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1

Biomimetic Nanotechnology: A Powerful Means to address Global Challenges  

CERN Document Server

Biomimetic nanotechnology is a prominent research area at the meeting place of life sciences with engineering and physics: it is a continuously growing field that deals with knowledge transfer from biology to nanotechnology. Biomimetic nanotechnology is a field that has the potential to substantially support successful mastering of major global challenges. The Millennium Project was commissioned by the United Nations Secretary-General in 2002 to develop a concrete action plan for the world to reverse the grinding poverty, hunger and disease affecting billions of people. It states 15 Global Challenges: sustainable development, water, population and resources, democratization, long-term perspectives, information technology, the rich-poor gap, health, capacity to decide, peace and conflict, status of women, transnational crime, energy, science and technology and global ethics. The possible contributions to master these challenges with the help of biomimetic nanotechnology will be discussed in detail.

Gebeshuber, Ille C

2010-01-01

2

Design Guidelines to Address Global Challenges: Lessons from Global Action Networks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Traditional organizations appear to be incapable of adequately addressing critical global issues such as war, climate change, and economic inequality. Addressing these issues suggests the need for organizational innovation to develop global social contracts. Successful innovation must address four integration imperatives: (1) integrate effort and resources across organizational sectors (business, government, civil society) and sense-making, (2) create successful individual to global aggregations, (3) integrate the short and long term, and (4) integrate major issue areas. A new type of organization, Global Action Networks, aims for this integration. Based upon analysis of this new type of organization, five design principles for global social contract organizations are proposed.

Steve Waddell

2012-01-01

3

The Challenges Facing the Multilateral Trading System in Addressing Global Public Policy Objectives  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Published by Palgrave MacmillanDespite a record-breaking 14.5 per cent increase in world merchandise exports, the effects of the financial crisis and global recession are still hampering faster economic recovery. Relatively high oil prices combined with persistent unemployment and measures designed to reduce budget deficits have undermined short-term growth prospects. While South–South trade continues to explode, trade imbalances – i.e. the gap between exports and imports – widened in 2010 compared to 2009 (though smaller than pre-crisis levels). Meanwhile, trade negotiations under the Doha Round have reached an impasse, generating uncertainties about the future of the World Trade Organization (WTO) as a negotiating forum. Under these circumstances, should the system rethink its decision-making process founded upon the predominance of member states, the principle of consensus and the notion of single undertaking, as some critics have suggested? And, if so, how could such a reform agenda be initiated at the WTO? Moreover, beyond the negotiating function of the WTO, the paralysis of the system also raises urgent questions about the ability of the system to respond to pressing challenges of our times, such as trade and climate change, or food security and price volatility.

Christophe Bellmann; Jonathan Hepburn; Marie Wilke

2012-01-01

4

Addressing the workforce pipeline challenge  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A secure and affordable energy supply is essential for achieving U.S. national security, in continuing U.S. prosperity and in laying the foundations to enable future economic growth. To meet this goal the next generation energy workforce in the U.S., in particular those needed to support instrumentation, controls and advanced operations and maintenance, is a critical element. The workforce is aging and a new workforce pipeline, to support both current generation and new build has yet to be established. The paper reviews the challenges and some actions being taken to address this need. (authors)

Bond, L.; Kostelnik, K.; Holman, R. [Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-3898 (United States)

2006-07-01

5

Addressing the workforce pipeline challenge  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A secure and affordable energy supply is essential for achieving U.S. national security, in continuing U.S. prosperity and in laying the foundations to enable future economic growth. To meet this goal the next generation energy workforce in the U.S., in particular those needed to support instrumentation, controls and advanced operations and maintenance, is a critical element. The workforce is aging and a new workforce pipeline, to support both current generation and new build has yet to be established. The paper reviews the challenges and some actions being taken to address this need.

Leonard Bond; Kevin Kostelnik; Richard Holman

2006-11-01

6

Global threat reduction initiative efforts to address transportation challenges associated with the recovery of disused radioactive sealed sources - 10460  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Proper disposition of disused radioactive sources is essential for their safe and secure management and necessary to preclude their use in malicious activities. Without affordable, timely transportation options, disused sealed sources remain in storage at hundreds of sites throughout the country and around the world. While secure storage is a temporary measure, the longer sources remain disused or unwanted the chances increase that they will become unsecured or abandoned. The Global Threat Reduction Initiative's Off-Site Source Recovery Project (GTRIlOSRP), recovers thousands of disused and unwanted sealed sources annually as part of GTRl's larger mission to reduce and protect high risk nuclear and radiological materials located at civilian sites worldwide. Faced with decreasing availability of certified transportation containers to support movement of disused and unwanted neutron- and beta/gamma-emitting radioactive sealed sources, GTRIlOSRP has initiated actions to ensure the continued success of the project in timely recovery and management of sealed radioactive sources. Efforts described in this paper to enhance transportation capabilities include: {sm_bullet} Addition of authorized content to existing and planned Type B containers to support the movement of non-special form and other Type B-quantity sealed sources; {sm_bullet} Procurement of vendor services for the design, development, testing and certification of a new Type B container to support transportation of irradiators, teletherapy heads or sources removed from these devices using remote handling capabilities such as the IAEA portable hot cell facility; {sm_bullet} Expansion of shielded Type A container inventory for transportation of gamma-emitting sources in activity ranges requiring use of shielding for conformity with transportation requirements; {sm_bullet} Approval of the S300 Type A fissile container for transport of Pu-239 sealed sources internationally; {sm_bullet} Technology transfer of field-sealable (non-welded) special form capsules for commercial use.

Whitworth, Julie [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Abeyta, Cristy L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Griffin, Justin M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Matzke, James L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pearson, Michael W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cuthbertson, Abigail [NNSA; Rawl, Richard [ORNL; Singley, Paul [ORNL

2010-01-01

7

Global threat reduction initiative efforts to address transportation challenges associated with the recovery of disused radioactive sealed sources - 10460  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Proper disposition of disused radioactive sources is essential for their safe and secure management and necessary to preclude their use in malicious activities. Without affordable, timely transportation options, disused sealed sources remain in storage at hundreds of sites throughout the country and around the world. While secure storage is a temporary measure, the longer sources remain disused or unwanted the chances increase that they will become unsecured or abandoned. The Global Threat Reduction Initiative's Off-Site Source Recovery Project (GTRIlOSRP), recovers thousands of disused and unwanted sealed sources annually as part of GTRl's larger mission to reduce and protect high risk nuclear and radiological materials located at civilian sites worldwide. Faced with decreasing availability of certified transportation containers to support movement of disused and unwanted neutron- and beta/gamma-emitting radioactive sealed sources, GTRIlOSRP has initiated actions to ensure the continued success of the project in timely recovery and management of sealed radioactive sources. Efforts described in this paper to enhance transportation capabilities include: (smbullet) Addition of authorized content to existing and planned Type B containers to support the movement of non-special form and other Type B-quantity sealed sources; (smbullet) Procurement of vendor services for the design, development, testing and certification of a new Type B container to support transportation of irradiators, teletherapy heads or sources removed from these devices using remote handling capabilities such as the IAEA portable hot cell facility; (smbullet) Expansion of shielded Type A container inventory for transportation of gamma-emitting sources in activity ranges requiring use of shielding for conformity with transportation requirements; (smbullet) Approval of the S300 Type A fissile container for transport of Pu-239 sealed sources internationally; (smbullet) Technology transfer of field-sealable (non-welded) special form capsules for commercial use.

2010-03-07

8

Transportation and energy: the global environmental challenge  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This issue of Transportation Research contains selected papers from a conference on Transportation and Global Climate Change held at the Asilomar Conference Center, Pacific Grove, California, in August 1991. The conference focused on the policy implications of the global climate change problem, and on policy options for addressing it. Each of the papers in this issue presents a significant insight and together they convey most of the important aspects of the challenge the threat of global climate change poses to transportation. (author)

Greene, D.L. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States). Center for Transportation Analysis)

1993-05-01

9

The challenge of global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The chapter outlines the science of global warming, the likely consequences of global warming and some of the major challenges in dealing with global climate change. Some of the major international organisations concerned with environmental issues are listed. International agreements might be used to limit emissions of greenhouse gases. 32 refs., 2 tabs

1992-01-01

10

Global warming challenge  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Global warming will necessitate significant adjustments in Canadian society and its economy. In 1979, the Canadian federal government created its Canadian Climate Program (CCP) in collaboration with other agencies, institutions, and individuals. It sought to coordinate national efforts to understand global and regional climate, and to promote better use of the emerging knowledge. Much of the CCP-coordinated research into sources and sinks of greenhouse gases interfaces with other national and international programs. Other researchers have become involved in the Northern Wetlands Study, a cooperative United States-Canada initiative to understand the role of huge northern bogs and muskegs in the carbon cycle. Because of the need to understand how the whole, linked climate system works, climate modeling emerged as a key focus of current research. 35 refs., 4 figs.

Hengeveld, H. (Environment Canada, Downsview, Ontario (Canada))

1994-11-01

11

Addressing malaria vector control challenges in South Sudan: proposed recommendations.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Upon the signing of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement in 2005, the Republic of South Sudan (RSS) has faced a lot of challenges, such as a lack of infrastructure, human resources and an enormous burden of vector borne diseases including malaria. While a national malaria strategic plan 2006-2011 was developed, the vector control component has remained relatively weak. The strategy endorses the distribution of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) as the frontline intervention with other interventions recommended only when technical and institutional capacity is available. In 2006, a draft integrated vector management (IVM) strategic plan 2007-2012 was developed but never implemented, resulting in minimal coordination, implementation and coverage of malaria vector control tools including their inherent impact. To address this challenge, the vector control team of the National Malaria Control Programme (NMCP) is being strengthened. With the objective of building national capacity and technical collaboration for effective implementation of the IVM strategy, a national malaria vector control conference was held from 15-17th October 2012 in Juba. A range of NMCP partners, state ministries, acadaemia, private sector, national and international non-governmental organizations, including regional and global policymakers attended the meeting. The conference represented a major milestone and made recommendations revolving around the five key elements of the IVM approach. The meeting endorsed that vector control efforts in RSS be augmented with other interventions within the confines of the IVM strategy as a national approach, with strong adherence to its key elements.

Chanda E; Doggale C; Pasquale H; Azairwe R; Baba S; Mnzava A

2013-01-01

12

Addressing malaria vector control challenges in South Sudan: proposed recommendations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Upon the signing of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement in 2005, the Republic of South Sudan (RSS) has faced a lot of challenges, such as a lack of infrastructure, human resources and an enormous burden of vector borne diseases including malaria. While a national malaria strategic plan 2006-2011 was developed, the vector control component has remained relatively weak. The strategy endorses the distribution of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) as the frontline intervention with other interventions recommended only when technical and institutional capacity is available. In 2006, a draft integrated vector management (IVM) strategic plan 2007–2012 was developed but never implemented, resulting in minimal coordination, implementation and coverage of malaria vector control tools including their inherent impact. To address this challenge, the vector control team of the National Malaria Control Programme (NMCP) is being strengthened. With the objective of building national capacity and technical collaboration for effective implementation of the IVM strategy, a national malaria vector control conference was held from 15-17th October 2012 in Juba. A range of NMCP partners, state ministries, acadaemia, private sector, national and international non-governmental organizations, including regional and global policymakers attended the meeting. The conference represented a major milestone and made recommendations revolving around the five key elements of the IVM approach. The meeting endorsed that vector control efforts in RSS be augmented with other interventions within the confines of the IVM strategy as a national approach, with strong adherence to its key elements.

Chanda Emmanuel; Doggale Constantino; Pasquale Harriet; Azairwe Robert; Baba Samson; Mnzava Abraham

2013-01-01

13

The Sustainable Hydrogen Economy: Addressing the Challenges Ahead  

Science.gov (United States)

It is rapidly becoming apparent that energy is one of the most important issues facing our world today; in fact, in today's society energy is as important as food and water. Humankind finds itself faced the challenge of how to continue to power society, particularly in the face of the rapidly growing economies of emerging nations like India and China, and yet answer questions of sustainability, energy security, geopolitics and global environment. One of the major issues facing America and most other countries in the world is how to supply a transportation fuel, an energy carrier to replace gasoline. Hydrogen as an energy carrier, primarily derived from water, can address issues of sustainability, environmental emissions and energy security. The ``Hydrogen Economy'' then is the production of hydrogen, its distribution and utilization as an energy carrier. While the vision of a hydrogen economy has been around for over 130 years, the most recent push to use hydrogen as an energy carrier came as part of a US Presidential Initiative, announced in the 2003 State of the Union Address. It is important that we consider hydrogen in tandem with other technologies as an alternative to the once-abundant hydrocarbon resources on which our society depends. This talk will introduce sustainable energy systems, including fuel cell technology and discuss the vision, the barriers and possible pathways for the production and implementation of hydrogen into the energy infrastructure.

Turner, John A.

2006-10-01

14

Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. Rhode Island  

Science.gov (United States)

America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

2010-01-01

15

Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. Georgia  

Science.gov (United States)

America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

2010-01-01

16

ADDRESSING THE RISKS OF GLOBAL PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Offshoring various stages in the product development process – from engineering tasks like R&D and design to manufacturing activities - can impact the development process, the product and the organisation. Some of these impacts are positive while some are negative. The negative impacts are related to rework, misunderstandings, miscommunication and lower quality. This paper investigates how the organisation can reduce the negative aspects of offshoring by presenting two possible approaches; one which lessens the exposure to situations in which these negative impacts happen and another which addresses them in the decision phase so the organisation can develop appropriate strategies for these instances.

Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema

2011-01-01

17

Global mobile IPv6 addressing using transition mechanisms  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The adoption of the Internet Protocol in mobile and wireless technologies has considerably increased the number of hosts that can potentially access the global Internet. IPv6 is considered the long term solution for the IPv4 address shortage problem, but the transition from IPv4 to IPv6 is supposed to be very gradual. Therefore, there will be a long time during which both protocol versions will coexist. To facilitate transition, the IETF has set up a work group called NGT (more) RANS (Next Generation TRANSition) which specifies mechanisms for supporting interoperability between IPv4 and IPv6. This paper describes a new approach for implementing mobile networks with global Internet connectivity using transition mechanisms. It consists in virtually assigning IPv6 addresses to IPv4 hosts without modifying end-user devices by introducing a transparent gateway in the mobile network. The mobile hosts with virtual IPv6 addresses are uniquely addressed through the global IPv4 Internet by using IPv6 addresses from the standard 6to4 addressing scheme or Fully Qualified Domain Names (FQDN). This "extended" transition mechanism permits to deploy mobile networks with global Internet connectivity without requiring public IPv4 addresses, using legacy IPv4 user devices. The mobile hosts with virtual IPv6 addresses can communicate to other hosts with virtual IPv6 addresses or with "true " IPv6 networks.

Jamhour, Edgard; Storoz, Simone; Maziero, Carlos

2003-04-01

18

Catholic Social Teaching: Addressing Globalization in Catholic Business Education  

Science.gov (United States)

Although business schools are increasingly aware of the importance of globalization in educating future business leaders, their business programs have addressed globalization from a limited perspective that fails to provide students with a broader understanding of its impact on societies and its moral consequences. The conventional approach to the…

Ball, James B.; Martinez, Zaida; Toyne, Brian

2009-01-01

19

Addressing challenges to providing peer-based recovery support.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

As more systems of care deploy peer-based recovery support (P-BRS) programs, challenges to the effective use of P-BRS have emerged. These include external challenges, embedded in the organization and culture of traditionally organized services, and individual challenges, associated with the nonprofessional status of individual peer support staff members. The Living Centers, recovery resource centers providing P-BRS, have developed methods for addressing these challenges. These include organizing the P-BRS as stand-alone programs, having peer support staff and clients organize the P-BRS, emphasizing organizational values and culture as the basis for staff training, and implementing measures designed to encourage accountability among peer support staff. In the future, research into the types of barriers to P-BRS that may exist in traditionally organized behavioral health services and the types and content of training that contribute to the provision of P-BRS will facilitate the use of these services.

Alberta AJ; Ploski RR; Carlson SL

2012-10-01

20

Addressing strategy execution challenges to lead sustainable change.  

Science.gov (United States)

This department highlights change management strategies that may be successful in strategically planning and executing organizational change initiatives. With the goal of presenting practical approaches helpful to nurse leaders advancing organizational change, content includes evidence-based projects, tools, and resources that mobilize and sustain organizational change initiatives. In this article, the author discusses strategy execution challenges that must be addressed to lead sustainable change. PMID:21157236

Shirey, Maria R

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

Addressing strategy execution challenges to lead sustainable change.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This department highlights change management strategies that may be successful in strategically planning and executing organizational change initiatives. With the goal of presenting practical approaches helpful to nurse leaders advancing organizational change, content includes evidence-based projects, tools, and resources that mobilize and sustain organizational change initiatives. In this article, the author discusses strategy execution challenges that must be addressed to lead sustainable change.

Shirey MR

2011-01-01

22

'Caring schools' – a solution for addressing challenging behaviour in schools?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Media reports suggest that challenging behaviour is no longer the exception to the rule in South African schools. Furthermore, such problem behaviour is increasingly violent in nature, thus constituting a particular cause for concern. In this article the concept of “caring schools” is explored as a means of addressing learners’ challenging behaviour. A research study was undertaken at eight South African primary schools. The conclusions drawn from this research were verified by the correlative research findings of other researchers, as ascertained from the literature study. A key element of this research was the identification of attributes associated with caring schools and the impact thereof on learners’ behaviour patterns. From the findings of this research study it is concluded that caring schools represent a possible solution for dealing with challenging behaviour in South African schools.

F.H. Weeks

2008-01-01

23

GASP: A Performance Analysis Tool Interface for Global AddressSpace Programming Models, Version 1.5  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Due to the wide range of compilers and the lack of astandardized performance tool interface, writers of performance toolsface many challenges when incorporating support for global address space(GAS) programming models such as Unified Parallel C (UPC), Titanium, andCo-Array Fortran (CAF). This document presents a Global Address SpacePerformance tool interface (GASP) that is flexible enough to be adaptedinto current global address space compiler and runtime infrastructureswith little effort, while allowing performance analysis tools to gathermuch information about the performance of global address spaceprograms.

Leko, Adam; Bonachea, Dan; Su, Hung-Hsun; George, Alan D.; Sherburne, Hans; George, Alan D.

2006-09-14

24

Globalization and Educational Reform: The Challenges Ahead  

Science.gov (United States)

|This article addresses three goals that pertain to globalization and its impact on public policy in general and Hispanic higher education in particular. First, the author defines globalization as it relates to education. Then, he considers what globalization suggests with regard to the public good. Finally, four implications are suggested about…

Tierney, William G.

2004-01-01

25

Globalization and Educational Reform: The Challenges Ahead  

Science.gov (United States)

This article addresses three goals that pertain to globalization and its impact on public policy in general and Hispanic higher education in particular. First, the author defines globalization as it relates to education. Then, he considers what globalization suggests with regard to the public good. Finally, four implications are suggested about…

Tierney, William G.

2004-01-01

26

Global challenges and globalization of bioethics.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This article analyzes problems and implications for man and nature connected with the formation of a new architecture of science, based on the convergence of nanotechnology, biotechnology, information technology, and cognitive science (NBIC). It also describes evolution and genesis of bioethics, a scientific discipline and social practice with a special role of ethical management of potential risks of scientific research. The aim was to demonstrate the necessity of bioethical social control in the development of a global bioeconomy driven by NBIC technologies.

Nezhmetdinova F

2013-02-01

27

Addressing the human resource challenge in the electricity industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The electricity industry is facing significant challenges in terms of its labour forces in the years ahead due to an aging workforce and pending retirements in an industry already challenged by increasing demand, technological change and regulatory instability. A shortage of skilled labour could compromise the electricity sector in a variety of ways including: reduced reliability, increased cost of production, infrastructure projects delays, and decreased safety and productivity due to less experienced employees and worker shortages. This report presented a briefing of recommendations developed by the Canadian Electricity Association (CEA) that offered concrete solutions to addressing the electricity industry's workforce challenges. The recommendations focused around three areas: building Canadian skills base by investing in education, skills training and apprenticeships, particularly in underrepresented communities; ensuring trained, skilled workers are able to work and flourish in their area of expertise by streamlining certification and credential recognition, and facilitating workforce mobility; and attracting and retaining skilled foreign workers by ensuring successful community and workplace integration. Background information on the electricity industry in Canada was also presented. The CEA also proposed a list of policy initiatives to ensure the Canadian electricity industry can maintain and enhance its human and electricity potential. It was concluded that the CEA is prepared to develop detailed implementation plans and programs to operationalize any and all of the recommendations in the briefing. 2 figs.

NONE

2007-02-15

28

Global challenges and globalization of bioethics.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article analyzes problems and implications for man and nature connected with the formation of a new architecture of science, based on the convergence of nanotechnology, biotechnology, information technology, and cognitive science (NBIC). It also describes evolution and genesis of bioethics, a scientific discipline and social practice with a special role of ethical management of potential risks of scientific research. The aim was to demonstrate the necessity of bioethical social control in the development of a global bioeconomy driven by NBIC technologies. PMID:23447421

Nezhmetdinova, Farida

2013-02-01

29

Who governs energy? The challenges facing global energy governance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article conceptualizes the energy problems facing society from a global governance perspective. It argues that a notion of 'global energy governance,' taken to mean international collective action efforts undertaken to manage and distribute energy resources and provide energy services, offers a meaningful and useful framework for assessing energy-related challenges. The article begins by exploring the concepts of governance, global governance, and global energy governance. It then examines some of the existing institutions in place to establish and carry out rules and norms governing global energy problems and describes the range of institutional design options available to policymakers. It briefly traces the role of a selection of these institutions, from inter-governmental organizations to summit processes to multilateral development banks to global action networks, in responding to energy issues, and points out their strengths and weaknesses. The article concludes by analyzing how the various approaches to global governance differ in their applicability to addressing the conundrums of global energy problems.

2009-01-01

30

Is prophetic discourse adequate to address global economic justice?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article outlined key features of prophetic discourse and investigated whether this form of moral discourse adequately addresses issues of economic injustice. It is shown that the strength of prophetic discourse is its ability to denounce instances of injustice whilst at the same time announcing a God-willed alternative future. The ‘preferential option for the poor’ in Latin American liberation theologies is treated as a case study of the influence of prophetic discourse in contexts of perceived economic injustice. Also the core weaknesses of prophetic discourse are investigated, specifically its incomplete moral argument, weak moral analyses, silence on transition measures, and its inability to take a positive stance on reforms in the system from which itself benefits. In the final section it is concluded that prophetic discourse plays an indispensable role in addressing issues of global economic justice, but – taken by itself – it is not an adequate form of moral discourse to address concrete matters of justice.How to cite this article: Naudé, P.J., 2011, ‘Is prophetic discourse adequate to address global economic justice?’, HTS Teologiese Studies/ Theological Studies 67(1), Art. #1014, 8 pages. DOI: 10.4102/hts.v67i1.1014

Piet J. Naudé

2011-01-01

31

THE CHALLENGE OF GLOBALIZATION TO COMPARATIVE RESEARCH  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Comparing systems assumes their relative independence. Assessing that assumption was central to the origins of systematic comparison in the legacy of Francis Galton and the concepts of diffusion, random variation, invasion, and dominance. Globalization of this era has fatally wounded human system autonomy hypotheses, making nearly all human systems components of a global system. Three strategies are suggested to address the alternative grand global hypothesis. The first is to start comparisons with global level variables and move downward to its “sub-systems”, including countries. Second is to address a general global hypothesis of change as development rather that evolution and diffusion. Third is to explore the utility of global models of change and the recent improvements in world history to theoretical frame comparative research in contexts of contemporary globalizations.

Henry Teune

2010-01-01

32

Addressing the challenges of patient-centred design  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Patient-centred design is a relatively new term, but a longstanding concept in clinical practice. This discussion looks at patient-centred design and explores the relationships of patient-centred design to universal design, user-centred design and the newer human-centred design. It also explores why interdisciplinary approaches are needed for patient-centred design and how interdisciplinary collaboration works to address the challenges of patient centred design. Successful patient-centred solutions can grow from collaborations which include shared visions, understanding of both the nature and degree of variation in the patient,materials, and the designed solution, clear regular communication among all parties with careful definition of terms, and respect for the inherent cultures of all disciplines involved.

Karen Ryan; Karen LaBat

2009-01-01

33

Integrated strategy to address Hanford's deep vadose zone remediation challenges  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A vast majority of Hanford's remaining in-ground contaminants reside in the vadose zone of the Central Plateau, where reprocessing operations occurred. The vadose zone is comprised of about 75 meters of water-unsaturated sediments above groundwater. If left untreated, these contaminants could reach groundwater and could remain a threat for centuries. Much of this contamination resides deep in the vadose zone, below the effective depth of tradition surface remedy influence. In 2008, the Department of Energy initiated deep vadose zone treatability testing to seek remedies for technetium-99 and uranium contamination. These tests include the application of desiccation for technetium-99 and reactive gas technologies for uranium. To complement these efforts, the Department of Energy has initiated a 'defense-in-depth' approach to address the unique challenges for characterization and remediation of the deep vadose zone. This defense-in-depth approach will implement multiple approaches to understand and control contaminant flux from the deep vadose zone to the groundwater. Among these approaches is an increased investment in science and technology solutions to resolve deep vadose zone challenges including characterization, prediction, remediation, and monitoring. (author)

2011-01-01

34

Cultural dimensions of learning: Addressing the challenges of multicultural instruction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The growing multicultural nature of education and training environments makes it critical that instructors and instructional designers, especially those working in online learning environments, develop skills to deliver culturally sensitive and culturally adaptive instruction. This article explores research into cultural differences to identify those dimensions of culture that are most likely to impact instructional situations. It presents these in the cultural dimensions of learning framework (CDLF), which describes a set of eight cultural parameters regarding social relationships, epistemological beliefs, and temporal perceptions, and illustrates their spectrums of variability as they might be exhibited in instructional situations. The article also explores the literature on instructional design and culture for guidelines on addressing the cross-cultural challenges faced by instructional providers. It suggests that these challenges can be overcome through increased awareness, culturally sensitive communication, modified instructional design processes, and efforts to accommodate the most critical cultural differences. Finally, it describes the use of the CDLF questionnaire as a tool to illuminate the range of preferences existing among learners and to discover the potential range of strategies and tactics that might be useful for a given set of learners.

Patrick Parrish; Jennifer A. Linder-VanBerschot

2010-01-01

35

Strengthening health information systems to address health equity challenges.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Special studies and isolated initiatives over the past several decades in low-, middle- and high-income countries have consistently shown inequalities in health among socioeconomic groups and by gender, race or ethnicity, geographical area and other measures associated with social advantage. Significant health inequalities linked to social (dis)advantage rather than to inherent biological differences are generally considered unfair or inequitable. Such health inequities are the main object of health development efforts, including global targets such as the Millennium Development Goals, which require monitoring to evaluate progress. However, most national health information systems (HIS) lack key information needed to assess and address health inequities, namely, reliable, longitudinal and representative data linking measures of health with measures of social status or advantage at the individual or small-area level. Without empirical documentation and monitoring of such inequities, as well as country-level capacity to use this information for effective planning and monitoring of progress in response to interventions, movement towards equity is unlikely to occur. This paper reviews core information requirements and potential databases and proposes short-term and longer term strategies for strengthening the capabilities of HIS for the analysis of health equity and discusses HIS-related entry points for supporting a culture of equity-oriented decision-making and policy development.

Nolen LB; Braveman P; Dachs JN; Delgado I; Gakidou E; Moser K; Rolfe L; Vega J; Zarowsky C

2005-08-01

36

ISLAM: Local and Global Challenges  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Indeed, in maintaining their local values when faced with globalchallenges, Muslims, as a social entity, and Islam, as a set of dogma, havegiven birth to new phenomena, e.g. new interpretation of Islam withina new context. Additionally, this era of globalization has led religions,including Islam, to renew their gambit to cope reality, e.g. in the practicallife (sociological, political, economical and anthropological aspects),intellectual endeavors (philosophical and theological aspects), and in therenewal of dogmatic teachings (hermeneutical aspects).

Editor Al-Jami'ah: Journal of Islamic Studies

2011-01-01

37

The Challenges and Potential of Nuclear Energy for Addressing Climate Change  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The response to climate change and the stabilization of atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations has major implications for the global energy system. Stabilization of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations requires a peak and an indefinite decline of global CO2 emissions. Nuclear energy, along with other technologies, has the potential to contribute to the growing demand for energy without emitting CO2. Nuclear energy is of particular interest because of its global prevalence and its current significant contribution, nearly 20%, to the world's electricity supply. We have investigated the value of nuclear energy in addressing climate change, and have explored the potential challenges for the rapid and large-scale expansion of nuclear energy as a response to climate change. The scope of this study is long-term and the modeling time frame extends out a century because the nature of nuclear energy and climate change dictate that perspective. Our results indicate that the value of the nuclear technology option for addressing climate change is denominated in trillions of dollars. Several-fold increases to the value of the nuclear option can be expected if there is limited availability of competing carbon-free technologies, particularly fossil-fuel based technologies that can capture and sequester carbon. Challenges for the expanded global use of nuclear energy include the global capacity for nuclear construction, proliferation, uranium availability, and waste disposal. While the economic costs of nuclear fuel and power are important, non-economic issues transcend the issues of costs. In this regard, advanced nuclear technologies and new vision for the global use of nuclear energy are important considerations for the future of nuclear power and climate change.

2007-01-01

38

Operationalizing a One Health approach to global health challenges.  

Science.gov (United States)

The One Health approach, which recognizes the interconnectedness of human, animal and ecosystem health, encourages collaboration between diverse disciplines to address complex health problems. The advantages and challenges posed by these interdisciplinary collaborations are described in this review. Learning networks where diverse participants can openly share processes, best practices, and case studies are discussed as a strategy for conducting transdisciplinary One Health research and tackling complex global health problems. The 11 papers in this special issue are also introduced as they illustrate how a One Health approach can be applied to better understand and control zoonotic pathogens, engage community stakeholders in One Health research and utilize wildlife species, most notably sea otters and birds, as sentinels of ecosystem health. Collaboration is rarely without complications; however, drawing on these insights may benefit the process of operationalizing the One Health approach to address today's global health challenges. PMID:23711930

Conrad, Patricia A; Meek, Laura A; Dumit, Joe

2013-05-24

39

Integrated telehealth: putting it all together and addressing the challenges.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Integrated Telehealth Project of Malaysia is considered a principal enabler for the nation's Vision 2020 as well as the National Health Vision. Being in such an unenviable position, of being not only the pioneer for such an integrated project, but also with no benchmark to compare with, the project implementers have faced manifold challenges along the way. This chapter deals with some of the challenges and lessons learnt that have accumulated as the project progressed.

Harum H

2004-01-01

40

Energy sustainability : a key to addressing environmental, economic and societal challenges  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper expanded on previous studies regarding the development of a pragmatic approach to energy sustainability. The significant factors that result in energy sustainability globally were examined along with their influence in addressing environmental, economic and societal challenges. The Red- Mediterranean- Dead Seas Canal Project was presented as a case study. The technical focus was on several crucial factors that need to be addressed appropriately to achieve energy sustainability. These included harnessing sustainable energy sources, utilizing sustainable energy carriers, increasing efficiency, reducing environmental impact and improving socioeconomic acceptability through community involvement, affordability, equity and land use. The paper demonstrated that advanced tools like exergy analysis for efficiency improvement and life cycle analysis for environmental enhancement can greatly facilitate efforts to achieve energy sustainability. 50 refs., 4 figs.

Rosen, M.A.; Abu Rukah, Y. [Univ. of Ontario Inst. of Technology, Oshawa, ON (Canada). Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science

2010-07-01

 
 
 
 
41

New policies to address the global burden of childhood cancers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Childhood cancer is a major global health issue. Every year, almost 100 000 children die from cancer before the age of 15 years, more than 90% of them in resource-limited countries. Here, we review the key policy issues for the delivery of better care, research, and education of professionals and patients. We present a key list of time-limited proposals focusing on change to health systems and research and development. These include sector and system reforms to make care affordable to all, policies to promote growth of civil society around both cancer and Millennium Development Goals, major improvements to public health services (particularly the introduction of national cancer plans), improved career development, and increased remuneration of specialist health-care workers and government support for childhood cancer registries. Research and development proposals focus on sustainable funding, the establishment of more research networks, and clinical research specifically targeted at the needs of low-income and middle-income countries. Finally, we present proposals to address the need for clinical trial innovation, the complex dichotomy of regulations, and the threats to the availability of data for childhood cancers.

Sullivan R; Kowalczyk JR; Agarwal B; Ladenstein R; Fitzgerald E; Barr R; Steliarova-Foucher E; Magrath I; Howard SC; Kruger M; Valsecchi MG; Biondi A; Grundy P; Smith MA; Adamson P; Vassal G; Pritchard-Jones K

2013-03-01

42

Global peace and security: Trends and challenges  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Focusing on the social, economic, and political structures of the postwar global order, this collection of essays discusses the search for a new international economic order, the transformation of the nation-state and the international balance of power, the technological and strategic dimensions of the nuclear age, East-West trade and technology transfers, and the moral and political challenges posed by the quest for a more stable and just world order. These essays provide an overview of the possibilities for and limitations of providing political direction in a global system characterized by social, economic, and technological change.

Hanrieder, W.F.

1987-01-01

43

Addressing the challenge of legitimate international comparisons of classroom practice  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this article, we address the choice of suitable instructional units that might serve as the basis for cross-cultural analyses of classroom practice. Our argument draws on analyses undertaken as part of the Learner's Perspective Study (LPS). The database comprised a three-camera video record of se...

Clarke, D; Mesiti, C; O'Keefe, C; Xu, LH; Jablonka, E; Mok, IAC; Shimizu, Y

44

Addressing the Challenges posed by Cybercrime: A South African Perspective  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The South African common law has proven to be ineffective in addressing cybercrime. The Electronic Communications and Transactions Act, Act 25 of 2002 (“ECT”) was introduced to address inter alia cybercrime in South Africa. Whilst the advent of the ECT is lauded, there is room for improvement. To illustrate this, section 15 of the ECT which facilitates the admission of information in electronic format is laudable, but the criminal sanctions in the Act appear to be inadequate. Recent case law also reveals that the courts are adopting a cautious approach towards cybercrime cases. A call for a more clear and concise judicial guidance is required. The South African banking sector is also vulnerable to cybercrime. However, the establishment of organisations such as SABRIC to combat cybercrime in the banking industry is welcomed. Although South Africa has adopted the Council of Europe’s Convention in Cybercrime, it has not ratified the treaty. It is recommended that South Africa should ratify the treaty to avoid becoming an easy target for international cybercrime. This paper will deal with measures addressing cybercrime in South Africa and the way forward.

Fawzia Cassim

2010-01-01

45

Who governs energy? The challenges facing global energy governance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article conceptualizes the energy problems facing society from a global governance perspective. It argues that a notion of 'global energy governance,' taken to mean international collective action efforts undertaken to manage and distribute energy resources and provide energy services, offers a meaningful and useful framework for assessing energy-related challenges. The article begins by exploring the concepts of governance, global governance, and global energy governance. It then examines some of the existing institutions in place to establish and carry out rules and norms governing global energy problems and describes the range of institutional design options available to policymakers. It briefly traces the role of a selection of these institutions, from inter-governmental organizations to summit processes to multilateral development banks to global action networks, in responding to energy issues, and points out their strengths and weaknesses. The article concludes by analyzing how the various approaches to global governance differ in their applicability to addressing the conundrums of global energy problems. (author)

Florini, Ann; Sovacool, Benjamin K. [Centre on Asia and Globalisation, Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore, Singapore 259772 (Singapore)

2009-12-15

46

Addressing informatics challenges in Translational Research with workflow technology.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Interest in Translational Research has been growing rapidly in recent years. In this collision of different data, technologies and cultures lie tremendous opportunities for the advancement of science and business for organisations that are able to integrate, analyse and deliver this information effectively to users. Workflow-based integration and analysis systems are becoming recognised as a fast and flexible way to build applications that are tailored to scientific areas, yet are built on a common platform. Workflow systems are allowing organisations to meet the key informatics challenges in Translational Research and improve disease understanding and patient care.

Beaulah SA; Correll MA; Munro RE; Sheldon JG

2008-09-01

47

Membrane materials for addressing energy and environmental challenges.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Our modern society must solve various severe problems to maintain and increase our quality of life: from water stress to global warming, to fossil fuel depletion, to environmental pollution. The process intensification (PI) strategy is expected to contribute to overcoming many of these issues by facilitating the transition from a resource-intensive to a knowledge-intensive industrial system that will guarantee sustainable growth. Membrane operations, which respond efficiently to the requirements of the PI strategy, have the potential to replace conventional energy-intensive separation techniques, which will boost the efficiency and reduce the environmental impact of separations as well as conversion processes. This work critically reviews the current status and emerging applications of (integrated) membrane operations with a special focus on energy and environmental applications.

Drioli E; Fontananova E

2012-01-01

48

Peptide immunotherapy for childhood allergy - addressing translational challenges  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Allergic sensitisation usually begins early in life. The number of allergens a patient is sensitised to can increase over time and the development of additional allergic conditions is increasingly recognised. Targeting allergic disease in childhood is thus likely to be the most efficacious means of reducing the overall burden of allergic disease. Specific immunotherapy involves administering protein allergen to tolerise allergen reactive CD4+ T cells, thought key in driving allergic responses. Yet specific immunotherapy risks allergic reactions including anaphylaxis as a consequence of preformed allergen-specific IgE antibodies binding to the protein, subsequent cross-linking and mast cell degranulation. CD4+ T cells direct their responses to short "immunodominant" peptides within the allergen. Such peptides can be given therapeutically to induce T cell tolerance without facilitating IgE cross-linking. Peptide immunotherapy (PIT) offers attractive treatment potential for allergic disease. However, PIT has not yet been shown to be effective in children. This review discusses the immunological mechanisms implicated in PIT and briefly covers outcomes from adult PIT trials. This provides a context for discussion of the challenges for the application of PIT, both generally and more specifically in relation to children.

Mackenzie Karen J; Anderton Stephen M; Schwarze Jürgen

2011-01-01

49

Wireless LAN Security: Addressing Challenges, Attacks and Solutions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available With tremendous growth and advancement in wireless technology and excessive use of internet in all the applications, security has become one of the most crucial and most demanding factor in wireless LAN, no matter if it is an individual, home or a business network. Regardless of different benefits of wireless LANs like mobility, flexibility, reduced cost of ownership and scalability, WLAN also have security issues that must be properly dealt with. Security involves protection ofdata and nodes from different types of attacks, unauthorized access and misuse of data and systems. Security basically is an overall strategy rather than a technology. It is all about the level of effort one can put into the network for securing it or the level of risk one is willing to tolerate . All the components exist in order to secure the wireless network. This paper will discuss different challenges in a wireless LAN, different types of attacks and different security considerations and strategies which will help an individual user and enterprises in securing their wireless LAN. It also emphasizes on the importance of training and knowledge of safe and reliable wireless network usage.

Gurpreet Kaur#1 , Kirandeep Kaur

2013-01-01

50

Public engagement on global health challenges  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Experience with public engagement activities regarding the risks and benefits of science and technology (S&T) is growing, especially in the industrialized world. However, public engagement in the developing world regarding S&T risks and benefits to explore health issues has not been widely explored. Methods This paper gives an overview about public engagement and related concepts, with a particular focus on challenges and benefits in the developing world. We then describe an Internet-based platform, which seeks to both inform and engage youth and the broader public on global water issues and their health impacts. Finally, we outline a possible course for future action to scale up this and similar online public engagement platforms. Results The benefits of public engagement include creating an informed citizenry, generating new ideas from the public, increasing the chances of research being adopted, increasing public trust, and answering ethical research questions. Public engagement also fosters global communication, enables shared experiences and methodology, standardizes strategy, and generates global viewpoints. This is especially pertinent to the developing world, as it encourages previously marginalized populations to participate on a global stage. One of the core issues at stake in public engagement is global governance of science and technology. Also, beyond benefiting society at large, public engagement in science offers benefits to the scientific enterprise itself. Conclusion Successful public engagement with developing world stakeholders will be a critical part of implementing new services and technologies. Interactive engagement platforms, such as the Internet, have the potential to unite people globally around relevant health issues.

Cohen Emma RM; Masum Hassan; Berndtson Kathryn; Saunders Vicki; Hadfield Tom; Panjwani Dilzayn; Persad Deepa L; Minhas Gunjeet S; Daar Abdallah S; Singh Jerome A; Singer Peter A

2008-01-01

51

REGULATORY CHALLENGES IN GLOBAL PHARMACEUTICAL MARKET  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The global pharmaceutical industry “looks like the epitome of a modern, mature industry that has found a comfortable way to make profits by the billion: it’s global, hi-tech, and has the ultimate customer, the health care budget of the world’s richest countries. A number of factors contributed to the globalization of the pharmaceutical industry. Chief among these are the convergence of medical science and practice under the influence of modern communication technology and increased and information exchange. The global success of the Swiss pharmaceutical industry is only due to the high level of investment in research and development and the other fact is the favorable regulatory frame work. For the development of a new drug and generics pharmaceutical company have to face number of regulatory challenges such as bioequivalence, patent expiry, newer antibiotics ,and the complexity involved in the regulated market etc. Regulatory processes are also undergoing international harmonization. As international market becomes more important, pharmaceutical companies will require greater corporation among national regulators to get life saving products which will help them to market faster and reduce regulatory compliance.

Vibhu Yadav et al.

2012-01-01

52

Pandemic influenza: A global challenge for social marketing marketing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recent years have seen increased attention and concern regarding the potential for pandemic influenza, following large-scale outbreaks of swine flu and bird flu. Governments and health agencies have time to develop social marketing strategies and specific messages that have the potential to minimize fear, refute or inoculate against misinformation that the public may encounter, and enhance the likelihood of the public taking the recommended preventive and remedial actions should these become necessary. This paper presents an overview of how social marketing can be used to tackle the global challenge of pandemic influenza. The potential pandemic influenza poses a major challenge for social marketers (along with governments, health services, and businesses). There are a number of critical factors about a potential pandemic influenza that make it fundamentally different to the majority of issues to which social marketing has previously been applied. The underlying principles of social marketing are equally applicable to a global infectious disease outbreak (such as pandemic influenza). Even if the current strains do not become pandemic, social marketers should use this impetus to develop the skills and resources to address future communicable disease outbreaks. This paper applies the concepts of social marketing to a unique health issue which has the potential to become one of the largest global public health crises in history, but which can be tackled with effective global social marketing.

Sandra C. Jones; Don Iverson

2012-01-01

53

Intercultural Identities: Addressing the Global Dimension through Art Education  

Science.gov (United States)

|Recent educational policy and practice have established an extended role for all subjects in addressing children and young peoples' academic and interpersonal development, with strategies facilitating key skills and wider learning across areas of Citizenship and Personal, Social and Health education providing an integrated approach to education…

Bianchi, June

2011-01-01

54

Global immunization: status, progress, challenges and future.  

Science.gov (United States)

Vaccines have made a major contribution to public health, including the eradication of one deadly disease, small pox, and the near eradication of another, poliomyelitis.Through the introduction of new vaccines, such as those against rotavirus and pneumococcal diseases, and with further improvements in coverage, vaccination can significantly contribute to the achievement of the health-related United Nations Millennium Development Goals.The Global Immunization Vision and Strategy (GIVS) was developed by WHO and UNICEF as a framework for strengthening national immunization programmes and protect as many people as possible against more diseases by expanding the reach of immunization, including new vaccines, to every eligible person.This paper briefly reviews global progress and challenges with respect to public vaccination programmes.The most striking recent achievement has been that of reduction of global measles mortality from an estimated 750,000 deaths in 2000 down to 197,000 in 2007. Global vaccination coverage trends continued to be positive. In 2007 most regions reached more than 80% of their target populations with three doses of DPT containing vaccines. However, the coverage remains well short of the 2010 goal on 90% coverage, particularly in the WHO region of Africa (estimated coverage 74%), and South-East Asia, (estimated coverage 69%). Elements that have contributed to the gain in immunization coverage include national multi-year planning, district-level planning and monitoring, re-establishment of outreach services and the establishment of national budget lines for immunization services strengthening.Remaining challenges include the need to: develop and implement strategies for reaching the difficult to reach; support evidence-based decisions to prioritize new vaccines for introduction; strengthening immunization systems to deliver new vaccines; expand vaccination to include older age groups; scale up vaccine preventable disease surveillance; improve quality of immunization coverage monitoring and use the data to improve programme performance; and explore financing options for reaching the GIVS goals, particularly in lower-middle income countries.Although introduction of new vaccines is important,this should not be at the expense of sustaining existing immunization activities. Instead the introduction of new vaccine introduction should be viewed as an opportunity to strengthen immunization systems, increase vaccine coverage and reduce inequities of access to immunization services. PMID:19828060

Duclos, Philippe; Okwo-Bele, Jean-Marie; Gacic-Dobo, Marta; Cherian, Thomas

2009-10-14

55

Global immunization: status, progress, challenges and future.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Vaccines have made a major contribution to public health, including the eradication of one deadly disease, small pox, and the near eradication of another, poliomyelitis.Through the introduction of new vaccines, such as those against rotavirus and pneumococcal diseases, and with further improvements in coverage, vaccination can significantly contribute to the achievement of the health-related United Nations Millennium Development Goals.The Global Immunization Vision and Strategy (GIVS) was developed by WHO and UNICEF as a framework for strengthening national immunization programmes and protect as many people as possible against more diseases by expanding the reach of immunization, including new vaccines, to every eligible person.This paper briefly reviews global progress and challenges with respect to public vaccination programmes.The most striking recent achievement has been that of reduction of global measles mortality from an estimated 750,000 deaths in 2000 down to 197,000 in 2007. Global vaccination coverage trends continued to be positive. In 2007 most regions reached more than 80% of their target populations with three doses of DPT containing vaccines. However, the coverage remains well short of the 2010 goal on 90% coverage, particularly in the WHO region of Africa (estimated coverage 74%), and South-East Asia, (estimated coverage 69%). Elements that have contributed to the gain in immunization coverage include national multi-year planning, district-level planning and monitoring, re-establishment of outreach services and the establishment of national budget lines for immunization services strengthening.Remaining challenges include the need to: develop and implement strategies for reaching the difficult to reach; support evidence-based decisions to prioritize new vaccines for introduction; strengthening immunization systems to deliver new vaccines; expand vaccination to include older age groups; scale up vaccine preventable disease surveillance; improve quality of immunization coverage monitoring and use the data to improve programme performance; and explore financing options for reaching the GIVS goals, particularly in lower-middle income countries.Although introduction of new vaccines is important,this should not be at the expense of sustaining existing immunization activities. Instead the introduction of new vaccine introduction should be viewed as an opportunity to strengthen immunization systems, increase vaccine coverage and reduce inequities of access to immunization services.

Duclos P; Okwo-Bele JM; Gacic-Dobo M; Cherian T

2009-01-01

56

Global immunization: status, progress, challenges and future  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Vaccines have made a major contribution to public health, including the eradication of one deadly disease, small pox, and the near eradication of another, poliomyelitis.Through the introduction of new vaccines, such as those against rotavirus and pneumococcal diseases, and with further improvements in coverage, vaccination can significantly contribute to the achievement of the health-related United Nations Millennium Development Goals.The Global Immunization Vision and Strategy (GIVS) was developed by WHO and UNICEF as a framework for strengthening national immunization programmes and protect as many people as possible against more diseases by expanding the reach of immunization, including new vaccines, to every eligible person.This paper briefly reviews global progress and challenges with respect to public vaccination programmes. The most striking recent achievement has been that of reduction of global measles mortality from an estimated 750,000 deaths in 2000 down to 197,000 in 2007. Global vaccination coverage trends continued to be positive. In 2007 most regions reached more than 80% of their target populations with three doses of DPT containing vaccines. However, the coverage remains well short of the 2010 goal on 90% coverage, particularly in the WHO region of Africa (estimated coverage 74%), and South-East Asia, (estimated coverage 69%). Elements that have contributed to the gain in immunization coverage include national multi-year planning, district-level planning and monitoring, re-establishment of outreach services and the establishment of national budget lines for immunization services strengthening. Remaining challenges include the need to: develop and implement strategies for reaching the difficult to reach; support evidence-based decisions to prioritize new vaccines for introduction; strengthening immunization systems to deliver new vaccines; expand vaccination to include older age groups; scale up vaccine preventable disease surveillance; improve quality of immunization coverage monitoring and use the data to improve programme performance; and explore financing options for reaching the GIVS goals, particularly in lower-middle income countries. Although introduction of new vaccines is important,this should not be at the expense of sustaining existing immunization activities. Instead the introduction of new vaccine introduction should be viewed as an opportunity to strengthen immunization systems, increase vaccine coverage and reduce inequities of access to immunization services.

Philippe Duclos; Jean-Marie Okwo-Bele; Marta Gacic-Dobo; Thomas Cherian

2009-01-01

57

Addressing methodological and ethical challenges of qualitative health research on persons with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Qualitative studies of persons with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder may affect clinical practice and social policy. However, methodological and ethical challenges may present during studies of persons with these specific mental illnesses. The purpose of this paper is to increase transparency about how researchers addressed these challenges during a recent grounded theory study about engagement in primary care. As the researchers addressed the challenges, they increased understanding about persons with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. They also gained insight about the challenges of studying persons with these specific mental illnesses and about the rigor and credibility of qualitative methods.

Graor CH; Knapik GP

2013-04-01

58

The New Global Responsibilities of Engineers Create Challenges for Engineering Education  

Science.gov (United States)

Modern societies aim to solve the global challenges of the 21st century with sustainable solutions such as resource efficiency, use of renewable energy sources and recycling. Engineers are called upon to create the cutting edge technological solutions that can help to address these challenges. In developed as well as in developing countries,…

Fuchs, Willi

2012-01-01

59

World Bank: Global Challenges: Fragile States  

Science.gov (United States)

The World Bank is concerned with many parts of the developing world, but they are particularly interested in the so-called "fragile states". Loosely defined, "fragile states" are countries "facing particularly severe development challenges such as weak institutional capacity, poor governance, political instability, and frequently on-going violence or the legacy effects of past severe conflict." To provide policy makers and others with information on their work in this area, the Bank has created this website. The material on the site includes a number of slideshow features and essays that address the fight against poverty in these countries, along with "best-practices" approaches to solving some of these seemingly intractable problems. Near the bottom of the page, visitors can click on sections such as "Conflict Prevention and Reconstruction" to learn more about the Bank's work in places like the Sudan and also take a look through the tremendously helpful "Economics of Conflict" website.

60

Antimicrobial resistance: the global public health challenge  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Antimicrobial resistance is one of the biggest challenges to face global public health at the beginning of the third millennium. Antimicrobial resistance and its global spread threaten the continued effectiveness of many medicines used today to treat the sick. Antibiotic resistance is usually associated with significant morbidity, longer hospitalization, excess costs and mortality. Many factors contribute to the unnecessary use of antibiotics including the knowledge and beliefs of doctors and consumers, direct patient requests, perceptions of patient demand, culture and norms and advertisements and other promotional literature distributed by the pharmaceutical companies. Self-medication with antimicrobials is often cited as a major factor contributing to drug resistance. The microorganisms employ several mechanisms in attaining multidrug resistance such as they no longer rely on a glycoprotein cell wall; enzymatic deactivation of antibiotics, decreased cell wall permeability to antibiotics and altered target sites of antibiotic. Efflux mechanisms to remove antibiotics and increased mutation rate are some of the other important mechanism for the antimicrobial resistance. Optimal use of existing antimicrobial agents, using alternative treatment options, reducing the need for antimicrobials by increasing immunity, education of health professionals and patients, antibiotic policies and implementation of infection control measures are the strategies aimed at prevention of emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance.

Jayant D Deshpande; Mohini Joshi

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Megacities and Large Urban Complexes - WMO Role in Addressing Challenges and Opportunities  

Science.gov (United States)

Megacities and Large Urban Complexes - WMO Role in Addressing Challenges and Opportunities Deon E. Terblanche and Liisa Jalkanen dterblanche@wmo.int ljalkanen@wmo.int World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, Switzerland The 21st Century could amongst others, become known as the century in which our species has evolved from Homo sapiens to Homo urbanus. By now the urban population has surpassed the rural population and the rate of urbanization will continue at such a pace that by 2050 urban dwellers could outnumber their rural counterpart by more than two to one. Most of this growth in urban population will occur in developing countries and along coastal areas. Urbanization is to a large extent the outcome of humans seeking a better life through improved opportunities presented by high-density communities. Megacities and large urban complexes provide more job opportunities and social structures, better transport and communication links and a relative abundance of physical goods and services when compared to most rural areas. Unfortunately these urban complexes also present numerous social and environmental challenges. Urban areas differ from their surroundings by morphology, population density, and with high concentration of industrial activities, energy consumption and transport. They also pose unique challenges to atmospheric modelling and monitoring and create a multi-disciplinary spectrum of potential threats, including air pollution, which need to be addressed in an integrated way. These areas are also vulnerable to the changing climate and its implications to sea-level and extreme events, air quality and related health impacts. Many urban activities are significantly impacted by weather events that would not be considered to be of high impact in less densely populated areas. For instance, moderate precipitation events can cause flooding and landslides as modified urban catchments generally have higher run-off to rainfall ratios than their more pristine rural counterparts. The urban environment also provides numerous opportunities. One example being the better use of weather and environmental predictions to proactively optimize the functioning of the urban environment in terms of the use of energy, goods and services. Another is the providing of air quality forecasting services to benefit the health of the population. To address the challenges and opportunities facing megacities and large urban complexes, WMO has established the Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) Urban Research Meteorology and Environment (GURME). Air pollution questions in urban areas, in particular megacities, is the main focus, building observational and modelling capabilities in developing countries through pilot projects and transfer of scientific expertise. GURME contributes to improving capabilities to handle meteorological and related features of air pollution by addressing end-to-end aspects of air quality, linking observational capabilities with the needs of chemical weather prediction, with the goal of providing high quality air quality services. Using examples from around the world but with specific reference to Africa, the unique challenges and opportunities related to megacities and large urban complexes, as perceived by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) are highlighted.

Terblanche, Deon; Jalkanen, Liisa

2013-04-01

62

Workshop Builds Strategies to Address Global Positioning System Vulnerabilities  

Science.gov (United States)

When we examine the impacts of space weather on society, do we really understand the risks? Can past experiences reliably predict what will happen in the future? As the complexity of technology increases, there is the potential for it to become more fragile, allowing for a single point of failure to bring down the entire system. Take the Global Positioning System (GPS) as an example. GPS positioning, navigation, and timing have become an integral part of daily life, supporting transportation and communications systems vital to the aviation, merchant marine, cargo, cellular phone, surveying, and oil exploration industries. Everyday activities such as banking, mobile phone operations, and even the control of power grids are facilitated by the accurate timing provided by GPS. Understanding the risks of space weather to GPS and the many economic sectors reliant upon it, as well as how to build resilience, was the focus of a policy workshop organized by the American Meteorological Society (AMS) and held on 13-14 October 2010 in Washington, D. C. The workshop brought together a select group of policy makers, space weather scientists, and GPS experts and users.

Fisher, Genene

2011-01-01

63

Biological approaches for addressing the grand challenge of providing access to clean drinking water.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The U.S. National Academy of Engineering (NAE) recently published a document presenting "Grand Challenges for Engineering". This list was proposed by leading engineers and scientists from around the world at the request of the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF). Fourteen topics were selected for these grand challenges, and at least seven can be addressed using the tools and methods of biological engineering. Here we describe how biological engineers can address the challenge of providing access to clean drinking water. This issue must be addressed in part by removing or inactivating microbial and chemical contaminants in order to properly deliver water safe for human consumption. Despite many advances in technologies this challenge is expanding due to increased pressure on fresh water supplies and to new opportunities for growth of potentially pathogenic organisms.

Riley MR; Gerba CP; Elimelech M

2011-01-01

64

Biological approaches for addressing the grand challenge of providing access to clean drinking water  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract The U.S. National Academy of Engineering (NAE) recently published a document presenting "Grand Challenges for Engineering". This list was proposed by leading engineers and scientists from around the world at the request of the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF). Fourteen topics were selected for these grand challenges, and at least seven can be addressed using the tools and methods of biological engineering. Here we describe how biological engineers can address the challenge of providing access to clean drinking water. This issue must be addressed in part by removing or inactivating microbial and chemical contaminants in order to properly deliver water safe for human consumption. Despite many advances in technologies this challenge is expanding due to increased pressure on fresh water supplies and to new opportunities for growth of potentially pathogenic organisms.

Riley Mark R; Gerba Charles P; Elimelech Menachem

2011-01-01

65

What Challenges are Boys Facing, and What Opportunities Exist to Address Those Challenges. Initial Findings Brief.  

Science.gov (United States)

This brief sets aside the debate to present research-based information about the strengths that make boys likely to succeed and the risks, or challenges, that increase the likelihood that they will struggle. It does not make an effort to compare boys to g...

2007-01-01

66

The Cloud Adoption Toolkit: Addressing the Challenges of Cloud Adoption in Enterprise  

CERN Multimedia

Cloud computing promises a radical shift in the provisioning of computing resource within enterprise. This paper: i) describes the challenges that decision-makers face when attempting to determine the feasibility of the adoption of cloud computing in their organisations; ii) illustrates a lack of existing work to address the feasibility challenges of cloud adoption in enterprise; iii) introduces the Cloud Adoption Toolkit that provides a framework to support decision-makers in identifying their concerns, and matching these concerns to appropriate tools/techniques that can be used to address them. The paper adopts a position paper methodology such that case study evidence is provided, where available, to support claims. We conclude that the Cloud Adoption Toolkit, whilst still under development, shows signs that it is a useful tool for decision-makers as it helps address the feasibility challenges of cloud adoption in enterprise.

Greenwood, David; Smith, James; Sommerville, Ian

2010-01-01

67

Ethical challenges of the globalization process  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Whereas roots of globalization are far reaching, it is primarily a modern age phenomenon. Modern business operation and the world economy are characterized by domination of multinational corporations, strong presence of the government in economy and the long-term tendency towards globalization in manufacturing, trading and consumption in the world. Containing both risks and opportunities, globalization is a problem of manifold nature. For some it means regression and falling into “neocolonialism”, the others glorify it. It is logical to ask the following questions: What are the consequences of globalization for governments, nations, companies and individuals? What are the business, social and ethical issues it causes? In one word, is it possible to be ethical, to avoid and correct “bad” and keep “good” consequences of total phenomena as the globalization, and whether it is rewarding in the increasing market competition?

Branko Balj; Radenko Maric

2009-01-01

68

Exploring social recommenders for teacher networks to address challenges of starting teachers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Fazeli, S., Brouns, F., Drachsler, H., & Sloep, P. B. (2012). Exploring social recommenders for teacher networks to address challenges of starting teachers. In V. Hodgson, C. Jones, M. de Laat, D. McConnell, T. Ryberg, & P. Sloep (Eds.), Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Networke...

Fazeli, Soude; Brouns, Francis; Drachsler, Hendrik; Sloep, Peter

69

Exploring social recommenders for teacher networks to address challenges of starting teachers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Fazeli, S., Drachsler, H., Brouns, F., & Sloep, P. B. (2012, 4 April). Exploring social recommenders for teacher networks to address challenges of starting teachers. Presentation at the Eighth International Conference on Networked Learning 2012, Maastricht, The Netherlands. , The lack of a proper induc...

Fazeli, Soude; Drachsler, Hendrik; Brouns, Francis; Sloep, Peter

70

Canada and global warming: Meeting the challenge  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It is now internationally recognized that, as a consequence of growing human population and accelerating development, concentrations of green house gases in the atmosphere are increasing. This document discusses Canada's contribution to the global warming problem; the impacts of global warming on Canada; a national strategy to effect change; and the role of the Government of Canada, Atlantic Canada, Central Canada, Western Canada, and Canada's North in effecting change. It also provides a list of contacts.

1992-01-01

71

An Evaluation of Global Address Space Languages: Co-Array Fortran and Unified Parallel C  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Co-array Fortran (CAF) and Unified Parallel C (UPC) are two emerging languages for single-program, multiple-data global address space programming. These languages boost programmer productivity by providing shared variables for communication instead of message passing. However, the performance of these emerging languages still has room for improvement. In this paper, we study the performance of variants of the NAS MG, CG, SP, and BT benchmarks on several modern cluster architectures to identify challenges that must be met to deliver top performance. We compare CAF and UPC variants of these programs with the original Fortran+MPI code. Today, CAF and UPC programs deliver scalable performance on clusters only when written to use bulk communication. However, our experiments uncovered some significant performance bottlenecks limiting UPC performance on all platforms. We account for the root causes of these performance anomalies and show that they can be remedied with additional compiler improvements, in particular we show that many of these obstacles can be resolved with adequate optimizations by the backend C compilers.

Coarfa, Cristian; Dotsenko, Yuri; Mellor-Crummey, John M.; Cantonnet, Franois; El-Ghazawi, Tarek; Mohanti, Ashrujit; Yao, Yiyi; Chavarría-Miranda, Daniel

2005-06-10

72

The role and challenges of the food industry in addressing chronic disease  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Summary Increasingly, food companies play an important role in stemming the rising burden of nutrition-related chronic diseases. Concrete actions taken by these companies include global public commitments to address food reformulation, consumer information, responsible marketing, promotion of healthy lifestyles, and public-private partnerships. These actions are reviewed together with eleven specific PepsiCo goals and commitments that address products, the marketplace, and communities at large. Interim progress on these goals and commitments are discussed as well as constraints hampering faster progress. Further disease prevention depends on increasing implementation of private-public initiatives.

Yach Derek; Khan Mehmood; Bradley Dondeena; Hargrove Rob; Kehoe Stephen; Mensah George

2010-01-01

73

Architectures for Global Climate Technology Governance: Options and Challenges  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper focuses on the global governance challenges posed by the need to enhance climate technology development and diffusion worldwide. As many analysts highlyight, climate technology, development and deployment is a core element in order to achieve effective global climate change mitigation in the context of international efforts under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).

Carlino, H. [Universidad CAECE, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Chidiak, M. [University of Buenos Aires (Argenina). Economics Faculty; Perczyk, D. [Centre for Global Environmental Change Buenos Aires (Argentina). Instituto Di Tella

2008-09-30

74

GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE--THE TECHNOLOGY CHALLENGE  

Science.gov (United States)

Anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide, have led to increasing atmospheric concentrations which are at least partly responsible for the roughly 0.7% degree C global warming earth has experienced since the industrial revolution. With industrial activit...

75

DIRECTIONS AND CHALLENGES IN GLOBAL AGRICULTURE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The development of global agricultural market has been at the forefront of professional studies. Expert opinions have quite differing views as to whether the world’s food production will be able to supply the huge demand of growing population. This scientific paper provides a general overview of global agricultural directions, including views on whether agricultural productivity increases will be able to keep with food demand increases and price trends. The scientific paper has focused on the present state of the agricultural market and on the analysis of the key factors defining the tasks of the agricultural sector in the near future, with a special attention to the case of Republic of Moldova.

Daniela POPA

2013-01-01

76

Global warming and agriculture: meeting the challenge  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The nature of global warming, its causes, effects, significance for Canada, and actions to reduce the threat are discussed. Throughout, the emphasis is on what global warming means to agriculture. Among the potential impacts on agriculture are mentioned the need to consider changes in farming practices such as reduced tillage, covercrops, shelterbelt planting, all of which store carbon rather than emit it into the air. Fuel conservation by limiting the number and intensity of field operations, careful fertilizer management techniques, improved range management and manure handling, greater emphasis on biofuels, and the evolving concept of emissions trading, are also described briefly. Future fact sheets are expected to explore the Kyoto Protocol, its significance to agriculture and how agriculture can most effectively help Canada meet its Protocol-related obligations. 6 refs.

NONE

2000-11-01

77

EUROPEAN UNION AND THE CHALLENGES OF GLOBALIZATION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper analyzes the current implications of globalization on the European Union. While the EU recorded significant successes mainly in the filed of integration and enlargement, the implications of globalization seem rather worrisome. The EU – 15 member countries are facing increased competition from both developed countries and emerging countries like China and India and this fact determines a need for reflection upon the European integration model. Until a solution is found, some companies and countries are tempted to apply protectionist measures which can not be effective in the long run. Looking at the structural causes of the current EU lack of competitivity the paper proposes a solution based on accepting and capitalizing on European diversity.

Florin Bonciu

2006-01-01

78

Challenges to Born Global SMEs : A study on overcoming the challenges that are faced by born global SMEs  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Purpose: The purpose of the study is to explore the challenges that are faced by born global SMEs and how they overcome these challenges. Method: For literature review and secondary research, data and information has been gathered from disciplines of international entrepreneurship. Primary research ...

Hamza, Aziz; Zulfiqar, Salman

79

Understanding the challenges of global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The evolution of the threat of global warming and the chronology of the last half century of efforts to prevent it from overwhelming humanity is chronicled. It was in the 1970s when it was first realized that the cumulative total of atmospheric carbon dioxide from fossil fuel burning had been steadily rising from the pre-industrial 280 ppmv (parts per million by volume) to 325 ppmv, approximately parallel with the rise of industrialization. Nevertheless, the first attempt at a global accord to reduce emissions was not made until 1992, when the Rio de Janeiro Earth Summit tried, but miserably failed to reach agreement, having been prevented from achieving anything of substance by a loose-knit group of nations and commercial interests. Binding agreements were finally reached at the next scheduled international meeting in Kyoto, Japan, in 1997. There is a detailed discussion of the Kyoto Protocols, the measures that Annex One nations such as Canada have to do to achieve the six per cent reductions targets below 1990 levels of emissions by 2010, and estimates of the costs involved. These discussions of proposed actions are balanced by a display of examples of the the growing volume of arguments advanced by opponents who not only disagree about what can be done to reduce emissions, but that there is anything that needs to be done at all. Central to their arguments is the denial that human activities are responsible for global warming, disregarding the overwhelming evidence by 3000+ leading scientists of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change that most of the global warming over the last 50 years is attributable to human activities. The rest of the article details what can and needs to be done to reverse the cumulative impact of greenhouse gas emissions, how we can produce the energy we need at the lowest environmental cost, and the types of energy (solar, wind, biomass, natural gas) that result in the smallest GHG emissions. Familiar arguments are recited to demonstrate the urgent need to move away from fossil fuels towards low emission and renewable sources, accompanied by examples of the Scandinavian experience to show that it is possible to enjoy a lifestyle similar to North American standards while reducing total average emissions to about six tonnes per person per year compared to the Canadian average of 16 tonnes per person per year. 2 tabs

2003-01-01

80

Canada and global warming: Meeting the challenge  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Canada accounts for ca 2% of total world emissions of greenhouse gases. Carbon dioxide emissions are by far the largest greenhouse gas source in Canada, primarily from energy consumption. On a per capita basis, Canada ranks second among industrialized countries in terms of energy related carbon dioxide emissions. Canada's northern geography and climate, its export-oriented economy with energy-intensive resource industries, and its relatively small population dispersed over a wide land mass contribute to this high per-capita value. The effects of global warming induced by greenhouse gases are outlined, including a reduction in water supplies, droughts affecting agriculture and forestry, and large-scale thawing of permafrost. A national strategy to respond to global warming has been developed which includes limiting and reducing greenhouse gas emissions, preparing for potential climatic changes, and improving scientific understanding and predictive capabilities with respect to climate change. Details of this strategy are outlined, including provincial and territorial strategies in partnership with the national strategy. 11 figs., 2 tabs.

1991-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Canada and global warming: Meeting the challenge  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Canada accounts for ca 2% of total world emissions of greenhouse gases. Carbon dioxide emissions are by far the largest greenhouse gas source in Canada, primarily from energy consumption. On a per capita basis, Canada ranks second among industrialized countries in terms of energy related carbon dioxide emissions. Canada's northern geography and climate, its export-oriented economy with energy-intensive resource industries, and its relatively small population dispersed over a wide land mass contribute to this high per-capita value. The effects of global warming induced by greenhouse gases are outlined, including a reduction in water supplies, droughts affecting agriculture and forestry, and large-scale thawing of permafrost. A national strategy to respond to global warming has been developed which includes limiting and reducing greenhouse gas emissions, preparing for potential climatic changes, and improving scientific understanding and predictive capabilities with respect to climate change. Details of this strategy are outlined, including provincial and territorial strategies in partnership with the national strategy. 11 figs., 2 tabs

1991-01-01

82

Researching gender: the challenge of global diversity today  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The text of this paper is based on a lecture given at the symposium of the Ghent African Platform “Researching Gender in/on Africa” at Ghent University in December 2009. It addresses some general challenges faced by ‘gender studies’ as an autonomous field versus ‘gender research’ as an integrated topic within mainstream disciplines in academia. Gender studies have sometimes superseded ‘women’s studies’ and expanded to cover the terrain of study of various forms of diversity including men’s and transgender studies. We will show that the ‘mainstreaming’ of gender in public policy at local, national and transnational levels is a development which may potentially lead to the loss of a – feminist – political edge. Secondly, while gender studies with their emphasis on socially constructed gender as opposed to biological essentialist understandings of ‘sex’ appear to face the challenge of a popular ‘new biological determinism’, it is shown that the binary model of sex/gender in fact has been criticised for some time now from within feminist theory and gender research. This is (selectively) illustrated with research from four disciplines, including the work of African gender studies scholars, i.e. feminist philosophy, social sciences (in particularsocio-cultural anthropology), history and biology itself. This then shows how the accusation that gender studies would be ‘socially deterministic’ without attending to bodily matters or materiality is unfounded. Finally, it is argued that there is still a need for gender studies to become more culturally diverse, more global and transnational in its outlook, by becoming more deeply attuned to the way gender intersects with other forms of difference and taking into account postcolonial critiques of western feminist paternalism, without falling into the trap of cultural relativism.

Longman, Chia

2010-01-01

83

A Novel Addressing Scheme for PMIPv6 Based Global IP-WSNs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available IP based Wireless Sensor Networks (IP-WSNs) are being used in healthcare, home automation, industrial control and agricultural monitoring. In most of these applications global addressing of individual IP-WSN nodes and layer-three routing for mobility enabled IP-WSN with special attention to reliability, energy efficiency and end to end delay minimization are a few of the major issues to be addressed. Most of the routing protocols in WSN are based on layer-two approaches. For reliability and end to end communication enhancement the necessity of layer-three routing for IP-WSNs is generating significant attention among the research community, but due to the hurdle of maintaining routing state and other communication overhead, it was not possible to introduce a layer-three routing protocol for IP-WSNs. To address this issue we propose in this paper a global addressing scheme and layer-three based hierarchical routing protocol. The proposed addressing and routing approach focuses on all the above mentioned issues. Simulation results show that the proposed addressing and routing approach significantly enhances the reliability, energy efficiency and end to end delay minimization. We also present architecture, message formats and different routing scenarios in this paper.

Md. Motaharul Islam; Eui-Nam Huh

2011-01-01

84

A novel addressing scheme for PMIPv6 based global IP-WSNs.  

Science.gov (United States)

IP based Wireless Sensor Networks (IP-WSNs) are being used in healthcare, home automation, industrial control and agricultural monitoring. In most of these applications global addressing of individual IP-WSN nodes and layer-three routing for mobility enabled IP-WSN with special attention to reliability, energy efficiency and end to end delay minimization are a few of the major issues to be addressed. Most of the routing protocols in WSN are based on layer-two approaches. For reliability and end to end communication enhancement the necessity of layer-three routing for IP-WSNs is generating significant attention among the research community, but due to the hurdle of maintaining routing state and other communication overhead, it was not possible to introduce a layer-three routing protocol for IP-WSNs. To address this issue we propose in this paper a global addressing scheme and layer-three based hierarchical routing protocol. The proposed addressing and routing approach focuses on all the above mentioned issues. Simulation results show that the proposed addressing and routing approach significantly enhances the reliability, energy efficiency and end to end delay minimization. We also present architecture, message formats and different routing scenarios in this paper. PMID:22164084

Islam, Md Motaharul; Huh, Eui-Nam

2011-08-29

85

A novel addressing scheme for PMIPv6 based global IP-WSNs.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

IP based Wireless Sensor Networks (IP-WSNs) are being used in healthcare, home automation, industrial control and agricultural monitoring. In most of these applications global addressing of individual IP-WSN nodes and layer-three routing for mobility enabled IP-WSN with special attention to reliability, energy efficiency and end to end delay minimization are a few of the major issues to be addressed. Most of the routing protocols in WSN are based on layer-two approaches. For reliability and end to end communication enhancement the necessity of layer-three routing for IP-WSNs is generating significant attention among the research community, but due to the hurdle of maintaining routing state and other communication overhead, it was not possible to introduce a layer-three routing protocol for IP-WSNs. To address this issue we propose in this paper a global addressing scheme and layer-three based hierarchical routing protocol. The proposed addressing and routing approach focuses on all the above mentioned issues. Simulation results show that the proposed addressing and routing approach significantly enhances the reliability, energy efficiency and end to end delay minimization. We also present architecture, message formats and different routing scenarios in this paper.

Islam MM; Huh EN

2011-01-01

86

Proposal for Modi?cations to the OSCAR Architecture to Address Challenges in Distributed System Management  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

OSCAR, a tool for the deployment and the management of clusters, has historically provided a simple Graphical User Interface (GUI) that aims to hide technical details associated with the management of such distributed platforms. The OSCAR GUI followed a fairly monolithic architecture, which was difficult to extend. Thankfully, OSCAR developers have made deep modifications to the overall OSCAR architecture to be much more modular, and as a result it is fairly simple to support OSCAR on new Linux distributions. However, a few questions remain. Is the present OSCAR architecture suitable to address current challenges needed for the management of distributed systems? For instance, is OSCAR providing a tool set that answers the needs of system administrators? This document presents a criticism of the present OSCAR architecture in order to identify current challenges related to distributed system management. Based on this analysis, we propose a modified version of the OSCAR architecture that emphasizes simplicity and incremental enhancements.

Vallee, Geoffroy R [ORNL; Naughton, III, Thomas J [ORNL; Scott, Stephen L [ORNL

2008-01-01

87

Symposium on international safeguards: Addressing verification challenges. Book of extended synopses  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A safeguards symposium has traditionally been organized by the Safeguards Department approximately every four years. The 2006 symposium addresses challenges to IAEA safeguards that have emerged or grown more serious since 2001. The increase in size and flexibility of uranium enrichment plants, for instance, and the spread of enrichment technology to a wider circle of States, pose challenges to traditional safeguards approaches. The procurement and supply networks discovered in 2004, dealing in sensitive nuclear technology and information, have serious implications for the future effectiveness of IAEA safeguards. The symposium will provide an opportunity for the IAEA and Member States to discuss options for dealing constructively with trade in sensitive nuclear technology. Reflecting developments since 2001, the 2006 symposium will focus on current challenges to the safeguards system, improving collection and analysis of safeguards information (analysis, processing tools, satellite imagery), advances in safeguards techniques and technology (future technology, neutron techniques, spent fuel verification, reprocessing, environmental sampling, containment and surveillance), further strengthening safeguards practices and approaches (safeguards approaches, integrated safeguards, R/SSAC, destructive analysis, non-destructive analysis, enrichment, reprocessing, spent fuel transfer) and future challenges. This publication contains 183 extended synopses, each of them was indexed separately

2006-01-01

88

[Overcoming the global impact of neglected tropical diseases and challenges].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The global impact of neglected tropical diseases has been much more recognized recently. The elimination and eradication of these diseases is significant for achieving the millennium development goals, for societies and for global healthcare. WHO already drew the roadmap to accelerate the work on eliminating and eradicating the selected diseases for 2015 and 2020 respectively. The present review demonstrates the current situation and progress of controlling these neglected tropical diseases and the challenges faced, and emphasizes the action of China.

Guo JG; Xu XL; Zhu R

2013-04-01

89

The Challenge Of Strategic Management In Global Competition  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The role of strategic leadership in the 21st century's global economy is complex,challenging, and filled with competitive opportunities and threats. Globalizationcontinues to affect organizations at different levels. Strategic leaders in organizationsrequire a more diverse range of quality to effectively tackle emerging global challengessuch as free flow of capital and labor, changing technologies and cultural dynamics.Further, global effects are not confined to global organizations. When strategicleadership processes are difficult for competitors to understand and, hence, to imitate,the firm has created a competitive advantage.This study integrates essential strategic leader characteristics necessary to effectivelymanage globalization and steer the organization towards better strategic focus withrespect to environmental confusion.

Madhavi Sadashiv Patgaonkar

2012-01-01

90

Poverty and the Multiple Stakeholder Challenge for Global Leaders  

Science.gov (United States)

|The article presents a case study in which business leaders deal with challenging problems related to poverty, involving multiple stakeholders. This emphasizes the importance of training prospective global leaders to manage stakeholder relationships and engage in stakeholder dialogue. The authors highlight the stakeholder role played by…

Reade, Carol; Todd, Anne Marie; Osland, Asbjorn; Osland, Joyce

2008-01-01

91

Poverty and the Multiple Stakeholder Challenge for Global Leaders  

Science.gov (United States)

The article presents a case study in which business leaders deal with challenging problems related to poverty, involving multiple stakeholders. This emphasizes the importance of training prospective global leaders to manage stakeholder relationships and engage in stakeholder dialogue. The authors highlight the stakeholder role played by…

Reade, Carol; Todd, Anne Marie; Osland, Asbjorn; Osland, Joyce

2008-01-01

92

Ergonomics and sustainability – challenges from global supply chains  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The development of globalised supply chains is a major challenge for sustainability. For several years, there has been discussion within the profession whether and how ergonomics and human factors can play a role. Based on our research, we have identified five major challenges from global supply chains especially related to the social aspects of sustainability: (1) criteria for social sustainability, (2) the role of key performance indicators in the management of supply chains, (3) the constant changes in supply chains, (4) the challenge in establishing participation, and (5) the development of agency and regulatory mechanisms. There are obviously no clear and simple solutions to these challenges. One possible avenue for progress might lie in acquiring a greater understanding of the challenges from global supply chains and developing a strategy which combines social and long-term business sustainability. Starting from such a basis, the next step would be to find ways for the ergonomics and human factors community to create international collaboration which can impact specific global supply chains.

Hasle, Peter; Jensen, Per Langaa

2012-01-01

93

City leadership: At the heart of the global challenge  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The world's attention is now focused on cities, and for good reasons. From a global perspective cities have become the engines of economic prosperity. In 2007, the collective Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of the top 10 cities exceeded the total GDP of 162 countries combined, with Tokyo alone generating a larger GDP than Canada. Cities have become the centers of population. In 1900, only 10% of the world's population lived in cities, but by 2007 the urban population had reached 50%, and the estimate for 2050 is that 75% of the world's population, over 7 billion people, will be living in cities. In parallel, cities have become the centers of consumption. In 2006, cities accounted for approximately 67% of global primary energy demand, a concentration that is expected to rise to 75% by 2030. The corollary to this concentration of population and consumption is the concentration of activities that lead to climate change. Cities now acount for over 70% of global carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions. Asia's cities are at the forefront of the global challenges of urbanization. While they are the location of many challenges, cities also present opportunities, particularly in finding solutions to the crucial global challenges of our time -- climate change, energy demand and water. Many of the world's greatest challenges, from environmental degradation to widening income gaps, are increasingly coming to be defined as urban challenges, given the rapid growth of cities. The author, who leads the World Economic Forum's SlimCity initiative, take a look at the options being explored by the public and private sectors.

Oliver, P.A.

2008-09-30

94

Rising to the Challenge: U.S. Innovation Policy for the Global Economy  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This volume draws together our findings from this extensive study while also drawing upon existing research concerning the global competitiveness challenge and the policies and programs that drive it. The report is in two parts. Part I describes the role of innovation in addressing the competitiveness challenge and highlights key policies and programs that leading nations and regions are undertaking to address this challenge. Part I concludes with the Committee’s consensus findings and recommendations. Part II of this report provides supporting data, including in-depth case studies of policies and programs being promulgated in leading nations and regions of the world to accelerate innovation, grow new industries, and foster knowledge-based economic growth. The Overview at the front of this volume draws together the key points.

95

Nation state and the challenge of globalization: Project draft  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This project draft discusses the issues facing a nation state in the dynamic processes of globalization. First, the term globalization is tentatively defined as a decentralized process of condensation and homogenization of space and time. Then, the ambivalent structure of the globalization discourse, i.e. its semantic and pragmatic dimensions, are shown. The neo-liberal viewpoint is explored of the erosion and weakening of the nation state within the global capitalist power, both in terms of its (state's) traditional functions, and in terms of its internal and external sovereignty. Against the neo-liberal thesis about the decline of the nation state many empirical arguments have been offered. Some of these are presented in this text. The main point of this argumentation consists in a general view that the decline of the nation state is strongly linked with the process of globalization. In view of the critical argumentation included in the paper, it is argued that in the environment of global processes only the societies which have a strong state behind them have a chance to succeed. Politics, not economy, still dominates international relations. Emphasis on state politics opens a new perspective in discussing the process of globalization. Current globalization processes cannot be judged accurately unless geopolitical interests and the changing balance of world power are understood. Finally, the paper points to the ideological nature of the neo-liberal discourse of globalization, questioning another basic assumption of the latter, namely, the idea that the process of globalization is at the same time a process of emancipation. By challenging the positing of a necessary link between globalization and emancipation we formulate a position that allows for a normative critique of current processes.

Obrenovi? Zoran G.

2002-01-01

96

Energy Sustainability: A Key Toto Addressing Environmental, Economic and Societal Challenges  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sustainability is a critically important goal for human activity and development, particularly in the area of energy. Energy resources are critical for economic development and living standards, but their use causes significant environmental impacts. Given the pervasiveness of energy use, energy sustainability is a key to addressing environmental, economic and societal challenges. To achieve energy sustainability, many factors that need to be including harnessing sustainable energy sources, utilizing sustainable energy carriers, increasing efficiency, reducing environmental impact and improving socioeconomic acceptability (e.g., community involvement, affordability, equity and land use). To demonstrate the factors and their importance to energy sustainability, the Red-Mediterranean-Dead Seas Canal Project is considered as a case study. Conclusions are provided related both to steps for energy sustainability.

Marc A. Rosen; Yousef Nazzal

2013-01-01

97

Addressing the terawatt challenge : Scalability in the supply of chemical elements for renewable energy  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The energy infrastructure for fossil fuels is well-established, accounting for approximately 87% of the 16 TW of power consumed globally. For renewable and sustainable energy conversion technologies to play a relevant role at the terrestrial scale, they must be able to scale to the TW level of deployment. This would place a significant demand on the current and future supply of raw materials (chemical elements) used by those technologies. Oftentimes, the average crustal abundance of a chemical element is cited as a measure of its scalability, however another important metric for scalability is the existence (of lack thereof) of mineable ores with a high concentration of the targeted element. This paper aims to provide an overview of the availability of all elements. This is accomplished via a compilation of data for global primary production rates for each element, as a measure of availability at the present time. This work also addresses the potential future availability based on current and possible future primary sources.

Vesborg, Peter C. K.; Jaramillo, Thomas F.

2012-01-01

98

Re-thinking wastewater landscapes: combining innovative strategies to address tomorrow's urban wastewater treatment challenges.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Most major cities worldwide face urban water management challenges relating to drinking supply, stormwater and wastewater treatment, and ecological preservation. In light of climate change and finite natural resources, addressing these challenges in sustainable ways will require innovative solutions arising from interdisciplinary collaboration. This article summarizes five major urban water management strategies that bridge the fields of engineering, ecology, landscape architecture, and urban planning. A conceptual implementation of these strategies is demonstrated through a design for a small constructed wetland treatment system in San Francisco, California. The proposed decentralized system described in this article consists of a detention basin, vegetated and open free water surface wetlands, and ultraviolet disinfection. In wet weather, the system would detain and treat combined sewer discharges (CSD), and in dry weather it would treat residential greywater for toilet flushing and irrigation in a nearby neighborhood. It is designed to adapt over time to changing climatic conditions and treatment demands. Importantly, this proposal demonstrates how constructed wetland engineers can incorporate multiple benefits into their systems, offering a vision of how wastewater infrastructure can be an attractive community, educational, recreational, and habitat amenity through the integration of engineering, ecology, and landscape design.

Smith BR

2009-01-01

99

Coach strategies for addressing psychosocial challenges during the return to sport from injury.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The purpose of this study was to examine coach strategies for addressing athletes' psychosocial challenges in returning to sport following injury rehabilitation. Qualitative interviews with eight elite coaches from the Western Australian Institute of Sport (WAIS) in Perth, Australia revealed that coaches facilitated athletes' return to sport from injury through a variety of means, but did not typically provide systematic forms of assistance. Coaches commented that the idiosyncratic nature of the injury experience meant that they needed to apply strategies consistent with athletes' particular psychosocial needs. Such strategies included: (a) coordination of a "team approach" to rehabilitation; (b) fostering open communication with athletes and treatment team members; (c) social support; (d) positive thinking and goal setting; and (e) role models. Analysis of these strategies revealed that coaches attempted to address competence, autonomy, and relatedness needs in facilitating athletes' return from injury. These findings suggest that self-determination theory may be a valuable approach for examining coach forms of assistance regarding athletes' return to competition following injury. Findings are discussed in relation to injury literature and self-determination theory. Suggestions for future research are also presented.

Podlog L; Dionigi R

2010-09-01

100

Coach strategies for addressing psychosocial challenges during the return to sport from injury.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to examine coach strategies for addressing athletes' psychosocial challenges in returning to sport following injury rehabilitation. Qualitative interviews with eight elite coaches from the Western Australian Institute of Sport (WAIS) in Perth, Australia revealed that coaches facilitated athletes' return to sport from injury through a variety of means, but did not typically provide systematic forms of assistance. Coaches commented that the idiosyncratic nature of the injury experience meant that they needed to apply strategies consistent with athletes' particular psychosocial needs. Such strategies included: (a) coordination of a "team approach" to rehabilitation; (b) fostering open communication with athletes and treatment team members; (c) social support; (d) positive thinking and goal setting; and (e) role models. Analysis of these strategies revealed that coaches attempted to address competence, autonomy, and relatedness needs in facilitating athletes' return from injury. These findings suggest that self-determination theory may be a valuable approach for examining coach forms of assistance regarding athletes' return to competition following injury. Findings are discussed in relation to injury literature and self-determination theory. Suggestions for future research are also presented. PMID:20700853

Podlog, Leslie; Dionigi, Rylee

2010-09-01

 
 
 
 
101

Challenges and opportunities in mapping land use intensity globally?  

Science.gov (United States)

Future increases in land-based production will need to focus more on sustainably intensifying existing production systems. Unfortunately, our understanding of the global patterns of land use intensity is weak, partly because land use intensity is a complex, multidimensional term, and partly because we lack appropriate datasets to assess land use intensity across broad geographic extents. Here, we review the state of the art regarding approaches for mapping land use intensity and provide a comprehensive overview of available global-scale datasets on land use intensity. We also outline major challenges and opportunities for mapping land use intensity for cropland, grazing, and forestry systems, and identify key issues for future research.

Kuemmerle, Tobias; Erb, Karlheinz; Meyfroidt, Patrick; Muller, Daniel; Verburg, Peter H; Estel, Stephan; Haberl, Helmut; Hostert, Patrick; Jepsen, Martin R.; Kastner, Thomas; Levers, Christian; Lindner, Marcus; Plutzar, Christoph; Verkerk, Pieter Johannes; van der Zanden, Emma H; Reenberg, Anette

2013-01-01

102

Methodological Challenges of Comparative Education in the Global Society  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to discuss some of the challenges that comparative education is facing in the global society, particularly due to the impact of ICT in education systems. We focus on the comparative method, still relevant in the new situation, but which should now go beyond its affinity with units of analysis such as the nation state or territory. One of the considerations in the current debate is that the state can no longer be the standard for the study of phenomena that have spread beyond territories and nations. This suggests the development of a comparative and global method that explores these transformations in the object of study. The method uses referential and also virtual units of analysis which, in certain cases, refer to the subjectivity of people or discursive sets. The comparative and global method will also have to consider the diversification of its own borders, and constantly adapt to social and personal dissonances.

Alexander López

2008-01-01

103

DEVELOPMENT, GLOBALIZATION AND ENVIRONMENT: NEW AND OLD CHALLENGES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Briefly, this article discuss the problems about the social, political and economic tendencies brought by globalization which are new, but at the same time they bring some tragedies for development. That’s why it becomes a challenge for the people to respond in an innovative way, which may not always come true, but they may pave the way for the discussion about the tragedies of development, now called globalization. It is the case of the environment, which is analyzed in this article. The conclusion is not that optimistic, although it shows that the development of globalization is a double-edged sword that is under the criticism of our modern history.

Vinicius Ortiz de Camargo

2006-01-01

104

Enabling a Highly-Scalable Global Address Space Model for Petascale Computing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Over the past decade, the trajectory to the petascale has been built on increased complexity and scale of the underlying parallel architectures. Meanwhile, software de- velopers have struggled to provide tools that maintain the productivity of computational science teams using these new systems. In this regard, Global Address Space (GAS) programming models provide a straightforward and easy to use addressing model, which can lead to improved produc- tivity. However, the scalability of GAS depends directly on the design and implementation of the runtime system on the target petascale distributed-memory architecture. In this paper, we describe the design, implementation, and optimization of the Aggregate Remote Memory Copy Interface (ARMCI) runtime library on the Cray XT5 2.3 PetaFLOPs computer at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. We optimized our implementation with the flow intimation technique that we have introduced in this paper. Our optimized ARMCI implementation improves scalability of both the Global Arrays (GA) programming model and a real-world chemistry application NWChem from small jobs up through 180,000 cores.

Apra, Edoardo [ORNL; Vetter, Jeffrey S [ORNL; Yu, Weikuan [ORNL

2010-01-01

105

Engaging undergraduates to solve global health challenges: a new approach based on bioengineering design.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Recent reports have highlighted the need for educational programs to prepare students for careers developing and disseminating new interventions that improve global public health. Because of its multi-disciplinary, design-centered nature, the field of Biomedical Engineering can play an important role in meeting this challenge. This article describes a new program at Rice University to give undergraduate students from all disciplines a broad background in bioengineering and global health and provides an initial assessment of program impact. Working in partnership with health care providers in developing countries, students in the Beyond Traditional Borders (BTB) initiative learn about health challenges of the poor and put this knowledge to work immediately, using the engineering design process as a framework to formulate solutions to complex global health challenges. Beginning with a freshman design project and continuing through a capstone senior design course, the BTB curriculum uses challenges provided by partners in the developing world to teach students to integrate perspectives from multiple disciplines, and to develop leadership, communication, and teamwork skills. Exceptional students implement their designs under the guidance of clinicians through summer international internships. Since 2006, 333 students have designed more than 40 technologies and educational programs; 28 have been implemented in sub-Saharan Africa, Latin America, the Caribbean, southeast Asia, and the United States. More than 18,000 people have benefited from these designs. 95% of alumni who completed an international internship reported that participation in the program changed or strengthened their career plans to include a focus on global health medicine, research, and/or policy. Empowering students to use bioengineering design to address real problems is an effective way to teach the new generation of leaders needed to solve global health challenges.

Oden M; Mirabal Y; Epstein M; Richards-Kortum R

2010-09-01

106

Climate change and forest diseases: using todays knowledge to address future challenges  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The health of the earths forests and urban green spaces is increasingly challenged by the outcomes of human activities, including global climate change. As climate changes, the role and impact of diseases on trees in both forest ecosystems and in urban settings will also change. Knowledge of relationships between climate variables and diseases affecting forest and urban trees is reviewed, with specific emphasis on those affecting foliage, shoots, and stems. Evidence that forest diseases are already responding to the earths changing climate is examined (e.g., Dothistroma needle blight in northern British Columbia) as are predicted scenarios for future changes in impact on forests by other tree diseases. Outbreaks of tree diseases caused by native and alien pathogens are predicted to become more frequent and intense this and other general predictions about the effects of climate change on forest and tree diseases are discussed. Despite the uncertainty that accompanies such predictions it is imperative that researchers, forest and urban tree managers, and policy makers work together to develop and implement management strategies that enhance the resilience of the worlds forests and urbanized trees. Strategies discussed include monitoring, forecasting, planning, and mitigation. (Author) 60 refs.

Sturrock, R. N.

2012-11-01

107

Securing classification and regulatory approval for deepwater projects: management challenges in a global environment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As the offshore industry continues to develop and move into increasingly deeper waters, technological boundaries are being pushed to new limits. Along with these advances, the design, fabrication and installation of deepwater oil and gas projects has become an increasingly global endeavor. After providing an overview of the history and role of Classification Societies, this paper reviews the challenges of securing classification and regulatory approval in a global environment. Operational, procedural and technological changes which one Classification Society; the American Bureau of Shipping, known as ABS, has implemented to address these challenges are presented. The result of the changes has been a more customized service aiming at faster and more streamlined classification approval process. (author)

Feijo, Luiz P.; Burton, Gareth C. [American Bureau of Shipping (ABS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

2008-07-01

108

China confidential: methodological and ethical challenges in global nursing historiography.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

As the history of nursing as a field of scholarship expands its global consciousness, it seems timely to join other scholars of international history in rethinking conventional approaches to historiography. The lament by mission scholars at the invisibility of nurses and indigenous workers in historical mission records coincides with calls by China scholars to reconsider traditional reliance on English-language data generation and interpretation for an English-speaking audience. In a similar way, nursing scholars are challenging historians of nursing to find ways to build a body of scholarship and a cadre of scholars that can open up new linguistic and cultural space for vibrant discussion and dialogue. Drawing on Sonya Grypma's research on the role of missionary nurses in the development of modern nursing in China and based on a series of interviews by the authors in China of participants with ties to a former Canadian mission hospital, we explore methodological and ethical challenges in global nursing historiography. By offering insights gleaned from our early attempts to capture voices not included in conventional mission records, we hope to stimulate more dialogue about conceptual and structural issues central to a "new" global nursing historiography.

Grypma S; Wu N

2012-01-01

109

Global Energy Challenges of the 21. Century and Nuclear Energy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper considers the world energy demand till the middle of the century, as well as possible forecasting solution for this challenge. On the base of the mathematical model developed in the Kurchatov Institute in 2003- 2006, the vision of the global nuclear energy system and its potential contribution in the energy mix was analyzed. The rate of rapprochement between specific energy consumptions in different countries of the world is a key parameter determining the energy market strain. It was shown that a continuation of the current world trends of this rapprochement would result in an energy resource deficit already in the nearest future. The energy mix picture would contain an 'unsatisfied demand' area of about 10 000 Mtoe of total energy to be consumed by the mid-century Supposing that the mankind has to meet the 'unsatisfied demand' by nuclear energy, the global energy challenges of the 21. century energy do not impose any upper limit on nuclear energy development, the scale of which would be determined by development opportunities. Russia, as one of the pioneers of the First Nuclear Era, possesses great experience of solving the key issues of nuclear energy of the 20. century, and is capable to play an important role in dealing with the challenges faced by nuclear in the 21. century. (authors)

2008-01-01

110

17th Workshop on MHD Stability Control: addressing the disruption challenge for ITER  

Science.gov (United States)

This annual workshop on magnetohydrodynamic stability control was held on 5–7 November 2012 at Columbia University in the city of New York, in the aftermath of a violent hydrodynamic instability event termed 'Hurricane Sandy'. Despite these challenging circumstances, Columbia University managed an excellent meeting, enabling the full participation of the community. This Workshop has been held since 1996 to help in the development of understanding and control of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities for future fusion reactors. It covers a wide range of stability topics—from disruptions, to tearing modes, error fields, edge-localized modes (ELMs), resistive wall modes (RWMs) and ideal MHD—spanning many device types (tokamaks, stellarators and reversed field pinches) to identify commonalities in the physics and a means of control. The theme for 2012 was 'addressing the disruption challenge for ITER', and thus the first day had a heavy focus on both the avoidance and mitigation of disruptions in ITER. Key elements included understanding how to apply 3D fields to maintain stability, as well as managing the disruption process itself through mitigating loads in the thermal quench and handling so called 'runaway electrons'. This culminated in a panel discussion on the disruption mitigation strategy for ITER, which noted that heat load asymmetries during the thermal quench appear to be an artifact of MHD processes, and that runaway electron generation may be inevitable, suggesting research should focus on control and dissipation of the runaway beam. The workshop was combined this year with the annual US–Japan MHD Workshop, with a special section looking more deeply at 'Fundamentals of 3D Perturbed Equilibrium Control', with interesting sessions on 3D equilibrium reconstruction, RWM physics, novel control concepts such as non-magnetic sensing, adaptive control, q http://fusion.gat.com/conferences/mhd12/. The Program Committee deeply appreciates the participation and support our community continues to show in this workshop, which provides an unparalleled opportunity for in-depth discussion of MHD issues. We would also like to thank our hosts Columbia University, and in particular Professor Gerald Navratil, for outstanding support and facilities in the face of Hurricane Sandy's adversity. The meeting thanked outgoing Program Chair, Dr Richard Buttery from General Atomics, and welcomed next year's Program Chair, Professor David Maurer from Auburn University. The next meeting will be held in Santa Fe 18–20 November 2013.

Buttery, Richard

2013-08-01

111

How coal is facing the challenge of global climate change  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fossil fuels are the most abundant, cost effective and reliable fuel source in the world. Renewables will be unable to provide affordable reliable energy in significant amounts, even with major subsidies. Therefore, since coal must be utilized, a strategy for dealing with the global climate challenge must be developed in the following areas: technology transfers to developing countries; commercial introduction of clean coal technologies into industrialized countries; utilization of coal bed methane; and voluntary actions by industry. This paper discusses each of these areas from the perspective of the Coal Industry Advisory Board. 10 figs.

Scherder, D.B. [Peabody Holding Company Inc., Washington, DC (United States)

1996-12-31

112

High level radioactive waste (HLW) disposal a global challenge  

CERN Multimedia

High Level Radioactive Waste (HLW) Disposal, A Global Challenge presents the most recent information on proposed methods of disposal for the most dangerous radioactive waste and for assessing their function from short- and long-term perspectives. It discusses new aspects of the disposal of such waste, especially HLW.The book is unique in the literature in making it clear that, due to tectonics and long-term changes in rock structure, rock can serve only as a ""mechanical support to the chemical apparatus"" and that effective containment of hazardous elements can only be managed by properly des

PUSCH, R; NAKANO, M

2011-01-01

113

Global and national challenges for the energy sector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The International Energy Agency is predicting nearly 60% growth in global primary energy use over the next 20 years. This continuing growth of energy demand sets many challenges for the energy sector as well as others. In some industrialised countries like Finland, economic growth has recently been based mostly on services and light industries, e.g. manufacturing of information and communication technology, and therefore the energy intensity has been decreasing. However, in absolute terms the demand for energy is still growing steadily in Finland, especially for electricity. This increasing demand for energy will result in more and more pressures being applied to the environment. Energy production and consumption have many negative environmental impacts, and one of the largest global challenges is the mitigation of climate change. In many countries, especially in developing ones, fossil fuels remain the predominant primary energy source and the share of fossil fuels in the global primary energy mix is likely to increase and reach as much as 90% by 2020. Thus, CO{sub 2} emissions are projected to grow even faster than primary energy use. Ultimately, the curbing of global greenhouse gas emissions will fail without the participation of developing countries. These issues pose serious challenges for the design of climate change policies. Meeting the challenges related to climate change will necessitate the use of many different kinds of abatement measures. For example, a series of very extensive energy saving measures, a significant increase in the share of renewable energy sources, more advanced nuclear power technologies, and effective CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration technologies will all be needed in the near future in both developed and developing countries in order to slow down climate change. In most cases, however, the implementation of these technological measures requires some constraints or economic incentives. On the other hand, the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions opens up new possibilities and business opportunities for the energy and other sectors. In the coming decades, the depletion of conventional oil and natural gas reserves in some regions may lead to geopolitical concerns regarding the security of energy supplies and will also result in prices becoming increasingly volatile. Generally speaking, global dependence on the oil reserves of the Middle East is increasing all the time. Given today's consumption levels, the current oil reserves would last an average of about 40 years and those of natural gas about 60 years, even though these figures may increase due to the development of recovery technology and the discovery of new reserves. However, the importance of coal will probably increase in the longer term due to its much greater reserves. Europe's self-sufficiency in energy supply will decrease due to the depletion of its own fossil fuel reserves. In the case of Finland, the development of self-sufficiency depends mainly on the choice of energy source for the new electricity generating capacity. A high dependency on imported fossil fuels and potentially increasing volatility of market prices may present some risks for economies. Increased dependency on imports in Europe and especially in the USA will naturally result in growth of global energy trade movements. In the longer term, global energy trade will probably shift to secondary energy commodities like methanol or hydrogen. Deregulation of energy markets has been emerging in many countries in order to increase the efficiency of the energy sector and the competitiveness of various economies. However, there are some problems with deregulated electricity markets. These are, for example, the possibility of under-investment in electricity generating capacity, an increase in the volatility of market prices and concerns regarding the quality of electricity. The functionality of open markets will be improved by increasing real-time metering and by better designing the rules of operation. It is expected that by 2030, all ELT Member States wil

Tuhkanen, S.; Hirvonen, R.; Savolainen, I.; Honkatukia, J.

2002-07-01

114

‘One World - One Health’ and the global challenge of epidemic diseases of viral aetiology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ‘One World - One Health’ is an exciting movement to encourage wildlife, domestic animal and human health professionals to work collectively to address the world’s most challenging health concerns. It is broad in scope and truly multidisciplinary. This particular commentary on ‘One World - One Health’ is focused on ways in which individuals are forging closer collaboration and action to meet the global threat of emerging diseases caused by viruses, with particular attention being paid to those diseases that are zoonotic.

E. Paul J. Gibbs, BVSc, PhD, FRCVS; Tara C. Anderson, DVM, MPH

2009-01-01

115

Global scenarios for the energy industry: challenge and response  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Three areas of far reaching change that will affect the future of the energy industry are identified - geopolitical changes, such as the collapse of communist regimes in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union, the relative decline of economic importance of the USA and the stimulus of European Community programmes; changes and difficulties in the international economy such as disagreement over trade and foreign direct investment; and thirdly, changing attitudes towards man's impact on the natural environment. These changes suggest two different images of the future, one called 'global mercantilism' and the other 'sustainable change'. In the first, the main global challenge is to deal with decline in the hegemonic position of the USA and Japan and the instability in international markets - the energy industry here faces new rules for business; in the 'sustainable world' the main challenge is to deal with common problems with implications for the redefining of the value of clean fuels and processes as well as substantial reconstruction of the energy industry. 10 figs.

Kahane, A.

1991-01-01

116

Global challenges of changing epidemiological patterns of malaria.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the absence of secular climatic changes, the global challenges of changing epidemiological patterns of malaria have to be induced by man, i.e. by a disturbance of the equilibrium between man, vector and the parasite in an environment conducive to the natural transmission of the pathogen. There are many ways of attempting such a disturbance, from the use of personal protection to the use of diagnostic and remedial antiplasmodial treatment, up to the application of vector control measures for the elimination of breeding places, larviciding and the use of intradomestic insecticides. This will be done by looking at the parasites responsible for the specific infection, and considering the various arthropod hosts and the human hosts, before the comprehensive treatment of the environmental features. This will be followed by a section on the quantitative epidemiology. The various tools of intervention and their relative efficacy precede the section on common denominators of previously malarious countries having achieved and maintained malaria-free status. Similarly, the reasons for failing the declared goal of eliminating malaria sets the new scene for the global challenges ahead of us in the endeavour of future attempts at eliminating malaria.

Wernsdorfer WH

2012-03-01

117

Social economic and environmental challenges of global energy development  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Report to the Moscow International Energy Club `Energy and Society: New Challenges for Mankind`, and this presentation aim to invite the world community to debate the current social development problems through a system investigation of the processes going on in one of the crucial areas, supporting humanity`s existence - i.e. the energy sector of economy - with regard to the intimate inter-relationship and interdependence between energy and society. Special emphasis is placed on the inter-related development of society and energy systems with a specific focus on global and universal socio-economic problems such as: uneven socio-economic growth in different countries; substantial differences in availability of natural resources; growing population and changes in demographic structure; considerable differentiation in food supply in different countries and regions; increasing environmental degradation; aggravating ethnic conflicts; stockpiling of weaponry (including nuclear weapons), their proliferation across the world and a market contribution to the ever greater tensions in a number of regions; alterations in morality, ethics and value systems. The aggravation of these problems, the frequently menacing metamorphoses thereof can, in effect, be viewed as challenges to humanity requiring swift and non-trivial decisions, adequate responses and immediate coordinated actions on the part of the world community as a whole. Whilst being commonplace, the problems listed must be treated somewhat differently at present due to the essential uniqueness of the modern global situation and the current social processes. The essential uniqueness of the modern global situation and the current social processes. The principal parts of this paper describes the concept of energy-society relationship analysis and its applications in investigating the cross-impact loops: society-energy and energy-society. (author) 15 refs.

Gvishiani, J.M.; Livchits, V.N.; Orlova, E.R.; Smetanina, M.I.; Zimin, I.N. [Akademiya Meditsinskikh Nauk SSSR, Moscow (Russian Federation)

1995-12-31

118

GLOBAL WARMING AND CHALLENGES OF FLOODS IN LAGOS METROPOLIS, NIGERIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Global warming and extreme weather events have caused havoc to lives and property in recent years. Research and development, workshops, conferences, seminars and others have also been focused on these global phenomena. The objective of the paper is to study incidences of flooding in Lagos metropolis. Parameters of floods were studied. Effects of urbanization and living habits of the urban dwellers were studied. Topographic maps of the Metropolis were perused. Literature on climate change, urban floods, and Lagos Metropolis were read. Interviews were conducted with the urban dwellers and two Local Government Chairmen of the Metropolis. There was a questionnaire that was administered among 2,000 Lagosian. It collected data about the frequency, sizes and havoc caused for most of the time it occurred. The Metropolis is on low land with an average gradient of less than1:100,000. Run-offs are increasing in volume and areas of coverage but relatively drainage channels are inadequate; and they have been blocked through the living habits of the urban dwellers. Waste waters from homes, hospitals and maternity homes, markets, Schools and colleges, manufacturing industries and others are contributing as base water to rain water in the drainage channels. There are grievous consequences of flooding at some localities. All forms of transportation are affected each time it comes. Weather–related disasters are becoming increasingly common. Lagosian and the governments should not allow global warming to compound the challenges of flood in the metropolis.

Kofo A Aderogba (Mrs.)

2012-01-01

119

Addressing Human Resource and Organizational Challenges in Emerging Market Utility Regulators: 10 Steps for the New Regulator  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ten recommendations can help regulatory agencies get off the ground in emerging markets. Behind them should be the guiding principle of planning and communication: address fundamental challenges early via thorough planning, and communicate with all stakeholders, particularly employees, the public, and other government institutions.

Banks, John P.

2005-12-01

120

Can The Implementation Of E-Learning Technologies Help To Address Learning Challenges? Evidence From A Small Island University  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper tries to explore the different ways in which online learning platforms can be used to address learning challenges for students at the University of Mauritius. The main challenges identified were in the form of large number of students in class, the lecturer being unable to give individual attention to each student and the inability to cover all material in the given time frame. Themain problems encountered by students were in the form of inability to ask questions due to the large class size, lack of interaction with the lecturer and in some cases the lack of supplementary material. Findings indicate that online learning platforms can indeed be used to address learning challenges so that the online learning platforms supplement and complement traditional face-to-face lectures.

Harshana Kasseeah

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Health as freedom: addressing social determinants of global health inequities through the human right to development.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In spite of vast global improvements in living standards, health, and well-being, the persistence of absolute poverty and its attendant maladies remains an unsettling fact of life for billions around the world and constitutes the primary cause for the failure of developing states to improve the health of their peoples. While economic development in developing countries is necessary to provide for underlying determinants of health--most prominently, poverty reduction and the building of comprehensive primary health systems--inequalities in power within the international economic order and the spread of neoliberal development policy limit the ability of developing states to develop economically and realize public goods for health. With neoliberal development policies impacting entire societies, the collective right to development, as compared with an individual rights-based approach to development, offers a framework by which to restructure this system to realize social determinants of health. The right to development, working through a vector of rights, can address social determinants of health, obligating states and the international community to support public health systems while reducing inequities in health through poverty-reducing economic growth. At an international level, where the ability of states to develop economically and to realize public goods through public health systems is constrained by international financial institutions, the implementation of the right to development enables a restructuring of international institutions and foreign-aid programs, allowing states to enter development debates with a right to cooperation from other states, not simply a cry for charity.

Fox AM; Meier BM

2009-02-01

122

Climate change, global risks, challenges and decisions. Synthesis report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) meeting to be held in Copenhagen in December 2009 (the 15th Conference of the Parties, COP-15) will be a critical step in developing a global response to the threat of climate change caused by human activities. The primary scientific input to those negotiations is the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), published in 2007. The IPCC report has already been instrumental in increasing both public and political awareness of the societal risks associated with unchecked emission of greenhouse gases. Since the production of the IPCC report, new knowledge has emerged that furthers understanding of the impacts of human influence on the climate and the response options and approaches that are available to tackle this complex issue. To bring this new knowledge together, the International Alliance of Research Universities organised an international scientific congress on climate change, Climate Change: Global Risks, Challenges and Decisions, which was held in Copenhagen from 10-12 March 2009. Participants came from nearly 80 different countries and contributed with more than 1400 scientific presentations. Abstracts for all of the scientific presentations made can be found at www.iop.org/EJ/volume/1755-1315/6, and a transcript of the closing plenary session can be found at environmentalresearchweb.org/cws/article/opinion/39126. This synthesis report presents an up-to-date overview of a broad range of research relevant to climate change - including fundamental climate science, the impacts of a changing climate on society and environment, and the many tools and approaches available to deal effectively with the challenge of climate change. (LN)

2009-01-01

123

Managing differences: the central challenge of global strategy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The main goal of any international strategy should be to manage the large differences that arise at the borders of markets. Yet executives often fail to exploit market and production discrepancies, focusing instead on the tensions between standardization and localization. In this article, Pankaj Ghemawat presents a new framework that encompasses all three effective responses to the challenges of globalization. He calls it the AAA Triangle. The A's stand for the three distinct types of international strategy. Through adaptation, companies seek to boost revenues and market share by maximizing their local relevance. Through aggregation, they attempt to deliver economies of scale by creating regional, or sometimes global, operations. And through arbitrage, they exploit disparities between national or regional markets, often by locating different parts of the supply chain in different places--for instance, call centers in India, factories in China, and retail shops in Western Europe. Ghemawat draws on several examples that illustrate how organizations use and balance these strategies and describes the trade-offs they make as they do so. Because most enterprises should draw from all three A's to some extent, the framework can be used to develop a summary scorecard indicating how well the company is globalizing. However, given the tensions among the strategies, it's not enough simply to tick off the corresponding boxes. Strategic choice requires some degree of prioritization--and the framework can help with that as well. While it is possible to make progress on all three strategies, companies usually must focus on one or two when trying to build competitive advantage.

Ghemawat P

2007-03-01

124

From HIV to global health: opportunities and challenges  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Remarkable advances have been achieved over the past decade in confronting the global HIV epidemic. By the end of 2010, 6.5 million persons living with HIV had initiated antiretroviral therapy in low and middle-income countries, the majority in sub Saharan Africa. Of the total of 2.5 new HIV infections that occurred in 2010, 1.9 million occurred in sub Saharan Africa. Nonetheless, 22 countries in sub Saharan Africa have experienced a decrease in HIV incidence. These remarkable achievements have involved a transformation of fragile health system. Examples include new models of care, task shifting, infrastructure enhancement, establishment of new data systems and mobilization of communities.However, many of the same countries where HIV is prevalent also confront other health threats including high maternal and child mortality, high rates of tuberculosis and malaria as well as a burgeoning non-communicable chronic disease threat. Addressing these health threats requires taking the lessons learned from the HIV response and adapting them to confront these threats. Through building on the foundation established, similar progress may be achieved in addressing these health threats while maintaining the momentum of the HIV response.

El-Sadr W

2012-01-01

125

From HIV to global health: opportunities and challenges  

Science.gov (United States)

Remarkable advances have been achieved over the past decade in confronting the global HIV epidemic. By the end of 2010, 6.5 million persons living with HIV had initiated antiretroviral therapy in low and middle-income countries, the majority in sub Saharan Africa. Of the total of 2.5 new HIV infections that occurred in 2010, 1.9 million occurred in sub Saharan Africa. Nonetheless, 22 countries in sub Saharan Africa have experienced a decrease in HIV incidence. These remarkable achievements have involved a transformation of fragile health system. Examples include new models of care, task shifting, infrastructure enhancement, establishment of new data systems and mobilization of communities. However, many of the same countries where HIV is prevalent also confront other health threats including high maternal and child mortality, high rates of tuberculosis and malaria as well as a burgeoning non-communicable chronic disease threat. Addressing these health threats requires taking the lessons learned from the HIV response and adapting them to confront these threats. Through building on the foundation established, similar progress may be achieved in addressing these health threats while maintaining the momentum of the HIV response.

El-Sadr, W

2012-01-01

126

Rising to the challenge: addressing the concerns of people working in the sex industry.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In September 2010, three Canadian Criminal Code provisions related to prostitution were ruled unconstitutional because they increase the risk of harm to people working in the sex industry (PWSI). Using data from studies with PWSI and key informants conducted in several Canadian cities, we examine three domains related to worker health and safety: occupational health and safety, perceptions of and behaviors toward workers, and access to essential services. Addressing these issues necessitates moving beyond decriminalization. We conclude that using a harm reduction/labor rights framework would enhance our ability to address issues related to the physical, social, and mental well-being as well as rights of PWSI.

Shaver FM; Lewis J; Maticka-Tyndale E

2011-02-01

127

Voiced and Unvoiced Concerns of Mothers: Psychodynamic Principles Address the Challenges of Early Parenthood  

Science.gov (United States)

|New mothers recognize that motherhood is a special task in their lives and realize that input from others provides assistance on behalf of their babies and toddlers. The Pacella Parent Child Center of the New York Psychoanalytic Institute and Society is a community of mothers and babies/toddlers where the staff helps mothers address the…

Hoffman, Leon; Nachman, Patricia; Rosenman, Alice

2006-01-01

128

Using a complex system approach to address world challenges in Food and Agriculture  

CERN Multimedia

World food supply is crucial to the well-being of every human on the planet in the basic sense that we need food to live. It also has a profound impact on the world economy, international trade and global political stability. Furthermore, consumption of certain types and amounts foods can affect health, and the choice of livestock and plants for food production can impact sustainable use of global resources. There are communities where insufficient food causes nutritional deficiencies, and at the same time other communities eating too much food leading to obesity and accompanying diseases. These aspects reflect the utmost importance of agricultural production and conversion of commodities to food products. Moreover, all factors contributing to the food supply are interdependent, and they are an integrative part of the continuously changing, adaptive and interdependent systems in the world around us. The properties of such interdependent systems usually cannot be inferred from the properties of its parts. In a...

van Mil, H G J; Windhab, E J; Perrot, N; van der Linden, E

2013-01-01

129

Challenges created by data dissemination and access restrictions when attempting to address community concerns: individual privacy versus public wellbeing.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Population health data are vital for the identification of public health problems and the development of public health strategies. Challenges arise when attempts are made to disseminate or access anonymised data that are deemed to be potentially identifiable. In these situations, there is debate about whether the protection of an individual's privacy outweighs potentially beneficial public health initiatives developed using potentially identifiable information. While these issues have an impact at planning and policy levels, they pose a particular dilemma when attempting to examine and address community concerns about a specific health problem. METHODS: Research currently underway in northern Canadian communities on the frequency of Helicobacter pylori infection and associated diseases, such as stomach cancer, is used in this article to illustrate the challenges that data controls create on the ability of researchers and health officials to address community concerns. RESULTS: Barriers are faced by public health professionals and researchers when endeavouring to address community concerns; specifically, provincial cancer surveillance departments and community-driven participatory research groups face challenges related to data release or access that inhibit their ability to effectively address community enquiries. The resulting consequences include a limited ability to address misinformation or to alleviate concerns when dealing with health problems in small communities. CONCLUSIONS: The development of communication tools and building of trusting relationships are essential components of a successful investigation into community health concerns. It may also be important to consider that public wellbeing may outweigh the value of individual privacy in these situations. As such, a re-evaluation of data disclosure policies that are applicable in these circumstances should be considered.

Colquhoun A; Aplin L; Geary J; Goodman KJ; Hatcher J

2012-01-01

130

Challenges created by data dissemination and access restrictions when attempting to address community concerns: individual privacy versus public wellbeing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Population health data are vital for the identification of public health problems and the development of public health strategies. Challenges arise when attempts are made to disseminate or access anonymised data that are deemed to be potentially identifiable. In these situations, there is debate about whether the protection of an individual's privacy outweighs potentially beneficial public health initiatives developed using potentially identifiable information. While these issues have an impact at planning and policy levels, they pose a particular dilemma when attempting to examine and address community concerns about a specific health problem. Methods: Research currently underway in northern Canadian communities on the frequency of Helicobacter pylori infection and associated diseases, such as stomach cancer, is used in this article to illustrate the challenges that data controls create on the ability of researchers and health officials to address community concerns. Results: Barriers are faced by public health professionals and researchers when endeavouring to address community concerns; specifically, provincial cancer surveillance departments and community-driven participatory research groups face challenges related to data release or access that inhibit their ability to effectively address community enquiries. The resulting consequences include a limited ability to address misinformation or to alleviate concerns when dealing with health problems in small communities. Conclusions: The development of communication tools and building of trusting relationships are essential components of a successful investigation into community health concerns. It may also be important to consider that public wellbeing may outweigh the value of individual privacy in these situations. As such, a re-evaluation of data disclosure policies that are applicable in these circumstances should be considered.

Amy Colquhoun; Laura Aplin; Janis Geary; Karen J. Goodman; Juanita Hatcher

2012-01-01

131

Sustainable Methods of Addressing Challenges Facing Small Holder Tea Sector in Kenya: A Supply Chain Management Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This Conceptual paper addresses the challenges facing the small holder tea sector in Kenya. It provides background information about tea growing in Kenya, its export performance, and organizational structure. It then categorizes the main challenges into five and provides some solutions to the challenges, borrowing from some supply chain management practices to culminate into competitive strategies. In the face of declining and shifting competitiveness of the small holder tea sector in Kenya, this paper identifies the special role of supplier and customer relationships, value addition, information technology, information sharing, flexibility in internal operations/processes, upgrading of tea seedlings, proper coordination, institutionalization, policy reforms, training, monitoring marketing environment, strategic decisions, irrigation, venturing in new markets through partnership, and civil society involvement as competitive supply chain strategies.

Elias Kiarie Kagira; Sarah Wambui Kimani; Kagwathi Stephen Githii

2012-01-01

132

Managing Radioactive Waste. Problems and Challenges in a Globalizing World  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Many countries are at a crossroads in terms of maintaining their energy supply. The existing resources of fossil fuels are dwindling, and global warming makes their use increasingly problematic. Nuclear power is now often regarded inevitable for future sustainability, energy security, and economic prosperity. There are, however, still unsolved problems regarding nuclear power. The fact that no country has established a final waste repository for spent nuclear fuel throws fundamental doubt on nuclear energy expansion. Also, the processes of globalization have transformed the nuclear industry towards increased privatization, concentration, and internationalization. This leads to uncertainties regarding the responsibility for nuclear waste management. In these circumstances is it of greatest importance that scholars from different disciplines, as well as policy makers and practitioners within the field, meet to share experiences. This conference had the general objective of producing knowledge about the challenges caused by global developmental trends, and what the management of nuclear waste implies for contemporary and future social development. Over 100 persons attended the conferences. Papers available at the conference site have been separately indexed. Several contributions were also made as PP-presentation, which are available at the site, among others the Keynote Speeches: Waiting for the Nuclear Renaissance: Exploring the Nexus of Expansion and Disposal in Europe (Jane Dawson); Applying the Risk Governance Framework: Institutional Requirements for Dealing with Nuclear Waste (Ortwin Renn); Learning to Listen: The Long Road to Legitimating Radioactive Waste Management Policies (Frans Berkhout); The Nuclear Waste Debate is Irrational but We Need Not Panic (Frank von Hippel). The conference was divided into the following sessions: Session A: Political characteristics matters; Session B: Radioactivity, geology, society. On a problem definition of HLW-management; Session C: What's at stake? Problematising matters of nuclear waste management; Session D: Knowledge integration and stakeholder communication I; Session D: Knowledge integration and stakeholder communication II; Session F: Acceptance and risk perceptions in repository siting; Session G: Hide, forget, regret? Towards sustainable ethics of HLW-management; Session H: What Future Governance - Local, National or International?; and, Session I: Demonstrating legitimacy, maintaining responsibility?

2010-01-01

133

Radiochemistry methods in DOE Methods for Evaluating Environmental and Waste Management Samples: Addressing new challenges  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiochemistry methods in Department of Energy Methods for Evaluating Environmental and Waste Management Samples (DOE Methods) add to the repertoire of other standard methods in support of U.S. Department of Energy environmental restoration and waste management (DOE/EM) radiochemical characterization activities. Current standard sources of radiochemistry methods are not always applicable for evaluating DOE/EM samples. Examples of current sources include those provided by the US Environmental Protection Agency, the American Society for Testing and Materials, Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, and Environmental Measurements Laboratory Procedures Manual (HASL-300). The applicability of these methods is generally limited to specific matrices (usually water), low-level radioactive samples, and a limited number of analytes. DOE Methods complements these current standard methods by addressing the complexities of EM characterization needs. The process for determining DOE/EM radiochemistry characterization needs is discussed. In this context of DOE/EM needs, the applicability of other sources of standard radiochemistry methods is defined, and gaps in methodology are identified. Current methods in DOE Methods and the EM characterization needs they address are discussed. Sources of new methods and the methods incorporation process are discussed. The means for individuals to participate in (1) identification of DOE/EM needs, (2) the methods incorporation process, and (3) submission of new methods are identified.

1994-01-01

134

Review: Automation and meat quality-global challenges.  

Science.gov (United States)

The global meat industry has seen significant changes in the methods used to harvest and process fresh meat over the past century. Increased use of automation has led to significant increases in line speed for beef, pork, sheep, poultry and fish operations. For example, currently the fastest line observed has been broilers at 13,500/h. Such developments have required in-depth understanding of the pre and post rigor processes to prevent defects. Procedures such as maturation chilling and electrical stimulation are now common in red meat and poultry processing; allowing shorter time to deboning, while harvesting high quality meat. Robots designed to cut meat are also appearing on the market, and replacing traditional manual operations. This is a challenge, because high speed equipment is not necessarily sensitive to variations in size/quality issues, and requires development of unique sensors and control systems. Also, progress in breeding and genetics is contributing to greater product uniformity and quality; helping in operating automated equipment. PMID:23933632

Barbut, Shai

2013-07-17

135

Review: Automation and meat quality-global challenges.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The global meat industry has seen significant changes in the methods used to harvest and process fresh meat over the past century. Increased use of automation has led to significant increases in line speed for beef, pork, sheep, poultry and fish operations. For example, currently the fastest line observed has been broilers at 13,500/h. Such developments have required in-depth understanding of the pre and post rigor processes to prevent defects. Procedures such as maturation chilling and electrical stimulation are now common in red meat and poultry processing; allowing shorter time to deboning, while harvesting high quality meat. Robots designed to cut meat are also appearing on the market, and replacing traditional manual operations. This is a challenge, because high speed equipment is not necessarily sensitive to variations in size/quality issues, and requires development of unique sensors and control systems. Also, progress in breeding and genetics is contributing to greater product uniformity and quality; helping in operating automated equipment.

Barbut S

2013-07-01

136

Climate Change - Global Risks, Challenges & Decisions : Synthesis Report  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Past societies have reacted when they understood that their own activities were causing deleterious environmental change by controlling or modifying the offending activities. The scientific evidence has now become overwhelming that human activities, especially the combustion of fossil fuels, are influencing the climate in ways that threaten the well-being and continued development of human society. If humanity is to learn from history and to limit these threats, the time has come for stronger control of the human activities that are changing the fundamental conditions for life on Earth. To decide on effective control measures, an understanding of how human activities are changing the climate, and of the implications of unchecked climate change, needs to be widespread among world and national leaders, as well as in the public. The purpose of this report is to provide, for a broad range of audiences, an update of the newest understanding of climate change caused by human activities, the social and environmental implications of this change, and the options available for society to respond to the challenges posed by climate change. This understanding is communicated through six key messages.  The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) meeting to be held in Copenhagen in December 2009 (the 15th Conference of the Parties, COP-15) will be a critical step in developing a global response to the threat of climate change caused by human activities. The primary scientific input to those negotiations is the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), published in 2007. The IPCC report has already been instrumental in increasing both public and political awareness of the societal risks associated with unchecked emission of greenhouse gases. Since the production of the IPCC report, new knowledge has emerged that furthers understanding of the impacts of human influence on the climate and the response options and approaches that are available to tackle this complex issue. To bring this new knowledge together, the International Alliance of Research Universitiesi organised an international scientific congress on climate change, Climate Change: Global Risks, Challenges and Decisions, which was held in Copenhagen from 10-12 March 2009. Participation in the Congress was open to all. Most of the approximately 2500 people attending the Congress were researchers, many of whom have also been contributors to the IPCC reports. Participants came from nearly 80 different countries and contributed with more than 1400 scientific presentations. Abstracts for all of the scientific presentations made can be found at www.iop.org/EJ/volume/1755-1315/6 , and a transcript of the closing plenary session can be found at environmentalresearchweb.org/cws/article/opinion/39126. This synthesis report presents an up-to-date overview of a broad range of research relevant to climate change - including fundamental climate science, the impacts of a changing climate on society and environment,and the many tools and approaches available to deal effectively with the challenge of climate change. The report has been produced by a writing team comprised of members of the Scientific Steering Committee for the IARU Congress and individuals invited to give the writing team academic and geographic breadth. It is based on the 16 plenary talks given at the Congress as well as input from over 80 chairs and cochairs of the 58 parallel sessions held at the Congress. The names of the plenary speakers and the chairs and co-chairs of the parallel sessions can be found on the inside cover of this volume. The writing team has, in addition to presentations at the Congress, drawn upon recent publications in the scientific literature to create this synthesis. This report has been critically reviewed by representatives of the Earth System Science Partnership (ESSP), by the parallel session chairs and co-chairs, and by up to four independent researchers from each IARU university. This extensive review process has been implemented to

Richardson, Katherine; Steffen, Will

2009-01-01

137

Addressing the Challenges of Collaborative Goal Setting with Children and Their Families.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

ABSTRACT Collaborative goal setting between clinicians and clients/families is considered a fundamental component of the pediatric rehabilitation process. However, truly client-centered goal setting is not without its challenges. The purpose of this paper is to highlight theoretical concepts relevant to rehabilitation goal setting, review clinical studies directly evaluating relationships between goal setting and pediatric rehabilitation outcomes, and provide recommendations to facilitate collaborative goal processes. Four theoretical frameworks were identified that may lie behind and help explain the effectiveness of collaborative goal setting. The four relevant outcome studies found in the review revealed that individualized goal setting is an important component of the intervention, engages families more actively in therapy, and is associated to some extent with positive outcomes. The evidence suggests that the impact of fully collaborative goal setting is sufficiently positive to support investment of organizational and individual time, energy, and resources to make it an integral part of the rehabilitation process.

Brewer K; Pollock N; Wright FV

2013-05-01

138

A Framework for Addressing the Global Obesity Epidemic Locally: The Child Health Ecological Surveillance System (CHESS)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Childhood obesity has reached epidemic levels in the developed world. Recent research and commentary suggest that an ecological approach is required to address childhood obesity, given the multidimensional nature of the problem. We propose a Canadian prototype, the Child Health Ecological Surveillance System, for a regional health authority to address the growing obesity epidemic. This prototype could potentially be used in other jurisdictions to address other child health issues. We present 8 guiding principles for the development and implementation of a regional framework for action.

Ronald C. Plotnikoff, PhD; Penny Lightfoot, MHSA; Linda Barrett, MSc; Carla Spinola, MA; Gerry Predy, MD, FRCPC

2008-01-01

139

International policies to address the greenhouse effect. Encouraging developing country participation in global greenhouse control strategies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The conditions under which developing country governments are likely to feel motivated to take real action in addressing the greenhouse gas problem and the international mechanisms that are likely to succeed are briefly outlined

Gupta, J.; Hischenmoller, M.; Vellinga, P. [Institute for Environmental Studies, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Van der Wurff, R.; Junne, G. [Department of International Relations and Public International Law, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

1995-12-31

140

Addressing challenges in the production and analysis of illumina sequencing data.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Advances in DNA sequencing technologies have made it possible to generate large amounts of sequence data very rapidly and at substantially lower cost than capillary sequencing. These new technologies have specific characteristics and limitations that require either consideration during project design, or which must be addressed during data analysis. Specialist skills, both at the laboratory and the computational stages of project design and analysis, are crucial to the generation of high quality data from these new platforms. The Illumina sequencers (including the Genome Analyzers I/II/IIe/IIx and the new HiScan and HiSeq) represent a widely used platform providing parallel readout of several hundred million immobilized sequences using fluorescent-dye reversible-terminator chemistry. Sequencing library quality, sample handling, instrument settings and sequencing chemistry have a strong impact on sequencing run quality. The presence of adapter chimeras and adapter sequences at the end of short-insert molecules, as well as increased error rates and short read lengths complicate many computational analyses. We discuss here some of the factors that influence the frequency and severity of these problems and provide solutions for circumventing these. Further, we present a set of general principles for good analysis practice that enable problems with sequencing runs to be identified and dealt with.

Kircher M; Heyn P; Kelso J

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

New Challenges for Urban History: Culture, Networks, Globalization  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Urban history is a very lively and dynamic research field, showing strict parallelism with the fast increasing of the urban population. Today, competitiveness is one of the key aims for cities in the globalized world. Factors such as accessibility and infrastructure, industry, human capital, innovation, and investment, green spaces, affordable housing, business support and quality of education are necessaries. However, the OECD recognizes three dilemmas in this strategic vision, concerning the spill over of metro-regions, the public strategic vision, and the relationship between economic dynamism and the liveable city. Today urban historians are facing some general challenges: comparative aspects are needed; also interdisciplinarity to develop cooperation between disciplines; and for maintaining the professional status of academic urban history. The expanding networks between towns and cities, and the meeting places as conferences and exhibitions are considered, as they are the multitudinous challenges and threats, especially for those cities suffering continuously of major natural and man-made disasters. Moreover, new amalgams of hazard are being created in metropolitan areas with overlapping natural, technological, biological and social risks, exposing more people and places, needing safety and security.La historia urbana es un campo de investigación muy vivo y dinámico, mostrando un paralelismo estricto con el rápido incremento de la población urbana. La competencia es hoy uno de los objetivos claves para las ciudades en el mundo globalizado. Factores tales como la accesibilidad y las infraestructuras, la industria, el capital humano, la innovación y la inversión, los espacios verdes, la vivienda accesible, el apoyo a los negocios y la calidad de la educación son necesarios. Sin embargo, la OCDE reconoce tres dilemas en esa visión estratégica, el desarrollo de las metrópolis, la visión estratégica pública y la relación entre el dinamismo económico y la habitabilidad de la ciudad. Hoy se enfrentan los historiadores urbanos a algunos retos generales: la necesidad de aspectos comparativos, también la interdisciplinariedad para desarrollar la cooperación entre disciplinas y para mantener el status profesional de la historia urbana académica. Las redes expansivas entre pueblos y ciudades, y los lugares de encuentro como conferencias y exposiciones son considerados, así como los múltiples retos y amenazas, especialmente para aquellas ciudades que sufren continuamente los mayores desastres por la naturaleza o el hombre. Más aun, nuevas combinaciones de azares están siendo creados en las áreas metropolitanas con riesgos superpuestos naturales, tecnológicos, biológicos y sociales, exponiendo más gentes y lugares, que necesitan seguridad y protección.

Hietala, Marjatta

2012-01-01

142

Addressing the challenges of cleft lip and palate research in India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Indian sub-continent remains one of the most populous areas of the world with an estimated population of 1.1 billion in India alone. This yields an estimated 24.5 million births per year and the birth prevalence of clefts is somewhere between 27,000 and 33,000 clefts per year. Inequalities exist, both in access to and quality of cleft care with distinct differences in urban versus rural access and over the years the accumulation of unrepaired clefts of the lip and palate make this a significant health care problem in India. In recent years the situation has been significantly improved through the intervention of Non Governmental Organisations such as SmileTrain and Transforming Faces Worldwide participating in primary surgical repair programmes. The cause of clefts is multi factorial with both genetic and environmental input and intensive research efforts have yielded significant advances in recent years facilitated by molecular technologies in the genetic field. India has tremendous potential to contribute by virtue of improving research expertise and a population that has genetic, cultural and socio-economic diversity. In 2008, the World Health Organisation (WHO) has recognised that non-communicable diseases, including birth defects cause significant infant mortality and childhood morbidity and have included cleft lip and palate in their Global Burden of Disease (GBD) initiative. This will fuel the interest of India in birth defects registration and international efforts aimed at improving quality of care and ultimately prevention of non-syndromic clefts of the lip and palate.

Mossey Peter; Little Julian

2009-01-01

143

Nation state and the challenge of globalization: Project draft  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This project draft discusses the issues facing a nation state in the dynamic processes of globalization. First, the term globalization is tentatively defined as a decentralized process of condensation and homogenization of space and time. Then, the ambivalent structure of the globalization discourse...

Obrenovi? Zoran G.

144

The forgotten D : challenges of addressing forest degradation in complex mosaic landscapes under REDD+  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

International climate negotiations have stressed the importance of considering emissions from forest degradation under the planned REDD+ (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation + enhancing forest carbon stocks) mechanism. However, most research, pilot-REDD+ projects and carbon certification agencies have focused on deforestation and there appears to be a gap in knowledge on complex mosaic landscapes containing degraded forests, smallholder agriculture, agroforestry and plantations. In this paper we therefore review current research on how avoided forest degradation may affect emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) and expected co-benefits in terms of biodiversity and livelihoods.There are still high uncertainties in measuring and monitoring emissions of carbon and other GHG from mosaic landscapes with forest degradation since most research has focused on binary analyses of forest vs. deforested land. Studies on the impacts of forest degradation on biodiversity contain mixed results and there is little empirical evidence on the influence of REDD+ on local livelihoods and tenure security, partly due to the lack of actual payment schemes.Governance structures are also more complex in landscapes with degraded forests as there are often multiple owners and types of rights to land and trees. Recent technological advances in remote sensing have improved estimation of carbon stock changes but establishment of historic reference levels is still challenged by the availability of sensor systems and ground measurements during the reference period. The inclusion of forest degradation in REDD+ calls for a range of new research efforts to enhance our knowledge of how to assess the impacts of avoided forest degradation. A first step will be to ensure that complex mosaic landscapes can be recognised under REDD+ on their own merits.

Mertz, Ole; Müller, Daniel

2012-01-01

145

The Global Fund's resource allocation decisions for HIV programmes: addressing those in need  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Between 2002 and 2010, the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria's investment in HIV increased substantially to reach US$12 billion. We assessed how the Global Fund's investments in HIV programmes were targeted to key populations in relation to disease burden and national income. Methods We conducted an assessment of the funding approved by the Global Fund Board for HIV programmes in Rounds 1-10 (2002-2010) in 145 countries. We used the UNAIDS National AIDS Spending Assessment framework to analyze the Global Fund investments in HIV programmes by HIV spending category and type of epidemic. We examined funding per capita and its likely predictors (HIV adult prevalence, HIV prevalence in most-at-risk populations and gross national income per capita) using stepwise backward regression analysis. Results About 52% ($6.1 billion) of the cumulative Global Fund HIV funding was targeted to low- and low-middle-income countries. Around 56% of the total ($6.6 billion) was channelled to countries in sub-Saharan Africa. The majority of funds were for HIV treatment (36%; $4.3 billion) and prevention (29%; $3.5 billion), followed by health systems and community systems strengthening and programme management (22%; $2.6 billion), enabling environment (7%; $0.9 billion) and other activities. The Global Fund investment by country was positively correlated with national adult HIV prevalence. About 10% ($0.4 billion) of the cumulative HIV resources for prevention targeted most-at-risk populations. Conclusions There has been a sustained scale up of the Global Fund's HIV support. Funding has targeted the countries and populations with higher HIV burden and lower income. Prevention in most-at-risk populations is not adequately prioritized in most of the recipient countries. The Global Fund Board has recently modified eligibility and prioritization criteria to better target most-at-risk populations in Round 10 and beyond. More guidance is being provided for Round 11 to strategically focus demand for Global Fund financing in the present resource-constrained environment.

Avdeeva Olga; Lazarus Jeffrey V; Aziz Mohamed; Atun Rifat

2011-01-01

146

New and improved proteomics technologies for understanding complex biological systems: addressing a grand challenge in the life sciences.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This White Paper sets out a Life Sciences Grand Challenge for Proteomics Technologies to enhance our understanding of complex biological systems, link genomes with phenotypes, and bring broad benefits to the biosciences and the US economy. The paper is based on a workshop hosted by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in Gaithersburg, MD, 14-15 February 2011, with participants from many federal R&D agencies and research communities, under the aegis of the US National Science and Technology Council (NSTC). Opportunities are identified for a coordinated R&D effort to achieve major technology-based goals and address societal challenges in health, agriculture, nutrition, energy, environment, national security, and economic development.

Hood LE; Omenn GS; Moritz RL; Aebersold R; Yamamoto KR; Amos M; Hunter-Cevera J; Locascio L

2012-09-01

147

Addressing Socioeconomic Objectives through Enhanced Decision Support Systems for Water Resources Management: Vision, Gaps, and Challenges in South Africa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Water resources management has become a field where computer-aided analytical techniques are expected to facilitate a complex process of decision making which involves several stakeholders with varied interests and various socioeconomic objectives of the natural resource development and management strategies. In many ways, the decision-making related to water resource management exhibits a political process that requires water resources engineering expertise combined with suitable use of informatics. This paper investigates the case of South Africa to assess the extent to which various computer-based decision support systems have succeeded in terms of addressing the socioeconomic objectives encompassed under the new vision for water resources management. Prevailing gaps have been identified through an exhaustive review of relevant initiatives in the country and abroad. A conceptual recommendation has been made to address the identified gaps while highlighting the challenges that lie ahead.

Krishna PRASAD; Kenneth STRZEPEK; Barbara VAN KOPPEN

2005-01-01

148

Global warming and the challenge of international cooperation: an interdisciplinary assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The book aims to explore the nature of potential climatic change. It seeks to assess the scientific, economic legal and political issues related to the threat of global warming from an interdisciplinary perspective. The seven chapters have the following titles: the challenge of global warming; global warming and ozone depletion - certainties and uncertainties; consequences of global climate change for Earth's biosphere; global energy use and global warming; problems and prospects of institutionalizing ecological interdependence in a world of local independence; political institutions and climate change; and policy options for responding to the threat of global warming. Six chapters are abstracted separately. 158 refs

1992-01-01

149

Global warming and the challenge of international cooperation: an interdisciplinary assessment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The book aims to explore the nature of potential climatic change. It seeks to assess the scientific, economic legal and political issues related to the threat of global warming from an interdisciplinary perspective. The seven chapters have the following titles: the challenge of global warming; global warming and ozone depletion - certainties and uncertainties; consequences of global climate change for Earth's biosphere; global energy use and global warming; problems and prospects of institutionalizing ecological interdependence in a world of local independence; political institutions and climate change; and policy options for responding to the threat of global warming. Six chapters are abstracted separately. 158 refs.

Bryner, G.C. (ed.)

1992-01-01

150

Regulatory challenges in the review of data from global clinical trials: the PMDA perspective.  

Science.gov (United States)

Regulatory agencies face challenges in reviewing data from global clinical trials (GCTs) in the era of globalization of drug development. One major challenge is consideration of ethnic factors in evaluating GCT data so as to extrapolate foreign population data to one's own national population. Here, we present the Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency (PMDA) perspective in reviewing GCT data in new drug applications (NDAs) and discuss future challenges for new drug approval. PMID:23872835

Asano, K; Tanaka, A; Sato, T; Uyama, Y

2013-08-01

151

Regulatory challenges in the review of data from global clinical trials: the PMDA perspective.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Regulatory agencies face challenges in reviewing data from global clinical trials (GCTs) in the era of globalization of drug development. One major challenge is consideration of ethnic factors in evaluating GCT data so as to extrapolate foreign population data to one's own national population. Here, we present the Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency (PMDA) perspective in reviewing GCT data in new drug applications (NDAs) and discuss future challenges for new drug approval.

Asano K; Tanaka A; Sato T; Uyama Y

2013-08-01

152

Addressing AACSB Global and Technology Requirements: Exploratory Assessment of a Marketing Management Assignment  

Science.gov (United States)

|The Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB) standards mandate knowledge of global and technology issues. Businesses desire employees with ability to analyze international markets and to be adept with technology. Taxpayers supporting public universities and organizations hiring business school graduates expect accountability…

Greene, Scott; Bao, Yongchuan

2009-01-01

153

Comparing technology options to address global climate change: experiences with analytic methods  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper aims at giving the key parameters for comparing technologies and for setting priorities for technology collaboration related to global climate change. It also puts forward the advantages and the drawbacks of the different methods and analysis used. And finally it points out the fact that an harmonization between the different data analysis is required so as to be able to compare technology strategies of different countries. (TEC). 2 tabs., 14 refs., 13 figs.

Ashton, W.B. [Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Washington, DC (United States)

1995-12-31

154

Lessons learned and present day challenges of addressing 20th century radiation legacies of Russia and the United States  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Decommissioning of nuclear submarines, disposal of highly enriched uranium and defense plutonium as well as processing of high-level wastes are among the most challenging issues of addressing radiation legacy of the 20th century. USA and Russia are the two primary countries that have to deal with the challenge and where most of the fissile materials to be processed are concentrated, nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste are stored, and multiple industrial sites and nuclear weapons production facilities are located. In the US, CH2M HILL is managing two of the most important nuclear projects being conducted by the US Department of Energy at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site and at the DOE Hanford Site (177 underground tanks at this site contain 60 percent of the United States' high-level radioactive wastes). Within the framework of the Russian Federal special program 'Radioactive Waste and Spent Nuclear Materials Management, Utilization and Disposal for 1996-2005' works were carried out on the Karachai lake covering with soil, highly active radwaste vitrification and fractionation at the 'Mayak' combine. Currently there is a discussion of launching joint Russian-American initiatives including comparative studies of environmental and public health impacts from high-level waste vitrification and plutonium stabilization processes in Russia and high-level waste removal from tanks in the USA and of continuing comprehensive research with the RADSITE project (USA, European Union, Japan, China and India) using coordinated approaches in 2000-2003. This paper presents comparative studies, technical approaches, and regulatory strategies to address the challenges of managing and closing highly enriched uranium, plutonium, and high level waste sites. (author)

2000-11-02

155

The challenge to keep global warming below 2 °C  

Science.gov (United States)

The latest carbon dioxide emissions continue to track the high end of emission scenarios, making it even less likely global warming will stay below 2 °C. A shift to a 2 °C pathway requires immediate significant and sustained global mitigation, with a probable reliance on net negative emissions in the longer term.

Peters, Glen P.; Andrew, Robbie M.; Boden, Tom; Canadell, Josep G.; Ciais, Philippe; Le Quéré, Corinne; Marland, Gregg; Raupach, Michael R.; Wilson, Charlie

2013-01-01

156

[The modern international public health and globalization challenges].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The article deals with the issues of impact of globalization on population health and public health. The positive and negative aspects of this process are analyzed. The role of international organizations (UN, WHO, UNESCO, ILO, UNISEF) is demonstrated in the area of management of globalization impact on public health of different countries, Russia included.

2012-05-01

157

Global climate change: Implications, challenges and mitigation measures  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present volume discusses topics in the fields of natural climatic fluctuations, the greenhouse effect, climate modeling, the biophysical and socioeconomic impacts of climate change, climate-change effect mitigation and adaptation strategies, and domestic (US) and international perspectives on regulation of climate-affecting activities. Attention is given to past climates as a guide to the future, the certainty of contemporary global warming, the physics of the greenhouse effect, the global carbon cycle, general circulation model studies of global warming, the implications of sea-level rise, forests' role in global climate change, the ecological effects of rapid climate change, predicted effects of climate change on agriculture, the impact of global warming on human health, energy supply technologies for reducing greenhouse gas emissions, and the U.N.'s 1992 Earth Summit Conference.

Majumdar, S.K.; Kalkstein, L.S.; Yarnal, B.M.; Miller, E.W.; Rosenfeld, L.M.

1992-01-01

158

Graph-state preparation and quantum computation with global addressing of optical lattices  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present a way to manipulate ultracold atoms where four atomic levels are trapped by appropriately tuned optical lattices. When employed to perform quantum computation via global control, this unique structure dramatically reduces the number of steps involved in the control procedures, either for the standard, network, model, or for one-way quantum computation. The use of a far-blue-detuned lattice and a magnetically insensitive computational basis makes the scheme robust against decoherence. The present scheme is a promising candidate for experimental implementation of quantum computation and for graph-state preparation in one, two, or three spatial dimensions.

2006-01-01

159

Nuclear power and the global challenges of energy security, 6 September 2007, London, England, World Nuclear Association Annual Symposium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In the Atoms for Peace speech given by US President Eisenhower in 1953 - the speech that paved the way for the creation of the IAEA - he declared that a special purpose of Atoms for Peace would be 'to provide abundant electrical energy in the power-starved areas of the world'. That vision has yet to be realized. And it should not be taken to mean that nuclear power is the solution for all countries, or for all developing countries. But I would reiterate what I said at the outset - that the global challenges of security and development are interlinked, and that addressing the energy security needs of all countries will be a key to progress on both fronts. It is incumbent upon us to see to it that nuclear power will fulfil its potential in addressing these challenges

2007-09-06

160

Addressing the data challenge  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The humanitarian relief community needs to collect disability-specific data through rapid needs assessments, registration processes, accessing local knowledge and disability monitoring.

Kathleen B Simmons

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Current Issues and Challenges in Global Analysis of Parton Distributions  

Science.gov (United States)

A new implementation of precise perturbative QCD calculation of deep inelastic scattering structure functions and cross sections, incorporating heavy quark mass effects, is applied to the global analysis of the full HERA I data sets on NC and CC cross sections, in conjunction with other experiments. Improved agreement between the NLO QCD theory and the global data sets are obtained. Comparison of the new results to that of previous analysis based on conventional zero-mass parton formalism is made. Exploratory work on implications of new fixed-target neutrino scattering and Drell-Yan data on global analysis is also discussed.

Tung, Wu-Ki

2007-01-01

162

Current issues and challenges in global analysis of parton distributions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new implementation of precise perturbative QCD calculation of deep inelastic scattering structure functions and cross sections, incorporating heavy quark mass effects, is applied to the global analysis of the full HERA I data sets on NC and CC cross sections, in conjunction with other experiments. Improved agreement between the NLO QCD theory and the global data sets are obtained. Comparison of the new results to that of previous analysis based on conventional zero-mass parton formalism is made. Exploratory work on implications of new fixed-target neutrino scattering and Drell-Yan data on global analysis is also discussed. (author)

2007-01-01

163

Global climate change: Implications, challenges, and mitigation measures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This book presents a perspective of the potential problem of global climate change induced by human activity. The editors have presented viewpoints of experts (advocates and skeptics) representing the issues of climate change. Possible results from long-term global change discussed in this book include mass migrations of plants and animals; changes in crop yields; flood and drought; and economic, political, and cultural changes. The text contains 20 chapters on the impact of global climate change and 10 chapters on the mitigation of effects and policy development

1992-01-01

164

Global climate change: Implications, challenges, and mitigation measures  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book presents a perspective of the potential problem of global climate change induced by human activity. The editors have presented viewpoints of experts (advocates and skeptics) representing the issues of climate change. Possible results from long-term global change discussed in this book include mass migrations of plants and animals; changes in crop yields; flood and drought; and economic, political, and cultural changes. The text contains 20 chapters on the impact of global climate change and 10 chapters on the mitigation of effects and policy development.

Majumdar, S.K.

1992-01-01

165

High efficiency advanced clean coal electric power generation technologies for addressing global environmental concerns  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Coal-based Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustion (CFBC) and Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) are two leading technologies that have recently been proven and demonstrated in commercial sizes in the US Doe and industry sponsored research and development programs in the US. Two case studies are being considered. One such case study is in a 300MWe coal-fired power generation with district heat production application in Latvia, where the use of CFBC technology is most likely to be selected in the isolated and remote operations where coal waste and indigenous renewable energy feedstock is available. The other case study is in China where IGCC may be the technology of choice in which the trigeneration of electricity, chemicals and steam can be better addressed by the use of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle technology. A case study for each of these technologies will be presented in order to address the industrial advantages of each cogeneration mode specific technology application. It is suggested in this paper that the best utilization of coal resources in a total plant configuration for co-producing electricity, steam, fuel gas and syngas can serve as the feedstock to produce various liquid chemicals that can be achieved through use of these advanced power cogeneration technologies.

Hoppe, J.A. [Peddada Consultants, Inc., Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Miller, C.L. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

1997-09-01

166

Makerere University College of Health Sciences' role in addressing challenges in health service provision at Mulago National Referral Hospital.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Mulago National Referral Hospital (MNRH), Uganda's primary tertiary and teaching hospital, and Makerere University College of Health Sciences (MakCHS) have a close collaborative relationship. MakCHS students complete clinical rotations at MNRH, and MakCHS faculty partner with Mulago staff in clinical care and research. In 2009, as part of a strategic planning process, MakCHS undertook a qualitative study to examine care and service provision at MNRH, identify challenges, gaps, and solutions, and explore how MakCHS could contribute to improving care and service delivery at MNRH. METHODS: Key informant interviews (n=23) and focus group discussions (n=7) were conducted with nurses, doctors, administrators, clinical officers and other key stakeholders. Interviews and focus groups were tape recorded and transcribed verbatim, and findings were analyzed through collaborative thematic analysis. RESULTS: Challenges to care and service delivery at MNRH included resource constraints (staff, space, equipment, and supplies), staff inadequacies (knowledge, motivation, and professionalism), overcrowding, a poorly functioning referral system, limited quality assurance, and a cumbersome procurement system. There were also insufficiencies in the teaching of professionalism and communication skills to students, and patient care challenges that included lack of access to specialized services, risk of infections, and inappropriate medications.Suggestions for how MakCHS could contribute to addressing these challenges included strengthening referral systems and peripheral health center capacity, and establishing quality assurance mechanisms. The College could also strengthen the teaching of professionalism, communication and leadership skills to students, and monitor student training and develop courses that contribute to continuous professional development. Additionally, the College could provide in-service education for providers on professionalism, communication skills, strategies that promote evidence-based practice and managerial leadership skills. CONCLUSIONS: Although there are numerous barriers to delivery of quality health services at MNRH, many barriers could be addressed by strengthening the relationship between the Hospital and MakCHS. Strategic partnerships and creative use of existing resources, both human and financial, could improve the quality of care and service delivery at MNRH. Improving services and providing more skills training could better prepare MakCHS graduates for leadership roles in other health care facilities, ultimately improving health outcomes throughout Uganda.

Kizza IB; Tugumisirize J; Tweheyo R; Mbabali S; Kasangaki A; Nshimye E; Sekandi J; Groves S; Kennedy CE

2011-01-01

167

Makerere University College of Health Sciences’ role in addressing challenges in health service provision at Mulago National Referral Hospital  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Mulago National Referral Hospital (MNRH), Uganda’s primary tertiary and teaching hospital, and Makerere University College of Health Sciences (MakCHS) have a close collaborative relationship. MakCHS students complete clinical rotations at MNRH, and MakCHS faculty partner with Mulago staff in clinical care and research. In 2009, as part of a strategic planning process, MakCHS undertook a qualitative study to examine care and service provision at MNRH, identify challenges, gaps, and solutions, and explore how MakCHS could contribute to improving care and service delivery at MNRH. Methods Key informant interviews (n=23) and focus group discussions (n=7) were conducted with nurses, doctors, administrators, clinical officers and other key stakeholders. Interviews and focus groups were tape recorded and transcribed verbatim, and findings were analyzed through collaborative thematic analysis. Results Challenges to care and service delivery at MNRH included resource constraints (staff, space, equipment, and supplies), staff inadequacies (knowledge, motivation, and professionalism), overcrowding, a poorly functioning referral system, limited quality assurance, and a cumbersome procurement system. There were also insufficiencies in the teaching of professionalism and communication skills to students, and patient care challenges that included lack of access to specialized services, risk of infections, and inappropriate medications. Suggestions for how MakCHS could contribute to addressing these challenges included strengthening referral systems and peripheral health center capacity, and establishing quality assurance mechanisms. The College could also strengthen the teaching of professionalism, communication and leadership skills to students, and monitor student training and develop courses that contribute to continuous professional development. Additionally, the College could provide in-service education for providers on professionalism, communication skills, strategies that promote evidence-based practice and managerial leadership skills. Conclusions Although there are numerous barriers to delivery of quality health services at MNRH, many barriers could be addressed by strengthening the relationship between the Hospital and MakCHS. Strategic partnerships and creative use of existing resources, both human and financial, could improve the quality of care and service delivery at MNRH. Improving services and providing more skills training could better prepare MakCHS graduates for leadership roles in other health care facilities, ultimately improving health outcomes throughout Uganda.

Kizza Irene B; Tugumisirize Joshua; Tweheyo Raymond; Mbabali Speciosa; Kasangaki Arabat; Nshimye Edith; Sekandi Juliet; Groves Sara; Kennedy Caitlin E

2011-01-01

168

The future of gas: a global challenge. Conference book  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Six papers were presented at the conference discussing global aspects of modern state and future trends of using natural gas for energy production, emphasizing economical and environmental issues

1995-01-01

169

Poverty and Environmental Degradation Challenges within the Global Economy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Since the end of the second World War, the link between deepening poverty and environmental degradation has increased in visibility despite the efforts of the United Nations and other international agencies. Focuses on globalization, poverty, and the environment. (DDR)

Mabogunje, Akin L.

2002-01-01

170

Cohort studies around the world: methodologies, research questions and integration to address the emerging global epidemic of chronic diseases.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

With ageing populations, increased economic prosperity and the ensuing lifestyle changes, there has been a dramatic increase in the burden of chronic non-communicable diseases in countries of the developing world. The distribution of risk factors for chronic diseases among populations in developing countries has traditionally been very different from that in their Western counterparts, thus resulting in considerable variation in disease distribution in these settings. However, with the increase in globalization along with rapid advancements in technology, many developing countries are now faced with the challenge of a dual disease burden, battling existing communicable infectious diseases as well as the emerging epidemic of non-communicable chronic diseases. This paper highlights the need for multiple cohort studies on chronic diseases around the world, and explores some of the challenges in establishing and maintaining these studies in resource-constrained settings.

Nair H; Shu XO; Volmink J; Romieu I; Spiegelman D

2012-03-01

171

Cohort studies around the world: methodologies, research questions and integration to address the emerging global epidemic of chronic diseases.  

Science.gov (United States)

With ageing populations, increased economic prosperity and the ensuing lifestyle changes, there has been a dramatic increase in the burden of chronic non-communicable diseases in countries of the developing world. The distribution of risk factors for chronic diseases among populations in developing countries has traditionally been very different from that in their Western counterparts, thus resulting in considerable variation in disease distribution in these settings. However, with the increase in globalization along with rapid advancements in technology, many developing countries are now faced with the challenge of a dual disease burden, battling existing communicable infectious diseases as well as the emerging epidemic of non-communicable chronic diseases. This paper highlights the need for multiple cohort studies on chronic diseases around the world, and explores some of the challenges in establishing and maintaining these studies in resource-constrained settings. PMID:22325615

Nair, H; Shu, X-O; Volmink, J; Romieu, I; Spiegelman, D

2012-02-09

172

An integrated framework to address climate change (ESCAPE) and further developments of the global and regional climate modules (MAGICC)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] ESCAPE (the Evaluation of Strategies to address Climate change by Adapting to and Preventing Emissions) is an integrated climate change assessment model constructed between 1990 and 1992 for DG XI of the Commission of the European Community by a consortium of research institutes headed by the Climatic Research Unit (CRU). It has been designed to enable the user to generate future scenarios of greenhouse gas emissions (through an energy-economic model), examine their impact on global climate and sea level (through two independent global climate models), and illustrate some of the consequences of this global climate change at a regional scale for the European Community (through a regional climate scenario generator and impact models). We provide a very brief overview of the ESCAPE model which, although innovative, suffers from a number of major limitations. Subsequent work in the CRU has concentrated on improvements to the global climate module and work has also commenced on an improved regional climate scenario generating module. These improvements will lead to a new integrated climate change assessment model, MAGICC (Model for the Assessment of Greenhouse gas Induced Climate Change) which can easily be incorporated into new larger integrated frameworks developed by other institutes. (Author)

173

Global Education: Instructional Strategies Used and Challenges Faced by In-Service Teachers  

Science.gov (United States)

This article examines the result of a study on teachers' reported use of instructional strategies in dealing with the U.S.-Iraq war, the resources that they use, the challenges that they face in implementing a globally oriented curriculum, and the sources of influence on their commitment to global education. A questionnaire was developed and used…

Eslami, Zohreh R.

2005-01-01

174

Globalization and ICTs : Potentials and Challenges for the Public Health Sector of Developing Countries  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

There has been much discussion of the role that recent advances in information and communication technologies (ICTs) could play in improving health systems in developing countries. There is no doubt that the advancement of ICTs has brought both brought opportunities and challenges to developing countries in their efforts to ensure socio-economic development and improve public governance. In the wake of globalization, developing countries have no choice but to take advantage of the opportunities and face the challenges. Despite the fact that many developing countries are taking actions to strengthen their ICT capabilities in both private and public sector organizations, the process has been limited mostly to national and provincial capitals leaving behind majority of the communities and institutions operating in remote areas. This paper took a case study of implementing computerized Health Information Systems (HIS) in the context of the Ethiopian public health care system and investigated the potentials of the new ICT based system and the challenges encountered at provincial and district levels. The findings also revealed that even those with access to modern ICT infrastructure do not get maximum benefit from ICT advancements due to inadequacies in data quality and lack of knowledge in data management and use for decision making and action. To this end, there is an urgent need for governments of most developing countries in general and for sub-Saharan African countries in particular to double their efforts to address constraints threatening to increase technology gap between urban minority and marginalized rural majority by setting up favorable policies and appropriate strategies. For example, the empirical analysis of this study revealed that in order to make IT-based systems work in the Ethiopian public health seating, there is an urgent need to develop proper strategies that took into account the local context.

Mengiste, Shegaw Anagaw

2013-01-01

175

Food security for Africa: an urgent global challenge  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract In 2012, food insecurity is still a major global concern as 1 billion people are suffering from starvation, under-, and malnutrition, and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) has concluded that we are still far from reaching millennium development goal...

Sasson Albert

176

CHALLENGES OF INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS ON AUDITING IN GLOBAL CRISIS CONTEXT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The financial crisis that broke out in summer 2007 is striking in its sheer magnitude, the speed of its contagion to the global financial sphere, as well as its persistence. These factors make it on the most impressive and unprecedented events in recent financial history.

Daniel Botez

2008-01-01

177

The Global Challenge of Antimicrobial Resistance: Insights from Economic Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The prevalence of antimicrobial resistance (AR) limits the therapeutic options for treatment of infections, and increases the social benefit from disease prevention. Like an environmental resource, antimicrobials require stewardship. The effectiveness of an antimicrobial agent is a global public good. We argue for greater use of economic analysis as an input to policy discussion about AR, including for understanding the incentives underlying health behaviors that spawn AR, and to supplement other methods of tracing the evolution of AR internationally. We also discuss integrating antimicrobial stewardship into global health governance.The prevalence of antimicrobial resistance (AR) limits the therapeutic options for treatment of infections, and increases the social benefit from disease prevention. Like an environmental resource, antimicrobials require stewardship. The effectiveness of an antimicrobial agent is a global public good. We argue for greater use of economic analysis as an input to policy discussion about AR, including for understanding the incentives underlying health behaviors that spawn AR, and to supplement other methods of tracing the evolution of AR internationally. We also discuss integrating antimicrobial stewardship into global health governance.

Karen Eggleston; Ruifang Zhang; Richard J. Zeckhauser

2010-01-01

178

New Challenges for Urban History: Culture, Networks, Globalization  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Urban history is a very lively and dynamic research field, showing strict parallelism with the fast increasing of the urban population. Today, competitiveness is one of the key aims for cities in the globalized world. Factors such as accessibility and infrastructure, industry, human capital, innovat...

Hietala, Marjatta

179

International expansion of Chinese multinationals: the new challenge of globalization  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Over the last few years, a new generation of Chinese multinationals has set out to conquer global markets, featuring major international acquisitions that were unthinkable until very recently. This work seeks to analyze the nature of this emerging phenomenon, illustrating the reasons behind the inte...

Quer Ramón, Diego; Claver Cortés, Enrique; Rienda García, Laura

180

Policy to support marine biotechnology-based solutions to global challenges.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Recent advances in science and technology are igniting new interest in marine biotechnology. Governments are recognizing the potential of marine biotechnology to provide solutions to grand global challenges of population health, food, and energy security and sustainable industry. This paper examines some of the challenges to and policy options for the development of marine biotechnology.

Ritchie RJ; Guy K; Philp JC

2013-03-01

 
 
 
 
181

Science Education and Challenges of Globalization in Igbo Nation  

Science.gov (United States)

|This paper reviewed the scientific contents in Igbo culture. Description of the Igbos who constitutes an ethnic group occupying southeastern Nigeria was made. It x-rayed the pre-colonial, colonial, and post-colonial culture of Igbo people and identified the scientific cultural activities, which can be harnessed to meet the challenges of modern…

Ezeudu, F. O.; Nkokelonye, C. U.; Adigwe, J. C.

2013-01-01

182

Science Education and Challenges of Globalization in Igbo Nation  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper reviewed the scientific contents in Igbo culture. Description of the Igbos who constitutes an ethnic group occupying southeastern Nigeria was made. It x-rayed the pre-colonial, colonial, and post-colonial culture of Igbo people and identified the scientific cultural activities, which can be harnessed to meet the challenges of modern day…

Ezeudu, F. O.; Nkokelonye, C. U.; Adigwe, J. C.

2013-01-01

183

The global scientific data infrastructures: the big data challenges  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The current data tsunami produced by the new advanced instruments and/or sensors and/or by running simulations and the progress of science is revolutionizing the way in which research is conducted and this poses new challenges to the existing e-infrastructures from both the data and the application ...

Thanos C.

184

GLOBAL CHALLENGES FOR SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT IN SLOVAKIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper is focused on the evaluation of economic, social and environmental challenges of sustainable agriculture. The selected indicators of the economic challenges of sustainable agriculture imply that agriculture in Slovakia is not in long term be able to ensure competitiveness in the European market, gross agricultural output is characterized by a faster decline in animal production than in crop production and the value of import of agri-food commodities is higher than the value of export. According to selected indicators of social challenges of sustainable agriculture the number of persons working in agriculture has decreasing tendency in last years. The evaluation of selected indicators of environmental challenges of sustainable agriculture implies that area of organic agriculture is the most widely applied sub-measure within the measure agri-environmental payments. For ensuring the balance of the three mentioned dimensions of sustainable agriculture is necessary to increase of local production and consumption of local products, to ensure the protection of nature and landscape, to ensure rural development and to increase the employment opportunities in countryside.

Magdalana Bartosova; Stefan Buday

2013-01-01

185

Principles of Positive Behaviour Supports: Using the FBA as a Problem-Solving Approach to Address Challenging Behaviours beyond Special Populations  

Science.gov (United States)

The Functional Behavioural Assessment (FBA) is an investigative process that examines the context of challenging behaviours in the classroom. Information gleaned from the FBA process is used to develop a behaviour intervention plan to address the challenging behaviour and teach a socially acceptable replacement behaviour. However, the FBA has…

Moreno, Gerardo; Bullock, Lyndal M.

2011-01-01

186

The CharXive Challenge. Regulation of global carbon cycles by vegetation fires  

CERN Document Server

It is an open, but not unanswerable, question as to how much atmospheric CO2 is sequestered globally by vegetation fires. In this work I conceptualise the question in terms of the general CharXive Challenge, discuss a mechanism by which thermoconversion of biomass may regulate the global distribution of carbon between reservoirs, show how suppression of vegetation fires by human activities may increase the fraction of carbon in the atmospheric pool, and pose three specific CharXive Challenges of crucial strategic significance to our management of global carbon cycles.

Ball, R

2010-01-01

187

Aircraft drag reduction as an answer to the global challenges  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Competition in the global aircraft market forces the airlines to reduce costs considerably. This in turn requires from the manufacturer a reduction in development time and cost. Consequently, the manufacturer has to take the right decisions today for investments in cost effective technologies for the products of tomorrow which are successful, efficient and respond exactly to the variety of future customer demands and transportation system requirements. (authors)

Szodruch, J. [Research and Technology with EADS Airbus Gmbh (Germany)

2001-08-01

188

Preserving the global environment: The challenge of shared leadership  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This book brings together essays commissioned as background reading for an April 1990 conference on the global environment co-sponsored by the American Assembly and the World Resources Institute. Among the topic areas covered are the following: technical aspects of energy policy and climatic change; harnessing the power of the marketplace; international cooperation; international regulatory regimes; world economic climate; deforestation and species loss; human population growth.

1993-01-01

189

Examining the global health arena: strengths and weaknesses of a convention approach to global health challenges.  

Science.gov (United States)

The article comprises a conceptual framework to analyze the strengths and weaknesses of a global health convention. The analyses are inspired by Lawrence Gostin's suggested Framework Convention on Global Health. The analytical model takes a starting-point in events tentatively following a logic sequence: Input (global health funding), Processes (coordination, cooperation, accountability, allocation of aid), Output (definition of basic survival needs), Outcome (access to health services), and Impact (health for all). It then examines to what degree binding international regulations can create order in such a sequence of events. We conclude that a global health convention could be an appropriate instrument to deal with some of the problems of global health. We also show that some of the tasks preceding a convention approach might be to muster international support for supra-national health regulations, negotiate compromises between existing stakeholders in the global health arena, and to utilize WHO as a platform for further discussions on a global health convention. PMID:20880244

Haffeld, Just Balstad; Siem, Harald; Røttingen, John-Arne

2010-01-01

190

Technical challenges in designing post-marketing eCRFs to address clinical safety and pharmacovigilance needs.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To identify key challenges and propose technical considerations in designing electronic case report form (eCRF) for post-marketing studies, the author undertakes a comprehensive literature review of peer reviewed and grey literature to assess the key aspects, processes, standards, recommendations, and best practices in designing eCRFs based on industry experience in designing and supporting electronic data capture (EDC) studies. Literature search using strings on MEDLINE and PUBMED returned few papers directly related to CRF design. Health informatics and general practice journals were searched and results reviewed. Many conference, government commission, health professional and special interests group websites provide relevant information from practical experience - summarization of this information is presented. Further, we presented a list of concrete technical considerations in dealing with EDC technology/system limitations based on literature assessment and industry implementation experience. It is recognized that cross-functional teams be involved in eCRF design process and decision making. To summarize the keys in designing eCRFs to address post-market study safety and pharmacovigilance needs, the first is to identify required data elements from the study protocol supporting data analyses and reporting requirements. Secondly, accepted best practices, CDASH & CDISC guidelines, and company internal or therapeutic unit standard should be considered and applied. Coding (MedDRA & WHODD) mapping should be managed and implemented as well when possible. Finally, we need to be on top of the EDC technologies, challenge the technologies, drive EDC improvement via working with vendors, and utilize the technologies to drive clinical effectiveness.

Lu Z

2010-01-01

191

Technical challenges in designing post-marketing eCRFs to address clinical safety and pharmacovigilance needs.  

Science.gov (United States)

To identify key challenges and propose technical considerations in designing electronic case report form (eCRF) for post-marketing studies, the author undertakes a comprehensive literature review of peer reviewed and grey literature to assess the key aspects, processes, standards, recommendations, and best practices in designing eCRFs based on industry experience in designing and supporting electronic data capture (EDC) studies. Literature search using strings on MEDLINE and PUBMED returned few papers directly related to CRF design. Health informatics and general practice journals were searched and results reviewed. Many conference, government commission, health professional and special interests group websites provide relevant information from practical experience - summarization of this information is presented. Further, we presented a list of concrete technical considerations in dealing with EDC technology/system limitations based on literature assessment and industry implementation experience. It is recognized that cross-functional teams be involved in eCRF design process and decision making. To summarize the keys in designing eCRFs to address post-market study safety and pharmacovigilance needs, the first is to identify required data elements from the study protocol supporting data analyses and reporting requirements. Secondly, accepted best practices, CDASH & CDISC guidelines, and company internal or therapeutic unit standard should be considered and applied. Coding (MedDRA & WHODD) mapping should be managed and implemented as well when possible. Finally, we need to be on top of the EDC technologies, challenge the technologies, drive EDC improvement via working with vendors, and utilize the technologies to drive clinical effectiveness. PMID:19900576

Lu, Zhengwu

2009-11-10

192

One Health: the global challenge of epidemic and endemic leishmaniasis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

'One Health' proposes the unification of medical and veterinary sciences with the establishment of collaborative ventures in clinical care, surveillance and control of cross-species disease, education, and research into disease pathogenesis, diagnosis, therapy and vaccination. The concept encompasses the human population, domestic animals and wildlife, and the impact that environmental changes ('environmental health') such as global warming will have on these populations. Visceral leishmaniasis is a perfect example of a small companion animal disease for which prevention and control might abolish or decrease the suffering of canine and human patients, and which aligns well with the One Health approach. In this review we discuss how surveillance for leishmaniases is undertaken globally through the control of anthroponootic visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) and zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL). The ZVL epidemic has been managed to date by the culling of infected dogs, treatment of human cases and control of the sandfly vector by insecticidal treatment of human homes and the canine reservoir. Recently, preventive vaccination of dogs in Brazil has led to reduction in the incidence of the canine and human disease. Vaccination permits greater dog owner compliance with control measures than a culling programme. Another advance in disease control in Africa is provided by a surveillance programme that combines remote satellite sensing, ecological modelling, vector surveillance and geo-spatial mapping of the distribution of vectors and of the animal-to-animal or animal-to-human pathogen transmission. This coordinated programme generates advisory notices and alerts on emerging infectious disease outbreaks that may impede or avoid the spreading of visceral leishmaniasis to new areas of the planet as a consequence of global warming.

Palatnik-de-Sousa CB; Day MJ

2011-01-01

193

One Health: The global challenge of epidemic and endemic leishmaniasis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract 'One Health' proposes the unification of medical and veterinary sciences with the establishment of collaborative ventures in clinical care, surveillance and control of cross-species disease, education, and research into disease pathogenesis, diagnosis, therapy and vaccination. The concept encompasses the human population, domestic animals and wildlife, and the impact that environmental changes ('environmental health') such as global warming will have on these populations. Visceral leishmaniasis is a perfect example of a small companion animal disease for which prevention and control might abolish or decrease the suffering of canine and human patients, and which aligns well with the One Health approach. In this review we discuss how surveillance for leishmaniases is undertaken globally through the control of anthroponootic visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) and zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL). The ZVL epidemic has been managed to date by the culling of infected dogs, treatment of human cases and control of the sandfly vector by insecticidal treatment of human homes and the canine reservoir. Recently, preventive vaccination of dogs in Brazil has led to reduction in the incidence of the canine and human disease. Vaccination permits greater dog owner compliance with control measures than a culling programme. Another advance in disease control in Africa is provided by a surveillance programme that combines remote satellite sensing, ecological modelling, vector surveillance and geo-spatial mapping of the distribution of vectors and of the animal-to-animal or animal-to-human pathogen transmission. This coordinated programme generates advisory notices and alerts on emerging infectious disease outbreaks that may impede or avoid the spreading of visceral leishmaniasis to new areas of the planet as a consequence of global warming.

Palatnik-de-Sousa Clarisa B; Day Michael J

2011-01-01

194

Preparing Students for the Ethical Challenges of Global Citizenship  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper describes an approach to teaching ethical intercultural communication. This approach helps students become aware of their own ethnocentric attitudes and helps them move beyond those perspectives to develop a mindful approach to intercultural communication. The paper begins by introducing the concept of mindful communication and the challenges of developing of a code of ethical behavior for communicating across cultures. Then, strategies for reconciling cultural relativism and universalism are offered. Finally, the paper provides a set of guidelines for ethical behavior in intercultural encounters.

Madelyn Flammia

2012-01-01

195

Environmental policy: Meeting the challenge of global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Canadian government's overall approach to resolving the environmental problems due to global warming is discussed, with reference to how this approach is related to actions taken by other countries. Canada's environmental strategy is based the need to correct the failure to take into account the environmental consequences of daily actions. One element seen necessary for such correction, better environmental decisionmaking, is underlain by such key factors as the need to provide a strong scientific base on which to make decisions, resolving uncertainties regarding the greenhouse effect, and an environmentally educated population. Direct governmental measures can be taken to factor environmental considerations into decisions, such as regulatory instruments regarding the environment and economic incentives to encourage taking the environment into account. With respect to global warming, Canada has signed the Hague Declaration on international cooperation to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. About half the annual world emissions of greenhouse gases come from fossil fuel combustion. Canada is the fourth largest producer per capita of the single most important greenhouse gas, carbon dioxide. The transport and industrial sectors each account for ca 25% of Canada's CO2 emissions, and energy conservation is seen as a first step in reducing these emissions. The greatest scope for reducing greenhouse gas emissions in the transport sector appears to lie in the development of convenient and economic alternate fuels.

1990-01-01

196

Global Sea Level Rise: Recent Progress and Challenges for the Decade to Come  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study of sea level rise is a highly interdisciplinary endeavor with important implications for our society as it adapts to a warming climate. Although the past two decades have revolutionized our understanding of sea level rise and its causes (primarily mass input and ocean warming), major scientific challenges must be met before useful predictions can be made. The rate of sea level rise has accelerated considerably relative to the pre-industrial era. Over the twentieth century, global sea level increased at an average rate of about 2 mm yr-1, which is substantially larger than the rate of the previous three millennia. Furthermore, evidence now exists for additional acceleration during the twentieth century. Nevertheless, accurate prediction of future sea level rise requires continued observations as well as significant advances in modeling of the coupled ice-ocean-land-atmosphere climate. A major effort is needed to sustain data recording from satellite altimeters (e.g., the Jason series), from time-variable gravity missions (e.g., Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment, or GRACE), and from autonomous ocean observing systems (e.g., Argo). In addition, an interdisciplinary research effort is required to address major problems, including improvement of the historical records of sea level rise and ocean warming, the separation of other geophysical processes from sea level rise signals, and a more complete understanding of interactions between the ocean and ice sheets.

Josh K. Willis; Don P. Chambers; Chung-Yen Kuo; C.K. Shum

2010-01-01

197

Soils and global climate change: Challenges and opportunities  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the interplay of the soil and the atmosphere, the soil can be both a contributor to and a recipient of the impacts of climate change. In the past, land management has generally resulted in considerable depletion of soil organic matter and the release into the atmosphere of such radiatively active gases as carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide. Global climate change, to the extent that it occurs, will strongly impact all soil processes. At this time, the task of soil management should be to restore soil organic carbon in order to enhance soil structure and fertility and to help counter the atmospheric greenhouse effect. Widely varying estimates of the soil's organic carbon content and of the potential for soil carbon sequestration point to the need to conduct a comprehensive inventory of this important property.

Rosenzweig, C.; Hillel, D.

2000-01-01

198

Globalization and loss of plant knowledge: challenging the paradigm.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The erosion of cultural knowledge and traditions as a result of globalization and migration is a commonly reported phenomenon. We compared one type of cultural knowledge about medicinal plants (number of plants reported to treat thirty common health conditions) among Dominican laypersons who self-medicate with plants and live in rural or urban areas of the Dominican Republic (DR), and those who have moved to New York City (NYC). Many plants used as medicines were popular Dominican food plants. These plants were reported significantly more often by Dominicans living in NYC as compared to the DR, and this knowledge was not age-dependent. These results contradict the popular paradigm about loss of cultural plant knowledge and is the first study to report a statistically measurable increase in this type of knowledge associated with migration.

Vandebroek I; Balick MJ

2012-01-01

199

Global Warming Potential Implications and Methodological Challenges of Road Transport Emissions in Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine the repercussions vehicular road transport emissions have on global warming potential (GWP), and the need to address the issue considering methodological challenges facing road transportation in Nigeria. Specific objectives of the study includes to determine the emission level in the country, to evaluate the GWP and to develop a emission mapping network on trunk A roads in Nigeria. Accurate information on these emissions is required to strengthen the mitigation and adaptation ability of the country to tackle climate change. The study relied on direct measurement technique supported by literature as well as questionnaires administered on the organised vehicle fleet operators and road traffic management agency as data gathering methods. Also, detailed analysis of questionnaires responses was carried out. Results show that road transport account for over 14% of greenhouse gases. Survey findings indicate that excessive smoke emission offence accounts for 1-2% of the annual road traffic offences in Nigeria. Using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) software version 16, five fitted simple linear regression models were developed. With these fitted models it is possible to map the gas concentrations on the kilometre travelled. Examination of the National Vehicle Identification Scheme (NVIS) revealed a rise in the periodic plate number generation from yearly record of 788,169 in 2001 to 791,832 in 2009. Human capacity requirements, based on yearly Drivers Licence (DL) processed, increased by 55% between 2000 and 2010. Three mutual strategies namely renewed urban and rural road transport infrastructure availability, regular fleet maintenance and capacities building for improved behavioural change of road users were recommended to help control road transport emissions. These measures if inflexibly implemented will change the transport sector from being a major global warming risk factor to that of Eco-friendly sector.

S. C. Nwanya; I. Offili

2012-01-01

200

Challenge and Opportunity: the ALI/III Global Principles Project  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article deals with an international project to establish the extent to which it is feasible to achieve a worldwide acceptance of the Principles of Cooperation among the NAFTA Countries together with the Guidelines Applicable to Court-to-Court Communications in Cross-Border Cases. This contribution explains the process whereby the American Law Institute and the International Insolvency Institute (1) developed principles of cooperation with regard to cross-border insolvency; (2) established acceptance of these principles in jurisdictions across the world, subject to any necessary local modifications; and (3) obtained the endorsement of leading domestic associations, courts, and other groups in those jurisdictions. This article may contribute to the development the South African cross-border insolvency law. The inclusion of the challenges of harmonisation of private international law is also contributing to current debate.

IF Fletcher

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Challenge and opportunity: the ALI/III global principles project  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english This article deals with an international project to establish the extent to which it is feasible to achieve a worldwide acceptance of the Principles of Cooperation among the NAFTA Countries together with the Guidelines Applicable to Court-to-Court Communications in Cross-Border Cases. This contribution explains the process whereby the American Law Institute and the International Insolvency Institute (1) developed principles of cooperation with regard to cross-border insol (more) vency; (2) established acceptance of these principles in jurisdictions across the world, subject to any necessary local modifications; and (3) obtained the endorsement of leading domestic associations, courts, and other groups in those jurisdictions. This article may contribute to the development the South African cross-border insolvency law. The inclusion of the challenges of harmonisation of private international law is also contributing to current debate.

Fletcher, IF

2008-03-01

202

How agro-ecological research helps to address food security issues under new IPM and pesticide reduction policies for global crop production systems.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Drivers behind food security and crop protection issues are discussed in relation to food losses caused by pests. Pests globally consume food estimated to feed an additional one billion people. Key drivers include rapid human population increase, climate change, loss of beneficial on-farm biodiversity, reduction in per capita cropped land, water shortages, and EU pesticide withdrawals under policies relating to 91/414 EEC. IPM (Integrated Pest Management) will be compulsory for all EU agriculture by 2014 and is also being widely adopted globally. IPM offers a 'toolbox' of complementary crop- and region-specific crop protection solutions to address these rising pressures. IPM aims for more sustainable solutions by using complementary technologies. The applied research challenge now is to reduce selection pressure on single solution strategies, by creating additive/synergistic interactions between IPM components. IPM is compatible with organic, conventional, and GM cropping systems and is flexible, allowing regional fine-tuning. It reduces pests below economic thresholds utilizing key 'ecological services', particularly biocontrol. A recent global review demonstrates that IPM can reduce pesticide use and increase yields of most of the major crops studied. Landscape scale 'ecological engineering', together with genetic improvement of new crop varieties, will enhance the durability of pest-resistant cultivars (conventional and GM). IPM will also promote compatibility with semiochemicals, biopesticides, precision pest monitoring tools, and rapid diagnostics. These combined strategies are urgently needed and are best achieved via multi-disciplinary research, including complex spatio-temporal modelling at farm and landscape scales. Integrative and synergistic use of existing and new IPM technologies will help meet future food production needs more sustainably in developed and developing countries, in an era of reduced pesticide availability. Current IPM research gaps are identified and discussed.

E Birch AN; Begg GS; Squire GR

2011-06-01

203

How agro-ecological research helps to address food security issues under new IPM and pesticide reduction policies for global crop production systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

Drivers behind food security and crop protection issues are discussed in relation to food losses caused by pests. Pests globally consume food estimated to feed an additional one billion people. Key drivers include rapid human population increase, climate change, loss of beneficial on-farm biodiversity, reduction in per capita cropped land, water shortages, and EU pesticide withdrawals under policies relating to 91/414 EEC. IPM (Integrated Pest Management) will be compulsory for all EU agriculture by 2014 and is also being widely adopted globally. IPM offers a 'toolbox' of complementary crop- and region-specific crop protection solutions to address these rising pressures. IPM aims for more sustainable solutions by using complementary technologies. The applied research challenge now is to reduce selection pressure on single solution strategies, by creating additive/synergistic interactions between IPM components. IPM is compatible with organic, conventional, and GM cropping systems and is flexible, allowing regional fine-tuning. It reduces pests below economic thresholds utilizing key 'ecological services', particularly biocontrol. A recent global review demonstrates that IPM can reduce pesticide use and increase yields of most of the major crops studied. Landscape scale 'ecological engineering', together with genetic improvement of new crop varieties, will enhance the durability of pest-resistant cultivars (conventional and GM). IPM will also promote compatibility with semiochemicals, biopesticides, precision pest monitoring tools, and rapid diagnostics. These combined strategies are urgently needed and are best achieved via multi-disciplinary research, including complex spatio-temporal modelling at farm and landscape scales. Integrative and synergistic use of existing and new IPM technologies will help meet future food production needs more sustainably in developed and developing countries, in an era of reduced pesticide availability. Current IPM research gaps are identified and discussed. PMID:21669880

E Birch, A Nicholas; Begg, Graham S; Squire, Geoffrey R

2011-06-08

204

Global Challenges for the Environment, Water Clean and Economic Advantages  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The fast development of industry, agriculture technology, with increasing population grows increasingly standard of living is also increasing demand for clean water and environmental pollution grows each time taking process of uncontrolled release of CO2 into the atmosphere and increase the industrial waste. Rulers need to do a better coordination of CO2 in the atmosphere management, waste management, water. Sustainability of public health, protection of the environment and the economy are key factors for environment and clean water. Collecting more water behind dams and especially in aquifers through artificial recharge is necessary to save water in times of excess water for use at the time of his absence. Storage of CO2 in safe places as under the oceans countries semptyexplorer oil from storage in mines or explorer. Use should be carefully planned and take measures to prevent adverse health effects in the case of groundwater contamination. Some countries may save water by importing most food and energy commodities and other countries that possess more water, so basically they also get water was needed to produce these goods.Water "virtual". Local water can then be used for high social,environmental, or economic or saved for the future. Climate change and global warming caused by carbon dioxide emissions are difficult to predict in space and time. The wars in the future will be developed for clean water and not for gold and oil.

Hidajete Nikqi , AdemDreshaj,

2013-01-01

205

Injuries and violence: a global public health challenge  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Injuries and violence are a significant cause of mortality and physical disability. Injuries killed five million people worldwide each year [1]. The level of this dilemma, however, differs significantly by age, sex, region and economic development [2]. Globally, road traffic injury mortalities, self-inflicted injury mortality and interpersonal violence, war, drowning, and exposure to fire are the leading cause of deaths among people aged 15-44 years [3]. This special issue aims to assess the magnitude of this problem, identify risk factors and explore prevention strategies to alleviate the burden of injuries and violence. There is a dire need to increase the knowledge of the extent of problem, and associated risk factors that needs to be targeted for prevention. Erosa et al., examined reports of verbal and physical abuse from family caregivers of adults with severe physical, neurological and developmental disabilities, and found that caregivers who reported some form of abuse reported significantly greater distress and burden than caregivers who did not report any abuse. Grice et al., found that reported histories of work-related physical assault and work-related threat were associated with elevated risks of current work-related physical assault. Ahmad, systematically reviewed and summarized current scientific knowledge on the use of interactive computer-assisted screening to detect intimate partner violence (IPV).

Muazzam Nasrullah

2010-01-01

206

Global warming presents new challenges for maize pest management  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It has been conjectured that global warming will increase the prevalence of insect pests in many agro-ecosystems. In this paper, we quantitatively assess four of the key pests of maize, one of the most important systems in North American grain production. Using empirically generated estimates of pest overwintering thresholds and degree-day requirements, along with climate change projections from a high-resolution climate model, we project potential future ranges for each of these pests in the United States. Our analysis suggests the possibility of increased winter survival and greater degree-day accumulations for each of the pests surveyed. We find that relaxed cold limitation could expand the range of all four pest taxa, including a substantial range expansion in the case of corn earworm (H. zea), a migratory, cold-intolerant pest. Because the corn earworm is a cosmopolitan pest that has shown resistance to insecticides, our results suggest that this expansion could also threaten other crops, including those in high-value areas of the western United States. Because managing significant additional pressure from this suite of established pests would require additional pest management inputs, the projected decreases in cold limitation and increases in heat accumulation have the potential to significantly alter the pest management landscape for North American maize production. Further, these range expansions could have substantial economic impacts through increased seed and insecticide costs, decreased yields, and the downstream effects of changes in crop yield variability.

Diffenbaugh, Noah S [Purdue Climate Change Research Center and Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Purdue University, 550 Stadium Mall Drive, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2051 (United States); Krupke, Christian H [Department of Entomology, Purdue University, 901 West State Street, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); White, Michael A [Department of Watershed Sciences, Utah State University, 5210 Old Main Hall, Logan, UT 84322-5210 (United States); Alexander, Corinne E [Department of Agricultural Economics, Purdue University, 403 West State Street, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2056 (United States)], E-mail: diffenbaugh@purdue.edu

2008-10-15

207

Challenges of Globalization and Quality Assurance in Nigerian University Education  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study was undertaken to examine the state of quality assurance mechanisms in Nigerian universities with a view to proffering measures that would enhance the quality of education obtained in the institutions. The population consisted of professors from federal universities in the south-south region of Nigeria, numbering 624. The stratified sampling technique was used in selecting a sample of 225 professors from the universities for the study. Two null hypotheses were formulated based on the variables of the study. These were tested at 0.05 alpha level, using t-test analysis. Data collection was done with the use of a structured questionnaire tagged “Quality Assurance in Nigerian University Education” (QANUE). The calculated t-values were less than the criticalt, leading to the retention of the two null hypotheses. It was therefore concluded that the quality of Nigerian University Education is low and cannot measure up globally due to the poor state of quality assurance mechanisms in the universities. Based on this, measures for improving the quality of Nigerian university education were recommended to include adequate funding, updated libraries, well equipped laboratories and workshops, provision of instructional materials and school infrastructure, lecturer motivation and proper supervision.

Iniobong Ekong Nkang

2013-01-01

208

The physics of global climate change: challenges for research  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Full text: There are major issues in our scientific understanding of the functioning of our planet Earth. The growing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases, changing in surface albedo, changes in distribution and lifetime of clouds, alteration in aerosol properties and distribution, are all key issues in the radiation balance that controls the climate of our planet. Earth is a non linear highly complex system. Since the industrial revolution, concentration of greenhouse gases, in particular carbon dioxide and methane have increase by 30 to 100%. The fraction of infrared radiation trapped in the atmosphere has increased by about 1.6 watts/m2. This additional energy has increased the average temperature by 0.79 degrees centigrade, with certain regions. But, we know very little of the physics, chemistry and biology that controls emissions, sinks and effects in Earth climate. Every week new important scientific findings are published in this area, and models that could predict the future of Earth climate are quite primitive and lack key issues. The hard science of global change is closely associated with socio-economic issues. Humanity have taken the main control role on Earth climate, and the potential for an average increase in temperature of 3 to 5 degrees is large, although there are tentative to limit the average temperature growth to 2 degrees. But even with this ambitious target, Amazonia and the Arctic will probably be much hotter than 3-4 degrees, with important feedbacks in the climate system. The talk will deal with these issues and new research that is needed to increase our knowledge on how the climate of our planet works and which climate we could have in the next decades. (author)

2009-01-01

209

Keynote address  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The author discusses the role of energy in the world economy, structural changes in the ever changing US energy sector and responses of the capital markets, and electric deregulation, highlighting the challenges facing the gas processors. He encourages the natural gas processors to continue to be aware of global forces which can rapidly affect the industry.

Pena, F.

1999-07-01

210

Global warming what are the challenges for Copenhagen?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Kyoto Protocol was adopted in 1997 and, following a long ratification process, went into effect in 2005. Under the Protocol, 200 countries have committed to reducing their greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) by 2012. What conclusions can we draw from developments thus far, as we await the December conference in Copenhagen to determine a follow-up to the Kyoto Protocol? The work of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has given us more accurate knowledge on global warming issues. In its latest report, published in 2007, the IPCC reveals that eleven of the past twelve years studied - 1995 to 2006 - were among the warmest yet recorded since 1850, when this type of data collection began. From 1906 to 2005, global temperatures rose by 0.74 deg. C, and the average rate of increase has more than doubled over the past fifty years. To help companies and countries achieve their GHG emissions reduction targets, the Kyoto Protocol provides for a carbon trading system based on carbon reduction credits (CRC), the exchange currency in a carbon credit market. When a company reduces its emissions below regulatory levels, it can have the 'excess' reduction certified and converted into carbon credits, which it can then sell to a company that has not yet reached its reduction targets. Japan has already used clean technologies and energy saving measures to achieve energy efficiency in the past. Its energy structure is fairly close to that of France, which has a 0% emissions goal. In Japan, nuclear power also accounts for a significant share of the electric power program. The Japanese government recently announced that it was increasing its carbon reduction goal from 6% to an ambitious 25%. China and the United States are the world's leading greenhouse gas emitters. When China ratified the Kyoto Protocol in 2002, it was considered to be a developing country and as such has no emissions reduction obligations. Since then, China has moved closer to the Protocol principles, creating a national climate change group in 2007 and launching its own national climate change program. The program's goal is to lower China's energy consumption per unit of GDP by 20% by 2010 compared with its 2005 level. Under a medium to long-term sustainable development plan, the share of sustainable energies in the overall energy mix will increase to 10% by 2010 and to 15% by 2020. Before the Copenhagen conference, China indicated that it was expecting the United States and Europe to commit to reducing their emissions by 40% and to devote 1% of their GDP to technology transfer towards developing countries by 2020. The Bush Administration used the argument that 'the American way of life is not negotiable' to justify the refusal of the United States to adhere to the Kyoto Protocol. Today, the United States returns to the discussion table in a more open frame of mind. The administration of Barack Obama has decided to become more involved and cooperate more with China and India on climate change. In late June, the American president succeeded in getting his climate change bill through the US House of Representatives. The climate bill, which is still up before the Senate, aims to reduce GHG emissions (particularly CO2) by 17% before 2020 compared with the 2005 level. It also promotes the development of clean energies and provides for the creation of a cap and trade emissions trading system. Under this system, emissions allowances are either sold or given to the most vulnerable industries. The sales revenue would be used to fund the development of clean energies, among other things. The EU-15 member states are close to reaching the targets set at Kyoto. What about EU-27 member states? At the late September summit in Pittsburgh, the G20 countries, which include the most industrialized countries as well as the large emerging countries of China, India and Brazil, agreed to phase out subsidies for fossil energy sources over the medium term, but without setting a deadline. According to the press release issued at the end of the summit, 'inefficient fossil fuel subsidi

2010-01-01

211

Readiness in Meeting Globalization Challenges: A Case of Accounting Firms in Malaysia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The empirical study explored the relationships between firm?s characteristics and perceived readiness level of Malaysian Institute of Accountants firm members in meeting globalization challenges. In general all respondents indicated low readiness level in penetrating the global market. Seeing that the services sector is growing tremendously during the recent decades, there is a great opportunity for businesses to increase the export services in the foreseeable future to match that of the developed countries. Thus the findings and recommendations of this study provided comprehensive empirical information for entrepreneurs especially those involve in financial sector to actively embark into the global market.

Arfah Salleh; Raduan C. Rose; Naresh Kumar; Lu C. Peng

2007-01-01

212

Globalization and Its Challenges for Developing Countries: The Case of Turkish Higher Education  

Science.gov (United States)

|This paper examines the challenges faced by the Turkish higher education system and exposes the inequities and realities educators in a developing nation must struggle with as they try to find a prestigious spot in the knowledge-production industry. After a brief overview of the literature that illustrates how globalization penetrated into each…

Akar, Hanife

2010-01-01

213

Ten Sins Challenging Education in the Contemporary Global Era: A Philosophical Essay  

Science.gov (United States)

According to this author, the modern epoch is characterized by a decrease of vital spirituality and an increase of materialistic values and virtues. This article discusses what the author views as the ten sins challenging education in the contemporary global era. These are: (1) the shrinking of spiritual values; (2) corruption; (3) sexual…

Sinagatullin, Ilghiz M.

2004-01-01

214

Globalization and Its Challenges for Developing Countries: The Case of Turkish Higher Education  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper examines the challenges faced by the Turkish higher education system and exposes the inequities and realities educators in a developing nation must struggle with as they try to find a prestigious spot in the knowledge-production industry. After a brief overview of the literature that illustrates how globalization penetrated into each…

Akar, Hanife

2010-01-01

215

Sacred forests and the global challenge of biodiversity conservation: the case of Benin and Togo  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sacred forests and the global challenge of biodiversity conservation : the case of Benin and TogoAbstract In the study areas of south Benin and Togo, sacred forests are often the only remaining patches of forest vegetation. These forests are under threat from the growing demand for land ...

Juhé-Beaulaton, Dominique

216

Global and Regional Energy Challenges to 2050 and Beyond: Experiences from Assessing Energy Pathways for Europe  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article provides a discussion about the global and regional energy challenges to 2050 and beyond. It concludes that the political debate on future solutions and challenges for the energy system is most often focused on which types of technologies to choose from. Yet considering the deep emission cuts required, it seems clear that all available technologies and measures must be applied over the coming decades. The main challenge is that there is too much fossil fuel (especially coal) in a climate change context. As a consequence, successful implementation of carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies is important to meet climate targets. Failure to implement CCS will require that the global community agree to almost immediately start phasing out the use of fossil fuels. However, such an agreement, which would require pricing the natural capital and ecosystems in an entirely different way than today, seems unlikely.

Filip Johnsson

2013-01-01

217

[Parents, children and parenting in cancer patients: a still poorly addressed issue in the global management of neoplastic diseases].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

More than 25% of cancer patients in western countries have less than 18 years old children. While increasing attention has been given to various psychosocial issues related to neoplastic disease, the impact of parental cancer on psychosocial 'functioning' of children and adolescents are still poorly explored. Similarly, the role of parenting concerns on quality of life, compliance to the disease and treatments and therapeutic choices are not sufficiently addressed. Usually, cancer patients are reluctant to openly inform their children about their disease. Such "protective" attitude may cause anxiety and psichological distress in children and affect the coping capability of the whole family. Lack of communication may increase the sense of sadness, grief and despair, experienced by children whose parents are ill and induce long-term psychological consequences. Parenthood, on the other side, carries additional concerns to cancer patients which may render disease management more challenging and painful. The oncology team must favour, through appropriate support programs, communication between patients and their children to ensure a better psychological outcome from a stressful situation deeply affecting quality of life of patients and their families.

De Benedetta G; Ruggiero G; Pinto A

2008-01-01

218

Global change and mercury cycling: Challenges for implementing a global mercury treaty.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Minamata Convention aims to protect human health and the environment from anthropogenic emissions and releases of mercury. The provisions of the Minamata Convention are examined to assess their influence on global biogeochemical cycling of mercury. Though the Convention's scope covers all major categories of atmospheric emissions, the degree to which it will affect future emissions trajectories remains unclear. A box model analysis shows that future global biogeochemical cycling under projected technological provisions would mainly result in avoided increases, and that estimated differences in atmospheric concentrations resulting from policies would be on the order of 1-2% per year. Present experience suggests that scientific knowledge at present is not sufficient to attribute causes to changes of this magnitude. Enhancements to capacity to measure the effectiveness of the Minamata Convention are suggested, including both measurement and modeling. Environ Toxicol Chem © 2013 SETAC.

Selin NE

2013-08-01

219

Global plagues and the Global Fund: Challenges in the fight against HIV, TB and malaria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Although a grossly disproportionate burden of disease from HIV/AIDS, TB and malaria remains in the Global South, these infectious diseases have finally risen to the top of the international agenda in recent years. Ideal strategies for combating these diseases must balance the advantages and disadvantages of 'vertical' disease control programs and 'horizontal' capacity-building approaches. Discussion The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM) represents an important step forward in the struggle against these pathogens. While its goals are laudable, significant barriers persist. Most significant is the pitiful lack of funds committed by world governments, particularly those of the very G8 countries whose discussions gave rise to the Fund. A drastic scaling up of resources is the first clear requirement for the GFATM to live up to the international community's lofty intentions. A directly related issue is that of maintaining a strong commitment to the treatment of the three diseases along with traditional prevention approaches, with the ensuing debates over providing affordable access to medications in the face of the pharmaceutical industry's vigorous protection of patent rights. Summary At this early point in the Fund's history, it remains to be seen how these issues will be resolved at the programming level. Nevertheless, it is clear that significant structural changes are required in such domains as global spending priorities, debt relief, trade policy, and corporate responsibility. HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria are global problems borne of gross socioeconomic inequality, and their solutions require correspondingly geopolitical solutions.

Tan Darrell HS; Upshur Ross EG; Ford Nathan

2003-01-01

220

Greenhouse gas emissions - a global challenge[Norway]; Klimagassutslipp - en global utfordring  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The article describes some greenhouse gas emission challenges in the Norwegian petroleum industry. Some of the conclusions are that the national taxation policies are insufficient and that international co-operation is essential in order to obtain significant pollution abatement. The mechanisms for this are not yet in place. Some possible measures are mentioned. The main solution to the problems internationally seems to be international co-operation projects generally with quota trade in order to meet the Kyoto agreement obligations.

NONE

2000-07-01

 
 
 
 
221

GLOBALIZATION AND INTEGRATION INTO THE ECONOMIC AND MONETARY UNION-CHALLENGES FOR BANKS OPERATING IN ROMANIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper aims to present recent evolution, but also the consequences of globalization of the banking sector, considering different approaches of this phenomenon. Over time, the banking field has undergone important changes in both the applicable law of this area, and through the technologies used in satisfying the customers’ needs. The development of international markets has led to new opportunities and challenges for banks that transformed the domestic financial market into an arena where only the best survive and grow. On these grounds and in strict relation to positive and negative effects of globalization, we can speak of a constant evolution of its most important subsystems - the financial subsystems of the global economy. In this paper special importance is given to the banking field, the article presenting arguments through which this complex phenomenon called globalization may have important consequences on financial supervision and regulation.

CORALIA EMILIA POPA

2012-01-01

222

Globalization : the challenge of the 1990s for the chemical industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The challenges facing the chemical industry in Canada were discussed. In recent years, Canada has scored low in polls measuring public confidence in the chemical industry. The industry is also suffering from continuing recession, global competition, increased environmental demands and strict legislation. The impact of globalization, total quality management, free trade, environmental concerns, and government policies on the chemical industry were reviewed. In the view of this author (President and CEO of Dow Chemicals) globalization is not a matter of choice, it is an industry imperative. Survival in the globalized economy will require not only to be successful competitors, but even more importantly to be successful cooperators with other stakeholders, and successful in forming partnerships with customers.

Wilcock, D. [Dow Chemical of Canada Ltd., Sarnia, ON (Canada)

1992-12-31

223

Globalization : the challenge of the 1990s for the chemical industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The challenges facing the chemical industry in Canada were discussed. In recent years, Canada has scored low in polls measuring public confidence in the chemical industry. The industry is also suffering from continuing recession, global competition, increased environmental demands and strict legislation. The impact of globalization, total quality management, free trade, environmental concerns, and government policies on the chemical industry were reviewed. In the view of this author (President and CEO of Dow Chemicals) globalization is not a matter of choice, it is an industry imperative. Survival in the globalized economy will require not only to be successful competitors, but even more importantly to be successful cooperators with other stakeholders, and successful in forming partnerships with customers

1992-01-01

224

Globalization Education and New Realities (Keynote Address, Midwest History of Education Society Annual Meeting, 2005, Chicago, Illinois)  

Science.gov (United States)

|A central argument of this essay suggests that the truth of globalization is little known to the body politic as it is enmeshed in the dynamics of capitalist accumulation, avarice, and despotism. This project hopes to first locate, and then unmask the realities of globalization, warts and all. Gaining some knowledge of globalization, the…

Watkins, William H.

2006-01-01

225

Globalization Education and New Realities (Keynote Address, Midwest History of Education Society Annual Meeting, 2005, Chicago, Illinois)  

Science.gov (United States)

A central argument of this essay suggests that the truth of globalization is little known to the body politic as it is enmeshed in the dynamics of capitalist accumulation, avarice, and despotism. This project hopes to first locate, and then unmask the realities of globalization, warts and all. Gaining some knowledge of globalization, the…

Watkins, William H.

2006-01-01

226

Ethical Challenges Facing Greenland in the Present Era of Globalization: Towards Global Responsibility  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recently, the developments of ethics and politics in the Arctic region have again become an issue for international discussion. One main issue is the problem of climate change and sustainability of the Arctic region. This problem is linked to the issue of exploitation of natural resources in the Arctic region, not at least in Greenland. Indeed, the general issue is how we should define ethics of the environment and sustainability as a general principle for the Arctic region. It is important to discuss what is at stake and how we define the problem in relation to the different participating stakeholders. This paper deals with these problems as a case for global ethics and it proposes a vision of ethical and political responsibility for sustainable development in order to deal with such problems.

Jacob Dahl Rendtorff

2013-01-01

227

E-LEARNING AND THE GLOBAL DIVIDE: The Challenges Facing Distance Education in Africa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper examines the question of distance education and its pivotal role in promoting social change and development in Africa. It also discussed within the context of the global digital divide and the ongoing need for collaborative effort at global education, the limitation imposed by the socio-economic and political environment on the continent. The paper in its findings conclude that the crisis within African societies constitutes a serious challenge to the implementation of and the effectiveness of distance education in Africa and therefore contributes to the widening of the digital divide rather than reducing it.

Bamidele A. OJO

2009-01-01

228

The UK Government's global partnership programme - Its achievements over the past five years and challenges ahead  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Through the Global Partnership the UK continues to make a significant contribution to improve national and global security. Over the past year the UK has continued to implement a wide range of projects across the breadth of its Global Partnership Programme. As well as ensuring the Programme is robust and capable of dealing with new challenges, the UK has cooperated with other donor countries to help them progress projects associated with submarine dismantling, scientist redirection, enhancing nuclear security and Chemical Weapons Destruction. The Global Partnership, although only five years old, has already achieved a great deal. Some 23 states, plus the European Union, are now working closer together under the Global Partnership, and collectively have enhanced global regional and national security by reducing the availability of Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) materials and expertise to both states of concern and terrorists. Considerable progress has already been made in, for example: - Improving the security of fissile materials, dangerous biological agents and chemical weapons stocks; - Reducing the number of sites containing radioactive materials; - Working towards closure of reactors still producing weapon-grade plutonium; - Improving nuclear safety to reduce the risks of further, Chernobyl style accidents; - Constructing facilities for destroying Chemical Weapons stocks, and starting actual destruction; - Providing sustainable employment for former WMD scientists to reduce the risk that their expertise will be misused by states or terrorists. By contributing to many of these activities, the UK has helped to make the world safer. This paper reports on the UK's practical and sustainable contribution to the Global Partnership and identifies a number of challenges that remain if it is to have a wider impact on reducing the threats from WMD material. (authors)

2007-01-01

229

A review of global cancer burden: trends, challenges, strategies, and a role for surgeons.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. The global cancer burden (GCB) is expected to rise significantly and will disproportionately affect the less developed world (LDW). The aim of this review is to analyze the trends in GCB and describe the types, estimates, and causes of new cancer cases. The challenges and strategies associated with tackling this rising GCB are described in which surgeons can play a vital role.

Are C; Rajaram S; Are M; Raj H; Anderson BO; Chaluvarya Swamy R; Vijayakumar M; Song T; Pandey M; Edney JA; Cazap EL

2013-02-01

230

Retos impuestos por la globalización a los sistemas educativos latinoamericanos/ The Challenges of Globalization for Latin American Educational Systems  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Sin desconocer los beneficios de la globalización en el ámbito educativo, tampoco se pueden obviar los problemas que ha generado en América Latina, no sólo por las desigualdades en términos de calidad de la educación, sino también por los criterios economicistas, productivistas y de eficacia con que se han pretendido evaluar todos los procesos educativos. Distintos especialistas parecen concordar que entre los grandes retos y desafíos que enfrentan los sistemas ed (more) ucativos de la región están: equidad, universalización del ciclo básico de enseñanza, disminución de las tasas de repitencia y deserción escolar, incorporación de nuevas tecnologías de la información, fortalecimiento de los vínculos con los mercados laborales, fortalecimiento de la ciudadanía, conciliación entre identidad local y globalización, entre otros. En este trabajo abordamos algunos efectos de la globalización en los cambios educativos, especialmente los desafíos que enfrentan los países latinoamericanos en el siglo XXI. Abstract in english In spite of the recognized benefits of globalization in the educational setting, we cannot ignore the problems it has generated in Latin America: not only because of inequalities in the quality of education, but also because of the use of criteria related to the economy, production and effectiveness in an attempt to evaluate educational processes. Various specialists seem to agree that the major challenges faced by the region's educational systems include ensuring equalit (more) y, universalizing basic education, decreasing dropout rates and grade repetition, incorporating new information technologies, strengthening links with employment markets, strengthening the community, and reconciling local identities and globalization. This article will address some of the effects of globalization on educational changes, especially the challenges faced by Latin American nations in the twenty-first century.

Cornejo Espejo, Juan

2012-03-01

231

A proposed reductionist solution to address the methodological challenges of inconsistent reflexology maps and poor experimental controls in reflexology research: a discussion paper.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Reflexology is a complex massage intervention, based on the concept that specific areas of the feet (reflex points) correspond to individual internal organs within the body. Reflexologists trained in the popular Ingham reflexology method claim that massage to these points, using massage techniques unique to reflexology, stimulates an increase in blood supply to the corresponding organ. Reflexology researchers face two key methodological challenges that need to be addressed if a specific treatment-related hemodynamic effect is to be scientifically demonstrated. The first is the problem of inconsistent reflexology foot maps; the second is the issue of poor experimental controls. This article proposes a potential experimental solution that we believe can address both methodological challenges and in doing so, allow any specific hemodynamic treatment effect unique to reflexology to experimentally reveal itself.

Jones J; Thomson P; Lauder W; Leslie SJ

2013-03-01

232

Addressing the challenges to health sector decentralization in Nepal: an inquiry into the policy and implementation processes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The objective of the study was to analyze the status and explore the challenges to decentralization policy implementation in Nepal. Thirty seven key informants rich in experience and knowledge, seven focus group discussions, observation of six health facilities and analysis of about 25 key policy documents provided the data for this study. The study identified the challenges to the implementation of decentralization reforms in the public health sector as: (i) centralised and weak management and programming practices of the government; (ii) weak legal and institutional framework; (iii) conflicting policy objectives; (iv) lack of implementation strategy; (v) poor financial and human resource management system; (vi) lack of adequate preparation for managing the reform; (vii) weak capacity at all levels; (viii) political instability. It was revealed that the implementation of the policy in Nepal was extremely poor as many of the important policy measures were either never initiated or they were only partially implemented. The challenges lie both at - policy design and implementation phase. Clear policy objectives, appropriate structure, sound planning, financing and human resources policy, adequate capacity, responsive information system, defined service packages, active participation of stakeholders and a conducive socio-political environment are considered imperative for successful implementation of the policy. Preparation for managing reform implementation at national and district levels is prerequisite for decentralization to work. Pushing for decentralization in a politically fragile environment may rather lead to further fragmentation, instead of strengthening government legitimacy.

Dhakal R; Ratanawijitrasin S; Srithamrongsawat S

2009-09-01

233

Addressing the psychosocial and communication challenges posed by radiological/nuclear terrorism: key developments since NCRP Report No. 138.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

One of the most innovative aspects of NCRP Report No. 138 (Management of Terrorist Incidents Involving Radioactive Material) was the high priority it accorded to psychosocial and communication issues. While previous discussions of radiological and nuclear terrorism had occasionally referred to these topics, NCRP Report No. 138 was the first report of its kind to recognize the profound challenges posed by these issues and to place them at the heart of preparedness and response efforts. In the years since the report's release, a host of important developments have taken place in relation to psychosocial and communication issues. This paper reviews key changes and advances in five broad areas: (1) training exercises, (2) policy and guidance development, (3) findings on hospital and clinician needs, (4) survey research on public perceptions of radiological terrorism, and (5) risk communication for radiological and nuclear terrorism situations. The article concludes with a discussion of continuing psychosocial and communication challenges, including critical areas needing further attention as the nation moves to meet the threat of terrorism involving radioactive materials.

Becker SM

2005-11-01

234

Addressing the challenges of improving primary care quality in Uzbekistan: a qualitative study of Chronic Heart Failure management.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Uzbekistan has a well-developed primary care system, with universal access to care, but faces challenges in improving the quality of clinical care provided. This study aimed to identify barriers to quality improvement by focusing on one common condition, Chronic Heart Failure (CHF), for which there are evidence-based international guidelines for management. To identify the challenges to improving the quality of care for CHF in line with such guidelines we took a qualitative approach, interviewing 15 physicians and 30 patients in detail about their experiences of CHF management. Despite recent improvements to the training of primary care physicians, their access to up-to-date information was limited, and they were disproportionately reliant on information from pharmaceutical companies. The main barriers to implementing international standards of care were: reluctance of physicians (and patients) to abandon ineffective interventions; enduring, system-wide incentives for clinically unnecessary hospitalization; and the lack of structural support for evidence-based health services improvement. Patients were in general positive about adherence to medications, but faced some problems in affording drugs and hospital care. Future interventions to strengthen primary care should be implemented with evaluations of their impact on the processes and outcomes of care for chronic conditions.

Ahmedov M; Green J; Azimov R; Avezova G; Inakov S; Mamatkulov B

2013-08-01

235

A Short Study of Iranian Organizations' Needs in the Area of Globalization: Opportunities, Challenges and Relative Advantages  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Globalization and liberalization in developing countries is a lengthy process that has been a long time in the making. Some countries have accepted the reality of globalization while other undeveloped nations have yet to fully embrace this shift. For some, this has been in part due to fears among some underdeveloped nations that embracing globalization and becoming increasingly connected to a global economic network would put them in a bad position with relation to other powerful countries and multinational firms. Iran is an example of a developing country trying to be competitive in an increasingly global economy. The aim of this paper is to identify the needs for Iran and Iranian organizations in the process of globalization, focusing on opportunities, challenges, relative advantages and practical guides.Keywords: Globalization; Local development; Opportunities and Challenges

Mohammad Reza Noruzi; Jonathan H. Westover

2010-01-01

236

Addressing verification challenges, 16 October 2006, Vienna, Austria, Symposium on International Safeguards (16-20 October 2006)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In his talk about Verification Challenges Dr. Mohamed ElBaradei, Director General of the IAEA, welcomed the participants of the Symposium on International Safeguards. He stated that safeguards is probably the most difficult task entrusted to an international organization and that a major increase in nuclear energy around the globe is expected which means that nuclear know-how is spread to more and more countries and can be applied to both peaceful purposes and also non-peaceful purposes. More and more countries want to go in for the nuclear fuel cycle including sensitive fuel cycle activities like enrichment and reprocessing, they become so-called 'virtual nuclear weapons States. There is the need to develop a new international or multinational approach to the fuel cycle so as to avoid ending up with not just nine nuclear weapon States but another 20 or 30 States which have the capacity to develop nuclear weapons in a very short span of time. He stressed the important linkage between disarmament and non-proliferation and remembered the audience that safeguards, although very much a technical activity, operates in a politically charged environment. The IAEA's job is to make sure that countries with comprehensive safeguards are conducting all their activities exclusively for peaceful purposes. The ability to discover possible undeclared activities is a key challenge the IAEA is facing. He mentioned that the IAEA does not get all the information they would need, for example the IAEA does not get systematic information from the Nuclear Suppliers Group on exports and imports. Without the Additional Protocol the IAEA is also hampered in its ability to detect undeclared activities, e.g in the R and D activities that do not directly involve nuclear material. Another key issue are financial resources. Transparency measures in certain situations are under considerations including interviewing people, having access to documents, things that are not strictly required by the Additional Protocol but without which the IAEA cannot move forward. Environmental sampling and satellite monitoring are new tools the IAEA is now using almost routinely. New verification tools are developed in co-operation with the Member States

2006-10-16

237

Technical Study Addresses a Key Challenge to Harmonizing U.S. and International PV Module Standards (Fact Sheet)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

NREL builds community and industry support by addressing concerns voiced by key standards organizations. Photovoltaic (PV) manufacturers in the United States test the safety of their products using standards developed through consensus processes. Because U.S. PV module safety standards are not aligned with international standards, manufacturers must test their modules twice - and sometimes maintain separate product lines. By meeting with standards organizations such as the Solar ABCs and Underwriters Laboratories (UL), National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) leaders have worked to identify different stakeholders priorities and concerns. UL, specifically, has expressed concern that the international standards do not address all possible risks. For example, new encapsulant materials could soften at high temperatures and frameless modules could slide apart, exposing live electrical parts or allowing glass to fall on a person below. The deformation of a solid material under the influence of mechanical stresses is known as 'creep.' Current module qualification tests are limited to 85 C, whereas modules can, for short times, reach 105 C outdoors. In response to UL's concern, NREL designed and executed an experiment to compare on-sun and accelerated rates of creep for modules fabricated with various encapsulants, including some that have low melting points. Objectives were to (1) evaluate the potential for creep in outdoor exposure, (2) provide guidance on the risks and design needs with thermoplastic materials, and (3) provide a basis for modifying standards to account for materials with potential to creep. The study tested experimental materials with eight representative encapsulants in both outdoor and indoor (chamber) exposure. The study found that modules with materials that were expected to creep did so in the indoor exposure, but not in most outdoor environments and mounting configurations. The results provide a basis for defining an accelerated test needed to give confidence that the modules will not slide apart on hot days. The proposal for IEC 61730 Part 1 exposes modules for 200 hours to a temperature between 105 C and 110 C. NREL is collaborating with UL representatives, and U.S. and international standards appear to be closer to harmonization.

2012-07-01

238

THE DEFENCE OF THE EUROPEAN VALUES AND SOCIAL MODEL BEFORE THE CHALLENGE OF GLOBALIZATION  

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Full Text Available This paper has a clear objective. To reflect about the question: Is the Social Europe fit for glob-alization? This reflection will be organized in three parts. In first we present the institutional framework of reference: The Welfare State. In the second we try to offer a panoramic about the Wel-fare State in the European Union across the time. We deal with the concept of European Social model and with the social statistics of the different Member States in the E.U. We try to answer to another intermediate question: do exist really the European Social Model?The third part of the paper we deal with the main question: the Social Europe and the globalization challenge.

Luís PALMA MARTOS

2010-01-01

239

Where you live matters: challenges and opportunities to address the urban-rural divide through innovative secondary cardiac rehabilitation programs.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Only one third of clinically eligible patients attend a cardiac rehabilitation (CR) program. Few studies have looked at participation in rural cardiac patients. This paper examines the risk profile and participation in CR of rural and urban residents with cardiac disease who enrolled in a telephone coaching program. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Comparison of baseline characteristics of 173 urban and 140 rural Australians referred to CR, and who enrolled in a telephone-based coaching program. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Sociodemographic characteristics, health behaviours and participation in CR programs. RESULTS: Rural residents were more likely to enrol in a telephone coaching secondary prevention program (44.7% versus 25.5%, P < 0.001) than urban residents. For those enrolling in the telephone-based program, rural participants were more likely to be obese (42.0% rural versus 28.8% urban, P = 0.02), to rate their health as fair or poor (45% versus 24.3%, P < 0.001) and less likely to be sufficiently physically active (35.3% versus 53.2%, P = 0.002), or follow a special diet for their heart (40.0% versus 56.6%, P = 0.003) compared with urban participants. Those who attended a CR program were more likely to be from an urban location and live closer to a CR program. CONCLUSIONS: Rural participants in this study had poorer health profiles and attendance at outpatient CR compared with urban participants. This poses challenges for the provision of secondary prevention programs for rural cardiac patients and highlights opportunities to trial innovative delivery models, such as telephone-based programs, to reach people that would otherwise not have access.

Sangster J; Furber S; Phongsavan P; Allman-Farinelli M; Redfern J; Bauman A

2013-06-01

240

Transportability of tertiary qualifications and CPD: A continuing challenge for the global health workforce  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background In workforces that are traditionally mobile and have long lead times for new supply, such as health, effective global indicators of tertiary education are increasingly essential. Difficulties with transportability of qualifications and cross-accreditation are now recognised as key barriers to meeting the rapidly shifting international demands for health care providers. The plethora of mixed education and service arrangements poses challenges for employers and regulators, let alone patients; in determining equivalence of training and competency between individuals, institutions and geographical locations. Discussion This paper outlines the shortfall of the current indicators in assisting the process of global certification and competency recognition in the health care workforce. Using Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) data we highlight how International standardisation in the tertiary education sector is problematic for the global health workforce. Through a series of case studies, we then describe a model which enables institutions to compare themselves internally and with others internationally using bespoke or prioritised parameters rather than standards. Summary The mobility of the global health workforce means that transportability of qualifications is an increasing area of concern. Valid qualifications based on workplace learning and assessment requires at least some variables to be benchmarked in order to judge performance.

Saltman Deborah C; Kidd Michael R; Jackson Debra; Cleary Michelle

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Animal Research in a Global Environment: Meeting the Challenges: Proceedings of the November 2008 International Workshop  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Fully cognizant of the demands and cautions related to the globalization of animal research, ILAR (Institute for Laboratory Animal Research) appointed a Workshop Steering Committee, composed of US and foreign individuals from academia, industry, and the nonprofit sector, to design the program for the 2008 workshop such that session speakers might identify and promote better understanding of important challenges in the conduct of animal research across country boundaries. These challenges appear in the sourcing of animals; the quality of veterinary care; appropriately qualified and competent staff; the provision of a suitable environment (including nutritious food and potable water) for animals, both during transport and at the institution; ethical review of the proposed work and ongoing oversight of the animal program; suitable facilities and equipment in which to conduct the work; appropriate policies and procedures; and protection of the personnel involved in the animal program.

242

Global Marketing of Readymade Garment Products from Bangladesh: Market Prospect and Challenges  

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Full Text Available This paper examines the global export market and its prospect and challenges for Bangladesh readymade garment products. The shift share method is used to identify the potential export market by selected seven major categories of readymade garment products on the basis of three-digit level Standards International Trade Classification (SITC) for the period of 1987-93 and 1994-2000. The results of shift share analysis indicate that the USA, Canada and European Union (EU) countries mainly offered the market opportunities for the export of garment products of Bangladesh. Asian countries have very negligible role in this respect. The challenges faced by the sector include: tough competition from other competitive countries such as India, Thailand, China and Vietnam, to slow progress of its high-technology adoption and slow inflow of foreign investment. Finally, in 2005, the MFA quota would be phased out.

Ahasanul Haque

2002-01-01

243

Globalni izzivi v svetovni industriji bele tehnike = Global Challenges in the Domestic Appliances Industry  

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Full Text Available bal Challenges in the Domestic Appliances IndustryAbstract: The domestic appliances industry is a mature industry. Changes in the business environment such as political, law, cultural, social, ecological and technological influences have an effect on the future development of this industry. Challenges to producers in this industry are oriented towards the further globalisation of the business, managing processes, new product and innovations development, and towards establishing and empowerment of the product brands. Global trends in the use of some natural sources, technological break-through, fulfilment of the market and strong competition direct us towards new innovations which will in their development consider also the social and environmental aspect as well.

Dušan Gošnik

2009-01-01

244

Advancing the Structural Use of Earth-based Bricks: Addressing Key Challenges in the East African Context  

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Full Text Available The research discussed in this paper is a subset of a bigger, NSF funded research project that is directed at investigating the use of sustainable building materials. The deployment context for the research is the hot and humid climate using selected cases from the East African region. The overarching goal for the research is advancing the structural use of earth-based technologies. Significant strides can be made through developing strategies for countering the adverse factors that affect the structural performance of the resulting wall, especially ones related to moisture dynamics. The research was executed in two phases. The first phase was a two-day NSF supported workshop which was held in Tanzania in July 2009. It provided a forum for sharing best practices in earth-based building technologies and developing a research and development roadmap. The priority research areas were broadly classified as optimizing the physio-mechanical properties of earth as a building material and managing socio-cultural impediments. In the second phase of the research, the authors collaborated with researchers from East Africa to conduct experimental work on the optimization of physio-mechanical properties. The specific research issues that have been addressed are: (1) characterizing the chemical reactions that can be linked to deterioration triggered by hygrothermal loads based on the hot and humid context, and; (2) developing a prototype for a simpler, portable, affordable and viable compressed brick production machine. The paper discusses the results from the characterization work that ultimately will be used to design bricks that have specific properties based on an understanding of how different stabilizers affect the hydration process. It also describes a cheaper, portable and more efficient prototype machine that has been developed as part of the follow-up research activities.

Esther Obonyo; Derrick Tate; Vincent Sika; Mang Tia

2010-01-01

245

Engaging sub-national governments in addressing health equities: challenges and opportunities in China's health system reform.  

Science.gov (United States)

China's current health system reform (HSR) is striving to resolve deep inequities in health outcomes. Achieving this goal is difficult not only because of continuously increasing income disparities in China but also because of weaknesses in healthcare financing and delivery at the local level. We explore to what extent sub-national governments, which are largely responsible for health financing in China, are addressing health inequities. We describe the recent trend in health inequalities in China, and analyse government expenditure on health in the context of China's decentralization and intergovernmental model to assess whether national, provincial and sub-provincial public resource allocations and local government accountability relationships are aligned with this goal. Our analysis reveals that government expenditure on health at sub-national levels, which accounts for ?90% of total government expenditure on health, is increasingly regressive across provinces, and across prefectures within provinces. Increasing inequity in public expenditure at sub-national levels indicates that resources and responsibilities at sub-national levels in China are not well aligned with national priorities. China's HSR would benefit from complementary measures to improve the governance and financing of public service delivery. We discuss the existing weaknesses in local governance and suggest possible approaches to better align the responsibilities and capacity of sub-national governments with national policies, standards, laws and regulations, therefore ensuring local-level implementation and enforcement. Drawing on China's institutional framework and ongoing reform pilots, we present possible approaches to: (1) consolidate key health financing responsibilities at the provincial level and strengthen the accountability of provincial governments, (2) define targets for expenditure on primary health care, outputs and outcomes for each province and (3) use independent sources to monitor and evaluate policy implementation and service delivery and to strengthen sub-national government performance management. PMID:23221008

Brixi, Hana; Mu, Yan; Targa, Beatrice; Hipgrave, David

2012-12-01

246

Engaging sub-national governments in addressing health equities: challenges and opportunities in China's health system reform.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

China's current health system reform (HSR) is striving to resolve deep inequities in health outcomes. Achieving this goal is difficult not only because of continuously increasing income disparities in China but also because of weaknesses in healthcare financing and delivery at the local level. We explore to what extent sub-national governments, which are largely responsible for health financing in China, are addressing health inequities. We describe the recent trend in health inequalities in China, and analyse government expenditure on health in the context of China's decentralization and intergovernmental model to assess whether national, provincial and sub-provincial public resource allocations and local government accountability relationships are aligned with this goal. Our analysis reveals that government expenditure on health at sub-national levels, which accounts for ?90% of total government expenditure on health, is increasingly regressive across provinces, and across prefectures within provinces. Increasing inequity in public expenditure at sub-national levels indicates that resources and responsibilities at sub-national levels in China are not well aligned with national priorities. China's HSR would benefit from complementary measures to improve the governance and financing of public service delivery. We discuss the existing weaknesses in local governance and suggest possible approaches to better align the responsibilities and capacity of sub-national governments with national policies, standards, laws and regulations, therefore ensuring local-level implementation and enforcement. Drawing on China's institutional framework and ongoing reform pilots, we present possible approaches to: (1) consolidate key health financing responsibilities at the provincial level and strengthen the accountability of provincial governments, (2) define targets for expenditure on primary health care, outputs and outcomes for each province and (3) use independent sources to monitor and evaluate policy implementation and service delivery and to strengthen sub-national government performance management.

Brixi H; Mu Y; Targa B; Hipgrave D

2012-12-01

247

The globalization of tobacco use: 21 challenges for the 21st century.  

Science.gov (United States)

The globalization of tobacco began more than 500 years ago, but the public health response to the death, disease, and economic disruption that it has caused is fewer than 50 years old. In this report, the authors briefly trace the history of tobacco use and commerce as it moved from the Americas in the late 15th century and then eastward. They then discuss the wide range of issues that must be addressed, and the equally wide range of expertise that is needed if the global health community is to be successful in reducing, and eventually eliminating, the rising tide of tobacco use, particularly in the low- and middle-income nations that are the target of the multinational tobacco industry. PMID:20097837

Glynn, Thomas; Seffrin, John R; Brawley, Otis W; Grey, Nathan; Ross, Hana

248

The globalization of tobacco use: 21 challenges for the 21st century.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The globalization of tobacco began more than 500 years ago, but the public health response to the death, disease, and economic disruption that it has caused is fewer than 50 years old. In this report, the authors briefly trace the history of tobacco use and commerce as it moved from the Americas in the late 15th century and then eastward. They then discuss the wide range of issues that must be addressed, and the equally wide range of expertise that is needed if the global health community is to be successful in reducing, and eventually eliminating, the rising tide of tobacco use, particularly in the low- and middle-income nations that are the target of the multinational tobacco industry.

Glynn T; Seffrin JR; Brawley OW; Grey N; Ross H

2010-01-01

249

Globalization and environmental challenges. Reconceptualizing security in the 21{sup st} century  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Put quite simply, the twin impacts of globalization and environmental degradation pose new security dangers and concerns. In this comprehensive new work on global security thinking, 91 authors from five continents and many disciplines, from science and practice, assess the worldwide reassessment of the meaning of security triggered by the end of the Cold War and globalization, as well as the multifarious impacts of global environmental change in the early 21st century. Chapters address the theoretical, philosophical, ethical and religious and spatial context of security. They analyze the relationship between security, peace, development and environment. The authors move on to review the rethinking of security in international law, economics and political science, as well as in the key political, military and economic milieux. The book also examines the environmental security dimension and the adaptation of the institutional security concepts of the UN, EU and NATO, and analyzes the effect of change on regional security. Finally, it posits alternative security futures and draws conclusions for future research and action. (orig.)

Brauch, Hans Guenter [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany). Dept. of Political and Social Sciences; Oswald Spring, Ursula [National Univ. of Mexico (UNAM), Mexico City (MX). Centro Regional de Investigaciones Multidisciplinarias (CRIM); Mesjasz, Czeslaw [Cracow Univ. of Economics (Poland). Faculty of Management; Grin, John [Amsterdam Univ. (Netherlands). Dept. of Political Science; Dunay, Pal [Geneva Centre for Security Policy (Switzerland); Chadha Behera, Navnita [Jamia Millia Islamia Univ., New Delhi (India). Nelson Mandela Center for Peace and Conflict Resolution; Chourou, Bechir [Univ. of Tunis-Carthage, Hammam-Chatt (Tunisia); Kameri-Mbote, Patricia [Nairobi Univ. (Kenya), Dept. of Private Law; Liotta, P.H. (eds.) [Salve Regina Univ., Newport, RI (United States). Pell Center for International Relations and Public Policy

2008-07-01

250

The 2003 SARS Outbreak: Global Challenges and Innovative Infection Control Measure  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In early 2003, the global infection control community faced a great challenge, sudden acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). The rapid spread of SARS, its capacity to infect health care workers, and its many unknown features in the early days of the outbreak meant that health care workers were unsure of the most effective methods of infection control to prevent disease transmission. These conditions made designing appropriate, effective and standard infection control responses difficult. Innovation was necessary. This article provides a brief overview of global challenges in infection control and SARS. The author reports field observations and describes five selected examples of highly innovative, SARS-related infection control practices observed in three affected countries during the height of the 2003 outbreak. These examples relate to risk assessment, patient segregation, strategies to limit access to clinical areas, health care worker protection, and efforts to promote public confidence. Many of these strategies could be considered for use in the post-2003 SARS era, especially in preparation for an influenza or Avian influenza pandemic.

Cathryn Murphy

2006-01-01

251

The United Nations and Global Public Goods: Historical Contributions and Future Challenges.  

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Full Text Available Published by Palgrave MacmillanThis chapter explores the thesis that the United Nations’ (UN) most important contribution to the production of global public goods has been its role in creating the space and capacity to generate shared values. Starting with the UN Charter itself, the chapter traces the evolution of this contribution through different historical phases. It analyses the impact of globalisation on the role of the UN; in particular it identifies the quality of porousness as a product of globalisation which is critical to understanding the current challenges faced by the UN as well as central to the global public goods agenda. Through this lens the author briefly reviews the evolution of the UN’s role in the fields of peace and security, human rights and development cooperation. He concludes by identifying eight levers for change that will determine the UN’s ability to contribute significantly to the global public goods: the generation of norms and shared values, the quality of leadership, improved governance, innovative financing, institutional realignment, the further consolidation of legal instruments, focus, and the power of networks.

Bruce Jenks

2012-01-01

252

Does the development of new medicinal products in the European Union address global and regional health concerns?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 1995, approval for many new medicinal products has been obtained through a centralized procedure in the European Union. In recent years, the use of summary measures of population health has become widespread. We investigated whether efforts to develop innovative medicines are focusing on the most relevant conditions from a global public health perspective. Methods We reviewed the information on new medicinal products approved by centralized procedure from 1995 to 2009, information that is available to the public in the European Commission Register of medicinal products and the European Public Assessment Reports from the European Medicines Agency. Morbidity and mortality data were included for each disease group, according to the Global Burden of Disease project. We evaluated the association between authorized medicinal products and burden of disease measures based on disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) in the European Union and worldwide. Results We considered 520 marketing authorizations for medicinal products and 338 active ingredients. New authorizations were seen to increase over the period analyzed. There was a positive, high correlation between DALYs and new medicinal product development (? = 0.619, p = 0.005) in the European Union, and a moderate correlation for middle-low-income countries (? = 0.497, p = 0.030) and worldwide (? = 0.490, p = 0.033). The most neglected conditions at the European level (based on their attributable health losses) were neuropsychiatric diseases, cardiovascular diseases, respiratory diseases, sense organ conditions, and digestive diseases, while globally, they were perinatal conditions, respiratory infections, sense organ conditions, respiratory diseases, and digestive diseases. Conclusions We find that the development of new medicinal products is higher for some diseases than others. Pharmaceutical industry leaders and policymakers are invited to consider the implications of this imbalance by establishing work plans that allow for the setting of future priorities from a public health perspective.

Catalá-López, Ferrán; García-Altés, Anna; Álvarez-Martín Elena; Gènova-Maleras Ricard; Morant-Ginestar Consuelo

2010-01-01

253

Realistic student enquiries, global challenges and the role of a development charity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Engineering programmes within highereducation have significant scope to makea contribution to global challenges suchas sustainable development and solutionsto world poverty. Alongside such acontribution to society, universities are alsoexploring ways to focus student learningaround realistic enquiries. It is thereforeimportant to explore approaches thataddress such challenges and pedagogies,which indeed also offer a way forward inattracting and motivating students, and inpreparing them for suitable careers.We report here on an evaluation of astudent-based engineering design servicefor development organisations, involving apartnership between a charity, a universityand development professionals. Theservice involves teams of undergraduatestudents designing, making and testingintermediate technologies. The paperexplores a model based around enquirybasedlearning, and draws on a set ofnaturally-occurring reflective accountsprovided by the students involved.While learning about technical issues wasimportant, the study shows how a realisticdeveloping-world context motivated studentwork, enhancing students’ confidence andreadiness to make a difference. Varioustechnical issues emerged with scope tohamper the educational experience, as didthe challenge of ensuring fairness acrossdifferent enquiries. Strategies are proposedto manage rather than ignore or reducesuch variation, an issue which has receivedrelatively little attention hitherto in relationto project work or enquiry-based learning.

Peter Kahn; Keith Pullen

2007-01-01

254

Quality Education in Tanzania: Perceptions on Global Challenges and Local Needs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study explored notions of quality in education and the challenges facing Tanzania. The inquiry adopted a humanist approach to determining levels of quality in schools, thus respondents recorded their perceptions on key issues on quality education, relevant to Tanzania. The study used mixed methods and non-probability sampling which selected 20 schools involving 200 participants. Data was collected using written accounts and qualitative questionnaires and a preliminary quantitative questionnaire, which was used before further exploration of phenomena. The participants involved students, teachers, head-teachers and education officers from both urban and rural schools in Northern Tanzania. This data was analysed to form themes for discussion so as to describe and capture the challenges faced by schools in their quest for quality education. The ensuing discussion helped provide a clearer understanding through a qualitative description of Tanzania’s local needs and global challenges regarding quality education. Despite Tanzania’s commendable efforts in increased funding on education in recent years, ahead of its East African neighbors, this investment has not gone far enough to meet citizens’ expectations and satisfaction on quality education, possibly due to widespread neglect in previous years.

Icarbord Tshabangu; Allen Msafiri

2013-01-01

255

The Nigerian University System and the Challenges of Capacity Building in a Globalized Economy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract: The scaring effects of globalization and the global economic shift have affected world economic order to the extent that the weak economies are still trying to grapple with the production processes. The necessity of international discourse, alignment and reorganization generated by the new economic order has not provided the needed solution. Rather, the process has continued to erode and reorder the traditional economic activities of the weak economies to the extent that there is unprecedented unemployment. This gives the impression that the university academic system, with the courses and programmes taught, is not structured in a flexible manner to arrest the situation. This paper on the synergy between the Nigerian university academic system and the challenges of capacity building in a globalized economy investigates why, in spite of the numerous international discourses, economic restructuring, etc. unemployment, especially among the products of universities, continues to escalate, economy continues to dwindle, political structures and governance continue to deteriorate. The observation is that the Nigerian university system has failed to achieve, among the beneficiaries, the expected capacity building, intellectual capital and knowledge necessary to drive the economy in this dispensation. The paper recommends inter alia, an overhaul of the Nigerian university system to take care of the critical requirements of current production processes, flexibilization of labour and employment, ensuring that the knowledge and skills acquired are information and communication technology oriented and the development of the power and energy sector because of its regeneration and multiplier effects on job and wealth creation. Key words: Capacity Building; Flexibilization; Intellectual Capital; Nigerian University Academic System; Globalization

E. B. J. Iheriohanma

2011-01-01

256

El proceso de globalización y los retos del desarrollo humano/ Globalization and human development challenges  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish A pesar de las numerosas publicaciones que existen sobre las implicaciones de la globalización en el desarrollo económico y social de los países, no hay consenso entre los autores sobre el tema y se presentan múltiples perspectivas para su discusión. En este documento se analiza este proceso de globalización destacando su relación con el desarrollo humano, para lo cual se realiza una revisión bibliográfica y de información estadística que permite reflexionar so (more) bre la naturaleza de ambos conceptos y sus tendencias actuales y futuras. Como resultado se plantea que las tendencias del proceso de globalización pueden llegar a profundizar las desigualdades existentes en el nivel de desarrollo humano de los países, si continúa fundamentado en un soporte ideológico neoliberal y en un modelo de desarrollo capitalista, consumista, depredador, cortoplacista y excluyente. Se concluye que mientras persista el actual esquema de reproducción capitalista a escala global, el proceso de globalización tenderá a favorecer más a un pequeño grupo de países altamente desarrollados, en detrimento de la mayoría de la población del planeta, haciendo difícil superar los retos del desarrollo humano. Abstract in english Despite the amount of publications related to globalization and its implications in the social and economic development of countries, researchers have not yet reached consensus about the subject and multiple perspectives are presented for discussion. This paper analyzes the globalization process, emphasizing its relationship with human development; to do so, bibliographical and statistical information were reviewed in order to discuss the nature of both concepts and their (more) current and future trends. As a result, the paper explains how trends in the globalization process could stimulate deeper inequalities in the level of human development in countries if it continues to be based on a neoliberal ideological support and a capitalistic, consumption-based, predatory, excluding and short-term development model. Conclusions are that as long as the current scheme of capitalist reproduction on a global scale persists, the globalization process will tend to favour a small group of highly developed countries to the detriment of most people in the planet, making it difficult to overcome human development challenges.

Romero, Alberto; Vera Colina, Mary A

2009-09-01

257

Global value chains and agrifood standards: challenges and possibilities for smallholders in developing countries.  

Science.gov (United States)

The rise of private food standards has brought forth an ongoing debate about whether they work as a barrier for smallholders and hinder poverty reduction in developing countries. This paper uses a global value chain approach to explain the relationship between value chain structure and agrifood safety and quality standards and to discuss the challenges and possibilities this entails for the upgrading of smallholders. It maps four potential value chain scenarios depending on the degree of concentration in the markets for agrifood supply (farmers and manufacturers) and demand (supermarkets and other food retailers) and discusses the impact of lead firms and key intermediaries on smallholders in different chain situations. Each scenario is illustrated with case examples. Theoretical and policy issues are discussed, along with proposals for future research in terms of industry structure, private governance, and sustainable value chains. PMID:21149723

Lee, Joonkoo; Gereffi, Gary; Beauvais, Janet

2010-12-13

258

Global value chains and agrifood standards: challenges and possibilities for smallholders in developing countries.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The rise of private food standards has brought forth an ongoing debate about whether they work as a barrier for smallholders and hinder poverty reduction in developing countries. This paper uses a global value chain approach to explain the relationship between value chain structure and agrifood safety and quality standards and to discuss the challenges and possibilities this entails for the upgrading of smallholders. It maps four potential value chain scenarios depending on the degree of concentration in the markets for agrifood supply (farmers and manufacturers) and demand (supermarkets and other food retailers) and discusses the impact of lead firms and key intermediaries on smallholders in different chain situations. Each scenario is illustrated with case examples. Theoretical and policy issues are discussed, along with proposals for future research in terms of industry structure, private governance, and sustainable value chains.

Lee J; Gereffi G; Beauvais J

2012-07-01

259

Challenges to global environmental and economic politics; Herausforderungen der internationalen Umwelt- und Wirtschaftspolitik  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The challenges at the beginning of the 21st century emanate from global changes and developments in a great variety of markets, economic systems, science and technology. Globalisation in the business community calls for mobility of capital resources and human resources, of goods, services and know-how. The paper discusses the beneficial aspects of those trends with respect to chances opened up for a sustainable global development. (orig./CB) [German] Auf dem Sprung in das 21. Jahrhundert steht die internationale Umwelt- und Wirtschaftspolitik vor voellig neuartigen Herausforderungen. Sinkende Transportkosten und -zeiten, Fortschritte in der Informations- und Kommunikationstechnik, Liberalisierung der Finanzmaerkte, Deregulierungen in Industrielaendern sowie marktwirtschaftliche Reformen und Oeffnungen in Entwicklungs- und Schwellenlaendern haben eine weltweite Dynamik von bisher unbekannten Ausmassen freigesetzt. Unter den Stichworten 'Globalisierung' und internationaler 'Standortwettbewerb' wachsen Gesellschaften und Maerkte zusammen. Die Globalisierung wird in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland vielfach mit negativen Vorzeichen beurteilt. Die Befuerchtungen reichen vom Verlust an inlaendischen Arbeitsplaetzen bis hin zum 'Oekodumping' durch Unternehmen, die in Laender mit niedrigen Umweltstandards abwandern. Die oekonomische Wirklichkeit ist jedoch eine andere. Gerade der weltweite Austausch von Guetern, Dienstleistungen, Ideen und Informationen eroeffnet die Chancen fuer eine nachhaltige internationale Entwicklung im oekonomischen, sozialen und oekologischen Bereich. (orig.)

Fleckenstein, K. [Deutscher Industrie- und Handelstag, Bonn (Germany). Abt. Industrie, Strukturpolitik, Umweltschutz

2001-07-01

260

An overlook of the new global nuclear scenario and the emergent challenges  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this paper is to make a short overlook of the world nuclear renaissance and point out some emergent challenges. The presentation covers different subjects in which the nuclear energy shows great advantage to face concerns about climate change, energy demand growth, and relative cost of competing technologies in a global scenario. Additionally nuclear technology can deploy in a middle term an important potential development oriented to improve even more that nuclear design, safety, environment protection, economic and sustainability of the present nuclear reactors generation. The world nuclear energy scenario reveals a renaissance after a long period of lethargy. Now is the focus of considerable attention and debate about the risks and benefits of its expansion. Many countries are again planning ambitious nuclear programs. In the case of Argentina, a decision was taken to end the construction of Atucha 750 MWe power plant (NPP) and to begin the construction of another two NPP in the next decade. In the middle term and expansion of 60 % of the present world nuclear capabilities is foreseen. For the long term there could be much more if today's performance data is maintained or improved. It would require the nuclear industry to return immediately to the most rapid period of growth experienced in the past. The training of the young people is also an important challenge. But some countries are still reluctant due to the adverse local public opinion. In spite of the great accessibility and availability of the NPP confirmed by the global experience of the 350 operating nuclear power plants, the public acceptability is not confirmed. Some sectors of the society -with the support in some case of the media- are against the use of the nuclear energy. In this paper some reasons of the public concerns is explained and actions are mentioned to change its perceptions. At the end, the global society in front of the real means available to fulfill the growing energy demand and needs to protect the environments from catastrophic climate changes and limited fuel resources, must accept the great advantage of the NPP, the potential possibilities of the nuclear technology progress and the lowest risks of its expansion. (author)

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

The global partnership: its achievements, missed opportunities and potential to address future threats from the spread of CBRN materials and expertise - 59335  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Document available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: In 2002, the G8 launched the Global Partnership (GP) against the Spread of Weapons and Materials of Mass Destruction. The partnerships budget was placed at $20 billion over 10 years, and it was supported by some 23 countries and the European Union (EU).Though it has had little public recognition, the partnership has been one of the G8's most successful initiatives and has led to many benefits, including improved international security and addressing a sizeable proportion of the Cold War nuclear and chemical weapons arsenal in the Former Soviet Union. Its future, however, remains undecided, as its funding is set to expire in less than two years. In 2009 and 2010 Kings College London with generous funding support from the US John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, carried out a detailed evaluation of the achievements and benefits of the GP to date, its failings and lost opportunities, and potential future direction. Our findings indicate that the partnership has aided security in the Former Soviet Union and had a significant number of wider benefits with the potential to continue to do the same on a broader geographic level in future. As such, it is a valuable tool to assist the international community to work together to address global threats relating to chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear materials and related expertise and the G8 should take steps to renew its funding. (authors)

2012-01-01

262

Global Challenges and Local Responses : Trade Unions in the Korean and Malaysian Auto Industries  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The paper aims to address the question whether the dynamic of autoworker unionism in South Korea and Malaysia was conditioned by, and eventually also influenced the globalization processes in the local auto industry? The conclusion is a contextualized "yes", and the core argument is the following: The financial crisis in 1997 was the dramatic peak of financial globalization in East Asia in the 1990s, and it did accelerate the existing trend in Korea towards centralized unionism in the auto industry, while it suspended the trend in the Malaysian auto industry towards decentralized unionism. Although the Korean and Malaysian unions were affected by the financial crisis from different structural and strategic positions, and were exposed to different national policies and corporate strategies of crisis management, the Korean unions and Malaysian unions generally followed, respectively, a more radical and militant and a more pragmatic and moderate strategy. In the global-local perspective we face two paradoxes. The first paradox is that in spite of the difference in union ideology, the outcome in terms of industrial relations (IR) institutions was rather similar in the sense that the auto industry contained a mixture of industrial and enterprise unions and formal or informal federations of these unions, and that collective bargaining was by and large undertaken bilaterally at the enterprise level. This situation was generated by a dynamic, which took the Malaysian system down from a centralized IR system within the low technology assembly industry (the globally subordinated local OEMs) to a rather decentralized IR system within the SOE-MNC controlled industry. The Korean system became more centralized through the confrontations between radical enterprise unions and authoritarian employers and authorities within an auto industry, which over time become much more indigenized, technologically advanced, export-oriented and diversified into multiple auto manufacturers and an under-wood of component suppliers. Yet, in both auto industries the large enterprise unions resisted organizational centralization, which could impede their autonomy. Due to the strength of unions of the market leading firms a breakthrough did happen neither in Korea nor in Malaysia, although the Koreans were a step ahead of the Malaysians having established a federation of metalworkers unions, including the important autoworkers unions. The second paradox is that the radicalism of the Korean autoworker unions was maintained during 1990s globalization of the auto industry, while radicalism was abandoned by the Malaysian autoworker unions in favor of union pragmatism, when the indigenization of the Malaysian auto industry unfolded since the early 1980s and a local auto supplier industry had been formed. This cross-country difference is partly explained by the different position held by the Korean and Malaysian auto companies in the global and local auto value chain. The radicalism and effectiveness of Korean autoworker unions sustained the development of dynamic efficiency among Korean auto manufacturing firms. In the same way, the intra-industry differences in wages and working conditions among auto manufacturing firms and components supplier firms were also related to the stratification of the domestic auto value chain, and this uneven distribution of benefits created obstacles of centralized unionization and collective bargaining. The centralized IR system in Malaysia evolved in an auto industry composed primarily of firms assembling imported CKD kits of components. The inequality of employment conditions between auto manufacturers and component suppliers was a driver of the strategy of centralized unionism and collective bargaining in Korea, while the inequality was not perceived as that significant by the Malaysian industrial union, since they had been dealing with these problems by the early 1990s. Keywords: Globalisation, trade unions, automobile industry, global value chain theory, East Asia, Malaysia, South Korea.

Wad, Peter

2005-01-01

263

The formation of the global natural gas industry: definition, constraints and challenges; A formacao da industria global de gas natural: definicao, condicionantes e desafios  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study aims to investigate the real possibilities for the natural gas industry to become a global energy industry. So, it is necessary to define what global energy industry really means. In order to do a comparative analysis between the oil and natural gas industries, it is necessary to define three distinct stages of the evolution of an energy industry, namely internationalization, mundialization and globalization. This study analyzes the evolution of the oil industry trying to identify the main aspects that promoted changes and transformed the oil business into a global industry. Then, the evolution of the natural gas industry is analyzed, looking for similarities between the structural changes in both industries, and trying to determine what is the current stage of the natural gas industry. Despite the increase in the natural gas international trade and the prospects of growth of natural gas demand, there are still some challenges for this industry to effectively become global. Some of the challenges are the need of investments in production infrastructure, transportation and distribution sectors, the access to the main reserves, the uncertainty related to the demand evolution and the possible creation of a natural gas producers cartel, like the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC). (author)

Mathias, Melissa Cristina Pinto Pires

2008-03-15

264

Globalization and climate change challenges the Arctic communities adaptability and increases vulnerability  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Globalization and climate change challenges the Arctic communities adaptability and increases vulnerability Kåre Hendriksen, PhD student, Aalborg University, Denmark The previous isolation of the Arctic will change as a wide range of areas increasingly are integrated into the globalized world. Parts of the Arctic are characterized by a relatively high material standard of living that is partially based on economic subsidies from the South, and for a number of Arctic consumers globalization appears primarily as a potential for improved supplies of consumer goods. The massive and growing pressure from multinational companies to exploit the Arctic mineral and oil resources as well as hydro-power in large scale industries appears to (local) governments as a potential for economic growth and thus reduced economic dependence on subsidies from the nation states the Arctic are dependent of. Coinciding climate changes cause an easier access for worldwide market as well as for the extraction of coastal oil and mineral resources. In an attempt to optimize the fishing fleet by economic measures it is centralized to larger units, and the exports of unprocessed fish and shellfish to low wage countries, carrying out the processing before export, are increasing. Although the local populations often are able to adapt to climate change and exploit new seasonal fluxions and species, these developments leaves a series of smaller settlements without proper basis for commercially viable activities and survival. Trusting that heavy industry and oil and mineral extraction can absorb the redundant labor from the subsistence activities and local economies and create economic growth (local) governments are installing economic and other policies leading to a further centralization of the population. There is not necessarily consistency between official political statements and the implemented measures. On top of this the population in smaller settlements has no frame or means to understand the impact of the discussed and applied interventions. They are therefore to some extent left behind and are not included in contemporary developments leaving them with a feeling of being powerless. The consequences of contemporary policies and the problems arising will be illustrated through examples from traditional hunting and fishing districts in Greenland.

Hendriksen, Kåre

2011-01-01

265

Can Advances in Science and Technology Prevent Global Warming? A Critical Review of Limitations and Challenges  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The most stringent emission scenarios published by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) would result in the stabilization of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) at concentrations of approximately 550 ppm which would produce a global temperature increase of at least 2 C by 2100. Given the large uncertainties regarding the potential risks associated with this degree of global warming, it would be more prudent to stabilize atmospheric CO2 concentrations at or below current levels which, in turn, would require a greater than 20-fold reduction (i.e., ?95%) in per capita carbon emissions in industrialized nations within the next 50 to 100 years. Using the Kaya equation as a conceptual framework, this paper examines whether CO2 mitigation approaches such as energy efficiency improvements, carbon sequestration, and the development of carbon-free energy sources would be sufficient to bring about the required reduction in per capita carbon emissions without creating unforeseen negative impacts elsewhere. In terms of energy efficiency, large improvements (?5-fold) are in principle possible given aggressive investments in R&D and if market imperfections such as corporate subsidies are removed. However, energy efficiency improvements per se will not result in a reduction in carbon emissions if, as predicted by the IPCC, the size of the global economy has expanded 12-26 fold by 2100. Terrestrial carbon sequestration via reforestation and improved agricultural soil management has many environmental advantages but has only limited CO2 mitigation potential because the global terrestrial carbon sink (ca. 200 Gt C) is small relative to the size of fossil fuel deposits (?4000 Gt C). By contrast, very large amounts of CO2 can potentially be removed from the atmosphere via sequestration in geologic formations and oceans, but carbon storage is not permanent and is likely to create many unpredictable environmental consequences. Renewable solar energy can in theory provide large amounts of carbon-free power. However, biomass and hydroelectric energy can only be marginally expanded and large-scale solar energy installations (i.e., wind, photovoltaics, and direct thermal) are likely to have significant negative environmental impacts. Expansion of nuclear energy is highly unlikely due to concerns over reactor safety, radioactive waste management, weapons proliferation, and cost. In view of the serious limitations and liabilities of many proposed CO2 mitigation approaches it appears that there remain only few no-regrets options such as drastic energy efficiency improvements, extensive terrestrial carbon sequestration, and cautious expansion of renewable energy generation. These promising CO2 mitigation technologies have the potential to bring about the required 20-fold reduction in per capita carbon emission only if population and economic growth are halted without delay. Thus, addressing the problem of global warming requires not only technological research and development but also a reexamination of core values that mistakenly equate material consumption and economic growth to happiness and well-being.

Huesemann, Michael H.

2006-07-03

266

The European Union as a Global Trade Actor: Challenges and Opportunities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article reviews the challenges and opportunities confronting the European Union in its trade and broader commercial policies, in what is a period of transition. The article begins by evaluating the foundations of the EU’s ‘actorness’ in trade policy, and in particular by identifying three underlying logics of EU policy development: the ‘internal’ logic, the ‘external’ logic and the ‘identity’ logic. The interaction between these logics is seen as driving the ways in which the EU enters into global trade relationships, and as accounting for tensions and contradictions in a number of areas. Subsequent sections of the article deal with the images presented by the EU in trade policy, with the EU’s changing position in world trade, with the current trade agenda and the new agenda of broader commercial policy. The article finishes with a review of potential future issues in EU trade and commercial policies, and with a reassessment of the ‘three logics’ and their interaction.

Michael SMITH

2010-01-01

267

Forward and pressure retarded osmosis: potential solutions for global challenges in energy and water supply.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Osmotically driven membrane processes (ODMP) have gained renewed interest in recent years and they might become a potential solution for the world's most challenging problems of water and energy scarcity. Though the concept of utilizing osmotic pressure difference between high and low salinity streams across semipermeable membranes has been explored for several decades, lack of optimal membranes and draw solutions hindered competition between forward osmosis (FO) and pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) with existing water purification and power generation technologies, respectively. Driven by growing global water scarcity and by energy cost and negative environmental impacts, novel membranes and draw solutions are being developed for ODMPs, mass and heat transfer in osmotic process are becoming better understood, and new applications of ODMPs are emerging. Therefore, OMDPs might become promising green technologies to provide clean water and clean energy from abundantly available renewable resources. This review focuses primarily on new insights into osmotic membrane transport mechanisms and on novel membranes and draw solutions that are currently being developed. Furthermore, the effects of operating conditions on the overall performance of osmotic membranes will be highlighted and future perspectives will be presented.

Klaysom C; Cath TY; Depuydt T; Vankelecom IF

2013-08-01

268

Forward and pressure retarded osmosis: potential solutions for global challenges in energy and water supply.  

Science.gov (United States)

Osmotically driven membrane processes (ODMP) have gained renewed interest in recent years and they might become a potential solution for the world's most challenging problems of water and energy scarcity. Though the concept of utilizing osmotic pressure difference between high and low salinity streams across semipermeable membranes has been explored for several decades, lack of optimal membranes and draw solutions hindered competition between forward osmosis (FO) and pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) with existing water purification and power generation technologies, respectively. Driven by growing global water scarcity and by energy cost and negative environmental impacts, novel membranes and draw solutions are being developed for ODMPs, mass and heat transfer in osmotic process are becoming better understood, and new applications of ODMPs are emerging. Therefore, OMDPs might become promising green technologies to provide clean water and clean energy from abundantly available renewable resources. This review focuses primarily on new insights into osmotic membrane transport mechanisms and on novel membranes and draw solutions that are currently being developed. Furthermore, the effects of operating conditions on the overall performance of osmotic membranes will be highlighted and future perspectives will be presented. PMID:23778699

Klaysom, Chalida; Cath, Tazhi Y; Depuydt, Tom; Vankelecom, Ivo F J

2013-08-21

269

Challenge of the global warming-JAMA. Chikyu ondanka mondai to jidosha sangyo ni okeru torikumi  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper summarizes the global warming problem challenged by the Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association. An investigative analysis was carried out on CO2 related data. Its gists are described as follows: The rate of contribution to CO2 emission in the automotive sector is about 17%; fuel consumption improvement has long been discussed, but is in a trend of hitting the ceiling because of the needs of mounting gears for safety improvement and of vehicle upsizing; amount of fuels used is increasing year after year; the rate of the increase correlates with the economy growth; the growth of CO2 emission from automobiles would be smaller than the values given in several reports as a result of the Japanese economic growth lower than the anticipation; effects of the fuel consumption improvement are assumed to reduce CO2 emission by several percentage points in 2000; electric vehicles could reduce CO2 emission by 40% per car if nuclear power generation is partly used; fluorocarbon used in the automobile industry is for foaming, rinsing and air conditioners, with its use in the former two applications being planned to be totally abolished; and the problem thereof exists in air conditioners, for which recovery, leakage measures, and conversion to new coolants are being discussed. 12 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

Suzuki, Y. (Japan Automobile Manufactures Association Inc., Tokyo (Japan))

1993-04-01

270

Meeting the Global Challenge through Production Offshoring : Trajectories and Strategic Implications of the Process  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This PhD study is concerned with the implications of globalisation for industrial firms from the traditional industrial triad of North America, Western Europe, and Japan. Taking the perspective of lead firms from advanced industrial economies, the study attempts to make a contribution to the current debates about how these firms could assert themselves in a world of far-reaching transformation. As the title of the study suggests, this contribution is made through focusing the discussion upon production offshoring, which is currently commanding attention of so many practitioners, academics and policy makers. Building on ground that is already well trodden within the academic literature, the study searches for novel multidisciplinary explanations about how the production function can be organised by lead firms on a global scale and, more importantly, what the strategic implications of this process are. While the study concentrates on the production function, the implications of the discussion stretch much wider; the study also reveals implications for other functions and the company as a whole, as well as it points towards broader societal implications. The study employs a qualitative methodology based on multiple case studies. By applying the process perspective to the offshoring phenomenon, this study develops a framework which can be distilled into a number of propositions addressing: 1) the unfolding of offshoring process in a firm over time, 2) factors affecting the trajectories of the process, 3) the role of peculiarities of the society and locality from where offshoring initiatives originate, 4) strategic implications of offshoring initiatives.

Slepniov, Dmitrij

2010-01-01

271

Opening Address [International Conference on Effective Nuclear Regulatory Systems: Further Enhancing the Global Nuclear Safety and Security Regime, Cape Town (South Africa), 14-18 December 2009  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nuclear energy is seen by many countries as providing a sustainable solution to energy security challenges. In this context, many developing countries are considering the establishment of nuclear power build programmes, while countries with mature nuclear programmes are considering the possibility of further expansion. The challenges facing countries that are embarking on this new venture include, inter alia, the development of policies, legislation as well as the establishment of appropriate institutions such as regulatory bodies with effective independence to take regulatory decisions. Regional and international cooperation and coordination are therefore of critical importance. Accordingly, the establishment of the Forum of Regulatory Bodies in Africa is a welcome initiative. We are pleased that the national nuclear programme in post-apartheid South Africa places us in a position to become active global participants in the safe use of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes. However, we all have an obligation to ensure that the presence of a plethora of cooperation mechanisms such as this body are as inclusive and as supportive as possible. This will help the global community of nations in reaping maximum benefits that surely should arise from these initiatives to ensure security of energy supply. We do not have the luxury to duplicate such bodies. The role of the International Atomic Energy Agency in nuclear safety and security cannot be over-emphasized. That alone is the reason that drove the liberation movement of the people of our country, and now the ruling party, fully to conform to all the treaties and conventions that have been drafted by this reputable institution of the peoples of the world. The same goes for the facilitation of cooperation and the sharing of knowledge and experience. The IAEA is invariably trusted to provide independent views and advice in order to strengthen safety and security while preserving the sovereignty, authority and responsibilities of Member States

2010-01-01

272

New Design of Biopharmaceuticals through the Use of Microalgae Addressed to Global Geopolitical and Economic Changes. Are You Ready for New Development in Biopharma?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Biopharma industry is enduring sweeping change in response to the financial crisis, but one aspect of the in-dustry that emerged relatively unscathed and that perhaps has directly benefited from the crisis is new revolutionary innova- tion solution. Identifying opportunities in the next wave of technologies for Biopharma, along with other policy initia- tives including financial crisis actions and climate policy, will affect on manufacturing biopharmaceutical products today and in the future in cost effective manner, and will be our adequate answer addressing to global geopolitical, economic and climate changes. It also underscores the search for new approach, evidenced by trends around new for- mulations to serve lower income patients. Microalgae biomass comes in many strains, and can be used by means of variety product developments. In the last years the key task of our R & D was to find a solution for these tasks. The bio- fuel market development dynamics include significant opportunity of microalgae raw material and microalgae proc- essing biomass rest of biodiesel manufacturing for Biopharma global growth in cost effective manner. Second new source of microalgae raw material for Biopharma include microalgae production through waste and wastewater cleaning. This should provide the opportunity to see the future in a new vision, where technology can serve as a revela- tion of the truth and where every endeavor is governed by reflection on and appreciation of the environment and thus leading to resolution of global tasks facing the world community and inclusion of microalgae in production and bio cycles open new cost effective ways for Biopharma companies and conservation of nature. A truly coherent microalgae raw material and Biopharma production policy has to find ways to bring these two traces closer for cost effective manufacturing, well being Biopharma economy and human health.

Armen B. Avagyan

2010-01-01

273

76 FR 10892 - Aquatic Ecosystems, Water Quality, and Global Change: Challenges of Conducting Multi-Stressor...  

Science.gov (United States)

...EPA-HQ-ORD-2011-0187] Aquatic Ecosystems, Water Quality, and Global Change...the draft report titled, ``Aquatic Ecosystems, Water Quality, and Global Change...vulnerability of water quality and aquatic ecosystems, across the United States, to...

2011-02-28

274

76 FR 55060 - Aquatic Ecosystems, Water Quality, and Global Change: Challenges of Conducting Multi-Stressor...  

Science.gov (United States)

...PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9459-7] Aquatic Ecosystems, Water Quality, and Global Change...releasing a final report entitled, Aquatic Ecosystems, Water Quality, and Global Change...vulnerability of water quality and aquatic ecosystems across the United States to the...

2011-09-06

275

Global coverage of cetacean line-transect surveys: status quo, data gaps and future challenges.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Knowledge of abundance, trends and distribution of cetacean populations is needed to inform marine conservation efforts, ecosystem models and spatial planning. We compiled a geo-spatial database of published data on cetacean abundance from dedicated visual line-transect surveys and encoded >1100 abundance estimates for 47 species from 430 surveys conducted worldwide from 1975-2005. Our subsequent analyses revealed large spatial, temporal and taxonomic variability and gaps in survey coverage. With the exception of Antarctic waters, survey coverage was biased toward the northern hemisphere, especially US and northern European waters. Overall, <25% of the world's ocean surface was surveyed and only 6% had been covered frequently enough (? 5 times) to allow trend estimation. Almost half the global survey effort, defined as total area (km(2)) covered by all survey study areas across time, was concentrated in the Eastern Tropical Pacific (ETP). Neither the number of surveys conducted nor the survey effort had increased in recent years. Across species, an average of 10% of a species' predicted range had been covered by at least one survey, but there was considerable variation among species. With the exception of three delphinid species, <1% of all species' ranges had been covered frequently enough for trend analysis. Sperm whales emerged from our analyses as a relatively data-rich species. This is a notoriously difficult species to survey visually, and we use this as an example to illustrate the challenges of using available data from line-transect surveys for the detection of trends or for spatial planning. We propose field and analytical methods to fill in data gaps to improve cetacean conservation efforts.

Kaschner K; Quick NJ; Jewell R; Williams R; Harris CM

2012-01-01

276

Global coverage of cetacean line-transect surveys: status quo, data gaps and future challenges.  

Science.gov (United States)

Knowledge of abundance, trends and distribution of cetacean populations is needed to inform marine conservation efforts, ecosystem models and spatial planning. We compiled a geo-spatial database of published data on cetacean abundance from dedicated visual line-transect surveys and encoded >1100 abundance estimates for 47 species from 430 surveys conducted worldwide from 1975-2005. Our subsequent analyses revealed large spatial, temporal and taxonomic variability and gaps in survey coverage. With the exception of Antarctic waters, survey coverage was biased toward the northern hemisphere, especially US and northern European waters. Overall, <25% of the world's ocean surface was surveyed and only 6% had been covered frequently enough (? 5 times) to allow trend estimation. Almost half the global survey effort, defined as total area (km(2)) covered by all survey study areas across time, was concentrated in the Eastern Tropical Pacific (ETP). Neither the number of surveys conducted nor the survey effort had increased in recent years. Across species, an average of 10% of a species' predicted range had been covered by at least one survey, but there was considerable variation among species. With the exception of three delphinid species, <1% of all species' ranges had been covered frequently enough for trend analysis. Sperm whales emerged from our analyses as a relatively data-rich species. This is a notoriously difficult species to survey visually, and we use this as an example to illustrate the challenges of using available data from line-transect surveys for the detection of trends or for spatial planning. We propose field and analytical methods to fill in data gaps to improve cetacean conservation efforts. PMID:22984461

Kaschner, Kristin; Quick, Nicola J; Jewell, Rebecca; Williams, Rob; Harris, Catriona M

2012-09-12

277

World environmental policy. Conceptual approaches of German political science in response to the challenges of Global Change; Weltumweltpolitik - Global Change als Herausforderung fuer die deutsche Politikwissenschaft  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes, first, the international community of social scientists working on global change, and elaborates on possible contributions to this community by German political scientists. Second, the paper examines three new conceptual approaches to analysing global change, namely the Syndromes of Global Change approach, Earth System Analysis, and Sustainability Science. The paper then elaborates on a number of ways in which German political science could respond to the academic and political challenges posed by global change. It concludes by emphasizing the need for a new approach, focusing on 'world environmental policy analysis' that would bridge traditional (environmental) policy analysis, international relations research, and comparative politics. (orig.) [German] Der Aufsatz beschreibt die Wissenschaftslandschaft der internationalen sozialwissenschaftlichen Global-Change-Forschung mit besonderem Augenmerk auf moegliche Beitraege der deutschen Politologie. Mit den 'Syndromen des Globalen Wandels', der 'Erdsystemanalyse' und der 'Nachhaltigkeitswissenschaft' werden drei neuere konzeptionelle Innovationen vorgestellt, mit denen der Herausforderung des Globalen Wandels begegnet werden soll. Anschliessend werden Wege skizziert, wie die Politikwissenschaft auf die neuen gesellschaftlichen und wissenschaftlichen Probleme des Globalen Wandels reagieren koennte. Eine Schlussfolgerung ist ein Plaedoyer fuer die Entwicklung einer eigenstaendigen Weltumweltpolitik-Analyse an der Schnittstelle von traditioneller Policy-Analyse, Internationalen Beziehungen/Aussenpolitik sowie Komparatistik. (orig./CB)

Biermann, F. [Potsdam-Institut fuer Klimafolgenforschung (PIK), Potsdam (Germany); Dingwerth, K. [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany). Fachbereich Politik- und Sozialwissenschaften

2001-12-01

278

Global nuclear industry views: challenges arising from the evolution of the optimisation principle in radiological protection.  

Science.gov (United States)

Over the last few decades, the steady progress achieved in reducing planned exposures of both workers and the public has been admirable in the nuclear sector. However, the disproportionate focus on tiny public exposures and radioactive discharges associated with normal operations came at a high price, and the quasi-denial of a risk of major accident and related weaknesses in emergency preparedness and response came at an even higher price. Fukushima has unfortunately taught us that radiological protection (RP) for emergency and post-emergency situations can be much more than a simple evacuation that lasts 24-48 h, with people returning safely to their homes soon afterwards. On optimisation of emergency and post-emergency exposures, the only 'show in town' in terms of international RP policy improvements has been the issuance of the 2007 Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). However, no matter how genuine these improvements are, they have not been 'road tested' on the practical reality of severe accidents. Post-Fukushima, there is a compelling case to review the practical adequacy of key RP notions such as optimisation, evacuation, sheltering, and reference levels for workers and the public, and to amend these notions with a view to making the international RP system more useful in the event of a severe accident. On optimisation of planned exposures, the reality is that, nowadays, margins for further reductions of public doses in the nuclear sector are very small, and the smaller the dose, the greater the extra effort needed to reduce the dose further. If sufficient caution is not exercised in the use of RP notions such as dose constraints, there is a real risk of challenging nuclear power technologies beyond safety reasons. For nuclear new build, it is the optimisation of key operational parameters of nuclear power technologies (not RP) that is of paramount importance to improve their overall efficiency. In pursuing further improvements in the international RP system, it should be clearly borne in mind that the system is generally based on protection against the risk of cancer and hereditary diseases. The system also protects against deterministic non-cancer effects on tissues and organs. In seeking refinements of such protective notions, ICRP is invited to pay increased attention to the fact that a continued balance must be struck between beneficial activities that cause exposures and protection. The global nuclear industry is committed to help overcome these key RP issues as part of the RP community's upcoming international deliberations towards a more efficient international RP system. PMID:23089026

Saint-Pierre, S

2012-09-12

279

Global nuclear industry views: challenges arising from the evolution of the optimisation principle in radiological protection.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Over the last few decades, the steady progress achieved in reducing planned exposures of both workers and the public has been admirable in the nuclear sector. However, the disproportionate focus on tiny public exposures and radioactive discharges associated with normal operations came at a high price, and the quasi-denial of a risk of major accident and related weaknesses in emergency preparedness and response came at an even higher price. Fukushima has unfortunately taught us that radiological protection (RP) for emergency and post-emergency situations can be much more than a simple evacuation that lasts 24-48 h, with people returning safely to their homes soon afterwards. On optimisation of emergency and post-emergency exposures, the only 'show in town' in terms of international RP policy improvements has been the issuance of the 2007 Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). However, no matter how genuine these improvements are, they have not been 'road tested' on the practical reality of severe accidents. Post-Fukushima, there is a compelling case to review the practical adequacy of key RP notions such as optimisation, evacuation, sheltering, and reference levels for workers and the public, and to amend these notions with a view to making the international RP system more useful in the event of a severe accident. On optimisation of planned exposures, the reality is that, nowadays, margins for further reductions of public doses in the nuclear sector are very small, and the smaller the dose, the greater the extra effort needed to reduce the dose further. If sufficient caution is not exercised in the use of RP notions such as dose constraints, there is a real risk of challenging nuclear power technologies beyond safety reasons. For nuclear new build, it is the optimisation of key operational parameters of nuclear power technologies (not RP) that is of paramount importance to improve their overall efficiency. In pursuing further improvements in the international RP system, it should be clearly borne in mind that the system is generally based on protection against the risk of cancer and hereditary diseases. The system also protects against deterministic non-cancer effects on tissues and organs. In seeking refinements of such protective notions, ICRP is invited to pay increased attention to the fact that a continued balance must be struck between beneficial activities that cause exposures and protection. The global nuclear industry is committed to help overcome these key RP issues as part of the RP community's upcoming international deliberations towards a more efficient international RP system.

Saint-Pierre S

2012-10-01

280

Valedictory address.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Janet Clarke was installed as President of the British Dental Association at last year's 2011 British Dental Conference and Exhibition held in Manchester. At this year's conference, also in Manchester, she gave the following valedictory address.

Clarke J

2012-05-01

 
 
 
 
281

The Challenge of Nissology: A Global Outlook on the World Archipelago - Part II: The Global and Scientific Vocation of Nissology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Islands are the rule and not the exception. One major objective for nissology – defined as the study of islands and islandness - in the 21st century should be to debunk the unfair prejudice that ‘island studies’ continues to suffer at present time. To do so, a systematic treatment of the island phenomenon needs to be undertaken and this should be backed up by substantial theoretical underpinnings. In seeking to turn the dominant continental paradigm on its head, islands not only deserve to be “studied on their own terms”; they also become the deus ex machina of a holistic understanding of the world archipelago and its ongoing globalization. This vision should contribute towards bridging the gap between ‘continentalists’ who tend to consider islands only as epiphenomena of larger land trends, and ‘island studies’ practitioners. This paper, the second of two segments, focuses mainly on the contribution of islands to global cultural and biological diversity, and concludes with an appeal for a more rigorous, pan-epistemic treatment of island studies.

Christian Depraetere

2008-01-01

282

Global challenges with scale-up of the integrated management of childhood illness strategy: results of a multi-country survey.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The Integrated Management of Childhood Illness Strategy (IMCI), developed by WHO/UNICEF, aims to contribute to reducing childhood morbidity and mortality (MDG4) in resource-limited settings. Since 1996 more than 100 countries have adopted IMCI. IMCI case management training (ICMT) is one of three IMCI components and training is usually residential over 11 consecutive days. Follow-up after ICMT is an essential part of training. We describe the barriers to rapid acceleration of ICMT and review country perspectives on how to address these barriers. METHODS: A multi-country exploratory cross-sectional questionnaire survey of in-service ICMT approaches, using quantitative and qualitative methods, was conducted in 2006-7: 27 countries were purposively selected from all six WHO regions. Data for this paper are from three questionnaires (QA, QB and QC), distributed to selected national focal IMCI persons/programme officers, course directors/facilitators and IMCI trainees respectively. QC only gathered data on experiences with IMCI follow-up. RESULTS: 33 QA, 163 QB and 272 QC were received. The commonest challenges to ICMT scale-up relate to funding (high cost and long duration of the residential ICMT), poor literacy of health workers, differing opinions about the role of IMCI in improving child health, lack of political support, frequent changes in staff or rules at Ministries of Health and lack of skilled facilitators. Countries addressed these challenges in several ways including increased advocacy, developing strategic linkages with other priorities, intensifying pre-service training, re-distribution of funds and shortening course duration. The commonest challenges to follow-up after ICMT were lack of funding (93.1% of respondents), inadequate funds for travelling or planning (75.9% and 44.8% respectively), lack of gas for travelling (41.4%), inadequately trained or few supervisors (41.4%) and inadequate job aids for follow-up (27.6%). Countries addressed these by piggy backing IMCI follow-up with routine supervisory visits. CONCLUSIONS: Financial challenges to ICMT scale-up and follow-up after training are common. As IMCI is accepted globally as one of the key strategies to meet MDG4 several steps need to be taken to facilitate rapid acceleration of ICMT, including reviewing core competencies followed by competency-driven shortened training duration or 'on the job' training, 'distance learning' or training using mobile phones. Linkages with other 'better-funded' programmes e.g. HIV or malaria need to be improved. Routine Primary Health Care (PHC) supervision needs to include follow-up after ICMT.

Goga AE; Muhe LM

2011-01-01

283

Tracking the influence of global change on soil organic C: opportunities and challenges  

Science.gov (United States)

Anthropogenic global changes such as rising atmospheric CO2 and temperatures likely will enhance multiple flows of carbon (C) between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. Understanding the changes these perturbations exert on soil organic C (SOC) pools and fluxes is critical for predicting climate, yet approaches for quantifying changes in SOC cycling suffer from deficiencies. We outline opportunities and challenges of employing stable isotopes in short- and longer-term studies to track soil change, using two forests as case studies. Relatively short-term lab studies employing isotopically labeled compounds can help us elucidate mechanisms of SOC stabilization and loss, but added substrate represents a small fraction of the complex suite of compounds in situ and can induce priming effects. By replacing inputs to a soil profile with labeled photosynthate, we can trace realistic substrates through the soil profile, but the time required for the substrate to become incorporated into all soil organic matter (SOM) fractions is longer than most study periods. These pros and cons are exemplified by two studies. First, tracing 13C-labeled photosynthate applied to temperate pine forest soils for ~10 y demonstrated unequal distribution of 13C label among SOC components, but we discerned likely enhanced activity of microorganisms that turnover recalcitrant SOC compounds in forests exposed to elevated CO2. Here, we describe data consistent with this, emanating from laboratory incubations in which 13C labeled, individual compounds were applied to elevated CO2 and control soils. We demonstrate increased fungal and actinomycete activity with elevated CO2. Here, short-term, lab experiments with simple 13C compounds strengthen longer-term in situ studies. We also employed knowledge gained from these studies to assess how warming will alter flows of SOC. Along a climate transect in boreal forests with similar vegetation and soil types, we applied 13C-labeled photosynthate to transplanted and incubated soil samples. At the warmest site on the transect - where mineral SOC concentrations are relatively low - the percent change in C:N ratio between Oi and mineral horizons is greater relative to cooler sites, and the increase in d15N signatures with depth within O horizons occurs to a greater degree at the warmest site relative to those observed further north. These data suggest that warming will promote a greater degree of microbial processing of organic inputs to soil, associated with retention of less C in mineral horizons. Lab assays will reveal the compounds preferentially retained in mineral soils. These studies highlight how stable isotopic tracers applied in the lab may be useful for elucidating microbial mechanisms of SOC transformations, but that long-term field studies are critical for assessing the net effect on SOC pools over time scales relevant for SOM turnover.

Billings, S. A.; Ziegler, S. E.; Li, J.

2009-12-01

284

Addressing healthcare.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Though President Barack Obama has rarely made healthcare references in his State of the Union addresses, health policy experts are hoping he changes that strategy this year. "The question is: Will he say anything? You would hope that he would, given that that was the major issue he started his presidency with," says Dr. James Weinstein, left, of the Dartmouth-Hitchcock health system.

Daly R

2013-02-01

285

Luncheon address  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Public policy responses to climate change are discussed from a global viewpoint. The public policy issue is one of unprecedented scope and complexity, and concerns the interaction of two vast and complex systems: the physical planetary system, and the human economic system. Decision making is required in the face of uncertainty, and scientific knowledge is lagging behind policy issues. Continuing world development is going to drastically change the balance of global population, trade, and economic power. Environmental quality performance requirements should be set with a great deal of attention paid to how they will affect the process of innovation, and must encourage demand for emerging technologies, products and services. Effective solutions can come only from effective international agreement. Governments, citizens and industry must become partners in action, and improved education and communication is required. Science, public policy and social consensus must converge, as climate change is not merely a scientific or technical problem, but is also a social and political problem

1991-01-01

286

Globalization : Challenges for the Modern Curriculum; or a Power/Knowledge Complex in the Production of Curricular Variables?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Globalization is often referred to as external to education - a state of affair facing the modern curriculum with numerous challenges. In this paper it is examined as internal to curriculum; analysed as a problematization in a Foucaultian sense. That is, as a complex of attentions, worries, ways of reasoning, producing curricular variables. The analysis is made through an example of early childhood curriculum in Danish Pre-school, and the way the curricular variable of the pre-school child comes into being through globalization as a problematization, carried forth by the comparative practices of PISA. It thus explores the systems of reason that educational comparative practices carry through time; focusing on the way configurations are reproduced and transformed, forming the pre-school child as a central curricular variable.

Plum, Maja

287

Opening address  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This short talk was the opening remarks to the attendees at this conference, presented by the Scientific Secretary, IWG-LMNPP, of the IAEA. This meeting is an effort to aid research on problems related to the general area of nuclear plant aging and life management. In particular it addresses fracture properties of reactor materials and components, both as installed, and at end of service condition. A major concern is relating measurements made on laboratory samples to properties displayed by actual reactor components

1993-01-01

288

Pharmaceutical digital marketing and governance: illicit actors and challenges to global patient safety and public health.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

SUMMARY: Effective global "eHealth Governance" focused on cybercrime is needed in order to effectively combat illicit online pharmacies. This includes building upon existing Internet governance structures and coordinating partnership between the UN Office of Drugs and Crime that leads the global fight against transnational organized crime and the Internet Governance Forum that is shaping the future of Internet governance. Through a UNODC-IGF governance mechanism, investigation, detection and coordination of activities against illicit online pharmacies and their misuse of eDTCA can commence.

Mackey TK; Liang BA

2013-10-01

289

Globalization and cognitive enhancement: emerging social and ethical challenges for ADHD clinicians.  

Science.gov (United States)

Globalization of ADHD and the rise of cognitive enhancement have raised fresh concerns about the validity of ADHD diagnosis and the ethics of stimulant drug treatment. We review the literature on these two emerging phenomena, with a focus on the corresponding social, scientific and ethical debates over the universality of ADHD and the use of stimulant drug treatments in a global population of children and adolescents. Drawing on this literature, we reflect on the importance of ethically informed, ecologically sensitive clinical practices in relation to ADHD diagnosis and treatment. PMID:23933975

Singh, Ilina; Filipe, Angela M; Bard, Imre; Bergey, Meredith; Baker, Lauren

2013-09-01

290

Globalization and cognitive enhancement: emerging social and ethical challenges for ADHD clinicians.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Globalization of ADHD and the rise of cognitive enhancement have raised fresh concerns about the validity of ADHD diagnosis and the ethics of stimulant drug treatment. We review the literature on these two emerging phenomena, with a focus on the corresponding social, scientific and ethical debates over the universality of ADHD and the use of stimulant drug treatments in a global population of children and adolescents. Drawing on this literature, we reflect on the importance of ethically informed, ecologically sensitive clinical practices in relation to ADHD diagnosis and treatment.

Singh I; Filipe AM; Bard I; Bergey M; Baker L

2013-09-01

291

Biomass energy technologies for rural infrastructure and village power - opportunities and challenges in the context of global climate change concerns  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The potential and role of biomass resources in developing countries for addressing global climate change concerns are highlighted using India as a case study. Promotion of technologies, which use biomass more efficiently, is seen as a key strategy to integrate the concerns of both developing countries and developed countries. The role of various biomass technologies for improving rural infrastructure and village power is discussed in detail. A vision of establishing and running a chain of rural energy service companies, operating with a basket of devices and technologies, under the general provisions of CDM, is examined for commercialization and mainstreaming of biomass technologies which have achieved reasonable levels of maturity. (author)

2004-01-01

292

Biomass energy technologies for rural infrastructure and village power - opportunities and challenges in the context of global climate change concerns  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The potential and role of biomass resources in developing countries for addressing global climate change concerns are highlighted using India as a case study. Promotion of technologies, which use biomass more efficiently, is seen as a key strategy to integrate the concerns of both developing countries and developed countries. The role of various biomass technologies for improving rural infrastructure and village power is discussed in detail. A vision of establishing and running a chain of rural energy service companies, operating with a basket of devices and technologies, under the general provisions of CDM, is examined for commercialization and mainstreaming of biomass technologies which have achieved reasonable levels of maturity. (author)

Kishore, V.V.N.; Bhandari, P.M.; Gupta, P. [Tata Energy Research Institute, New Delhi (India)

2004-04-01

293

Challenges to the IAEA in the changing global framework of the nuclear energy development  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article is Changing World and Challenges to the International Nuclear Community and the IAEA, Response to the Challenges and Rising Expectations for Nuclear Development - 'Nuclear Renaissance'. Asia is the leading region for Nuclear Renaissance, Technology development, Non-proliferation, Safety and Security. {center_dot} Economic and political importance {center_dot} Technological and industrial strength {center_dot} Ambitious nuclear programmes {center_dot} Current issues in Non-proliferation {center_dot} Achievement of high level of Safety and Security.

Taniguchi, Tomihiro [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

2006-04-15

294

Underpinning Land Management : a major challenge for the global surveying profession  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper provides an overall understanding of the concept of land administration systems for dealing with rights, restrictions and responsibilities in future spatially enabled government. Further, the paper presents the role of FIG with regard to building the capacity in this area and responding to the global agenda.

Enemark, Stig

295

Globalization and Postcolonial Nation in Malaysia: Theoretical Challenges and Historical Possibilities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available With the conclusion of the Cold War and the advent of a neoliberal stage of capitalist expansion, it has been argued that national identifications have been increasingly replaced by emergent global modes of consciousness. Disagreements, however, abound over the historical role of the global. For some, it is seen as a subject of deterritorializing capital flows while for others, it supersedes nationalism and plays a central role in fighting the hegemony of modernist states and the excesses of neoliberal capitalism. Given these theoretical dilemmas, and the fact that nation-states have yet to disappear, the paper argues for a reorientation from pitting globalization against nationalism to their mutual constitution and reconstitution instead. With Malaysia as a case study, it argues that there is something substantive about nationalism and nation-state processes that demands a reconceptualization of nationalism and globalization. While the modern nation-state may be a political institution universalized via colonization and its consequences, its normative content and the mechanisms of nation-state building and national subject-making are never shaped by a wholesale adoption of the Western model. Rather, it is premised upon improvisations in response to contextual and material particularities of different societies. The article explores how alternative definitions and histories of national integration in multiethnic postcolonial societies such as Malaysia can become a first step towards reconsidering the concepts of nation and nationalism.

Beng Lan Goh

2008-01-01

296

Opening address  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Improving the environment while satisfying the need for energy caused by the rapid growth of economy is a challenge for China as well as for the international community. The goal in China is to improve the use of coal and establish an energy mix of quality and cleanness. It is planned to maintain the steady increase of total energy production to add quality energy resources as oil, natural gas and high-level oil. The goals of the energy sector reform are discussed. (R.P.)

1997-01-01

297

Keynote address  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper addresses various aspects of the bases underlying the nuclear third party liability regime, and also analyses the distinction between danger and risk and the manner in which damage caused by flood, mass unemployment (economic damage mainly) and certain diseases is dealt with in the absence of liability provisions similar to those applicable to nuclear incidents. It also is suggested that the State because of its duty under the Basic Law to ensure adequate energy supplies, should be co-responsible for liability questions along with the nuclear operator. (NEA).

1985-01-01

298

Keynote addresses  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Two keynote addresses emphasizing the structural and environmental aspects of electricity restructuring were summarized. Donald Macdonald, former Chairman of the Committee on Competition in Ontario`s Electricity Sector, congratulated the government for its decision to get on with the restructuring. He cited three concerns that independent producers will have to address as the restructuring unfolds, the independence of the transmission system, fair competition and rehabilitation of Ontario Hydro`s nuclear system. Ralph Cavanaugh, Co-Director of the Energy Program at the Natural Resources Defense Council in San Francisco, suggested five approaches to environmental protection that would be consistent with the principles set out in the Ontario White Paper. These are: (1)targeted financial incentives, (2) minimum content rules, (3) uniform pollution standards, (4) minimum efficiency standards for buildings and appliances, and (5) mandatory disclosure. He warned against being misled by some power sector analysts who claim that restructuring will automatically lead to the replacement of older, dirtier facilities with newer generation, generate incentives for investment in energy efficiency and open the door for customers to choose cleaner energy sources. The experiences in California are wholly at odds with such optimistic predictions. In his view, for the foreseeable future, the power sector will continue to be driven by a 300,000 MW coal-fired generation portfolio in the United States. These older facilities are subject to the least stringent environmental controls, are the worst polluters and receive substantial competitive advantages.

Macdonald, D.; Cavanagh, R.

1998-04-01

299

Globalization and its challenges for water management in the developing world.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Water management in developing countries is significantly affected by the processes of globalization: primarily the rapidly acting market-oriented changes that aim to improve economic efficiency through competition and trade. The various impacts of market forces enable 3 categories of developing country to be differentiated: those rapidly integrating into the global economy; those that are not attractive to international investment and become increasingly marginalized; and those countries where both tendencies are powerful, leading to internal divisions and instabilities. Broad framework national development plans are needed that are sensitive to the different circumstances in these countries and that enable the possible actors to collaborate optimally. Often the business sector can take a leading role, but its role is severely limited in other countries. In all cases however the long-term commitment of local communities is essential even when it is hard to secure.

Takahashi K

2002-01-01

300

Climate is the real challenge, not shortage. New problems arising for global energy supply  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The author of the article is Professor E. Pestel who, as an executive member of the Club of Rome, belongs to the group of experts who first gave impetus to start thinking about the global problems of mankind. In his publications on the problems linked with CO/sub 2/ emission he explains the unavoidable dilemma created by the growing world population and the growing demand for energy on the one hand, and the resulting hazards to the global climate on the other. His analyses take away the soft cushion of hopeful make-believe still widespread in the Western World, and in his capacity as an expert and realist he decidedly calls for decisions and measures to tackle the problem.

Pestel, E.

1988-11-01

 
 
 
 
301

THE HUMAN INTEGRAL DEVELOPMENT: A CHALLENGE FOR THE COMMUNITARIAN DEVELOPMENT IN THE GLOBALIZATION PROCESSES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The predominance of the things on the people, the materialistic character of the human motivation, is what it is predominating in the globalization processes which we are facing. For "those of above" it is more and more important to face the war of the competition and his fight by the power, and "for those of below", the fight by the cultural and social survival. We are immersed in a neoliberalism that concealingly impels us to an untenable process of globalization based on the sobreoperation of the human resources, the degradation of the cultural diversity and the deterioration of the environment. We needed to be alert as far as which the development is an integral process that includes cultural, ethical, political, social, economic and environmental dimensions, with an interrelation that are inherent to the own phenomenon of the development, starting off of which the human being is the main protagonist and beneficiary of the same one.

María Soledad Angulo Aguilazocho; Marco Antonio Lozanía Cazares

2005-01-01

302

Accountability and global governance: challenging the state-centric conception of human rights  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper I analyze some conceptual difficulties associated with the demand that global institutions be made more democratically accountable. In the absence of a world state, it may seem inconsistent to insist that global institutions be accountable to all those subject to their decisions while also insisting that the members of these institutions, as representatives of states, simultaneously remain accountable to the citizens of their own countries for the special responsibilities they have toward them. This difficulty seems insurmountable in light of the widespread acceptance of a state-centric conception of human rights, according to which states and only states bear primary responsibility for the protection of their citizens’ rights. Against this conception, I argue that in light of the current structures of global governance the monistic ascription of human rights obligations to states is no longer plausible. Under current conditions, states are bound to fail in their ability to protect the human rights of their citizens whenever potential violations either stem from transnational regulations or are perpetrated by non-state actors. In order to show the plausibility of an alternative, pluralist conception of human rights obligations I turn to the current debate among scholars of international law regarding the human rights obligations of non-state actors. I document the various ways in which these obligations could be legally entrenched in global financial institutions such as the WTO, the IMF, and the World Bank. These examples indicate feasible methods for strengthening the democratic accountability of these institutions while also respecting the accountability that participating member states owe to their own citizens. I conclude that, once the distinctions between the obligations to respect, protect, and fulfill human rights are taken into account, no conceptual difficulty remains in holding states and non-state actors accountable for their respective human rights obligations.

Cristina Lafont

2010-01-01

303

Growing water scarcity in agriculture: future challenge to global water security.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

As water is an essential component of the planetary life support system, water deficiency constitutes an insecurity that has to be overcome in the process of socio-economic development. The paper analyses the origin and appearance of blue as well as green water scarcity on different scales and with particular focus on risks to food production and water supply for municipalities and industry. It analyses water scarcity originating from both climatic phenomena and water partitioning disturbances on different scales: crop field, country level and the global circulation system. The implications by 2050 of water scarcity in terms of potential country-level water deficits for food self-reliance are analysed, and the compensating dependence on trade in virtual water for almost half the world population is noted. Planetary-scale conditions for sustainability of the global water circulation system are discussed in terms of a recently proposed Planetary Freshwater Boundary, and the consumptive water use reserve left to be shared between water requirements for global food production, fuelwood production and carbon sequestration is discussed. Finally, the importance of a paradigm shift in the further conceptual development of water security is stressed, so that adequate attention is paid to water's fundamental role in both natural and socio-economic systems.

Falkenmark M

2013-01-01

304

Ageing as a global public health challenge: From complexity reduction to aid effectiveness.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Since 2002, ageing populations worldwide have received increasing attention by global policy-makers. However, resources committed by inter-governmental donors and US-based private foundations in support of ageing-related policies and interventions in non-Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries have remained minimal during this decade and, where mobilised, have rarely responded to actual country-level demographics and institutional capacities. We argue that this lag between issue recognition and effective resource mobilisation, while mirroring known dynamics in global agenda-setting, has also been caused by a depiction of ageing as a uniform trend across the Global South. We develop and apply a comprehensive analytical framework to assess the state of ageing dynamics at the country level and uncover substantial regional and sub-regional variation. In response, we suggest replacing complexity reduction in the interest of issue recognition with targeted support for a more nuanced research agenda and policy debate on country-specific ageing dynamics in order to inform and catalyse effective international assistance.

Esser DE; Ward PS

2013-08-01

305

Ageing as a global public health challenge: from complexity reduction to aid effectiveness.  

Science.gov (United States)

Since 2002, ageing populations worldwide have received increasing attention by global policy-makers. However, resources committed by inter-governmental donors and US-based private foundations in support of ageing-related policies and interventions in non-Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries have remained minimal during this decade and, where mobilised, have rarely responded to actual country-level demographics and institutional capacities. We argue that this lag between issue recognition and effective resource mobilisation, while mirroring known dynamics in global agenda-setting, has also been caused by a depiction of ageing as a uniform trend across the Global South. We develop and apply a comprehensive analytical framework to assess the state of ageing dynamics at the country level and uncover substantial regional and sub-regional variation. In response, we suggest replacing complexity reduction in the interest of issue recognition with targeted support for a more nuanced research agenda and policy debate on country-specific ageing dynamics in order to inform and catalyse effective international assistance. PMID:23914730

Esser, Daniel E; Ward, Patricia S

2013-08-06

306

Coalescing medical systems: a challenge for health informatics in a global world.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

As globalisation advances, patients in many nations increasingly access diverse medical systems including Western medicine, Traditional Chinese Medicine, Homeopathy and Ayervedic medicine. The trend toward co-existence of medical systems presents challenges for health informatics including the need to develop standards that can encompass the diversity required, the need to develop software applications that effectively inter-operate across diverse systems and the need to support patients when evaluating competing systems. This article advances the notion that the challenges can most effectively be met with the development of informatics approaches that do not assume the superiority of one medical system over another. Argument visualization to support patient decision making in selecting an appropriate medical system is presented as an application that exemplifies this stance.

Stranieri A; Vaughan S

2010-01-01

307

Global transcription analysis of vaccinated channel catfish following challenge with virulent Edwardsiella ictaluri.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To determine the identities of genes involved in either innate or adaptive immunity, microarray analysis of 65,182 UniGene transcripts were performed to compare gene expression in vaccinated channel catfish after challenge with a virulent Edwardsiella ictaluri compared to that in sham-vaccinated fish without challenge. With a filter of false-discovery rate less than 0.05 and fold change greater than 2, a total of 167 functionally known unique transcripts were found to be up-regulated, whereas 40 were down-regulated. The 167 up-regulated transcripts represent genes with putative functions in the following eight major categories: (1) immunity (30%); (2) metabolism and energy production (22%); (3) transcription or translation (12%); (4) protein degradation (11%); (5) signal transduction (6%); (6) traffic and transport (6%); (7) cell structure or cell cycle (8%); and (8) others (5%). The 40 down-regulated transcripts represent genes with putative functions in the following six major categories: (1) metabolism (27.5%); (2) immunity (17.5%); (3) cell structure (17.5%); (4) cell motility (10%); (5) signal transduction (15%); and (6) others (12.5%). Microarray analysis revealed that lysozyme c was up-regulated the most (70-fold) in vaccinated fish at 48 h post challenge of virulent E. ictaluri whereas myotubularin related protein 1a and cytochrome P450 2J27 were down-regulated the most (8.1 fold). Differential regulation of eight randomly selected transcripts in vaccinated fish after challenge with virulent E. ictaluri was also validated by quantitative PCR. Our results suggest that these differentially regulated genes might play important roles in channel catfish immunity against E. ictaluri.

Pridgeon JW; Yeh HY; Shoemaker CA; Klesius PH

2012-03-01

308

Global transcription analysis of vaccinated channel catfish following challenge with virulent Edwardsiella ictaluri.  

Science.gov (United States)

To determine the identities of genes involved in either innate or adaptive immunity, microarray analysis of 65,182 UniGene transcripts were performed to compare gene expression in vaccinated channel catfish after challenge with a virulent Edwardsiella ictaluri compared to that in sham-vaccinated fish without challenge. With a filter of false-discovery rate less than 0.05 and fold change greater than 2, a total of 167 functionally known unique transcripts were found to be up-regulated, whereas 40 were down-regulated. The 167 up-regulated transcripts represent genes with putative functions in the following eight major categories: (1) immunity (30%); (2) metabolism and energy production (22%); (3) transcription or translation (12%); (4) protein degradation (11%); (5) signal transduction (6%); (6) traffic and transport (6%); (7) cell structure or cell cycle (8%); and (8) others (5%). The 40 down-regulated transcripts represent genes with putative functions in the following six major categories: (1) metabolism (27.5%); (2) immunity (17.5%); (3) cell structure (17.5%); (4) cell motility (10%); (5) signal transduction (15%); and (6) others (12.5%). Microarray analysis revealed that lysozyme c was up-regulated the most (70-fold) in vaccinated fish at 48 h post challenge of virulent E. ictaluri whereas myotubularin related protein 1a and cytochrome P450 2J27 were down-regulated the most (8.1 fold). Differential regulation of eight randomly selected transcripts in vaccinated fish after challenge with virulent E. ictaluri was also validated by quantitative PCR. Our results suggest that these differentially regulated genes might play important roles in channel catfish immunity against E. ictaluri. PMID:22365332

Pridgeon, Julia W; Yeh, Hung-Yueh; Shoemaker, Craig A; Klesius, Phillip H

2012-02-06

309

Responsibility, God and society: The cry of the Other in the sacred texts as a challenge towards responsible global citizenship  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article seeks to respond to the question: What role can the sacred texts play in the construction of a Christian identity that is responsible to the Other in a pluralistic global world? The sacred texts of the Judaic-Christian tradition offer not only an understanding of the wholly otherness of God, but also form the basis of our understanding and perception of humanity (anthropology), the world and ourselves (personhood/identity). This understanding is constructed in the context of responding to the call of the wholly Other and the others. Identities are traditionally constructed through the identification and exclusion of differences (otherness), thus leading to an ethic of exclusion and responsibility only to oneself/ourselves. Yet these identity-forming texts harbour a persistent otherness, which challenges these traditional identities by interrupting them with a call to responsibility toward the other. The otherness harboured in these texts takes various forms, namely: The otherness of the ancient world to our world, the otherness of the transcendental Other, and the otherness of the text itself, as there is always a différance that has not yet been heard. These various forms of otherness, of our identity-forming texts, deconstruct our identity constructions, thus calling us to a continuous responsibility towards the other. This call could form the basis of a Christian identity and ethic of global cosmopolitan citizenship that is always responding to the eschatological interruption by the other, who is not yet present or who has not been offered presence.How to cite this article: Meylahn, J-A., 2009, Responsibility, God and society: The cry of the Other in the sacred texts as a challenge towards responsible global citizenship’, HTS Teologiese Studies/Theological Studies 65(1), Art. #131, 5 pages. DOI: 10.4102/hts.v65i1.131

Johann-Albrecht Meylahn

2009-01-01

310

El reto ético del agua | The Global Water Crisis’ ethical challenge  

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Full Text Available El vigente modelo neoliberal de globalización, ajeno a los más elementales principios éticos, lejos de frenar la degradación ecológica, reducir los gradientes de riqueza y garantizar a los más pobres derechos fundamentales, como el acceso al agua potable, ha abierto al mercado la gestión de aguas como espacio de negocio, acelerando la depredación de los recursos hídricos y aumentando la vulnerabilidad de los más débiles. En síntesis, afrontamos una crisis global del agua que sin duda se agravará por efecto del cambio climático en curso si no se adoptan adecuadas políticas de adaptación que amortigüen la vulnerabilidad de la población, particularmente de las comunidades más pobres, ante los riesgos de sequía y de fuertes precipitaciones, que aumentarán en intensidad y frecuencia. Se requiere un nuevo enfoque ético, basado en principios de sostenibilidad, equidad y no-violencia. Nos encontramos ante la necesidad de promover una “Nueva Cultura del Agua” que recupere, desde la modernidad, la vieja sabiduría de culturas ancestrales que se basaba en la prudencia y en el respeto a la naturaleza. The neoliberal globalization design, alien to the most elementary ethical principles, far from slowing down the environmental degradation, reduce the wealth inequalities and guarantee fundamental right to the most poor, as the access to drinkable water, has open the water management to the market, as a business space, fostering then the water resources depredation and making weak people more vulnerable. In sum, we face a global water crisis that will get worse, mostly for vulnerable populations and particularly for the poorest communities, if the right politics of adaption are not adopted against droughts and rainfall that are going to be more intense and frequent. We need a new ethic scope, based on sustainability, equity and non violent principles. We face the need to promote a New Water Culture that recovers, from modernity, the old wisdom of ancient cultures based on prudence and respect for the nature.

Pedro ARROJO

2009-01-01

311

Polio eradication is just over the horizon: the challenges of global resource mobilization.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study draws lessons from the resource mobilization experiences of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI). As the GPEI launched its eradication effort in 1988, it underestimated both the difficulty and the costs of the campaign. Advocacy for resource mobilization came as an afterthought in the late 1990s, when achieving eradication by the target date of 2000 began to look doubtful. The reality of funding shortfalls undercutting eradication leads to the conclusion that advocacy for resource mobilization is as central to operations as are scientific and technical factors. PMID:20455167

Pirio, Gregory Alonso; Kaufmann, Judith

2010-01-01

312

Polio eradication is just over the horizon: the challenges of global resource mobilization.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study draws lessons from the resource mobilization experiences of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI). As the GPEI launched its eradication effort in 1988, it underestimated both the difficulty and the costs of the campaign. Advocacy for resource mobilization came as an afterthought in the late 1990s, when achieving eradication by the target date of 2000 began to look doubtful. The reality of funding shortfalls undercutting eradication leads to the conclusion that advocacy for resource mobilization is as central to operations as are scientific and technical factors.

Pirio GA; Kaufmann J

2010-01-01

313

ESP Projects, English as a global language, and the challenge of change  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article reviews a number of key ESP Projects over the last 40 years and makes some predictions for the future of ESP and its link with developments in transnational education. The author describes the political and economic conditions behind the spread of English as a global language which in turn are driving the development of ESP programmes and projects. He makes a plea for a greater awareness of the systemic contextual aspects of ESP programmes and believes that ESP Project implementation can be made more successful by applying aspects of educational innovation theory.

Chris Kennedy

2012-01-01

314

Keynote address  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In this second keynote address of the conference Mr. Farlinger, Chairman of Ontario Hydro, attempted to respond to some of the criticisms levelled at the Corporation in the course of the Macdonald Committee process. He appeared to be particularly vexed by the criticism of IPPSO, saying that in effect, they are' beating up on their only customer', at a time when Hydro is being pulled in several different directions, and was facing pressure from jurisdictional dispute with municipal utilities, (MEUs). Nevertheless, he agreed with the need for restructuring. He defended Hydro by saying that the Macdonald Report in fact represented a vindication of the position Ontario Hydro had taken, particularly on such issues as open competition, customer choice, rationalization of the distribution system, and termination of Hydro's monopoly position. At the same time, he objected to the Report's assertion that dismantling the generation system into smaller units would be in the best interest of the people of Ontario. He suggested that there would be several large US utility companies willing and able to fill the vacuum if there was no large company with its head office in Ontario to stake its claim to the provincial market

1997-01-01

315

Keynote address  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this second keynote address of the conference Mr. Farlinger, Chairman of Ontario Hydro, attempted to respond to some of the criticisms levelled at the Corporation in the course of the Macdonald Committee process. He appeared to be particularly vexed by the criticism of IPPSO, saying that in effect, they are` beating up on their only customer`, at a time when Hydro is being pulled in several different directions, and was facing pressure from jurisdictional dispute with municipal utilities, (MEUs). Nevertheless, he agreed with the need for restructuring. He defended Hydro by saying that the Macdonald Report in fact represented a vindication of the position Ontario Hydro had taken, particularly on such issues as open competition, customer choice, rationalization of the distribution system, and termination of Hydro`s monopoly position. At the same time, he objected to the Report`s assertion that dismantling the generation system into smaller units would be in the best interest of the people of Ontario. He suggested that there would be several large US utility companies willing and able to fill the vacuum if there was no large company with its head office in Ontario to stake its claim to the provincial market.

Farlinger, W.

1997-05-01

316

Banquet address  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The theme of the address is the position of nuclear power following the reactor accident at Chernobyl. After acknowledging the Russian openness over the accident, Lord Marshall explains why a similar accident could not happen in the United Kingdom. The pressure tube design at Chernobyl had been investigated in 1976 but had been rejected because of three major disadvantages - the reactor had a positive void coefficient, it had zonal instabilities and local criticality in the core and it had a very high graphite temperature. In addition the British report of 1976 listed two other concerns - that the Russian design appeared to have insufficient shut-down margin and there was no back-up for the control rods for reactivity shutdown. The Russian safety philosophy is also seen as different from that of most Western reactor operators. It is thus concluded that Chernobyl could not happen in the West. However, the confidence of the public has to be won back and communication is important in this. The effects of Chernobyl should be seen in perspective - compared, for instance, against other accidents where a greater number of lives were lost. (U.K.)

1987-01-01

317

Ontario's petroleum legacy : the birth, evolution and challenges of a global industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This book provided a historical account of Ontario's role in the global oil industry, from the coming in of the first wells at Oil Springs in the mid-19th century when the primary fuel sources were wood, coal, and water. In 1858, oil seeps in Enniskillen Township, Lambton County, Ontario revealed the existence of petroleum, which encouraged the first drilling of wells and the development of the global industry. The book explored issues related to imperialism, resource development, local history and the colonial land policies surrounding the oil boom. Details of the Petrolia oil discovery were included along with the accomplishments of the entrepreneurs who were instrumental in developing the petroleum industry in Ontario. The major elements surrounding the development of Canada's oil and gas industry were presented, beginning with the coal-oil-refining industry which paved the way for the development of the oil industry; the early oilmen from Oil Springs and Petrolia who drilled for oil; the development of the oil and gas industry's position today as a major strength of the Canadian economy; and the environmental and climate change issues that currently confront the industry. After 150 years, the oil fields at Petrolia and Oil Springs still produce commercial quantities of crude oil from at least 650 active wells. refs., figs.

2008-01-01

318

Challenges and Risks of Global Crisis in the European Labour Market  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The world enters in the year 2012 facing a stark reality, one in three workers in the labor forceis currently either unemployed or poor. According Eurostat, 24.325 million men and women in the EU-27, of whom 16.925 million were in the euro area EA-17, were unemployed in January 2012. These datareflect acute problems in labor markets, in part created by the financial crisis and, if labor conditionsremain unfavorable for a long period, these problems could transform into another chronic problem. Thispaper takes, according to the statistical database, a comparative perspective on the labor market impact ofthe actual global crisis on Romania and European area. It starts from the reality that global crisis had asignificant impact on the development of unemployment in Europe countries, the rise in unemployment,being in relation to GDP reductions, varies. In this reality, only economic and social policies are fair,consistent, well-focused, efficient, which can reduce risks and keep a balanced budget and social order.

Georgeta Dragomir; Mariana Trandafir

2012-01-01

319

Multiple global radiations in tadpole shrimps challenge the concept of ‘living fossils’  

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Full Text Available ‘Living fossils’, a phrase first coined by Darwin, are defined as species with limited recent diversification and high morphological stasis over long periods of evolutionary time. Morphological stasis, however, can potentially lead to diversification rates being underestimated. Notostraca, or tadpole shrimps, is an ancient, globally distributed order of branchiopod crustaceans regarded as ‘living fossils’ because their rich fossil record dates back to the early Devonian and their morphology is highly conserved. Recent phylogenetic reconstructions have shown a strong biogeographic signal, suggesting diversification due to continental breakup, and widespread cryptic speciation. However, morphological conservatism makes it difficult to place fossil taxa in a phylogenetic context. Here we reveal for the first time the timing and tempo of tadpole shrimp diversification by inferring a robust multilocus phylogeny of Branchiopoda and applying Bayesian divergence dating techniques using reliable fossil calibrations external to Notostraca. Our results suggest at least two bouts of global radiation in Notostraca, one of them recent, so questioning the validity of the ‘living fossils’ concept in groups where cryptic speciation is widespread.

Thomas C. Mathers; Robert L. Hammond; Ronald A. Jenner; Bernd Hänfling; Africa Gómez

2013-01-01

320

Multiple global radiations in tadpole shrimps challenge the concept of 'living fossils'.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

'Living fossils', a phrase first coined by Darwin, are defined as species with limited recent diversification and high morphological stasis over long periods of evolutionary time. Morphological stasis, however, can potentially lead to diversification rates being underestimated. Notostraca, or tadpole shrimps, is an ancient, globally distributed order of branchiopod crustaceans regarded as 'living fossils' because their rich fossil record dates back to the early Devonian and their morphology is highly conserved. Recent phylogenetic reconstructions have shown a strong biogeographic signal, suggesting diversification due to continental breakup, and widespread cryptic speciation. However, morphological conservatism makes it difficult to place fossil taxa in a phylogenetic context. Here we reveal for the first time the timing and tempo of tadpole shrimp diversification by inferring a robust multilocus phylogeny of Branchiopoda and applying Bayesian divergence dating techniques using reliable fossil calibrations external to Notostraca. Our results suggest at least two bouts of global radiation in Notostraca, one of them recent, so questioning the validity of the 'living fossils' concept in groups where cryptic speciation is widespread.

Mathers TC; Hammond RL; Jenner RA; Hänfling B; Gómez A

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Keynote address  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

DOE biomass R ampersand D programs have the potential to provide America with both plentiful, clean-burning domestic transportation fuels and cost-competitive industrial and utility fuels, benefiting energy security in the United States. Biofuels developed under our programs will also help improve air quality, reduce greenhouse gases, reduce the large daily quantities of waste we produce, and revitalize rural America. These research motivations have been documented in the National Energy Strategy. DOE looks forward to expanding its biofuels research program and to forging a partnership with private sector for cost-shared commercialization of new fuels and vehicle technologies. Many alternative fuels (e.g., ethanol, methanol, compressed natural gas, propane, or electricity) are candidates for gaining market share. Indeed, there may be significant regional variation in the future fuel mix. Alcohol fuels from biomass, particularly ethanol, have the potential to make a major contribution. Currently, ethanol in the United States is almost entirely made from corn; and the limitations of that process are well known (e.g., costly feedstock, end product requiring subsidy to be competitive, use of fossil fuels in renewable feedstock production and processing, and potential adverse impact of corn ethanol production on the price of food). To address these concerns, the DOE biofuels program is pursuing an ambitious research program to develop the technologies needed to convert these crops into alternative transportation fuels, primarily cellulose-based ethanol and methanol. Program R ampersand D has reduced the estimated cost per gallon of cellulose-based ethanol from $3.60 in 1980 to the current $1.35, with a program goal of $0.60 by the year 2000. DOE is also investigating the thermochemical conversion of biomass to methanol. The program goal is to achieve commercial production of methanol (like ethanol) at the gasoline equivalent of $0.90 per gallon by the year 2000. 4 figs.

1991-01-01

322

Carbon dioxide utilization for global sustainability  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Addressing global environmental problems, such as global warming is essential to global sustainability. Continued research leads to advancement in standard methods and produces new data. Carbon Dioxide Utilization for Global Sustainability: Proceedings of the 7th ICCDU (International Conference on Carbon Dioxide Utilization) reflects the most recent research results, as well as stimulating scientific discussions with new challenges in advancing the development of carbon dioxide utilization

2004-01-01

323

[Against the odds: strategies, achievements and challenges of nursing on a global scale].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This essay focuses upon the transnational history of Professional Nursing. Women leaders across the Atlantic were behind major associative movements touched by feminist and libertarian ideas. Since the 1890s, this crisscrossing of actors and ideas defies any simple labeling of'national models'. This paper argues against the existence of a 'French model', as an alternative to the ideas and practices proposed by the 'Rockefeller nurses' in Rio de Janeiro during the 1920s. Instead, the roots of professionalism at that time could only be sown by the American nurses, who breathed from a truly transnational debate. At that time of intense ideological agitation about doctrines and best practices, the International Council of Nurses (ICN) pointed in the direction of increasing autonomy, associational life, and anti-patriarchal ideologies. This international process, often discontinuous and contradictory, stressed an ethics of caring and stimulated an ethos of professional autonomy among nurses on a global scale.

Santos LA

2008-01-01

324

The challenge of globalization and democratization to the African Union: The case of Togo Crisis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Times have changed for African cold warrior dictatorships. It used to be that these cold warriors would kill, main and muscle their way into political leadership while the western world and their fellow African state look the other way. Thanks to the multinationals that supported them. The paper examines the political crisis in Togo through the Kantian Democratic Peace Theory. It assumes that the UN, and AU, ECOWAS and the international community are practical example of the Kantian "republican confederation" with overwhelming international political influence to bring pressure upon any one-republican member that threatens world peace. The paper holds that the political crisis in Togo was a threat to both regional and global peace and concludes that international pressure was responsible for the resignation of Faure Eyadema hence the restoration of constitutional order in Togo.

Ngboawaji Daniel Nte; Paul Eke; C U Mac-Ogonor

2009-01-01

325

Stop TB-Halte a la Tuberculose-Canada: engaging industrialised nations in the challenge to meet global targets.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Stop TB Partnership has engaged the 22 high-burden countries in a drive toward the goal of finding 70% of cases and curing 85% by 2005. Traditional partners, aid agencies and governments of industrialised nations have joined the Partnership, but the broader range of civil society remains outside the discourse, risking disinterest on the part of the donor community. Stop TB-Halte à la Tuberculose-Canada was organised to engage new partners to support the Canadian government's commitment to the goal of reducing poverty and diseases of poverty, including tuberculosis, by 50% by 2010. The successes and challenges are explored, and the possibility raised that having a Stop TB movement in every country will ensure that support is sustained and goals of global tuberculosis control reached.

Fanning A; Billo N; Tannenbaum T; Phypers M; Little C; Graham B; Mill J

2004-01-01

326

Stop TB-Halte à la Tuberculose-Canada: engaging industrialised nations in the challenge to meet global targets.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Stop TB Partnership has engaged the 22 high-burden countries in a drive toward the goal of finding 70% of cases and curing 85% by 2005. Traditional partners, aid agencies and governments of industrialised nations have joined the Partnership, but the broader range of civil society remains outside the discourse, risking disinterest on the part of the donor community. Stop TB-Halte à la Tuberculose-Canada was organised to engage new partners to support the Canadian government's commitment to the goal of reducing poverty and diseases of poverty, including tuberculosis, by 50% by 2010. The successes and challenges are explored, and the possibility raised that having a Stop TB movement in every country will ensure that support is sustained and goals of global tuberculosis control reached. PMID:14974758

Fanning, A; Billo, N; Tannenbaum, T; Phypers, M; Little, C; Graham, B; Mill, J

2004-01-01

327

Discourses of positionality and the challenges of democratization in the global south: The case of Nepal and Cameroon  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this article, we argue that to conceptually and empirically grasp the dynamics and challenges of processes of civic participation, i.e., the deliberation and empowerment of disenfranchised and marginalized populations in the Global South, communication for social change scholars need to pay more attention to three issues: the quality of citizens’ self-perceptions in relation to their local milieu, inter-citizen perceptions and relations at the local level and lastly, the attendant consequences of these on citizens’ sense of efficacy. To grasp and comprehend the interplay of these three issues, we propose the adoption of Floya Anthias’ concept of narratives of location and positionality and demonstrate the heuristic vitality of this notion through a discussion of some local discourses of positionality in Nepal and Cameroon.

Jacob Thorsen; Teke J Ngomba

2012-01-01

328

The Epistemological and Didactical Challenges Involved in Teaching Socially Acute Questions. The Example of Globalization  

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Full Text Available Teachers are being asked to manage a specific didactic situation which falls into the category of what we have proposed to call “socially acute questions (SAQs)”. A SAQ is a question which is acute in society, in background knowledge and in knowledge taught. Thus, teaching SAQs demands socio-epistemological reflexivity in the processes of knowledge production and in the social conditions in which this knowledge emerges; teaching SAQs will give priority to interdisciplinary, scientific and ethical reasoning. The split between ideology and science can certainly be examined when considering a socially acute question which is the subject of debate in society. In the example of the globalization taught: the diversity of analysis in the economic domain gives rise to great uncertainty because it justifies practically opposing policies; within a transdisciplinary framework, the globalization includes concepts, ideologies or social practices in a double movement of standardization and differentiation. By way of SAQs, we have attempted to show that learning stakes are numerous. However didactic choices must be supported by socio-epistemological survey, the identification of an epistemological posture and the definition of a didactic strategy.Les enseignants sont appelés à gérer une situation didactique spécifique dans l’enseignement des «questions socialement vives (QSV) ». Les QSV sont des questions qui donnent lieu à débat dans la société, dans les savoirs scientifiques et dans l’enseignement. Ainsi, l‘enseignement des QSV nécessite une réflexivité socio-épistémologique dans le processus de production du savoir et dans les conditions sociales d’émergence de ces savoirs; l’enseignement des QSV donnera la priorité au raisonnement interdisciplinaire, scientifique et éthique. La scission entre l‘idéologie et la science peut être examinée lors de l‘examen d‘une QSV qui fait l‘objet d‘un débat dans la société. Dans l‘exemple de l’enseignement de la mondialisation: la diversité des analyses économiques donne lieu à une grande incertitude en justifiant des politiques quasi-opposées; dans un cadre transdisciplinaire, la mondialisation recouvre des concepts, des idéologies ou des pratiques sociales dans un double mouvement d‘uniformisation et de différenciation. Nous avons tenté de montrer que les enjeux de l‘apprentissage sont nombreux dans les l’enseignement des QSV. Les choix didactiques doivent être soutenues par une enquête socio-épistémologique, l‘identification d’une posture épistémologique et la définition d‘une stratégie didactique.

Jean Simonneaux; Alain Legardez

2010-01-01

329

Creating a cadre of junior investigators to address the challenges of cancer-related health disparities: lessons learned from the community networks program.  

Science.gov (United States)

Community-based participatory research (CBPR) initiatives such as the National Cancer Institute's Community Networks Program (CNP) (2005-2010) often emphasize training of junior investigators from underrepresented backgrounds to address health disparities. From July to October 2010, a convenience sample of 80 participants from the 25 CNP national sites completed our 45-item, web-based survey on the training and mentoring of junior investigators. This study assessed the academic productivity and CBPR-related experiences of the CNP junior investigators (n=37). Those from underrepresented backgrounds reported giving more presentations in non-academic settings (nine vs. four in the last 5 years, p=0.01), having more co-authored publications (eight vs. three in the last 5 years, p=0.01), and spending more time on CBPR-related activities than their non-underrepresented counterparts. Regardless of background, junior investigators shared similar levels of satisfaction with their mentors and CBPR experiences. This study provides support for the success of the CNP's training program, especially effort directed at underrepresented investigators. PMID:22528636

Felder, Tisha M; Brandt, Heather M; Armstead, Cheryl A; Cavicchia, Philip P; Braun, Kathryn L; Adams, Swann A; Friedman, Daniela B; Tanjasiri, Sora; Steck, Susan E; Smith, Emily R; Daguisé, Virginie G; Hébert, James R

2012-06-01

330

The Challenges of Educating People to Lead in a Challenging World  

CERN Multimedia

Aims to help educators and the educational enterprise become more innovative, efficient, and effective in addressing the teaching/learning challenges associated with helping students prepare to face their own challenges as leaders and followers in an increasingly complex, uncertain, and global economy.

Mccuddy, Michael K; Martz, Wm Benjamin

2007-01-01

331

Leading the Way to the Third Industrial Revolution. Addressing the Triple Threat of the Global Financial Crisis, Energy Crisis, and Climate Change  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We are at a precarious point in history. We are facing the real prospect of an economic meltdown on the scale of the Great Depression. The credit crisis is compounded by the global energy crisis and the climate change crisis, creating a potential cataclysm for civilization. There is a way out: we need to radically overhaul the way we use energy in our society.

Rifkin, J.; Da Graca Carvalho, M.; Consoli, A.; Bonifacio, M.

2008-12-15

332

Leading the Way to the Third Industrial Revolution. Addressing the Triple Threat of the Global Financial Crisis, Energy Crisis, and Climate Change  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We are at a precarious point in history. We are facing the real prospect of an economic meltdown on the scale of the Great Depression. The credit crisis is compounded by the global energy crisis and the climate change crisis, creating a potential cataclysm for civilization. There is a way out: we need to radically overhaul the way we use energy in our society.

2008-01-01

333

LAND USE/COVER CHANGE IN RUSSIA WITHIN THE CONTEXT OF GLOBAL CHALLENGES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a research project on Land Use/Cover Change (LUCC) in Russia in relations with global problems (climate change, environment and biodiversity degradation). The research was carried out at the Faculty of Geography, Moscow State University on the basis of the combination of remote sensing and in-field data of different spatial and temporal resolution. The original methodology of present-day landscape interpretation for land cover change study has been used. In Russia the major driver of land use/land cover change is agriculture. About twenty years ago the reforms of Russian agriculture were started. Agricultural lands in many regions were dramatically impacted by changed management practices, resulted in accelerated erosion and reduced biodiversity. Between the natural factors that shape agriculture in Russia, climate is the most important one. The study of long-term and short-term LUCC dynamics permits the analysis of the present status and trends of evolution of natural and anthropogenic landscapes. A feasibility study had been undertaken for scale-dependent landscapes applicationsand study of land cover dynamics under ongoing changes in Russia

ELENA MILANOVA

2012-01-01

334

RFID and Data Capture Technologies in Global Service Supply Chains: Meeting the Information Management Challenge  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Data capture technologies such as RFID promise customer centric global service supply chains, but simultaneously threaten data overload. We argue that novel approaches to information management are required to successfully manage the data from sensor-based data capture technologies and to integrate them into successful inter-organizational service supply networks. We question the degree to which ICTs such as RFID as currently deployed support the customer orientation needed for successful service operations across supply chains, and identify difficulties inherent in current technology use along supply chains and in business systems. We argue for customer orientation at all stages of the supply chain, and identify the benefits of customer information that is available to all supply chain partners in real time, synchronized and updated in responsive and customer centric ways. We outline two general technical approaches, one that involves effective technical middleware along with intra- and inter-organizational coordination capabilities and another, considerably more revolutionary and ambitious in scope, that revolves around the idea of a centralized data clearinghouse.

Martin R. Fellenz; Mairead Brady

2008-01-01

335

Halogenated hydrocarbon pesticides and other volatile organic contaminants provide analytical challenges in global trading.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Protection against infestation of a container cargo by alien species is achieved by mandatory fumigation with pesticides. Most of the effective fumigants are methyl and ethyl halide gases that are highly toxic and are a risk to both human health and the environment. There is a worldwide need for a reliable and robust analytical screening procedure for these volatile chemicals in a multitude of health and environmental scenarios. We have established a highly sensitive broad spectrum mass spectrometry method combined with thermal desorption gas chromatography to detect, identify and quantify volatile pesticide residues. Using this method, 1201 random ambient air samples taken from freight containers arriving at the biggest European ports of Hamburg and Rotterdam were analyzed over a period of two and a half years. This analytical procedure is a valuable strategy to measure air pollution from these hazardous chemicals, to help in the identification of pesticides in the new mixtures/formulations that are being adopted globally and to analyze expired breath samples after suspected intoxication in biomonitoring.

Budnik LT; Fahrenholtz S; Kloth S; Baur X

2010-04-01

336

SARS and emerging infectious diseases: a challenge to place global solidarity above national sovereignty.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) emerged in a world where information about infectious disease outbreaks travels at speeds and in ways not imagined just 30 years ago, and where scientists are increasingly working together on detecting and responding to public health events that threaten international public health and economic security. The SARS outbreak clearly demonstrated that it is no longer the exclusive privilege of countries to report and respond to infectious diseases occurring in their own territories, but that the global community has also assumed this role, aided by the ease and power of electronic communication through the World Wide Web. This phenomenon has been cited by some scholars as a potential infringement on national sovereignty that compromises the concept that states reign supreme over their territories and peoples. At the same time, however, countries are increasingly seeking to collaborate internationally in infectious disease surveillance and response, as shown in the current situation of avian influenza (H5N1), and in the formal agreement leading to the revised International Health Regulations (IHR), suggesting that a new world order prevails over issues that once had been considered the sole domain of a sovereign nation.

Heymann DL

2006-05-01

337

The challenge of the global management of plant design modifications. example of the new EJ system at Vandellos NPP  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

One of the most challenging areas in the operation of nuclear power plants (NPP) is related to the management of plant design modifications. Plant modifications can be made to improve reliability, facilitate operation, improve safety or get better results. In any of these situations, plant modifications imply many different activities that have to be done in a coordinated manner. NUREG-0711 (Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model) shows a global approach to manage most of these activities. Although this approach is mainly focused on the design and construction of new plants, it can also be applied to plant modification management. Successful global management will require performing every activity in a specific order, taking advantage of the output coming from some tasks as input for others and finalizing every task when necessary. This will provide the best results in terms of quality, time required for implementation, safe and reliable operation and maintenance, and cost. Tecnatom is involved in most of the activities related to the operational areas and has applied a global approach to get advantages in terms of quality and cost, which is outlined in this paper. As an example of this approach, the Vandellos NPP experience is shown in this presentation. Vandellos NPP carried out an important design modification that consists of replacing an old essential service water system with a new one. This was a three-year project that implied the construction of new reservoirs, new buildings, the implementation of new equipment, and new panels in the main control room. This paper shows the way in which all of these activities were performed. (authors)

Ortega, Fernando; Valdivia, Carlos; Fernandez Illobre, Luis; Trueba, Pedro [Control Rooms and Simulation, Tecnatom, Avda. Montes de Oca, 1 - 28703 San Sebastian de los Reyes. Madrid (Spain)

2010-07-01

338

The challenge of the global management of plant design modifications. example of the new EJ system at Vandellos NPP  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One of the most challenging areas in the operation of nuclear power plants (NPP) is related to the management of plant design modifications. Plant modifications can be made to improve reliability, facilitate operation, improve safety or get better results. In any of these situations, plant modifications imply many different activities that have to be done in a coordinated manner. NUREG-0711 (Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model) shows a global approach to manage most of these activities. Although this approach is mainly focused on the design and construction of new plants, it can also be applied to plant modification management. Successful global management will require performing every activity in a specific order, taking advantage of the output coming from some tasks as input for others and finalizing every task when necessary. This will provide the best results in terms of quality, time required for implementation, safe and reliable operation and maintenance, and cost. Tecnatom is involved in most of the activities related to the operational areas and has applied a global approach to get advantages in terms of quality and cost, which is outlined in this paper. As an example of this approach, the Vandellos NPP experience is shown in this presentation. Vandellos NPP carried out an important design modification that consists of replacing an old essential service water system with a new one. This was a three-year project that implied the construction of new reservoirs, new buildings, the implementation of new equipment, and new panels in the main control room. This paper shows the way in which all of these activities were performed. (authors)

2010-06-02

339

Global climate change: Some implications, opportunities, and challenges for US forestry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] It is widely agreed that the concentration of greenhouse gases in the earth's atmosphere is increasing, that this increase is a consequence of man's activities, and that there is significant risk that this will lead to changes in the earth's climate. The question is now being discussed what, if anything, we should be doing to minimize and/or adapt to changes in climate. Virtually every statement on this matter; from the US Office of Technology Assessment, to the National Academy of Science, to the Nairobi Declaration on Climatic Change, includes some recommendation for planting and protecting forests. In fact, forestry is intimately involved in the climate change debate for several reasons: changing climate patterns will affect existing forests, tropical deforestation is one of the major sources of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere, reforestation projects could remove additional carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and there is renewed interest in wood-based or other renewable fuels to replace fossil fuels. Part of the enthusiasm for forestry-related strategies in a greenhouse context is the perception that forests not only provide greenhouse benefits but also serve other desirable social objectives. This discussion will explore the current range of thinking in this area and try to stimulate additional thinking on the rationality of the forestry-based approaches and the challenges posed for US forestry

1991-01-01

340

The emerging land management paradigm : a major challenge for the global surveying community  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Land management is the process by which the resources of land are put into good effect. Land management encompasses all activities associated with the management of land that are required to achieve sustainable development. The concept of land includes properties and natural resources and thereby encompasses the total natural and built environment. Land Administration Systems (LAS) are institutional frameworks complicated by the tasks they must perform, by national cultural, political and judicial settings, and by technology. This paper facilitates an overall understanding of the land management paradigm. The model reflects drivers of globalisation and technology development which support establishment of multifunctional information systems incorporating diverse land rights, land use regulations and other useful data. A third major driver, sustainable development, stimulates demands for comprehensive information about environmental conditions in combination with other land related data. It is argued that development of such a model is important or even necessary for facilitating a holistic approach to the management of land as the key asset of any nation or jurisdiction. Finally, the paper points at some educational, professional and institutional challenges to be faced by the land administration community in the third millennium. And the paper identifies the role of FIG in this regard.

Enemark, Stig

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Global climate change: Some implications, opportunities, and challenges for US forestry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It is widely agreed that the concentration of greenhouse gases in the earth's atmosphere is increasing, that this increase is a consequence of man's activities, and that there is significant risk that this will lead to changes in the earth's climate. The question is now being discussed what, if anything, we should be doing to minimize and/or adapt to changes in climate. Virtually every statement on this matter; from the US Office of Technology Assessment, to the National Academy of Science, to the Nairobi Declaration on Climatic Change, includes some recommendation for planting and protecting forests. In fact, forestry is intimately involved in the climate change debate for several reasons: changing climate patterns will affect existing forests, tropical deforestation is one of the major sources of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere, reforestation projects could remove additional carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and there is renewed interest in wood-based or other renewable fuels to replace fossil fuels. Part of the enthusiasm for forestry-related strategies in a greenhouse context is the perception that forests not only provide greenhouse benefits but also serve other desirable social objectives. This discussion will explore the current range of thinking in this area and try to stimulate additional thinking on the rationality of the forestry-based approaches and the challenges posed for US forestry.

Marland, G.

1991-01-01

342

Global challenges in the risk assessment of nanomaterials: relevance to South Africa  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Internationally, there are efforts to develop standardised toxicity testing and risk assessment methods for engineered nanomaterials (ENMs). To this end, health risk assessments need to be conducted on ENMs synthesised in South Africa. Country-specific risk characterisation requires specific exposure assessments for those ENMs for which the likelihood exists for occupational and environmental exposure in that country. A challenge in hazard identification and risk assessme (more) nt related to ENMs, regardless of country of origin, is that data on toxicity, carcinogenicity, pharmacokinetics, and occupational or environmental exposure are generally not available for most ENMs. Although the mechanisms previously identified as important in the toxicity and carcinogenicity of particles and fibres may be applicable, the possibility exists that the unusual physicochemical properties of ENMs may give rise to unique, and as yet unidentified, adverse effects. Moreover, generalised exposure scenarios that consider the life cycle of the agent have not been developed and are needed for the complete risk characterisation of ENMs. As health risk assessment is both resource and labour intensive, it is imperative to identify the aims of such an exercise prior to embarking on large-scale projects, to ensure that the data most useful for public health decision-making is provided. Identifying priorities in South Africa, in coordination with international efforts, can facilitate the effective use of research efforts for risk assessment and risk management decision-making.

Gulumian, Mary; Kuempel, Eileen D.; Savolainen, Kai

2012-01-01

343

Global Infectious Disease Surveillance and Detection: Assessing the Challenges—Finding Solutions, Workshop Summary  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Early detection is essential to the control of emerging, reemerging, and novel infectious diseases, whether naturally occurring or intentionally introduced. Containing the spread of such diseases in a profoundly interconnected world requires active vigilance for signs of an outbreak, rapid recognition of its presence, and diagnosis of its microbial cause, in addition to strategies and resources for an appropriate and efficient response. Although these actions are often viewed in terms of human public health, they also challenge the plant and animal health communities. The Forum on Microbial Threats of the Institute of Medicine hosted a public workshop in Washington, DC, on December 12 and 13, 2006, to consider the scientific and policy issues—some of them long standing, others more recently arisen—relevant to the practice of disease surveillance and detection. Through invited presentations and discussions, participants examined current and emerging methods and strategies for the surveillance and detection of human, animal, and plant diseases, and assessed the resource needs and opportunities for improving and coordinating infectious disease surveillance, detection, and reporting.

344

Meeting the need for modern contraception: effective solutions to a pressing global challenge.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Voluntary family planning is one of the most efficacious and cost-effective means of improving individual health, gender equity, family well-being, and national development. Increasing contraceptive use and reducing unmet need for family planning are central to improving maternal health (UN Millennium Development Goal 5). In less-developed regions of the world, especially Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, human and financial resources are limited, modern contraceptive use is relatively low, unmet need for modern contraception is high, and consequently maternal morbidity and mortality are high. However, the international community is showing renewed commitment to family planning, a number of high impact program practices have been identified, and a number of Sub-Saharan African countries (e.g. Ethiopia, Malawi, and Rwanda) have successfully made family planning much more widely and equitably available. The International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) has joined with other international and donor organizations in calling for increased funding and more effective programming to improve maternal health and family planning in low-resource countries. Continued engagement by FIGO, its member societies, and its individual members will be helpful in addressing the numerous barriers that impede universal access to modern contraception in low-resource countries.

Jacobstein R; Curtis C; Spieler J; Radloff S

2013-05-01

345

Challenges and opportunities for policy decisions to address health equity in developing health systems: case study of the policy processes in the Indian state of Orissa.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Achieving health equity is a pertinent need of the developing health systems. Though policy process is crucial for planning and attaining health equity, the existing evidences on policy processes are scanty in this regard. This article explores the magnitude, determinants, challenges and prospects of 'health equity approach' in various health policy processes in the Indian State of Orissa - a setting comparable with many other developing health systems. METHODS: A case-study involving 'Walt-Gilson Policy Triangle' employed key-informant interviews and documentary reviews. Key informants (n = 34) were selected from the departments of Health and Family Welfare, Rural Development, and Women and Child Welfare, and civil societies. The documentary reviews involved various published and unpublished reports, policy pronouncements and articles on health equity in Orissa and similar settings. RESULTS: The 'health policy agenda' of Orissa was centered on 'health equity' envisaging affordable and equitable healthcare to all, integrated with public health interventions. However, the subsequent stages of policy process such as 'development, implementation and evaluation' experienced leakage in the equity approach. The impediment for a comprehensive approach towards health equity was the nexus among the national and state health priorities; role, agenda and capacity of actors involved; and existing constraints of the healthcare delivery system. CONCLUSION: The health equity approach of policy processes was incomprehensive, often inadequately coordinated, and largely ignored the right blend of socio-medical determinants. A multi-sectoral, unified and integrated approach is required with technical, financial and managerial resources from different actors for a comprehensive 'health equity approach'. If carefully geared, the ongoing health sector reforms centered on sector-wide approaches, decentralization, communitization and involvement of non-state actors can substantially control existing inequalities through an optimally packaged equitable policy. The stakeholders involved in the policy processes need to be given orientation on the concept of health equity and its linkage with socio-economic development.

Gopalan SS; Mohanty S; Das A

2011-01-01

346

Meeting the challenge: The evolving global landscape of adult congenital heart disease.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Only limited information is available on the worldwide distribution and volume of adult congenital heart disease (ACHD) centers. We aimed to assess the centers using a bibliometric approach. METHODS AND RESULTS: We identified publications presenting original research in the field of ACHD between 1995 and 2011. A total of 94,119 articles were identified which underwent electronic filtering and manual review. Overall, a dramatic increase in ACHD publications was seen over the study period. This was accompanied by a matching increase in impact factors and an over-proportional rise in ACHD contributions relative to the general academic field. Research output correlated well with self-reported patient volume and the number of identified ACHD centers in Europe and North America was in agreement with published surveys, thus validating our methodology. We observed a steady increase in the number of publishing ACHD centers worldwide. The number of ACHD centers per 10-million population was highest for Europe (3.6), followed by North America (1.7), Oceania (1.5), South America (0.4), Asia (0.3) and Africa (0.1). In addition, we evaluated the relative research output between developed and emerging economies and provide an overview over the main areas of research in the ACHD field. CONCLUSIONS: Global interest in ACHD is increasing and this is reflected, both, in the number of publishing centers and the volume of research. Our data provides insights into the geographical and temporal distribution of ACHD research over the last 1 1/2 decades. These results could serve as benchmarks for international comparisons and guide efforts for improving ACHD infrastructure.

Kempny A; Fernández-Jiménez R; Tutarel O; Dimopoulos K; Uebing A; Shiina Y; Alonso-Gonzalez R; Li W; Swan L; Baumgartner H; Gatzoulis MA; Diller GP

2013-10-01

347

Infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria: a review of the global challenge.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-positive bacteria represent a major public health burden, not just in terms of morbidity and mortality, but also in terms of increased expenditure on patient management and implementation of infection control measures. Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus spp. are established pathogens in the hospital environment, and their frequent multidrug resistance complicates therapy. The archetypal hospital "superbug", methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), regularly attracts mass-media interest and, in many countries, there is political pressure to reduce MRSA infection rates, with some progress now being made in the United Kingdom and the United States. To compound these established problems, we have witnessed the emergence and spread of virulent clones of MRSA in the community, and of Clostridium difficile in hospitals. Multidrug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae clones are major community pathogens in many parts of the world, but are now being challenged by new conjugate vaccines. Using combinations of molecular epidemiological tools, which characterize the resistant isolates and their resistance determinants, scientists can track highly successful bacterial strains at local, national, and international levels. These methods have provided new insights into the evolution of key pathogens, and this information may aid the design of control strategies and vaccines. In addition, the development of new antimicrobials including oxazolidinones, lipopeptides, glycylcyclines, ketolides, and new generations of fluoroquinolones, antistaphylococcal b-lactams, and glycopeptides must remain a high priority for the continued effective treatment of infections caused by resistant strains. So far, resistance to these newer agents is identified rarely in surveillance programs, but occasional reports of resistance causing therapeutic failure (e.g., with linezolid, daptomycin, telithromycin, or newer fluoroquinolones) give cause for concern. The emergence of antibiotic resistance is inevitable, but we must seek to decrease its impact and prolong the effectiveness of the agents available to us.

Woodford N; Livermore DM

2009-09-01

348

Challenges in global improvement of oral cancer outcomes: findings from rural Northern India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background In India, 72% of the population resides in rural areas and 30-40% of cancers are found in the oral cavity. The majority of Haryana residents live in villages where inadequate medical facilities, no proper primary care infrastructure or cancer screening tools and high levels of illiteracy all contribute to poor oral cancer (OC) outcomes. In this challenging environment, the objective of this study was to assess the association between various risk factors for OC among referrals for suscipious lesions and to design and pilot test a collaborative community-based effort to identify suspicious lesions for OC. Methods Setting: Community-based cross sectional OC screening. Participants: With help from the Department of Health (DOH), Haryana and the local communities, we visited three villages and recruited 761 participants of ages 45-95 years. Participants received a visual oral cancer examination and were interviewed about their dental/medical history and personal habits. Pregnant women, children and males/females below 45 years old with history of OC were excluded. Main outcome: Presence of a suspicious oral lesion. Results Out of 761 participants, 42 (5.5%) were referred to a local dentist for follow-up of suspicious lesions. Males were referred more than females. The referral group had more bidi and hookah smokers than non smokers as compared to non referral group. The logistic regression analysis revealed that smoking bidi and hookah (OR = 3.06 and 4.42) were statistically significant predictors for suspicious lesions. Conclusions Tobacco use of various forms in rural, northern India was found to be quite high and a main risk factor for suspicious lesions. The influence of both the DOH and community participation was crucial in motivating people to seek care for OC.

Dangi Jyoti; Kinnunen Taru H; Zavras Athanasios I

2012-01-01

349

Nuclear cooperation targets global challenges. States back main pillars of the IAEA's work to strengthen nuclear safety, verification and technology transfer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] States meeting at the 44th IAEA General Conference in Vienna have set a challenging agenda for international nuclear cooperation into the 21st century that targets issues of global safety, security, and sustainable development. They adopted resolutions endorsing the Agency's programmes for strengthening activities under its three main pillars of work - nuclear verification, safety, and technology - that are closely linked to major challenges before the world. The document presents the main actions taken during the conference

2000-09-22

350

Rabies Vaccines: Its Role, Challenges, Considerations and Implications for the Global Control and Possible Eradication of Rabies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This review reports on the rabies vaccines: Its role, considerations and implications for the global control and possible eradication of rabies. Attempts to control human rabies have a long history; animal and human vaccines provide efficient weapons for prevention. Vaccines are one of the m ost effective public health interventions. Vaccines are the basis of the medical and veterinary medical future. Rabies vaccine is made from killed rabies virus. Rabies vaccine can prevent rabies. It is offered to people at high risk of exposure. The primary intention of vaccine is to produce stimulation to the cellular immune system, via the production of antibodies. Methods for Rabies Virus (RABV) manipulation have changed fundamentally from random attenuation to defined modifications. In 2001, WHO issued a resolution for the complete replacement of nerve tissue vaccines by 2006 with cell-culture rabies vaccines? In recent years, purified and concentrated Vero cell rabies vaccines using the 3aG and CTN-1 strains have been developed. The Purified Vero Rabies Vaccines (PVRV), is also being developed to meet the increasing demand for human rabies vaccine. However, for animals, all fixed RABV strains recommended by WHO, such as PVRV, Challenge Virus Standard (CVS), Flury-Low Egg Passage (LEP), High Egg Passage (HEP), Evelyn-Rokitnicki-Abelseth (ERA), and SAD variants, have been successfully used in industrialized countries, where rabies is well controlled. Any potent rabies vaccine will protect against rabies. A vaccine, like any medicine, is capable of causing serious problems, such as severe allergic reactions, though the risk of causing serious harm, or death, is extremely small and very rare. As international concerns increased, several corrective actions have been implemented in many countries since 2005, which aimed at improving vaccination protocols and a consistent vaccination strategy aiming to eliminate the residual focus. However, we should bear in mind that vaccination is still the key to prevent rabies in small animals and transmission to human beings. It is hoped that the various strategies, well coordinated and corrective actions and initiatives for global control of rabies, to make important contributions in stemming the magnitudes, roles and implications of vaccines for global control and possible eradication of rabies and other rabies-related viruses which poses threat to global public health.

Okonko Iheanyi Omezuruike; O.D. Eyarefe; A.O. Adedeji; M.O. Ojezele; E. Donbraye; I. Shittu; J.A. Alli and O.G. Adewale

2010-01-01

351

Global perspectives: A new global ethic, a new global partnership  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In her keynote address at the opening plenary session of the Globe '90 Conference held in Vancouver in March, Mrs. Brundtland called for a new global partnership of government, industry, producers and consumers to meet present and future environmental challenges. This partnership would require help to developing countries to help free them from their handicaps of debt, overpopulation and poverty; that improvements made to the environment would not be offset by ecological damage in other areas. She was encouraged that the policy of sustainable development has been widely adapted as the only viable strategy for global change.

Brundtland, G.H.

1990-06-01

352

Iran and the Challenges of Cultural and Language in the Age of Globalization: A Survey in Ardabil City  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Culture and linguistic Diversity is one of fundamental features in human societies. This diversity in one hand encompasses Preservation and Propagation Culture existing and in the other hand accepting against other cultures. Today we are faced with globalization and within its attention to issues with culture and language changes and developments facing. In the globalization environment, Cultures with interaction and communication with each other and the impact and positive mutual regret, they can grow better. The right culture and native language, having the right to education and access to media in their language and culture preservation of human heritage, such cases are striking. Iran, a country of long and multi-ethnic diversity, language and religion is evident in it. Today in the atmosphere of globalization all of issues are changing. Democratic countries largely provide areas for cultural survival and development but in Iran Persian language is the only official language and other ethnic groups are deprived of respect. Lack of attention to cultures and non-Persian languages and the same race and languages of the Iranian border provinces with most neighboring countries, the increasing tendency of people to cross-border and overseas media have made cultural and linguistic challenges in Iran. This article is result of a research in relation to ethnic, cultural and linguistic diversity and are issues and challenges arising from them. Key words: Globalization; Culture Diversity; Language Diversity; Media; Iran's Ethnics Resumé: La culture et la diversité linguistique est l'une des caractéristiques fondamentales des sociétés humaines. Cette diversité englobe d'une part la préservation et la propagation de la culture existante et d'autre part elle est contre l'acceptation des autres cultures. Aujourd'hui nous sommes confrontés à la mondialisation et nous devons faire attention aux problèmes de changements et développements culturels et linguistiques. Dans un environnement de mondialisation, les différentes cultures peuvent mieux se développer avec l'interaction, la communication, l'impact positif et le regret mutuel entre elles. Il y a des cas frappangts de la bonne culture et la langue maternelle qui ont le droit à l'éducation et l'accès aux médias pour la préservation de langue et de la culture du patrimoine humain. C'est évident en Iran, un pays de longue histoire, de diversité multi-ethnique, linguistique et religieuse.. Aujourd'hui dans une atmosphère de mondialisation; tous les problèmes sont en évolution. Les pays démocratiques peuvent offrir des zones vagues pour la survie et le développement culturel, mais en Iran la langue persane est la seule langue officielle et les autres groupes ethniques sont privés de respect. Le manque d'attention aux cultures et aux langues non persanes dans les provinces frontalières iraniennes avec la plupart des pays voisins et la tendance croissante de la population de choisir les médias transfrontaliers et étrangers de ces pays qui utilisent la même langue que ces groupes d'iraniens a fait des défis culturels et linguistiques en Iran. Cet article est le résultat d'une recherche en matière de diversité ethnique, culturelle et linguistique et des enjeux et défis qui en découlent. Mots-clés: Mondialisation; DiversitÉ Culturelle; DiversitÉ Linguistique; MÉDias; ÉThniques En Iran

Mohammad-Bagher Sepehri

2011-01-01

353

Responsibility, God and society: the cry of the other in the sacred texts as a challenge towards responsible global citizenship  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The article seeks to respond to the question: What role can the sacred texts play in the construction of a Christian identity that is responsible to the other in a pluralistic global world? The sacred texts of the Judaic-Christian tradition offer not only an understanding of the wholly otherness of God, but also form the basis of our understanding and perception of humanity (anthropology), the world and ourselves (personhood/identity). This understanding is constructed in (more) the context of responding to the call of the wholly Other and the others. Identities are traditionally constructed through the identification and exclusion of differences (otherness), thus leading to an ethic of exclusion and responsibility only to oneself/ourselves. Yet these identity-forming texts harbour a persistent otherness, which challenges these traditional identities by interrupting them with a call to responsibility toward the other. The otherness harboured in these texts takes various forms, namely: the otherness of the ancient world to our world, the otherness of the transcendental Other, and the otherness of the text itself, as there is always a différance that has not yet been heard. These various forms of otherness, of our identity-forming texts, deconstruct our identity constructions, thus calling us to a continuous responsibility towards the other. This call could form the basis of a Christian identity and ethic of global cosmopolitan citizenship that is always responding to the eschatological interruption by the other, who is not yet present or who has not been offered presence.

Meylahn, Johann-Albrecht

2009-01-01

354

Desafios globais contemporâneos: cenário de convergências no direito internacional/ Global contemporary challenges: convergences scenario in international law  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O cenário internacional contemporâneo é caracterizado por uma multiplicidade de agentes e interesses, gerando uma complexa teia de relações econômicas, sociais e jurídicas. os desafios globais representados pelas inéditas relações exigem respostas rápidas e eficientes por parte do direito. Essa jornada em busca das soluções para os conflitos emergentes do plano internacional requer uma releitura do significado da divisão entre as esferas pública e privada d (more) o direito. Seja através do crescimento dos fundos soberanos de riqueza, que traz à luz uma série de novos paradigmas no campo econômico, sobretudo a convergência entre o papel do estado e o papel do investidor internacional; seja através do encontro entre a necessidade de proteção aos direitos humanos e a harmonização do sistema multilateral de comércio internacional; seja através das interseções entre a governança global e a tutela dos direitos difusos, o direito internacional certamente caminha para a convergência. Abstract in english The contemporary international scenario is characterized by a multiplicity of actors and interests, creating a complex web of economic, social and legal relationships. The challenges represented by these new relationships need rapid and efficient responses by law. This journey seeking the solutions to the conflicts arising from the international arena requires a reassessment of the meaning of the division between public and private spheres of law. Through the growth of so (more) vereign wealth funds, which arises several new paradigms in the economic field, noticeably the convergence between the role of the state and the role of the international investor; through the encounter between the necessity to protect human rights and harmonize the multilateral international trade system, or through the intersections between global governance and the protection of diffuse rights, international law is certainly moving towards the convergence.

Xavier Junior, Ely Caetano; Brandão, Clarissa

2009-12-01

355

Desafios globais contemporâneos: cenário de convergências no direito internacional Global contemporary challenges: convergences scenario in international law  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O cenário internacional contemporâneo é caracterizado por uma multiplicidade de agentes e interesses, gerando uma complexa teia de relações econômicas, sociais e jurídicas. os desafios globais representados pelas inéditas relações exigem respostas rápidas e eficientes por parte do direito. Essa jornada em busca das soluções para os conflitos emergentes do plano internacional requer uma releitura do significado da divisão entre as esferas pública e privada do direito. Seja através do crescimento dos fundos soberanos de riqueza, que traz à luz uma série de novos paradigmas no campo econômico, sobretudo a convergência entre o papel do estado e o papel do investidor internacional; seja através do encontro entre a necessidade de proteção aos direitos humanos e a harmonização do sistema multilateral de comércio internacional; seja através das interseções entre a governança global e a tutela dos direitos difusos, o direito internacional certamente caminha para a convergência.The contemporary international scenario is characterized by a multiplicity of actors and interests, creating a complex web of economic, social and legal relationships. The challenges represented by these new relationships need rapid and efficient responses by law. This journey seeking the solutions to the conflicts arising from the international arena requires a reassessment of the meaning of the division between public and private spheres of law. Through the growth of sovereign wealth funds, which arises several new paradigms in the economic field, noticeably the convergence between the role of the state and the role of the international investor; through the encounter between the necessity to protect human rights and harmonize the multilateral international trade system, or through the intersections between global governance and the protection of diffuse rights, international law is certainly moving towards the convergence.

Ely Caetano Xavier Junior; Clarissa Brandão

2009-01-01

356

Globalization: a challenge to education and cultural diversity Globalización: desafíos para la educación y la diversidad cultural  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article attemps to approach the problem of globalization and its consequences on the preservation of biodiversity and cultural diversity. These reflections are based on the historical perspective of the westernization of the world which began with the European colonial domination in the XVth century. The Westwern etghnocentric domination in the grip of neo-liberal ideology, including economic and financial rule and the control of information and communications by multinational companies, tries to impose a cultural standardization. Globalization is greatly limited by the fact that it does no offersociety a viable model. Education, as a means of transmitting world visions, knowledge and values, is facing a historical challenge in protecting and preservinge cultural diversity.Resúmen. Este articulo trata de abordar los problemas de la Globalización y las consecuencias y desafíos que plantea, sobre la biodiversidad, la diversidad cultural y la educación. Nuestra reflexión está fundamentada en la perspectiva histórica de la occidentalización del mundo, iniciada por la dominación colonial europea desde el siglo XV. Esta dominación del etnocentrismo occidental bajo una ideología neo-liberal, que abarca desde el dominio económico-financiero, el control de la información y el de las coomunicaciones por las grandes empresas multinacionales, trata de imponer un standardización cultural. La Globalización tiene su limitación más grave en el hecho de no poseer un modelo de sociedad viable. La educación, concebida como la transmisión de visiones del mundo, de saberes y de sistema de valores, tiene un enorme desafío histórico en la defensa y en la preservación de la diversidad cultural.

José Marín

2010-01-01

357

Gender regimes and the challenges of macroeconomic paradigm in Serbia in the light of the global economic crisis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper is focused on the causes and gender effects of the current global economic crisis, its particular effects in the Republic of Serbia and on the possibilities of overcoming the crisis. Using feminist development economics perspective this paper offers criticism of neo-liberalism with respect to the crisis. The strong imbalance in the relationships between work and capital is explained as a result of neoliberal deregulation and separation of the market economy from social and natural reproduction, as well as ignoration of the hierarchical relation established between paid work and care as unpaid work performed mainly by women. With regard to Serbia, when foreign capital is lacking, privatization funds are empty and the structure deficit is significant, the economy has faced decrease in income, rise in unemployment, fall in aggregate demand and women and children suffer the most. A new gender sensitive development strategy should re-address the current unequal power relationship, so that all people can exercise choices that would lead them to a fulfilled life.

?uri?-Kuzmanovi? Tatjana; Vukovi? Marija

2011-01-01

358

Cat herding on a global scale - the challenge of building a vocabulary for the geology of Europe with compatibility to a global ontology  

Science.gov (United States)

The OneGeology Europe (1G-E) project is delivering a web accessible, semantically and technically interoperable geological dataset for the whole of Europe at a 1 : 1 million scale, and attempting to make as much progress as possible in harmonising that dataset. The initiative is based on the foundation of geological data held by each geological survey in Europe. These data differ considerably with respect to their content, description and geometry. To make these data interoperable is a substantial task and OneGeology-Europe Work Package 3 is delivering, as the essential foundation, the terms and classification system - the 1G-E Geology Data Specification (Asch et al., in preparation). This is going to include a vocabulary to describe lithology, age and genesis of the rocks and the tectonic structures and the term definitions and relations. This specification will be the base for the Geological Surveys participating in OneGeology-Europe to describe the geology of their country within the project. However, Europe is not an island, neither are the rocks of Europe unique, and the vocabulary is being developed on the base of the existing vocabulary of the global IUGS-CGI Concept Definition Task Group: a global group of experts which is developing a vocabulary for the GeoSciML model. As a result of scrutiny of the existing global base and examination of the needs of European geology, new terms were added, new concepts introduced, definitions altered and adapted. The outcome is that what is being developed to describe the geology of Europe is going to be a part of what can be used to describe geological units globally. However, the challenges in patricular regarding "Lithology" are considerable. An example for the terminology of sedimentary rock types would be the definition of "arenite: is it a "pure" sandstone with less than 10 % matrix or a type of clastic sedimentary rock with sand grain size and less than 10 or 15% matrix (depending on the reference). This then leads to another question - Which classification should be adopted for the definition of "grain size": Wentworth (1922), Folk (1962), ISO 14688-1 (2003) or even another one? However, the quotation of F. J. Pettijohn (1975): "The classification of the sedimentary rocks is a problem on which much thought has been expended and one for which no mutually satisfactory or complete solution has yet been found" does not only apply to sedimentary rock types; there are numerous "bones of classication contentions" also for igneous and metamorphic rock types. Based on the vocabulary specification OneG-E will identify the generic and specific geometric and semantic harmonisation issues and will then "rework" these existing national datasets to make significant progress towards a harmonised dataset - a crucial step towards INSPIRE goals. The standards, architecture and framework developed here can then be "up-scaled" to more detailed levels and progressively deployed for higher resolution geological data. The work on the OneG-E data vocabulary is contributing to enrich and improve the global CGI vocabulary and ontology and will provide a solid base for the description of geology of each EC country when the EC INSPIRE Directive's specification is defined. References Asch, K., Bavec, M., Bergman, S., Perez Cerdan, F., Declercq, P.Y., Janjou, D., Kacer, S., Klicker, M., Nironen, M., Pantaloni, M., Schubert, C. (in preparation): OneGeology-Europe Scientific/Semantic Data Specification and - Generic Specification for Spatial Geological Data in Europe. ECP-2007-GEO-317001 Folk, R.L. (1962): Spectral subdivision of limestone types. In Ham, W.E., ed.: Classification of Carbonate Rocks - A Symposium. American Association of Petroleum Geologists Memoir 1: 62-84 ISO 14688-1 (2002): Geotechnical investigation and testing - Identification and classification of soil - Part 1: Identification and description Pettijohn, F.J. (1975): Sedimentary Rocks.- 3rd ed.; Harper & Row Publishers (New York, Evanston, San Francisco,

Asch, Kristine

2010-05-01

359

Strengthening global physical protection practices; gaining better information on national practices for protection of weapons-usable material. Keynote address/session 3  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Unlike the Non-Proliferation Treaty requirement that non-nuclear-weapon parties provide 'safeguards' information to the IAEA on their nuclear materials and their state systems for accounting and control, there is no related requirement to provide information on state systems of physical protection. A review of 1997 IAEA and Stanford physical protection conference proceedings showed both the absence of information on important practices from many states and the great variation in practices from state to state. Besides the lack of internationally required standards for domestic protection, reasons for the variations described in Stanford-Sandia National Laboratories research include: differences in states' perceptions of the threats to their materials; differences in their abilities to pay the cost of stronger physical protection; differences in their laws and regulatory practices in general; and differences in their cultural attitudes - for example, attitudes toward whether to arm personnel guarding weapon-usable material or to require clearances for personnel with access to such material. The information presented to the 1997 IAEA and Stanford conferences was supplied voluntarily. The two global documents which provide norms for physical protection do not require submission of such information. These are the 1980 Convention on Physical Protection of Nuclear Material and the 1999 IAEA INFCIRC/225/Rev.4. This means that, without bilateral cooperation, no state can find out how other states are protecting their nuclear material. Yet, as IAEA Director General El Baradei has said, '[I]t is not a matter of indifference to other States whether and to what extent [physical protection] responsibility is fulfilled. ...The need for international cooperation becomes evident in situations - where the effectiveness of physical protection in one State depends on the taking by other States also of adequate measures to deter and defeat hostile actions against nuclear facilities and nuclear materials, particularly when such materials are transported across national frontiers.' (INFCIRC/225,Rev.4, Preface). Contributing to recent efforts by the United States and others to strengthen global standards for physical protection, a Stanford project proposes ways to increase cooperation by providing more information about physical protection practices. The project has developed a questionnaire on physical protection practices. We recognize that some information about a state's system of physical protection can't be made public because of the fear that key secrets of protection might be used by terrorists or thieves in subsequent efforts to steal or sabotage the material. (See INFCIRC/225/Rev.4, par. 4.3). For those states willing to complete our questionnaire for a facility, we have promised not to make information public without their consent. But state-to-state comparisons of perceived threats and overall plans to counter them might be particularly educational. With cooperation from Sandia and industry, the Stanford project hopes to demonstrate sensors and other means for physical protection. For example, the project's Friedrich Steinhausler has proposed the development of a 'Virtual Walk-Through Facility' - a three-dimensional, computer assisted, simulation-demonstration showing the effectiveness of various possible protections for weapon-usable material against a variety of threats. This would be useful for training, for appraising protection proposals, and for evaluating the capabilities of existing facilities. It could be a significant addition to the display of physical protection technology and methods at Sandia's Cooperative Monitoring Center and a tool for use in IAEA training courses, demonstrations or conferences like this one. The basic goal of the Stanford project is to help strengthen global physical protection practices and standards. We have already made specific recommendations, and intend to continue our analysis of possible improvements. (author)

2001-01-01

360

Addressing challenges in nursing informatics instruction.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Objectives for the interactive experiences include exposure to a wide variety of computer applications; in-depth experience with at least one application; overcoming computer fear; appreciating the rigid, logical flow of computerized problem-solving; and appreciating the benefits and limitations of computer applications for a variety of purposes. Ultimately, a major purpose of transferring informatics content is related to stimulating students' imagination with respect to the computer's ability to aid their professional endeavors. Robinson (1984) describes the imagination factor: "I think the total potential of computers is only limited by our imagination. It's like giving an artist a palette that has an infinite number of colors, some of them invisible to the naked eye. . . It is a tool for the realization of ideas." Students who have been exposed to the benefits of major categories of computer applications can appreciate computer capabilities with respect to exploring scientific and nursing phenomena, and building databases to store and access information (Newbern, 1985). These students should have enough theoretical and experimental knowledge of computers to become actively involved in making creative, informed decisions about how computers will be applied to nursing in their professional setting. Hardin and Skiba (1982) noted a gap between the powerful information processing capabilities of the computer and its relatively limited use by nursing--a gap which still exists today. Students who have participated in an idea generation course on computer applications can help to bridge this gap, helping nursing to take full advantage of the computer-saturated environments of the future.

Sinclair VG

1989-02-01

 
 
 
 
361

Global Warming's Library Challenge  

Science.gov (United States)

|Like every institution that uses energy, consumes resources, and engages in construction or renovation, libraries have an impact on the environment and on the critical problem of climate change. Taking action to protect library collections is not only an idealistic professional goal but also a very practical one. Disaster preparation measures and…

Meyer, Jennifer

2008-01-01

362

Challenges in Global Economy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article is putting before the reader the main aspects concerning the economic and financial international evolution. The progressive relation between the two major currencies, i.e. the U.S. dollar and the Euro, is to be considered as a starting point. The analysis is carried out within the frame of the basic statements of Lisbon Conference of March 2000. In this context, the analysis focuses on the prospects of the European Union against the USA competition, on one side, as well as China and Russian Federation, on the other side. Meantime, the analysis is emphasizing the main directions for the forecasted development of the markets in the USA, China, Russian Federation and European Union. The final conclusion of the analysis is, however, an “optimistic” one.

Nicolae Danila

2006-01-01

363

Insight conference reports : disclosing oil and gas reserves : addressing the impact of National Instrument 51-101 and moving ahead to a global standard  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In 2003, Canada introduced new legislation on oil and gas reserves disclosure in an effort to improve the quality, and comparability of oil and gas reserves disclosure in Canada. This conference provided a forum for stakeholders to assess the impact of the new legislation. The presentations focused on the latest legal and technical requirements of the new rules as well as international aspects of oil and gas reserves evaluation and disclosure. The difference between reporting disclosures in the United States and Canada were discussed with reference to reserves classification; confidence level of different reserves estimates; technical and commercial criteria; exemptions for US style disclosure; implications for cross-border offerings and acquisitions; and equivalence of Securities Exchange Commission and Canadian Securities Administrators. The presentations also addressed other issues such as the Alberta Securities Commission and disclosure of oil and gas activities under the new rules; the liability of reporting those who make errors in reserves reports; reserves evaluation in corporate takeovers; best practices for reserve evaluations; lessons learned from Sarbanes-Oxley; disclosing reserves from international properties and circumstances that affect reserves estimation and reporting; the role of the Reserve Audit Committee; borrowing against reserves with reference to the bank's approach to oil and gas reserves; and ensuring shareholder confidence regarding reserve disclosure. The conference featured 16 presentations, of which 4 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs.

NONE

2004-07-01

364

HIV/AIDS: global trends, global funds and delivery bottlenecks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Globalisation affects all facets of human life, including health and well being. The HIV/AIDS epidemic has highlighted the global nature of human health and welfare and globalisation has given rise to a trend toward finding common solutions to global health challenges. Numerous international funds have been set up in recent times to address global health challenges such as HIV. However, despite increasingly large amounts of funding for health initiatives being made available to poorer regions of the world, HIV infection rates and prevalence continue to increase world wide. As a result, the AIDS epidemic is expanding and intensifying globally. Worst affected are undoubtedly the poorer regions of the world as combinations of poverty, disease, famine, political and economic instability and weak health infrastructure exacerbate the severe and far-reaching impacts of the epidemic. One of the major reasons for the apparent ineffectiveness of global interventions is historical weaknesses in the health systems of underdeveloped countries, which contribute to bottlenecks in the distribution and utilisation of funds. Strengthening these health systems, although a vital component in addressing the global epidemic, must however be accompanied by mitigation of other determinants as well. These are intrinsically complex and include social and environmental factors, sexual behaviour, issues of human rights and biological factors, all of which contribute to HIV transmission, progression and mortality. An equally important factor is ensuring an equitable balance between prevention and treatment programmes in order to holistically address the challenges presented by the epidemic.

Coovadia Hoosen M; Hadingham Jacqui

2005-01-01

365

Globalization, engineering, and creativity  

CERN Document Server

The text addresses the impact of globalization within engineering, particularly on working practices and prospects for creativity. It suggests that accepted norms of economic activity create enclosures and thresholds within the profession, which-as engineers increase their awareness (reflexivity)-will shape the future of engineering, and the values which underpin it. It is aimed at practicing engineers and those in training and is an introduction to the social and political context currently setting new challenges for the profession.

Reader, John

2006-01-01

366

Manufacturing Concepts of the Future – Upcoming Technologies Solving Upcoming Challenges  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper presents an examination of Western European manufacturers’ future challenges as can be predicted today. Some of the challenges analyzed in the paper are: globalization, individualism and customization and agility challenges. Hereafter, the paper presents a broad analysis on manufacturing concepts and technologies that are being developed today which may be used to solve manufacturing challenges in the future, such as: (self) reconfigurable manufacturing systems, (focused) flexible manufacturing systems, and AI inspired manufacturing. The paper will try to offer a critical point of view on manufacturing challenges, concepts, and technologies, and is meant to address both academia and industry. Keywords: Reconfigurable manufacturing systems, manufacturing challenges, cognitive factory, mass-customization

Hadar, Ronen; Bilberg, Arne

367

PREFACE: The IARU International Scientific Congress on Climate Change: Global Risks, Challenges and Decisions (10-12 March, Copenhagen, Denmark)  

Science.gov (United States)

In an attempt to make the main results from the Congress on Climate Change: Global Risk, Challenges and Decisions available to the public as early as possible, the steering committee decided to publish all talks and posters presented at the Congress in this unique collection of abstracts, in time for the conference Further to the abstract collection the Congress will publish two more products in the near future as described in the following; a synthesis report with the main conclusions, and a book aimed at an academic audience 1 Two Products from the Congress Two products are being produced based on the presentations and discussions at the Congress The first product will be a synthesis report of the main conclusions from the Congress The synthesis report will be ready in June 2009 The synthesis has the purpose of explaining the current state of understanding man-made climate change and what we can do about it to the non-scientist, ie politicians, media and interested citizens The synthesis will build on the messages presented to the Danish Prime Minister, Mr Anders Fogh Rasmussen, host of the COP15, at the closing session of the Congress These six messages were drafted by the Writing Team (see below) based on input from the session chairs and a reading of the 1600+ abstracts submitted to the Congress The second product is a book aimed at an academic audience The book will include more detailed scientific results from all of the sessions and will be published by Cambridge University Press in 2010 It will be an extension and elaboration of the synthesis report Who's writing the Synthesis Report and the Book? A Writing Team consisting of 12 internationally respected scientists from all continents is responsible for developing both products When the synthesis report has been drafted by the Writing Team, it will be discussed in the Scientific Steering Committee of the Congress and reviewed by the Earth System Science Partnership (ESSP) and a group of experts identified by the IARU universities In keeping with normal scientific practice, a procedure for producing the synthesis report that has been adopted optimises the chances of arriving at a product that will receive a broad backing from the scientific community as being a message that can be sent to the non-scientific community and that explains current understanding in climate change science The Writing Team will also be responsible for writing the book Members of the Writing Team (in alphabetical order) Professor Joe Alcamo, University of Stellenbosch Dr Terry Barker, Cambridge University Professor Daniel Kammen, University of California - Berkeley Professor Rik Leemans, Environmental Systems Analysis Group, Wageningen University Professor Diana Liverman, Oxford University Professor Mohan Munasinghe, Chairman, Munasinghe Institute for Development (MIND) Dr Balgis Osman-Elasha, Higher Council for Environment and Natural Resources (HCENR), Sudan Professor Katherine Richardson, University of Copenhagen Professor John Schellnhuber, Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research and visiting professor at the University of Oxford Professor Will Steffen, Australian National University Professor Lord Nicholas Stern, London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE) Professor Ole Wæver, University of Copenhagen 2 Key Messages from the Congress Key Message 1: Climatic Trends Recent observations confirm that, given high rates of observed emissions, the worst-case IPCC scenario trajectories (or even worse) are being realized For many key parameters, the climate system is already moving beyond the patterns of natural variability within which our society and economy have developed and thrived These parameters include global mean surface temperature, sea-level rise, ocean and ice sheet dynamics, ocean acidification, and extreme climatic events There is a significant risk that many of the trends will accelerate, leading to an increasing risk of abrupt or irreversible climatic shifts Key Message 2: Social disruption The research community is providing much more information to support

2009-01-01

368

Challenges Building Online GIS Services to Support Global Biodiversity Mapping and Analysis: Lessons from the Mountain and Plains Database and Informatics project  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We argue that distributed mapping and analysis of biodiversity information becoming available on global distributed networks is a lynchpin activity linking together research and development challenges in biodiversity informatics. Online mapping is a core activity because it allows users to visually explore the spatial context of biodiversity information and quickly assemble the datasets needed to ask and answer biodiversity research and management questions. We make the case that a free, online global biodiversity mapping tool utilizing distributed species occurrence records is now within reach and discuss how such a system can be built using existing technology. We also discuss additional challenges and solutions given experiences building a regional distributed GIS tool called MaPSTeDI (Mountain and Plains Spatio-Temporal Database and Informatics Initiative). We focus on solutions to three challenges in particular: Returning result queries in a reasonable amount of time given network limitations; Accessing multiple data sources using different transmission mechanisms; Scaling from a solution for a handful of data providers to hundreds or thousands of providers. We close by discussing the future challenges and potential solutions for integrating analysis tools into distributed mapping applications.

Robert P Guralnick; David Neufeld

2005-01-01

369

Environmental challenge  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The contents include the following: Development and the Environment: A Global Balance; Evolution of the World Bank's Environmental Policy; Accounting for the Environment; Public Policy and the Environment; Managing Drylands; Environmental Action Plans in Africa; Agroforestry in Sub-Saharan Africa; Irrigation and the Environmental Challenge; Curbing Pollution in Developing Countries; Global Warming and the Developing World; and The Global Environment Facility.

Conable, B.; Warford, J.; Partow, Z.; Lutz, E.; Munasinghe, M.

1991-09-01

370

Regional Seminars to Address Current Nuclear Export Control Issues  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The control of nuclear-related exports, a critical component of the nonproliferation regime, is facing several opportunities and challenges. As countries sign and ratify the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) safeguards Additional Protocol (AP), they will begin to report far more export information, including exports of a list of items similar to the Nuclear Supplier Group's Trigger List that existed when the AP was developed in the mid-1990s. This positive development contrasts with challenges such as globalization, transshipments, and tracking of end-uses. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is proposing that the US Department of Energy (DOE) develop regional seminars that address these types of issues related to export/import controls. The DOE seminars would be designed to supplement regional seminars sponsored by the IAEA and member states on topics related to the Additional Protocol (referred to as "IAEA seminars"). The topic of nuclear export/import controls is not thoroughly addressed in the IAEA seminars. The proposed DOE seminars would therefore have two objectives: familiarizing countries with the export/import provisions of the Additional Protocol, and addressing challenges such as those noted above. The seminars would be directed particularly at countries that have not ratified the AP, and at regions where export-related problems are particularly prevalent. The intent is to encourage governments to implement more effective nuclear export control systems that meet the challenges of the 21st century.

Killinger, Mark H.

2002-07-01

371

The Effects of Globalization Phenomena on Educational Concepts  

Science.gov (United States)

|It is becoming more and more apparent that globalization processes represent, theoretically as well as practically, a challenge for educational sciences and therefore, it must be addressed within the sphere of education. Accordingly, educational conceptions have to adapt to globalization phenomena and focus more on alternative and innovative…

Schrottner, Barbara Theresia

2010-01-01

372

The Effects of Globalization Phenomena on Educational Concepts  

Science.gov (United States)

It is becoming more and more apparent that globalization processes represent, theoretically as well as practically, a challenge for educational sciences and therefore, it must be addressed within the sphere of education. Accordingly, educational conceptions have to adapt to globalization phenomena and focus more on alternative and innovative…

Schrottner, Barbara Theresia

2010-01-01

373

International policies to address the greenhouse effect. An evaluation of international mechanisms to encourage developing country participation in global greenhouse gas control strategies, especially through the formulation of national programmes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The political feasibility of strategies for North-South cooperation on climate change within individual countries is analyzed. The conditions under which developing countries would be willing to take action to address climate change and industrialised countries would be willing to support these actions are discussed. Unfortunately, the study indicates that at present there is very limited common ground between developing and industrialised countries. Perceptions of actors and interest groups within seven countries (USA, Germany, UK, India, Indonesia, Brazil and Kenya) on climate change and international climate change policies (instruments and mechanisms) are compared, applying regime theory, and building upon a qualitative content analysis of interviews and documents, and on interviews with experts. The study concludes that developing countries distrust the position of industrialised countries, that is bases upon clearly distinguishing global from local problems and causes of climate change, climate, environmental, economic, and social problems in developing countries. In emphasising distinctions, that in the view of developing countries are incorrect, misleading and detrimental, industrialised countries increase the political costs of North-South cooperation. A more practical approach is recommended, based upon a 'four wheel drive strategy' in which capacity building, Joint Implementation, 'traditional' development cooperation, and strategies to actualize 'dormant' interest groups can all play a role. The additional costs of such a strategy should be balanced against the additional benefits in terms of a relative decline in costs of global change policies. 352 refs

1995-01-01

374

International policies to address the greenhouse effect. An evaluation of international mechanisms to encourage developing country participation in global greenhouse gas control strategies, especially through the formulation of national programmes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The political feasibility of strategies for North-South cooperation on climate change within individual countries is analyzed. The conditions under which developing countries would be willing to take action to address climate change and industrialised countries would be willing to support these actions are discussed. Unfortunately, the study indicates that at present there is very limited common ground between developing and industrialised countries. Perceptions of actors and interest groups within seven countries (USA, Germany, UK, India, Indonesia, Brazil and Kenya) on climate change and international climate change policies (instruments and mechanisms) are compared, applying regime theory, and building upon a qualitative content analysis of interviews and documents, and on interviews with experts. The study concludes that developing countries distrust the position of industrialised countries, that is bases upon clearly distinguishing global from local problems and causes of climate change, climate, environmental, economic, and social problems in developing countries. In emphasising distinctions, that in the view of developing countries are incorrect, misleading and detrimental, industrialised countries increase the political costs of North-South cooperation. A more practical approach is recommended, based upon a `four wheel drive strategy` in which capacity building, Joint Implementation, `traditional` development cooperation, and strategies to actualize `dormant` interest groups can all play a role. The additional costs of such a strategy should be balanced against the additional benefits in terms of a relative decline in costs of global change policies. 352 refs.

Gupta, J.; Van der Wurff, R.; Junne, G. [University of Amsterdam, Department of International Relations and Public International Law, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

1995-12-31

375

International policies to address the greenhouse effect. An evaluation of international mechanisms to encourage developing country participation in global greenhouse gas control strategies, especially through the formulation of national programmes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The political feasibility of strategies for North-South cooperation on climate change within individual countries is analyzed. The conditions under which developing countries would be willing to take action to address climate change and industrialised countries would be willing to support these actions are discussed. Unfortunately, the study indicates that at present there is very limited common ground between developing and industrialised countries. Perceptions of actors and interest groups within seven countries (USA, Germany, UK, India, Indonesia, Brazil and Kenya) on climate change and international climate change policies (instruments and mechanisms) are compared, applying regime theory, and building upon a qualitative content analysis of interviews and documents, and on interviews with experts. The study concludes that developing countries distrust the position of industrialised countries, that is bases upon clearly distinguishing global from local problems and causes of climate change, climate, environmental, economic, and social problems in developing countries. In emphasising distinctions, that in the view of developing countries are incorrect, misleading and detrimental, industrialised countries increase the political costs of North-South cooperation. A more practical approach is recommended, based upon a 'four wheel drive strategy' in which capacity building, Joint Implementation, 'traditional' development cooperation, and strategies to actualize 'dormant' interest groups can all play a role. The additional costs of such a strategy should be balanced against the additional benefits in terms of a relative decline in costs of global change policies. 352 refs.

Gupta, J.; Van der Wurff, R.; Junne, G. [University of Amsterdam, Department of International Relations and Public International Law, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

1995-07-01

376

??????????? ?????????? ????????????? ?????????? ???????????????????? ?????????? ???????? ? ?????? ???????? ??????????? ?????????? MODIFICATION OF MECHANISMS OF STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT OF CORPORATE FOREIGN ECONOMIC ACTIVITY IN THE CHALLENGES OF GLOBAL ENVIRONMENT ??????????? ?????????? ??????????????? ?????????? ??????????????????? ????????????? ???????? ? ???????? ??????? ??????????? ?????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available  ?????? ?????????? ??????????? ????, ?? ???????????? ? ??????? ????????????? ??????????? ??????????? ???????? ? ?????? ????? ???????? ???????????? ??????????. ?????????? ??????? ???????? ?? ????????? ????????  ???????????? ??????-??????????. ???????????, ???? ????? ???????????? ????????????? ?????????? ????????????? ?????????? ???????????????????? ?????????? ??? ??????? ???????? ???????????? ?? ? ?????? ?????????? ?????????-???????????  ?????. The article is aimed to research changes, what be going in the system of strategic management international companies in the conditions of new calls of international environment. Reaserched basic directions and trends of international business environment. Showed, in what direction going transformation of mechanisms strategic management foreign economic activity under influence of processes globalization and in the conditions of global financial and economic crisis. ?????? ????????? ???????????? ?????????, ???????????? ? ??????? ??????????????? ??????????? ????????????? ???????? ? ???????? ????? ??????? ????????????? ?????. ??????????? ???????? ??????????? ? ????????? ????????  ????????????? ??????-?????. ????????, ? ????? ??????????? ?????????? ????????????? ?????????? ??????????????? ?????????? ??????????????????? ????????????? ??? ???????? ????????? ???????????? ? ? ???????? ??????????? ?????????-??????????????  ???????.

?.?. ??????

2011-01-01

377

Trends and challenges in global arms control regimes: Implications for the Mediterranean, North Africa, and the Middle East  

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In another sense, however, the nuclear age and ballistic missiles long ago created a much smaller world in which the distinctions between global and regional security have been lessened. In an age of weapons of mass destruction, any point on the earth can find itself suddenly at the center of world attention. This makes it all the more important that we understand all of the arms control tools available, including global approaches. In discussing global arms control regimes, I will focus primarily on those that are open to universal membership such as the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT) or which have global reach, such as certain export control and supplier regimes. It is important to remember, however, that certain regional, bilateral, and even unilateral arms control measures can have a global impact as well. One need only witness the impact of the Treaty on Conventional Forces in Europe (CFE). Despite its mere {open_quotes}Atlantic to the Urals{close_quotes} focus, the CFE treaty helped change the political and strategic calculations of the entire world. Likewise, the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE), with its headquarters in Vienna, is centered on Europe but spreads from Vancouver to Vladivostok (or perhaps we should say from Amchitka to Kamchatka), circumnavigating much of the northern hemisphere when measured the long way around via North America. The political significance of its successes and failures outdistance CSCE`s geographical spread.

Lehman, R.F. II

1994-06-01

378

Sustainability and mobility global challenges in the development of new drive technologies from Volkswagen; Nachhaltigkeit und Mobilitaet Globale Herausforderungen an die Entwicklung neuer Antriebstechniken  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the last thirty years to the twentieth century, the shortage of raw materials, the increasing pollution of the environment and a growing environmental awareness among the population dramatically showed the limits to further economic growth based on the exploitation of available resources. In addition to industrial energy requirements, building air conditioning and electricity generation, road traffic also plays a considerable role in the global consumption of resources and the ensuing CO{sub 2} emissions. This article gives an overview over the tendences in the powertrain development of Volkswagen. (orig.)

Hagelstein, D.; Pott, E.; Theobald, J. [Volkswagen AG, Wolfsburg (Germany)

2006-12-15