenges: addressing complex critical issues in linked physical and social domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, Steve; Cornell, Sarah; Hsueh, Joe; Ozer, Ceren; McLachlan, Milla; Birney, Anna

    2015-04-01

    Most action to address contemporary complex challenges, including the urgent issues of global sustainability, occurs piecemeal and without meaningful guidance from leading complex change knowledge and methods. The potential benefit of using such knowledge is greater efficacy of effort and investment. However, this knowledge and its associated tools and methods are under-utilized because understanding about them is low, fragmented between diverse knowledge traditions, and often requires shifts in mindsets and skills from expert-led to participant-based action. We have been engaged in diverse action-oriented research efforts in Large System Change for sustainability. For us, "large" systems can be characterized as large-scale systems - up to global - with many components, of many kinds (physical, biological, institutional, cultural/conceptual), operating at multiple levels, driven by multiple forces, and presenting major challenges for people involved. We see change of such systems as complex challenges, in contrast with simple or complicated problems, or chaotic situations. In other words, issues and sub-systems have unclear boundaries, interact with each other, and are often contradictory; dynamics are non-linear; issues are not "controllable", and "solutions" are "emergent" and often paradoxical. Since choices are opportunity-, power- and value-driven, these social, institutional and cultural factors need to be made explicit in any actionable theory of change. Our emerging network is sharing and building a knowledge base of experience, heuristics, and theories of change from multiple disciplines and practice domains. We will present our views on focal issues for the development of the field of large system change, which include processes of goal-setting and alignment; leverage of systemic transitions and transformation; and the role of choice in influencing critical change processes, when only some sub-systems or levels of the system behave in purposeful ways, while others are undeniably and unavoidably deterministic.

  12. An electric utility program to address global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation believes that despite the incomplete and uncertain state of scientific knowledge concerning global atmospheric change, the plausible negative effects of accelerated global warming, known as open-quotes the Greenhouse Effect,close quotes are so large that purdent actions can and should be taken now to reduce so-called greenhouse gas emissions. Thus, the corporation has adopted a Greenhouse Warming Action Program based on strategies recommended by the National Academy of Sciences and the corporation's Integrated Electric Resource Plan. The program is a logical outgrowth of the company's policy statement on protection of the environment and is designed to surpass the Rio Earth Summit's goal of stabilizing greenhouse gas emissions. Central to the Action Program are increased use of natural gas, aggressive expansion of energy efficiency programs, and maximized generation from hydroelectric and nuclear energy sources. Additional elements include preventing releases of CFC's through customer incentive recycling programs; a forest conservation program of managing lands on a sustainable yield basis, environmentally-conscious use of paper products, and waste paper and cardboard recycling; promoting commercialization of low emitting vehicles; and developing and demonstrating low-CO2 technologies such as wind turbines and photo-voltaic cells. Niagara Mohawk believes that acting now to implement such a policy is a responsible step that makes sense from both scientific and business perspectives. Moreover, voluntary action now by utilities and other segments of the private sector is the best way to avoid the need for future regulation by government designed to achieve the same end. We intend to do our part to stabilize and reduce greenhouse gas emissions, while recognizing that our contribution is only a small fraction of total global greenhouse gas emissions

  13. Problems of global warming and role of micropaleontologists - Presidential Address

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nigam, R.

    . The high-resolution proxy records for paleomonsoonal precipitation are the need of the hour over which man's impact could be more easily evaluated. Using foraminifera (marine organisms) in marine sediments as proxy for rainfall, attempts have been made.... The model shows that after ~8,000 years B.P. the 1 Global Warming and Role of Micropaleontologists sediments of ~10,000 and ~12,000 years B.P. age were eroded from the deeper region by severe storm(s), transported and redeposited in shallower region thus...

  14. Global panorama of energy access: Current situation, challenges and outlook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galichon, Ines; Lacroix, Olivier; Wiedmer, Damien

    2014-07-15

    Globally 1.3 billion people do not have access to electricity. If this figure is projected to decline 1 billion by 2030, the global population who relies on the traditional use of biomass for cooking is expected to substantially increase, from 2.6 billion to 2.7 billion people. In its commitment to energy access, ENEA published a synthesis on the current situation and the further development perspectives of energy access worldwide, a crucial issue of human and economic development and an opportunity for the private sector. This synthesis present the ecosystem of the actors involved in the improvement of energy access and the technical solutions that serve the needs of this high-potential market. The five main challenges energy access has to address are presented in this publication: energy prices, equipment financing, distribution, change of scale and environmental performances.

  15. Antimicrobial resistance: the global public health challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayant D Deshpande

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial resistance is one of the biggest challenges to face global public health at the beginning of the third millennium. Antimicrobial resistance and its global spread threaten the continued effectiveness of many medicines used today to treat the sick. Antibiotic resistance is usually associated with significant morbidity, longer hospitalization, excess costs and mortality. Many factors contribute to the unnecessary use of antibiotics including the knowledge and beliefs of doctors and consumers, direct patient requests, perceptions of patient demand, culture and norms and advertisements and other promotional literature distributed by the pharmaceutical companies. Self-medication with antimicrobials is often cited as a major factor contributing to drug resistance. The microorganisms employ several mechanisms in attaining multidrug resistance such as they no longer rely on a glycoprotein cell wall; enzymatic deactivation of antibiotics, decreased cell wall permeability to antibiotics and altered target sites of antibiotic. Efflux mechanisms to remove antibiotics and increased mutation rate are some of the other important mechanism for the antimicrobial resistance. Optimal use of existing antimicrobial agents, using alternative treatment options, reducing the need for antimicrobials by increasing immunity, education of health professionals and patients, antibiotic policies and implementation of infection control measures are the strategies aimed at prevention of emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance.

  16. Preparing for Change: Challenges and Opportunities in a Global World

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara, Sabine

    2009-03-01

    Our world is becoming increasingly global. This may sound like a clich'e, yet it is true nonetheless, and poses unprecedented challenges for graduate education. For the new generation of researchers, teachers and professionals to be successful they must be prepared in more than the content area of their chosen field. They must also acquire proficiency in global awareness, cultural literacy, multicultural teamwork and language facility. These global skill sets form the basis for effective multicultural collaboration and will become increasingly important even for those who do not intend to study or work abroad. Knowledge has become more portable in the internet age; large data bases and reports can be accessed in real time from various locations around the globe; information is exchanged in multifaceted knowledge networks; collaborative research takes place within and outside of the traditional venue of the research university in the private sector, research institutes, and associations; research networks span multiple disciplines as progress invariably occurs at the intersection of previously discrete fields of inquiry. Global collaboration thus is no longer dependent on the physical proximity of collaborators but can take place anywhere any time. This then requires yet another set of skills, namely the ability to adapt to change, exhibit flexibility and transfer skills to a range of contexts and applications. Effective graduate education must address these realities and expose students to learning opportunities that will enable them to acquire these much needed global skills sets.

  17. Geriatric Telemedicine: Background and Evidence for Telemedicine as a Way to Address the Challenges of Geriatrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The global population of elderly people is increasing at a remarkable rate, which may be expected to continue for some time. Older patients require more care, and with the current model of care delivery, the costs may be expected to rise, although higher cost is unsustainable. For this reason, a new pattern of practice is needed. Telemedicine will be presented as a highly effective and necessary tool in geriatrics. Methods This review will present some of the background and evidence for telemedicine as a way to address the challenges of geriatrics through geriatric telemedicine. Some of the evidence for the value of telemedicine as a tool for physicians and healthcare systems is presented. Results Telemedicine offers many means to address the problems of geriatric care in creative ways. The use of electronic medicine, telecommunications, and information management has now found its way into the very fabric of health care. The use of telemedicine is a fait accompli in much of the world, and it continues to have an increasing role deeply imbedded in our electronic practices coupled with social media. Conclusions The evidence for successful incorporation of telemedicine into practice is abundant and continues to accrue. This is a great opportunity for medical practice to evolve to new levels of engagement with patients and new levels of attainment in terms of quality care.

  18. The New Global Responsibilities of Engineers Create Challenges for Engineering Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Willi

    2012-01-01

    Modern societies aim to solve the global challenges of the 21st century with sustainable solutions such as resource efficiency, use of renewable energy sources and recycling. Engineers are called upon to create the cutting edge technological solutions that can help to address these challenges. In developed as well as in developing countries,…

  19. The New Global Responsibilities of Engineers Create Challenges for Engineering Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Willi

    2012-01-01

    Modern societies aim to solve the global challenges of the 21st century with sustainable solutions such as resource efficiency, use of renewable energy sources and recycling. Engineers are called upon to create the cutting edge technological solutions that can help to address these challenges. In developed as well as in developing countries,…

  20. Workshop Builds Strategies to Address Global Positioning System Vulnerabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Genene

    2011-01-01

    When we examine the impacts of space weather on society, do we really understand the risks? Can past experiences reliably predict what will happen in the future? As the complexity of technology increases, there is the potential for it to become more fragile, allowing for a single point of failure to bring down the entire system. Take the Global Positioning System (GPS) as an example. GPS positioning, navigation, and timing have become an integral part of daily life, supporting transportation and communications systems vital to the aviation, merchant marine, cargo, cellular phone, surveying, and oil exploration industries. Everyday activities such as banking, mobile phone operations, and even the control of power grids are facilitated by the accurate timing provided by GPS. Understanding the risks of space weather to GPS and the many economic sectors reliant upon it, as well as how to build resilience, was the focus of a policy workshop organized by the American Meteorological Society (AMS) and held on 13-14 October 2010 in Washington, D. C. The workshop brought together a select group of policy makers, space weather scientists, and GPS experts and users.

  1. Energy-Intensive Processes Portfolio: Addressing Key Energy Challenges Across U.S. Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-03-07

    AMO is developing advanced technologies that cut energy use and carbon emissions in some of the most energy-intensive processes within U.S. manufacturing. The brochure describes the AMO R&D projects that address these challenges.

  2. Critical Zone Science and Global Societal Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldhaber, M. B.; Banwart, S. A.

    2014-12-01

    Earth's Critical Zone (CZ) is the thin outer veneer of our planet from the top of the tree canopy to the bottom of our drinking water aquifers that supports almost all human activity. Despite its fundamental importance to terrestrial life, understanding of the operation of the coupled geologic, hydrologic, topographic, and biotic CZ processes across time and space is far from complete. These interactions are complex and they establish a mechanistic 'chain of impact' that transmits the effects of environmental change throughout the CZ. Characterization of these processes is made more urgent by the fact that globally, the CZ is experiencing ever-increasing pressure from growth in human population and wealth. Within the next four decades, demand for food and fuel is expected to double along with a more than 50% increase in demand for clean water. Understanding, predicting and managing intensification of land use and associated economic services, while mitigating and adapting to rapid climate change, is now one of the most pressing societal challenges of the 21st century. In this talk we summarize the profound global societal impacts to the Earth's near surface arising from exponential human population growth, increasing affluence, and technological advance, to provide context for discussions on constructing an array of CZ observatories to both characterize fundamental critical zone processes and forecast the effects of planetary change. We will suggest goals and options relevant to planning for a future international array of CZ observatories and a research agenda that matches the urgency of the projected resource demands and environmental pressures of the coming four decades.

  3. High Performance Risk Aggregation: Addressing the Data Processing Challenge the Hadoop MapReduce Way

    OpenAIRE

    Yao, Zhimin; Varghese, Blesson; Rau-Chaplin, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations employed for the analysis of portfolios of catastrophic risk process large volumes of data. Often times these simulations are not performed in real-time scenarios as they are slow and consume large data. Such simulations can benefit from a framework that exploits parallelism for addressing the computational challenge and facilitates a distributed file system for addressing the data challenge. To this end, the Apache Hadoop framework is chosen for the ...

  4. Megacities and Large Urban Complexes - WMO Role in Addressing Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terblanche, Deon; Jalkanen, Liisa

    2013-04-01

    Megacities and Large Urban Complexes - WMO Role in Addressing Challenges and Opportunities Deon E. Terblanche and Liisa Jalkanen dterblanche@wmo.int ljalkanen@wmo.int World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, Switzerland The 21st Century could amongst others, become known as the century in which our species has evolved from Homo sapiens to Homo urbanus. By now the urban population has surpassed the rural population and the rate of urbanization will continue at such a pace that by 2050 urban dwellers could outnumber their rural counterpart by more than two to one. Most of this growth in urban population will occur in developing countries and along coastal areas. Urbanization is to a large extent the outcome of humans seeking a better life through improved opportunities presented by high-density communities. Megacities and large urban complexes provide more job opportunities and social structures, better transport and communication links and a relative abundance of physical goods and services when compared to most rural areas. Unfortunately these urban complexes also present numerous social and environmental challenges. Urban areas differ from their surroundings by morphology, population density, and with high concentration of industrial activities, energy consumption and transport. They also pose unique challenges to atmospheric modelling and monitoring and create a multi-disciplinary spectrum of potential threats, including air pollution, which need to be addressed in an integrated way. These areas are also vulnerable to the changing climate and its implications to sea-level and extreme events, air quality and related health impacts. Many urban activities are significantly impacted by weather events that would not be considered to be of high impact in less densely populated areas. For instance, moderate precipitation events can cause flooding and landslides as modified urban catchments generally have higher run-off to rainfall ratios than their more pristine rural counterparts. The urban environment also provides numerous opportunities. One example being the better use of weather and environmental predictions to proactively optimize the functioning of the urban environment in terms of the use of energy, goods and services. Another is the providing of air quality forecasting services to benefit the health of the population. To address the challenges and opportunities facing megacities and large urban complexes, WMO has established the Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) Urban Research Meteorology and Environment (GURME). Air pollution questions in urban areas, in particular megacities, is the main focus, building observational and modelling capabilities in developing countries through pilot projects and transfer of scientific expertise. GURME contributes to improving capabilities to handle meteorological and related features of air pollution by addressing end-to-end aspects of air quality, linking observational capabilities with the needs of chemical weather prediction, with the goal of providing high quality air quality services. Using examples from around the world but with specific reference to Africa, the unique challenges and opportunities related to megacities and large urban complexes, as perceived by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) are highlighted.

  5. Challenges in Modeling of the Global Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janjic, Zavisa; Djurdjevic, Vladimir; Vasic, Ratko; Black, Tom

    2015-04-01

    The massively parallel computer architectures require that some widely adopted modeling paradigms be reconsidered in order to utilize more productively the power of parallel processing. For high computational efficiency with distributed memory, each core should work on a small subdomain of the full integration domain, and exchange only few rows of halo data with the neighbouring cores. However, the described scenario implies that the discretization used in the model is horizontally local. The spherical geometry further complicates the problem. Various grid topologies will be discussed and examples will be shown. The latitude-longitude grid with local in space and explicit in time differencing has been an early choice and remained in use ever since. The problem with this method is that the grid size in the longitudinal direction tends to zero as the poles are approached. So, in addition to having unnecessarily high resolution near the poles, polar filtering has to be applied in order to use a time step of decent size. However, the polar filtering requires transpositions involving extra communications. The spectral transform method and the semi-implicit semi-Lagrangian schemes opened the way for a wide application of the spectral representation. With some variations, these techniques are used in most major centers. However, the horizontal non-locality is inherent to the spectral representation and implicit time differencing, which inhibits scaling on a large number of cores. In this respect the lat-lon grid with a fast Fourier transform represents a significant step in the right direction, particularly at high resolutions where the Legendre transforms become increasingly expensive. Other grids with reduced variability of grid distances such as various versions of the cubed sphere and the hexagonal/pentagonal ("soccer ball") grids were proposed almost fifty years ago. However, on these grids, large-scale (wavenumber 4 and 5) fictitious solutions ("grid imprinting") with significant amplitudes can develop. Due to their large scales, that are comparable to the scales of the dominant Rossby waves, such fictitious solutions are hard to identify and remove. Another new challenge on the global scale is that the limit of validity of the hydrostatic approximation is rapidly being approached. Having in mind the sensitivity of extended deterministic forecasts to small disturbances, we may need global non-hydrostatic models sooner than we think. The unified Non-hydrostatic Multi-scale Model (NMMB) that is being developed at the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) as a part of the new NOAA Environmental Modeling System (NEMS) will be discussed as an example. The non-hydrostatic dynamics were designed in such a way as to avoid over-specification. The global version is run on the latitude-longitude grid, and the polar filter selectively slows down the waves that would otherwise be unstable. The model formulation has been successfully tested on various scales. A global forecasting system based on the NMMB has been run in order to test and tune the model. The skill of the medium range forecasts produced by the NMMB is comparable to that of other major medium range models. The computational efficiency of the global NMMB on parallel computers is good.

  6. Rethinking global health challenges: towards a 'global compact' for reducing the burden of chronic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, R S

    2009-03-01

    Chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes and cancer, are the leading cause of death and disability in both the developed and developing world (excluding sub-Saharan Africa). At present, the global framework for action on chronic disease is strongly 'World Health Organization (WHO)-centric', defined by two WHO initiatives: the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, and the Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity and Health. This paper explores the difficulties of developing a collective response to global health challenges, and draws out some implications for chronic disease. It highlights how political partnerships and improved governance structures, economic processes, and international laws and standards function as three, concurrent pathways for encouraging policy implementation at country level and for building collective commitment to address the transnational determinants of chronic disease. The paper evaluates WHO's initiatives on chronic disease in terms of these pathways, and makes the case for a global compact on chronic disease as a possible structure for advancing WHO's free-standing goal of reducing mortality from chronic diseases by an additional 2% between 2005 and 2015. Beneath this overarching structure, the paper argues that global agencies, donor governments and other global health stakeholders could achieve greater impact by coordinating their efforts within a series of semi-autonomous 'policy channels' or 'workstreams'. These workstreams - including trade and agriculture, consumer health issues and workplace health promotion - could act as focal points for international cooperation, drawing in a wider range of health stakeholders within their areas of comparative advantage. PMID:19278695

  7. Addressing challenges and needs in patient education targeting hardly reached patients with chronic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annemarie Reinhardt Varming

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Some patients do not benefit from participation in patient education due to reasons related to disease burden, literacy, and socioeconomic challenges. In this communication, we address more specifically both the challenges that these hardly reached patients face in relation to patient education programs and the challenges educators face when conducting patient education with hardly reached patients. We define principles for the format and content of dialogue tools to better support this patient group within the population of individuals with diabetes.

  8. The World Nuclear University: Addressing global needs. London, 4 September 2003. Inauguration ceremony, World Nuclear University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For some time, there has been a growing awareness of the need for succession planning in the nuclear industry, to ensure that we cultivate a new generation of young people with the proper education and skills to replace the aging nuclear workforce as its members retire. Today's inauguration of the 'World Nuclear University' (WNU) is the most substantive action taken to date to address this need. This is a challenge, because the widespread perception clearly exists that nuclear energy is a dying field. The IAEA, with its constituency of 135 Member States, is hopeful that this will truly become a World Nuclear University. Almost 2 billion people, nearly one third of the population of the planet, remain without access to modern energy supplies - a shortfall that could be addressed, at least in part, by nuclear energy. But any major expansion in the future use of nuclear power will only be feasible if the nuclear industry is successful in developing innovative reactor and fuel cycle technology - as well as operational and regulatory approaches - that effectively address concerns related to cost competitiveness, safety and security, proliferation resistance and waste disposal. And global development needs go well beyond the electricity sector. The IAEA's recognition of these situations underlies our assistance to Member States, through which we try to address areas of high national priority wherever nuclear technology provides the best option for success. A significant part of that effort lies in the development of human capacity - through training and education in how to apply nuclear technology safely and effectively. 'Atoms for Peace' is a vision nearly five decades old, focused on using nuclear science for the advancement of humankind. It is my hope that this 'World Nuclear University' can be an effective instrument towards the achievement of that vision

  9. Biological approaches for addressing the grand challenge of providing access to clean drinking water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerba Charles P

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The U.S. National Academy of Engineering (NAE recently published a document presenting "Grand Challenges for Engineering". This list was proposed by leading engineers and scientists from around the world at the request of the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF. Fourteen topics were selected for these grand challenges, and at least seven can be addressed using the tools and methods of biological engineering. Here we describe how biological engineers can address the challenge of providing access to clean drinking water. This issue must be addressed in part by removing or inactivating microbial and chemical contaminants in order to properly deliver water safe for human consumption. Despite many advances in technologies this challenge is expanding due to increased pressure on fresh water supplies and to new opportunities for growth of potentially pathogenic organisms.

  10. Addressing Global Disparities in the Burden of Noncommunicable Diseases: Call for Papers

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The PLOS Medicine editors issue a call for papers on addressing global disparities in non-communicable diseases–CVD, cancer, COPD, asthma, diabetes, mental health disorders, and substance abuse–for 2013.

  11. Globalization and markets: challenges for higher education

    OpenAIRE

    Nayyar, Deepak

    2008-01-01

    The object of this paper is to reflect upon the intersection of, and explore the interconnections between, globalization and higher education. It outlines the essential characteristics of globalization, with an analysis of its dimensions and implications (in particular, exclusion). It shows that, over the past three decades, globalization has been associated with uneven development and asymmetrical consequences for both countries and people. This sets the stage in the wider context of develop...

  12. Ethical challenges of the globalization process

    OpenAIRE

    Radenko Maric; Branko Balj

    2009-01-01

    Whereas roots of globalization are far reaching, it is primarily a modern age phenomenon. Modern business operation and the world economy are characterized by domination of multinational corporations, strong presence of the government in economy and the long-term tendency towards globalization in manufacturing, trading and consumption in the world. Containing both risks and opportunities, globalization is a problem of manifold nature. For some it means regression and falling into “neocolonial...

  13. REGULATORY CHALLENGES IN GLOBAL PHARMACEUTICAL MARKET

    OpenAIRE

    Vibhu Yadav et al.

    2012-01-01

    The global pharmaceutical industry “looks like the epitome of a modern, mature industry that has found a comfortable way to make profits by the billion: it’s global, hi-tech, and has the ultimate customer, the health care budget of the world’s richest countries. A number of factors contributed to the globalization of the pharmaceutical industry. Chief among these are the convergence of medical science and practice under the influence of modern communication technology and increased and inform...

  14. IOMP - Challenges for advancing medical physic globally

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    IOMP stands for International Organization for Medical Physics. The determinants of health care include; science, research, academia, education, technology, engineering, industry, politics, economic, society, ethics, culture and medicine. However, physics and engineering are the driving forces of progress in health care. Medical Physics is a branch of Applied Physics, pursued by medical physicists, which uses physics principles, methods and techniques in practice and research for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of human diseases with a specific goal of improving human health and well-being. How can we achieve Health Care improvement through Medical Physics globally? By forming international alliances in the Medical Physics community to develop and implement coherent concepts of • Appropriate University / Hospital Structures • Education & Training and Certification Schemes • Research & Development Platforms • Professional Career Development • International Cooperation within the Science Community IOMP represents ca. 18.000 medical physicists worldwide, it is affiliated to 80 national member organizations, six regional organizations as Members plus Corporate Members. The mission of IOMP is to advance medical physics practice worldwide by disseminating scientific and technical information, fostering the educational and professional development of medical physics and promoting the highest quality medical services for patients. 6 Medical physicists are professionals with education and specialist training in the concepts and techniques of applying physics in medicine. They work in clinical, academic or research institutions. Challenges, Efforts and Achievements of the International Organization for Medical Physics Recognition of the Medical Physics profession by the National Health Authorities. Medical Physicists are essential to ensure adequate and safe use of radiation equipment, Radiation Protection of patients, workers and public in a clinical environment. Education, Training, Certification IOMP Policy Statement No. 1: The Medical Physicist: Role and Responsibilities IOMP Policy Statement No. 2: Basic Requirements for Education and Training of Medical Physicists IOMP Guidelines: Professional Certification of the Medical Physicist Science - Interlinkage of Science and Education - Initiating and fostering national projects for Research in Medical Physics. e.g International Council of Science (ICSU), an International Centre for Medical Physics (Proposal). This is to be located in a developing country and to have permanent and visiting scientific staff. Its main roles will be research, development, education and professional advice. The centre is to focus on: – Needs and priorities of third world countries – Techniques for sustainable development – Technology Transfer – Education and Training Courses – Advice to international bodies Specific actions in LMI countries. E.g. - Collaboration with WHO and IAEA - IUPESM: Health Technology Task Group (HTTG) - Equipment Donation Programme - Library Programme - Travel Assistance

  15. The role and challenges of the food industry in addressing chronic disease

    OpenAIRE

    Kehoe Stephen; Hargrove Rob; Bradley Dondeena; Khan Mehmood; Yach Derek; Mensah George

    2010-01-01

    Summary Increasingly, food companies play an important role in stemming the rising burden of nutrition-related chronic diseases. Concrete actions taken by these companies include global public commitments to address food reformulation, consumer information, responsible marketing, promotion of healthy lifestyles, and public-private partnerships. These actions are reviewed together with eleven specific PepsiCo goals and commitments that address products, the marketplace, and communities at larg...

  16. Ethical challenges of the globalization process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radenko Maric

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Whereas roots of globalization are far reaching, it is primarily a modern age phenomenon. Modern business operation and the world economy are characterized by domination of multinational corporations, strong presence of the government in economy and the long-term tendency towards globalization in manufacturing, trading and consumption in the world. Containing both risks and opportunities, globalization is a problem of manifold nature. For some it means regression and falling into “neocolonialism”, the others glorify it. It is logical to ask the following questions: What are the consequences of globalization for governments, nations, companies and individuals? What are the business, social and ethical issues it causes? In one word, is it possible to be ethical, to avoid and correct “bad” and keep “good” consequences of total phenomena as the globalization, and whether it is rewarding in the increasing market competition?

  17. Financial Regulation and Risk Management: Addressing Risk Challenges in a Changing Financial Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Ojo, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    Amongst other things, this paper aims to address complexities and challenges faced by regulators in identifying and assessing risk, problems arising from different perceptions of risk, and solutions aimed at countering problems of risk regulation. It will approach these issues through an assessment of explanations put forward to justify the growing importance of risks, well known risk theories such as cultural theory, risk society theory and governmentality theory. In addressing the problems ...

  18. The Cloud Adoption Toolkit: Addressing the Challenges of Cloud Adoption in Enterprise

    OpenAIRE

    Khajeh-Hosseini, Ali; Greenwood, David; Smith, James W.; Sommerville, Ian

    2010-01-01

    Cloud computing promises a radical shift in the provisioning of computing resource within the enterprise. This paper: i) describes the challenges that decision makers face when attempting to determine the feasibility of the adoption of cloud computing in their organisations; ii) illustrates a lack of existing work to address the feasibility challenges of cloud adoption in the enterprise; iii) introduces the Cloud Adoption Toolkit that provides a framework to support decision...

  19. Summary: Addressing the Interactional Challenges of Moving Collaborative Adaptive Management From Theory to Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Kathi K. Beratan

    2014-01-01

    Translating the attractive concept of collaborative adaptive management (CAM) into practice has proven very difficult. The papers included in this Special Feature explore why this is true and suggest how the challenges might be addressed. This summary highlights common themes, major challenges, and implications for research and practice. Many of the included papers emphasize the central importance of collaboration and stakeholder engagement as a response to complexity and uncertainty. Collect...

  20. The Challenge of Global Poliomyelitis Eradication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garon, Julie R; Cochi, Stephen L; Orenstein, Walter A

    2015-12-01

    In the United States during the 1950's, polio was on the forefront of every provider and caregiver's mind. Today, most providers in the United States have never seen a case. The Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI), which began in 1988 has reduced the number of cases by over 99%. The world is closer to achieving global eradication of polio than ever before but as long as poliovirus circulates anywhere in the world, every country is vulnerable. The global community can support the polio eradication effort through continued vaccination, surveillance, enforcing travel regulations and contributing financial support, partnerships and advocacy. PMID:26610419

  1. Engaging with mental health: a global challenge

    OpenAIRE

    Coyle, David; Matthews, Mark; Doherty, Gavin.; Sharry, John

    2013-01-01

    Using the metrics of the World Health Organisation, the Global Burden of Disease Study has found that mental health difficulties are currently the leading cause of disability in developed countries [1]. Projections also indicate that the global burden of mental health difficulties will continue to rise in the coming decades. The human and economic costs of this trend will be substantial. In this paper we discuss how effectively designed interactive systems, developed through...

  2. Nuclear power development: Global challenges and strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article discusses the following global aspects of nuclear power development: the global energy issue; the potential of nuclear power; fuel cycle and reactor strategies (maximizing resource utilization, uranium fuel cycle, thorium fuel cycle, maximizing economic benefits, licensing, financing, maximizing environmental benefits); direction of IAEA programmes related to nuclear power development (nuclear power, nuclear fuel cycle, waste management technology, comparative assessment of different energy sources); attaining environmental goals

  3. The Global Terrorism Database: Accomplishments and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Gary LaFree

    2010-01-01

    The paper provides an update on the Global Terrorism Database (GTD), an open source event database that now includes information on over 82,000 domestic and international terrorist attacks since 1970. [1] GTD was launched by computerizing data originally collected by the Pinkerton Global Intelligence Service (PGIS).[2] Following computerization, the research team has continued working to update and validate the data. This paper describes original data collection efforts and the strategies emp...

  4. DIRECTIONS AND CHALLENGES IN GLOBAL AGRICULTURE

    OpenAIRE

    POPA Daniela

    2013-01-01

    The development of global agricultural market has been at the forefront of professional studies. Expert opinions have quite differing views as to whether the world’s food production will be able to supply the huge demand of growing population. This scientific paper provides a general overview of global agricultural directions, including views on whether agricultural productivity increases will be able to keep with food demand increases and price trends. The scientific paper has focused on the...

  5. The Flipped Class: A Method to Address the Challenges of an Undergraduate Statistics Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Stephanie Gray

    2013-01-01

    Undergraduate statistics courses are perceived as challenging by both students and instructors. Students' attitudes, motivation, math anxiety, and preparedness can negatively impact the student and instructor experience and have the potential to negatively impact student learning. This article describes an attempt to address some of these…

  6. Global warming: The energy policy challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scientific information over the last decade suggests that the world's fossil fuel-based economy now threatens catastrophic changes in the global climate. The authors of this chapter present a practical energy scenario for the year 2030 that involves a 55% cut in carbon dioxide emissions, greatly improved energy efficiency, and an energy production system that relies heavily on alternative energy resources. Specific topic areas covered include the following: global CO2 emission; energy efficiency; renewable energy resources (biomass, hydropower, solar, wind, geothermal); potential role of natural gas; potential role of hydrogen; government policy considerations

  7. Globalization and the Challenge for Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Yusuf , Shahid

    2001-01-01

    Rsearch on the sources of growth shows several factors to be relevant to all countries, rich or poor. Whether developing countries can substantially raise per capita incomes depends on policies that address these variables: labor, human capital, capital investment in research and development, technological progress, and the increase in total factor productivity arising from scale economies...

  8. GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE--THE TECHNOLOGY CHALLENGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide, have led to increasing atmospheric concentrations which are at least partly responsible for the roughly 0.7% degree C global warming earth has experienced since the industrial revolution. With industrial activit...

  9. Regional initiatives to address the challenges of tuberculosis in children: perspectives from the Asia-Pacific region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Stephen M; Grzemska, Malgorzata; Brands, Annemieke; Nguyen, Huong; Amini, James; Triasih, Rina; Talukder, Khurshid; Ahmed, Shakil; Amanullah, Farhana; Kumar, Blessina; Tufail, Pervaiz; Detjen, Anne; Marais, Ben; Hennig, Cornelia; Islam, Tauhid

    2015-03-01

    Increasing attention is being given to the challenges of management and prevention of tuberculosis in children and adolescents. There have been a number of recent important milestones achieved at the global level to address this previously neglected disease. There is now a need to increase activities and build partnerships at the regional and national levels in order to address the wide policy-practice gaps for implementation, and to take the key steps outlined in the Roadmap for Child Tuberculosis published in 2013. In this article, we provide the rationale and suggest strategies illustrated with examples to improve diagnosis, management, outcomes and prevention for children with tuberculosis in the Asia-Pacific region, with an emphasis on the need for greatly improved recording and reporting. Effective collaboration with community engagement between the child health sector, the National Tuberculosis control Programmes, community-based services and the communities themselves are essential. PMID:25809775

  10. Regional initiatives to address the challenges of tuberculosis in children: perspectives from the Asia-Pacific region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen M. Graham

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Increasing attention is being given to the challenges of management and prevention of tuberculosis in children and adolescents. There have been a number of recent important milestones achieved at the global level to address this previously neglected disease. There is now a need to increase activities and build partnerships at the regional and national levels in order to address the wide policy-practice gaps for implementation, and to take the key steps outlined in the Roadmap for Child Tuberculosis published in 2013. In this article, we provide the rationale and suggest strategies illustrated with examples to improve diagnosis, management, outcomes and prevention for children with tuberculosis in the Asia-Pacific region, with an emphasis on the need for greatly improved recording and reporting. Effective collaboration with community engagement between the child health sector, the National Tuberculosis control Programmes, community-based services and the communities themselves are essential.

  11. DIRECTIONS AND CHALLENGES IN GLOBAL AGRICULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela POPA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of global agricultural market has been at the forefront of professional studies. Expert opinions have quite differing views as to whether the world’s food production will be able to supply the huge demand of growing population. This scientific paper provides a general overview of global agricultural directions, including views on whether agricultural productivity increases will be able to keep with food demand increases and price trends. The scientific paper has focused on the present state of the agricultural market and on the analysis of the key factors defining the tasks of the agricultural sector in the near future, with a special attention to the case of Republic of Moldova.

  12. Exactness Versus Globality - The Holographic Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primov, George V.

    1988-04-01

    Present Artificial Intelligence development and its technical means are analyzed critically from the viewpoint of modelling human cognitive processes. It is shown, that the dominant present expert systems paradigm cannot prove successful in solving Artificial Intelligence global problems, unless it implement certain isomorphism with higher brain functions, suggested by brain science. A new firmware architecture alternative is suggested, integrating traditional information processing approaches with holographic ideology.

  13. Wind energy global trends: Opportunities and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wind energy is one of the least cost and environmentally attractive new electricity source options for many parts of the world. Because of new wind turbine technology, reduced costs, short installation time, and environmental benefits, countries all over the world are beginning to once again develop one of the world's oldest energy technologies. A unique set of opportunities and challenges now faces the wind industry and its proponents. This paper discusses the potential and challenges of wind power. The US Department of Energy (DOE) is working closely with industry to develop new, improved wind turbine technology and to support both domestic and international deployment. The US DOE Wind Program is discussed within this context

  14. Challenges to global green job growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Sean; Kubit, Jill; Renner, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The authors recognize that green is a relative term and that what's green today may be decidedly not green tomorrow. They developed the idea of "shades of green" to try to capture the differences between jobs and looked at where the green jobs currently are. They found that green jobs in renewables are likely to grow, but in other sectors green jobs face enormous challenges. Among them are investment, technology, agriculture, labor market, and urbanization hurdles. PMID:19608523

  15. Public engagement on global health challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Minhas Gunjeet S; Persad Deepa L; Panjwani Dilzayn; Hadfield Tom; Saunders Vicki; Berndtson Kathryn; Masum Hassan; Cohen Emma RM; Daar Abdallah S; Singh Jerome A; Singer Peter A.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Experience with public engagement activities regarding the risks and benefits of science and technology (S&T) is growing, especially in the industrialized world. However, public engagement in the developing world regarding S&T risks and benefits to explore health issues has not been widely explored. Methods This paper gives an overview about public engagement and related concepts, with a particular focus on challenges and benefits in the developing world. We then describe ...

  16. Understanding the challenges of global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evolution of the threat of global warming and the chronology of the last half century of efforts to prevent it from overwhelming humanity is chronicled. It was in the 1970s when it was first realized that the cumulative total of atmospheric carbon dioxide from fossil fuel burning had been steadily rising from the pre-industrial 280 ppmv (parts per million by volume) to 325 ppmv, approximately parallel with the rise of industrialization. Nevertheless, the first attempt at a global accord to reduce emissions was not made until 1992, when the Rio de Janeiro Earth Summit tried, but miserably failed to reach agreement, having been prevented from achieving anything of substance by a loose-knit group of nations and commercial interests. Binding agreements were finally reached at the next scheduled international meeting in Kyoto, Japan, in 1997. There is a detailed discussion of the Kyoto Protocols, the measures that Annex One nations such as Canada have to do to achieve the six per cent reductions targets below 1990 levels of emissions by 2010, and estimates of the costs involved. These discussions of proposed actions are balanced by a display of examples of the the growing volume of arguments advanced by opponents who not only disagree about what can be done to reduce emissions, but that there is anything that needs to be done at all. Central to their arguments is the denial that human activities are responsible for global warming, disregarding the overwhelming evidence by 3000+ leading scientists of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change that most of the global warming over the last 50 years is attributable to human activities. The rest of the article details what can and needs to be done to reverse the cumulative impact of greenhouse gas emissions, how we can produce the energy we need at the lowest environmental cost, and the types of energy (solar, wind, biomass, natural gas) that result in the smallest GHG emissions. Familiar arguments are recited to demonstrate the urgent need to move away from fossil fuels towards low emission and renewable sources, accompanied by examples of the Scandinavian experience to show that it is possible to enjoy a lifestyle similar to North American standards while reducing total average emissions to about six tonnes per person per year compared to the Canadian average of 16 tonnes per person per year. 2 tabs

  17. Addressing mental health challenges facing the "Next America": A call for culture change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeigh, Jill D; Melton, Gary B

    2015-09-01

    Provides an editorial addressing future mental health challenges. The articles in this issue highlight the need to create environments conducive to promoting the well-being of future generations. The articles build on symposia held by the American Orthopsychiatric Association in 2015, which focused on the effects on well-being of changing sociodemographics and labor market trends. Included in these pages are articles that lay out some of the challenges young people today face and strategies for helping them transition to adulthood successfully. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26460709

  18. Addressing challenges in preparation of 211At-labeled biomolecules for use in targeted alpha therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are significant challenges in the development of 211At-labeled biomolecules for application to targeted alpha therapy. Challenges that we have addressed include development of: (1) labeling methods to obtain high in vivo 211At-label stability, (2) approaches to consistently obtain high recovery yields of Na[211At]At from irradiated bismuth targets, (3) methods to optimize biomolecule labeling yields, (4) reagents for use of 211At in pretargeting approach to cancer therapy, and (5) 211At-labeled antibodies in conditioning for hematopoietic cell transplantation. (author)

  19. Challenges to Born Global SMEs : A study on overcoming the challenges that are faced by born global SMEs

    OpenAIRE

    Hamza, Aziz; Zulfiqar, Salman

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study is to explore the challenges that are faced by born global SMEs and how they overcome these challenges. Method: For literature review and secondary research, data and information has been gathered from disciplines of international entrepreneurship. Primary research has been done on four born global firms; two from Sweden and two from Pakistan. Qualitative research and analysis has been used in the study. Originality: This study contributes to literature by co...

  20. Canada and global warming: Meeting the challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canada accounts for ca 2% of total world emissions of greenhouse gases. Carbon dioxide emissions are by far the largest greenhouse gas source in Canada, primarily from energy consumption. On a per capita basis, Canada ranks second among industrialized countries in terms of energy related carbon dioxide emissions. Canada's northern geography and climate, its export-oriented economy with energy-intensive resource industries, and its relatively small population dispersed over a wide land mass contribute to this high per-capita value. The effects of global warming induced by greenhouse gases are outlined, including a reduction in water supplies, droughts affecting agriculture and forestry, and large-scale thawing of permafrost. A national strategy to respond to global warming has been developed which includes limiting and reducing greenhouse gas emissions, preparing for potential climatic changes, and improving scientific understanding and predictive capabilities with respect to climate change. Details of this strategy are outlined, including provincial and territorial strategies in partnership with the national strategy. 11 figs., 2 tabs

  1. Beyond the Financial Crisis: Addressing risk challenges in a changing financial environment

    OpenAIRE

    Ojo, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    Paper presented at "Strategies For Solving Global Crises Conference: The Financial Crisis and Beyond" (October 2009). Also published in "Corporate Finance: Governance, Corporate Control & Organization Journals" (July 2010) The Financial Crisis has not only highlighted the importance of addressing issues such as liquidity risk – it has also brought to the fore the need to focus on unregulated instruments such as hedge funds, which are of systemic importance to the financial industry. R...

  2. Global challenges in integrated coastal zone management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Growing pressure from increasingly diverse human activities coupled with climate change impacts threaten the functional integrity of coastal ecosystems around the globe. A multi-disciplinary approach towards understanding drivers, pressures and impacts in the coastal zone requires effective...... place in Arendal, Norway between 3-7 July 2011. The main objective of the Symposium was to present current knowledge and to address issues on advice and management related to the coastal zone. The major themes of papers included in this book are: Coastal habitats and ecosystem services Adaptation...... integration of data and information in policy and management, combining expertise from nature and social science, to reach a balanced and sustainable development of the coastal zone. This important book comprises the proceedings of The International Symposium on Integrated Coastal Zone Management, which took...

  3. Ergonomics and sustainability – challenges from global supply chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasle, Peter; Jensen, Per Langaa

    The development of globalised supply chains is a major challenge for sustainability. For several years, there has been discussion within the profession whether and how ergonomics and human factors can play a role. Based on our research, we have identified five major challenges from global supply...... agency and regulatory mechanisms. There are obviously no clear and simple solutions to these challenges. One possible avenue for progress might lie in acquiring a greater understanding of the challenges from global supply chains and developing a strategy which combines social and long-term business...... sustainability. Starting from such a basis, the next step would be to find ways for the ergonomics and human factors community to create international collaboration which can impact specific global supply chains....

  4. Wildland urban interface: Addressing the challenges of implementing FireSmart in the city of Calgary

    OpenAIRE

    McFadden, Ryan

    2005-01-01

    As the City of Calgary expands into rural areas, communities will encounter Wildland Urban Interface (WUI), which is defined as any area where structures are located near or among combustible wildland fuels. With the exception of Calgary, much of Alberta and British Columbia have implemented FireSmart principles that reduce the risk of WUI fires. This study provides recommendations as to how the City of Calgary can address the challenges of implementing FireSmart principles. This study combin...

  5. Climate Change - Global Risks, Challenges & Decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richardson, Katherine; Steffen, Will; Schellnhuber, Hans J.; Alcamo, Joseph; Barker, Terry; Kammen, Daniel M.; Leemans, Rik; Liverman, Diana; Munasinghe, Mohan; Osman-Elasha, Balgis; Stern, Nicholas; Wæver, Ole

    environment, and the many tools and approaches available to deal effectively with the challenge of climate change. The report has been produced by a writing team comprised of members of the Scientific Steering Committee for the IARU Congress and individuals invited to give the writing team academic and...... volume. The writing team has, in addition to presentations at the Congress, drawn upon recent publications in the scientific literature to create this synthesis. This report has been critically reviewed by representatives of the Earth System Science Partnership (ESSP), by the parallel session chairs and...... co-chairs, and by up to four independent researchers from each IARU university. This extensive review process has been implemented to ensure that the messages contained in the report are solidly and accurately based on the new research produced since the last IPCC Report, and that they faithfully...

  6. Global challenges in integrated coastal zone management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    Growing pressure from increasingly diverse human activities coupled with climate change impacts threaten the functional integrity of coastal ecosystems around the globe. A multi-disciplinary approach towards understanding drivers, pressures and impacts in the coastal zone requires effective integration of data and information in policy and management, combining expertise from nature and social science, to reach a balanced and sustainable development of the coastal zone. This important book comprises the proceedings of The International Symposium on Integrated Coastal Zone Management, which took place in Arendal, Norway between 3-7 July 2011. The main objective of the Symposium was to present current knowledge and to address issues on advice and management related to the coastal zone. The major themes of papers included in this book are: Coastal habitats and ecosystem services Adaptation/mitigation to change in coastal systems Coastal governance Linking science and management Comprising a huge wealth of information, this timely and well-edited volume is essential reading for all those involved in coastal zone management around the globe. All libraries in research establishments and universities where marine, aquatic and environmental sciences, and fisheries and aquatic sciences are studied and taught will need copies of this important volume on their shelves.

  7. Researching gender: the challenge of global diversity today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longman, Chia

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The text of this paper is based on a lecture given at the symposium of the Ghent African Platform “Researching Gender in/on Africa” at Ghent University in December 2009. It addresses some general challenges faced by ‘gender studies’ as an autonomous field versus ‘gender research’ as an integrated topic within mainstream disciplines in academia. Gender studies have sometimes superseded ‘women’s studies’ and expanded to cover the terrain of study of various forms of diversity including men’s and transgender studies. We will show that the ‘mainstreaming’ of gender in public policy at local, national and transnational levels is a development which may potentially lead to the loss of a – feminist – political edge. Secondly, while gender studies with their emphasis on socially constructed gender as opposed to biological essentialist understandings of ‘sex’ appear to face the challenge of a popular ‘new biological determinism’, it is shown that the binary model of sex/gender in fact has been criticised for some time now from within feminist theory and gender research. This is (selectively illustrated with research from four disciplines, including the work of African gender studies scholars, i.e. feminist philosophy, social sciences (in particularsocio-cultural anthropology, history and biology itself. This then shows how the accusation that gender studies would be ‘socially deterministic’ without attending to bodily matters or materiality is unfounded. Finally, it is argued that there is still a need for gender studies to become more culturally diverse, more global and transnational in its outlook, by becoming more deeply attuned to the way gender intersects with other forms of difference and taking into account postcolonial critiques of western feminist paternalism, without falling into the trap of cultural relativism.

  8. Global challenges of graduate level Ayurvedic education: A survey

    OpenAIRE

    Patwardhan, Kishor; Gehlot, Sangeeta; Singh, Girish; Rathore, H. C. S.

    2010-01-01

    In the present day scenario, Ayurveda is globally being perceived in several contradictory ways. Poor quality of Ayurveda graduates produced as a result of poorly structured and poorly regulated education system is at least one of the important factors responsible for this scenario. The present study was carried out to evaluate the ‘Global challenges of graduate level Ayurvedic education’ and is based on the responses of Ayurvedic students and Ayurvedic teachers from various educational insti...

  9. Regulatory challenges for in vitro diagnostics in a global environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longwell, A

    1994-06-01

    U.S. medical products are marketed globally and are designed to meet needs of medical practitioners and their patients throughout the world. However, differences in how these products are regulated in different countries can pose challenges for the global marketer. This paper explores some of the differences between proposed and extant U.S. and European regulations for in vitro diagnostic products in terms of documentation, records, and labelling. It will describe some of the practical implications of these differences. PMID:7804632

  10. Global Energy Transitions and the Challenge of Climate Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Global emissions of greenhouse-gases have increased markedly as a result of human activities since pre-industrial times. This increase in emissions has lead to unequivocal global warming, which is evident from observations of increases in global average air and ocean temperatures, widespread melting of snow and ice, and rising global average sea level. Reducing the risk of irreversible climate impacts requires thus the mitigation of global GHG emissions aiming at the long-term stabilization of atmospheric GHG concentrations. Achieving this goal translates into the need of reducing emissions to virtually zero over long time-frames. Yet international agreement on a long-term climate policy target remains a distant prospect, due to both scientific uncertainty and political disagreement on the appropriate balance between mitigation costs and reduced risks of dangerous impacts. At the same time, growing emissions of greenhouse gases continue to increase the amount of climate change we are committed to over the long term. Over the next few decades, these growing emissions may make some potentially desirable long term goals unattainable. Recent analysis conducted at IIASA indicates the need of major energy transitions over the next few decades. For example, staying below the target suggested by the European Union of 2 C warming (with just a 50% likelihood) will require the massive deployment of zero-carbon energy by 2050, and a tippling of the contribution of zero-carbon energy globally to more than 60% by that time. Although there are large uncertainties with respect to the deployment of individual future technologies, there is strong evidence that no single mitigation measure alone would be sufficient for achieving the stabilization of GHG concentrations at low levels. A wide portfolio of technologies across all GHG-intensive sectors is needed for cost-effective emissions reductions. The bulk of these emissions reductions would need to come from the energy sector, with the forest and agricultural sectors playing an important role for the cost-effectiveness. Energy-related measures range from energy conservation and efficiency improvements to shifts away from carbon-intensive coal to cleaner fuels (such as natural gas, renewable, and nuclear), as well as 'add-on' technologies such as carbon capture and storage. Other important measures include changes in agricultural practices to reduce CH4 and N2O emissions, and enhancement of terrestrial sink activities in the forest sector. Reducing the risks of climate change significantly, requires fundamental structural changes of the energy system in the long term, combined with accelerated technology diffusion and early investments over the next few decades. In addition, appropriate and effective investment incentives need to be in place for development, acquisition, transfer, and deployment of new technologies. Achieving a trend-reversal of presently declining trends of R and D expenditures in environmentally friendly energy technologies will thus be central for addressing the climate change challenge.(author)

  11. Addressing the challenges for sustainable production of algal biofuels: II. Harvesting and conversion to biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelaziz, Ahmed E M; Leite, Gustavo B; Hallenbeck, Patrick C

    2013-01-01

    In order to ensure the sustainability of algal biofuel production, a number of issues need to be addressed. Previously, we reviewed some of the questions in this area involving algal species and the important challenges of nutrient supply and how these might be met. Here, we take up issues involving harvesting and the conversion ofbiomass to biofuels. Advances in both these areas are required if these third-generation fuels are to have a sufficiently high net energy ratio and a sustainable footprint. A variety of harvesting technologies are under investigation and recent studies in this area are presented and discussed. A number of different energy uses are available for algal biomass, each with their own advantages as well as challenges in terms of efficiencies and yields. Recent advances in these areas are presented and some of the especially promising conversion processes are highlighted. PMID:24350436

  12. Symposium on international safeguards: Addressing verification challenges. Book of extended synopses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A safeguards symposium has traditionally been organized by the Safeguards Department approximately every four years. The 2006 symposium addresses challenges to IAEA safeguards that have emerged or grown more serious since 2001. The increase in size and flexibility of uranium enrichment plants, for instance, and the spread of enrichment technology to a wider circle of States, pose challenges to traditional safeguards approaches. The procurement and supply networks discovered in 2004, dealing in sensitive nuclear technology and information, have serious implications for the future effectiveness of IAEA safeguards. The symposium will provide an opportunity for the IAEA and Member States to discuss options for dealing constructively with trade in sensitive nuclear technology. Reflecting developments since 2001, the 2006 symposium will focus on current challenges to the safeguards system, improving collection and analysis of safeguards information (analysis, processing tools, satellite imagery), advances in safeguards techniques and technology (future technology, neutron techniques, spent fuel verification, reprocessing, environmental sampling, containment and surveillance), further strengthening safeguards practices and approaches (safeguards approaches, integrated safeguards, R/SSAC, destructive analysis, non-destructive analysis, enrichment, reprocessing, spent fuel transfer) and future challenges. This publication contains 183 extended synopses, each of them was indexed separately

  13. Summary: Addressing the Interactional Challenges of Moving Collaborative Adaptive Management From Theory to Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathi K. Beratan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Translating the attractive concept of collaborative adaptive management (CAM into practice has proven very difficult. The papers included in this Special Feature explore why this is true and suggest how the challenges might be addressed. This summary highlights common themes, major challenges, and implications for research and practice. Many of the included papers emphasize the central importance of collaboration and stakeholder engagement as a response to complexity and uncertainty. Collectively, the papers make the case that a lack of knowledge about how to manage the human dynamics of comanagement poses a major challenge to implementing CAM. Human activities are the primary drivers of system change in most natural resource management systems, so attention to human dynamics is essential for developing useful change hypotheses and leading indicators that can provide useful and timely feedback for adaptive management. Institutions need to evolve to support adaptive and collaborative management processes. This will require thoughtful design of CAM processes, along with commitment of sufficient time and resources. Implementation challenges should be considered as a major focus for research rather than as simply barriers to progress. More effective ways of capturing practitioners' experiential knowledge are required to improve the practice of CAM. This Special Feature suggests that the concept of a CAM practitioners' journal has promise, but realization of that promise will require careful attention to the needs of and constraints on practitioners.

  14. Career challenges and opportunities in the global chemistry enterprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    This article serves as an overview of the various career challenges and opportunities faced by chemistry professionals in the 21st century in the global chemistry enterprise. One goal is to highlight a broad spectrum of career paths, including non-traditional careers, and to showcase examples of ch...

  15. Poverty and the Multiple Stakeholder Challenge for Global Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reade, Carol; Todd, Anne Marie; Osland, Asbjorn; Osland, Joyce

    2008-01-01

    The article presents a case study in which business leaders deal with challenging problems related to poverty, involving multiple stakeholders. This emphasizes the importance of training prospective global leaders to manage stakeholder relationships and engage in stakeholder dialogue. The authors highlight the stakeholder role played by…

  16. Ergonomics and sustainability – challenges from global supply chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasle, Peter; Jensen, Per Langaa

    2012-01-01

    The development of globalised supply chains is a major challenge for sustainability. For several years, there has been discussion within the profession whether and how ergonomics and human factors can play a role. Based on our research, we have identified five major challenges from global supply chains especially related to the social aspects of sustainability: (1) criteria for social sustainability, (2) the role of key performance indicators in the management of supply chains, (3) the constant changes in supply chains, (4) the challenge in establishing participation, and (5) the development of agency and regulatory mechanisms. There are obviously no clear and simple solutions to these challenges. One possible avenue for progress might lie in acquiring a greater understanding of the challenges from global supply chains and developing a strategy which combines social and long-term business sustainability. Starting from such a basis, the next step would be to find ways for the ergonomics and human factors community to create international collaboration which can impact specific global supply chains.

  17. Ergonomics and sustainability--challenges from global supply chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasle, Peter; Jensen, Per Langaa

    2012-01-01

    The development of globalised supply chains is a major challenge for sustainability. For several years, there has been discussion within the profession whether and how ergonomics and human factors can play a role. Based on our research, we have identified five major challenges from global supply chains especially related to the social aspects of sustainability: (1) criteria for social sustainability, (2) the role of key performance indicators in the management of supply chains, (3) the constant changes in supply chains, (4) the challenge in establishing participation, and (5) the development of agency and regulatory mechanisms. There are obviously no clear and simple solutions to these challenges. One possible avenue for progress might lie in acquiring a greater understanding of the challenges from global supply chains and developing a strategy which combines social and long-term business sustainability. Starting from such a basis, the next step would be to find ways for the ergonomics and human factors community to create international collaboration which can impact specific global supply chains. PMID:22317319

  18. City leadership: At the heart of the global challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliver, P.A.

    2008-09-30

    The world's attention is now focused on cities, and for good reasons. From a global perspective cities have become the engines of economic prosperity. In 2007, the collective Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of the top 10 cities exceeded the total GDP of 162 countries combined, with Tokyo alone generating a larger GDP than Canada. Cities have become the centers of population. In 1900, only 10% of the world's population lived in cities, but by 2007 the urban population had reached 50%, and the estimate for 2050 is that 75% of the world's population, over 7 billion people, will be living in cities. In parallel, cities have become the centers of consumption. In 2006, cities accounted for approximately 67% of global primary energy demand, a concentration that is expected to rise to 75% by 2030. The corollary to this concentration of population and consumption is the concentration of activities that lead to climate change. Cities now acount for over 70% of global carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions. Asia's cities are at the forefront of the global challenges of urbanization. While they are the location of many challenges, cities also present opportunities, particularly in finding solutions to the crucial global challenges of our time -- climate change, energy demand and water. Many of the world's greatest challenges, from environmental degradation to widening income gaps, are increasingly coming to be defined as urban challenges, given the rapid growth of cities. The author, who leads the World Economic Forum's SlimCity initiative, take a look at the options being explored by the public and private sectors.

  19. Addressing practical challenges in utility optimization of mobile wireless sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eswaran, Sharanya; Misra, Archan; La Porta, Thomas; Leung, Kin

    2008-04-01

    This paper examines the practical challenges in the application of the distributed network utility maximization (NUM) framework to the problem of resource allocation and sensor device adaptation in a mission-centric wireless sensor network (WSN) environment. By providing rich (multi-modal), real-time information about a variety of (often inaccessible or hostile) operating environments, sensors such as video, acoustic and short-aperture radar enhance the situational awareness of many battlefield missions. Prior work on the applicability of the NUM framework to mission-centric WSNs has focused on tackling the challenges introduced by i) the definition of an individual mission's utility as a collective function of multiple sensor flows and ii) the dissemination of an individual sensor's data via a multicast tree to multiple consuming missions. However, the practical application and performance of this framework is influenced by several parameters internal to the framework and also by implementation-specific decisions. This is made further complex due to mobile nodes. In this paper, we use discrete-event simulations to study the effects of these parameters on the performance of the protocol in terms of speed of convergence, packet loss, and signaling overhead thereby addressing the challenges posed by wireless interference and node mobility in ad-hoc battlefield scenarios. This study provides better understanding of the issues involved in the practical adaptation of the NUM framework. It also helps identify potential avenues of improvement within the framework and protocol.

  20. Nation state and the challenge of globalization: Project draft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obrenovi? Zoran G.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This project draft discusses the issues facing a nation state in the dynamic processes of globalization. First, the term globalization is tentatively defined as a decentralized process of condensation and homogenization of space and time. Then, the ambivalent structure of the globalization discourse, i.e. its semantic and pragmatic dimensions, are shown. The neo-liberal viewpoint is explored of the erosion and weakening of the nation state within the global capitalist power, both in terms of its (state's traditional functions, and in terms of its internal and external sovereignty. Against the neo-liberal thesis about the decline of the nation state many empirical arguments have been offered. Some of these are presented in this text. The main point of this argumentation consists in a general view that the decline of the nation state is strongly linked with the process of globalization. In view of the critical argumentation included in the paper, it is argued that in the environment of global processes only the societies which have a strong state behind them have a chance to succeed. Politics, not economy, still dominates international relations. Emphasis on state politics opens a new perspective in discussing the process of globalization. Current globalization processes cannot be judged accurately unless geopolitical interests and the changing balance of world power are understood. Finally, the paper points to the ideological nature of the neo-liberal discourse of globalization, questioning another basic assumption of the latter, namely, the idea that the process of globalization is at the same time a process of emancipation. By challenging the positing of a necessary link between globalization and emancipation we formulate a position that allows for a normative critique of current processes.

  1. Challenges of creating synergy between global mental health and cultural psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Joop T V M

    2014-12-01

    This article addresses four major challenges for efforts to create synergy between the global mental health movement and cultural psychiatry. First, although they appear to share domains of mutual interest, the worlds of global mental health and cultural psychiatry have distinct lineages. Expanding their horizons by learning from adjacent disciplines would be mutually beneficial. A second challenge concerns the conceptualization of a new classification system for mental health problems. Adopting a classification system that integrates new insights from socio-neurobiology and from a networks perspective could bring cultural psychiatry and global mental health closer and change the way each field addresses the mental health gap, which constitutes the third challenge. I summarize attempts to achieve comprehensive mental health coverage around the globe and question whether the strategies employed to achieve these goals have been successful, both in high- (HIC) and low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). In LMIC, the dominant strategy needs to be complemented by mobilization of other community resources including local practitioners. A fourth challenge is the lack of mathematical models to guide action and research and solve major preoccupations such as access to care or multi-level analyses in complex ecological or health systems. PMID:25361690

  2. Economic optimization of a global strategy to address the pandemic threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, Jamison; Bogich, Tiffany; Elwood, Sarah; Finnoff, David C; Daszak, Peter

    2014-12-30

    Emerging pandemics threaten global health and economies and are increasing in frequency. Globally coordinated strategies to combat pandemics, similar to current strategies that address climate change, are largely adaptive, in that they attempt to reduce the impact of a pathogen after it has emerged. However, like climate change, mitigation strategies have been developed that include programs to reduce the underlying drivers of pandemics, particularly animal-to-human disease transmission. Here, we use real options economic modeling of current globally coordinated adaptation strategies for pandemic prevention. We show that they would be optimally implemented within 27 y to reduce the annual rise of emerging infectious disease events by 50% at an estimated one-time cost of approximately $343.7 billion. We then analyze World Bank data on multilateral "One Health" pandemic mitigation programs. We find that, because most pandemics have animal origins, mitigation is a more cost-effective policy than business-as-usual adaptation programs, saving between $344.0.7 billion and $360.3 billion over the next 100 y if implemented today. We conclude that globally coordinated pandemic prevention policies need to be enacted urgently to be optimally effective and that strategies to mitigate pandemics by reducing the impact of their underlying drivers are likely to be more effective than business as usual. PMID:25512538

  3. Energy Sustainability: A Key Toto Addressing Environmental, Economic and Societal Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc A. Rosen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability is a critically important goal for human activity and development, particularly in the area of energy. Energy resources are critical for economic development and living standards, but their use causes significant environmental impacts. Given the pervasiveness of energy use, energy sustainability is a key to addressing environmental, economic and societal challenges. To achieve energy sustainability, many factors that need to be including harnessing sustainable energy sources, utilizing sustainable energy carriers, increasing efficiency, reducing environmental impact and improving socioeconomic acceptability (e.g., community involvement, affordability, equity and land use. To demonstrate the factors and their importance to energy sustainability, the Red-Mediterranean-Dead Seas Canal Project is considered as a case study. Conclusions are provided related both to steps for energy sustainability.

  4. Challenges in achieving patient participation : A review of how patient participation is addressed in empirical studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angel, Sanne; Frederiksen, Kirsten Norup

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: For decades, it has been an ideal in western countries that individuals should participate in society as self-governing and autonomous subjects; however, this ideal does not always correspond to the actual experiences of individuals in their encounters with health professionals. AIM: This review identifies how empirical studies address challenges in achieving patient participation in clinical nursing. METHOD: We conducted a literature search for studies of patient participation in PubMed, Cinahl, PsychInfo and Scopus. In a systematic review using Garrard's matrix method, we selected empirical studies that focused on patients' participation in health services. MAIN FINDINGS: The empirical studies we investigated addressed the relationship between patient and nurse, knowledge, contact time with the patient, severity of illness and the effect of age on the degree of patient involvement. Every study thus investigated assessed patient participation as being achievable. None of the studies questionedthe foundation for patient participation, which has been described in theoretical articles. The main explanation for difficulties in achieving patient participation was that expectations concerning the extent and quality of participation could be unrealistic and lead to dissatisfaction. CONCLUSIONS: Studies on patient participation identify challenges due to the nature of the relationship between laypersons and professionals, and the embedded difference in situation and knowledge. This difference may be reduced by time and a mutually positive attitude. But participation in its ideal form cannot be achieved because of this fundamental difference. Therefore, the optimal level of patient participation can only be achieved within a framework which provides both patients and health professionals with adequate time to build relationships and shared knowledge.

  5. Addressing the terawatt challenge : Scalability in the supply of chemical elements for renewable energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesborg, Peter C. K.; Jaramillo, Thomas F.

    2012-01-01

    The energy infrastructure for fossil fuels is well-established, accounting for approximately 87% of the 16 TW of power consumed globally. For renewable and sustainable energy conversion technologies to play a relevant role at the terrestrial scale, they must be able to scale to the TW level of deployment. This would place a significant demand on the current and future supply of raw materials (chemical elements) used by those technologies. Oftentimes, the average crustal abundance of a chemical element is cited as a measure of its scalability, however another important metric for scalability is the existence (of lack thereof) of mineable ores with a high concentration of the targeted element. This paper aims to provide an overview of the availability of all elements. This is accomplished via a compilation of data for global primary production rates for each element, as a measure of availability at the present time. This work also addresses the potential future availability based on current and possible future primary sources.

  6. Open Traffic Data for Future Service Innovation: Addressing the Privacy Challenges of Driving Data

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Anna, Rohunen; Jouni, Markkula; Marikka, Heikkila; Jukka, Heikkila.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Following the present open data policies, traffic data are collected and increasingly made openly available by different organizations. Yet, expanding use of mobile technologies with tracking possibilities provides means to collect precise and rich information about individual vehicles and persons i [...] n traffic. This personal driving data, combined with other open traffic data, have a great potential for future open service innovation. However, information privacy presents a major challenge for collection and efficient utilization of the data. In this paper, we present a view of the near future development of personal driving data collection and usage for open traffic data production by addressing the privacy challenges. We review the existing privacy behavior models and present our empirical findings from driving data based service pilot studies. Our results show that, despite their privacy concerns, the data subjects are willing to disclose driving data for services, especially for some benefits in return. We identified the following key factors affecting data disclosure: informing of personal data processing, trust in organizations of the service ecosystem, and users' control over their data. Understanding of these factors helps mitigating the users' privacy concerns when personal data based services are designed and production of open data is planned.

  7. Researching gender: the challenge of global diversity today

    OpenAIRE

    Longman, Chia

    2010-01-01

    The text of this paper is based on a lecture given at the symposium of the Ghent African Platform “Researching Gender in/on Africa” at Ghent University in December 2009. It addresses some general challenges faced by ‘gender studies’ as an autonomous field versus ‘gender research’ as an integrated topic within mainstream disciplines in academia. Gender studies have sometimes superseded ‘women’s studies’ and expanded to cover the terrain of study of various forms of diversity including men’s an...

  8. European Industrial Relations: Transnational Relations and Global Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Aliu, Armando

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates transnational relations and global challenges which the European Industrial Relations have been facing recently. The paper, methodologically, was structured with taking into account both socio- political and judicial arguments. The social theory, and ergo, the practice in Europe were analyzed according to Marxist point of view. Basically, industrial relations and employment relationship were examined from the perspectives of employees, employee representatives and nati...

  9. Challenges for Global Education in the Mediterranean Region

    OpenAIRE

    Surian, Alessio

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviews some of the present challenges facing learning in the 21. century and the concern for "glocal" issues in the Mediterranean region. It stresses that global education can be translated into various focal themes such as development, environment, human rights, intercultural relations, peace. However, such a translation should retain a common "broad" methodological approach centred on conflict transformation. A sociology of "translation" is needed for enhanced co-operation among...

  10. Understanding Global Change: the pedagogical challenge of the 21st century (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berbeco, M.; McCaffrey, M.; White, L. D.; Stuhlsatz, M.

    2013-12-01

    Human impacts on natural systems, from climate change to habitat fragmentation, are some of the greatest challenges facing our world. Yet, outside of state standards, it is not well-known what educators teach in relation to global change and human impacts on natural systems. The recently released Next Generation Science Standards, which many states are in the process of adopting, emphasize the human components of global change. In order to address the challenges that educators face in their own understanding of these complex, cross-disciplinary topics, the National Center for Science Education, the UC Museum of Paleontology, and BSCS surveyed educators across the country to find out how and why they teach about global change. Results indicate that educators teach those topics in which they feel the most confident and have experienced the most professional development. Topics that many scientists often focus on in relation to global change, such as phenology, the spread of disease and even ocean acidification, were often left out of the classroom. These results indicate a disconnect between the scientific and educational communities in their understanding of global change issues, and call for high-quality resources and professional development to help prepare educators to teach their students about these 21st century challenges.

  11. Developing sustainable global health technologies: insight from an initiative to address neonatal hypothermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rajesh; Patel, Rajan; Murty, Naganand; Panicker, Rahul; Chen, Jane

    2015-02-01

    Relative to drugs, diagnostics, and vaccines, efforts to develop other global health technologies, such as medical devices, are limited and often focus on the short-term goal of prototype development instead of the long-term goal of a sustainable business model. To develop a medical device to address neonatal hypothermia for use in resource-limited settings, we turned to principles of design theory: (1) define the problem with consideration of appropriate integration into relevant health policies, (2) identify the users of the technology and the scenarios in which the technology would be used, and (3) use a highly iterative product design and development process that incorporates the perspective of the user of the technology at the outset and addresses scalability. In contrast to our initial idea, to create a single device, the process guided us to create two separate devices, both strikingly different from current solutions. We offer insights from our initial experience that may be helpful to others engaging in global health technology development. PMID:25355235

  12. Innovation via global route: Proposing a reference model for chances and challenges of global innovation processes

    OpenAIRE

    Tiwari, Rajnish; Buse, Stephan (Dr.); Herstatt, Cornelius

    2007-01-01

    Innovations have acquired a key-role in the growth and competition strategies of firms today. They are regarded as an essential tool to stimulate growth and enable firms to master the competition brought about by the forces of globalization. In developed countries they are thought to provide a vital buffer against challenges from low-cost producers from emerging countries. At the same time, innovations in today?s ?globalized? world are hardly feasible in isolation. World-wide economic ref...

  13. DEVELOPMENT, GLOBALIZATION AND ENVIRONMENT: NEW AND OLD CHALLENGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius Ortiz de Camargo

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Briefly, this article discuss the problems about the social, political and economic tendencies brought by globalization which are new, but at the same time they bring some tragedies for development. That’s why it becomes a challenge for the people to respond in an innovative way, which may not always come true, but they may pave the way for the discussion about the tragedies of development, now called globalization. It is the case of the environment, which is analyzed in this article. The conclusion is not that optimistic, although it shows that the development of globalization is a double-edged sword that is under the criticism of our modern history.

  14. NKS - The Nordic region's cooperative network for addressing challenges in nuclear safety and emergency preparedness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the foundation of a common cultural and historical heritage and a long tradition of collaboration, NKS aims to facilitate a common Nordic view on nuclear and radiation safety. A common understanding of rules, practice and measures, and national differences in this context, is here an essential requirement. Problems can generally be tackled quicker, more efficiently, more consistently and at a lower cost through collaboration, bearing in mind that key competencies are not equally distributed in the different Nordic countries. For instance common Nordic challenges emerge in relation to nuclear installations, where nuclear power plants are in operation in Finland and Sweden, and research reactors have been operated in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. There is an obvious benefit in exchanging ideas and technologies in relation to plant operation, and since a number of reactors in different Nordic countries are under decommissioning, a collaborative benefit can also be realised in that context. Sweden also has a nuclear fuel production plant, and its collaboration with other Nordic nuclear installations can also be beneficial. Further, a number of large radiological installations are projected in Nordic areas (e.g., the MAX-LAB/MAX IV synchrotron radiation source and the European spallation source ESS), where Nordic organisations are collaborating in addressing, e.g., potential environmental implications. On the emergency preparedness side, the Fukushima accident in March 2011 was a reminder that large accidents at nuclear installations can lead to widespread radioactive contamination in the environment. In order to respond to nuclear or radiological emergencies, should they affect Nordic populations, it is necessary to maintain an operational emergency preparedness. By continuously improving detection, response and decision aiding tools while maintaining an informal collaborative network between relevant stakeholders in the Nordic countries (including nuclear power plant experts), the capacity and capability to respond optimally to an emergency is enhanced. Today's emergency preparedness also needs to address prevention against and response to nuclear and radiological terror attacks. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  15. Eduction and outreach for the global energy challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snieder, R.

    2008-12-01

    Energy is the life-blood of the modern world. According to the Energy Information Administration, global energy consumption is expected to grow by about 70% in the coming 25 years. Much of this growth is driven by developing countries, whose inhabitants seek a standard of living that more closely resembles that of the western world. Petroleum provides about 40% of the world-wide energy demand, and, although estimates vary, oil production is expected to peak in the relatively near-future. The combination of increased energy demand and declining petroleum supply can be a threat to political stability and is likely to lead to a shift towards coal and non-conventional oil. This will further increase CO2 emissions and thus accelerate global warming and life-altering regional climate changes. Many actions can be taken now to begin to reduce energy demand, diversify our energy portfolio, and reduce costs of energy supplies, with lower greenhouse gas emissions. This will not happen, however, without a plan and the willingness to implement such a plan. Public engagement and education in dealing with the pressing challenges and opportunities are the key to getting started now. In order to foster such engagement I have prepared the presentation "The Global Energy Challenge." This Powerpoint presentation is freely available and aims to be appealing and understandable for a broad audience. The comment-boxes in the Powerpoint presentation give ideas for a narrative. The presentation sketches the tension between increased energy demand, peak oil, the associated challenge in curbing climate change, and actions that we can take towards a sustainable energy system. The presentation gives ideas for positive action that teachers, students, businessmen, consumers, and citizens can take, and it conveys that the challenges related to our energy supply come with career opportunities, a point that is especially appealing to a young audience. I invite to help making a difference by education the public about energy by giving this lecture. More information can be found at:

  16. Sustainable Methods of Addressing Challenges Facing Small Holder Tea Sector in Kenya: A Supply Chain Management Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Elias Kiarie Kagira; Sarah Wambui Kimani; Kagwathi Stephen Githii

    2012-01-01

    This Conceptual paper addresses the challenges facing the small holder tea sector in Kenya. It provides background information about tea growing in Kenya, its export performance, and organizational structure. It then categorizes the main challenges into five and provides some solutions to the challenges, borrowing from some supply chain management practices to culminate into competitive strategies. In the face of declining and shifting competitiveness of the small holder tea sector in Kenya, ...

  17. Planetary Atmosphere and Surfaces Chamber (PASC: A Platform to Address Various Challenges in Astrobiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Mateo-Marti

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The study of planetary environments of astrobiological interest has become a major challenge. Because of the obvious technical and economical limitations on in situ planetary exploration, laboratory simulations are one of the most feasible research options to make advances both in planetary science and in developing a consistent description of the origin of life. With this objective in mind, we applied vacuum technology to the design of versatile vacuum chambers devoted to the simulation of planetary atmospheres’ conditions. These vacuum chambers are able to simulate atmospheres and surface temperatures representative of the majority of planetary objects, and they are especially appropriate for studying the physical, chemical and biological changes induced in a particular sample by in situ irradiation or physical parameters in a controlled environment. Vacuum chambers are a promising potential tool in several scientific and technological fields, such as engineering, chemistry, geology and biology. They also offer the possibility of discriminating between the effects of individual physical parameters and selected combinations thereof. The implementation of our vacuum chambers in combination with analytical techniques was specifically developed to make feasible the in situ physico-chemical characterization of samples. Many wide-ranging applications in astrobiology are detailed herein to provide an understanding of the potential and flexibility of these experimental systems. Instruments and engineering technology for space applications could take advantage of our environment-simulation chambers for sensor calibration. Our systems also provide the opportunity to gain a greater understanding of the chemical reactivity of molecules on surfaces under different environments, thereby leading to a greater understanding of interface processes in prebiotic chemical reactions and facilitating studies of UV photostability and photochemistry on surfaces. Furthermore, the stability and presence of certain minerals on planetary surfaces and the potential habitability of microorganisms under various planetary environmental conditions can be studied using our apparatus. Therefore, these simulation chambers can address multiple different challenging and multidisciplinary astrobiological studies.

  18. Securing classification and regulatory approval for deepwater projects: management challenges in a global environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feijo, Luiz P.; Burton, Gareth C. [American Bureau of Shipping (ABS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    As the offshore industry continues to develop and move into increasingly deeper waters, technological boundaries are being pushed to new limits. Along with these advances, the design, fabrication and installation of deepwater oil and gas projects has become an increasingly global endeavor. After providing an overview of the history and role of Classification Societies, this paper reviews the challenges of securing classification and regulatory approval in a global environment. Operational, procedural and technological changes which one Classification Society; the American Bureau of Shipping, known as ABS, has implemented to address these challenges are presented. The result of the changes has been a more customized service aiming at faster and more streamlined classification approval process. (author)

  19. Engaging undergraduates to solve global health challenges: a new approach based on bioengineering design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oden, Maria; Mirabal, Yvette; Epstein, Marc; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

    2010-09-01

    Recent reports have highlighted the need for educational programs to prepare students for careers developing and disseminating new interventions that improve global public health. Because of its multi-disciplinary, design-centered nature, the field of Biomedical Engineering can play an important role in meeting this challenge. This article describes a new program at Rice University to give undergraduate students from all disciplines a broad background in bioengineering and global health and provides an initial assessment of program impact. Working in partnership with health care providers in developing countries, students in the Beyond Traditional Borders (BTB) initiative learn about health challenges of the poor and put this knowledge to work immediately, using the engineering design process as a framework to formulate solutions to complex global health challenges. Beginning with a freshman design project and continuing through a capstone senior design course, the BTB curriculum uses challenges provided by partners in the developing world to teach students to integrate perspectives from multiple disciplines, and to develop leadership, communication, and teamwork skills. Exceptional students implement their designs under the guidance of clinicians through summer international internships. Since 2006, 333 students have designed more than 40 technologies and educational programs; 28 have been implemented in sub-Saharan Africa, Latin America, the Caribbean, southeast Asia, and the United States. More than 18,000 people have benefited from these designs. 95% of alumni who completed an international internship reported that participation in the program changed or strengthened their career plans to include a focus on global health medicine, research, and/or policy. Empowering students to use bioengineering design to address real problems is an effective way to teach the new generation of leaders needed to solve global health challenges. PMID:20387116

  20. Addressing Challenges to the Design & Test of Operational Lighting Environments for the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Toni A.

    2014-01-01

    In our day to day lives, the availability of light, with which to see our environment, is often taken for granted. The designers of land based lighting systems use sunlight and artificial light as their toolset. The availability of power, quantity of light sources, and variety of design options are often unlimited. The accessibility of most land based lighting systems makes it easy for the architect and engineer to verify and validate their design ideas. Failures with an implementation, while sometimes costly, can easily be addressed by renovation. Consider now, an architectural facility orbiting in space, 260 miles above the surface of the earth. This human rated architectural facility, the International Space Station (ISS) must maintain operations every day, including life support and appropriate human comforts without fail. The facility must also handle logistics of regular shipments of cargo, including new passengers. The ISS requires accommodations necessary for human control of machine systems. Additionally, the ISS is a research facility and supports investigations performed inside and outside its livable volume. Finally, the facility must support remote operations and observations by ground controllers. All of these architectural needs require a functional, safe, and even an aesthetic lighting environment. At Johnson Space Center, our Habitability and Human Factors team assists our diverse customers with their lighting environment challenges, via physical test and computer based analysis. Because of the complexity of ISS operational environment, our team has learned and developed processes that help ISS operate safely. Because of the dynamic exterior lighting environment, uses computational modeling to predict the lighting environment. The ISS' orbit exposes it to a sunrise every 90 minutes, causing work surfaces to quickly change from direct sunlight to earthshine to total darkness. Proper planning of vehicle approaches, robotics operations, and crewed Extra Vehicular Activities are mandatory to ensure safety to the crew and all others involved. Innovation in testing techniques is important as well. The advent of Solid State Lighting technology and the lack of stable national and international standards for its implementation pose new challenges on how to design, test and verify individual light fixtures and the environment that uses them. The ISS will soon be replacing its internal fluorescent lighting system to a solid state LED system. The Solid State Lighting Assembly will be used not only for general lighting, but also as a medical countermeasure to control the circadian rhythm of the crew. The new light source has performance criteria very specific to its spectral fingerprint, creating new challenges that were originally not as significant during the original design of the ISS. This presentation will showcase findings and toolsets our team is using to assist in the planning of tasks, and design of operational lighting environments on the International Space Station.

  1. Can Adaptive Comanagement Help to Address the Challenges of Climate Change Adaptation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Plummer

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A shift is taking place within environmental governance that draws attention to modes and instruments that respond to system dynamics, uncertainty, and contested values. Adaptive comanagement is one process being advanced to make governance operational as it emphasizes collaboration among diverse actors, functions across scales and levels, and fosters learning though iterative feedback. Although extensive experience with adaptive comanagement has been gained in relation to other environmental and resource issues, its potential contribution to the governance of adaption is largely unexplored. This paper probes how adaptive comanagement might offer support to climate change adaptation and identifies gaps in knowledge requiring attention. In drawing upon existing literature and applied experiences, it is argued that adaptive comanagement may contribute to climate change adaptation by building generalized adaptive capacity as well as providing a novel institutional arrangement to generate adaptive responses. At the same time, several questions emerge about adaptive comanagement in this context. Considerations are thus discussed for adaptive comanagement scholarship and application in addressing the challenge of climate change adaptation.

  2. Climate change and forest diseases: using todays knowledge to address future challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sturrock, R. N.

    2012-11-01

    The health of the earths forests and urban green spaces is increasingly challenged by the outcomes of human activities, including global climate change. As climate changes, the role and impact of diseases on trees in both forest ecosystems and in urban settings will also change. Knowledge of relationships between climate variables and diseases affecting forest and urban trees is reviewed, with specific emphasis on those affecting foliage, shoots, and stems. Evidence that forest diseases are already responding to the earths changing climate is examined (e.g., Dothistroma needle blight in northern British Columbia) as are predicted scenarios for future changes in impact on forests by other tree diseases. Outbreaks of tree diseases caused by native and alien pathogens are predicted to become more frequent and intense this and other general predictions about the effects of climate change on forest and tree diseases are discussed. Despite the uncertainty that accompanies such predictions it is imperative that researchers, forest and urban tree managers, and policy makers work together to develop and implement management strategies that enhance the resilience of the worlds forests and urbanized trees. Strategies discussed include monitoring, forecasting, planning, and mitigation. (Author) 60 refs.

  3. Global and regional shocks: Challenges to Asian economies

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Kwanho

    2008-01-01

    Two major economic problems are currently shadowing Asian economies. On the one hand, the slowdown in the US economy, ignited by the subprime mortgage crisis, may not be confined to the US region and may affect Asian countries as well. On the other hand, the recent fuel and food price increases, a global shock in nature, are also likely to influence most Asian economies that are heavily dependent on oil imports. In this short article, by summarizing recent studies on these issues, I address h...

  4. Coping with global environmental change, disasters and security. Threats, challenges, vulnerabilities and risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brauch, Hans Guenter [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany). Dept. of Political and Social Sciences; UNU-EHS, Bonn (DE). College of Associated Scientists and Advisors (CASA); Oswald Spring, Ursula [National Univ. of Mexico, Cuernavaca (MX). Regional Multidisciplinary Research Centre (CRIM); Mesjasz, Czeslaw [Cracow Univ. of Exonomics (Poland). Faculty of Management; Grin, John [Amsterdam Univ. (Netherlands). Dept. of Political Science; Dutch Knowledge network for Systems Innovations and Transitions (KSI), Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kameri-Mbote, Patricia [Strathmore Univ., Nairobi (Kenya). Dept. of Law; International Environmental Law Research Centre, Nairobi (Kenya); Chourou, Bechir [Univ. of Tunis-Carthage, Hammam-Chatt (Tunisia); Dunay, Pal [Geneva Centre for Security Policy (Switzerland). International Training Course in Security Policy; Birkmann, Joern (eds.) [United Nations Univ. (UNU), Bonn (DE). Inst. for Environment and Human Security (EHS)

    2011-07-01

    This policy-focused Global Environmental and Human Security Handbook for the Anthropo-cene (GEHSHA) addresses new security threats, challenges, vulnerabilities and risks posed by global environmental change and disasters. In 6 forewords, 5 preface essays 95 peer reviewed chapcountries analyse in 10 parts concepts of military and political hard security and economic, social, environmental soft security with a regional focus on the Near East, North and Sub-Sahara Africa and Asia and on hazards in urban centres. The major focus is on coping with global environmental change: climate change, desertification, water, food and health and with hazards and strategies on social vulnerability and resilience building and scientific, international, regional and national political strategies, policies and measures including early warning of conflicts and hazards. The book proposes a political geo-ecology and discusses a 'Fourth Green Revolution' for the Anthropocene era of earth history. (orig.)

  5. High level radioactive waste (HLW) disposal a global challenge

    CERN Document Server

    PUSCH, R; NAKANO, M

    2011-01-01

    High Level Radioactive Waste (HLW) Disposal, A Global Challenge presents the most recent information on proposed methods of disposal for the most dangerous radioactive waste and for assessing their function from short- and long-term perspectives. It discusses new aspects of the disposal of such waste, especially HLW.The book is unique in the literature in making it clear that, due to tectonics and long-term changes in rock structure, rock can serve only as a ""mechanical support to the chemical apparatus"" and that effective containment of hazardous elements can only be managed by properly des

  6. DYNAMICS AND NEW CHALLENGES IN THE GLOBAL COMMODITY MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA CARTAS

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Global economy and particularly the world production of goods depends to a large extent on the supply of raw materials, of resource inputs extracted from the environment as well as an easy access to them. Commodities play an important part in the growth of global production and in the world trade in goods and services. The access to raw materials is vital for sustaining the productive capacity of the economy and also for satisfying domestic demand for industrial goods. On the other side, increasing demand for commodities and the need for assuring a sustainable supply pose great challenges on the world economy. The issue of raw materials supply represents a high - priority theme in the political agenda of the European Union. The Raw Materials Initiative launched in 2008 by the European Commission is based on three main pillars: - to ensure the access to raw materials on world market at undistorted conditions; - to foster sustainable supply of raw materials from European sources; - to reduce the EU's consumption of primary raw materials. (EC, 2008. To this end, EC has started to take action in order to ensure access to resources and avoid supply shortages. A great deal of attention is being paid to the study of recent developments in the global and particular commodity markets, taking into consideration fundamental aspects as supply concentration, governance of producing countries, the pressure of demand and its impact on prices, material's substitutability, stressing the role of resource consumption efficiency, recycling and substitution of vital raw materials and thus providing policy makers and industry with reliable information on how to efficiently manage resource inputs. This paper is dealing with the main developments which occurred during the past decade or so in the global commodity market, a major driver of the world economy, with particular reference to selected key -markets - as: aluminium, copper, nickel; cotton; corn, meat - swine, rice, wheat, soybeans; oil - emphasizing the issue of price volatility and new challenges in the market.

  7. Combustion and global climate change: Canada's challenges and solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All aspects of energy use, combustion and environmental impacts have been examined in an effort to find scientific, engineering and societal solutions to the global warming and climatic change challenges facing the world's population. Primary emphasis was on challenges to Canadians and the uniquely Canadian solutions required to ensure that Canada as a nation can meet its environmental commitments under the Kyoto Protocol. The conference was organized in eight concurrent sessions, some of which were further subdivided into two or more sub-sessions. Each session or sub-session consisted of an average of five formal presentations and the ensuing question and answer sessions. The proceedings volume contains only the formal presentations. Session titles included (1) flaring; (2) how can electric utilities succeed in the climate change challenge; (3) industrial combustion and greenhouse gases: the consequences and the challenges; (4) more efficient residential and commercial combustion systems; (5) carbon dioxide capture and sequestration; (6) the district energy solution and climate protection; (7) improving transportation engines, systems, and fuels for GHG emission reductions; and (8) biomass in Canada's energy mix. refs., tabs., figs

  8. Addressing challenges in combining GOES and LEO satellite products of the CONUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, R. A.; Dworak, R.

    2012-12-01

    The challenges of transforming data from the next generation of satellites into information and products for the weather and science purposes presents a major challenge to both the research and applications communities. This will be especially difficult over land, where the process of integrating observations from multiple instruments and platforms in real time is complicated by the influence of the land surface on the observations themselves. In addition, effective merging of the mixture of time-continuous GEO and less frequent but higher spectral resolution LEO observations with other new surface-based observations will be essential and require new product processing strategies. The material shown in this presentation will begin to address some of these issues. It will describe results of efforts to inter-calibrate moisture products derived from existing GEO and LEO data sets over land designed 1) to identify and remove biases from the GOES moisture retrievals, 2) to determine the seasonally varying information content of the GOES relative to NWP model 'first guess' fields, 3) to determine the similarities and differences in error structures between GOES and AIRS retrievals, and 4) to determine the vertical structure of the errors in both systems. For example, comparisons have been made between GOES Total Precipitable Water (TPW) using the Li retrieval system (GOES-Li) and data from Raman Lidar (RL), Microwave Radiometer (MWR) and surface-based GPS-Met systems at the ARM CART site. The test showed for using one year of derived TPW products, the NWP model first guess (GFS) and GOES-Li products are wetter, however the GOES-Li beats the GFS in the warm season, especially in August when the NWP precipitation skill is least. During the warm season GOES-Li is noticeably better than GFS (which was too wet) during daytime. In addition, the GPS-Met data are best during the daytime, while the Ramon Lidar performs best at night. AIRS products were also evaluated for several individual cases. Overall, the AIRS retrievals using the Li (AIRS-LI) system performs slightly better than the current AIRS Team Version-5 (V5) TPW calculations. However, even though the fundamental AIRS observations have higher spectral resolution than the GOES data, they performed less well than the GOES-Li and GFS retrievals over the same time period at this land site. The AIRS-Li improves the bias over the V5, which is persistently dry; however, both AIRS retrievals have higher standard deviation compared to GOES-Li and GFS. Evaluations of the vertical error structures for both the AIRS and GOES products will also be presented. Based on this and additional data analyses, suggestion of new product processing strategies needed for addressing the issue of merging both satellite radiances and derived products will conclude the presentation.

  9. Constraints and challenges in access to insulin: a global perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beran, David; Ewen, Margaret; Laing, Richard

    2016-03-01

    Substantial attention has been given to the issue of access to medicines for communicable diseases; however, access to essential medicines for diabetes, especially insulin, has had insufficient focus. Although insulin was discovered in 1921, the drug is unattainable to many globally, and this Review aims to highlight the range and complexity of factors that contribute to this unattainability. Manufacturers' selling prices of various insulin formulations and presentations, duties, taxes, mark-ups, and other supply chain costs affect the price of insulin and hence the drug's affordability to health systems and individuals. Unlike drugs for HIV and AIDS, the production of generic or biosimilar insulin has not had an effect on the overall market. Other factors contributing to poor availability of insulin include its quantification at the national level, in-country distribution, and determination of needs at lower levels of the health system. Although insulin is essential for the survival of people with type 1 diabetes and is needed for improved management of diabetes for some people with type 2 diabetes, very little has been done globally to address the issue of access, despite the UN's political commitment to address non-communicable diseases and ensure universal access to drugs for these disorders. PMID:26857998

  10. Global scenarios for the energy industry: challenge and response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahane, A.

    1991-01-01

    Three areas of far reaching change that will affect the future of the energy industry are identified - geopolitical changes, such as the collapse of communist regimes in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union, the relative decline of economic importance of the USA and the stimulus of European Community programmes; changes and difficulties in the international economy such as disagreement over trade and foreign direct investment; and thirdly, changing attitudes towards man's impact on the natural environment. These changes suggest two different images of the future, one called 'global mercantilism' and the other 'sustainable change'. In the first, the main global challenge is to deal with decline in the hegemonic position of the USA and Japan and the instability in international markets - the energy industry here faces new rules for business; in the 'sustainable world' the main challenge is to deal with common problems with implications for the redefining of the value of clean fuels and processes as well as substantial reconstruction of the energy industry. 10 figs.

  11. The National Academy of Sciences offers a new framework for addressing global warming issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, R C; Morgan, D L

    2000-02-01

    The recent landmark report by the National Academy of Sciences reviewed the science on which the Kyoto Protocol was based. NAS concluded that the policy choices and the mandatory reductions in greenhouse gases by the developed nations were based on incomplete science with significant uncertainties. In view of these uncertainties the NAS report developed a comprehensive strategic 10-year research program to address the basic issue of whether human activity that results in environmental changes is responsible for climate changes. The report provides a new framework for consideration of global warming issues. The UN International Panel on Climate Change (the UN science advisor) in its 1997 report to the Kyoto parties pointed out the confusing difference between scientific usage of the term "climate change" that distinguishes human from natural causes of change and the official usage that combines natural and human causes of changes in climate. The conclusion of the UN panel on human causes is equivocal. The 1999 report of the U.S. Global Science Research Committee also reached an equivocal conclusion on human causes and announced a 10-year research program to be developed in consultation with NAS. The precautionary measures provided in the 1992 UN Framework Convention differ from the ill-defined "precautionary principle" based on fear of uncertainty, and are consistent with the objectives of the NAS proposed research program. These developments together with the third report of the UN Intergovernmental Science Panel on developments in climate science due in 2001 merit consideration by the convention of the parties under the Kyoto Protocol. PMID:10715229

  12. Localizing the Global and Globalizing the Local: Opportunities and Challenges in Bali Island Tourism Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nyoman Darma Putra

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available AbstractIn September and October 2013, only one week apart,Bali hosted two global events in the upper class markettourism resort Nusa Dua. The first event was the MissWorld beauty pageant, and the other one was the APECSummit. Thousands of journalists from all over the worldcovered these events. From a tourism marketing point ofview, these two prestigious events helped Bali boost itspopularity through global mass media. Historically, sincethe early phase of its development, Bali’s tourism industryhas received many benefits from global forces initiallychanneled out through the Dutch colonial power in the firstdecade of the twentieth century and later through nationaland multinational corporations. The recent enlisting byUNESCO of Bali’s cultural landscape as a world heritagesite (2012 provides yet another great example of how Balicontinues to receive global endorsement by world institutions as a unique tourism destination. This paper discusesopportunities and challenges caused by globalizationand localization phenomena in the management of Bali’stourism island destination. Bali’s experiences provide aninteresting example of how global and local stakeholdersdevelop the island tourism in a sustainable manner whileat the same time continuing to preserve its local arts andculture as one of its main attractions. While there aremany examples how both forces contribute to numerousopportunities toward the development of Bali’s tourism,it is also true to state that impacts of globalization causesvarious forms of distraction for the island’s ability to takefull control of its vast move of development.

  13. 17th Workshop on MHD Stability Control: addressing the disruption challenge for ITER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttery, Richard

    2013-08-01

    This annual workshop on magnetohydrodynamic stability control was held on 5-7 November 2012 at Columbia University in the city of New York, in the aftermath of a violent hydrodynamic instability event termed 'Hurricane Sandy'. Despite these challenging circumstances, Columbia University managed an excellent meeting, enabling the full participation of the community. This Workshop has been held since 1996 to help in the development of understanding and control of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities for future fusion reactors. It covers a wide range of stability topics—from disruptions, to tearing modes, error fields, edge-localized modes (ELMs), resistive wall modes (RWMs) and ideal MHD—spanning many device types (tokamaks, stellarators and reversed field pinches) to identify commonalities in the physics and a means of control. The theme for 2012 was 'addressing the disruption challenge for ITER', and thus the first day had a heavy focus on both the avoidance and mitigation of disruptions in ITER. Key elements included understanding how to apply 3D fields to maintain stability, as well as managing the disruption process itself through mitigating loads in the thermal quench and handling so called 'runaway electrons'. This culminated in a panel discussion on the disruption mitigation strategy for ITER, which noted that heat load asymmetries during the thermal quench appear to be an artifact of MHD processes, and that runaway electron generation may be inevitable, suggesting research should focus on control and dissipation of the runaway beam. The workshop was combined this year with the annual US-Japan MHD Workshop, with a special section looking more deeply at 'Fundamentals of 3D Perturbed Equilibrium Control', with interesting sessions on 3D equilibrium reconstruction, RWM physics, novel control concepts such as non-magnetic sensing, adaptive control, q innovative means of control through application of electromagnetic torques, use of electron cyclotron current drive and even the idea of electrostatic current drive. This concluded with a second panel discussion on the disruption avoidance strategy in ITER, which commented on the important role played by energetic particles in stability, ideas of active stability sensing and ways to progress 3D reconstruction. In this special section of Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion , we present several of the invited and contributed papers from the 2012 workshop, which have been subject to the normal refereeing procedures of the journal. These give a sense of the exceptional quality of the presentations at this workshop, which may be found at: http://fusion.gat.com/conferences/mhd12/. The Program Committee deeply appreciates the participation and support our community continues to show in this workshop, which provides an unparalleled opportunity for in-depth discussion of MHD issues. We would also like to thank our hosts Columbia University, and in particular Professor Gerald Navratil, for outstanding support and facilities in the face of Hurricane Sandy's adversity. The meeting thanked outgoing Program Chair, Dr Richard Buttery from General Atomics, and welcomed next year's Program Chair, Professor David Maurer from Auburn University. The next meeting will be held in Santa Fe 18-20 November 2013.

  14. OpenTopography: Addressing Big Data Challenges Using Cloud Computing, HPC, and Data Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, C. J.; Nandigam, V.; Phan, M.; Youn, C.; Baru, C.; Arrowsmith, R.

    2014-12-01

    OpenTopography (OT) is a geoinformatics-based data facility initiated in 2009 for democratizing access to high-resolution topographic data, derived products, and tools. Hosted at the San Diego Supercomputer Center (SDSC), OT utilizes cyberinfrastructure, including large-scale data management, high-performance computing, and service-oriented architectures to provide efficient Web based access to large, high-resolution topographic datasets. OT collocates data with processing tools to enable users to quickly access custom data and derived products for their application. OT's ongoing R&D efforts aim to solve emerging technical challenges associated with exponential growth in data, higher order data products, as well as user base. Optimization of data management strategies can be informed by a comprehensive set of OT user access metrics that allows us to better understand usage patterns with respect to the data. By analyzing the spatiotemporal access patterns within the datasets, we can map areas of the data archive that are highly active (hot) versus the ones that are rarely accessed (cold). This enables us to architect a tiered storage environment consisting of high performance disk storage (SSD) for the hot areas and less expensive slower disk for the cold ones, thereby optimizing price to performance. From a compute perspective, OT is looking at cloud based solutions such as the Microsoft Azure platform to handle sudden increases in load. An OT virtual machine image in Microsoft's VM Depot can be invoked and deployed quickly in response to increased system demand. OT has also integrated SDSC HPC systems like the Gordon supercomputer into our infrastructure tier to enable compute intensive workloads like parallel computation of hydrologic routing on high resolution topography. This capability also allows OT to scale to HPC resources during high loads to meet user demand and provide more efficient processing. With a growing user base and maturing scientific user community comes new requests for algorithms and processing capabilities. To address this demand, OT is developing an extensible service based architecture for integrating community-developed software. This "plugable" approach to Web service deployment will enable new processing and analysis tools to run collocated with OT hosted data.

  15. Global Water Governance in the Context of Global and Multilevel Governance: Its Need, Form, and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyeeta Gupta

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available To complement this Special Feature on global water governance, we focused on a generic challenge at the global level, namely, the degree to which water issues need to be dealt with in a centralized, concentrated, and hierarchical manner. We examined water ecosystem services and their impact on human well-being, the role of policies, indirect and direct drivers in influencing these services, and the administrative level(s at which the provision of services and potential trade-offs can be dealt with. We applied a politics of scale perspective to understand motivations for defining a problem at the global or local level and show that the multilevel approach to water governance is evolving and inevitable. We argue that a centralized overarching governance system for water is unlikely and possibly undesirable; however, there is a need for a high-level think tank and leadership to develop a cosmopolitan perspective to promote sustainable water development.

  16. Improvement of GVSRM with Addressing the Interoperability Issues in Global Village

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Reza Mollahoseini Ardakani; Seyyed Mohsen Hashemi

    2014-01-01

    In today's globally networked environment, enterprises need collaborating using Information Technology (IT) and other tools to succeed in this dynamic and heterogeneous business environment. The Global Village Services Reference Model (GVSRM) is a model based on SOSA (Service Oriented Strategies and Architectures) ontology for global village services realization. In this model, three architectural abstraction layers have been considered for global village: ‘infrastructure for global village s...

  17. On the global geodetic observing system: Africa's preparedness and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botai, O. J.; Combrinck, Ludwig; Rautenbach, C. J. Hannes

    2013-02-01

    Space geodetic techniques and satellite missions play a crucial role in the determination and monitoring of geo-kinematics, Earth's rotation and gravity fields. These three pillars of geodesy provide the basis for determining the geodetic reference frames with high accuracy, spatial resolution and temporal stability. Space geodetic techniques have been used for the assessment of geo-hazards, anthropogenic hazards and in the design of early warning systems for hazard and disasters. In general, space geodesy provides products for Earth observation, science and influences many activities (e.g., building and management) in a modern society. In order to further promote the application of space geodetic methods to solving Earth science problems, the Global Geodetic Observing System (GGOS) of the International Association of Geodesy (IAG) was commissioned as an important geodetic infrastructure that integrates different geodetic techniques (such as Global Navigation Satellite Systems, Very Long Baseline Interferometry, Satellite Laser Ranging, Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar and Doppler Orbitography and Radio-positioning Integrated by Satellite), models and analysis techniques for the purpose of ensuring long-term, precise monitoring of geodetic observables vital for monitoring Earth system processes. Since its inception, there has been considerable progress made towards setting up the infrastructure necessary for the establishment of the GGOS database. While the challenges that beleaguer the GGOS are acknowledged (at least at global level), the assessment of an attuned GGOS infrastructure in the African context is necessary, yet lacking. In the present contribution, (a) the African preparedness and response to the observing system is assessed, and (b) the specific scientific and technological challenges of establishing a regional GGOS hub for Africa are reviewed. Currently only South Africa has a fundamental geodetic observatory located at Hartebeesthoek, Pretoria. Other countries in Africa have shown interest to participate in global geodetic activities, in particular through interest in the development of a unified African geodetic reference frame (AFREF). In particular interest has been shown in the proposed African VLBI Network (AVN), which will be partially based on existing ex-telecommunication radio antennas. Several countries are investigating their participation in the AVN, including Kenya, Nigeria and Ghana.

  18. Strategies to Address Challenging Behaviour in Young Children with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeley, Kathleen; Jones, Emily

    2008-01-01

    Children with Down syndrome are at an increased risk for engaging in challenging behaviour that may present problems within community, leisure, and educational settings, and, in many instances, precludes them from accessing these environments. Factors contributing to the occurrence of challenging behaviours include characteristics associated with…

  19. Getting People Involved: The Benefit of Intellectual Capital Management for Addressing HR Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pook, Katja

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to explore the benefits of intellectual capital assessment for facing current challenges of human resources work and organizational development. Design/methodology/approach: The paper takes findings of studies on challenges in HR work and maps them with features of intellectual capital assessment methods. It is thus a…

  20. Exploring a Community of Practice Model for Professional Development to Address Challenges to Classroom Practices in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christ, Tanya; Wang, X. Christine

    2013-01-01

    This study explored whether or not, and how, an on-site and research-teacher community of practice model for professional development addressed the challenges to classroom practices in a Head Start program. Data sources included interviews with teachers, videos of planning and teaching sessions, and the researchers' fieldwork log and…

  1. Adolescent sexual and reproductive health: The global challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Jessica L; Rushwan, Hamid

    2015-10-01

    Adolescent sexual and reproductive health (ASRH) has been overlooked historically despite the high risks that countries face for its neglect. Some of the challenges faced by adolescents across the world include early pregnancy and parenthood, difficulties accessing contraception and safe abortion, and high rates of HIV and sexually transmitted infections. Various political, economic, and sociocultural factors restrict the delivery of information and services; healthcare workers often act as a barrier to care by failing to provide young people with supportive, nonjudgmental, youth-appropriate services. FIGO has been working with partners and its member associations to break some of these barriers-enabling obstetricians and gynecologists to effect change in their countries and promote the ASRH agenda on a global scale. PMID:26433504

  2. Modelling Freshwater Resources at the Global Scale: Challenges and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döll, Petra; Douville, Hervé; Güntner, Andreas; Müller Schmied, Hannes; Wada, Yoshihide

    2015-10-01

    Quantification of spatially and temporally resolved water flows and water storage variations for all land areas of the globe is required to assess water resources, water scarcity and flood hazards, and to understand the Earth system. This quantification is done with the help of global hydrological models (GHMs). What are the challenges and prospects in the development and application of GHMs? Seven important challenges are presented. (1) Data scarcity makes quantification of human water use difficult even though significant progress has been achieved in the last decade. (2) Uncertainty of meteorological input data strongly affects model outputs. (3) The reaction of vegetation to changing climate and CO2 concentrations is uncertain and not taken into account in most GHMs that serve to estimate climate change impacts. (4) Reasons for discrepant responses of GHMs to changing climate have yet to be identified. (5) More accurate estimates of monthly time series of water availability and use are needed to provide good indicators of water scarcity. (6) Integration of gradient-based groundwater modelling into GHMs is necessary for a better simulation of groundwater-surface water interactions and capillary rise. (7) Detection and attribution of human interference with freshwater systems by using GHMs are constrained by data of insufficient quality but also GHM uncertainty itself. Regarding prospects for progress, we propose to decrease the uncertainty of GHM output by making better use of in situ and remotely sensed observations of output variables such as river discharge or total water storage variations by multi-criteria validation, calibration or data assimilation. Finally, we present an initiative that works towards the vision of hyperresolution global hydrological modelling where GHM outputs would be provided at a 1-km resolution with reasonable accuracy.

  3. Can The Implementation Of E-Learning Technologies Help To Address Learning Challenges? Evidence From A Small Island University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harshana Kasseeah

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper tries to explore the different ways in which online learning platforms can be used to address learning challenges for students at the University of Mauritius. The main challenges identified were in the form of large number of students in class, the lecturer being unable to give individual attention to each student and the inability to cover all material in the given time frame. Themain problems encountered by students were in the form of inability to ask questions due to the large class size, lack of interaction with the lecturer and in some cases the lack of supplementary material. Findings indicate that online learning platforms can indeed be used to address learning challenges so that the online learning platforms supplement and complement traditional face-to-face lectures.

  4. Global challenges of graduate level Ayurvedic education: A survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patwardhan, Kishor; Gehlot, Sangeeta; Singh, Girish; Rathore, H C S

    2010-01-01

    In the present day scenario, Ayurveda is globally being perceived in several contradictory ways. Poor quality of Ayurveda graduates produced as a result of poorly structured and poorly regulated education system is at least one of the important factors responsible for this scenario. The present study was carried out to evaluate the 'Global challenges of graduate level Ayurvedic education' and is based on the responses of Ayurvedic students and Ayurvedic teachers from various educational institutions of India to a methodically validated questionnaire. As the study indicates, the poor standard of Ayurvedic education in India is definitely a cause of concern. The curriculum of Bachelor of Ayurvedic Medicine and Surgery (BAMS) course of studies is required to be reviewed and restructured. The syllabi are required to be updated with certain relevant topics like laws governing the intellectual property rights, basic procedures of standardization of medicinal products, fundamental methods of evaluating the toxicity of the medicinal products, essentials of healthcare management and the basics of cultivation and marketing of medicinal plants. Furthermore, the study suggests that the Ayurvedic academicians are required to be trained in standard methods of research and documentation skills, and the educational institutions are required to be encouraged to contribute their share in building up the evidence base for Ayurveda in the form of quality education and research. PMID:20532099

  5. Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission Applications: Activities, Challenges, and Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschbaum, Dalia; Hou, Arthur

    2012-01-01

    Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) is an international satellite mission to provide nextgeneration observations of rain and snow worldwide every three hours. NASA and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) will launch a "Core" satellite carrying advanced instruments that will set a new standard for precipitation measurements from space. The data they provide will be used to unify precipitation measurements made by an international network of partner satellites to quantify when, where, and how much it rains or snows around the world. The GPM mission will help advance our understanding of Earth's water and energy cycles, improve the forecasting of extreme events that cause natural disasters, and extend current capabilities of using satellite precipitation information to directly benefit society. Building upon the successful legacy of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), GPM's next-generation global precipitation data will lead to scientific advances and societal benefits within a range of hydrologic fields including natural hazards, ecology, public health and water resources. This talk will highlight some examples from TRMM's IS-year history within these applications areas as well as discuss some existing challenges and present a look forward for GPM's contribution to applications in hydrology.

  6. Hyperresolution Global Land Surface Modeling: Meeting a Grand Challenge for Monitoring Earth's Terrestrial Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Eric F.; Roundy, Joshua K.; Troy, Tara J.; van Beek, L. P. H.; Bierkens, Marc F. P.; 4 Blyth, Eleanor; de Roo, Ad; Doell. Petra; Ek, Mike; Famiglietti, James; Gochis, David; van de Giesen, Nick; Houser, Paul; Jaffe, Peter R.; Kollet, Stefan; Lehner, Bernhard; Lettenmaier, Dennis P.; Peters-Lidard, Christa; Sivpalan, Murugesu; Sheffield, Justin; Wade, Andrew; Whitehead, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Monitoring Earth's terrestrial water conditions is critically important to many hydrological applications such as global food production; assessing water resources sustainability; and flood, drought, and climate change prediction. These needs have motivated the development of pilot monitoring and prediction systems for terrestrial hydrologic and vegetative states, but to date only at the rather coarse spatial resolutions (approx.10-100 km) over continental to global domains. Adequately addressing critical water cycle science questions and applications requires systems that are implemented globally at much higher resolutions, on the order of 1 km, resolutions referred to as hyperresolution in the context of global land surface models. This opinion paper sets forth the needs and benefits for a system that would monitor and predict the Earth's terrestrial water, energy, and biogeochemical cycles. We discuss six major challenges in developing a system: improved representation of surface-subsurface interactions due to fine-scale topography and vegetation; improved representation of land-atmospheric interactions and resulting spatial information on soil moisture and evapotranspiration; inclusion of water quality as part of the biogeochemical cycle; representation of human impacts from water management; utilizing massively parallel computer systems and recent computational advances in solving hyperresolution models that will have up to 10(exp 9) unknowns; and developing the required in situ and remote sensing global data sets. We deem the development of a global hyperresolution model for monitoring the terrestrial water, energy, and biogeochemical cycles a grand challenge to the community, and we call upon the international hydrologic community and the hydrological science support infrastructure to endorse the effort.

  7. The Challenges of Home Enteral Tube Feeding: A Global Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omorogieva Ojo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review is to provide a global perspective of Home Enteral Tube Feeding (HETF and to outline some of the challenges of home enteral nutrition (HEN provisions. It is well established that the number of patients on HETF is on the increase worldwide due to advances in technology, development of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy techniques, and the shift in care provisions from acute to community settings. While the significance of home enteral nutrition in meeting the nutritional requirements of patients with poor swallowing reflexes and those with poor nutritional status is not in doubt, differences exist in terms of funding, standards, management approaches and the level of infrastructural development across the world. Strategies for alleviating some of the challenges militating against the effective delivery of HETF including the development of national and international standards, guidelines and policies for HETF, increased awareness and funding by government at all levels were discussed. Others, including development of HEN services, which should create the enabling environment for multidisciplinary team work, clinical audit and research, recruitment and retention of specialist staff, and improvement in patient outcomes have been outlined. However, more research is required to fully establish the cost effectiveness of the HEN service especially in developing countries and to compare the organization of HEN service between developing and developed countries.

  8. Challenges in the global-scale quantification of permafrost changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, S.

    2012-12-01

    Permafrost underlies much of Earth's surface and interacts with climate, land-surface phenomena and human systems. This presentation highlights heterogeneity and near-isothermal ground, two simple and well-known phenomena, as important challenges for investigating current and future states of permafrost. Heterogeneity, which can be introduced by e.g., topography, vegetation or subsurface material, is shown to be important for large parts of the global permafrost areas based on two proxies calculated from a global model of permafrost distribution. The model is based on a 1km DEM and NCEP-NCAR as well as CRU TS 2.0 air temperature data. Near-isothermal ground occurs when heat flow into a volume of ground material is accompanied by only a minute temperature change due to the dominance of latent heat transfer near 0°C. This causes our monitoring systems, which are to a large part based on temperature measurements, to lose much of their sensitivity as an instrument to measure permafrost changes. The importance of this is argued for based on (a) the long duration that soil columns are usually exposed to this effect, (b) the abundance of boreholes with temperatures close to 0°C based on the IPY-TSP data set, and (c) the global abundance and relative importance of ground near 0°C. The results presented indicated that systems and methods of gathering permafrost evidence and monitoring data need to better account for heterogeneity and isothermal ground in order to maintain long-term relevance, and that in large-area models sub-grid heterogeneity needs explicit attention.

  9. Managing differences: the central challenge of global strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghemawat, Pankaj

    2007-03-01

    The main goal of any international strategy should be to manage the large differences that arise at the borders of markets. Yet executives often fail to exploit market and production discrepancies, focusing instead on the tensions between standardization and localization. In this article, Pankaj Ghemawat presents a new framework that encompasses all three effective responses to the challenges of globalization. He calls it the AAA Triangle. The A's stand for the three distinct types of international strategy. Through adaptation, companies seek to boost revenues and market share by maximizing their local relevance. Through aggregation, they attempt to deliver economies of scale by creating regional, or sometimes global, operations. And through arbitrage, they exploit disparities between national or regional markets, often by locating different parts of the supply chain in different places--for instance, call centers in India, factories in China, and retail shops in Western Europe. Ghemawat draws on several examples that illustrate how organizations use and balance these strategies and describes the trade-offs they make as they do so. Because most enterprises should draw from all three A's to some extent, the framework can be used to develop a summary scorecard indicating how well the company is globalizing. However, given the tensions among the strategies, it's not enough simply to tick off the corresponding boxes. Strategic choice requires some degree of prioritization--and the framework can help with that as well. While it is possible to make progress on all three strategies, companies usually must focus on one or two when trying to build competitive advantage. PMID:17348170

  10. Global Status of Nuclear Power: Prospects and Challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Global energy requirements and the share of electricity in total energy consumption are increasing rapidly, and the contribution of nuclear power is projected to increase significantly. Out of the 29 countries currently using nuclear power for electricity generation, 22 intend to allow new plants to be built, and, of those, the majority are actively supporting the increased use of nuclear power, some by providing incentives. Most of these countries are expected to build reactors with a generating capacity of over 1000 MW(e). Only three countries continue to have a policy to phase out the use of nuclear energy in the future by not replacing existing operating nuclear power plants and with no consideration of the option of new nuclear plants.In addition, a growing number of countries are expressing interest in introducing nuclear power. Of the more than 60 countries that have expressed such an interest in recent years, over 20 are actively considering nuclear power programmes to meet their energy needs and the others have expressed interest in understanding the issues associated with the introduction of nuclear power.The drivers for rising expectations for nuclear power include: growing energy demand, concern over national energy supply security, the increasingly volatile price of fossil fuels and global environmental concerns. The drivers appear to be the same for countries expanding existing nuclear programmes and those seeking to introduce programmes. The projections made by different international organizations indicate a significant growth in the use of nuclear power. The IAEA projections indicate a world total for nuclear electrical generating capacity of between 445 and 543 GW(e) by 2020 and between 511 and 807 GW(e) by 2030. This paper takes a detailed look into the global status of nuclear power, highlighting challenges and prospects of the technology going into the next century.(author).

  11. A framework for addressing implementation gap in global drowning prevention interventions: experiences from Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyder, Adnan A; Alonge, Olakunle; He, Siran; Wadhwaniya, Shirin; Rahman, Fazlur; El Arifeen, Shams

    2014-12-01

    Drowning is the commonest cause of injury-related deaths among under-five children worldwide, and 95% of deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) where there are implementation gaps in the drowning prevention interventions. This article reviews common interventions for drowning prevention, introduces a framework for effective implementation of such interventions, and describes the Saving of Lives from Drowning (SoLiD) Project in Bangladesh, which is based on this framework. A review of the systematic reviews on drowning interventions was conducted, and original research articles were pulled and summarized into broad prevention categories. The implementation framework builds upon two existing frameworks and categorizes the implementing process for drowning prevention interventions into four phases: planning, engaging, executing, and evaluating. Eleven key characteristics are mapped in these phases. The framework was applied to drowning prevention projects that have been undertaken in some LMICs to illustrate major challenges to implementation. The implementation process for the SoLiD Project in Bangladesh is used as an example to illustrate the practical utilization of the framework. Drowning interventions, such as pool fencing and covering of water hazards, are effective in high-income countries; however, most of these interventions have not been tested in LMICs. The critical components of the four phases of implementing drowning prevention interventions may include: (i) planning-global funding, political will, scale, sustainability, and capacity building; (ii) engaging-coordination, involvement of appropriate individuals; (iii) executing-focused action, multisectoral actions, quality of execution; and (iv) evaluating-rigorous monitoring and evaluation. Some of the challenges to implementing drowning prevention interventions in LMICs include insufficient funds, lack of technical capacity, and limited coordination among stakeholders and implementers. The SoLiD Project in Bangladesh incorporates some of these lessons and key features of the proposed framework. The framework presented in this paper was a useful tool for implementing drowning prevention interventions in Bangladesh and may be useful for adaptation in drowning and injury prevention programmes of other LMIC settings. PMID:25895188

  12. Global sourcing model : successes and challenges in the case of company X in packaging industry

    OpenAIRE

    Khoang, Quoc Huy

    2013-01-01

    Global sourcing has been seen the most important part of supply chain management (SCM) in economics. It is considered as the most typical way to demonstrate attributions of globalization from concept to practice. Many companies have gained many successes, but they have also encountered challenges when applying global sourcing in business. To determine the factors of success as well as challenges of global sourcing, this Master thesis clarifies characteristics of global sourcing model from...

  13. Benefits and Challenges with Global Sourcing : A study of Swedish companies

    OpenAIRE

    Johnsson, Christian; Morling, Felix

    2011-01-01

    Global sourcing is an important strategy for Swedish businesses since it is a mean to gain competitive advantage which is important on the global market Swedish businesses act on. Consequently it is interesting to investigate the importance of the perceived benefits and challenges with global sourcing since these factors affect the global sourcing decision. Thus, the purpose of this thesis is to investigate how Swedish large businesses perceive the benefits and challenges with global sourcing...

  14. Adapting to Symptoms of Global Warming Rather Than Addressing the Cause

    OpenAIRE

    Cairns, John

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, global warming has been ignored and scientists producing evidence supporting this hypothesis have been denigrated and even investigated. However, as irrefutable evidence showing that global warming was a reality mounted, the message shifted to global warming may be occurring, but it is not caused by human activity. Now the message is shifting again, and humankind I been told to adapt to global warming instead of making an effort to reverse it.

  15. Improvement of GVSRM with Addressing the Interoperability Issues in Global Village

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Mollahoseini Ardakani

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In today's globally networked environment, enterprises need collaborating using Information Technology (IT and other tools to succeed in this dynamic and heterogeneous business environment. The Global Village Services Reference Model (GVSRM is a model based on SOSA (Service Oriented Strategies and Architectures ontology for global village services realization. In this model, three architectural abstraction layers have been considered for global village: ‘infrastructure for global village services’, ‘global village services provisioning’, and ‘using global village services’. Despite of relative completeness of this model, one of its obvious shortcomings is lack of attention to the crucial issue of interoperability in the global village. Based on this model, the grid of global village is comprised of VHGs (Virtual Holding Governance. The VHG is a temporary, scalable, dynamic cluster/association comprising of existing or newly service provider organizations which its aim is satisfying the requirements of global village actors through electronic processes. In this paper, we will propose a federated approach for interoperability among the VHGs of the global village and then improve the GVSRM by adding the corresponding interoperability components to it.

  16. The Global Seismographic Network: Structure, Diversity and Operational Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, R.; Anderson, K.; Berger, J.; Davis, P.; Gee, L.; Leith, W.

    2006-12-01

    The Global Seismographic Network (GSN) is a 138-station, permanent network of state-of-the-art seismological and geophysical sensors and represents the fruition of 20 years of partnership among IRIS, USGS, the University of California San Diego, and NSF in collaboration with the scientific community. Distributed across all continents and on islands throughout the world's oceans, the network offers a core infrastructure of site agreements, power, and telemetry systems for hosting other geophysical sensors, which currently include GPS, gravimeters, magnetometers, barographs, and meteorological instrumentation. Real- time telemetry is available at more than 93% of GSN sites through a diverse combination of satellite links, hubs, leased-lines, radios, and Internet. GSN cooperates with over 100 host organizations and seismic networks in 59 countries, and coordinates closely with other international networks through the International Federation of Digital Seismograph Networks (FDSN). Many GSN stations are joint collaborations with other FDSN members, and 10 stations are GSN Affiliates operated by other networks. The GSN is also an official observing system within the Global Earth Observing System of Systems (GEOSS). At the USGS National Earthquake Information Center, the GSN is a principal source of data for earthquake information - locations, magnitudes, source processes, impact assessments, and hazard assessments - needed to facilitate earthquake emergency response. The GSN provides critical data for global tsunami warning systems in cooperation with U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Agency and Japanese Meteorological Agency. All GSN data are freely and openly available to anyone via the Internet from the IRIS Data Management Center in Seattle, Washington. It is a significant challenge to operate a globally distributed network such as the GSN. The network includes a large number of stations in very remote locations, and many stations with multiple sensor types. Hosts range from PhD seismologists to local farmers or tribal elders. Specific issues confronting us include: maintaining secure sites, providing continuous, stable power, maintaining robust telemetry links, monitoring the network, developing an efficient hardware sparing strategy under tight budgets, efficiently scheduling site maintenance visits, and developing remote and automated quality control techniques. The GSN managers and operators welcome interest in and discussion of these issues, as well as any proposed collocation of geophysical and environmental sensors at GSN stations.

  17. Addressing Challenges in Studies of Behavioral Responses of Whales to Noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cato, Douglas H; Dunlop, Rebecca A; Noad, Michael J; McCauley, Robert D; Kniest, Eric; Paton, David; Kavanagh, Ailbhe S

    2016-01-01

    Studying the behavioral response of whales to noise presents numerous challenges. In addition to the characteristics of the noise exposure, many factors may affect the response and these must be measured and accounted for in the analysis. An adequate sample size that includes matching controls is crucial if meaningful results are to be obtained. Field work is thus complicated, logistically difficult, and expensive. This paper discusses some of the challenges and how they are being met in a large-scale multiplatform project in which humpback whales are exposed to the noise of seismic air guns. PMID:26610954

  18. Eagle Racing: Addressing Corporate Collaboration Challenges through an Online Simulation Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angehrn, Albert A.; Maxwell, Katrina

    2009-01-01

    Effective collaboration is necessary for corporation-wide learning, knowledge exchange, and innovation. However, it is difficult to create a corporate culture that encourages collaboration; the complexity of such collaboration is increased substantially by the diverse and distributed nature of knowledge sources and decision makers in the global…

  19. Mixed Methods Research Strategies with Deaf People: Linguistic and Cultural Challenges Addressed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Amy T.; Winiarczyk, Rowena E.

    2014-01-01

    Deaf people, members of a complex global language minority, have been excluded from positions of power in the field of humanitarian aid and development assistance, as well as from playing a significant role in the conduct of research that affects their lives. Deaf people rarely lead or participate as researchers in studies about their own…

  20. The Global Fund's resource allocation decisions for HIV programmes: addressing those in need

    OpenAIRE

    Avdeeva Olga; Lazarus Jeffrey V; Aziz Mohamed; Atun Rifat

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Between 2002 and 2010, the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria's investment in HIV increased substantially to reach US$12 billion. We assessed how the Global Fund's investments in HIV programmes were targeted to key populations in relation to disease burden and national income. Methods We conducted an assessment of the funding approved by the Global Fund Board for HIV programmes in Rounds 1-10 (2002-2010) in 145 countries. We used the UNAIDS National AIDS S...

  1. Building and Sustaining Complex Systems: Addressing Common Challenges to Implementing Intensive Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInerney, Maurice; Zumeta, Rebecca O.; Gandhi, Allison G.; Gersten, Russell

    2014-01-01

    School and district personnel have identified common challenges in implementing individualized, intensive interventions for students with severe, persistent learning and behavioral needs. The National Center on Intensive Intervention has worked with scores of local educators--including district administrators, building principals, special and…

  2. The Benefits and Challenges of Becoming Cross-Culturally Competent Counseling Psychologists. Presidential Address

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heppner, P. Paul

    2006-01-01

    The central thesis of this article is that focusing on cross-cultural competence will enhance both the science and the practice of counseling psychology. Developing cross-cultural competence is a lifelong journey, replete with many joys and challenges, that will (a) increase the sophistication of our research, (b) expand the utility and…

  3. Big Data Challenges in Global Seismic 'Adjoint Tomography' (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tromp, J.; Bozdag, E.; Krischer, L.; Lefebvre, M.; Lei, W.; Smith, J.

    2013-12-01

    The challenge of imaging Earth's interior on a global scale is closely linked to the challenge of handling large data sets. The related iterative workflow involves five distinct phases, namely, 1) data gathering and culling, 2) synthetic seismogram calculations, 3) pre-processing (time-series analysis and time-window selection), 4) data assimilation and adjoint calculations, 5) post-processing (pre-conditioning, regularization, model update). In order to implement this workflow on modern high-performance computing systems, a new seismic data format is being developed. The Adaptable Seismic Data Format (ASDF) is designed to replace currently used data formats with a more flexible format that allows for fast parallel I/O. The metadata is divided into abstract categories, such as "source" and "receiver", along with provenance information for complete reproducibility. The structure of ASDF is designed keeping in mind three distinct applications: earthquake seismology, seismic interferometry, and exploration seismology. Existing time-series analysis tool kits, such as SAC and ObsPy, can be easily interfaced with ASDF so that seismologists can use robust, previously developed software packages. ASDF accommodates an automated, efficient workflow for global adjoint tomography. Manually managing the large number of simulations associated with the workflow can rapidly become a burden, especially with increasing numbers of earthquakes and stations. Therefore, it is of importance to investigate the possibility of automating the entire workflow. Scientific Workflow Management Software (SWfMS) allows users to execute workflows almost routinely. SWfMS provides additional advantages. In particular, it is possible to group independent simulations in a single job to fit the available computational resources. They also give a basic level of fault resilience as the workflow can be resumed at the correct state preceding a failure. Some of the best candidates for our particular workflow are Kepler and Swift, and the latter appears to be the most serious candidate for a large-scale workflow on a single supercomputer, remaining sufficiently simple to accommodate further modifications and improvements.

  4. Managing Radioactive Waste. Problems and Challenges in a Globalizing World

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many countries are at a crossroads in terms of maintaining their energy supply. The existing resources of fossil fuels are dwindling, and global warming makes their use increasingly problematic. Nuclear power is now often regarded inevitable for future sustainability, energy security, and economic prosperity. There are, however, still unsolved problems regarding nuclear power. The fact that no country has established a final waste repository for spent nuclear fuel throws fundamental doubt on nuclear energy expansion. Also, the processes of globalization have transformed the nuclear industry towards increased privatization, concentration, and internationalization. This leads to uncertainties regarding the responsibility for nuclear waste management. In these circumstances is it of greatest importance that scholars from different disciplines, as well as policy makers and practitioners within the field, meet to share experiences. This conference had the general objective of producing knowledge about the challenges caused by global developmental trends, and what the management of nuclear waste implies for contemporary and future social development. Over 100 persons attended the conferences. Papers available at the conference site have been separately indexed. Several contributions were also made as PP-presentation, which are available at the site, among others the Keynote Speeches: Waiting for the Nuclear Renaissance: Exploring the Nexus of Expansion and Disposal in Europe (Jane Dawson); Applying the Risk Governance Framework: Institutional Requirements for Dealing with Nuclear Waste (Ortwin Renn); Learning to Listen: The Long Road to Legitimating Radioactive Waste Management Policies (Frans Berkhout); The Nuclear Waste Debate is Irrational but We Need Not Panic (Frank von Hippel). The conference was divided into the following sessions: Session A: Political characteristics matters; Session B: Radioactivity, geology, society. On a problem definition of HLW-management; Session C: What's at stake? Problematising matters of nuclear waste management; Session D: Knowledge integration and stakeholder communication I; Session D: Knowledge integration and stakeholder communication II; Session F: Acceptance and risk perceptions in repository siting; Session G: Hide, forget, regret? Towards sustainable ethics of HLW-management; Session H: What Future Governance - Local, National or International?; and, Session I: Demonstrating legitimacy, maintaining responsibility?

  5. Managing Radioactive Waste. Problems and Challenges in a Globalizing World

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-09-15

    Many countries are at a crossroads in terms of maintaining their energy supply. The existing resources of fossil fuels are dwindling, and global warming makes their use increasingly problematic. Nuclear power is now often regarded inevitable for future sustainability, energy security, and economic prosperity. There are, however, still unsolved problems regarding nuclear power. The fact that no country has established a final waste repository for spent nuclear fuel throws fundamental doubt on nuclear energy expansion. Also, the processes of globalization have transformed the nuclear industry towards increased privatization, concentration, and internationalization. This leads to uncertainties regarding the responsibility for nuclear waste management. In these circumstances is it of greatest importance that scholars from different disciplines, as well as policy makers and practitioners within the field, meet to share experiences. This conference had the general objective of producing knowledge about the challenges caused by global developmental trends, and what the management of nuclear waste implies for contemporary and future social development. Over 100 persons attended the conferences. Papers available at the conference site have been separately indexed. Several contributions were also made as PP-presentation, which are available at the site, among others the Keynote Speeches: Waiting for the Nuclear Renaissance: Exploring the Nexus of Expansion and Disposal in Europe (Jane Dawson); Applying the Risk Governance Framework: Institutional Requirements for Dealing with Nuclear Waste (Ortwin Renn); Learning to Listen: The Long Road to Legitimating Radioactive Waste Management Policies (Frans Berkhout); The Nuclear Waste Debate is Irrational but We Need Not Panic (Frank von Hippel). The conference was divided into the following sessions: Session A: Political characteristics matters; Session B: Radioactivity, geology, society. On a problem definition of HLW-management; Session C: What's at stake? Problematising matters of nuclear waste management; Session D: Knowledge integration and stakeholder communication I; Session D: Knowledge integration and stakeholder communication II; Session F: Acceptance and risk perceptions in repository siting; Session G: Hide, forget, regret? Towards sustainable ethics of HLW-management; Session H: What Future Governance - Local, National or International?; and, Session I: Demonstrating legitimacy, maintaining responsibility?

  6. Global land cover mapping using Earth observation satellite data: Recent progresses and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Yifang; Gong, Peng; Giri, Chandra

    2015-05-01

    Land cover is an important variable for many studies involving the Earth surface, such as climate, food security, hydrology, soil erosion, atmospheric quality, conservation biology, and plant functioning. Land cover not only changes with human caused land use changes, but also changes with nature. Therefore, the state of land cover is highly dynamic. In winter snow shields underneath various other land cover types in higher latitudes. Floods may persist for a long period in a year over low land areas in the tropical and subtropical regions. Forest maybe burnt or clear cut in a few days and changes to bare land. Within several months, the coverage of crops may vary from bare land to nearly 100% crops and then back to bare land following harvest. The highly dynamic nature of land cover creates a challenge in mapping and monitoring which remains to be adequately addressed. As economic globalization continues to intensify, there is an increasing trend of land cover/land use change, environmental pollution, land degradation, biodiversity loss at the global scale, timely and reliable information on global land cover and its changes is urgently needed to mitigate the negative impact of global environment change.

  7. Using a complex system approach to address world challenges in Food and Agriculture

    CERN Document Server

    van Mil, H G J; Windhab, E J; Perrot, N; van der Linden, E

    2013-01-01

    World food supply is crucial to the well-being of every human on the planet in the basic sense that we need food to live. It also has a profound impact on the world economy, international trade and global political stability. Furthermore, consumption of certain types and amounts foods can affect health, and the choice of livestock and plants for food production can impact sustainable use of global resources. There are communities where insufficient food causes nutritional deficiencies, and at the same time other communities eating too much food leading to obesity and accompanying diseases. These aspects reflect the utmost importance of agricultural production and conversion of commodities to food products. Moreover, all factors contributing to the food supply are interdependent, and they are an integrative part of the continuously changing, adaptive and interdependent systems in the world around us. The properties of such interdependent systems usually cannot be inferred from the properties of its parts. In a...

  8. Brazil : Addressing the Challenge of Non-Communicable Diseases in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2005-01-01

    Non-communicable diseases account for a large and growing share of Brazil's burden of disease. Currently, about 66 percent of the disease burden in Brazil is due to non-communicable diseases, compared to 24 percent from communicable diseases and 10% from injuries. Brazil's shift towards non-communicable diseases is a consequence of urbanization, improvements in health care, changing lifestyles, and globalization. Most of this disease burden i s not an inevitable result of a modern, aging soci...

  9. Addressing China's grand challenge of achieving food security while ensuring environmental sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Jenkins, Alan; Ferrier, Robert C.; Bailey, Mark; Gordon, Iain J; Song, Shuai; Huang, Jikun; Jia, Shaofeng; Zhang, Fusuo; Liu, Xuejun; Feng, Zhaozhong; ZHANG Zhibin

    2015-01-01

    China’s increasingly urbanized and wealthy population is driving a growing and changing demand for food, which might not be met without significant increase in agricultural productivity and sustainable use of natural resources. Given the past relationship between lack of access to affordable food and political instability, food security has to be given a high priority on national political agendas in the context of globalization. The drive for increased food production has had a significant i...

  10. Smart Home Wireless Sensor Nodes : Addressing the Challenges using Smart Objects and Artificial Intelligence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynggaard, Per

    Smart homes are further development of intelligent buildings and home automation, where context awareness and autonomous behaviour are added. They are based on a combination of the Internet and emerging technologies like wireless sensor nodes. These wireless sensor nodes are challenging because they consume battery power, they use network bandwidth, and they produce wireless interferences. Currently, different methods exist for handling these challenges. These methods are, however, based on adjusting the transmitter frequency and using duty-cycling in combination with sleep mode approaches. This paper introduces an approach that considerably lowers the wireless sensor node power consumption and the amount of transmitted sensor events. It uses smart objects that include artificial intelligence to efficiently process the sensor event on location and thereby saves the costly wireless transportation of these events. In this paper it has been shown that this approach provides huge savings of power consumption and network load, which in turn reduces the interference level.

  11. Challenges confronting road freight transport and the use of vehicle-pavement interaction analysis in addressing these challenges

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    W J vd M, Steyn; C L, Monismith; W A, Nokes; J T, Harvey; T J, Holland; N, Burmas.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Traditional arguments for maintaining riding quality of pavement are expanded in this paper to examine the effects of deteriorating riding quality on vehicle operating costs, freight damage and logistics. The objectives of this paper are to analyse the effects of different levels of riding quality o [...] n a truck and its freight, and to discuss potential applications of the analysis in terms of effectiveness of the freight transport system. The paper discusses needs and drivers influencing freight transport costs, vehicle-pavement interaction concepts, and the potential physical effects and costs from roads with deteriorating riding quality. A case study is presented analysing vehicle-pavement interaction for selected roadways in California. It is concluded that investments in pavement and freight transport industry improvements can be investigated by applying vehicle-pavement interaction analysis to evaluate damage to pavement, vehicle and freight that would result from alternative levels of pavement riding quality. The paper recommends that existing concepts, tools and resources such as dedicated truck lanes and vehicle-pavement interaction analysis can help to improve the freight transport system. A framework is proposed to better understand the scale of potential impacts of riding quality from localised effects to larger-scale influences, including costs to customers and global competitiveness.

  12. Exploring social recommenders for teacher networks to address challenges of starting teachers

    OpenAIRE

    Fazeli, Soude; Brouns, Francis; Drachsler, Hendrik; Sloep, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The lack of a proper induction and organizational socialization is seen as one of the main reasons for beginning employees to leave the profession after a few years. It seems especially problematic for professions such as teaching. Teachers work in contexts that do not allow frequent and intense observations and interaction with others who could provide meaningful information and act as exemplars of good practice. Recently graduated teachers experience their first job as extremely challenging...

  13. Identifying and addressing challenges for search and analysis of disparate surveillance video archives

    OpenAIRE

    Suzanne LITTLE; Clawson, Kathy; Mereu, Anna; Rodriguez, Aitor

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the challenges faced when bringing together multiple disparate surveillance video archives to support semantic analysis and search and describes the SAVASA framework for enabling better integration of CCTV archives. The proliferation of CCTV cameras managed by public institutions and private enterprise raises a number of issues relating to data security, privacy, ethics and technological difficulties in unifying the variety of data and formats. These are often the result ...

  14. Strategies for Integrated Analysis of Genetic, Epigenetic, and Gene Expression Variation in Cancer: Addressing the Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Thingholm, Louise B.; Andersen, Lars; Makalic, Enes; Southey, Melissa C; Thomassen, Mads; Hansen, Lise Lotte

    2016-01-01

    The development and progression of cancer, a collection of diseases with complex genetic architectures, is facilitated by the interplay of multiple etiological factors. This complexity challenges the traditional single-platform study design and calls for an integrated approach to data analysis. However, integration of heterogeneous measurements of biological variation is a non-trivial exercise due to the diversity of the human genome and the variety of output data formats and genome coverage ...

  15. Addressing the Photometric Calibration Challenge: Explicit Determination of the Instrumental Response and Atmospheric Response Functions, and Tying it All Together

    OpenAIRE

    Stubbs, Christopher W.; Tonry, John L.

    2012-01-01

    Photometric calibration is currently the dominant source of systematic uncertainty in exploiting type Ia supernovae to determine the nature of the dark energy. We review our ongoing program to address this calibration challenge by performing measurements of both the instrumental response function and the optical transmission function of the atmosphere. A key aspect of this approach is to complement standard star observations by using NIST-calibrated photodiodes as a metrolog...

  16. Strategies to increase demand for maternal health services in resource-limited settings: challenges to be addressed.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Elmusharaf, Khalifa

    2015-09-01

    Universal health access will not be achieved unless women are cared for in their own communities and are empowered to take decisions about their own health in a supportive environment. This will only be achieved by community-based demand side interventions for maternal health access. In this review article, we highlight three common strategies to increase demand-side barriers to maternal healthcare access and identify the main challenges that still need to be addressed for these strategies to be effective.

  17. Nonclinical safety testing of biopharmaceuticals--Addressing current challenges of these novel and emerging therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Frank R; Baumann, Andreas; Blaich, Guenter; de Haan, Lolke; Fagg, Rajni; Kiessling, Andrea; Kronenberg, Sven; Locher, Mathias; Milton, Mark; Tibbitts, Jay; Ulrich, Peter; Weir, Lucinda

    2015-10-01

    Non-clinical safety testing of biopharmaceuticals can present significant challenges to human risk assessment with these often innovative and complex drugs. Hot Topics in this field were discussed recently at the 4th Annual European Biosafe General Membership meeting. In this feature article, the presentations and subsequent discussions from the main sessions are summarized. The topics covered include: (i) wanted versus unwanted immune activation, (ii) bi-specific protein scaffolds, (iii) use of Pharmacokinetic (PK)/Pharmacodynamic (PD) data to impact/optimize toxicology study design, (iv) cytokine release and challenges to human translation (v) safety testing of cell and gene therapies including chimeric antigen receptor T (CAR-T) cells and retroviral vectors and (vi) biopharmaceutical development strategies encompassing a range of diverse topics including optimizing entry of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) into the brain, safety testing of therapeutic vaccines, non-clinical testing of biosimilars, infection in toxicology studies with immunomodulators and challenges to human risk assessment, maternal and infant anti-drug antibody (ADA) development and impact in non-human primate (NHP) developmental toxicity studies, and a summary of an NC3Rs workshop on the future vision for non-clinical safety assessment of biopharmaceuticals. PMID:26219199

  18. Climate Change - Global Risks, Challenges & Decisions : Synthesis Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richardson, Katherine; Steffen, Will

    2009-01-01

    Past societies have reacted when they understood that their own activities were causing deleterious environmental change by controlling or modifying the offending activities. The scientific evidence has now become overwhelming that human activities, especially the combustion of fossil fuels, are influencing the climate in ways that threaten the well-being and continued development of human society. If humanity is to learn from history and to limit these threats, the time has come for stronger control of the human activities that are changing the fundamental conditions for life on Earth. To decide on effective control measures, an understanding of how human activities are changing the climate, and of the implications of unchecked climate change, needs to be widespread among world and national leaders, as well as in the public. The purpose of this report is to provide, for a broad range of audiences, an update of the newest understanding of climate change caused by human activities, the social and environmental implications of this change, and the options available for society to respond to the challenges posed by climate change. This understanding is communicated through six key messages.  The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) meeting to be held in Copenhagen in December 2009 (the 15th Conference of the Parties, COP-15) will be a critical step in developing a global response to the threat of climate change caused by human activities. The primary scientific input to those negotiations is the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), published in 2007. The IPCC report has already been instrumental in increasing both public and political awareness of the societal risks associated with unchecked emission of greenhouse gases. Since the production of the IPCC report, new knowledge has emerged that furthers understanding of the impacts of human influence on the climate and the response options and approaches that are available to tackle this complex issue. To bring this new knowledge together, the International Alliance of Research Universitiesi organised an international scientific congress on climate change, Climate Change: Global Risks, Challenges and Decisions, which was held in Copenhagen from 10-12 March 2009. Participation in the Congress was open to all. Most of the approximately 2500 people attending the Congress were researchers, many of whom have also been contributors to the IPCC reports. Participants came from nearly 80 different countries and contributed with more than 1400 scientific presentations. Abstracts for all of the scientific presentations made can be found at www.iop.org/EJ/volume/1755-1315/6 , and a transcript of the closing plenary session can be found at environmentalresearchweb.org/cws/article/opinion/39126. This synthesis report presents an up-to-date overview of a broad range of research relevant to climate change - including fundamental climate science, the impacts of a changing climate on society and environment, and the many tools and approaches available to deal effectively with the challenge of climate change. The report has been produced by a writing team comprised of members of the Scientific Steering Committee for the IARU Congress and individuals invited to give the writing team academic and geographic breadth. It is based on the 16 plenary talks given at the Congress as well as input from over 80 chairs and cochairs of the 58 parallel sessions held at the Congress. The names of the plenary speakers and the chairs and co-chairs of the parallel sessions can be found on the inside cover of this volume. The writing team has, in addition to presentations at the Congress, drawn upon recent publications in the scientific literature to create this synthesis. This report has been critically reviewed by representatives of the Earth System Science Partnership (ESSP), by the parallel session chairs and co-chairs, and by up to four independent researchers from each IARU university. This extensive review process has been implemented t

  19. An Overview of Interdisciplinary Research at Notre Dame Addressing "Grand Challenges" in the Midwest and Great Lakes Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlet, A. F.; Bolster, D.; Tank, J. L.; Hellmann, J.; Christopher, S. F.; Sharma, A.; Chiu, C. M.

    2014-12-01

    The Midwest and Great Lakes region face a number of "Grand Challenges" associated with climate, land use, agriculture, and water resources infrastructure. These include sustainability of agricultural systems and related impacts to food security and the regional economy; sustainability of Great Lakes water levels; changing storm statistics and impacts to stormwater management and flooding; water quality in rivers and downstream receiving water bodies related to non-point source pollution on agricultural lands and combined sewer overflows in urban areas; urban impacts related to aging infrastructure and climate change, and ecosystem management and restoration. In the context of water management, groundwater resources are poorly understood in comparison with surface water resources, and regional-scale simulation models are needed to address questions of sustainability both in terms of supply and water quality. Interdisciplinary research at the University of Notre Dame is attempting to address these research challenges via 1) integrated macro-scale groundwater and surface water modeling to address issues related to sustainable water supply, ecosystem restoration, and agricultural impacts; 2) development of high-resolution regional climate models dynamically coupled to the Great Lakes to address urban impacts, changing storm statistics and to quantify precipitation and evaporation over the Great Lakes; 3) and integrated macro-scale hydrology and water quality modeling to assess the large-scale performance of innovative land management BMPs on agricultural land (such as the two-stage ditch, cover crops, and dynamic drainage control) intended to improve water quality.

  20. A Framework for Addressing the Global Obesity Epidemic Locally: The Child Health Ecological Surveillance System (CHESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald C. Plotnikoff, PhD

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Childhood obesity has reached epidemic levels in the developed world. Recent research and commentary suggest that an ecological approach is required to address childhood obesity, given the multidimensional nature of the problem. We propose a Canadian prototype, the Child Health Ecological Surveillance System, for a regional health authority to address the growing obesity epidemic. This prototype could potentially be used in other jurisdictions to address other child health issues. We present 8 guiding principles for the development and implementation of a regional framework for action.

  1. New generation of Sour Service Drill Pipe allows addressing highly sour field challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomazic A.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Drill pipes are commonly produced by assembling pipe and tool joints through friction welding. The weld, as a result of this process, presents some challenges for preserving corrosion resistance due to some metallurgical factors such as heterogeneous microstructure, different chemical compositions between the tool joint and the pipe body and heterogeneous mechanical properties close to the welded line. Hence a new drill pipe configuration have been developed including modified chemical composition and modified manufacturing process. These modifications allow for the improvement of mechanical properties performance and corrosion resistance in the welded zone.

  2. International policies to address the greenhouse effect. Encouraging developing country participation in global greenhouse control strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conditions under which developing country governments are likely to feel motivated to take real action in addressing the greenhouse gas problem and the international mechanisms that are likely to succeed are briefly outlined

  3. GA2LEN (Global Allergy and Asthma European Network) addresses the allergy and asthma 'epidemic'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bousquet, J; Burney, P G; Zuberbier, T; Cauwenberge, P V; Akdis, C A; Bindslev-Jensen, C; Bonini, S; Fokkens, W J; Kauffmann, F; Kowalski, M L; Lodrup-Carlsen, K; Mullol, J; Nizankowska-Mogilnicka, E; Papadopoulos, N; Toskala, E; Wickman, M; Anto, J; Auvergne, N; Bachert, C; Bousquet, P J; Brunekreef, B; Canonica, G W; Carlsen, K H; Gjomarkaj, M; Haahtela, T; Howarth, P; Lenzen, G; Lotvall, J; Radon, K; Ring, J; Salapatas, M; Schünemann, H J; Szczecklik, A; Todo-Bom, A; Valovirta, E; von Mutius, E; Zock, J P

    2009-01-01

    and the first papers are being published. Achievements of the Global Allergy and Asthma European Network can be grouped as follows: (i) those for a durable infrastructure built up during the project phase, (ii) those which are project-related and based on these novel infrastructures, and (iii) the......Allergic diseases represent a major health problem in Europe. They are increasing in prevalence, severity and costs. The Global Allergy and Asthma European Network (GA(2)LEN), a Sixth EU Framework Program for Research and Technological Development (FP6) Network of Excellence, was created in 2005 as...... a vehicle to ensure excellence in research bringing together research and clinical institutions to combat fragmentation in the European research area and to tackle allergy in its globality. The Global Allergy and Asthma European Network has benefited greatly from the voluntary efforts of researchers...

  4. Global Health Philanthropy and Institutional Relationships: How Should Conflicts of Interest Be Addressed?

    OpenAIRE

    Stuckler, David; Basu, Sanjay; McKee, Martin

    2011-01-01

    David Stuckler and colleagues examine five large private global health foundations and report on the scope of relationships between these tax-exempt foundations and for-profit corporations including major food and pharmaceutical companies.

  5. Drug Delivery Approaches in Addressing Clinical Pharmacology-Related Issues: Opportunities and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Hong; Jung, Huijeong; Li, Xuhong

    2015-11-01

    Various drug delivery approaches can be used to maximize therapeutic efficacy and minimize side effects, by impacting absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination (ADME) of a drug compound. For those drugs with poor water solubility or low permeability, techniques such as amorphous solid dispersion, liposomes, and complexations have been used to improve their oral bioavailability. Modified release (MR) formulations have been widely used to improve patient compliance, as well as to reduce side effects, especially for those drugs with short half-lives or narrow therapeutic windows. More than ten drugs using sterile long-acting release (LAR) formulations with clear clinical benefit have been successfully marketed. Furthermore, drug delivery systems have been used in delaying drug clearance processes. Additionally, modifying the in vivo drug distribution using targeted delivery systems has significantly improved oncology treatments. All the drug delivery approaches have their advantages and limitations. For both brand and generic drugs, the achievement of consistent quality and therapeutic performance using drug delivery systems can also pose serious challenges in developing a drug for the market, which requires close collaboration among industry, academia, and regulatory agencies. With the advent of personalized medicines, there will be great opportunities and challenges in utilizing drug delivery systems to provide better products and services for patients. PMID:26276218

  6. Food security for Africa: an urgent global challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasson Albert

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In 2012, food insecurity is still a major global concern as 1 billion people are suffering from starvation, under-, and malnutrition, and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO has concluded that we are still far from reaching millennium development goal (MDG number 1: to halve extreme poverty and hunger by 2015. In sub-Saharan Africa, the number of people suffering from hunger is estimated at 239 million, and this figure could increase in the near future. There are many examples of food insecurity in sub-Saharan Africa, some of them having reached catastrophic dimensions, for example, in the Horn of Africa or southern Madagascar. Food insecurity is not just about insufficient food production, availability, and intake, it is also about the poor quality or nutritional value of the food. The detrimental situation of women and children is particularly serious, as well as the situation among female teenagers, who receive less food than their male counterparts in the same households. Soaring food prices and food riots are among the many symptoms of the prevailing food crisis and insecurity. Climate change and weather vagaries, present and forecast, are generally compounding food insecurity and drastically changing farming activities, as diagnosed by the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR in June 2011. The key cause of food insecurity is inadequate food production. Since the global food crisis of 2007–2008, there has been an increasing awareness throughout the world that we must produce more and better food; and we should not be derailed from this goal, despite some relief brought by the good cereal harvests in 2011–2012. This is particularly true in sub-Saharan Africa, which needs and wants to make its own green revolution. The African challenge indeed is key to mitigating food insecurity in the world. Commitments were made by the heads of states and governments of the African Union to double the part of their domestic budgets devoted to agriculture in 2010–2011, so as to reach 10%. Technical solutions exist and there are indeed, throughout Africa, good examples of higher-yielding and sustainable agriculture. But good practices have to spread throughout the continent, while at the same time social and economic measures, as well as political will, are indispensable ingredients of Africa’s green revolution. It is also necessary that international donors fulfil their commitment to help African farmers and rural communities and protect them against unfair trade, competition, and dumping of cheap agrifood products from overseas.

  7. Global Climate Change and the Unique Challenges Posed by the Transportation Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dooley, J.J.; Geffen, C.A.; Edmonds, J.A.

    2002-08-26

    Addressing the challenges posed by global climate change will eventually require the active participation of all industrial sectors and consumers on the planet. To date, however, most efforts to address climate change have focused on only a few sectors of the economy (e.g., refineries and fossil-fired electric power plants) and a handful of large industrialized nations. While useful as a starting point, these efforts must be expanded to include other sectors of the economy and other nations. The transportation sector presents some unique challenges, with its nearly exclusive dependence on petroleum based products as a fuel source coupled with internal combustion engines as the prime mover. Reducing carbon emissions from transportation systems is unlikely to be solely accomplished by traditional climate mitigation policies that place a price on carbon. Our research shows that price signals alone are unlikely to fundamentally alter the demand for energy services or to transform the way energy services are provided in the transportation sector. We believe that a technological revolution will be necessary to accomplish the significant reduction of greenhouse gas emissions from the transportation sector.

  8. Replicating a self-affirmation intervention to address gender differences: Successes and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kost-Smith, Lauren E.; Pollock, Steven J.; Finkelstein, Noah D.; Cohen, Geoffrey L.; Ito, Tiffany A.; Miyake, Akira

    2012-02-01

    We previously reported on the success of a psychological intervention implemented to reduce gender differences in achievement in an introductory college physics course. In this prior study, we found that the gender gap on exams and the FMCE among students who completed two 15-minute self-affirmation writing exercises was significantly reduced compared to the gender gap among students who completed neutral writing exercises. In a follow-up study we replicated the self-affirmation intervention in a later semester of the same course, with the same instructor. In this paper, we report the details and preliminary results of the replication study, where we find similar patterns along exams and course grades, but do not observe these patterns along the FMCE. We begin to investigate the critical features of replicating educational interventions, finding that replicating educational interventions is challenging, complex, and involves potentially subtle factors, some of which we explore and others that require further research.

  9. Eschatology of Modern Totalitarianism and the Challenges of Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoniu Alexandru FLANDORFER

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Along his history, Man has always been mesmerized by the ideal of creating an earthly paradise out of his habitat, so he implemented the vector of progress by means of the particular Myth that was inherent to each epoch. Man’s fascination with his exponential evolution in the world appeared with the industrial revolution that was gradually enhanced by the intrusion of politics. A mixture of political and socio-economic aspects was created with the sole purpose of consolidating such historical tendencies that led to the birth of the totalitarian regimes of the 20th c., taking the shapes of secular religions, (R. Aron, political / intra-mundane religions (E. Voegelin, religions of earthly redemption (E. Morin, ideologies of redemption (J. Freund. Nowadays, after the failure of politics, the semantic “pool” of collective imagination has received the addition of a new spasm of humankind that was generated by the following issues: the evolution of science up to a teleological praxis, the maximal efficiency of production leading to an inherent over-consumption, and, finally, the replacement of Christian morals by the ethical commandments of the society. Our research constitutes a phenomenological analysis of totalitarianism and the dystopian challenges of Globalization. We notice that both the Nazi or communist counter-utopias, and the present-day dystopia are the result of the secularization of religion; while the human being, stuck in a secular millenarianism, has sketched new coordinates in a godless environment. The solution to avoid humankind’s own moral suicide is to be found not in the social hypostases of individual, but in the return to mysticism. It is therefore necessary to return to the archetype rather than to a prototype that is permanently cloned in the process of uniformization of the society as a result of standardization and in the atomization of the individual through digital socialization.

  10. The Global Fund's resource allocation decisions for HIV programmes: addressing those in need

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avdeeva Olga

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Between 2002 and 2010, the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria's investment in HIV increased substantially to reach US$12 billion. We assessed how the Global Fund's investments in HIV programmes were targeted to key populations in relation to disease burden and national income. Methods We conducted an assessment of the funding approved by the Global Fund Board for HIV programmes in Rounds 1-10 (2002-2010 in 145 countries. We used the UNAIDS National AIDS Spending Assessment framework to analyze the Global Fund investments in HIV programmes by HIV spending category and type of epidemic. We examined funding per capita and its likely predictors (HIV adult prevalence, HIV prevalence in most-at-risk populations and gross national income per capita using stepwise backward regression analysis. Results About 52% ($6.1 billion of the cumulative Global Fund HIV funding was targeted to low- and low-middle-income countries. Around 56% of the total ($6.6 billion was channelled to countries in sub-Saharan Africa. The majority of funds were for HIV treatment (36%; $4.3 billion and prevention (29%; $3.5 billion, followed by health systems and community systems strengthening and programme management (22%; $2.6 billion, enabling environment (7%; $0.9 billion and other activities. The Global Fund investment by country was positively correlated with national adult HIV prevalence. About 10% ($0.4 billion of the cumulative HIV resources for prevention targeted most-at-risk populations. Conclusions There has been a sustained scale up of the Global Fund's HIV support. Funding has targeted the countries and populations with higher HIV burden and lower income. Prevention in most-at-risk populations is not adequately prioritized in most of the recipient countries. The Global Fund Board has recently modified eligibility and prioritization criteria to better target most-at-risk populations in Round 10 and beyond. More guidance is being provided for Round 11 to strategically focus demand for Global Fund financing in the present resource-constrained environment.

  11. The future role of nuclear power in addressing global environmental problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decision makers have to increasingly balance the costs versus benefits of various energy choices against a background of global environmental deterioration. This is particularly so in the choice of long term electricity production strategies where these have to be balanced against the potential of a very severe disruption of the world's climate due to global warming. In this presentation, the threat of global warming is quantified and scenarios are developed of future predicted energy consumption patterns and their impact on international policies to curb global warming, are analyzed. The conclusion is reached that the threat of global warming is so severe that, on the macro level, an international accepted strategy of utilising a proper balance between all forms of electricity production, is a matter of priority and that all national energy choices should be taken against this framework. Such strategic decisions on the macro level must, however, also translate into the micro level of energy production on topics which include: - more efficient plant utilisation; - more effective risk management; correct choice and application of technology; and - better understanding of issues concerning safety, quality and environmental impact. (author)

  12. Addressing challenges in the production and analysis of illumina sequencing data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelso Janet

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Advances in DNA sequencing technologies have made it possible to generate large amounts of sequence data very rapidly and at substantially lower cost than capillary sequencing. These new technologies have specific characteristics and limitations that require either consideration during project design, or which must be addressed during data analysis. Specialist skills, both at the laboratory and the computational stages of project design and analysis, are crucial to the generation of high quality data from these new platforms. The Illumina sequencers (including the Genome Analyzers I/II/IIe/IIx and the new HiScan and HiSeq represent a widely used platform providing parallel readout of several hundred million immobilized sequences using fluorescent-dye reversible-terminator chemistry. Sequencing library quality, sample handling, instrument settings and sequencing chemistry have a strong impact on sequencing run quality. The presence of adapter chimeras and adapter sequences at the end of short-insert molecules, as well as increased error rates and short read lengths complicate many computational analyses. We discuss here some of the factors that influence the frequency and severity of these problems and provide solutions for circumventing these. Further, we present a set of general principles for good analysis practice that enable problems with sequencing runs to be identified and dealt with.

  13. Searching for scalable processes: addressing the challenges in times of increasing complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federsel, Hans-Jürgen

    2003-11-01

    The position of the pharmaceutical industry at the beginning of the 21st Century and its role in process research and development are important considerations. Based on recent figures and statistics, it is evident that new and maybe unorthodox ways of operating need to be envisaged to counteract the explosive rise in research and development costs (> US $800 million per successful launch in 2002) and the worryingly high level of attrition (approximately 90%), which, in addition to long handling times for authority approval, lead to a continued decline in the number of drugs entering the market. In addition to pointing out these harsh realities, it is essential to remember that the time taken to bring a new product forward is crucial. In this context, a front-loading model has been developed and applied in AstraZeneca's process research and development. The enormous implications of chirality in the pharmacological arena have been fully acknowledged for many years, and sales figures of chiral molecules corroborate the importance of this feature. The methodologies that are available to address the design and scale-up of production methods are also reviewed against a backdrop of recent in-house cases. PMID:14758755

  14. Addressing the Challenges of Anomaly Detection for Cyber Physical Energy Grid Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferragut, Erik M [ORNL; Laska, Jason A [ORNL; Melin, Alexander M [ORNL; Czejdo, Bogdan [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    The consolidation of cyber communications networks and physical control systems within the energy smart grid introduces a number of new risks. Unfortunately, these risks are largely unknown and poorly understood, yet include very high impact losses from attack and component failures. One important aspect of risk management is the detection of anomalies and changes. However, anomaly detection within cyber security remains a difficult, open problem, with special challenges in dealing with false alert rates and heterogeneous data. Furthermore, the integration of cyber and physical dynamics is often intractable. And, because of their broad scope, energy grid cyber-physical systems must be analyzed at multiple scales, from individual components, up to network level dynamics. We describe an improved approach to anomaly detection that combines three important aspects. First, system dynamics are modeled using a reduced order model for greater computational tractability. Second, a probabilistic and principled approach to anomaly detection is adopted that allows for regulation of false alerts and comparison of anomalies across heterogeneous data sources. Third, a hierarchy of aggregations are constructed to support interactive and automated analyses of anomalies at multiple scales.

  15. Addressing fundamental architectural challenges of an activity-based intelligence and advanced analytics (ABIAA) system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Kevin; Albert, Thomas; Brower, Bernard V.; Pellechia, Matthew F.

    2015-06-01

    The domain of Geospatial Intelligence Analysis is rapidly shifting toward a new paradigm of Activity Based Intelligence (ABI) and information-based Tipping and Cueing. General requirements for an advanced ABIAA system present significant challenges in architectural design, computing resources, data volumes, workflow efficiency, data mining and analysis algorithms, and database structures. These sophisticated ABI software systems must include advanced algorithms that automatically flag activities of interest in less time and within larger data volumes than can be processed by human analysts. In doing this, they must also maintain the geospatial accuracy necessary for cross-correlation of multi-intelligence data sources. Historically, serial architectural workflows have been employed in ABIAA system design for tasking, collection, processing, exploitation, and dissemination. These simpler architectures may produce implementations that solve short term requirements; however, they have serious limitations that preclude them from being used effectively in an automated ABIAA system with multiple data sources. This paper discusses modern ABIAA architectural considerations providing an overview of an advanced ABIAA system and comparisons to legacy systems. It concludes with a recommended strategy and incremental approach to the research, development, and construction of a fully automated ABIAA system.

  16. Evolution of nuclear reactor containments in India: Addressing the present day challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indigenously developed Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRs) that form the backbone of current stage of nuclear power development in India have seen continuous evolution of their containment systems. This evolution that has taken place over implementation of 18 PHWRs (200/220/540 MWe) has encompassed all aspects of containment design, viz. the structural system, energy management system, radio-activity management and hydrogen management system. As a part of ongoing efforts toward strengthening of safety performance, India is also ready with the design of Advance Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR), which represents a technology demonstrator for advanced reactor systems and for thorium utilization. This reactor has a number of improved passive safety features and it is capable of meeting the demanding safety challenges that future reactor system would be expected to meet as a result of emerging expectations in the background of accidents over the past three decades viz. those at Three Mile Island (1979), Chernobyl (1986) and most recently at Fukushima (2011). In this lecture I shall focus on the evolution of nuclear reactor containments in India and highlight the design, associated structural and thermal hydraulics safety assessment made over the years for the improvement of containment performance

  17. Vision for cross-layer optimization to address the dual challenges of energy and reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, Heather M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dehon, Andre [U. PENN; Carter, Nicholas P [INTEL

    2009-01-01

    We are rapidly approaching an inflection point where the conventional target of producing perfect, identical transistors that operate without upset can no longer be maintained while continuing to reduce the energy per operation. With power requirements already limiting chip performance, continuing to demand perfect, upset-free transistors would mean the end of scaling benefits. The big challenges in device variability and reliability are driven by uncommon tails in distributions, infrequent upsets, one-size-fits-all technology requirements, and a lack of information about the context of each operation. Solutions co-designed across traditional layer boundaries in our system stack can change the game, allowing architecture and software (a) to compensate for uncommon variation, environments, and events, (b) to pass down invariants and requirements for the computation, and (c) to monitor the health of collections of deVices. Cross-layer codesign provides a path to continue extracting benefits from further scaled technologies despite the fact that they may be less predictable and more variable. While some limited multi-layer mitigation strategies do exist, to move forward redefining traditional layer abstractions and developing a framework that facilitates cross-layer collaboration is necessary.

  18. Addressing AACSB Global and Technology Requirements: Exploratory Assessment of a Marketing Management Assignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Scott; Bao, Yongchuan

    2009-01-01

    The Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB) standards mandate knowledge of global and technology issues. Businesses desire employees with ability to analyze international markets and to be adept with technology. Taxpayers supporting public universities and organizations hiring business school graduates expect accountability…

  19. Addressing the challenges of cleft lip and palate research in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mossey Peter

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The Indian sub-continent remains one of the most populous areas of the world with an estimated population of 1.1 billion in India alone. This yields an estimated 24.5 million births per year and the birth prevalence of clefts is somewhere between 27,000 and 33,000 clefts per year. Inequalities exist, both in access to and quality of cleft care with distinct differences in urban versus rural access and over the years the accumulation of unrepaired clefts of the lip and palate make this a significant health care problem in India. In recent years the situation has been significantly improved through the intervention of Non Governmental Organisations such as SmileTrain and Transforming Faces Worldwide participating in primary surgical repair programmes. The cause of clefts is multi factorial with both genetic and environmental input and intensive research efforts have yielded significant advances in recent years facilitated by molecular technologies in the genetic field. India has tremendous potential to contribute by virtue of improving research expertise and a population that has genetic, cultural and socio-economic diversity. In 2008, the World Health Organisation (WHO has recognised that non-communicable diseases, including birth defects cause significant infant mortality and childhood morbidity and have included cleft lip and palate in their Global Burden of Disease (GBD initiative. This will fuel the interest of India in birth defects registration and international efforts aimed at improving quality of care and ultimately prevention of non-syndromic clefts of the lip and palate.

  20. Addressing the Challenges of Multi-Domain Data Integration with the SemantEco Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, E. W.; Seyed, P.; McGuinness, D. L.

    2013-12-01

    Data integration across multiple domains will continue to be a challenge with the proliferation of big data in the sciences. Data origination issues and how data are manipulated are critical to enable scientists to understand and consume disparate datasets as research becomes more multidisciplinary. We present the SemantEco framework as an exemplar for designing an integrative portal for data discovery, exploration, and interpretation that uses best practice W3C Recommendations. We use the Resource Description Framework (RDF) with extensible ontologies described in the Web Ontology Language (OWL) to provide graph-based data representation. Furthermore, SemantEco ingests data via the software package csv2rdf4lod, which generates data provenance using the W3C provenance recommendation (PROV). Our presentation will discuss benefits and challenges of semantic integration, their effect on runtime performance, and how the SemantEco framework assisted in identifying performance issues and improved query performance across multiple domains by an order of magnitude. SemantEco benefits from a semantic approach that provides an 'open world', which allows data to incrementally change just as it does in the real world. SemantEco modules may load new ontologies and data using the W3C's SPARQL Protocol and RDF Query Language via HTTP. Modules may also provide user interface elements for applications and query capabilities to support new use cases. Modules can associate with domains, which are first-class objects in SemantEco. This enables SemantEco to perform integration and reasoning both within and across domains on module-provided data. The SemantEco framework has been used to construct a web portal for environmental and ecological data. The portal includes water and air quality data from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and species observation counts for birds and fish from the Avian Knowledge Network and the Santa Barbara Long Term Ecological Research, respectively. We provide regulation ontologies using OWL2 datatype facets to detect out-of-range measurements for environmental standards set by the EPA, i.a. Users adjust queries using module-defined facets and a map presents the resulting measurement sites. Custom icons identify sites that violate regulations, making them easy to locate. Selecting a site gives the option of charting spatially proximate data from different domains over time. Our portal currently provides 1.6 billion triples of scientific data in RDF. We segment data by ZIP code and reasoning over 2157 measurements with our EPA regulation ontology that contains 131 regulations takes 2.5 seconds on a 2.4 GHz Intel Core 2 Quad with 8 GB of RAM. SemantEco's modular design and reasoning capabilities make it an exemplar for building multidisciplinary data integration tools that provide data access to scientists and the general population alike. Its provenance tracking provides accountability and its reasoning services can assist users in interpreting data. Future work includes support for geographical queries using the Open Geospatial Consortium's GeoSPARQL standard.

  1. Agri-food business: global challenges - innovative solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Glauben, Thomas; Hanf, Jon H.; Kopsidis, Michael, 1964-; Pieniadz, Agata; Reinsberg, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    The rise of a western-style middle class in many successful emerging economies like China currently is inducing deep structural changes on agricultural world markets and within the global agri-food business. As a result of both higher incomes and concerns over product safety and quality the global demand for high-quality and safe food products is increasing significantly. In order to meet the new required quality, globally minimum quality standards are rising and private standards emerging. A...

  2. Global warming and the challenge of international cooperation: an interdisciplinary assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The book aims to explore the nature of potential climatic change. It seeks to assess the scientific, economic legal and political issues related to the threat of global warming from an interdisciplinary perspective. The seven chapters have the following titles: the challenge of global warming; global warming and ozone depletion - certainties and uncertainties; consequences of global climate change for Earth's biosphere; global energy use and global warming; problems and prospects of institutionalizing ecological interdependence in a world of local independence; political institutions and climate change; and policy options for responding to the threat of global warming. Six chapters are abstracted separately. 158 refs

  3. Addressing Barriers to the Development and Adoption of Rapid Diagnostic Tests in Global Health

    OpenAIRE

    Eric Miller; Sikes, Hadley D.

    2015-01-01

    Immunochromatographic rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) have demonstrated significant potential for use as point-of- care diagnostic tests in resource-limited settings. Most notably, RDTs for malaria have reached an unparalleled level of technological maturity and market penetration, and are now considered an important complement to standard microscopic methods of malaria diagnosis. However, the technical development of RDTs for other infectious diseases, and their uptake within the global health...

  4. Places to Go: Challenges to Multicultural Art Education in a Global Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Dipti

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between globalization and postmodern multicultural art education. The questions that drive my investigation are: What is the role of postmodern multiculturalism in this current phase of globalization and what challenges does globalization pose for multiculturalism? I explore the shifts in the field of art…

  5. Social Justice and the Global Economy: New Challenges for Social Work in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polack, Robert J.

    2004-01-01

    The globalization of the economy creates new challenges for social work in the arenas of social and economic justice. This article outlines social justice issues related to the debt crisis of the Global South and sweatshops. A presentation of colonial precursors is followed by a detailed examination of these global institutions with an emphasis on…

  6. Facing safety and security challenges: A national and international perspective (Opening address)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This international conference on Effective Nuclear Regulatory Systems is more than a gathering of senior regulators and of nuclear technologists; it is truly an international assembly of those who implement nuclear safety, security and emergency preparedness. The sessions should have a definitive underlying theme and purpose that support the objectives of the conference. A common understanding of the purpose of regulation in general and nuclear regulation in particular, should provide the connectivity between every one of us, independent of country or organization. A good starting point for the common understanding of regulation would be to note that regulation is done for the well-being of our people, for the common good, with full consideration of the national interests, and of international law and agreements. Nuclear regulation is a disciplined national tool for establishing predictable safety and security frameworks. It works by establishing and improving technical and legal structures to define the acceptable safety case that serves the public interest. Senior nuclear regulators, you and I, are coming together, in Moscow, in winter, in 2006, to make a statement regarding our responsibilities and to deliver a series of products, sustained by a common understanding of nuclear regulation. Moreover, we are here because we care about our nations and because we can and want to work together, better. In this regard, I present for your thoughtful consideration here, as a purpose, the objective stated by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in its current strategic plan: to enable the use and management of radioactive materials and nuclear fuels for beneficial civilian purposes in a manner that protects public health and safety and the environment, promotes the security of our nation, and provides for regulatory actions that are open, effective, efficient, realistic and timely. With that purpose in mind, it becomes clear why our presence here today is important. In fact, as inevitable as day and night, there is supply and there is demand. Unfortunately, there are also imbalances that may occur in supply and demand. The world is again experiencing that almost forgotten enemy: expensive and/or unreliable energy supply. Many times we have seen that society is disrupted and people suffer when energy is costly, scarce, or not available. The solutions to economic and reliable energy supply are surely important worldwide. In the case of the USA, dependence on energy is somewhat unique; solutions are needed for the short term and solutions are needed that will endure the test of time and crises. Therefore, the USA, like many other countries, is reviewing the strategic, economic, and environmental considerations of the nation's overall energy supply and openly considering the contributions of nuclear power to meet its present and future energy needs. In fact, in the USA, President Bush and the Congress have taken positive steps to ensure that nation's energy mix includes the reliability of supply, the environmental benefits, and the steady costs that are now ascribed to operating nuclear power plants. Maintaining the requisite focus on safety and security, the NRC has the obligation and responsibility to respond to the needs of the country. Although our particular needs may differ, you are surely being asked to be ready to implement a set of effective regulatory tools that are responsive to the energy, economic, and security demands of the present and the near future. I believe that we can agree that every nation of the world would be better served by reducing imbalances in the energy supply and demand, and by supporting safe, economical and environmentally friendly electrical energy supply that meets the global demand

  7. The Urgent Need for Universities to Comprehensively Address Global Climate Change Across Disciplines and Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemons, John

    2011-09-01

    I review the status of scientific, political, and moral problems of global climate change (GCC) and, based on lessons from environmental and sustainability programs in universities, demonstrate that universities have had a lethargic response to urgent needs to mitigate the problems. I explore reasons for the response, and conclude that there is an urgent need for comprehensive and wide-ranging change in universities to help mitigate GCC. My discussion is focused on those within universities as well as those in environmental professions regardless of their areas of specialization.

  8. Opening Statement - Angel Gurria [International Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Energy in the 21. Century: Addressing Energy Needs and Environmental Challenges, Beijing (China), 20-22 April 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is a great honour to open this International Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Energy. It is also a privilege for the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency to co-sponsor this conference. I wish to thank both our hosts, the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Government of China, represented by the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology and the China Atomic Energy Authority, for convening us today to advance on our common goal: to secure clean and peaceful nuclear power for the 21st century. The global crisis has exposed not only the paramount challenges of today?s global economy and the remarkable level of interdependence among our nations. It has also confronted us with our duty to define the kind of global economy we need for tomorrow. It is our responsibility to devise sound policies for a stronger, cleaner and fairer global economy. Clean and affordable energy, including access to safe and secure nuclear power, should be a central element of our efforts. This is essential not only for a sustainable economy, but also for the future of our planet. The crisis has prompted us to act immediately and in concert. Take the example of our hosts, the Government of China. In the face of the economic slowdown, they responded rapidly and in a comprehensive fashion. Importantly, they increased government spending, and stimulated domestic demand, and are looking into effective ways to enhance social policies. The turmoil showed that China and all of us need to be more involved in international economic cooperation. We are profoundly affected by the policies implemented by each of our countries. There is no better example than energy to illustrate our interdependence. Holding this meeting in Beijing shows the importance China places on international cooperation and recognizes the role China could play in designing clean and safe energy solutions for the future. For me, coming to Beijing is also an opportunity to stress the high significance of the OECD partnership with China. Our organization is now more open and plural, welcoming new members and having launched an ?enhanced engagement? process with the most important emerging economies. Forging a more structured and stronger partnership with China is fundamental in such a process. It is based on our mutual interest to develop global solutions to global challenges, such as nuclear energy in the 21st century. Thus, I urge you to look into three important issues, which we should address in the years to come, namely, security, financing and development of nuclear energy

  9. Global climate change: Implications, challenges, and mitigation measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book presents a perspective of the potential problem of global climate change induced by human activity. The editors have presented viewpoints of experts (advocates and skeptics) representing the issues of climate change. Possible results from long-term global change discussed in this book include mass migrations of plants and animals; changes in crop yields; flood and drought; and economic, political, and cultural changes. The text contains 20 chapters on the impact of global climate change and 10 chapters on the mitigation of effects and policy development

  10. Assembling GHERG: Could "academic crowd-sourcing" address gaps in global health estimates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudan, Igor; Campbell, Harry; Maruši?, Ana; Sridhar, Devi; Nair, Harish; Adeloye, Davies; Theodoratou, Evropi; Chan, Kit Yee

    2015-06-01

    In recent months, the World Health Organization (WHO), independent academic researchers, the Lancet and PLoS Medicine journals worked together to improve reporting of population health estimates. The new guidelines for accurate and transparent health estimates reporting (likely to be named GATHER), which are eagerly awaited, represent a helpful move that should benefit the field of global health metrics. Building on this progress and drawing from a tradition of Child Health Epidemiology Reference Group (CHERG)'s successful work model, we would like to propose a new initiative - "Global Health Epidemiology Reference Group" (GHERG). We see GHERG as an informal and entirely voluntary international collaboration of academic groups who are willing to contribute to improving disease burden estimates and respect the principles of the new guidelines - a form of "academic crowd-sourcing". The main focus of GHERG will be to identify the "gap areas" where not much information is available and/or where there is a lot of uncertainty present about the accuracy of the existing estimates. This approach should serve to complement the existing WHO and IHME estimates and to represent added value to both efforts. PMID:26445671

  11. Poverty and Environmental Degradation Challenges within the Global Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabogunje, Akin L.

    2002-01-01

    Since the end of the second World War, the link between deepening poverty and environmental degradation has increased in visibility despite the efforts of the United Nations and other international agencies. Focuses on globalization, poverty, and the environment. (DDR)

  12. CHALLENGES AND OUTLOOK OF INDIAN ECONOMY – A GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE

    OpenAIRE

    Roshankumar M. Bhigania

    2014-01-01

    India and China- First, the outlook from a global perspective, India clearly is one of the fastest growing emerging economies of the world, next to China, having the potential to overtake China in the medium-term. Though in recent times there has been a sharp deceleration in growth of India but these are for domestic reasons rather than global compulsions. Some of the distinct advantages which India has over China are:

  13. Land System Science: between global challenges and local realities?

    OpenAIRE

    Peter H. Verburg; Karl-Heinz Erb; Ole Mertz; Giovana Espindola

    2013-01-01

    This issue of Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability provides an overview of recent advances in Land System Science while at the same time setting the research agenda for the Land System Science community. Land System Science is not just representing land system changes as either a driver or a consequence of global environmental change. Land systems also offer solutions to global change through adaptation and mitigation and can play a key role in achieving a sustainable future earth....

  14. The Minamata Convention on Mercury: attempting to address the global controversy of dental amalgam use and mercury waste disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Tim K; Contreras, John T; Liang, Bryan A

    2014-02-15

    In October 2013, a new international binding treaty instrument called the Minamata Convention on Mercury opened for signature in Minamata City, Japan, the site of arguably the worst public health and environmental disaster involving mercury contamination. The treaty aims to curb the significant health and environmental impacts of mercury pollution and includes provisions addressing the mining, export and import, storage, and waste management of products containing mercury. Importantly, a provision heavily negotiated in the treaty addresses the use of dental fillings using mercury amalgam, an issue that has been subject to decades of global controversy. Though use of dental amalgam is widespread and has benefits, concerns have been raised regarding the potential for human health risk and environmental damage from emissions and improper waste management. While the Minamata Convention attempts to address these issues by calling for a voluntary phase-down of dental amalgam use and commitment to other measures, it falls short by failing to require binding and measurable targets to achieve these goals. In response, the international community should begin exploring ways to strengthen the implementation of the dental amalgam treaty provisions by establishing binding phase-down targets and milestones as well as exploring financing mechanisms to support treaty measures. Through strengthening of the Convention, stakeholders can ensure equitable access to global oral health treatment while also promoting responsible environmental stewardship. PMID:24291137

  15. GLOBAL CHALLENGES FOR SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT IN SLOVAKIA

    OpenAIRE

    Magdalana Bartosova; Stefan Buday

    2013-01-01

    The paper is focused on the evaluation of economic, social and environmental challenges of sustainable agriculture. The selected indicators of the economic challenges of sustainable agriculture imply that agriculture in Slovakia is not in long term be able to ensure competitiveness in the European market, gross agricultural output is characterized by a faster decline in animal production than in crop production and the value of import of agri-food commodities is higher than the value of...

  16. Nuclear power and the global challenges of energy security, 6 September 2007, London, England, World Nuclear Association Annual Symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Atoms for Peace speech given by US President Eisenhower in 1953 - the speech that paved the way for the creation of the IAEA - he declared that a special purpose of Atoms for Peace would be 'to provide abundant electrical energy in the power-starved areas of the world'. That vision has yet to be realized. And it should not be taken to mean that nuclear power is the solution for all countries, or for all developing countries. But I would reiterate what I said at the outset - that the global challenges of security and development are interlinked, and that addressing the energy security needs of all countries will be a key to progress on both fronts. It is incumbent upon us to see to it that nuclear power will fulfil its potential in addressing these challenges

  17. Addressing the data challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen B Simmons

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The humanitarian relief community needs to collect disability-specific data through rapid needs assessments, registration processes, accessing local knowledge and disability monitoring.

  18. Struggles Against Bilateral FTAs: Challenges for Transnational Global Justice Activism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziz Choudry

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The past decade has seen major movements and mobilizations against the new crop of bilateral free trade and investment agreements being pursued by governments in the wake of the failure of global (World Trade Organization and regional (e.g. Free Trade Area of the Americas negotiations, and the defeat of an attempted Multilateral Agreement on Investment in the 1990s.  However, in spite of much scholarly, non-governmental organization (NGO and activist focus on transnational global justice activism, many of these movements, such as the major multi-sectoral popular struggle over the recently-concluded US-Korea Free Trade Agreement, are hardly acknowledged in North America and Europe.  With a shift in emphasis pushing liberalization and deregulation of trade and investment increasingly favouring lower-profile bilateral agreements, this article maps the resistance movements to these latest shifts in global free market capitalist relations and discusses the disconnect between these (mainly Southern struggles and dominant scholarly and NGO conceptions of global justice and the global justice movement as well as questions of knowledge production arising from these movements.

  19. Creation of arbitrary Dicke and NOON states of trapped-ion qubits by global addressing with composite pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose a fast and efficient technique to create classes of highly entangled states of trapped ions, such as arbitrary Dicke states and superpositions of them, e.g. NOON states. The ions are initialized in the phonon ground state and are addressed globally with a composite pulse that is resonant with the first motional sideband. The technique is fairly robust to parameter fluctuations and operates on comparatively short time scales, as resonant interactions allow one to use the minimum laser pulse area. The number of single pulses from the composite sequence is equal to the number of ions; thus the implementation complexity grows only linearly with the size of the system. The approach does not require individual addressing of the ions in the trap and can be applied both inside and outside the Lamb–Dicke regime. (paper)

  20. How the Japanese steel industry is addressing global environmental problems - focusing on measures to control carbon dioxide emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagasawa, T. [Sumitomo Metal Industries Ltd., Osaka (Japan). Global Environmental Development Dept.

    1995-06-01

    Steelworks consume large quantities of raw materials and energy in their manufacturing process. For this reason, the Japanese steel industry has been engaged in industry-wide efforts for more efficient use of resources and energy and for environmental protection. These efforts are proving highly effective in controlling carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions through the furtherance of energy saving in the context of global environmental problems, including global warming, which have come to the fore in recent years. This report describes how the Japanese steel industry is addressing the need to control CO{sub 2} emissions mainly by reducing energy consumption, and what the industry is planning to do in the future. 3 figs.

  1. Free-trade agreements: challenges for global health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Helena

    2015-01-01

    In this study new free-trade agreements are discussed, which are based on the breaking down of tariff and technical barriers and normally exclude most of the poorest countries in the world. Considering the current context of economic globalization and its health impacts, seven controversial points of these treaties and their possible implications for global public health are presented, mainly regarding health equity and other health determinants. Finally, this research proposes a greater social and health professionals participation in the formulation and discussion of these treaties, and a deeper insertion of Brazil in this important international agenda. PMID:26270018

  2. IT challenges of Gaia's Astrometric Global Iterative Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Munoz, Jose Luis; O'Mullane, William

    2015-12-01

    The Astrometric Global Iterative Solution (AGIS) scheme is the key process in the astrometric reduction of the Gaia data. It's main purpose is to generate the astrometic part of the Gaia catalogue in a way that optimally combines all 10^12 available measurements in a globally, self-consistent manner.We will outline the technical design and chosen approaches for the distributed processing infrastructure of AGIS. An important aspect in this is the efficient reading and passing of observation data to the mathematical core algorithms.

  3. An integrated framework to address climate change (ESCAPE) and further developments of the global and regional climate modules (MAGICC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ESCAPE (the Evaluation of Strategies to address Climate change by Adapting to and Preventing Emissions) is an integrated climate change assessment model constructed between 1990 and 1992 for DG XI of the Commission of the European Community by a consortium of research institutes headed by the Climatic Research Unit (CRU). It has been designed to enable the user to generate future scenarios of greenhouse gas emissions (through an energy-economic model), examine their impact on global climate and sea level (through two independent global climate models), and illustrate some of the consequences of this global climate change at a regional scale for the European Community (through a regional climate scenario generator and impact models). We provide a very brief overview of the ESCAPE model which, although innovative, suffers from a number of major limitations. Subsequent work in the CRU has concentrated on improvements to the global climate module and work has also commenced on an improved regional climate scenario generating module. These improvements will lead to a new integrated climate change assessment model, MAGICC (Model for the Assessment of Greenhouse gas Induced Climate Change) which can easily be incorporated into new larger integrated frameworks developed by other institutes. (Author)

  4. Makerere University College of Health Sciences’ role in addressing challenges in health service provision at Mulago National Referral Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sekandi Juliet

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mulago National Referral Hospital (MNRH, Uganda’s primary tertiary and teaching hospital, and Makerere University College of Health Sciences (MakCHS have a close collaborative relationship. MakCHS students complete clinical rotations at MNRH, and MakCHS faculty partner with Mulago staff in clinical care and research. In 2009, as part of a strategic planning process, MakCHS undertook a qualitative study to examine care and service provision at MNRH, identify challenges, gaps, and solutions, and explore how MakCHS could contribute to improving care and service delivery at MNRH. Methods Key informant interviews (n=23 and focus group discussions (n=7 were conducted with nurses, doctors, administrators, clinical officers and other key stakeholders. Interviews and focus groups were tape recorded and transcribed verbatim, and findings were analyzed through collaborative thematic analysis. Results Challenges to care and service delivery at MNRH included resource constraints (staff, space, equipment, and supplies, staff inadequacies (knowledge, motivation, and professionalism, overcrowding, a poorly functioning referral system, limited quality assurance, and a cumbersome procurement system. There were also insufficiencies in the teaching of professionalism and communication skills to students, and patient care challenges that included lack of access to specialized services, risk of infections, and inappropriate medications. Suggestions for how MakCHS could contribute to addressing these challenges included strengthening referral systems and peripheral health center capacity, and establishing quality assurance mechanisms. The College could also strengthen the teaching of professionalism, communication and leadership skills to students, and monitor student training and develop courses that contribute to continuous professional development. Additionally, the College could provide in-service education for providers on professionalism, communication skills, strategies that promote evidence-based practice and managerial leadership skills. Conclusions Although there are numerous barriers to delivery of quality health services at MNRH, many barriers could be addressed by strengthening the relationship between the Hospital and MakCHS. Strategic partnerships and creative use of existing resources, both human and financial, could improve the quality of care and service delivery at MNRH. Improving services and providing more skills training could better prepare MakCHS graduates for leadership roles in other health care facilities, ultimately improving health outcomes throughout Uganda.

  5. Brain and other nervous system disorders across the lifespan - global challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberberg, Donald; Anand, Nalini P; Michels, Kathleen; Kalaria, Raj N

    2015-11-19

    This is an exciting time for scientific discovery that aims to reduce the frequency and impact of neurological, mental health and substance-use disorders. As it became increasingly clear that low- and middle-income countries have a disproportionate share of these disorders, and that many of the problems are best addressed by indigenous researchers who can seek context-sensitive solutions, the US National Institutes of Health and other research funders began to invest more in low- and middle-income country-focused research and research capacity-building to confront this significant public health challenge. In an effort to identify existing information, knowledge gaps, and emerging research and research capacity-building opportunities that are particularly relevant to low- and middle-income countries, in February 2014 the Center for Global Health Studies at the National Institutes of Health Fogarty International Center held a workshop to explore these issues with scientific experts from low- and middle-income countries and the United States. This evolved into the preparation of the Reviews in this supplement, which is designed to highlight opportunities and challenges associated with topical areas in brain-disorders research over the coming decade. This Introduction highlights some of the over-arching and intersecting priorities for addressing causes, prevention, treatment and rehabilitation as well as best practices to promote overall nervous system health. We review some brain disorders in low- and middle-income countries, while the Reviews describe relevant issues and the epidemiology of particular conditions in greater depth. PMID:26580320

  6. Global trade and health: key linkages and future challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas W. Bettcher

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Globalization of trade, marketing and investment has important implications for public health, both negative and positive. This article considers the implications of the single package of World Trade Organization (WTO agreements for public health research and policy, focusing on three themes: commodities, intellectual property rights, and health services. The main aims of the analysis are as follows: to identify how trade issues are associated with the transnationalization of health risks and possible benefits; to identify key areas of research; and to suggest policy-relevant advice and interventions on trade and health issues. The next wave of international trade law will need to take more account of global public health issues. However, to become more engaged in global trade debates, the public health community must gain an understanding of the health effects of global trade agreements. It must also ensure that its own facts are correct, so that public health is not blindly used for political ends, such as justifying unwarranted economic protectionism. ‘‘Healthy trade’’ policies, based on firm empirical evidence and designed to improve health status, are an important step towards reaching a more sustainable form of trade liberalization.

  7. Global trade and health: key linkages and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettcher, D W; Yach, D; Guindon, G E

    2000-01-01

    Globalization of trade, marketing and investment has important implications for public health, both negative and positive. This article considers the implications of the single package of World Trade Organization (WTO) agreements for public health research and policy, focusing on three themes: commodities, intellectual property rights, and health services. The main aims of the analysis are as follows: to identify how trade issues are associated with the transnationalization of health risks and possible benefits; to identify key areas of research; and to suggest policy-relevant advice and interventions on trade and health issues. The next wave of international trade law will need to take more account of global public health issues. However, to become more engaged in global trade debates, the public health community must gain an understanding of the health effects of global trade agreements. It must also ensure that its own facts are correct, so that public health is not blindly used for political ends, such as justifying unwarranted economic protectionism. "Healthy trade" policies, based on firm empirical evidence and designed to improve health status, are an important step towards reaching a more sustainable form of trade liberalization. PMID:10885181

  8. Preparing the next generation of radiochemists for global challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear and radiochemists are needed to support the expansion of nuclear energy, nuclear medicine, and environmental management. In this presentation, the changing needs for educating future generations of radiochemists are described. Consideration of the global nature of these market sectors is given, along with observations and recommendations for changes in academic curricula and training opportunities. (author)

  9. Global climate change--The technology challenge: China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Population growth and developmental pressures, spawned by an increasing demand for resource intensive goods, foods and services, are altering the planet in ways that threaten the long-term well-being of humans and other species. Global climate change and its associated impacts is...

  10. The Challenge of Improving Teaching in a Globalizing World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokek-Cohen, Ya'arit; Davidovich, Nitza

    2011-01-01

    The USA has served as a beacon of hope for thousands of foreign students and academics with its diverse and superior opportunities created by a system of meritocracy unparalleled in the world. In keeping with other industries, academia is increasingly becoming a global village and foreign-born professors constitute a large proportion of university…

  11. Invasive species challenge the global response to emerging diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulme, Philip E

    2014-06-01

    Forecasts of emerging zoonoses neglect the threat alien species pose in disease transmission to humans. A review of alien parasites, hosts, and vectors introduced to Europe highlights the wide range of potential public health risks, the need for better surveillance and risk assessment, and major policy gaps in global preparedness. PMID:24862566

  12. Addressing the Photometric Calibration Challenge: Explicit Determination of the Instrumental Response and Atmospheric Response Functions, and Tying it All Together

    CERN Document Server

    Stubbs, Christopher W

    2012-01-01

    Photometric calibration is currently the dominant source of systematic uncertainty in exploiting type Ia supernovae to determine the nature of the dark energy. We review our ongoing program to address this calibration challenge by performing measurements of both the instrumental response function and the optical transmission function of the atmosphere. A key aspect of this approach is to complement standard star observations by using NIST-calibrated photodiodes as a metrology foundation for optical flux measurements. We present our first attempt to assess photometric consistency between synthetic photometry and observations, by comparing predictions based on a NIST-diode-based determination of the PanSTARRS-1 instrumental response and empirical atmospheric transmission measurements, with fluxes we obtained from observing spectrophotometric standards.

  13. Children at Risk: Global Views on Challenges Facing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neugebauer, Roger

    2011-01-01

    Members of the World Forum community were invited to respond to the question: "What is the most urgent challenge facing young children in your country?" Here are some of their responses. Jamils Richard Achunji Anguaseh mentions that in Cameroon, young children face lots of insecurity, both from health hazards and poor parenting practices. There…

  14. LHC Computing Centres Join Forces for Global Grid Challenge

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Today, in a significant milestone for scientific grid computing, eight major computing centres successfully completed a challenge to sustain a continuous data flow of 600 megabytes per second (MB/s) on average for 10 days from CERN in Geneva, Switzerland to seven sites in Europe and the US

  15. Science Education and Challenges of Globalization in Igbo Nation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezeudu, F. O.; Nkokelonye, C. U.; Adigwe, J. C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviewed the scientific contents in Igbo culture. Description of the Igbos who constitutes an ethnic group occupying southeastern Nigeria was made. It x-rayed the pre-colonial, colonial, and post-colonial culture of Igbo people and identified the scientific cultural activities, which can be harnessed to meet the challenges of modern day…

  16. Trends and EIE higher education response to the current global technical challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poboroniuc, Marian; Livint, Gheorghe

    2014-01-01

    The European Association for Education in Electrical and Information Engineering (EAEEIE) has been for 20 years and still is dedicated to supporting Electrical and Information Engineering (EIE) across Europe. Its new Strategic Alignment of Electrical and Information Engineering in European Higher Education Institutions (SALEIE), an EU supported project, gathers together a global team aiming to provide higher education models in the EIE disciplines that can respond to the key global technical challenges. This paper deals with findings within the SALEIE project's work package WP3 (Global Challenges), namely: state-of-the-art in implementation of the Bologna recommendation for Bachelor and Master, technical challenges that the EIE higher education faces nowadays, and existing models in EIE higher education and their degree of response to key global technical challenges.

  17. Education for Developing a Global Omani Citizen: Current Practices and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Saif Al-Maamari

    2014-01-01

    Oman is a developing country which reformed its educational system in 1998 in order to meet the challenges of the 21st century, especially economic challenges. Strength of national identity and developing a sense of global citizenship were among the priorities of the new educational reform. This paper is based on a review of current practices regarding global citizenship education in educational system. The purpose of this theoretical study was to explore the current provision of the aspects ...

  18. Management games in learning process of business skills : case: global management challenge Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Yichuan

    2011-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is management games in learning process of business skills, Case: Global Management Challenge Finland. The thesis seeks to find out how different management games are used worldwide in learning business skills, it introduces the biggest strategic and management game: Global Management Challenge, studies the case of this game in Finland, discusses how management games could help students learn different business skills and proposes future training programs for thi...

  19. Balancing National and Global Priorities: Urgent Challenges to Ukrainian Economy ??????????????? ???????????? ? ?????????? ???????????: ?????????? ?????? ?????????? ?????????

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markovych Iryna B.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article lies in detection of regularities in changing the structure of the world economic environment as a consequence of transformation of links between national economies, regional formations and supranational structures. Analysing, systemising and generalising scientific works of many scientists, the article considers a conceptual vision of transformational conversions in managing national economy under conditions of increased global imbalances. The article proves that strengthening of complementarity of national and global issues could be successful only under conditions of accounting of specific features of making international contacts under conditions of post-bipolar system of relations when developing development strategies, since influence of its structural factors upon the course of relations between the states is determining. The prospect of further studies in this direction is the search for empirical connection between individual parameters of the quality of institutional provision and development of national economies.???? ?????? ??????? ? ????????? ??????????????? ? ????????? ????????? ??????? ????????????? ????? ??? ????????? ????????????? ?????? ????? ????????????? ???????????, ????????????? ????????????? ? ???????????????? ???????????. ??????????, ?????????????? ? ??????? ??????? ????? ?????? ??????, ???? ??????????? ?????????????? ??????? ????????????????? ?????????????? ? ?????????? ???????????? ?????????? ? ???????? ?????????? ?????????? ???????????. ??????????, ??? ???????? ????????????????? ????????????? ? ??????????? ????? ???? ???????? ?????? ??? ??????? ????? ???????????? ?????????? ????????????? ????????? ? ???????? ?????????????? ??????? ????????? ??? ?????????? ????????? ????????, ????????? ??????? ?? ??????????? ???????? ?? ??? ????????? ????? ????????????? ???????? ????????????. ???????????? ?????????? ???????????? ? ?????? ??????????? ???????? ????? ???????????? ????? ????? ?????????? ??????????? ???????? ?????????????????? ??????????? ? ????????? ???????????? ????????.

  20. MEDICAL TOURISM INDUSTRY CHALLENGES IN THE CONTEXT OF GLOBALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen, IORDACHE

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Medical tourism is not a new concept, even though there is still no international consensus on the name of this phenomenon that is manifesting itself for thousands of years. It is defined by moving patients in various countries to obtain medical care and combined with certain tourist facilities. Increased flow of patients seeking treatment abroad is a global phenomenon linked to economic growth which generates income revenue and a high level of education. Internationally, medical tourism increases by 20% per year, global market for medical tourism at present is estimated to be about 100 billion dollars. This study tries to highlight a conceptual analysis of medical tourism, the targeting of medical tourism flows and major destinations and the proposed tourism development strategies based on the experience of several countries medical.

  1. sPlot - the new global vegetation-plot database for addressing trait-environment relationships across the world's biomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purschke, Oliver; Dengler, Jürgen; Bruelheide, Helge; Chytrý, Milan; Jansen, Florian; Hennekens, Stephan; Jandt, Ute; Jiménez-Alfaro, Borja; Kattge, Jens; De Patta Pillar, Valério; Sandel, Brody; Winter, Marten

    2015-04-01

    The trait composition of plant communities is determined by abiotic, biotic and historical factors, but the importance of macro-climatic factors in explaining trait-environment relationships at the local scale remains unclear. Such knowledge is crucial for biogeographical and ecological theory but also relevant to devise management measures to mitigate the negative effects of climate change. To address these questions, an iDiv Working Group has established the first global vegetation-plot database (sPlot). sPlot currently contains ~700,000 plots from over 50 countries and all biomes, and is steadily growing. Approx. 70% of the most frequent species are represented by at least one trait in the global trait database TRY and gap-filled data will become available for the most common traits. We will give an overview about the structure and present content of sPlot in terms of spatial distribution, data properties and trait coverage. We will explain next steps and perspectives, present first cross-biome analyses of community-weighted mean traits and trait variability, and highlight some ecological questions that can be addressed with sPlot.

  2. Preserving the global environment: The challenge of shared leadership

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book brings together essays commissioned as background reading for an April 1990 conference on the global environment co-sponsored by the American Assembly and the World Resources Institute. Among the topic areas covered are the following: technical aspects of energy policy and climatic change; harnessing the power of the marketplace; international cooperation; international regulatory regimes; world economic climate; deforestation and species loss; human population growth

  3. Leadership in transformation between local embeddedness and global challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Steyrer, Johannes; Hartz, Ronald; Schiffinger, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Based on empirical studies in Romania, Estonia, Germany, and Austria within the GLOBE project, the authors try to answer the question of cultural embeddedness of leadership patterns in an environment of more and more globalised management. Special emphasis is put on the match/mismatch of the observed styles of leadership behaviour of CEO`s with regional and global expectations, on the differences and similarities between the examined countries, the influence of transformational settings in th...

  4. MEDICAL TOURISM INDUSTRY CHALLENGES IN THE CONTEXT OF GLOBALIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen, IORDACHE; Iuliana, CIOCHINA

    2014-01-01

    Medical tourism is not a new concept, even though there is still no international consensus on the name of this phenomenon that is manifesting itself for thousands of years. It is defined by moving patients in various countries to obtain medical care and combined with certain tourist facilities. Increased flow of patients seeking treatment abroad is a global phenomenon linked to economic growth which generates income revenue and a high level of education. Internationally, medical tourism inc...

  5. Injuries and violence: a global public health challenge

    OpenAIRE

    Muazzam Nasrullah

    2010-01-01

    Injuries and violence are a significant cause of mortality and physical disability. Injuries killed five million people worldwide each year [1]. The level of this dilemma, however, differs significantly by age, sex, region and economic development [2]. Globally, road traffic injury mortalities, self-inflicted injury mortality and interpersonal violence, war, drowning, and exposure to fire are the leading cause of deaths among people aged 15-44 years [3]. This special issue aims to assess the ...

  6. The global market for oilseeds: prospects and challenges for Morocco

    OpenAIRE

    Gosselet Nathalie

    2014-01-01

    The global market for oilseeds, grains, vegetable oil and oilseed meal is a complex market which is growing at a very fast pace, and which is characterized by the large volume of production which is traded between countries. Offer is geographically constrained in this market: there are few exporting countries and these are mainly situated on the American continent. Demand on the other hand is more widespread, although highest in...

  7. New Challenges for Urban History: Culture, Networks, Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Hietala, Marjatta

    2012-01-01

    Urban history is a very lively and dynamic research field, showing strict parallelism with the fast increasing of the urban population. Today, competitiveness is one of the key aims for cities in the globalized world. Factors such as accessibility and infrastructure, industry, human capital, innovation, and investment, green spaces, affordable housing, business support and quality of education are necessaries. However, the OECD recognizes three dilemmas in this strategic vision, concerning th...

  8. Challenges of born global firms : NDrive case study

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Inês Costa Dias

    2013-01-01

    When reviewing international strategy relevant theory, I found very interesting the born global firm’s theory. I chose NDrive and I realize that the company fitted well in this context. Although this theory was introduced in the 90s, it continues to have relevance today with more and more companies in the same situation. This case study and the theory embedded will allow students to develop knowledge in strategic management with focus in internationalization strategies and apply important str...

  9. The Global Challenge of Antimicrobial Resistance: Insights from Economic Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Zeckhauser, Richard J.; Ruifang Zhang; Karen Eggleston

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of antimicrobial resistance (AR) limits the therapeutic options for treatment of infections, and increases the social benefit from disease prevention. Like an environmental resource, antimicrobials require stewardship. The effectiveness of an antimicrobial agent is a global public good. We argue for greater use of economic analysis as an input to policy discussion about AR, including for understanding the incentives underlying health behaviors that spawn AR, and to supplement o...

  10. Food security for Africa: an urgent global challenge

    OpenAIRE

    Sasson Albert

    2012-01-01

    Abstract In 2012, food insecurity is still a major global concern as 1 billion people are suffering from starvation, under-, and malnutrition, and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) has concluded that we are still far from reaching millennium development goal (MDG) number 1: to halve extreme poverty and hunger by 2015. In sub-Saharan Africa, the number of people suffering from hunger is estimated at 239 million, and this figure could increase in the near future....

  11. Knowledge capabilities for sustainable development in global classrooms - local challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise Anderberg

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Young Masters Programme provides young people around the worldwith a net–based global–local learning environment for sustainable development. The present study investigates certain aspects of the implementation of this programme in the secondary schools of a Swedish municipality, in the context of the Lund Calling project. The research focuses on critical abilities to act globally, referred to as “knowledge capabilities”, and how they relate to the implementation process of initiating global learning for sustainabledevelopment (GLSD. A phenomenographic approach and semi–structuredinterviews were used in the investigation of the experiences of secondary school pupils, teachers and headmasters who participated in the project. Participants’ experiences of the changes carried out are described in relation to examples of knowledge capabilities needed for GLSD. Critical knowledge capabilities found to have been developed through the implementation were: to take command, and to collaborate. Critical knowledge capabilities perceived asnecessary, but not developed through the programme were: to be prepared, to act in a transdisciplinary manner, and to lead for a holistic understanding.

  12. Implementation of the global plan for insecticide resistance management in malaria vectors: progress, challenges and the way forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mnzava, Abraham P; Knox, Tessa B; Temu, Emmanuel A; Trett, Anna; Fornadel, Christen; Hemingway, Janet; Renshaw, Melanie

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, there has been an increase in resistance of malaria vectors to insecticides, particularly to pyrethroids which are widely used in insecticide-treated nets. The Global Plan for Insecticide Resistance Management in malaria vectors (GPIRM), released in May 2012, is a collective strategy for the malaria community to tackle this challenge. This review outlines progress made to date and the challenges experienced in the implementation of GPIRM, and outlines focus areas requiring urgent attention. Whilst there has been some advancement, uptake of GPIRM at the national level has generally been poor for various reasons, including limited availability of vector control tools with new mechanisms of action as well as critical financial, human and infrastructural resource deficiencies. There is an urgent need for a global response plan to address these deficits and ensure the correct and efficient use of available tools in order to maintain the effectiveness of current vector control efforts whilst novel vector control tools are under development. Emphasis must be placed on enhancing national capacities (such as human and infrastructural resources) to enable efficient monitoring and management of insecticide resistance, and to support availability and accessibility of appropriate new vector control products. Lack of action by the global community to address the threat of insecticide resistance is unacceptable and deprives affected communities of their basic right of universal access to effective malaria prevention. Aligning efforts and assigning the needed resources will ensure the optimal implementation of GPIRM with the ultimate goal of maintaining effective malaria vector control. PMID:25899397

  13. Conducting Community Research in Rural China –Addressing the Methodological Challenges of Recruiting Participants in Rapidly Changing Social Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Jing; Chiu, Helen F.K.; Hou, Zai-Jin; Caine, Eric D.

    2012-01-01

    Background The paper addressed a unique challenge for public health and community research in rural China, i.e., the very large percentage of young adults that comprises a highly mobile working population that has been an essential component of the country’s economic transformation. Fluid local demographic patterns potentially have a substantial impact on sample representativeness and data validity. Methods This report is based upon a cross sectional survey with face-to-face interviews of residents aged 16–34 years in rural communities of Mianyang, Sichuan Province, China. Two waves of fieldwork and other strategies were adopted in response to recruitment challenges. Results 1654 of 3008 potential participants took part in the study; this constituted 98% of those individuals approached and 55% of the persons enumerated in the local household registration system (hukou). Analyses revealed substantial differences among those who were interviewed during September and October 2005, versus those seen during the Chinese Lunar New Year of 2006 when many migrant workers and students returned to their homes. Both groups together differed from those who were unavailable during either recruiting episode. Discussion and Conclusions We discuss potential responses to associated methodological challenges, including, (1) permanent hukou mismatches; (2) temporary hukou mismatches; (3) difficulties faced by potential participants to fully understand the purpose of research, the informed consent process, and specific research questions; and (4) appreciation of the importance of local social networks, as they pertain in particular to rural China. These findings underscore that there may be a need to make “on-the-ground” adjustments to varying local conditions to maximize sample representativeness and data validity. PMID:22662022

  14. Contemporary Business Education: a Solution for Global Leadership Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Tudor Cristian ?icl?u

    2014-01-01

    Education and professional development is considered central issues in civil service development and public administration reform. While this may be true, the content of such programs bears equal influence in skill acquirement, which in turn, has an impact on managerial performance (Perry, 1989). The contemporary economic and social environment poses numerous and complex challenges to public leaders, who need to be equipped with the adequate set of skills and competencies in order to have a p...

  15. Contemporary Business Education: a Solution for Global Leadership Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tudor Cristian Ţiclău

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Education and professional development is considered central issues in civil service development and public administration reform. While this may be true, the content of such programs bears equal influence in skill acquirement, which in turn, has an impact on managerial performance (Perry, 1989. The contemporary economic and social environment poses numerous and complex challenges to public leaders, who need to be equipped with the adequate set of skills and competencies in order to have a proper response. The present paper aims to find out the whether the current educational programs from the business field can be a solution for preparing the next generation of public (and private leaders. My argument is that the latest developments in public management reform (New Public Management, Good Governance and Public Entrepreneurship combined with new demands for effectiveness, efficiency and high quality public services could increase the relevance of such programs. In support for this I presented a series of research results that point to a set of common leadership challenges that transcend the public-private divide. Finally I explored the offerings of the top 5 MBA programs in the world to see whether this is reflected in their educational programs. Not surprisingly, three out of the five programs analysed offer dual degree programs that combine business and public management education as a solution for the leadership challenges that lay ahead.

  16. Global Food Price Inflation : Implications for South Asia, Policy Reactions, and Future Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Sadiq

    2008-01-01

    The surge in global commodity prices of the past few years has presented a tremendous development challenge for South Asian countries. The large loss of income from the terms of trade shock has worsened macroeconomic balances, fueled rapid inflation, and hurt growth. Although commodity prices have come down recently, the benefits are being clouded by the emergence of a severe global financ...

  17. Global Food Price Inflation: Implications for South Asia, Policy Reactions, and Future Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Sadiq

    2008-01-01

    The surge in global commodity prices of the past few years has presented a tremendous development challenge for South Asian countries. The large loss of income from the terms of trade shock has worsened macroeconomic balances, fueled rapid inflation, and hurt growth. Although commodity prices have come down recently, the benefits are being clouded by the emergence of a severe global financial crisis. The adverse consequences of the food price hike for the poor are large; the global financial ...

  18. One Health: The global challenge of epidemic and endemic leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Day Michael J

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract 'One Health' proposes the unification of medical and veterinary sciences with the establishment of collaborative ventures in clinical care, surveillance and control of cross-species disease, education, and research into disease pathogenesis, diagnosis, therapy and vaccination. The concept encompasses the human population, domestic animals and wildlife, and the impact that environmental changes ('environmental health' such as global warming will have on these populations. Visceral leishmaniasis is a perfect example of a small companion animal disease for which prevention and control might abolish or decrease the suffering of canine and human patients, and which aligns well with the One Health approach. In this review we discuss how surveillance for leishmaniases is undertaken globally through the control of anthroponootic visceral leishmaniasis (AVL and zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL. The ZVL epidemic has been managed to date by the culling of infected dogs, treatment of human cases and control of the sandfly vector by insecticidal treatment of human homes and the canine reservoir. Recently, preventive vaccination of dogs in Brazil has led to reduction in the incidence of the canine and human disease. Vaccination permits greater dog owner compliance with control measures than a culling programme. Another advance in disease control in Africa is provided by a surveillance programme that combines remote satellite sensing, ecological modelling, vector surveillance and geo-spatial mapping of the distribution of vectors and of the animal-to-animal or animal-to-human pathogen transmission. This coordinated programme generates advisory notices and alerts on emerging infectious disease outbreaks that may impede or avoid the spreading of visceral leishmaniasis to new areas of the planet as a consequence of global warming.

  19. Environmental changes in perspective: The global response to challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As we approach the end of the second millennium, a series of major problems seems to threaten the world's rapidly expanding population: the consequences of global warming, the hole in the ozone layer, pollution of the Earth's oceans, fresh waters, soil and atmosphere, the declining biodiversity, and the degradation of land and soil quality. Concerns appear to be justified, at least as long as the world's main development goals continue to be the economic levels of its wealthiest nations and their high consumption and waste production patterns

  20. Multilingual trends in a globalized world prospects and challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Navin Kumar

    2013-01-01

    This book presents evolving language education trends by drawing examples and case studies from around the world. Over the past few decades, significant economic and political changes have taken place around the world which have had a significant impact on language teaching and learning practices across the globe. With globalization, the focus of language education has shifted from monolingualism towards bilingualism and multilingualism, in that multilingual practices have become the norm rather than the exception in most parts of the world. This book brings together some of latest controversi

  1. From HIV to global health: opportunities and challenges

    OpenAIRE

    El-Sadr W

    2012-01-01

    Remarkable advances have been achieved over the past decade in confronting the global HIV epidemic. By the end of 2010, 6.5 million persons living with HIV had initiated antiretroviral therapy in low and middle-income countries, the majority in sub Saharan Africa. Of the total of 2.5 new HIV infections that occurred in 2010, 1.9 million occurred in sub Saharan Africa. Nonetheless, 22 countries in sub Saharan Africa have experienced a decrease in HIV incidence. These remarkable achievements ha...

  2. The global scientific data infrastructures: the big data challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Thanos, Costantino

    2010-01-01

    The current data tsunami produced by the new advanced instruments and/or sensors and/or by running simulations and the progress of science is revolutionizing the way in which research is conducted and this poses new challenges to the existing e-infrastructures from both the data and the application sides. Science is becoming data-dominated and a new data-centric way of thinking, organizing and carrying out research activities is gaining ground which needs to be supported by a new type of e-in...

  3. Preparing Students for the Ethical Challenges of Global Citizenship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madelyn Flammia

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an approach to teaching ethical intercultural communication. This approach helps students become aware of their own ethnocentric attitudes and helps them move beyond those perspectives to develop a mindful approach to intercultural communication. The paper begins by introducing the concept of mindful communication and the challenges of developing of a code of ethical behavior for communicating across cultures. Then, strategies for reconciling cultural relativism and universalism are offered. Finally, the paper provides a set of guidelines for ethical behavior in intercultural encounters.

  4. The global market for oilseeds: prospects and challenges for Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gosselet Nathalie

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The global market for oilseeds, grains, vegetable oil and oilseed meal is a complex market which is growing at a very fast pace, and which is characterized by the large volume of production which is traded between countries. Offer is geographically constrained in this market: there are few exporting countries and these are mainly situated on the American continent. Demand on the other hand is more widespread, although highest in Asiatic countries, China in particular. As a result, small importing countries, like Morocco, are in a vulnerable position, and take the full brunt of price volatility. In the 90s, Moroccan oilseed production was relatively high, unfortunately production dropped over the years, and Morocco must now buy vegetable oil and proteins on the global market. Reviving oilseed production in Morocco would considerably help the country and provide numerous benefits, such as food security, improving the country’s trade balance, and enhancing the agronomic management of land thanks to the introduction of break crops. Finally, it would also boost the entire agricultural sector and help increase the income of farmers.

  5. Environmental policy: Meeting the challenge of global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Canadian government's overall approach to resolving the environmental problems due to global warming is discussed, with reference to how this approach is related to actions taken by other countries. Canada's environmental strategy is based the need to correct the failure to take into account the environmental consequences of daily actions. One element seen necessary for such correction, better environmental decisionmaking, is underlain by such key factors as the need to provide a strong scientific base on which to make decisions, resolving uncertainties regarding the greenhouse effect, and an environmentally educated population. Direct governmental measures can be taken to factor environmental considerations into decisions, such as regulatory instruments regarding the environment and economic incentives to encourage taking the environment into account. With respect to global warming, Canada has signed the Hague Declaration on international cooperation to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. About half the annual world emissions of greenhouse gases come from fossil fuel combustion. Canada is the fourth largest producer per capita of the single most important greenhouse gas, carbon dioxide. The transport and industrial sectors each account for ca 25% of Canada's CO2 emissions, and energy conservation is seen as a first step in reducing these emissions. The greatest scope for reducing greenhouse gas emissions in the transport sector appears to lie in the development of convenient and economic alternate fuels

  6. GEOPOLITICS - A NEW FRAMEWORK OF ANALYSIS: GLOBAL CHALLENGES AND PERSPECTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura C?t?lina PA?CU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Geopolitics born at the end of the 19th century and reborn at the end of the 20th century, from the need to explain certain issues arising out of the general evolution of human society and the growing influence of permanent politico-economic changes on the human consciousness and the entire system of socio-political life and culture. Also, geopolitics gives us the opportunity to reflect on the manifestation and evolution of power relations within a particular historical period, to assess and track changes and trends in the current system of international relations, giving us indicators and analytical methods about the reality of international relations. The relations of competition versus cooperation between international actors have changed gradually in the 21st century; however, development cooperation can provide solutions or opportunities for defining global problems. Globalization creates a new framework in security and international relations also introduced the geo-economics perspectives to assumed new found geopolitical importance at the outset of the twenty-first century.

  7. The CharXive Challenge. Regulation of global carbon cycles by vegetation fires

    CERN Document Server

    Ball, R

    2010-01-01

    It is an open, but not unanswerable, question as to how much atmospheric CO2 is sequestered globally by vegetation fires. In this work I conceptualise the question in terms of the general CharXive Challenge, discuss a mechanism by which thermoconversion of biomass may regulate the global distribution of carbon between reservoirs, show how suppression of vegetation fires by human activities may increase the fraction of carbon in the atmospheric pool, and pose three specific CharXive Challenges of crucial strategic significance to our management of global carbon cycles.

  8. Nuclear safeguards in challenging times [Experts on nuclear safeguards and verification assess the global picture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meeting at the IAEA's International Safeguards Symposium in October 2006, more than 500 experts from 60-plus countries and organizations addressed current and future challenges related to safeguards concepts, approaches, technologies, and experience. Sessions addressed five main issues driving developments: Current challenges to the safeguards system; Further strengthening safeguards practices and approaches; Improving the collection and analysis of safeguards information; Advances in safeguards techniques and technology; and Future challenges. Every four to five years, the IAEA brings together safeguards experts from all over the world at international symposia. In October 2001, they met in the shadow of 9/11 and the symposium included a special session on the prevention of nuclear terrorism

  9. Energy policy: challenges of a global vision; Politique energetique: les enjeux d'une vision globale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Destot, Michel [ed.] [Depute de l' Isere, Assemblee Nationale, Paris (France)

    2000-02-18

    This is the proceedings of the 2. parliamentary gathering on energy held on 14 October 1999. The document presents the talks by Mr Michel Destot (as special rapporteur of the Industry's budget in National Assembly) and Laurent Fabius, President of National Assembly, and Jean-Claude Gayssot, Minister of Equipment, Transport and Dwelling, at the opening session, three round tables, the colloquium synthesis and the closing session. The round tables addressed the following issues: - 1. International and long-term approach guided predominantly by energy demand; - 2. Energy solutions in the struggle against greenhouse effect; - 3. Challenges of opening the European energy market (internationalization and decentralization). At the first round table, Yves Martin, President of the technical section of General Council of Mines, structured his introductory report emphasizing the specific issues of three time horizons: the present, characterized by abundant energy offer; the horizon of 10 to 20 years, that of the energy suppliers which is orienting their investments; the horizon of more than half a century, corresponding to responses of far-reaching actions imposed by energy demand and which must be the object of governments' policies. Jean-Yves Le Deaut, deputy of Meurthe-et-Moselle discussed the risks of climate change, resources' exhaustion, nuclear power and the issue of developing the renewable energies. The problems raised by energy demand by the year 2050 to met the needs of an earth population of 9 billions were mentioned by Philippe Trepant, the president of French Union of oil industries. Energy problems from a globalization standpoint were discussed also by Benjamin Dessus, Director of Ecodev program of CNRS. Policy in the field of mastering greenhouse gas releases was mentioned in the talk by Michel Mousel, president of Inter-ministerial Mission for greenhouse effect. In the frame of 2. round table questions relating to energy management, renewable, gas, and nuclear energies were addressed by a number of deputies and officials and representatives from ADEME, Framatome, Paris University and Union for renewable energies. Finally, at the 3. round table, focusing the economic aspects of the internationalization and decentralization of the energy market, several participants discussed questions related to integration, securing the supplies, access to power distribution grids, role of public service, energy market evolution, etc. In his summarizing talk Mr Michel Destot underlined the significant progress made in achieving a genuine French energy culture, able to ensure a long-term, diverse and balanced energy policy covering, at the same time, the environmental, economic, and employment components.

  10. The Century-Long Challenge of Global Carbon Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socolow, R.

    2002-05-01

    The time scale of the global carbon management is a century, not a decade and not a millennium. A century is the ratio of 1000 billion metric tons of carbon [Gt(C)] to 10 Gt(C)/yr. 1000 Gt(C) is the future emissions that will lead to approximately a doubling of the pre-industrial atmospheric CO2 concentration, 280 ppm, assuming the total net ocean plus terrestrial sink remains at half the strength of this source - since 2.1 Gt (C) = 1 ppm, and the concentration today is already 370 ppm. Doubling is the most widely used boundary between acceptable and unacceptable Greenhouse-related environmental disruption, or, in the language of the Framework Convention on Climate Change, the onset of "dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system." And 10 Gt(C)/yr is a conservative estimate of the average annual fossil-fuel carbon source over the century; it is now between 6 and 7 Gt(C). Conventional oil and gas are not sufficiently abundant to generate a serious Greenhouse problem on their own. Well before their cumulative carbon emissions reach 1000 Gt(C), both are expected to become non-competitive as a result of growing costs of access (costs related to resources being very deep underground, or below very deep water, or very remote, or very small.) But several times 1000 Gt(C) of coal resources will probably be competitive with non-fossil fuel alternatives, as will "unconventional" oil and gas resources, such as tar sands. The world will not be saved from a serious Greenhouse problem by fossil fuel depletion. There are four mitigation strategies for avoiding dangerous interference with the climate system. Fossil fuels can cease to dominate the global energy system well before the end of the century, yielding large market share to some combination of renewable energy and nuclear (fission and fusion) energy sources. Fossil fuels can continue to dominate, but most of the carbon in the century's fossil fuels can be prevented from reaching the atmosphere (fossil-carbon sequestration). Carbon can be removed directly from the air by biological or chemical processes. Or the climate system can become so well understood that effective compensating actions can be implemented. If human beings implement none of these strategies, we will have chosen, in effect, to adapt to climate change. Not unlikely will be a mix of all four mitigation strategies plus adaptation. In recent years, as the intrinsic complexity and monumental scale of global carbon management has become better appreciated, new coalitions supportive of policies intended to mitigate climate change have emerged.

  11. SALEIE: An EU project aiming to propose new EIE curricula oriented to key global technical challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poboroniuc, Marian-Silviu; Friesel, Anna

    2014-01-01

    For the last two decades The European Association for Education in Electrical and Information Engineering (EAEEIE) has been dedicated and continue to support the Electrical and Information Engineering (EIE) education in Europe. SALEIE (Strategic Alignment of Electrical and Information Engineering in European Higher Education Institutions) is one of its new EU projects which coagulate a global team aiming to provide higher education models in the EIE disciplines that can respond to the key global technical challenges. The SALEIE project's work package WP3 (Global Challenges) is related to: state-of-the-art in implementation of the Bologna recommendation for Bachelor and Master, EIE connected technical, existing models in EIE higher education and their degree of response to key global technical challenges as well as some examples of curriculum models which see the day light during the SALEIE workshops. That is the subject that the proposed paper deals on.

  12. Opening Address [FR09: International Conference on Fast Reactors and Related Fuel Cycles: Challenges and Opportunities, Kyoto (Japan), 7-11 December 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Good morning, distinguished delegates, ladies and gentlemen. I would like to express my deep gratitude for your presence at the 'International Conference on Fast Reactors and Related Fuel Cycles: Challenges and Opportunities' organized by the IAEA. I would like to make a brief opening address on behalf of MEXT1. Firstly, I would like to welcome all who have travelled the long distance to Japan, and to express my thanks to people in Japan for their usual acceptance and for their cooperation on the research, development and use of nuclear technology. I would also like to thank the staff of the IAEA, the Japan Atomic Energy Agency and the commissions for their commitment to organizing this meeting. Today, humankind faces global issues on a scale never before seen, including global warming and energy resource security. Under such circumstances, ensuring the energy supply is essential for solving both the energy problem and global climate change simultaneously. This is increasingly being recognized all over the world. Sharing the recognition, we promote research, development and the use of nuclear energy as the major source of electrical power. We are aiming at the establishment of the fast breeder reactor cycle, which will ensure a long term energy supply, through efficient use of uranium resources. At MEXT, we continue to promote research and development in order to achieve the early commercialization of the fast breeder reactor cycle, by utilizing the prototype Monju fast breeder reactor. We are now doing our utmost to restart Monju by the end of March 2010, with the acceptance and cooperation of the local community. After the restart, we will enhance the reliability of Monju as an operational power plant, drawing upon operational experience. At the same time, we will continue research and development of radioactive waste reduction for topics such as minor actinide burning, as well as the enhancement of nuclear non-proliferation. We hope that Monju will play an important role, not only domestically, but also globally as one of the few high-end fast reactors. This makes Monju a major global centre in the area of nuclear fuel cycle research and development. In this conference, we can share the fruits of each country's and each organization's research and development for the purpose of realizing the nuclear fuel cycle, which is the important international political theme. Finally, I would like to express my wishes that this conference contributes to the stimulation of further research and development on the fast reactor cycle through active discussions and, ultimately, brings significant benefits to all countries. Thank you for your kind attention. (author)

  13. Globalization and loss of plant knowledge: challenging the paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandebroek, Ina; Balick, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    The erosion of cultural knowledge and traditions as a result of globalization and migration is a commonly reported phenomenon. We compared one type of cultural knowledge about medicinal plants (number of plants reported to treat thirty common health conditions) among Dominican laypersons who self-medicate with plants and live in rural or urban areas of the Dominican Republic (DR), and those who have moved to New York City (NYC). Many plants used as medicines were popular Dominican food plants. These plants were reported significantly more often by Dominicans living in NYC as compared to the DR, and this knowledge was not age-dependent. These results contradict the popular paradigm about loss of cultural plant knowledge and is the first study to report a statistically measurable increase in this type of knowledge associated with migration. PMID:22662184

  14. Building organizational technical capabilities: a new approach to address the office of environmental management cleanup challenges in the 21. century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Management (EM) is responsible for the nations nuclear weapons program legacy wastes cleanup. The EM cleanup efforts continue to progress, however the cleanup continues to be technologically complex, heavily regulated, long-term, and a high life cycle cost estimate (LCCE) effort. Over the past few years, the EM program has undergone several changes to accelerate its cleanup efforts with varying degrees of success. Several cleanup projects continued to experience schedule delays and cost growth. The schedule delays and cost growth have been attributed to several factors such as changes in technical scope, regulatory and safety considerations, inadequacy of acquisition approach and project management. This article will briefly review the background and schools of thought on strategic management and organizational change practiced in the United States over the last few decades to improve an organisation's competitive edge and cost performance. The article will briefly review examples such as the change at General Electric, and the recent experience obtained from the nuclear industry, namely the long-term response to the 1986 Chernobyl accident. The long-term response to Chernobyl, though not a case of organizational change, could provide some insight in the strategic management approaches used to address people issues. The article will discuss briefly EM attempts to accelerate cleanup over the past few years, and the subsequent paradigm shift. The paradigm shift targets enhancing and/or creating organizational capabilities to achieve cost savings. To improve its ability to address the 21. century environmental cleanup challenges and achieve cost savings, EM has initiated new corporate changes to develop new and enhance existing capabilities. These new and enhanced organizational capabilities include a renewed emphasis on basics, especially technical capabilities including safety, project management, acquisition management and people. The new enhanced organizational capabilities coupled with more effective communications; oversight and decision-making processes are expected to help EM meet the 21. century challenges. This article will focus on some of the initiatives to develop and enhance organizational technical capabilities. Some of these development initiatives are a part of DOE corporate actions to respond to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) recommendations 93-3 and 2004-1. Other development initiatives have been tailored to meet EM specific needs for organizational capabilities such as case studies analysis and cost estimating. (authors)

  15. NKS - The Nordic region's cooperative network for addressing challenges in nuclear safety and emergency preparedness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, K.G. [NKS/Technical University of Denmark (Denmark); Andgren, K. [NKS/Vattenfall R and D (Sweden); Leino, K. [NKS/Fortum Power and Heat Oy (Finland); Magnusson, S. [NKS/Icelandic Radiation Safety Authority (Iceland); Physant, F. [NKS/FRIT, Roskilde (Denmark)

    2014-07-01

    Based on the foundation of a common cultural and historical heritage and a long tradition of collaboration, NKS aims to facilitate a common Nordic view on nuclear and radiation safety. A common understanding of rules, practice and measures, and national differences in this context, is here an essential requirement. Problems can generally be tackled quicker, more efficiently, more consistently and at a lower cost through collaboration, bearing in mind that key competencies are not equally distributed in the different Nordic countries. For instance common Nordic challenges emerge in relation to nuclear installations, where nuclear power plants are in operation in Finland and Sweden, and research reactors have been operated in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. There is an obvious benefit in exchanging ideas and technologies in relation to plant operation, and since a number of reactors in different Nordic countries are under decommissioning, a collaborative benefit can also be realised in that context. Sweden also has a nuclear fuel production plant, and its collaboration with other Nordic nuclear installations can also be beneficial. Further, a number of large radiological installations are projected in Nordic areas (e.g., the MAX-LAB/MAX IV synchrotron radiation source and the European spallation source ESS), where Nordic organisations are collaborating in addressing, e.g., potential environmental implications. On the emergency preparedness side, the Fukushima accident in March 2011 was a reminder that large accidents at nuclear installations can lead to widespread radioactive contamination in the environment. In order to respond to nuclear or radiological emergencies, should they affect Nordic populations, it is necessary to maintain an operational emergency preparedness. By continuously improving detection, response and decision aiding tools while maintaining an informal collaborative network between relevant stakeholders in the Nordic countries (including nuclear power plant experts), the capacity and capability to respond optimally to an emergency is enhanced. Today's emergency preparedness also needs to address prevention against and response to nuclear and radiological terror attacks. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  16. Opening address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In on of the three 'pillars' of the overall IAEA mission, the 'safety pillar', the IAEA seeks to contribute towards a vision of a strong, sustainable and visible global safety regime by pursuing three main objectives: to establish and maintain a set of safety standards that are universally accepted as global standards; to integrate fully these safety standards and the various mechanisms to provide for their application; and to promote self-sustaining regional and global networks of safety knowledge and experience. The purpose of this conference is to foster the exchange of information, but this is not an end in itself. The aim of this conference is to clarify the key issues within the larger global picture and set out a road map for the future direction and priorities for work on safety standards for decommissioning and for applying those standards. The word 'decommissioning' is often treated as though it was synonymous with dismantling nuclear reactors and returning to a 'green field' site, and we quite deliberately intended to challenge that interpretation. The subject of this conference is one that no country can ignore. All countries whether or not they have nuclear power programs or research reactors - make use of at least some applications involving radiation sources or radioactive materials, in medicine, industry, agriculture and research. All of these countries will need to terminate these activities safely. Decommissioning is also a subject that has suffered from being addressed in a piecemeal and sometimes ad hoc fashion.The IAEA must take its share of responsibility for this: IAEA has published safety standards on particular aspects of decommissioning, and more general safety standards on the regulatory control of practices, on operational safety, on occupational radiation protection, on the management of different types of radioactive waste and discharges, and we are developing standards on the management of very low activity wastes and of contaminated areas. Yet, the IAEA has not succeeded in bringing all these elements together into safety standards to cover the entire process of decommissioning and the termination of practices. Similarly, the IAEA has recently been involved in the organization of international conferences on the remediation of contaminated areas and of an international workshop on the regulatory aspects of decommissioning. Within the IAEA, one step towards a more holistic approach to the issue was taken by establishing a Technical Group on Decommissioning (TEGDE)

  17. Technical Session: International Energy Agency. Our Energy Future - Addressing the Dual Challenges of Climate Change and Energy Security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Distinguished Ministers, guests, ladies and gentlemen, it is an honor for me to take part in this important conference and I thank Mr. Sokolov and the IAEA for providing me with the opportunity to be here today In this session we are discussing 'Energy Resources and the Environment'. Using this important occasion, I would like to share with you the IEA's view on the world's energy future. In the regard, we are facing two challenges; Energy Security and climate change. In the energy sector, climate change mitigation and energy security go hand in hand. Investment in clean energy technologies will ensure better energy security while at the same time mitigating climate change. And nuclear power has a key role to play in this regard. Though the current economic downturn results world energy demand shrinking in short term, in longer term, it is inevitable to see strong demand increase if only existing policies were to remain in place until 2030 (our so called 'Reference Scenario' or 'business as usual model'). Our World Energy Outlook 2008 published November last year demonstrates that world primary energy demand will grow by 45% from 2006 to 2030, which is an average annual growth rate of 1.6%. Though it is not shown in the graph, it is important to note that non-OECD countries account for 87% of global energy demand growth between 2006 and 2030. The increase in China's energy demand outpaces that of all other countries and regions. Huge inflows of capital are needed to meet such demand growth and replace existing and future supply facilities that will be retired,. This shows the cumulative investment in energy supply needed to 2030 in the business as usual scenario. It amounts to $26.3 trillion (in year-2007 dollars) from 2007 to 2030; Electricity generation represents half of this. Oil and gas account for almost all of the remainder; 63% of this total will be needed in non-OECD countries - clearly highlighting that the investment challenge is a global issue. As energy production accounts for 60% of CO2 emissions, this energy demand growth will obviously have huge implications for climate change. In our WEO-2008 business as usual scenario shown here, global CO2 emissions from energy will jump by 45% between 2006 and 2030 to 40.6 giga-tonnes (growth rate of 1.6% pa). This trajectory puts the world on track for a global temperature increase of around 6 degrees. In light of the CO2 challenge, WEO-2008 set out two alternative energy policy scenarios to take the world to a lower emissions future: 550 ppm, and 450 ppm of CO2 in the atmosphere. This graph shows trajectories for energy-related CO2 emissions to 2030 in the different scenarios, assuming 3.3% global GDP growth to 2030. We must reduce emissions from: 40.6 Gt in 2030 (in RS) - to reach 33 Gt in the 550 ppm scenario with a temperature rise of 3oC; 26 Gt in the 450 ppm scenario with a temperature rise of around 2oC ... would eventually mean a 50% reduction of current levels of CO2 by 2050. This will require a 'revolution' of the energy sector. In particular, measures in three areas are vital: 1. Energy efficiency: 54% in the 450ppm scenario. 2. CCS (particularly in the 450 ppm scenario) after 2020. 3. Diversification of the energy mix through the use of nuclear power and renewables. Let me also emphasize here that these scenarios also enhance our energy security, by ensuring energy is used efficiently and by diversifying energy portfolios. Widespread deployment of low-carbon technologies and energy efficiency requires much investment if we are to reduce CO2 emissions and ensure a secure energy future. Business as usual scenario, investment of $26.3 trillion is needed in energy infrastructure just to meet growing demand and production decline. But in the two low emissions scenarios, significant additional investment of $9 trillion is needed in power plants and in more efficient energy-related capital stock. This additional investment amounts to 0.6% of world GDP on average per year. In addition, the price of carbon in the 450 ppm scenario would be around $180/t-CO2 (= around $ 70/barrel). But the 450 ppm scenario is about more than just money. Chart illustrates the scale of transformation needed in the power sector. Power sector emissions need to be cut by 2/3 in the 450 scenario (relative to RS). On an annual basis, over the period 2012-2030, in the 450 Policy Scenario we need to build around: 18 000 wind turbines (of average size of 3MW each); 30 GW of other renewables (biomass+solar+geothermal + ocean + tidal), i.e. the equivalent of 300 solar plants of 100 MW each; 50 hydro plants (of around 1000 MW capacity); 30 coal and gas plants integrated with CCS technology; 20 nuclear power plants (of around 1000 MW capacity each). What does the IEA's 450 ppm scenario mean for electricity generation? Under the 450 ppm policy scenario, while the share of fossil fuels such as coal and even natural gas in global electricity is declining, that of clean energy technologies such as renewables and nuclear is increasing. Under this scenario, nuclear power generation will almost double to reach 5200 TWh in 2030. In other words, nuclear supplies 18% of total electricity demand and is the 3rd largest electricity source together with natural gas, following hydro (22%) and coal (21%).

  18. Implementing ERP Systems Globally: Challenges and Lessons Learned for Asian Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Hawking

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Improved communication technology has seen growth in a convergence of global corporate activities. In an effort to improve their global operations many companies are implementing global information systems in particular Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP systems. Companies are faced with a number of complexities when implementing these systems in a single country and considerable research has been conducted on the critical success factors associated with ERP implementations. However very little research has been conducted on the issues associated with global implementations of ERP systems and in particular implementations within the Asian region. This research utilises industry presentations to identify challenges and best practice for global implementations from the Asian region. The challenges have been classified as either technological or cultural pertaining to particular countries. The identified factors provide a foundation for further investigation.

  19. Global Sea Level Rise: Recent Progress and Challenges for the Decade to Come

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josh K. Willis

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of sea level rise is a highly interdisciplinary endeavor with important implications for our society as it adapts to a warming climate. Although the past two decades have revolutionized our understanding of sea level rise and its causes (primarily mass input and ocean warming, major scientific challenges must be met before useful predictions can be made. The rate of sea level rise has accelerated considerably relative to the pre-industrial era. Over the twentieth century, global sea level increased at an average rate of about 2 mm yr-1, which is substantially larger than the rate of the previous three millennia. Furthermore, evidence now exists for additional acceleration during the twentieth century. Nevertheless, accurate prediction of future sea level rise requires continued observations as well as significant advances in modeling of the coupled ice-ocean-land-atmosphere climate. A major effort is needed to sustain data recording from satellite altimeters (e.g., the Jason series, from time-variable gravity missions (e.g., Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment, or GRACE, and from autonomous ocean observing systems (e.g., Argo. In addition, an interdisciplinary research effort is required to address major problems, including improvement of the historical records of sea level rise and ocean warming, the separation of other geophysical processes from sea level rise signals, and a more complete understanding of interactions between the ocean and ice sheets.

  20. Global Challenges for the Environment, Water Clean and Economic Advantages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidajete Nikqi , AdemDreshaj,

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The fast development of industry, agriculture technology, with increasing population grows increasingly standard of living is also increasing demand for clean water and environmental pollution grows each time taking process of uncontrolled release of CO2 into the atmosphere and increase the industrial waste. Rulers need to do a better coordination of CO2 in the atmosphere management, waste management, water. Sustainability of public health, protection of the environment and the economy are key factors for environment and clean water. Collecting more water behind dams and especially in aquifers through artificial recharge is necessary to save water in times of excess water for use at the time of his absence. Storage of CO2 in safe places as under the oceans countries semptyexplorer oil from storage in mines or explorer. Use should be carefully planned and take measures to prevent adverse health effects in the case of groundwater contamination. Some countries may save water by importing most food and energy commodities and other countries that possess more water, so basically they also get water was needed to produce these goods.Water "virtual". Local water can then be used for high social,environmental, or economic or saved for the future. Climate change and global warming caused by carbon dioxide emissions are difficult to predict in space and time. The wars in the future will be developed for clean water and not for gold and oil.

  1. Global warming presents new challenges for maize pest management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been conjectured that global warming will increase the prevalence of insect pests in many agro-ecosystems. In this paper, we quantitatively assess four of the key pests of maize, one of the most important systems in North American grain production. Using empirically generated estimates of pest overwintering thresholds and degree-day requirements, along with climate change projections from a high-resolution climate model, we project potential future ranges for each of these pests in the United States. Our analysis suggests the possibility of increased winter survival and greater degree-day accumulations for each of the pests surveyed. We find that relaxed cold limitation could expand the range of all four pest taxa, including a substantial range expansion in the case of corn earworm (H. zea), a migratory, cold-intolerant pest. Because the corn earworm is a cosmopolitan pest that has shown resistance to insecticides, our results suggest that this expansion could also threaten other crops, including those in high-value areas of the western United States. Because managing significant additional pressure from this suite of established pests would require additional pest management inputs, the projected decreases in cold limitation and increases in heat accumulation have the potential to significantly alter the pest management landscape for North American maize production. Further, these range expansions could have substantial economic impacts through increased seed and insecticide costs, decreased yields, and the downstream effects of changes in crop yield variability.

  2. Global warming presents new challenges for maize pest management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diffenbaugh, Noah S [Purdue Climate Change Research Center and Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Purdue University, 550 Stadium Mall Drive, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2051 (United States); Krupke, Christian H [Department of Entomology, Purdue University, 901 West State Street, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); White, Michael A [Department of Watershed Sciences, Utah State University, 5210 Old Main Hall, Logan, UT 84322-5210 (United States); Alexander, Corinne E [Department of Agricultural Economics, Purdue University, 403 West State Street, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2056 (United States)], E-mail: diffenbaugh@purdue.edu

    2008-10-15

    It has been conjectured that global warming will increase the prevalence of insect pests in many agro-ecosystems. In this paper, we quantitatively assess four of the key pests of maize, one of the most important systems in North American grain production. Using empirically generated estimates of pest overwintering thresholds and degree-day requirements, along with climate change projections from a high-resolution climate model, we project potential future ranges for each of these pests in the United States. Our analysis suggests the possibility of increased winter survival and greater degree-day accumulations for each of the pests surveyed. We find that relaxed cold limitation could expand the range of all four pest taxa, including a substantial range expansion in the case of corn earworm (H. zea), a migratory, cold-intolerant pest. Because the corn earworm is a cosmopolitan pest that has shown resistance to insecticides, our results suggest that this expansion could also threaten other crops, including those in high-value areas of the western United States. Because managing significant additional pressure from this suite of established pests would require additional pest management inputs, the projected decreases in cold limitation and increases in heat accumulation have the potential to significantly alter the pest management landscape for North American maize production. Further, these range expansions could have substantial economic impacts through increased seed and insecticide costs, decreased yields, and the downstream effects of changes in crop yield variability.

  3. Injuries and violence: a global public health challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muazzam Nasrullah

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Injuries and violence are a significant cause of mortality and physical disability. Injuries killed five million people worldwide each year [1]. The level of this dilemma, however, differs significantly by age, sex, region and economic development [2]. Globally, road traffic injury mortalities, self-inflicted injury mortality and interpersonal violence, war, drowning, and exposure to fire are the leading cause of deaths among people aged 15-44 years [3]. This special issue aims to assess the magnitude of this problem, identify risk factors and explore prevention strategies to alleviate the burden of injuries and violence. There is a dire need to increase the knowledge of the extent of problem, and associated risk factors that needs to be targeted for prevention. Erosa et al., examined reports of verbal and physical abuse from family caregivers of adults with severe physical, neurological and developmental disabilities, and found that caregivers who reported some form of abuse reported significantly greater distress and burden than caregivers who did not report any abuse. Grice et al., found that reported histories of work-related physical assault and work-related threat were associated with elevated risks of current work-related physical assault. Ahmad, systematically reviewed and summarized current scientific knowledge on the use of interactive computer-assisted screening to detect intimate partner violence (IPV.

  4. SMART GRIDS: A prologue & unscrew challenges that needs to be addressed, A Short Survey on how to make Grids Smarter:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Zakarya

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A Smart Grid (SG1 is an intellectual and logical electricity network that integrates the actions of all users connected to it and makes use of sophisticated and highly advanced information, control, and communications technologies to save energy, reduce expenditure and increase reliability and transparency. A smart grid can reduce energy cost; it makes energy usage efficient that result in a short term solution for the energy crisis. It also helps the distribution systems for better energy management and control. The field of Information & Communication Technology (ICT4 and computer technology can play a major role in this hazardous situation all over the world. This paper presents current research issues and challenges that need to be addressed for reliable, efficient and flexible load distribution (LD2 and management for smart grid design. The paper also presents some security & privacy issues that inform the grid station (GS3 about consumer’s habits and personnel information. The article also tries to highlight major research issues in smart grid technology, which are helpful for the new researchers to find new research directions in this field & technology.

  5. Ministerial Presentation: Jordan. Why Nuclear? [International Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Energy in the 21. Century: Addressing Energy Needs and Environmental Challenges, Beijing (China), 20-22 April 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recent renaissance of nuclear power in the industrialized countries is not the only factor driving the interest of nuclear power in developing countries. The necessity for nuclear power in developing countries, and in particular the Middle East, is most often misunderstood by the industrialized countries, due to the abundance of oil and gas in the region . However, large disparities exist between countries of the region with per-capita consumption 0.1 toe/yr for Sudan to 34 toe/yr for Qatar. The greatest expansion of energy demand over the coming decades will be in the developing world. Global predictions of energy demand and supply are misleading for policy or planning needs. Regional and, even better, national detailed projections are more accurate. A point of illustration is the Middle East, where the conventional opinion is of a 'rich' oil-producing region. On a country-by-country basis, it is clear that many countries in the Middle East, are actually suffering under the toll of high oil prices. A case in point is Jordan, where more than 20 percent of the national budget is spent to import energy. The uncertainty of energy supplies and their increasing costs are severely affecting the growth of my country's economy and its security. Jordan imports more than 95 percent of its energy needs. Hence, the development of secure alternative energy supplies is a top priority for the country. Jordan has limited options to substitute for oil products. The chief option is imported natural gas, which can displace oil but is a short- to mid-term option and cannot be relied upon for the long term and should be used as a peaking source. Renewables will be developed to their fullest extent but have their well known limitations. Our vision is to utilize nuclear energy to transform Jordan from a net energy importer to a net electricity exporter by 2030. By that date, according to the National Nuclear Strategy, 30% of the Jordan's electricity needs will be met by nuclear power, with excess production to be made available for export. Jordan has been seriously exploring nuclear power as a long-term alternative for electricity generation, water desalination, and as insurance for both energy security and future volatility of oil and natural gas prices. Nuclear energy is an important alternative to fossil fuels and is a particularly important component in a low-carbon energy strategy. In this regard, I urge this Conference to call for the inclusion of nuclear energy in the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) of any future climate change negotiations. Nuclear power also maximizes and leverages Jordan's indigenous uranium resources. The Kingdom is endowed with rich uranium resources which have not been fully explored, with estimated reasonably assured resources of about 70,000 metric tons of uranium oxide in Central Jordan with additional quantities that could be extracted as byproduct of phosphoric acid production. There are, however, many challenges standing in the way of introducing nuclear power in Jordan such as the high investment cost, the need for skilled engineers and technicians, the limited suitable sites for power plants, the lack of adequate water sources for cooling, and the volatile regional political climate. Since 2001, Jordan has been developing a national strategy for civilian nuclear power. But only in January 2008, that Jordan's parliament empowered the Jordan Atomic Energy Commission (JAEC) to lead the national effort and implement the Kingdom's nuclear strategy ---to be the Nuclear Power Implementation Organization (NEPIO) for the country. Furthermore and In compliance with the best of international practices, the parliament established an independent Jordan Nuclear Regulatory Commission (JNRC), to promulgate the needed legal, regulatory, and security framework for the introduction of nuclear power. JAEC has concluded nuclear cooperation agreements with France, China, South Korea, Canada, and will conclude two soon with Russia and UK. One of our major challenges, and in fact a common challenge to all, is development of the requisite human resources. To address partially this challenge, a nuclear engineering B.Sc. degree program was established in 2006 at Jordan University of Science and Technology and JAEC is in the process of procurement of a nuclear research reactor for education, training, and isotope production. To sustain and enhance the contribution of nuclear power as an energy option in the Middle East, it is necessary for all countries in the region to accept the International Atomic Energy Agency's safeguards on all of their nuclear activities, leading to the establishment of a nuclear-weapon-free zone in the region, as a prelude for full adherence to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. Jordan has been conscious to meet all its legal obligations under the NPT and IAEA safeguards, and has participated in many global fora, such as the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP), to develop its civilian nuclear energy programme. In return, it is imperative for the IAEA and technology holders to share their nuclear technology and expertise to address developing countries challenges. It is time to move from unnecessary restriction of dissemination of nuclear technology, to sharing in a responsible way in the spirit of 'Atoms of Peace'', with full adherence to safety, security and safeguards. I wish you and to the Conference success in making nuclear power a real option available to all aspiring countries to address both national energy needs and the global challenge of climate change.

  6. Localizing the Global and Globalizing the Local: Opportunities and Challenges in Bali Island Tourism Development

    OpenAIRE

    I Nyoman Darma Putra

    2015-01-01

    AbstractIn September and October 2013, only one week apart,Bali hosted two global events in the upper class markettourism resort Nusa Dua. The first event was the MissWorld beauty pageant, and the other one was the APECSummit. Thousands of journalists from all over the worldcovered these events. From a tourism marketing point ofview, these two prestigious events helped Bali boost itspopularity through global mass media. Historically, sincethe early phase of its development, Bali’s tourism ind...

  7. The physics of global climate change: challenges for research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: There are major issues in our scientific understanding of the functioning of our planet Earth. The growing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases, changing in surface albedo, changes in distribution and lifetime of clouds, alteration in aerosol properties and distribution, are all key issues in the radiation balance that controls the climate of our planet. Earth is a non linear highly complex system. Since the industrial revolution, concentration of greenhouse gases, in particular carbon dioxide and methane have increase by 30 to 100%. The fraction of infrared radiation trapped in the atmosphere has increased by about 1.6 watts/m2. This additional energy has increased the average temperature by 0.79 degrees centigrade, with certain regions. But, we know very little of the physics, chemistry and biology that controls emissions, sinks and effects in Earth climate. Every week new important scientific findings are published in this area, and models that could predict the future of Earth climate are quite primitive and lack key issues. The hard science of global change is closely associated with socio-economic issues. Humanity have taken the main control role on Earth climate, and the potential for an average increase in temperature of 3 to 5 degrees is large, although there are tentative to limit the average temperature growth to 2 degrees. But even with this ambitious target, Amazonia and the Arctic will probably be much hotter than 3-4 degrees, with important feedbacks in the climate system. The talk will deal with these issues and new research that is needed to increase our knowledge on how the climate of our planet works and which climate we could have in the next decades. (author)

  8. Global challenges for e-waste management: the societal implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalini, Federico

    2016-03-01

    Over the last decades the electronics industry and ICT Industry in particular has revolutionized the world: electrical and electronic products have become ubiquitous in today's life around the planet. After use, those products are discarded, sometimes after re-use cycles in countries different from those where they were initially sold; becoming what is commonly called e-waste. Compared to other traditional waste streams, e-waste handling poses unique and complex challenges. e-Waste is usually regarded as a waste problem, which can cause environmental damage and severe human health consequences if not safely managed. e-Waste contains significant amounts of toxic and environmentally sensitive materials and is, thus, extremely hazardous to humans and the environment if not properly disposed of or recycled. On the other hand, e-waste is often seen as a potential source of income for individuals and entrepreneurs who aim to recover the valuable materials (metals in particular) contained in discarded equipment. Recently, for a growing number of people, in developing countries in particular, recycling and separation of e-waste has become their main source of income. In most cases, this is done informally, with no or hardly any health and safety standards, exposing workers and the surrounding neighborhoods to extensive health dangers as well as leading to substantial environmental pollution. Treatment processes of e-waste aim to remove the hazardous components and recover as much reusable material (e.g. metals, glass and plastics) as possible; achieving both objectives is most desired. The paper discuss societal implications of proper e-waste management and key elements to be considered in the policy design at country level. PMID:26812759

  9. Training Solutions to the Global Challenges of a Nuclear Renaissance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garces, M.; Chan, S.; Leo, C.; Garcia, S.; Vidal, B.

    2010-07-01

    From East Asia to the United States and all over Europe, the nuclear re-birth is generating demands the training simulation vendors had not faced before. Companies involved in the planning, design, construction and operation of new plants increasingly require simulation tools to satisfy very different needs, all of them on a large scale: education and support of inexperienced newcomer staff, human factors analysis and control room design, e-learning, verification and validation of I and C systems or training and licensing of crews before the actual installations are complete. There is a full set of applications already available to the whole industry to satisfy these needs. End-user friendly Thunder Real-Time Executive (T-REX), poised to become the standard simulation platform for U.S. plants, makes it possible to provide full-scope simulator and simulator exercises to students and others on a memory stick or over the internet. AREVA EPR full-scope training simulator, based on the ALICES integrated object-oriented simulation environment, becomes an engineering simulator for the Flamanville 3 plant under construction in Normandy; the same will happen to the Taishan 1 and 2 simulators in Guangdong (China) while UniStar plans to apply this approach to the future EPR's to be built in the United States. SIREP PWR Basic Principle Simulator, with simplified models which can run on an ordinary PC, is used at GDF SUEZ offices in Brussels to implement their Nuclear Trainees Program. EDF Training Department chooses On-line Micro Simulation (MicroSel), which can be managed with Learning Management Systems, for classroom and stand-alone learning of the basic characteristics of French reactors. All these are examples of how extensive R and D and innovation programs implemented by the simulator providers, some of them under way here in Spain, will help to overcome some of the challenges of the current nuclear expansion.

  10. Training Solutions to the Global Challenges of a Nuclear Renaissance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From East Asia to the United States and all over Europe, the nuclear re-birth is generating demands the training simulation vendors had not faced before. Companies involved in the planning, design, construction and operation of new plants increasingly require simulation tools to satisfy very different needs, all of them on a large scale: education and support of inexperienced newcomer staff, human factors analysis and control room design, e-learning, verification and validation of I and C systems or training and licensing of crews before the actual installations are complete. There is a full set of applications already available to the whole industry to satisfy these needs. End-user friendly Thunder Real-Time Executive (T-REX), poised to become the standard simulation platform for U.S. plants, makes it possible to provide full-scope simulator and simulator exercises to students and others on a memory stick or over the internet. AREVA EPR full-scope training simulator, based on the ALICES integrated object-oriented simulation environment, becomes an engineering simulator for the Flamanville 3 plant under construction in Normandy; the same will happen to the Taishan 1 and 2 simulators in Guangdong (China) while UniStar plans to apply this approach to the future EPR's to be built in the United States. SIREP PWR Basic Principle Simulator, with simplified models which can run on an ordinary PC, is used at GDF SUEZ offices in Brussels to implement their Nuclear Trainees Program. EDF Training Department chooses On-line Micro Simulation (MicroSel), which can be managed with Learning Management Systems, for classroom and stand-alone learning of the basic characteristics of French reactors. All these are examples of how extensive R and D and innovation programs implemented by the simulator providers, some of them under way here in Spain, will help to overcome some of the challenges of the current nuclear expansion.

  11. Global warming what are the challenges for Copenhagen?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Kyoto Protocol was adopted in 1997 and, following a long ratification process, went into effect in 2005. Under the Protocol, 200 countries have committed to reducing their greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) by 2012. What conclusions can we draw from developments thus far, as we await the December conference in Copenhagen to determine a follow-up to the Kyoto Protocol? The work of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has given us more accurate knowledge on global warming issues. In its latest report, published in 2007, the IPCC reveals that eleven of the past twelve years studied - 1995 to 2006 - were among the warmest yet recorded since 1850, when this type of data collection began. From 1906 to 2005, global temperatures rose by 0.74 deg. C, and the average rate of increase has more than doubled over the past fifty years. To help companies and countries achieve their GHG emissions reduction targets, the Kyoto Protocol provides for a carbon trading system based on carbon reduction credits (CRC), the exchange currency in a carbon credit market. When a company reduces its emissions below regulatory levels, it can have the 'excess' reduction certified and converted into carbon credits, which it can then sell to a company that has not yet reached its reduction targets. Japan has already used clean technologies and energy saving measures to achieve energy efficiency in the past. Its energy structure is fairly close to that of France, which has a 0% emissions goal. In Japan, nuclear power also accounts for a significant share of the electric power program. The Japanese government recently announced that it was increasing its carbon reduction goal from 6% to an ambitious 25%. China and the United States are the world's leading greenhouse gas emitters. When China ratified the Kyoto Protocol in 2002, it was considered to be a developing country and as such has no emissions reduction obligations. Since then, China has moved closer to the Protocol principles, creating a national climate change group in 2007 and launching its own national climate change program. The program's goal is to lower China's energy consumption per unit of GDP by 20% by 2010 compared with its 2005 level. Under a medium to long-term sustainable development plan, the share of sustainable energies in the overall energy mix will increase to 10% by 2010 and to 15% by 2020. Before the Copenhagen conference, China indicated that it was expecting the United States and Europe to commit to reducing their emissions by 40% and to devote 1% of their GDP to technology transfer towards developing countries by 2020. The Bush Administration used the argument that 'the American way of life is not negotiable' to justify the refusal of the United States to adhere to the Kyoto Protocol. Today, the United States returns to the discussion table in a more open frame of mind. The administration of Barack Obama has decided to become more involved and cooperate more with China and India on climate change. In late June, the American president succeeded in getting his climate change bill through the US House of Representatives. The climate bill, which is still up before the Senate, aims to reduce GHG emissions (particularly CO2) by 17% before 2020 compared with the 2005 level. It also promotes the development of clean energies and provides for the creation of a cap and trade emissions trading system. Under this system, emissions allowances are either sold or given to the most vulnerable industries. The sales revenue would be used to fund the development of clean energies, among other things. The EU-15 member states are close to reaching the targets set at Kyoto. What about EU-27 member states? At the late September summit in Pittsburgh, the G20 countries, which include the most industrialized countries as well as the large emerging countries of China, India and Brazil, agreed to phase out subsidies for fossil energy sources over the medium term, but without setting a deadline. According to the press release issued at the end of the summit, 'inefficient fossil fuel subsidies encourage wasteful consumption, distort markets, impede investment in clean energy sources and undermine efforts to deal with climate change'. G20 members also intend to step up their efforts to reach an agreement on dangerous climate change at the upcoming conference in Copenhagen

  12. Improving patient safety in transfusion medicine: contemporary challenges and the roles for bedside and laboratory biovigilance in addressing them

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzejewski Jr C

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Chester Andrzejewski Jr,1 Darlene Cloutier,1 David Unold,2 Richard C Friedberg1 1Transfusion Medicine Services, Department of Pathology, Baystate Medical Center, Baystate Health, Springfield, MA, 2Department of Laboratory Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA Abstract: Throughout the history of hemotherapy (HT, various challenges and concerns have been encountered in its practical application. When viewed using a prismatic lens of history, recurrent themes regarding adverse HT sequelae separate and become apparent. These can be broadly classified into three categories: infectious, noninfectious, and administrative/logistical. Using the HT care map as a frame of reference along with its associated rites, we examine the contemporary spectrum of HT adverse events and concerns, and some approaches as to how these may be addressed from bedside and laboratory medicine biovigilance perspectives enhancing patient care and blood transfusion safety. Although our vantage point is from an academic community hospital venue, the issues and concerns identified are germane to many if not all transfusion-medicine practice environments. Included among the subjects we explore are patient/specimen identification issues, blood-management initiatives, unrecognized and/or unreported suspected transfusion reactions, transfusion-associated adverse pulmonary sequelae (including transfusion-related acute lung injury and transfusion-associated circulatory overload, expanded applications of electronic health records and issues regarding their “meaningful use” and interinstitutional “digital compatibilities”, biovigilance integration of electronic data networks within and between health care entities, and anticipated workforce contractions secondary to projected declines in the availability of qualified laboratory professionals. Cooperative initiatives between accreditation and regulatory entities, blood collectors and suppliers, hospital laboratory transfusion services and health care providers involved in the bedside care of the patient offer the best means in further mitigating adverse HT sequelae and potential nonconformities that may arise in the daily operations of contemporary hospital blood banks and transfusion-medicine services. Keywords: hemotherapy, transfusion history, reactions, risk mitigation

  13. The Cultural Challenges of Managing Global Project Teams: A Study of Brazilian Multinationals

    OpenAIRE

    Ivete Rodrigues; Roberto Sbragia

    2013-01-01

    The internationalization of Brazilian companies brings a new reality: the need for implementation of global projects that bring, in turn, the challenge of managing multicultural teams. Since this is a recent phenomenon with little theoretical development, this study sought to understand the relationships between cultural characteristics and management teams of global projects in Brazilian multinationals. To carry this discussion forward, we studied six cases of Brazilian multinational compani...

  14. Turkey-USA relations in an age of regional and global turmoil: challenges and prospects introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Öni?, Ziya; Y?lmaz, ?uhnaz

    2013-01-01

    TURKEY-US RELATIONS IN AN AGE OF REGIONAL AND GLOBAL TURMOIL: CHALLENGES AND PROSPECTS EDITORIAL INTRODUCTION Ziya Öni? and ?uhnaz Y?lmaz This special issue on Turkish-American relations with a specific focus on the Middle East aims to analyze a complex web of relations at a critical regional and global juncture, with important implications well beyond bilateral relations. The idea for this special issue emerged during the “Turkish-American Alliance in a Volatile Region: ...

  15. Engaging Undergraduates to Solve Global Health Challenges: A New Approach Based on Bioengineering Design

    OpenAIRE

    Oden, Maria; Mirabal, Yvette; Epstein, Marc; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    Recent reports have highlighted the need for educational programs to prepare students for careers developing and disseminating new interventions that improve global public health. Because of its multi-disciplinary, design-centered nature, the field of Biomedical Engineering can play an important role in meeting this challenge. This article describes a new program at Rice University to give undergraduate students from all disciplines a broad background in bioengineering and global health and p...

  16. Readiness in Meeting Globalization Challenges: A Case of Accounting Firms in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Arfah Salleh; Raduan C. Rose; Naresh Kumar; Lu C. Peng

    2007-01-01

    The empirical study explored the relationships between firm?s characteristics and perceived readiness level of Malaysian Institute of Accountants firm members in meeting globalization challenges. In general all respondents indicated low readiness level in penetrating the global market. Seeing that the services sector is growing tremendously during the recent decades, there is a great opportunity for businesses to increase the export services in the foreseeable future to match that of the deve...

  17. Global Virtual Teams and their effective functioning : The Challenge of Time Pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Franke, Franziska; Bengtsson Schramm, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays modern organizations move in an incredible speed and have to be flexible and adaptable to constantly changing circumstances. Global Virtual Teams (GVTs) have been proved to be one of the means to handle this challenge. While it is said that GVTs bestow an organization with flexibility and enhanced creativity, research proves that the managing of these teams is quite challenging. The modern work stress factor time pressure is said to be omnipresent in nowadays organizations and theref...

  18. Trends and EIE higher education response to the current global technical challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poboroniuc, Marian; Livint, Gheorghe; Friesel, Anna; Cojocaru, Dorian; Popescu, Dorin; Grindei, Laura; Naaji, Antoanela; Ward, Anthony

    The European Association for Education in Electrical and Information Engineering (EAEEIE) has been for 20 years and still is dedicated to supporting Electrical and Information Engineering (EIE) across Europe. Its new Strategic Alignment of Electrical and Information Engineering in European Higher......), namely: state-of-the-art in implementation of the Bologna recommendation for Bachelor and Master, technical challenges that the EIE higher education faces nowadays, and existing models in EIE higher education and their degree of response to key global technical challenges....

  19. Joint enterprise and the role of the intermediator : Challenges managing groupware in global virtual teams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    BjØrn, Pernille; Simonsen, Jesper

    2005-01-01

    Managing groupware technologies in global virtual teams is viewed as a process of integrating technology and collaboration. This involves a continual negotia-tion of the team’s goals, processes, and technology. We investigate organizational factors constraining this integration process, by analyzing the failure of inte-grating groupware into two global virtual teams within industry. We present an empirically driven interpretive case study conducted in a large distributed global or-ganization. Based on the empirical observations, we reveal two organizational factors challenging the inte-gration process: The importance of joint enterprise and the role of the intermediator.

  20. Readiness in Meeting Globalization Challenges: A Case of Accounting Firms in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arfah Salleh

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The empirical study explored the relationships between firm?s characteristics and perceived readiness level of Malaysian Institute of Accountants firm members in meeting globalization challenges. In general all respondents indicated low readiness level in penetrating the global market. Seeing that the services sector is growing tremendously during the recent decades, there is a great opportunity for businesses to increase the export services in the foreseeable future to match that of the developed countries. Thus the findings and recommendations of this study provided comprehensive empirical information for entrepreneurs especially those involve in financial sector to actively embark into the global market.

  1. Global supply of oil. challenges and uncertainties; El suministro global de petroleo. Retos e incertidumbres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marzo, M.

    2011-07-01

    The National Petroleum Council warns us of a disturbing reality: the world is running out of fossil resources, but the continued increase in oil extraction from conventional sources has increasingly risks and these are a serious obstacle to ensure demand the medium term. also the International Energy Agency also warns of serious uncertainties and risks in the field of oil production to meet global demand in the medium and long term.

  2. 76 FR 10892 - Aquatic Ecosystems, Water Quality, and Global Change: Challenges of Conducting Multi-Stressor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-28

    ... AGENCY Aquatic Ecosystems, Water Quality, and Global Change: Challenges of Conducting Multi-Stressor.... SUMMARY: EPA is announcing the release of the draft report titled, ``Aquatic Ecosystems, Water Quality... relative vulnerability of water quality and aquatic ecosystems, across the United States, to the...

  3. New Challenges Facing Universities in the Internet-Driven Global Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasingham, Lalita

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores some new challenges facing universities in a global multimediated Internet-based environment, as they seek alternative paradigms and options to remain true to their core business. At a time of rapid technological change, and contested, complex concepts associated with globalisation, knowledge is becoming a primary factor of…

  4. Globalization and Its Challenges for Developing Countries: The Case of Turkish Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akar, Hanife

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the challenges faced by the Turkish higher education system and exposes the inequities and realities educators in a developing nation must struggle with as they try to find a prestigious spot in the knowledge-production industry. After a brief overview of the literature that illustrates how globalization penetrated into each…

  5. Challenges in the global QCD analysis of parton structure of nucleons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We briefly summarize the current status of global QCD analysis of the parton structure of the nucleon and then highlight the open questions and challenges which confront this endeavor on which much of the phenomenology of the Standard Model and the search of New Physics depend

  6. Hitting the Moving Target: Challenges of Creating a Dynamic Curriculum Addressing the Ethical Dimensions of Geospatial Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, John; Vallor, Shannon; Freundschuh, Scott; Gannon, William L.; Zandbergen, Paul

    2014-01-01

    While established ethical norms and core legal principles concerning the protection of privacy may be easily identified, applying these standards to rapidly evolving digital information technologies, markets for digital information and convulsive changes in social understandings of privacy is increasingly challenging. This challenge has been…

  7. A New Round of Global Geochemical Mapping: Opportunity and Challenge to China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hangxin; Yang, Zhongfang; Xi, Xiaohuan; Zhao, Chuandong; Xie, Xuejin

    Since the projects of "International Geochemical Mapping (IGCP259)" and "Global Geochemical Baseline (IGCP360)" were met with approval by UNESCO in 1988, decisive contributions of working out the methodological guidance and the technical standard of global geochemical mapping have been made by China and Europe. Though demonstrations have been made by China and Europe through carrying out the projects of "Environmental Geochemical Monitoring Network and Dynamic Geochemical Mapping (EGMON)" and "FOREG geochemical baseline mapping", respectively, the expectation of acquiring a general picture of global geochemistry in 10 years has not yet been realized. Geochemists from China and Norway are now deliberating, through International Association of Hydrological Sciences/International Commission on Continental Erosion (IAHS/ICCE), about a major international cooperative project on "Global Geochemical Mapping and Sediment-Bound Flux of Major World Rivers", on carrying out a new round global geochemical mapping, and planning to start working first on the Arctic region under the project of the Year of Polar (IPY317). The practical plan for the global geochemical mapping is based on the "Draft of Sampling Plan of Floodplain Sediments" for the global geochemical mapping suggested by China and the "Draft of Sampling Plan of Overbank Sediments in Deltas" suggested by Norway, thereby further strengthening the advantages of Chinese methodology in geochemical mapping. After analyzing the opportunities and challenges to China, this article suggests that the competent authorities of science and technology should take the initiative of supporting the new round global geochemical mapping.

  8. Ethical Challenges Facing Greenland in the Present Era of Globalization: Towards Global Responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Dahl Rendtorff

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the developments of ethics and politics in the Arctic region have again become an issue for international discussion. One main issue is the problem of climate change and sustainability of the Arctic region. This problem is linked to the issue of exploitation of natural resources in the Arctic region, not at least in Greenland. Indeed, the general issue is how we should define ethics of the environment and sustainability as a general principle for the Arctic region. It is important to discuss what is at stake and how we define the problem in relation to the different participating stakeholders. This paper deals with these problems as a case for global ethics and it proposes a vision of ethical and political responsibility for sustainable development in order to deal with such problems.

  9. Constraining the global carbon budget from global to regional scales - The measurement challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Global Carbon Cycle can be modelled by a Bayesian synthesis inversion technique, where measured atmospheric CO2 concentrations and isotopic compositions are analysed by use of an atmospheric transport model and estimates of regional sources and sinks of atmospheric carbon. The uncertainty associated to carbon flux estimates even on a regional scale can be improved considerably using the inversion technique. In this approach, besides the necessary control on the precision of atmospheric transport models and on the constraints for surface fluxes, an important component is the calibration of atmospheric CO2 concentration and isotope measurements. The recent improved situation in respect to data comparability is discussed using results of conducted interlaboratory comparison exercises and larger scale calibration programs are proposed for the future to further improve the comparability of analytical data. (author)

  10. Cross-sector partnerships and public health: challenges and opportunities for addressing obesity and noncommunicable diseases through engagement with the private sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Lee M; Finegood, Diane T

    2015-03-18

    Over the past few decades, cross-sector partnerships with the private sector have become an increasingly accepted practice in public health, particularly in efforts to address infectious diseases in low- and middle-income countries. Now these partnerships are becoming a popular tool in efforts to reduce and prevent obesity and the epidemic of noncommunicable diseases. Partnering with businesses presents a means to acquire resources, as well as opportunities to influence the private sector toward more healthful practices. Yet even though collaboration is a core principle of public health practice, public-private or nonprofit-private partnerships present risks and challenges that warrant specific consideration. In this article, we review the role of public health partnerships with the private sector, with a focus on efforts to address obesity and noncommunicable diseases in high-income settings. We identify key challenges-including goal alignment and conflict of interest-and consider how changes to partnership practice might address these. PMID:25581149

  11. Pharmaceutical digital marketing and governance: illicit actors and challenges to global patient safety and public health

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Digital forms of direct-to-consumer pharmaceutical marketing (eDTCA) have globalized in an era of free and open information exchange. Yet, the unregulated expansion of eDTCA has resulted in unaddressed global public health threats. Specifically, illicit online pharmacies are engaged in the sale of purportedly safe, legitimate product that may in fact be counterfeit or substandard. These cybercriminal actors exploit available eDTCA mediums over the Internet to market their suspect products globally. Despite these risks, a detailed assessment of the public health, patient safety, and cybersecurity threats and governance mechanisms to address them has not been conducted. Discussion Illicit online pharmacies represent a significant global public health and patient safety risk. Existing governance mechanisms are insufficient and include lack of adequate adoption in national regulation, ineffective voluntary governance mechanisms, and uneven global law enforcement efforts that have allowed proliferation of these cybercriminals on the web. In order to effectively address this multistakeholder threat, inclusive global governance strategies that engage the information technology, law enforcement and public health sectors should be established. Summary Effective global “eHealth Governance” focused on cybercrime is needed in order to effectively combat illicit online pharmacies. This includes building upon existing Internet governance structures and coordinating partnership between the UN Office of Drugs and Crime that leads the global fight against transnational organized crime and the Internet Governance Forum that is shaping the future of Internet governance. Through a UNODC-IGF governance mechanism, investigation, detection and coordination of activities against illicit online pharmacies and their misuse of eDTCA can commence. PMID:24131576

  12. Globalization of labour markets challenges, adjustment and policy response in the EU and LDCS

    CERN Document Server

    Kuyvenhoven, Arie; Molle, Willem

    1997-01-01

    To the classical driving forces of migration such as poverty, oppression and war, yet another is being added: globalization. The trend toward globalization has created new opportunities for trade and investment. These have had positive implications for economic growth and living standards. However, they also confront developed and less developed countries (LCDs) with difficult policy choices. Developed Countries (DCs) have to find a compromise between competitiveness and high labour costs, and between trade liberalization and immigration controls. LCDs have to decide whether to export labour or goods, and to accept foreign resources for development rather than migration. While, in the literature, the impact of globalization has been largely studied from specialist perspectives, this volume offers a comprehensive view of the issue. In Globalization of Labour Markets: Challenges, Adjustment and Policy Response in the European Union and Less Developed Countries international experts: Explain the welfare implicat...

  13. Globalization : the challenge of the 1990s for the chemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The challenges facing the chemical industry in Canada were discussed. In recent years, Canada has scored low in polls measuring public confidence in the chemical industry. The industry is also suffering from continuing recession, global competition, increased environmental demands and strict legislation. The impact of globalization, total quality management, free trade, environmental concerns, and government policies on the chemical industry were reviewed. In the view of this author (President and CEO of Dow Chemicals) globalization is not a matter of choice, it is an industry imperative. Survival in the globalized economy will require not only to be successful competitors, but even more importantly to be successful cooperators with other stakeholders, and successful in forming partnerships with customers

  14. GLOBALIZATION AND INTEGRATION INTO THE ECONOMIC AND MONETARY UNION-CHALLENGES FOR BANKS OPERATING IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CORALIA EMILIA POPA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to present recent evolution, but also the consequences of globalization of the banking sector, considering different approaches of this phenomenon. Over time, the banking field has undergone important changes in both the applicable law of this area, and through the technologies used in satisfying the customers’ needs. The development of international markets has led to new opportunities and challenges for banks that transformed the domestic financial market into an arena where only the best survive and grow. On these grounds and in strict relation to positive and negative effects of globalization, we can speak of a constant evolution of its most important subsystems - the financial subsystems of the global economy. In this paper special importance is given to the banking field, the article presenting arguments through which this complex phenomenon called globalization may have important consequences on financial supervision and regulation.

  15. Ministerial Presentation: United Kingdom [International Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Energy in the 21. Century: Addressing Energy Needs and Environmental Challenges, Beijing (China), 20-22 April 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    I would firstly like to express gratitude to the Director General of the IAEA, Mohamed EIBaradei, for inviting Mike Q'Brien, the UK Minister of State for Energy, to address this conference. I know the Minister greatly respects the important work of the IAEA and would like to have been able to deliver this speech himself but, as I'm sure you can appreciate, there are many demands on his time with the fast moving developments in energy policy which is why he has asked me to make this speech on his behalf. Nuclear decision. As I'm sure you will be aware the UK government has taken the decision that it is in the public interest that new nuclear power stations should have a role to play in our country's future energy mix, alongside other low-carbon sources. This decision was reached in the context of the challenges of climate change and energy security. These are challenges that delegates in this room will be well familiar with. Adding urgency to these challenges in the UK is that 15% of electricity currently comes from nuclear power stations and that all but one of our power stations will shut by 2025. Significantly, the government believes that it is for energy companies to fund, develop and build new nuclear power stations in the UK and to meet the full cost of decommissioning and their full share of waste management costs. Our job in government is to work hard to create the right conditions for this investment. Our White Paper published in January last year set out a clear work programme of the key steps both industry and Government need to take in the next ten years to enable new build to happen. This is a partnership and we are committed to working with industry to do everything we can to remove unnecessary regulatory burdens and increase investor certainty. Facilitative actions. This translates into a number of key actions Government is taking. Firstly, in the area of reactor licensing we have introduced a form of pre-licensing - the Generic Design Assessment. This is an upfront assessment of generic aspects of reactor design which leads to economies over larger fleets as well as reduced regulatory uncertainty. Secondly, on siting we have legislated to streamline the planning system so that those aspects of siting which are strategic in nature are considered at the national level with only site specific criteria considered at the local level. And thirdly, in relation to waste and decommissioning funding, we have legislated to ensure developers put money aside from day one for eventual clean up. But of course there is still more to do. Challenges. For example, we know that the UK regulator will need additional resources to deal with its predicted future workload, with or without new build, and we are considering ways to ensure that our nuclear regulatory arrangements remain world-class We know that we must assess nominated sites for strategic suitability and we must continue our work to set the price energy companies will pay for the disposal of waste. And throughout all of our work we must remain alive to the possibility of legal challenge. Timescale and Industry interest. Although there is still much to do and doubtless challenges ahead we are confident we will able to deliver what we have promised Our work will enable energy companies to: make planning applications from 2010, begin construction of the first new nuclear power station between 2013 and 2014, start operation between 2017 and 2020. As I said, we are confident we will deliver this framework and this confidence is reflected in the growing evidence of industry interest in the UK nuclear market. We started this year with EdF investing Pounds 12.5bn buying British Energy. We have seen eleven sites nominated for possibly hosting our new generation of nuclear power stations. [And an auction of potential sites for new nuclear power stations currently owned by the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority and EdF is still ongoing with those involved showing significant interest] [NWl] UK Offer. We also believe that the industry in the UK will be ready to support such programmes around the world as a result of capability development in response to the demands of the domestic programme And whilst support will be needed from the global supply chain in the domestic programme, we have the capability to deliver in most areas. We have a number of strengths in the nuclear new build supply chain, with UK based companies having been involved in the development of civil nuclear power for more than 50 years. We have a highly skilled and experienced resource base. We have proven major project management and engineering capability. We have expertise in operating nuclear plants. And we know we can design, manufacture and install advanced equipment. Wider work of IAEA. I cannot bring my speech to an end without also touching on the wider work that the IAEA carries out concerning the risks that such a global renaissance in nuclear power brings but also the technical assistance it provides to those countries looking to develop nuclear energy for peaceful purposes. It is in this context that the work of the IAEA is so important. Conclusion. So, to conclude: we in the UK think new nuclear power stations can help us cut our carbon emissions and increase our energy security and we believe UK industry will be in a position to support development at home and abroad. We are working hard to enable the necessary investment. But equally we must all recognise this global nuclear growth brings with it heavy responsibilities. We look forward to continuing to work with the IAEA and with other countries internationally to develop the use of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes and to tackle risks of non proliferation and are committed to this agenda.

  16. Lessons Learned and Present Day Challenges of Addressing 20th Century Radiation Legacies of Russia and the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The decommissioning of nuclear submarines, disposal of highly-enriched uranium and weapons-grade plutonium, and processing of high-level radioactive wastes represent the most challenging issues facing the cleanup of 20th century radiation legacy wastes and facilities. The US and Russia are the two primary countries dealing with these challenges, because most of the world's fissile inventory is being processed and stored at multiple industrial sites and nuclear weapons production facilities in these countries

  17. Industry, university and government partnership to address research, education and human resource challenges for nuclear industry in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: This paper describes the outcome of an important recent initiative of Canadian nuclear industry to reinvigorate interest in education and collaborative research in prominent Canadian universities. This initiative has led to the formation of the University Network of Excellence in Nuclear Engineering (UNENE), incorporated in 2002. During the recent past, the slowdown in nuclear power development in Canada has curtailed the demand for new nuclear professionals down to a trickle. Without exciting job opportunities in sight the interest of prospective students in nuclear education and research has plunged. Consequently, with declining enrolment in nuclear studies and higher demand from competing disciplines, most universities have found it difficult to sustain nuclear programs. As such the available pool of graduating students is small and insufficient to meet emerging industry demand. With nuclear industry employees' average age hovering around mid-forties and practically no younger cohort to back up, nuclear industry faces the risk of knowledge loss and significant difficulty in recruiting new employees to replenish its depleting workforce. It is, therefore, justifiably concerned. Also, since nuclear generation is now the purview of smaller companies, their in-house capability for mid- to longer-term research is becoming inadequate. Recognizing the above challenges, Ontario Power Generation, Bruce Power and Atomic Energy of Canada Limited have formed an alliance with prominent Canadian universities and undertaken to invest money and offer in-kind support to accomplish three main objectives: Reinvigorate university-based nuclear engineering research by augmenting university resources by creating new industry supported research professorships and supporting research of other professors; Promote enrolment in graduate programs by supporting students and making use of a course-based Master of Engineering (M.Eng.) Program that is taught collectively by professors from all supported universities and which can be completed through part-time studies; Create a pool of nuclear expertise in universities that can be accessed by public and governments for impartial and trustworthy advice. The Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC), the Canadian Regulator, and Candu Owners Group are also participating in UNENE activities. Nuclear industries have linked with a select group of Canadian universities agreeable to committing to nuclear research and education and seeking investment from governments to match cash and in-kind contributions from industry. The University Network of Excellence in Nuclear Engineering (UNENE) was thus created involving universities of McMaster, Queen's, Toronto, Waterloo, Western Ontario and the new University of Ontario Institute of Technology. These universities are recipients of funds for setting up NSERC-UNENE Industry Research Chairs in Nuclear Engineering. Also, Ecole Polytechnique and the University of New Brunswick, supported respectively by Hydro Quebec and New Brunswick Power, and Royal Military College - operating a joint graduate program with Queen's University, are participants in UNENE. The following Industrial Research Chairs are either in place or approved to start within the next few months. In each case there is a provision for hiring a junior Research Chair. - Dr. John Luxat, Nuclear Safety Analysis and Thermal Hydraulics, McMaster University; - Dr. Rick Holt, Advanced Nuclear Materials, Queen's University; - Dr. Roger Newman, Nano-Engineering of Alloys for Nuclear Power Systems, University of Toronto; - Dr. Mahesh Pandey, Risk-Based Life Cycle Management of Engineering Systems, University of Waterloo; - Dr. Jin Jiang, Control, Instrumentation and Electrical Systems of Nuclear Power Plants, University of Western Ontario. Progress is being made to find a candidate and define a research program for an Industrial Research Chair:- Knowledge Management, University of Ontario Institute of Technology. Each of the above six NSERC-UNENE Industrial Research Chairs are tenured positions, funded at 2.0 M dollars or more for first five years. The Chairs may be subsequently renewed. A large number of graduate students are already enrolled with Professors Holt, Jiang and Pandey. In anticipation of receiving Ontario Council of Graduate Studies accreditation for the course-based M. Eng. Degree in Nuclear Engineering, the following courses have already been offered to a typical class of 20 students: Reactor Physics; Nuclear Plant Systems and Operations; Nuclear Reactor Safety Design; Thermal Hydraulics. In addition to these, courses to be offered in near future include: Engineering Risk Analysis; Reactor Chemistry and Corrosion; Nuclear Materials; Control, Instrumentation and Electrical Power Systems; Nuclear Waste Management; Fuel Management; Health Physics/Radiation Protection; Power Plant Thermodynamics; Codes, Standards and Jurisdictions; and Business Management. M.Eng. Courses are delivered in flexible format to suit distant faculty and part-time students. UNENE, an industry driven partnership of nuclear industry, universities and governments, created to address the future challenge of research, education and human resources in Canada, has made an impressive start. (author)

  18. The Cultural Challenges of Managing Global Project Teams: a Study of Brazilian Multinationals

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ivete, Rodrigues; Roberto, Sbragia.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The internationalization of Brazilian companies brings a new reality: the need for implementation of global projects that bring, in turn, the challenge of managing multicultural teams. Since this is a recent phenomenon with little theoretical development, this study sought to understand the relation [...] ships between cultural characteristics and management teams of global projects in Brazilian multinationals. To carry this discussion forward, we studied six cases of Brazilian multinational companies, with the aim of deepening the understanding of the management of global teams, involving the planning, deployment, development and management of human resources. Among the projects studied, it was found that there is very little concern with the specific issue of multiculturalism and little inter-cultural incentive to the development of team members, which ends up hindering the construction of a global mindset, important for the Brazilian multinational companies to perform successfully abroad. Faced with this situation, each of the managerial processes mentioned were presented with a number of actions to be undertaken by the project manager in three different dimensions: the project itself, the organization and the global environment. The work contributes, thus, to enable Brazilian multinational companies to manage their global teams in order to maximize the advantages of global teams, such as increased creativity and innovative capacity, but avoid the problems that multiculturalism can bring, ranging from conflicts between people to project failure.

  19. The Cultural Challenges of Managing Global Project Teams: A Study of Brazilian Multinationals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivete Rodrigues

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The internationalization of Brazilian companies brings a new reality: the need for implementation of global projects that bring, in turn, the challenge of managing multicultural teams. Since this is a recent phenomenon with little theoretical development, this study sought to understand the relationships between cultural characteristics and management teams of global projects in Brazilian multinationals. To carry this discussion forward, we studied six cases of Brazilian multinational companies, with the aim of deepening the understanding of the management of global teams, involving the planning, deployment, development and management of human resources. Among the projects studied, it was found that there is very little concern with the specific issue of multiculturalism and little inter-cultural incentive to the development of team members, which ends up hindering the construction of a global mindset, important for the Brazilian multinational companies to perform successfully abroad. Faced with this situation, each of the managerial processes mentioned were presented with a number of actions to be undertaken by the project manager in three different dimensions: the project itself, the organization and the global environment. The work contributes, thus, to enable Brazilian multinational companies to manage their global teams in order to maximize the advantages of global teams, such as increased creativity and innovative capacity, but avoid the problems that multiculturalism can bring, ranging from conflicts between people to project failure.

  20. E-LEARNING AND THE GLOBAL DIVIDE: The Challenges Facing Distance Education in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bamidele A. OJO

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the question of distance education and its pivotal role in promoting social change and development in Africa. It also discussed within the context of the global digital divide and the ongoing need for collaborative effort at global education, the limitation imposed by the socio-economic and political environment on the continent. The paper in its findings conclude that the crisis within African societies constitutes a serious challenge to the implementation of and the effectiveness of distance education in Africa and therefore contributes to the widening of the digital divide rather than reducing it.

  1. Opening address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Overall state of energy needs and production with special emphasis on increasing consumption and global climate challenge induce increasing efficiency in the broad sense, i.e. increasing the energy efficiency of homes, business, transportation, industry; increasing the efficiency of how energy is delivered to consumers and increasing the efficiency of electricity generation. Being a part of the solution for overall efficiency challenges, past increases in nuclear power plant reliability and availability have kept nuclear power in the race but they have not yet assured survival. There would be limited future for nuclear power unless existing plants prove that the technology is economically competitive. This could be done because it helps attaining healthier global environment. Successful cooperation across all sectors of society and across all oceans of the world would lead to first maintaining the nuclear energy option, and then expanding its application in the future, the potential of nuclear energy would be fully realized to the benefit of all the world

  2. Implementing a Public Health Approach to Addressing Mental Health Needs in a University Setting: Lessons and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parcover, Jason; Mays, Sally; McCarthy, Amy

    2015-01-01

    The mental health needs of college students are placing increasing demands on counseling center resources, and traditional outreach efforts may be outdated or incomplete. The public health model provides an approach for reaching more students, decreasing stigma, and addressing mental health concerns before they reach crisis levels. Implementing a…

  3. Addressing Gender Issues in the Historically Black College and University Community: A Challenge and Call to Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonner, Florence B.

    2001-01-01

    Black women struggle for parity with men and white women in the U.S. academy. Examines gender issues at historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs), noting patterns of gender inequity and discrimination. These disparities are confounded by and in conflict with issues of race. Addresses the consequence of lack of attention to gender…

  4. Transmissibility of the Ice Bucket Challenge among globally influential celebrities: retrospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Ni, Michael Y; Chan, Brandford H Y; Gabriel M. Leung; Lau, Eric H Y; Pang, Herbert

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the transmissibility of the Ice Bucket Challenge among globally influential celebrities and to identify associated risk factors. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting Social media (YouTube, Facebook, Twitter, Instagram). Participants David Beckham, Cristiano Ronaldo, Benedict Cumberbatch, Stephen Hawking, Mark Zuckerberg, Oprah Winfrey, Homer Simpson, and Kermit the Frog were defined as index cases. We included contacts up to the fifth generation seeded from each i...

  5. Global Sustainable Development Agenda: An Implication for Conservation Challenges in Cross River State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Oliver Okey Oji Enuoh; Francis E. Bisong

    2014-01-01

    The pristine rainforest of Cross River State of Nigeria is ecologically a region of species endemism and one of the 25 biodiversity hotspots in the world. Globally, there has been a drive for sustainability of these valuable ecosystems. The world Commission on Environment and Development articulates this drive and offers clarifications on the instruments to achieve the goals of sustainable development. However, in many countries such as Nigeria and other African countries, the challenges of a...

  6. Global value chains and agrifood standards: Challenges and possibilities for smallholders in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Joonkoo; Gereffi, Gary,; Beauvais, Janet

    2010-01-01

    The rise of private food standards has brought forth an ongoing debate about whether they work as a barrier for smallholders and hinder poverty reduction in developing countries. This paper uses a global value chain approach to explain the relationship between value chain structure and agrifood safety and quality standards and to discuss the challenges and possibilities this entails for the upgrading of smallholders. It maps four potential value chain scenarios depending on the degree of conc...

  7. Challenges of Internationalization for New Ventures, the case of Icelandic born global companies

    OpenAIRE

    Inga Pétursdóttir Jessen 1977

    2013-01-01

    This thesis is a case study on Icelandic born globals, where challenges of new ventures internationalization are explored, as well as strategies of internationalization. Innovation and new ventures have been nominated as two of the most important tools in order to rebuild the Icelandic economy, in fact they have always been a key factor in the economy. Since the Icelandic market is overall relatively small or non-existent for different industries, new ventures might be strategizing from the b...

  8. Remarks on the Future of the European Union: Domestic and Global Challenges Ahead

    OpenAIRE

    András Inotai

    2011-01-01

    This paper highlights the main consequences that the crisis has put on the European Union, regarding four major areas: financial, macroeconomic, social and mental-ideological. Also, it aims to tackle some key challenges for the European Union: the revival of international trade; the prevention of the rise of protectionism on the global scale; the need to find a solution to the dilemma between continued stimulus and financial consolidation in general, and between the ambitious goals of the Eur...

  9. The Importance of Knowledge Management Practices in Overcoming the Global Software Engineering Challenges in Requirements Understanding

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad, Arshad; Khan, Hashim

    2008-01-01

    Going offshore has become a norm in current software organizations due to several benefits like availability of competent people, cost, proximity to market and customers, time and so on. Despite the fact that Global Software Engineering (GSE) offers many benefits to software organizations but it has also created several challenges/issues for practitioners and researchers like culture, communication, co-ordination and collaboration, team building and so on. As Requirements Engineering (RE) is ...

  10. It's Not Just "What" You Say: Verbal and Nonverbal Skills Help Leaders Address Challenges and Achieve Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoller, Kendall; Lahera, Antonia Issa; Normore, Anthony H.

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a story about two school leaders in a large Southern California urban district who used skills developed in a university school leadership program to create rapport, empathy, and trust while leading through challenging situations and achieving actionable outcomes. In addition to developing relationships in support of…

  11. Emulating Future Climate Projections from Global Climate Models: Methodologies and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, J.; Tebaldi, C.

    2014-12-01

    Pattern scaling methods have been used since the 1990s to estimate the results of global climate models (GCMs), in particular for emissions scenarios for which GCM simulations are not available. The basic method uses global mean surface temperature as the scaling variable, and relies on the assumption of a constant spatial pattern of change per unit global warming. This presentation will briefly review the status of pattern scaling science, using results from the published literature, and from a recent workshop held at NCAR. Successes and challenges will be illustrated of the use of pattern scaling to provide information on future changes for use by the impacts and integrated assessment modelling communities. This activity reflects anticipation of an enhanced role for emulation methods in a new process underway to produce integrated scenarios of future climate and societal change, which extends the number of scenarios of interest beyond the small set of RCPs used in GCM simulations for CMIP5. Relevant challenges include effects of non-linearities caused by: different responses to different levels of greenhouse gas forcing; different timescales of regional response for alternative forcing pathways leading to the same global temperature response; combining the effects of multiple individual forcing agents. Understanding and projecting the responses to forcing agents such as aerosols and land use is likely to be particularly important in emulating changes during the next few decades. Further challenges include how to represent uncertainties and multivariate changes robustly in order to provide a basis for realistic assessments of impacts and risks, and extensions to the basic pattern scaling paradigm. Such extensions include consideration of scaling variables other than global mean temperature, and the recent development of new approaches to emulation using alternative statistical techniques and different physical assumptions.

  12. Retos impuestos por la globalización a los sistemas educativos latinoamericanos / The Challenges of Globalization for Latin American Educational Systems

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juan, Cornejo Espejo.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Sin desconocer los beneficios de la globalización en el ámbito educativo, tampoco se pueden obviar los problemas que ha generado en América Latina, no sólo por las desigualdades en términos de calidad de la educación, sino también por los criterios economicistas, productivistas y de eficacia con que [...] se han pretendido evaluar todos los procesos educativos. Distintos especialistas parecen concordar que entre los grandes retos y desafíos que enfrentan los sistemas educativos de la región están: equidad, universalización del ciclo básico de enseñanza, disminución de las tasas de repitencia y deserción escolar, incorporación de nuevas tecnologías de la información, fortalecimiento de los vínculos con los mercados laborales, fortalecimiento de la ciudadanía, conciliación entre identidad local y globalización, entre otros. En este trabajo abordamos algunos efectos de la globalización en los cambios educativos, especialmente los desafíos que enfrentan los países latinoamericanos en el siglo XXI. Abstract in english In spite of the recognized benefits of globalization in the educational setting, we cannot ignore the problems it has generated in Latin America: not only because of inequalities in the quality of education, but also because of the use of criteria related to the economy, production and effectiveness [...] in an attempt to evaluate educational processes. Various specialists seem to agree that the major challenges faced by the region's educational systems include ensuring equality, universalizing basic education, decreasing dropout rates and grade repetition, incorporating new information technologies, strengthening links with employment markets, strengthening the community, and reconciling local identities and globalization. This article will address some of the effects of globalization on educational changes, especially the challenges faced by Latin American nations in the twenty-first century.

  13. Combining Multidisciplinary Science, Quantitative Reasoning and Social Context to Teach Global Sustainability and Prepare Students for 21st Grand Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, J. D.

    2011-12-01

    The Earth's seven billion humans are consuming a growing proportion of the world's ecosystem products and services. Human activity has also wrought changes that rival the scale of many natural geologic processes, e.g. erosion, transport and deposition, leading to recognition of a new geological epoch, the Anthropocene. Because of these impacts, several natural systems have been pushed beyond the planetary boundaries that made the Holocene favorable for the expansion of humanity. Given these human-induced stresses on natural systems, global citizens will face an increasing number of grand challenges. Unfortunately, traditional discipline-based introductory science courses do little to prepare students for these complex, scientifically-based and technologically-centered challenges. With NSF funding, an introductory, integrated science course stressing quantitative reasoning and social context has been created at UW. The course (GEOL1600: Global Sustainability: Managing the Earth's Resources) is a lower division course designed around the energy-water-climate (EWC) nexus and integrating biology, chemistry, Earth science and physics. It melds lectures, lecture activities, reading questionnaires and labs to create a learning environment that examines the EWT nexus from a global through regional context. The focus on the EWC nexus, while important socially and intended to motivate students, also provides a coherent framework for identifying which disciplinary scientific principles and concepts to include in the course: photosynthesis and deep time (fossil fuels), biogeochemical cycles (climate), chemical reactions (combustion), electromagnetic radiation (solar power), nuclear physics (nuclear power), phase changes and diagrams (water and climate), etc. Lecture activities are used to give students the practice they need to make quantitative skills routine and automatic. Laboratory exercises on energy (coal, petroleum, nuclear power), water (in Bangladesh), energy production and water (shale gas hydrofracing and oil sand production) and climate (scientific modeling, carbon emission management) address EWC issues in international, national and regional contexts while reflecting the news headlines of the day.

  14. Global Characterization and Monitoring of Forest Cover Using Landsat Data: Opportunities and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townshend, John R.; Masek, Jeffrey G.; Huang, ChengQuan; Vermote, Eric F.; Gao, Feng; Channan, Saurabh; Sexton, Joseph O.; Feng, Min; Narasimhan, Ramghuram; Kim, Dohyung; Song, Kuan; Song, Danxia; Song, Xiao-Peng; Noojipady, Praveen; Tan, Bin; Hansen, Matthew C.; Li, Mengxue; Wolfe, Robert E.

    2012-01-01

    The compilation of global Landsat data-sets and the ever-lowering costs of computing now make it feasible to monitor the Earth's land cover at Landsat resolutions of 30 m. In this article, we describe the methods to create global products of forest cover and cover change at Landsat resolutions. Nevertheless, there are many challenges in ensuring the creation of high-quality products. And we propose various ways in which the challenges can be overcome. Among the challenges are the need for atmospheric correction, incorrect calibration coefficients in some of the data-sets, the different phenologies between compilations, the need for terrain correction, the lack of consistent reference data for training and accuracy assessment, and the need for highly automated characterization and change detection. We propose and evaluate the creation and use of surface reflectance products, improved selection of scenes to reduce phenological differences, terrain illumination correction, automated training selection, and the use of information extraction procedures robust to errors in training data along with several other issues. At several stages we use Moderate Resolution Spectroradiometer data and products to assist our analysis. A global working prototype product of forest cover and forest cover change is included.

  15. Globalization and climate change challenges the Arctic communities adaptability and increases vulnerability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendriksen, KÃ¥re

    Globalization and climate change challenges the Arctic communities adaptability and increases vulnerability KÃ¥re Hendriksen, PhD student, Aalborg University, Denmark The previous isolation of the Arctic will change as a wide range of areas increasingly are integrated into the globalized world....... Parts of the Arctic are characterized by a relatively high material standard of living that is partially based on economic subsidies from the South, and for a number of Arctic consumers globalization appears primarily as a potential for improved supplies of consumer goods. The massive and growing...... pressure from multinational companies to exploit the Arctic mineral and oil resources as well as hydro-power in large scale industries appears to (local) governments as a potential for economic growth and thus reduced economic dependence on subsidies from the nation states the Arctic are dependent of...

  16. Remarks on the Future of the European Union: Domestic and Global Challenges Ahead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    András Inotai

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights the main consequences that the crisis has put on the European Union, regarding four major areas: financial, macroeconomic, social and mental-ideological. Also, it aims to tackle some key challenges for the European Union: the revival of international trade; the prevention of the rise of protectionism on the global scale; the need to find a solution to the dilemma between continued stimulus and financial consolidation in general, and between the ambitious goals of the Europe 2020 project and the current fiscal restrictions; the growth of public support across Europe for a financial consolidation strategy based on cutting spending; the impact of the financial and macroeconomic crisis on several sectors; and the deficiencies of the „European construction” indicated by the global crisis. Furthermore, it proposes four main questions for which EU has to provide clear answers in order to become a real global player. The questions concern the „European identity”, the „European values”, the EU strategy paper establishing its mission for the next period and the importance of a strong leadership implementing the strategy. In the end, the most important challenge seems to be how the EU can remain a global economic actor and become a more influential political player in the network of rapidly changing international power relations.

  17. Governing inland ports : A multi-dimensional approach to addressing inland port-city challenges in European transport corridors

    OpenAIRE

    Witte, Patrick; Wiegmans, Bart; van Oort, Frank|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/107712741; Spit, Tejo|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070576289

    2014-01-01

    Inland ports have been put forward as crucial linkages for efficient global freight transport and corridor development. However, the present understanding of inland ports appears to be limited to network-based views with a maritime port focus (Outside-In), in which inland ports play second fiddle. We argue that inland ports as independent structures (Inside-Out) deserve equal consideration and that in addition to the transport dimension, the spatial, economic and institutional dimensions of i...

  18. Addressing the challenges of a new digital technologies curriculum: MOOCs as a scalable solution for teacher professional development

    OpenAIRE

    Vivian, Rebecca; Falkner, Katrina; Falkner, Nickolas

    2014-01-01

    England and Australia have introduced new learning areas, teaching computer science to children from the first year of school. This is a significant milestone that also raises a number of big challenges: the preparation of teachers and the development of resources at a national scale. Curriculum change is not easy for teachers, in any context, and to ensure teachers are supported, scaled solutions are required. One educational approach that has gained traction for delivering content to large-...

  19. Makerere University College of Health Sciences’ role in addressing challenges in health service provision at Mulago National Referral Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Sekandi Juliet; Nshimye Edith; Kasangaki Arabat; Mbabali Speciosa; Tweheyo Raymond; Tugumisirize Joshua; Kizza Irene B; Groves Sara; Kennedy Caitlin E

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Mulago National Referral Hospital (MNRH), Uganda’s primary tertiary and teaching hospital, and Makerere University College of Health Sciences (MakCHS) have a close collaborative relationship. MakCHS students complete clinical rotations at MNRH, and MakCHS faculty partner with Mulago staff in clinical care and research. In 2009, as part of a strategic planning process, MakCHS undertook a qualitative study to examine care and service provision at MNRH, identify challenges, g...

  20. Born Global Challenges and Performance - A Study on Competences, Routines, and Corporate Governance Structure of Born Global Software Companies in Sweden and Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Tunca, Burak; Yuditskaya, Evgenia

    2009-01-01

    Problem: How do the born global firms overcome challenges and sustain performance in international markets through their competences, routines, and corporate governance structure? Purpose: The purpose of this thesis is to explore the competences, routines, and corporate governance structure of born global companies, and understand their role in overcoming challenges of early internationalization and sustaining performance in international markets from early days. Method: This research is cond...

  1. Global marketing advertising with cultural differences : How can global companies better address cultural differences in marketing advertising in the Middle East?

    OpenAIRE

    Cimendag, Ismail; Yalcin, Erkan

    2012-01-01

    The authors realized the importance of being flexible in cultural values in the current environment of today’s economy. This environment is called ‘globalization’ that has become an interesting topic in the academic world. Beyond the different challenges, the most important challenge regarding to the thesis topic is the cultural challenge. The authors have combined these elements and  wanted to investigate how these factors influence marketing advertising in the Middle East. Hence, the purpos...

  2. Opening address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Honourable Representatives of His Majesty King Mohammed VI and of the Government of Morocco, representatives of sponsoring organizations, distinguished participants, on behalf of the Director General of the IAEA, it is my pleasure and privilege to welcome you to this International Conference on National Infrastructures for Radiation Safety: Towards Effective and Sustainable Systems. I would like to express my sincere appreciation to His Majesty King Mohammed VI for his patronage, to the Government of Morocco and the University Mohammed V, Agdal, for hosting this conference in the beautiful and historic city of Rabat, and to the local organizers for their diligent planning and gracious hospitality. I would also like to thank the four organizations that are co-operating with the IAEA in holding this conference: the World Health Organization, the Pan American Health Organization, the International Labour Organization, the European Commission and the OECD/Nuclear Energy Agency. National infrastructure for radiation safety has emerged as an issue of international concern over the last two decades. Systematic and strategic consideration of infrastructure has become widely recognized as an essential prerequisite for safety. The first IAEA conference to address the topic was in Munich, Germany, in 1990. The 1996 edition of the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (known as the Basic Safety Standards or BSS) highlighted the issue, and the IAEA's technical co-operation Model Project for Upgrading Radiation Protection Infrastructure was introduced to help address it. The Model Project has helped, and continues to help, more than 85 IAEA Member States to work towards the goal of a radiation safety infrastructure in accordance with the Basic Safety Standards. A great deal has been achieved, but this work is not complete. Furthermore, not all States are members of the IAEA or the Model Project, and there are around 50 non-Member States that may need similar assistance. I would, therefore, like to extend a special welcome to representatives of those States that are not members of the IAEA, and to thank the United States of America for providing extrabudgetary support to make possible the participation of these States in this conference. The issue of orphan sources has been instrumental in stirring the international community into action. Initially, orphan sources were seen primarily as a safety issue. However, since the terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001 in the USA, the security dimension has brought an increased sense of urgency. Security considerations have also led to a greater recognition that national systems for the control of sources can only be fully effective if all States have effective systems, that is, if there is an effective global system of control. But there is a broader underlying reason why we need to continue to strengthen national infrastructures for radiation safety. Technologies that make use of radiation and radioactive material - in medicine, in research, in industry, in agriculture and water resource management - have expanded and spread all around the world, and continue to grow. These technologies bring great benefits - often desperately needed - but those benefits cannot be fully enjoyed unless the technologies can be used safely. Effective national infrastructures provide the foundation for the safe use of these technologies.I hope that the sharing of knowledge and experience at this conference will contribute to a 'virtuous circle' of continuous improvement. I look forward to the conference providing deeper and broader ideas for how the IAEA can be more effective in assisting in this very challenging area. I wish you well in your deliberations this week, and I look forward to hearing your findings. I invite the representatives of the four co-operating organizations to make their opening remarks, and I give the floor firstly to Mr. Repacholi, representing the World Health Organization. (author)

  3. Product innovation and commercialization in lean global start-ups: the challenges of turning uncertainties into risks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanev, Stoyan; Rasmussen, Erik Stavnsager

    2015-01-01

    The paper examines the distinctive characteristics of product innovation and commercialization in Lean Global Start-up (LGS) – new technology firms which have adopted a lean and global path from or near to their inception. It suggests an uncertainty vs risk framework which allows integrating two research streams – Born Global (BG) firms and lean start-ups. In addition to its integrative theoretical value, the paper offers insights for lean start-up managers dealing with the challenges of a global start.

  4. Projected groundwater balance as a state indicator for addressing sustainability and management challenges of overexploited crystalline aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah, S.; Ahmed, S.; Boisson, A.; Violette, S.; de Marsily, G.

    2014-11-01

    In India, particularly in semi-arid regions, groundwater levels are declining at alarming rates due to overexploitation and the sustainable exploitation of groundwater resources is in deep crisis. There is little or no information on groundwater sustainability indicators, which can signal towards the challenges in water management. In this study we downscaled an entire watershed into three zones based on the different hydrodynamic behaviour recorded at the borewell scale. A process-based simple, multi-parameter linear auto-regressive model was developed to predict groundwater levels, which uses recharge, groundwater withdrawal and irrigation return flow as input variables. A comprehensive and predictive long-term groundwater balance is used as a state indicator to evaluate the sustainability and management challenges in the watershed. Two groundwater withdrawal scenarios were designed to assess the impact of groundwater withdrawal on the groundwater balance. We found that geological heterogeneities play a crucial role in controlling groundwater fluctuations. The storage change in two different groundwater withdrawal scenarios shows gradually declining groundwater storage in both scenarios. A long-term assessment of the groundwater balance helps to analyse the state of the groundwater system and to locate priority zones for watershed interventions.

  5. Global Adoption of Genetically Modified (GM) Crops: Challenges for the Public Sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huesing, Joseph E; Andres, David; Braverman, Michael P; Burns, Andrea; Felsot, Allan S; Harrigan, George G; Hellmich, Richard L; Reynolds, Alan; Shelton, Anthony M; Jansen van Rijssen, Wilna; Morris, E Jane; Eloff, Jacobus N

    2016-01-20

    Advances in biotechnology continue to drive the development of a wide range of insect-protected, herbicide-tolerant, stress-tolerant, and nutritionally enhanced genetically modified (GM) crops, yet societal and public policy considerations may slow their commercialization. Such restrictions may disproportionately affect developing countries, as well as smaller entrepreneurial and public sector initiatives. The 2014 IUPAC International Congress of Pesticide Chemistry (San Francisco, CA, USA; August 2014) included a symposium on "Challenges Associated with Global Adoption of Agricultural Biotechnology" to review current obstacles in promoting GM crops. Challenges identified by symposium presenters included (i) poor public understanding of GM technology and the need for enhanced communication strategies, (ii) nonharmonized and prescriptive regulatory requirements, and (iii) limited experience with regulations and product development within some public sector programs. The need for holistic resistance management programs to enable the most effective use of insect-protected crops was also a point of emphasis. This paper provides details on the symposium discussion and provides background information that can be used in support of further adoption of beneficial GM crops. Overall, it emphasizes that global adoption of modern agricultural biotechnology has not only provided benefits to growers and consumers but has great potential to provide solutions to an increasing global population and diminishing agricultural land. This potential will be realized by continued scientific innovation, harmonized regulatory systems, and broader communication of the benefits of the high-yielding, disease-resistant, and nutritionally enhanced crops attainable through modern biotechnology. PMID:26751159

  6. Opening address [International conference on challenges faced by technical and scientific support organizations in enhancing nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In summary, I would like to leave you with several thoughts that could shape the outcome of your deliberations this week: (a) networking among TSOs to share safety related information, knowledge and resources, thus ensuring effective support for the regulators and improving safety; (b) identifying and addressing the safety research needs, and possibly the associated education and training; (c) ensuring adequate competence and independence of the TSOs in providing technical and scientific expertise/advice; (d) building and maintaining confidence among the communities of experts and the public; (e) increasing the role of TSOs in the establishment and revision of the IAEA safety standards and their application, and in the national efforts related to the implementation of conventions and codes of conduct; (f) supporting the creation and enhancement of the safety infrastructures in those countries with limited nuclear experience that are embarking on the use of nuclear power

  7. Stigma, survivorship and solutions: Addressing the challenges of living with breast cancer in low-resource areas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M, Mutebi; J, Edge.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer in developing nations is characterised by late diagnosis. The causes are multifactorial and many are addressed in other articles in this edition of CME. Breast cancer is also seen in younger women. The late-presentation trend is slowly changing in some areas, and an increasing number o [...] f women are presenting with early disease. These patients, if managed appropriately, have a more favourable prognosis. As a result, developing nations must now begin to consider the concerns of breast cancer survivorship. In developed countries, there are a number of organisations that support breast cancer survivors. In this article, we highlight some of the psychosocial aspects of living with breast cancer in low-resource areas.

  8. The Davis Junior High Global Warming Project and Bike/Walk to School Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, A.; Anastasio, C.; Niemeier, D.; Scow, K.

    2007-12-01

    Junior high school students in Davis, CA, were targeted in an outreach project combining interactive and hands- on information about global warming and carbon footprints with a bike/walk to school challenge. The project was conducted by the Kearney Foundation of Soil Science, the Department of Land, Air and Water Resources and the John Muir Institute of the Environment at the University of California Davis. Approximately 70 undergraduates, graduate students, post-doc researchers, faculty and staff from UCD and the town of Davis were involved. Workshops were held in the 7th, 8th and 9th grade science classes in Davis' 3 junior high schools, reaching a total of 1700 students. Each 50-minute presentation consisted of a Global Warming Jeopardy game, followed by individual calculation of carbon footprints oriented towards a junior high school student. Biking or walking to school, instead commuting by car, was introduced as an important and feasible activity that could reduce one's carbon footprint. Working with staff from each junior high, students were then challenged to increase biking or walking to school during a 2 week Bike/Walk to School Challenge . UCD students and staff monitored automobile commuting (# cars, idle time) and bike use during this time and provided incentives for biking or walking . All schools were recognized for efforts to reduce their carbon footprints, and the concept was reinforced at the start of the following school year by planting a tree at each school.

  9. Biological Sciences for the 21st Century: Meeting the Challenges of Sustainable Development in an Era of Global Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joel Cracraft; Richard O' Grady

    2007-05-12

    The symposium was held 10-12 May, 2007 at the Capitol Hilton Hotel in Washington, D. C. The 30 talks explored how some of today's key biological research developments (such as biocomplexity and complex systems analysis, bioinformatics and computational biology, the expansion of molecular and genomics research, and the emergence of other comprehensive or system wide analyses, such as proteomics) contribute to sustainability science. The symposium therefore emphasized the challenges facing agriculture, human health, sustainable energy, and the maintenance of ecosystems and their services, so as to provide a focus and a suite of examples of the enormous potential contributions arising from these new developments in the biological sciences. This symposium was the first to provide a venue for exploring how the ongoing advances in the biological sciences together with new approaches for improving knowledge integration and institutional science capacity address key global challenges to sustainability. The speakers presented new research findings, and identified new approaches and needs in biological research that can be expected to have substantial impacts on sustainability science.

  10. The Forensic Curator: Digital Forensics as a Solution to Addressing the Curatorial Challenges Posed by Personal Digital Archives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gareth Knight

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The growth of computing technology during the previous three decades has resulted in a large amount of content being created in digital form. As their creators retire or pass away, an increasing number of personal data collections, in the form of digital media and complete computer systems, are being offered to the academic institutional archive. For the digital curator or archivist, the handling and processing of such digital material represents a considerable challenge, requiring development of new processes and procedures. This paper outlines how digital forensic methods, developed by the law enforcement and legal community, may be applied by academic digital archives. It goes on to describe the strategic and practical decisions that should be made to introduce forensic methods within an existing curatorial infrastructure and how different techniques, such as forensic hashing, timeline analysis and data carving, may be used to collect information of a greater breadth and scope than may be gathered through manual activities.

  11. Report on the INMM Workshop on preparing for nuclear arms reductions to address technical transparency and verification challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In May 2011, a workshop was held to develop broader awareness of the technical and operational challenges that could be used to enhance effective transparency and/or verification in the medium to long-term. Building confidence in a broader multi-lateral engagement scenario adds even greater challenges than the traditional bi-lateral approaches. The multi-disciplinary group that attended included decision-makers needing to understand present and possible future technical capabilities, and the technical community needing clearer definition of possible requirements and operational constraints. In additional to traditional presentations, the group conducted an exercise to stimulate new perspectives on verification requirements for a scenario based on nuclear arms reductions at very low numbers of nuclear weapons. The workshop participants were divided into two groups and asked to explore the political and technical requirements needed for States to move towards significant arms reductions. Using a technique called 'back-casting' participants were asked to imagine a world without nuclear weapons and describe what would be needed to achieve levels of one thousand, one hundred, ten, and ultimately zero weapons in the world. Most participants agreed that a strong political commitment will be necessary and that complete disarmament will only be possible if states are convinced that nuclear weapons serve no purpose. Both groups believed that a time period of greater instability would be encountered when moving from 1000 to 100 nuclear weapons and that it would be imperative to accelerate quickly through this period. The group discussed the need to have an international body monitor the disarmament process to maintain legitimacy for the international community. One possibility could be the development of an intergovernmental panel on verification and disarmament to monitor and facilitate disarmament. The groups recognized the problem of fissile material disposition after warheads dismantlement. Controlling fissile materials is important since nuclear material could be a direct route to reconstitution of weapons. (A.C.)

  12. The global challenges and opportunities in the practice of rheumatology: white paper by the World Forum on Rheumatic and Musculoskeletal Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Maini, Mustafa; Adelowo, Femi; Al Saleh, Jamal; Al Weshahi, Yousef; Burmester, Gerd-Rüdiger; Cutolo, Maurizio; Flood, Joseph; March, Lyn; McDonald-Blumer, Heather; Pile, Kevin; Pineda, Carlos; Thorne, Carter; Kvien, Tore K

    2015-05-01

    Rheumatic and musculoskeletal diseases (RMDs) represent a multitude of degenerative, inflammatory and auto-immune conditions affecting millions of people worldwide. Persons with these diseases may potentially experience severe chronic pain, joint damage, increasing disability and even death. With an increasingly ageing population, the prevalence and burden of RMDs are predicted to increase, placing greater demands on the global practice of rheumatology and related healthcare budgets. Effective treatment of RMDs currently faces a number of challenges in both the developed and developing world, and individual countries may face more specific local challenges. However, limited understanding of the burden of RMDs amongst public health professionals and policy-makers means that these diseases are often not considered a public health priority. The objective of this review is to increase awareness of the RMDs and to identify opportunities to address RMD challenges on both a local and global scale. On 26 September 2014, rheumatology experts from five different continents met at the World Forum on Rheumatic and Musculoskeletal Diseases (WFRMD) to discuss and identify some key challenges for the RMDs community today. The outcomes are presented in this review, focusing on access to rheumatology services, diagnostics and therapies, rheumatology education and training and on clinical trials, as well as investigator-initiated and epidemiological research. The long-term vision of the WFRMD is to increase perception of the RMDs as a major burden to society and to explore potential opportunities to improve global and local RMD care. PMID:25501633

  13. A Short Study of Iranian Organizations' Needs in the Area of Globalization: Opportunities, Challenges and Relative Advantages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Noruzi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Globalization and liberalization in developing countries is a lengthy process that has been a long time in the making. Some countries have accepted the reality of globalization while other undeveloped nations have yet to fully embrace this shift. For some, this has been in part due to fears among some underdeveloped nations that embracing globalization and becoming increasingly connected to a global economic network would put them in a bad position with relation to other powerful countries and multinational firms. Iran is an example of a developing country trying to be competitive in an increasingly global economy. The aim of this paper is to identify the needs for Iran and Iranian organizations in the process of globalization, focusing on opportunities, challenges, relative advantages and practical guides.Keywords: Globalization; Local development; Opportunities and Challenges

  14. Opening Address [FR09: International Conference on Fast Reactors and Related Fuel Cycles: Challenges and Opportunities, Kyoto (Japan), 7-11 December 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Distinguished guests, ladies and gentlemen. It is my honour to address participants at this opening session of the International Conference on Fast Reactors and Related Fuel Cycles: Challenges and Opportunities, organized by the IAEA and hosted by the Japan Atomic Energy Agency. Fast reactor technology has the potential to ensure that energy resources which would last hundreds of years with the technology we are using today will actually last several thousand years. In other words, it can satisfy enormous increases in demand. This innovative technology also reduces the risk to the environment and helps to limit the burden that will be placed on future generations in the form of waste products. The coming year will be an exciting one for the development of fast spectrum nuclear reactors. We expect to reach several important milestones: (a) The first criticality of the China Experimental Fast Reactor; (b) The restart of the Monju prototype fast reactor in Japan; (c) The new insights we will gain through the end-of-life studies at the Phenix reactor in France. In the near future, new fast reactors will be commissioned: the 500 MW(e) Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor in India, the first in a series of five of the same type, and the BN-800 reactor in the Russian Federation. Moreover, China, France, India, Japan and the Republic of Korea are preparing advanced prototypes and demonstration or commercial reactors for the 2020-2030 period. Nuclear power is set to become an increasingly important part of the global energy mix in the coming decades as demand for energy grows. A number of countries in both the developed and developing world have told the IAEA that they are interested in introducing nuclear power. The 30 countries which already have nuclear power reactors are set to build more. This trend is likely to be accompanied by accelerated deployment of fast reactors. Continued advances in research and technology development are necessary to ensure improved economics and maintain high safety levels with increased simplification of fast reactors. The number of countries with fast reactor development programmes is increasing steadily. Emerging economies are joining the traditional fast reactor technology holders and pursuing important research and technology activities. The IAEA provides a unique collaborative framework to enable all these players to work together to ensure that innovative fast reactor technology progresses. We provide an 'umbrella' for knowledge preservation, information exchange and collaborative R and D in order to pool resources and expertise. Our Technical Working Group on Fast Reactors promotes the exchange of information on national and multinational programmes and new developments and experience. It aims to identify problems, help find solutions and facilitate practical application of fast neutron systems. In the Programme and Budget Cycle for 2010-2011, IAEA projects on innovative fast neutron systems will continue to focus on issues addressing fast reactor economics, enhanced safety characteristics, sustainability and public acceptance. As far as public acceptance is concerned, I believe there is a growing understanding throughout the world that clean, efficient and safe nuclear energy has a key role to play in meeting the growing demand for energy while minimizing damage to the environment. Fast reactor technology has a promising future. The IAEA will continue to work with all of you to help interested Member States to benefit from it and to establish, or further enhance, the necessary safety, security and safeguards infrastructure. Let me conclude by expressing my gratitude to all of the dedicated colleagues in the International Advisory Committee, the International Scientific Committee and the Local Organizing Committee who have worked hard to organize this conference. I wish you every success in your deliberations over the next few days. (author)

  15. Globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plum, Maja

    Globalization is often referred to as external to education - a state of affair facing the modern curriculum with numerous challenges. In this paper it is examined as internal to curriculum; analysed as a problematization in a Foucaultian sense. That is, as a complex of attentions, worries, ways of...... reasoning, producing curricular variables. The analysis is made through an example of early childhood curriculum in Danish Pre-school, and the way the curricular variable of the pre-school child comes into being through globalization as a problematization, carried forth by the comparative practices of PISA...

  16. Addressing verification challenges, 16 October 2006, Vienna, Austria, Symposium on International Safeguards (16-20 October 2006)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In his talk about Verification Challenges Dr. Mohamed ElBaradei, Director General of the IAEA, welcomed the participants of the Symposium on International Safeguards. He stated that safeguards is probably the most difficult task entrusted to an international organization and that a major increase in nuclear energy around the globe is expected which means that nuclear know-how is spread to more and more countries and can be applied to both peaceful purposes and also non-peaceful purposes. More and more countries want to go in for the nuclear fuel cycle including sensitive fuel cycle activities like enrichment and reprocessing, they become so-called 'virtual nuclear weapons States. There is the need to develop a new international or multinational approach to the fuel cycle so as to avoid ending up with not just nine nuclear weapon States but another 20 or 30 States which have the capacity to develop nuclear weapons in a very short span of time. He stressed the important linkage between disarmament and non-proliferation and remembered the audience that safeguards, although very much a technical activity, operates in a politically charged environment. The IAEA's job is to make sure that countries with comprehensive safeguards are conducting all their activities exclusively for peaceful purposes. The ability to discover possible undeclared activities is a key challenge the IAEA is facing. He mentioned that the IAEA does not get all the information they would need, for example the IAEA does not get systematic information from the Nuclear Suppliers Group on exports and imports. Without the Additional Protocol the IAEA is also hampered in its ability to detect undeclared activities, e.g in the R and D activities that do not directly involve nuclear material. Another key issue are financial resources. Transparency measures in certain situations are under considerations including interviewing people, having access to documents, things that are not strictly required by the Additional Protocol but without which the IAEA cannot move forward. Environmental sampling and satellite monitoring are new tools the IAEA is now using almost routinely. New verification tools are developed in co-operation with the Member States

  17. Emerging from the tragedies in Bangladesh: a challenge to voluntarism in the global economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claeson, Björn Skorpen

    2015-02-01

    Under the regime of private company or multi-stakeholder voluntary codes of conduct and industry social auditing, workers have absorbed low wages and unsafe and abusive conditions; labor leaders and union members have become the targets of both government and factory harassment and violence; and trade union power has waned. Nowhere have these private systems of codes and audits so clearly failed to protect workers as in Bangladesh's apparel industry. However, international labor groups and Bangladeshi unions have succeeded in mounting a challenge to voluntarism in the global economy, persuading more than 180 companies to make a binding and enforceable commitment to workers' safety in an agreement with 12 unions. The extent to which this Bangladesh Accord will be able to influence the entrenched global regime of voluntary codes and weak trade unions remains an open question. But if the Accord can make progress in Bangladesh, it can help to inspire similar efforts in other countries and in other industries. PMID:25816167

  18. Accelerating the global nuclear renaissance: the central challenge of sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rebirth of nuclear energy has become an unmistakable reality that is gathering speed and momentum on the full world stage. All around the world, old-school anti-nuclear environmentalism is being eclipsed by a new realism that recognises nuclear energy's essential virtue: its capacity to deliver cleanly generated power safely, reliably, and on a massive scale. For serious environmentalists, the real challenge is that nuclear energy is not yet growing fast enough to play its needed role in the clean-energy revolution our world so desperately needs. A fair assessment shows that not one of the commonly cited ''public concerns'' poses a reasonable obstacle to a global expansion of nuclear power: Proliferation, Operational Safety, Cost Reduction, Waste Management. In three areas, governments must take decisive action to grow the nuclear industry: (1) Construct a comprehensive global regime to curtail greenhouse emissions; (2) Elevate nuclear investment to a national and international policy priority; and (3) Support educational development of the nuclear profession for an expanded global role. The global nuclear industry will be indispensable if humanity is to preserve the environment that enabled civilisation to evolve. Governments must emerge from postures of timidity and equivocation to act decisively in support of that industry. Our world is in dire peril, and we have no time to lose

  19. Transportability of tertiary qualifications and CPD: A continuing challenge for the global health workforce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saltman Deborah C

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In workforces that are traditionally mobile and have long lead times for new supply, such as health, effective global indicators of tertiary education are increasingly essential. Difficulties with transportability of qualifications and cross-accreditation are now recognised as key barriers to meeting the rapidly shifting international demands for health care providers. The plethora of mixed education and service arrangements poses challenges for employers and regulators, let alone patients; in determining equivalence of training and competency between individuals, institutions and geographical locations. Discussion This paper outlines the shortfall of the current indicators in assisting the process of global certification and competency recognition in the health care workforce. Using Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD data we highlight how International standardisation in the tertiary education sector is problematic for the global health workforce. Through a series of case studies, we then describe a model which enables institutions to compare themselves internally and with others internationally using bespoke or prioritised parameters rather than standards. Summary The mobility of the global health workforce means that transportability of qualifications is an increasing area of concern. Valid qualifications based on workplace learning and assessment requires at least some variables to be benchmarked in order to judge performance.

  20. Piracy :a critical examination of the definition and scope of piracy and the issues arising therefrom that affect : the legal address of the crime globally.

    OpenAIRE

    Neakoh, Raissa Timben

    2011-01-01

    Piracy: A critical examination of the definition and scope of piracy, and the legal issues arising there-from that affect the successful address of piracy globally. This thesis looks into the effectiveness of the existing legal maritime regime in fighting piracy worldwide. It goes to determine the extent to which the problem of modern day maritime piracy is related to the inadequacies brought about by the limitations in the definition of piracy as given by the United Nations Convention on the...

  1. Global Marketing of Readymade Garment Products from Bangladesh: Market Prospect and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahasanul Haque

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the global export market and its prospect and challenges for Bangladesh readymade garment products. The shift share method is used to identify the potential export market by selected seven major categories of readymade garment products on the basis of three-digit level Standards International Trade Classification (SITC for the period of 1987-93 and 1994-2000. The results of shift share analysis indicate that the USA, Canada and European Union (EU countries mainly offered the market opportunities for the export of garment products of Bangladesh. Asian countries have very negligible role in this respect. The challenges faced by the sector include: tough competition from other competitive countries such as India, Thailand, China and Vietnam, to slow progress of its high-technology adoption and slow inflow of foreign investment. Finally, in 2005, the MFA quota would be phased out.

  2. Globalni izzivi v svetovni industriji bele tehnike = Global Challenges in the Domestic Appliances Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušan Gošnik

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available bal Challenges in the Domestic Appliances IndustryAbstract: The domestic appliances industry is a mature industry. Changes in the business environment such as political, law, cultural, social, ecological and technological influences have an effect on the future development of this industry. Challenges to producers in this industry are oriented towards the further globalisation of the business, managing processes, new product and innovations development, and towards establishing and empowerment of the product brands. Global trends in the use of some natural sources, technological break-through, fulfilment of the market and strong competition direct us towards new innovations which will in their development consider also the social and environmental aspect as well.

  3. Rugby contact and collisions--clinical challenges of a global game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricios, Jon S

    2014-01-01

    Rugby Union (rugby) is a sport that evolved from and resembles other forms of football but is unique in many respects and presents distinctive clinical challenges. This article discusses those aspects of rugby that are different from other sports and those injuries that have specific significance to the game as a result of it being a global collision sport with an increasing focus on serious injury prevention. Injury screening and intervention programs, neck injuries, rugby's contribution to evolving concussion protocols, contact and travel-related illnesses, and rugby's drug intervention protocols are discussed. PMID:25211621

  4. Addressing the Challenges of Satellite and in-Situ Oceanographic Dataset Interoperability at the PO.Daac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsontos, V. M.; Huang, T.

    2014-12-01

    The earth science enterprise increasingly relies on the integration and synthesis of multivariate datasets from diverse observational platforms. NASA's ocean salinity missions, that include Aquarius/SAC-D and the SPURS (Salinity Processes in the Upper Ocean Regional Study) field campaign, illustrate the value of integrated observations in support of studies of the water cycle, environmental variability and climate. However, the inherent heterogeneity of resulting data and the disparate, distributed systems that serve them complicates their effective utilization for both earth science research and applications. Despite increased availability of oceanographic data online and improved protocols and tools for access, the fundamental problem of unified data access remains an impediment in part because of structural reasons (domain specific data providers) and in part because of specific technical issues. Key technical interoperability challenges include adherence to metadata and data format standards that are particularly acute for in-situ data and the lack of a unified metadata model facilitating archival and integration of both satellite and oceanographic field datasets. Here we report on new efforts at the PO.DAAC, NASA's physical oceanographic data center responsible for the archival and distribution of the satellite mission data that includes Aquarius, to extend our data management infrastructure to additionally support field campaign datasets such as those from SPURS. Integral to this are plans to develop a generalized data matchup service facilitating the reconciliation of multi-scale data exhibiting heterogeneous sampling geometries in support of mission Cal/Val and oceanographic research.

  5. Addressing the challenges of a new digital technologies curriculum: MOOCs as a scalable solution for teacher professional development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Vivian

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available England and Australia have introduced new learning areas, teaching computer science to children from the first year of school. This is a significant milestone that also raises a number of big challenges: the preparation of teachers and the development of resources at a national scale. Curriculum change is not easy for teachers, in any context, and to ensure teachers are supported, scaled solutions are required. One educational approach that has gained traction for delivering content to large-scale audiences are massively open online courses (MOOCs; however, little is known about what constitutes effective MOOC design, particularly within professional development contexts. To prepare teachers in Australia, we decided to ride the wave of MOOCs, developing a MOOC to deliver free computing content and pedagogy to teachers with the integration of social media to support knowledge exchange and resource building. The MOOC was designed to meet teacher needs, allowing for flexibility, ad-hoc interactions, support and the open sharing of resources. In this paper, we describe the process of developing our initiative, participant engagement and experiences, so that others encountering similar changes and reforms may learn from our experience.

  6. A Biodiversity Indicators Dashboard: Addressing Challenges to Monitoring Progress towards the Aichi Biodiversity Targets Using Disaggregated Global Data

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Xuemei; Smyth, Regan L.; Young, Bruce E.; Brooks, Thomas M; Sánchez de Lozada, Alexandra; Bubb, Philip; Butchart, Stuart H. M.; Larsen, Frank W.; Hamilton, Healy; Hansen, Matthew C.; Turner, Will R.

    2014-01-01

    Recognizing the imperiled status of biodiversity and its benefit to human well-being, the world's governments committed in 2010 to take effective and urgent action to halt biodiversity loss through the Convention on Biological Diversity's “Aichi Targets”. These targets, and many conservation programs, require monitoring to assess progress toward specific goals. However, comprehensive and easily understood information on biodiversity trends at appropriate spatial scales is often not available ...

  7. Engaging sub-national governments in addressing health equities: challenges and opportunities in China's health system reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brixi, Hana; Mu, Yan; Targa, Beatrice; Hipgrave, David

    2013-12-01

    China's current health system reform (HSR) is striving to resolve deep inequities in health outcomes. Achieving this goal is difficult not only because of continuously increasing income disparities in China but also because of weaknesses in healthcare financing and delivery at the local level. We explore to what extent sub-national governments, which are largely responsible for health financing in China, are addressing health inequities. We describe the recent trend in health inequalities in China, and analyse government expenditure on health in the context of China's decentralization and intergovernmental model to assess whether national, provincial and sub-provincial public resource allocations and local government accountability relationships are aligned with this goal. Our analysis reveals that government expenditure on health at sub-national levels, which accounts for ?90% of total government expenditure on health, is increasingly regressive across provinces, and across prefectures within provinces. Increasing inequity in public expenditure at sub-national levels indicates that resources and responsibilities at sub-national levels in China are not well aligned with national priorities. China's HSR would benefit from complementary measures to improve the governance and financing of public service delivery. We discuss the existing weaknesses in local governance and suggest possible approaches to better align the responsibilities and capacity of sub-national governments with national policies, standards, laws and regulations, therefore ensuring local-level implementation and enforcement. Drawing on China's institutional framework and ongoing reform pilots, we present possible approaches to: (1) consolidate key health financing responsibilities at the provincial level and strengthen the accountability of provincial governments, (2) define targets for expenditure on primary health care, outputs and outcomes for each province and (3) use independent sources to monitor and evaluate policy implementation and service delivery and to strengthen sub-national government performance management. PMID:23221008

  8. Advancing the Structural Use of Earth-based Bricks: Addressing Key Challenges in the East African Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mang Tia

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The research discussed in this paper is a subset of a bigger, NSF funded research project that is directed at investigating the use of sustainable building materials. The deployment context for the research is the hot and humid climate using selected cases from the East African region. The overarching goal for the research is advancing the structural use of earth-based technologies. Significant strides can be made through developing strategies for countering the adverse factors that affect the structural performance of the resulting wall, especially ones related to moisture dynamics. The research was executed in two phases. The first phase was a two-day NSF supported workshop which was held in Tanzania in July 2009. It provided a forum for sharing best practices in earth-based building technologies and developing a research and development roadmap. The priority research areas were broadly classified as optimizing the physio-mechanical properties of earth as a building material and managing socio-cultural impediments. In the second phase of the research, the authors collaborated with researchers from East Africa to conduct experimental work on the optimization of physio-mechanical properties. The specific research issues that have been addressed are: (1 characterizing the chemical reactions that can be linked to deterioration triggered by hygrothermal loads based on the hot and humid context, and; (2 developing a prototype for a simpler, portable, affordable and viable compressed brick production machine. The paper discusses the results from the characterization work that ultimately will be used to design bricks that have specific properties based on an understanding of how different stabilizers affect the hydration process. It also describes a cheaper, portable and more efficient prototype machine that has been developed as part of the follow-up research activities.

  9. Addressing Global Health, Development, and Social Inequalities through Research and Policy Analyses: the International Journal of MCH and AIDS

    OpenAIRE

    Romuladus E. Azuine, DrPH, RN; Gopal K. Singh, PhD

    2012-01-01

    One year after the birth of the International Journal of MCH and AIDS (IJMA), we continue to share the passion to document, and shine the light on the myriads of global health issues that debilitate developing countries.Although the focus of IJMA is on the social determinants of health and disease as well as on the disparities in the burden of communicable and non-communicable diseases affecting infants, children, women, adults, and families in developing countries, we would like to encourage...

  10. Strengthening the role of universities in addressing sustainability challenges: the Mitchell Center for Sustainability Solutions as an institutional experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David D. Hart

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available As the magnitude, complexity, and urgency of many sustainability problems increase, there is a growing need for universities to contribute more effectively to problem solving. Drawing upon prior research on social-ecological systems, knowledge-action connections, and organizational innovation, we developed an integrated conceptual framework for strengthening the capacity of universities to help society understand and respond to a wide range of sustainability challenges. Based on experiences gained in creating the Senator George J. Mitchell Center for Sustainability Solutions (Mitchell Center, we tested this framework by evaluating the experiences of interdisciplinary research teams involved in place-based, solutions-oriented research projects at the scale of a single region (i.e., the state of Maine, USA. We employed a multiple-case-study approach examining the experiences of three interdisciplinary research teams working on tidal energy development, adaptation to climate change, and forest vulnerability to an invasive insect. Drawing upon documents, observations, interviews, and other data sources, three common patterns emerged across these cases that were associated with more effective problem-solving strategies. First, an emphasis on local places and short-term dynamics in social-ecological systems research provides more frequent opportunities for learning while doing. Second, iterative stakeholder engagement and inclusive forms of knowledge co-production can generate substantial returns on investment, especially when researchers are dedicated to a shared process of problem identification and they avoid framing solutions too narrowly. Although these practices are time consuming, they can be accelerated by leveraging existing stakeholder relationships. Third, efforts to mobilize interdisciplinary expertise and link knowledge with action are facilitated by an organizational culture that emphasizes mutual respect, adaptability, and solutions. Participation of faculty associated with interdisciplinary academic programs, solutions-oriented fields, and units with partnership-oriented missions hastens collaboration within teams and between teams and stakeholders. The Mitchell Center also created a risk-tolerant culture that encouraged organizational learning. Solutions-focused programs at other universities can potentially benefit from the lessons we learned.

  11. Building a Course on Global Sustainability using the grand challenges of Energy-Water-Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, J. D.

    2012-12-01

    GEOL1600: Global Sustainability: Managing the Earth's Resources is a lower division integrated science course at the University of Wyoming that fulfills the university's science requirement. Course content and context has been developed using the grand challenge nexus of energy-water-and climate (EWC). The interconnection of these issues, their social relevance and timeliness has provided a framework that gives students an opportunity to recognize why STEM is relevant to their lives regardless of their ultimate professional career choices. The EWC nexus provides the filter to sieve the course's STEM content. It also provides an ideal mechanism by which the non-STEM perspectives important in grand challenge solutions can be seamlessly incorporated in the course. Through a combination of content and context, the relevance of these issues engage students in their own learning. Development of the course followed the Grand Challenge Scientific Literacy (GCSL) model independently developed by the author and two colleagues at the University of Wyoming. This course model stresses science principles centered on the nature of science (e.g., fundamental premises, habits of mind, critical thinking) and unifying scientific concepts (e.g., methods and tools, experimentation, modeling). Grand challenge principles identify the STEM and non-STEM concepts needed to understand the grand challenges, drawing on multiple STEM and non-STEM disciplines and subjects (i.e., economics, politics, unintended consequences, roles of stakeholders). Using the EWC nexus filter and building on the Grand Challenge Principles, specific content included in the course is selected is that most relevant to understanding the Grand Challenges, thereby stressing content depth over breadth. Because quantitative data and reasoning is critical to effectively evaluating challenge solutions, QR is a component of nearly all class activities, while engineering and technology aspects of grand challenges are explicitly stressed. Running concurrently through the course is a consideration of personal perspectives and their influence on student learning, particularly for controversial subjects. Organizationally, the course consists of three one hour lectures and a two hour lab each week. The lectures are used to introduce content and prepare the knowledge base students need for lab. Complementing traditional lectures are lecture worksheets (short activities applying topics previously presented in lecture) and lecture activities (more involved exercises that present a problem the students need to solve using previously learned scientific content and QR skills and tools). Labs focus on case studies set in global social contexts that are timely and relevant. Labs stress scientific skills (modeling groundwater flow) and also consider political and environmental issues, e.g. developing a policy to manage SO2 emissions from copper smelting. The ideas, concepts, educational materials and content developed in this course have been used as the basis for two Math Science Partnerships that have provided professional development for middle and high school science and math teachers and K-12 social, math and science teachers. These programs have worked with teachers to break down the barriers between disciplines and foster collaborative learning centered on socially relevant grand challenges.

  12. Global citizenship: A privilege and a responsibility. Vienna, 2 June 2003. Address to the American International School, Palais Ferstel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Good evening and thank you - Director Spradling, members of the faculty, alumni, family and friends of this graduating class, and especially the graduates of the American International School Vienna Class of 2003. Let me begin by thanking you for the invitation to share this important occasion with you. In my work, I frequently speak with diplomats and statesmen about how we can make our world a better place for 'future generations' - but I don't often get an opportunity like this one: to speak directly to you - the generation that holds the future in its hands. And I feel particularly fortunate to be speaking to such an international graduating class. As an Egyptian educated in the US, working in Vienna, with my children living in London, and an entire career devoted to international co-operation, I can tell you that I consider myself primarily a global citizen. And for me, thinking globally is now almost a must. This is because the world we live in has become highly interdependent. Many aspects of our modern life - Internet communication, the global marketplace, global warming, even the fights against disease and terrorism - point to the fact that the human race has entered a new era - a global era - and there is no turning back. To members of your generation, this might not seem like news. To your parents, the Internet feels like a new way of life (in fact - speaking for your parents, or perhaps your grandparents, we can still remember when television was a new and awesome thing) - but to you, global interaction and communication is a natural part of life. In fact, you especially are well equipped for this interdependent world - because the development of a global perspective is an essential feature of your educational environment here at the American International School. So you are 'ahead of the curve' in this regard. Yes, you are Brazilian, you are Indian, you are Iranian, you are Austrian, you are Japanese - you are one of the fifty nationalities that make up the rich cultural fabric of the AIS - but you are also global citizens. You have learned from the classroom, and equally important you have also learned from each other. As a result, your perspective is wider, your tolerance is greater, your understanding is deeper, and your world is smaller. And you are precisely the type of young people that our planet needs. Sure we all have differences, based on our cultural heritage, but what we choose to make of these differences can have a result that is crucial: either a harmonious and rich co-existence, or a planet marked by divergence and conflict. The European Union is a young but successful example of nations with different cultures, languages, and ethnic roots that have chosen to achieve strength through diversity. And over two hundred years ago, the United States was born with the same ideal - 13 colonies of immigrants coming from different backgrounds, who believed that by joining together they would be better able to go through the human journey. But for your generation, the vision of unity through diversity must be more than regional or national; it must be global. If there is any lesson from recent history, it should be that a global approach to our problems and to our future is the only approach. Nearly fifty years ago, after two devastating World Wars, the United Nations was created as a human project that aims to promote certain fundamental principles: respect for human rights and human dignity; the settlement of disputes through peaceful means; and economic and social development for all. During the Cold War the realization of this project was paralyzed in many ways. But the Cold War has been over for more than a decade, and still the international community is asking many of the same questions. How can we live in peace and harmony? How can we improve the living conditions for our neighbors around the globe? How can we learn to treat our differences with mutual respect? With the recent threats surrounding us, ranging from international terrorism to the conflicts in Afghanistan, Iraq, Congo, the Middle East and the Korean Peninsula - all in less time than it has taken for you to complete secondary school - you may feel that you are entering a world still fraught with danger, equal to or even more than what we had before

  13. The 2003 SARS Outbreak: Global Challenges and Innovative Infection Control Measure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathryn Murphy

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In early 2003, the global infection control community faced a great challenge, sudden acute respiratory syndrome (SARS. The rapid spread of SARS, its capacity to infect health care workers, and its many unknown features in the early days of the outbreak meant that health care workers were unsure of the most effective methods of infection control to prevent disease transmission. These conditions made designing appropriate, effective and standard infection control responses difficult. Innovation was necessary. This article provides a brief overview of global challenges in infection control and SARS. The author reports field observations and describes five selected examples of highly innovative, SARS-related infection control practices observed in three affected countries during the height of the 2003 outbreak. These examples relate to risk assessment, patient segregation, strategies to limit access to clinical areas, health care worker protection, and efforts to promote public confidence. Many of these strategies could be considered for use in the post-2003 SARS era, especially in preparation for an influenza or Avian influenza pandemic.

  14. The Challenge of Global Selective Outsourcing Environment: Implementing Customer-Centric IT Service Operations and ITIL Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Anne-Maarit Majanoja; Erkki Tervala; Linnéa Linko; Ville Leppänen

    2014-01-01

    Presently, internal Information Technology (IT) organizations make strategic level decisions to explore new capabilities and solutions from outsourcing markets to fulfill various business and customer expectations. However, far too little is known about the operational level challenges that emerge between IT service purchasing companies and suppliers in a global selective outsourcing environment. In this research, we focus on analyzing the operational level challenges and...

  15. Building a shared understanding of the skills and competences in order to respond to the current global technical challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friesel, Anna; Ward, Anthony; Welzer, Tatjana; Poboroniuc, Marian; Mrozek, Zbigniew

    current challenges. This paper presents the objectives and actual results of the EU supported project which runs from October 2012 to November 2015, named SALEIE - Strategic Alignment of Electrical and Information Engineering in European Higher Education Institutions. We describe in this paper the...... preliminary results of the project's work packages WP3 (Global Challenges) and WP4 (Widening Participation and Student Support)....

  16. Addressing Global Health, Development, and Social Inequalities through Research and Policy Analyses: the International Journal of MCH and AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romuladus E. Azuine, DrPH, RN

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available One year after the birth of the International Journal of MCH and AIDS (IJMA, we continue to share the passion to document, and shine the light on the myriads of global health issues that debilitate developing countries.Although the focus of IJMA is on the social determinants of health and disease as well as on the disparities in the burden of communicable and non-communicable diseases affecting infants, children, women, adults, and families in developing countries, we would like to encourage our fellow researchers and policy makers in both the developing and developed countries to consider submitting work that examines cross-national variations in heath and social inequalities.Such a global focus allows us to identify and understand social, structural, developmental, and health policy determinants underlying health inequalities between nations.Global assessment of health and socioeconomic patterns reaffirms the role of broader societal-level factors such as human development, gender inequality, gross national product, income inequality, and healthcare infrastructure as the fundamental determinants of health inequalities between nations.This is also confirmed by our analysis of the WHO data that shows a strong negative association between levels of human development and infant and maternal mortality rates.Focusing on socioeconomic, demographic, and geographical inequalities within a developing country, on the other hand, should give us a sense of how big the problem of health inequity is within its own borders.Such an assessment, then, could lead to development of policy solutions to tackle health inequalities that are unique to that country.

  17. Does the development of new medicinal products in the European Union address global and regional health concerns?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvarez-Martín Elena

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 1995, approval for many new medicinal products has been obtained through a centralized procedure in the European Union. In recent years, the use of summary measures of population health has become widespread. We investigated whether efforts to develop innovative medicines are focusing on the most relevant conditions from a global public health perspective. Methods We reviewed the information on new medicinal products approved by centralized procedure from 1995 to 2009, information that is available to the public in the European Commission Register of medicinal products and the European Public Assessment Reports from the European Medicines Agency. Morbidity and mortality data were included for each disease group, according to the Global Burden of Disease project. We evaluated the association between authorized medicinal products and burden of disease measures based on disability-adjusted life years (DALYs in the European Union and worldwide. Results We considered 520 marketing authorizations for medicinal products and 338 active ingredients. New authorizations were seen to increase over the period analyzed. There was a positive, high correlation between DALYs and new medicinal product development (ρ = 0.619, p = 0.005 in the European Union, and a moderate correlation for middle-low-income countries (ρ = 0.497, p = 0.030 and worldwide (ρ = 0.490, p = 0.033. The most neglected conditions at the European level (based on their attributable health losses were neuropsychiatric diseases, cardiovascular diseases, respiratory diseases, sense organ conditions, and digestive diseases, while globally, they were perinatal conditions, respiratory infections, sense organ conditions, respiratory diseases, and digestive diseases. Conclusions We find that the development of new medicinal products is higher for some diseases than others. Pharmaceutical industry leaders and policymakers are invited to consider the implications of this imbalance by establishing work plans that allow for the setting of future priorities from a public health perspective.

  18. Big Events and Risks to Global Substance Using Populations: Unique Threats and Common Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Tim K; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2015-01-01

    In this commentary, we review a set of "Big Events" from around the world that have adversely impacted substance using populations by first identifying common thematic areas between them, and then describing the unique challenges faced by the diverse and vulnerable populations impacted. The Big Events reviewed are multifaceted and complex in nature, and include the recent global financial crisis, economic and trade sanctions, political transition and its impact on ethnic minorities, colonialism and indigenous communities, and ecological disasters. All have led to immense trauma, displacement, and disruption to critical healthcare services/treatment for people who use drugs, populations who are left underserved in the midst of these crises. It is our hope that through this comparative assessment, global policymakers will proactively identify Big Events and prioritize the development of interventions and policy that meet the unique and immediate needs of substance using population in order to mitigate the significant negative short- and long-term impacts on global public health. PMID:25723311

  19. The United Nations and Global Public Goods: Historical Contributions and Future Challenges.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Jenks

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Published by Palgrave MacmillanThis chapter explores the thesis that the United Nations’ (UN most important contribution to the production of global public goods has been its role in creating the space and capacity to generate shared values. Starting with the UN Charter itself, the chapter traces the evolution of this contribution through different historical phases. It analyses the impact of globalisation on the role of the UN; in particular it identifies the quality of porousness as a product of globalisation which is critical to understanding the current challenges faced by the UN as well as central to the global public goods agenda. Through this lens the author briefly reviews the evolution of the UN’s role in the fields of peace and security, human rights and development cooperation. He concludes by identifying eight levers for change that will determine the UN’s ability to contribute significantly to the global public goods: the generation of norms and shared values, the quality of leadership, improved governance, innovative financing, institutional realignment, the further consolidation of legal instruments, focus, and the power of networks.

  20. Opening Statement - Zhang Dejiang [International Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Energy in the 21. Century: Addressing Energy Needs and Environmental Challenges, Beijing (China), 20-22 April 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear science and technology is one of the greatest scientific and technological achievements of humankind in the 20th century. Nuclear science and technology is widely applied in various sectors, with over 50 years of development, such as energy, industry, agriculture, health and environmental protection, and is playing an important role in the prospering economy, and in improving peoples? livelihoods and promoting sustainable development. With global economic development and rising energy consumption, supply of traditional energy sources is becoming more stretched, and climate change is becoming an increasingly severe challenge. It is a common task of the international community to develop and utilize clean and renewable energy sources and properly address growing contradictions among economic development, energy development and environmental protection. Given its advantage as a clean, safe energy source that could be applied at a large scale, more and more countries are placing importance on nuclear energy. Accelerating the peaceful use of nuclear energy is the common wish and inevitable choice of many countries. China started the development of nuclear energy in the early 1950s, and with the efforts of over half a century, China has established a relatively complete nuclear industry system. The installed capacity of nuclear power has reached 9 100 MW(e), and nuclear power generation accounts for 2 per cent of the national total electricity generated. Nuclear energy is playing an incremental role in China?s economic development. However, nuclear energy utilization is rather insufficient in China, its development level is behind countries which are advanced in nuclear energy use such as the United States of America and France, and the rate of nuclear power generation in the total electricity generated still falls behind the world average level. China?s energy supply mix features a dominance of coal and a low proportion of clean energy. To achieve sustainable energy and socioeconomic development, China has formulated the energy development strategy of actively promoting energy conservation and optimizing the energy structure. Accelerating nuclear power development and enhancing the ratio of clean energy such as nuclear power in the aggregate energy supply is the priority of China?s energy development strategy. Currently, the peaceful use of nuclear energy has entered a stage of rapid development. A batch of new nuclear power projects are starting construction in coastal areas, preparation for other new projects is going on in an orderly manner, and demonstration projects of the introduction of third generation nuclear power technology are moving ahead smoothly. Scientific and research engineering programmes such as China?s experimental fast reactor, high temperature gas cooled reactor and thermal nuclear fusion device are making positive progress. The nuclear fuel cycle industry continues its development, and the ability to ensure supply of nuclear fuel is being enhanced. China has always attached great importance to nuclear safety in its promotion of nuclear energy utilization, and it has established a fairly complete nuclear safety legal, regulatory and emergency management system that is in line with international best practices. China has issued a series of instruments such as nuclear safety regulations, rules, guidelines and standards. Independent, strict and efficient nuclear safety supervision and management and scientific management of nuclear facility operators have been put in place to ensure safe and secure operation of nuclear facilities. All these efforts have led to a sound nuclear safety record and have boosted public confidence in nuclear energy

  1. Globalização social: desafio do século XXI GLOBALIZATION SOCIAL: CHALLENGE OF THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Carlos dos Santos

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A crítica de muitos à globalização é conseqüência dos rumos que ela está tomando. Embora a globalização seja um processo dinâmico em andamento, o seu avanço tem ocorrido de forma desequilibrada, gerando instabilidade política, econômica e social em várias regiões do planeta. O presente trabalho procura, de forma teórica, mostrar a falta da globalização social como um dos fatores que tem provocado desequilíbrio na dinâmica do processo de globalização. Pelo lado econômico, observa-se que a globalização ocorre de forma acelerada e já alcança os mais distantes pontos da face da Terra, ao passo que, pelo lado social, observa-se que a globalização está ausente em algumas regiões e, em outro tanto, ela ocorre de forma lenta e sem muito interesse. De nada vale os benefícios da globalização econômica se não existir a globalização social. Esse e o desafio do século XXI.The criticism of many of globalization is a consequence of directions it is taking. While globalization is a dynamic process in progress, its progress has occurred so unbalanced, creating politicalinstability, economic and social development in various regions of the planet. This paper demand, so theoretically, show the lack of social globalisation as one of the factors that have causedimbalance in the dynamics of the globalization process. On the economic side there is that globalization occurs so rapidly and have reached the most distant points of the face of theEarth, while the social side, there is that globalisation is absent in some regions, and in another both, it happens so slowly and without much interest. It is not worth the benefits of economicglobalization if there is the social globalisation. That and the challenge of the twenty-first century.

  2. Adventures of Emancipatory Labour Strategy as the New Global Movement Challenges International Unionism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Waterman

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available First suggested in the Netherlands, in the late-1980s, the notion of ?Social Movement Unionism? was ?rst applied in South Africa, where it had both political and academic impact. The South-African formulation combined the class and the popular: a response to this combined class and new social movement theory/practice. The ?Class/Popular? understanding was, however, more widely adopted, and applied (to and/or in Brazil, the Philippines, the USA, internationally, receiving its most in?uential formulation in the work of Kim Moody (USA. A ?Class/New Social Movement? response to this was restated in terms of the ?New Social Unionism.? The continuing impact of globalization and neo-liberalism has had a disorienting e?ect on even the unions supposed by the South African/USschool to best exemplify SMU, whilst simultaneously increasing trade union need for some kind of such an alternative model. Use and discussion of the notion continues. The development of the ?global justice and solidarity movement? (symbolized by Seattle, 1999, and in particular the World Social Forum process, since 2001, may be putting the matter on the international trade-union agenda. But is this matter a Class/Popular alliance, a Class/New Social Movement alliance? Or both? Or something else? And are there other ways of recreating an international/ist labour movement with emancipatory intentions and e?ect? What is the future of emancipatory or utopian labour strategy in the epoch of a globalized networked capitalism, and the challenge of the Global Justice and Solidarity Movement?

  3. Addressing core challenges for the next generation of type 2 translation research and systems: the translation science to population impact (TSci Impact) framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoth, Richard; Rohrbach, Louise A; Greenberg, Mark; Leaf, Philip; Brown, C Hendricks; Fagan, Abigail; Catalano, Richard F; Pentz, Mary Ann; Sloboda, Zili; Hawkins, J David

    2013-08-01

    Evidence-based preventive interventions developed over the past two decades represent great potential for enhancing public health and well-being. Research confirming the limited extent to which these interventions have been broadly and effectively implemented, however, indicates much progress is needed to achieve population-level impact. In part, progress requires Type 2 translation research that investigates the complex processes and systems through which evidence-based interventions are adopted, implemented, and sustained on a large scale, with a strong orientation toward devising empirically-driven strategies for increasing their population impact. In this article, we address two core challenges to the advancement of T2 translation research: (1) building infrastructure and capacity to support systems-oriented scaling up of evidence-based interventions, with well-integrated practice-oriented T2 research, and (2) developing an agenda and improving research methods for advancing T2 translation science. We also summarize a heuristic "Translation Science to Population Impact (TSci Impact) Framework." It articulates key considerations in addressing the core challenges, with three components that represent: (1) four phases of translation functions to be investigated (pre-adoption, adoption, implementation, and sustainability); (2) the multiple contexts in which translation occurs, ranging from community to national levels; and (3) necessary practice and research infrastructure supports. Discussion of the framework addresses the critical roles of practitioner-scientist partnerships and networks, governmental agencies and policies at all levels, plus financing partnerships and structures, all required for both infrastructure development and advances in the science. The article concludes with two sets of recommended action steps that could provide impetus for advancing the next generation of T2 translation science and, in turn, potentially enhance the health and well-being of subsequent generations of youth and families. PMID:23430579

  4. Understanding the virtual team challenge – a discourse perspective on sensemaking in a global organisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Nils Braad; Kampf, Constance Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    The literature on virtual teams describes knowledge sharing and trust-building challenges. However, few studies take into account the complexity of the work context in these virtual teams. Key factors affecting complexity include situations in which employees are involved in several teams and...... projects simultaneously; some virtual, some co-located. This multi-team membership complicates relationship-building within each individual team. To understand how employees make sense of this complex, or equivocal (Weick, 2001) environment, this paper adopts a discourse perspective combining Austin......’s speech act theory (1975) and Gee’s discourse analysis (2011). This perspective is used to analyze 21 interviews to understand how employees construct meaning in semi-virtual multi-team environments. The analysis shows how a few autonomous employees are able to use their extended networks in a global...

  5. Global Progress and Challenges in Implementing New Medications for Treating Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furin, Jennifer; Brigden, Grania; Lessem, Erica; Rich, Michael; Vaughan, Laura; Lynch, Sharonann

    2016-03-01

    Two new drugs-bedaquiline and delamanid-have recently been approved by stringent regulatory authorities to treat multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) and recommended by the World Health Organization for use under defined programmatic conditions. Introducing the medications in TB programs worldwide has not kept pace with the need for these drugs. In response, the DR-TB STAT (Drug-Resistant TB Scale-up Treatment Action Team) task force was formed in April 2015 to monitor progress and help overcome challenges. Information was collected from multiple sources and assessed monthly. Some progress has been made in introducing bedaquiline: as of October 2015, a total of 1,258 persons were on the medication under programmatic conditions. For delamanid, >100 patients, but few under programmatic conditions, have received the medication. Coordinated global action might help assist making these medications accessible for persons who need them most. PMID:26885674

  6. Global value chains and agrifood standards: challenges and possibilities for smallholders in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joonkoo; Gereffi, Gary; Beauvais, Janet

    2012-07-31

    The rise of private food standards has brought forth an ongoing debate about whether they work as a barrier for smallholders and hinder poverty reduction in developing countries. This paper uses a global value chain approach to explain the relationship between value chain structure and agrifood safety and quality standards and to discuss the challenges and possibilities this entails for the upgrading of smallholders. It maps four potential value chain scenarios depending on the degree of concentration in the markets for agrifood supply (farmers and manufacturers) and demand (supermarkets and other food retailers) and discusses the impact of lead firms and key intermediaries on smallholders in different chain situations. Each scenario is illustrated with case examples. Theoretical and policy issues are discussed, along with proposals for future research in terms of industry structure, private governance, and sustainable value chains. PMID:21149723

  7. Development of a practical toolkit using participatory action research to address health inequalities through NGOs in the UK: Challenges and lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirewa, Blessing

    2012-09-01

    This study aimed to develop a practical toolkit to support non-government organizations (NGOs) in tackling health inequalities in the UK and to highlight the challenges and lessons learned. A mixed qualitative methodology within an action research framework was conducted. Semi-structured questionnaires, focus group interviews and discussions with an expert reference group aimed to identify the important themes and produce the toolkit content. A practical guide of information materials for NGOs working on addressing health inequalities was subsequently developed and successfully piloted. The experience of using participatory action research revealed a number of lessons and challenges. The key challenges were lack of training and experience in conducting action research, costs and insufficient resources, slow and time-consuming process, lack of commitment from marginalized groups, and differences in emphasis of goals and vision among participants. The main lessons learned were importance of effective leadership and project management skills, importance of integrating researchers and the researched as equal partners, creation and nurturing of trust, importance of evaluating and piloting processes, importance of engaging with marginalized groups, and use of evidence base in decision making. The lessons and challenges enumerating herein are of value to researchers aiming to implement participatory action research in developing checklists, tools, practical guidance and frameworks, and they offer important areas to consider before starting such projects. In addition, this offers an insight into how the dynamics of participatory action research methodology evolved in the development of the toolkit. Future research and initiatives in this area should focus on ways to improve the toolkit and make it more relevant to a wider community, and methods for evaluating the impact of the toolkit on practice. PMID:22991370

  8. The challenges for global harmonisation of food safety norms and regulations: issues for India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Jamuna

    2014-08-01

    Safe and adequate food is a human right, safety being a prime quality attribute without which food is unfit for consumption. Food safety regulations are framed to exercise control over all types of food produced, processed and sold so that the customer is assured that the food consumed will not cause any harm. From the Indian perspective, global harmonisation of food regulations is needed to improve food and nutrition security, the food trade and delivery of safe ready-to-eat (RTE) foods at all places and at all times. The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) put forward to transform developing societies incorporate many food safety issues. The success of the MDGs, including that of poverty reduction, will in part depend on an effective reduction of food-borne diseases, particularly among the vulnerable group, which includes women and children. Food- and water-borne illnesses can be a serious health hazard, being responsible for high incidences of morbidity and mortality across all age groups of people. Global harmonisation of food regulations would assist in facilitating food trade within and outside India through better compliance, ensuring the safety of RTE catered foods, as well as addressing issues related to the environment. At the same time, regulations need to be optimum, as overregulation may have undue negative effects on the food trade. PMID:23553336

  9. Health inequalities and infectious disease epidemics: a challenge for global health security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Sandra Crouse; Kumar, Supriya

    2014-01-01

    In today's global society, infectious disease outbreaks can spread quickly across the world, fueled by the rapidity with which we travel across borders and continents. Historical accounts of influenza pandemics and contemporary reports on infectious diseases clearly demonstrate that poverty, inequality, and social determinants of health create conditions for the transmission of infectious diseases, and existing health disparities or inequalities can further contribute to unequal burdens of morbidity and mortality. Yet, to date, studies of influenza pandemic plans across multiple countries find little to no recognition of health inequalities or attempts to engage disadvantaged populations to explicitly address the differential impact of a pandemic on them. To meet the goals and objectives of the Global Health Security Agenda, we argue that international partners, from WHO to individual countries, must grapple with the social determinants of health and existing health inequalities and extend their vision to include these factors so that disease that may start among socially disadvantaged subpopulations does not go unnoticed and spread across borders. These efforts will require rethinking surveillance systems to include sociodemographic data; training local teams of researchers and community health workers who are able to not only analyze data to recognize risk factors for disease, but also use simulation methods to assess the impact of alternative policies on reducing disease; integrating social science disciplines to understand local context; and proactively anticipating shortfalls in availability of adequate healthcare resources, including vaccines. Without explicit attention to existing health inequalities and underlying social determinants of health, the Global Health Security Agenda is unlikely to succeed in its goals and objectives. PMID:25254915

  10. Shaping the future or meeting the challenge? The federal constitutional proposals and global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent Canadian federal constitutional proposals, presented in a report entitled Shaping Canada's Future Together, have the objective of establishing the basis for a federation capable of confronting global economic, security, and environmental challenges through the 21st century. Global solutions to these problems, such as the warming caused by the greenhouse effect, must be applied by each country. The proposals are evaluated according to the support they give the federal government in the negotiation and execution of an international agreement on greenhouse gas emissions. It is concluded that compared to other jurisdictions, the Canadian government is particularly badly equipped for carrying out such a task with regard to the present distribution of powers. The proposals do not aid to resolve this problem and even aggravate it in some instances. For example, a proposal to stabilize greenhouse gas emissions or impose cutbacks by a system of marketable emission permits would in effect create a new set of property and civil rights in the provinces. Implementing such a set of rights would have to be done in cooperation with the provinces, which would be difficult, and if implemented, it would entrench a laissez-faire approach to economics which would not always serve the goal of environmental protection. 18 refs

  11. Understanding the virtual team challenge – a discourse perspective on sensemaking in a global organisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Nils Braad; Kampf, Constance Elizabeth

    The literature on virtual teams describes knowledge sharing and trust-building challenges. However, few studies take into account the complexity of the work context in these virtual teams. Key factors affecting complexity include situations in which employees are involved in several teams and projects simultaneously; some virtual, some co-located. This multi-team membership complicates relationship-building within each individual team. To understand how employees make sense of this complex, or equivocal (Weick, 2001) environment, this paper adopts a discourse perspective combining Austin’s speech act theory (1975) and Gee’s discourse analysis (2011). This perspective is used to analyze 21 interviews to understand how employees construct meaning in semi-virtual multi-team environments. The analysis shows how a few autonomous employees are able to use their extended networks in a global organization to circumvent organizational strategic discourse. In this process, they build teams and communities based on trusted weak ties (Granovetter, 1973; Levin & Cross, 2004). Furthermore, the study shows how difficult it can be for management to listen in on and react to this discourse change. If management is unaware of this reconfiguration of discourses and relations it may challenge organizational leadership.

  12. Challenges and Opportunities for Improved Remote Sensing and Modeling of Global Savannas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanan, Niall P.; Hill, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Global savanna biomes are spatially and temporally complex systems in which woody vegetation (trees, shrubs) and herbaceous vegetation (grasses, forbs) both contribute significantly to system level functions such as primary production, carbon, water and nutrient cycling. Remote sensing of mixed tree-grass systems remains challenging because of the separation of the vegetation into two distinct layers (woody species of varying cover, density, height, leaf area and biomass, over a herbaceous layer of varying density, cover and leaf area), and because the woody and herbaceous layers can have distinct and contrasting seasonality, physiology and phenology which vary in both space and time. There is a need for synthesis and integration of existing approaches and targeted field work to fill in missing components and test potential improvements from new satellite missions. This paper describes the broad spectrum of challenges in remote sensing and modeling of savannas, and discusses optimal approaches for a research program focused on the savanna biome that will realize the potential of future remote sensing systems, models and data assimilation technologies.

  13. The global energy context: Chances and challenges for the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy is the driving force towards economic and social development. Global demand for energy will keep growing for many years to come due to ongoing, although reduced population growth, and due to the needs of up to 2 billion people who are still without access to commercial energy. To meet this growing demand for energy, all options have to be kept open, with fossil fuels, nuclear and hydro dominating the energy mix for the next decades, and 'new' renewables coming in only slowly. Considering the resulting strain on the environment, and looking at existing disparities in energy supply, the next few decades will not be free of tensions. A turning point may appear in the mid 21st century with world population coming to a halt, distinctly improved energy efficiency also in the Developing World, and with new technologies available. Thus, mainly challenges will determine the first half of the century, whereas chances are on hand for the second half of the century - if we act now. The single most important instrument to meet these challenges and to take advantage of the chances is a concentrated move towards energy efficiency and innovation, supported by market reform and appropriate regulation. (author)

  14. The global energy context -- chances and challenges for the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy is the driving force towards economic and social development. Global demand for energy will keep growing for many years to come due to ongoing, although reduced population growth, and due to the needs of up to 2000 million people who are still without access to commercial energy. To meet this growing demand for energy, all options have to be kept open, with fossil fuels, nuclear and hydro dominating the energy mix for the next decades, and 'new' renewables coming in only slowly. Considering the resulting strain on the environment, and looking at existing disparities in energy supply, the next few decades will not be free of tensions. A turning point may appear in the mid 21st century with world population coming to a halt, distinctly improved energy efficiency in the Developing World, and with new technologies available. Thus, mainly challenges will determine the first half of the century, whereas chances are on hand for the second half of the century - if we act now. The single most important instrument to meet these challenges and to take advantage of the chances is a concentrated move towards energy efficiency and innovation, supported by market reform and appropriate regulation. (author)

  15. An overlook of the new global nuclear scenario and the emergent challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this paper is to make a short overlook of the world nuclear renaissance and point out some emergent challenges. The presentation covers different subjects in which the nuclear energy shows great advantage to face concerns about climate change, energy demand growth, and relative cost of competing technologies in a global scenario. Additionally nuclear technology can deploy in a middle term an important potential development oriented to improve even more that nuclear design, safety, environment protection, economic and sustainability of the present nuclear reactors generation. The world nuclear energy scenario reveals a renaissance after a long period of lethargy. Now is the focus of considerable attention and debate about the risks and benefits of its expansion. Many countries are again planning ambitious nuclear programs. In the case of Argentina, a decision was taken to end the construction of Atucha 750 MWe power plant (NPP) and to begin the construction of another two NPP in the next decade. In the middle term and expansion of 60 % of the present world nuclear capabilities is foreseen. For the long term there could be much more if today's performance data is maintained or improved. It would require the nuclear industry to return immediately to the most rapid period of growth experienced in the past. The training of the young people is also an important challenge. But some countries are still reluctant due to the adverse local public opinion. In spite of the great accessibility and availability of the NPP confirmed by the global experience of the 350 operating nuclear power plants, the public acceptability is not confirmed. Some sectors of the society -with the support in some case of the media- are against the use of the nuclear energy. In this paper some reasons of the public concerns is explained and actions are mentioned to change its perceptions. At the end, the global society in front of the real means available to fulfill the growing energy demand and needs to protect the environments from catastrophic climate changes and limited fuel resources, must accept the great advantage of the NPP, the potential possibilities of the nuclear technology progress and the lowest risks of its expansion. (author)

  16. Examining the global health arena:strengths and weaknesses of a convention approach to global health challenges.

    OpenAIRE

    Haffeld, Just Balstad; Siem, Harald; Røttingen, John-Arne

    2010-01-01

    The article comprises a conceptual framework to analyze the strengths and weaknesses of a global health convention. The analyses are inspired by Lawrence Gostin's suggested Framework Convention on Global Health. The analytical model takes a starting-point in events tentatively following a logic sequence: Input (global health funding), Processes (coordination, cooperation, accountability, allocation of aid), Output (definition of basic survival needs), Outcome (access to health services), and ...

  17. Global Challenges and Local Responses : Trade Unions in the Korean and Malaysian Auto Industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wad, Peter

    2005-01-01

    The paper aims to address the question whether the dynamic of autoworker unionism in South Korea and Malaysia was conditioned by, and eventually also influenced the globalization processes in the local auto industry? The conclusion is a contextualized "yes", and the core argument is the following: The financial crisis in 1997 was the dramatic peak of financial globalization in East Asia in the 1990s, and it did accelerate the existing trend in Korea towards centralized unionism in the auto industry, while it suspended the trend in the Malaysian auto industry towards decentralized unionism. Although the Korean and Malaysian unions were affected by the financial crisis from different structural and strategic positions, and were exposed to different national policies and corporate strategies of crisis management, the Korean unions and Malaysian unions generally followed, respectively, a more radical and militant and a more pragmatic and moderate strategy. In the global-local perspective we face two paradoxes. The first paradox is that in spite of the difference in union ideology, the outcome in terms of industrial relations (IR) institutions was rather similar in the sense that the auto industry contained a mixture of industrial and enterprise unions and formal or informal federations of these unions, and that collective bargaining was by and large undertaken bilaterally at the enterprise level. This situation was generated by a dynamic, which took the Malaysian system down from a centralized IR system within the low technology assembly industry (the globally subordinated local OEMs) to a rather decentralized IR system within the SOE-MNC controlled industry. The Korean system became more centralized through the confrontations between radical enterprise unions and authoritarian employers and authorities within an auto industry, which over time become much more indigenized, technologically advanced, export-oriented and diversified into multiple auto manufacturers and an under-wood of component suppliers. Yet, in both auto industries the large enterprise unions resisted organizational centralization, which could impede their autonomy. Due to the strength of unions of the market leading firms a breakthrough did happen neither in Korea nor in Malaysia, although the Koreans were a step ahead of the Malaysians having established a federation of metalworkers unions, including the important autoworkers unions. The second paradox is that the radicalism of the Korean autoworker unions was maintained during 1990s globalization of the auto industry, while radicalism was abandoned by the Malaysian autoworker unions in favor of union pragmatism, when the indigenization of the Malaysian auto industry unfolded since the early 1980s and a local auto supplier industry had been formed. This cross-country difference is partly explained by the different position held by the Korean and Malaysian auto companies in the global and local auto value chain. The radicalism and effectiveness of Korean autoworker unions sustained the development of dynamic efficiency among Korean auto manufacturing firms. In the same way, the intra-industry differences in wages and working conditions among auto manufacturing firms and components supplier firms were also related to the stratification of the domestic auto value chain, and this uneven distribution of benefits created obstacles of centralized unionization and collective bargaining. The centralized IR system in Malaysia evolved in an auto industry composed primarily of firms assembling imported CKD kits of components. The inequality of employment conditions between auto manufacturers and component suppliers was a driver of the strategy of centralized unionism and collective bargaining in Korea, while the inequality was not perceived as that significant by the Malaysian industrial union, since they had been dealing with these problems by the early 1990s. Keywords: Globalisation, trade unions, automobile industry, global value chain theory, East Asia, Malaysia, South Korea.

  18. Implementation of the global plan for insecticide resistance management in malaria vectors: progress, challenges and the way forward

    OpenAIRE

    Mnzava, Abraham P; Knox, Tessa B; Temu, Emmanuel A.; Trett, Anna; Fornadel, Christen; Hemingway, Janet; Renshaw, Melanie

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, there has been an increase in resistance of malaria vectors to insecticides, particularly to pyrethroids which are widely used in insecticide-treated nets. The Global Plan for Insecticide Resistance Management in malaria vectors (GPIRM), released in May 2012, is a collective strategy for the malaria community to tackle this challenge. This review outlines progress made to date and the challenges experienced in the implementation of GPIRM, and outlines focus areas requiring ur...

  19. 76 FR 10892 - Aquatic Ecosystems, Water Quality, and Global Change: Challenges of Conducting Multi-Stressor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-28

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...Ecosystems, Water Quality, and Global...Assessments AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency...Ecosystems, Water Quality, and Global...Service Center for Environmental...

  20. How current assessments of Sustainability Performance by Best Practice in the UN Global Compact challenge legitimacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Thomas

    The Scandinavian countries have been strong supporters of the UN Global Compact (UNGC) since the official launch in year 2000. This is best evidenced by the level of adoption of the UNGC, which is the most widely adopted broad sustainability-reporting standard in Scandinavia (Kjaergaard, submitted - in review). And since the UNGC in 2010 introduced the differentiation framework to their reporting standard, a significant number of Scandinavian corporations has chosen to report on an Advanced Level and self-assess their Sustainability Performance. Hence, in times where international opinion makers like the Economist (2013) turn to Scandinavia as having the solutions to some of the global sustainability-related challenges, it might also be worth reversing the optics. One approach could be to take a closer look at whether this high level of support for the UNGC translates to a high level of Sustainability Performance? And how the current assessment of Sustainability Performance by Best Practice in the UN Global Compact challenge the legitimacy of both the corporation, the UNGC and governments attempting to facilitate sustainability and CSR engagement? Best Practice is a concept frequently used by authorities sources like governments, multi-national institutions etc. to showcase corporate sustainability practices in an attempt to inspire motivate or convince for corporate engagement. UNGC applies this discourse to a great extend and even goes as far as to integrate Best Practices as the core and decisive element in assessing Sustainability Performance with the criteria for Advanced Level reporting in the UNGC differentiation framework. Though, previous empirical research by Kjaergaard (submitted, in review) has demonstrated that although the introduction of this framework generally should be acknowledged, the way it is structured and measures sustainability performance is highly problematic. This has potential to lead to a number of undesirable outcomes for both the corporations and eventually the UNGC. Especially the use of Best Practices as determinants of the self-assessed Sustainability Performance on criterions is problematic when the framework does not weigh the Best Practices individually despite obvious differences in importance. Hence the same assessment score for a criterion can be achieved by adherence to either one of two potentially very different variables. Consequentially, corporations that apply best practices of higher importance are not acknowledged for doing so. Furthermore, since adherence to only one best practice for each criterion is required to be compliant with a criterion, then corporations are also not acknowledged by the framework for adhering to more and maybe more important Best Practices. These issues were identified by assessing the Sustainability Performance and analyzing the sustainability reports of 67 Nordic corporations, whom are signatories to the UN Global Compact. This study applies a theoretical perspective to the empirical findings by Kjaergard (submitted, in review). The study finds the UNGC reporting framework and the widespread support and adoption of it in Scandinavia to be indicative of emerging neoliberal tendencies in governmental approaches to CSR (Shamir, 2008). In a governmentality perspective these tendencies can be seen as unfolding when "government assumes the role of an enabling and empowering facilitator of CSR, not a regulatory enforcer" (Vallentin & Murillo, 2012). Whereas Scandinavian governments influence how widespread the adoption of sustainability reporting is, this study questions government’s success as a facilitator of CSR and sustainability, when viewed in a Sustainability Performance perspective. The empirical findings by Kjaergard (submitted, in review) demonstrate that with only relatively few exemptions, the Sustainability Performance of Nordic corporations in general is not on a high level. Though, that is when assessed towards the Best Practices essentially constituting the UNGC reporting framework, which Kjaergaard also questions the validity of. Thi

  1. Globalization and climate change challenges the Arctic communities adaptability and increases vulnerability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendriksen, Kåre

    2011-01-01

    Globalization and climate change challenges the Arctic communities adaptability and increases vulnerability Kåre Hendriksen, PhD student, Aalborg University, Denmark The previous isolation of the Arctic will change as a wide range of areas increasingly are integrated into the globalized world. Parts of the Arctic are characterized by a relatively high material standard of living that is partially based on economic subsidies from the South, and for a number of Arctic consumers globalization appears primarily as a potential for improved supplies of consumer goods. The massive and growing pressure from multinational companies to exploit the Arctic mineral and oil resources as well as hydro-power in large scale industries appears to (local) governments as a potential for economic growth and thus reduced economic dependence on subsidies from the nation states the Arctic are dependent of. Coinciding climate changes cause an easier access for worldwide market as well as for the extraction of coastal oil and mineral resources. In an attempt to optimize the fishing fleet by economic measures it is centralized to larger units, and the exports of unprocessed fish and shellfish to low wage countries, carrying out the processing before export, are increasing. Although the local populations often are able to adapt to climate change and exploit new seasonal fluxions and species, these developments leaves a series of smaller settlements without proper basis for commercially viable activities and survival. Trusting that heavy industry and oil and mineral extraction can absorb the redundant labor from the subsistence activities and local economies and create economic growth (local) governments are installing economic and other policies leading to a further centralization of the population. There is not necessarily consistency between official political statements and the implemented measures. On top of this the population in smaller settlements has no frame or means to understand the impact of the discussed and applied interventions. They are therefore to some extent left behind and are not included in contemporary developments leaving them with a feeling of being powerless. The consequences of contemporary policies and the problems arising will be illustrated through examples from traditional hunting and fishing districts in Greenland.

  2. The formation of the global natural gas industry: definition, constraints and challenges; A formacao da industria global de gas natural: definicao, condicionantes e desafios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathias, Melissa Cristina Pinto Pires

    2008-03-15

    This study aims to investigate the real possibilities for the natural gas industry to become a global energy industry. So, it is necessary to define what global energy industry really means. In order to do a comparative analysis between the oil and natural gas industries, it is necessary to define three distinct stages of the evolution of an energy industry, namely internationalization, mundialization and globalization. This study analyzes the evolution of the oil industry trying to identify the main aspects that promoted changes and transformed the oil business into a global industry. Then, the evolution of the natural gas industry is analyzed, looking for similarities between the structural changes in both industries, and trying to determine what is the current stage of the natural gas industry. Despite the increase in the natural gas international trade and the prospects of growth of natural gas demand, there are still some challenges for this industry to effectively become global. Some of the challenges are the need of investments in production infrastructure, transportation and distribution sectors, the access to the main reserves, the uncertainty related to the demand evolution and the possible creation of a natural gas producers cartel, like the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC). (author)

  3. Meeting the Global Challenge through Production Offshoring : Trajectories and Strategic Implications of the Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slepniov, Dmitrij

    2010-01-01

    This PhD study is concerned with the implications of globalisation for industrial firms from the traditional industrial triad of North America, Western Europe, and Japan. Taking the perspective of lead firms from advanced industrial economies, the study attempts to make a contribution to the current debates about how these firms could assert themselves in a world of far-reaching transformation. As the title of the study suggests, this contribution is made through focusing the discussion upon production offshoring, which is currently commanding attention of so many practitioners, academics and policy makers. Building on ground that is already well trodden within the academic literature, the study searches for novel multidisciplinary explanations about how the production function can be organised by lead firms on a global scale and, more importantly, what the strategic implications of this process are. While the study concentrates on the production function, the implications of the discussion stretch much wider; the study also reveals implications for other functions and the company as a whole, as well as it points towards broader societal implications. The study employs a qualitative methodology based on multiple case studies. By applying the process perspective to the offshoring phenomenon, this study develops a framework which can be distilled into a number of propositions addressing: 1) the unfolding of offshoring process in a firm over time, 2) factors affecting the trajectories of the process, 3) the role of peculiarities of the society and locality from where offshoring initiatives originate, 4) strategic implications of offshoring initiatives.

  4. Myopia, an underrated global challenge to vision: where the current data takes us on myopia control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, B; Sankaridurg, P; Smith, E; Aller, T; Jong, M; He, M

    2014-02-01

    Myopia is the most frequent cause of distance impairment in the world and is creating an alarming global epidemic with deleterious ramifications for the quality of life and economic health of individuals and nations as a whole. In addition to being immediately disadvantageous, myopia increases the risk of serious disorders such as myopic macular degeneration, retinal detachment, glaucoma, and cataract and is a leading cause of visual impairment and blindness across many countries. The reduction in age of onset of myopia is of great concern since the earlier the onset, the more myopic the individual will become, with all the attendant increased risks of accompanying debilitating eye conditions. The economic burden is great; both in consequences of uncorrected refractive error and also in the provision of devices for correcting visual acuity. Earlier onset of myopia increases the lifetime economic burden related to loss of productivity and independence, leading to a reduced quality of life. Recent data suggest addressing accommodation per se has little direct amelioration of myopia progression. Pharmacological interventions that effect changes in the sclera show promising efficacy, whereas optical interventions based on a myopic shift in the retinal image are proving to effect up to 55% reduction in the rate of progression of myopia. Early contact lens and spectacle interventions that reduce the rate of progression of myopia are able to significantly reduce the burden of myopia. These non-pharmacological interventions show profound promise in reducing the overall associated morbidity of myopia. PMID:24357836

  5. Environmentally Conscious Architecture: Local–Global, Traditional–Innovative, and Cultural Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ute Poerschke

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The editorial introduces the articles brought together in this Special Issue of Buildings, particularly their interpretation of the meaning, content, and goals of environmentally conscious architecture. The special issue goes beyond addressing mere energy efficient building by reflecting on the relationship of architecture to context, ethics and aesthetics, and to specific climate, cultural and/or economic conditions. The contributions cover various perspectives, which partially arise from the fact that the authors come from diverse locations and cultures around the world, from Korea, China, Egypt, Sweden, Norway, Switzerland, Germany, and the United States. They discuss the topic from different disciplines such as cultural sciences, socio-economics, legislation, professional practice, building technology, and aesthetics. The articles touch on the diverse scales environmentally conscious architecture can have, from detail to urban planning. Some have a global approach, meaning that the conclusions they provide are adaptable to many industrialized countries. Others have a highly local approach, looking for solutions for a specific problem at a particular place, such as the sea-level rising in the Nile-Delta. Finally, theoretical articles can be distinguished from those with a practical approach, elaborating on built work or specific building elements.

  6. Forward and pressure retarded osmosis: potential solutions for global challenges in energy and water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaysom, Chalida; Cath, Tazhi Y; Depuydt, Tom; Vankelecom, Ivo F J

    2013-08-21

    Osmotically driven membrane processes (ODMP) have gained renewed interest in recent years and they might become a potential solution for the world's most challenging problems of water and energy scarcity. Though the concept of utilizing osmotic pressure difference between high and low salinity streams across semipermeable membranes has been explored for several decades, lack of optimal membranes and draw solutions hindered competition between forward osmosis (FO) and pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) with existing water purification and power generation technologies, respectively. Driven by growing global water scarcity and by energy cost and negative environmental impacts, novel membranes and draw solutions are being developed for ODMPs, mass and heat transfer in osmotic process are becoming better understood, and new applications of ODMPs are emerging. Therefore, OMDPs might become promising green technologies to provide clean water and clean energy from abundantly available renewable resources. This review focuses primarily on new insights into osmotic membrane transport mechanisms and on novel membranes and draw solutions that are currently being developed. Furthermore, the effects of operating conditions on the overall performance of osmotic membranes will be highlighted and future perspectives will be presented. PMID:23778699

  7. Planning for a Global Lingua Franca: Challenges for Feminist Language Planning in English(es) around the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauwels, Anne

    2011-01-01

    In this paper I outline the challenges for feminist language planning in the context of a global lingua franca--English. Drawing upon the views of speakers of "World Englishes" I discuss their reactions as well as reported practices in relation to gender-inclusive language use. This reveals the complexities of managing the tension between the…

  8. Addressing challenges of training a new generation of clinician-innovators through an interdisciplinary medical technology design program: Bench-to-Bedside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftus, Patrick D; Elder, Craig T; D'Ambrosio, Troy; Langell, John T

    2015-01-01

    Graduate medical education has traditionally focused on training future physicians to be outstanding clinicians with basic and clinical science research skills. This focus has resulted in substantial knowledge gains, but a modest return on investment based on direct improvements in clinical care. In today's shifting healthcare landscape, a number of important challenges must be overcome to not only improve the delivery of healthcare, but to prepare future physicians to think outside the box, focus on and create healthcare innovations, and navigate the complex legal, business and regulatory hurdles of bringing innovation to the bedside. We created an interdisciplinary and experiential medical technology design competition to address these challenges and train medical students interested in moving new and innovative clinical solutions to the forefront of medicine. Medical students were partnered with business, law, design and engineering students to form interdisciplinary teams focused on developing solutions to unmet clinical needs. Over the course of six months teams were provided access to clinical and industry mentors, $500 prototyping funds, development facilities, and non-mandatory didactic lectures in ideation, design, intellectual property, FDA regulatory requirements, prototyping, market analysis, business plan development and capital acquisition. After four years of implementation, the program has supported 396 participants, seen the development of 91 novel medical devices, and launched the formation of 24 new companies. From our perspective, medical education programs that develop innovation training programs and shift incentives from purely traditional basic and clinical science research to also include high-risk innovation will see increased student engagement in improving healthcare delivery and an increase in the quality and quantity of innovative solutions to medical problems being brought to market. PMID:25984273

  9. Opening Address [International Conference on Effective Nuclear Regulatory Systems: Further Enhancing the Global Nuclear Safety and Security Regime, Cape Town (South Africa), 14-18 December 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear energy is seen by many countries as providing a sustainable solution to energy security challenges. In this context, many developing countries are considering the establishment of nuclear power build programmes, while countries with mature nuclear programmes are considering the possibility of further expansion. The challenges facing countries that are embarking on this new venture include, inter alia, the development of policies, legislation as well as the establishment of appropriate institutions such as regulatory bodies with effective independence to take regulatory decisions. Regional and international cooperation and coordination are therefore of critical importance. Accordingly, the establishment of the Forum of Regulatory Bodies in Africa is a welcome initiative. We are pleased that the national nuclear programme in post-apartheid South Africa places us in a position to become active global participants in the safe use of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes. However, we all have an obligation to ensure that the presence of a plethora of cooperation mechanisms such as this body are as inclusive and as supportive as possible. This will help the global community of nations in reaping maximum benefits that surely should arise from these initiatives to ensure security of energy supply. We do not have the luxury to duplicate such bodies. The role of the International Atomic Energy Agency in nuclear safety and security cannot be over-emphasized. That alone is the reason that drove the liberation movement of the people of our country, and now the ruling party, fully to conform to all the treaties and conventions that have been drafted by this reputable institution of the peoples of the world. The same goes for the facilitation of cooperation and the sharing of knowledge and experience. The IAEA is invariably trusted to provide independent views and advice in order to strengthen safety and security while preserving the sovereignty, authority and responsibilities of Member States

  10. Talking my language [As the nuclear industry goes global, communication becomes a bigger challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'It's like the United Nations here' has become a familiar cry in offices and industrial plants around the world. Today, companies competing in global marketplaces seek the most talented staff and local knowledge by employing from an international rather than a local labour pool. This shift towards multinational personnel has been facilitated by the emergence of English as a global common language, which, unlike previous 'world languages', has penetrated all continents and all levels of society. The nuclear industry has been no exception to this internationalizing trend, despite its roots in many countries in national military programmes. Contributory factors have been the worldwide liberalization of energy markets and the slowdown in nuclear power development during the 1980s and 1990s, following the Three Mile Island and Chernobyl accidents. With economic pressures driving the globalization of the nuclear industry, and with internationalization of certain proliferation sensitive fuel cycle facilities being strongly advocated, cross-cultural and English-language competence will become evermore important for managers and engineers at nuclear facilities. This is related to economic pressures driving the globalization of the nuclear industry, and the strong advocacy for internationalization of certain proliferation-sensitive fuel cycle facilities. Those working in international organizations sometimes forget that such competences are still not the norm in industry, and can be difficult to acquire working on an isolated nuclear facility, remote from multicultural urban centres. They will become more common, as the English language assumes the importance of a basic skill alongside numeracy and literacy in education systems, and foreign travel and migration become more common. In the interim, it is essential that human resource managers offer appropriate training, and that professional translation and interpreting services be provided where necessary. A good way for future and existing managers to improve their cross-cultural competence, while learning about the various facets of nuclear energy, is to participate in one of the World Nuclear University (WNU) programmes. For example, the six week Summer Institute (SI) in Daejeon, South Korea in July- August 2007 will be attended by over a hundred young nuclear professionals and graduate students from over 35 countries. This is in addition to the 163 WNU 'Fellows' from 40 countries who have attended previous institutes in Idaho Falls and Stockholm. The WNU-SI comprises lectures by some of the world's foremost experts from the IAEA and industry, along with challenging leadership development tasks and technical tours. Other events being organized by the WNU Coordinating Centre in London for 2007 and 2008 also emphasize participation by a wide cross-section of learners from both developed and developing countries. They include forums for nuclear policy-makers and scientific advisers, and induction courses for executives joining the nuclear industry from other areas

  11. Opening address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dawn of the nuclear age brought with it a new power, terrifying in its ability to destroy, awesome in its potential for good: it is the same stark contrast that confronts us today. On the one hand, as the technological expertise in handling its by-products develops, and with the growing realization of humanity's impact on its surroundings, nuclear power represents an important, climate friendly supply of energy. Moreover, its applications stretch far beyond civil nuclear power - food preservation and disease prevention are being revolutionized by nuclear technology, and, indeed, nuclear power will almost certainly be necessary if we are to continue our adventure of exploration beyond our solar system. However, if we are to continue to reap the benefits of the atom, we must keep in check its associated dangers, and prevent a technology with the power for so much good from falling into the hands of those that would use it to harm and destroy. Nuclear security plays a vital role in this endeavour.The Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, or NPT, has been a significant and, to many, an unexpected success in restraining nuclear proliferation and providing a secure framework for the peaceful transfer of nuclear technology. The United Kingdom continues to believe in the central importance of all aspects of the NPT, and regards it as the cornerstone of the non-proliferation regime. Alongside the NPT, the IAEA has played a crucial role in promoting and aiding nuclear safety and security, championing the peaceful use of nuclear science and technology and encouraging and enforcing safeguards that protect nuclear material and prevent its diversion to harmful uses. Both the NPT and the operations of the IAEA face serious challenges. In our view, this is not a reason to be downhearted and to reject one of the best examples of effective multilateralism; rather, it amounts to a clear call for enhanced international efforts to strengthen the system and make it work better for the future. We are in London, but do not let anyone claim that nuclear security and nuclear nonproliferation are just the concern of the UK and a few of our allies and partners. The international nature of this conference, the central role in it of the IAEA, and the participation of representatives from so many countries, demonstrates better than any speech that we are dealing with global concerns. Only international action can meet the challenge

  12. Presidential address.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vohra, U

    1993-07-01

    The Secretary of India's Ministry of Health and Family Welfare serves as Chair of the Executive Council of the International Institute for Population Sciences in Bombay. She addressed its 35th convocation in 1993. Global population stands at 5.43 billion and increases by about 90 million people each year. 84 million of these new people are born in developing countries. India contributes 17 million new people annually. The annual population growth rate in India is about 2%. Its population size will probably surpass 1 billion by the 2000. High population growth rates are a leading obstacle to socioeconomic development in developing countries. Governments of many developing countries recognize this problem and have expanded their family planning programs to stabilize population growth. Asian countries that have done so and have completed the fertility transition include China, Japan, Singapore, South Korea, and Thailand. Burma, Malaysia, North Korea, Sri Lanka, and Vietnam have not yet completed the transition. Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Iran, Nepal, and Pakistan are half-way through the transition. High population growth rates put pressure on land by fragmenting finite land resources, increasing the number of landless laborers and unemployment, and by causing considerable rural-urban migration. All these factors bring about social stress and burden civic services. India has reduced its total fertility rate from 5.2 to 3.9 between 1971 and 1991. Some Indian states have already achieved replacement fertility. Considerable disparity in socioeconomic development exists among states and districts. For example, the states of Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh have female literacy rates lower than 27%, while that for Kerala is 87%. Overall, infant mortality has fallen from 110 to 80 between 1981 and 1990. In Uttar Pradesh, it has fallen from 150 to 98, while it is at 17 in Kerala. India needs innovative approaches to increase contraceptive prevalence rates and to reach replacement level fertility. PMID:12287408

  13. Opening address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This opening address covers two main areas: first, a snapshot of the continuing threat and the recent changes having been made to the United Kingdom's counterterrorism structures to respond to it; and second, how the United Kingdom is combating nuclear terrorism through a range of measures covering physical security, decreasing vulnerability to attack and increasing resilience. Combating the threat of nuclear terrorism requires an international effort. Radiological and fissile materials are present throughout the world and, as such, it should be secured wherever it is found. All countries are encouraged to continue to enhance security and protection mechanisms for radiological and fissile material; and to develop contingency plans should the worst happen. The United Kingdom has responded to the very serious and real threat by consolidating and strengthening elements of its counterterrorist planning via the creation in May this year of the Office for Security and Counter-Terrorism (OSCT). These changes have been coupled with an unprecedented level of investment to enable the delivery of the United Kingdom counterterrorist strategy - known as CONTEST - through which we aim to (a) stop terrorist attacks; (b) where it cannot be stopped, to mitigate its impact; (c) strengthen our overall protection against terrorist attack; (d) stop people becoming terrorists or supporting violent extremism. In the case of radiological and nuclear terrorism, it is not sufficient merely to prepare for such an attack; one must also devote efforts to preventing such attacks in the first instance by intercepting dangerous materials before they reach their intended target; and by strengthening the protection of vulnerable places and detecting or mitigating any devices before they are placed or activated. As such, in terms of the United Kingdom's efforts on radiological and nuclear terrorism, there are three main strands to this work: physical protection of materials including the global threat reduction programme; decreasing vulnerability to attack; and increasing resilience should an incident occur

  14. 76 FR 55060 - Aquatic Ecosystems, Water Quality, and Global Change: Challenges of Conducting Multi-Stressor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-06

    ... and aquatic ecosystems across the United States to the potential impacts of global change. Using a... directly evaluate the potential impacts of global change on ecosystems and watersheds. Rather, it...

  15. 76 FR 55060 - Aquatic Ecosystems, Water Quality, and Global Change: Challenges of Conducting Multi-Stressor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-06

    ...Ecosystems, Water Quality, and Global Change...vulnerability of water quality and aquatic ecosystems...global change stresses and mal-adaptations. The work described in this...indicators of water quality and aquatic ecosystem...contribute to improve links...

  16. The challenges of global case reporting during pandemic A(H1N1 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Williams

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During the 2009 A(H1N1 influenza pandemic, the World Health Organization (WHO asked all Member States to provide case-based data on at least the first 100 laboratory-confirmed influenza cases to generate an early understanding of the pandemic and provide appropriate guidance to affected countries. In reviewing the pandemic surveillance strategy, we evaluated the utility of case-based data collection and the challenges in interpreting these data at the global level. To do this, we assessed compliance with the surveillance recommendation and data completeness of submitted case records and described the epidemiological characteristics of up to the first 110 reported cases from each country, aggregated into regions. From April 2009 to August 2011, WHO received over 18 000 case records from 84 countries. Data reached WHO at different time intervals, in different formats and without information on collection methods. Just over half of the 18 000 records gave the date of symptom onset, which made it difficult to assess whether the cases were among the earliest to be confirmed. Descriptive epidemiological analyses were limited to summarizing age, sex and hospitalization ratios. Centralized analysis of case-based data had little value in describing key features of the pandemic. Results were difficult to interpret and would have been misleading if viewed in isolation. A better approach would be to identify critical questions, standardize data elements and methods of investigation, and create efficient channels for communication between countries and the international public health community. Regular exchange of routine surveillance data will help to consolidate these essential channels of communication.

  17. Ministerial Presentation: United States of America. Ambassador Schulte's Remarks on Behalf of Energy Secretary Chu [International Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Energy in the 21. Century: Addressing Energy Needs and Environmental Challenges, Beijing (China), 20-22 April 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is a pleasure to participate in this second Ministerial Conference convened by the IAEA here in Beijing. Secretary of Energy Steven Chu has asked that I deliver this speech on his behalf. He sends his sincere regrets that he is unable to attend this event personally. As you know, this week is Earth Week, and the Secretary is very engaged promoting our energy and climate change agenda back in Washington. Let me assure you, however, that the United States views nuclear energy as an important part of our effort to put the world on the road to a low-carbon future. The global expansion of nuclear energy. It is now widely recognized that nuclear energy has the potential to curtail dependence on fossil fuels and greatly reduce greenhouse gas emissions while promoting greater energy security. Yet, given the stakes associated with the use (and potential misuse) of nuclear energy around the world, it is imperative that all nations with existing or new nuclear power programs play an active role in global efforts to address the safety, security, and safeguards implications of nuclear power. As President Obama recently stated, it is time we consider a new framework for civil nuclear cooperation, one that allows all interested countries to enjoy the benefits of nuclear energy while limiting the associated risks of nuclear weapons proliferation. This new framework should include measures that improve energy security, including an international fuel bank and related fuel services arrangements. This conclusion reflects our recognition of the right of nations that comply with global nonproliferation norms to share in the benefits of peaceful nuclear uses. We also share a responsibility to maintain and strengthen global standards for safety, security and nonproliferation. Today, access to nuclear energy faces significant challenges-- the development of sound infrastructure, the reliable provision of nuclear fuel, and the safe and secure management of spent fuel and nuclear waste. If we succeed in meeting these challenges and discharging these responsibilities, I am confident we will also succeed in promoting the responsible development of nuclear energy. The IAEA and multilateral cooperation. Over 50 countries have informed the IAEA of their interest in nuclear power. In response to this, the Agency has developed a high-level framework to help states chart a safe, secure, and safeguarded path to nuclear power. The Milestones document, as it is now known, has become an essential reference on the desks of planners tasked with developing a national nuclear power infrastructure. The United States is a longstanding and strong supporter of the infrastructure development concepts detailed in the Milestones document. More broadly, the United States is committed to increasing the capabilities of the IAEA to better carry out all of its vital functions. Key among them is improved international safeguards. The United States has launched a program to build next generation safeguards technologies and a new community of safeguards experts; to assist full use of IAEA inspection authorities; and to foster a culture of safeguards, security and safety in nations using nuclear energy. Though a very valuable reference, the Milestones document was not intended for use as a detailed road map to nuclear power. It is the responsibility of each state to assess its own needs, identify its own priorities, and develop its own strategic objectives. However, states need not pursue these tasks alone, and there is plenty of guidance available through pursuit of civil nuclear cooperation. In addition to the vital role of the IAEA, other multilateral groups are addressing the challenges facing nuclear energy today. Forums such as the International Energy Agency, the Nuclear Energy Agency, the Generation IV International Forum, and the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (or GNEP) complement and build upon the important work of the IAEA. The international community through GNEP, as currently structured, has established two working groups, both with significant involvement from the IAEA. The first addresses infrastructure development and seeks to help states begin implementing the guidance conveyed in the Milestones document. The second working group addresses reliable nuclear fuel services as a viable alternative to the acquisition of sensitive fuel cycle technologies. We need to take full advantage of these and other exchanges to seek solutions and innovations to bring about the new framework proposed by President Obama. Bilateral civil nuclear cooperation. Besides these multilateral avenues, new entrants have much to gain through bilateral cooperation Governments with long nuclear energy histories can help states avoid mistakes made in the past while advancing sustainable programs. The United States has a long history of civil nuclear cooperation dating back to President Eisenhower's historic ''Atoms for Peace'' speech. A half century later, our commitment to civil nuclear cooperation remains strong. We have agreements that provide a framework for U.S. nuclear cooperation with nearly 50 countries and the IAEA. In addition, the Department of Energy, including the National Nuclear Security Administration, and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission have dozens of arrangements with their counterpart institutions) in countries with both developed and emerging programs) on issues such as energy planning, infrastructure development, site selection, regulatory body strengthening, new reactor safety evaluation and regulation, reactor operation, decommissioning, and waste management. Industry partners can also provide often-overlooked training and consulting services to help states with the long-term, strategic planning necessary for the century-long commitment that accompanies a nuclear power plant. For our part, the United States is committed to ensuring that all nuclear firms compete exclusively on the merits of th

  18. World environmental policy. Conceptual approaches of German political science in response to the challenges of Global Change; Weltumweltpolitik - Global Change als Herausforderung fuer die deutsche Politikwissenschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biermann, F. [Potsdam-Institut fuer Klimafolgenforschung (PIK), Potsdam (Germany); Dingwerth, K. [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany). Fachbereich Politik- und Sozialwissenschaften

    2001-12-01

    This paper describes, first, the international community of social scientists working on global change, and elaborates on possible contributions to this community by German political scientists. Second, the paper examines three new conceptual approaches to analysing global change, namely the Syndromes of Global Change approach, Earth System Analysis, and Sustainability Science. The paper then elaborates on a number of ways in which German political science could respond to the academic and political challenges posed by global change. It concludes by emphasizing the need for a new approach, focusing on 'world environmental policy analysis' that would bridge traditional (environmental) policy analysis, international relations research, and comparative politics. (orig.) [German] Der Aufsatz beschreibt die Wissenschaftslandschaft der internationalen sozialwissenschaftlichen Global-Change-Forschung mit besonderem Augenmerk auf moegliche Beitraege der deutschen Politologie. Mit den 'Syndromen des Globalen Wandels', der 'Erdsystemanalyse' und der 'Nachhaltigkeitswissenschaft' werden drei neuere konzeptionelle Innovationen vorgestellt, mit denen der Herausforderung des Globalen Wandels begegnet werden soll. Anschliessend werden Wege skizziert, wie die Politikwissenschaft auf die neuen gesellschaftlichen und wissenschaftlichen Probleme des Globalen Wandels reagieren koennte. Eine Schlussfolgerung ist ein Plaedoyer fuer die Entwicklung einer eigenstaendigen Weltumweltpolitik-Analyse an der Schnittstelle von traditioneller Policy-Analyse, Internationalen Beziehungen/Aussenpolitik sowie Komparatistik. (orig./CB)

  19. Opening Address [FR09: International Conference on Fast Reactors and Related Fuel Cycles: Challenges and Opportunities, Kyoto (Japan), 7-11 December 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Good morning, ladies and gentlemen. As Conference General Chair of the International Conference on Fast Reactors and Related Fuel Cycles (FR09) organized by the IAEA, and as a representative of the host organization for this conference, I would like to deliver an opening address. First of all, I would like to express my appreciation that so many participants, both from home and abroad, are attending this conference. Above all, I'm most grateful for the commitment that the International Advisory Committee, the International Scientific Programme Committee, the Local Organizational Committee and the Local Executive Committee members have shown in holding this year's conference, FR09. For this conference, about 750 participants have registered from 26 countries and three organizations (European Commission, OECD Nuclear Energy Agency, IAEA). I'm grateful that so many people are very interested in fast reactor development. Thinking back on the history of the conference of fast reactor systems, it all started back in 1974 in London. It then continued to be held every few years up until the fifth Kyoto conference in 1991. However, it has been suspended since then and so now, this year, the conference is being held for the first time in 18 years at the same location where we left off in 1991, the Kyoto International Conference Center. During this period, in the early 1990s, the FFTF and EBR-II experimental reactors in the United States of America were shut down. In 1991, the construction of the SNR-300 prototype reactor in Germany was cancelled for both economic and political reasons, and in 1994, the operation of the PFR prototype reactor was stopped in the United Kingdom. Then, in 1998, the Super Phenix demonstration reactor in France was also shut down. In Japan, there was a sodium leak accident at the Monju prototype reactor in 1995 during a plant performance test. On the other hand, since 2000, the importance of nuclear energy has been recognized once again as a global energy source for the new century. In 2000, the Generation IV International Forum and the IAEA's International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles were launched as a new framework for multilateral nuclear cooperation. In 2006, the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership started. There has been a new trend in fast reactor development in the nuclear renaissance worldwide. It has been reported that China's CEFR experimental reactor is nearly reaching criticality. The BN-800 demonstration reactor in the Russian Federation and India's PFBR prototype reactor are in preparation for construction. In Japan, Monju, which has long been suspended, is now being prepared for its restart within this fiscal year, by the end of March 2010, and the FaCT project has been promoted as one of the key national technologies aiming at the commercialization of future sodium cooled fast reactor cycles. Thus, global fast reactor development has just overcome a period of 'winter-like' hardship and has entered a new stage of commercialization. There are two key phrases to describe the new period of fast reactor development: 'stop global warming' and 'prevent the threat of nuclear weapons'. Regarding the global warming issue, 12 years ago, that is, in 1997, the Kyoto Protocol was adopted at the Third Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (COP3), which was held in Kyoto. The COP15 was held in Copenhagen with the goal of forming a framework for greenhouse gas reduction after 2013. We are aiming to achieve the world common target of reducing by half the emission of greenhouse gases by 2050. It is impossible to reach a solution on this issue without a long standing nuclear energy supply. Particularly when considering the recent rapid increase in the price of natural uranium, the necessity for fast reactor development should again be internationally recognized from the viewpoint of achieving significant effective utilization of uranium resources and decreasing the impact on the global environment, thanks to the reduction of radioactive waste. Regarding prevention of the threat from nuclear weapons, in Prague in April 2009, US President Barack Obama stated the USA's commitment to seek the peace and security of a world without nuclear weapons and garnered worldwide sympathy. Then, in September, resolutions on non-proliferation and nuclear disarmament were proposed at the United Nations Security Council. While the Nuclear Security Summit and the NPT Review Conference are to be held this spring, Y. Amano assumed the post of Director General of the IAEA, responsible for promoting the peaceful use of nuclear energy and nonproliferation. Against a mood of growing concern over nuclear arms reduction and nonproliferation moving towards a world without nuclear weapons, the securing of non-proliferation is absolutely crucial for fast reactor system development aimed at prolonged support for the peaceful use of nuclear energy. The purposes of this conference are to confirm and to discuss significant issues on fast reactor development and related fuel cycle development, as well as to exchange information on achievements of projects and developments multilaterally for its efficient promotion. Some events to be held include the Young Generation Event to foster discussion among young researchers and students, in addition to oral presentations, poster sessions and panel discussions. Special events such as the Tsuruga session for promoting communication between specialists and the public, as well as the Monju tour on the final day, are also planned. We hope this conference will lead to a fruitful debate and that international cooperation, and research and development of fast reactors will be further advanced, thereby contributing to knowledge creation and technological development for the prosperity of humankind. Thank you. (author)

  20. Opening address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear era has spanned little over a half century, and in that comparatively short period we have witnessed dramatic changes in the way in which the public and their politicians view the environment. Until the 1960s, people were concerned primarily with their own health and prosperity - there was little reason to think that the environment was at risk. Increasingly, however, as time went on, there was evidence - for the public to see - of the environment being damaged. Emissions from the burning of fossil fuels were causing acid rain, resulting in damage to sensitive ecosystems, and the increased use of chemical fertilisers was resulting in polluted surface waters, upsetting ecological balances and causing more visible evidence of a deteriorating environment. More recently, the threat of global warming and its possible implications for humans and their environment has become a common concern. Thus, from the 1970s onwards, there was an increasing consciousness that the environment - which depends on a delicate and complex balance of ecosystems - must be cared for and protected. This led to the UN Conference on the Human Environment in 1972 and to the UN Conference on Environment and Development in 1992. The latter conference, called the 'Earth Summit', resulted in the Rio Declaration, which, among other things, concluded that 'in order to achieve sustainable development, environmental protection shall constitute an integral part of the development process and cannot be isolated from it'. This was reinforced in the declaration of the World Summit on Sustainable Development held in Johannesburg last year, where it With the growing interest in improved environmental protection, it was gradually realized that the international standards for radiation protection were insufficient since they focused exclusively on the protection of humans. While there is no evidence of any permanent harm having been caused to the environment by nuclear activities under normal conditions, it is clear that the subject has not been formally addressed in setting safety standards and that there is a gap in our philosophical approach. This insufficiency was recognized at an international symposium held here in Stockholm in 1996 and the progress towards rectifying the situation has been punctuated by further international meetings - in Ottawa in 1999, in Darwin in 2002 and now back here in Stockholm. I am pleased to say that the IAEA has played an active role in each of these meetings. This conference represents an important step in the process of establishing an accepted international framework for environmental radiation protection. This has been recognized by the latest General Conference of the IAEA, which has welcomed the steps taken in developing an international framework for the protection of the environment from ionizing radiation and drawn attention to this conference

  1. A holistic, multi-scale dynamic downscaling framework for climate impact assessments and challenges of addressing finer-scale watershed dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jongho; Ivanov, Valeriy Y.

    2015-03-01

    We present a state-of-the-art holistic, multi-scale dynamic downscaling approach suited to address climate change impacts on hydrologic metrics and hydraulic regime of surface flow at the "scale of human decisions" in ungauged basins. The framework rests on stochastic and physical downscaling techniques that permit one-way crossing 106-100 m scales, with a specific emphasis on 'nesting' hydraulic assessments within a coarser-scale hydrologic model. Future climate projections for the location of Manchester watershed (MI) are obtained from an ensemble of General Circulation Models of the 3rd phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project database and downscaled to a "point" scale using a weather generator. To represent the natural variability of historic and future climates, we generated continuous time series of 300 years for the locations of 3 meteorological stations located in the vicinity of the ungauged basin. To make such a multi-scale approach computationally feasible, we identified the months of May and August as the periods of specific interest based on ecohydrologic considerations. Analyses of historic and future simulation results for the identified periods show that the same median rainfall obtained by accounting for climate natural variability triggers hydrologically-mediated non-uniqueness in flow variables resolved at the hydraulic scale. An emerging challenge is that uncertainty initiated at the hydrologic scale is not necessarily preserved at smaller-scale flow variables, because of non-linearity of underlying physical processes, which ultimately can mask climate uncertainty. We stress the necessity of augmenting climate-level uncertainties of emission scenario, multi-model, and natural variability with uncertainties arising due to non-linearities in smaller-scale processes.

  2. Improving the Pipeline of Women in STEM Fields: Addressing Challenges in Instruction, Engagement, and Evaluation of an Aerospace Workshop Series for Girl Scouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sealfon, C. D.; Plummer, J. D.

    2012-08-01

    The Women in Aerospace and Technology Project (WATP) is a collaborative effort between the Girl Scouts of Eastern Pennsylvania, the American Helicopter Museum, Boeing Rotorcraft, Sikorsky Global Helicopters, Drexel University, West Chester University, and Arcadia University. The program aims to increase the representation of women in STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math) fields; the evaluation team identified a secondary goal to assess growth in participants' understanding of scientific inquiry. Girls, grades 4-12, were invited to join Girl Scout troops formed at the American Helicopter Museum to participate in a series of eight workshops on the physics and engineering of flight. Five college women majoring in physics and engineering were recruited as mentors for the girls. Lessons were written by local aerospace industry partners (including Boeing and Sikorsky); the mentors then taught the lessons and activities during the workshops. To evaluate the impact of this project, we collected data to answer two research questions: 1) In what ways does the program impact participants' attitudes towards science and interest in pursuing science as a career? 2) In what ways does the program impact participants' understanding of the nature of scientific inquiry? In this article we summarize results from two sources of data: before and after survey of attitudes about science and end-of-workshop informal questionnaires. Across the seven months of data collection, two challenges became apparent. First, our assessment goals, focusing on scientific interest and inquiry, seemed misaligned with the workshop curricula, which emphasized engineering and design. Secondly, there was little connection among activities within workshops and across the program.

  3. Building a shared understanding of the skills and competences in order to respond to the current global technical challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friesel, Anna; Ward, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    A pan-European team, including the representatives from 45 European universities, is working on an EU supported project to firstly explore and then provide models for ways in which Higher Education Institutions of Europe in the Electrical and Information Engineering disciplines can respond to current challenges. This paper presents the objectives and actual results of the EU supported project which runs from October 2012 to November 2015, named SALEIE - Strategic Alignment of Electrical and Information Engineering in European Higher Education Institutions. We describe in this paper the preliminary results of the project's work packages WP3 (Global Challenges) and WP4 (Widening Participation and Student Support).

  4. Opening address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: It is an honour for me to make this opening address on behalf of the European Commission which has cooperated with the International Atomic Energy Agency in organizing this Conference, and in particular on behalf of Hans Forsstroem from the Directorate-General, Research, who will arrive only later this week. Protection of the environment is, and will continue to be, an important consideration in the development and application of soundly based radiation protection standards. Current standards rest largely on the premise that, in protecting man, the environment is afforded an adequate level of protection. While this premise is broadly accepted by the radiation protection profession, it has come under increasing challenge in recent years. This challenge has not arisen because of any observable damage to the environment while operating within current standards. Rather, it has different origins including: - The robustness of the premise that protection of man affords protection of the environment, in particular the extent to which it is based on value judgements as opposed to rigorous scientific argument; - The more explicit inclusion of protection of the environment into national legislation on radiation protection and the need to demonstrate compliance; - A desire to achieve greater comparability between radiation and other pollutants. These trends were recognized by the Commission in the late 1990s and, as a result, the topic of protection of the environment was included as an important element of the European Union's 5th Research Framework Programme. Community support has been given to the FASSET project about which we will hear much during this Conference. This multinational project is providing much of the scientific basis underpinning and informing ongoing discussions on the development of a system of protection for the environment. Much, however, remains to be done to establish a well conceived and practicable system for protection of the environment, in particular one that is likely to find broad international acceptance. In this context, the topic was included as an important element of the Commission's 6th Research Framework Programme with the specific objective of 'establishing a robust conceptual and methodological basis for underpinning sound policy and standards for protection of the environment from radiation'. A contract is currently being negotiated to this purpose - the ERICA project which is expected to make a major contribution in this area. Progress within the ERICA project and initiatives being taken to develop standards in other quarters (e.g. IAEA, ICRP) will determine the need for further supporting RTD. In principle, within the next few years, an adequate scientific basis should be established for underpinning standards, albeit supported by further modest research of a confirmatory nature. The Commission has, at present, no plans to establish explicit standards for protection of the environment from radiation. You may be aware that we had included in the work programme of DG Environment the establishment of an Environmental Action Programme under the EURATOM Treaty (complementary to the 6th EAP under the EC Treaty). A follow-up to the Stakeholders' Conference on Approaches to the Management of Environmental Radioactivity of December 2002 was foreseen for 2004. However, in view of the preparation of this EURATOM EAP it cannot be guaranteed at the moment. But the Commission will continue to monitor developments in environmental radiation protection, in particular the results of its sponsored research and the activities of ICRP and IAEA. Should the need arise for standards at a European level, the Commission would respond in a timely manner. If and when it does, important considerations will be the adoption of a system that is robust, practicable, cost effective and proportionate to the problem at hand. A proper balance will need to be achieved between science and policy. I will end my opening remarks with these last thoughts which I hope will be kept in mind throughout the remainder of thi

  5. Opening address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berlin has become a modern, open and forward looking city filling its role as the German capital with self confidence and a very special charm. I really appreciate that this conference is being held here in Berlin. Supporting communication between science and the economy is one of our policy objectives, and we are also determined to develop Berlin's attraction for congresses and conferences. In the next week you will focus on the 'Safe Decommissioning for Nuclear Activities'. You work in an enormous field. Currently, there are more than 110 nuclear installations in the European Union in varying stages of decommissioning, and an additional 150 installations will be dismantled by the year 2020. This means that decommissioning will no longer be treated in a case by case fashion like, for example, the Greifswald Nuclear Power Plant or the Wismut remediation site, which some of you will visit on Friday. Rather, decommissioning will have to be turned into a full scale industrial process with standardized procedures. Each of these procedures has to be optimized, not only with respect to technical requirements but most importantly in a way that guarantees maximum safety for the workers, for the population and for the environment. Consequently, the focal points of this conference cover an extremely wide range, including: Strategies for the safe termination and the assessment of the adequacy of the current technology; Waste management and disposal; Release of materials from regulatory control; Remediation of sites; Social impact of practice termination. Adequate coverage of all these issues is probably not made easier by the proposed enlargement of the European Union to include a number of Central European and Baltic countries. At an early stage, it is the scientific community, with its creativity and potential, which conceives novel approaches and designs new processes. But at a certain point the foundation for the successful handling of a complex problem must be enlarged and become more technical. Involving experts from all fields is then crucial for success. This perception is reflected in the goals of this meeting. It is designed as an extensive information exchange forum between decision makers, regulators, radiation and waste safety specialists, and the nuclear industry. It is this mix which promises high efficiency with respect to solving the problems that you are addressing. I am sure that the safe termination of practices involving radioactive materials during the decommissioning of nuclear installations is one of the major challenges that industrialized nations will have to face during the next decades

  6. Addressing Food Waste Reduction in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halloran, Afton Marina Szasz; Clement, Jesper; Kornum, Niels; Bucatariu, Camelia; Magid, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    Global food demand is driven by population and economic growth, and urbanization. One important instrument to meet this increasing demand and to decrease the pressure on food production is to minimize food losses and food waste. Food waste and loss is a major societal, economic, nutritional and environmental challenge. Using the case of Denmark, this paper analyses causes of food waste, and discusses how different stakeholders address the prevention and reuse of the €1.18 billion of annual edibl...

  7. Joint enterprise and the role of the intermediator : Challenges managing groupware in global virtual teams

    OpenAIRE

    Bjørn, Pernille; Simonsen, Jesper

    2005-01-01

    Managing groupware technologies in global virtual teams is viewed as a process of integrating technology and collaboration. This involves a continual negotia-tion of the team’s goals, processes, and technology. We investigate organizational factors constraining this integration process, by analyzing the failure of inte-grating groupware into two global virtual teams within industry. We present an empirically driven interpretive case study conducted in a large distributed global or-ganization....

  8. Global warming, technological change and trade in carbon energy: Challenge or threat?

    OpenAIRE

    Stephan, Gunter; Müller-Fürstenberger, Georg

    2014-01-01

    Is it possible to combat global climate change through North-to-South technology transfer even without a global climate treaty? Or do carbon leakage and the rebound effect imply that it is possible to take advantage of technological improvements under the umbrella of a global arrangement only? For answering these questions two possible states of the world are discussed: one, where more energy efficient technologies are transferred unconditionally from the North to the South, and where regions...

  9. Impact of globalization to law: new challenges and new opportunities : materials of the international scientific conference

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    The publication presents the analysis of the following issues of the influence of globalization to law: (1) at the general level: impact of globalization to the processes of legal education, regulation of citizenship, environmental law, disability rights law, specific problems of legal theory and jurisprudence, etc.; (2) in the sphere of private law: impact of globalization to capital market regulation, development of the law firms, corporate governance, activities of the energy monopolies, f...

  10. Global warning, technology transfer and trade in carbon energy: Challenge or threat?

    OpenAIRE

    Stephan, Gunter; Müller-Fürstenberger, Georg

    2012-01-01

    Is it possible to combat global climate change through North-to-South technology transfer even without a global climate treaty? Or do carbon leakage and the rebound effect imply that it is possible to take advantage of technological improvements under the umbrella of a global arrangement only? For answering these questions a world with full international co-operation is compared with a world, where countries act non-cooperatively. More precisely, in case of non-cooperation two cases are discu...

  11. Global Warming, Technology Transfer and Trade in Carbon Energy: Challenge or Threat?

    OpenAIRE

    Müller-Fürstenberger, Georg; Stephan, Gunter

    2012-01-01

    Is it possible to combat global climate change through North-to-South technology transfer even without a global climate treaty? Or do carbon leakage and the rebound effect imply that it is possible to take advantage of technological improvements under the umbrella of a global arrangement only? For answering these questions a world with full international cooperation is compared with a world, where countries act non-cooperatively. More precisely, in case of non-cooperation two cases are discus...

  12. Problems and Challenges of Global Sourcing : A Study of Chinese Manufacturing Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Chunnan; Tian, Yue

    2010-01-01

    Background:Scholars tend to view global sourcing as a one-way street, whereby multinational manufacturers from developed countries purchase low-cost materials and products from developing countries. Undoubtedly, one of the purchasing bases for them is China because of its abundant resources and cheap labor. That is why China is aptly called the “Global Factory.” Conversely, few Chinese manufactures currently adopt a global sourcing strategy. However, the higher demand for technical quality an...

  13. Substantive Global Challenges to Development of the World Economy and their Influence upon the Economic Security of a State ????????????????? ?????????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ????????? ? ?? ??????? ?? ????????????? ???????????? ???????????

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivashina Alexander F.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The article studies substantive global challenges to development of the world economy under the conditions of intensification of the processes of integration, trans-nationalisation and globalisation of the world economy as the highest stage of its internationalisation in the planetary scale. It reveals and analyses main challenges to development of the global economy and studies their influence upon economic security of a state. It conducts a deep objective scientific analysis and system comprehension of new world realities from the point of view of main provisions of the modern institutional economic theory. It reveals and justifies essential aspects and existing contradictions of the developing processes of globalisation, internationalisation and trans-nationalisation. It pays a special attention to the study of influence of the said processes upon functioning of subjects of the world economic system. It analyses further prospects, directions, rates and general trends of the socio-economic development of national economies of the countries of the world.? ?????? ??????????? ????????????????? ?????????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ????????? ? ???????? ???????? ????????? ??????????, ??????????????????? ? ???????????? ??????? ????????? ??? ?????? ?????? ?? ??????????????????? ? ??????????? ????????. ???????? ? ???????????????? ???????? ?????? ???????? ?????????? ????????? ? ??????????? ?? ??????? ?? ????????????? ???????????? ???????????. ????????? ??????????? ??????????? ??????? ?????? ? ????????? ?????????? ????? ??????? ?????? ? ??????? ???????? ????????? ??????????? ????????????????? ????????????? ??????. ???????? ? ?????????? ?????????? ??????? ? ???????????? ???????????? ?????????? ????????? ????????? ????????????, ??????????????????? ? ???????????????????. ?????? ???????? ??????? ???????????? ??????? ?????????????? ????????? ?? ???????????????? ????????? ??????? ????????????? ???????. ???????????????? ?????????? ???????????, ???????????, ????? ? ????? ?????????????? ?????????-?????????????? ???????? ???????????? ???????? ????? ????.

  14. Global nuclear industry views: challenges arising from the evolution of the optimisation principle in radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the last few decades, the steady progress achieved in reducing planned exposures of both workers and the public has been admirable in the nuclear sector. However, the disproportionate focus on tiny public exposures and radioactive discharges associated with normal operations came at a high price, and the quasi-denial of a risk of major accident and related weaknesses in emergency preparedness and response came at an even higher price. Fukushima has unfortunately taught us that radiological protection (RP) for emergency and post-emergency situations can be much more than a simple evacuation that lasts 24–48 h, with people returning safely to their homes soon afterwards. On optimisation of emergency and post-emergency exposures, the only ‘show in town’ in terms of international RP policy improvements has been the issuance of the 2007 Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). However, no matter how genuine these improvements are, they have not been ‘road tested’ on the practical reality of severe accidents. Post-Fukushima, there is a compelling case to review the practical adequacy of key RP notions such as optimisation, evacuation, sheltering, and reference levels for workers and the public, and to amend these notions with a view to making the international RP system more useful in the event of a severe accident. On optimisation of planned exposures, the reality is that, nowadays, margins for further reductions of public doses in the nuclear sector are very small, and the smaller the dose, the greater the extra effort needed to reduce the dose further. If sufficient caution is not exercised in the use of RP notions such as dose constraints, there is a real risk of challenging nuclear power technologies beyond safety reasons. For nuclear new build, it is the optimisation of key operational parameters of nuclear power technologies (not RP) that is of paramount importance to improve their overall efficiency. In pursuing further improvements in the international RP system, it should be clearly borne in mind that the system is generally based on protection against the risk of cancer and hereditary diseases. The system also protects against deterministic non-cancer effects on tissues and organs. In seeking refinements of such protective notions, ICRP is invited to pay increased attention to the fact that a continued balance must be struck between beneficial activities that cause exposures and protection. The global nuclear industry is committed to help overcome these key RP issues as part of the RP community’s upcoming international deliberations towards a more efficient international RP system.

  15. Global nuclear industry views: challenges arising from the evolution of the optimisation principle in radiological protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint-Pierre, S

    2012-01-01

    Over the last few decades, the steady progress achieved in reducing planned exposures of both workers and the public has been admirable in the nuclear sector. However, the disproportionate focus on tiny public exposures and radioactive discharges associated with normal operations came at a high price, and the quasi-denial of a risk of major accident and related weaknesses in emergency preparedness and response came at an even higher price. Fukushima has unfortunately taught us that radiological protection (RP) for emergency and post-emergency situations can be much more than a simple evacuation that lasts 24-48 h, with people returning safely to their homes soon afterwards. On optimisation of emergency and post-emergency exposures, the only 'show in town' in terms of international RP policy improvements has been the issuance of the 2007 Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). However, no matter how genuine these improvements are, they have not been 'road tested' on the practical reality of severe accidents. Post-Fukushima, there is a compelling case to review the practical adequacy of key RP notions such as optimisation, evacuation, sheltering, and reference levels for workers and the public, and to amend these notions with a view to making the international RP system more useful in the event of a severe accident. On optimisation of planned exposures, the reality is that, nowadays, margins for further reductions of public doses in the nuclear sector are very small, and the smaller the dose, the greater the extra effort needed to reduce the dose further. If sufficient caution is not exercised in the use of RP notions such as dose constraints, there is a real risk of challenging nuclear power technologies beyond safety reasons. For nuclear new build, it is the optimisation of key operational parameters of nuclear power technologies (not RP) that is of paramount importance to improve their overall efficiency. In pursuing further improvements in the international RP system, it should be clearly borne in mind that the system is generally based on protection against the risk of cancer and hereditary diseases. The system also protects against deterministic non-cancer effects on tissues and organs. In seeking refinements of such protective notions, ICRP is invited to pay increased attention to the fact that a continued balance must be struck between beneficial activities that cause exposures and protection. The global nuclear industry is committed to help overcome these key RP issues as part of the RP community's upcoming international deliberations towards a more efficient international RP system. PMID:23089026

  16. The global financial crisis: Countercyclical fiscal policy issues and challenges in Malaysia, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Singapore

    OpenAIRE

    Doraisarni, Anita

    2011-01-01

    Several countries have employed countercyclical fiscal policy to ameliorate the impact of the global financial crisis. This study identifies some of the issues and policy implications associated with this policy response in developing countries. Included are case studies of four developing countries in the Asian region—Malaysia, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Singapore. The findings point to a rich diversity in both the size and composition of fiscal stimulus and the challenges which ar...

  17. Global financial crisis of 2007 : analysis of origin & assessment of contagion to emerging economies : lessons & challenges for financial regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Ghani, Shazia

    2013-01-01

    This study mainly aims to investigate the origin of the global financial crisis of 2007 (2007 GFC) in United States and in other advanced economies(AEs),its macroeconomic impact on the Emerging Market Economies(EMEs) and the critical analysis of their policy response. Study highlights the regulatory challenges of the post-crisis period and discusses the implications of newly introduced regulatory reforms for the EMEs.In this aim the thesis is delineated into four chapters. First chapter of th...

  18. EU action in developments in the curricula and teaching methods appropriate for the future global technical challenges.

    OpenAIRE

    Farren, Margaret; Crotty, Yvonne; Lonergan, Tom; Soutirou, Sofoklils

    2014-01-01

    In keeping with the IEEE conference theme 'Developments in the curricula and teaching methods appropriate for the future global technical challenges' the purpose of our presentation is to show how we are promoting new development in the curricula and bringing new ideas into action. This paper sets out the context for the EU Seventh Framework ‘Pathway to Inquiry Based Science and Maths Education’ (IBSE) project (2011-2013). It outlines the current situation with regard to Science at Junior ...

  19. The global financial crisis: Countercyclical fiscal policy issues and challenges in Malaysia, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Singapore

    OpenAIRE

    Doraisarni, Anita

    2011-01-01

    Several countries have employed countercyclical fiscal policy to ameliorate the impact of the global financial crisis. This study identifies some of the issues and policy implications associated with this policy response in developing countries. Included are case studies of four developing countries in the Asian region - Malaysia, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Singapore. The findings point to a rich diversity in both the size and composition of fiscal stimulus and the challenges which are c...

  20. Global Skills and Mobility Challenges and Possibilities for VET: A Crossborder Cross-Sectoral Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Roslyn; O'Hanlon-Rose, Terry

    2011-01-01

    The complex interplay of technological advances, global demographic trends and macroeconomic forces has seen the emergence of global markets, economies, supply chains and labour markets. The use of skilled migration policy and initiatives for many countries feeling the effects of aging populations and skill shortages adds another dimension to this…