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1

Applying evolutionary biology to address global challenges.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two categories of evolutionary challenges result from escalating human impacts on the planet. The first arises from cancers, pathogens, and pests that evolve too quickly and the second, from the inability of many valued species to adapt quickly enough. Applied evolutionary biology provides a suite of strategies to address these global challenges that threaten human health, food security, and biodiversity. This Review highlights both progress and gaps in genetic, developmental, and environmental manipulations across the life sciences that either target the rate and direction of evolution or reduce the mismatch between organisms and human-altered environments. Increased development and application of these underused tools will be vital in meeting current and future targets for sustainable development. PMID:25213376

Carroll, Scott P; Jørgensen, Peter Søgaard; Kinnison, Michael T; Bergstrom, Carl T; Denison, R Ford; Gluckman, Peter; Smith, Thomas B; Strauss, Sharon Y; Tabashnik, Bruce E

2014-10-17

2

Biomimetic Nanotechnology: A Powerful Means to address Global Challenges  

CERN Document Server

Biomimetic nanotechnology is a prominent research area at the meeting place of life sciences with engineering and physics: it is a continuously growing field that deals with knowledge transfer from biology to nanotechnology. Biomimetic nanotechnology is a field that has the potential to substantially support successful mastering of major global challenges. The Millennium Project was commissioned by the United Nations Secretary-General in 2002 to develop a concrete action plan for the world to reverse the grinding poverty, hunger and disease affecting billions of people. It states 15 Global Challenges: sustainable development, water, population and resources, democratization, long-term perspectives, information technology, the rich-poor gap, health, capacity to decide, peace and conflict, status of women, transnational crime, energy, science and technology and global ethics. The possible contributions to master these challenges with the help of biomimetic nanotechnology will be discussed in detail.

Gebeshuber, Ille C

2010-01-01

3

Biomimetic Nanotechnology: A Powerful Means to address Global Challenges  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Biomimetic nanotechnology is a prominent research area at the meeting place of life sciences with engineering and physics: it is a continuously growing field that deals with knowledge transfer from biology to nanotechnology. Biomimetic nanotechnology is a field that has the potential to substantially support successful mastering of major global challenges. The Millennium Project was commissioned by the United Nations Secretary-General in 2002 to develop a concrete action pla...

Gebeshuber, Ille C.; Majlis, Burhanuddin Y.

2010-01-01

4

Challenges faced by multidisplinary new investigators on addressing grand challenges in global health  

Science.gov (United States)

Background The grand challenges approach aims to spark innovative and transformative strategies to overcome barriers to significant global health issues. Grand Challenges Canada endorses an ‘Integrated Innovation™’ approach that focuses on the intersection of scientific/technological, social and business innovation. In this article we explore themes emerging from a dialogue between the authors, who are multidisciplinary recipients of the ‘Rising Stars in Global Health’ award from Grand Challenges Canada, regarding benefits of engaging in integrated innovation research, and recommendations for how this approach may develop in the future. Discussion Our dialogue followed a semi-structured interview format that addressed three topics: 1) reflections on applying an Integrated Innovation™ approach for global health; 2) thoughts on participation in the Grand Challenges 2012 meeting; and 3) authors’ visions of Grand Challenges Canada and the Grand Challenge movement towards 2020. The dialogue was transcribed verbatim and we used thematic analysis techniques to identify, analyze and report themes in the data. Benefits of working using the Grand Challenges approach centered on two themes: a) the potential for scientific breakthrough and b) building interdisciplinary collaborations and a community of scholars. Challenges and opportunities for Grand Challenges in moving forward included: a) capacity building, particularly regarding Integrated Innovation™ and scale-up planning; b) interdisciplinary and international mentorship for new investigators; and c) potential for future commercialization. Conclusions Our discussion highlighted that Integrated Innovation™ offers the opportunity to develop new theories, methods and approaches to global health while simultaneously fostering a collaborative spirit grounded in international, interdisciplinary collaborations. However, the arguable over-emphasis on corporatization poses a major challenge for new investigators. We propose a more balanced way forward that can harness technology to foster mentorship across time and space to support the development of such skills and ideas among new investigators. PMID:24735677

2014-01-01

5

Addressing Global Environmental Challenges through Interdisciplinary Biogeochemical Research  

Science.gov (United States)

Our planet is dynamic; energy and matter constantly move between the hydrosphere, atmosphere and lithosphere on time scales from seconds to millenia. These tight interactions - including those between organisms and their physical environment - are what make Earth habitable. However, as Rachel Carson wrote, 'Only within the moment of time represented by the present century has one species - man - acquired significant power to alter the nature of this world'. Globalization and explosive population growth have generated far-reaching environmental problems on a scale that humanity has never faced before. Fortunately, our species has also developed an unprecedented ability to provide science-based solutions. Since processes impacting the environment involve complex biological, physical, chemical and geological interactions and feedbacks, they require the integration of expertise from all these scientific disciplines as well as input from policy makers, social scientists, and economists. This talk presents four examples of current interdisciplinary research projects conducted in my lab, each one related to a theme from one of Carson's books (Under the Sea-wind, The Sea Around Us, The Edge of the Sea, and Silent Spring). These projects, and others like them, provide hope that we can move toward a sustainable relationship with the natural world by encouraging the best scientists to conduct interdisciplinary research with direct applications for environmental management and stewardship.

Paytan, A.

2013-12-01

6

Design Guidelines to Address Global Challenges: Lessons from Global Action Networks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Traditional organizations appear to be incapable of adequately addressing critical global issues such as war, climate change, and economic inequality. Addressing these issues suggests the need for organizational innovation to develop global social contracts. Successful innovation must address four integration imperatives: (1 integrate effort and resources across organizational sectors (business, government, civil society and sense-making, (2 create successful individual to global aggregations, (3 integrate the short and long term, and (4 integrate major issue areas. A new type of organization, Global Action Networks, aims for this integration. Based upon analysis of this new type of organization, five design principles for global social contract organizations are proposed.

Steve Waddell

2012-12-01

7

Global Challenge  

Science.gov (United States)

In the Global Challenge, teams of US high school students collaborate with international counterparts from October to May to address global climate change and compete for prizes and scholarship awards. Students strengthen skills in math, science, engineering, and critical thinking while learning about global business practices. The current Global Challenge is to create science, technology, engineering, mathematics, and business solutions that address climate change and the future of energy. Students ages 14-17 who participate in the competition have the opportunity to receive assistance in admissions to colleges and universities and win praise and acclaim as well as awards.

Craig DeLuca, The Arno Group, LLC; Domenico Grasso, College of Engineering and Mathematical Sciences, University of Vermont

2007-10-31

8

The Challenges Facing the Multilateral Trading System in Addressing Global Public Policy Objectives  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Published by Palgrave MacmillanDespite a record-breaking 14.5 per cent increase in world merchandise exports, the effects of the financial crisis and global recession are still hampering faster economic recovery. Relatively high oil prices combined with persistent unemployment and measures designed to reduce budget deficits have undermined short-term growth prospects. While South–South trade continues to explode, trade imbalances – i.e. the gap between exports and imports – widened in 2010 compared to 2009 (though smaller than pre-crisis levels. Meanwhile, trade negotiations under the Doha Round have reached an impasse, generating uncertainties about the future of the World Trade Organization (WTO as a negotiating forum. Under these circumstances, should the system rethink its decision-making process founded upon the predominance of member states, the principle of consensus and the notion of single undertaking, as some critics have suggested? And, if so, how could such a reform agenda be initiated at the WTO? Moreover, beyond the negotiating function of the WTO, the paralysis of the system also raises urgent questions about the ability of the system to respond to pressing challenges of our times, such as trade and climate change, or food security and price volatility.

Christophe Bellmann

2012-03-01

9

Distinguishing between Multicultural and Global Education: The Challenge of Conceptualizing and Addressing the Two Fields  

Science.gov (United States)

This qualitative study examines how a group of social studies teachers working in a suburban middle school with a predominantly affluent and white student body conceptualize multicultural and global education. The data reveals that several of the teachers experienced difficulties conceptualizing multicultural and global education, used them…

Lucas, Ashley G.

2010-01-01

10

Global challenges  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A major challenge now facing the world is the supply of energy needed for growth and development in a manner which is not only economically viable but also environmentally acceptable and sustainable in view of the demands of and risks to future generations. The internationally most significant pollutants from energy production through fossil fuels are SO2 and NOx which cause acid rain, and CO2 which is the most significant contributor to the greenhouse effect. Nuclear power, now providing about 17% of the world's electricity and 5% of the primary energy already is making a notable contribution to avoiding these emissions. While the industrialized countries will need more energy and especially electricity in the future, the needs of the developing countries are naturally much larger and present a tremendous challenge to the shaping of the world's future energy supply system. The advanced countries will have to accept special responsibilities, as they can most easily use advanced technologies and they have been and remain the main contributors to the environmental problems we now face. Energy conservation and resort to new renewable energy sources, though highly desirable, appear inadequate alone to meet the challenges. The world can hardly afford to do without an increased use of nuclear power, although it is strongly contested in many countries. The objections raised against the nuclear option focus on safety, waste management and disposal problems and the risk for proliferation of nuclear weapons. These issues are not without their problems. The risk of proliferation exists but will not appreciably diminish with lesser global reliance on nuclear power. The waste issue is more of a political than a technical problem. The use of nuclear power, or any other energy source, will never be at zero risk, but the risks are constantly reduced by new techniques and practices. The IAEA sees it as one of its priority tasks to promote such techniques. (author)

11

Addressing the workforce pipeline challenge  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A secure and affordable energy supply is essential for achieving U.S. national security, in continuing U.S. prosperity and in laying the foundations to enable future economic growth. To meet this goal the next generation energy workforce in the U.S., in particular those needed to support instrumentation, controls and advanced operations and maintenance, is a critical element. The workforce is aging and a new workforce pipeline, to support both current generation and new build has yet to be established. The paper reviews the challenges and some actions being taken to address this need. (authors)

12

A Biodiversity Indicators Dashboard: Addressing Challenges to Monitoring Progress towards the Aichi Biodiversity Targets Using Disaggregated Global Data  

Science.gov (United States)

Recognizing the imperiled status of biodiversity and its benefit to human well-being, the world's governments committed in 2010 to take effective and urgent action to halt biodiversity loss through the Convention on Biological Diversity's “Aichi Targets”. These targets, and many conservation programs, require monitoring to assess progress toward specific goals. However, comprehensive and easily understood information on biodiversity trends at appropriate spatial scales is often not available to the policy makers, managers, and scientists who require it. We surveyed conservation stakeholders in three geographically diverse regions of critical biodiversity concern (the Tropical Andes, the African Great Lakes, and the Greater Mekong) and found high demand for biodiversity indicator information but uneven availability. To begin to address this need, we present a biodiversity “dashboard” – a visualization of biodiversity indicators designed to enable tracking of biodiversity and conservation performance data in a clear, user-friendly format. This builds on previous, more conceptual, indicator work to create an operationalized online interface communicating multiple indicators at multiple spatial scales. We structured this dashboard around the Pressure-State-Response-Benefit framework, selecting four indicators to measure pressure on biodiversity (deforestation rate), state of species (Red List Index), conservation response (protection of key biodiversity areas), and benefits to human populations (freshwater provision). Disaggregating global data, we present dashboard maps and graphics for the three regions surveyed and their component countries. These visualizations provide charts showing regional and national trends and lay the foundation for a web-enabled, interactive biodiversity indicators dashboard. This new tool can help track progress toward the Aichi Targets, support national monitoring and reporting, and inform outcome-based policy-making for the protection of natural resources. PMID:25409183

Han, Xuemei; Smyth, Regan L.; Young, Bruce E.; Brooks, Thomas M.; Sánchez de Lozada, Alexandra; Bubb, Philip; Butchart, Stuart H. M.; Larsen, Frank W.; Hamilton, Healy; Hansen, Matthew C.; Turner, Will R.

2014-01-01

13

Addressing verification challenges [International safeguards symposium on addressing verification challenges  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

ates and another 20 or 30 States having the capacity to develop nuclear weapons in a very short period of time. There is a need to remember that there is a linkage between nuclear disarmament and non-proliferation. Furthermore safeguards activities, though fundamentally technical in nature, are carried out in a political charged environment. The security dimension - that is, nuclear terrorism - also presents a new challenge, because State systems of accounting for and control of nuclear material are no longer simply tools for safeguards, but now provide information relevant to physical protection as well. The IAEA does not receive all information they would need, for example systematic information from the Nuclear Suppliers Group on exports and imports. Other challenges are financial resources (IAEA's budget: $ 130 million) and the IAEA laboratories in Vienna which are not equipped for state- of-the-art analysis of environmental samples. There is also need for transparency measures in certain situations - for example, interviewing people and having access to documents. Another challenge is how to deal with countries having already begun weaponization activities, how to verify that weapons have been dismantled, weaponization structures have been destroyed and custody has been taken of weapon design information. The IAEA recently moved from a system based on facility verification to a State level safeguards approach. The IAEA has also introduced an integrated safeguards approach, which is more cost effective and enables the IAEA to provide better assurances. Environmental sampling and satellite monitoring are new tools that the IAEA is now using almost routinely. Moreover, the IAEA is continuing to work with the Member States to develop new verification tools. Each of the issues discussed presents its own challenge and there is hope for input and new ideas provided by the participants. The real purpose of the symposium is to determine how the IAEA can continue to be effective and relevant, and a valuable instrument to help the international community deal with nuclear weapons proliferation

14

Global threat reduction initiative efforts to address transportation challenges associated with the recovery of disused radioactive sealed sources - 10460  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Proper disposition of disused radioactive sources is essential for their safe and secure management and necessary to preclude their use in malicious activities. Without affordable, timely transportation options, disused sealed sources remain in storage at hundreds of sites throughout the country and around the world. While secure storage is a temporary measure, the longer sources remain disused or unwanted the chances increase that they will become unsecured or abandoned. The Global Threat Reduction Initiative's Off-Site Source Recovery Project (GTRIlOSRP), recovers thousands of disused and unwanted sealed sources annually as part of GTRl's larger mission to reduce and protect high risk nuclear and radiological materials located at civilian sites worldwide. Faced with decreasing availability of certified transportation containers to support movement of disused and unwanted neutron- and beta/gamma-emitting radioactive sealed sources, GTRIlOSRP has initiated actions to ensure the continued success of the project in timely recovery and management of sealed radioactive sources. Efforts described in this paper to enhance transportation capabilities include: {sm_bullet} Addition of authorized content to existing and planned Type B containers to support the movement of non-special form and other Type B-quantity sealed sources; {sm_bullet} Procurement of vendor services for the design, development, testing and certification of a new Type B container to support transportation of irradiators, teletherapy heads or sources removed from these devices using remote handling capabilities such as the IAEA portable hot cell facility; {sm_bullet} Expansion of shielded Type A container inventory for transportation of gamma-emitting sources in activity ranges requiring use of shielding for conformity with transportation requirements; {sm_bullet} Approval of the S300 Type A fissile container for transport of Pu-239 sealed sources internationally; {sm_bullet} Technology transfer of field-sealable (non-welded) special form capsules for commercial use.

Whitworth, Julie [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Abeyta, Cristy L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Griffin, Justin M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Matzke, James L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pearson, Michael W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cuthbertson, Abigail [NNSA; Rawl, Richard [ORNL; Singley, Paul [ORNL

2010-01-01

15

Global threat reduction initiative efforts to address transportation challenges associated with the recovery of disused radioactive sealed sources - 10460  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Proper disposition of disused radioactive sources is essential for their safe and secure management and necessary to preclude their use in malicious activities. Without affordable, timely transportation options, disused sealed sources remain in storage at hundreds of sites throughout the country and around the world. While secure storage is a temporary measure, the longer sources remain disused or unwanted the chances increase that they will become unsecured or abandoned. The Global Threat Reduction Initiative's Off-Site Source Recovery Project (GTRIlOSRP), recovers thousands of disused and unwanted sealed sources annually as part of GTRl's larger mission to reduce and protect high risk nuclear and radiological materials located at civilian sites worldwide. Faced with decreasing availability of certified transportation containers to support movement of disused and unwanted neutron- and beta/gamma-emitting radioactive sealed sources, GTRIlOSRP has initiated actions to ensure the continued success of the project in timely recovery and management of sealed radioactive sources. Efforts described in this paper to enhance transportation capabilities include: (smbullet) Addition of authorized content to existing and planned Type B containers to support the movement of non-special form and other Type B-quantity sealed sources; (smbullet) Procurement of vendor services for the design, development, testing and certification of a new Type B container to support transportation of irradiators, teletherapy heads or sources removed from these devices using remote handling capabilities such as the IAEA portable hot cell facility; (smbullet) Expansion of shielded Type A container inventory for transportation of gamma-emitting sources in activity ranges requiring use of shielding for conformity with transportation requirements; (smbullet) Approval of the S300 Type A fissile container for transport of Pu-239 sealed sources internationally; (smbullet) Technology transfer of field-sealable (non-welded) special form capsules for commercial use.

16

Addressing capability computing challenges of high-resolution global climate modelling at the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility  

Science.gov (United States)

During 2013, high-resolution climate model simulations accounted for over 100 million "core hours" using Titan at the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF). The suite of climate modeling experiments, primarily using the Community Earth System Model (CESM) at nearly 0.25 degree horizontal resolution, generated over a petabyte of data and nearly 100,000 files, ranging in sizes from 20 MB to over 100 GB. Effective utilization of leadership class resources requires careful planning and preparation. The application software, such as CESM, need to be ported, optimized and benchmarked for the target platform in order to meet the computational readiness requirements. The model configuration needs to be "tuned and balanced" for the experiments. This can be a complicated and resource intensive process, especially for high-resolution configurations using complex physics. The volume of I/O also increases with resolution; and new strategies may be required to manage I/O especially for large checkpoint and restart files that may require more frequent output for resiliency. It is also essential to monitor the application performance during the course of the simulation exercises. Finally, the large volume of data needs to be analyzed to derive the scientific results; and appropriate data and information delivered to the stakeholders. Titan is currently the largest supercomputer available for open science. The computational resources, in terms of "titan core hours" are allocated primarily via the Innovative and Novel Computational Impact on Theory and Experiment (INCITE) and ASCR Leadership Computing Challenge (ALCC) programs, both sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science. Titan is a Cray XK7 system, capable of a theoretical peak performance of over 27 PFlop/s, consists of 18,688 compute nodes, with a NVIDIA Kepler K20 GPU and a 16-core AMD Opteron CPU in every node, for a total of 299,008 Opteron cores and 18,688 GPUs offering a cumulative 560,640 equivalent cores. Scientific applications, such as CESM, are also required to demonstrate a "computational readiness capability" to efficiently scale across and utilize 20% of the entire system. The 0,25 deg configuration of the spectral element dynamical core of the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM-SE), the atmospheric component of CESM, has been demonstrated to scale efficiently across more than 5,000 nodes (80,000 CPU cores) on Titan. The tracer transport routines of CAM-SE have also been ported to take advantage of the hybrid many-core architecture of Titan using GPUs [see EGU2014-4233], yielding over 2X speedup when transporting over 100 tracers. The high throughput I/O in CESM, based on the Parallel IO Library (PIO), is being further augmented to support even higher resolutions and enhance resiliency. The application performance of the individual runs are archived in a database and routinely analyzed to identify and rectify performance degradation during the course of the experiments. The various resources available at the OLCF now support a scientific workflow to facilitate high-resolution climate modelling. A high-speed center-wide parallel file system, called ATLAS, capable of 1 TB/s, is available on Titan as well as on the clusters used for analysis (Rhea) and visualization (Lens/EVEREST). Long-term archive is facilitated by the HPSS storage system. The Earth System Grid (ESG), featuring search & discovery, is also used to deliver data. The end-to-end workflow allows OLCF users to efficiently share data and publish results in a timely manner.

Anantharaj, Valentine; Norman, Matthew; Evans, Katherine; Taylor, Mark; Worley, Patrick; Hack, James; Mayer, Benjamin

2014-05-01

17

Model fusion : challenges to be addressed  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Model Fusion is a working technology that is producing excellent results. The projects that have been completed successfully to date have clearly demonstrated something of the real potential and power of the technology. However, to achieve the full potential of the vision there are substantial challenges to be addressed. These include ontology and semantics, scale, the handling of uncertainty, ready access to appropriate datasets, managing intrusion, and culture change to na...

Giles, Jeremy

2011-01-01

18

Sport NGOs pledge to address societal challenges | EurActiv  

... Sport NGOs pledge to address societal challenges | EurActiv While sport and civil society organisations are not expected to solve global and national challenges, ...the game [and] part of the solution,' argued the president of the International Sport and Culture Association (ISCA) Mogens Kirkeby on 23 October.... sports,sport EU news & policy debates- across languages - en fr Click here for EU news »x Search this site: ... Food, drinks and the environment [Archived] Development Policy EU Elections 2014 Section homepage European elections 2014: Different this time? ...

19

World Bank: Global Challenges  

Science.gov (United States)

The World Bank works to combat poverty and to increase development opportunities around the world, but they also have selected six strategic themes that focus in on global development. First-time visitors to the site can listen to World Bank President Robert B. Zoellick talk about these themes, and they may also wish to follow along with the accompanying slideshow. Themes include global public goods, the Arab world, and middle-income countries. By clicking on one of these themes, visitors can read comprehensive reports, working papers, or take a look at presentations that explore these areas in greater detail. Many of these information sources are contained within a "Highlights" area. Visitors with a penchant for economic development, international political economy, or international affairs will find this site very useful. It's also easy to see how these materials might be used in a classroom setting to spark discussion or debate about some of these very timely matters.

20

Addressing New Challenges for Error Field Correction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The correction of error fields in ITER is found to be far more challenging than previously thought due to the effects of a multi-component response to such fields at multiple surfaces in the plasma. This situation is exacerbated by an amplification of error fields in H-modes, where a developing resistive response is observed, with fields found to brake plasma rotation and destabilize intrinsic m = 2, n = 1 tearing instabilities. New scalings of mode-trigger thresholds were obtained from this process, and are compared with new Monte Carlo calculations of the error fields expected in ITER, updated for the ideal-response formalism by which the error fields couple to the plasma. These indicate that correction will need to reduce error fields by ? 50% to avoid instability in the ITER baseline. This is comparable to the best levels of correction presently achievable in devices around the world. Obtaining this level of correction typically requires well-optimized dual toroidal array dual arrays, usually located close to the plasma. Experiments have explored this physics using large amplitude proxy error fields with a known controllable field structure. These confirm the limitations and indicate that they arise within n = 1 field components, rather than higher toroidal mode number, or inherent stability or control limits. This indicates that the fields must couple to the plasma though multiple ideal mode, and that once in the plasma, must interact at more than onhe plasma, must interact at more than one resonant surface or non-resonantly. Modeling with the IPEC code favors the latter interpretation with a decrease in resonant fields being accompanied by an increase in NTV damping. Further results using an optimized 'ideal-mode' structured correction field, yield little improvement over standard error field correction, also favoring a non-resonant interpretation of the residual field effects. These results indicate that ITER needs to have sufficient harmonic flexibility to adapt to the underlying error field, cancelling it at more than one surface in the plasma, and preferably near its source. Thus it should consider a multi-harmonic error field correction strategy, and may need to additionally deploy its ELM control coils for error correction, to ensure disruption free operation. (author)

 
 
 
 
21

Addressing malaria vector control challenges in South Sudan: proposed recommendations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Upon the signing of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement in 2005, the Republic of South Sudan (RSS has faced a lot of challenges, such as a lack of infrastructure, human resources and an enormous burden of vector borne diseases including malaria. While a national malaria strategic plan 2006-2011 was developed, the vector control component has remained relatively weak. The strategy endorses the distribution of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs as the frontline intervention with other interventions recommended only when technical and institutional capacity is available. In 2006, a draft integrated vector management (IVM strategic plan 2007–2012 was developed but never implemented, resulting in minimal coordination, implementation and coverage of malaria vector control tools including their inherent impact. To address this challenge, the vector control team of the National Malaria Control Programme (NMCP is being strengthened. With the objective of building national capacity and technical collaboration for effective implementation of the IVM strategy, a national malaria vector control conference was held from 15-17th October 2012 in Juba. A range of NMCP partners, state ministries, acadaemia, private sector, national and international non-governmental organizations, including regional and global policymakers attended the meeting. The conference represented a major milestone and made recommendations revolving around the five key elements of the IVM approach. The meeting endorsed that vector control efforts in RSS be augmented with other interventions within the confines of the IVM strategy as a national approach, with strong adherence to its key elements.

Chanda Emmanuel

2013-02-01

22

Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. West Virginia  

Science.gov (United States)

America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

2010-01-01

23

Addressing Earth Science Data Access Challenges through User Experience Research  

Science.gov (United States)

The NASA Capacity Building Program (Earth Science Division, Applied Sciences Program) works to enhance end-user capabilities to employ Earth observation and Earth science (EO/ES) data in decision-making. Open data access and user-tailored data delivery strategies are critical elements towards this end. User Experience (UX) and User Interface (UI) research methods can offer important contributions towards addressing data access challenges, particularly at the interface of science application/product development and product transition to end-users. This presentation focuses on developing nation contexts and describes methods, results, and lessons learned from two recent UX/UI efforts conducted in collaboration with NASA: the SERVIRglobal.net redesign project and the U.S. Water Partnership (USWP) Portal development effort. SERVIR, a collaborative venture among NASA, USAID, and global partners, seeks to improve environmental management and climate change response by helping governments and other stakeholders integrate EO and geospatial technologies into decision-making. The USWP, a collaboration among U.S. public and private sectors, harnesses U.S.-based resources and expertise to address water challenges in developing nations. SERVIR's study, conducted from 2010-2012, assessed and tested user needs, preferences, and online experiences to generate a more user-friendly online data portal at SERVIRglobal.net. The portal provides a central access interface to data and products from SERVIR's network of hubs in East Africa, the Hindu Kush Himalayas, and Mesoamerica. The second study, conducted by the USWP Secretariat and funded by the U.S. Department of State, seeks to match U.S.-based water information resources with developing nation stakeholder needs. The USWP study utilizes a multi-pronged approach to identify key design requirements and to understand the existing water data portal landscape. Adopting UX methods allows data distributors to design customized UIs that help users find, interpret, and obtain appropriate content quickly. The data access challenge for both SERVIR and USWP consisted of organizing a wide range of content for their respective user bases, which are diverse, international, and in some cases loosely characterized. The UX/UI design approach generated profiles of prototypical users and corresponding task flows and organizational schemes for their preferred types of content. Wireframe acceptance testing by SERVIR helped elicit and optimize how users interact with the information online. These approaches produced customized UIs and knowledge management strategies to address the data access challenges faced by each user type. Both studies revealed critical considerations for user experiences in developing nations (e.g., low-bandwidth internet connections, rolling power outages at data storage or network centers). For SERVIR, these findings influenced not only the portal infrastructure; they also informed the transition of the platform to a Cloud-based model, as well as the development of custom data delivery tools such as SMS and other mobile solutions. While SERVIR's data access solutions are customized for the network's community of users, they are also standardized and interoperable according to GEO and ISO standards, providing a model for other initiatives such as the ongoing USWP Portal development effort.

Hemmings, S. N.; Banks, B.; Kendall, J.; Lee, C. M.; Irwin, D.; Toll, D. L.; Searby, N. D.

2013-12-01

24

Challenges in global ballast water management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ballast water management is a complex issue raising the challenge of merging international regulations, ship's specific configurations along with ecological conservation. This complexity is illustrated in this paper by considering ballast water volume, discharge frequency, ship safety and operational issues aligned with regional characteristics to address ecological risk for selected routes. A re-estimation of ballast water volumes gives a global annual level of 3500 Mton. Global ballast water volume discharged into open sea originating from ballast water exchange operations is estimated to approximately 2800 Mton. Risk based decision support systems coupled to databases for different ports and invasive species characteristics and distributions can allow for differentiated treatment levels while maintaining low risk levels. On certain routes, the risk is estimated to be unacceptable and some kind of ballast water treatment or management should be applied

25

Addressing the Grand Challenge of atmospheric carbon dioxide: geologic sequestration vs. biological recycling  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract On February 15, 2008, the National Academy of Engineering unveiled their list of 14 Grand Challenges for Engineering. Building off of tremendous advancements in the past century, these challenges were selected for their role in assuring a sustainable existence for the rapidly increasing global community. It is no accident that the first five Challenges on the list involve the development of sustainable energy sources and management of environmental resources. While the focus of this review is to address the single Grand Challenge of "develop carbon sequestration methods", is will soon be clear that several other Challenges are intrinsically tied to it through the principles of sustainability. How does the realm of biological engineering play a role in addressing these Grand Challenges?

Stuart Ben J

2011-11-01

26

Innovative approaches for addressing old challenges in component importance measures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Importance measures (IM) are component related indices that allow assessing how a component in a system affects one or more system level performance functions. While several IM have been presented in the literature, challenges still remain with respect to the following: (1) multiple ranking—multiple perspective, (2) multi-component importance and, (3) multi-function importance. To address these challenges, this paper proposes set of innovative solutions based on several available techniques: Hasse diagram, Copeland score and Multi-objective optimization. As such, the purpose of this research is twofold: first propose solutions and second foster new research to address these challenges. Each of the proposed solutions is exemplified with a working example.

27

Global mobile IPv6 addressing using transition mechanisms  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The adoption of the Internet Protocol in mobile and wireless technologies has considerably increased the number of hosts that can potentially access the global Internet. IPv6 is considered the long term solution for the IPv4 address shortage problem, but the transition from IPv4 to IPv6 is supposed [...] to be very gradual. Therefore, there will be a long time during which both protocol versions will coexist. To facilitate transition, the IETF has set up a work group called NGTRANS (Next Generation TRANSition) which specifies mechanisms for supporting interoperability between IPv4 and IPv6. This paper describes a new approach for implementing mobile networks with global Internet connectivity using transition mechanisms. It consists in virtually assigning IPv6 addresses to IPv4 hosts without modifying end-user devices by introducing a transparent gateway in the mobile network. The mobile hosts with virtual IPv6 addresses are uniquely addressed through the global IPv4 Internet by using IPv6 addresses from the standard 6to4 addressing scheme or Fully Qualified Domain Names (FQDN). This "extended" transition mechanism permits to deploy mobile networks with global Internet connectivity without requiring public IPv4 addresses, using legacy IPv4 user devices. The mobile hosts with virtual IPv6 addresses can communicate to other hosts with virtual IPv6 addresses or with "true " IPv6 networks.

Edgard, Jamhour; Simone, Storoz; Carlos, Maziero.

28

Global mobile IPv6 addressing using transition mechanisms  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The adoption of the Internet Protocol in mobile and wireless technologies has considerably increased the number of hosts that can potentially access the global Internet. IPv6 is considered the long term solution for the IPv4 address shortage problem, but the transition from IPv4 to IPv6 is supposed [...] to be very gradual. Therefore, there will be a long time during which both protocol versions will coexist. To facilitate transition, the IETF has set up a work group called NGTRANS (Next Generation TRANSition) which specifies mechanisms for supporting interoperability between IPv4 and IPv6. This paper describes a new approach for implementing mobile networks with global Internet connectivity using transition mechanisms. It consists in virtually assigning IPv6 addresses to IPv4 hosts without modifying end-user devices by introducing a transparent gateway in the mobile network. The mobile hosts with virtual IPv6 addresses are uniquely addressed through the global IPv4 Internet by using IPv6 addresses from the standard 6to4 addressing scheme or Fully Qualified Domain Names (FQDN). This "extended" transition mechanism permits to deploy mobile networks with global Internet connectivity without requiring public IPv4 addresses, using legacy IPv4 user devices. The mobile hosts with virtual IPv6 addresses can communicate to other hosts with virtual IPv6 addresses or with "true " IPv6 networks.

Edgard, Jamhour; Simone, Storoz; Carlos, Maziero.

2003-04-01

29

Catholic Social Teaching: Addressing Globalization in Catholic Business Education  

Science.gov (United States)

Although business schools are increasingly aware of the importance of globalization in educating future business leaders, their business programs have addressed globalization from a limited perspective that fails to provide students with a broader understanding of its impact on societies and its moral consequences. The conventional approach to the…

Ball, James B.; Martinez, Zaida; Toyne, Brian

2009-01-01

30

'Caring schools' – a solution for addressing challenging behaviour in schools?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Media reports suggest that challenging behaviour is no longer the exception to the rule in South African schools. Furthermore, such problem behaviour is increasingly violent in nature, thus constituting a particular cause for concern. In this article the concept of “caring schools” is explored as a means of addressing learners’ challenging behaviour. A research study was undertaken at eight South African primary schools. The conclusions drawn from this research were verified by the correlative research findings of other researchers, as ascertained from the literature study. A key element of this research was the identification of attributes associated with caring schools and the impact thereof on learners’ behaviour patterns. From the findings of this research study it is concluded that caring schools represent a possible solution for dealing with challenging behaviour in South African schools.

F.H. Weeks

2008-07-01

31

Natural Formulations Addressing Skin Challenges in Baby Care  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Addressing skin challenges in baby care formulations is quite a challenge itself, as the formulation not only needs to be active, but it should also meet specific requirements in terms of ingredients, agreability and rational of the formulation design. Object of this study was the realization of a few different cosmetic formulations blending soundly documented natural active ingredients in systems matching the most common requirements of the baby care products. Additionaly, compatibility evidences of the employed natural actives within the tested systems have also been observed. We are therefore presenting the formulation design of four different formulations for baby care: a baby wash, an immediate rash recovery, an after sun emulsion and a calming and soothing product, each one described for the rational of the actives it contains and provided with a detailed formulation design. Specific attention will be directed to those ingredients for which clinical data supporting the expected skin benefits are available.

Giada Maramaldi

2013-01-01

32

Global challenges and globalization of bioethics.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article analyzes problems and implications for man and nature connected with the formation of a new architecture of science, based on the convergence of nanotechnology, biotechnology, information technology, and cognitive science (NBIC). It also describes evolution and genesis of bioethics, a scientific discipline and social practice with a special role of ethical management of potential risks of scientific research. The aim was to demonstrate the necessity of bioethical social control in the development of a global bioeconomy driven by NBIC technologies. PMID:23447421

Nezhmetdinova, Farida

2013-02-01

33

Global Workforce Development - Addressing the Changing Geography of Investment  

Science.gov (United States)

The Geography of professional workforce hiring is changing significantly and rapidly in the petroleum industry, mostly in response to shifting investment patterns. These geographical changes pose daunting challenges as well as new opportunities for philanthropic institutions such as the ExxonMobil Foundation, and especially for academia. Our Angolan affiliate illustrates the challenges brought about by investment in new areas. Although we will continue to require access to numerous Angolan Geoscience graduates who can fully participate in our global Geoscience community, there is only one Angolan institution that grants a relatively small number of Geoscience degrees. Our access to other locally-educated Angolan professional graduates is similarly limited. The Petroleum sector's response to this situation has been to seek indigenous students who are already enrolled, often in North American or European academic institutions, or to sponsor Angolan students there. If one multiplies our Angolan Geoscience example by the number of competing employers in Angola, and then by the number of countries around the world that are experiencing strong economic growth, the magnitude of the unfilled demand for international educational development seems daunting. However, several academic institutions have already taken the initiative and have provided educational, linguistic, and cultural pathways that encourage Angolans and others to obtain a world-class educational preparation on their respective campuses. This strategy has indeed begun to address the need for capacity-building for many indigenous students, and has aided various industries in their efforts to build indigenous workforces. Nevertheless, growing the capacity of indigenous academic infrastructure is also essential for the long term, and only a few academic institutions have begun to explore this educational frontier. Increased engagement and collaboration in international educational activities would clearly confer benefits on all the stakeholders, including universities, private industry, and various philanthropic institutions and governmental authorities. Continued economic growth around the world will be accompanied by growth in academic capacity, and it seems likely that the established academic institutions of today that nurture and influence academic growth outside of their own countries will become tomorrow's leading institutions.

McElvy, G. W.; Loudin, M. G.

2005-12-01

34

IAB presidential address: bioethics in a globalized world: creating space for flourishing human relationships.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bioethics in a globalized world is meeting a number of challenges - fundamentalism in its different forms, and a focus on economic growth neglecting issues such as equity and sustainability, being prominent among them. How well are we as bioethicists equipped to make meaningful contributions in these times? The paper identifies a number of restraints and proceeds to probe potential resources such as the capability approach, care ethics, cosmopolitanism, and pragmatism. These elements serve to outline a perspective that focuses on the preconditions for flourishing human relationships as a way to address bioethical challenges in a globalized world. PMID:21929701

Biller-Andorno, Nikola

2011-10-01

35

Addressing the challenges of patient-centred design  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Patient-centred design is a relatively new term, but a longstanding concept in clinical practice. This discussion looks at patient-centred design and explores the relationships of patient-centred design to universal design, user-centred design and the newer human-centred design. It also explores why interdisciplinary approaches are needed for patient-centred design and how interdisciplinary collaboration works to address the challenges of patient centred design. Successful patient-centred solutions can grow from collaborations which include shared visions, understanding of both the nature and degree of variation in the patient,materials, and the designed solution, clear regular communication among all parties with careful definition of terms, and respect for the inherent cultures of all disciplines involved.

Karen LaBat

2009-11-01

36

GLOBALIZATION AND THE NEW ENERGY CHALLENGES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A New Global Energy Economy is emerging, in which energy demand and supply issues will make regions of the world much more dependent upon each other. International extensive energetic interdependence on energy resources and networks grows in the global economy. Some $22 trillion of investment in supply infrastructure is needed to meet projected global demand until 2030. Mobilising all this investment will be challenging. Adherence to these policies will ensure that the global energy investments materializes, the necessary infrastructure is built, and the lengthening worldwide energy supply chain operates in security. Strong global energy policy is needed to move the world into a more sustainable energy path.

Preda (AndreescuMihaela

2008-05-01

37

Opening statement [International safeguards symposium on addressing verification challenges  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mr. N.J. Nicholas, Vice President of the Institute of Nuclear Materials Management (INMM) which, along with the European Safeguards Research and Development Association, is cooperating with the IAEA to organize this international safeguards symposium IAEA's Director General ElBaradei and the entire IAEA for both their tremendous accomplishments and their much deserved recognition by the Nobel Committee. He continued to state that for the international community, working to stem the proliferation of nuclear weapons must rank among the highest priorities. To meet current and future challenges, one must first understand the emerging threats, then develop new tools and verification techniques to strengthen the non-proliferation regime, and finally discover new approaches to problems that extend beyond the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. The INMM's purpose is to provide a global forum to explore and understand challenges to nuclear materials management in this changing environment. Member of the INMM spearhead advances in nuclear materials management and disseminate best practices in nuclear safeguards and security. The international community should sharpen its focus more than ever on strengthening international safeguards

38

Integrated strategy to address Hanford's deep vadose zone remediation challenges  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A vast majority of Hanford's remaining in-ground contaminants reside in the vadose zone of the Central Plateau, where reprocessing operations occurred. The vadose zone is comprised of about 75 meters of water-unsaturated sediments above groundwater. If left untreated, these contaminants could reach groundwater and could remain a threat for centuries. Much of this contamination resides deep in the vadose zone, below the effective depth of tradition surface remedy influence. In 2008, the Department of Energy initiated deep vadose zone treatability testing to seek remedies for technetium-99 and uranium contamination. These tests include the application of desiccation for technetium-99 and reactive gas technologies for uranium. To complement these efforts, the Department of Energy has initiated a 'defense-in-depth' approach to address the unique challenges for characterization and remediation of the deep vadose zone. This defense-in-depth approach will implement multiple approaches to understand and control contaminant flux from the deep vadose zone to the groundwater. Among these approaches is an increased investment in science and technology solutions to resolve deep vadose zone challenges including characterization, prediction, remediation, and monitoring. (author)

39

Integrated Strategy to Address Hanford's Deep Vadose Zone Remediation Challenges  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A vast majority of Hanford's remaining in-ground contaminants reside in the vadose zone of the Central Plateau, where reprocessing operations occurred. The vadose zone is comprised of about 75 meters of water-unsaturated sediments above groundwater. These contaminants have, and continue to release into groundwater that discharges to the Columbia River. If left untreated, these contaminants could remain a threat for centuries. Much of this contamination resides deep in the vadose zone, below the effective depth of tradition surface remedy influence. In 2008, the Department of Energy initiated deep vadose zone treatability testing to seek remedies for technetium-99 and uranium contamination. These tests include the application of desiccation for technetium-99 and reactive gas technologies for uranium. To complement these efforts, the Department of Energy has initiated a 'defense-in-depth' approach to address the unique challenges for characterization and remediation of the deep vadose zone. This defense-in-depth approach will implement multiple approaches to understand and control contaminant flux from the deep vadose zone to the groundwater. Among these approaches is an increased investment in science and technology solutions to resolve deep vadose zone challenges including characterization, prediction, remediation, and monitoring.

40

Cultural dimensions of learning: Addressing the challenges of multicultural instruction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The growing multicultural nature of education and training environments makes it critical that instructors and instructional designers, especially those working in online learning environments, develop skills to deliver culturally sensitive and culturally adaptive instruction. This article explores research into cultural differences to identify those dimensions of culture that are most likely to impact instructional situations. It presents these in the cultural dimensions of learning framework (CDLF, which describes a set of eight cultural parameters regarding social relationships, epistemological beliefs, and temporal perceptions, and illustrates their spectrums of variability as they might be exhibited in instructional situations. The article also explores the literature on instructional design and culture for guidelines on addressing the cross-cultural challenges faced by instructional providers. It suggests that these challenges can be overcome through increased awareness, culturally sensitive communication, modified instructional design processes, and efforts to accommodate the most critical cultural differences. Finally, it describes the use of the CDLF questionnaire as a tool to illuminate the range of preferences existing among learners and to discover the potential range of strategies and tactics that might be useful for a given set of learners.

Patrick Parrish

2010-05-01

 
 
 
 
41

Evaluating complex community-based health promotion: addressing the challenges.  

Science.gov (United States)

Community-based health promotion is poorly theorised and lacks an agreed evidence-base. This paper examines characteristics of community-based health promotion and the challenges they present to evaluation. A review of health promotion evaluation leads to an exploration of more recent approaches, drawing on ideas from complexity theory and developmental evaluation. A reflexive analysis of three program evaluations previously undertaken as an evaluation consultant is used to develop a conceptual model to help in the design and conduct of health promotion evaluation. The model is further explored by applying it retrospectively to one evaluation. Findings suggest that the context-contingent nature of health promotion programs; turbulence in the community context and players; multiple stakeholders, goals and strategies; and uncertainty of outcomes all contribute to the complexity of interventions. Bringing together insights from developmental evaluation and complexity theory can help to address some evaluation challenges. The proposed model emphasises recognising and responding to changing contexts and emerging outcomes, providing rapid feedback and facilitating reflexive practice. This will enable the evaluator to gain a better understanding of the influence of context and other implementation factors in a complex setting. Use of the model should contribute to building cumulative evidence and knowledge in order to identify the principles of health promotion effectiveness that may be transferable to new situations. PMID:24755377

Jolley, Gwyneth

2014-08-01

42

Uranium discussion paper: embracing facts and addressing the challenges  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Events in recent months have prompted Australians to reassess their attitude towards uranium mining. These include the debate over takeover bids for our largest uranium deposit at Olympic Dam, Canberra's decision to take control of mining in the Northern Territory, and progress in negotiating a bilateral agreement for selling uranium to China. On an international level, increasing concern over global warming, and burgeoning energy demand from developing countries, has led many people to come to view nuclear power as an energy alternative that is both attractive and necessary. It is essential that professional, informed and expert opinion be sought to drive the debate and the way forward. Australia's uranium mining and exploration industry is now leading edge and it's time public debate evolved along with it. The extent to which the issue is manipulated for political point scoring is a disservice to the country and perhaps to democracy. It impedes the evolution of a coherent, consistent and intelligent policy on a range of issues that we, as a country with the largest deposit of a sustainable source of energy in a time of accelerating global energy demands, need to address

43

Mining and global environmental challenges  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

At least half of South Africa's gold production is presently dependent on CFC11 an CFC12 as refrigerants in water chilling machines used in cooling the underground workings. The South African Government will ratify the revised Montreal Protocol on substances that deplete the ozone layer which will mean CFCs will have to be phased out probably by 1997. HFC134 or HFC22 are possible replacements for CFC but present costs of converting machines are high. The article goes on to discuss the contribution of CFCs and CO{sub 2} to global warming and model simulations and predictions of climate change. Likely effects of growing concern about global warming on the coal mining industry are the possible limitations on the use of coal and the increased need for clean coal technology. 12 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

Greeff, J.C.; Bailey-McEwan, M. (Chamber of Mines of South Africa, Johannesburg (South Africa))

1992-04-01

44

Addressing professional resource challenges facing modern utilities with technological solutions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The challenges facing electric utilities regarding a shortage of highly qualified labour to maintain, refurbish and expand electrical infrastructure can be attributed to a wave of retirements in skilled employees, a shortage of entry-level workers and a rapidly increasing workload caused by investment in electricity infrastructure. Two solutions were presented for finding and sustaining an adequate personnel base. The first involved developing local talent, both entry-level and mid-career staff to ensure that work continuity and workplace safety are maintained. The second involved the implementation of technological solutions to help optimize the use of existing and future labour resources. This paper presented the human resource programs developed by Hydro One, the largest electrical transmission and distribution utility in the province of Ontario. Their initiatives include raising the profile of the utility work environment through strategic partnerships with educational institutions and developing in house offerings to supplement existing academic programs. This paper also presented a technical solution to address the resources challenges specifically associated with power system protection and control. The solution targets professional and skilled trades involved in the design, installation and maintenance of automated substations and protection and control systems. It is based on the premise that resource optimization can be achieved by reducing inconsistent design and construction practices and replacing these designs with highly standardized materials with digital communications using IEC 61850. This new technology should attract young professionals to the power engineering field while still maintaining a high comfort level with the established professional workforce. 5 refs., 4 figs.

Goldie, T. [Hydro One Networks Inc., Toronto, ON (Canada); Hodder, S. [GE Digital Energy, Toronto, ON (Canada)

2008-07-01

45

Facing safety and security challenges: Specific regulatory perspectives (Opening address)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The subject matter of our conference is closely connected with one of the major directions of the G8 Summit to be held later this year - the concept of ensuring the safety and security of global energy supplies, i.e. ensuring the availability of reliable and sustainable energy resources to all the countries that need those for their further development. Atomic energy has been playing a substantial role in the implementation of this concept and in the long term, when the supplies of fossil fuels start depleting, its role and scope of use will be getting more significant. The main and indispensable prerequisite for such large scale use of atomic energy is the assurance of nuclear and environmental safety at all stages of the nuclear fuel cycle. Moreover, physical protection of nuclear facilities, fissile materials and radioactive substances has recently assumed special or one could say paramount importance, which is connected with the problem of proliferation and the terrorist threat. Ensuring nuclear and radiation safety has always been addressed in parallel with the development of nuclear technologies right from inception and is reflected in the level of scientific knowledge in this field that existed at each point in time. The lessons learnt from the accidents and incidents that occurred, have stimulated corresponding scientific and technological developments, improvement of regulatory standards and the establishment of continuously improving regulatory systems for nuclear safety and radiation safety

46

The Challenges and Potential of Nuclear Energy for Addressing Climate Change  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The response to climate change and the stabilization of atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations has major implications for the global energy system. Stabilization of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations requires a peak and an indefinite decline of global CO2 emissions. Nuclear energy, along with other technologies, has the potential to contribute to the growing demand for energy without emitting CO2. Nuclear energy is of particular interest because of its global prevalence and its current significant contribution, nearly 20%, to the world’s electricity supply. We have investigated the value of nuclear energy in addressing climate change, and have explored the potential challenges for the rapid and large-scale expansion of nuclear energy as a response to climate change. The scope of this study is long-term and the modeling time frame extends out a century because the nature of nuclear energy and climate change dictate that perspective. Our results indicate that the value of the nuclear technology option for addressing climate change is denominated in trillions of dollars. Several-fold increases to the value of the nuclear option can be expected if there is limited availability of competing carbon-free technologies, particularly fossil-fuel based technologies that can capture and sequester carbon. Challenges for the expanded global use of nuclear energy include the global capacity for nuclear construction, proliferation, uranium availability, and waste disposal. While the economic costs of nuclear fuel and power are important, non-economic issues transcend the issues of costs. In this regard, advanced nuclear technologies and new vision for the global use of nuclear energy are important considerations for the future of nuclear power and climate change.

Kim, Son H.; Edmonds, James A.

2007-10-24

47

The Challenges and Potential of Nuclear Energy for Addressing Climate Change  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The response to climate change and the stabilization of atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations has major implications for the global energy system. Stabilization of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations requires a peak and an indefinite decline of global CO2 emissions. Nuclear energy, along with other technologies, has the potential to contribute to the growing demand for energy without emitting CO2. Nuclear energy is of particular interest because of its global prevalence and its current significant contribution, nearly 20%, to the world's electricity supply. We have investigated the value of nuclear energy in addressing climate change, and have explored the potential challenges for the rapid and large-scale expansion of nuclear energy as a response to climate change. The scope of this study is long-term and the modeling time frame extends out a century because the nature of nuclear energy and climate change dictate that perspective. Our results indicate that the value of the nuclear technology option for addressing climate change is denominated in trillions of dollars. Several-fold increases to the value of the nuclear option can be expected if there is limited availability of competing carbon-free technologies, particularly fossil-fuel based technologies that can capture and sequester carbon. Challenges for the expanded global use of nuclear energy include the global capacity for nuclear construction, proliferation, uranium availability, and waste disposal. While the economic costs of nuclear fuel and power are important, non-economic issues transcend the issues of costs. In this regard, advanced nuclear technologies and new vision for the global use of nuclear energy are important considerations for the future of nuclear power and climate change.

48

Operationalizing a One Health approach to global health challenges.  

Science.gov (United States)

The One Health approach, which recognizes the interconnectedness of human, animal and ecosystem health, encourages collaboration between diverse disciplines to address complex health problems. The advantages and challenges posed by these interdisciplinary collaborations are described in this review. Learning networks where diverse participants can openly share processes, best practices, and case studies are discussed as a strategy for conducting transdisciplinary One Health research and tackling complex global health problems. The 11 papers in this special issue are also introduced as they illustrate how a One Health approach can be applied to better understand and control zoonotic pathogens, engage community stakeholders in One Health research and utilize wildlife species, most notably sea otters and birds, as sentinels of ecosystem health. Collaboration is rarely without complications; however, drawing on these insights may benefit the process of operationalizing the One Health approach to address today's global health challenges. PMID:23711930

Conrad, Patricia A; Meek, Laura A; Dumit, Joe

2013-05-01

49

EMSO: A Distributed Infrastructure for Addressing Geohazards and Global Ocean Change  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The European Multidisciplinary Seafloor and water-column Observatory (EMSO; http://www.emso-eu.org is addressing the next challenge in Earth-ocean science: how to coordinate data acquisition, analysis, archiving, access, and response to geohazards across provincial, national, regional, and international boundaries. Such coordination is needed to optimize the use of current and planned ocean observatory systems to (1 address national and regional public safety concerns about geohazards (e.g., earthquakes, submarine landslides, tsunamis and (2 permit broadening of their scope toward monitoring environmental change on global ocean scales.

Mairi Best

2014-06-01

50

Addressing Grand Challenges in Earth Observation Science: The Earth Observation Data Centre for Water Resources Monitoring  

Science.gov (United States)

Earth observation is entering a new era where the increasing availability of free and open global satellite data sets combined with the computing power offered by modern information technologies opens up the possibility to process high-resolution data sets at global scale and short repeat intervals in a fully automatic fashion. This will not only boost the availability of higher level earth observation data in purely quantitative terms, but can also be expected to trigger a step change in the quality and usability of earth observation data. However, the technical, scientific, and organisational challenges that need to be overcome to arrive at this point are significant. First of all, Petabyte-scale data centres are needed for storing and processing complete satellite data records. Second, innovative processing chains that allow fully automatic processing of the satellite data from the raw sensor records to higher-level geophysical products need to be developed. Last but not least, new models of cooperation between public and private actors need to be found in order to live up to the first two challenges. This paper offers a discussion of how the Earth Observation Data Centre for Water Resources Monitoring (EODC) - a catalyser for an open and international cooperation of public and private organisations - will address these three grand challenges with the aim to foster the use of earth observation for monitoring of global water resources.

Wagner, W.; Fröhlich, J.; Wotawa, G.; Stowasser, R.; Staudinger, M.; Hoffmann, C.; Walli, A.; Federspiel, C.; Aspetsberger, M.; Atzberger, C.; Briese, C.; Notarnicola, C.; Zebisch, M.; Boresch, A.; Enenkel, M.; Kidd, R.; von Beringe, A.; Hasenauer, S.; Naeimi, V.; Mücke, W.

2014-09-01

51

A Framework for Addressing Challenges to Classroom Technology Use  

Science.gov (United States)

Creating effective learning environments with technology remains a challenge for teachers. Despite the tremendous push for educators to integrate technology into their classrooms, many have yet to do so and struggle to find consistent success with technology-based instruction. The challenges to effective technology integration have been…

Groff, Jennifer; Mouza, Chrystalla

2008-01-01

52

Taking up Daniels' challenge: The case for global health justice.  

Science.gov (United States)

In "Just Health", Norman Daniels makes a strong argument for obligations of mutual assistance to fulfill the right to health at the national level and challenges readers to develop arguments supporting obligations of mutual assistance at the global level. In this paper, we argue that there is global responsibility for global health and that there are obligations of justice (beyond charity) to help fulfill (not merely respect or even protect) the right to health in other countries; these we call obligations of global health justice. We show how international human rights law affirms obligations of global health justice - beyond national obligations and beyond obligations of charity - and assert that the human rights approach provides guidance on delineating the relationship between national and global responsibility for fulfilling the core obligations that arise from socioeconomic human rights and addressing global health inequities. We further argue that new ways of providing international assistance, originating from the global HIV/AIDS response, demonstrate the feasibility of improving health outcomes through exogenous efforts and that obligations of global health justice thus carry much weight: the weight of lives not saved. The global response to the HIV/AIDS pandemic has led to the emergence of a new international health assistance paradigm, and the Global Fund to fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria is, we suggest, an embryonic form of this new paradigm. We conclude that agreements on several common parameters delineating global and national responsibility for global health can advance the movement towards a global institution for the distribution of health-related goods. PMID:20930252

Ooms, Gorik; Hammonds, Rachel

2010-01-01

53

ADDRESSING ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING CHALLENGES WITH COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS  

Science.gov (United States)

In the field of environmental engineering, modeling tools are playing an ever larger role in addressing air quality issues, including source pollutant emissions, atmospheric dispersion and human exposure risks. More detailed modeling of environmental flows requires tools for c...

54

Addressing Challenging Behavior: Considering the Logic of Probability  

Science.gov (United States)

When dealing with children who exhibit challenging behaviors there are no known interventions that work for all students or at all times. Thus, intervention for these students is often implemented in a trial and error manner. This article provides a logic for considering probability as a factor in selecting strategies. Understanding that some…

Scott, Terrance M.; Hirn, Regina G.

2014-01-01

55

Preventing and Addressing Challenging Behavior: Common Questions and Practical Strategies  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this article is to offer preschool teachers strategies for preventing challenging behavior and supporting the development of social skills and emotional competencies. This article is framed in a question and answer format using questions from teachers who the authors have worked with in the past. These questions and strategies are…

Hemmeter, Mary Louise; Ostrosky, Michaelene M.; Corso, Robert M.

2012-01-01

56

Identifying and Addressing Challenges to Research in University Laboratory Preschools  

Science.gov (United States)

Research Findings: This essay offers a review of challenges that university laboratory preschools face in providing a site for research that fits with other components of the program mission. An argument is made to consider paradigm shifts in research questions and methods that move away from traditions within the fields that study children's…

File, Nancy

2012-01-01

57

Challenges in an Aging Society: Presidential Address to APPAM  

Science.gov (United States)

The United States is at a critical crossroads in its history right now. The public policy problems that the people are facing are complex and interrelated, and the demographic changes that are about to significantly change their country are not well understood by large numbers of people. In this presidential address to the Association for Public…

Swartz, Katherine

2010-01-01

58

Addressing the Challenge: Cataloguing Electronic Books in Academic Libraries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective ? This paper explores the various issues and challenges arising from e?book cataloguing experienced at the University of Windsor’s Leddy Library and the Ontario Council of University Libraries (OCUL). This discussion uses an evidence based approach to identify and resolve issues relevant to academic libraries as well as to consortia. With the ever rising popularity of e?books within academic libraries, cataloguing librarians are actively seeking more effective methods...

Shuzhen Zhao; Wei Zhao

2010-01-01

59

Addressing malaria vector control challenges in South Sudan: proposed recommendations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Upon the signing of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement in 2005, the Republic of South Sudan (RSS) has faced a lot of challenges, such as a lack of infrastructure, human resources and an enormous burden of vector borne diseases including malaria. While a national malaria strategic plan 2006-2011 was developed, the vector control component has remained relatively weak. The strategy endorses the distribution of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) as the frontline interventio...

Doggale Constantino; Pasquale Harriet

2013-01-01

60

Progress and challenges to the global waste management system.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rapid economic growth, urbanization and increasing population have caused (materially intensive) resource consumption to increase, and consequently the release of large amounts of waste to the environment. From a global perspective, current waste and resource management lacks a holistic approach covering the whole chain of product design, raw material extraction, production, consumption, recycling and waste management. In this article, progress and different sustainability challenges facing the global waste management system are presented and discussed. The study leads to the conclusion that the current, rather isolated efforts, in different systems for waste management, waste reduction and resource management are indeed not sufficient in a long term sustainability perspective. In the future, to manage resources and wastes sustainably, waste management requires a more systems-oriented approach that addresses the root causes for the problems. A specific issue to address is the development of improved feedback information (statistics) on how waste generation is linked to consumption. PMID:24938296

Singh, Jagdeep; Laurenti, Rafael; Sinha, Rajib; Frostell, Björn

2014-09-01

 
 
 
 
61

New policies to address the global burden of childhood cancers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Childhood cancer is a major global health issue. Every year, almost 100 000 children die from cancer before the age of 15 years, more than 90% of them in resource-limited countries. Here, we review the key policy issues for the delivery of better care, research, and education of professionals and patients. We present a key list of time-limited proposals focusing on change to health systems and research and development. These include sector and system reforms to make care affordable to all, policies to promote growth of civil society around both cancer and Millennium Development Goals, major improvements to public health services (particularly the introduction of national cancer plans), improved career development, and increased remuneration of specialist health-care workers and government support for childhood cancer registries. Research and development proposals focus on sustainable funding, the establishment of more research networks, and clinical research specifically targeted at the needs of low-income and middle-income countries. Finally, we present proposals to address the need for clinical trial innovation, the complex dichotomy of regulations, and the threats to the availability of data for childhood cancers. PMID:23434339

Sullivan, Richard; Kowalczyk, Jerzy R; Agarwal, Bharat; Ladenstein, Ruth; Fitzgerald, Edel; Barr, Ronald; Steliarova-Foucher, Eva; Magrath, Ian; Howard, Scott C; Kruger, Mariana; Valsecchi, Maria Grazia; Biondi, Andrea; Grundy, Paul; Smith, Malcolm A; Adamson, Peter; Vassal, Gilles; Pritchard-Jones, Kathy

2013-03-01

62

Addressing the Challenges posed by Cybercrime: A South African Perspective  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The South African common law has proven to be ineffective in addressing cybercrime. The Electronic Communications and Transactions Act, Act 25 of 2002 (“ECT” was introduced to address inter alia cybercrime in South Africa. Whilst the advent of the ECT is lauded, there is room for improvement. To illustrate this, section 15 of the ECT which facilitates the admission of information in electronic format is laudable, but the criminal sanctions in the Act appear to be inadequate. Recent case law also reveals that the courts are adopting a cautious approach towards cybercrime cases. A call for a more clear and concise judicial guidance is required. The South African banking sector is also vulnerable to cybercrime. However, the establishment of organisations such as SABRIC to combat cybercrime in the banking industry is welcomed. Although South Africa has adopted the Council of Europe’s Convention in Cybercrime, it has not ratified the treaty. It is recommended that South Africa should ratify the treaty to avoid becoming an easy target for international cybercrime. This paper will deal with measures addressing cybercrime in South Africa and the way forward.

Fawzia Cassim

2010-07-01

63

Strategies to Address Common Challenges When Teaching in an Active Learning Classroom  

Science.gov (United States)

This chapter provides practical strategies for addressing common challenges that arise for teachers in active learning classrooms. Our strategies come from instructors with experience teaching in these environments.

Petersen, Christina I.; Gorman, Kristen S.

2014-01-01

64

Adoptive T cell therapy: Addressing challenges in cancer immunotherapy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Adoptive T cell therapy involves the ex vivo selection and expansion of effector cells for the treatment of patients with cancer. In this review, the advantages and limitations of using antigen-specific T cells are discussed in counterpoint to vaccine strategies. Although vaccination strategies represent more readily available reagents, adoptive T cell therapy provides highly selected T cells of defined phenotype, specificity and function that may influence their biological behavior in vivo. Adoptive T cell therapy offers not only translational opportunities but also a means to address fundamental issues in the evolving field of cancer immunotherapy.

Yee Cassian

2005-04-01

65

Challenges to the global control of tuberculosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis (TB) will likely navigate a historical turning point in the 2010s with a new management paradigm emerging. However, global control of TB remains a formidable challenge for the decades to come. The estimated case detection rate of TB globally was 66%, and there were 310?000 estimated multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) cases among the 6.2 million TB patients notified in 2011. Although new tools are being introduced for the diagnosis of MDR-TB, there are operational and cost issues related to their use that require urgent attention, so that the poor and vulnerable can benefit. World Health Organization (WHO) estimated that globally, 3.7% of new cases and 20% of previously treated cases have MDR-TB. However, the scale-up of programmatic management of drug-resistant TB is slow, with only 60?000 MDR-TB cases notified to WHO in 2011. The overall proportion of treatment success of MDR-TB notified globally in 2009 was 48%, far below the global target of 75% success rate. Although new tools and drugs have the potential to significantly improve both case detection and treatment outcome, adequate health systems and human resources are needed for rapid uptake and proper implementation to have the impact required to eliminate TB. Hence, the global TB community should broaden its scope, seek intersectoral collaboration and advocate for cost reduction of new tools, while ensuring that the basics of TB control are implemented to reduce the TB burden through the current 'prevention through case management' paradigm. PMID:23551328

Chiang, Chen-Yuan; Van Weezenbeek, Catharina; Mori, Toru; Enarson, Donald A

2013-05-01

66

Public engagement on global health challenges  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Experience with public engagement activities regarding the risks and benefits of science and technology (S&T is growing, especially in the industrialized world. However, public engagement in the developing world regarding S&T risks and benefits to explore health issues has not been widely explored. Methods This paper gives an overview about public engagement and related concepts, with a particular focus on challenges and benefits in the developing world. We then describe an Internet-based platform, which seeks to both inform and engage youth and the broader public on global water issues and their health impacts. Finally, we outline a possible course for future action to scale up this and similar online public engagement platforms. Results The benefits of public engagement include creating an informed citizenry, generating new ideas from the public, increasing the chances of research being adopted, increasing public trust, and answering ethical research questions. Public engagement also fosters global communication, enables shared experiences and methodology, standardizes strategy, and generates global viewpoints. This is especially pertinent to the developing world, as it encourages previously marginalized populations to participate on a global stage. One of the core issues at stake in public engagement is global governance of science and technology. Also, beyond benefiting society at large, public engagement in science offers benefits to the scientific enterprise itself. Conclusion Successful public engagement with developing world stakeholders will be a critical part of implementing new services and technologies. Interactive engagement platforms, such as the Internet, have the potential to unite people globally around relevant health issues.

Minhas Gunjeet S

2008-05-01

67

Addressing the Challenges posed by Cybercrime: a South African Perspective  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1\\:*{behavior:url(#ieooui } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} The South African common law has proven to be ineffective in addressing cybercrime. The Electronic Communications and Transactions Act, Act 25 of 2002 (“ECT” was introduced to address inter alia cybercrime in South Africa. Whilst the advent of the ECT is lauded, there is room for improvement. To illustrate this, section 15 of the ECT which facilitates the admission of information in electronic format is laudable, but the criminal sanctions in the Act appear to be inadequate. Recent case law also reveals that the courts are adopting a cautious approach towards cybercrime cases. A call for a more clear and concise judicial guidance is required. The South African banking sector is also vulnerable to cybercrime. However, the establishment of organisations such as SABRIC to combat cybercrime in the banking industry is welcomed. Although South Africa has adopted the Council of Europe’s Convention in Cybercrime, it has not ratified the treaty. It is recommended that South Africa should ratify the treaty to avoid becoming an easy target for international cybercrime. This paper will deal with measures addressing cybercrime in South Africa and the way forward.

Fawzia Cassim

2010-06-01

68

Independent oversight: The challenges of effective nuclear regulation (Opening address)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

rist events in Europe and Asia. These events gave rise to sweeping reviews of security measures in many fields, including the nuclear industry. The results were seen in a commendable worldwide effort to upgrade national and international nuclear security measures. They were also seen in United Nations Security Council resolutions, the Convention on Nuclear Terrorism and, more recently, the strengthening of the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Materials. Today, many of the principal elements of a global nuclear safety and security regime are in place: namely, the international instruments, the body of international safety standards and security guidelines, strong governmental and legal infrastructures, and the strong interest in knowledge management and sharing through growing nuclear safety networks

69

Global climate change: the quantifiable sustainability challenge.  

Science.gov (United States)

Population growth and the pressures spawned by increasing demands for energy and resource-intensive goods, foods, and services are driving unsustainable growth in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Recent GHG emission trends are consistent with worst-case scenarios of the previous decade. Dramatic and near-term emission reductions likely will be needed to ameliorate the potential deleterious impacts of climate change. To achieve such reductions, fundamental changes are required in the way that energy is generated and used. New technologies must be developed and deployed at a rapid rate. Advances in carbon capture and storage, renewable, nuclear and transportation technologies are particularly important; however, global research and development efforts related to these technologies currently appear to fall short relative to needs. Even with a proactive and international mitigation effort, humanity will need to adapt to climate change, but the adaptation needs and damages will be far greater if mitigation activities are not pursued in earnest. In this review, research is highlighted that indicates increasing global and regional temperatures and ties climate changes to increasing GHG emissions. GHG mitigation targets necessary for limiting future global temperature increases are discussed, including how factors such as population growth and the growing energy intensity of the developing world will make these reduction targets more challenging. Potential technological pathways for meeting emission reduction targets are examined, barriers are discussed, and global and US. modeling results are presented that suggest that the necessary pathways will require radically transformed electric and mobile sectors. While geoengineering options have been proposed to allow more time for serious emission reductions, these measures are at the conceptual stage with many unanswered cost, environmental, and political issues. Implications: This paper lays out the case that mitigating the potential for catastrophic climate change will be a monumental challenge, requiring the global community to transform its energy system in an aggressive, coordinated, and timely manner. If this challenge is to be met, new technologies will have to be developed and deployed at a rapid rate. Advances in carbon capture and storage, renewable, nuclear, and transportation technologies are particularly important. Even with an aggressive international mitigation effort, humanity will still need to adapt to significant climate change. PMID:25282995

Princiotta, Frank T; Loughlin, Daniel H

2014-09-01

70

Peptide immunotherapy for childhood allergy - addressing translational challenges  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Allergic sensitisation usually begins early in life. The number of allergens a patient is sensitised to can increase over time and the development of additional allergic conditions is increasingly recognised. Targeting allergic disease in childhood is thus likely to be the most efficacious means of reducing the overall burden of allergic disease. Specific immunotherapy involves administering protein allergen to tolerise allergen reactive CD4+ T cells, thought key in driving allergic responses. Yet specific immunotherapy risks allergic reactions including anaphylaxis as a consequence of preformed allergen-specific IgE antibodies binding to the protein, subsequent cross-linking and mast cell degranulation. CD4+ T cells direct their responses to short "immunodominant" peptides within the allergen. Such peptides can be given therapeutically to induce T cell tolerance without facilitating IgE cross-linking. Peptide immunotherapy (PIT offers attractive treatment potential for allergic disease. However, PIT has not yet been shown to be effective in children. This review discusses the immunological mechanisms implicated in PIT and briefly covers outcomes from adult PIT trials. This provides a context for discussion of the challenges for the application of PIT, both generally and more specifically in relation to children.

Mackenzie Karen J

2011-11-01

71

Wireless LAN Security: Addressing Challenges, Attacks and Solutions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available With tremendous growth and advancement in wireless technology and excessive use of internet in all the applications, security has become one of the most crucial and most demanding factor in wireless LAN, no matter if it is an individual, home or a business network. Regardless of different benefits of wireless LANs like mobility, flexibility, reduced cost of ownership and scalability, WLAN also have security issues that must be properly dealt with. Security involves protection ofdata and nodes from different types of attacks, unauthorized access and misuse of data and systems. Security basically is an overall strategy rather than a technology. It is all about the level of effort one can put into the network for securing it or the level of risk one is willing to tolerate . All the components exist in order to secure the wireless network. This paper will discuss different challenges in a wireless LAN, different types of attacks and different security considerations and strategies which will help an individual user and enterprises in securing their wireless LAN. It also emphasizes on the importance of training and knowledge of safe and reliable wireless network usage.

Gurpreet Kaur#1 , Kirandeep Kaur

2013-05-01

72

Addressing the Challenge: Cataloguing Electronic Books in Academic Libraries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective ? This paper explores the various issues and challenges arising from e?book cataloguing experienced at the University of Windsor’s Leddy Library and the Ontario Council of University Libraries (OCUL. This discussion uses an evidence based approach to identify and resolve issues relevant to academic libraries as well as to consortia. With the ever rising popularity of e?books within academic libraries, cataloguing librarians are actively seeking more effective methods of managing this new electronic medium, including the development of new cataloguing policies and procedures. This paper will explore the various issues and challenges surrounding e?book cataloguing and processing within academic libraries, and will identify new policies and procedures that may be used to effectively assist in e?book management.Methods ? This paper presents a case study of e?book cataloguing practices undertaken by a Canadian academic library and the consortium with which it is affiliated. Towards this end, the University of Windsor’s Leddy Library will be the prime focus of this study, with its establishment of a new e?book MARC records database. The research is based on the results of the e?book MARC project undertaken by the Leddy Library and the Ontario Council of University Libraries (OCUL.Through analysis of various suppliers’ MARC records and the actual implementation of the e?book MARC project, the authors developed and evaluated a new approach to e?book cataloguing for use in academic libraries.Results ? This practice?based approach towards the development of a new method of e?book cataloguing required continual modification and examination of e?book MARC records within the target library. The Leddy Library’s e?book MARC project provided an excellent opportunity to test the library’s existing cataloguing standards and procedures for print format, while at the same time, identifying related e?books issues. The new policies and procedures for e?book cataloguing that followed were developed as a direct result of the authors’ cataloguing experiences and the information gained by examination of other academic libraries’ e?book cataloguing processes. This paper also provides an evaluation regarding the quality of suppliers’ MARC records. Results of this study should serve to increase the efficiency and effectiveness of cataloguing in academic libraries.Conclusions ? This paper identifies key issues regarding the cataloguing of e?books in academic libraries. Throughout, the authors have provided an evidence based approach. The hope is that the results will provide a useful framework for other academic libraries to build upon when developing their respective e?book cataloguing databases. E?books are effective resources, and academic libraries need to adapt to this new electronic medium in order to assist patrons in their discovery and usage.

Shuzhen Zhao

2010-03-01

73

Pandemic influenza: A global challenge for social marketing marketing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recent years have seen increased attention and concern regarding the potential for pandemic influenza, following large-scale outbreaks of swine flu and bird flu. Governments and health agencies have time to develop social marketing strategies and specific messages that have the potential to minimize fear, refute or inoculate against misinformation that the public may encounter, and enhance the likelihood of the public taking the recommended preventive and remedial actions should these become necessary. This paper presents an overview of how social marketing can be used to tackle the global challenge of pandemic influenza. The potential pandemic influenza poses a major challenge for social marketers (along with governments, health services, and businesses. There are a number of critical factors about a potential pandemic influenza that make it fundamentally different to the majority of issues to which social marketing has previously been applied. The underlying principles of social marketing are equally applicable to a global infectious disease outbreak (such as pandemic influenza. Even if the current strains do not become pandemic, social marketers should use this impetus to develop the skills and resources to address future communicable disease outbreaks. This paper applies the concepts of social marketing to a unique health issue which has the potential to become one of the largest global public health crises in history, but which can be tackled with effective global social marketing.

Sandra C. Jones

2012-10-01

74

Global panorama of energy access: Current situation, challenges and outlook  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Globally 1.3 billion people do not have access to electricity. If this figure is projected to decline 1 billion by 2030, the global population who relies on the traditional use of biomass for cooking is expected to substantially increase, from 2.6 billion to 2.7 billion people. In its commitment to energy access, ENEA published a synthesis on the current situation and the further development perspectives of energy access worldwide, a crucial issue of human and economic development and an opportunity for the private sector. This synthesis present the ecosystem of the actors involved in the improvement of energy access and the technical solutions that serve the needs of this high-potential market. The five main challenges energy access has to address are presented in this publication: energy prices, equipment financing, distribution, change of scale and environmental performances.

Galichon, Ines; Lacroix, Olivier; Wiedmer, Damien

2014-07-15

75

World Bank: Global Challenges: Fragile States  

Science.gov (United States)

The World Bank is concerned with many parts of the developing world, but they are particularly interested in the so-called "fragile states". Loosely defined, "fragile states" are countries "facing particularly severe development challenges such as weak institutional capacity, poor governance, political instability, and frequently on-going violence or the legacy effects of past severe conflict." To provide policy makers and others with information on their work in this area, the Bank has created this website. The material on the site includes a number of slideshow features and essays that address the fight against poverty in these countries, along with "best-practices" approaches to solving some of these seemingly intractable problems. Near the bottom of the page, visitors can click on sections such as "Conflict Prevention and Reconstruction" to learn more about the Bank's work in places like the Sudan and also take a look through the tremendously helpful "Economics of Conflict" website.

76

Preparing for Change: Challenges and Opportunities in a Global World  

Science.gov (United States)

Our world is becoming increasingly global. This may sound like a clich'e, yet it is true nonetheless, and poses unprecedented challenges for graduate education. For the new generation of researchers, teachers and professionals to be successful they must be prepared in more than the content area of their chosen field. They must also acquire proficiency in global awareness, cultural literacy, multicultural teamwork and language facility. These global skill sets form the basis for effective multicultural collaboration and will become increasingly important even for those who do not intend to study or work abroad. Knowledge has become more portable in the internet age; large data bases and reports can be accessed in real time from various locations around the globe; information is exchanged in multifaceted knowledge networks; collaborative research takes place within and outside of the traditional venue of the research university in the private sector, research institutes, and associations; research networks span multiple disciplines as progress invariably occurs at the intersection of previously discrete fields of inquiry. Global collaboration thus is no longer dependent on the physical proximity of collaborators but can take place anywhere any time. This then requires yet another set of skills, namely the ability to adapt to change, exhibit flexibility and transfer skills to a range of contexts and applications. Effective graduate education must address these realities and expose students to learning opportunities that will enable them to acquire these much needed global skills sets.

O'Hara, Sabine

2009-03-01

77

High Performance Risk Aggregation: Addressing the Data Processing Challenge the Hadoop MapReduce Way  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Monte Carlo simulations employed for the analysis of portfolios of catastrophic risk process large volumes of data. Often times these simulations are not performed in real-time scenarios as they are slow and consume large data. Such simulations can benefit from a framework that exploits parallelism for addressing the computational challenge and facilitates a distributed file system for addressing the data challenge. To this end, the Apache Hadoop framework is chosen for the ...

Yao, Zhimin; Varghese, Blesson; Rau-chaplin, Andrew

2013-01-01

78

Nuclear Education and training: addressing a global need  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There is growing concern about the difficulties nuclear institutions in many OECD/NEA member countries are experiencing in recruiting qualified specialists. Recent studies have also shown that nuclear education and training have been suffering declines of various degrees. If no action is taken on this issue, the nuclear sector risks facing a shortage of qualified human resources to ensure the appropriate regulation and operation of existing nuclear facilities as well as the construction of new ones in those countries wishing to do so. The NEA Steering Committee for Nuclear Energy issued a statement on this subject in October 2007, the complete text of which is available at: www.nea.fr/html/general/press/2007/2007-05.html. The NEA has for many years been involved in efforts to define and address the need for qualified human resources. In this regard, the Agency: 1- carries out assessments of requirements and availability of qualified human resources in the nuclear field, 2- enhances nuclear education programmes, such as the International School of Nuclear Law, and 3- encourages large, high-profile international research and development programmes. These areas are addressed in the NEA Strategic Plan as well as in the specific NEA programmes discussed below. The presentation will focus on ways to address the issue of qualified human resources, share information about what others are doing, and discuss what we might do collectivel

79

Addressing Pre-service Teachers Ideas About Global Climate Change  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite the scientific consensus about global climate change (GCC) and the potential risk, the media often portrays the science as controversial and as a debate (Kellstedt, Zahran, & Vedlitz, 2008; Washington & Cook, 2011). According to a recent report, young adults are divided on the issue of global warming (Feldman, Nisbet, Leiserowitz, & Maibach, 2010). Understanding both the science and the nature of this issue is especially important for future teachers. Also, given that K-12 students have numerous alternative conceptions or lack of prior knowledge, it is critical that teachers have an understanding of the fundamental science underlying climate change. This study examines undergraduate science methods students' views of GCC, the relationship between students' views and their knowledge of GCC, and the impact of the course instructional approach. Students' views of GCC were assessed using the Views of Global Climate Change instrument (VGCC), a survey developed by the authors of this study (Lambert et al., 2010). The survey was developed to specifically measure students' views on: 1) their knowledge of GCC, 2) causes of GCC, 3) evidence (or indicators) of GCC, 4) impacts of GCC, 5) actions or solutions, 6) influence of politics on the issue of GCC, 7) scientific consensus, 8) trust of sources of information, and 9) concern about GCC. The Knowledge of Global Climate Change instrument (KGCC) (Lambert, Bleicher, & Lindgren, 2011) was employed to measure students' understanding of the greenhouse effect, carbon cycle, causes, and consequences of GCC. Pre-surveys indicated that 49% of the students felt that human activity was the main cause of climate change. At the conclusion of the course, 72% of the students thought that humans were causing climate change, and students' overall views about global warming significantly shifted toward being more concerned. Students' knowledge of the greenhouse effect, carbon cycle, causes, and impacts also increased significantly. While the results were significant, with students' knowledge increasing by almost 30% on the overall score, students revealed several alternative conceptions. Given the short span of the course, the students were able to learn a number of specific concepts related to GCC and to develop views more aligned with the current scientific research. Throughout the course, students learned about GCC with the aid of a study guide for understanding the science underlying weather and GCC. They also participated in a series of inquiry-based investigations focusing on GCC topics. Students, however, still held or developed some alternative conceptions about the underlying science. The continued development of better tools to assess students' views and knowledge of climate change is crucial to reveal and identify alternative conceptions. Ultimately, such instruments will lead to improved instruction to develop student climate change understanding that is more aligned to that of the scientific community.

Lutz, R. V.; Lambert, J. L.; Bleicher, R. E.; Lindgren, J.; Edwards, A.; Soden, B.

2011-12-01

80

Challenges of Validating Global Assimilative Models of the Ionosphere  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper addresses the often surprisingly difficult challenges that arise in conceptually simple validations of global models of the ionosphere. AFRL has been tasked with validating the Utah State University GAIM (Global Assimilation of Ionospheric Measurements) model of the ionosphere, which is run in real time by the Air Force Weather Agency. The USU-GAIM model currently assimilates, in addition to the voluminous GPS TEC data, in situ densities from DMSP satellites, UV radiances from SSUSI sensors on the DMSP satellites, and vertical profiles provided by a limited number of Digisondes. AFRL has performed a large number of USU-GAIM validations, using as ground truth values of foF2 and M(3000)F2 from non-assimilated ionograms, the in situ electron density at ~400 km provided by CHAMP, and the vertical TEC provided over ocean areas by TOPEX and JASON. USU GAIM runs at AFRL in about one-third real time. For validations against ionogram characteristics, AFRL usually works with a full month of GAIM and Digisonde data, which takes ~10 days to run. The long run times make it difficult to address essential "what if" scenarios, except for limited time intervals. Compounded with the problem of long run times is the fact that the UV observations are from a satellite that is only very rarely in near conjunction with the ground-truth satellites such as CHAMP and JASON, or near ground-based ionosondes. Exacerbating this problem even further is the fact that the most reliable assimilated UV data is from the evening equatorial ionosphere. It is often not possible to obtain useful ionogram characteristics for the evening equatorial ionosphere because of the occurrence of irregularities that lead to spread F echoes on the ionograms. We will discuss the impact of these various challenges on the lessons that can be learned from validation studies of global ionospheric models.

Bishop, G. J.; McNamara, L. F.; Welsh, J. A.; Decker, D. T.; Baker, C. R.

2008-12-01

 
 
 
 
81

Addressing the Grand Challenge of atmospheric carbon dioxide: geologic sequestration vs. biological recycling  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract On February 15, 2008, the National Academy of Engineering unveiled their list of 14 Grand Challenges for Engineering. Building off of tremendous advancements in the past century, these challenges were selected for their role in assuring a sustainable existence for the rapidly increasing global community. It is no accident that the first five Challenges on the list involve the development of sustainable energy sources and management of environmental resources. While the focu...

Stuart Ben J

2011-01-01

82

An electric utility program to address global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation believes that despite the incomplete and uncertain state of scientific knowledge concerning global atmospheric change, the plausible negative effects of accelerated global warming, known as open-quotes the Greenhouse Effect,close quotes are so large that purdent actions can and should be taken now to reduce so-called greenhouse gas emissions. Thus, the corporation has adopted a Greenhouse Warming Action Program based on strategies recommended by the National Academy of Sciences and the corporation's Integrated Electric Resource Plan. The program is a logical outgrowth of the company's policy statement on protection of the environment and is designed to surpass the Rio Earth Summit's goal of stabilizing greenhouse gas emissions. Central to the Action Program are increased use of natural gas, aggressive expansion of energy efficiency programs, and maximized generation from hydroelectric and nuclear energy sources. Additional elements include preventing releases of CFC's through customer incentive recycling programs; a forest conservation program of managing lands on a sustainable yield basis, environmentally-conscious use of paper products, and waste paper and cardboard recycling; promoting commercialization of low emitting vehicles; and developing and demonstrating low-CO2 technologies such as wind turbines and photo-voltaic cells. Niagara Mohawk believes that acting now to implement such a policy is a responsible step that makes sense from both scientific and business perspectives. Moreover, voluntary action now by utilities and other segments of the private sector is the best way to avoid the need for future regulation by government designed to achieve the same end. We intend to do our part to stabilize and reduce greenhouse gas emissions, while recognizing that our contribution is only a small fraction of total global greenhouse gas emissions

83

Probing Matter-Field and Atom-Number Correlations in Optical Lattices by Global Nondestructive Addressing  

CERN Document Server

We show that light scattering from an ultracold gas reveals not only density correlations, but also matter-field interference at its shortest possible distance in an optical lattice, which defines key properties such as tunneling and matter-field phase gradients. This signal can be enhanced by concentrating probe light between lattice sites rather than at density maxima. As addressing between two single sites is challenging, we focus on global nondestructive scattering, allowing probing order parameters, matter-field quadratures and their squeezing. The scattering angular distribution displays peaks even if classical diffraction is forbidden and we derive generalized Bragg conditions. Light scattering distinguishes all phases in the Mott insulator - superfluid - Bose glass phase transition.

Kozlowski, Wojciech; Mekhov, Igor B

2014-01-01

84

Addressing sources of uncertainty in a global terrestrial carbon model  

Science.gov (United States)

Several sources of uncertainty exist in the parameterization of the land carbon cycle in current Earth System Models (ESMs). For example, recently implemented interactions between the carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) cycles lead to diverse changes in land-atmosphere C fluxes simulated by different models. Further, although soil organic matter decomposition is commonly parameterized as a first-order decay process, the formulation of the microbial response to changes in soil moisture and soil temperature varies tremendously between models. Here, we examine the sensitivity of historical land-atmosphere C fluxes simulated by an ESM to these two major sources of uncertainty. We implement three soil moisture (SMRF) and three soil temperature (STRF) respiration functions in the CABLE-CASA-CNP land biogeochemical component of the coarse resolution CSIRO Mk3L climate model. Simulations are undertaken using three degrees of biogeochemical nutrient limitation: C-only, C and N, and C and N and P. We first bring all 27 possible combinations of a SMRF with a STRF and a biogeochemical mode to a steady-state in their biogeochemical pools. Then, transient historical (1850-2005) simulations are driven by prescribed atmospheric CO2 concentrations used in the fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). Similarly to some previously published results, representing N and P limitation on primary production reduces the global land carbon sink while some regions become net C sources over the historical period (1850-2005). However, the uncertainty due to the SMRFs and STRFs does not decrease relative to the inter-annual variability in net uptake when N and P limitations are added. Differences in the SMRFs and STRFs and their effect on the soil C balance can also change the sign of some regional sinks. We show that this response is mostly driven by the pool size achieved at the end of the spin-up procedure. Further, there exists a six-fold range in the level at which global soil C equilibrates in models with the same biogeochemical interactions. As we did not modify the photosynthesis component between these simulations, we can attribute this range to differences in heterotrophic respiration introduced by the various shapes of the SMRF and STRF. This roughly matches the range of global soil C simulated by available CMIP5 models and we therefore see the formulation of these response functions as a potential major source of uncertainty in projections of global soil C feedback on climate change. Our results add to recent concerns on the relevance of the current first-order parameterization of soil carbon decomposition in ESMs, but also highlight issues in terms of how they are initialized. More research is therefore required in that area in order to produce reliable projections of land-atmosphere fluxes and future climate.

Exbrayat, J.; Pitman, A. J.; Zhang, Q.; Abramowitz, G.; Wang, Y.

2013-12-01

85

Workshop Builds Strategies to Address Global Positioning System Vulnerabilities  

Science.gov (United States)

When we examine the impacts of space weather on society, do we really understand the risks? Can past experiences reliably predict what will happen in the future? As the complexity of technology increases, there is the potential for it to become more fragile, allowing for a single point of failure to bring down the entire system. Take the Global Positioning System (GPS) as an example. GPS positioning, navigation, and timing have become an integral part of daily life, supporting transportation and communications systems vital to the aviation, merchant marine, cargo, cellular phone, surveying, and oil exploration industries. Everyday activities such as banking, mobile phone operations, and even the control of power grids are facilitated by the accurate timing provided by GPS. Understanding the risks of space weather to GPS and the many economic sectors reliant upon it, as well as how to build resilience, was the focus of a policy workshop organized by the American Meteorological Society (AMS) and held on 13-14 October 2010 in Washington, D. C. The workshop brought together a select group of policy makers, space weather scientists, and GPS experts and users.

Fisher, Genene

2011-01-01

86

The World Nuclear University: Addressing global needs. London, 4 September 2003. Inauguration ceremony, World Nuclear University  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For some time, there has been a growing awareness of the need for succession planning in the nuclear industry, to ensure that we cultivate a new generation of young people with the proper education and skills to replace the aging nuclear workforce as its members retire. Today's inauguration of the 'World Nuclear University' (WNU) is the most substantive action taken to date to address this need. This is a challenge, because the widespread perception clearly exists that nuclear energy is a dying field. The IAEA, with its constituency of 135 Member States, is hopeful that this will truly become a World Nuclear University. Almost 2 billion people, nearly one third of the population of the planet, remain without access to modern energy supplies - a shortfall that could be addressed, at least in part, by nuclear energy. But any major expansion in the future use of nuclear power will only be feasible if the nuclear industry is successful in developing innovative reactor and fuel cycle technology - as well as operational and regulatory approaches - that effectively address concerns related to cost competitiveness, safety and security, proliferation resistance and waste disposal. And global development needs go well beyond the electricity sector. The IAEA's recognition of these situations underlies our assistance to Member States, through which we try to address areas of high national priority wherever nuclear technology provides the best option for success. A significant part of that effort lies in the development of human capacity - through training and education in how to apply nuclear technology safely and effectively. 'Atoms for Peace' is a vision nearly five decades old, focused on using nuclear science for the advancement of humankind. It is my hope that this 'World Nuclear University' can be an effective instrument towards the achievement of that vision

87

The Cloud Adoption Toolkit: Addressing the Challenges of Cloud Adoption in Enterprise  

CERN Document Server

Cloud computing promises a radical shift in the provisioning of computing resource within enterprise. This paper: i) describes the challenges that decision-makers face when attempting to determine the feasibility of the adoption of cloud computing in their organisations; ii) illustrates a lack of existing work to address the feasibility challenges of cloud adoption in enterprise; iii) introduces the Cloud Adoption Toolkit that provides a framework to support decision-makers in identifying their concerns, and matching these concerns to appropriate tools/techniques that can be used to address them. The paper adopts a position paper methodology such that case study evidence is provided, where available, to support claims. We conclude that the Cloud Adoption Toolkit, whilst still under development, shows signs that it is a useful tool for decision-makers as it helps address the feasibility challenges of cloud adoption in enterprise.

Greenwood, David; Smith, James; Sommerville, Ian

2010-01-01

88

Analysis of the mass media coverage of the Gates Foundation grand challenges in global health initiative.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Grand Challenges were launched in 2003 by the Gates Foundation and other collaborators to address the health needs of developing countries. This paper outlines the current problem with health research and development in the context of inequality as conveyed by the 90/10 divide. The paper then looks at the focus and nature of press reporting of global health issues by analysing how press articles have portrayed the Grand Challenges in Global Health initiative. Analysis of the mass media illustrates that the focus of reporting on the Grand Challenges tends to be on utilitarian themes, leaving issues related to justice and equity comparatively under-reported. PMID:19251966

Verma, G

2009-03-01

89

Ethical challenges of the globalization process  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Whereas roots of globalization are far reaching, it is primarily a modern age phenomenon. Modern business operation and the world economy are characterized by domination of multinational corporations, strong presence of the government in economy and the long-term tendency towards globalization in manufacturing, trading and consumption in the world. Containing both risks and opportunities, globalization is a problem of manifold nature. For some it means regression and falling into “neocoloni...

Radenko Maric; Branko Balj

2009-01-01

90

Ethical challenges of the globalization process  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Whereas roots of globalization are far reaching, it is primarily a modern age phenomenon. Modern business operation and the world economy are characterized by domination of multinational corporations, strong presence of the government in economy and the long-term tendency towards globalization in manufacturing, trading and consumption in the world. Containing both risks and opportunities, globalization is a problem of manifold nature. For some it means regression and falling into “neocolonialism”, the others glorify it. It is logical to ask the following questions: What are the consequences of globalization for governments, nations, companies and individuals? What are the business, social and ethical issues it causes? In one word, is it possible to be ethical, to avoid and correct “bad” and keep “good” consequences of total phenomena as the globalization, and whether it is rewarding in the increasing market competition?

Radenko Maric

2009-12-01

91

The UK's Global Gas Challenge Research Report  

Nov 3, 2014 ... understanding the role of business when society faces major challenges. ... \\demand. Three case studies form the core of this project. They represent ..... \\similar process of natural gas replacing town gas took place in Northern ...

92

From Labour to Work: The Global Challenge.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discusses the shift from rights of labor through the right to labor, to the duty to labor and the changes that have resulted. Suggests that the result is global awareness of pervasive social and economic insecurity. (Author/JOW)

Standing, Guy

1999-01-01

93

Addressing Human Capital Challenges: Assessing the Experiences of Four Countries in the Arab Region. Research Brief  

Science.gov (United States)

This research brief describes an analysis of the reform efforts of four Arab region nations (Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates) in response to human capital challenges they face in preparing their people to work in a global environment. (Contains 3 tables.) [For associated report, see ED503118.

Gonzalez, Gabriella; Karoly, Lynn A.; Constant, Louay; Salem, Hanine; Goldman, Charles A.

2008-01-01

94

Nuclear power development: Global challenges and strategies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The article discusses the following global aspects of nuclear power development: the global energy issue; the potential of nuclear power; fuel cycle and reactor strategies (maximizing resource utilization, uranium fuel cycle, thorium fuel cycle, maximizing economic benefits, licensing, financing, maximizing environmental benefits); direction of IAEA programmes related to nuclear power development (nuclear power, nuclear fuel cycle, waste management technology, comparative assessment of different energy sources); attaining environmental goals

95

Social Justice Leadership and Inclusion: Exploring Challenges in an Urban District Struggling to Address Inequities  

Science.gov (United States)

Research Approach: This cross case study describes the challenges that two principals working in one urban school district addressed while attempting to transform their school cultures to embrace an inclusion model. Analysis of interviews and observations in each school revealed the actions, values, and orientations of the individual leaders and…

DeMatthews, David; Mawhinney, Hanne

2014-01-01

96

Introduction: Global Environmental Commons: Analytical and Political Challenges in Building Governance Mechanisms  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The interdependency of socio-ecological systems and the increased reach of human activity have led to major political and scientific challenges in the governance of environmental resources. This chapter reviews the state of our knowledge on the matter. The chapter begins by discussing the specificity of global environmental challenges. Then it discusses three main issues. First, the chapter addresses the question of the optimal level of governance given that environmental goods have wide vari...

Brousseau, Eric; Dedeurwaerdere, Tom; Jouvet, Pierre-andre?; Willinger, Marc

2012-01-01

97

University of Oxford's Leadership Programme: Global challenges in ...  

Dec 20, 2013 ... University of Oxford's Leadership Programme: Global challenges in Transport ... \\across the public, private and third sectors, the University of Oxford's ... \\distinguished visiting speakers, and practice-based workshops with ...

98

Global malaria challenge: the Amsterdam summit.  

Science.gov (United States)

On 26-27 October 1992 the World Health Organization convened a global Ministerial Conference on Malaria in Amsterdam to draw up a global strategy for renewed attack on malaria, in view of the deteriorating situation in the control of this disease in many parts of the world. This report summarizes the key points of the strategy and the Declaration emanating from this crucial assembly of nations, which it is hoped will lead to increased tangible support nationally, from international agencies and from bilateral agreements for greatly improved programs of malaria control. PMID:1298069

Kidson, C

1992-12-01

99

[Justice challenges of pharmaceutical industry global research].  

Science.gov (United States)

International research projects sponsored by the pharmaceutical industry are a recent modality of biomedical research, which is driven by interests that are not only scientific, but also commercial. This combination of interests is one of the natural consequences of globalization, which has brought unquestionable benefits for the world, but has also created a wider gap between the wealthy and the poor. Given that globalization has been led by the the world's leading economies, the level of injustice in the world has increased, often to the favor of the already wealthy. Globalization has a well-established dynamics, whose main characteristic is domain over the following: technological innovation, the organization of the production of goods and services, human needs, and consumption. International biomedical research fits well in this dynamics, and the result is often a poor distribution of benefits, added to a loss of scientific integrity for the sake of commercial interests. This phenomenon raises many ethical questions and it demands a reflection from different bioethical points of view, particularly an economic ethics and a global justice. PMID:21090847

Páez Moreno, Ricardo

2010-01-01

100

EUROPEAN UNION AND THE CHALLENGES OF GLOBALIZATION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper analyzes the current implications of globalization on the European Union. While the EU recorded significant successes mainly in the filed of integration and enlargement, the implications of globalization seem rather worrisome. The EU – 15 member countries are facing increased competition from both developed countries and emerging countries like China and India and this fact determines a need for reflection upon the European integration model. Until a solution is found, some companies and countries are tempted to apply protectionist measures which can not be effective in the long run. Looking at the structural causes of the current EU lack of competitivity the paper proposes a solution based on accepting and capitalizing on European diversity.

Florin Bonciu

2006-07-01

 
 
 
 
101

Understanding the challenges of global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The evolution of the threat of global warming and the chronology of the last half century of efforts to prevent it from overwhelming humanity is chronicled. It was in the 1970s when it was first realized that the cumulative total of atmospheric carbon dioxide from fossil fuel burning had been steadily rising from the pre-industrial 280 ppmv (parts per million by volume) to 325 ppmv, approximately parallel with the rise of industrialization. Nevertheless, the first attempt at a global accord to reduce emissions was not made until 1992, when the Rio de Janeiro Earth Summit tried, but miserably failed to reach agreement, having been prevented from achieving anything of substance by a loose-knit group of nations and commercial interests. Binding agreements were finally reached at the next scheduled international meeting in Kyoto, Japan, in 1997. There is a detailed discussion of the Kyoto Protocols, the measures that Annex One nations such as Canada have to do to achieve the six per cent reductions targets below 1990 levels of emissions by 2010, and estimates of the costs involved. These discussions of proposed actions are balanced by a display of examples of the the growing volume of arguments advanced by opponents who not only disagree about what can be done to reduce emissions, but that there is anything that needs to be done at all. Central to their arguments is the denial that human activities are responsible for global warming, disregarding the overwhelming evidence by 3000+ leading scientists of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change that most of the global warming over the last 50 years is attributable to human activities. The rest of the article details what can and needs to be done to reverse the cumulative impact of greenhouse gas emissions, how we can produce the energy we need at the lowest environmental cost, and the types of energy (solar, wind, biomass, natural gas) that result in the smallest GHG emissions. Familiar arguments are recited to demonstrate the urgent need to move away from fossil fuels towards low emission and renewable sources, accompanied by examples of the Scandinavian experience to show that it is possible to enjoy a lifestyle similar to North American standards while reducing total average emissions to about six tonnes per person per year compared to the Canadian average of 16 tonnes per person per year. 2 tabs

102

Beyond the Financial Crisis: Addressing risk challenges in a changing financial environment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Paper presented at "Strategies For Solving Global Crises Conference: The Financial Crisis and Beyond" (October 2009). Also published in "Corporate Finance: Governance, Corporate Control & Organization Journals" (July 2010) The Financial Crisis has not only highlighted the importance of addressing issues such as liquidity risk – it has also brought to the fore the need to focus on unregulated instruments such as hedge funds, which are of systemic importance to the financial industry....

Ojo, Marianne

2009-01-01

103

Canada and global warming: Meeting the challenge  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Canada accounts for ca 2% of total world emissions of greenhouse gases. Carbon dioxide emissions are by far the largest greenhouse gas source in Canada, primarily from energy consumption. On a per capita basis, Canada ranks second among industrialized countries in terms of energy related carbon dioxide emissions. Canada's northern geography and climate, its export-oriented economy with energy-intensive resource industries, and its relatively small population dispersed over a wide land mass contribute to this high per-capita value. The effects of global warming induced by greenhouse gases are outlined, including a reduction in water supplies, droughts affecting agriculture and forestry, and large-scale thawing of permafrost. A national strategy to respond to global warming has been developed which includes limiting and reducing greenhouse gas emissions, preparing for potential climatic changes, and improving scientific understanding and predictive capabilities with respect to climate change. Details of this strategy are outlined, including provincial and territorial strategies in partnership with the national strategy. 11 figs., 2 tabs

104

How Can Rural China Respond to the Challenges of Globalization?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Globalization is an irreversible development and the main purpose of this paper is to rethink how Mainland China responds to the challenges of globalization in rural area. To achieve this aim, this study will be divided into three parts. First of all, it will examine the phenomenon of privatization and dumping in rural China as a result of globalization. It will then try to consider the feasible top-down administrative changes of Chinese government. The last part will explore the new modalities of political engineering and social transformation of the state-society relation resulted from the bottom-up resistance to globalization.

Chan Wing Wa Edwina

2008-01-01

105

Researching gender: the challenge of global diversity today  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The text of this paper is based on a lecture given at the symposium of the Ghent African Platform “Researching Gender in/on Africa” at Ghent University in December 2009. It addresses some general challenges faced by ‘gender studies’ as an autonomous field versus ‘gender research’ as an integrated topic within mainstream disciplines in academia. Gender studies have sometimes superseded ‘women’s studies’ and expanded to cover the terrain of study of various forms of diversity including men’s and transgender studies. We will show that the ‘mainstreaming’ of gender in public policy at local, national and transnational levels is a development which may potentially lead to the loss of a – feminist – political edge. Secondly, while gender studies with their emphasis on socially constructed gender as opposed to biological essentialist understandings of ‘sex’ appear to face the challenge of a popular ‘new biological determinism’, it is shown that the binary model of sex/gender in fact has been criticised for some time now from within feminist theory and gender research. This is (selectively illustrated with research from four disciplines, including the work of African gender studies scholars, i.e. feminist philosophy, social sciences (in particularsocio-cultural anthropology, history and biology itself. This then shows how the accusation that gender studies would be ‘socially deterministic’ without attending to bodily matters or materiality is unfounded. Finally, it is argued that there is still a need for gender studies to become more culturally diverse, more global and transnational in its outlook, by becoming more deeply attuned to the way gender intersects with other forms of difference and taking into account postcolonial critiques of western feminist paternalism, without falling into the trap of cultural relativism.

Longman, Chia

2010-12-01

106

Global challenges in integrated coastal zone management  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Growing pressure from increasingly diverse human activities coupled with climate change impacts threaten the functional integrity of coastal ecosystems around the globe. A multi-disciplinary approach towards understanding drivers, pressures and impacts in the coastal zone requires effective integration of data and information in policy and management, combining expertise from nature and social science, to reach a balanced and sustainable development of the coastal zone. This important book comprises the proceedings of The International Symposium on Integrated Coastal Zone Management, which took place in Arendal, Norway between 3-7 July 2011. The main objective of the Symposium was to present current knowledge and to address issues on advice and management related to the coastal zone. The major themes of papers included in this book are: Coastal habitats and ecosystem services Adaptation/mitigation to change in coastal systems Coastal governance Linking science and management Comprising a huge wealth of information, this timely and well-edited volume is essential reading for all those involved in coastal zone management around the globe. All libraries in research establishments and universities where marine, aquatic and environmental sciences, and fisheries and aquatic sciences are studied and taught will need copies of this important volume on their shelves.

2013-01-01

107

Challenges for the global nuclear community in changing environments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As the world has become more and more globalized, diversified challenges surrounding the nuclear community are no longer restricted to one or several countries, but have become prevalent worldwide. As a means to overcome many of these obstacles, and thus to foster the future viability of nuclear power, some concerns and recommendations for the IAEA's future activities are provided, along with an outline of the global nuclear community's role in working to realize a new renaissance in nuclear power. (author)

108

Global challenges of graduate level Ayurvedic education: A survey  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the present day scenario, Ayurveda is globally being perceived in several contradictory ways. Poor quality of Ayurveda graduates produced as a result of poorly structured and poorly regulated education system is at least one of the important factors responsible for this scenario. The present study was carried out to evaluate the ‘Global challenges of graduate level Ayurvedic education’ and is based on the responses of Ayurvedic students and Ayurvedic teachers from various educational i...

Patwardhan, Kishor; Gehlot, Sangeeta; Singh, Girish; Rathore, H. C. S.

2010-01-01

109

Global Energy Transitions and the Challenge of Climate Change  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Global emissions of greenhouse-gases have increased markedly as a result of human activities since pre-industrial times. This increase in emissions has lead to unequivocal global warming, which is evident from observations of increases in global average air and ocean temperatures, widespread melting of snow and ice, and rising global average sea level. Reducing the risk of irreversible climate impacts requires thus the mitigation of global GHG emissions aiming at the long-term stabilization of atmospheric GHG concentrations. Achieving this goal translates into the need of reducing emissions to virtually zero over long time-frames. Yet international agreement on a long-term climate policy target remains a distant prospect, due to both scientific uncertainty and political disagreement on the appropriate balance between mitigation costs and reduced risks of dangerous impacts. At the same time, growing emissions of greenhouse gases continue to increase the amount of climate change we are committed to over the long term. Over the next few decades, these growing emissions may make some potentially desirable long term goals unattainable. Recent analysis conducted at IIASA indicates the need of major energy transitions over the next few decades. For example, staying below the target suggested by the European Union of 2 C warming (with just a 50% likelihood) will require the massive deployment of zero-carbon energy by 2050, and a tippling of the contribution of zero-carbon energy globally to more than 60% by that time. Although there are large uncertainties with respect to the deployment of individual future technologies, there is strong evidence that no single mitigation measure alone would be sufficient for achieving the stabilization of GHG concentrations at low levels. A wide portfolio of technologies across all GHG-intensive sectors is needed for cost-effective emissions reductions. The bulk of these emissions reductions would need to come from the energy sector, with the forest and agricultural sectors playing an important role for the cost-effectiveness. Energy-related measures range from energy conservation and efficiency improvements to shifts away from carbon-intensive coal to cleaner fuels (such as natural gas, renewable, and nuclear), as well as 'add-on' technologies such as carbon capture and storage. Other important measures include changes in agricultural practices to reduce CH4 and N2O emissions, and enhancement of terrestrial sink activities in the forest sector. Reducing the risks of climate change significantly, requires fundamental structural changes of the energy system in the long term, combined with accelerated technology diffusion and early investments over the next few decades. In addition, appropriate and effective investment incentives need to be in place for development, acquisition, transfer, and deployment of new technologies. Achieving a trend-reversal of presently declining trends of R and D expenditures in environmentally friendly energy technologies will thus be central for addressing the climate change challenge.(author)

110

Summary: Addressing the Interactional Challenges of Moving Collaborative Adaptive Management From Theory to Practice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Translating the attractive concept of collaborative adaptive management (CAM into practice has proven very difficult. The papers included in this Special Feature explore why this is true and suggest how the challenges might be addressed. This summary highlights common themes, major challenges, and implications for research and practice. Many of the included papers emphasize the central importance of collaboration and stakeholder engagement as a response to complexity and uncertainty. Collectively, the papers make the case that a lack of knowledge about how to manage the human dynamics of comanagement poses a major challenge to implementing CAM. Human activities are the primary drivers of system change in most natural resource management systems, so attention to human dynamics is essential for developing useful change hypotheses and leading indicators that can provide useful and timely feedback for adaptive management. Institutions need to evolve to support adaptive and collaborative management processes. This will require thoughtful design of CAM processes, along with commitment of sufficient time and resources. Implementation challenges should be considered as a major focus for research rather than as simply barriers to progress. More effective ways of capturing practitioners' experiential knowledge are required to improve the practice of CAM. This Special Feature suggests that the concept of a CAM practitioners' journal has promise, but realization of that promise will require careful attention to the needs of and constraints on practitioners.

Kathi K. Beratan

2014-03-01

111

Discovery Channel Telescope software progress report: addressing early commissioning and operations challenges  

Science.gov (United States)

The Discovery Channel Telescope is a 4.3m astronomical research telescope in northern Arizona constructed through a partnership between Discovery Communications and Lowell Observatory. In transition from construction phase to commissioning and operations, we faced a variety of software challenges, both foreseen and unforeseen, and addressed those with a variety of solutions including, isolation of the control systems network, development of an Operations Log application, extension of the interface to instrumentation software, improvements to engineering data analysis, provisions to avoid failure modes, and enhanced user experience. We describe these solutions and present an overview of the current project status.

Lacasse, Michael; Lotz, Paul J.

2014-07-01

112

The Challenge Of Strategic Management In Global Competition  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The role of strategic leadership in the 21st century's global economy is complex,challenging, and filled with competitive opportunities and threats. Globalizationcontinues to affect organizations at different levels. Strategic leaders in organizationsrequire a more diverse range of quality to effectively tackle emerging global challengessuch as free flow of capital and labor, changing technologies and cultural dynamics.Further, global effects are not confined to global organizations. When strategicleadership processes are difficult for competitors to understand and, hence, to imitate,the firm has created a competitive advantage.This study integrates essential strategic leader characteristics necessary to effectivelymanage globalization and steer the organization towards better strategic focus withrespect to environmental confusion.

Madhavi Sadashiv Patgaonkar

2012-07-01

113

A Novel Addressing Scheme for PMIPv6 Based Global IP-WSNs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available IP based Wireless Sensor Networks (IP-WSNs are being used in healthcare, home automation, industrial control and agricultural monitoring. In most of these applications global addressing of individual IP-WSN nodes and layer-three routing for mobility enabled IP-WSN with special attention to reliability, energy efficiency and end to end delay minimization are a few of the major issues to be addressed. Most of the routing protocols in WSN are based on layer-two approaches. For reliability and end to end communication enhancement the necessity of layer-three routing for IP-WSNs is generating significant attention among the research community, but due to the hurdle of maintaining routing state and other communication overhead, it was not possible to introduce a layer-three routing protocol for IP-WSNs. To address this issue we propose in this paper a global addressing scheme and layer-three based hierarchical routing protocol. The proposed addressing and routing approach focuses on all the above mentioned issues. Simulation results show that the proposed addressing and routing approach significantly enhances the reliability, energy efficiency and end to end delay minimization. We also present architecture, message formats and different routing scenarios in this paper.

Md. Motaharul Islam

2011-08-01

114

A novel addressing scheme for PMIPv6 based global IP-WSNs.  

Science.gov (United States)

IP based Wireless Sensor Networks (IP-WSNs) are being used in healthcare, home automation, industrial control and agricultural monitoring. In most of these applications global addressing of individual IP-WSN nodes and layer-three routing for mobility enabled IP-WSN with special attention to reliability, energy efficiency and end to end delay minimization are a few of the major issues to be addressed. Most of the routing protocols in WSN are based on layer-two approaches. For reliability and end to end communication enhancement the necessity of layer-three routing for IP-WSNs is generating significant attention among the research community, but due to the hurdle of maintaining routing state and other communication overhead, it was not possible to introduce a layer-three routing protocol for IP-WSNs. To address this issue we propose in this paper a global addressing scheme and layer-three based hierarchical routing protocol. The proposed addressing and routing approach focuses on all the above mentioned issues. Simulation results show that the proposed addressing and routing approach significantly enhances the reliability, energy efficiency and end to end delay minimization. We also present architecture, message formats and different routing scenarios in this paper. PMID:22164084

Islam, Md Motaharul; Huh, Eui-Nam

2011-01-01

115

Poverty and the Multiple Stakeholder Challenge for Global Leaders  

Science.gov (United States)

The article presents a case study in which business leaders deal with challenging problems related to poverty, involving multiple stakeholders. This emphasizes the importance of training prospective global leaders to manage stakeholder relationships and engage in stakeholder dialogue. The authors highlight the stakeholder role played by…

Reade, Carol; Todd, Anne Marie; Osland, Asbjorn; Osland, Joyce

2008-01-01

116

Acid Test: The Global Challenge of Ocean Acidification  

Science.gov (United States)

"Acid Test", a film produced by NRDC, was made to raise awareness about the largely unknown problem of ocean acidification, which poses a fundamental challenge to life in the seas and the health of the entire planet. Like global warming, ocean acidification stems from the increase of carbon dioxide in the earthâs atmosphere since the start of the Industrial Revolution.

2009-09-17

117

World Class: The Global Challenge to Canadian Education.  

Science.gov (United States)

Globalization challenges governments to improve the quality of and access to postsecondary education while limiting their ability to raise revenue. By stimulating savings and expanding student loans and scholarships, Canada can improve access to postsecondary education. Educational quality can be improved through more effective assessment and…

Stewart-Patterson, David

2002-01-01

118

Ergonomics and sustainability – challenges from global supply chains  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The development of globalised supply chains is a major challenge for sustainability. For several years, there has been discussion within the profession whether and how ergonomics and human factors can play a role. Based on our research, we have identified five major challenges from global supply chains especially related to the social aspects of sustainability: (1) criteria for social sustainability, (2) the role of key performance indicators in the management of supply chains, (3) the constant changes in supply chains, (4) the challenge in establishing participation, and (5) the development of agency and regulatory mechanisms. There are obviously no clear and simple solutions to these challenges. One possible avenue for progress might lie in acquiring a greater understanding of the challenges from global supply chains and developing a strategy which combines social and long-term business sustainability. Starting from such a basis, the next step would be to find ways for the ergonomics and human factors community to create international collaboration which can impact specific global supply chains.

Jensen, Per Langaa

2012-01-01

119

STaRRS in Yellowstone: Addressing Challenges Facing Student-Teacher-Scientist Partnerships  

Science.gov (United States)

The literature outlines many challenges faced by Student-Teacher-Scientist Partnerships (STSPs) including cultural differences between the scientific research and education communities. For example, shared vocabulary terms with dissimilar definitions can create communication problems. Other issues include accuracy in data collection, meeting the needs of a very diverse group of partners, connecting students with research science in a meaningful way, and maintaining the infrastructure necessary to develop and maintain these partnerships. Additionally, evidence, other than anecdotal, of the success of these partnerships is limited, especially as school year and research cycles are often on different schedules or have very different goals. Students, Teachers, and Rangers & Research Scientists: Investigating Systems at Mammoth Hot Springs in Yellowstone National Park (STaRRS) was an STSP developed to address some of these challenges, model some solutions within an STSP, and identify some possible outcomes for participating teachers and their students. Three strategies used to address some of these challenges that will be discussed briefly in this presentation include: (a) embedding the STSP in an already existing National Park Service environmental education program; (b) development of three types of research activities connecting teachers, students, and scientists to the research, and (c) a professional development (PD) model that included all partners in an on-going year-long process. Results from an accompanying research study will also be presented. Using a pretest-intervention-posttest design, this study revealed significant changes in attitude regarding science and scientists of participating STaRRS teachers. Student data gathered using a quasi-experimental pretest-intervention-posttest treatment and comparison group design also demonstrated significant changes in their attitudes and gains in earth science content knowledge.

Houseal, A.; Gallagher, R.; Fuhrmann, B.; Sanford, R.

2010-12-01

120

Challenges for a local service agency to address domestic violence -a case study from rural indonesia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Since the launch of a Zero Tolerance Policy in Indonesia, several policies to address domestic violence have been enacted. The obligation of local governments to establish service units for women survivors of domestic violence is one of them. Since domestic violence is a sensitive and complex issue in Indonesia it is important to understand how governmentally regulated services function in practice. This case study aimed to explore challenges faced by a local service agency in managing service provision for women survivors of domestic violence in rural Indonesia. Data from one focus group discussion (12 participants), four individual interviews, six short narratives, two days of participant observation, as well as archive reviews were collected. All data were analyzed using Grounded Theory Situational Analysis. The major challenge faced by the local agency was the low priority that was given them by the local authorities, mirrored also in low involvement by the assigned volunteers in the daily service. The study also identified a gap between the socio-cultural arena and the law & policy arena that needs to be bridged to avoid that the two arenas address domestic violence in a contradictory way. Budget allocation to support the sustainability of the daily routines of service agencies has to be given priority. There is also a need for careful considerations regarding the composition of personnel involved within daily management of service agencies addressing domestic violence. To bridge the gap between the legal systems and traditional cultural values, culturally adjusted alternative justice systems could be developed to increase women's access to legal support. PMID:25363105

Hayati, Elli Nur; Emmelin, Maria; Eriksson, Malin

2014-06-01

 
 
 
 
121

Addressing practical challenges in utility optimization of mobile wireless sensor networks  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper examines the practical challenges in the application of the distributed network utility maximization (NUM) framework to the problem of resource allocation and sensor device adaptation in a mission-centric wireless sensor network (WSN) environment. By providing rich (multi-modal), real-time information about a variety of (often inaccessible or hostile) operating environments, sensors such as video, acoustic and short-aperture radar enhance the situational awareness of many battlefield missions. Prior work on the applicability of the NUM framework to mission-centric WSNs has focused on tackling the challenges introduced by i) the definition of an individual mission's utility as a collective function of multiple sensor flows and ii) the dissemination of an individual sensor's data via a multicast tree to multiple consuming missions. However, the practical application and performance of this framework is influenced by several parameters internal to the framework and also by implementation-specific decisions. This is made further complex due to mobile nodes. In this paper, we use discrete-event simulations to study the effects of these parameters on the performance of the protocol in terms of speed of convergence, packet loss, and signaling overhead thereby addressing the challenges posed by wireless interference and node mobility in ad-hoc battlefield scenarios. This study provides better understanding of the issues involved in the practical adaptation of the NUM framework. It also helps identify potential avenues of improvement within the framework and protocol.

Eswaran, Sharanya; Misra, Archan; La Porta, Thomas; Leung, Kin

2008-04-01

122

Challenges of creating synergy between global mental health and cultural psychiatry.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article addresses four major challenges for efforts to create synergy between the global mental health movement and cultural psychiatry. First, although they appear to share domains of mutual interest, the worlds of global mental health and cultural psychiatry have distinct lineages. Expanding their horizons by learning from adjacent disciplines would be mutually beneficial. A second challenge concerns the conceptualization of a new classification system for mental health problems. Adopting a classification system that integrates new insights from socio-neurobiology and from a networks perspective could bring cultural psychiatry and global mental health closer and change the way each field addresses the mental health gap, which constitutes the third challenge. I summarize attempts to achieve comprehensive mental health coverage around the globe and question whether the strategies employed to achieve these goals have been successful, both in high- (HIC) and low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). In LMIC, the dominant strategy needs to be complemented by mobilization of other community resources including local practitioners. A fourth challenge is the lack of mathematical models to guide action and research and solve major preoccupations such as access to care or multi-level analyses in complex ecological or health systems. PMID:25361690

de Jong, Joop T V M

2014-12-01

123

Nation state and the challenge of globalization: Project draft  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This project draft discusses the issues facing a nation state in the dynamic processes of globalization. First, the term globalization is tentatively defined as a decentralized process of condensation and homogenization of space and time. Then, the ambivalent structure of the globalization discourse, i.e. its semantic and pragmatic dimensions, are shown. The neo-liberal viewpoint is explored of the erosion and weakening of the nation state within the global capitalist power, both in terms of its (state's traditional functions, and in terms of its internal and external sovereignty. Against the neo-liberal thesis about the decline of the nation state many empirical arguments have been offered. Some of these are presented in this text. The main point of this argumentation consists in a general view that the decline of the nation state is strongly linked with the process of globalization. In view of the critical argumentation included in the paper, it is argued that in the environment of global processes only the societies which have a strong state behind them have a chance to succeed. Politics, not economy, still dominates international relations. Emphasis on state politics opens a new perspective in discussing the process of globalization. Current globalization processes cannot be judged accurately unless geopolitical interests and the changing balance of world power are understood. Finally, the paper points to the ideological nature of the neo-liberal discourse of globalization, questioning another basic assumption of the latter, namely, the idea that the process of globalization is at the same time a process of emancipation. By challenging the positing of a necessary link between globalization and emancipation we formulate a position that allows for a normative critique of current processes.

Obrenovi? Zoran G.

2002-01-01

124

Perspective: global medicine: opportunities and challenges for academic health science systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

Globalization is having a growing impact on health and health care, presenting challenges as well as opportunities for the U.S. health care industry in general and for academic health science systems (AHSSs) in particular. The authors believe that AHSSs must develop long-term strategies that address their future role in global medicine. AHSSs should meet global challenges through planning, engagement, and innovation that combine traditional academic activities with entrepreneurial approaches to health care delivery, research, and education, including international public-private partnerships. The opportunities for U.S.-based AHSSs to be global health care leaders and establish partnerships that improve health locally and globally more than offset the potential financial, organizational, politico-legal, and reputational risks that exist in the global health care arena. By examining recent international activities of leading AHSSs, the authors review the risks and the critical factors for success and discuss external policy shifts in workforce development and accreditation that would further support the growth of global medicine. PMID:21785305

Ackerly, D Clay; Udayakumar, Krishna; Taber, Robert; Merson, Michael H; Dzau, Victor J

2011-09-01

125

Re-invigorating Japan's commitment to global health: challenges and opportunities.  

Science.gov (United States)

Over the past 50 years, Japan has successfully developed and maintained an increasingly equitable system of universal health coverage in addition to achieving the world's highest life expectancy and one of the lowest infant mortality rates. Against this backdrop, Japan is potentially in a position to become a leading advocate for and supporter of global health. Nevertheless, Japan's engagement with global health has not been outstanding relative to its substantial potential, in part because of government fragmentation, a weak civil society, and lack of transparency and assessment. Japan's development assistance for health, from both governmental and non-governmental sectors, has remained low and Japanese global health leadership has been weak. New challenges arising from changes in governance and global and domestic health needs, including the recent Great East Japan Earthquake, now provide Japan with an opportunity to review past approaches to health policy and develop a new strategy for addressing global and national health. The fragmented functioning of the government with regards to global health policy needs to be reconfigured and should be accompanied by further financial commitment to global health priorities, innovative non-governmental sector initiatives, increased research capacity, and investments in good leadership development as witnessed at the G8 Hokkaido Toyako Summit. Should this strategy development and commitment be achieved, Japan has the potential to make substantial contributions to the health of the world as many countries move toward universal coverage and as Japan itself faces the challenge of maintaining its own health system. PMID:21885096

Llano, Rayden; Kanamori, Sayako; Kunii, Osamu; Mori, Rintaro; Takei, Teiji; Sasaki, Hatoko; Nakamura, Yasuhide; Kurokawa, Kiyoshi; Hai, Yu; Chen, Lincoln; Takemi, Keizo; Shibuya, Kenji

2011-10-01

126

The persistent problem of malaria: addressing the fundamental causes of a global killer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite decades of global eradication and control efforts and explosive global economic development, malaria is the most important vector-borne disease of our day, killing more people today than 40 years ago and affecting millions worldwide, particularly poor residents of tropical regions. Global eradication efforts from the 1950s through the 1980s largely failed, leaving vector and parasite resistance in their wake. The persistence of malaria and the magnitude of its effects call for an action paradigm that links the traditional proximal arenas of intervention with malaria's fundamental causes by addressing the environmental, economic, and political dimensions of risk. We explore the more distal determinants of malaria burden that create underlying vulnerabilities, evaluating malaria risk as a function of socioeconomic context, environmental conditions, global inequality, systems of health care provision, and research. We recommend that future action to combat malaria be directed by a broad-spectrum approach that meaningfully addresses both the proximal and fundamental causes of this disease. PMID:18583009

Stratton, Leeanne; O'Neill, Marie S; Kruk, Margaret E; Bell, Michelle L

2008-09-01

127

Energy Sustainability: A Key Toto Addressing Environmental, Economic and Societal Challenges  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sustainability is a critically important goal for human activity and development, particularly in the area of energy. Energy resources are critical for economic development and living standards, but their use causes significant environmental impacts. Given the pervasiveness of energy use, energy sustainability is a key to addressing environmental, economic and societal challenges. To achieve energy sustainability, many factors that need to be including harnessing sustainable energy sources, utilizing sustainable energy carriers, increasing efficiency, reducing environmental impact and improving socioeconomic acceptability (e.g., community involvement, affordability, equity and land use. To demonstrate the factors and their importance to energy sustainability, the Red-Mediterranean-Dead Seas Canal Project is considered as a case study. Conclusions are provided related both to steps for energy sustainability.

Marc A. Rosen

2013-04-01

128

Understanding Global Change: the pedagogical challenge of the 21st century (Invited)  

Science.gov (United States)

Human impacts on natural systems, from climate change to habitat fragmentation, are some of the greatest challenges facing our world. Yet, outside of state standards, it is not well-known what educators teach in relation to global change and human impacts on natural systems. The recently released Next Generation Science Standards, which many states are in the process of adopting, emphasize the human components of global change. In order to address the challenges that educators face in their own understanding of these complex, cross-disciplinary topics, the National Center for Science Education, the UC Museum of Paleontology, and BSCS surveyed educators across the country to find out how and why they teach about global change. Results indicate that educators teach those topics in which they feel the most confident and have experienced the most professional development. Topics that many scientists often focus on in relation to global change, such as phenology, the spread of disease and even ocean acidification, were often left out of the classroom. These results indicate a disconnect between the scientific and educational communities in their understanding of global change issues, and call for high-quality resources and professional development to help prepare educators to teach their students about these 21st century challenges.

Berbeco, M.; McCaffrey, M.; White, L. D.; Stuhlsatz, M.

2013-12-01

129

Open Traffic Data for Future Service Innovation: Addressing the Privacy Challenges of Driving Data  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Following the present open data policies, traffic data are collected and increasingly made openly available by different organizations. Yet, expanding use of mobile technologies with tracking possibilities provides means to collect precise and rich information about individual vehicles and persons i [...] n traffic. This personal driving data, combined with other open traffic data, have a great potential for future open service innovation. However, information privacy presents a major challenge for collection and efficient utilization of the data. In this paper, we present a view of the near future development of personal driving data collection and usage for open traffic data production by addressing the privacy challenges. We review the existing privacy behavior models and present our empirical findings from driving data based service pilot studies. Our results show that, despite their privacy concerns, the data subjects are willing to disclose driving data for services, especially for some benefits in return. We identified the following key factors affecting data disclosure: informing of personal data processing, trust in organizations of the service ecosystem, and users' control over their data. Understanding of these factors helps mitigating the users' privacy concerns when personal data based services are designed and production of open data is planned.

Anna, Rohunen; Jouni, Markkula; Marikka, Heikkila; Jukka, Heikkila.

2014-09-01

130

Open Traffic Data for Future Service Innovation: Addressing the Privacy Challenges of Driving Data  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Following the present open data policies, traffic data are collected and increasingly made openly available by different organizations. Yet, expanding use of mobile technologies with tracking possibilities provides means to collect precise and rich information about individual vehicles and persons i [...] n traffic. This personal driving data, combined with other open traffic data, have a great potential for future open service innovation. However, information privacy presents a major challenge for collection and efficient utilization of the data. In this paper, we present a view of the near future development of personal driving data collection and usage for open traffic data production by addressing the privacy challenges. We review the existing privacy behavior models and present our empirical findings from driving data based service pilot studies. Our results show that, despite their privacy concerns, the data subjects are willing to disclose driving data for services, especially for some benefits in return. We identified the following key factors affecting data disclosure: informing of personal data processing, trust in organizations of the service ecosystem, and users' control over their data. Understanding of these factors helps mitigating the users' privacy concerns when personal data based services are designed and production of open data is planned.

Anna, Rohunen; Jouni, Markkula; Marikka, Heikkila; Jukka, Heikkila.

131

Addressing the terawatt challenge : Scalability in the supply of chemical elements for renewable energy  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The energy infrastructure for fossil fuels is well-established, accounting for approximately 87% of the 16 TW of power consumed globally. For renewable and sustainable energy conversion technologies to play a relevant role at the terrestrial scale, they must be able to scale to the TW level of deployment. This would place a significant demand on the current and future supply of raw materials (chemical elements) used by those technologies. Oftentimes, the average crustal abundance of a chemical element is cited as a measure of its scalability, however another important metric for scalability is the existence (of lack thereof) of mineable ores with a high concentration of the targeted element. This paper aims to provide an overview of the availability of all elements. This is accomplished via a compilation of data for global primary production rates for each element, as a measure of availability at the present time. This work also addresses the potential future availability based on current and possible future primary sources.

Vesborg, Peter C. K.; Jaramillo, Thomas F.

2012-01-01

132

European Industrial Relations: Transnational Relations and Global Challenges  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study investigates transnational relations and global challenges which the European Industrial Relations have been facing recently. The paper, methodologically, was structured with taking into account both socio- political and judicial arguments. The social theory, and ergo, the practice in Europe were analyzed according to Marxist point of view. Basically, industrial relations and employment relationship were examined from the perspectives of employees, employee representatives and nati...

Aliu, Armando

2012-01-01

133

Global Development of Organic Agriculture: Challenges and Prospects  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Preface: Modern agriculture and food systems, including organic agriculture, are undergoing a technological and structural modernization and are faced with a growing globalization. Organic agriculture (OA) can be seen as pionering efforts to create sustainable development based on other principles than mainstream agriculture. There are however large differences between the challenges connected to, on the one hand, modern farming and consumption in high-income countries and, on the other ha...

2006-01-01

134

Technological challenges of addressing new and more complex migrating products from novel food packaging materials.  

Science.gov (United States)

The risk assessment of migration products resulting from packaging material has and continues to pose a difficult challenge. In most jurisdictions, there are regulatory requirements for the approval or notification of food contact substances that will be used in packaging. These processes generally require risk assessment to ensure safety concerns are addressed. The science of assessing food contact materials was instrumental in the development of the concept of Threshold of Regulation and the Threshold of Toxicological Concern procedures. While the risk assessment process is in place, the technology of food packaging continues to evolve to include new initiatives, such as the inclusion of antimicrobial substances or enzyme systems to prevent spoilage, use of plastic packaging intended to remain on foods as they are being cooked, to the introduction of more rigid, stable and reusable materials, and active packaging to extend the shelf-life of food. Each new technology brings with it the potential for exposure to new and possibly novel substances as a result of migration, interaction with other chemical packaging components, or, in the case of plastics now used in direct cooking of products, degradation products formed during heating. Furthermore, the presence of trace levels of certain chemicals from packaging that were once accepted as being of low risk based on traditional toxicology studies are being challenged on the basis of reports of adverse effects, particularly with respect to endocrine disruption, alleged to occur at very low doses. A recent example is the case of bisphenol A. The way forward to assess new packaging technologies and reports of very low dose effects in non-standard studies of food contact substances is likely to remain controversial. However, the risk assessment paradigm is sufficiently robust and flexible to be adapted to meet these challenges. The use of the Threshold of Regulation and the Threshold of Toxicological Concern concepts may play a critical role in the risk assessment of new food packaging technologies in the future. PMID:19938328

Munro, Ian C; Haighton, Lois A; Lynch, Barry S; Tafazoli, Shahrzad

2009-12-01

135

DEVELOPMENT, GLOBALIZATION AND ENVIRONMENT: NEW AND OLD CHALLENGES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Briefly, this article discuss the problems about the social, political and economic tendencies brought by globalization which are new, but at the same time they bring some tragedies for development. That’s why it becomes a challenge for the people to respond in an innovative way, which may not always come true, but they may pave the way for the discussion about the tragedies of development, now called globalization. It is the case of the environment, which is analyzed in this article. The conclusion is not that optimistic, although it shows that the development of globalization is a double-edged sword that is under the criticism of our modern history.

Vinicius Ortiz de Camargo

2006-11-01

136

Methodological Challenges of Comparative Education in the Global Society  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to discuss some of the challenges that comparative education is facing in the global society, particularly due to the impact of ICT in education systems. We focus on the comparative method, still relevant in the new situation, but which should now go beyond its affinity with units of analysis such as the nation state or territory. One of the considerations in the current debate is that the state can no longer be the standard for the study of phenomena that have spread beyond territories and nations. This suggests the development of a comparative and global method that explores these transformations in the object of study. The method uses referential and also virtual units of analysis which, in certain cases, refer to the subjectivity of people or discursive sets. The comparative and global method will also have to consider the diversification of its own borders, and constantly adapt to social and personal dissonances.

Alexander López

2008-04-01

137

Securing classification and regulatory approval for deepwater projects: management challenges in a global environment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As the offshore industry continues to develop and move into increasingly deeper waters, technological boundaries are being pushed to new limits. Along with these advances, the design, fabrication and installation of deepwater oil and gas projects has become an increasingly global endeavor. After providing an overview of the history and role of Classification Societies, this paper reviews the challenges of securing classification and regulatory approval in a global environment. Operational, procedural and technological changes which one Classification Society; the American Bureau of Shipping, known as ABS, has implemented to address these challenges are presented. The result of the changes has been a more customized service aiming at faster and more streamlined classification approval process. (author)

Feijo, Luiz P.; Burton, Gareth C. [American Bureau of Shipping (ABS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

2008-07-01

138

Planetary Atmosphere and Surfaces Chamber (PASC: A Platform to Address Various Challenges in Astrobiology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study of planetary environments of astrobiological interest has become a major challenge. Because of the obvious technical and economical limitations on in situ planetary exploration, laboratory simulations are one of the most feasible research options to make advances both in planetary science and in developing a consistent description of the origin of life. With this objective in mind, we applied vacuum technology to the design of versatile vacuum chambers devoted to the simulation of planetary atmospheres’ conditions. These vacuum chambers are able to simulate atmospheres and surface temperatures representative of the majority of planetary objects, and they are especially appropriate for studying the physical, chemical and biological changes induced in a particular sample by in situ irradiation or physical parameters in a controlled environment. Vacuum chambers are a promising potential tool in several scientific and technological fields, such as engineering, chemistry, geology and biology. They also offer the possibility of discriminating between the effects of individual physical parameters and selected combinations thereof. The implementation of our vacuum chambers in combination with analytical techniques was specifically developed to make feasible the in situ physico-chemical characterization of samples. Many wide-ranging applications in astrobiology are detailed herein to provide an understanding of the potential and flexibility of these experimental systems. Instruments and engineering technology for space applications could take advantage of our environment-simulation chambers for sensor calibration. Our systems also provide the opportunity to gain a greater understanding of the chemical reactivity of molecules on surfaces under different environments, thereby leading to a greater understanding of interface processes in prebiotic chemical reactions and facilitating studies of UV photostability and photochemistry on surfaces. Furthermore, the stability and presence of certain minerals on planetary surfaces and the potential habitability of microorganisms under various planetary environmental conditions can be studied using our apparatus. Therefore, these simulation chambers can address multiple different challenging and multidisciplinary astrobiological studies.

Eva Mateo-Marti

2014-08-01

139

Global Energy Challenges of the 21. Century and Nuclear Energy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper considers the world energy demand till the middle of the century, as well as possible forecasting solution for this challenge. On the base of the mathematical model developed in the Kurchatov Institute in 2003- 2006, the vision of the global nuclear energy system and its potential contribution in the energy mix was analyzed. The rate of rapprochement between specific energy consumptions in different countries of the world is a key parameter determining the energy market strain. It was shown that a continuation of the current world trends of this rapprochement would result in an energy resource deficit already in the nearest future. The energy mix picture would contain an 'unsatisfied demand' area of about 10 000 Mtoe of total energy to be consumed by the mid-century Supposing that the mankind has to meet the 'unsatisfied demand' by nuclear energy, the global energy challenges of the 21. century energy do not impose any upper limit on nuclear energy development, the scale of which would be determined by development opportunities. Russia, as one of the pioneers of the First Nuclear Era, possesses great experience of solving the key issues of nuclear energy of the 20. century, and is capable to play an important role in dealing with the challenges faced by nuclear in the 21. century. (authors)

140

Can Adaptive Comanagement Help to Address the Challenges of Climate Change Adaptation?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A shift is taking place within environmental governance that draws attention to modes and instruments that respond to system dynamics, uncertainty, and contested values. Adaptive comanagement is one process being advanced to make governance operational as it emphasizes collaboration among diverse actors, functions across scales and levels, and fosters learning though iterative feedback. Although extensive experience with adaptive comanagement has been gained in relation to other environmental and resource issues, its potential contribution to the governance of adaption is largely unexplored. This paper probes how adaptive comanagement might offer support to climate change adaptation and identifies gaps in knowledge requiring attention. In drawing upon existing literature and applied experiences, it is argued that adaptive comanagement may contribute to climate change adaptation by building generalized adaptive capacity as well as providing a novel institutional arrangement to generate adaptive responses. At the same time, several questions emerge about adaptive comanagement in this context. Considerations are thus discussed for adaptive comanagement scholarship and application in addressing the challenge of climate change adaptation.

Ryan Plummer

2013-12-01

 
 
 
 
141

Coping with global environmental change, disasters and security. Threats, challenges, vulnerabilities and risks  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This policy-focused Global Environmental and Human Security Handbook for the Anthropo-cene (GEHSHA) addresses new security threats, challenges, vulnerabilities and risks posed by global environmental change and disasters. In 6 forewords, 5 preface essays 95 peer reviewed chapcountries analyse in 10 parts concepts of military and political hard security and economic, social, environmental soft security with a regional focus on the Near East, North and Sub-Sahara Africa and Asia and on hazards in urban centres. The major focus is on coping with global environmental change: climate change, desertification, water, food and health and with hazards and strategies on social vulnerability and resilience building and scientific, international, regional and national political strategies, policies and measures including early warning of conflicts and hazards. The book proposes a political geo-ecology and discusses a 'Fourth Green Revolution' for the Anthropocene era of earth history. (orig.)

Brauch, Hans Guenter [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany). Dept. of Political and Social Sciences; UNU-EHS, Bonn (DE). College of Associated Scientists and Advisors (CASA); Oswald Spring, Ursula [National Univ. of Mexico, Cuernavaca (MX). Regional Multidisciplinary Research Centre (CRIM); Mesjasz, Czeslaw [Cracow Univ. of Exonomics (Poland). Faculty of Management; Grin, John [Amsterdam Univ. (Netherlands). Dept. of Political Science; Dutch Knowledge network for Systems Innovations and Transitions (KSI), Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kameri-Mbote, Patricia [Strathmore Univ., Nairobi (Kenya). Dept. of Law; International Environmental Law Research Centre, Nairobi (Kenya); Chourou, Bechir [Univ. of Tunis-Carthage, Hammam-Chatt (Tunisia); Dunay, Pal [Geneva Centre for Security Policy (Switzerland). International Training Course in Security Policy; Birkmann, Joern (eds.) [United Nations Univ. (UNU), Bonn (DE). Inst. for Environment and Human Security (EHS)

2011-07-01

142

Challenges and opportunities in mapping land use intensity globally  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Future increases in land-based production will need to focus more on sustainably intensifying existing production systems. Unfortunately, our understanding of the global patterns of land use intensity is weak, partly because land use intensity is a complex, multidimensional term, and partly because we lack appropriate datasets to assess land use intensity across broad geographic extents. Here, we review the state of the art regarding approaches for mapping land use intensity and provide a comprehensive overview of available global-scale datasets on land use intensity. We also outline major challenges and opportunities for mapping land use intensity for cropland, grazing, and forestry systems, and identify key issues for future research. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Kuemmerle, Tobias; Erb, Karlheinz

2013-01-01

143

High level radioactive waste (HLW) disposal a global challenge  

CERN Document Server

High Level Radioactive Waste (HLW) Disposal, A Global Challenge presents the most recent information on proposed methods of disposal for the most dangerous radioactive waste and for assessing their function from short- and long-term perspectives. It discusses new aspects of the disposal of such waste, especially HLW.The book is unique in the literature in making it clear that, due to tectonics and long-term changes in rock structure, rock can serve only as a ""mechanical support to the chemical apparatus"" and that effective containment of hazardous elements can only be managed by properly des

PUSCH, R; NAKANO, M

2011-01-01

144

Operationalizing the One Health approach: the global governance challenges.  

Science.gov (United States)

While there has been wide-ranging commitment to the One Health approach, its operationalisation has so far proven challenging. One Health calls upon the human, animal and environmental health sectors to cross professional, disciplinary and institutional boundaries, and to work in a more integrated fashion. At the global level, this paper argues that this vision is hindered by dysfunctions characterising current forms of global health governance (GHG), namely institutional proliferation, fragmentation, competition for scarce resources, lack of an overarching authority, and donor-driven vertical programmes. This has contributed, in part, to shortcomings in how One Health has been articulated to date. An agreed operational definition of One Health among key global institutions, efforts to build One Health institutions from the ground up, comparative case studies of what works or does not work institutionally, and high-level global support for research, training and career opportunities would all help to enable One Health to help remedy, and not be subsumed by, existing dysfunctions in GHG. PMID:23221123

Lee, Kelley; Brumme, Zabrina L

2013-10-01

145

17th Workshop on MHD Stability Control: addressing the disruption challenge for ITER  

Science.gov (United States)

This annual workshop on magnetohydrodynamic stability control was held on 5-7 November 2012 at Columbia University in the city of New York, in the aftermath of a violent hydrodynamic instability event termed 'Hurricane Sandy'. Despite these challenging circumstances, Columbia University managed an excellent meeting, enabling the full participation of the community. This Workshop has been held since 1996 to help in the development of understanding and control of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities for future fusion reactors. It covers a wide range of stability topics—from disruptions, to tearing modes, error fields, edge-localized modes (ELMs), resistive wall modes (RWMs) and ideal MHD—spanning many device types (tokamaks, stellarators and reversed field pinches) to identify commonalities in the physics and a means of control. The theme for 2012 was 'addressing the disruption challenge for ITER', and thus the first day had a heavy focus on both the avoidance and mitigation of disruptions in ITER. Key elements included understanding how to apply 3D fields to maintain stability, as well as managing the disruption process itself through mitigating loads in the thermal quench and handling so called 'runaway electrons'. This culminated in a panel discussion on the disruption mitigation strategy for ITER, which noted that heat load asymmetries during the thermal quench appear to be an artifact of MHD processes, and that runaway electron generation may be inevitable, suggesting research should focus on control and dissipation of the runaway beam. The workshop was combined this year with the annual US-Japan MHD Workshop, with a special section looking more deeply at 'Fundamentals of 3D Perturbed Equilibrium Control', with interesting sessions on 3D equilibrium reconstruction, RWM physics, novel control concepts such as non-magnetic sensing, adaptive control, q Fusion , we present several of the invited and contributed papers from the 2012 workshop, which have been subject to the normal refereeing procedures of the journal. These give a sense of the exceptional quality of the presentations at this workshop, which may be found at: http://fusion.gat.com/conferences/mhd12/. The Program Committee deeply appreciates the participation and support our community continues to show in this workshop, which provides an unparalleled opportunity for in-depth discussion of MHD issues. We would also like to thank our hosts Columbia University, and in particular Professor Gerald Navratil, for outstanding support and facilities in the face of Hurricane Sandy's adversity. The meeting thanked outgoing Program Chair, Dr Richard Buttery from General Atomics, and welcomed next year's Program Chair, Professor David Maurer from Auburn University. The next meeting will be held in Santa Fe 18-20 November 2013.

Buttery, Richard

2013-08-01

146

Particularities of the Nordic : Challenges to Equality Politics in a Globalized World  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The Nordic countries are in international rankings included as some of the most gender equal societies in the world (see e.g. the Global Gender Gap Index and the Gender Equality Index developed by the European Gender Equality Institute, EIGE), and scholars have demonstrated that the discourse and politics of women’s rights and gender equality has become an intrinsic part of the Nordic national identities and politics of belongings (Gullestad 2006). In spite of these achievements, Nordic scholars suggest that the increasing impact of globalization present major challenges for addressing multiple inequalities in power and resources (Melby et.al. 2008; Siim and Skjeie 2008). The chapter aims to analyse the challenge from globalization to the Nordic welfare and gender regimes and discuss the potentials and limits of this approach to equality from historical and comparative perspectives. The main research question is how to redesign equality politics to address intersecting inequalities according not only to gender and class, but also according to age, ethnicity and nationality. This in turn raises theoretical and normative questions about how to reframe the Nordic approach to equality and justice from intersectional and transnational perspectives.

Siim, Birte; Stoltz, Pauline

2015-01-01

147

Addressing Challenges to Public Understanding of Science: Epistemic Cognition, Motivated Reasoning, and Conceptual Change  

Science.gov (United States)

Science is of critical importance to daily life in a knowledge society and has a significant influence on many everyday decisions. As scientific problems increase in their number and complexity, so do the challenges facing the public in understanding these issues. Our objective is to focus on 3 of those challenges: the challenge of reasoning about…

Sinatra, Gale M.; Kienhues, Dorothe; Hofer, Barbara K.

2014-01-01

148

Studies needed to address public health challenges of the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic: insights from modeling  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The 2009 influenza pandemic (H1N1pdm) has completed its first wave in many northern and southern hemisphere populations and many northern hemisphere populations are reporting substantial activity indicating the start of a second wave this autumn. As the global epidemiology of this novel strain unfolds, substantial policy challenges will continue to present themselves for the next 12 to 18 months. Here, we anticipate six public health challenges and identify data that are required for public h...

2009-01-01

149

Social economic and environmental challenges of global energy development  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Report to the Moscow International Energy Club `Energy and Society: New Challenges for Mankind`, and this presentation aim to invite the world community to debate the current social development problems through a system investigation of the processes going on in one of the crucial areas, supporting humanity`s existence - i.e. the energy sector of economy - with regard to the intimate inter-relationship and interdependence between energy and society. Special emphasis is placed on the inter-related development of society and energy systems with a specific focus on global and universal socio-economic problems such as: uneven socio-economic growth in different countries; substantial differences in availability of natural resources; growing population and changes in demographic structure; considerable differentiation in food supply in different countries and regions; increasing environmental degradation; aggravating ethnic conflicts; stockpiling of weaponry (including nuclear weapons), their proliferation across the world and a market contribution to the ever greater tensions in a number of regions; alterations in morality, ethics and value systems. The aggravation of these problems, the frequently menacing metamorphoses thereof can, in effect, be viewed as challenges to humanity requiring swift and non-trivial decisions, adequate responses and immediate coordinated actions on the part of the world community as a whole. Whilst being commonplace, the problems listed must be treated somewhat differently at present due to the essential uniqueness of the modern global situation and the current social processes. The essential uniqueness of the modern global situation and the current social processes. The principal parts of this paper describes the concept of energy-society relationship analysis and its applications in investigating the cross-impact loops: society-energy and energy-society. (author) 15 refs.

Gvishiani, J.M.; Livchits, V.N.; Orlova, E.R.; Smetanina, M.I.; Zimin, I.N. [Akademiya Meditsinskikh Nauk SSSR, Moscow (Russian Federation)

1995-12-31

150

Global Water Governance in the Context of Global and Multilevel Governance: Its Need, Form, and Challenges  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To complement this Special Feature on global water governance, we focused on a generic challenge at the global level, namely, the degree to which water issues need to be dealt with in a centralized, concentrated, and hierarchical manner. We examined water ecosystem services and their impact on human well-being, the role of policies, indirect and direct drivers in influencing these services, and the administrative level(s at which the provision of services and potential trade-offs can be dealt with. We applied a politics of scale perspective to understand motivations for defining a problem at the global or local level and show that the multilevel approach to water governance is evolving and inevitable. We argue that a centralized overarching governance system for water is unlikely and possibly undesirable; however, there is a need for a high-level think tank and leadership to develop a cosmopolitan perspective to promote sustainable water development.

Joyeeta Gupta

2013-12-01

151

On the global geodetic observing system: Africa's preparedness and challenges  

Science.gov (United States)

Space geodetic techniques and satellite missions play a crucial role in the determination and monitoring of geo-kinematics, Earth's rotation and gravity fields. These three pillars of geodesy provide the basis for determining the geodetic reference frames with high accuracy, spatial resolution and temporal stability. Space geodetic techniques have been used for the assessment of geo-hazards, anthropogenic hazards and in the design of early warning systems for hazard and disasters. In general, space geodesy provides products for Earth observation, science and influences many activities (e.g., building and management) in a modern society. In order to further promote the application of space geodetic methods to solving Earth science problems, the Global Geodetic Observing System (GGOS) of the International Association of Geodesy (IAG) was commissioned as an important geodetic infrastructure that integrates different geodetic techniques (such as Global Navigation Satellite Systems, Very Long Baseline Interferometry, Satellite Laser Ranging, Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar and Doppler Orbitography and Radio-positioning Integrated by Satellite), models and analysis techniques for the purpose of ensuring long-term, precise monitoring of geodetic observables vital for monitoring Earth system processes. Since its inception, there has been considerable progress made towards setting up the infrastructure necessary for the establishment of the GGOS database. While the challenges that beleaguer the GGOS are acknowledged (at least at global level), the assessment of an attuned GGOS infrastructure in the African context is necessary, yet lacking. In the present contribution, (a) the African preparedness and response to the observing system is assessed, and (b) the specific scientific and technological challenges of establishing a regional GGOS hub for Africa are reviewed. Currently only South Africa has a fundamental geodetic observatory located at Hartebeesthoek, Pretoria. Other countries in Africa have shown interest to participate in global geodetic activities, in particular through interest in the development of a unified African geodetic reference frame (AFREF). In particular interest has been shown in the proposed African VLBI Network (AVN), which will be partially based on existing ex-telecommunication radio antennas. Several countries are investigating their participation in the AVN, including Kenya, Nigeria and Ghana.

Botai, O. J.; Combrinck, Ludwig; Rautenbach, C. J. Hannes

2013-02-01

152

Getting People Involved: The Benefit of Intellectual Capital Management for Addressing HR Challenges  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: This paper aims to explore the benefits of intellectual capital assessment for facing current challenges of human resources work and organizational development. Design/methodology/approach: The paper takes findings of studies on challenges in HR work and maps them with features of intellectual capital assessment methods. It is thus a…

Pook, Katja

2011-01-01

153

Family health nursing: a response to the global health challenges.  

Science.gov (United States)

The European Family Health Nursing Project is a revitalized World Health Organization initiative led by the University of the West of Scotland. Partner countries include Armenia, Austria, Germany, Italy, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovenia, and Spain. European Union Lifelong Learning funding was received in 2011 to facilitate a consistency of approach in the development of a definition of family health nursing, required core competencies and capabilities, and consequent education and training requirements. Global health challenges have informed the development of the project: increasingly aging populations, the increasing incidence in noncommunicable diseases that are currently the main cause of death, and the significant progress made in the way health systems have developed to meet the demands in relation to access and equality of health services. Governments and policy makers should develop a health workforce based on the principles of teamwork and interdisciplinarity while recognizing the core contribution of the "specialist generalist" role in the primary care setting. PMID:23288887

Martin, Paul; Duffy, Tim; Johnston, Brian; Banks, Pauline; Harkess-Murphy, Eileen; Martin, Colin R

2013-02-01

154

VGB-congress power plants 2013. Security of supply - from challenges to solutions. Opening address  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The VGB Congress 'Power Plants 2013' took place in Masstricht/NL from September 25 to 27, 2013 under the motto 'Security of Supply - From Challenges to Solutions'. Experts from 31 countries attended the largest European congress for power and heat generation to discuss and inform about current issues. The congress comprised the sections 'Security of Supply: A Common European Challenge', 'Technical Solutions for our Future Electricity Generation', 'Operational Experience as Key Competence' and 'Thinking Ahead: Projects and Visions 2020+' where participants and lecturers dealt with the future challenges of European power supply. (orig.)

155

Global challenges of graduate level Ayurvedic education: A survey.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present day scenario, Ayurveda is globally being perceived in several contradictory ways. Poor quality of Ayurveda graduates produced as a result of poorly structured and poorly regulated education system is at least one of the important factors responsible for this scenario. The present study was carried out to evaluate the 'Global challenges of graduate level Ayurvedic education' and is based on the responses of Ayurvedic students and Ayurvedic teachers from various educational institutions of India to a methodically validated questionnaire. As the study indicates, the poor standard of Ayurvedic education in India is definitely a cause of concern. The curriculum of Bachelor of Ayurvedic Medicine and Surgery (BAMS) course of studies is required to be reviewed and restructured. The syllabi are required to be updated with certain relevant topics like laws governing the intellectual property rights, basic procedures of standardization of medicinal products, fundamental methods of evaluating the toxicity of the medicinal products, essentials of healthcare management and the basics of cultivation and marketing of medicinal plants. Furthermore, the study suggests that the Ayurvedic academicians are required to be trained in standard methods of research and documentation skills, and the educational institutions are required to be encouraged to contribute their share in building up the evidence base for Ayurveda in the form of quality education and research. PMID:20532099

Patwardhan, Kishor; Gehlot, Sangeeta; Singh, Girish; Rathore, H C S

2010-01-01

156

From HIV to global health: opportunities and challenges  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Remarkable advances have been achieved over the past decade in confronting the global HIV epidemic. By the end of 2010, 6.5 million persons living with HIV had initiated antiretroviral therapy in low and middle-income countries, the majority in sub Saharan Africa. Of the total of 2.5 new HIV infections that occurred in 2010, 1.9 million occurred in sub Saharan Africa. Nonetheless, 22 countries in sub Saharan Africa have experienced a decrease in HIV incidence. These remarkable achievements have involved a transformation of fragile health system. Examples include new models of care, task shifting, infrastructure enhancement, establishment of new data systems and mobilization of communities.However, many of the same countries where HIV is prevalent also confront other health threats including high maternal and child mortality, high rates of tuberculosis and malaria as well as a burgeoning non-communicable chronic disease threat. Addressing these health threats requires taking the lessons learned from the HIV response and adapting them to confront these threats. Through building on the foundation established, similar progress may be achieved in addressing these health threats while maintaining the momentum of the HIV response.

El-Sadr W

2012-11-01

157

Global Forest Product Chains: Identifying challenges and opportunities for China through a global commodity chain sustainability analysis  

of the current global commodity chain of forest products and its implications for China ...Title: Global Forest Product Chains: Identifying challenges and opportunities for China through a global commodity ...org/ This paper is a product of a joint initiative of the Chinese Ministry of Commerce (MOFCOM)

158

VGB-congress power plants 2013. Security of supply - from challenges to solutions. Opening address  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The VGB Congress 'Power Plants 2013' took place in Masstricht/NL from September 25 to 27, 2013 under the motto 'Security of Supply - From Challenges to Solutions'. Experts from 31 countries attended the largest European congress for power and heat generation to discuss and inform about current issues. The congress comprised the sections 'Security of Supply: A Common European Challenge', 'Technical Solutions for our Future Electricity Generation', 'Operational Experience as Key Competence' and 'Thinking Ahead: Projects and Visions 2020+' where participants and lecturers dealt with the future challenges of European power supply. (orig.)

Jaeger, Gerd [VGB PowerTech e.V., Essen (Germany)

2014-02-15

159

Radical Embodied Cognitive Neuroscience: Addressing “Grand Challenges” of the Mind Sciences  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It is becoming ever more accepted that investigations of mind span the brain, body, and environment. To broaden the scope of what is relevant in such investigations is to increase the amount of data scientists must reckon with. Thus, a major challenge facing scientists who study the mind is how to make big data intelligible both within and between fields. One way to face this challenge is to structure the data within a framework and to make it intelligible by means of a common theory. Radical embodied cognitive neuroscience can function as such a framework, with dynamical systems theory as its methodology, and self-organized criticality as its theory.

Luis H Favela

2014-10-01

160

New Climate Study Challenges Thinking on Large-Scale, Global Climate Change  

Science.gov (United States)

... New Climate Study Challenges Thinking on Large-Scale, Global Climate Change A study of past climate ... that climate conditions in the northern latitudes generate the advance and retreat of global ...

 
 
 
 
161

Year of Coordinated Observations, Modeling and Forecasting: Addressing the Challenge of Organized Tropical Convection  

Science.gov (United States)

The multi-scale organization of tropical convection and scale interaction are grand challenges in the prediction of weather and climate. As part of a international effort UN Year of Planet Earth, this proposed effort to observe, model and forecast the effects of organized tropical convection is reviewed. This viewgraph presentation reviews the proposal.

Waliser, Duane E.

2006-01-01

162

Exam Preparation and Grades: A System for Addressing Questions, Challenges and Problems  

Science.gov (United States)

The system presented solves questions, challenges, and problems with preparing exams and grading. It includes detailed instructions, rationales, web pages, examples, and EXCEL spreadsheet templates. Use these components to keep grades, show grade distributions, calculate cumulative grades, make grade predictions based on assumptions of student performance, and inform students

PhD Augustine G DiGiovanna (Salisbury University Biological Sciences)

2004-06-15

163

Mixed Methods Research Strategies with Deaf People: Linguistic and Cultural Challenges Addressed  

Science.gov (United States)

Deaf people, members of a complex global language minority, have been excluded from positions of power in the field of humanitarian aid and development assistance, as well as from playing a significant role in the conduct of research that affects their lives. Deaf people rarely lead or participate as researchers in studies about their own…

Wilson, Amy T.; Winiarczyk, Rowena E.

2014-01-01

164

Eagle Racing: Addressing Corporate Collaboration Challenges through an Online Simulation Game  

Science.gov (United States)

Effective collaboration is necessary for corporation-wide learning, knowledge exchange, and innovation. However, it is difficult to create a corporate culture that encourages collaboration; the complexity of such collaboration is increased substantially by the diverse and distributed nature of knowledge sources and decision makers in the global

Angehrn, Albert A.; Maxwell, Katrina

2009-01-01

165

Big Data Challenges in Global Seismic 'Adjoint Tomography' (Invited)  

Science.gov (United States)

The challenge of imaging Earth's interior on a global scale is closely linked to the challenge of handling large data sets. The related iterative workflow involves five distinct phases, namely, 1) data gathering and culling, 2) synthetic seismogram calculations, 3) pre-processing (time-series analysis and time-window selection), 4) data assimilation and adjoint calculations, 5) post-processing (pre-conditioning, regularization, model update). In order to implement this workflow on modern high-performance computing systems, a new seismic data format is being developed. The Adaptable Seismic Data Format (ASDF) is designed to replace currently used data formats with a more flexible format that allows for fast parallel I/O. The metadata is divided into abstract categories, such as "source" and "receiver", along with provenance information for complete reproducibility. The structure of ASDF is designed keeping in mind three distinct applications: earthquake seismology, seismic interferometry, and exploration seismology. Existing time-series analysis tool kits, such as SAC and ObsPy, can be easily interfaced with ASDF so that seismologists can use robust, previously developed software packages. ASDF accommodates an automated, efficient workflow for global adjoint tomography. Manually managing the large number of simulations associated with the workflow can rapidly become a burden, especially with increasing numbers of earthquakes and stations. Therefore, it is of importance to investigate the possibility of automating the entire workflow. Scientific Workflow Management Software (SWfMS) allows users to execute workflows almost routinely. SWfMS provides additional advantages. In particular, it is possible to group independent simulations in a single job to fit the available computational resources. They also give a basic level of fault resilience as the workflow can be resumed at the correct state preceding a failure. Some of the best candidates for our particular workflow are Kepler and Swift, and the latter appears to be the most serious candidate for a large-scale workflow on a single supercomputer, remaining sufficiently simple to accommodate further modifications and improvements.

Tromp, J.; Bozdag, E.; Krischer, L.; Lefebvre, M.; Lei, W.; Smith, J.

2013-12-01

166

Managing Radioactive Waste. Problems and Challenges in a Globalizing World  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Many countries are at a crossroads in terms of maintaining their energy supply. The existing resources of fossil fuels are dwindling, and global warming makes their use increasingly problematic. Nuclear power is now often regarded inevitable for future sustainability, energy security, and economic prosperity. There are, however, still unsolved problems regarding nuclear power. The fact that no country has established a final waste repository for spent nuclear fuel throws fundamental doubt on nuclear energy expansion. Also, the processes of globalization have transformed the nuclear industry towards increased privatization, concentration, and internationalization. This leads to uncertainties regarding the responsibility for nuclear waste management. In these circumstances is it of greatest importance that scholars from different disciplines, as well as policy makers and practitioners within the field, meet to share experiences. This conference had the general objective of producing knowledge about the challenges caused by global developmental trends, and what the management of nuclear waste implies for contemporary and future social development. Over 100 persons attended the conferences. Papers available at the conference site have been separately indexed. Several contributions were also made as PP-presentation, which are available at the site, among others the Keynote Speeches: Waiting for the Nuclear Renaissance: Exploring the Nexus of Expansion and Disposal in Europe (Jane Dawson); Applying the Risk Governance Framework: Institutional Requirements for Dealing with Nuclear Waste (Ortwin Renn); Learning to Listen: The Long Road to Legitimating Radioactive Waste Management Policies (Frans Berkhout); The Nuclear Waste Debate is Irrational but We Need Not Panic (Frank von Hippel). The conference was divided into the following sessions: Session A: Political characteristics matters; Session B: Radioactivity, geology, society. On a problem definition of HLW-management; Session C: What's at stake? Problematising matters of nuclear waste management; Session D: Knowledge integration and stakeholder communication I; Session D: Knowledge integration and stakeholder communication II; Session F: Acceptance and risk perceptions in repository siting; Session G: Hide, forget, regret? Towards sustainable ethics of HLW-management; Session H: What Future Governance - Local, National or International?; and, Session I: Demonstrating legitimacy, maintaining responsibility?

2010-09-15

167

Managing Radioactive Waste. Problems and Challenges in a Globalizing World  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Many countries are at a crossroads in terms of maintaining their energy supply. The existing resources of fossil fuels are dwindling, and global warming makes their use increasingly problematic. Nuclear power is now often regarded inevitable for future sustainability, energy security, and economic prosperity. There are, however, still unsolved problems regarding nuclear power. The fact that no country has established a final waste repository for spent nuclear fuel throws fundamental doubt on nuclear energy expansion. Also, the processes of globalization have transformed the nuclear industry towards increased privatization, concentration, and internationalization. This leads to uncertainties regarding the responsibility for nuclear waste management. In these circumstances is it of greatest importance that scholars from different disciplines, as well as policy makers and practitioners within the field, meet to share experiences. This conference had the general objective of producing knowledge about the challenges caused by global developmental trends, and what the management of nuclear waste implies for contemporary and future social development. Over 100 persons attended the conferences. Papers available at the conference site have been separately indexed. Several contributions were also made as PP-presentation, which are available at the site, among others the Keynote Speeches: Waiting for the Nuclear Renaissance: Exploring the Nexus of Expansion and Disposal in Europe (Jane Dawson); Applying the Risk Governance Framework: Institutional Requirements for Dealing with Nuclear Waste (Ortwin Renn); Learning to Listen: The Long Road to Legitimating Radioactive Waste Management Policies (Frans Berkhout); The Nuclear Waste Debate is Irrational but We Need Not Panic (Frank von Hippel). The conference was divided into the following sessions: Session A: Political characteristics matters; Session B: Radioactivity, geology, society. On a problem definition of HLW-management; Session C: What's at stake? Problematising matters of nuclear waste management; Session D: Knowledge integration and stakeholder communication I; Session D: Knowledge integration and stakeholder communication II; Session F: Acceptance and risk perceptions in repository siting; Session G: Hide, forget, regret? Towards sustainable ethics of HLW-management; Session H: What Future Governance - Local, National or International?; and, Session I: Demonstrating legitimacy, maintaining responsibility?

168

Challenges confronting road freight transport and the use of vehicle-pavement interaction analysis in addressing these challenges  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Traditional arguments for maintaining riding quality of pavement are expanded in this paper to examine the effects of deteriorating riding quality on vehicle operating costs, freight damage and logistics. The objectives of this paper are to analyse the effects of different levels of riding quality o [...] n a truck and its freight, and to discuss potential applications of the analysis in terms of effectiveness of the freight transport system. The paper discusses needs and drivers influencing freight transport costs, vehicle-pavement interaction concepts, and the potential physical effects and costs from roads with deteriorating riding quality. A case study is presented analysing vehicle-pavement interaction for selected roadways in California. It is concluded that investments in pavement and freight transport industry improvements can be investigated by applying vehicle-pavement interaction analysis to evaluate damage to pavement, vehicle and freight that would result from alternative levels of pavement riding quality. The paper recommends that existing concepts, tools and resources such as dedicated truck lanes and vehicle-pavement interaction analysis can help to improve the freight transport system. A framework is proposed to better understand the scale of potential impacts of riding quality from localised effects to larger-scale influences, including costs to customers and global competitiveness.

W J vd M, Steyn; C L, Monismith; W A, Nokes; J T, Harvey; T J, Holland; N, Burmas.

2012-04-01

169

Smart Home Wireless Sensor Nodes : Addressing the Challenges using Smart Objects and Artificial Intelligence  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Smart homes are further development of intelligent buildings and home automation, where context awareness and autonomous behaviour are added. They are based on a combination of the Internet and emerging technologies like wireless sensor nodes. These wireless sensor nodes are challenging because they consume battery power, they use network bandwidth, and they produce wireless interferences. Currently, different methods exist for handling these challenges. These methods are, however, based on adjusting the transmitter frequency and using duty-cycling in combination with sleep mode approaches. This paper introduces an approach that considerably lowers the wireless sensor node power consumption and the amount of transmitted sensor events. It uses smart objects that include artificial intelligence to efficiently process the sensor event on location and thereby saves the costly wireless transportation of these events. In this paper it has been shown that this approach provides huge savings of power consumption and network load, which in turn reduces the interference level.

Lynggaard, Per

170

The adequacy of the current social plan to address retrenchment challenges in South Africa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of the Social Plan Guidelines is to manage large-scale retrenchments and ameliorate their effects on employees. In this study a comprehensive literature review and two case studies were conducted to review the theoretical and practical application of the Social Plan. The research findings identified various challenges that inhibit the effective management of retrenchments. These challenges were analysed and interpreted and a new model to effectively manage retrenchments was developed. The new model is centred on a company’s business plan; the concept is a participative performance-driven governance approach between management and employees focusing on business results. The new model suggests that the employment relations management and corporate social investment of an organisation be utilised as vehicles to manage retrenchments effectively.

Marteen Erasmus

2008-11-01

171

Addressing the Challenges of a Quarter Century of Giscience Education: A Flexible Higher Education Curriculum Framework  

Science.gov (United States)

A wide range of geographic information science (GIScience) educational programs currently exist, the oldest now over 25 years. Offerings vary from those specifically focussed on geographic information science, to those that utilise geographic information systems in various applications and disciplines. Over the past two decades, there have been a number of initiatives to design curricula for GIScience, including the NCGIA Core Curriculum, GIS&T Body of Knowledge and the Geospatial Technology Competency Model developments. The rapid developments in geospatial technology, applications and organisations have added to the challenges that higher educational institutions face in order to ensure that GIScience education is relevant and responsive to the changing needs of students and industry. This paper discusses some of the challenges being faced in higher education in general, and GIScience education in particular, and outlines a flexible higher education curriculum framework for GIScience.

Veenendaal, B.

2014-04-01

172

Using a complex system approach to address world challenges in Food and Agriculture  

CERN Document Server

World food supply is crucial to the well-being of every human on the planet in the basic sense that we need food to live. It also has a profound impact on the world economy, international trade and global political stability. Furthermore, consumption of certain types and amounts foods can affect health, and the choice of livestock and plants for food production can impact sustainable use of global resources. There are communities where insufficient food causes nutritional deficiencies, and at the same time other communities eating too much food leading to obesity and accompanying diseases. These aspects reflect the utmost importance of agricultural production and conversion of commodities to food products. Moreover, all factors contributing to the food supply are interdependent, and they are an integrative part of the continuously changing, adaptive and interdependent systems in the world around us. The properties of such interdependent systems usually cannot be inferred from the properties of its parts. In a...

van Mil, H G J; Windhab, E J; Perrot, N; van der Linden, E

2013-01-01

173

Review: Automation and meat quality-global challenges.  

Science.gov (United States)

The global meat industry has seen significant changes in the methods used to harvest and process fresh meat over the past century. Increased use of automation has led to significant increases in line speed for beef, pork, sheep, poultry and fish operations. For example, currently the fastest line observed has been broilers at 13,500/h. Such developments have required in-depth understanding of the pre and post rigor processes to prevent defects. Procedures such as maturation chilling and electrical stimulation are now common in red meat and poultry processing; allowing shorter time to deboning, while harvesting high quality meat. Robots designed to cut meat are also appearing on the market, and replacing traditional manual operations. This is a challenge, because high speed equipment is not necessarily sensitive to variations in size/quality issues, and requires development of unique sensors and control systems. Also, progress in breeding and genetics is contributing to greater product uniformity and quality; helping in operating automated equipment. PMID:23933632

Barbut, Shai

2014-01-01

174

Addressing the Dual Challenges of Meeting Demand for Minerals and Sustainable Development  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In recent decades, excellent progress has been made globally in finding mineral resources, extracting them efficiently and effectively, dramatically reducing environmental degradation, and preventing adverse health and safety impacts on workers and stakeholders. The industry has realized tremendous advances in technology and applied science; has met changing and more stringent environmental performance criteria; has made remarkable reductions in fatality, illness, and lost-time accident rates...

Larry Grayson, R.

2010-01-01

175

Sustainable Methods of Addressing Challenges Facing Small Holder Tea Sector in Kenya: A Supply Chain Management Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This Conceptual paper addresses the challenges facing the small holder tea sector in Kenya. It provides background information about tea growing in Kenya, its export performance, and organizational structure. It then categorizes the main challenges into five and provides some solutions to the challenges, borrowing from some supply chain management practices to culminate into competitive strategies. In the face of declining and shifting competitiveness of the small holder tea sector in Kenya, this paper identifies the special role of supplier and customer relationships, value addition, information technology, information sharing, flexibility in internal operations/processes, upgrading of tea seedlings, proper coordination, institutionalization, policy reforms, training, monitoring marketing environment, strategic decisions, irrigation, venturing in new markets through partnership, and civil society involvement as competitive supply chain strategies.

Elias Kiarie Kagira

2012-05-01

176

Improvement of GVSRM with Addressing the Interoperability Issues in Global Village  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In today's globally networked environment, enterprises need collaborating using Information Technology (IT and other tools to succeed in this dynamic and heterogeneous business environment. The Global Village Services Reference Model (GVSRM is a model based on SOSA (Service Oriented Strategies and Architectures ontology for global village services realization. In this model, three architectural abstraction layers have been considered for global village: ‘infrastructure for global village services’, ‘global village services provisioning’, and ‘using global village services’. Despite of relative completeness of this model, one of its obvious shortcomings is lack of attention to the crucial issue of interoperability in the global village. Based on this model, the grid of global village is comprised of VHGs (Virtual Holding Governance. The VHG is a temporary, scalable, dynamic cluster/association comprising of existing or newly service provider organizations which its aim is satisfying the requirements of global village actors through electronic processes. In this paper, we will propose a federated approach for interoperability among the VHGs of the global village and then improve the GVSRM by adding the corresponding interoperability components to it.

Mohammad Reza Mollahoseini Ardakani

2014-10-01

177

Cancer Core Europe: A consortium to address the cancer care - Cancer research continuum challenge.  

Science.gov (United States)

European cancer research for a transformative initiative by creating a consortium of six leading excellent comprehensive cancer centres that will work together to address the cancer care-cancer research continuum. Prerequisites for joint translational and clinical research programs are very demanding. These require the creation of a virtual single 'e-hospital' and a powerful translational platform, inter-compatible clinical molecular profiling laboratories with a robust underlying computational biology pipeline, standardised functional and molecular imaging, commonly agreed Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) for liquid and tissue biopsy procurement, storage and processing, for molecular diagnostics, 'omics', functional genetics, immune-monitoring and other assessments. Importantly also it requires a culture of data collection and data storage that provides complete longitudinal data sets to allow for: effective data sharing and common database building, and to achieve a level of completeness of data that is required for conducting outcome research, taking into account our current understanding of cancers as communities of evolving clones. Cutting edge basic research and technology development serve as an important driving force for innovative translational and clinical studies. Given the excellent track records of the six participants in these areas, Cancer Core Europe will be able to support the full spectrum of research required to address the cancer research- cancer care continuum. Cancer Core Europe also constitutes a unique environment to train the next generation of talents in innovative translational and clinical oncology. PMID:25263570

Eggermont, Alexander M M; Caldas, Carlos; Ringborg, Ulrik; Medema, René; Tabernero, Josep; Wiestler, Otmar

2014-11-01

178

New Challenges for Urban History: Culture, Networks, Globalization  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Urban history is a very lively and dynamic research field, showing strict parallelism with the fast increasing of the urban population. Today, competitiveness is one of the key aims for cities in the globalized world. Factors such as accessibility and infrastructure, industry, human capital, innovation, and investment, green spaces, affordable housing, business support and quality of education are necessaries. However, the OECD recognizes three dilemmas in this strategic vision, concerning the spill over of metro-regions, the public strategic vision, and the relationship between economic dynamism and the liveable city. Today urban historians are facing some general challenges: comparative aspects are needed; also interdisciplinarity to develop cooperation between disciplines; and for maintaining the professional status of academic urban history. The expanding networks between towns and cities, and the meeting places as conferences and exhibitions are considered, as they are the multitudinous challenges and threats, especially for those cities suffering continuously of major natural and man-made disasters. Moreover, new amalgams of hazard are being created in metropolitan areas with overlapping natural, technological, biological and social risks, exposing more people and places, needing safety and security.

La historia urbana es un campo de investigación muy vivo y dinámico, mostrando un paralelismo estricto con el rápido incremento de la población urbana. La competencia es hoy uno de los objetivos claves para las ciudades en el mundo globalizado. Factores tales como la accesibilidad y las infraestructuras, la industria, el capital humano, la innovación y la inversión, los espacios verdes, la vivienda accesible, el apoyo a los negocios y la calidad de la educación son necesarios. Sin embargo, la OCDE reconoce tres dilemas en esa visión estratégica, el desarrollo de las metrópolis, la visión estratégica pública y la relación entre el dinamismo económico y la habitabilidad de la ciudad. Hoy se enfrentan los historiadores urbanos a algunos retos generales: la necesidad de aspectos comparativos, también la interdisciplinariedad para desarrollar la cooperación entre disciplinas y para mantener el status profesional de la historia urbana académica. Las redes expansivas entre pueblos y ciudades, y los lugares de encuentro como conferencias y exposiciones son considerados, así como los múltiples retos y amenazas, especialmente para aquellas ciudades que sufren continuamente los mayores desastres por la naturaleza o el hombre. Más aun, nuevas combinaciones de azares están siendo creados en las áreas metropolitanas con riesgos superpuestos naturales, tecnológicos, biológicos y sociales, exponiendo más gentes y lugares, que necesitan seguridad y protección.

Hietala, Marjatta

2012-12-01

179

Food security for Africa: an urgent global challenge  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract In 2012, food insecurity is still a major global concern as 1 billion people are suffering from starvation, under-, and malnutrition, and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO has concluded that we are still far from reaching millennium development goal (MDG number 1: to halve extreme poverty and hunger by 2015. In sub-Saharan Africa, the number of people suffering from hunger is estimated at 239 million, and this figure could increase in the near future. There are many examples of food insecurity in sub-Saharan Africa, some of them having reached catastrophic dimensions, for example, in the Horn of Africa or southern Madagascar. Food insecurity is not just about insufficient food production, availability, and intake, it is also about the poor quality or nutritional value of the food. The detrimental situation of women and children is particularly serious, as well as the situation among female teenagers, who receive less food than their male counterparts in the same households. Soaring food prices and food riots are among the many symptoms of the prevailing food crisis and insecurity. Climate change and weather vagaries, present and forecast, are generally compounding food insecurity and drastically changing farming activities, as diagnosed by the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR in June 2011. The key cause of food insecurity is inadequate food production. Since the global food crisis of 2007–2008, there has been an increasing awareness throughout the world that we must produce more and better food; and we should not be derailed from this goal, despite some relief brought by the good cereal harvests in 2011–2012. This is particularly true in sub-Saharan Africa, which needs and wants to make its own green revolution. The African challenge indeed is key to mitigating food insecurity in the world. Commitments were made by the heads of states and governments of the African Union to double the part of their domestic budgets devoted to agriculture in 2010–2011, so as to reach 10%. Technical solutions exist and there are indeed, throughout Africa, good examples of higher-yielding and sustainable agriculture. But good practices have to spread throughout the continent, while at the same time social and economic measures, as well as political will, are indispensable ingredients of Africa’s green revolution. It is also necessary that international donors fulfil their commitment to help African farmers and rural communities and protect them against unfair trade, competition, and dumping of cheap agrifood products from overseas.

Sasson Albert

2012-04-01

180

Challenges for Policy Makers and Organizational Leaders: Addressing Trends in Mental Health Inequalities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We typically think of acutely and chronically mentally ill patients as those who belong in psychiatric hospitals and the latter category of patients belonging in “regular” hospitals, but the intersection of physical and mental illness draws attention to important challenges for policy-makers and organizational leaders. This article illuminates some broad trends in the health status of people with mental illnesses, canvasses important features of inequalities suffered by people with mental illnesses, and suggests strategies for systemic reform. Most reform recommendations I offer are in the area of healthcare organization leadership and management. Other key reforms will likely be legislative, regulatory, and insurance-related. Social and cultural reforms in organizational practices and structures will also be critical.

Christy Rentmeester

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Replicating a self-affirmation intervention to address gender differences: Successes and challenges  

Science.gov (United States)

We previously reported on the success of a psychological intervention implemented to reduce gender differences in achievement in an introductory college physics course. In this prior study, we found that the gender gap on exams and the FMCE among students who completed two 15-minute self-affirmation writing exercises was significantly reduced compared to the gender gap among students who completed neutral writing exercises. In a follow-up study we replicated the self-affirmation intervention in a later semester of the same course, with the same instructor. In this paper, we report the details and preliminary results of the replication study, where we find similar patterns along exams and course grades, but do not observe these patterns along the FMCE. We begin to investigate the critical features of replicating educational interventions, finding that replicating educational interventions is challenging, complex, and involves potentially subtle factors, some of which we explore and others that require further research.

Kost-Smith, Lauren E.; Pollock, Steven J.; Finkelstein, Noah D.; Cohen, Geoffrey L.; Ito, Tiffany A.; Miyake, Akira

2012-02-01

182

An introduction to electronic learning and its use to address challenges in surgical training.  

Science.gov (United States)

The animal research community faces a shortage of surgical training opportunities along with an increasing demand for expertise in surgical techniques. One possible means of overcoming this challenge is the use of computer-based or electronic learning (e-learning) to disseminate material to a broad range of animal users. E-learning platforms can take many different forms, ranging from simple text documents that are posted online to complex virtual courses that incorporate dynamic video or audio content and in which students and instructors can interact in real time. The authors present an overview of e-learning and discuss its potential benefits as a supplement to hands-on rodent surgical training. They also discuss a few basic considerations in developing and implementing electronic courses. PMID:19455166

Baran, Szczepan W; Johnson, Elizabeth J; Kehler, James

2009-06-01

183

Replicating a self-affirmation intervention to address gender differences: Successes and challenges  

Science.gov (United States)

We previously reported on the success of a psychological intervention implemented to reduce gender differences in achievement in an introductory college physics course. In this prior study, we found that the gender gap on exams and the FMCE among students who completed two 15-minute self-affirmation writing exercises was significantly reduced compared to the gender gap among students who completed neutral writing exercises. In a follow-up study we replicated the self-affirmation intervention in a later semester of the same course, with the same instructor. In this paper, we report the details and preliminary results of the replication study, where we find similar patterns along exams and course grades, but do not observe these patterns along the FMCE. We begin to investigate the critical features of replicating educational interventions, finding that replicating educational interventions is challenging, complex, and involves potentially subtle factors, some of which we explore and others that require further research.

Kost-Smith, Lauren E.; Pollock, Steven J.; Finkelstein, Noah D.; Cohen, Geoffrey L.; Ito, Tiffany A.; Miyake, Akira

2012-05-15

184

Addressing the challenges of collaborative goal setting with children and their families.  

Science.gov (United States)

Collaborative goal setting between clinicians and clients/families is considered a fundamental component of the pediatric rehabilitation process. However, truly client-centered goal setting is not without its challenges. The purpose of this paper is to highlight theoretical concepts relevant to rehabilitation goal setting, review clinical studies directly evaluating relationships between goal setting and pediatric rehabilitation outcomes, and provide recommendations to facilitate collaborative goal processes. Four theoretical frameworks were identified that may lie behind and help explain the effectiveness of collaborative goal setting. The four relevant outcome studies found in the review revealed that individualized goal setting is an important component of the intervention, engages families more actively in therapy, and is associated to some extent with positive outcomes. The evidence suggests that the impact of fully collaborative goal setting is sufficiently positive to support investment of organizational and individual time, energy, and resources to make it an integral part of the rehabilitation process. PMID:23672252

Brewer, Kelly; Pollock, Nancy; Wright, F Virginia

2014-05-01

185

Addressing HIV/AIDS challenges in Uganda: does social capital generation by NGOs matter?  

Science.gov (United States)

HIV/AIDS has had devastating impacts in many countries, Uganda in particular. However, Uganda is depicted as one of the most successful countries in fighting HIV/AIDS. Among others, Uganda's success story is attributed to the open general environment which allows open discussions surrounding HIV/AIDS when other countries such as South Africa and Kenya denied the existence of the disease in their countries. In addition, the success is attributed to the policy which allowed many actors to participate in the fight against the disease. The primary focus of this article is to map the process of social capital generation by NGOs and how social capital benefits enhance mitigation of HIV/AIDS challenges in Uganda. The key to social capital is nurturing relationships. In this regard, HIV/AIDS NGOs play a central role in the way individuals, groups and communities interact, and how various kinds of social relations are forged with people living with HIV/AIDS and especially for those who are HIV infected. NGOs' success in reducing the number of HIV/AIDS cases in Uganda is based on their abilities to generate social capital. This involves inclusion and building social networks and empowerment at the individual and community levels, and disseminating information to reduce social stigma as well as discrimination. We used a mixed-method strategy to collect data for this study. We used a structured questionnaire having quantitative and qualitative question sets which focused on different social capital measurement indicators. We used observations and in-depth face-to-face interviews. A major finding of the study is that the ways individuals and groups are connected and interact with each other are important mechanisms for alleviating HIV/AIDS challenges in Uganda. PMID:23237640

Muriisa, Roberts Kabeba; Jamil, Ishtiaq

2011-01-01

186

Addressing everyday challenges: feasibility of a family caregiver training program for people with dementia.  

Science.gov (United States)

OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility and efficacy of the Family Caregiver Training Program for assisting with the basic activities of daily living of people with dementia. METHOD. A one-group pretest-posttest research design with a 3-mo follow-up was used to examine the efficacy of a manualized education program for caregivers. The 6-hr training was delivered to 72 family caregivers over 3 consecutive weeks (2 hr/wk) by trained clinicians. RESULTS. Caregivers showed a significant gain in knowledge of how to effectively assist with communication and nutrition, t(52) = 7.05, p < .000; transfers and toileting, t(45) = 3.10, p < .003; and bathing and dressing, t(44) = 2.71, p < .01, of their care recipients. CONCLUSION. Our findings demonstrate that this manualized intervention protocol is a promising method of equipping family members with the skills needed to face their everyday challenges in caring for people with dementia. PMID:24581408

DiZazzo-Miller, Rosanne; Samuel, Preethy S; Barnas, Jean M; Welker, Keith M

2014-01-01

187

Vision for cross-layer optimization to address the dual challenges of energy and reliability  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We are rapidly approaching an inflection point where the conventional target of producing perfect, identical transistors that operate without upset can no longer be maintained while continuing to reduce the energy per operation. With power requirements already limiting chip performance, continuing to demand perfect, upset-free transistors would mean the end of scaling benefits. The big challenges in device variability and reliability are driven by uncommon tails in distributions, infrequent upsets, one-size-fits-all technology requirements, and a lack of information about the context of each operation. Solutions co-designed across traditional layer boundaries in our system stack can change the game, allowing architecture and software (a) to compensate for uncommon variation, environments, and events, (b) to pass down invariants and requirements for the computation, and (c) to monitor the health of collections of deVices. Cross-layer codesign provides a path to continue extracting benefits from further scaled technologies despite the fact that they may be less predictable and more variable. While some limited multi-layer mitigation strategies do exist, to move forward redefining traditional layer abstractions and developing a framework that facilitates cross-layer collaboration is necessary.

Quinn, Heather M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dehon, Andre [U. PENN; Carter, Nicholas P [INTEL

2009-01-01

188

Addressing challenges in single species assessments via a simple state-space assessment model.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Single-species and age-structured fish stock assessments still remains the main tool for managing fish stocks. A simple state-space assessment model is presented as an alternative to (semi) deterministic procedures and the full parametric statistical catch at age models. It offers a solution to some of the key challenges of these models. Compared to the deterministic procedures it solves a list of problems originating from falsely assuming that age classified catches are known without errors and allows quantification of uncertainties of estimated quantities of interest. Compared to full parametric statistical catch at age models the state-space assessment model avoids the problem of fishing mortality being restricted to a parametric structure (e.g. multiplicative), and problems related to having a high number of model parameters compared to the number of observations. The main criticism of state-space assessment models is that they tend to be more conservative (react slower to changes) than the alternatives. A solution to this criticism is offered by introducing a mixture distribution for the transitions steps. The model presented is used for several commercially important stocks at the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea

Nielsen, Anders

189

Developing Strategies for Islamic Banks to Face the Future Challenges of Financial Globalization  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Developing Strategies for Islamic Banks to Face the Future Challenges of Financial Globalization Ahmed Al-Ajlouni Abstract This study aims at forming strategic response to assess the ability of Islamic banks in benefiting from the opportunities that may be provided by financial globalization and limits its threats, through assessing the capability of Islamic banks to meet the requirements and challenges of financial globalization, then suggests the suitable strategies that may be ...

Al Ajlouni, Ahmed

2004-01-01

190

Addressing challenges in the production and analysis of illumina sequencing data.  

Science.gov (United States)

Advances in DNA sequencing technologies have made it possible to generate large amounts of sequence data very rapidly and at substantially lower cost than capillary sequencing. These new technologies have specific characteristics and limitations that require either consideration during project design, or which must be addressed during data analysis. Specialist skills, both at the laboratory and the computational stages of project design and analysis, are crucial to the generation of high quality data from these new platforms. The Illumina sequencers (including the Genome Analyzers I/II/IIe/IIx and the new HiScan and HiSeq) represent a widely used platform providing parallel readout of several hundred million immobilized sequences using fluorescent-dye reversible-terminator chemistry. Sequencing library quality, sample handling, instrument settings and sequencing chemistry have a strong impact on sequencing run quality. The presence of adapter chimeras and adapter sequences at the end of short-insert molecules, as well as increased error rates and short read lengths complicate many computational analyses. We discuss here some of the factors that influence the frequency and severity of these problems and provide solutions for circumventing these. Further, we present a set of general principles for good analysis practice that enable problems with sequencing runs to be identified and dealt with. PMID:21801405

Kircher, Martin; Heyn, Patricia; Kelso, Janet

2011-01-01

191

Addressing challenges in the production and analysis of illumina sequencing data  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Advances in DNA sequencing technologies have made it possible to generate large amounts of sequence data very rapidly and at substantially lower cost than capillary sequencing. These new technologies have specific characteristics and limitations that require either consideration during project design, or which must be addressed during data analysis. Specialist skills, both at the laboratory and the computational stages of project design and analysis, are crucial to the generation of high quality data from these new platforms. The Illumina sequencers (including the Genome Analyzers I/II/IIe/IIx and the new HiScan and HiSeq represent a widely used platform providing parallel readout of several hundred million immobilized sequences using fluorescent-dye reversible-terminator chemistry. Sequencing library quality, sample handling, instrument settings and sequencing chemistry have a strong impact on sequencing run quality. The presence of adapter chimeras and adapter sequences at the end of short-insert molecules, as well as increased error rates and short read lengths complicate many computational analyses. We discuss here some of the factors that influence the frequency and severity of these problems and provide solutions for circumventing these. Further, we present a set of general principles for good analysis practice that enable problems with sequencing runs to be identified and dealt with.

Kelso Janet

2011-07-01

192

Places to Go: Challenges to Multicultural Art Education in a Global Economy  

Science.gov (United States)

This article examines the relationship between globalization and postmodern multicultural art education. The questions that drive my investigation are: What is the role of postmodern multiculturalism in this current phase of globalization and what challenges does globalization pose for multiculturalism? I explore the shifts in the field of art…

Desai, Dipti

2005-01-01

193

Social Justice and the Global Economy: New Challenges for Social Work in the 21st Century  

Science.gov (United States)

The globalization of the economy creates new challenges for social work in the arenas of social and economic justice. This article outlines social justice issues related to the debt crisis of the Global South and sweatshops. A presentation of colonial precursors is followed by a detailed examination of these global institutions with an emphasis on…

Polack, Robert J.

2004-01-01

194

Addressing the Challenges of Multi-Domain Data Integration with the SemantEco Framework  

Science.gov (United States)

Data integration across multiple domains will continue to be a challenge with the proliferation of big data in the sciences. Data origination issues and how data are manipulated are critical to enable scientists to understand and consume disparate datasets as research becomes more multidisciplinary. We present the SemantEco framework as an exemplar for designing an integrative portal for data discovery, exploration, and interpretation that uses best practice W3C Recommendations. We use the Resource Description Framework (RDF) with extensible ontologies described in the Web Ontology Language (OWL) to provide graph-based data representation. Furthermore, SemantEco ingests data via the software package csv2rdf4lod, which generates data provenance using the W3C provenance recommendation (PROV). Our presentation will discuss benefits and challenges of semantic integration, their effect on runtime performance, and how the SemantEco framework assisted in identifying performance issues and improved query performance across multiple domains by an order of magnitude. SemantEco benefits from a semantic approach that provides an 'open world', which allows data to incrementally change just as it does in the real world. SemantEco modules may load new ontologies and data using the W3C's SPARQL Protocol and RDF Query Language via HTTP. Modules may also provide user interface elements for applications and query capabilities to support new use cases. Modules can associate with domains, which are first-class objects in SemantEco. This enables SemantEco to perform integration and reasoning both within and across domains on module-provided data. The SemantEco framework has been used to construct a web portal for environmental and ecological data. The portal includes water and air quality data from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and species observation counts for birds and fish from the Avian Knowledge Network and the Santa Barbara Long Term Ecological Research, respectively. We provide regulation ontologies using OWL2 datatype facets to detect out-of-range measurements for environmental standards set by the EPA, i.a. Users adjust queries using module-defined facets and a map presents the resulting measurement sites. Custom icons identify sites that violate regulations, making them easy to locate. Selecting a site gives the option of charting spatially proximate data from different domains over time. Our portal currently provides 1.6 billion triples of scientific data in RDF. We segment data by ZIP code and reasoning over 2157 measurements with our EPA regulation ontology that contains 131 regulations takes 2.5 seconds on a 2.4 GHz Intel Core 2 Quad with 8 GB of RAM. SemantEco's modular design and reasoning capabilities make it an exemplar for building multidisciplinary data integration tools that provide data access to scientists and the general population alike. Its provenance tracking provides accountability and its reasoning services can assist users in interpreting data. Future work includes support for geographical queries using the Open Geospatial Consortium's GeoSPARQL standard.

Patton, E. W.; Seyed, P.; McGuinness, D. L.

2013-12-01

195

The forgotten D : challenges of addressing forest degradation in complex mosaic landscapes under REDD+  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

International climate negotiations have stressed the importance of considering emissions from forest degradation under the planned REDD+ (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation + enhancing forest carbon stocks) mechanism. However, most research, pilot-REDD+ projects and carbon certification agencies have focused on deforestation and there appears to be a gap in knowledge on complex mosaic landscapes containing degraded forests, smallholder agriculture, agroforestry and plantations. In this paper we therefore review current research on how avoided forest degradation may affect emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) and expected co-benefits in terms of biodiversity and livelihoods.There are still high uncertainties in measuring and monitoring emissions of carbon and other GHG from mosaic landscapes with forest degradation since most research has focused on binary analyses of forest vs. deforested land. Studies on the impacts of forest degradation on biodiversity contain mixed results and there is little empirical evidence on the influence of REDD+ on local livelihoods and tenure security, partly due to the lack of actual payment schemes.Governance structures are also more complex in landscapes with degraded forests as there are often multiple owners and types of rights to land and trees. Recent technological advances in remote sensing have improved estimation of carbon stock changes but establishment of historic reference levels is still challenged by the availability of sensor systems and ground measurements during the reference period. The inclusion of forest degradation in REDD+ calls for a range of new research efforts to enhance our knowledge of how to assess the impacts of avoided forest degradation. A first step will be to ensure that complex mosaic landscapes can be recognised under REDD+ on their own merits.

Mertz, Ole; Müller, Daniel

2012-01-01

196

Addressing Socioeconomic Objectives through Enhanced Decision Support Systems for Water Resources Management: Vision, Gaps, and Challenges in South Africa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Water resources management has become a field where computer-aided analytical techniques are expected to facilitate a complex process of decision making which involves several stakeholders with varied interests and various socioeconomic objectives of the natural resource development and management strategies. In many ways, the decision-making related to water resource management exhibits a political process that requires water resources engineering expertise combined with suitable use of informatics. This paper investigates the case of South Africa to assess the extent to which various computer-based decision support systems have succeeded in terms of addressing the socioeconomic objectives encompassed under the new vision for water resources management. Prevailing gaps have been identified through an exhaustive review of relevant initiatives in the country and abroad. A conceptual recommendation has been made to address the identified gaps while highlighting the challenges that lie ahead.

Krishna PRASAD

2005-12-01

197

Agri-food business: global challenges - innovative solutions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The rise of a western-style middle class in many successful emerging economies like China currently is inducing deep structural changes on agricultural world markets and within the global agri-food business. As a result of both higher incomes and concerns over product safety and quality the global demand for high-quality and safe food products is increasing significantly. In order to meet the new required quality, globally minimum quality standards are rising and private standards emerging. A...

Glauben, Thomas; Hanf, Jon H.; Kopsidis, Michael; Pieniadz, Agata; Reinsberg, Klaus

2008-01-01

198

A Framework for Addressing the Global Obesity Epidemic Locally: The Child Health Ecological Surveillance System (CHESS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Childhood obesity has reached epidemic levels in the developed world. Recent research and commentary suggest that an ecological approach is required to address childhood obesity, given the multidimensional nature of the problem. We propose a Canadian prototype, the Child Health Ecological Surveillance System, for a regional health authority to address the growing obesity epidemic. This prototype could potentially be used in other jurisdictions to address other child health issues. We present 8 guiding principles for the development and implementation of a regional framework for action.

Ronald C. Plotnikoff, PhD

2008-07-01

199

Qualitative computing and qualitative research: addressing the challenges of technology and globalization  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

"Qualitative computing has been part of our lives for thirty years. Today, we urgently call for an evaluation of its international impact on qualitative research. Evaluating the international impact of qualitative research and qualitative computing requires a consideration of the vast amount of qualitative research over the last decades, as well as thoughtfulness about the uneven and unequal way in which qualitative research and qualitative computing are present in different fields of study a...

Cisneros Puebla, Ce?sar A.; Davidson, Judith

2012-01-01

200

Addressing the Decision-Making Process at the Global Level and Multilateralism  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the new global order, some items are likely to give new impetus to multilateralism: the growingdiscontent in the increasing activity linked to global governance and the slow pace of reform, the emergenceof new powers and their impact to the system, global financial crisis and other issues of global concern. Eachof these have an impact on the issue of multilateralism and international responses are given according to therole of each part. This paper aims to underline the role of multilateralism as form of international cooperationand the link with global economic governance. It has been tried to emphasizing the concepts alreadydeveloped by known researchers in the field. The approach is a more theoretic one done in a comparativemanner with emphasis on results and future research. The key results are related to pros and cons ofredefining the paradigm of multilateralism. The implications are varied in terms of studying the concepts andaddresses researchers in the field, but also lecturers and students. The main added value is the comparedapproach of the old multilateralism and the new one and its formal relationship with the global economicgovernance.

Maria Gabriela Sterian

2012-05-01

 
 
 
 
201

Opening Statement - Angel Gurria [International Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Energy in the 21. Century: Addressing Energy Needs and Environmental Challenges, Beijing (China), 20-22 April 2009  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is a great honour to open this International Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Energy. It is also a privilege for the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency to co-sponsor this conference. I wish to thank both our hosts, the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Government of China, represented by the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology and the China Atomic Energy Authority, for convening us today to advance on our common goal: to secure clean and peaceful nuclear power for the 21st century. The global crisis has exposed not only the paramount challenges of today?s global economy and the remarkable level of interdependence among our nations. It has also confronted us with our duty to define the kind of global economy we need for tomorrow. It is our responsibility to devise sound policies for a stronger, cleaner and fairer global economy. Clean and affordable energy, including access to safe and secure nuclear power, should be a central element of our efforts. This is essential not only for a sustainable economy, but also for the future of our planet. The crisis has prompted us to act immediately and in concert. Take the example of our hosts, the Government of China. In the face of the economic slowdown, they responded rapidly and in a comprehensive fashion. Importantly, they increased government spending, and stimulated domestic demand, and are looking into effective ways to enhance social policies. The turmoil showed that China and all of us need to be more involved in international economic cooperation. We are profoundly affected by the policies implemented by each of our countries. There is no better example than energy to illustrate our interdependence. Holding this meeting in Beijing shows the importance China places on international cooperation and recognizes the role China could play in designing clean and safe energy solutions for the future. For me, coming to Beijing is also an opportunity to stress the high significance of the OECD partnership with China. Our organization is now more open and plural, welcoming new members and having launched an ?enhanced engagement? process with the most important emerging economies. Forging a more structured and stronger partnership with China is fundamental in such a process. It is based on our mutual interest to develop global solutions to global challenges, such as nuclear energy in the 21st century. Thus, I urge you to look into three important issues, which we should address in the years to come, namely, security, financing and development of nuclear energy

202

[Continuous challenges in Japanese forensic toxicology practice: strategy to address specific goals].  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, the status quo of forensic toxicology in Japan and the West is surveyed and a strategy to address future goals of Japanese forensic toxicology is proposed. Forensic toxicology in the West consists of three main areas--post-mortem forensic toxicology, human-performance forensic toxicology and forensic urine drug testing. In Japan, post-mortem forensic toxicology is practiced in university forensic medicine departments while most of the human-performance forensic toxicology is carried out in police laboratories. However, at least at present, strictly controlled workplace urine drug testing is not being performed, despite the abuse of drugs even by uniformed members of the National Defence Forces and police. For several years, the author has been introducing Western forensic toxicology guidelines and recommendations, translated into Japanese with the help of Western forensic toxicologists, to Japanese forensic toxicologists. Western forensic toxicology practice is at an advanced stage, whereas Japanese practice is in a critical condition and holds many problems awaiting solution, as exemplified by the urine drug testing in police laboratories. There is never any sample left for re-examination by the defence in all cases, though the initial volume of the urine sample available for examination is 30-50 ml. Only one organisation carries out everything from sampling to reporting and, in addition, the parent drug and its metabolites are not quantified. It is clear that the police laboratories do not work within good laboratory practice guidelines, nor do they have quality manuals or standard operating procedures manuals. A basic change in Japanese forensic toxicology practice is now essential. The author strongly recommends that, first of all, Japanese toxicologists should prepare forensic toxicology guidelines based on the Western models. The guidelines would progress the following objectives for forensic toxicology laboratories: 1) to have documented good laboratory practice standards; 2) to have a quality control system including a quality manual and standard operating procedures manual; 3) to have some degree of compulsion to implement quality assurance both through their own internal efforts and by appropriate remedial actions based on the results of an external proficiency testing scheme. For forensic toxicologists, the implications are that they should be: 1) responsible for ensuring that laboratory practices are performed under satisfactory conditions and 2) required to be certified as a forensic toxicology specialist in order to prove their forensic toxicology ability. For their part, governments should: 1) carry out administrative reforms related to forensic toxicology; 2) simplify the procedure for obtaining certified reference materials; 3) introduce a strict workplace urine drug testing programme for government employees, at least for those related to law enforcement. When all of these objectives have been realised, the specific goal will be achieved through which Japanese forensic toxicology is able, in practice, to fulfill its responsibility to society. PMID:12415829

Kageura, Mitsuyoshi

2002-09-01

203

The Global Fund's resource allocation decisions for HIV programmes: addressing those in need  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Between 2002 and 2010, the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria's investment in HIV increased substantially to reach US$12 billion. We assessed how the Global Fund's investments in HIV programmes were targeted to key populations in relation to disease burden and national income. Methods We conducted an assessment of the funding approved by the Global Fund Board for HIV programmes in Rounds 1-10 (2002-2010 in 145 countries. We used the UNAIDS National AIDS Spending Assessment framework to analyze the Global Fund investments in HIV programmes by HIV spending category and type of epidemic. We examined funding per capita and its likely predictors (HIV adult prevalence, HIV prevalence in most-at-risk populations and gross national income per capita using stepwise backward regression analysis. Results About 52% ($6.1 billion of the cumulative Global Fund HIV funding was targeted to low- and low-middle-income countries. Around 56% of the total ($6.6 billion was channelled to countries in sub-Saharan Africa. The majority of funds were for HIV treatment (36%; $4.3 billion and prevention (29%; $3.5 billion, followed by health systems and community systems strengthening and programme management (22%; $2.6 billion, enabling environment (7%; $0.9 billion and other activities. The Global Fund investment by country was positively correlated with national adult HIV prevalence. About 10% ($0.4 billion of the cumulative HIV resources for prevention targeted most-at-risk populations. Conclusions There has been a sustained scale up of the Global Fund's HIV support. Funding has targeted the countries and populations with higher HIV burden and lower income. Prevention in most-at-risk populations is not adequately prioritized in most of the recipient countries. The Global Fund Board has recently modified eligibility and prioritization criteria to better target most-at-risk populations in Round 10 and beyond. More guidance is being provided for Round 11 to strategically focus demand for Global Fund financing in the present resource-constrained environment.

Avdeeva Olga

2011-10-01

204

Nuclear power and the global challenges of energy security, 6 September 2007, London, England, World Nuclear Association Annual Symposium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the Atoms for Peace speech given by US President Eisenhower in 1953 - the speech that paved the way for the creation of the IAEA - he declared that a special purpose of Atoms for Peace would be 'to provide abundant electrical energy in the power-starved areas of the world'. That vision has yet to be realized. And it should not be taken to mean that nuclear power is the solution for all countries, or for all developing countries. But I would reiterate what I said at the outset - that the global challenges of security and development are interlinked, and that addressing the energy security needs of all countries will be a key to progress on both fronts. It is incumbent upon us to see to it that nuclear power will fulfil its potential in addressing these challenges

205

Global climate change: Implications, challenges, and mitigation measures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This book presents a perspective of the potential problem of global climate change induced by human activity. The editors have presented viewpoints of experts (advocates and skeptics) representing the issues of climate change. Possible results from long-term global change discussed in this book include mass migrations of plants and animals; changes in crop yields; flood and drought; and economic, political, and cultural changes. The text contains 20 chapters on the impact of global climate change and 10 chapters on the mitigation of effects and policy development

206

Addressing global health priorities: alancing investments in existing and emerging approaches  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One of the common themes in contemporary global health is finding an optimal balance between investments in existing and emerging approaches to fight global health priorities. Existing interventions have been proven to be effective, but they usually have limitations. Emerging interventions could potentially bring greater gains at a lower cost, but health gains are usually uncertain and take much more time to achieve. There are no simple solutions on how to balance funding support to these two competing approaches, but some components of successful strategies are becoming increasingly apparent. Transparency over the expected return on investment, style of investment and time horizon can assist rational investment decisions.

Igor Rudan

2012-06-01

207

GLOBAL CHALLENGES FOR SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT IN SLOVAKIA  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper is focused on the evaluation of economic, social and environmental challenges of sustainable agriculture. The selected indicators of the economic challenges of sustainable agriculture imply that agriculture in Slovakia is not in long term be able to ensure competitiveness in the European market, gross agricultural output is characterized by a faster decline in animal production than in crop production and the value of import of agri-food commodities is higher than the value of expor...

Magdalana Bartosova; Stefan Buday

2013-01-01

208

CHALLENGES AND OUTLOOK OF INDIAN ECONOMY – A GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available India and China- First, the outlook from a global perspective, India clearly is one of the fastest growing emerging economies of the world, next to China, having the potential to overtake China in the medium-term. Though in recent times there has been a sharp deceleration in growth of India but these are for domestic reasons rather than global compulsions. Some of the distinct advantages which India has over China are:

Roshankumar M. Bhigania

2014-04-01

209

The Global Burden of Musculoskeletal Injuries: Challenges and Solutions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Musculoskeletal injuries are a major public health problem globally, contributing a large burden of disability and suffering. This burden could be considerably lowered by implementation of affordable and sustainable strategies to strengthen orthopaedic trauma care, especially in low- and middle-income countries. This article summarizes the global burden of musculoskeletal injuries and provides several examples of successful programs that have improved care of injuries in health facilities in ...

Mock, Charles; Cherian, Meena Nathan

2008-01-01

210

2010 Presidential Address: Learning Religion and Religiously Learning amid Global Cultural Flows  

Science.gov (United States)

Emerging social media that build on digital technologies are reshaping how we interact with each other. Religious education and identity formation within these new cultural flows demands recognition of the shifts in authority, authenticity, and agency that are taking place, as well as the challenges posed by "context collapse." Digital…

Hess, Mary E.

2011-01-01

211

Addressing AACSB Global and Technology Requirements: Exploratory Assessment of a Marketing Management Assignment  

Science.gov (United States)

The Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB) standards mandate knowledge of global and technology issues. Businesses desire employees with ability to analyze international markets and to be adept with technology. Taxpayers supporting public universities and organizations hiring business school graduates expect accountability…

Greene, Scott; Bao, Yongchuan

2009-01-01

212

Challenging custom: rethinking national population surveillance policy in a global public health age.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article examines the current state of disease surveillance and reporting in the United States and seeks to answer two central questions: first, whether the increasing emphasis on the global importance of public health policies compels a fundamental reexamination of the long-standing deferential approach to state power where matters of population health surveillance are concerned and, second, how the nation's long-standing deferential legal customs might be modified to address the growing emphasis on global public health policy that is undergirded by technological advances. We examine the International Health Regulations, or IHR (2005), and suggest that these regulations offer a powerful impetus for reevaluating U.S. legal custom concerning the policy and practice of population health surveillance, not only as a matter of U.S. law but also as a core dimension of U.S. legal obligations to other nations, as embodied in international agreements and treaties. We find that if the political will exists to change the domestic disease surveillance and reporting system, the federal government has the power to act. Questions remain, however, about whether the public health and legislative communities are willing to challenge current customs or even if they desire to do so. PMID:21451161

Katz, Rebecca; Rosenbaum, Sara

2010-12-01

213

Organic electronics: Addressing challenges  

Science.gov (United States)

Although promising, the use of organic semiconductors has not yet revolutionized consumer electronics. Synthesis of high-performance materials, enhanced control of morphology and smart exploitation of unique photophysical phenomena are the way forward to overcome the technological hurdles of this field.

Anthony, John E.

2014-08-01

214

Addressing the data challenge  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The humanitarian relief community needs to collect disability-specific data through rapid needs assessments, registration processes, accessing local knowledge and disability monitoring.

Kathleen B Simmons

2010-07-01

215

Trends and EIE higher education response to the current global technical challenges  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The European Association for Education in Electrical and Information Engineering (EAEEIE) has been for 20 years and still is dedicated to supporting Electrical and Information Engineering (EIE) across Europe. Its new Strategic Alignment of Electrical and Information Engineering in European Higher Education Institutions (SALEIE), an EU supported project, gathers together a global team aiming to provide higher education models in the EIE disciplines that can respond to the key global technical challenges. This paper deals with findings within the SALEIE project's work package WP3 (Global Challenges), namely: state-of-the-art in implementation of the Bologna recommendation for Bachelor and Master, technical challenges that the EIE higher education faces nowadays, and existing models in EIE higher education and their degree of response to key global technical challenges.

Poboroniuc, Marian; Livint, Gheorghe

2014-01-01

216

Struggles Against Bilateral FTAs: Challenges for Transnational Global Justice Activism  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The past decade has seen major movements and mobilizations against the new crop of bilateral free trade and investment agreements being pursued by governments in the wake of the failure of global (World Trade Organization and regional (e.g. Free Trade Area of the Americas negotiations, and the defeat of an attempted Multilateral Agreement on Investment in the 1990s.  However, in spite of much scholarly, non-governmental organization (NGO and activist focus on transnational global justice activism, many of these movements, such as the major multi-sectoral popular struggle over the recently-concluded US-Korea Free Trade Agreement, are hardly acknowledged in North America and Europe.  With a shift in emphasis pushing liberalization and deregulation of trade and investment increasingly favouring lower-profile bilateral agreements, this article maps the resistance movements to these latest shifts in global free market capitalist relations and discusses the disconnect between these (mainly Southern struggles and dominant scholarly and NGO conceptions of global justice and the global justice movement as well as questions of knowledge production arising from these movements.

Aziz Choudry

2012-11-01

217

Antimicrobial resistance: addressing the global threat through greater awareness and transformative action.  

Science.gov (United States)

Antimicrobial therapies have played an unquestionably important role in advancing modern medical and surgical care, treating animals, reducing the global burden of communicable disease, and prolonging human life expectancy. These transformational benefits are threatened because of the rapidly advancing phenomenon of antimicrobial resistance. As a result of complex factors across many sectors and international actors, the global impact of antimicrobial resistance is an escalating economic and health crisis. This article draws on the collective expertise and summit report of the Antimicrobial Resistance Working Group from the 2013 World Innovation Summit for Health, in Doha, Qatar. It defines a framework of principles and tasks for key policy makers to raise international awareness of antimicrobial resistance and lead transformative action through policy-driven improvements in sanitation, antimicrobial conservation, agricultural practices, and research and development. PMID:25201667

Keown, Oliver P; Warburton, Will; Davies, Sally C; Darzi, Ara

2014-09-01

218

Management games in learning process of business skills : case: global management challenge Finland  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The subject of this thesis is management games in learning process of business skills, Case: Global Management Challenge Finland. The thesis seeks to find out how different management games are used worldwide in learning business skills, it introduces the biggest strategic and management game: Global Management Challenge, studies the case of this game in Finland, discusses how management games could help students learn different business skills and proposes future training programs for thi...

Yuan, Yichuan

2011-01-01

219

Addressing the Photometric Calibration Challenge: Explicit Determination of the Instrumental Response and Atmospheric Response Functions, and Tying it All Together  

CERN Document Server

Photometric calibration is currently the dominant source of systematic uncertainty in exploiting type Ia supernovae to determine the nature of the dark energy. We review our ongoing program to address this calibration challenge by performing measurements of both the instrumental response function and the optical transmission function of the atmosphere. A key aspect of this approach is to complement standard star observations by using NIST-calibrated photodiodes as a metrology foundation for optical flux measurements. We present our first attempt to assess photometric consistency between synthetic photometry and observations, by comparing predictions based on a NIST-diode-based determination of the PanSTARRS-1 instrumental response and empirical atmospheric transmission measurements, with fluxes we obtained from observing spectrophotometric standards.

Stubbs, Christopher W

2012-01-01

220

Ministerial Presentation: Jordan. Why Nuclear? [International Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Energy in the 21. Century: Addressing Energy Needs and Environmental Challenges, Beijing (China), 20-22 April 2009  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

tute for oil products. The chief option is imported natural gas, which can displace oil but is a short- to mid-term option and cannot be relied upon for the long term and should be used as a peaking source. Renewables will be developed to their fullest extent but have their well known limitations. Our vision is to utilize nuclear energy to transform Jordan from a net energy importer to a net electricity exporter by 2030. By that date, according to the National Nuclear Strategy, 30% of the Jordan's electricity needs will be met by nuclear power, with excess production to be made available for export. Jordan has been seriously exploring nuclear power as a long-term alternative for electricity generation, water desalination, and as insurance for both energy security and future volatility of oil and natural gas prices. Nuclear energy is an important alternative to fossil fuels and is a particularly important component in a low-carbon energy strategy. In this regard, I urge this Conference to call for the inclusion of nuclear energy in the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) of any future climate change negotiations. Nuclear power also maximizes and leverages Jordan's indigenous uranium resources. The Kingdom is endowed with rich uranium resources which have not been fully explored, with estimated reasonably assured resources of about 70,000 metric tons of uranium oxide in Central Jordan with additional quantities that could be extracted as byproduct of phosphoric acid production. There are, however, many challenges standing in the way of introducing nuclear power in Jordan such as the high investment cost, the need for skilled engineers and technicians, the limited suitable sites for power plants, the lack of adequate water sources for cooling, and the volatile regional political climate. Since 2001, Jordan has been developing a national strategy for civilian nuclear power. But only in January 2008, that Jordan's parliament empowered the Jordan Atomic Energy Commission (JAEC) to lead the national effort and implement the Kingdom's nuclear strategy ---to be the Nuclear Power Implementation Organization (NEPIO) for the country. Furthermore and In compliance with the best of international practices, the parliament established an independent Jordan Nuclear Regulatory Commission (JNRC), to promulgate the needed legal, regulatory, and security framework for the introduction of nuclear power. JAEC has concluded nuclear cooperation agreements with France, China, South Korea, Canada, and will conclude two soon with Russia and UK. One of our major challenges, and in fact a common challenge to all, is development of the requisite human resources. To address partially this challenge, a nuclear engineering B.Sc. degree program was established in 2006 at Jordan University of Science and Technology and JAEC is in the process of procurement of a nuclear research reactor for education, training, and isotope production. To sustain and enhance the contribution of nuclear power as an energy option in the Middle East, it is necessary for all countries in the region to accept the International Atomic Energy Agency's safeguards on all of their nuclear activities, leading to the establishment of a nuclear-weapon-free zone in the region, as a prelude for full adherence to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. Jordan has been conscious to meet all its legal obligations under the NPT and IAEA safeguards, and has participated in many global fora, such as the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP), to develop its civilian nuclear energy programme. In return, it is imperative for the IAEA and technology holders to share their nuclear technology and expertise to address developing countries challenges. It is time to move from unnecessary restriction of dissemination of nuclear technology, to sharing in a responsible way in the spirit of 'Atoms of Peace'', with full adherence to safety, security and safeguards. I wish you and to the Conference success in making nuclear power a real option available to all aspiring countries to address both national energy

 
 
 
 
221

GLOBAL CHALLENGES FOR SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT IN SLOVAKIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper is focused on the evaluation of economic, social and environmental challenges of sustainable agriculture. The selected indicators of the economic challenges of sustainable agriculture imply that agriculture in Slovakia is not in long term be able to ensure competitiveness in the European market, gross agricultural output is characterized by a faster decline in animal production than in crop production and the value of import of agri-food commodities is higher than the value of export. According to selected indicators of social challenges of sustainable agriculture the number of persons working in agriculture has decreasing tendency in last years. The evaluation of selected indicators of environmental challenges of sustainable agriculture implies that area of organic agriculture is the most widely applied sub-measure within the measure agri-environmental payments. For ensuring the balance of the three mentioned dimensions of sustainable agriculture is necessary to increase of local production and consumption of local products, to ensure the protection of nature and landscape, to ensure rural development and to increase the employment opportunities in countryside.

Magdalana Bartosova

2013-09-01

222

Science Education and Challenges of Globalization in Igbo Nation  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper reviewed the scientific contents in Igbo culture. Description of the Igbos who constitutes an ethnic group occupying southeastern Nigeria was made. It x-rayed the pre-colonial, colonial, and post-colonial culture of Igbo people and identified the scientific cultural activities, which can be harnessed to meet the challenges of modern day…

Ezeudu, F. O.; Nkokelonye, C. U.; Adigwe, J. C.

2013-01-01

223

Invasive species challenge the global response to emerging diseases.  

Science.gov (United States)

Forecasts of emerging zoonoses neglect the threat alien species pose in disease transmission to humans. A review of alien parasites, hosts, and vectors introduced to Europe highlights the wide range of potential public health risks, the need for better surveillance and risk assessment, and major policy gaps in global preparedness. PMID:24862566

Hulme, Philip E

2014-06-01

224

Global trade and health: key linkages and future challenges.  

Science.gov (United States)

Globalization of trade, marketing and investment has important implications for public health, both negative and positive. This article considers the implications of the single package of World Trade Organization (WTO) agreements for public health research and policy, focusing on three themes: commodities, intellectual property rights, and health services. The main aims of the analysis are as follows: to identify how trade issues are associated with the transnationalization of health risks and possible benefits; to identify key areas of research; and to suggest policy-relevant advice and interventions on trade and health issues. The next wave of international trade law will need to take more account of global public health issues. However, to become more engaged in global trade debates, the public health community must gain an understanding of the health effects of global trade agreements. It must also ensure that its own facts are correct, so that public health is not blindly used for political ends, such as justifying unwarranted economic protectionism. "Healthy trade" policies, based on firm empirical evidence and designed to improve health status, are an important step towards reaching a more sustainable form of trade liberalization. PMID:10885181

Bettcher, D W; Yach, D; Guindon, G E

2000-01-01

225

Global climate change--The technology challenge: China  

Science.gov (United States)

Population growth and developmental pressures, spawned by an increasing demand for resource intensive goods, foods and services, are altering the planet in ways that threaten the long-term well-being of humans and other species. Global climate change and its associated impacts is...

226

The Global Challenge of Antimicrobial Resistance: Insights from Economic Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The prevalence of antimicrobial resistance (AR limits the therapeutic options for treatment of infections, and increases the social benefit from disease prevention. Like an environmental resource, antimicrobials require stewardship. The effectiveness of an antimicrobial agent is a global public good. We argue for greater use of economic analysis as an input to policy discussion about AR, including for understanding the incentives underlying health behaviors that spawn AR, and to supplement other methods of tracing the evolution of AR internationally. We also discuss integrating antimicrobial stewardship into global health governance.The prevalence of antimicrobial resistance (AR limits the therapeutic options for treatment of infections, and increases the social benefit from disease prevention. Like an environmental resource, antimicrobials require stewardship. The effectiveness of an antimicrobial agent is a global public good. We argue for greater use of economic analysis as an input to policy discussion about AR, including for understanding the incentives underlying health behaviors that spawn AR, and to supplement other methods of tracing the evolution of AR internationally. We also discuss integrating antimicrobial stewardship into global health governance.

Richard J. Zeckhauser

2010-08-01

227

Globalization and ICTs : Potentials and Challenges for the Public Health Sector of Developing Countries  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

There has been much discussion of the role that recent advances in information and communication technologies (ICTs) could play in improving health systems in developing countries. There is no doubt that the advancement of ICTs has brought both brought opportunities and challenges to developing countries in their efforts to ensure socio-economic development and improve public governance. In the wake of globalization, developing countries have no choice but to take advantage of the opportunities and face the challenges. Despite the fact that many developing countries are taking actions to strengthen their ICT capabilities in both private and public sector organizations, the process has been limited mostly to national and provincial capitals leaving behind majority of the communities and institutions operating in remote areas. This paper took a case study of implementing computerized Health Information Systems (HIS) in the context of the Ethiopian public health care system and investigated the potentials of the new ICT based system and the challenges encountered at provincial and district levels. The findings also revealed that even those with access to modern ICT infrastructure do not get maximum benefit from ICT advancements due to inadequacies in data quality and lack of knowledge in data management and use for decision making and action. To this end, there is an urgent need for governments of most developing countries in general and for sub-Saharan African countries in particular to double their efforts to address constraints threatening to increase technology gap between urban minority and marginalized rural majority by setting up favorable policies and appropriate strategies. For example, the empirical analysis of this study revealed that in order to make IT-based systems work in the Ethiopian public health seating, there is an urgent need to develop proper strategies that took into account the local context.

Mengiste, Shegaw Anagaw

2013-01-01

228

New Challenges for Higher Education: Global and Asia-Pacific Perspectives  

Science.gov (United States)

With rapid socio-economic changes, twenty-first century higher education is facing major challenges to its governance systems, curriculum, mission focus, external relations, research, and financing. A theoretical framework to analyze these post-massification challenges is suggested, with a focus on the Asia-Pacific region as well as global issues.…

Shin, Jung Cheol; Harman, Grant

2009-01-01

229

Challenging Conceptions of Western Higher Education and Promoting Graduates as Global Citizens  

Science.gov (United States)

Recently there has been a shift in the discourses of university policy from internationalisation towards the contested concept of global citizenship. This paper explores ways of challenging the current interpretation of international education policy through the concept of global citizenship drawing on the discussion forums of two cohorts of…

Clifford, Valerie; Montgomery, Catherine

2014-01-01

230

Global Education: Instructional Strategies Used and Challenges Faced by In-Service Teachers  

Science.gov (United States)

This article examines the result of a study on teachers' reported use of instructional strategies in dealing with the U.S.-Iraq war, the resources that they use, the challenges that they face in implementing a globally oriented curriculum, and the sources of influence on their commitment to global education. A questionnaire was developed and used…

Eslami, Zohreh R.

2005-01-01

231

Globalization of the Agricultural Economy: A Challenge or Opportunity before Indian Agriculture  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Since the new economic reforms of 1991, the Indian economy is going through the phase of globalization. At the same time Indian agriculture has also to with globalized economy. Globalization is becoming a challenge and also the opportunity before agriculture of India. So, the bank credit availability to agriculture and agro based industries must be improved. This would be favorable terms of trade, liberalized domestic and external trade for agricultural products attrac...

Jamge, D. L.

2012-01-01

232

The globalization of the arms industry: The next proliferation challenge  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The globalization of the arms industry entails a significant shift away from traditional, single-country patterns of weapons production toward internationalization of the development, production, and marketing of arms. While wholly indigenous armaments production may be on the decline, multinational arms production - through collaboration on individual weapon systems and increasingly via interfirm linkages across the international arms industry - appears actually to be expanding. In several instances, in fact, multinational armaments production is increasingly supplementing or even supplanting indigenous or autonomous weapons production or arms imports. The emergence of an increasingly transnational defense technology and industrial base is fundamentally affecting the shape and content of much of the global arms trade. This changing defense market, in turn, will have a profound impact on a number of national security issues concerning the Western industrialized nations. 3 figs., 2 tabs.

Bitzinger, R.A.

1994-12-31

233

The Minamata Convention on Mercury: attempting to address the global controversy of dental amalgam use and mercury waste disposal.  

Science.gov (United States)

In October 2013, a new international binding treaty instrument called the Minamata Convention on Mercury opened for signature in Minamata City, Japan, the site of arguably the worst public health and environmental disaster involving mercury contamination. The treaty aims to curb the significant health and environmental impacts of mercury pollution and includes provisions addressing the mining, export and import, storage, and waste management of products containing mercury. Importantly, a provision heavily negotiated in the treaty addresses the use of dental fillings using mercury amalgam, an issue that has been subject to decades of global controversy. Though use of dental amalgam is widespread and has benefits, concerns have been raised regarding the potential for human health risk and environmental damage from emissions and improper waste management. While the Minamata Convention attempts to address these issues by calling for a voluntary phase-down of dental amalgam use and commitment to other measures, it falls short by failing to require binding and measurable targets to achieve these goals. In response, the international community should begin exploring ways to strengthen the implementation of the dental amalgam treaty provisions by establishing binding phase-down targets and milestones as well as exploring financing mechanisms to support treaty measures. Through strengthening of the Convention, stakeholders can ensure equitable access to global oral health treatment while also promoting responsible environmental stewardship. PMID:24291137

Mackey, Tim K; Contreras, John T; Liang, Bryan A

2014-02-15

234

Global warming and drainage development: perspective and challenges  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Irrigated agriculture is expected to play a major role in reaching the broader development objectives of achieving food security and improvements in the quality of life, while conserving the environment, in both the developed and developing countries. Especially as we are faced with the prospect of global population growth from almost 6 billion today to at least 8 billion by 2025. In this context, the constraints posed by land and water scarcity and the associated need to increase the carryin...

Wrachien, D.; Feddes, R. A.

2004-01-01

235

One Health: The global challenge of epidemic and endemic leishmaniasis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract 'One Health' proposes the unification of medical and veterinary sciences with the establishment of collaborative ventures in clinical care, surveillance and control of cross-species disease, education, and research into disease pathogenesis, diagnosis, therapy and vaccination. The concept encompasses the human population, domestic animals and wildlife, and the impact that environmental changes ('environmental health') such as global warming will have on these populations. V...

Day Michael J; Palatnik-de-Sousa Clarisa B.

2011-01-01

236

Global trade and health: key linkages and future challenges.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Globalization of trade, marketing and investment has important implications for public health, both negative and positive. This article considers the implications of the single package of World Trade Organization (WTO) agreements for public health research and policy, focusing on three themes: commodities, intellectual property rights, and health services. The main aims of the analysis are as follows: to identify how trade issues are associated with the transnationalization of health risks an...

Bettcher, D. W.; Yach, D.; Guindon, G. E.

2000-01-01

237

The CharXive Challenge. Regulation of global carbon cycles by vegetation fires  

CERN Document Server

It is an open, but not unanswerable, question as to how much atmospheric CO2 is sequestered globally by vegetation fires. In this work I conceptualise the question in terms of the general CharXive Challenge, discuss a mechanism by which thermoconversion of biomass may regulate the global distribution of carbon between reservoirs, show how suppression of vegetation fires by human activities may increase the fraction of carbon in the atmospheric pool, and pose three specific CharXive Challenges of crucial strategic significance to our management of global carbon cycles.

Ball, R

2010-01-01

238

Principles of Positive Behaviour Supports: Using the FBA as a Problem-Solving Approach to Address Challenging Behaviours beyond Special Populations  

Science.gov (United States)

The Functional Behavioural Assessment (FBA) is an investigative process that examines the context of challenging behaviours in the classroom. Information gleaned from the FBA process is used to develop a behaviour intervention plan to address the challenging behaviour and teach a socially acceptable replacement behaviour. However, the FBA has…

Moreno, Gerardo; Bullock, Lyndal M.

2011-01-01

239

One Health: the global challenge of epidemic and endemic leishmaniasis.  

Science.gov (United States)

'One Health' proposes the unification of medical and veterinary sciences with the establishment of collaborative ventures in clinical care, surveillance and control of cross-species disease, education, and research into disease pathogenesis, diagnosis, therapy and vaccination. The concept encompasses the human population, domestic animals and wildlife, and the impact that environmental changes ('environmental health') such as global warming will have on these populations. Visceral leishmaniasis is a perfect example of a small companion animal disease for which prevention and control might abolish or decrease the suffering of canine and human patients, and which aligns well with the One Health approach. In this review we discuss how surveillance for leishmaniases is undertaken globally through the control of anthroponootic visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) and zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL). The ZVL epidemic has been managed to date by the culling of infected dogs, treatment of human cases and control of the sandfly vector by insecticidal treatment of human homes and the canine reservoir. Recently, preventive vaccination of dogs in Brazil has led to reduction in the incidence of the canine and human disease. Vaccination permits greater dog owner compliance with control measures than a culling programme. Another advance in disease control in Africa is provided by a surveillance programme that combines remote satellite sensing, ecological modelling, vector surveillance and geo-spatial mapping of the distribution of vectors and of the animal-to-animal or animal-to-human pathogen transmission. This coordinated programme generates advisory notices and alerts on emerging infectious disease outbreaks that may impede or avoid the spreading of visceral leishmaniasis to new areas of the planet as a consequence of global warming. PMID:21985335

Palatnik-de-Sousa, Clarisa B; Day, Michael J

2011-01-01

240

One Health: The global challenge of epidemic and endemic leishmaniasis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract 'One Health' proposes the unification of medical and veterinary sciences with the establishment of collaborative ventures in clinical care, surveillance and control of cross-species disease, education, and research into disease pathogenesis, diagnosis, therapy and vaccination. The concept encompasses the human population, domestic animals and wildlife, and the impact that environmental changes ('environmental health' such as global warming will have on these populations. Visceral leishmaniasis is a perfect example of a small companion animal disease for which prevention and control might abolish or decrease the suffering of canine and human patients, and which aligns well with the One Health approach. In this review we discuss how surveillance for leishmaniases is undertaken globally through the control of anthroponootic visceral leishmaniasis (AVL and zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL. The ZVL epidemic has been managed to date by the culling of infected dogs, treatment of human cases and control of the sandfly vector by insecticidal treatment of human homes and the canine reservoir. Recently, preventive vaccination of dogs in Brazil has led to reduction in the incidence of the canine and human disease. Vaccination permits greater dog owner compliance with control measures than a culling programme. Another advance in disease control in Africa is provided by a surveillance programme that combines remote satellite sensing, ecological modelling, vector surveillance and geo-spatial mapping of the distribution of vectors and of the animal-to-animal or animal-to-human pathogen transmission. This coordinated programme generates advisory notices and alerts on emerging infectious disease outbreaks that may impede or avoid the spreading of visceral leishmaniasis to new areas of the planet as a consequence of global warming.

Day Michael J

2011-10-01

 
 
 
 
241

Preparing Students for the Ethical Challenges of Global Citizenship  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper describes an approach to teaching ethical intercultural communication. This approach helps students become aware of their own ethnocentric attitudes and helps them move beyond those perspectives to develop a mindful approach to intercultural communication. The paper begins by introducing the concept of mindful communication and the challenges of developing of a code of ethical behavior for communicating across cultures. Then, strategies for reconciling cultural relativism and universalism are offered. Finally, the paper provides a set of guidelines for ethical behavior in intercultural encounters.

Madelyn Flammia

2012-08-01

242

Opening Address [FR09: International Conference on Fast Reactors and Related Fuel Cycles: Challenges and Opportunities, Kyoto (Japan), 7-11 December 2009  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Good morning, distinguished delegates, ladies and gentlemen. I would like to express my deep gratitude for your presence at the 'International Conference on Fast Reactors and Related Fuel Cycles: Challenges and Opportunities' organized by the IAEA. I would like to make a brief opening address on behalf of MEXT1. Firstly, I would like to welcome all who have travelled the long distance to Japan, and to express my thanks to people in Japan for their usual acceptance and for their cooperation on the research, development and use of nuclear technology. I would also like to thank the staff of the IAEA, the Japan Atomic Energy Agency and the commissions for their commitment to organizing this meeting. Today, humankind faces global issues on a scale never before seen, including global warming and energy resource security. Under such circumstances, ensuring the energy supply is essential for solving both the energy problem and global climate change simultaneously. This is increasingly being recognized all over the world. Sharing the recognition, we promote research, development and the use of nuclear energy as the major source of electrical power. We are aiming at the establishment of the fast breeder reactor cycle, which will ensure a long term energy supply, through efficient use of uranium resources. At MEXT, we continue to promote research and development in order to achieve the early commercialization of the fast breeder reactor cycle, by utilizing the prototype Monju fast breeder reactor. We are now doing our utmost to restart Monju by the end of March 2010, with the acceptance and cooperation of the local community. After the restart, we will enhance the reliability of Monju as an operational power plant, drawing upon operational experience. At the same time, we will continue research and development of radioactive waste reduction for topics such as minor actinide burning, as well as the enhancement of nuclear non-proliferation. We hope that Monju will play an important role, not only domestically, but also globally as one of the few high-end fast reactors. This makes Monju a major global centre in the area of nuclear fuel cycle research and development. In this conference, we can share the fruits of each country's and each organization's research and development for the purpose of realizing the nuclear fuel cycle, which is the important international political theme. Finally, I would like to express my wishes that this conference contributes to the stimulation of further research and development on the fast reactor cycle through active discussions and, ultimately, brings significant benefits to all countries. Thank you for your kind attention. (author)

243

Global health care challenge: Indian experiences and new prescriptions  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Globally, there has been an unparalleled growth in the plant-derived medicinally useful formulations, drugs and health-care products, its market covering more than 60% products derived from plant origin. India exhibits remarkable outlook in modern medicines that are based on natural products besides [...] traditional system of Indian medicines. Almost, 70% modern medicines in India are derived from natural products. Medicinal plants play a central role not only as traditional medicines but also as trade commodities, meeting the demand of distant markets. Ironically, India has a very small share (1.6%) of this ever-growing global market. To compete with the growing market, there is urgency to expeditiously utilize and scientifically validate more medicinally useful plants while conserving these species, which seems a difficult task ahead. This paper begins with an overview of the value of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants and discusses its usefulness in the traditional medicines. Then it briefly assesses the potential of medicinally useful plants and prospects of modern medicines and health care products derived from plant origin and based on the knowledge of alternative system of medicine in India. It thereafter concisely touches upon India’s varied biodiversity, comparative Research and Development strength, strong pharmaceutical manufacturing base and traditional wisdom in medicines to improve its market potential. In the conclusion, there are major recommendations to help India evolve as a major drugs and herbal based health care products leader in the world market.

Sandhya, Wakdikar.

2004-12-15

244

Building organizational technical capabilities: a new approach to address the office of environmental management cleanup challenges in the 21. century  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The United States Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Management (EM) is responsible for the nations nuclear weapons program legacy wastes cleanup. The EM cleanup efforts continue to progress, however the cleanup continues to be technologically complex, heavily regulated, long-term, and a high life cycle cost estimate (LCCE) effort. Over the past few years, the EM program has undergone several changes to accelerate its cleanup efforts with varying degrees of success. Several cleanup projects continued to experience schedule delays and cost growth. The schedule delays and cost growth have been attributed to several factors such as changes in technical scope, regulatory and safety considerations, inadequacy of acquisition approach and project management. This article will briefly review the background and schools of thought on strategic management and organizational change practiced in the United States over the last few decades to improve an organisation's competitive edge and cost performance. The article will briefly review examples such as the change at General Electric, and the recent experience obtained from the nuclear industry, namely the long-term response to the 1986 Chernobyl accident. The long-term response to Chernobyl, though not a case of organizational change, could provide some insight in the strategic management approaches used to address people issues. The article will discuss briefly EM attempts to accelerate cleanup over the past fewts to accelerate cleanup over the past few years, and the subsequent paradigm shift. The paradigm shift targets enhancing and/or creating organizational capabilities to achieve cost savings. To improve its ability to address the 21. century environmental cleanup challenges and achieve cost savings, EM has initiated new corporate changes to develop new and enhance existing capabilities. These new and enhanced organizational capabilities include a renewed emphasis on basics, especially technical capabilities including safety, project management, acquisition management and people. The new enhanced organizational capabilities coupled with more effective communications; oversight and decision-making processes are expected to help EM meet the 21. century challenges. This article will focus on some of the initiatives to develop and enhance organizational technical capabilities. Some of these development initiatives are a part of DOE corporate actions to respond to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) recommendations 93-3 and 2004-1. Other development initiatives have been tailored to meet EM specific needs for organizational capabilities such as case studies analysis and cost estimating. (authors)

245

Technical challenges in designing post-marketing eCRFs to address clinical safety and pharmacovigilance needs.  

Science.gov (United States)

To identify key challenges and propose technical considerations in designing electronic case report form (eCRF) for post-marketing studies, the author undertakes a comprehensive literature review of peer reviewed and grey literature to assess the key aspects, processes, standards, recommendations, and best practices in designing eCRFs based on industry experience in designing and supporting electronic data capture (EDC) studies. Literature search using strings on MEDLINE and PUBMED returned few papers directly related to CRF design. Health informatics and general practice journals were searched and results reviewed. Many conference, government commission, health professional and special interests group websites provide relevant information from practical experience - summarization of this information is presented. Further, we presented a list of concrete technical considerations in dealing with EDC technology/system limitations based on literature assessment and industry implementation experience. It is recognized that cross-functional teams be involved in eCRF design process and decision making. To summarize the keys in designing eCRFs to address post-market study safety and pharmacovigilance needs, the first is to identify required data elements from the study protocol supporting data analyses and reporting requirements. Secondly, accepted best practices, CDASH & CDISC guidelines, and company internal or therapeutic unit standard should be considered and applied. Coding (MedDRA & WHODD) mapping should be managed and implemented as well when possible. Finally, we need to be on top of the EDC technologies, challenge the technologies, drive EDC improvement via working with vendors, and utilize the technologies to drive clinical effectiveness. PMID:19900576

Lu, Zhengwu

2010-01-01

246

Biaxial tension of fibrous tissue: using finite element methods to address experimental challenges arising from boundary conditions and anisotropy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Planar biaxial tension remains a critical loading modality for fibrous soft tissue and is widely used to characterize tissue mechanical response, evaluate treatments, develop constitutive formulas, and obtain material properties for use in finite element studies. Although the application of tension on all edges of the test specimen represents the in situ environment, there remains a need to address the interpretation of experimental results. Unlike uniaxial tension, in biaxial tension the applied forces at the loading clamps do not transmit fully to the region of interest (ROI), which may lead to improper material characterization if not accounted for. In this study, we reviewed the tensile biaxial literature over the last ten years, noting experimental and analysis challenges. In response to these challenges, we used finite element simulations to quantify load transmission from the clamps to the ROI in biaxial tension and to formulate a correction factor that can be used to determine ROI stresses. Additionally, the impact of sample geometry, material anisotropy, and tissue orientation on the correction factor were determined. Large stress concentrations were evident in both square and cruciform geometries and for all levels of anisotropy. In general, stress concentrations were greater for the square geometry than the cruciform geometry. For both square and cruciform geometries, materials with fibers aligned parallel to the loading axes reduced stress concentrations compared to the isotropic tissue, resulting in more of the applied load being transferred to the ROI. In contrast, fiber-reinforced specimens oriented such that the fibers aligned at an angle to the loading axes produced very large stress concentrations across the clamps and shielding in the ROI. A correction factor technique was introduced that can be used to calculate the stresses in the ROI from the measured experimental loads at the clamps. Application of a correction factor to experimental biaxial results may lead to more accurate representation of the mechanical response of fibrous soft tissue. PMID:23445049

Jacobs, Nathan T; Cortes, Daniel H; Vresilovic, Edward J; Elliott, Dawn M

2013-02-01

247

Big Data challenges and solutions in building the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS)  

Science.gov (United States)

The Group on Earth Observation (GEO) is a voluntary partnership of governments and international organizations launched in response to calls for action by the 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development and by the G8 (Group of Eight) leading industrialized countries. These high-level meetings recognized that international collaboration is essential for exploiting the growing potential of Earth observations to support decision making in an increasingly complex and environmentally stressed world. To this aim is constructing the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) on the basis of a 10-Year Implementation Plan for the period 2005 to 2015 when it will become operational. As a large-scale integrated system handling large datasets as those provided by Earth Observation, GEOSS needs to face several challenges related to big data handling and big data infrastructures management. Referring to the traditional multiple Vs characteristics of Big Data (volume, variety, velocity, veracity and visualization) it is evident how most of them can be found in data handled by GEOSS. In particular, concerning Volume, Earth Observation already generates a large amount of data which can be estimated in the range of Petabytes (1015 bytes), with Exabytes (1018) already targeted. Moreover, the challenge is related not only to the data size, but also to the large amount of datasets (not necessarily having a big size) that systems need to manage. Variety is the other main challenge since datasets coming from different sensors, processed for different use-cases are published with highly heterogeneous metadata and data models, through different service interfaces. Innovative multidisciplinary applications need to access and use those datasets in a harmonized way. Moreover Earth Observation data are growing in size and variety at an exceptionally fast rate and new technologies and applications, including crowdsourcing, will even increase data volume and variety in the next future. The current implementation of GEOSS already addresses several big data challenges. In particular, the brokered architecture adopted in the GEOSS Common Infrastructure with the deployment of the GEO DAB (Discovery and Access Broker) allows to connect more than 20 big EO infrastructures while keeping them autonomous as required by their own mandate and governance. They make more than 60 million of unique resources discoverable and accessible through the GEO Portal. Through the GEO DAB, users are able to seamlessly discover resources provided by different infrastructures, and access them in a harmonized way, collecting datasets from different sources on a Common Environment (same coordinate reference system, spatial subset, format, etc.). Through the GEONETCast system, GEOSS is also providing a solution related to the Velocity challenge, for delivering EO resources to developing countries with low bandwidth connections. Several researches addressing other Big data Vs challenges in GEOSS are on-going, including quality representation for Veracity (as in the FP7 GeoViQua project), brokering big data analytics platforms for Velocity, and support of other EO resources for Variety (such as modelling resources in the Model Web).

Mazzetti, Paolo; Nativi, Stefano; Santoro, Mattia; Boldrini, Enrico

2014-05-01

248

Energy policy: challenges of a global vision; Politique energetique: les enjeux d'une vision globale  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This is the proceedings of the 2. parliamentary gathering on energy held on 14 October 1999. The document presents the talks by Mr Michel Destot (as special rapporteur of the Industry's budget in National Assembly) and Laurent Fabius, President of National Assembly, and Jean-Claude Gayssot, Minister of Equipment, Transport and Dwelling, at the opening session, three round tables, the colloquium synthesis and the closing session. The round tables addressed the following issues: - 1. International and long-term approach guided predominantly by energy demand; - 2. Energy solutions in the struggle against greenhouse effect; - 3. Challenges of opening the European energy market (internationalization and decentralization). At the first round table, Yves Martin, President of the technical section of General Council of Mines, structured his introductory report emphasizing the specific issues of three time horizons: the present, characterized by abundant energy offer; the horizon of 10 to 20 years, that of the energy suppliers which is orienting their investments; the horizon of more than half a century, corresponding to responses of far-reaching actions imposed by energy demand and which must be the object of governments' policies. Jean-Yves Le Deaut, deputy of Meurthe-et-Moselle discussed the risks of climate change, resources' exhaustion, nuclear power and the issue of developing the renewable energies. The problems raised by energy demand by the year 2050 to met the needs of an earth population of 9 billions were mentioned by Philippe Trepant, the president of French Union of oil industries. Energy problems from a globalization standpoint were discussed also by Benjamin Dessus, Director of Ecodev program of CNRS. Policy in the field of mastering greenhouse gas releases was mentioned in the talk by Michel Mousel, president of Inter-ministerial Mission for greenhouse effect. In the frame of 2. round table questions relating to energy management, renewable, gas, and nuclear energies were addressed by a number of deputies and officials and representatives from ADEME, Framatome, Paris University and Union for renewable energies. Finally, at the 3. round table, focusing the economic aspects of the internationalization and decentralization of the energy market, several participants discussed questions related to integration, securing the supplies, access to power distribution grids, role of public service, energy market evolution, etc. In his summarizing talk Mr Michel Destot underlined the significant progress made in achieving a genuine French energy culture, able to ensure a long-term, diverse and balanced energy policy covering, at the same time, the environmental, economic, and employment components.

Destot, Michel [ed.] [Depute de l' Isere, Assemblee Nationale, Paris (France)

2000-02-18

249

Global change: The new challenge for the fossil carbon industries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Human population growth, at 90 million more per year and at least 10 billion next century, is forcing a re-examination of our values and technologies. Technology concerns are energy, food production, water and air quality, and waste disposal. All of these involve exact knowledge of the outer few km of our planet because this film forms the basis of all our resources. A great new challenge faces people with expertise in the fine structure and dynamics of the porous-cracked outer layers of earth. Much of this expertise is centered in the fossil carbon industries. All must be involved in the problems of water supply, soil conservation, waste disposal, and clean energy production. Perhaps the greatest question facing the fossil fuel industry concerns whether greenhouse gas emissions can be reduced

250

Challenge and Opportunity: the ALI/III Global Principles Project  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article deals with an international project to establish the extent to which it is feasible to achieve a worldwide acceptance of the Principles of Cooperation among the NAFTA Countries together with the Guidelines Applicable to Court-to-Court Communications in Cross-Border Cases. This contribution explains the process whereby the American Law Institute and the International Insolvency Institute (1 developed principles of cooperation with regard to cross-border insolvency; (2 established acceptance of these principles in jurisdictions across the world, subject to any necessary local modifications; and (3 obtained the endorsement of leading domestic associations, courts, and other groups in those jurisdictions. This article may contribute to the development the South African cross-border insolvency law. The inclusion of the challenges of harmonisation of private international law is also contributing to current debate.

IF Fletcher

2008-04-01

251

Challenge and opportunity: the ALI/III global principles project  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english This article deals with an international project to establish the extent to which it is feasible to achieve a worldwide acceptance of the Principles of Cooperation among the NAFTA Countries together with the Guidelines Applicable to Court-to-Court Communications in Cross-Border Cases. This contribut [...] ion explains the process whereby the American Law Institute and the International Insolvency Institute (1) developed principles of cooperation with regard to cross-border insolvency; (2) established acceptance of these principles in jurisdictions across the world, subject to any necessary local modifications; and (3) obtained the endorsement of leading domestic associations, courts, and other groups in those jurisdictions. This article may contribute to the development the South African cross-border insolvency law. The inclusion of the challenges of harmonisation of private international law is also contributing to current debate.

IF, Fletcher.

252

Apollo 2: Solar energy meets the new global challenge  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Humanity faces imminent and serious global oil shortages. It is urgent that the solar energy community respond aggressively to fulfill its central role in the transition from a transitory fossil-fuel economy to a sustainable solar future. The intention here is to explain and quantify the oil shortfall, to validate the renewable option, and to calculate the rate at which the capacity of the renewable energy industry must accelerate to counteract the predictable oil deficit. [Spanish] La humanidad se enfrenta a una seria e inminente escasez mundial de petroleo. Es urgente que la comunidad de energia solar responda agresivamente para satisfacer su rol central en la transicion de una economia transitoria de combustibles fosiles a un futuro solar sustentable. La intencion aqui es la de explicar y cuantificar el deficit de petroleo para validar esta opcion renovable y para calcular la velocidad a la que la industria de la energia renovable debe acelerar para contrarrestar el predecible deficit del petroleo.

Swenson, R. B [Santa Cruz, CA (United States)

2000-07-01

253

Media, cultural diversity and globalization: challenges and opportunities.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper explores the role media play in safeguarding cultural diversity, promoting cultural dialogue, facilitating the exercise of cultural rights,fostering cultural understanding and cultivating intercultural citizenship in the age of globalization. The paper highlights several interconnected leverage points: media content, practices, processes, ownership, education, structures, and policies. It argues that fostering cultural diversity in and through the media can go a long way toward bringing a civic discourse which favors tolerance and facilitates co-existence. It can contribute to the breaking down of cultural barriers, the initiation of cultural dialogues, the empowerment of marginalized groups, and the practice of good governance. At the same time, this paper argues, the celebration of difference does not preclude the valuation of a common cultural core or a common humanity which brings people together in spite of their differences. PMID:21744674

Zayani, Mohamed

2011-01-01

254

Global Sea Level Rise: Recent Progress and Challenges for the Decade to Come  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study of sea level rise is a highly interdisciplinary endeavor with important implications for our society as it adapts to a warming climate. Although the past two decades have revolutionized our understanding of sea level rise and its causes (primarily mass input and ocean warming, major scientific challenges must be met before useful predictions can be made. The rate of sea level rise has accelerated considerably relative to the pre-industrial era. Over the twentieth century, global sea level increased at an average rate of about 2 mm yr-1, which is substantially larger than the rate of the previous three millennia. Furthermore, evidence now exists for additional acceleration during the twentieth century. Nevertheless, accurate prediction of future sea level rise requires continued observations as well as significant advances in modeling of the coupled ice-ocean-land-atmosphere climate. A major effort is needed to sustain data recording from satellite altimeters (e.g., the Jason series, from time-variable gravity missions (e.g., Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment, or GRACE, and from autonomous ocean observing systems (e.g., Argo. In addition, an interdisciplinary research effort is required to address major problems, including improvement of the historical records of sea level rise and ocean warming, the separation of other geophysical processes from sea level rise signals, and a more complete understanding of interactions between the ocean and ice sheets.

Josh K. Willis

2010-12-01

255

Global Warming Potential Implications and Methodological Challenges of Road Transport Emissions in Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine the repercussions vehicular road transport emissions have on global warming potential (GWP, and the need to address the issue considering methodological challenges facing road transportation in Nigeria. Specific objectives of the study includes to determine the emission level in the country, to evaluate the GWP and to develop a emission mapping network on trunk A roads in Nigeria. Accurate information on these emissions is required to strengthen the mitigation and adaptation ability of the country to tackle climate change. The study relied on direct measurement technique supported by literature as well as questionnaires administered on the organised vehicle fleet operators and road traffic management agency as data gathering methods. Also, detailed analysis of questionnaires responses was carried out. Results show that road transport account for over 14% of greenhouse gases. Survey findings indicate that excessive smoke emission offence accounts for 1-2% of the annual road traffic offences in Nigeria. Using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS software version 16, five fitted simple linear regression models were developed. With these fitted models it is possible to map the gas concentrations on the kilometre travelled. Examination of the National Vehicle Identification Scheme (NVIS revealed a rise in the periodic plate number generation from yearly record of 788,169 in 2001 to 791,832 in 2009. Human capacity requirements, based on yearly Drivers Licence (DL processed, increased by 55% between 2000 and 2010. Three mutual strategies namely renewed urban and rural road transport infrastructure availability, regular fleet maintenance and capacities building for improved behavioural change of road users were recommended to help control road transport emissions. These measures if inflexibly implemented will change the transport sector from being a major global warming risk factor to that of Eco-friendly sector.

S. C. Nwanya

2012-12-01

256

The Human Resources Challenge to Community Based Rehabilitation: The Need for a Scientific, Systematic and Coordinated Global Response  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The World Report on Disability highlights some of the major challenges in the path to realisation of the rights of persons with disabilities as per the United Nations Convention. While the recently published guidelines on Community Based Rehabilitation show the way to address these challenges, effective implementation would require not only higher levels of investment in human resources, but also a significantly newer and different skill-set for the additional personnel.  The authors suggest that a scientifically sophisticated, systematic and coordinated research programme, with global reach and participation, is needed for the establishment of a useful and robust evidence-base for Community Based Rehabilitation interventions. It is also suggested that the development of a new cadre of rehabilitation workers could be a key component of the programme, and could help to alleviate the extant crisis in human resources for health in many low-income countries.

Eilish McAuliffe

2013-02-01

257

Global Social Challenges: insights from the physical sciences and their relevance to the evolution of social science  

CERN Document Server

The complex challenges confronting humanity today point to the need for new thinking and new theory in the social sciences which overcomes the limitations of compartmentalized, sectoral concepts, strategies and policies and mechanistic approaches to living social systems. The World Academy of Art & Science is convening a consortium of leading institutions and thinkers from different sectors to contribute ideas for formulation of a cohesive framework capable of addressing global social challenges in their totality and complex interrelationships. The objective of my presentation will be to explore the potential for collaboration between the physical and social sciences to arrive at a more cohesive and effective framework by exploring a series of questions, including - - Is an integrated science of society possible that transcends disciplinary boundaries based on common underlying principles as we find in the natural sciences? - To what extent can principles of natural science serve as valid models and a...

CERN. Geneva

2014-01-01

258

SMART GRIDS: A prologue & unscrew challenges that needs to be addressed, A Short Survey on how to make Grids Smarter:  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A Smart Grid (SG1 is an intellectual and logical electricity network that integrates the actions of all users connected to it and makes use of sophisticated and highly advanced information, control, and communications technologies to save energy, reduce expenditure and increase reliability and transparency. A smart grid can reduce energy cost; it makes energy usage efficient that result in a short term solution for the energy crisis. It also helps the distribution systems for better energy management and control. The field of Information & Communication Technology (ICT4 and computer technology can play a major role in this hazardous situation all over the world. This paper presents current research issues and challenges that need to be addressed for reliable, efficient and flexible load distribution (LD2 and management for smart grid design. The paper also presents some security & privacy issues that inform the grid station (GS3 about consumer’s habits and personnel information. The article also tries to highlight major research issues in smart grid technology, which are helpful for the new researchers to find new research directions in this field & technology.

Muhammad Zakarya

2013-07-01

259

Global Challenges for the Environment, Water Clean and Economic Advantages  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The fast development of industry, agriculture technology, with increasing population grows increasingly standard of living is also increasing demand for clean water and environmental pollution grows each time taking process of uncontrolled release of CO2 into the atmosphere and increase the industrial waste. Rulers need to do a better coordination of CO2 in the atmosphere management, waste management, water. Sustainability of public health, protection of the environment and the economy are key factors for environment and clean water. Collecting more water behind dams and especially in aquifers through artificial recharge is necessary to save water in times of excess water for use at the time of his absence. Storage of CO2 in safe places as under the oceans countries semptyexplorer oil from storage in mines or explorer. Use should be carefully planned and take measures to prevent adverse health effects in the case of groundwater contamination. Some countries may save water by importing most food and energy commodities and other countries that possess more water, so basically they also get water was needed to produce these goods.Water "virtual". Local water can then be used for high social,environmental, or economic or saved for the future. Climate change and global warming caused by carbon dioxide emissions are difficult to predict in space and time. The wars in the future will be developed for clean water and not for gold and oil.

Hidajete Nikqi , AdemDreshaj,

2013-09-01

260

Challenges of Globalization and Quality Assurance in Nigerian University Education  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study was undertaken to examine the state of quality assurance mechanisms in Nigerian universities with a view to proffering measures that would enhance the quality of education obtained in the institutions. The population consisted of professors from federal universities in the south-south region of Nigeria, numbering 624. The stratified sampling technique was used in selecting a sample of 225 professors from the universities for the study. Two null hypotheses were formulated based on the variables of the study. These were tested at 0.05 alpha level, using t-test analysis. Data collection was done with the use of a structured questionnaire tagged “Quality Assurance in Nigerian University Education” (QANUE. The calculated t-values were less than the criticalt, leading to the retention of the two null hypotheses. It was therefore concluded that the quality of Nigerian University Education is low and cannot measure up globally due to the poor state of quality assurance mechanisms in the universities. Based on this, measures for improving the quality of Nigerian university education were recommended to include adequate funding, updated libraries, well equipped laboratories and workshops, provision of instructional materials and school infrastructure, lecturer motivation and proper supervision.

Iniobong Ekong Nkang

2013-11-01

 
 
 
 
261

Injuries and violence: a global public health challenge  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Injuries and violence are a significant cause of mortality and physical disability. Injuries killed five million people worldwide each year [1]. The level of this dilemma, however, differs significantly by age, sex, region and economic development [2]. Globally, road traffic injury mortalities, self-inflicted injury mortality and interpersonal violence, war, drowning, and exposure to fire are the leading cause of deaths among people aged 15-44 years [3]. This special issue aims to assess the magnitude of this problem, identify risk factors and explore prevention strategies to alleviate the burden of injuries and violence. There is a dire need to increase the knowledge of the extent of problem, and associated risk factors that needs to be targeted for prevention. Erosa et al., examined reports of verbal and physical abuse from family caregivers of adults with severe physical, neurological and developmental disabilities, and found that caregivers who reported some form of abuse reported significantly greater distress and burden than caregivers who did not report any abuse. Grice et al., found that reported histories of work-related physical assault and work-related threat were associated with elevated risks of current work-related physical assault. Ahmad, systematically reviewed and summarized current scientific knowledge on the use of interactive computer-assisted screening to detect intimate partner violence (IPV.

Muazzam Nasrullah

2010-06-01

262

Global warming presents new challenges for maize pest management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It has been conjectured that global warming will increase the prevalence of insect pests in many agro-ecosystems. In this paper, we quantitatively assess four of the key pests of maize, one of the most important systems in North American grain production. Using empirically generated estimates of pest overwintering thresholds and degree-day requirements, along with climate change projections from a high-resolution climate model, we project potential future ranges for each of these pests in the United States. Our analysis suggests the possibility of increased winter survival and greater degree-day accumulations for each of the pests surveyed. We find that relaxed cold limitation could expand the range of all four pest taxa, including a substantial range expansion in the case of corn earworm (H. zea), a migratory, cold-intolerant pest. Because the corn earworm is a cosmopolitan pest that has shown resistance to insecticides, our results suggest that this expansion could also threaten other crops, including those in high-value areas of the western United States. Because managing significant additional pressure from this suite of established pests would require additional pest management inputs, the projected decreases in cold limitation and increases in heat accumulation have the potential to significantly alter the pest management landscape for North American maize production. Further, these range expansions could have substantial economic impacts through increased seed l economic impacts through increased seed and insecticide costs, decreased yields, and the downstream effects of changes in crop yield variability.

263

Training Solutions to the Global Challenges of a Nuclear Renaissance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

From East Asia to the United States and all over Europe, the nuclear re-birth is generating demands the training simulation vendors had not faced before. Companies involved in the planning, design, construction and operation of new plants increasingly require simulation tools to satisfy very different needs, all of them on a large scale: education and support of inexperienced newcomer staff, human factors analysis and control room design, e-learning, verification and validation of I and C systems or training and licensing of crews before the actual installations are complete. There is a full set of applications already available to the whole industry to satisfy these needs. End-user friendly Thunder Real-Time Executive (T-REX), poised to become the standard simulation platform for U.S. plants, makes it possible to provide full-scope simulator and simulator exercises to students and others on a memory stick or over the internet. AREVA EPR full-scope training simulator, based on the ALICES integrated object-oriented simulation environment, becomes an engineering simulator for the Flamanville 3 plant under construction in Normandy; the same will happen to the Taishan 1 and 2 simulators in Guangdong (China) while UniStar plans to apply this approach to the future EPR's to be built in the United States. SIREP PWR Basic Principle Simulator, with simplified models which can run on an ordinary PC, is used at GDF SUEZ offices in Brussels to implement their Nuclear Trainees Program. EDF Training Department chooses On-line Micro Simulation (MicroSel), which can be managed with Learning Management Systems, for classroom and stand-alone learning of the basic characteristics of French reactors. All these are examples of how extensive R and D and innovation programs implemented by the simulator providers, some of them under way here in Spain, will help to overcome some of the challenges of the current nuclear expansion.

Garces, M.; Chan, S.; Leo, C.; Garcia, S.; Vidal, B.

2010-07-01

264

Training Solutions to the Global Challenges of a Nuclear Renaissance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

From East Asia to the United States and all over Europe, the nuclear re-birth is generating demands the training simulation vendors had not faced before. Companies involved in the planning, design, construction and operation of new plants increasingly require simulation tools to satisfy very different needs, all of them on a large scale: education and support of inexperienced newcomer staff, human factors analysis and control room design, e-learning, verification and validation of I and C systems or training and licensing of crews before the actual installations are complete. There is a full set of applications already available to the whole industry to satisfy these needs. End-user friendly Thunder Real-Time Executive (T-REX), poised to become the standard simulation platform for U.S. plants, makes it possible to provide full-scope simulator and simulator exercises to students and others on a memory stick or over the internet. AREVA EPR full-scope training simulator, based on the ALICES integrated object-oriented simulation environment, becomes an engineering simulator for the Flamanville 3 plant under construction in Normandy; the same will happen to the Taishan 1 and 2 simulators in Guangdong (China) while UniStar plans to apply this approach to the future EPR's to be built in the United States. SIREP PWR Basic Principle Simulator, with simplified models which can run on an ordinary PC, is used at GDF SUEZ offices in Brussels to implement their Nuclear Trainees Prols to implement their Nuclear Trainees Program. EDF Training Department chooses On-line Micro Simulation (MicroSel), which can be managed with Learning Management Systems, for classroom and stand-alone learning of the basic characteristics of French reactors. All these are examples of how extensive R and D and innovation programs implemented by the simulator providers, some of them under way here in Spain, will help to overcome some of the challenges of the current nuclear expansion.

265

The physics of global climate change: challenges for research  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Full text: There are major issues in our scientific understanding of the functioning of our planet Earth. The growing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases, changing in surface albedo, changes in distribution and lifetime of clouds, alteration in aerosol properties and distribution, are all key issues in the radiation balance that controls the climate of our planet. Earth is a non linear highly complex system. Since the industrial revolution, concentration of greenhouse gases, in particular carbon dioxide and methane have increase by 30 to 100%. The fraction of infrared radiation trapped in the atmosphere has increased by about 1.6 watts/m{sup 2}. This additional energy has increased the average temperature by 0.79 degrees centigrade, with certain regions. But, we know very little of the physics, chemistry and biology that controls emissions, sinks and effects in Earth climate. Every week new important scientific findings are published in this area, and models that could predict the future of Earth climate are quite primitive and lack key issues. The hard science of global change is closely associated with socio-economic issues. Humanity have taken the main control role on Earth climate, and the potential for an average increase in temperature of 3 to 5 degrees is large, although there are tentative to limit the average temperature growth to 2 degrees. But even with this ambitious target, Amazonia and the Arctic will probably be much hotter than 3-4 degrees, with important feedbacks in the climate system. The talk will deal with these issues and new research that is needed to increase our knowledge on how the climate of our planet works and which climate we could have in the next decades. (author)

Artaxo, Paulo [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica. Dept. de Fisica Aplicada

2009-07-01

266

The physics of global climate change: challenges for research  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: There are major issues in our scientific understanding of the functioning of our planet Earth. The growing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases, changing in surface albedo, changes in distribution and lifetime of clouds, alteration in aerosol properties and distribution, are all key issues in the radiation balance that controls the climate of our planet. Earth is a non linear highly complex system. Since the industrial revolution, concentration of greenhouse gases, in particular carbon dioxide and methane have increase by 30 to 100%. The fraction of infrared radiation trapped in the atmosphere has increased by about 1.6 watts/m2. This additional energy has increased the average temperature by 0.79 degrees centigrade, with certain regions. But, we know very little of the physics, chemistry and biology that controls emissions, sinks and effects in Earth climate. Every week new important scientific findings are published in this area, and models that could predict the future of Earth climate are quite primitive and lack key issues. The hard science of global change is closely associated with socio-economic issues. Humanity have taken the main control role on Earth climate, and the potential for an average increase in temperature of 3 to 5 degrees is large, although there are tentative to limit the average temperature growth to 2 degrees. But even with this ambitious target, Amazonia and the Arctic will probably be much hotter than 3-4 degrees, with important feedbacks in the climate system. The talk will deal with these issues and new research that is needed to increase our knowledge on how the climate of our planet works and which climate we could have in the next decades. (author)

267

Technical Session: International Energy Agency. Our Energy Future - Addressing the Dual Challenges of Climate Change and Energy Security  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

s. Huge inflows of capital are needed to meet such demand growth and replace existing and future supply facilities that will be retired,. This shows the cumulative investment in energy supply needed to 2030 in the business as usual scenario. It amounts to $26.3 trillion (in year-2007 dollars) from 2007 to 2030; Electricity generation represents half of this. Oil and gas account for almost all of the remainder; 63% of this total will be needed in non-OECD countries - clearly highlighting that the investment challenge is a global issue. As energy production accounts for 60% of CO2 emissions, this energy demand growth will obviously have huge implications for climate change. In our WEO-2008 business as usual scenario shown here, global CO2 emissions from energy will jump by 45% between 2006 and 2030 to 40.6 giga-tonnes (growth rate of 1.6% pa). This trajectory puts the world on track for a global temperature increase of around 6 degrees. In light of the CO2 challenge, WEO-2008 set out two alternative energy policy scenarios to take the world to a lower emissions future: 550 ppm, and 450 ppm of CO2 in the atmosphere. This graph shows trajectories for energy-related CO2 emissions to 2030 in the different scenarios, assuming 3.3% global GDP growth to 2030. We must reduce emissions from: 40.6 Gt in 2030 (in RS) - to reach 33 Gt in the 550 ppm scenario with a temperature rise of 3oC; 26 Gt in the 450 ppm scenario with a temperature rise of around 2oC ... would eventually mean a 50% reduction of current levels of CO2 by 2050. This will require a 'revolution' of the energy sector. In particular, measures in three areas are vital: 1. Energy efficiency: 54% in the 450ppm scenario. 2. CCS (particularly in the 450 ppm scenario) after 2020. 3. Diversification of the energy mix through the use of nuclear power and renewables. Let me also emphasize here that these scenarios also enhance our energy security, by ensuring energy is used efficiently and by diversifying energy portfolios. Widespread deployment of low-carbon technologies and energy efficiency requires much investment if we are to reduce CO2 emissions and ensure a secure energy future. Business as usual scenario, investment of $26.3 trillion is needed in energy infrastructure just to meet growing demand and production decline. But in the two low emissions scenarios, significant additional investment of $9 trillion is needed in power plants and in more efficient energy-related capital stock. This additional investment amounts to 0.6% of world GDP on average per year. In addition, the price of carbon in the 450 ppm scenario would be around $180/t-CO2 (= around $ 70/barrel). But the 450 ppm scenario is about more than just money. Chart illustrates the scale of transformation needed in the power sector. Power sector emissions need to be cut by 2/3 in the 450 scenario (relative to RS). On an annual basis, over the period 2012-2030, in the 450 Policy Scenario we need to build around: 18 000 wind turbines (of average size of 3MW each); 30 GW of other renewables (biomass+solar+geothermal + ocean + tidal), i.e. the equivalent of 300 solar plants of 100 MW each; 50 hydro plants (of around 1000 MW capacity); 30 coal and gas plants integrated with CCS technology; 20 nuclear power plants (of around 1000 MW capacity each). What does the IEA's 450 ppm scenario mean for electricity generation? Under the 450 ppm policy scenario, while the share of fossil fuels such as coal and even natural gas in global electricity is declining, that of clean energy technologies such as renewables and nuclear is increasing. Under this scenario, nuclear power generation will almost double to reach 5200 TWh in 2030. In other words, nuclear supplies 18% of total electricity demand and is the 3rd largest electricity source together with natural gas, following hydro (22%) and coal (21%).

268

Using Technology to Prepare Students for the Challenges of Global Citizenship  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the modern world, everyone must recognize that it is nearly impossible to separate many domestic and international problems and managing international challenges will take the efforts of all nations. As a result, each and every person must think like a global citizen and practice mindfulness in daily life. Using the complex interdependence model as a basis for examining citizen diplomacy, this paper suggests ways that new media can be used to introduce students to a global perspective on the world. Further, it provides faculty members with a set of guidelines for structuring projects that task students with the challenge of taking positive action to effect political and societal change.

Madelyn Flammia

2009-10-01

269

Global warming what are the challenges for Copenhagen?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Kyoto Protocol was adopted in 1997 and, following a long ratification process, went into effect in 2005. Under the Protocol, 200 countries have committed to reducing their greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) by 2012. What conclusions can we draw from developments thus far, as we await the December conference in Copenhagen to determine a follow-up to the Kyoto Protocol? The work of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has given us more accurate knowledge on global warming issues. In its latest report, published in 2007, the IPCC reveals that eleven of the past twelve years studied - 1995 to 2006 - were among the warmest yet recorded since 1850, when this type of data collection began. From 1906 to 2005, global temperatures rose by 0.74 deg. C, and the average rate of increase has more than doubled over the past fifty years. To help companies and countries achieve their GHG emissions reduction targets, the Kyoto Protocol provides for a carbon trading system based on carbon reduction credits (CRC), the exchange currency in a carbon credit market. When a company reduces its emissions below regulatory levels, it can have the 'excess' reduction certified and converted into carbon credits, which it can then sell to a company that has not yet reached its reduction targets. Japan has already used clean technologies and energy saving measures to achieve energy efficiency in the past. Its energy structure is fairly close to that of France, which has a 0% emissions goal. In Japan, nuclear power also accounts for a significant share of the electric power program. The Japanese government recently announced that it was increasing its carbon reduction goal from 6% to an ambitious 25%. China and the United States are the world's leading greenhouse gas emitters. When China ratified the Kyoto Protocol in 2002, it was considered to be a developing country and as such has no emissions reduction obligations. Since then, China has moved closer to the Protocol principles, creating a national climate change group in 2007 and launching its own national climate change program. The program's goal is to lower China's energy consumption per unit of GDP by 20% by 2010 compared with its 2005 level. Under a medium to long-term sustainable development plan, the share of sustainable energies in the overall energy mix will increase to 10% by 2010 and to 15% by 2020. Before the Copenhagen conference, China indicated that it was expecting the United States and Europe to commit to reducing their emissions by 40% and to devote 1% of their GDP to technology transfer towards developing countries by 2020. The Bush Administration used the argument that 'the American way of life is not negotiable' to justify the refusal of the United States to adhere to the Kyoto Protocol. Today, the United States returns to the discussion table in a more open frame of mind. The administration of Barack Obama has decided to become more involved and cooperate more with China and India on climate change. In late June, the American president succeeded in getting his climate change bill through the US House of Representatives. The climate bill, which is still up before the Senate, aims to reduce GHG emissions (particularly CO2) by 17% before 2020 compared with the 2005 level. It also promotes the development of clean energies and provides for the creation of a cap and trade emissions trading system. Under this system, emissions allowances are either sold or given to the most vulnerable industries. The sales revenue would be used to fund the development of clean energies, among other things. The EU-15 member states are close to reaching the targets set at Kyoto. What about EU-27 member states? At the late September summit in Pittsburgh, the G20 countries, which include the most industrialized countries as well as the large emerging countries of China, India and Brazil, agreed to phase out subsidies for fossil energy sources over the medium term, but without setting a deadline. According to the press release issued at the end of the summit, 'inefficient fossil fuel subsidi

270

Global Virtual Teams and their effective functioning : The Challenge of Time Pressure  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Nowadays modern organizations move in an incredible speed and have to be flexible and adaptable to constantly changing circumstances. Global Virtual Teams (GVTs) have been proved to be one of the means to handle this challenge. While it is said that GVTs bestow an organization with flexibility and enhanced creativity, research proves that the managing of these teams is quite challenging. The modern work stress factor time pressure is said to be omnipresent in nowadays organizations and theref...

Franke, Franziska; Bengtsson Schramm, Caroline

2013-01-01

271

Engaging Undergraduates to Solve Global Health Challenges: A New Approach Based on Bioengineering Design  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Recent reports have highlighted the need for educational programs to prepare students for careers developing and disseminating new interventions that improve global public health. Because of its multi-disciplinary, design-centered nature, the field of Biomedical Engineering can play an important role in meeting this challenge. This article describes a new program at Rice University to give undergraduate students from all disciplines a broad background in bioengineering and global health and p...

Oden, Maria; Mirabal, Yvette; Epstein, Marc; Richards-kortum, Rebecca

2010-01-01

272

The Cultural Challenges of Managing Global Project Teams: A Study of Brazilian Multinationals  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The internationalization of Brazilian companies brings a new reality: the need for implementation of global projects that bring, in turn, the challenge of managing multicultural teams. Since this is a recent phenomenon with little theoretical development, this study sought to understand the relationships between cultural characteristics and management teams of global projects in Brazilian multinationals. To carry this discussion forward, we studied six cases of Brazilian multinational compani...

Ivete Rodrigues; Roberto Sbragia

2013-01-01

273

Addressing Challenges of regional climate modeling over the Greater Horn of Africa: Africa Regional Climate Model Inter-comparison Project (AFRMIP)  

Science.gov (United States)

The Greater Horn of Africa (GHA) has distinct climate characteristics compared to the rest of the continent. The GHA is replete with complex terrain comprising of some of the known tropical glacier covered high mountains of Kilimanjaro, Kenya and Rwenzori as well as the Great Rift Valley System (GRVS). The region also has several freshwater lakes that include Lake Victoria (second largest freshwater lake), and Lake Tanganyika (the second largest deepest freshwater lake). As a whole the complex GHA terrain presents an enabling environment where local and large scale climate systems frequently interact to create highly variable climate in both space and time. At the same time, inter-annual variability of the GHA climate is linked to perturbations in the global SSTs, especially over the equatorial Pacific and Indian Ocean basins, and to some extent, the Atlantic Ocean. These three global oceans, all at the same time or each at different times, intriguingly influence the interannual variability of the GHA climate. Interactions and feedbacks among these multiple climate drivers over the region present challenges in quantitative understanding of regional climate variability and changes based on typical empirical techniques. Therefore, there is need to also employ physically-based, regional climate models (RCMs) that can offer scope and capability to unveil cause-effect relationships between regional climate variability and individual or combination of processes. However, representation of the multiple sources of forcing to the GHA climate also poses a great challenge to RCMs as well. This presentation will give an overview of the AFRMIP project, whose primary objective is to undertake a systematic and comprehensive audit of the deficiencies and uncertainties in regional model simulations of the GHA climate. The project specifically seeks to build a coalition of a regional climate modeling community to address the following issues; (i) representation of the GHA-relevant physical processes in the current RCMs (ii) appropriate adjustments to current physics parameterizations in order to customize RCMs for optimal simulation of the GHA climate (ii) representation of natural variability and anthropogenic changes over the GHA by different RCMs.

Anyah, R.

2009-04-01

274

How agro-ecological research helps to address food security issues under new IPM and pesticide reduction policies for global crop production systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

Drivers behind food security and crop protection issues are discussed in relation to food losses caused by pests. Pests globally consume food estimated to feed an additional one billion people. Key drivers include rapid human population increase, climate change, loss of beneficial on-farm biodiversity, reduction in per capita cropped land, water shortages, and EU pesticide withdrawals under policies relating to 91/414 EEC. IPM (Integrated Pest Management) will be compulsory for all EU agriculture by 2014 and is also being widely adopted globally. IPM offers a 'toolbox' of complementary crop- and region-specific crop protection solutions to address these rising pressures. IPM aims for more sustainable solutions by using complementary technologies. The applied research challenge now is to reduce selection pressure on single solution strategies, by creating additive/synergistic interactions between IPM components. IPM is compatible with organic, conventional, and GM cropping systems and is flexible, allowing regional fine-tuning. It reduces pests below economic thresholds utilizing key 'ecological services', particularly biocontrol. A recent global review demonstrates that IPM can reduce pesticide use and increase yields of most of the major crops studied. Landscape scale 'ecological engineering', together with genetic improvement of new crop varieties, will enhance the durability of pest-resistant cultivars (conventional and GM). IPM will also promote compatibility with semiochemicals, biopesticides, precision pest monitoring tools, and rapid diagnostics. These combined strategies are urgently needed and are best achieved via multi-disciplinary research, including complex spatio-temporal modelling at farm and landscape scales. Integrative and synergistic use of existing and new IPM technologies will help meet future food production needs more sustainably in developed and developing countries, in an era of reduced pesticide availability. Current IPM research gaps are identified and discussed. PMID:21669880

E Birch, A Nicholas; Begg, Graham S; Squire, Geoffrey R

2011-06-01

275

Addressing practical challenges for biodiversity offsetting in the UK. 'Towards no net loss, and beyond' workshop, 22 June 2010. Briefing Note  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This series of workshops will address some of the most urgent and cross?cutting challenges for the potential large scale implementation of biodiversity offsetting in the UK, bringing together individuals with a broad range of expertise and perspectives. The aim of this first workshop is to identify some practical challenges for the further implementation of biodiversity offsetting in the UK, and to work out how these ...

Howard, Bruce

2010-01-01

276

Education for Developing a Global Omani Citizen: Current Practices and Challenges  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Oman is a developing country which reformed its educational system in 1998 in order to meet the challenges of the 21st century, especially economic challenges. Strength of national identity and developing a sense of global citizenship were among the priorities of the new educational reform. This paper is based on a review of current practices regarding global citizenship education in educational system. The purpose of this theoretical study was to explore the current provision of the aspects of global citizenship education in Omani schools. Specifically, the study attempts to identify the current practices that are implemented by Omani schools to help Omani students to develop a sense of effective global citizenship. The study indicates that Omani education is not nationally centered as it aims to develop students who have global awareness. The study shows employing different approaches to develop a sense of global citizenship, namely, a separate school subject; integrated theme in social studies education, participation in some international initiatives in global citizenship education, and celebrating the international days and decades.

Saif Al-Maamari

2014-05-01

277

Global plagues and the Global Fund: Challenges in the fight against HIV, TB and malaria.  

Science.gov (United States)

BACKGROUND: Although a grossly disproportionate burden of disease from HIV/AIDS, TB and malaria remains in the Global South, these infectious diseases have finally risen to the top of the international agenda in recent years. Ideal strategies for combating these diseases must balance the advantages and disadvantages of 'vertical' disease control programs and 'horizontal' capacity-building approaches. DISCUSSION: The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM) represents an important step forward in the struggle against these pathogens. While its goals are laudable, significant barriers persist. Most significant is the pitiful lack of funds committed by world governments, particularly those of the very G8 countries whose discussions gave rise to the Fund. A drastic scaling up of resources is the first clear requirement for the GFATM to live up to the international community's lofty intentions. A directly related issue is that of maintaining a strong commitment to the treatment of the three diseases along with traditional prevention approaches, with the ensuing debates over providing affordable access to medications in the face of the pharmaceutical industry's vigorous protection of patent rights. SUMMARY: At this early point in the Fund's history, it remains to be seen how these issues will be resolved at the programming level. Nevertheless, it is clear that significant structural changes are required in such domains as global spending priorities, debt relief, trade policy, and corporate responsibility. HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria are global problems borne of gross socioeconomic inequality, and their solutions require correspondingly geopolitical solutions. PMID:12667262

Tan, Darrell HS; Upshur, Ross EG; Ford, Nathan

2003-04-01

278

Toward Learning Societies and the Global Challenges for Learning with ICT  

Science.gov (United States)

The Knowledge Age is at hand, and with it, new worldwide demands for Learning Societies. The shape of learning-with-ICT to come--new lifelong skills, new kinds of learners, new learning theory, new global ways of learning, and new learning tools--are all highlighted. The top ten challenges for using ICT to help invent the Learning Societies of the…

Trilling, Bernie

2007-01-01

279

Globalization and Its Challenges for Developing Countries: The Case of Turkish Higher Education  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper examines the challenges faced by the Turkish higher education system and exposes the inequities and realities educators in a developing nation must struggle with as they try to find a prestigious spot in the knowledge-production industry. After a brief overview of the literature that illustrates how globalization penetrated into each…

Akar, Hanife

2010-01-01

280

The Impact of Globalization and Environmental Change on Health: Challenges for Nurse Education.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nursing education should address the consequences of global environmental change, integrate environmental considerations into clinical practice, and promote sustainable policies. Educators should raise nursing students' awareness of environmental issues and empower them to contribute to policy debates. (Contains 36 references. Includes…

Kirk, Maggie

2002-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Global change and mercury cycling: challenges for implementing a global mercury treaty.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Minamata Convention aims to protect human health and the environment from anthropogenic emissions and releases of mercury. In the present study, the provisions of the Minamata Convention are examined to assess their influence on global biogeochemical cycling of Hg. Although the convention's scope covers all major categories of atmospheric emissions, the degree to which it will affect future emissions trajectories remains unclear. A box model analysis shows that future global biogeochemical cycling under projected technological provisions would result mainly in avoided increases and that estimated differences in atmospheric concentrations resulting from policies would be on the order of 1% to 2% per year. Present experience suggests that scientific knowledge is not currently sufficient to attribute causes to changes of this magnitude. Enhancements to capacity to measure the effectiveness of the Minamata Convention are suggested, including both measurement and modeling. PMID:24038450

Selin, Noelle E

2014-06-01

282

Global plagues and the Global Fund: Challenges in the fight against HIV, TB and malaria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Although a grossly disproportionate burden of disease from HIV/AIDS, TB and malaria remains in the Global South, these infectious diseases have finally risen to the top of the international agenda in recent years. Ideal strategies for combating these diseases must balance the advantages and disadvantages of 'vertical' disease control programs and 'horizontal' capacity-building approaches. Discussion The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM represents an important step forward in the struggle against these pathogens. While its goals are laudable, significant barriers persist. Most significant is the pitiful lack of funds committed by world governments, particularly those of the very G8 countries whose discussions gave rise to the Fund. A drastic scaling up of resources is the first clear requirement for the GFATM to live up to the international community's lofty intentions. A directly related issue is that of maintaining a strong commitment to the treatment of the three diseases along with traditional prevention approaches, with the ensuing debates over providing affordable access to medications in the face of the pharmaceutical industry's vigorous protection of patent rights. Summary At this early point in the Fund's history, it remains to be seen how these issues will be resolved at the programming level. Nevertheless, it is clear that significant structural changes are required in such domains as global spending priorities, debt relief, trade policy, and corporate responsibility. HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria are global problems borne of gross socioeconomic inequality, and their solutions require correspondingly geopolitical solutions.

Tan Darrell HS

2003-04-01

283

Preparing Early Childhood Educators to Address Young Children's Social-Emotional Development and Challenging Behavior: A Survey of Higher Education Programs in Nine States  

Science.gov (United States)

This article presents results from a survey of faculty members from 2- and 4-year higher education programs in nine states that prepare teachers to work with preschool children. The purpose of the study was to determine how professors address content related to social-emotional development and challenging behaviors, how well prepared they believe…

Hemmeter, Mary Louise; Santos, Rosa Milagros; Ostrosky, Michaelene M.

2008-01-01

284

GLOBALIZATION AND INTEGRATION INTO THE ECONOMIC AND MONETARY UNION-CHALLENGES FOR BANKS OPERATING IN ROMANIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper aims to present recent evolution, but also the consequences of globalization of the banking sector, considering different approaches of this phenomenon. Over time, the banking field has undergone important changes in both the applicable law of this area, and through the technologies used in satisfying the customers’ needs. The development of international markets has led to new opportunities and challenges for banks that transformed the domestic financial market into an arena where only the best survive and grow. On these grounds and in strict relation to positive and negative effects of globalization, we can speak of a constant evolution of its most important subsystems - the financial subsystems of the global economy. In this paper special importance is given to the banking field, the article presenting arguments through which this complex phenomenon called globalization may have important consequences on financial supervision and regulation.

CORALIA EMILIA POPA

2012-01-01

285

Globalization of labour markets challenges, adjustment and policy response in the EU and LDCS  

CERN Document Server

To the classical driving forces of migration such as poverty, oppression and war, yet another is being added: globalization. The trend toward globalization has created new opportunities for trade and investment. These have had positive implications for economic growth and living standards. However, they also confront developed and less developed countries (LCDs) with difficult policy choices. Developed Countries (DCs) have to find a compromise between competitiveness and high labour costs, and between trade liberalization and immigration controls. LCDs have to decide whether to export labour or goods, and to accept foreign resources for development rather than migration. While, in the literature, the impact of globalization has been largely studied from specialist perspectives, this volume offers a comprehensive view of the issue. In Globalization of Labour Markets: Challenges, Adjustment and Policy Response in the European Union and Less Developed Countries international experts: Explain the welfare implicat...

Kuyvenhoven, Arie; Molle, Willem

1997-01-01

286

Globalization : the challenge of the 1990s for the chemical industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The challenges facing the chemical industry in Canada were discussed. In recent years, Canada has scored low in polls measuring public confidence in the chemical industry. The industry is also suffering from continuing recession, global competition, increased environmental demands and strict legislation. The impact of globalization, total quality management, free trade, environmental concerns, and government policies on the chemical industry were reviewed. In the view of this author (President and CEO of Dow Chemicals) globalization is not a matter of choice, it is an industry imperative. Survival in the globalized economy will require not only to be successful competitors, but even more importantly to be successful cooperators with other stakeholders, and successful in forming partnerships with customers

287

Industry, university and government partnership to address research, education and human resource challenges for nuclear industry in Canada  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

rgy of Canada Limited have formed an alliance with prominent Canadian universities and undertaken to invest money and offer in-kind support to accomplish three main objectives: Reinvigorate university-based nuclear engineering research by augmenting university resources by creating new industry supported research professorships and supporting research of other professors; Promote enrolment in graduate programs by supporting students and making use of a course-based Master of Engineering (M.Eng.) Program that is taught collectively by professors from all supported universities and which can be completed through part-time studies; Create a pool of nuclear expertise in universities that can be accessed by public and governments for impartial and trustworthy advice. The Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC), the Canadian Regulator, and Candu Owners Group are also participating in UNENE activities. Nuclear industries have linked with a select group of Canadian universities agreeable to committing to nuclear research and education and seeking investment from governments to match cash and in-kind contributions from industry. The University Network of Excellence in Nuclear Engineering (UNENE) was thus created involving universities of McMaster, Queen's, Toronto, Waterloo, Western Ontario and the new University of Ontario Institute of Technology. These universities are recipients of funds for setting up NSERC-UNENE Industry Research Chairs in Nuclear Engineering. Also, Ecole Polytechnique and the University of New Brunswick, supported respectively by Hydro Quebec and New Brunswick Power, and Royal Military College - operating a joint graduate program with Queen's University, are participants in UNENE. The following Industrial Research Chairs are either in place or approved to start within the next few months. In each case there is a provision for hiring a junior Research Chair. - Dr. John Luxat, Nuclear Safety Analysis and Thermal Hydraulics, McMaster University; - Dr. Rick Holt, Advanced Nuclear Materials, Queen's University; - Dr. Roger Newman, Nano-Engineering of Alloys for Nuclear Power Systems, University of Toronto; - Dr. Mahesh Pandey, Risk-Based Life Cycle Management of Engineering Systems, University of Waterloo; - Dr. Jin Jiang, Control, Instrumentation and Electrical Systems of Nuclear Power Plants, University of Western Ontario. Progress is being made to find a candidate and define a research program for an Industrial Research Chair:- Knowledge Management, University of Ontario Institute of Technology. Each of the above six NSERC-UNENE Industrial Research Chairs are tenured positions, funded at 2.0 M dollars or more for first five years. The Chairs may be subsequently renewed. A large number of graduate students are already enrolled with Professors Holt, Jiang and Pandey. In anticipation of receiving Ontario Council of Graduate Studies accreditation for the course-based M. Eng. Degree in Nuclear Engineering, the following courses have already been offered to a typical class of 20 students: Reactor Physics; Nuclear Plant Systems and Operations; Nuclear Reactor Safety Design; Thermal Hydraulics. In addition to these, courses to be offered in near future include: Engineering Risk Analysis; Reactor Chemistry and Corrosion; Nuclear Materials; Control, Instrumentation and Electrical Power Systems; Nuclear Waste Management; Fuel Management; Health Physics/Radiation Protection; Power Plant Thermodynamics; Codes, Standards and Jurisdictions; and Business Management. M.Eng. Courses are delivered in flexible format to suit distant faculty and part-time students. UNENE, an industry driven partnership of nuclear industry, universities and governments, created to address the future challenge of research, education and human resources in Canada, has made an impressive start. (author)

288

The Cultural Challenges of Managing Global Project Teams: a Study of Brazilian Multinationals  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english The internationalization of Brazilian companies brings a new reality: the need for implementation of global projects that bring, in turn, the challenge of managing multicultural teams. Since this is a recent phenomenon with little theoretical development, this study sought to understand the relation [...] ships between cultural characteristics and management teams of global projects in Brazilian multinationals. To carry this discussion forward, we studied six cases of Brazilian multinational companies, with the aim of deepening the understanding of the management of global teams, involving the planning, deployment, development and management of human resources. Among the projects studied, it was found that there is very little concern with the specific issue of multiculturalism and little inter-cultural incentive to the development of team members, which ends up hindering the construction of a global mindset, important for the Brazilian multinational companies to perform successfully abroad. Faced with this situation, each of the managerial processes mentioned were presented with a number of actions to be undertaken by the project manager in three different dimensions: the project itself, the organization and the global environment. The work contributes, thus, to enable Brazilian multinational companies to manage their global teams in order to maximize the advantages of global teams, such as increased creativity and innovative capacity, but avoid the problems that multiculturalism can bring, ranging from conflicts between people to project failure.

Ivete, Rodrigues; Roberto, Sbragia.

289

The Cultural Challenges of Managing Global Project Teams: a Study of Brazilian Multinationals  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english The internationalization of Brazilian companies brings a new reality: the need for implementation of global projects that bring, in turn, the challenge of managing multicultural teams. Since this is a recent phenomenon with little theoretical development, this study sought to understand the relation [...] ships between cultural characteristics and management teams of global projects in Brazilian multinationals. To carry this discussion forward, we studied six cases of Brazilian multinational companies, with the aim of deepening the understanding of the management of global teams, involving the planning, deployment, development and management of human resources. Among the projects studied, it was found that there is very little concern with the specific issue of multiculturalism and little inter-cultural incentive to the development of team members, which ends up hindering the construction of a global mindset, important for the Brazilian multinational companies to perform successfully abroad. Faced with this situation, each of the managerial processes mentioned were presented with a number of actions to be undertaken by the project manager in three different dimensions: the project itself, the organization and the global environment. The work contributes, thus, to enable Brazilian multinational companies to manage their global teams in order to maximize the advantages of global teams, such as increased creativity and innovative capacity, but avoid the problems that multiculturalism can bring, ranging from conflicts between people to project failure.

Ivete, Rodrigues; Roberto, Sbragia.

2013-02-01

290

The Cultural Challenges of Managing Global Project Teams: A Study of Brazilian Multinationals  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The internationalization of Brazilian companies brings a new reality: the need for implementation of global projects that bring, in turn, the challenge of managing multicultural teams. Since this is a recent phenomenon with little theoretical development, this study sought to understand the relationships between cultural characteristics and management teams of global projects in Brazilian multinationals. To carry this discussion forward, we studied six cases of Brazilian multinational companies, with the aim of deepening the understanding of the management of global teams, involving the planning, deployment, development and management of human resources. Among the projects studied, it was found that there is very little concern with the specific issue of multiculturalism and little inter-cultural incentive to the development of team members, which ends up hindering the construction of a global mindset, important for the Brazilian multinational companies to perform successfully abroad. Faced with this situation, each of the managerial processes mentioned were presented with a number of actions to be undertaken by the project manager in three different dimensions: the project itself, the organization and the global environment. The work contributes, thus, to enable Brazilian multinational companies to manage their global teams in order to maximize the advantages of global teams, such as increased creativity and innovative capacity, but avoid the problems that multiculturalism can bring, ranging from conflicts between people to project failure.

Ivete Rodrigues

2013-07-01

291

Global emission trading. A solution to the challenges of global climate change?; Globaler Emissionshandel. Loesung fuer die Herausforderungen des Klimawandels?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The international climate policy has reached a dead end, and a solution is difficult. Since the 15th climate conference in Copenhagen, pessimism prevails. Hardly anyone believes that a common solution can be found before the next conference at Cancun. On the other hand, time is running out as the validity time of the Kyoto Protocol will end in 2012, and the need for slowing down global climate change is calling for fast action. To find a solution, it will be necessary not only to bridge the deep gap between industrialized countries and threshold countries, but also, within each society, to bridge the deep gap between climate activists on the one hand and the public opinion on the other hand. Global emission trading may offer a way out of the current dilemma. (orig.)

Mueller, Friedemann [Stiftung Wissenschaft und Politik, Berlin (Germany)

2010-10-15

292

How can we exploit above-belowground interactions to assist in addressing the challenges of food security?  

Science.gov (United States)

Can above-belowground interactions help address issues of food security? We address this question in this manuscript, and review the intersection of above-belowground interactions and food security. We propose that above-belowground interactions could address two strategies identified by Godfray etal. (2010): reducing the Yield Gap, and Increasing Production Limits. In particular, to minimize the difference between potential and realized production (The Yield Gap) above-belowground interactions could be manipulated to reduce losses to pests and increase crop growth (and therefore yields). To Increase Production Limits we propose two mechanisms: utilizing intercropping (which uses multiple aspects of above-belowground interactions) and breeding for traits that promote beneficial above-belowground interactions, as well as breeding mutualistic organisms to improve their provided benefit. As a result, if they are managed correctly, there is great potential for above-belowground interactions to contribute to food security. PMID:24198821

Orrell, Peter; Bennett, Alison E

2013-01-01

293

GLOBALIZATION AND INTEGRATION INTO THE ECONOMIC AND MONETARY UNION-CHALLENGES FOR BANKS OPERATING IN ROMANIA  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper aims to present recent evolution, but also the consequences of globalization of the banking sector, considering different approaches of this phenomenon. Over time, the banking field has undergone important changes in both the applicable law of this area, and through the technologies used in satisfying the customers’ needs. The development of international markets has led to new opportunities and challenges for banks that transformed the domestic financial market into an arena whe...

CORALIA EMILIA POPA

2012-01-01

294

A review of global cancer burden: trends, challenges, strategies, and a role for surgeons.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. The global cancer burden (GCB) is expected to rise significantly and will disproportionately affect the less developed world (LDW). The aim of this review is to analyze the trends in GCB and describe the types, estimates, and causes of new cancer cases. The challenges and strategies associated with tackling this rising GCB are described in which surgeons can play a vital role. PMID:22926725

Are, Chandrakanth; Rajaram, Shireen; Are, Madhuri; Raj, Hemanth; Anderson, Benjamin O; Chaluvarya Swamy, Ramesh; Vijayakumar, Manavalan; Song, Tianqiang; Pandey, Manoj; Edney, James A; Cazap, Eduardo L

2013-02-01

295

Conference on "Multidisciplinary approaches to nutritional problems". Rank Prize Lecture. Global nutrition challenges for optimal health and well-being.  

Science.gov (United States)

Optimal health and well-being are now considered the true measures of human development. Integrated strategies for infant, child and adult nutrition are required that take a life-course perspective to achieve life-long health. The major nutrition challenges faced today include: (a) addressing the pending burden of undernutrition (low birth weight, severe wasting, stunting and Zn, retinol, Fe, iodine and folic acid deficits) affecting those individuals living in conditions of poverty and deprivation; (b) preventing nutrition-related chronic diseases (obesity, diabetes, CVD, some forms of cancer and osteoporosis) that, except in sub-Saharan Africa, are the main causes of death and disability globally. This challenge requires a life-course perspective as effective prevention starts before conception and continues at each stage of life. While death is unavoidable, premature death and disability can be postponed by providing the right amount and quality of food and by maintaining an active life; (c) delaying or avoiding, via appropriate nutrition and physical activity interventions, the functional declines associated with advancing age. To help tackle these challenges, it is proposed that the term 'malnutrition in all its forms', which encompasses the full spectrum of nutritional disorders, should be used to engender a broader understanding of global nutrition problems. This term may prove particularly helpful when interacting with policy makers and the public. Finally, a greater effort by the UN agencies and private and public development partners is called for to strengthen local, regional and international capacity to support the much needed change in policy and programme activities focusing on all forms of malnutrition with a unified agenda. PMID:19012808

Uauy, Ricardo; Corvalan, Camila; Dangour, Alan D

2009-02-01

296

Combining Multidisciplinary Science, Quantitative Reasoning and Social Context to Teach Global Sustainability and Prepare Students for 21st Grand Challenges  

Science.gov (United States)

The Earth's seven billion humans are consuming a growing proportion of the world's ecosystem products and services. Human activity has also wrought changes that rival the scale of many natural geologic processes, e.g. erosion, transport and deposition, leading to recognition of a new geological epoch, the Anthropocene. Because of these impacts, several natural systems have been pushed beyond the planetary boundaries that made the Holocene favorable for the expansion of humanity. Given these human-induced stresses on natural systems, global citizens will face an increasing number of grand challenges. Unfortunately, traditional discipline-based introductory science courses do little to prepare students for these complex, scientifically-based and technologically-centered challenges. With NSF funding, an introductory, integrated science course stressing quantitative reasoning and social context has been created at UW. The course (GEOL1600: Global Sustainability: Managing the Earth's Resources) is a lower division course designed around the energy-water-climate (EWC) nexus and integrating biology, chemistry, Earth science and physics. It melds lectures, lecture activities, reading questionnaires and labs to create a learning environment that examines the EWT nexus from a global through regional context. The focus on the EWC nexus, while important socially and intended to motivate students, also provides a coherent framework for identifying which disciplinary scientific principles and concepts to include in the course: photosynthesis and deep time (fossil fuels), biogeochemical cycles (climate), chemical reactions (combustion), electromagnetic radiation (solar power), nuclear physics (nuclear power), phase changes and diagrams (water and climate), etc. Lecture activities are used to give students the practice they need to make quantitative skills routine and automatic. Laboratory exercises on energy (coal, petroleum, nuclear power), water (in Bangladesh), energy production and water (shale gas hydrofracing and oil sand production) and climate (scientific modeling, carbon emission management) address EWC issues in international, national and regional contexts while reflecting the news headlines of the day.

Myers, J. D.

2011-12-01

297

Retos impuestos por la globalización a los sistemas educativos latinoamericanos / The Challenges of Globalization for Latin American Educational Systems  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Sin desconocer los beneficios de la globalización en el ámbito educativo, tampoco se pueden obviar los problemas que ha generado en América Latina, no sólo por las desigualdades en términos de calidad de la educación, sino también por los criterios economicistas, productivistas y de eficacia con que [...] se han pretendido evaluar todos los procesos educativos. Distintos especialistas parecen concordar que entre los grandes retos y desafíos que enfrentan los sistemas educativos de la región están: equidad, universalización del ciclo básico de enseñanza, disminución de las tasas de repitencia y deserción escolar, incorporación de nuevas tecnologías de la información, fortalecimiento de los vínculos con los mercados laborales, fortalecimiento de la ciudadanía, conciliación entre identidad local y globalización, entre otros. En este trabajo abordamos algunos efectos de la globalización en los cambios educativos, especialmente los desafíos que enfrentan los países latinoamericanos en el siglo XXI. Abstract in english In spite of the recognized benefits of globalization in the educational setting, we cannot ignore the problems it has generated in Latin America: not only because of inequalities in the quality of education, but also because of the use of criteria related to the economy, production and effectiveness [...] in an attempt to evaluate educational processes. Various specialists seem to agree that the major challenges faced by the region's educational systems include ensuring equality, universalizing basic education, decreasing dropout rates and grade repetition, incorporating new information technologies, strengthening links with employment markets, strengthening the community, and reconciling local identities and globalization. This article will address some of the effects of globalization on educational changes, especially the challenges faced by Latin American nations in the twenty-first century.

Juan, Cornejo Espejo.

298

Global Sustainable Development Agenda: An Implication for Conservation Challenges in Cross River State, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The pristine rainforest of Cross River State of Nigeria is ecologically a region of species endemism and one of the 25 biodiversity hotspots in the world. Globally, there has been a drive for sustainability of these valuable ecosystems. The world Commission on Environment and Development articulates this drive and offers clarifications on the instruments to achieve the goals of sustainable development. However, in many countries such as Nigeria and other African countries, the challenges of achieving the global goal of sustainable development are enormous, given the urge for economic and infrastructural development, and the challenging needs of a burgeoning human population. Natural resources conservation in the above circumstances remain an uphill task. In the developed world, advancement in technology and industrial development also poses a serious problem to the global sustainability agenda. From the Nigerian perspective, with Cross River State harboring more than 50 percent of the remaining pristine rainforest, the challenges to sustainable development include inter alia ineffective implementation of international environmental treaties, high rates of deforestation, biodiversity loss, weak institutions, non-resettlement of enclave communities of parks, and lack of commitment on the part of stakeholders. This paper therefore recommends that forest ecological restoration, biodiversity conservation in parks and protected areas, and industrial strengthening should be pursued as core strategies of sustainable development in Nigeria.

Oliver Okey Oji Enuoh

2014-07-01

299

Responding to the Global Financial and Economic Crisis: Meeting the Challenges in Asia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The global financial and economic crisis marks an important turning point for finance and the Asian growth model. Regional consensus is now supporting economic rebalancing away from the dominant focus on exports to developed markets and towards more a more balanced economic structure supported by domestic and regional financial development. In relation to finance, the crisis highlights the necessity of addressing a range of issues across the region. First, Asian approaches to f...

Schou-zibell, L.; Arner, Dw

2010-01-01

300

Addressing Challenging Behaviours in the General Education Setting: Conducting a Teacher-Based Functional Behavioural Assessment (FBA)  

Science.gov (United States)

When a student demonstrates a challenging or problematic behaviour in the classroom, the climate and the instructional experience can change dramatically for both the students and the classroom teacher. Before resorting to sanctions and punitive consequences, there is a series of steps a classroom teacher can conduct to reduce and replace the…

Moreno, Gerardo

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Addressing the empathy deficit: beliefs about the malleability of empathy predict effortful responses when empathy is challenging.  

Science.gov (United States)

Empathy is often thought to occur automatically. Yet, empathy frequently breaks down when it is difficult or distressing to relate to people in need, suggesting that empathy is often not felt reflexively. Indeed, the United States as a whole is said to be displaying an empathy deficit. When and why does empathy break down, and what predicts whether people will exert effort to experience empathy in challenging contexts? Across 7 studies, we found that people who held a malleable mindset about empathy (believing empathy can be developed) expended greater empathic effort in challenging contexts than did people who held a fixed theory (believing empathy cannot be developed). Specifically, a malleable theory of empathy--whether measured or experimentally induced--promoted (a) more self-reported effort to feel empathy when it is challenging (Study 1); (b) more empathically effortful responses to a person with conflicting views on personally important sociopolitical issues (Studies 2-4); (c) more time spent listening to the emotional personal story of a racial outgroup member (Study 5); and (d) greater willingness to help cancer patients in effortful, face-to-face ways (Study 6). Study 7 revealed a possible reason for this greater empathic effort in challenging contexts: a stronger interest in improving one's empathy. Together, these data suggest that people's mindsets powerfully affect whether they exert effort to empathize when it is needed most, and these data may represent a point of leverage in increasing empathic behaviors on a broad scale. PMID:25133727

Schumann, Karina; Zaki, Jamil; Dweck, Carol S

2014-09-01

302

Implementing a Culturally Attuned Functional Behavioural Assessment to Understand and Address Challenging Behaviours Demonstrated by Students from Diverse Backgrounds  

Science.gov (United States)

As the US student population continues to become increasingly diverse, educators have encountered difficulties in distinguishing between cultural differences and genuine disability indicators. This concern is clearly evident in assisting students from diverse backgrounds who demonstrate chronic challenging behaviours. Past practices (e.g.…

Moreno, Gerardo; Wong-Lo, Mickie; Short, Maureen; Bullock, Lyndal M.

2014-01-01

303

Addressing the Challenges of a New Digital Technologies Curriculum: MOOCs as a Scalable Solution for Teacher Professional Development  

Science.gov (United States)

England and Australia have introduced new learning areas, teaching computer science to children from the first year of school. This is a significant milestone that also raises a number of big challenges: the preparation of teachers and the development of resources" at a national scale." Curriculum change is not easy for teachers, in any…

Vivian, Rebecca; Falkner, Katrina; Falkner, Nickolas

2014-01-01

304

Born Global Challenges and Performance - A Study on Competences, Routines, and Corporate Governance Structure of Born Global Software Companies in Sweden and Norway  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Problem: How do the born global firms overcome challenges and sustain performance in international markets through their competences, routines, and corporate governance structure? Purpose: The purpose of this thesis is to explore the competences, routines, and corporate governance structure of born global companies, and understand their role in overcoming challenges of early internationalization and sustaining performance in international markets from early days. Method: This research is cond...

Tunca, Burak; Yuditskaya, Evgenia

2009-01-01

305

Product innovation and commercialization in lean global start-ups: the challenges of turning uncertainties into risks  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The paper examines the distinctive characteristics of product innovation and commercialization in Lean Global Start-up (LGS) – new technology firms which have adopted a lean and global path from or near to their inception. It suggests an uncertainty vs risk framework which allows integrating two research streams – Born Global (BG) firms and lean start-ups. In addition to its integrative theoretical value, the paper offers insights for lean start-up managers dealing with the challenges of a global start.

Tanev, Stoyan; Rasmussen, Erik Stavnsager

306

Addressing the challenges to health sector decentralization in Nepal: an inquiry into the policy and implementation processes.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of the study was to analyze the status and explore the challenges to decentralization policy implementation in Nepal. Thirty seven key informants rich in experience and knowledge, seven focus group discussions, observation of six health facilities and analysis of about 25 key policy documents provided the data for this study. The study identified the challenges to the implementation of decentralization reforms in the public health sector as: (i) centralised and weak management and programming practices of the government; (ii) weak legal and institutional framework; (iii) conflicting policy objectives; (iv) lack of implementation strategy; (v) poor financial and human resource management system; (vi) lack of adequate preparation for managing the reform; (vii) weak capacity at all levels; (viii) political instability. It was revealed that the implementation of the policy in Nepal was extremely poor as many of the important policy measures were either never initiated or they were only partially implemented. The challenges lie both at - policy design and implementation phase. Clear policy objectives, appropriate structure, sound planning, financing and human resources policy, adequate capacity, responsive information system, defined service packages, active participation of stakeholders and a conducive socio-political environment are considered imperative for successful implementation of the policy. Preparation for managing reform implementation at national and district levels is prerequisite for decentralization to work. Pushing for decentralization in a politically fragile environment may rather lead to further fragmentation, instead of strengthening government legitimacy. PMID:20334060

Dhakal, R; Ratanawijitrasin, S; Srithamrongsawat, S

2009-09-01

307

Biological Sciences for the 21st Century: Meeting the Challenges of Sustainable Development in an Era of Global Change  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The symposium was held 10-12 May, 2007 at the Capitol Hilton Hotel in Washington, D. C. The 30 talks explored how some of today's key biological research developments (such as biocomplexity and complex systems analysis, bioinformatics and computational biology, the expansion of molecular and genomics research, and the emergence of other comprehensive or system wide analyses, such as proteomics) contribute to sustainability science. The symposium therefore emphasized the challenges facing agriculture, human health, sustainable energy, and the maintenance of ecosystems and their services, so as to provide a focus and a suite of examples of the enormous potential contributions arising from these new developments in the biological sciences. This symposium was the first to provide a venue for exploring how the ongoing advances in the biological sciences together with new approaches for improving knowledge integration and institutional science capacity address key global challenges to sustainability. The speakers presented new research findings, and identified new approaches and needs in biological research that can be expected to have substantial impacts on sustainability science.

Joel Cracraft; Richard O' Grady

2007-05-12

308

Projected groundwater balance as a state indicator for addressing sustainability and management challenges of overexploited crystalline aquifers  

Science.gov (United States)

In India, particularly in semi-arid regions, groundwater levels are declining at alarming rates due to overexploitation and the sustainable exploitation of groundwater resources is in deep crisis. There is little or no information on groundwater sustainability indicators, which can signal towards the challenges in water management. In this study we downscaled an entire watershed into three zones based on the different hydrodynamic behaviour recorded at the borewell scale. A process-based simple, multi-parameter linear auto-regressive model was developed to predict groundwater levels, which uses recharge, groundwater withdrawal and irrigation return flow as input variables. A comprehensive and predictive long-term groundwater balance is used as a state indicator to evaluate the sustainability and management challenges in the watershed. Two groundwater withdrawal scenarios were designed to assess the impact of groundwater withdrawal on the groundwater balance. We found that geological heterogeneities play a crucial role in controlling groundwater fluctuations. The storage change in two different groundwater withdrawal scenarios shows gradually declining groundwater storage in both scenarios. A long-term assessment of the groundwater balance helps to analyse the state of the groundwater system and to locate priority zones for watershed interventions.

Sarah, S.; Ahmed, S.; Boisson, A.; Violette, S.; de Marsily, G.

2014-11-01

309

Progress in aptamer-mediated drug delivery vehicles for cancer targeting and its implications in addressing chemotherapeutic challenges.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aptamers are novel oligonucleotides with flexible three-dimensional configurations that recognize and bind to their cognate targets, including tumor surface receptors, in a high-affinity and highly specific manner. Because of their unique intrinsic properties, a variety of aptamer-mediated nanovehicles have been developed to directionally transport anti-cancer drugs to tumor sites to minimize systemic cytotoxicity and to enhance permeation by these tumoricidal agents. Despite advances in the selection and synthesis of aptamers and in the conjugation and self-assembly of nanotechnologies, current chemotherapy and drug delivery systems face great challenges. These challenges are due to the limitations of aptamers and vehicles and because of complicated tumor mechanisms, including heterogeneity, anti-cancer drug resistance, and hypoxia-induced aberrances. In this review, we will summarize current approaches utilizing tumor surface hallmarks and aptamers and their roles and mechanisms in therapeutic nanovehicles targeting tumors. Delivery forms include nanoparticles, nanotubes, nanogels, aptamer-drug conjugates, and novel molecular trains. Moreover, the obstacles posed by the aforementioned issues will be highlighted, and possible solutions will be acknowledged. Furthermore, future perspectives will be presented, including cutting-edge integration with RNA interference nanotechnology and personalized chemotherapy, which will facilitate innovative approaches to aptamer-based therapeutics. PMID:25057317

Zhu, Jie; Huang, He; Dong, Shiwu; Ge, Liang; Zhang, Yuan

2014-01-01

310

Progress in Aptamer-Mediated Drug Delivery Vehicles for Cancer Targeting and Its Implications in Addressing Chemotherapeutic Challenges  

Science.gov (United States)

Aptamers are novel oligonucleotides with flexible three-dimensional configurations that recognize and bind to their cognate targets, including tumor surface receptors, in a high-affinity and highly specific manner. Because of their unique intrinsic properties, a variety of aptamer-mediated nanovehicles have been developed to directionally transport anti-cancer drugs to tumor sites to minimize systemic cytotoxicity and to enhance permeation by these tumoricidal agents. Despite advances in the selection and synthesis of aptamers and in the conjugation and self-assembly of nanotechnologies, current chemotherapy and drug delivery systems face great challenges. These challenges are due to the limitations of aptamers and vehicles and because of complicated tumor mechanisms, including heterogeneity, anti-cancer drug resistance, and hypoxia-induced aberrances. In this review, we will summarize current approaches utilizing tumor surface hallmarks and aptamers and their roles and mechanisms in therapeutic nanovehicles targeting tumors. Delivery forms include nanoparticles, nanotubes, nanogels, aptamer-drug conjugates, and novel molecular trains. Moreover, the obstacles posed by the aforementioned issues will be highlighted, and possible solutions will be acknowledged. Furthermore, future perspectives will be presented, including cutting-edge integration with RNA interference nanotechnology and personalized chemotherapy, which will facilitate innovative approaches to aptamer-based therapeutics. PMID:25057317

Zhu, Jie; Huang, He; Dong, Shiwu; Ge, Liang; Zhang, Yuan

2014-01-01

311

The Davis Junior High Global Warming Project and Bike/Walk to School Challenge  

Science.gov (United States)

Junior high school students in Davis, CA, were targeted in an outreach project combining interactive and hands- on information about global warming and carbon footprints with a bike/walk to school challenge. The project was conducted by the Kearney Foundation of Soil Science, the Department of Land, Air and Water Resources and the John Muir Institute of the Environment at the University of California Davis. Approximately 70 undergraduates, graduate students, post-doc researchers, faculty and staff from UCD and the town of Davis were involved. Workshops were held in the 7th, 8th and 9th grade science classes in Davis' 3 junior high schools, reaching a total of 1700 students. Each 50-minute presentation consisted of a Global Warming Jeopardy game, followed by individual calculation of carbon footprints oriented towards a junior high school student. Biking or walking to school, instead commuting by car, was introduced as an important and feasible activity that could reduce one's carbon footprint. Working with staff from each junior high, students were then challenged to increase biking or walking to school during a 2 week Bike/Walk to School Challenge . UCD students and staff monitored automobile commuting (# cars, idle time) and bike use during this time and provided incentives for biking or walking . All schools were recognized for efforts to reduce their carbon footprints, and the concept was reinforced at the start of the following school year by planting a tree at each school.

King, A.; Anastasio, C.; Niemeier, D.; Scow, K.

2007-12-01

312

A Short Study of Iranian Organizations' Needs in the Area of Globalization: Opportunities, Challenges and Relative Advantages  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Globalization and liberalization in developing countries is a lengthy process that has been a long time in the making. Some countries have accepted the reality of globalization while other undeveloped nations have yet to fully embrace this shift. For some, this has been in part due to fears among some underdeveloped nations that embracing globalization and becoming increasingly connected to a global economic network would put them in a bad position with relation to other powerful countries and multinational firms. Iran is an example of a developing country trying to be competitive in an increasingly global economy. The aim of this paper is to identify the needs for Iran and Iranian organizations in the process of globalization, focusing on opportunities, challenges, relative advantages and practical guides.Keywords: Globalization; Local development; Opportunities and Challenges

Mohammad Reza Noruzi

2010-09-01

313

Addressing the challenges of a cross-national investigation: lessons from the Pittsburgh-Pisa study of treatment-relevant phenotypes of unipolar depression*  

Science.gov (United States)

Background To date, no cross-national RCT has addressed the mechanisms underlying the relative success of pharmacological and psychotherapeutic interventions for depression. A multi-site clinical trial that includes psychotherapy as one of the treatments presents numerous challenges related to cross-site consistency and communication. Purpose This report describes how those challenges were met in the study “Depression: The Search for Treatment Relevant Phenotypes”, being carried out at the University of Pittsburgh and the University of Pisa, Italy. Methods Implementing the study required the investigators to address methodological and practical challenges related to the different requirements of the two Institutional Review Boards (IRBs), psychotherapy training, independent evaluator training, patient recruitment, development of common tools for data entry, quality control and generation of weekly reports of patient progress as well as establishing a similar clinical and research framework in two countries with substantially different health care systems. Results By having bilingual investigators and staff members who spent time at one another’s sites, making use of frequent conference-call staff meetings and being flexible within the bounds of the sometimes contradictory requirements of the IRBs, the investigators were able to meet the human subjects protection requirements of both institutions, surmount language barriers to consistent therapist and evaluator training and develop common tools for study management. As a result, recruitment goals were met at both sites and retention rates were high. One instance of inconsistent implementation of the protocol was corrected within the first year. Limitations This study was conducted in two Western cultures by researchers with long-standing collaboration. Our findings may not be generalizable to other countries or research settings. Conclusions The implementation of a cross-national protocol and the adoption and maintenance of common procedures is possible when investigators are aware of the challenges this may present and are proactive in trying to address them. PMID:18559415

Frank, Ellen; Cassano, Giovanni B; Rucci, Paola; Fagiolini, Andrea; Maggi, Luca; Kraemer, Helena C; Kupfer, David J; Pollock, Bruce; Bies, Robert; Nimgaonkar, Vishwajit; Pilkonis, Paul; Shear, M Katherine; Thompson, Wesley K; Grochocinski, Victoria J; Scocco, Paolo; Buttenfield, Joan; Forgione, Rocco Nicola

2012-01-01

314

Research in sub-saharan African food systems must address post-sustainability challenges and increase developmental returns  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Post-sustainability challenges to food systems of Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) include climate change vulnerability, globalisation of agri-food chains and markets and emerging low-carbon energy systems. In addition, the lack of investment in research for development (R4D) in SSA, all underlines need to rethink R4D to pursue policy purposes. A starting point could be the sustainable livelihoods approach, as a research paradigm focusing on sector-related problems, while questioning the salience, credibility and legitimacy of research findings. Even with a sector-related prioritization of the investments in research in agriculture in the south, the north and south has to rethink partnership options to enhance capacity to do research. Without such rethinking, scientific logic will continue to limit the contribution that agricultural R4D can make toward achieving millennium development goals.

Jensen, Henning HØgh; Egelyng, Henrik

2009-01-01

315

Report on the INMM Workshop on preparing for nuclear arms reductions to address technical transparency and verification challenges  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In May 2011, a workshop was held to develop broader awareness of the technical and operational challenges that could be used to enhance effective transparency and/or verification in the medium to long-term. Building confidence in a broader multi-lateral engagement scenario adds even greater challenges than the traditional bi-lateral approaches. The multi-disciplinary group that attended included decision-makers needing to understand present and possible future technical capabilities, and the technical community needing clearer definition of possible requirements and operational constraints. In additional to traditional presentations, the group conducted an exercise to stimulate new perspectives on verification requirements for a scenario based on nuclear arms reductions at very low numbers of nuclear weapons. The workshop participants were divided into two groups and asked to explore the political and technical requirements needed for States to move towards significant arms reductions. Using a technique called 'back-casting' participants were asked to imagine a world without nuclear weapons and describe what would be needed to achieve levels of one thousand, one hundred, ten, and ultimately zero weapons in the world. Most participants agreed that a strong political commitment will be necessary and that complete disarmament will only be possible if states are convinced that nuclear weapons serve no purpose. Both groups believed that a time period of greater instability would be encountered when moving from 1000 to 100 nuclear weapons and that it would be imperative to accelerate quickly through this period. The group discussed the need to have an international body monitor the disarmament process to maintain legitimacy for the international community. One possibility could be the development of an intergovernmental panel on verification and disarmament to monitor and facilitate disarmament. The groups recognized the problem of fissile material disposition after warheads dismantlement. Controlling fissile materials is important since nuclear material could be a direct route to reconstitution of weapons. (A.C.)

316

Opening address [International conference on challenges faced by technical and scientific support organizations in enhancing nuclear safety  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In summary, I would like to leave you with several thoughts that could shape the outcome of your deliberations this week: (a) networking among TSOs to share safety related information, knowledge and resources, thus ensuring effective support for the regulators and improving safety; (b) identifying and addressing the safety research needs, and possibly the associated education and training; (c) ensuring adequate competence and independence of the TSOs in providing technical and scientific expertise/advice; (d) building and maintaining confidence among the communities of experts and the public; (e) increasing the role of TSOs in the establishment and revision of the IAEA safety standards and their application, and in the national efforts related to the implementation of conventions and codes of conduct; (f) supporting the creation and enhancement of the safety infrastructures in those countries with limited nuclear experience that are embarking on the use of nuclear power

317

Stigma, survivorship and solutions: Addressing the challenges of living with breast cancer in low-resource areas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Breast cancer in developing nations is characterised by late diagnosis. The causes are multifactorial and many are addressed in other articles in this edition of CME. Breast cancer is also seen in younger women. The late-presentation trend is slowly changing in some areas, and an increasing number o [...] f women are presenting with early disease. These patients, if managed appropriately, have a more favourable prognosis. As a result, developing nations must now begin to consider the concerns of breast cancer survivorship. In developed countries, there are a number of organisations that support breast cancer survivors. In this article, we highlight some of the psychosocial aspects of living with breast cancer in low-resource areas.

M, Mutebi; J, Edge.

318

Stigma, survivorship and solutions: Addressing the challenges of living with breast cancer in low-resource areas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Breast cancer in developing nations is characterised by late diagnosis. The causes are multifactorial and many are addressed in other articles in this edition of CME. Breast cancer is also seen in younger women. The late-presentation trend is slowly changing in some areas, and an increasing number o [...] f women are presenting with early disease. These patients, if managed appropriately, have a more favourable prognosis. As a result, developing nations must now begin to consider the concerns of breast cancer survivorship. In developed countries, there are a number of organisations that support breast cancer survivors. In this article, we highlight some of the psychosocial aspects of living with breast cancer in low-resource areas.

M, Mutebi; J, Edge.

2014-05-01

319

Opening address  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Honourable Representatives of His Majesty King Mohammed VI and of the Government of Morocco, representatives of sponsoring organizations, distinguished participants, on behalf of the Director General of the IAEA, it is my pleasure and privilege to welcome you to this International Conference on National Infrastructures for Radiation Safety: Towards Effective and Sustainable Systems. I would like to express my sincere appreciation to His Majesty King Mohammed VI for his patronage, to the Government of Morocco and the University Mohammed V, Agdal, for hosting this conference in the beautiful and historic city of Rabat, and to the local organizers for their diligent planning and gracious hospitality. I would also like to thank the four organizations that are co-operating with the IAEA in holding this conference: the World Health Organization, the Pan American Health Organization, the International Labour Organization, the European Commission and the OECD/Nuclear Energy Agency. National infrastructure for radiation safety has emerged as an issue of international concern over the last two decades. Systematic and strategic consideration of infrastructure has become widely recognized as an essential prerequisite for safety. The first IAEA conference to address the topic was in Munich, Germany, in 1990. The 1996 edition of the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (known as the Basic Sof Radiation Sources (known as the Basic Safety Standards or BSS) highlighted the issue, and the IAEA's technical co-operation Model Project for Upgrading Radiation Protection Infrastructure was introduced to help address it. The Model Project has helped, and continues to help, more than 85 IAEA Member States to work towards the goal of a radiation safety infrastructure in accordance with the Basic Safety Standards. A great deal has been achieved, but this work is not complete. Furthermore, not all States are members of the IAEA or the Model Project, and there are around 50 non-Member States that may need similar assistance. I would, therefore, like to extend a special welcome to representatives of those States that are not members of the IAEA, and to thank the United States of America for providing extrabudgetary support to make possible the participation of these States in this conference. The issue of orphan sources has been instrumental in stirring the international community into action. Initially, orphan sources were seen primarily as a safety issue. However, since the terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001 in the USA, the security dimension has brought an increased sense of urgency. Security considerations have also led to a greater recognition that national systems for the control of sources can only be fully effective if all States have effective systems, that is, if there is an effective global system of control. But there is a broader underlying reason why we need to continue to strengthen national infrastructures for radiation safety. Technologies that make use of radiation and radioactive material - in medicine, in research, in industry, in agriculture and water resource management - have expanded and spread all around the world, and continue to grow. These technologies bring great benefits - often desperately needed - but those benefits cannot be fully enjoyed unless the technologies can be used safely. Effective national infrastructures provide the foundation for the safe use of these technologies.I hope that the sharing of knowledge and experience at this conference will contribute to a 'virtuous circle' of continuous improvement. I look forward to the conference providing deeper and broader ideas for how the IAEA can be more effective in assisting in this very challenging area. I wish you well in your deliberations this week, and I look forward to hearing your findings. I invite the representatives of the four co-operating organizations to make their opening remarks, and I give the floor firstly to Mr. Repacholi, representing the World Healt

320

Global Marketing of Readymade Garment Products from Bangladesh: Market Prospect and Challenges  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper examines the global export market and its prospect and challenges for Bangladesh readymade garment products. The shift share method is used to identify the potential export market by selected seven major categories of readymade garment products on the basis of three-digit level Standards International Trade Classification (SITC for the period of 1987-93 and 1994-2000. The results of shift share analysis indicate that the USA, Canada and European Union (EU countries mainly offered the market opportunities for the export of garment products of Bangladesh. Asian countries have very negligible role in this respect. The challenges faced by the sector include: tough competition from other competitive countries such as India, Thailand, China and Vietnam, to slow progress of its high-technology adoption and slow inflow of foreign investment. Finally, in 2005, the MFA quota would be phased out.

Ahasanul Haque

2002-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Globalni izzivi v svetovni industriji bele tehnike = Global Challenges in the Domestic Appliances Industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available bal Challenges in the Domestic Appliances IndustryAbstract: The domestic appliances industry is a mature industry. Changes in the business environment such as political, law, cultural, social, ecological and technological influences have an effect on the future development of this industry. Challenges to producers in this industry are oriented towards the further globalisation of the business, managing processes, new product and innovations development, and towards establishing and empowerment of the product brands. Global trends in the use of some natural sources, technological break-through, fulfilment of the market and strong competition direct us towards new innovations which will in their development consider also the social and environmental aspect as well.

Dušan Gošnik

2009-06-01

322

Rugby contact and collisions--clinical challenges of a global game.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rugby Union (rugby) is a sport that evolved from and resembles other forms of football but is unique in many respects and presents distinctive clinical challenges. This article discusses those aspects of rugby that are different from other sports and those injuries that have specific significance to the game as a result of it being a global collision sport with an increasing focus on serious injury prevention. Injury screening and intervention programs, neck injuries, rugby's contribution to evolving concussion protocols, contact and travel-related illnesses, and rugby's drug intervention protocols are discussed. PMID:25211621

Patricios, Jon S

2014-01-01

323

Accelerating the global nuclear renaissance: the central challenge of sustainable development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The rebirth of nuclear energy has become an unmistakable reality that is gathering speed and momentum on the full world stage. All around the world, old-school anti-nuclear environmentalism is being eclipsed by a new realism that recognises nuclear energy's essential virtue: its capacity to deliver cleanly generated power safely, reliably, and on a massive scale. For serious environmentalists, the real challenge is that nuclear energy is not yet growing fast enough to play its needed role in the clean-energy revolution our world so desperately needs. A fair assessment shows that not one of the commonly cited ''public concerns'' poses a reasonable obstacle to a global expansion of nuclear power: Proliferation, Operational Safety, Cost Reduction, Waste Management. In three areas, governments must take decisive action to grow the nuclear industry: (1) Construct a comprehensive global regime to curtail greenhouse emissions; (2) Elevate nuclear investment to a national and international policy priority; and (3) Support educational development of the nuclear profession for an expanded global role. The global nuclear industry will be indispensable if humanity is to preserve the environment that enabled civilisation to evolve. Governments must emerge from postures of timidity and equivocation to act decisively in support of that industry. Our world is in dire peril, and we have no time to lose

324

Transportability of tertiary qualifications and CPD: A continuing challenge for the global health workforce  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background In workforces that are traditionally mobile and have long lead times for new supply, such as health, effective global indicators of tertiary education are increasingly essential. Difficulties with transportability of qualifications and cross-accreditation are now recognised as key barriers to meeting the rapidly shifting international demands for health care providers. The plethora of mixed education and service arrangements poses challenges for employers and regulators, let alone patients; in determining equivalence of training and competency between individuals, institutions and geographical locations. Discussion This paper outlines the shortfall of the current indicators in assisting the process of global certification and competency recognition in the health care workforce. Using Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD data we highlight how International standardisation in the tertiary education sector is problematic for the global health workforce. Through a series of case studies, we then describe a model which enables institutions to compare themselves internally and with others internationally using bespoke or prioritised parameters rather than standards. Summary The mobility of the global health workforce means that transportability of qualifications is an increasing area of concern. Valid qualifications based on workplace learning and assessment requires at least some variables to be benchmarked in order to judge performance.

Saltman Deborah C

2012-07-01

325

Addressing verification challenges, 16 October 2006, Vienna, Austria, Symposium on International Safeguards (16-20 October 2006)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In his talk about Verification Challenges Dr. Mohamed ElBaradei, Director General of the IAEA, welcomed the participants of the Symposium on International Safeguards. He stated that safeguards is probably the most difficult task entrusted to an international organization and that a major increase in nuclear energy around the globe is expected which means that nuclear know-how is spread to more and more countries and can be applied to both peaceful purposes and also non-peaceful purposes. More and more countries want to go in for the nuclear fuel cycle including sensitive fuel cycle activities like enrichment and reprocessing, they become so-called 'virtual nuclear weapons States. There is the need to develop a new international or multinational approach to the fuel cycle so as to avoid ending up with not just nine nuclear weapon States but another 20 or 30 States which have the capacity to develop nuclear weapons in a very short span of time. He stressed the important linkage between disarmament and non-proliferation and remembered the audience that safeguards, although very much a technical activity, operates in a politically charged environment. The IAEA's job is to make sure that countries with comprehensive safeguards are conducting all their activities exclusively for peaceful purposes. The ability to discover possible undeclared activities is a key challenge the IAEA is facing. He mentioned that the IAEA does not get all the information they would need, for example the IAEA does not get systematic information from the Nuclear Suppliers Group on exports and imports. Without the Additional Protocol the IAEA is also hampered in its ability to detect undeclared activities, e.g in the R and D activities that do not directly involve nuclear material. Another key issue are financial resources. Transparency measures in certain situations are under considerations including interviewing people, having access to documents, things that are not strictly required by the Additional Protocol but without which the IAEA cannot move forward. Environmental sampling and satellite monitoring are new tools the IAEA is now using almost routinely. New verification tools are developed in co-operation with the Member States

326

Technical Study Addresses a Key Challenge to Harmonizing U.S. and International PV Module Standards (Fact Sheet)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

NREL builds community and industry support by addressing concerns voiced by key standards organizations. Photovoltaic (PV) manufacturers in the United States test the safety of their products using standards developed through consensus processes. Because U.S. PV module safety standards are not aligned with international standards, manufacturers must test their modules twice - and sometimes maintain separate product lines. By meeting with standards organizations such as the Solar ABCs and Underwriters Laboratories (UL), National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) leaders have worked to identify different stakeholders priorities and concerns. UL, specifically, has expressed concern that the international standards do not address all possible risks. For example, new encapsulant materials could soften at high temperatures and frameless modules could slide apart, exposing live electrical parts or allowing glass to fall on a person below. The deformation of a solid material under the influence of mechanical stresses is known as 'creep.' Current module qualification tests are limited to 85 C, whereas modules can, for short times, reach 105 C outdoors. In response to UL's concern, NREL designed and executed an experiment to compare on-sun and accelerated rates of creep for modules fabricated with various encapsulants, including some that have low melting points. Objectives were to (1) evaluate the potential for creep in outdoor exposure, (2) provide guidance on the risks and design needs with thermoplastic materials, and (3) provide a basis for modifying standards to account for materials with potential to creep. The study tested experimental materials with eight representative encapsulants in both outdoor and indoor (chamber) exposure. The study found that modules with materials that were expected to creep did so in the indoor exposure, but not in most outdoor environments and mounting configurations. The results provide a basis for defining an accelerated test needed to give confidence that the modules will not slide apart on hot days. The proposal for IEC 61730 Part 1 exposes modules for 200 hours to a temperature between 105 C and 110 C. NREL is collaborating with UL representatives, and U.S. and international standards appear to be closer to harmonization.

2012-07-01

327

Addressing the challenges of a new digital technologies curriculum: MOOCs as a scalable solution for teacher professional development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available England and Australia have introduced new learning areas, teaching computer science to children from the first year of school. This is a significant milestone that also raises a number of big challenges: the preparation of teachers and the development of resources at a national scale. Curriculum change is not easy for teachers, in any context, and to ensure teachers are supported, scaled solutions are required. One educational approach that has gained traction for delivering content to large-scale audiences are massively open online courses (MOOCs; however, little is known about what constitutes effective MOOC design, particularly within professional development contexts. To prepare teachers in Australia, we decided to ride the wave of MOOCs, developing a MOOC to deliver free computing content and pedagogy to teachers with the integration of social media to support knowledge exchange and resource building. The MOOC was designed to meet teacher needs, allowing for flexibility, ad-hoc interactions, support and the open sharing of resources. In this paper, we describe the process of developing our initiative, participant engagement and experiences, so that others encountering similar changes and reforms may learn from our experience.

Rebecca Vivian

2014-08-01

328

Opening address by conference president [International conference on challenges faced by technical and scientific support organizations in enhancing nuclear safety  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Under the current global circumstances of steady and rapid economic growth combined with the need for environmental protection, the nuclear energy industry is encountering a renaissance. Accordingly, nuclear and radiation safety need to be increasingly promoted as high priorities. The governments of many countries attach great importance to nuclear safety and have carried out a great deal of work in such areas as improving the legal system for its regulation, promoting capacity building in its surveillance, establishing a healthy management system and developing a nuclear safety culture. Effective nuclear safety regulatory systems have been set up around the world after several decades. In order to enhance nuclear safety, it is necessary to establish technical and scientific support organizations (TSOs) in the field of nuclear safety. Such organizations, whether pertaining to the nuclear regulatory body or to the utilities, are gaining increased importance by providing the technical and scientific basis for safety decisions and activities. At present, TSOs are playing a crucial role in technical backup for nuclear regulatory bodies and utilities in all areas of nuclear and radiation safety

329

Engaging sub-national governments in addressing health equities: challenges and opportunities in China's health system reform.  

Science.gov (United States)

China's current health system reform (HSR) is striving to resolve deep inequities in health outcomes. Achieving this goal is difficult not only because of continuously increasing income disparities in China but also because of weaknesses in healthcare financing and delivery at the local level. We explore to what extent sub-national governments, which are largely responsible for health financing in China, are addressing health inequities. We describe the recent trend in health inequalities in China, and analyse government expenditure on health in the context of China's decentralization and intergovernmental model to assess whether national, provincial and sub-provincial public resource allocations and local government accountability relationships are aligned with this goal. Our analysis reveals that government expenditure on health at sub-national levels, which accounts for ?90% of total government expenditure on health, is increasingly regressive across provinces, and across prefectures within provinces. Increasing inequity in public expenditure at sub-national levels indicates that resources and responsibilities at sub-national levels in China are not well aligned with national priorities. China's HSR would benefit from complementary measures to improve the governance and financing of public service delivery. We discuss the existing weaknesses in local governance and suggest possible approaches to better align the responsibilities and capacity of sub-national governments with national policies, standards, laws and regulations, therefore ensuring local-level implementation and enforcement. Drawing on China's institutional framework and ongoing reform pilots, we present possible approaches to: (1) consolidate key health financing responsibilities at the provincial level and strengthen the accountability of provincial governments, (2) define targets for expenditure on primary health care, outputs and outcomes for each province and (3) use independent sources to monitor and evaluate policy implementation and service delivery and to strengthen sub-national government performance management. PMID:23221008

Brixi, Hana; Mu, Yan; Targa, Beatrice; Hipgrave, David

2013-12-01

330

Advancing the Structural Use of Earth-based Bricks: Addressing Key Challenges in the East African Context  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The research discussed in this paper is a subset of a bigger, NSF funded research project that is directed at investigating the use of sustainable building materials. The deployment context for the research is the hot and humid climate using selected cases from the East African region. The overarching goal for the research is advancing the structural use of earth-based technologies. Significant strides can be made through developing strategies for countering the adverse factors that affect the structural performance of the resulting wall, especially ones related to moisture dynamics. The research was executed in two phases. The first phase was a two-day NSF supported workshop which was held in Tanzania in July 2009. It provided a forum for sharing best practices in earth-based building technologies and developing a research and development roadmap. The priority research areas were broadly classified as optimizing the physio-mechanical properties of earth as a building material and managing socio-cultural impediments. In the second phase of the research, the authors collaborated with researchers from East Africa to conduct experimental work on the optimization of physio-mechanical properties. The specific research issues that have been addressed are: (1 characterizing the chemical reactions that can be linked to deterioration triggered by hygrothermal loads based on the hot and humid context, and; (2 developing a prototype for a simpler, portable, affordable and viable compressed brick production machine. The paper discusses the results from the characterization work that ultimately will be used to design bricks that have specific properties based on an understanding of how different stabilizers affect the hydration process. It also describes a cheaper, portable and more efficient prototype machine that has been developed as part of the follow-up research activities.

Mang Tia

2010-11-01

331

Building a Course on Global Sustainability using the grand challenges of Energy-Water-Climate  

Science.gov (United States)

GEOL1600: Global Sustainability: Managing the Earth's Resources is a lower division integrated science course at the University of Wyoming that fulfills the university's science requirement. Course content and context has been developed using the grand challenge nexus of energy-water-and climate (EWC). The interconnection of these issues, their social relevance and timeliness has provided a framework that gives students an opportunity to recognize why STEM is relevant to their lives regardless of their ultimate professional career choices. The EWC nexus provides the filter to sieve the course's STEM content. It also provides an ideal mechanism by which the non-STEM perspectives important in grand challenge solutions can be seamlessly incorporated in the course. Through a combination of content and context, the relevance of these issues engage students in their own learning. Development of the course followed the Grand Challenge Scientific Literacy (GCSL) model independently developed by the author and two colleagues at the University of Wyoming. This course model stresses science principles centered on the nature of science (e.g., fundamental premises, habits of mind, critical thinking) and unifying scientific concepts (e.g., methods and tools, experimentation, modeling). Grand challenge principles identify the STEM and non-STEM concepts needed to understand the grand challenges, drawing on multiple STEM and non-STEM disciplines and subjects (i.e., economics, politics, unintended consequences, roles of stakeholders). Using the EWC nexus filter and building on the Grand Challenge Principles, specific content included in the course is selected is that most relevant to understanding the Grand Challenges, thereby stressing content depth over breadth. Because quantitative data and reasoning is critical to effectively evaluating challenge solutions, QR is a component of nearly all class activities, while engineering and technology aspects of grand challenges are explicitly stressed. Running concurrently through the course is a consideration of personal perspectives and their influence on student learning, particularly for controversial subjects. Organizationally, the course consists of three one hour lectures and a two hour lab each week. The lectures are used to introduce content and prepare the knowledge base students need for lab. Complementing traditional lectures are lecture worksheets (short activities applying topics previously presented in lecture) and lecture activities (more involved exercises that present a problem the students need to solve using previously learned scientific content and QR skills and tools). Labs focus on case studies set in global social contexts that are timely and relevant. Labs stress scientific skills (modeling groundwater flow) and also consider political and environmental issues, e.g. developing a policy to manage SO2 emissions from copper smelting. The ideas, concepts, educational materials and content developed in this course have been used as the basis for two Math Science Partnerships that have provided professional development for middle and high school science and math teachers and K-12 social, math and science teachers. These programs have worked with teachers to break down the barriers between disciplines and foster collaborative learning centered on socially relevant grand challenges.

Myers, J. D.

2012-12-01

332

Peak water from glaciers: advances and challenges in a global perspective (Arne Richter Award for Outstanding Young Scientists Lecture)  

Science.gov (United States)

Mountain glaciers show a high sensitivity to changes in climate forcing. In a global perspective, their anticipated retreat will pose far-reaching challenges to the manage- ment of fresh water resources and will raise sea levels significantly within only a few decades. Different model frameworks have been applied to simulate melt water con- tributions of glaciers outside the two ice sheets for the recent IPCC report. However, these models depend on strongly simplified, and often empirical descriptions of the driving processes hampering the reliability of the results. For example, glacier retreat is parameterized with volume-area scaling thus neglecting the glacier's actual geome- try and the surface elevation feedback. Frontal ablation of tidewater and lake-calving glaciers, an important mass loss component for a third of the world's glacier area, is not accounted for. Thus, a transition from the physically-based mass balance-ice flow models developed for single glaciers to the application at the global scale is urgently needed. The chal- lenges are manifold but can be tackled with the new data sets, methods and process- understanding that have emerged during the last years. Here, we present a novel glacier model for calculating the response of surface mass balance and 3D glacier geometry for each individual glacier around the globe. Our approach accounts for feedbacks due to glacier retreat and includes models for mass loss due to frontal ablation and the refreezing of water in the snow/firn. The current surface geometry and thickness distribution for each of the world's roughly 200'000 glaciers is extracted from the Randolph Glacier Inventory v3.2 and terrain models. Our simulations are driven with 14 Global Circulation Models from the CMIP5 project using the RCP4.5, RCP8.5 and RCP2.6 scenarios. Regionally specified cumulative global sea level rise due to glacier mass loss until 2100 is discussed in the light of model uncertainties and the advantages of using a physically- based approach. In particular, we focus on the timing of peak water from glacierized catchments in all climatic regions of the earth. The maximum rate of water release from glacial storage is subject to a high spatio-temporal variability. Peak water represents a crucial tipping point for sustained water supply even for regions with only a minor glacier coverage, and is relevant to the dynamics of sea level rise. Furthermore, we address the ratio between surface mass balance and frontal ablation of tidewater glaciers at the global scale.

Huss, Matthias; Hock, Regine

2014-05-01

333

Realistic student enquiries, global challenges and the role of a development charity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Engineering programmes within highereducation have significant scope to makea contribution to global challenges suchas sustainable development and solutionsto world poverty. Alongside such acontribution to society, universities are alsoexploring ways to focus student learningaround realistic enquiries. It is thereforeimportant to explore approaches thataddress such challenges and pedagogies,which indeed also offer a way forward inattracting and motivating students, and inpreparing them for suitable careers.We report here on an evaluation of astudent-based engineering design servicefor development organisations, involving apartnership between a charity, a universityand development professionals. Theservice involves teams of undergraduatestudents designing, making and testingintermediate technologies. The paperexplores a model based around enquirybasedlearning, and draws on a set ofnaturally-occurring reflective accountsprovided by the students involved.While learning about technical issues wasimportant, the study shows how a realisticdeveloping-world context motivated studentwork, enhancing students’ confidence andreadiness to make a difference. Varioustechnical issues emerged with scope tohamper the educational experience, as didthe challenge of ensuring fairness acrossdifferent enquiries. Strategies are proposedto manage rather than ignore or reducesuch variation, an issue which has receivedrelatively little attention hitherto in relationto project work or enquiry-based learning.

Peter Kahn

2007-12-01

334

Quality Education in Tanzania: Perceptions on Global Challenges and Local Needs  

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Full Text Available The study explored notions of quality in education and the challenges facing Tanzania. The inquiry adopted a humanist approach to determining levels of quality in schools, thus respondents recorded their perceptions on key issues on quality education, relevant to Tanzania. The study used mixed methods and non-probability sampling which selected 20 schools involving 200 participants. Data was collected using written accounts and qualitative questionnaires and a preliminary quantitative questionnaire, which was used before further exploration of phenomena. The participants involved students, teachers, head-teachers and education officers from both urban and rural schools in Northern Tanzania. This data was analysed to form themes for discussion so as to describe and capture the challenges faced by schools in their quest for quality education. The ensuing discussion helped provide a clearer understanding through a qualitative description of Tanzania’s local needs and global challenges regarding quality education. Despite Tanzania’s commendable efforts in increased funding on education in recent years, ahead of its East African neighbors, this investment has not gone far enough to meet citizens’ expectations and satisfaction on quality education, possibly due to widespread neglect in previous years.

Icarbord Tshabangu

2013-03-01

335

GLOBAL CHALLENGES TO LEGAL REGULATION OF STATE AND CIVIL SOCIETY RELATIONSHIP  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to present the role of law in structuring and regulating the state-civil society relationship and the extent of the challenge globalization poses to this triangular relationship. While there are a number of different conceptualizations and formulations of the state-civil society relationship, it is only through a legal framework that this relationship is formally defined. The article begins by providing a conceptual framework for the state and civil society distinction and then introduces the evolution of law into a legal system as the precondition for ifferentiating the civil society as a non-state actor. A comparative evaluation of civil society development in totalitarian,liberal and welfare state systems provides an analytical backdrop for the contemporary transformations generated by globalization and how that affects legal systems, states and civil societies within the realm of the nation-state as well as in the larger context of a global political economic structure.

Asl?han Aykaç

2010-07-01

336

The United Nations and Global Public Goods: Historical Contributions and Future Challenges.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Published by Palgrave MacmillanThis chapter explores the thesis that the United Nations’ (UN most important contribution to the production of global public goods has been its role in creating the space and capacity to generate shared values. Starting with the UN Charter itself, the chapter traces the evolution of this contribution through different historical phases. It analyses the impact of globalisation on the role of the UN; in particular it identifies the quality of porousness as a product of globalisation which is critical to understanding the current challenges faced by the UN as well as central to the global public goods agenda. Through this lens the author briefly reviews the evolution of the UN’s role in the fields of peace and security, human rights and development cooperation. He concludes by identifying eight levers for change that will determine the UN’s ability to contribute significantly to the global public goods: the generation of norms and shared values, the quality of leadership, improved governance, innovative financing, institutional realignment, the further consolidation of legal instruments, focus, and the power of networks.

Bruce Jenks

2012-03-01

337

Opening Statement - Zhang Dejiang [International Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Energy in the 21. Century: Addressing Energy Needs and Environmental Challenges, Beijing (China), 20-22 April 2009  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nuclear science and technology is one of the greatest scientific and technological achievements of humankind in the 20th century. Nuclear science and technology is widely applied in various sectors, with over 50 years of development, such as energy, industry, agriculture, health and environmental protection, and is playing an important role in the prospering economy, and in improving peoples? livelihoods and promoting sustainable development. With global economic development and rising energy consumption, supply of traditional energy sources is becoming more stretched, and climate change is becoming an increasingly severe challenge. It is a common task of the international community to develop and utilize clean and renewable energy sources and properly address growing contradictions among economic development, energy development and environmental protection. Given its advantage as a clean, safe energy source that could be applied at a large scale, more and more countries are placing importance on nuclear energy. Accelerating the peaceful use of nuclear energy is the common wish and inevitable choice of many countries. China started the development of nuclear energy in the early 1950s, and with the efforts of over half a century, China has established a relatively complete nuclear industry system. The installed capacity of nuclear power has reached 9 100 MW(e), and nuclear power generation accounts for 2 per cent of the national total electricity generated. Nuclear energy is playing an incremental role in China?s economic development. However, nuclear energy utilization is rather insufficient in China, its development level is behind countries which are advanced in nuclear energy use such as the United States of America and France, and the rate of nuclear power generation in the total electricity generated still falls behind the world average level. China?s energy supply mix features a dominance of coal and a low proportion of clean energy. To achieve sustainable energy and socioeconomic development, China has formulated the energy development strategy of actively promoting energy conservation and optimizing the energy structure. Accelerating nuclear power development and enhancing the ratio of clean energy such as nuclear power in the aggregate energy supply is the priority of China?s energy development strategy. Currently, the peaceful use of nuclear energy has entered a stage of rapid development. A batch of new nuclear power projects are starting construction in coastal areas, preparation for other new projects is going on in an orderly manner, and demonstration projects of the introduction of third generation nuclear power technology are moving ahead smoothly. Scientific and research engineering programmes such as China?s experimental fast reactor, high temperature gas cooled reactor and thermal nuclear fusion device are making positive progress. The nuclear fuel cycle industry continues its development, and the ability to ensure supply of nuclear fuel is being enhanced. China has always attached great importance to nuclear safety in its promotion of nuclear energy utilization, and it has established a fairly complete nuclear safety legal, regulatory and emergency management system that is in line with international best practices. China has issued a series of instruments such as nuclear safety regulations, rules, guidelines and standards. Independent, strict and efficient nuclear safety supervision and management and scientific management of nuclear facility operators have been put in place to ensure safe and secure operation of nuclear facilities. All these efforts have led to a sound nuclear safety record and have boosted public confidence in nuclear energy

338

Piracy : a critical examination of the definition and scope of piracy and the issues arising therefrom that affect : the legal address of the crime globally.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Piracy: A critical examination of the definition and scope of piracy, and the legal issues arising there-from that affect the successful address of piracy globally. This thesis looks into the effectiveness of the existing legal maritime regime in fighting piracy worldwide. It goes to determine the extent to which the problem of modern day maritime piracy is related to the inadequacies brought about by the limitations in the definition of piracy as given by the United Nations Convention on the...

Neakoh, Raissa Timben

2011-01-01

339

Globalização social: desafio do século XXI GLOBALIZATION SOCIAL: CHALLENGE OF THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A crítica de muitos à globalização é conseqüência dos rumos que ela está tomando. Embora a globalização seja um processo dinâmico em andamento, o seu avanço tem ocorrido de forma desequilibrada, gerando instabilidade política, econômica e social em várias regiões do planeta. O presente trabalho procura, de forma teórica, mostrar a falta da globalização social como um dos fatores que tem provocado desequilíbrio na dinâmica do processo de globalização. Pelo lado econômico, observa-se que a globalização ocorre de forma acelerada e já alcança os mais distantes pontos da face da Terra, ao passo que, pelo lado social, observa-se que a globalização está ausente em algumas regiões e, em outro tanto, ela ocorre de forma lenta e sem muito interesse. De nada vale os benefícios da globalização econômica se não existir a globalização social. Esse e o desafio do século XXI.The criticism of many of globalization is a consequence of directions it is taking. While globalization is a dynamic process in progress, its progress has occurred so unbalanced, creating politicalinstability, economic and social development in various regions of the planet. This paper demand, so theoretically, show the lack of social globalisation as one of the factors that have causedimbalance in the dynamics of the globalization process. On the economic side there is that globalization occurs so rapidly and have reached the most distant points of the face of theEarth, while the social side, there is that globalisation is absent in some regions, and in another both, it happens so slowly and without much interest. It is not worth the benefits of economicglobalization if there is the social globalisation. That and the challenge of the twenty-first century.

Antônio Carlos dos Santos

2010-08-01

340

Japanese Higher Education Institutions in the 21st Century: The Challenge of Globalization and Internationalization  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Higher education institutions in Japan are facing unprecedented challenges today due to the following three factors:the decrease in the size of college age cohorts in the coming years; heightened expectations in the modes of instructional delivery through the advances of information and communication technologies (ICT; global competition for college students worldwide especially from English-speaking countries. This paper examines internationalization of higher education in Japan in terms of:foreign faculty members in Japan, foreign tertiary students in Japan, Japanese students studying abroad, branch campuses of foreign colleges and universities in Japan, off-shore campuses of Japanese colleges and universities, and cross-border higher education through e-learning.

AOKI, Kumiko

2005-11-01

 
 
 
 
341

Addressing LISA Science Analysis Challenges  

CERN Document Server

The principal goal of the \\emph{LISA Science Analysis Workshop} is to encourage the development and maturation of science analysis technology in preparation for LISA science operations. Exactly because LISA is a pathfinder for a new scientific discipline -- gravitational wave astronomy -- LISA data processing and science analysis methodologies are in their infancy and require considerable maturation if they are to be ready to take advantage of LISA data. Here we offer some thoughts, in anticipation of the LISA Science Analysis Workshop, on analysis research problems that demonstrate the capabilities of different proposed analysis methodologies and, simultaneously, help to push those techniques toward greater maturity. Particular emphasis is placed on formulating questions that can be turned into well-posed problems involving tests run on specific data sets, which can be shared among different groups to enable the comparison of techniques on a well-defined platform.

Benacquista, M J; Larson, S L; Rubbo, L J; Benacquista, Matthew J.; Finn, Lee Samuel; Larson, Shane L.; Rubbo, Louis J.

2006-01-01

342

Revisioning Education for All in the age of migration: Global challenges and opportunities for lifelong learning  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper revisits and revisions Education for All (EFA) in the age of global migration with the aim of developing more inclusive approaches towards social justice and equity in education. Drawing on cases of internal and international migration in China and Canada, this paper compares and contrasts policies and practices in the education of migrants and their children to discern common issues and challenges in both country contexts. The findings reveal that despite China's nine-year compulsory education law for all school-aged children, migrant children are often deprived of equitable learning opportunities, resulting in their being the most educationally marginalised in China. The case of Canada demonstrates some of the challenges facing immigrants in having their prior learning and work experience recognised. Lessons learned from this comparative analysis have important implications for the post-2015 EFA revisioning process in terms of developing a holistic, inclusive lifelong learning framework which ensures that the learning needs of both young and adult learners are met through access to equitable learning opportunities as well as recognition of their prior learning and experience.

Guo, Shibao

2014-08-01

343

The global energy context: Chances and challenges for the 21st century  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Energy is the driving force towards economic and social development. Global demand for energy will keep growing for many years to come due to ongoing, although reduced population growth, and due to the needs of up to 2 billion people who are still without access to commercial energy. To meet this growing demand for energy, all options have to be kept open, with fossil fuels, nuclear and hydro dominating the energy mix for the next decades, and 'new' renewables coming in only slowly. Considering the resulting strain on the environment, and looking at existing disparities in energy supply, the next few decades will not be free of tensions. A turning point may appear in the mid 21st century with world population coming to a halt, distinctly improved energy efficiency also in the Developing World, and with new technologies available. Thus, mainly challenges will determine the first half of the century, whereas chances are on hand for the second half of the century - if we act now. The single most important instrument to meet these challenges and to take advantage of the chances is a concentrated move towards energy efficiency and innovation, supported by market reform and appropriate regulation. (author)

344

The global energy context -- chances and challenges for the 21st century  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Energy is the driving force towards economic and social development. Global demand for energy will keep growing for many years to come due to ongoing, although reduced population growth, and due to the needs of up to 2000 million people who are still without access to commercial energy. To meet this growing demand for energy, all options have to be kept open, with fossil fuels, nuclear and hydro dominating the energy mix for the next decades, and 'new' renewables coming in only slowly. Considering the resulting strain on the environment, and looking at existing disparities in energy supply, the next few decades will not be free of tensions. A turning point may appear in the mid 21st century with world population coming to a halt, distinctly improved energy efficiency in the Developing World, and with new technologies available. Thus, mainly challenges will determine the first half of the century, whereas chances are on hand for the second half of the century - if we act now. The single most important instrument to meet these challenges and to take advantage of the chances is a concentrated move towards energy efficiency and innovation, supported by market reform and appropriate regulation. (author)

345

Shaping the future or meeting the challenge? The federal constitutional proposals and global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recent Canadian federal constitutional proposals, presented in a report entitled Shaping Canada's Future Together, have the objective of establishing the basis for a federation capable of confronting global economic, security, and environmental challenges through the 21st century. Global solutions to these problems, such as the warming caused by the greenhouse effect, must be applied by each country. The proposals are evaluated according to the support they give the federal government in the negotiation and execution of an international agreement on greenhouse gas emissions. It is concluded that compared to other jurisdictions, the Canadian government is particularly badly equipped for carrying out such a task with regard to the present distribution of powers. The proposals do not aid to resolve this problem and even aggravate it in some instances. For example, a proposal to stabilize greenhouse gas emissions or impose cutbacks by a system of marketable emission permits would in effect create a new set of property and civil rights in the provinces. Implementing such a set of rights would have to be done in cooperation with the provinces, which would be difficult, and if implemented, it would entrench a laissez-faire approach to economics which would not always serve the goal of environmental protection. 18 refs

346

Christo-Islamic Perspectives on Abortion and the Challenges of Globalization  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The world is witnessing a tremendous change in every sphere in every facet of its social, political, economic as well as in the religious sphere. These changes have affected the orientation of people towards certain behavioural patterns that were hitherto regarded as sacrosanct and but which has now witnessed and is still witnessing serious changes due to the effect of globalization and this has eroded religious beliefs and practices. One such is the issue of abortion which has been legalized in some nations of the world and there has generated a lot of controversies among different religious groups, individuals and Non-Governmental Organizations. The basis for this lies in the fact that human lives are regarded as sacred and should not be taken at the whims and caprices of people irrespective of the circumstance except when such causes serious danger to the life of the woman. The modern trend of committing abortion and even its legalization is regarded as preposterous and inhuman and urgent steps need to be taken to avert the danger(s caused by this dastardly act. Also religious groups need to rise to the challenges posed by this dastardly act in order to avert imminent danger to the global community.

Kehinde Emmanuel Obasola

2014-01-01

347

Understanding patterns in global water table depth: the enormous data challenges (Invited)  

Science.gov (United States)

The depth to groundwater can tell us much about where societies and land ecosystems can potentially depend on this water resource, but to have a coherent picture of this variable in space and time requires real data support. Here we outline the key roles that groundwater plays in land surface processes, and present some rudimentary effort in compiling observations and building simple models, the latter as a case study to expose the vast deficiency in data and the need for community-level, and international coordination. Key challenges include the establishment of a global network of groundwater time series for syntheses and analyses of patterns and trends (e.g., the Pan-Africa effort led by Richard Taylor), and a global database of upper crustal porosity and permeability for supporting model simulations (e.g., MacroStrat led by Shanan Peters and the new Digital Crust initiative at NSF-USGS Powell Synthesis Center). Real steps must be taken to build these community data infrastructure if we are to understand the functions of groundwater in shaping terrestrial water fluxes.

Fan, Y.; Li, H.; Pokhrel, Y. N.; Miguez-Macho, G.

2013-12-01

348

Development of a Global Drought Information System (GDIS): The Prediction Challenge  

Science.gov (United States)

Managing drought risk requires information on past droughts, current hydrological conditions and how they are expected to evolve in the coming weeks to months to years, as well as the prospects for substantial changes in the character of drought in the coming decades to centuries. Such information is currently limited, often confined to particular regions or political boundaries, coming from a variety of different sources with at times conflicting information. In short, there is currently no global, authoritative, and consistent information on drought that is easily accessible to all users. In light of this, the WCRP and GEO, among other organizations have recommended the development of an experimental global drought information system (GDIS), with a real time monitoring and prediction system playing a central role. Here we review the challenges of producing reliable and useful predictions of drought world-wide. We in particular focus on the role of SST forcing. Issues that will be examined include the competing/reinforcing impacts of the different ocean basins, the modulating/amplifying influences of land-atmosphere feedbacks, and the importance of internal atmospheric noise in quantifying the uncertainties of drought predictions.

Schubert, S. D.

2013-12-01

349

Global Astrometric Sphere Reconstruction in Gaia. Challenges and First Results of the Verification Unit  

Science.gov (United States)

Gaia will estimate the astrometric and physical data of approximately one billion objects. The core of this process, the global sphere reconstruction, is represented by the reduction of a subset of these objects, which will constitute the largest and most precise catalog of absolute astrometry in the history of Astronomy, and will put General Relativity to test by estimating the PPN parameter ? with unprecedented accuracy. As the Hipparcos mission showed, and as it is natural for all kind of absolute measurements, possible errors in the data reduction can hardly be identified at the end of the processing, and can lead to systematic errors in all the works which will use these results. In order avoid such kind of problems, a Verification Unit was established by the Gaia Data Processing and Analysis Consortium (DPAC). One of its jobs is to implement and perform an independent global sphere reconstruction, parallell to the baseline one, to compare the two results, and to report any significant difference. We will present here how we dealt with the challenges of such a task, and the first results obtained so far.

Vecchiato, Alberto; Abbas, U.; Bucciarelli, B.; Lattanzi, M. G.; Morbidelli, R.

2009-05-01

350

The global burden of liver disease: a challenge for methods and for public health.  

Science.gov (United States)

New Global Burden of Disease estimates for liver cirrhosis, published in BMC Medicine, suggest that cirrhosis caused over a million deaths in 2010, with a further million due to liver cancer and acute hepatitis. Cause-specific mortality data were very sparse for some regions, particularly in Africa, with no relevant mortality data for 58/187 countries. Liver disease involves infectious, malignant and chronic aetiologies with overlapping symptoms. Where available mortality data come from verbal autopsies, separating different types of liver disease is challenging. Cirrhosis is a disease of rich and poor alike; key public health risk factors such as alcohol consumption play an important role. Risk-reduction strategies such as controlling the price of alcohol are being widely discussed. Since these estimates used alcohol consumption as a covariate, they cannot be used to explore relationships between alcohol consumption and cirrhosis mortality. There is hope: coming generations of adults will have been vaccinated against hepatitis B, and this is envisaged to reduce the burden of fatal liver disease. But more complete civil registration globally is needed to fully understand the burden of liver disease.Please see related article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/12/145/abstract. PMID:25286285

Byass, Peter

2014-01-01

351

Does the development of new medicinal products in the European Union address global and regional health concerns?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 1995, approval for many new medicinal products has been obtained through a centralized procedure in the European Union. In recent years, the use of summary measures of population health has become widespread. We investigated whether efforts to develop innovative medicines are focusing on the most relevant conditions from a global public health perspective. Methods We reviewed the information on new medicinal products approved by centralized procedure from 1995 to 2009, information that is available to the public in the European Commission Register of medicinal products and the European Public Assessment Reports from the European Medicines Agency. Morbidity and mortality data were included for each disease group, according to the Global Burden of Disease project. We evaluated the association between authorized medicinal products and burden of disease measures based on disability-adjusted life years (DALYs in the European Union and worldwide. Results We considered 520 marketing authorizations for medicinal products and 338 active ingredients. New authorizations were seen to increase over the period analyzed. There was a positive, high correlation between DALYs and new medicinal product development (? = 0.619, p = 0.005 in the European Union, and a moderate correlation for middle-low-income countries (? = 0.497, p = 0.030 and worldwide (? = 0.490, p = 0.033. The most neglected conditions at the European level (based on their attributable health losses were neuropsychiatric diseases, cardiovascular diseases, respiratory diseases, sense organ conditions, and digestive diseases, while globally, they were perinatal conditions, respiratory infections, sense organ conditions, respiratory diseases, and digestive diseases. Conclusions We find that the development of new medicinal products is higher for some diseases than others. Pharmaceutical industry leaders and policymakers are invited to consider the implications of this imbalance by establishing work plans that allow for the setting of future priorities from a public health perspective.

Álvarez-Martín Elena

2010-12-01

352

Global monitoring of water supply and sanitation: history, methods and future challenges.  

Science.gov (United States)

International monitoring of drinking water and sanitation shapes awareness of countries' needs and informs policy, implementation and research efforts to extend and improve services. The Millennium Development Goals established global targets for drinking water and sanitation access; progress towards these targets, facilitated by international monitoring, has contributed to reducing the global disease burden and increasing quality of life. The experiences of the MDG period generated important lessons about the strengths and limitations of current approaches to defining and monitoring access to drinking water and sanitation. The methods by which the Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP) of WHO and UNICEF tracks access and progress are based on analysis of data from household surveys and linear regression modelling of these results over time. These methods provide nationally representative and internationally comparable insights into the drinking water and sanitation facilities used by populations worldwide, but also have substantial limitations: current methods do not address water quality, equity of access, or extra-household services. Improved statistical methods are needed to better model temporal trends. This article describes and critically reviews JMP methods in detail for the first time. It also explores the impact of, and future directions for, international monitoring of drinking water and sanitation. PMID:25116635

Bartram, Jamie; Brocklehurst, Clarissa; Fisher, Michael B; Luyendijk, Rolf; Hossain, Rifat; Wardlaw, Tessa; Gordon, Bruce

2014-08-01

353

The challenges for global harmonisation of food safety norms and regulations: issues for India.  

Science.gov (United States)

Safe and adequate food is a human right, safety being a prime quality attribute without which food is unfit for consumption. Food safety regulations are framed to exercise control over all types of food produced, processed and sold so that the customer is assured that the food consumed will not cause any harm. From the Indian perspective, global harmonisation of food regulations is needed to improve food and nutrition security, the food trade and delivery of safe ready-to-eat (RTE) foods at all places and at all times. The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) put forward to transform developing societies incorporate many food safety issues. The success of the MDGs, including that of poverty reduction, will in part depend on an effective reduction of food-borne diseases, particularly among the vulnerable group, which includes women and children. Food- and water-borne illnesses can be a serious health hazard, being responsible for high incidences of morbidity and mortality across all age groups of people. Global harmonisation of food regulations would assist in facilitating food trade within and outside India through better compliance, ensuring the safety of RTE catered foods, as well as addressing issues related to the environment. At the same time, regulations need to be optimum, as overregulation may have undue negative effects on the food trade. PMID:23553336

Prakash, Jamuna

2014-08-01

354

Mental health of young people: a global public-health challenge.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mental disorders account for a large proportion of the disease burden in young people in all societies. Most mental disorders begin during youth (12-24 years of age), although they are often first detected later in life. Poor mental health is strongly related to other health and development concerns in young people, notably lower educational achievements, substance abuse, violence, and poor reproductive and sexual health. The effectiveness of some interventions for some mental disorders in this age-group have been established, although more research is urgently needed to improve the range of affordable and feasible interventions, since most mental-health needs in young people are unmet, even in high-income countries. Key challenges to addressing mental-health needs include the shortage of mental-health professionals, the fairly low capacity and motivation of non-specialist health workers to provide quality mental-health services to young people, and the stigma associated with mental disorder. We propose a population-based, youth focused model, explicitly integrating mental health with other youth health and welfare expertise. Addressing young people's mental-health needs is crucial if they are to fulfil their potential and contribute fully to the development of their communities. PMID:17434406

Patel, Vikram; Flisher, Alan J; Hetrick, Sarah; McGorry, Patrick

2007-04-14

355

How to Assess the European Union’s Influence in International Affairs: Addressing a Major Conceptual Challenge for EU Foreign Policy Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the discipline of European Union foreign policy analysis, quite a number of debates have focussed on determining what type of actor the EU is in international affairs (e.g. a normative power. While intellectually stimulating, these debates have regularly been held at too high a level of aggregation. Breaking the question about the EU’s clout in international affairs down to the micro-level, this contribution takes up a conceptual and methodological challenge that is currently unaddressed in the discipline: developing a method suited for studying the EU’s concrete foreign policy activities and their effects so as to assess its actual influence on global politics. Importing insights on the concept of influence from public policy analysis, it designs an analytical framework that allows for statements about whether, how, to what extent and - ultimately - under what conditions the EU exerts influence in one important arena of international affairs, namely international regimes.

Simon Schunz

2010-05-01

356

Health inequalities and infectious disease epidemics: a challenge for global health security.  

Science.gov (United States)

In today's global society, infectious disease outbreaks can spread quickly across the world, fueled by the rapidity with which we travel across borders and continents. Historical accounts of influenza pandemics and contemporary reports on infectious diseases clearly demonstrate that poverty, inequality, and social determinants of health create conditions for the transmission of infectious diseases, and existing health disparities or inequalities can further contribute to unequal burdens of morbidity and mortality. Yet, to date, studies of influenza pandemic plans across multiple countries find little to no recognition of health inequalities or attempts to engage disadvantaged populations to explicitly address the differential impact of a pandemic on them. To meet the goals and objectives of the Global Health Security Agenda, we argue that international partners, from WHO to individual countries, must grapple with the social determinants of health and existing health inequalities and extend their vision to include these factors so that disease that may start among socially disadvantaged subpopulations does not go unnoticed and spread across borders. These efforts will require rethinking surveillance systems to include sociodemographic data; training local teams of researchers and community health workers who are able to not only analyze data to recognize risk factors for disease, but also use simulation methods to assess the impact of alternative policies on reducing disease; integrating social science disciplines to understand local context; and proactively anticipating shortfalls in availability of adequate healthcare resources, including vaccines. Without explicit attention to existing health inequalities and underlying social determinants of health, the Global Health Security Agenda is unlikely to succeed in its goals and objectives. PMID:25254915

Quinn, Sandra Crouse; Kumar, Supriya

2014-01-01

357

An overlook of the new global nuclear scenario and the emergent challenges  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this paper is to make a short overlook of the world nuclear renaissance and point out some emergent challenges. The presentation covers different subjects in which the nuclear energy shows great advantage to face concerns about climate change, energy demand growth, and relative cost of competing technologies in a global scenario. Additionally nuclear technology can deploy in a middle term an important potential development oriented to improve even more that nuclear design, safety, environment protection, economic and sustainability of the present nuclear reactors generation. The world nuclear energy scenario reveals a renaissance after a long period of lethargy. Now is the focus of considerable attention and debate about the risks and benefits of its expansion. Many countries are again planning ambitious nuclear programs. In the case of Argentina, a decision was taken to end the construction of Atucha 750 MWe power plant (NPP) and to begin the construction of another two NPP in the next decade. In the middle term and expansion of 60 % of the present world nuclear capabilities is foreseen. For the long term there could be much more if today's performance data is maintained or improved. It would require the nuclear industry to return immediately to the most rapid period of growth experienced in the past. The training of the young people is also an important challenge. But some countries are still reluctant due to the adverse local public opinion. In spite of the great accessibility and availability of the NPP confirmed by the global experience of the 350 operating nuclear power plants, the public acceptability is not confirmed. Some sectors of the society -with the support in some case of the media- are against the use of the nuclear energy. In this paper some reasons of the public concerns is explained and actions are mentioned to change its perceptions. At the end, the global society in front of the real means available to fulfill the growing energy demand and needs to protect the environments from catastrophic climate changes and limited fuel resources, must accept the great advantage of the NPP, the potential possibilities of the nuclear technology progress and the lowest risks of its expansion. (author)

358

Global citizenship: A privilege and a responsibility. Vienna, 2 June 2003. Address to the American International School, Palais Ferstel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

ill remember when television was a new and awesome thing) - but to you, global interaction and communication is a natural part of life. In fact, you especially are well equipped for this interdependent world - because the development of a global perspective is an essential feature of your educational environment here at the American International School. So you are 'ahead of the curve' in this regard. Yes, you are Brazilian, you are Indian, you are Iranian, you are Austrian, you are Japanese - you are one of the fifty nationalities that make up the rich cultural fabric of the AIS - but you are also global citizens. You have learned from the classroom, and equally important you have also learned from each other. As a result, your perspective is wider, your tolerance is greater, your understanding is deeper, and your world is smaller. And you are precisely the type of young people that our planet needs. Sure we all have differences, based on our cultural heritage, but what we choose to make of these differences can have a result that is crucial: either a harmonious and rich co-existence, or a planet marked by divergence and conflict. The European Union is a young but successful example of nations with different cultures, languages, and ethnic roots that have chosen to achieve strength through diversity. And over two hundred years ago, the United States was born with the same ideal - 13 colonies of immigrants coming from different backgrounds, who believed that by joining together they would be better able to go through the human journey. But for your generation, the vision of unity through diversity must be more than regional or national; it must be global. If there is any lesson from recent history, it should be that a global approach to our problems and to our future is the only approach. Nearly fifty years ago, after two devastating World Wars, the United Nations was created as a human project that aims to promote certain fundamental principles: respect for human rights and human dignity; the settlement of disputes through peaceful means; and economic and social development for all. During the Cold War the realization of this project was paralyzed in many ways. But the Cold War has been over for more than a decade, and still the international community is asking many of the same questions. How can we live in peace and harmony? How can we improve the living conditions for our neighbors around the globe? How can we learn to treat our differences with mutual respect? With the recent threats surrounding us, ranging from international terrorism to the conflicts in Afghanistan, Iraq, Congo, the Middle East and the Korean Peninsula - all in less time than it has taken for you to complete secondary school - you may feel that you are entering a world still fraught with danger, equal to or even more than what we had before

359

Ministerial Presentation: United States of America. Ambassador Schulte's Remarks on Behalf of Energy Secretary Chu [International Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Energy in the 21. Century: Addressing Energy Needs and Environmental Challenges, Beijing (China), 20-22 April 2009  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is a pleasure to participate in this second Ministerial Conference convened by the IAEA here in Beijing. Secretary of Energy Steven Chu has asked that I deliver this speech on his behalf. He sends his sincere regrets that he is unable to attend this event personally. As you know, this week is Earth Week, and the Secretary is very engaged promoting our energy and climate change agenda back in Washington. Let me assure you, however, that the United States views nuclear energy as an important part of our effort to put the world on the road to a low-carbon future. The global expansion of nuclear energy. It is now widely recognized that nuclear energy has the potential to curtail dependence on fossil fuels and greatly reduce greenhouse gas emissions while promoting greater energy security. Yet, given the stakes associated with the use (and potential misuse) of nuclear energy around the world, it is imperative that all nations with existing or new nuclear power programs play an active role in global efforts to address the safety, security, and safeguards implications of nuclear power. As President Obama recently stated, it is time we consider a new framework for civil nuclear cooperation, one that allows all interested countries to enjoy the benefits of nuclear energy while limiting the associated risks of nuclear weapons proliferation. This new framework should include measures that improve energy security, including an international fuel bank and related fuel services arrangements. This conclusion reflects our recognition of the right of nations that comply with global nonproliferation norms to share in the benefits of peaceful nuclear uses. We also share a responsibility to maintain and strengthen global standards for safety, security and nonproliferation. Today, access to nuclear energy faces significant challenges-- the development of sound infrastructure, the reliable provision of nuclear fuel, and the safe and secure management of spent fuel and nuclear waste. If we succeed in meeting these challenges and discharging these responsibilities, I am confident we will also succeed in promoting the responsible development of nuclear energy. The IAEA and multilateral cooperation. Over 50 countries have informed the IAEA of their interest in nuclear power. In response to this, the Agency has developed a high-level framework to help states chart a safe, secure, and safeguarded path to nuclear power. The Milestones document, as it is now known, has become an essential reference on the desks of planners tasked with developing a national nuclear power infrastructure. The United States is a longstanding and strong supporter of the infrastructure development concepts detailed in the Milestones document. More broadly, the United States is committed to increasing the capabilities of the IAEA to better carry out all of its vital functions. Key among them is improved international safeguards. The United States has launched a program to build next generation safeguards technologies and a new community of safeguards experts; to assist full use of IAEA inspection authorities; and to foster a culture of safeguards, security and safety in nations using nuclear energy. Though a very valuable reference, the Milestones document was not intended for use as a detailed road map to nuclear power. It is the responsibility of each state to assess its own needs, identify its own priorities, and develop its own strategic objectives. However, states need not pursue these tasks alone, and there is plenty of guidance available through pursuit of civil nuclear cooperation. In addition to the vital role of the IAEA, other multilateral groups are addressing the challenges facing nuclear energy today. Forums such as the International Energy Agency, the Nuclear Energy Agency, the Generation IV International Forum, and the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (or GNEP) complement and build upon the important work of the IAEA. The international community through GNEP, as currently structured, has established two working groups, both with significant involvement f

360

Challenges facing service enterprises in the global knowledge-based economy : lessons from the business services sector.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper explores the challenges arising from the increasing level of international and knowledge-based activity for services sector enterprises. The paper begins with an overview of evidence concerning the internationalisation of services before proceeding to a detailed analysis of the internationalisation of firms in a number of knowledge intensive business service sectors. The paper concludes by summarising the challenges facing service enterprises in a global knowledge-based economy. Th...

Roberts, J.

2001-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Global Challenges and Local Responses : Trade Unions in the Korean and Malaysian Auto Industries  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The paper aims to address the question whether the dynamic of autoworker unionism in South Korea and Malaysia was conditioned by, and eventually also influenced the globalization processes in the local auto industry? The conclusion is a contextualized "yes", and the core argument is the following: The financial crisis in 1997 was the dramatic peak of financial globalization in East Asia in the 1990s, and it did accelerate the existing trend in Korea towards centralized unionism in the auto industry, while it suspended the trend in the Malaysian auto industry towards decentralized unionism. Although the Korean and Malaysian unions were affected by the financial crisis from different structural and strategic positions, and were exposed to different national policies and corporate strategies of crisis management, the Korean unions and Malaysian unions generally followed, respectively, a more radical and militant and a more pragmatic and moderate strategy. In the global-local perspective we face two paradoxes. The first paradox is that in spite of the difference in union ideology, the outcome in terms of industrial relations (IR) institutions was rather similar in the sense that the auto industry contained a mixture of industrial and enterprise unions and formal or informal federations of these unions, and that collective bargaining was by and large undertaken bilaterally at the enterprise level. This situation was generated by a dynamic, which took the Malaysian system down from a centralized IR system within the low technology assembly industry (the globally subordinated local OEMs) to a rather decentralized IR system within the SOE-MNC controlled industry. The Korean system became more centralized through the confrontations between radical enterprise unions and authoritarian employers and authorities within an auto industry, which over time become much more indigenized, technologically advanced, export-oriented and diversified into multiple auto manufacturers and an under-wood of component suppliers. Yet, in both auto industries the large enterprise unions resisted organizational centralization, which could impede their autonomy. Due to the strength of unions of the market leading firms a breakthrough did happen neither in Korea nor in Malaysia, although the Koreans were a step ahead of the Malaysians having established a federation of metalworkers unions, including the important autoworkers unions. The second paradox is that the radicalism of the Korean autoworker unions was maintained during 1990s globalization of the auto industry, while radicalism was abandoned by the Malaysian autoworker unions in favor of union pragmatism, when the indigenization of the Malaysian auto industry unfolded since the early 1980s and a local auto supplier industry had been formed. This cross-country difference is partly explained by the different position held by the Korean and Malaysian auto companies in the global and local auto value chain. The radicalism and effectiveness of Korean autoworker unions sustained the development of dynamic efficiency among Korean auto manufacturing firms. In the same way, the intra-industry differences in wages and working conditions among auto manufacturing firms and components supplier firms were also related to the stratification of the domestic auto value chain, and this uneven distribution of benefits created obstacles of centralized unionization and collective bargaining. The centralized IR system in Malaysia evolved in an auto industry composed primarily of firms assembling imported CKD kits of components. The inequality of employment conditions between auto manufacturers and component suppliers was a driver of the strategy of centralized unionism and collective bargaining in Korea, while the inequality was not perceived as that significant by the Malaysian industrial union, since they had been dealing with these problems by the early 1990s. Keywords: Globalisation, trade unions, automobile industry, global value chain theory, East Asia, Malaysia, South Korea.

Wad, Peter

2005-01-01

362

How current assessments of Sustainability Performance by Best Practice in the UN Global Compact challenge legitimacy  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The Scandinavian countries have been strong supporters of the UN Global Compact (UNGC) since the official launch in year 2000. This is best evidenced by the level of adoption of the UNGC, which is the most widely adopted broad sustainability-reporting standard in Scandinavia (Kjaergaard, submitted - in review). And since the UNGC in 2010 introduced the differentiation framework to their reporting standard, a significant number of Scandinavian corporations has chosen to report on an Advanced Level and self-assess their Sustainability Performance. Hence, in times where international opinion makers like the Economist (2013) turn to Scandinavia as having the solutions to some of the global sustainability-related challenges, it might also be worth reversing the optics. One approach could be to take a closer look at whether this high level of support for the UNGC translates to a high level of Sustainability Performance? And how the current assessment of Sustainability Performance by Best Practice in the UN Global Compact challenge the legitimacy of both the corporation, the UNGC and governments attempting to facilitate sustainability and CSR engagement? Best Practice is a concept frequently used by authorities sources like governments, multi-national institutions etc. to showcase corporate sustainability practices in an attempt to inspire motivate or convince for corporate engagement. UNGC applies this discourse to a great extend and even goes as far as to integrate Best Practices as the core and decisive element in assessing Sustainability Performance with the criteria for Advanced Level reporting in the UNGC differentiation framework. Though, previous empirical research by Kjaergaard (submitted, in review) has demonstrated that although the introduction of this framework generally should be acknowledged, the way it is structured and measures sustainability performance is highly problematic. This has potential to lead to a number of undesirable outcomes for both the corporations and eventually the UNGC. Especially the use of Best Practices as determinants of the self-assessed Sustainability Performance on criterions is problematic when the framework does not weigh the Best Practices individually despite obvious differences in importance. Hence the same assessment score for a criterion can be achieved by adherence to either one of two potentially very different variables. Consequentially, corporations that apply best practices of higher importance are not acknowledged for doing so. Furthermore, since adherence to only one best practice for each criterion is required to be compliant with a criterion, then corporations are also not acknowledged by the framework for adhering to more and maybe more important Best Practices. These issues were identified by assessing the Sustainability Performance and analyzing the sustainability reports of 67 Nordic corporations, whom are signatories to the UN Global Compact. This study applies a theoretical perspective to the empirical findings by Kjaergard (submitted, in review). The study finds the UNGC reporting framework and the widespread support and adoption of it in Scandinavia to be indicative of emerging neoliberal tendencies in governmental approaches to CSR (Shamir, 2008). In a governmentality perspective these tendencies can be seen as unfolding when "government assumes the role of an enabling and empowering facilitator of CSR, not a regulatory enforcer" (Vallentin & Murillo, 2012). Whereas Scandinavian governments influence how widespread the adoption of sustainability reporting is, this study questions government’s success as a facilitator of CSR and sustainability, when viewed in a Sustainability Performance perspective. The empirical findings by Kjaergard (submitted, in review) demonstrate that with only relatively few exemptions, the Sustainability Performance of Nordic corporations in general is not on a high level. Though, that is when assessed towards the Best Practices essentially constituting the UNGC reporting framework, which Kjaergaard also questions the validity of. Thi

Kjærgaard, Thomas

363

Bio-energy production in the context of global environmental challenges: Carbon management and land use  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Public support policies for bioenergy production together with technological progress can lead to more energy and GHG efficient production of 2nd generation bio-energy from a wide range of feedstocks in the coming decades. Such a policy needs to be combined, however, with efforts to strongly decrease the amount of land use related GHG emissions associated with energy cropping. Together with increasing global food demand and the necessary public and economic support for maintaining and improving carbon sinks this is likely to substantially limit the land available for biomass production, at least for arable energy crops. The following issues will require particular attention: a) There is a high likelihood that the combined impact of current biofuel targets on indirect land use change will generate additional GHG emissions rather than reduce them. Given the importance of avoiding further impacts on natural resources and biodiversity as well as reducing GHG emissions an important task is further research on types of biomass supply and conversion processes that minimise competition effects with food and feed markets and maximise GHG savings. A key challenge is the development of global models that combine macro-economic and bio-physical modelling approaches. These need to analyse the interaction between food, feed, biomass (and material) markets and the environmental effects associated with biomass production in the different regions or ecozones of the world. d) Further work on the likely effects of (future) carbon markets appears necessary for establishing the relative societal benefits of different uses of a given area of land (e.g. food, biomass production or using vegetation for carbon sequestration) in different parts of the world. This needs to consider how best to combine the carbon sink functions of agriculture and forest land with their productive functions, and how to provide economic compensation to landowners/managers that forego economic benefits from land use conversion

Petersen, Jan-Erik (European Environment Agency, Copenhagen (Denmark)) E-mail: Jan-Erik.Petersen@eea.europa.eu

2008-10-15

364

Planning for a Global Lingua Franca: Challenges for Feminist Language Planning in English(es) around the World  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper I outline the challenges for feminist language planning in the context of a global lingua franca--English. Drawing upon the views of speakers of "World Englishes" I discuss their reactions as well as reported practices in relation to gender-inclusive language use. This reveals the complexities of managing the tension between the…

Pauwels, Anne

2011-01-01

365

AQUATIC ECOSYSTEMS, WATER QUALITY, AND GLOBAL CHANGE: CHALLENGES OF CONDUCTING MULTI-STRESSOR VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENTS (FINAL REPORT)  

Science.gov (United States)

This report investigates the issues and challenges associated with identifying, calculating, and mapping indicators of the relative vulnerability of water quality and aquatic ecosystems, across the United States, to the potential impacts of global change. Using a large set of en...

366

Globalization and climate change challenges the Arctic communities adaptability and increases vulnerability  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Globalization and climate change challenges the Arctic communities adaptability and increases vulnerability Kåre Hendriksen, PhD student, Aalborg University, Denmark The previous isolation of the Arctic will change as a wide range of areas increasingly are integrated into the globalized world. Parts of the Arctic are characterized by a relatively high material standard of living that is partially based on economic subsidies from the South, and for a number of Arctic consumers globalization appears primarily as a potential for improved supplies of consumer goods. The massive and growing pressure from multinational companies to exploit the Arctic mineral and oil resources as well as hydro-power in large scale industries appears to (local) governments as a potential for economic growth and thus reduced economic dependence on subsidies from the nation states the Arctic are dependent of. Coinciding climate changes cause an easier access for worldwide market as well as for the extraction of coastal oil and mineral resources. In an attempt to optimize the fishing fleet by economic measures it is centralized to larger units, and the exports of unprocessed fish and shellfish to low wage countries, carrying out the processing before export, are increasing. Although the local populations often are able to adapt to climate change and exploit new seasonal fluxions and species, these developments leaves a series of smaller settlements without proper basis for commercially viable activities and survival. Trusting that heavy industry and oil and mineral extraction can absorb the redundant labor from the subsistence activities and local economies and create economic growth (local) governments are installing economic and other policies leading to a further centralization of the population. There is not necessarily consistency between official political statements and the implemented measures. On top of this the population in smaller settlements has no frame or means to understand the impact of the discussed and applied interventions. They are therefore to some extent left behind and are not included in contemporary developments leaving them with a feeling of being powerless. The consequences of contemporary policies and the problems arising will be illustrated through examples from traditional hunting and fishing districts in Greenland.

Hendriksen, Kåre

2011-01-01

367

The formation of the global natural gas industry: definition, constraints and challenges; A formacao da industria global de gas natural: definicao, condicionantes e desafios  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study aims to investigate the real possibilities for the natural gas industry to become a global energy industry. So, it is necessary to define what global energy industry really means. In order to do a comparative analysis between the oil and natural gas industries, it is necessary to define three distinct stages of the evolution of an energy industry, namely internationalization, mundialization and globalization. This study analyzes the evolution of the oil industry trying to identify the main aspects that promoted changes and transformed the oil business into a global industry. Then, the evolution of the natural gas industry is analyzed, looking for similarities between the structural changes in both industries, and trying to determine what is the current stage of the natural gas industry. Despite the increase in the natural gas international trade and the prospects of growth of natural gas demand, there are still some challenges for this industry to effectively become global. Some of the challenges are the need of investments in production infrastructure, transportation and distribution sectors, the access to the main reserves, the uncertainty related to the demand evolution and the possible creation of a natural gas producers cartel, like the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC). (author)

Mathias, Melissa Cristina Pinto Pires

2008-03-15

368

Improving the Global Energy Industry by Integrating Macro-Technologies: Challenges and Opportunities for Corporations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Emerging energy technologies and market evolution of some energy products, particularly natural gas, can converge to produce a new global scenario closer to the objectives of Sustainable Development, with a smooth transition that would avoid social and economic upheavals and could open a new cycle of growth and wealth. The first steps of unconventional gas production have induced stabilization in the gas spot price that should be continued to guarantee stable prices in the long term. Another line of development that should start a second phase of consolidation and cost reduction is the field of Renewable Energies. Besides research and technology advancements, a new financial deal could substitute for subsidies and feed-in tariffs. Last but not least, electric vehicles and other emerging technologies from the demand side will also have a main role in this quest to re-structure the Energy sector, where a new hierarchy of energy goods and energy applications will appear, and a better integral use of energy will take place. A main consequence of that will be a significant reduction of CO2 emissions, and a cheaper cost of energy, although fiscal policies could swallow this advantage. In this transition, which would likely last thirty years or so, energy corporations will have to face challenges and opportunities to consolidate their working and value-adding status.

Jose M. “Chema” Martínez-Val Piera

2013-12-01