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1

Biomimetic Nanotechnology: A Powerful Means to address Global Challenges  

CERN Document Server

Biomimetic nanotechnology is a prominent research area at the meeting place of life sciences with engineering and physics: it is a continuously growing field that deals with knowledge transfer from biology to nanotechnology. Biomimetic nanotechnology is a field that has the potential to substantially support successful mastering of major global challenges. The Millennium Project was commissioned by the United Nations Secretary-General in 2002 to develop a concrete action plan for the world to reverse the grinding poverty, hunger and disease affecting billions of people. It states 15 Global Challenges: sustainable development, water, population and resources, democratization, long-term perspectives, information technology, the rich-poor gap, health, capacity to decide, peace and conflict, status of women, transnational crime, energy, science and technology and global ethics. The possible contributions to master these challenges with the help of biomimetic nanotechnology will be discussed in detail.

Gebeshuber, Ille C

2010-01-01

2

Addressing Global Environmental Challenges through Interdisciplinary Biogeochemical Research  

Science.gov (United States)

Our planet is dynamic; energy and matter constantly move between the hydrosphere, atmosphere and lithosphere on time scales from seconds to millenia. These tight interactions - including those between organisms and their physical environment - are what make Earth habitable. However, as Rachel Carson wrote, 'Only within the moment of time represented by the present century has one species - man - acquired significant power to alter the nature of this world'. Globalization and explosive population growth have generated far-reaching environmental problems on a scale that humanity has never faced before. Fortunately, our species has also developed an unprecedented ability to provide science-based solutions. Since processes impacting the environment involve complex biological, physical, chemical and geological interactions and feedbacks, they require the integration of expertise from all these scientific disciplines as well as input from policy makers, social scientists, and economists. This talk presents four examples of current interdisciplinary research projects conducted in my lab, each one related to a theme from one of Carson's books (Under the Sea-wind, The Sea Around Us, The Edge of the Sea, and Silent Spring). These projects, and others like them, provide hope that we can move toward a sustainable relationship with the natural world by encouraging the best scientists to conduct interdisciplinary research with direct applications for environmental management and stewardship.

Paytan, A.

2013-12-01

3

Design Guidelines to Address Global Challenges: Lessons from Global Action Networks  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Traditional organizations appear to be incapable of adequately addressing critical global issues such as war, climate change, and economic inequality. Addressing these issues suggests the need for organizational innovation to develop global social contracts. Successful innovation must address four integration imperatives: (1) integrate effort and resources across organizational sectors (business, government, civil society) and sense-making, (2) create successful individual to global ...

Steve Waddell

2012-01-01

4

Design Guidelines to Address Global Challenges: Lessons from Global Action Networks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

Traditional organizations appear to be incapable of adequately addressing critical global issues such as war, climate change, and economic inequality. Addressing these issues suggests the need for organizational innovation to develop global social contracts. Successful innovation must address four integration imperatives: (1 integrate effort and resources across organizational sectors (business, government, civil society and sense-making, (2 create successful individual to global aggregations, (3 integrate the short and long term, and (4 integrate major issue areas. A new type of organization, Global Action Networks, aims for this integration. Based upon analysis of this new type of organization, five design principles for global social contract organizations are proposed.

Steve Waddell

2012-12-01

5

A Problem-Solving Approach to Addressing Current Global Challenges in Education  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper begins with an analysis of global problems shaping education, particularly as they impact upon learning and life chances. In addressing these problems a range of philosophical positions and controversies are considered, including: traditional romantic and institutional views of schooling; and more recent maximalist, neo-liberal,…

Chapman, Judith D.; Aspin, David N.

2013-01-01

6

Global-scale Observations of the Limb and Disk (GOLD): Addressing the Challenges in ITM Coupling  

Science.gov (United States)

The Global-scale Observations of the Limb and Disk (GOLD) mission of opportunity will perform unprecedented imaging of the Earth's thermosphere and ionosphere from geostationary orbit. GOLD will fly an ultraviolet (UV) imager on a commercial communications satellite in order to answer fundamental scientific questions about how the thermosphere-ionosphere (T-I) system responds to geomagnetic storms and solar radiation from above and upward propagating tides from below. GOLD will conduct simultaneous measurements of temperature and composition in the T-I system on a global scale, across a hemisphere, at a half hour cadence. These continuous, synoptic measurements of temperature and composition allow the separation of temporal and spatial variability. GOLD's far-ultraviolet imaging spectrograph will perform breakthrough measurements needed to address compelling issues concerning the global response of the T-I system to external and internal influences. This talk will discuss the mission, it's capabilities and the planned observations.

Eastes, R.

2012-12-01

7

The Challenges Facing the Multilateral Trading System in Addressing Global Public Policy Objectives  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Published by Palgrave MacmillanDespite a record-breaking 14.5 per cent increase in world merchandise exports, the effects of the financial crisis and global recession are still hampering faster economic recovery. Relatively high oil prices combined with persistent unemployment and measures designed to reduce budget deficits have undermined short-term growth prospects. While South–South trade continues to explode, trade imbalances – i.e. the gap between exports and imports – widened in 2010 compared to 2009 (though smaller than pre-crisis levels. Meanwhile, trade negotiations under the Doha Round have reached an impasse, generating uncertainties about the future of the World Trade Organization (WTO as a negotiating forum. Under these circumstances, should the system rethink its decision-making process founded upon the predominance of member states, the principle of consensus and the notion of single undertaking, as some critics have suggested? And, if so, how could such a reform agenda be initiated at the WTO? Moreover, beyond the negotiating function of the WTO, the paralysis of the system also raises urgent questions about the ability of the system to respond to pressing challenges of our times, such as trade and climate change, or food security and price volatility.

Christophe Bellmann

2012-03-01

8

The Challenges Facing the Multilateral Trading System in Addressing Global Public Policy Objectives  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Published by Palgrave MacmillanDespite a record-breaking 14.5 per cent increase in world merchandise exports, the effects of the financial crisis and global recession are still hampering faster economic recovery. Relatively high oil prices combined with persistent unemployment and measures designed to reduce budget deficits have undermined short-term growth prospects. While South–South trade continues to explode, trade imbalances – i.e. the gap between exports and imports – widened in 2...

Christophe Bellmann; Jonathan Hepburn; Marie Wilke

2012-01-01

9

Global challenges  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A major challenge now facing the world is the supply of energy needed for growth and development in a manner which is not only economically viable but also environmentally acceptable and sustainable in view of the demands of and risks to future generations. The internationally most significant pollutants from energy production through fossil fuels are SO2 and NOx which cause acid rain, and CO2 which is the most significant contributor to the greenhouse effect. Nuclear power, now providing about 17% of the world's electricity and 5% of the primary energy already is making a notable contribution to avoiding these emissions. While the industrialized countries will need more energy and especially electricity in the future, the needs of the developing countries are naturally much larger and present a tremendous challenge to the shaping of the world's future energy supply system. The advanced countries will have to accept special responsibilities, as they can most easily use advanced technologies and they have been and remain the main contributors to the environmental problems we now face. Energy conservation and resort to new renewable energy sources, though highly desirable, appear inadequate alone to meet the challenges. The world can hardly afford to do without an increased use of nuclear power, although it is strongly contested in many countries. The objections raised against the nuclear option focus on safety, waste management and disposal problems and the risk for proliferation of nuclear weapons. These issues are not without their problems. The risk of proliferation exists but will not appreciably diminish with lesser global reliance on nuclear power. The waste issue is more of a political than a technical problem. The use of nuclear power, or any other energy source, will never be at zero risk, but the risks are constantly reduced by new techniques and practices. The IAEA sees it as one of its priority tasks to promote such techniques. (author)

1990-05-28

10

Addressing the workforce pipeline challenge  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A secure and affordable energy supply is essential for achieving U.S. national security, in continuing U.S. prosperity and in laying the foundations to enable future economic growth. To meet this goal the next generation energy workforce in the U.S., in particular those needed to support instrumentation, controls and advanced operations and maintenance, is a critical element. The workforce is aging and a new workforce pipeline, to support both current generation and new build has yet to be established. The paper reviews the challenges and some actions being taken to address this need. (authors)

Bond, L.; Kostelnik, K.; Holman, R. [Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-3898 (United States)

2006-07-01

11

Addressing the workforce pipeline challenge  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A secure and affordable energy supply is essential for achieving U.S. national security, in continuing U.S. prosperity and in laying the foundations to enable future economic growth. To meet this goal the next generation energy workforce in the U.S., in particular those needed to support instrumentation, controls and advanced operations and maintenance, is a critical element. The workforce is aging and a new workforce pipeline, to support both current generation and new build has yet to be established. The paper reviews the challenges and some actions being taken to address this need.

Leonard Bond; Kevin Kostelnik; Richard Holman

2006-11-01

12

Addressing verification challenges [International safeguards symposium on addressing verification challenges  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In his welcome address the Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Mr. M. ElBaradei, stated that safeguards activities are probably the most difficult task entrusted to an international organization and to determine all the details of a country's nuclear programme is a daunting challenge that raises a number of questions. There is an increase in nuclear power around the globe as a result of shortages of energy and concerns about energy independence and climate change. On the one hand, this is good, because without energy there is no hope for development on the other hand, however, it means that nuclear know-how and nuclear technology will continue to spread to more and more countries. There is also an increase in the number of countries interested in developing nuclear fuel cycle capabilities: sensitive fuel cycle activities, reprocessing and above all uranium enrichment. It even seems that some countries might be hedging their bets in order to have the know-how should they need to develop their own deterrence. Verifying enrichment or reprocessing facilities is quite difficult, and the so-called conversion time is extremely short. Thus, the IAEA is dealing with what is called 'virtual nuclear weapon States'. The IAEA has been talking for a number of years about the need to develop a new international or multinational approach to the fuel cycle in order to avoid a situation with nine nuclear weapon States and another 20 or 30 States having the capacity to develop nuclear weapons in a very short period of time. There is a need to remember that there is a linkage between nuclear disarmament and non-proliferation. Furthermore safeguards activities, though fundamentally technical in nature, are carried out in a political charged environment. The security dimension - that is, nuclear terrorism - also presents a new challenge, because State systems of accounting for and control of nuclear material are no longer simply tools for safeguards, but now provide information relevant to physical protection as well. The IAEA does not receive all information they would need, for example systematic information from the Nuclear Suppliers Group on exports and imports. Other challenges are financial resources (IAEA's budget: $ 130 million) and the IAEA laboratories in Vienna which are not equipped for state- of-the-art analysis of environmental samples. There is also need for transparency measures in certain situations - for example, interviewing people and having access to documents. Another challenge is how to deal with countries having already begun weaponization activities, how to verify that weapons have been dismantled, weaponization structures have been destroyed and custody has been taken of weapon design information. The IAEA recently moved from a system based on facility verification to a State level safeguards approach. The IAEA has also introduced an integrated safeguards approach, which is more cost effective and enables the IAEA to provide better assurances. Environmental sampling and satellite monitoring are new tools that the IAEA is now using almost routinely. Moreover, the IAEA is continuing to work with the Member States to develop new verification tools. Each of the issues discussed presents its own challenge and there is hope for input and new ideas provided by the participants. The real purpose of the symposium is to determine how the IAEA can continue to be effective and relevant, and a valuable instrument to help the international community deal with nuclear weapons proliferation

2007-08-01

13

Global threat reduction initiative efforts to address transportation challenges associated with the recovery of disused radioactive sealed sources - 10460  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Proper disposition of disused radioactive sources is essential for their safe and secure management and necessary to preclude their use in malicious activities. Without affordable, timely transportation options, disused sealed sources remain in storage at hundreds of sites throughout the country and around the world. While secure storage is a temporary measure, the longer sources remain disused or unwanted the chances increase that they will become unsecured or abandoned. The Global Threat Reduction Initiative's Off-Site Source Recovery Project (GTRIlOSRP), recovers thousands of disused and unwanted sealed sources annually as part of GTRl's larger mission to reduce and protect high risk nuclear and radiological materials located at civilian sites worldwide. Faced with decreasing availability of certified transportation containers to support movement of disused and unwanted neutron- and beta/gamma-emitting radioactive sealed sources, GTRIlOSRP has initiated actions to ensure the continued success of the project in timely recovery and management of sealed radioactive sources. Efforts described in this paper to enhance transportation capabilities include: (smbullet) Addition of authorized content to existing and planned Type B containers to support the movement of non-special form and other Type B-quantity sealed sources; (smbullet) Procurement of vendor services for the design, development, testing and certification of a new Type B container to support transportation of irradiators, teletherapy heads or sources removed from these devices using remote handling capabilities such as the IAEA portable hot cell facility; (smbullet) Expansion of shielded Type A container inventory for transportation of gamma-emitting sources in activity ranges requiring use of shielding for conformity with transportation requirements; (smbullet) Approval of the S300 Type A fissile container for transport of Pu-239 sealed sources internationally; (smbullet) Technology transfer of field-sealable (non-welded) special form capsules for commercial use.

2010-03-07

14

Addressing capability computing challenges of high-resolution global climate modelling at the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility  

Science.gov (United States)

During 2013, high-resolution climate model simulations accounted for over 100 million "core hours" using Titan at the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF). The suite of climate modeling experiments, primarily using the Community Earth System Model (CESM) at nearly 0.25 degree horizontal resolution, generated over a petabyte of data and nearly 100,000 files, ranging in sizes from 20 MB to over 100 GB. Effective utilization of leadership class resources requires careful planning and preparation. The application software, such as CESM, need to be ported, optimized and benchmarked for the target platform in order to meet the computational readiness requirements. The model configuration needs to be "tuned and balanced" for the experiments. This can be a complicated and resource intensive process, especially for high-resolution configurations using complex physics. The volume of I/O also increases with resolution; and new strategies may be required to manage I/O especially for large checkpoint and restart files that may require more frequent output for resiliency. It is also essential to monitor the application performance during the course of the simulation exercises. Finally, the large volume of data needs to be analyzed to derive the scientific results; and appropriate data and information delivered to the stakeholders. Titan is currently the largest supercomputer available for open science. The computational resources, in terms of "titan core hours" are allocated primarily via the Innovative and Novel Computational Impact on Theory and Experiment (INCITE) and ASCR Leadership Computing Challenge (ALCC) programs, both sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science. Titan is a Cray XK7 system, capable of a theoretical peak performance of over 27 PFlop/s, consists of 18,688 compute nodes, with a NVIDIA Kepler K20 GPU and a 16-core AMD Opteron CPU in every node, for a total of 299,008 Opteron cores and 18,688 GPUs offering a cumulative 560,640 equivalent cores. Scientific applications, such as CESM, are also required to demonstrate a "computational readiness capability" to efficiently scale across and utilize 20% of the entire system. The 0,25 deg configuration of the spectral element dynamical core of the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM-SE), the atmospheric component of CESM, has been demonstrated to scale efficiently across more than 5,000 nodes (80,000 CPU cores) on Titan. The tracer transport routines of CAM-SE have also been ported to take advantage of the hybrid many-core architecture of Titan using GPUs [see EGU2014-4233], yielding over 2X speedup when transporting over 100 tracers. The high throughput I/O in CESM, based on the Parallel IO Library (PIO), is being further augmented to support even higher resolutions and enhance resiliency. The application performance of the individual runs are archived in a database and routinely analyzed to identify and rectify performance degradation during the course of the experiments. The various resources available at the OLCF now support a scientific workflow to facilitate high-resolution climate modelling. A high-speed center-wide parallel file system, called ATLAS, capable of 1 TB/s, is available on Titan as well as on the clusters used for analysis (Rhea) and visualization (Lens/EVEREST). Long-term archive is facilitated by the HPSS storage system. The Earth System Grid (ESG), featuring search & discovery, is also used to deliver data. The end-to-end workflow allows OLCF users to efficiently share data and publish results in a timely manner.

Anantharaj, Valentine; Norman, Matthew; Evans, Katherine; Taylor, Mark; Worley, Patrick; Hack, James; Mayer, Benjamin

2014-05-01

15

Examining the global challenges ahead.  

Science.gov (United States)

A quartet of speakers at a London seminar that looked ahead to the challenges facing the sector to 2020 and beyond, held in early November to mark IHEEM's 70th Anniversary, addressed subjects including how the global healthcare community will tackle a significant future increase in demand for care, the growing pressure to reduce energy consumption, and the predicted migration of much of the care currently provided in large acute hospitals to community healthcare settings and patients' homes. The seminar, entitled 'Healthcare Estates 2020', was held at the Institution of Civil Engineers just off Parliament Square, and was followed by a celebratory lunch in an impressive riverside setting at the Houses of Parliament. HEJ editor, Jonathan Baillie, reports. PMID:24516933

Baillie, Jonathan

2014-01-01

16

The challenge of global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The chapter outlines the science of global warming, the likely consequences of global warming and some of the major challenges in dealing with global climate change. Some of the major international organisations concerned with environmental issues are listed. International agreements might be used to limit emissions of greenhouse gases. 32 refs., 2 tabs

1990-03-26

17

Addressing Asthma Health Disparities: A Multilevel Challenge  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Substantial research has documented pervasive disparities in the prevalence, severity, and morbidity of asthma among minority populations compared to non-Latino whites. The underlying causes of these disparities are not well understood, and as a result, the leverage points to address them remain unclear. A multilevel framework for integrating research in asthma health disparities is proposed in order to advance both future research and clinical practice. The components of the proposed model i...

Canino, Glorisa; Mcquaid, Elizabeth L.; Rand, Cynthia S.

2009-01-01

18

Addressing asthma health disparities: a multilevel challenge.  

Science.gov (United States)

Substantial research has documented pervasive disparities in the prevalence, severity, and morbidity of asthma among minority populations compared with non-Latino white subjects. The underlying causes of these disparities are not well understood, and as a result, the leverage points to address them remain unclear. A multilevel framework for integrating research in asthma health disparities is proposed to advance both future research and clinical practice. The components of the proposed model include health care policies and regulations, operation of the health care system, provider/clinician-level factors, social/environmental factors, and individual/family attitudes and behaviors. The body of research suggests that asthma disparities have multiple, complex, and interrelated sources. Disparities occur when individual, environmental, health system, and provider factors interact with one another over time. Given that the causes of asthma disparities are complex and multilevel, clinical strategies to address these disparities must therefore be comparably multilevel and target many aspects of asthma care. Several strategies that could be applied in clinical settings to reduce asthma disparities are described, including the need for routine assessment of the patient's beliefs, financial barriers to disease management, and health literacy and the provision of cultural competence training and communication skills to health care provider groups. PMID:19447484

Canino, Glorisa; McQuaid, Elizabeth L; Rand, Cynthia S

2009-06-01

19

World Bank: Global Challenges  

Science.gov (United States)

The World Bank works to combat poverty and to increase development opportunities around the world, but they also have selected six strategic themes that focus in on global development. First-time visitors to the site can listen to World Bank President Robert B. Zoellick talk about these themes, and they may also wish to follow along with the accompanying slideshow. Themes include global public goods, the Arab world, and middle-income countries. By clicking on one of these themes, visitors can read comprehensive reports, working papers, or take a look at presentations that explore these areas in greater detail. Many of these information sources are contained within a "Highlights" area. Visitors with a penchant for economic development, international political economy, or international affairs will find this site very useful. It's also easy to see how these materials might be used in a classroom setting to spark discussion or debate about some of these very timely matters.

20

Addressing malaria vector control challenges in South Sudan: proposed recommendations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Upon the signing of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement in 2005, the Republic of South Sudan (RSS has faced a lot of challenges, such as a lack of infrastructure, human resources and an enormous burden of vector borne diseases including malaria. While a national malaria strategic plan 2006-2011 was developed, the vector control component has remained relatively weak. The strategy endorses the distribution of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs as the frontline intervention with other interventions recommended only when technical and institutional capacity is available. In 2006, a draft integrated vector management (IVM strategic plan 2007–2012 was developed but never implemented, resulting in minimal coordination, implementation and coverage of malaria vector control tools including their inherent impact. To address this challenge, the vector control team of the National Malaria Control Programme (NMCP is being strengthened. With the objective of building national capacity and technical collaboration for effective implementation of the IVM strategy, a national malaria vector control conference was held from 15-17th October 2012 in Juba. A range of NMCP partners, state ministries, acadaemia, private sector, national and international non-governmental organizations, including regional and global policymakers attended the meeting. The conference represented a major milestone and made recommendations revolving around the five key elements of the IVM approach. The meeting endorsed that vector control efforts in RSS be augmented with other interventions within the confines of the IVM strategy as a national approach, with strong adherence to its key elements.

Chanda Emmanuel

2013-02-01

 
 
 
 
21

Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. Utah  

Science.gov (United States)

America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

2010-01-01

22

Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. Wisconsin  

Science.gov (United States)

America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

2010-01-01

23

Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. New Hampshire  

Science.gov (United States)

America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

2010-01-01

24

Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. Oklahoma  

Science.gov (United States)

America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

2010-01-01

25

Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. Minnesota  

Science.gov (United States)

America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

2010-01-01

26

Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. Kansas  

Science.gov (United States)

America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

2010-01-01

27

Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. Illinois  

Science.gov (United States)

America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

2010-01-01

28

Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. Louisiana  

Science.gov (United States)

America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

2010-01-01

29

Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. Florida  

Science.gov (United States)

America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

2010-01-01

30

Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. Rhode Island  

Science.gov (United States)

America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

2010-01-01

31

Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. Tennessee  

Science.gov (United States)

America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

2010-01-01

32

Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. Hawaii  

Science.gov (United States)

America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

2010-01-01

33

Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. Arkansas  

Science.gov (United States)

America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

2010-01-01

34

Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. New Mexico  

Science.gov (United States)

America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

2010-01-01

35

Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. South Carolina  

Science.gov (United States)

America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

2010-01-01

36

Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. Alabama  

Science.gov (United States)

America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers; (2) significant financial shortfalls; and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

2010-01-01

37

Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. Maine  

Science.gov (United States)

America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

2010-01-01

38

Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. Nevada  

Science.gov (United States)

America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

2010-01-01

39

Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. Montana  

Science.gov (United States)

America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

2010-01-01

40

Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. Nebraska  

Science.gov (United States)

America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. New Jersey  

Science.gov (United States)

America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

2010-01-01

42

Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. Indiana  

Science.gov (United States)

America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

2010-01-01

43

Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. Kentucky  

Science.gov (United States)

America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

2010-01-01

44

Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. Texas  

Science.gov (United States)

America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

2010-01-01

45

Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. Vermont  

Science.gov (United States)

America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

2010-01-01

46

Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. Pennsylvania  

Science.gov (United States)

America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

2010-01-01

47

Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. Georgia  

Science.gov (United States)

America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

2010-01-01

48

Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. North Dakota  

Science.gov (United States)

America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

2010-01-01

49

Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. North Carolina  

Science.gov (United States)

America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

2010-01-01

50

Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. Oregon  

Science.gov (United States)

America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

2010-01-01

51

Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. Mississippi  

Science.gov (United States)

America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

2010-01-01

52

Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. Wyoming  

Science.gov (United States)

America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

2010-01-01

53

Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. West Virginia  

Science.gov (United States)

America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

2010-01-01

54

Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. Virginia  

Science.gov (United States)

America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

2010-01-01

55

Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. Missouri  

Science.gov (United States)

America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

2010-01-01

56

Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. South Dakota  

Science.gov (United States)

America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

2010-01-01

57

Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. Michigan  

Science.gov (United States)

America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

2010-01-01

58

Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. Idaho  

Science.gov (United States)

America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

2010-01-01

59

Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. New York  

Science.gov (United States)

America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

2010-01-01

60

Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. California  

Science.gov (United States)

America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. Washington  

Science.gov (United States)

America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

2010-01-01

62

Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. Maryland  

Science.gov (United States)

America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

2010-01-01

63

Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. Ohio  

Science.gov (United States)

America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

2010-01-01

64

ADDRESSING THE RISKS OF GLOBAL PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Offshoring various stages in the product development process â?? from engineering tasks like R&D and design to manufacturing activities - can impact the development process, the product and the organisation. Some of these impacts are positive while some are negative. The negative impacts are related to rework, misunderstandings, miscommunication and lower quality. This paper investigates how the organisation can reduce the negative aspects of offshoring by presenting two possible approaches; one which lessens the exposure to situations in which these negative impacts happen and another which addresses them in the decision phase so the organisation can develop appropriate strategies for these instances.

Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema

2011-01-01

65

Addressing Earth Science Data Access Challenges through User Experience Research  

Science.gov (United States)

The NASA Capacity Building Program (Earth Science Division, Applied Sciences Program) works to enhance end-user capabilities to employ Earth observation and Earth science (EO/ES) data in decision-making. Open data access and user-tailored data delivery strategies are critical elements towards this end. User Experience (UX) and User Interface (UI) research methods can offer important contributions towards addressing data access challenges, particularly at the interface of science application/product development and product transition to end-users. This presentation focuses on developing nation contexts and describes methods, results, and lessons learned from two recent UX/UI efforts conducted in collaboration with NASA: the SERVIRglobal.net redesign project and the U.S. Water Partnership (USWP) Portal development effort. SERVIR, a collaborative venture among NASA, USAID, and global partners, seeks to improve environmental management and climate change response by helping governments and other stakeholders integrate EO and geospatial technologies into decision-making. The USWP, a collaboration among U.S. public and private sectors, harnesses U.S.-based resources and expertise to address water challenges in developing nations. SERVIR's study, conducted from 2010-2012, assessed and tested user needs, preferences, and online experiences to generate a more user-friendly online data portal at SERVIRglobal.net. The portal provides a central access interface to data and products from SERVIR's network of hubs in East Africa, the Hindu Kush Himalayas, and Mesoamerica. The second study, conducted by the USWP Secretariat and funded by the U.S. Department of State, seeks to match U.S.-based water information resources with developing nation stakeholder needs. The USWP study utilizes a multi-pronged approach to identify key design requirements and to understand the existing water data portal landscape. Adopting UX methods allows data distributors to design customized UIs that help users find, interpret, and obtain appropriate content quickly. The data access challenge for both SERVIR and USWP consisted of organizing a wide range of content for their respective user bases, which are diverse, international, and in some cases loosely characterized. The UX/UI design approach generated profiles of prototypical users and corresponding task flows and organizational schemes for their preferred types of content. Wireframe acceptance testing by SERVIR helped elicit and optimize how users interact with the information online. These approaches produced customized UIs and knowledge management strategies to address the data access challenges faced by each user type. Both studies revealed critical considerations for user experiences in developing nations (e.g., low-bandwidth internet connections, rolling power outages at data storage or network centers). For SERVIR, these findings influenced not only the portal infrastructure; they also informed the transition of the platform to a Cloud-based model, as well as the development of custom data delivery tools such as SMS and other mobile solutions. While SERVIR's data access solutions are customized for the network's community of users, they are also standardized and interoperable according to GEO and ISO standards, providing a model for other initiatives such as the ongoing USWP Portal development effort.

Hemmings, S. N.; Banks, B.; Kendall, J.; Lee, C. M.; Irwin, D.; Toll, D. L.; Searby, N. D.

2013-12-01

66

Addressing the Grand Challenge of atmospheric carbon dioxide: geologic sequestration vs. biological recycling  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract On February 15, 2008, the National Academy of Engineering unveiled their list of 14 Grand Challenges for Engineering. Building off of tremendous advancements in the past century, these challenges were selected for their role in assuring a sustainable existence for the rapidly increasing global community. It is no accident that the first five Challenges on the list involve the development of sustainable energy sources and management of environmental resources. While the focus of this review is to address the single Grand Challenge of "develop carbon sequestration methods", is will soon be clear that several other Challenges are intrinsically tied to it through the principles of sustainability. How does the realm of biological engineering play a role in addressing these Grand Challenges?

Stuart Ben J

2011-11-01

67

Challenges in global ballast water management.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ballast water management is a complex issue raising the challenge of merging international regulations, ship's specific configurations along with ecological conservation. This complexity is illustrated in this paper by considering ballast water volume, discharge frequency, ship safety and operational issues aligned with regional characteristics to address ecological risk for selected routes. A re-estimation of ballast water volumes gives a global annual level of 3500 Mton. Global ballast water volume discharged into open sea originating from ballast water exchange operations is estimated to approximately 2800 Mton. Risk based decision support systems coupled to databases for different ports and invasive species characteristics and distributions can allow for differentiated treatment levels while maintaining low risk levels. On certain routes, the risk is estimated to be unacceptable and some kind of ballast water treatment or management should be applied. PMID:15041419

Endresen, Øyvind; Lee Behrens, Hanna; Brynestad, Sigrid; Bjørn Andersen, Aage; Skjong, Rolf

2004-04-01

68

Teachers addressing HIV&AIDS-related challenges resourcefully  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Teachers, in their relationship with children and their families, face challenges related to cumulative risk, including HIV&AIDS. In this paper we use Sense of Coherence to explain why teachers are able to address such barriers by using assets. We explore the way that teachers (N=28) in four South African schools opted to tackle the cumulative risk associated with HIV&AIDS, following participation in an asset-based intervention (STAR – Supportive Teachers Assets and Resilienc...

Loots, Tilda; Ebersohn, L.; Ferreira, Ronel; Eloff, Irma F.

2012-01-01

69

Global challenges and globalization of bioethics  

Science.gov (United States)

This article analyzes problems and implications for man and nature connected with the formation of a new architecture of science, based on the convergence of nanotechnology, biotechnology, information technology, and cognitive science (NBIC). It also describes evolution and genesis of bioethics, a scientific discipline and social practice with a special role of ethical management of potential risks of scientific research. The aim was to demonstrate the necessity of bioethical social control in the development of a global bioeconomy driven by NBIC technologies.

Nezhmetdinova, Farida

2013-01-01

70

Global challenges and globalization of bioethics.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article analyzes problems and implications for man and nature connected with the formation of a new architecture of science, based on the convergence of nanotechnology, biotechnology, information technology, and cognitive science (NBIC). It also describes evolution and genesis of bioethics, a scientific discipline and social practice with a special role of ethical management of potential risks of scientific research. The aim was to demonstrate the necessity of bioethical social control in the development of a global bioeconomy driven by NBIC technologies. PMID:23447421

Nezhmetdinova, Farida

2013-02-01

71

Addressing the challenges of patient-centred design  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Patient-centred design is a relatively new term, but a longstanding concept in clinical practice. This discussion looks at patient-centred design and explores the relationships of patient-centred design to universal design, user-centred design and the newer human-centred design. It also explores why interdisciplinary approaches are needed for patient-centred design and how interdisciplinary collaboration works to address the challenges of patient centred design. Successful patient-centred solutions can grow from collaborations which include shared visions, understanding of both the nature and degree of variation in the patient,materials, and the designed solution, clear regular communication among all parties with careful definition of terms, and respect for the inherent cultures of all disciplines involved.

Karen LaBat

2009-11-01

72

Uranium discussion paper: embracing facts and addressing the challenges  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Events in recent months have prompted Australians to reassess their attitude towards uranium mining. These include the debate over takeover bids for our largest uranium deposit at Olympic Dam, Canberra's decision to take control of mining in the Northern Territory, and progress in negotiating a bilateral agreement for selling uranium to China. On an international level, increasing concern over global warming, and burgeoning energy demand from developing countries, has led many people to come to view nuclear power as an energy alternative that is both attractive and necessary. It is essential that professional, informed and expert opinion be sought to drive the debate and the way forward. Australia's uranium mining and exploration industry is now leading edge and it's time public debate evolved along with it. The extent to which the issue is manipulated for political point scoring is a disservice to the country and perhaps to democracy. It impedes the evolution of a coherent, consistent and intelligent policy on a range of issues that we, as a country with the largest deposit of a sustainable source of energy in a time of accelerating global energy demands, need to address

2005-01-01

73

Evaluating complex community-based health promotion: Addressing the challenges.  

Science.gov (United States)

Community-based health promotion is poorly theorised and lacks an agreed evidence-base. This paper examines characteristics of community-based health promotion and the challenges they present to evaluation. A review of health promotion evaluation leads to an exploration of more recent approaches, drawing on ideas from complexity theory and developmental evaluation. A reflexive analysis of three program evaluations previously undertaken as an evaluation consultant is used to develop a conceptual model to help in the design and conduct of health promotion evaluation. The model is further explored by applying it retrospectively to one evaluation. Findings suggest that the context-contingent nature of health promotion programs; turbulence in the community context and players; multiple stakeholders, goals and strategies; and uncertainty of outcomes all contribute to the complexity of interventions. Bringing together insights from developmental evaluation and complexity theory can help to address some evaluation challenges. The proposed model emphasises recognising and responding to changing contexts and emerging outcomes, providing rapid feedback and facilitating reflexive practice. This will enable the evaluator to gain a better understanding of the influence of context and other implementation factors in a complex setting. Use of the model should contribute to building cumulative evidence and knowledge in order to identify the principles of health promotion effectiveness that may be transferable to new situations. PMID:24755377

Jolley, Gwyneth

2014-08-01

74

Integrated strategy to address Hanford's deep vadose zone remediation challenges  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A vast majority of Hanford's remaining in-ground contaminants reside in the vadose zone of the Central Plateau, where reprocessing operations occurred. The vadose zone is comprised of about 75 meters of water-unsaturated sediments above groundwater. If left untreated, these contaminants could reach groundwater and could remain a threat for centuries. Much of this contamination resides deep in the vadose zone, below the effective depth of tradition surface remedy influence. In 2008, the Department of Energy initiated deep vadose zone treatability testing to seek remedies for technetium-99 and uranium contamination. These tests include the application of desiccation for technetium-99 and reactive gas technologies for uranium. To complement these efforts, the Department of Energy has initiated a 'defense-in-depth' approach to address the unique challenges for characterization and remediation of the deep vadose zone. This defense-in-depth approach will implement multiple approaches to understand and control contaminant flux from the deep vadose zone to the groundwater. Among these approaches is an increased investment in science and technology solutions to resolve deep vadose zone challenges including characterization, prediction, remediation, and monitoring. (author)

2010-10-03

75

Integrated Strategy to Address Hanford's Deep Vadose Zone Remediation Challenges  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A vast majority of Hanford's remaining in-ground contaminants reside in the vadose zone of the Central Plateau, where reprocessing operations occurred. The vadose zone is comprised of about 75 meters of water-unsaturated sediments above groundwater. These contaminants have, and continue to release into groundwater that discharges to the Columbia River. If left untreated, these contaminants could remain a threat for centuries. Much of this contamination resides deep in the vadose zone, below the effective depth of tradition surface remedy influence. In 2008, the Department of Energy initiated deep vadose zone treatability testing to seek remedies for technetium-99 and uranium contamination. These tests include the application of desiccation for technetium-99 and reactive gas technologies for uranium. To complement these efforts, the Department of Energy has initiated a 'defense-in-depth' approach to address the unique challenges for characterization and remediation of the deep vadose zone. This defense-in-depth approach will implement multiple approaches to understand and control contaminant flux from the deep vadose zone to the groundwater. Among these approaches is an increased investment in science and technology solutions to resolve deep vadose zone challenges including characterization, prediction, remediation, and monitoring.

2010-10-03

76

Who governs energy? The challenges facing global energy governance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article conceptualizes the energy problems facing society from a global governance perspective. It argues that a notion of 'global energy governance,' taken to mean international collective action efforts undertaken to manage and distribute energy resources and provide energy services, offers a meaningful and useful framework for assessing energy-related challenges. The article begins by exploring the concepts of governance, global governance, and global energy governance. It then examines some of the existing institutions in place to establish and carry out rules and norms governing global energy problems and describes the range of institutional design options available to policymakers. It briefly traces the role of a selection of these institutions, from inter-governmental organizations to summit processes to multilateral development banks to global action networks, in responding to energy issues, and points out their strengths and weaknesses. The article concludes by analyzing how the various approaches to global governance differ in their applicability to addressing the conundrums of global energy problems.

2009-12-01

77

Addressing professional resource challenges facing modern utilities with technological solutions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The challenges facing electric utilities regarding a shortage of highly qualified labour to maintain, refurbish and expand electrical infrastructure can be attributed to a wave of retirements in skilled employees, a shortage of entry-level workers and a rapidly increasing workload caused by investment in electricity infrastructure. Two solutions were presented for finding and sustaining an adequate personnel base. The first involved developing local talent, both entry-level and mid-career staff to ensure that work continuity and workplace safety are maintained. The second involved the implementation of technological solutions to help optimize the use of existing and future labour resources. This paper presented the human resource programs developed by Hydro One, the largest electrical transmission and distribution utility in the province of Ontario. Their initiatives include raising the profile of the utility work environment through strategic partnerships with educational institutions and developing in house offerings to supplement existing academic programs. This paper also presented a technical solution to address the resources challenges specifically associated with power system protection and control. The solution targets professional and skilled trades involved in the design, installation and maintenance of automated substations and protection and control systems. It is based on the premise that resource optimization can be achieved by reducing inconsistent design and construction practices and replacing these designs with highly standardized materials with digital communications using IEC 61850. This new technology should attract young professionals to the power engineering field while still maintaining a high comfort level with the established professional workforce. 5 refs., 4 figs.

Goldie, T. [Hydro One Networks Inc., Toronto, ON (Canada); Hodder, S. [GE Digital Energy, Toronto, ON (Canada)

2008-07-01

78

ISLAM: Local and Global Challenges  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Indeed, in maintaining their local values when faced with globalchallenges, Muslims, as a social entity, and Islam, as a set of dogma, havegiven birth to new phenomena, e.g. new interpretation of Islam withina new context. Additionally, this era of globalization has led religions,including Islam, to renew their gambit to cope reality, e.g. in the practicallife (sociological, political, economical and anthropological aspects,intellectual endeavors (philosophical and theological aspects, and in therenewal of dogmatic teachings (hermeneutical aspects.

Editor Al-Jami'ah: Journal of Islamic Studies

2011-02-01

79

The Challenges and Potential of Nuclear Energy for Addressing Climate Change  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The response to climate change and the stabilization of atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations has major implications for the global energy system. Stabilization of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations requires a peak and an indefinite decline of global CO2 emissions. Nuclear energy, along with other technologies, has the potential to contribute to the growing demand for energy without emitting CO2. Nuclear energy is of particular interest because of its global prevalence and its current significant contribution, nearly 20%, to the world’s electricity supply. We have investigated the value of nuclear energy in addressing climate change, and have explored the potential challenges for the rapid and large-scale expansion of nuclear energy as a response to climate change. The scope of this study is long-term and the modeling time frame extends out a century because the nature of nuclear energy and climate change dictate that perspective. Our results indicate that the value of the nuclear technology option for addressing climate change is denominated in trillions of dollars. Several-fold increases to the value of the nuclear option can be expected if there is limited availability of competing carbon-free technologies, particularly fossil-fuel based technologies that can capture and sequester carbon. Challenges for the expanded global use of nuclear energy include the global capacity for nuclear construction, proliferation, uranium availability, and waste disposal. While the economic costs of nuclear fuel and power are important, non-economic issues transcend the issues of costs. In this regard, advanced nuclear technologies and new vision for the global use of nuclear energy are important considerations for the future of nuclear power and climate change.

Kim, Son H.; Edmonds, James A.

2007-10-24

80

Antimicrobial resistance: the global public health challenge  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Antimicrobial resistance is one of the biggest challenges to face global public health at the beginning of the third millennium. Antimicrobial resistance and its global spread threaten the continued effectiveness of many medicines used today to treat the sick. Antibiotic resistance is usually associated with significant morbidity, longer hospitalization, excess costs and mortality. Many factors contribute to the unnecessary use of antibiotics including the knowledge and beliefs of doctors ...

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

E-Learning: Addressing the Challenges via Collaboration.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper discusses the challenges facing institutions in the development of online programs and classes and their delivery, as well as the provision of support for students as they proceed through these programs. The authors suggest that the principal challenge to project development is a lack of resources--human, financial, and technical--for…

Fleming, Tim; Tammone, William; Wahl, Michael

82

ADDRESSING ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING CHALLENGES WITH COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS  

Science.gov (United States)

In the field of environmental engineering, modeling tools are playing an ever larger role in addressing air quality issues, including source pollutant emissions, atmospheric dispersion and human exposure risks. More detailed modeling of environmental flows requires tools for c...

83

CLIMATE CHANGE: FROM GLOBAL CONCERN TO REGIONAL CHALLENGE  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper aims to map out various research and policy challenges inherent in the need to cope with climate change. Therefore, four critical domains are identified which will most likely be seriously affected by climate change. Next, both the global/general and the regional/specific dimensions of these domains are described, with a view to the identification of a proactive research and policy constellation that might be put in effect to effectively address climate issues.

2009-01-01

84

CLIMATE CHANGE: FROM GLOBAL CONCERN TO REGIONAL CHALLENGE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper aims to map out various research and policy challenges inherent in the need to cope with climate change. Therefore, four critical domains are identified which will most likely be seriously affected by climate change. Next, both the global/general and the regional/specific dimensions of these domains are described, with a view to the identification of a proactive research and policy constellation that might be put in effect to effectively address climate issues.

Piet Rietveld

2009-12-01

85

Hip Arthroscopy for Challenging Deformities: Global Pincer Femoroacetabular Impingement  

Science.gov (United States)

Pincer femoroacetabular impingement occurs in focal or global forms, the latter having more generalized and typically more extreme acetabular overcoverage. Severe global deformities are often treated with open surgical dislocation of the hip. Arthroscopic technical challenges relate to difficulties with hip distraction; central-compartment access; and instrument navigation, acetabuloplasty, and chondrolabral surgery of the posterior acetabulum. Techniques addressing these challenges are introduced permitting dual-portal hip arthroscopy with central-compartment access, subtotal acetabuloplasty, and circumferential chondrolabral surgery. The modified midanterior portal in combination with a zone-specific sequence of acetabular rim reduction monitored with fluoroscopic templating enables precision subtotal acetabuloplasty. Guidelines for acetabular rim reduction include the following suggested radiographic endpoints: postoperative center-edge angle of 35°, a neutral posterior wall sign, and an anterior margin ratio of 0.5. Arthroscopic zone-specific chondrophobic rim preparation and circumferential labral reparative and reconstructive techniques and tools permit the arthroscopic treatment of these challenging deformities.

Matsuda, Dean K.; Gupta, Nikhil; Hanami, Dylan

2014-01-01

86

Addressing Strategic Challenges. Annual Report, 2001-2002.  

Science.gov (United States)

This report describes the activities of the Council of Independent Colleges (CIC) in 2001-2002. In that year, the CIC focused on implementing new programs, services, and initiatives based on the challenges identified in the previous year during the intensive strategic planning effort. Highlights for the year include: (1) new assistance to…

Council of Independent Colleges, Washington, DC.

87

Current issues and challenges addressing the German drinking water sector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The German water sector takes varied actions to secure a safe and sustainable drinking water supply for the future. Among the major challenges that have to be met are the adaption of water supply systems to climate and demographic change, the pressure on water resources stemming from emerging (micro-)pollutants and biomass production as a source of renewable energy. (orig.)

Petry, Daniel; Castell-Exner, Claudia [DVGW Deutscher Verein des Gas- und Wasserfaches e.V. Technisch-wissenschaftlicher Verein, Bonn (Germany)

2012-07-01

88

The Global Outlook for Small Reactors: Opportunities, Challenges and Implementation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The fascinating topic of small nuclear is becoming more prevalent on the nuclear agenda. The discussions are generally focused within the country of technical origin. In this presentation 'The global outlook for small reactors' Rolls-Royce along with energy business analysts Douglas-Westwood present their shared views on the global opportunities for Small Reactor deployment in the context of the wider energy market. The presentation will: provide a compressive overview of trends and dynamics relating to Small Reactors in the context of the current world energy market, identify specific Small Reactor opportunities and areas of interest, address the challenges and potential solutions for Small Reactor deployment and operation.(author).

2012-06-03

89

Addressing the Challenge: Cataloguing Electronic Books in Academic Libraries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective ? This paper explores the various issues and challenges arising from e?book cataloguing experienced at the University of Windsor’s Leddy Library and the Ontario Council of University Libraries (OCUL). This discussion uses an evidence based approach to identify and resolve issues relevant to academic libraries as well as to consortia. With the ever rising popularity of e?books within academic libraries, cataloguing librarians are actively seeking more effective methods...

2010-01-01

90

Addressing malaria vector control challenges in South Sudan: proposed recommendations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Upon the signing of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement in 2005, the Republic of South Sudan (RSS) has faced a lot of challenges, such as a lack of infrastructure, human resources and an enormous burden of vector borne diseases including malaria. While a national malaria strategic plan 2006-2011 was developed, the vector control component has remained relatively weak. The strategy endorses the distribution of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) as the frontline interventio...

2013-01-01

91

Adoptive T cell therapy: Addressing challenges in cancer immunotherapy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Adoptive T cell therapy involves the ex vivo selection and expansion of effector cells for the treatment of patients with cancer. In this review, the advantages and limitations of using antigen-specific T cells are discussed in counterpoint to vaccine strategies. Although vaccination strategies represent more readily available reagents, adoptive T cell therapy provides highly selected T cells of defined phenotype, specificity and function that may influence their biological behavior in vivo. Adoptive T cell therapy offers not only translational opportunities but also a means to address fundamental issues in the evolving field of cancer immunotherapy.

Yee Cassian

2005-04-01

92

The Global Energy Challenge : A Contextual Framework  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This report gives a brief overview of the global energy challenge and subsequently outlines how and where renewable energy could be developed to solve these issues. The report does not go into a lot of detail on these issues and hence, it is meant as an overview only. The report begins by outlining the causes of global climate change, concluding that energy-related emissions are the primary contributors to the problem. As a result, global energy production is analysed in more detail, discussing how it has evolved over the last 30 years and also, how it is expected to evolve in the coming 30 years. Afterwards, the security of the worldâ??s energy supply is investigated and it becomes clear that there is both an inevitable shortage of fossil fuels and a dangerous separation of supply and demand. The final topic discussed is renewable energy, since it is one sustainable solution to the global energy challenge and to conclude, a brief summary is provided.

Connolly, David

2011-01-01

93

Oral health in Libya: addressing the future challenges  

Science.gov (United States)

Libya is a vast country situated in North Africa, having a relatively better functioning economy with a scanty population. This article is the first known attempt to review the current state of oral health care in Libya and to explore the present trends and future challenges. Libyan health system, oral health care, and human resources with the present status of dental education are reviewed comprehensively. A bibliographic study of oral health research and publications has been carried out. The results point toward a common indicator that oral health–related research is low. Strategies have to be developed to educate the medical and dental professionals, to update the current curriculum and enable the system to be competent in all aspects of oral health care management.

Peeran, Syed Wali; Altaher, Omar Basheer; Peeran, Syed Ali; Alsaid, Fatma Mojtaba; Mugrabi, Marei Hamed; Ahmed, Aisha Mojtaba; Grain, Abdulgader

2014-01-01

94

Oral health in Libya: addressing the future challenges.  

Science.gov (United States)

Libya is a vast country situated in North Africa, having a relatively better functioning economy with a scanty population. This article is the first known attempt to review the current state of oral health care in Libya and to explore the present trends and future challenges. Libyan health system, oral health care, and human resources with the present status of dental education are reviewed comprehensively. A bibliographic study of oral health research and publications has been carried out. The results point toward a common indicator that oral health-related research is low. Strategies have to be developed to educate the medical and dental professionals, to update the current curriculum and enable the system to be competent in all aspects of oral health care management. PMID:24666627

Peeran, Syed Wali; Altaher, Omar Basheer; Peeran, Syed Ali; Alsaid, Fatma Mojtaba; Mugrabi, Marei Hamed; Ahmed, Aisha Mojtaba; Grain, Abdulgader

2014-01-01

95

Who governs energy? The challenges facing global energy governance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article conceptualizes the energy problems facing society from a global governance perspective. It argues that a notion of 'global energy governance,' taken to mean international collective action efforts undertaken to manage and distribute energy resources and provide energy services, offers a meaningful and useful framework for assessing energy-related challenges. The article begins by exploring the concepts of governance, global governance, and global energy governance. It then examines some of the existing institutions in place to establish and carry out rules and norms governing global energy problems and describes the range of institutional design options available to policymakers. It briefly traces the role of a selection of these institutions, from inter-governmental organizations to summit processes to multilateral development banks to global action networks, in responding to energy issues, and points out their strengths and weaknesses. The article concludes by analyzing how the various approaches to global governance differ in their applicability to addressing the conundrums of global energy problems. (author)

Florini, Ann; Sovacool, Benjamin K. [Centre on Asia and Globalisation, Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore, Singapore 259772 (Singapore)

2009-12-15

96

Addressing socioeconomic and political challenges posed by climate change  

Science.gov (United States)

NATO Advanced Research Workshop: Climate Change, Human Health and National Security; Dubrovnik, Croatia, 28-30 April 2011; Climate change has been identified as one of the most serious threats to humanity. It not only causes sea level rise, drought, crop failure, vector-borne diseases, extreme events, degradation of water and air quality, heat waves, and other phenomena, but it is also a threat multiplier wherein concatenation of multiple events may lead to frequent human catastrophes and intranational and international conflicts. In particular, urban areas may bear the brunt of climate change because of the amplification of climate effects that cascade down from global to urban scales, but current modeling and downscaling capabilities are unable to predict these effects with confidence. These were the main conclusions of a NATO Advanced Research Workshop (ARW) sponsored by the NATO Science for Peace and Security program. Thirty-two invitees from 17 counties, including leading modelers; natural, political, and social scientists; engineers; politicians; military experts; urban planners; industry analysts; epidemiologists; and health care professionals, parsed the topic on a common platform.

Fernando, Harindra Joseph; Klaic, Zvjezdana Bencetic

2011-08-01

97

Peptide immunotherapy for childhood allergy - addressing translational challenges  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Allergic sensitisation usually begins early in life. The number of allergens a patient is sensitised to can increase over time and the development of additional allergic conditions is increasingly recognised. Targeting allergic disease in childhood is thus likely to be the most efficacious means of reducing the overall burden of allergic disease. Specific immunotherapy involves administering protein allergen to tolerise allergen reactive CD4+ T cells, thought key in driving allergic responses. Yet specific immunotherapy risks allergic reactions including anaphylaxis as a consequence of preformed allergen-specific IgE antibodies binding to the protein, subsequent cross-linking and mast cell degranulation. CD4+ T cells direct their responses to short "immunodominant" peptides within the allergen. Such peptides can be given therapeutically to induce T cell tolerance without facilitating IgE cross-linking. Peptide immunotherapy (PIT offers attractive treatment potential for allergic disease. However, PIT has not yet been shown to be effective in children. This review discusses the immunological mechanisms implicated in PIT and briefly covers outcomes from adult PIT trials. This provides a context for discussion of the challenges for the application of PIT, both generally and more specifically in relation to children.

Mackenzie Karen J

2011-11-01

98

Addressing the Challenge: Cataloguing Electronic Books in Academic Libraries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective ? This paper explores the various issues and challenges arising from e?book cataloguing experienced at the University of Windsor’s Leddy Library and the Ontario Council of University Libraries (OCUL. This discussion uses an evidence based approach to identify and resolve issues relevant to academic libraries as well as to consortia. With the ever rising popularity of e?books within academic libraries, cataloguing librarians are actively seeking more effective methods of managing this new electronic medium, including the development of new cataloguing policies and procedures. This paper will explore the various issues and challenges surrounding e?book cataloguing and processing within academic libraries, and will identify new policies and procedures that may be used to effectively assist in e?book management.Methods ? This paper presents a case study of e?book cataloguing practices undertaken by a Canadian academic library and the consortium with which it is affiliated. Towards this end, the University of Windsor’s Leddy Library will be the prime focus of this study, with its establishment of a new e?book MARC records database. The research is based on the results of the e?book MARC project undertaken by the Leddy Library and the Ontario Council of University Libraries (OCUL.Through analysis of various suppliers’ MARC records and the actual implementation of the e?book MARC project, the authors developed and evaluated a new approach to e?book cataloguing for use in academic libraries.Results ? This practice?based approach towards the development of a new method of e?book cataloguing required continual modification and examination of e?book MARC records within the target library. The Leddy Library’s e?book MARC project provided an excellent opportunity to test the library’s existing cataloguing standards and procedures for print format, while at the same time, identifying related e?books issues. The new policies and procedures for e?book cataloguing that followed were developed as a direct result of the authors’ cataloguing experiences and the information gained by examination of other academic libraries’ e?book cataloguing processes. This paper also provides an evaluation regarding the quality of suppliers’ MARC records. Results of this study should serve to increase the efficiency and effectiveness of cataloguing in academic libraries.Conclusions ? This paper identifies key issues regarding the cataloguing of e?books in academic libraries. Throughout, the authors have provided an evidence based approach. The hope is that the results will provide a useful framework for other academic libraries to build upon when developing their respective e?book cataloguing databases. E?books are effective resources, and academic libraries need to adapt to this new electronic medium in order to assist patrons in their discovery and usage.

Shuzhen Zhao

2010-03-01

99

REGULATORY CHALLENGES IN GLOBAL PHARMACEUTICAL MARKET  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The global pharmaceutical industry “looks like the epitome of a modern, mature industry that has found a comfortable way to make profits by the billion: it’s global, hi-tech, and has the ultimate customer, the health care budget of the world’s richest countries. A number of factors contributed to the globalization of the pharmaceutical industry. Chief among these are the convergence of medical science and practice under the influence of modern communication technology and increased and information exchange. The global success of the Swiss pharmaceutical industry is only due to the high level of investment in research and development and the other fact is the favorable regulatory frame work. For the development of a new drug and generics pharmaceutical company have to face number of regulatory challenges such as bioequivalence, patent expiry, newer antibiotics ,and the complexity involved in the regulated market etc. Regulatory processes are also undergoing international harmonization. As international market becomes more important, pharmaceutical companies will require greater corporation among national regulators to get life saving products which will help them to market faster and reduce regulatory compliance.

Vibhu Yadav et al.

2012-01-01

100

Pandemic influenza: A global challenge for social marketing marketing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recent years have seen increased attention and concern regarding the potential for pandemic influenza, following large-scale outbreaks of swine flu and bird flu. Governments and health agencies have time to develop social marketing strategies and specific messages that have the potential to minimize fear, refute or inoculate against misinformation that the public may encounter, and enhance the likelihood of the public taking the recommended preventive and remedial actions should these become necessary. This paper presents an overview of how social marketing can be used to tackle the global challenge of pandemic influenza. The potential pandemic influenza poses a major challenge for social marketers (along with governments, health services, and businesses. There are a number of critical factors about a potential pandemic influenza that make it fundamentally different to the majority of issues to which social marketing has previously been applied. The underlying principles of social marketing are equally applicable to a global infectious disease outbreak (such as pandemic influenza. Even if the current strains do not become pandemic, social marketers should use this impetus to develop the skills and resources to address future communicable disease outbreaks. This paper applies the concepts of social marketing to a unique health issue which has the potential to become one of the largest global public health crises in history, but which can be tackled with effective global social marketing.

Sandra C. Jones

2012-10-01

 
 
 
 
101

Nuclear Education and training: addressing a global need  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There is growing concern about the difficulties nuclear institutions in many OECD/NEA member countries are experiencing in recruiting qualified specialists. Recent studies have also shown that nuclear education and training have been suffering declines of various degrees. If no action is taken on this issue, the nuclear sector risks facing a shortage of qualified human resources to ensure the appropriate regulation and operation of existing nuclear facilities as well as the construction of new ones in those countries wishing to do so. The NEA Steering Committee for Nuclear Energy issued a statement on this subject in October 2007, the complete text of which is available at: www.nea.fr/html/general/press/2007/2007-05.html. The NEA has for many years been involved in efforts to define and address the need for qualified human resources. In this regard, the Agency: 1- carries out assessments of requirements and availability of qualified human resources in the nuclear field, 2- enhances nuclear education programmes, such as the International School of Nuclear Law, and 3- encourages large, high-profile international research and development programmes. These areas are addressed in the NEA Strategic Plan as well as in the specific NEA programmes discussed below. The presentation will focus on ways to address the issue of qualified human resources, share information about what others are doing, and discuss what we might do collectively. (author)

2008-05-26

102

Global immunization: status, progress, challenges and future.  

Science.gov (United States)

Vaccines have made a major contribution to public health, including the eradication of one deadly disease, small pox, and the near eradication of another, poliomyelitis.Through the introduction of new vaccines, such as those against rotavirus and pneumococcal diseases, and with further improvements in coverage, vaccination can significantly contribute to the achievement of the health-related United Nations Millennium Development Goals.The Global Immunization Vision and Strategy (GIVS) was developed by WHO and UNICEF as a framework for strengthening national immunization programmes and protect as many people as possible against more diseases by expanding the reach of immunization, including new vaccines, to every eligible person.This paper briefly reviews global progress and challenges with respect to public vaccination programmes.The most striking recent achievement has been that of reduction of global measles mortality from an estimated 750,000 deaths in 2000 down to 197,000 in 2007. Global vaccination coverage trends continued to be positive. In 2007 most regions reached more than 80% of their target populations with three doses of DPT containing vaccines. However, the coverage remains well short of the 2010 goal on 90% coverage, particularly in the WHO region of Africa (estimated coverage 74%), and South-East Asia, (estimated coverage 69%). Elements that have contributed to the gain in immunization coverage include national multi-year planning, district-level planning and monitoring, re-establishment of outreach services and the establishment of national budget lines for immunization services strengthening.Remaining challenges include the need to: develop and implement strategies for reaching the difficult to reach; support evidence-based decisions to prioritize new vaccines for introduction; strengthening immunization systems to deliver new vaccines; expand vaccination to include older age groups; scale up vaccine preventable disease surveillance; improve quality of immunization coverage monitoring and use the data to improve programme performance; and explore financing options for reaching the GIVS goals, particularly in lower-middle income countries.Although introduction of new vaccines is important,this should not be at the expense of sustaining existing immunization activities. Instead the introduction of new vaccine introduction should be viewed as an opportunity to strengthen immunization systems, increase vaccine coverage and reduce inequities of access to immunization services. PMID:19828060

Duclos, Philippe; Okwo-Bele, Jean-Marie; Gacic-Dobo, Marta; Cherian, Thomas

2009-01-01

103

An electric utility program to address global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation believes that despite the incomplete and uncertain state of scientific knowledge concerning global atmospheric change, the plausible negative effects of accelerated global warming, known as open-quotes the Greenhouse Effect,close quotes are so large that purdent actions can and should be taken now to reduce so-called greenhouse gas emissions. Thus, the corporation has adopted a Greenhouse Warming Action Program based on strategies recommended by the National Academy of Sciences and the corporation's Integrated Electric Resource Plan. The program is a logical outgrowth of the company's policy statement on protection of the environment and is designed to surpass the Rio Earth Summit's goal of stabilizing greenhouse gas emissions. Central to the Action Program are increased use of natural gas, aggressive expansion of energy efficiency programs, and maximized generation from hydroelectric and nuclear energy sources. Additional elements include preventing releases of CFC's through customer incentive recycling programs; a forest conservation program of managing lands on a sustainable yield basis, environmentally-conscious use of paper products, and waste paper and cardboard recycling; promoting commercialization of low emitting vehicles; and developing and demonstrating low-CO2 technologies such as wind turbines and photo-voltaic cells. Niagara Mohawk believes that acting now to implement such a policy is a responsible step that makes sense from both scientific and business perspectives. Moreover, voluntary action now by utilities and other segments of the private sector is the best way to avoid the need for future regulation by government designed to achieve the same end. We intend to do our part to stabilize and reduce greenhouse gas emissions, while recognizing that our contribution is only a small fraction of total global greenhouse gas emissions

1993-06-13

104

World Bank: Global Challenges: Fragile States  

Science.gov (United States)

The World Bank is concerned with many parts of the developing world, but they are particularly interested in the so-called "fragile states". Loosely defined, "fragile states" are countries "facing particularly severe development challenges such as weak institutional capacity, poor governance, political instability, and frequently on-going violence or the legacy effects of past severe conflict." To provide policy makers and others with information on their work in this area, the Bank has created this website. The material on the site includes a number of slideshow features and essays that address the fight against poverty in these countries, along with "best-practices" approaches to solving some of these seemingly intractable problems. Near the bottom of the page, visitors can click on sections such as "Conflict Prevention and Reconstruction" to learn more about the Bank's work in places like the Sudan and also take a look through the tremendously helpful "Economics of Conflict" website.

105

Preparing for Change: Challenges and Opportunities in a Global World  

Science.gov (United States)

Our world is becoming increasingly global. This may sound like a clich'e, yet it is true nonetheless, and poses unprecedented challenges for graduate education. For the new generation of researchers, teachers and professionals to be successful they must be prepared in more than the content area of their chosen field. They must also acquire proficiency in global awareness, cultural literacy, multicultural teamwork and language facility. These global skill sets form the basis for effective multicultural collaboration and will become increasingly important even for those who do not intend to study or work abroad. Knowledge has become more portable in the internet age; large data bases and reports can be accessed in real time from various locations around the globe; information is exchanged in multifaceted knowledge networks; collaborative research takes place within and outside of the traditional venue of the research university in the private sector, research institutes, and associations; research networks span multiple disciplines as progress invariably occurs at the intersection of previously discrete fields of inquiry. Global collaboration thus is no longer dependent on the physical proximity of collaborators but can take place anywhere any time. This then requires yet another set of skills, namely the ability to adapt to change, exhibit flexibility and transfer skills to a range of contexts and applications. Effective graduate education must address these realities and expose students to learning opportunities that will enable them to acquire these much needed global skills sets.

O'Hara, Sabine

2009-03-01

106

Antimicrobial resistance: the global public health challenge  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Antimicrobial resistance is one of the biggest challenges to face global public health at the beginning of the third millennium. Antimicrobial resistance and its global spread threaten the continued effectiveness of many medicines used today to treat the sick. Antibiotic resistance is usually associated with significant morbidity, longer hospitalization, excess costs and mortality. Many factors contribute to the unnecessary use of antibiotics including the knowledge and beliefs of doctors and consumers, direct patient requests, perceptions of patient demand, culture and norms and advertisements and other promotional literature distributed by the pharmaceutical companies. Self-medication with antimicrobials is often cited as a major factor contributing to drug resistance. The microorganisms employ several mechanisms in attaining multidrug resistance such as they no longer rely on a glycoprotein cell wall; enzymatic deactivation of antibiotics, decreased cell wall permeability to antibiotics and altered target sites of antibiotic. Efflux mechanisms to remove antibiotics and increased mutation rate are some of the other important mechanism for the antimicrobial resistance. Optimal use of existing antimicrobial agents, using alternative treatment options, reducing the need for antimicrobials by increasing immunity, education of health professionals and patients, antibiotic policies and implementation of infection control measures are the strategies aimed at prevention of emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance.

Jayant D Deshpande

2011-04-01

107

Global drilling challenges and local German perspectives  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article is a summary of the results of the May 2011 workshop on drilling technology hosted by DGMK (German Society of Petroleum and Coal Science and Technology), and also a look at global drilling challenges and trends and some local perspectives for the German drilling industry. The first half of the article relates to the current situation in Drilling in general and takes the opportunity to discuss some of the driving forces behind current problems and challenges. Then a deeper look is taken at current technology trends, based on visits to conferences - namely the SPE/IADC drilling conference in Amsterdam or the DEA workshop on Well Control in Bad Bentheim. The paper also includes comments on the issues of safety and people. These two issues are worthy of attention and have indeed in the past received a lot of attention. The remainder of the article then focuses on the DGMK drilling technology workshop, its methodology, its immediate results and the input on future drilling research work in Germany and Austria. (orig.)

Schamp, Juergen [Wintershall Holding GmbH, Kassel (Germany)

2011-12-15

108

The New Global Responsibilities of Engineers Create Challenges for Engineering Education  

Science.gov (United States)

Modern societies aim to solve the global challenges of the 21st century with sustainable solutions such as resource efficiency, use of renewable energy sources and recycling. Engineers are called upon to create the cutting edge technological solutions that can help to address these challenges. In developed as well as in developing countries,…

Fuchs, Willi

2012-01-01

109

Addressing the Grand Challenge of atmospheric carbon dioxide: geologic sequestration vs. biological recycling  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract On February 15, 2008, the National Academy of Engineering unveiled their list of 14 Grand Challenges for Engineering. Building off of tremendous advancements in the past century, these challenges were selected for their role in assuring a sustainable existence for the rapidly increasing global community. It is no accident that the first five Challenges on the list involve the development of sustainable energy sources and management of environmental resources. While the focu...

2011-01-01

110

Biological approaches for addressing the grand challenge of providing access to clean drinking water.  

Science.gov (United States)

The U.S. National Academy of Engineering (NAE) recently published a document presenting "Grand Challenges for Engineering". This list was proposed by leading engineers and scientists from around the world at the request of the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF). Fourteen topics were selected for these grand challenges, and at least seven can be addressed using the tools and methods of biological engineering. Here we describe how biological engineers can address the challenge of providing access to clean drinking water. This issue must be addressed in part by removing or inactivating microbial and chemical contaminants in order to properly deliver water safe for human consumption. Despite many advances in technologies this challenge is expanding due to increased pressure on fresh water supplies and to new opportunities for growth of potentially pathogenic organisms. PMID:21453515

Riley, Mark R; Gerba, Charles P; Elimelech, Menachem

2011-01-01

111

Biological approaches for addressing the grand challenge of providing access to clean drinking water  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract The U.S. National Academy of Engineering (NAE recently published a document presenting "Grand Challenges for Engineering". This list was proposed by leading engineers and scientists from around the world at the request of the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF. Fourteen topics were selected for these grand challenges, and at least seven can be addressed using the tools and methods of biological engineering. Here we describe how biological engineers can address the challenge of providing access to clean drinking water. This issue must be addressed in part by removing or inactivating microbial and chemical contaminants in order to properly deliver water safe for human consumption. Despite many advances in technologies this challenge is expanding due to increased pressure on fresh water supplies and to new opportunities for growth of potentially pathogenic organisms.

Gerba Charles P

2011-03-01

112

Shrinking cities: urban challenges of globalization.  

Science.gov (United States)

Urban shrinkage is not a new phenomenon. It has been documented in a large literature analyzing the social and economic issues that have led to population flight, resulting, in the worse cases, in the eventual abandonment of blocks of housing and neighbourhoods. Analysis of urban shrinkage should take into account the new realization that this phenomenon is now global and multidimensional — but also little understood in all its manifestations. Thus, as the world's population increasingly becomes urban, orthodox views of urban decline need redefinition. The symposium includes articles from 10 urban analysts working on 30 cities around the globe. These analysts belong to the Shrinking Cities International Research Network (SCIRN), whose collaborative work aims to understand different types of city shrinkage and the role that different approaches, policies and strategies have played in the regeneration of these cities. In this way the symposium will inform both a rich diversity of analytical perspectives and country-based studies of the challenges faced by shrinking cities. It will also disseminate SCIRN's research results from the last 3 years. PMID:22518881

Martinez-Fernandez, Cristina; Audirac, Ivonne; Fol, Sylvie; Cunningham-Sabot, Emmanuèle

2012-01-01

113

The Cloud Adoption Toolkit: Addressing the Challenges of Cloud Adoption in Enterprise  

CERN Document Server

Cloud computing promises a radical shift in the provisioning of computing resource within enterprise. This paper: i) describes the challenges that decision-makers face when attempting to determine the feasibility of the adoption of cloud computing in their organisations; ii) illustrates a lack of existing work to address the feasibility challenges of cloud adoption in enterprise; iii) introduces the Cloud Adoption Toolkit that provides a framework to support decision-makers in identifying their concerns, and matching these concerns to appropriate tools/techniques that can be used to address them. The paper adopts a position paper methodology such that case study evidence is provided, where available, to support claims. We conclude that the Cloud Adoption Toolkit, whilst still under development, shows signs that it is a useful tool for decision-makers as it helps address the feasibility challenges of cloud adoption in enterprise.

Greenwood, David; Smith, James; Sommerville, Ian

2010-01-01

114

The Cloud Adoption Toolkit: Addressing the Challenges of Cloud Adoption in Enterprise  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cloud computing promises a radical shift in the provisioning of computing resource within the enterprise. This paper: i) describes the challenges that decision makers face when attempting to determine the feasibility of the adoption of cloud computing in their organisations; ii) illustrates a lack of existing work to address the feasibility challenges of cloud adoption in the enterprise; iii) introduces the Cloud Adoption Toolkit that provides a framework to support decision...

Khajeh-hosseini, Ali; Greenwood, David; Smith, James W.; Sommerville, Ian

2010-01-01

115

Addressing global warming and biodiversity through forest restoration and coastal wetlands creation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Climate Challenge is a partnership between the Department of Energy and the electric utility industry to reduce, avoid, and sequester greenhouse gases. A portion of the initiative, the sequestration of greenhouse gases, is the focus of this presentation. Over 4 million acres of bottomland hardwood forests were cleared for agriculture in the Mississippi River Valley in the 1970s. Reestablishing these forests would improve depleted wildlife habitats, serve as wildlife corridors, increase biodiversity, and decrease soil erosion. Also, Louisiana is losing coastal wetlands at a rate of approximately 25 square miles/year. This coastal erosion is due to a number of factors and many efforts are currently underway to address the matter. One such effort is the use of material generated in the dredging of navigational canals; however, this material is low in nutrient value, making the regeneration of marsh grasses more difficult. In addition, bottomland hardwood forests and coastal wetland grasses are excellent 'carbon sinks' because they take carbon dioxide out of the atmosphere and store it in living plant tissue. Entergy Services, Inc. is an electric utility with a service territory that comprises portions of both the Lower Mississippi River Valley and the Gulf of Mexico coastline. This provides an opportunity to positively address both habitat losses noted above while at the same time addressing global warming, forest fragmentation, and biodiversity. Entergy, through its affiliation with the UtiliTree Carbon Company, is participating in projects that will investigate the feasibility of using bottomland hardwood reforestation on cleared marginal farmlands now managed by the Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries and the US Fish and Wildlife Service. Entergy has also begun a research project with the Environmental Protection Agency and the State of Louisiana. The research is a compost demonstration project that will utilize wood waste generated through our tree-trimming program as a compost material that will be mixed with low nutrient dredge material to create new coastal wetlands. Taken together, Entergy's initiatives will be able to address global warming through carbon sequestration, restore fragmented forest habitats, reduce coastal erosion and improve the quality of a vital coastal aquatic nursery habitat. Efforts will be made to manage the created habitats for biodiversity. Pulling all these ideas together creates an effect in which the whole is greater than the sum of the parts. In such a synergy of ideas, there are no losers and the winners are both industry participants and the environment.

Williams, J.R. [Entergy Services, Inc. L-ENT-5D, P.O. Box 61000, New Orleans, LA (United States)

1999-10-18

116

Addressing Human Capital Challenges: Assessing the Experiences of Four Countries in the Arab Region. Research Brief  

Science.gov (United States)

This research brief describes an analysis of the reform efforts of four Arab region nations (Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates) in response to human capital challenges they face in preparing their people to work in a global environment. (Contains 3 tables.) [For associated report, see ED503118.

Gonzalez, Gabriella; Karoly, Lynn A.; Constant, Louay; Salem, Hanine; Goldman, Charles A.

2008-01-01

117

REGULATORY CHALLENGES IN GLOBAL PHARMACEUTICAL MARKET  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The global pharmaceutical industry “looks like the epitome of a modern, mature industry that has found a comfortable way to make profits by the billion: it’s global, hi-tech, and has the ultimate customer, the health care budget of the world’s richest countries. A number of factors contributed to the globalization of the pharmaceutical industry. Chief among these are the convergence of medical science and practice under the influence of modern communication technology and increased and ...

2012-01-01

118

Ethical challenges of the globalization process  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Whereas roots of globalization are far reaching, it is primarily a modern age phenomenon. Modern business operation and the world economy are characterized by domination of multinational corporations, strong presence of the government in economy and the long-term tendency towards globalization in manufacturing, trading and consumption in the world. Containing both risks and opportunities, globalization is a problem of manifold nature. For some it means regression and falling into “neocolonialism”, the others glorify it. It is logical to ask the following questions: What are the consequences of globalization for governments, nations, companies and individuals? What are the business, social and ethical issues it causes? In one word, is it possible to be ethical, to avoid and correct “bad” and keep “good” consequences of total phenomena as the globalization, and whether it is rewarding in the increasing market competition?

Radenko Maric

2009-12-01

119

The Global Campus: Challenges and Opportunities for Higher Education in North America  

Science.gov (United States)

Confronted with a world that is strikingly different from what it was just a decade ago, the United States faces rapidly shifting economic, political, and national security realities and challenges. To respond to these changes it is essential that our institutions of higher education graduate globally competent students. This article addresses

Brustein, William I.

2007-01-01

120

The role and challenges of the food industry in addressing chronic disease  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Summary Increasingly, food companies play an important role in stemming the rising burden of nutrition-related chronic diseases. Concrete actions taken by these companies include global public commitments to address food reformulation, consumer information, responsible marketing, promotion of healthy lifestyles, and public-private partnerships. These actions are reviewed together with eleven specific PepsiCo goals and commitments that address products, the marketplace, and communities at large. Interim progress on these goals and commitments are discussed as well as constraints hampering faster progress. Further disease prevention depends on increasing implementation of private-public initiatives.

Kehoe Stephen

2010-05-01

 
 
 
 
121

STFC Global Challenge Programme | UK Energy Research Centre  

Nov 29, 2013 ... Further information on the priority areas and how to apply is available in the \\Global Challenge Concepts Fund Guidance Notes. For more information please \\go here. ... Research Programme · Technology & Policy Assessment.

122

Global immunization: status, progress, challenges and future  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Vaccines have made a major contribution to public health, including the eradication of one deadly disease, small pox, and the near eradication of another, poliomyelitis.Through the introduction of new vaccines, such as those against rotavirus and pneumococcal diseases, and with further improvements in coverage, vaccination can significantly contribute to the achievement of the health-related United Nations Millennium Development Goals.The Global Immunization Vision and Stra...

Philippe Duclos; Jean-Marie Okwo-Bele; Marta Gacic-Dobo; Thomas Cherian

2009-01-01

123

Meeting the challenges of global competition  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Many changes in business and society during the past few years have created challenges for industry. Today, I think the timing is right to talk about change and our reaction to it. We have all been hearing a lot about how an enormous wave of change is rolling over civilization, and how some of us will be swamped by it, while others will ride it to greater achievement.

Dunlap, J.L. [Texaco Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

1995-07-01

124

Challenges to Born Global SMEs : A study on overcoming the challenges that are faced by born global SMEs  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Purpose: The purpose of the study is to explore the challenges that are faced by born global SMEs and how they overcome these challenges. Method: For literature review and secondary research, data and information has been gathered from disciplines of international entrepreneurship. Primary research has been done on four born global firms; two from Sweden and two from Pakistan. Qualitative research and analysis has been used in the study. Originality: This study contributes to literature by...

Hamza, Aziz; Zulfiqar, Salman

2011-01-01

125

Nuclear power development: global challenges and strategies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article highlights key factors that will determine today and tomorrow's optimal energy strategies. It addresses methods to utilize the high potential energy content of uranium. Plutonium used as fuel in a nuclear reactors is discussed as is the future potential of a thorium fuel cycle. Various strategies to increase the economic viability of nuclear power are brought out. Technological means to further minimize environmental impacts and to enhance safety are covered as they are a major factor in public acceptance. Also covered are advances anticipated by mid-century in nuclear reactor and fuel cycle technologies

1997-08-01

126

Canada and global warming: Meeting the challenge  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Canada accounts for ca 2% of total world emissions of greenhouse gases. Carbon dioxide emissions are by far the largest greenhouse gas source in Canada, primarily from energy consumption. On a per capita basis, Canada ranks second among industrialized countries in terms of energy related carbon dioxide emissions. Canada's northern geography and climate, its export-oriented economy with energy-intensive resource industries, and its relatively small population dispersed over a wide land mass contribute to this high per-capita value. The effects of global warming induced by greenhouse gases are outlined, including a reduction in water supplies, droughts affecting agriculture and forestry, and large-scale thawing of permafrost. A national strategy to respond to global warming has been developed which includes limiting and reducing greenhouse gas emissions, preparing for potential climatic changes, and improving scientific understanding and predictive capabilities with respect to climate change. Details of this strategy are outlined, including provincial and territorial strategies in partnership with the national strategy. 11 figs., 2 tabs

1991-01-01

127

Canada and global warming: Meeting the challenge  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Canada accounts for ca 2% of total world emissions of greenhouse gases. Carbon dioxide emissions are by far the largest greenhouse gas source in Canada, primarily from energy consumption. On a per capita basis, Canada ranks second among industrialized countries in terms of energy related carbon dioxide emissions. Canada's northern geography and climate, its export-oriented economy with energy-intensive resource industries, and its relatively small population dispersed over a wide land mass contribute to this high per-capita value. The effects of global warming induced by greenhouse gases are outlined, including a reduction in water supplies, droughts affecting agriculture and forestry, and large-scale thawing of permafrost. A national strategy to respond to global warming has been developed which includes limiting and reducing greenhouse gas emissions, preparing for potential climatic changes, and improving scientific understanding and predictive capabilities with respect to climate change. Details of this strategy are outlined, including provincial and territorial strategies in partnership with the national strategy. 11 figs., 2 tabs.

1991-01-01

128

How Can Rural China Respond to the Challenges of Globalization?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Globalization is an irreversible development and the main purpose of this paper is to rethink how Mainland China responds to the challenges of globalization in rural area. To achieve this aim, this study will be divided into three parts. First of all, it will examine the phenomenon of privatization and dumping in rural China as a result of globalization. It will then try to consider the feasible top-down administrative changes of Chinese government. The last part will explore the new modalities of political engineering and social transformation of the state-society relation resulted from the bottom-up resistance to globalization.

Chan Wing Wa Edwina

2009-02-01

129

Researching gender: the challenge of global diversity today  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The text of this paper is based on a lecture given at the symposium of the Ghent African Platform “Researching Gender in/on Africa” at Ghent University in December 2009. It addresses some general challenges faced by ‘gender studies’ as an autonomous field versus ‘gender research’ as an integrated topic within mainstream disciplines in academia. Gender studies have sometimes superseded ‘women’s studies’ and expanded to cover the terrain of study of various forms of diversity including men’s and transgender studies. We will show that the ‘mainstreaming’ of gender in public policy at local, national and transnational levels is a development which may potentially lead to the loss of a – feminist – political edge. Secondly, while gender studies with their emphasis on socially constructed gender as opposed to biological essentialist understandings of ‘sex’ appear to face the challenge of a popular ‘new biological determinism’, it is shown that the binary model of sex/gender in fact has been criticised for some time now from within feminist theory and gender research. This is (selectively illustrated with research from four disciplines, including the work of African gender studies scholars, i.e. feminist philosophy, social sciences (in particularsocio-cultural anthropology, history and biology itself. This then shows how the accusation that gender studies would be ‘socially deterministic’ without attending to bodily matters or materiality is unfounded. Finally, it is argued that there is still a need for gender studies to become more culturally diverse, more global and transnational in its outlook, by becoming more deeply attuned to the way gender intersects with other forms of difference and taking into account postcolonial critiques of western feminist paternalism, without falling into the trap of cultural relativism.

Longman, Chia

2010-12-01

130

A novel addressing scheme for PMIPv6 based global IP-WSNs.  

Science.gov (United States)

IP based Wireless Sensor Networks (IP-WSNs) are being used in healthcare, home automation, industrial control and agricultural monitoring. In most of these applications global addressing of individual IP-WSN nodes and layer-three routing for mobility enabled IP-WSN with special attention to reliability, energy efficiency and end to end delay minimization are a few of the major issues to be addressed. Most of the routing protocols in WSN are based on layer-two approaches. For reliability and end to end communication enhancement the necessity of layer-three routing for IP-WSNs is generating significant attention among the research community, but due to the hurdle of maintaining routing state and other communication overhead, it was not possible to introduce a layer-three routing protocol for IP-WSNs. To address this issue we propose in this paper a global addressing scheme and layer-three based hierarchical routing protocol. The proposed addressing and routing approach focuses on all the above mentioned issues. Simulation results show that the proposed addressing and routing approach significantly enhances the reliability, energy efficiency and end to end delay minimization. We also present architecture, message formats and different routing scenarios in this paper. PMID:22164084

Islam, Md Motaharul; Huh, Eui-Nam

2011-01-01

131

A Novel Addressing Scheme for PMIPv6 Based Global IP-WSNs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available IP based Wireless Sensor Networks (IP-WSNs are being used in healthcare, home automation, industrial control and agricultural monitoring. In most of these applications global addressing of individual IP-WSN nodes and layer-three routing for mobility enabled IP-WSN with special attention to reliability, energy efficiency and end to end delay minimization are a few of the major issues to be addressed. Most of the routing protocols in WSN are based on layer-two approaches. For reliability and end to end communication enhancement the necessity of layer-three routing for IP-WSNs is generating significant attention among the research community, but due to the hurdle of maintaining routing state and other communication overhead, it was not possible to introduce a layer-three routing protocol for IP-WSNs. To address this issue we propose in this paper a global addressing scheme and layer-three based hierarchical routing protocol. The proposed addressing and routing approach focuses on all the above mentioned issues. Simulation results show that the proposed addressing and routing approach significantly enhances the reliability, energy efficiency and end to end delay minimization. We also present architecture, message formats and different routing scenarios in this paper.

Md. Motaharul Islam

2011-08-01

132

Symposium on international safeguards: Addressing verification challenges. Book of extended synopses  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A safeguards symposium has traditionally been organized by the Safeguards Department approximately every four years. The 2006 symposium addresses challenges to IAEA safeguards that have emerged or grown more serious since 2001. The increase in size and flexibility of uranium enrichment plants, for instance, and the spread of enrichment technology to a wider circle of States, pose challenges to traditional safeguards approaches. The procurement and supply networks discovered in 2004, dealing in sensitive nuclear technology and information, have serious implications for the future effectiveness of IAEA safeguards. The symposium will provide an opportunity for the IAEA and Member States to discuss options for dealing constructively with trade in sensitive nuclear technology. Reflecting developments since 2001, the 2006 symposium will focus on current challenges to the safeguards system, improving collection and analysis of safeguards information (analysis, processing tools, satellite imagery), advances in safeguards techniques and technology (future technology, neutron techniques, spent fuel verification, reprocessing, environmental sampling, containment and surveillance), further strengthening safeguards practices and approaches (safeguards approaches, integrated safeguards, R/SSAC, destructive analysis, non-destructive analysis, enrichment, reprocessing, spent fuel transfer) and future challenges. This publication contains 183 extended synopses, each of them was indexed separately

2006-10-16

133

A Novel Addressing Scheme for PMIPv6 Based Global IP-WSNs  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

IP based Wireless Sensor Networks (IP-WSNs) are being used in healthcare, home automation, industrial control and agricultural monitoring. In most of these applications global addressing of individual IP-WSN nodes and layer-three routing for mobility enabled IP-WSN with special attention to reliability, energy efficiency and end to end delay minimization are a few of the major issues to be addressed. Most of the routing protocols in WSN are based on layer-two approaches. For reliability and e...

2011-01-01

134

Addressing practical challenges in utility optimization of mobile wireless sensor networks  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper examines the practical challenges in the application of the distributed network utility maximization (NUM) framework to the problem of resource allocation and sensor device adaptation in a mission-centric wireless sensor network (WSN) environment. By providing rich (multi-modal), real-time information about a variety of (often inaccessible or hostile) operating environments, sensors such as video, acoustic and short-aperture radar enhance the situational awareness of many battlefield missions. Prior work on the applicability of the NUM framework to mission-centric WSNs has focused on tackling the challenges introduced by i) the definition of an individual mission's utility as a collective function of multiple sensor flows and ii) the dissemination of an individual sensor's data via a multicast tree to multiple consuming missions. However, the practical application and performance of this framework is influenced by several parameters internal to the framework and also by implementation-specific decisions. This is made further complex due to mobile nodes. In this paper, we use discrete-event simulations to study the effects of these parameters on the performance of the protocol in terms of speed of convergence, packet loss, and signaling overhead thereby addressing the challenges posed by wireless interference and node mobility in ad-hoc battlefield scenarios. This study provides better understanding of the issues involved in the practical adaptation of the NUM framework. It also helps identify potential avenues of improvement within the framework and protocol.

Eswaran, Sharanya; Misra, Archan; La Porta, Thomas; Leung, Kin

2008-05-01

135

Meeting global health challenges through operational research and management science.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper considers how operational research and management science can improve the design of health systems and the delivery of health care, particularly in low-resource settings. It identifies some gaps in the way operational research is typically used in global health and proposes steps to bridge them. It then outlines some analytical tools of operational research and management science and illustrates how their use can inform some typical design and delivery challenges in global health. The paper concludes by considering factors that will increase and improve the contribution of operational research and management science to global health. PMID:21897489

Royston, Geoff

2011-09-01

136

Poverty and the Multiple Stakeholder Challenge for Global Leaders  

Science.gov (United States)

The article presents a case study in which business leaders deal with challenging problems related to poverty, involving multiple stakeholders. This emphasizes the importance of training prospective global leaders to manage stakeholder relationships and engage in stakeholder dialogue. The authors highlight the stakeholder role played by…

Reade, Carol; Todd, Anne Marie; Osland, Asbjorn; Osland, Joyce

2008-01-01

137

University of Oxford's Leadership Programme: Global challenges in ...  

Dec 20, 2013 ... University of Oxford's Leadership Programme: Global challenges in ... been \\developed by the University's world-renowned Transport Studies Unit, and is \\certified and fully CPD - accredited by the Chartered Institute for Transport and \\Logistics. ... Infrastructure, Development and Finance 2-5 September 2014.

138

Energy Sustainability: A Key Toto Addressing Environmental, Economic and Societal Challenges  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sustainability is a critically important goal for human activity and development, particularly in the area of energy. Energy resources are critical for economic development and living standards, but their use causes significant environmental impacts. Given the pervasiveness of energy use, energy sustainability is a key to addressing environmental, economic and societal challenges. To achieve energy sustainability, many factors that need to be including harnessing sustainable energy sources, utilizing sustainable energy carriers, increasing efficiency, reducing environmental impact and improving socioeconomic acceptability (e.g., community involvement, affordability, equity and land use. To demonstrate the factors and their importance to energy sustainability, the Red-Mediterranean-Dead Seas Canal Project is considered as a case study. Conclusions are provided related both to steps for energy sustainability.

Marc A. Rosen

2013-04-01

139

Global Warming Potential Implications and Methodological Challenges of Road Transport Emissions in Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this study is to examine the repercussions vehicular road transport emissions have on global warming potential (GWP), and the need to address the issue considering methodological challenges facing road transportation in Nigeria. Specific objectives of the study includes to determine the emission level in the country, to evaluate the GWP and to develop a emission mapping network on trunk A roads in Nigeria. Accurate information on these emissions is required to strengthen the mi...

Nwanya, S. C.; Offili, I.

2012-01-01

140

Addressing the terawatt challenge : Scalability in the supply of chemical elements for renewable energy  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The energy infrastructure for fossil fuels is well-established, accounting for approximately 87% of the 16 TW of power consumed globally. For renewable and sustainable energy conversion technologies to play a relevant role at the terrestrial scale, they must be able to scale to the TW level of deployment. This would place a significant demand on the current and future supply of raw materials (chemical elements) used by those technologies. Oftentimes, the average crustal abundance of a chemical element is cited as a measure of its scalability, however another important metric for scalability is the existence (of lack thereof) of mineable ores with a high concentration of the targeted element. This paper aims to provide an overview of the availability of all elements. This is accomplished via a compilation of data for global primary production rates for each element, as a measure of availability at the present time. This work also addresses the potential future availability based on current and possible future primary sources.

Vesborg, Peter C. K.; Jaramillo, Thomas F.

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Re-thinking wastewater landscapes: combining innovative strategies to address tomorrow's urban wastewater treatment challenges.  

Science.gov (United States)

Most major cities worldwide face urban water management challenges relating to drinking supply, stormwater and wastewater treatment, and ecological preservation. In light of climate change and finite natural resources, addressing these challenges in sustainable ways will require innovative solutions arising from interdisciplinary collaboration. This article summarizes five major urban water management strategies that bridge the fields of engineering, ecology, landscape architecture, and urban planning. A conceptual implementation of these strategies is demonstrated through a design for a small constructed wetland treatment system in San Francisco, California. The proposed decentralized system described in this article consists of a detention basin, vegetated and open free water surface wetlands, and ultraviolet disinfection. In wet weather, the system would detain and treat combined sewer discharges (CSD), and in dry weather it would treat residential greywater for toilet flushing and irrigation in a nearby neighborhood. It is designed to adapt over time to changing climatic conditions and treatment demands. Importantly, this proposal demonstrates how constructed wetland engineers can incorporate multiple benefits into their systems, offering a vision of how wastewater infrastructure can be an attractive community, educational, recreational, and habitat amenity through the integration of engineering, ecology, and landscape design. PMID:19759449

Smith, B R

2009-01-01

142

Addressing the theoretical, practical and ethical challenges inherent in prospective health policy analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

As a function of the inherently political nature of health policy, there have long been calls for, as well as guidance on, analysis of its political dimensions to inform practice. Yet there are few accounts in the literature of systematic attention to real-time documentation and analysis of political-economy factors and feedback to engender reform. The dearth of such prospective policy analysis is perhaps understandable given the many intrinsic difficulties in such an enterprise. This paper provides an outline approach of how researchers might work together with advocacy coalitions (or other political actors) to document and analyse the efforts of such coalitions to use policy analysis to influence the policy processes-agenda setting, policy formulation and policy implementation-in which they engage. In so doing, it identifies challenges based on reviews of the theoretical, methodological and empirical literature as well as the experience of the author. The aim of the paper is to generate debate to assist in resolving the myriad challenges inherent in prospective policy analysis. The paper responds to appeals for political research which addresses the problems confronting political actors so as to guide future action-research for evidence-informed, pro-poor health policy. PMID:18664524

Buse, Kent

2008-09-01

143

Technological challenges of addressing new and more complex migrating products from novel food packaging materials.  

Science.gov (United States)

The risk assessment of migration products resulting from packaging material has and continues to pose a difficult challenge. In most jurisdictions, there are regulatory requirements for the approval or notification of food contact substances that will be used in packaging. These processes generally require risk assessment to ensure safety concerns are addressed. The science of assessing food contact materials was instrumental in the development of the concept of Threshold of Regulation and the Threshold of Toxicological Concern procedures. While the risk assessment process is in place, the technology of food packaging continues to evolve to include new initiatives, such as the inclusion of antimicrobial substances or enzyme systems to prevent spoilage, use of plastic packaging intended to remain on foods as they are being cooked, to the introduction of more rigid, stable and reusable materials, and active packaging to extend the shelf-life of food. Each new technology brings with it the potential for exposure to new and possibly novel substances as a result of migration, interaction with other chemical packaging components, or, in the case of plastics now used in direct cooking of products, degradation products formed during heating. Furthermore, the presence of trace levels of certain chemicals from packaging that were once accepted as being of low risk based on traditional toxicology studies are being challenged on the basis of reports of adverse effects, particularly with respect to endocrine disruption, alleged to occur at very low doses. A recent example is the case of bisphenol A. The way forward to assess new packaging technologies and reports of very low dose effects in non-standard studies of food contact substances is likely to remain controversial. However, the risk assessment paradigm is sufficiently robust and flexible to be adapted to meet these challenges. The use of the Threshold of Regulation and the Threshold of Toxicological Concern concepts may play a critical role in the risk assessment of new food packaging technologies in the future. PMID:19938328

Munro, Ian C; Haighton, Lois A; Lynch, Barry S; Tafazoli, Shahrzad

2009-12-01

144

Nation state and the challenge of globalization: Project draft  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This project draft discusses the issues facing a nation state in the dynamic processes of globalization. First, the term globalization is tentatively defined as a decentralized process of condensation and homogenization of space and time. Then, the ambivalent structure of the globalization discourse, i.e. its semantic and pragmatic dimensions, are shown. The neo-liberal viewpoint is explored of the erosion and weakening of the nation state within the global capitalist power, both in terms of its (state's traditional functions, and in terms of its internal and external sovereignty. Against the neo-liberal thesis about the decline of the nation state many empirical arguments have been offered. Some of these are presented in this text. The main point of this argumentation consists in a general view that the decline of the nation state is strongly linked with the process of globalization. In view of the critical argumentation included in the paper, it is argued that in the environment of global processes only the societies which have a strong state behind them have a chance to succeed. Politics, not economy, still dominates international relations. Emphasis on state politics opens a new perspective in discussing the process of globalization. Current globalization processes cannot be judged accurately unless geopolitical interests and the changing balance of world power are understood. Finally, the paper points to the ideological nature of the neo-liberal discourse of globalization, questioning another basic assumption of the latter, namely, the idea that the process of globalization is at the same time a process of emancipation. By challenging the positing of a necessary link between globalization and emancipation we formulate a position that allows for a normative critique of current processes.

Obrenovi? Zoran G.

2002-01-01

145

Sustainable Methods of Addressing Challenges Facing Small Holder Tea Sector in Kenya: A Supply Chain Management Approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This Conceptual paper addresses the challenges facing the small holder tea sector in Kenya. It provides background information about tea growing in Kenya, its export performance, and organizational structure. It then categorizes the main challenges into five and provides some solutions to the challenges, borrowing from some supply chain management practices to culminate into competitive strategies. In the face of declining and shifting competitiveness of the small holder tea sector i...

Elias Kiarie Kagira; Sarah Wambui Kimani; Kagwathi Stephen Githii

2012-01-01

146

Understanding Global Change: the pedagogical challenge of the 21st century (Invited)  

Science.gov (United States)

Human impacts on natural systems, from climate change to habitat fragmentation, are some of the greatest challenges facing our world. Yet, outside of state standards, it is not well-known what educators teach in relation to global change and human impacts on natural systems. The recently released Next Generation Science Standards, which many states are in the process of adopting, emphasize the human components of global change. In order to address the challenges that educators face in their own understanding of these complex, cross-disciplinary topics, the National Center for Science Education, the UC Museum of Paleontology, and BSCS surveyed educators across the country to find out how and why they teach about global change. Results indicate that educators teach those topics in which they feel the most confident and have experienced the most professional development. Topics that many scientists often focus on in relation to global change, such as phenology, the spread of disease and even ocean acidification, were often left out of the classroom. These results indicate a disconnect between the scientific and educational communities in their understanding of global change issues, and call for high-quality resources and professional development to help prepare educators to teach their students about these 21st century challenges.

Berbeco, M.; McCaffrey, M.; White, L. D.; Stuhlsatz, M.

2013-12-01

147

Challenges for Global Education in the Mediterranean Region  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper reviews some of the present challenges facing learning in the 21. century and the concern for "glocal" issues in the Mediterranean region. It stresses that global education can be translated into various focal themes such as development, environment, human rights, intercultural relations, peace. However, such a translation should retain a common "broad" methodological approach centred on conflict transformation. A sociology of "translation" is needed for enhanced co-operation among...

Surian, Alessio

2004-01-01

148

Challenges and Possibilities for World Literature, Global Literature, and Translation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In her article "Challenges and Possibilities for World Literature, Global Literature, and Translation" Kathleen Shields argues that Goethe's concept of Weltliteratur was grounded in translation practice: in creating a canon representing the best of each nation, translation occupied centre stage. Nation-building in Europe in the nineteenth century was combined with the idea of transnational literature where translation was an important tool of transmission and exchange, as well as a way of dec...

Shields, Kathleen

2013-01-01

149

Using the cloud to facilitate global software development challenges  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

With the expansion of national markets beyond geographical limits, success of any business often depends on using software for competitive advantage. Furthermore, as technological boundaries are expanding, projects distributed across different geographical locations have become a norm for the software solution providers. Nevertheless, when implementing Global Software Development (GSD), organizations continue to face challenges in adhering to the development life cycle. The advent of the inte...

2011-01-01

150

Researching gender: the challenge of global diversity today  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The text of this paper is based on a lecture given at the symposium of the Ghent African Platform “Researching Gender in/on Africa” at Ghent University in December 2009. It addresses some general challenges faced by ‘gender studies’ as an autonomous field versus ‘gender research’ as an integrated topic within mainstream disciplines in academia. Gender studies have sometimes superseded ‘women’s studies’ and expanded to cover the terrain of study of various forms of diversity ...

2010-01-01

151

Global Terrestrial Hydrologic Modeling: Roadblocks, Challenges and Opportunities (Invited)  

Science.gov (United States)

A 20-year (1985-2004) record shows that on average 150 flood events occurred each year across the globe resulting in 7500 deaths and approximately $15 billion in property and economic damage. Despite advancements in hydrologic models, calibration methods and computing systems, global terrestrial hydrologic modeling and flood forecasting remains challenging. We argue that one of the main roadblocks is that most models are solely calibrated based on point runoff data. Using a nested global hydrologic model, we demonstrate that uncelebrated soil moisture leads to significant biases in terrestrial hydrologic model outputs. On the other hand, over many regions of the globe very limited runoff data are available for model calibration and validation which makes reliable surface water analysis challenging. In this study, we propose a global terrestrial hydrologic modeling framework in which model simulations are calibrated based on both satellite soil moisture observations and ground-based runoff data. While we acknowledge uncertainties associated with satellite soil moisture estimates, we believe that calibrating for soil moisture will improve model simulations substantially. In the proposed framework, the top layer of a global conceptual model is calibrated using the Essential Climate Variable (ECV) soil moisture estimates. The gridded Global Runoff Data Center (GRDC) observations are used as the secondary calibration variable. The results indicate that a multi-scale multi-variable calibration framework significantly improves terrestrial hydrologic modeling. This study highlights opportunities for improving global terrestrial hydrologic modeling through integrating satellite observations of the water cycle components for calibration and validation. Efforts are underway to use this modeling framework for an early flood warning system that can provide probability of occurrence of large scale floods and their uncertainties.

AghaKouchak, A.; Mehran, A.

2013-12-01

152

Global women's health in 2010: facing the challenges.  

Science.gov (United States)

Women's health is closely linked to a nation's level of development, with the leading causes of death in women in resource-poor nations attributable to preventable causes. Unlike many health problems in rich nations, the cure relies not only on the discovery of new medications or technology but also getting basic services to the people who need them most and addressing underlying injustice. In order to do this, political will and financial resources must be dedicated to developing and evaluating a scaleable approach to strengthen health systems, support community-based programs, and promote widespread campaigns to address gender inequality, including promoting girls' education. The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) have highlighted the importance of addressing maternal health and promoting gender equality for the overall development strategy of a nation. We must capitalize on the momentum created by this and other international campaigns and continue to advocate for comprehensive strategies to improve global women's health. PMID:21028939

Lester, Felicia; Benfield, Nerys; Fathalla, Mohamed M F

2010-11-01

153

Using Just in Time Teaching in a Global Climate Change Course to Address Misconceptions  

Science.gov (United States)

Just in Time Teaching (JiTT) is employed in an introductory Global Climate Change college course with the intention of addressing common misconceptions and climate myths. Students enter the course with a variety of prior knowledge and opinions on global warming, and JiTT can be used as a constructivist pedagogical approach to make use of this prior knowledge. Students are asked to watch a short video or do a reading, sometimes screen capture videos created by the professor as review of material from the previous class, a video available on the web from NASA or NOAA, for example, or a reading from an online article or their textbook. After the video or reading, students answer a question carefully designed to pry at a common misconception, or simply are asked for the 'muddiest point' that remains on the concept. This assignment is done the night before class using a web program. The program aggregates the answers in an organized way so the professor can use the answers to design the day's lesson to address common misconceptions or concerns students displayed in their answers, as well as quickly assign participation credit to students who completed the assignment. On the other hand, if students display that they have already mastered the material, the professor can confidently move on to the next concept. The JiTT pedagogical method personalizes each lecture period to the students in that particular class for maximum efficiency while catching and fixing misconceptions in a timely manner. This technique requires students to spend time with the material outside of class, acts as review of important concepts, and increases engagement in class due to the personalization of the course. Evaluation results from use of this technique will be presented. Examples of successful JiTT videos, questions, student answers, and techniques for addressing misconceptions during lecture will also be presented with the intention that instructors can easily apply this technique to their next course.

Schuenemann, K. C.

2013-12-01

154

Scalable Transparent Checkpoint-Restart of Global Address Space Applications on Virtual Machines over Infiniband  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Checkpoint-Restart is one of the most used software approaches to achieve fault-tolerance in high-end clusters. While standard techniques typically focus on user-level solutions, the advent of virtualization software has enabled efficient and transparent system-level approaches. In this paper, we present a scalable transparent system-level solution to address fault-tolerance for applications based on global address space (GAS) programming models on Infiniband clusters. In addition to handling communication, the solution addresses transparent checkpoint of user-generated files. We exploit the support for the Infiniband network in the Xen virtual machine environment. We have developed a version of the Aggregate Remote Memory Copy Interface (ARMCI) one-sided communication library capable of suspending and resuming applications. We present efficient and scalable mechanisms to distribute checkpoint requests and to backup virtual machines memory images and file systems. We tested our approach in the context of NWChem, a popular computational chemistry suite. We demonstrated that NWChem can be executed, without any modification to the source code, on a virtualized 8-node cluster with very little overhead (below 3%). We observe that the total checkpoint time is limited by disk I/O. Finally, we measured system-size depended components of the checkpoint time on up to 1024 cores (128 nodes), demonstrating the scalability of our approach in medium/large-scale systems.

Villa, Oreste; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Nieplocha, Jaroslaw; Brown, David ML

2009-05-18

155

17th Workshop on MHD Stability Control: addressing the disruption challenge for ITER  

Science.gov (United States)

This annual workshop on magnetohydrodynamic stability control was held on 5-7 November 2012 at Columbia University in the city of New York, in the aftermath of a violent hydrodynamic instability event termed 'Hurricane Sandy'. Despite these challenging circumstances, Columbia University managed an excellent meeting, enabling the full participation of the community. This Workshop has been held since 1996 to help in the development of understanding and control of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities for future fusion reactors. It covers a wide range of stability topics—from disruptions, to tearing modes, error fields, edge-localized modes (ELMs), resistive wall modes (RWMs) and ideal MHD—spanning many device types (tokamaks, stellarators and reversed field pinches) to identify commonalities in the physics and a means of control. The theme for 2012 was 'addressing the disruption challenge for ITER', and thus the first day had a heavy focus on both the avoidance and mitigation of disruptions in ITER. Key elements included understanding how to apply 3D fields to maintain stability, as well as managing the disruption process itself through mitigating loads in the thermal quench and handling so called 'runaway electrons'. This culminated in a panel discussion on the disruption mitigation strategy for ITER, which noted that heat load asymmetries during the thermal quench appear to be an artifact of MHD processes, and that runaway electron generation may be inevitable, suggesting research should focus on control and dissipation of the runaway beam. The workshop was combined this year with the annual US-Japan MHD Workshop, with a special section looking more deeply at 'Fundamentals of 3D Perturbed Equilibrium Control', with interesting sessions on 3D equilibrium reconstruction, RWM physics, novel control concepts such as non-magnetic sensing, adaptive control, q Fusion , we present several of the invited and contributed papers from the 2012 workshop, which have been subject to the normal refereeing procedures of the journal. These give a sense of the exceptional quality of the presentations at this workshop, which may be found at: http://fusion.gat.com/conferences/mhd12/. The Program Committee deeply appreciates the participation and support our community continues to show in this workshop, which provides an unparalleled opportunity for in-depth discussion of MHD issues. We would also like to thank our hosts Columbia University, and in particular Professor Gerald Navratil, for outstanding support and facilities in the face of Hurricane Sandy's adversity. The meeting thanked outgoing Program Chair, Dr Richard Buttery from General Atomics, and welcomed next year's Program Chair, Professor David Maurer from Auburn University. The next meeting will be held in Santa Fe 18-20 November 2013.

Buttery, Richard

2013-08-01

156

Executive summary: global health and emergency care-what do we need to know to address the burden of illness and injury?  

Science.gov (United States)

Emergency physicians are uniquely poised to address challenges in health services, health care systems development and management, and emerging global disease burdens (both communicable and noncommunicable). This special issue of Academic Emergency Medicine reports the results of the 2013 consensus conference, which included eight focus areas that are intended to advance emergency care research. Advancing our understanding of cardiac and injury resuscitation, ethics of research, health systems development, and the education of our future leaders in global health will ultimately affect the populations of all nations across the globe. PMID:24341575

Hargarten, Stephen; Martin, Ian B K; Hauswald, Mark; Hirshon, Jon Mark

2013-12-01

157

Addressing challenges in combining GOES and LEO satellite products of the CONUS  

Science.gov (United States)

The challenges of transforming data from the next generation of satellites into information and products for the weather and science purposes presents a major challenge to both the research and applications communities. This will be especially difficult over land, where the process of integrating observations from multiple instruments and platforms in real time is complicated by the influence of the land surface on the observations themselves. In addition, effective merging of the mixture of time-continuous GEO and less frequent but higher spectral resolution LEO observations with other new surface-based observations will be essential and require new product processing strategies. The material shown in this presentation will begin to address some of these issues. It will describe results of efforts to inter-calibrate moisture products derived from existing GEO and LEO data sets over land designed 1) to identify and remove biases from the GOES moisture retrievals, 2) to determine the seasonally varying information content of the GOES relative to NWP model 'first guess' fields, 3) to determine the similarities and differences in error structures between GOES and AIRS retrievals, and 4) to determine the vertical structure of the errors in both systems. For example, comparisons have been made between GOES Total Precipitable Water (TPW) using the Li retrieval system (GOES-Li) and data from Raman Lidar (RL), Microwave Radiometer (MWR) and surface-based GPS-Met systems at the ARM CART site. The test showed for using one year of derived TPW products, the NWP model first guess (GFS) and GOES-Li products are wetter, however the GOES-Li beats the GFS in the warm season, especially in August when the NWP precipitation skill is least. During the warm season GOES-Li is noticeably better than GFS (which was too wet) during daytime. In addition, the GPS-Met data are best during the daytime, while the Ramon Lidar performs best at night. AIRS products were also evaluated for several individual cases. Overall, the AIRS retrievals using the Li (AIRS-LI) system performs slightly better than the current AIRS Team Version-5 (V5) TPW calculations. However, even though the fundamental AIRS observations have higher spectral resolution than the GOES data, they performed less well than the GOES-Li and GFS retrievals over the same time period at this land site. The AIRS-Li improves the bias over the V5, which is persistently dry; however, both AIRS retrievals have higher standard deviation compared to GOES-Li and GFS. Evaluations of the vertical error structures for both the AIRS and GOES products will also be presented. Based on this and additional data analyses, suggestion of new product processing strategies needed for addressing the issue of merging both satellite radiances and derived products will conclude the presentation.

Petersen, R. A.; Dworak, R.

2012-12-01

158

Estimating the Health Effects of Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Strategies: Addressing Parametric, Model, and Valuation Challenges  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Policy decisions regarding climate change mitigation are increasingly incorporating the beneficial and adverse health impacts of greenhouse gas emission reduction strategies. Studies of such co-benefits and co-harms involve modeling approaches requiring a range of analytic decisions that affect the model output. Objective: Our objective was to assess analytic decisions regarding model framework, structure, choice of parameters, and handling of uncertainty when modeling health co-benefits, and to make recommendations for improvements that could increase policy uptake. Methods: We describe the assumptions and analytic decisions underlying models of mitigation co-benefits, examining their effects on modeling outputs, and consider tools for quantifying uncertainty. Discussion: There is considerable variation in approaches to valuation metrics, discounting methods, uncertainty characterization and propagation, and assessment of low-probability/high-impact events. There is also variable inclusion of adverse impacts of mitigation policies, and limited extension of modeling domains to include implementation considerations. Going forward, co-benefits modeling efforts should be carried out in collaboration with policy makers; these efforts should include the full range of positive and negative impacts and critical uncertainties, as well as a range of discount rates, and should explicitly characterize uncertainty. We make recommendations to improve the rigor and consistency of modeling of health co-benefits. Conclusion: Modeling health co-benefits requires systematic consideration of the suitability of model assumptions, of what should be included and excluded from the model framework, and how uncertainty should be treated. Increased attention to these and other analytic decisions has the potential to increase the policy relevance and application of co-benefits modeling studies, potentially helping policy makers to maximize mitigation potential while simultaneously improving health. Citation: Remais JV, Hess JJ, Ebi KL, Markandya A, Balbus JM, Wilkinson P, Haines A, Chalabi Z. 2014. Estimating the health effects of greenhouse gas mitigation strategies: addressing parametric, model, and valuation challenges. Environ Health Perspect 122:447–455;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1306744

Hess, Jeremy J.; Ebi, Kristie L.; Markandya, Anil; Balbus, John M.; Wilkinson, Paul; Haines, Andy; Chalabi, Zaid

2014-01-01

159

Global Energy Challenges of the 21. Century and Nuclear Energy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper considers the world energy demand till the middle of the century, as well as possible forecasting solution for this challenge. On the base of the mathematical model developed in the Kurchatov Institute in 2003- 2006, the vision of the global nuclear energy system and its potential contribution in the energy mix was analyzed. The rate of rapprochement between specific energy consumptions in different countries of the world is a key parameter determining the energy market strain. It was shown that a continuation of the current world trends of this rapprochement would result in an energy resource deficit already in the nearest future. The energy mix picture would contain an 'unsatisfied demand' area of about 10 000 Mtoe of total energy to be consumed by the mid-century Supposing that the mankind has to meet the 'unsatisfied demand' by nuclear energy, the global energy challenges of the 21. century energy do not impose any upper limit on nuclear energy development, the scale of which would be determined by development opportunities. Russia, as one of the pioneers of the First Nuclear Era, possesses great experience of solving the key issues of nuclear energy of the 20. century, and is capable to play an important role in dealing with the challenges faced by nuclear in the 21. century. (authors)

2008-09-14

160

[Challenges of food and nutrition in a global context].  

Science.gov (United States)

Today, in the global context, food and nutrition must face multiple challenges, but new knowledge provides windows of opportunity for effective actions. On one side it is urgently necessary to implement applied research and intervention politics that effectively contribute to the global diffusion of food security and safety. This could take advantage of new technologies, among which genetic engineering. On the other side, it is now clear that a better understanding of diet-mediated gene-environment interactions represent the key for the improvement of health in both developed and developing populations. Interactions between diet and genome should be viewed in an evolutionary perspective and should be studied taking advantage of the emerging disciplines of nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics. New knowledge about the relationships between diet and chronic diseases such as atherosclerosis and, in particular, cancer will provide ample opportunities for actions finalized to disease prevention throughout the world. PMID:17263041

Mariani-Costantini, Renato; Mariani-Costantini, Aldo

2006-10-01

 
 
 
 
161

High level radioactive waste (HLW) disposal a global challenge  

CERN Multimedia

High Level Radioactive Waste (HLW) Disposal, A Global Challenge presents the most recent information on proposed methods of disposal for the most dangerous radioactive waste and for assessing their function from short- and long-term perspectives. It discusses new aspects of the disposal of such waste, especially HLW.The book is unique in the literature in making it clear that, due to tectonics and long-term changes in rock structure, rock can serve only as a ""mechanical support to the chemical apparatus"" and that effective containment of hazardous elements can only be managed by properly des

PUSCH, R; NAKANO, M

2011-01-01

162

Global and regional shocks: Challenges to Asian economies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Two major economic problems are currently shadowing Asian economies. On the one hand, the slowdown in the US economy, ignited by the subprime mortgage crisis, may not be confined to the US region and may affect Asian countries as well. On the other hand, the recent fuel and food price increases, a global shock in nature, are also likely to influence most Asian economies that are heavily dependent on oil imports. In this short article, by summarizing recent studies on these issues, I address h...

Shin, Kwanho

2008-01-01

163

Getting People Involved: The Benefit of Intellectual Capital Management for Addressing HR Challenges  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: This paper aims to explore the benefits of intellectual capital assessment for facing current challenges of human resources work and organizational development. Design/methodology/approach: The paper takes findings of studies on challenges in HR work and maps them with features of intellectual capital assessment methods. It is thus a…

Pook, Katja

2011-01-01

164

‘One World - One Health’ and the global challenge of epidemic diseases of viral aetiology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ‘One World - One Health’ is an exciting movement to encourage wildlife, domestic animal and human health professionals to work collectively to address the world’s most challenging health concerns. It is broad in scope and truly multidisciplinary. This particular commentary on ‘One World - One Health’ is focused on ways in which individuals are forging closer collaboration and action to meet the global threat of emerging diseases caused by viruses, with particular attention being paid to those diseases that are zoonotic.

E. Paul J. Gibbs, BVSc, PhD, FRCVS

2009-03-01

165

The global nutrient challenge. From science to public engagement  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Among the many environment and development challenges facing humanity, it is fair to say that nutrients do not currently feature so regularly in the newspapers, radio and television. The media tends to prefer easy single issues which affect our daily lives in a clear-cut way. The role of carbon in climate change is a good example. We all depend on climate. Burning fossil fuels makes more carbon dioxide, tending to change temperature and rainfall patterns, to which we can easily relate. The science is complex, but it is a simple message for the public to understand. It does not take long to think of several other easily grasped threats, like urban air pollution, poor drinking water, or even the occurrence of horsemeat in food chains. It is perhaps for these reasons that the role of nutrients in environmental change has received much less public attention. After all, nutrients - including nitrogen, phosphorus and many micronutrients - play multiple roles in our world; they affect many biogeochemical processes and they lead to a plethora of interacting threats. If we are not careful, we can quickly get buried in the complexity of the different ways in which our lives are affected by these elements. The outcome is that it can become hard to convey the science of global nutrient cycles in a way that the public can understand. These are points about which we have given substantial thought as we contributed to a recently launched report Our Nutrient World: The challenge to produce more food and energy with less pollution (Sutton et al., 2013). The report was commissioned by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and conducted by the Global Partnership on Nutrient Management in cooperation with the International Nitrogen Initiative. The commission was not to provide a full scientific assessment, but rather to develop a global overview of the challenges associated with nutrient management. Drawing on existing knowledge, the aim was to distill the nature of the nutrient challenge answering clearly: why should anyone care, how has the problem got worse, what is already being done, and what still needs to be done? In scientific terms we realised that 'nutrient management' is a good descriptor. Humans manage nitrogen and phosphorus for the benefit of society, and through better management can find ways to reduce the unintended threats. But we also recognized that 'nutrient management' does not reflect the power language that makes for an easy sell to a wider public. In developing the global overview, we therefore needed to think carefully about how to package and communicate our messages. This was particularly important for nutrients because of one of the conclusions of the overview: that a lack of public awareness of the global nutrient challenge represents one of the major barriers to change. In short, if the world is going to learn to manage its nutrients better, then the world's citizens need to be motivated to make it happen.

Sutton, M.A.; Howard, C.M. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Bleeker, A. [Energy research Centre of the Netherlands, Petten (Netherlands); Datta, A. [United Nations Environment Programme, Nairobi (Kenya)

2013-04-15

166

VGB-congress power plants 2013. Security of supply - from challenges to solutions. Opening address  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The VGB Congress 'Power Plants 2013' took place in Masstricht/NL from September 25 to 27, 2013 under the motto 'Security of Supply - From Challenges to Solutions'. Experts from 31 countries attended the largest European congress for power and heat generation to discuss and inform about current issues. The congress comprised the sections 'Security of Supply: A Common European Challenge', 'Technical Solutions for our Future Electricity Generation', 'Operational Experience as Key Competence' and 'Thinking Ahead: Projects and Visions 2020+' where participants and lecturers dealt with the future challenges of European power supply. (orig.)

2014-02-01

167

75 FR 57006 - Addressing Policy and Logistical Challenges to Smart Grid Implementation  

Science.gov (United States)

...grid deployments benefit consumers, the economy and the environment. In particular...experience and resources; and the broader, economy-wide benefits and challenges associated...should feel free to describe current and planned deployments of advanced...

2010-09-17

168

Global marketing advertising with cultural differences : How can global companies better address cultural differences in marketing advertising in the Middle East?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The authors realized the importance of being flexible in cultural values in the current environment of today’s economy. This environment is called ‘globalization’ that has become an interesting topic in the academic world. Beyond the different challenges, the most important challenge regarding to the thesis topic is the cultural challenge. The authors have combined these elements and  wanted to investigate how these factors influence marketing advertising in the Middle East. Hence, the...

Cimendag, Ismail; Yalcin, Erkan

2012-01-01

169

On the global geodetic observing system: Africa's preparedness and challenges  

Science.gov (United States)

Space geodetic techniques and satellite missions play a crucial role in the determination and monitoring of geo-kinematics, Earth's rotation and gravity fields. These three pillars of geodesy provide the basis for determining the geodetic reference frames with high accuracy, spatial resolution and temporal stability. Space geodetic techniques have been used for the assessment of geo-hazards, anthropogenic hazards and in the design of early warning systems for hazard and disasters. In general, space geodesy provides products for Earth observation, science and influences many activities (e.g., building and management) in a modern society. In order to further promote the application of space geodetic methods to solving Earth science problems, the Global Geodetic Observing System (GGOS) of the International Association of Geodesy (IAG) was commissioned as an important geodetic infrastructure that integrates different geodetic techniques (such as Global Navigation Satellite Systems, Very Long Baseline Interferometry, Satellite Laser Ranging, Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar and Doppler Orbitography and Radio-positioning Integrated by Satellite), models and analysis techniques for the purpose of ensuring long-term, precise monitoring of geodetic observables vital for monitoring Earth system processes. Since its inception, there has been considerable progress made towards setting up the infrastructure necessary for the establishment of the GGOS database. While the challenges that beleaguer the GGOS are acknowledged (at least at global level), the assessment of an attuned GGOS infrastructure in the African context is necessary, yet lacking. In the present contribution, (a) the African preparedness and response to the observing system is assessed, and (b) the specific scientific and technological challenges of establishing a regional GGOS hub for Africa are reviewed. Currently only South Africa has a fundamental geodetic observatory located at Hartebeesthoek, Pretoria. Other countries in Africa have shown interest to participate in global geodetic activities, in particular through interest in the development of a unified African geodetic reference frame (AFREF). In particular interest has been shown in the proposed African VLBI Network (AVN), which will be partially based on existing ex-telecommunication radio antennas. Several countries are investigating their participation in the AVN, including Kenya, Nigeria and Ghana.

Botai, O. J.; Combrinck, Ludwig; Rautenbach, C. J. Hannes

2013-02-01

170

VGB-congress power plants 2013. Security of supply - from challenges to solutions. Opening address  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The VGB Congress 'Power Plants 2013' took place in Masstricht/NL from September 25 to 27, 2013 under the motto 'Security of Supply - From Challenges to Solutions'. Experts from 31 countries attended the largest European congress for power and heat generation to discuss and inform about current issues. The congress comprised the sections 'Security of Supply: A Common European Challenge', 'Technical Solutions for our Future Electricity Generation', 'Operational Experience as Key Competence' and 'Thinking Ahead: Projects and Visions 2020+' where participants and lecturers dealt with the future challenges of European power supply. (orig.)

Jaeger, Gerd [VGB PowerTech e.V., Essen (Germany)

2014-02-15

171

The Benefits and Challenges of Becoming Cross-Culturally Competent Counseling Psychologists. Presidential Address  

Science.gov (United States)

The central thesis of this article is that focusing on cross-cultural competence will enhance both the science and the practice of counseling psychology. Developing cross-cultural competence is a lifelong journey, replete with many joys and challenges, that will (a) increase the sophistication of our research, (b) expand the utility and…

Heppner, P. Paul

2006-01-01

172

Resources for Addressing Assessment and Accountability Challenges in Providing Services to Gifted Students  

Science.gov (United States)

This column focuses on the challenge of assessment and accountability in providing services to gifted students.The new Common Core State Standards in mathematics and language arts require new assessments for measuring student progress. The gifted field must be a part of the conversation in designing these tools. The National Association for Gifted…

Johnsen, Susan K.

2013-01-01

173

Addressing Challenges in Web Accessibility for the Blind and Visually Impaired  

Science.gov (United States)

Searching for relevant information on the web is an important aspect of distance learning. This activity is a challenge for visually impaired distance learners. While sighted people have the ability to filter information in a fast and non sequential way, blind persons rely on tools that process the information in a sequential way. Learning is…

Guercio, Angela; Stirbens, Kathleen A.; Williams, Joseph; Haiber, Charles

2011-01-01

174

Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission Applications: Activities, Challenges, and Vision  

Science.gov (United States)

Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) is an international satellite mission to provide nextgeneration observations of rain and snow worldwide every three hours. NASA and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) will launch a "Core" satellite carrying advanced instruments that will set a new standard for precipitation measurements from space. The data they provide will be used to unify precipitation measurements made by an international network of partner satellites to quantify when, where, and how much it rains or snows around the world. The GPM mission will help advance our understanding of Earth's water and energy cycles, improve the forecasting of extreme events that cause natural disasters, and extend current capabilities of using satellite precipitation information to directly benefit society. Building upon the successful legacy of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), GPM's next-generation global precipitation data will lead to scientific advances and societal benefits within a range of hydrologic fields including natural hazards, ecology, public health and water resources. This talk will highlight some examples from TRMM's IS-year history within these applications areas as well as discuss some existing challenges and present a look forward for GPM's contribution to applications in hydrology.

Kirschbaum, Dalia; Hou, Arthur

2012-01-01

175

Addressing the Challenges of a Quarter Century of Giscience Education: A Flexible Higher Education Curriculum Framework  

Science.gov (United States)

A wide range of geographic information science (GIScience) educational programs currently exist, the oldest now over 25 years. Offerings vary from those specifically focussed on geographic information science, to those that utilise geographic information systems in various applications and disciplines. Over the past two decades, there have been a number of initiatives to design curricula for GIScience, including the NCGIA Core Curriculum, GIS&T Body of Knowledge and the Geospatial Technology Competency Model developments. The rapid developments in geospatial technology, applications and organisations have added to the challenges that higher educational institutions face in order to ensure that GIScience education is relevant and responsive to the changing needs of students and industry. This paper discusses some of the challenges being faced in higher education in general, and GIScience education in particular, and outlines a flexible higher education curriculum framework for GIScience.

Veenendaal, B.

2014-04-01

176

UHR-Q-TOF Analysis Can Address Common Challenges in Targeted and Untargeted Metabolomics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Here, we present an ESI-UHR-Q-TOF based analysis of myxobacterial secondary metabolites, which permits to solve several challenges frequently encountered in metabolite profiling studies. Myxobacteria are promising producers of natural products exhibiting potent biological activities, and several myxobacterial metabolites are currently under investigation as potential leads for novel drugs. However, the myxobacteria are also a striking example for the divergence between the genetic capacity fo...

Zurek, G.; Krug, D.; Muller, R.; Barsch, A.

2011-01-01

177

Identifying and addressing challenges for search and analysis of disparate surveillance video archives  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper discusses the challenges faced when bringing together multiple disparate surveillance video archives to support semantic analysis and search and describes the SAVASA framework for enabling better integration of CCTV archives. The proliferation of CCTV cameras managed by public institutions and private enterprise raises a number of issues relating to data security, privacy, ethics and technological difficulties in unifying the variety of data and formats. These are often the result ...

Little, Suzanne; Clawson, Kathy; Mereu, Anna; Rodriguez, Aitor

2013-01-01

178

Challenges confronting road freight transport and the use of vehicle-pavement interaction analysis in addressing these challenges  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Traditional arguments for maintaining riding quality of pavement are expanded in this paper to examine the effects of deteriorating riding quality on vehicle operating costs, freight damage and logistics. The objectives of this paper are to analyse the effects of different levels of riding quality o [...] n a truck and its freight, and to discuss potential applications of the analysis in terms of effectiveness of the freight transport system. The paper discusses needs and drivers influencing freight transport costs, vehicle-pavement interaction concepts, and the potential physical effects and costs from roads with deteriorating riding quality. A case study is presented analysing vehicle-pavement interaction for selected roadways in California. It is concluded that investments in pavement and freight transport industry improvements can be investigated by applying vehicle-pavement interaction analysis to evaluate damage to pavement, vehicle and freight that would result from alternative levels of pavement riding quality. The paper recommends that existing concepts, tools and resources such as dedicated truck lanes and vehicle-pavement interaction analysis can help to improve the freight transport system. A framework is proposed to better understand the scale of potential impacts of riding quality from localised effects to larger-scale influences, including costs to customers and global competitiveness.

W J vd M, Steyn; C L, Monismith; W A, Nokes; J T, Harvey; T J, Holland; N, Burmas.

179

Will REDD+work? The need for interdisciplinary research to address key challenges  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this article, we draw on the contributions to this issue to address the question ‘Will REDD+ work?’. We do so by differentiating between how, where and when REDD+ might work. The article shows how issues of scope, scale and pace of REDD+ are related, and how interdisciplinary research can help to distill the lessons learned from REDD+ efforts currently underway. Important research areas include the drivers of deforestation and forest degradation, monitoring, reporting and verification,...

Visseren-hamakers, I. J.; Gupta, A.; Herold, M.; Pen?a Claros, M.; Vijge, M. J.

2012-01-01

180

Challenges created by data dissemination and access restrictions when attempting to address community concerns: individual privacy versus public wellbeing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Population health data are vital for the identification of public health problems and the development of public health strategies. Challenges arise when attempts are made to disseminate or access anonymised data that are deemed to be potentially identifiable. In these situations, there is debate about whether the protection of an individual's privacy outweighs potentially beneficial public health initiatives developed using potentially identifiable information. While these issues have an impact at planning and policy levels, they pose a particular dilemma when attempting to examine and address community concerns about a specific health problem. Methods: Research currently underway in northern Canadian communities on the frequency of Helicobacter pylori infection and associated diseases, such as stomach cancer, is used in this article to illustrate the challenges that data controls create on the ability of researchers and health officials to address community concerns. Results: Barriers are faced by public health professionals and researchers when endeavouring to address community concerns; specifically, provincial cancer surveillance departments and community-driven participatory research groups face challenges related to data release or access that inhibit their ability to effectively address community enquiries. The resulting consequences include a limited ability to address misinformation or to alleviate concerns when dealing with health problems in small communities. Conclusions: The development of communication tools and building of trusting relationships are essential components of a successful investigation into community health concerns. It may also be important to consider that public wellbeing may outweigh the value of individual privacy in these situations. As such, a re-evaluation of data disclosure policies that are applicable in these circumstances should be considered.

Amy Colquhoun

2012-05-01

 
 
 
 
181

Sustainable Methods of Addressing Challenges Facing Small Holder Tea Sector in Kenya: A Supply Chain Management Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This Conceptual paper addresses the challenges facing the small holder tea sector in Kenya. It provides background information about tea growing in Kenya, its export performance, and organizational structure. It then categorizes the main challenges into five and provides some solutions to the challenges, borrowing from some supply chain management practices to culminate into competitive strategies. In the face of declining and shifting competitiveness of the small holder tea sector in Kenya, this paper identifies the special role of supplier and customer relationships, value addition, information technology, information sharing, flexibility in internal operations/processes, upgrading of tea seedlings, proper coordination, institutionalization, policy reforms, training, monitoring marketing environment, strategic decisions, irrigation, venturing in new markets through partnership, and civil society involvement as competitive supply chain strategies.

Elias Kiarie Kagira

2012-05-01

182

Radiochemistry methods in DOE Methods for Evaluating Environmental and Waste Management Samples: Addressing new challenges  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiochemistry methods in Department of Energy Methods for Evaluating Environmental and Waste Management Samples (DOE Methods) add to the repertoire of other standard methods in support of U.S. Department of Energy environmental restoration and waste management (DOE/EM) radiochemical characterization activities. Current standard sources of radiochemistry methods are not always applicable for evaluating DOE/EM samples. Examples of current sources include those provided by the US Environmental Protection Agency, the American Society for Testing and Materials, Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, and Environmental Measurements Laboratory Procedures Manual (HASL-300). The applicability of these methods is generally limited to specific matrices (usually water), low-level radioactive samples, and a limited number of analytes. DOE Methods complements these current standard methods by addressing the complexities of EM characterization needs. The process for determining DOE/EM radiochemistry characterization needs is discussed. In this context of DOE/EM needs, the applicability of other sources of standard radiochemistry methods is defined, and gaps in methodology are identified. Current methods in DOE Methods and the EM characterization needs they address are discussed. Sources of new methods and the methods incorporation process are discussed. The means for individuals to participate in (1) identification of DOE/EM needs, (2) the methods incorporation process, and (3) submission of new methods are identified

1994-01-01

183

A Framework for Addressing the Global Obesity Epidemic Locally: The Child Health Ecological Surveillance System (CHESS)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Childhood obesity has reached epidemic levels in the developed world. Recent research and commentary suggest that an ecological approach is required to address childhood obesity, given the multidimensional nature of the problem. We propose a Canadian prototype, the Child Health Ecological Surveillance System, for a regional health authority to address the growing obesity epidemic. This prototype could potentially be used in other jurisdictions to address other child health issues. We present ...

Plotnikoff, Ronald C.; Lightfoot, Penny; Spinola, Carla; Predy, Gerry; Barrett, Linda

2008-01-01

184

THE EUROPEAN UNION AS A GLOBAL PLAYER: PROSPECTS AND CHALLENGES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Strengthening the external action of the Union has emerged as a powerful expectation shared both by a large majority of members of the Convention on the future of Europe, and more significantly by public opinion when it has been consulted on this issue. Although there is a consensual desire for Europe to speak with a stronger voice in global affairs, the ways and means to achieve this objective still divide those called to clarify the path to be followed. The European Union is already a significant presence in world politics by its considerable share in the international trade, or its dominant contribution to development aid. Many criticise on the other hand the lack of consistency in the more classical dimensions of foreign policy, or the lack of credibility in the capacity to act attributed to the absence of defence capabilities. Such concerns are currently addressed in the larger debate on the future of Europe, either within the dedicated framework, the European Convention convened to design the future of the EU, or outside the Convention, both among politicians and academics. It is generally considered and accepted that Europe will gain in political influence once the unification of the continent is completed, i.e. the current enlargement objectives are achieved. It goes without saying that devising and making operational appropriate instruments and capacities to act coherently outside its borders are a necessity as well. Institutional guarantees that Europe could in the future continue to influence the course of events in world affairs are becoming imperative. This article will explore some of the proposals in that sense. It will also address the place for Romania as a future EU member state in the new architecture of Europe and its possible contribution to the Common Foreign and Security Policy.

Lazar Comanescu

2002-07-01

185

Replicating a self-affirmation intervention to address gender differences: Successes and challenges  

Science.gov (United States)

We previously reported on the success of a psychological intervention implemented to reduce gender differences in achievement in an introductory college physics course. In this prior study, we found that the gender gap on exams and the FMCE among students who completed two 15-minute self-affirmation writing exercises was significantly reduced compared to the gender gap among students who completed neutral writing exercises. In a follow-up study we replicated the self-affirmation intervention in a later semester of the same course, with the same instructor. In this paper, we report the details and preliminary results of the replication study, where we find similar patterns along exams and course grades, but do not observe these patterns along the FMCE. We begin to investigate the critical features of replicating educational interventions, finding that replicating educational interventions is challenging, complex, and involves potentially subtle factors, some of which we explore and others that require further research.

Kost-Smith, Lauren E.; Pollock, Steven J.; Finkelstein, Noah D.; Cohen, Geoffrey L.; Ito, Tiffany A.; Miyake, Akira

2012-02-01

186

Polar Engineering and Research to Address Operational Challenges in Austere Environments  

Science.gov (United States)

Logistics constraints and operational challenges in the austere environs of the polar regions present unique technological and engineering problems. Working closely with universities, government agencies and industry, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Cold Regions Research and Engineering Lab (CRREL) routinely conducts scientific research and engineering in the Arctic, sub-Arctic and Antarctic covering a wide range of topics and applications. Current areas of focus include: improved mobility techniques for overland traverses; robotic vehicles for traversing, sampling and data collection; snow road and transportation characterization; integrated operational systems including airfield consolidation proof-of-concept studies; infrastructure technology such as firn air cooling, building design, snow foundations and sewage handling; remote/renewable autonomous power solutions for data collection; subsurface radar for crevasse detection and cryosphere characterization; ground-based lidar topographic scanning and near-real-time climate/environmental monitoring linked to AIS infrastructure. While these research and engineering efforts provide solutions and improved technology for specific problems, the impacts are many and wide-reaching and the results are often applicable to other challenging environments. Here, an overview of current research foci and projects is presented along with in-the-field applications, effects and future implications. The results and solutions of these efforts typically lead to technological improvements in operations and logistics which are cost-beneficial, thus freeing up funding dollars for fundamental scientific research. The links between basic research and applied solutions delivering far-reaching impacts (both large- and small-scale) on society, the environment, industry and scientific research are also demonstrated.

Mercer, J. L.; Richter-Menge, J.; Weale, J. C.; Lever, J. H.; Knuth, M. A.; Shoop, S. A.; Haehnel, R.; Arcone, S. A.; Bjella, K.; Finnegan, D. C.; Courville, Z.; Tracy, B. T.

2009-12-01

187

Managing Radioactive Waste. Problems and Challenges in a Globalizing World  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Many countries are at a crossroads in terms of maintaining their energy supply. The existing resources of fossil fuels are dwindling, and global warming makes their use increasingly problematic. Nuclear power is now often regarded inevitable for future sustainability, energy security, and economic prosperity. There are, however, still unsolved problems regarding nuclear power. The fact that no country has established a final waste repository for spent nuclear fuel throws fundamental doubt on nuclear energy expansion. Also, the processes of globalization have transformed the nuclear industry towards increased privatization, concentration, and internationalization. This leads to uncertainties regarding the responsibility for nuclear waste management. In these circumstances is it of greatest importance that scholars from different disciplines, as well as policy makers and practitioners within the field, meet to share experiences. This conference had the general objective of producing knowledge about the challenges caused by global developmental trends, and what the management of nuclear waste implies for contemporary and future social development. Over 100 persons attended the conferences. Papers available at the conference site have been separately indexed. Several contributions were also made as PP-presentation, which are available at the site, among others the Keynote Speeches: Waiting for the Nuclear Renaissance: Exploring the Nexus of Expansion and Disposal in Europe (Jane Dawson); Applying the Risk Governance Framework: Institutional Requirements for Dealing with Nuclear Waste (Ortwin Renn); Learning to Listen: The Long Road to Legitimating Radioactive Waste Management Policies (Frans Berkhout); The Nuclear Waste Debate is Irrational but We Need Not Panic (Frank von Hippel). The conference was divided into the following sessions: Session A: Political characteristics matters; Session B: Radioactivity, geology, society. On a problem definition of HLW-management; Session C: What's at stake? Problematising matters of nuclear waste management; Session D: Knowledge integration and stakeholder communication I; Session D: Knowledge integration and stakeholder communication II; Session F: Acceptance and risk perceptions in repository siting; Session G: Hide, forget, regret? Towards sustainable ethics of HLW-management; Session H: What Future Governance - Local, National or International?; and, Session I: Demonstrating legitimacy, maintaining responsibility?

2009-12-15

188

Managing Radioactive Waste. Problems and Challenges in a Globalizing World  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Many countries are at a crossroads in terms of maintaining their energy supply. The existing resources of fossil fuels are dwindling, and global warming makes their use increasingly problematic. Nuclear power is now often regarded inevitable for future sustainability, energy security, and economic prosperity. There are, however, still unsolved problems regarding nuclear power. The fact that no country has established a final waste repository for spent nuclear fuel throws fundamental doubt on nuclear energy expansion. Also, the processes of globalization have transformed the nuclear industry towards increased privatization, concentration, and internationalization. This leads to uncertainties regarding the responsibility for nuclear waste management. In these circumstances is it of greatest importance that scholars from different disciplines, as well as policy makers and practitioners within the field, meet to share experiences. This conference had the general objective of producing knowledge about the challenges caused by global developmental trends, and what the management of nuclear waste implies for contemporary and future social development. Over 100 persons attended the conferences. Papers available at the conference site have been separately indexed. Several contributions were also made as PP-presentation, which are available at the site, among others the Keynote Speeches: Waiting for the Nuclear Renaissance: Exploring the Nexus of Expansion and Disposal in Europe (Jane Dawson); Applying the Risk Governance Framework: Institutional Requirements for Dealing with Nuclear Waste (Ortwin Renn); Learning to Listen: The Long Road to Legitimating Radioactive Waste Management Policies (Frans Berkhout); The Nuclear Waste Debate is Irrational but We Need Not Panic (Frank von Hippel). The conference was divided into the following sessions: Session A: Political characteristics matters; Session B: Radioactivity, geology, society. On a problem definition of HLW-management; Session C: What's at stake? Problematising matters of nuclear waste management; Session D: Knowledge integration and stakeholder communication I; Session D: Knowledge integration and stakeholder communication II; Session F: Acceptance and risk perceptions in repository siting; Session G: Hide, forget, regret? Towards sustainable ethics of HLW-management; Session H: What Future Governance - Local, National or International?; and, Session I: Demonstrating legitimacy, maintaining responsibility?

2010-09-15

189

The Global Fund's resource allocation decisions for HIV programmes : addressing those in need  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Between 2002 and 2010, the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria's investment in HIV increased substantially to reach US$12 billion. We assessed how the Global Fund's investments in HIV programmes were targeted to key populations in relation to disease burden and national income.

Avdeeva, Olga; Lazarus, Jeff

2011-01-01

190

Climate Change - Global Risks, Challenges & Decisions : Synthesis Report  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Past societies have reacted when they understood that their own activities were causing deleterious environmental change by controlling or modifying the offending activities. The scientific evidence has now become overwhelming that human activities, especially the combustion of fossil fuels, are influencing the climate in ways that threaten the well-being and continued development of human society. If humanity is to learn from history and to limit these threats, the time has come for stronger control of the human activities that are changing the fundamental conditions for life on Earth. To decide on effective control measures, an understanding of how human activities are changing the climate, and of the implications of unchecked climate change, needs to be widespread among world and national leaders, as well as in the public. The purpose of this report is to provide, for a broad range of audiences, an update of the newest understanding of climate change caused by human activities, the social and environmental implications of this change, and the options available for society to respond to the challenges posed by climate change. This understanding is communicated through six key messages.  The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) meeting to be held in Copenhagen in December 2009 (the 15th Conference of the Parties, COP-15) will be a critical step in developing a global response to the threat of climate change caused by human activities. The primary scientific input to those negotiations is the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), published in 2007. The IPCC report has already been instrumental in increasing both public and political awareness of the societal risks associated with unchecked emission of greenhouse gases. Since the production of the IPCC report, new knowledge has emerged that furthers understanding of the impacts of human influence on the climate and the response options and approaches that are available to tackle this complex issue. To bring this new knowledge together, the International Alliance of Research Universitiesi organised an international scientific congress on climate change, Climate Change: Global Risks, Challenges and Decisions, which was held in Copenhagen from 10-12 March 2009. Participation in the Congress was open to all. Most of the approximately 2500 people attending the Congress were researchers, many of whom have also been contributors to the IPCC reports. Participants came from nearly 80 different countries and contributed with more than 1400 scientific presentations. Abstracts for all of the scientific presentations made can be found at www.iop.org/EJ/volume/1755-1315/6 , and a transcript of the closing plenary session can be found at environmentalresearchweb.org/cws/article/opinion/39126. This synthesis report presents an up-to-date overview of a broad range of research relevant to climate change - including fundamental climate science, the impacts of a changing climate on society and environment,and the many tools and approaches available to deal effectively with the challenge of climate change. The report has been produced by a writing team comprised of members of the Scientific Steering Committee for the IARU Congress and individuals invited to give the writing team academic and geographic breadth. It is based on the 16 plenary talks given at the Congress as well as input from over 80 chairs and cochairs of the 58 parallel sessions held at the Congress. The names of the plenary speakers and the chairs and co-chairs of the parallel sessions can be found on the inside cover of this volume. The writing team has, in addition to presentations at the Congress, drawn upon recent publications in the scientific literature to create this synthesis. This report has been critically reviewed by representatives of the Earth System Science Partnership (ESSP), by the parallel session chairs and co-chairs, and by up to four independent researchers from each IARU university. This extensive review process has been implemented

Richardson, Katherine; Steffen, Will

2009-01-01

191

Addressing challenges in single species assessments via a simple state-space assessment model.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Single-species and age-structured fish stock assessments still remains the main tool for managing fish stocks. A simple state-space assessment model is presented as an alternative to (semi) deterministic procedures and the full parametric statistical catch at age models. It offers a solution to some of the key challenges of these models. Compared to the deterministic procedures it solves a list of problems originating from falsely assuming that age classified catches are known without errors and allows quantification of uncertainties of estimated quantities of interest. Compared to full parametric statistical catch at age models the state-space assessment model avoids the problem of fishing mortality being restricted to a parametric structure (e.g. multiplicative), and problems related to having a high number of model parameters compared to the number of observations. The main criticism of state-space assessment models is that they tend to be more conservative (react slower to changes) than the alternatives. A solution to this criticism is offered by introducing a mixture distribution for the transitions steps. The model presented is used for several commercially important stocks at the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea

Nielsen, Anders

192

Addressing the Challenges of Anomaly Detection for Cyber Physical Energy Grid Systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The consolidation of cyber communications networks and physical control systems within the energy smart grid introduces a number of new risks. Unfortunately, these risks are largely unknown and poorly understood, yet include very high impact losses from attack and component failures. One important aspect of risk management is the detection of anomalies and changes. However, anomaly detection within cyber security remains a difficult, open problem, with special challenges in dealing with false alert rates and heterogeneous data. Furthermore, the integration of cyber and physical dynamics is often intractable. And, because of their broad scope, energy grid cyber-physical systems must be analyzed at multiple scales, from individual components, up to network level dynamics. We describe an improved approach to anomaly detection that combines three important aspects. First, system dynamics are modeled using a reduced order model for greater computational tractability. Second, a probabilistic and principled approach to anomaly detection is adopted that allows for regulation of false alerts and comparison of anomalies across heterogeneous data sources. Third, a hierarchy of aggregations are constructed to support interactive and automated analyses of anomalies at multiple scales.

Ferragut, Erik M [ORNL; Laska, Jason A [ORNL; Melin, Alexander M [ORNL; Czejdo, Bogdan [ORNL

2013-01-01

193

Vision for cross-layer optimization to address the dual challenges of energy and reliability  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We are rapidly approaching an inflection point where the conventional target of producing perfect, identical transistors that operate without upset can no longer be maintained while continuing to reduce the energy per operation. With power requirements already limiting chip performance, continuing to demand perfect, upset-free transistors would mean the end of scaling benefits. The big challenges in device variability and reliability are driven by uncommon tails in distributions, infrequent upsets, one-size-fits-all technology requirements, and a lack of information about the context of each operation. Solutions co-designed across traditional layer boundaries in our system stack can change the game, allowing architecture and software (a) to compensate for uncommon variation, environments, and events, (b) to pass down invariants and requirements for the computation, and (c) to monitor the health of collections of deVices. Cross-layer codesign provides a path to continue extracting benefits from further scaled technologies despite the fact that they may be less predictable and more variable. While some limited multi-layer mitigation strategies do exist, to move forward redefining traditional layer abstractions and developing a framework that facilitates cross-layer collaboration is necessary.

Quinn, Heather M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dehon, Andre [U. PENN; Carter, Nicholas P [INTEL

2009-01-01

194

Addressing challenges in the production and analysis of illumina sequencing data  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Advances in DNA sequencing technologies have made it possible to generate large amounts of sequence data very rapidly and at substantially lower cost than capillary sequencing. These new technologies have specific characteristics and limitations that require either consideration during project design, or which must be addressed during data analysis. Specialist skills, both at the laboratory and the computational stages of project design and analysis, are crucial to the generation of high quality data from these new platforms. The Illumina sequencers (including the Genome Analyzers I/II/IIe/IIx and the new HiScan and HiSeq represent a widely used platform providing parallel readout of several hundred million immobilized sequences using fluorescent-dye reversible-terminator chemistry. Sequencing library quality, sample handling, instrument settings and sequencing chemistry have a strong impact on sequencing run quality. The presence of adapter chimeras and adapter sequences at the end of short-insert molecules, as well as increased error rates and short read lengths complicate many computational analyses. We discuss here some of the factors that influence the frequency and severity of these problems and provide solutions for circumventing these. Further, we present a set of general principles for good analysis practice that enable problems with sequencing runs to be identified and dealt with.

Kelso Janet

2011-07-01

195

Addressing the Challenges of Multi-Domain Data Integration with the SemantEco Framework  

Science.gov (United States)

Data integration across multiple domains will continue to be a challenge with the proliferation of big data in the sciences. Data origination issues and how data are manipulated are critical to enable scientists to understand and consume disparate datasets as research becomes more multidisciplinary. We present the SemantEco framework as an exemplar for designing an integrative portal for data discovery, exploration, and interpretation that uses best practice W3C Recommendations. We use the Resource Description Framework (RDF) with extensible ontologies described in the Web Ontology Language (OWL) to provide graph-based data representation. Furthermore, SemantEco ingests data via the software package csv2rdf4lod, which generates data provenance using the W3C provenance recommendation (PROV). Our presentation will discuss benefits and challenges of semantic integration, their effect on runtime performance, and how the SemantEco framework assisted in identifying performance issues and improved query performance across multiple domains by an order of magnitude. SemantEco benefits from a semantic approach that provides an 'open world', which allows data to incrementally change just as it does in the real world. SemantEco modules may load new ontologies and data using the W3C's SPARQL Protocol and RDF Query Language via HTTP. Modules may also provide user interface elements for applications and query capabilities to support new use cases. Modules can associate with domains, which are first-class objects in SemantEco. This enables SemantEco to perform integration and reasoning both within and across domains on module-provided data. The SemantEco framework has been used to construct a web portal for environmental and ecological data. The portal includes water and air quality data from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and species observation counts for birds and fish from the Avian Knowledge Network and the Santa Barbara Long Term Ecological Research, respectively. We provide regulation ontologies using OWL2 datatype facets to detect out-of-range measurements for environmental standards set by the EPA, i.a. Users adjust queries using module-defined facets and a map presents the resulting measurement sites. Custom icons identify sites that violate regulations, making them easy to locate. Selecting a site gives the option of charting spatially proximate data from different domains over time. Our portal currently provides 1.6 billion triples of scientific data in RDF. We segment data by ZIP code and reasoning over 2157 measurements with our EPA regulation ontology that contains 131 regulations takes 2.5 seconds on a 2.4 GHz Intel Core 2 Quad with 8 GB of RAM. SemantEco's modular design and reasoning capabilities make it an exemplar for building multidisciplinary data integration tools that provide data access to scientists and the general population alike. Its provenance tracking provides accountability and its reasoning services can assist users in interpreting data. Future work includes support for geographical queries using the Open Geospatial Consortium's GeoSPARQL standard.

Patton, E. W.; Seyed, P.; McGuinness, D. L.

2013-12-01

196

Addressing the challenges of cleft lip and palate research in India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Indian sub-continent remains one of the most populous areas of the world with an estimated population of 1.1 billion in India alone. This yields an estimated 24.5 million births per year and the birth prevalence of clefts is somewhere between 27,000 and 33,000 clefts per year. Inequalities exist, both in access to and quality of cleft care with distinct differences in urban versus rural access and over the years the accumulation of unrepaired clefts of the lip and palate make this a significant health care problem in India. In recent years the situation has been significantly improved through the intervention of Non Governmental Organisations such as SmileTrain and Transforming Faces Worldwide participating in primary surgical repair programmes. The cause of clefts is multi factorial with both genetic and environmental input and intensive research efforts have yielded significant advances in recent years facilitated by molecular technologies in the genetic field. India has tremendous potential to contribute by virtue of improving research expertise and a population that has genetic, cultural and socio-economic diversity. In 2008, the World Health Organisation (WHO has recognised that non-communicable diseases, including birth defects cause significant infant mortality and childhood morbidity and have included cleft lip and palate in their Global Burden of Disease (GBD initiative. This will fuel the interest of India in birth defects registration and international efforts aimed at improving quality of care and ultimately prevention of non-syndromic clefts of the lip and palate.

Mossey Peter

2009-10-01

197

Addressing the challenges of cleft lip and palate research in India.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Indian sub-continent remains one of the most populous areas of the world with an estimated population of 1.1 billion in India alone. This yields an estimated 24.5 million births per year and the birth prevalence of clefts is somewhere between 27,000 and 33,000 clefts per year. Inequalities exist, both in access to and quality of cleft care with distinct differences in urban versus rural access and over the years the accumulation of unrepaired clefts of the lip and palate make this a significant health care problem in India. In recent years the situation has been significantly improved through the intervention of Non Governmental Organisations such as SmileTrain and Transforming Faces Worldwide participating in primary surgical repair programmes. The cause of clefts is multi factorial with both genetic and environmental input and intensive research efforts have yielded significant advances in recent years facilitated by molecular technologies in the genetic field. India has tremendous potential to contribute by virtue of improving research expertise and a population that has genetic, cultural and socio-economic diversity. In 2008, the World Health Organisation (WHO) has recognised that non-communicable diseases, including birth defects cause significant infant mortality and childhood morbidity and have included cleft lip and palate in their Global Burden of Disease (GBD) initiative. This will fuel the interest of India in birth defects registration and international efforts aimed at improving quality of care and ultimately prevention of non-syndromic clefts of the lip and palate. PMID:19884687

Mossey, Peter; Little, Julian

2009-10-01

198

Addressing the challenges of cleft lip and palate research in India  

Science.gov (United States)

The Indian sub-continent remains one of the most populous areas of the world with an estimated population of 1.1 billion in India alone. This yields an estimated 24.5 million births per year and the birth prevalence of clefts is somewhere between 27,000 and 33,000 clefts per year. Inequalities exist, both in access to and quality of cleft care with distinct differences in urban versus rural access and over the years the accumulation of unrepaired clefts of the lip and palate make this a significant health care problem in India. In recent years the situation has been significantly improved through the intervention of Non Governmental Organisations such as SmileTrain and Transforming Faces Worldwide participating in primary surgical repair programmes. The cause of clefts is multi factorial with both genetic and environmental input and intensive research efforts have yielded significant advances in recent years facilitated by molecular technologies in the genetic field. India has tremendous potential to contribute by virtue of improving research expertise and a population that has genetic, cultural and socio-economic diversity. In 2008, the World Health Organisation (WHO) has recognised that non-communicable diseases, including birth defects cause significant infant mortality and childhood morbidity and have included cleft lip and palate in their Global Burden of Disease (GBD) initiative. This will fuel the interest of India in birth defects registration and international efforts aimed at improving quality of care and ultimately prevention of non-syndromic clefts of the lip and palate.

Mossey, Peter; Little, Julian

2009-01-01

199

The forgotten D : challenges of addressing forest degradation in complex mosaic landscapes under REDD+  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

International climate negotiations have stressed the importance of considering emissions from forest degradation under the planned REDD+ (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation + enhancing forest carbon stocks) mechanism. However, most research, pilot-REDD+ projects and carbon certification agencies have focused on deforestation and there appears to be a gap in knowledge on complex mosaic landscapes containing degraded forests, smallholder agriculture, agroforestry and plantations. In this paper we therefore review current research on how avoided forest degradation may affect emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) and expected co-benefits in terms of biodiversity and livelihoods.There are still high uncertainties in measuring and monitoring emissions of carbon and other GHG from mosaic landscapes with forest degradation since most research has focused on binary analyses of forest vs. deforested land. Studies on the impacts of forest degradation on biodiversity contain mixed results and there is little empirical evidence on the influence of REDD+ on local livelihoods and tenure security, partly due to the lack of actual payment schemes.Governance structures are also more complex in landscapes with degraded forests as there are often multiple owners and types of rights to land and trees. Recent technological advances in remote sensing have improved estimation of carbon stock changes but establishment of historic reference levels is still challenged by the availability of sensor systems and ground measurements during the reference period. The inclusion of forest degradation in REDD+ calls for a range of new research efforts to enhance our knowledge of how to assess the impacts of avoided forest degradation. A first step will be to ensure that complex mosaic landscapes can be recognised under REDD+ on their own merits.

Mertz, Ole; Müller, Daniel

2012-01-01

200

Addressing the Decision-Making Process at the Global Level and Multilateralism  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the new global order, some items are likely to give new impetus to multilateralism: the growingdiscontent in the increasing activity linked to global governance and the slow pace of reform, the emergenceof new powers and their impact to the system, global financial crisis and other issues of global concern. Eachof these have an impact on the issue of multilateralism and international responses are given according to therole of each part. This paper aims to underline the role of multilateralism as form of international cooperationand the link with global economic governance. It has been tried to emphasizing the concepts alreadydeveloped by known researchers in the field. The approach is a more theoretic one done in a comparativemanner with emphasis on results and future research. The key results are related to pros and cons ofredefining the paradigm of multilateralism. The implications are varied in terms of studying the concepts andaddresses researchers in the field, but also lecturers and students. The main added value is the comparedapproach of the old multilateralism and the new one and its formal relationship with the global economicgovernance.

Maria Gabriela Sterian

2012-05-01

 
 
 
 
201

Food security for Africa: an urgent global challenge  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract In 2012, food insecurity is still a major global concern as 1 billion people are suffering from starvation, under-, and malnutrition, and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO has concluded that we are still far from reaching millennium development goal (MDG number 1: to halve extreme poverty and hunger by 2015. In sub-Saharan Africa, the number of people suffering from hunger is estimated at 239 million, and this figure could increase in the near future. There are many examples of food insecurity in sub-Saharan Africa, some of them having reached catastrophic dimensions, for example, in the Horn of Africa or southern Madagascar. Food insecurity is not just about insufficient food production, availability, and intake, it is also about the poor quality or nutritional value of the food. The detrimental situation of women and children is particularly serious, as well as the situation among female teenagers, who receive less food than their male counterparts in the same households. Soaring food prices and food riots are among the many symptoms of the prevailing food crisis and insecurity. Climate change and weather vagaries, present and forecast, are generally compounding food insecurity and drastically changing farming activities, as diagnosed by the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR in June 2011. The key cause of food insecurity is inadequate food production. Since the global food crisis of 2007–2008, there has been an increasing awareness throughout the world that we must produce more and better food; and we should not be derailed from this goal, despite some relief brought by the good cereal harvests in 2011–2012. This is particularly true in sub-Saharan Africa, which needs and wants to make its own green revolution. The African challenge indeed is key to mitigating food insecurity in the world. Commitments were made by the heads of states and governments of the African Union to double the part of their domestic budgets devoted to agriculture in 2010–2011, so as to reach 10%. Technical solutions exist and there are indeed, throughout Africa, good examples of higher-yielding and sustainable agriculture. But good practices have to spread throughout the continent, while at the same time social and economic measures, as well as political will, are indispensable ingredients of Africa’s green revolution. It is also necessary that international donors fulfil their commitment to help African farmers and rural communities and protect them against unfair trade, competition, and dumping of cheap agrifood products from overseas.

Sasson Albert

2012-04-01

202

New Challenges for Urban History: Culture, Networks, Globalization  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Urban history is a very lively and dynamic research field, showing strict parallelism with the fast increasing of the urban population. Today, competitiveness is one of the key aims for cities in the globalized world. Factors such as accessibility and infrastructure, industry, human capital, innovation, and investment, green spaces, affordable housing, business support and quality of education are necessaries. However, the OECD recognizes three dilemmas in this strategic vision, concerning the spill over of metro-regions, the public strategic vision, and the relationship between economic dynamism and the liveable city. Today urban historians are facing some general challenges: comparative aspects are needed; also interdisciplinarity to develop cooperation between disciplines; and for maintaining the professional status of academic urban history. The expanding networks between towns and cities, and the meeting places as conferences and exhibitions are considered, as they are the multitudinous challenges and threats, especially for those cities suffering continuously of major natural and man-made disasters. Moreover, new amalgams of hazard are being created in metropolitan areas with overlapping natural, technological, biological and social risks, exposing more people and places, needing safety and security.

La historia urbana es un campo de investigación muy vivo y dinámico, mostrando un paralelismo estricto con el rápido incremento de la población urbana. La competencia es hoy uno de los objetivos claves para las ciudades en el mundo globalizado. Factores tales como la accesibilidad y las infraestructuras, la industria, el capital humano, la innovación y la inversión, los espacios verdes, la vivienda accesible, el apoyo a los negocios y la calidad de la educación son necesarios. Sin embargo, la OCDE reconoce tres dilemas en esa visión estratégica, el desarrollo de las metrópolis, la visión estratégica pública y la relación entre el dinamismo económico y la habitabilidad de la ciudad. Hoy se enfrentan los historiadores urbanos a algunos retos generales: la necesidad de aspectos comparativos, también la interdisciplinariedad para desarrollar la cooperación entre disciplinas y para mantener el status profesional de la historia urbana académica. Las redes expansivas entre pueblos y ciudades, y los lugares de encuentro como conferencias y exposiciones son considerados, así como los múltiples retos y amenazas, especialmente para aquellas ciudades que sufren continuamente los mayores desastres por la naturaleza o el hombre. Más aun, nuevas combinaciones de azares están siendo creados en las áreas metropolitanas con riesgos superpuestos naturales, tecnológicos, biológicos y sociales, exponiendo más gentes y lugares, que necesitan seguridad y protección.

Hietala, Marjatta

2012-12-01

203

Addressing Socioeconomic Objectives through Enhanced Decision Support Systems for Water Resources Management: Vision, Gaps, and Challenges in South Africa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Water resources management has become a field where computer-aided analytical techniques are expected to facilitate a complex process of decision making which involves several stakeholders with varied interests and various socioeconomic objectives of the natural resource development and management strategies. In many ways, the decision-making related to water resource management exhibits a political process that requires water resources engineering expertise combined with suitable use of informatics. This paper investigates the case of South Africa to assess the extent to which various computer-based decision support systems have succeeded in terms of addressing the socioeconomic objectives encompassed under the new vision for water resources management. Prevailing gaps have been identified through an exhaustive review of relevant initiatives in the country and abroad. A conceptual recommendation has been made to address the identified gaps while highlighting the challenges that lie ahead.

Krishna PRASAD

2005-12-01

204

Facing safety and security challenges: A national and international perspective (Opening address)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This international conference on Effective Nuclear Regulatory Systems is more than a gathering of senior regulators and of nuclear technologists; it is truly an international assembly of those who implement nuclear safety, security and emergency preparedness. The sessions should have a definitive underlying theme and purpose that support the objectives of the conference. A common understanding of the purpose of regulation in general and nuclear regulation in particular, should provide the connectivity between every one of us, independent of country or organization. A good starting point for the common understanding of regulation would be to note that regulation is done for the well-being of our people, for the common good, with full consideration of the national interests, and of international law and agreements. Nuclear regulation is a disciplined national tool for establishing predictable safety and security frameworks. It works by establishing and improving technical and legal structures to define the acceptable safety case that serves the public interest. Senior nuclear regulators, you and I, are coming together, in Moscow, in winter, in 2006, to make a statement regarding our responsibilities and to deliver a series of products, sustained by a common understanding of nuclear regulation. Moreover, we are here because we care about our nations and because we can and want to work together, better. In this regard, I present for your thoughtful consideration here, as a purpose, the objective stated by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in its current strategic plan: to enable the use and management of radioactive materials and nuclear fuels for beneficial civilian purposes in a manner that protects public health and safety and the environment, promotes the security of our nation, and provides for regulatory actions that are open, effective, efficient, realistic and timely. With that purpose in mind, it becomes clear why our presence here today is important. In fact, as inevitable as day and night, there is supply and there is demand. Unfortunately, there are also imbalances that may occur in supply and demand. The world is again experiencing that almost forgotten enemy: expensive and/or unreliable energy supply. Many times we have seen that society is disrupted and people suffer when energy is costly, scarce, or not available. The solutions to economic and reliable energy supply are surely important worldwide. In the case of the USA, dependence on energy is somewhat unique; solutions are needed for the short term and solutions are needed that will endure the test of time and crises. Therefore, the USA, like many other countries, is reviewing the strategic, economic, and environmental considerations of the nation's overall energy supply and openly considering the contributions of nuclear power to meet its present and future energy needs. In fact, in the USA, President Bush and the Congress have taken positive steps to ensure that nation's energy mix includes the reliability of supply, the environmental benefits, and the steady costs that are now ascribed to operating nuclear power plants. Maintaining the requisite focus on safety and security, the NRC has the obligation and responsibility to respond to the needs of the country. Although our particular needs may differ, you are surely being asked to be ready to implement a set of effective regulatory tools that are responsive to the energy, economic, and security demands of the present and the near future. I believe that we can agree that every nation of the world would be better served by reducing imbalances in the energy supply and demand, and by supporting safe, economical and environmentally friendly electrical energy supply that meets the global demand

2006-09-01

205

The Global Fund's resource allocation decisions for HIV programmes: addressing those in need  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Between 2002 and 2010, the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria's investment in HIV increased substantially to reach US$12 billion. We assessed how the Global Fund's investments in HIV programmes were targeted to key populations in relation to disease burden and national income. Methods We conducted an assessment of the funding approved by the Global Fund Board for HIV programmes in Rounds 1-10 (2002-2010 in 145 countries. We used the UNAIDS National AIDS Spending Assessment framework to analyze the Global Fund investments in HIV programmes by HIV spending category and type of epidemic. We examined funding per capita and its likely predictors (HIV adult prevalence, HIV prevalence in most-at-risk populations and gross national income per capita using stepwise backward regression analysis. Results About 52% ($6.1 billion of the cumulative Global Fund HIV funding was targeted to low- and low-middle-income countries. Around 56% of the total ($6.6 billion was channelled to countries in sub-Saharan Africa. The majority of funds were for HIV treatment (36%; $4.3 billion and prevention (29%; $3.5 billion, followed by health systems and community systems strengthening and programme management (22%; $2.6 billion, enabling environment (7%; $0.9 billion and other activities. The Global Fund investment by country was positively correlated with national adult HIV prevalence. About 10% ($0.4 billion of the cumulative HIV resources for prevention targeted most-at-risk populations. Conclusions There has been a sustained scale up of the Global Fund's HIV support. Funding has targeted the countries and populations with higher HIV burden and lower income. Prevention in most-at-risk populations is not adequately prioritized in most of the recipient countries. The Global Fund Board has recently modified eligibility and prioritization criteria to better target most-at-risk populations in Round 10 and beyond. More guidance is being provided for Round 11 to strategically focus demand for Global Fund financing in the present resource-constrained environment.

Avdeeva Olga

2011-10-01

206

Opening Statement - Angel Gurria [International Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Energy in the 21. Century: Addressing Energy Needs and Environmental Challenges, Beijing (China), 20-22 April 2009  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is a great honour to open this International Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Energy. It is also a privilege for the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency to co-sponsor this conference. I wish to thank both our hosts, the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Government of China, represented by the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology and the China Atomic Energy Authority, for convening us today to advance on our common goal: to secure clean and peaceful nuclear power for the 21st century. The global crisis has exposed not only the paramount challenges of today?s global economy and the remarkable level of interdependence among our nations. It has also confronted us with our duty to define the kind of global economy we need for tomorrow. It is our responsibility to devise sound policies for a stronger, cleaner and fairer global economy. Clean and affordable energy, including access to safe and secure nuclear power, should be a central element of our efforts. This is essential not only for a sustainable economy, but also for the future of our planet. The crisis has prompted us to act immediately and in concert. Take the example of our hosts, the Government of China. In the face of the economic slowdown, they responded rapidly and in a comprehensive fashion. Importantly, they increased government spending, and stimulated domestic demand, and are looking into effective ways to enhance social policies. The turmoil showed that China and all of us need to be more involved in international economic cooperation. We are profoundly affected by the policies implemented by each of our countries. There is no better example than energy to illustrate our interdependence. Holding this meeting in Beijing shows the importance China places on international cooperation and recognizes the role China could play in designing clean and safe energy solutions for the future. For me, coming to Beijing is also an opportunity to stress the high significance of the OECD partnership with China. Our organization is now more open and plural, welcoming new members and having launched an ?enhanced engagement? process with the most important emerging economies. Forging a more structured and stronger partnership with China is fundamental in such a process. It is based on our mutual interest to develop global solutions to global challenges, such as nuclear energy in the 21st century. Thus, I urge you to look into three important issues, which we should address in the years to come, namely, security, financing and development of nuclear energy

2009-09-01

207

GA2LEN (Global Allergy and Asthma European Network) addresses the allergy and asthma 'epidemic'.  

Science.gov (United States)

Allergic diseases represent a major health problem in Europe. They are increasing in prevalence, severity and costs. The Global Allergy and Asthma European Network (GA(2)LEN), a Sixth EU Framework Program for Research and Technological Development (FP6) Network of Excellence, was created in 2005 as a vehicle to ensure excellence in research bringing together research and clinical institutions to combat fragmentation in the European research area and to tackle allergy in its globality. The Global Allergy and Asthma European Network has benefited greatly from the voluntary efforts of researchers who are strongly committed to this model of pan-European collaboration. The network was organized in order to increase networking for scientific projects in allergy and asthma around Europe and to make GA(2)LEN the world leader in the field. Besides these activities, research has also been carried out and the first papers are being published. Achievements of the Global Allergy and Asthma European Network can be grouped as follows: (i) those for a durable infrastructure built up during the project phase, (ii) those which are project-related and based on these novel infrastructures, and (iii) the development and implementation of guidelines. The major achievements of GA(2)LEN are reported in this paper. PMID:19392994

Bousquet, J; Burney, P G; Zuberbier, T; Cauwenberge, P V; Akdis, C A; Bindslev-Jensen, C; Bonini, S; Fokkens, W J; Kauffmann, F; Kowalski, M L; Lodrup-Carlsen, K; Mullol, J; Nizankowska-Mogilnicka, E; Papadopoulos, N; Toskala, E; Wickman, M; Anto, J; Auvergne, N; Bachert, C; Bousquet, P J; Brunekreef, B; Canonica, G W; Carlsen, K H; Gjomarkaj, M; Haahtela, T; Howarth, P; Lenzen, G; Lotvall, J; Radon, K; Ring, J; Salapatas, M; Schünemann, H J; Szczecklik, A; Todo-Bom, A; Valovirta, E; von Mutius, E; Zock, J P

2009-07-01

208

Addressing AACSB Global and Technology Requirements: Exploratory Assessment of a Marketing Management Assignment  

Science.gov (United States)

The Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB) standards mandate knowledge of global and technology issues. Businesses desire employees with ability to analyze international markets and to be adept with technology. Taxpayers supporting public universities and organizations hiring business school graduates expect accountability…

Greene, Scott; Bao, Yongchuan

2009-01-01

209

Global warming and the challenge of international cooperation: an interdisciplinary assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The book aims to explore the nature of potential climatic change. It seeks to assess the scientific, economic legal and political issues related to the threat of global warming from an interdisciplinary perspective. The seven chapters have the following titles: the challenge of global warming; global warming and ozone depletion - certainties and uncertainties; consequences of global climate change for Earth's biosphere; global energy use and global warming; problems and prospects of institutionalizing ecological interdependence in a world of local independence; political institutions and climate change; and policy options for responding to the threat of global warming. Six chapters are abstracted separately. 158 refs

1990-03-26

210

Social Justice and the Global Economy: New Challenges for Social Work in the 21st Century  

Science.gov (United States)

The globalization of the economy creates new challenges for social work in the arenas of social and economic justice. This article outlines social justice issues related to the debt crisis of the Global South and sweatshops. A presentation of colonial precursors is followed by a detailed examination of these global institutions with an emphasis on…

Polack, Robert J.

2004-01-01

211

Global sourcing model : successes and challenges in the case of company X in packaging industry  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Global sourcing has been seen the most important part of supply chain management (SCM) in economics. It is considered as the most typical way to demonstrate attributions of globalization from concept to practice. Many companies have gained many successes, but they have also encountered challenges when applying global sourcing in business.

Khoang, Quoc Huy

2013-01-01

212

Places to Go: Challenges to Multicultural Art Education in a Global Economy  

Science.gov (United States)

This article examines the relationship between globalization and postmodern multicultural art education. The questions that drive my investigation are: What is the role of postmodern multiculturalism in this current phase of globalization and what challenges does globalization pose for multiculturalism? I explore the shifts in the field of art…

Desai, Dipti

2005-01-01

213

Lessons learned and present day challenges of addressing 20th century radiation legacies of Russia and the United States  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Decommissioning of nuclear submarines, disposal of highly enriched uranium and defense plutonium as well as processing of high-level wastes are among the most challenging issues of addressing radiation legacy of the 20th century. USA and Russia are the two primary countries that have to deal with the challenge and where most of the fissile materials to be processed are concentrated, nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste are stored, and multiple industrial sites and nuclear weapons production facilities are located. In the US, CH2M HILL is managing two of the most important nuclear projects being conducted by the US Department of Energy at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site and at the DOE Hanford Site (177 underground tanks at this site contain 60 percent of the United States' high-level radioactive wastes). Within the framework of the Russian Federal special program 'Radioactive Waste and Spent Nuclear Materials Management, Utilization and Disposal for 1996-2005' works were carried out on the Karachai lake covering with soil, highly active radwaste vitrification and fractionation at the 'Mayak' combine. Currently there is a discussion of launching joint Russian-American initiatives including comparative studies of environmental and public health impacts from high-level waste vitrification and plutonium stabilization processes in Russia and high-level waste removal from tanks in the USA and of continuing comprehensive research with the RADSITE project (USA, European Union, Japan, China and India) using coordinated approaches in 2000-2003. This paper presents comparative studies, technical approaches, and regulatory strategies to address the challenges of managing and closing highly enriched uranium, plutonium, and high level waste sites. (author)

2002-04-01

214

Agri-food business: global challenges - innovative solutions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The rise of a western-style middle class in many successful emerging economies like China currently is inducing deep structural changes on agricultural world markets and within the global agri-food business. As a result of both higher incomes and concerns over product safety and quality the global demand for high-quality and safe food products is increasing significantly. In order to meet the new required quality, globally minimum quality standards are rising and private standards emerging. A...

2008-01-01

215

[The modern international public health and globalization challenges].  

Science.gov (United States)

The article deals with the issues of impact of globalization on population health and public health. The positive and negative aspects of this process are analyzed. The role of international organizations (UN, WHO, UNESCO, ILO, UNISEF) is demonstrated in the area of management of globalization impact on public health of different countries, Russia included. PMID:23033581

2012-01-01

216

Addressing the Photometric Calibration Challenge: Explicit Determination of the Instrumental Response and Atmospheric Response Functions, and Tying it All Together  

CERN Document Server

Photometric calibration is currently the dominant source of systematic uncertainty in exploiting type Ia supernovae to determine the nature of the dark energy. We review our ongoing program to address this calibration challenge by performing measurements of both the instrumental response function and the optical transmission function of the atmosphere. A key aspect of this approach is to complement standard star observations by using NIST-calibrated photodiodes as a metrology foundation for optical flux measurements. We present our first attempt to assess photometric consistency between synthetic photometry and observations, by comparing predictions based on a NIST-diode-based determination of the PanSTARRS-1 instrumental response and empirical atmospheric transmission measurements, with fluxes we obtained from observing spectrophotometric standards.

Stubbs, Christopher W

2012-01-01

217

Human Rights Commission to Hear Inuit Challenge to U.S. on Global Warming - Climate &  

...Human Rights Commission to Hear Inuit Challenge to U.S. on Global Warming - Climate & Capitalism Climate & Capitalism An ...Economist’s Travelogue You are here: Home / 2007 / February / 13 / Human Rights Commission to Hear Inuit Challenge to U.S. on Global Warming Posted on February ...Human Rights Commission to Hear Inuit Challenge to U.S. on Global Warming The InterAmerican Commission on Human Rights has agreed to hear ... As reported in the article below, a delegation representing Inuit peoples from the US, Canada, Russia and Greenland will argue that ...

218

Poverty and Environmental Degradation Challenges within the Global Economy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Since the end of the second World War, the link between deepening poverty and environmental degradation has increased in visibility despite the efforts of the United Nations and other international agencies. Focuses on globalization, poverty, and the environment. (DDR)

Mabogunje, Akin L.

2002-01-01

219

CHALLENGES AND OUTLOOK OF INDIAN ECONOMY – A GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available India and China- First, the outlook from a global perspective, India clearly is one of the fastest growing emerging economies of the world, next to China, having the potential to overtake China in the medium-term. Though in recent times there has been a sharp deceleration in growth of India but these are for domestic reasons rather than global compulsions. Some of the distinct advantages which India has over China are:

Roshankumar M. Bhigania

2014-04-01

220

The Minamata Convention on Mercury: attempting to address the global controversy of dental amalgam use and mercury waste disposal.  

Science.gov (United States)

In October 2013, a new international binding treaty instrument called the Minamata Convention on Mercury opened for signature in Minamata City, Japan, the site of arguably the worst public health and environmental disaster involving mercury contamination. The treaty aims to curb the significant health and environmental impacts of mercury pollution and includes provisions addressing the mining, export and import, storage, and waste management of products containing mercury. Importantly, a provision heavily negotiated in the treaty addresses the use of dental fillings using mercury amalgam, an issue that has been subject to decades of global controversy. Though use of dental amalgam is widespread and has benefits, concerns have been raised regarding the potential for human health risk and environmental damage from emissions and improper waste management. While the Minamata Convention attempts to address these issues by calling for a voluntary phase-down of dental amalgam use and commitment to other measures, it falls short by failing to require binding and measurable targets to achieve these goals. In response, the international community should begin exploring ways to strengthen the implementation of the dental amalgam treaty provisions by establishing binding phase-down targets and milestones as well as exploring financing mechanisms to support treaty measures. Through strengthening of the Convention, stakeholders can ensure equitable access to global oral health treatment while also promoting responsible environmental stewardship. PMID:24291137

Mackey, Tim K; Contreras, John T; Liang, Bryan A

2014-02-15

 
 
 
 
221

[Global Allergy and Asthma European Network (GA2LEN) addresses the epidemic of allergy and asthma].  

Science.gov (United States)

Allergic diseases represent a major health problem in Europe. They are increasing in prevalence, severity and costs. GA2LEN, an FP6 Network of Excellence, was created in 2005 as a vehicle to ensure excellence in research bringing together research and clinical institutions to combat fragmentation in the European research area and to tackle Allergy in its globality. GA2LEN benefited greatly from the voluntary efforts of researchers who are strongly committed to this model of pan-European collaboration. The network was organized in order to increase networking for scientific projects in allergy and asthma around Europe and to make GA2LEN the world leader in the field. Besides these activities, research has been jointly made and the first papers are being published. GA2LEN achievements in general can be grouped as those for a durable infrastructure built up during the project phase those which are project-related work based on these novel infrastructures, and the development and implementations of guidelines. The major achievements of GA2LEN are reported in this paper. PMID:20662458

Panzer, Petr Cáp Petr Burney Peter Zuberbier Torsten; van Cauvenberg, Paul; Bousquet, Jean

2010-01-01

222

New Climate Study Challenges Thinking on Large-Scale, Global Climate Change  

Science.gov (United States)

... New Climate Study Challenges Thinking on Large-Scale, Global Climate Change A study of past climate ... means there is something else influencing climate change that we don't yet understand." David ...

223

Carrier-gas enhanced vapor phase deposition for organic thin films: addressing mass manufacturing requirements for OLED devices, and overcoming existing challenges with OVPD  

Science.gov (United States)

For OLEDs to become a mainstream technology, all major display companies are ramping up their efforts to enable cost efficient manufacturing on larger substrate sizes and higher throughput. This puts additional pressure on the suppliers of respective manufacturing equipment to address perceived challenges for scaling and throughput. This paper discusses perceived challenges in today's manufacturing and how Organic Vapor Phase Deposition (OVPD®) can address these.

Kreis, Juergen; Schwambera, Markus; Keiper, Dietmar; Gersdorff, Markus; Long, Michael; Heuken, Michael

2013-09-01

224

Global energy challenges over the next fifty years  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two very different energy scenarios have been developed by Shell planners as an aid to strategic thinking about the long-term future. They both arise from the fundamental political and economic changes of the 1980s and early 1990s. 'New Frontiers' is a world in which global liberalization leads to high growth in energy demand, particularly in developing countries. In 'Barricades', countries and institutions reject globalization, and economic growth and energy use are much lower. The environment is a strong theme in both scenarios, but 'New Frontiers', because of its higher energy prices, is ultimately more favourable to the development of renewable energy sources. (author)

1996-01-01

225

Global energy challenges over the next fifty years  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Two very different energy scenarios have been developed by Shell planners as an aid to strategic thinking about the long-term future. They both arise from the fundamental political and economic changes of the 1980s and early 1990s. `New Frontiers` is a world in which global liberalization leads to high growth in energy demand, particularly in developing countries. In `Barricades`, countries and institutions reject globalization, and economic growth and energy use are much lower. The environment is a strong theme in both scenarios, but `New Frontiers`, because of its higher energy prices, is ultimately more favourable to the development of renewable energy sources. (author)

Kassler, P. [Shell International Petroleum Co. Ltd., London (United Kingdom)

1996-12-31

226

Sustainability: a global challenge and opportunity - Climate Action Programme  

...Economy The Environment and Energy Commission at the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) acts as a voice for global business, representing the ...interests of ICC members in global dialogues related energy and the environment. The Commission helps ICC act as businessrsquo;s primary interlocutor and ...change and implement sustainable development is central to the agenda of the ICC. Could you tell us more about the Environment and Energy ...Commission and how it enables ICC to act? Companies build a sustainable future every day by delivering and deploying their innovative products and ...

227

CHALLENGES OF INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS ON AUDITING IN GLOBAL CRISIS CONTEXT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The financial crisis that broke out in summer 2007 is striking in its sheer magnitude, the speed of its contagion to the global financial sphere, as well as its persistence. These factors make it on the most impressive and unprecedented events in recent financial history.

Daniel Botez

2008-12-01

228

CHALLENGES OF INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS ON AUDITING IN GLOBAL CRISIS CONTEXT  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The financial crisis that broke out in summer 2007 is striking in its sheer magnitude, the speed of its contagion to the global financial sphere, as well as its persistence. These factors make it on the most impressive and unprecedented events in recent financial history.

Daniel Botez

2008-01-01

229

GLOBAL CHALLENGES FOR SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT IN SLOVAKIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper is focused on the evaluation of economic, social and environmental challenges of sustainable agriculture. The selected indicators of the economic challenges of sustainable agriculture imply that agriculture in Slovakia is not in long term be able to ensure competitiveness in the European market, gross agricultural output is characterized by a faster decline in animal production than in crop production and the value of import of agri-food commodities is higher than the value of export. According to selected indicators of social challenges of sustainable agriculture the number of persons working in agriculture has decreasing tendency in last years. The evaluation of selected indicators of environmental challenges of sustainable agriculture implies that area of organic agriculture is the most widely applied sub-measure within the measure agri-environmental payments. For ensuring the balance of the three mentioned dimensions of sustainable agriculture is necessary to increase of local production and consumption of local products, to ensure the protection of nature and landscape, to ensure rural development and to increase the employment opportunities in countryside.

Magdalana Bartosova

2013-09-01

230

LHC Computing Centres Join Forces for Global Grid Challenge  

CERN Multimedia

Today, in a significant milestone for scientific grid computing, eight major computing centres successfully completed a challenge to sustain a continuous data flow of 600 megabytes per second (MB/s) on average for 10 days from CERN in Geneva, Switzerland to seven sites in Europe and the US

2005-01-01

231

Global Education: Instructional Strategies Used and Challenges Faced by In-Service Teachers  

Science.gov (United States)

This article examines the result of a study on teachers' reported use of instructional strategies in dealing with the U.S.-Iraq war, the resources that they use, the challenges that they face in implementing a globally oriented curriculum, and the sources of influence on their commitment to global education. A questionnaire was developed and used…

Eslami, Zohreh R.

2005-01-01

232

Building organizational technical capabilities: a new approach to address the office of environmental management cleanup challenges in the 21. century  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The United States Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Management (EM) is responsible for the nations nuclear weapons program legacy wastes cleanup. The EM cleanup efforts continue to progress, however the cleanup continues to be technologically complex, heavily regulated, long-term, and a high life cycle cost estimate (LCCE) effort. Over the past few years, the EM program has undergone several changes to accelerate its cleanup efforts with varying degrees of success. Several cleanup projects continued to experience schedule delays and cost growth. The schedule delays and cost growth have been attributed to several factors such as changes in technical scope, regulatory and safety considerations, inadequacy of acquisition approach and project management. This article will briefly review the background and schools of thought on strategic management and organizational change practiced in the United States over the last few decades to improve an organisation's competitive edge and cost performance. The article will briefly review examples such as the change at General Electric, and the recent experience obtained from the nuclear industry, namely the long-term response to the 1986 Chernobyl accident. The long-term response to Chernobyl, though not a case of organizational change, could provide some insight in the strategic management approaches used to address people issues. The article will discuss briefly EM attempts to accelerate cleanup over the past few years, and the subsequent paradigm shift. The paradigm shift targets enhancing and/or creating organizational capabilities to achieve cost savings. To improve its ability to address the 21. century environmental cleanup challenges and achieve cost savings, EM has initiated new corporate changes to develop new and enhance existing capabilities. These new and enhanced organizational capabilities include a renewed emphasis on basics, especially technical capabilities including safety, project management, acquisition management and people. The new enhanced organizational capabilities coupled with more effective communications; oversight and decision-making processes are expected to help EM meet the 21. century challenges. This article will focus on some of the initiatives to develop and enhance organizational technical capabilities. Some of these development initiatives are a part of DOE corporate actions to respond to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) recommendations 93-3 and 2004-1. Other development initiatives have been tailored to meet EM specific needs for organizational capabilities such as case studies analysis and cost estimating. (authors)

2007-03-01

233

New Challenges for Urban History: Culture, Networks, Globalization  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Urban history is a very lively and dynamic research field, showing strict parallelism with the fast increasing of the urban population. Today, competitiveness is one of the key aims for cities in the globalized world. Factors such as accessibility and infrastructure, industry, human capital, innovation, and investment, green spaces, affordable housing, business support and quality of education are necessaries. However, the OECD recognizes three dilemmas in this strategic vision, concerning th...

Hietala, Marjatta

2012-01-01

234

Globalization and Loss of Plant Knowledge: Challenging the Paradigm  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The erosion of cultural knowledge and traditions as a result of globalization and migration is a commonly reported phenomenon. We compared one type of cultural knowledge about medicinal plants (number of plants reported to treat thirty common health conditions) among Dominican laypersons who self-medicate with plants and live in rural or urban areas of the Dominican Republic (DR), and those who have moved to New York City (NYC). Many plants used as medicines were popular Dominican food plants...

Vandebroek, Ina; Balick, Michael J.

2012-01-01

235

Injuries and violence: a global public health challenge  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Injuries and violence are a significant cause of mortality and physical disability. Injuries killed five million people worldwide each year [1]. The level of this dilemma, however, differs significantly by age, sex, region and economic development [2]. Globally, road traffic injury mortalities, self-inflicted injury mortality and interpersonal violence, war, drowning, and exposure to fire are the leading cause of deaths among people aged 15-44 years [3]. This special issue aims to assess the ...

2010-01-01

236

Food security for Africa: an urgent global challenge  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract In 2012, food insecurity is still a major global concern as 1 billion people are suffering from starvation, under-, and malnutrition, and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) has concluded that we are still far from reaching millennium development goal (MDG) number 1: to halve extreme poverty and hunger by 2015. In sub-Saharan Africa, the number of people suffering from hunger is estimated at 239 million, and this figure could increase in the ne...

Sasson Albert

2012-01-01

237

Global trade and health: key linkages and future challenges.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Globalization of trade, marketing and investment has important implications for public health, both negative and positive. This article considers the implications of the single package of World Trade Organization (WTO) agreements for public health research and policy, focusing on three themes: commodities, intellectual property rights, and health services. The main aims of the analysis are as follows: to identify how trade issues are associated with the transnationalization of health risks an...

Bettcher, D. W.; Yach, D.; Guindon, G. E.

2000-01-01

238

Global warming and drainage development: perspective and challenges  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Irrigated agriculture is expected to play a major role in reaching the broader development objectives of achieving food security and improvements in the quality of life, while conserving the environment, in both the developed and developing countries. Especially as we are faced with the prospect of global population growth from almost 6 billion today to at least 8 billion by 2025. In this context, the constraints posed by land and water scarcity and the associated need to increase the carryin...

Wrachien, D.; Feddes, R. A.

2004-01-01

239

Leadership in transformation between local embeddedness and global challenges  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Based on empirical studies in Romania, Estonia, Germany, and Austria within the GLOBE project, the authors try to answer the question of cultural embeddedness of leadership patterns in an environment of more and more globalised management. Special emphasis is put on the match/mismatch of the observed styles of leadership behaviour of CEO`s with regional and global expectations, on the differences and similarities between the examined countries, the influence of transformational settings in th...

Steyrer, Johannes; Hartz, Ronald; Schiffinger, Michael

2006-01-01

240

The CharXive Challenge. Regulation of global carbon cycles by vegetation fires  

CERN Document Server

It is an open, but not unanswerable, question as to how much atmospheric CO2 is sequestered globally by vegetation fires. In this work I conceptualise the question in terms of the general CharXive Challenge, discuss a mechanism by which thermoconversion of biomass may regulate the global distribution of carbon between reservoirs, show how suppression of vegetation fires by human activities may increase the fraction of carbon in the atmospheric pool, and pose three specific CharXive Challenges of crucial strategic significance to our management of global carbon cycles.

Ball, R

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Technical Session: International Energy Agency. Our Energy Future - Addressing the Dual Challenges of Climate Change and Energy Security  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Distinguished Ministers, guests, ladies and gentlemen, it is an honor for me to take part in this important conference and I thank Mr. Sokolov and the IAEA for providing me with the opportunity to be here today In this session we are discussing 'Energy Resources and the Environment'. Using this important occasion, I would like to share with you the IEA's view on the world's energy future. In the regard, we are facing two challenges; Energy Security and climate change. In the energy sector, climate change mitigation and energy security go hand in hand. Investment in clean energy technologies will ensure better energy security while at the same time mitigating climate change. And nuclear power has a key role to play in this regard. Though the current economic downturn results world energy demand shrinking in short term, in longer term, it is inevitable to see strong demand increase if only existing policies were to remain in place until 2030 (our so called 'Reference Scenario' or 'business as usual model'). Our World Energy Outlook 2008 published November last year demonstrates that world primary energy demand will grow by 45% from 2006 to 2030, which is an average annual growth rate of 1.6%. Though it is not shown in the graph, it is important to note that non-OECD countries account for 87% of global energy demand growth between 2006 and 2030. The increase in China's energy demand outpaces that of all other countries and regions. Huge inflows of capital are needed to meet such demand growth and replace existing and future supply facilities that will be retired,. This shows the cumulative investment in energy supply needed to 2030 in the business as usual scenario. It amounts to $26.3 trillion (in year-2007 dollars) from 2007 to 2030; Electricity generation represents half of this. Oil and gas account for almost all of the remainder; 63% of this total will be needed in non-OECD countries - clearly highlighting that the investment challenge is a global issue. As energy production accounts for 60% of CO2 emissions, this energy demand growth will obviously have huge implications for climate change. In our WEO-2008 business as usual scenario shown here, global CO2 emissions from energy will jump by 45% between 2006 and 2030 to 40.6 giga-tonnes (growth rate of 1.6% pa). This trajectory puts the world on track for a global temperature increase of around 6 degrees. In light of the CO2 challenge, WEO-2008 set out two alternative energy policy scenarios to take the world to a lower emissions future: 550 ppm, and 450 ppm of CO2 in the atmosphere. This graph shows trajectories for energy-related CO2 emissions to 2030 in the different scenarios, assuming 3.3% global GDP growth to 2030. We must reduce emissions from: 40.6 Gt in 2030 (in RS) - to reach 33 Gt in the 550 ppm scenario with a temperature rise of 3oC; 26 Gt in the 450 ppm scenario with a temperature rise of around 2oC ... would eventually mean a 50% reduction of current levels of CO2 by 2050. This will require a 'revolution' of the energy sector. In particular, measures in three areas are vital: 1. Energy efficiency: 54% in the 450ppm scenario. 2. CCS (particularly in the 450 ppm scenario) after 2020. 3. Diversification of the energy mix through the use of nuclear power and renewables. Let me also emphasize here that these scenarios also enhance our energy security, by ensuring energy is used efficiently and by diversifying energy portfolios. Widespread deployment of low-carbon technologies and energy efficiency requires much investment if we are to reduce CO2 emissions and ensure a secure energy future. Business as usual scenario, investment of $26.3 trillion is needed in energy infrastructure just to meet growing demand and production decline. But in the two low emissions scenarios, significant additional investment of $9 trillion is needed in power plants and in more efficient energy-related capital stock. This additional investment amounts to 0.6% of world GDP on average per year. In addition, the price of carbon in the 450 ppm scenario would be around $180/t-CO2 (= arou

2009-04-20

242

SMART GRIDS: A prologue & unscrew challenges that needs to be addressed, A Short Survey on how to make Grids Smarter:  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A Smart Grid (SG1 is an intellectual and logical electricity network that integrates the actions of all users connected to it and makes use of sophisticated and highly advanced information, control, and communications technologies to save energy, reduce expenditure and increase reliability and transparency. A smart grid can reduce energy cost; it makes energy usage efficient that result in a short term solution for the energy crisis. It also helps the distribution systems for better energy management and control. The field of Information & Communication Technology (ICT4 and computer technology can play a major role in this hazardous situation all over the world. This paper presents current research issues and challenges that need to be addressed for reliable, efficient and flexible load distribution (LD2 and management for smart grid design. The paper also presents some security & privacy issues that inform the grid station (GS3 about consumer’s habits and personnel information. The article also tries to highlight major research issues in smart grid technology, which are helpful for the new researchers to find new research directions in this field & technology.

Muhammad Zakarya

2013-07-01

243

One Health: The global challenge of epidemic and endemic leishmaniasis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract 'One Health' proposes the unification of medical and veterinary sciences with the establishment of collaborative ventures in clinical care, surveillance and control of cross-species disease, education, and research into disease pathogenesis, diagnosis, therapy and vaccination. The concept encompasses the human population, domestic animals and wildlife, and the impact that environmental changes ('environmental health' such as global warming will have on these populations. Visceral leishmaniasis is a perfect example of a small companion animal disease for which prevention and control might abolish or decrease the suffering of canine and human patients, and which aligns well with the One Health approach. In this review we discuss how surveillance for leishmaniases is undertaken globally through the control of anthroponootic visceral leishmaniasis (AVL and zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL. The ZVL epidemic has been managed to date by the culling of infected dogs, treatment of human cases and control of the sandfly vector by insecticidal treatment of human homes and the canine reservoir. Recently, preventive vaccination of dogs in Brazil has led to reduction in the incidence of the canine and human disease. Vaccination permits greater dog owner compliance with control measures than a culling programme. Another advance in disease control in Africa is provided by a surveillance programme that combines remote satellite sensing, ecological modelling, vector surveillance and geo-spatial mapping of the distribution of vectors and of the animal-to-animal or animal-to-human pathogen transmission. This coordinated programme generates advisory notices and alerts on emerging infectious disease outbreaks that may impede or avoid the spreading of visceral leishmaniasis to new areas of the planet as a consequence of global warming.

Day Michael J

2011-10-01

244

Scientists studying the greenhouse effect challenge fears of global warming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The author discusses the controversy in the scientific community about the significance of the increased gases causing the greenhouse effect to be detrimental to the earth's ecosystems. He states that the most important aspect of the controversy is the fact that governments are embarking on foolish activities in order to prevent global warming. The fact that scientists offer research with contradicting results furthers the confusion as to what the best course of action is. The government agencies that control policy need to appropriate funds to study specific climatic changes and what effect carbon dioxide and other gases have on the atmosphere.

Wheeler, D.L.

1990-07-01

245

Preparing Students for the Ethical Challenges of Global Citizenship  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper describes an approach to teaching ethical intercultural communication. This approach helps students become aware of their own ethnocentric attitudes and helps them move beyond those perspectives to develop a mindful approach to intercultural communication. The paper begins by introducing the concept of mindful communication and the challenges of developing of a code of ethical behavior for communicating across cultures. Then, strategies for reconciling cultural relativism and universalism are offered. Finally, the paper provides a set of guidelines for ethical behavior in intercultural encounters.

Madelyn Flammia

2012-08-01

246

Environmental policy: Meeting the challenge of global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Canadian government's overall approach to resolving the environmental problems due to global warming is discussed, with reference to how this approach is related to actions taken by other countries. Canada's environmental strategy is based the need to correct the failure to take into account the environmental consequences of daily actions. One element seen necessary for such correction, better environmental decisionmaking, is underlain by such key factors as the need to provide a strong scientific base on which to make decisions, resolving uncertainties regarding the greenhouse effect, and an environmentally educated population. Direct governmental measures can be taken to factor environmental considerations into decisions, such as regulatory instruments regarding the environment and economic incentives to encourage taking the environment into account. With respect to global warming, Canada has signed the Hague Declaration on international cooperation to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. About half the annual world emissions of greenhouse gases come from fossil fuel combustion. Canada is the fourth largest producer per capita of the single most important greenhouse gas, carbon dioxide. The transport and industrial sectors each account for ca 25% of Canada's CO2 emissions, and energy conservation is seen as a first step in reducing these emissions. The greatest scope for reducing greenhouse gas emissions in the transport sector appears to lie in the development of convenient and economic alternate fuels

1990-05-01

247

Challenge to global environmental protection. Kankyo hozen eno chosen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes the following matters on how Sanyo Electric Company is tackling with environmental problems: The company has established an organization to promote activities on global environmental problems on a company-wide basis. The organization includes the environment promotion department, the environment promotion committee (plans and presents comprehensive measures for environment preservation) and six expertise committees (handling measures to limit use of fluorocarbons, measures to prevent global warming, and product assessments). The following action objectives have been established in response to the request from the Ministry of International Trade and Industry for cooperations toward the governmental environment policies: use of ozone layer destructing substances including specific fluorocarbons shall be abolished totally by the end of 1995; energy consumption shall be reduced by 25% or more during a decade from 1990 in terms of the sales amount unit requirement; total wastes discharge amount shall be reduced by 40% or more during five years from 1990 in terms of the sales amount unit requirement; and resources regeneration rate in materials used for products shall be improved by 30% or more during three years from 1992. This paper describes briefly how each item has been promoted to date. 8 figs.

Shimizu, S. (Sanyo Electric Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan))

1994-02-01

248

Globalization and Loss of Plant Knowledge: Challenging the Paradigm  

Science.gov (United States)

The erosion of cultural knowledge and traditions as a result of globalization and migration is a commonly reported phenomenon. We compared one type of cultural knowledge about medicinal plants (number of plants reported to treat thirty common health conditions) among Dominican laypersons who self-medicate with plants and live in rural or urban areas of the Dominican Republic (DR), and those who have moved to New York City (NYC). Many plants used as medicines were popular Dominican food plants. These plants were reported significantly more often by Dominicans living in NYC as compared to the DR, and this knowledge was not age-dependent. These results contradict the popular paradigm about loss of cultural plant knowledge and is the first study to report a statistically measurable increase in this type of knowledge associated with migration.

Vandebroek, Ina; Balick, Michael J.

2012-01-01

249

Soils and global climate change: Challenges and opportunities  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the interplay of the soil and the atmosphere, the soil can be both a contributor to and a recipient of the impacts of climate change. In the past, land management has generally resulted in considerable depletion of soil organic matter and the release into the atmosphere of such radiatively active gases as carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide. Global climate change, to the extent that it occurs, will strongly impact all soil processes. At this time, the task of soil management should be to restore soil organic carbon in order to enhance soil structure and fertility and to help counter the atmospheric greenhouse effect. Widely varying estimates of the soil's organic carbon content and of the potential for soil carbon sequestration point to the need to conduct a comprehensive inventory of this important property.

Rosenzweig, C.; Hillel, D.

2000-01-01

250

Big Data challenges and solutions in building the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS)  

Science.gov (United States)

The Group on Earth Observation (GEO) is a voluntary partnership of governments and international organizations launched in response to calls for action by the 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development and by the G8 (Group of Eight) leading industrialized countries. These high-level meetings recognized that international collaboration is essential for exploiting the growing potential of Earth observations to support decision making in an increasingly complex and environmentally stressed world. To this aim is constructing the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) on the basis of a 10-Year Implementation Plan for the period 2005 to 2015 when it will become operational. As a large-scale integrated system handling large datasets as those provided by Earth Observation, GEOSS needs to face several challenges related to big data handling and big data infrastructures management. Referring to the traditional multiple Vs characteristics of Big Data (volume, variety, velocity, veracity and visualization) it is evident how most of them can be found in data handled by GEOSS. In particular, concerning Volume, Earth Observation already generates a large amount of data which can be estimated in the range of Petabytes (1015 bytes), with Exabytes (1018) already targeted. Moreover, the challenge is related not only to the data size, but also to the large amount of datasets (not necessarily having a big size) that systems need to manage. Variety is the other main challenge since datasets coming from different sensors, processed for different use-cases are published with highly heterogeneous metadata and data models, through different service interfaces. Innovative multidisciplinary applications need to access and use those datasets in a harmonized way. Moreover Earth Observation data are growing in size and variety at an exceptionally fast rate and new technologies and applications, including crowdsourcing, will even increase data volume and variety in the next future. The current implementation of GEOSS already addresses several big data challenges. In particular, the brokered architecture adopted in the GEOSS Common Infrastructure with the deployment of the GEO DAB (Discovery and Access Broker) allows to connect more than 20 big EO infrastructures while keeping them autonomous as required by their own mandate and governance. They make more than 60 million of unique resources discoverable and accessible through the GEO Portal. Through the GEO DAB, users are able to seamlessly discover resources provided by different infrastructures, and access them in a harmonized way, collecting datasets from different sources on a Common Environment (same coordinate reference system, spatial subset, format, etc.). Through the GEONETCast system, GEOSS is also providing a solution related to the Velocity challenge, for delivering EO resources to developing countries with low bandwidth connections. Several researches addressing other Big data Vs challenges in GEOSS are on-going, including quality representation for Veracity (as in the FP7 GeoViQua project), brokering big data analytics platforms for Velocity, and support of other EO resources for Variety (such as modelling resources in the Model Web).

Mazzetti, Paolo; Nativi, Stefano; Santoro, Mattia; Boldrini, Enrico

2014-05-01

251

Challenge and opportunity: the ALI/III global principles project  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english This article deals with an international project to establish the extent to which it is feasible to achieve a worldwide acceptance of the Principles of Cooperation among the NAFTA Countries together with the Guidelines Applicable to Court-to-Court Communications in Cross-Border Cases. This contribut [...] ion explains the process whereby the American Law Institute and the International Insolvency Institute (1) developed principles of cooperation with regard to cross-border insolvency; (2) established acceptance of these principles in jurisdictions across the world, subject to any necessary local modifications; and (3) obtained the endorsement of leading domestic associations, courts, and other groups in those jurisdictions. This article may contribute to the development the South African cross-border insolvency law. The inclusion of the challenges of harmonisation of private international law is also contributing to current debate.

Fletcher, IF.

252

Globalization of the Agricultural Economy: A Challenge or Opportunity before Indian Agriculture  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Since the new economic reforms of 1991, the Indian economy is going through the phase of globalization. At the same time Indian agriculture has also to with globalized economy. Globalization is becoming a challenge and also the opportunity before agriculture of India. So, the bank credit availability to agriculture and agro based industries must be improved. This would be favorable terms of trade, liberalized domestic and external trade for agricultural products attracted private investment in agriculture in recent years. It is likely that with the appropriate policy initiatives, the process of globalization of agro industries will accelerate in the future.

D. L. Jamge

2012-09-01

253

Global Warming Potential Implications and Methodological Challenges of Road Transport Emissions in Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine the repercussions vehicular road transport emissions have on global warming potential (GWP, and the need to address the issue considering methodological challenges facing road transportation in Nigeria. Specific objectives of the study includes to determine the emission level in the country, to evaluate the GWP and to develop a emission mapping network on trunk A roads in Nigeria. Accurate information on these emissions is required to strengthen the mitigation and adaptation ability of the country to tackle climate change. The study relied on direct measurement technique supported by literature as well as questionnaires administered on the organised vehicle fleet operators and road traffic management agency as data gathering methods. Also, detailed analysis of questionnaires responses was carried out. Results show that road transport account for over 14% of greenhouse gases. Survey findings indicate that excessive smoke emission offence accounts for 1-2% of the annual road traffic offences in Nigeria. Using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS software version 16, five fitted simple linear regression models were developed. With these fitted models it is possible to map the gas concentrations on the kilometre travelled. Examination of the National Vehicle Identification Scheme (NVIS revealed a rise in the periodic plate number generation from yearly record of 788,169 in 2001 to 791,832 in 2009. Human capacity requirements, based on yearly Drivers Licence (DL processed, increased by 55% between 2000 and 2010. Three mutual strategies namely renewed urban and rural road transport infrastructure availability, regular fleet maintenance and capacities building for improved behavioural change of road users were recommended to help control road transport emissions. These measures if inflexibly implemented will change the transport sector from being a major global warming risk factor to that of Eco-friendly sector.

S. C. Nwanya

2012-12-01

254

Global Social Challenges: insights from the physical sciences and their relevance to the evolution of social science  

CERN Document Server

The complex challenges confronting humanity today point to the need for new thinking and new theory in the social sciences which overcomes the limitations of compartmentalized, sectoral concepts, strategies and policies and mechanistic approaches to living social systems. The World Academy of Art & Science is convening a consortium of leading institutions and thinkers from different sectors to contribute ideas for formulation of a cohesive framework capable of addressing global social challenges in their totality and complex interrelationships. The objective of my presentation will be to explore the potential for collaboration between the physical and social sciences to arrive at a more cohesive and effective framework by exploring a series of questions, including - - Is an integrated science of society possible that transcends disciplinary boundaries based on common underlying principles as we find in the natural sciences? - To what extent can principles of natural science serve as valid models and a...

CERN. Geneva

2014-01-01

255

Global warming presents new challenges for maize pest management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It has been conjectured that global warming will increase the prevalence of insect pests in many agro-ecosystems. In this paper, we quantitatively assess four of the key pests of maize, one of the most important systems in North American grain production. Using empirically generated estimates of pest overwintering thresholds and degree-day requirements, along with climate change projections from a high-resolution climate model, we project potential future ranges for each of these pests in the United States. Our analysis suggests the possibility of increased winter survival and greater degree-day accumulations for each of the pests surveyed. We find that relaxed cold limitation could expand the range of all four pest taxa, including a substantial range expansion in the case of corn earworm (H. zea), a migratory, cold-intolerant pest. Because the corn earworm is a cosmopolitan pest that has shown resistance to insecticides, our results suggest that this expansion could also threaten other crops, including those in high-value areas of the western United States. Because managing significant additional pressure from this suite of established pests would require additional pest management inputs, the projected decreases in cold limitation and increases in heat accumulation have the potential to significantly alter the pest management landscape for North American maize production. Further, these range expansions could have substantial economic impacts through increased seed and insecticide costs, decreased yields, and the downstream effects of changes in crop yield variability.

2008-10-01

256

Challenges of Globalization and Quality Assurance in Nigerian University Education  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study was undertaken to examine the state of quality assurance mechanisms in Nigerian universities with a view to proffering measures that would enhance the quality of education obtained in the institutions. The population consisted of professors from federal universities in the south-south region of Nigeria, numbering 624. The stratified sampling technique was used in selecting a sample of 225 professors from the universities for the study. Two null hypotheses were formulated based on the variables of the study. These were tested at 0.05 alpha level, using t-test analysis. Data collection was done with the use of a structured questionnaire tagged “Quality Assurance in Nigerian University Education” (QANUE. The calculated t-values were less than the criticalt, leading to the retention of the two null hypotheses. It was therefore concluded that the quality of Nigerian University Education is low and cannot measure up globally due to the poor state of quality assurance mechanisms in the universities. Based on this, measures for improving the quality of Nigerian university education were recommended to include adequate funding, updated libraries, well equipped laboratories and workshops, provision of instructional materials and school infrastructure, lecturer motivation and proper supervision.

Iniobong Ekong Nkang

2013-11-01

257

Injuries and violence: a global public health challenge  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Injuries and violence are a significant cause of mortality and physical disability. Injuries killed five million people worldwide each year [1]. The level of this dilemma, however, differs significantly by age, sex, region and economic development [2]. Globally, road traffic injury mortalities, self-inflicted injury mortality and interpersonal violence, war, drowning, and exposure to fire are the leading cause of deaths among people aged 15-44 years [3]. This special issue aims to assess the magnitude of this problem, identify risk factors and explore prevention strategies to alleviate the burden of injuries and violence. There is a dire need to increase the knowledge of the extent of problem, and associated risk factors that needs to be targeted for prevention. Erosa et al., examined reports of verbal and physical abuse from family caregivers of adults with severe physical, neurological and developmental disabilities, and found that caregivers who reported some form of abuse reported significantly greater distress and burden than caregivers who did not report any abuse. Grice et al., found that reported histories of work-related physical assault and work-related threat were associated with elevated risks of current work-related physical assault. Ahmad, systematically reviewed and summarized current scientific knowledge on the use of interactive computer-assisted screening to detect intimate partner violence (IPV.

Muazzam Nasrullah

2010-06-01

258

Addressing Challenges of regional climate modeling over the Greater Horn of Africa: Africa Regional Climate Model Inter-comparison Project (AFRMIP)  

Science.gov (United States)

The Greater Horn of Africa (GHA) has distinct climate characteristics compared to the rest of the continent. The GHA is replete with complex terrain comprising of some of the known tropical glacier covered high mountains of Kilimanjaro, Kenya and Rwenzori as well as the Great Rift Valley System (GRVS). The region also has several freshwater lakes that include Lake Victoria (second largest freshwater lake), and Lake Tanganyika (the second largest deepest freshwater lake). As a whole the complex GHA terrain presents an enabling environment where local and large scale climate systems frequently interact to create highly variable climate in both space and time. At the same time, inter-annual variability of the GHA climate is linked to perturbations in the global SSTs, especially over the equatorial Pacific and Indian Ocean basins, and to some extent, the Atlantic Ocean. These three global oceans, all at the same time or each at different times, intriguingly influence the interannual variability of the GHA climate. Interactions and feedbacks among these multiple climate drivers over the region present challenges in quantitative understanding of regional climate variability and changes based on typical empirical techniques. Therefore, there is need to also employ physically-based, regional climate models (RCMs) that can offer scope and capability to unveil cause-effect relationships between regional climate variability and individual or combination of processes. However, representation of the multiple sources of forcing to the GHA climate also poses a great challenge to RCMs as well. This presentation will give an overview of the AFRMIP project, whose primary objective is to undertake a systematic and comprehensive audit of the deficiencies and uncertainties in regional model simulations of the GHA climate. The project specifically seeks to build a coalition of a regional climate modeling community to address the following issues; (i) representation of the GHA-relevant physical processes in the current RCMs (ii) appropriate adjustments to current physics parameterizations in order to customize RCMs for optimal simulation of the GHA climate (ii) representation of natural variability and anthropogenic changes over the GHA by different RCMs.

Anyah, R.

2009-04-01

259

Global warming what are the challenges for Copenhagen?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Kyoto Protocol was adopted in 1997 and, following a long ratification process, went into effect in 2005. Under the Protocol, 200 countries have committed to reducing their greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) by 2012. What conclusions can we draw from developments thus far, as we await the December conference in Copenhagen to determine a follow-up to the Kyoto Protocol? The work of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has given us more accurate knowledge on global warming issues. In its latest report, published in 2007, the IPCC reveals that eleven of the past twelve years studied - 1995 to 2006 - were among the warmest yet recorded since 1850, when this type of data collection began. From 1906 to 2005, global temperatures rose by 0.74 deg. C, and the average rate of increase has more than doubled over the past fifty years. To help companies and countries achieve their GHG emissions reduction targets, the Kyoto Protocol provides for a carbon trading system based on carbon reduction credits (CRC), the exchange currency in a carbon credit market. When a company reduces its emissions below regulatory levels, it can have the 'excess' reduction certified and converted into carbon credits, which it can then sell to a company that has not yet reached its reduction targets. Japan has already used clean technologies and energy saving measures to achieve energy efficiency in the past. Its energy structure is fairly close to that of France, which has a 0% emissions goal. In Japan, nuclear power also accounts for a significant share of the electric power program. The Japanese government recently announced that it was increasing its carbon reduction goal from 6% to an ambitious 25%. China and the United States are the world's leading greenhouse gas emitters. When China ratified the Kyoto Protocol in 2002, it was considered to be a developing country and as such has no emissions reduction obligations. Since then, China has moved closer to the Protocol principles, creating a national climate change group in 2007 and launching its own national climate change program. The program's goal is to lower China's energy consumption per unit of GDP by 20% by 2010 compared with its 2005 level. Under a medium to long-term sustainable development plan, the share of sustainable energies in the overall energy mix will increase to 10% by 2010 and to 15% by 2020. Before the Copenhagen conference, China indicated that it was expecting the United States and Europe to commit to reducing their emissions by 40% and to devote 1% of their GDP to technology transfer towards developing countries by 2020. The Bush Administration used the argument that 'the American way of life is not negotiable' to justify the refusal of the United States to adhere to the Kyoto Protocol. Today, the United States returns to the discussion table in a more open frame of mind. The administration of Barack Obama has decided to become more involved and cooperate more with China and India on climate change. In late June, the American president succeeded in getting his climate change bill through the US House of Representatives. The climate bill, which is still up before the Senate, aims to reduce GHG emissions (particularly CO2) by 17% before 2020 compared with the 2005 level. It also promotes the development of clean energies and provides for the creation of a cap and trade emissions trading system. Under this system, emissions allowances are either sold or given to the most vulnerable industries. The sales revenue would be used to fund the development of clean energies, among other things. The EU-15 member states are close to reaching the targets set at Kyoto. What about EU-27 member states? At the late September summit in Pittsburgh, the G20 countries, which include the most industrialized countries as well as the large emerging countries of China, India and Brazil, agreed to phase out subsidies for fossil energy sources over the medium term, but without setting a deadline. According to the press release issued at the end of the summit, 'inefficient fossil fuel subsidi

2010-01-01

260

Using Technology to Prepare Students for the Challenges of Global Citizenship  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the modern world, everyone must recognize that it is nearly impossible to separate many domestic and international problems and managing international challenges will take the efforts of all nations. As a result, each and every person must think like a global citizen and practice mindfulness in daily life. Using the complex interdependence model as a basis for examining citizen diplomacy, this paper suggests ways that new media can be used to introduce students to a global perspective on the world. Further, it provides faculty members with a set of guidelines for structuring projects that task students with the challenge of taking positive action to effect political and societal change.

Madelyn Flammia

2009-10-01

 
 
 
 
261

Three challenges to the Ottawa Spirit of Health promotion, trends in global health, and disabled people.  

Science.gov (United States)

Health promotion according to the 1986 Ottawa Charter of the first global health promotion conference "is the process of enabling people to increase control over, and to improve, their health. To reach a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being, an individual or group must be able to identify and to realize aspirations, to satisfy needs, and to change or cope with the environment". In this commentary, I explore three powerful challenges to the spirit of the Ottawa Charter and to global health. The first challenge is the departure from the WHO definition of health; the second challenge relates to the appearance of the transhumanist/enhancement model of health which includes human performance enhancement beyond species-typical boundaries as part of the concept of health. The third challenge consists of the limited involvement and understanding of disabled people with their different models of 'disability/impairment' (medical, social, transhumanist/enhancement) in the discourse of global health and health promotion. Not dealing with these challenges impairs the ability of health promotion to deal with global health problems, the 'health' needs of marginalized groups--in particular, disabled people--and the Millennium Development Goals. PMID:17120882

Wolbring, Gregor

2006-01-01

262

Engaging Undergraduates to Solve Global Health Challenges: A New Approach Based on Bioengineering Design  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Recent reports have highlighted the need for educational programs to prepare students for careers developing and disseminating new interventions that improve global public health. Because of its multi-disciplinary, design-centered nature, the field of Biomedical Engineering can play an important role in meeting this challenge. This article describes a new program at Rice University to give undergraduate students from all disciplines a broad background in bioengineering and global health and p...

Oden, Maria; Mirabal, Yvette; Epstein, Marc; Richards-kortum, Rebecca

2010-01-01

263

The Cultural Challenges of Managing Global Project Teams: A Study of Brazilian Multinationals  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The internationalization of Brazilian companies brings a new reality: the need for implementation of global projects that bring, in turn, the challenge of managing multicultural teams. Since this is a recent phenomenon with little theoretical development, this study sought to understand the relationships between cultural characteristics and management teams of global projects in Brazilian multinationals. To carry this discussion forward, we studied six cases of Brazilian multinational compani...

Ivete Rodrigues; Roberto Sbragia

2013-01-01

264

Readiness in Meeting Globalization Challenges: A Case of Accounting Firms in Malaysia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The empirical study explored the relationships between firm?s characteristics and perceived readiness level of Malaysian Institute of Accountants firm members in meeting globalization challenges. In general all respondents indicated low readiness level in penetrating the global market. Seeing that the services sector is growing tremendously during the recent decades, there is a great opportunity for businesses to increase the export services in the foreseeable future to match that of the...

Arfah Salleh; Rose, Raduan C.; Naresh Kumar; Peng, Lu C.

2007-01-01

265

Global Virtual Teams and their effective functioning : The Challenge of Time Pressure  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Nowadays modern organizations move in an incredible speed and have to be flexible and adaptable to constantly changing circumstances. Global Virtual Teams (GVTs) have been proved to be one of the means to handle this challenge. While it is said that GVTs bestow an organization with flexibility and enhanced creativity, research proves that the managing of these teams is quite challenging. The modern work stress factor time pressure is said to be omnipresent in nowadays organizations and theref...

Franke, Franziska; Bengtsson Schramm, Caroline

2013-01-01

266

Introduction: Building Global Alliances V: The Challenges of Migration For Health Professional Women.  

Science.gov (United States)

The following four articles are based on presentations delivered at Building Global Alliances V: The Challenges of Migration for Health Professional Women, held in Philadelphia on December 7-8, 2008 and hosted by CGFNS International (formerly the Commission on Graduates of Foreign Nursing Schools). PMID:20971933

Nichols, Barbara L

2010-05-01

267

Lessons Learned and Present Day Challenges of Addressing 20th Century Radiation Legacies of Russia and the United States  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The decommissioning of nuclear submarines, disposal of highly-enriched uranium and weapons-grade plutonium, and processing of high-level radioactive wastes represent the most challenging issues facing the cleanup of 20th century radiation legacy wastes and facilities. The US and Russia are the two primary countries dealing with these challenges, because most of the world's fissile inventory is being processed and stored at multiple industrial sites and nuclear weapons production facilities in these countries.

KRISTOFZSKI, J.G.

2000-10-26

268

Lessons Learned and Present Day Challenges of Addressing 20th Century Radiation Legacies of Russia and the United States  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The decommissioning of nuclear submarines, disposal of highly-enriched uranium and weapons-grade plutonium, and processing of high-level radioactive wastes represent the most challenging issues facing the cleanup of 20th century radiation legacy wastes and facilities. The US and Russia are the two primary countries dealing with these challenges, because most of the world's fissile inventory is being processed and stored at multiple industrial sites and nuclear weapons production facilities in these countries

2000-01-01

269

Addressing the challenges of assessment and feedback in higher education: a collaborative effort across three UK universities  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Assessment has been identified as one of the major challenges faced by Higher Education Institutions (Whitelock, et al, 2007). As a response to the challenge, in a project funded by the Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC) Open Mentor (OM) was developed as a learning support tool for tutors to help them reflect on the quality of feedback given to their students on assignments submitted electronically. Its development was based on the fundamental theory that there was convincing evidence...

2012-01-01

270

Opening address  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Overall state of energy needs and production with special emphasis on increasing consumption and global climate challenge induce increasing efficiency in the broad sense, i.e. increasing the energy efficiency of homes, business, transportation, industry; increasing the efficiency of how energy is delivered to consumers and increasing the efficiency of electricity generation. Being a part of the solution for overall efficiency challenges, past increases in nuclear power plant reliability and availability have kept nuclear power in the race but they have not yet assured survival. There would be limited future for nuclear power unless existing plants prove that the technology is economically competitive. This could be done because it helps attaining healthier global environment. Successful cooperation across all sectors of society and across all oceans of the world would lead to first maintaining the nuclear energy option, and then expanding its application in the future, the potential of nuclear energy would be fully realized to the benefit of all the world

1998-11-01

271

Keynote address  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The keynote address to a debate in the UK on global warming is presented. Topics covered include the scientific consensus on the greenhouse effect, developing countries and their increasing energy demands, energy efficiency, non-fossil fuel technologies, deforestation and economic and political implications of CO2 reduction targets. Short discussions are also presented on adoptive measures to climate change and world population trends. (UK)

1991-01-01

272

Globalization : the challenge of the 1990s for the chemical industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The challenges facing the chemical industry in Canada were discussed. In recent years, Canada has scored low in polls measuring public confidence in the chemical industry. The industry is also suffering from continuing recession, global competition, increased environmental demands and strict legislation. The impact of globalization, total quality management, free trade, environmental concerns, and government policies on the chemical industry were reviewed. In the view of this author (President and CEO of Dow Chemicals) globalization is not a matter of choice, it is an industry imperative. Survival in the globalized economy will require not only to be successful competitors, but even more importantly to be successful cooperators with other stakeholders, and successful in forming partnerships with customers

1992-01-01

273

GLOBALIZATION AND INTEGRATION INTO THE ECONOMIC AND MONETARY UNION-CHALLENGES FOR BANKS OPERATING IN ROMANIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper aims to present recent evolution, but also the consequences of globalization of the banking sector, considering different approaches of this phenomenon. Over time, the banking field has undergone important changes in both the applicable law of this area, and through the technologies used in satisfying the customers’ needs. The development of international markets has led to new opportunities and challenges for banks that transformed the domestic financial market into an arena where only the best survive and grow. On these grounds and in strict relation to positive and negative effects of globalization, we can speak of a constant evolution of its most important subsystems - the financial subsystems of the global economy. In this paper special importance is given to the banking field, the article presenting arguments through which this complex phenomenon called globalization may have important consequences on financial supervision and regulation.

CORALIA EMILIA POPA

2012-01-01

274

Federal Real Property: DHS Has Made Progress, but Additional Actions Are Needed to Address Real Property Management and Security Challenges.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) has a large, diverse portfolio of property it uses to carry out its mission. GAO's objectives were to (1) describe DHS's real property portfolio; (2) determine what challenges, if any, DHS faces in managing real p...

2007-01-01

275

Addressing Challenging Behaviours in the General Education Setting: Conducting a Teacher-Based Functional Behavioural Assessment (FBA)  

Science.gov (United States)

When a student demonstrates a challenging or problematic behaviour in the classroom, the climate and the instructional experience can change dramatically for both the students and the classroom teacher. Before resorting to sanctions and punitive consequences, there is a series of steps a classroom teacher can conduct to reduce and replace the…

Moreno, Gerardo

2011-01-01

276

Ethical Challenges Facing Greenland in the Present Era of Globalization: Towards Global Responsibility  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recently, the developments of ethics and politics in the Arctic region have again become an issue for international discussion. One main issue is the problem of climate change and sustainability of the Arctic region. This problem is linked to the issue of exploitation of natural resources in the Arctic region, not at least in Greenland. Indeed, the general issue is how we should define ethics of the environment and sustainability as a general principle for the Arctic region. It is important to discuss what is at stake and how we define the problem in relation to the different participating stakeholders. This paper deals with these problems as a case for global ethics and it proposes a vision of ethical and political responsibility for sustainable development in order to deal with such problems.

Jacob Dahl Rendtorff

2013-06-01

277

Constraining the global carbon budget from global to regional scales - The measurement challenge  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Global Carbon Cycle can be modelled by a Bayesian synthesis inversion technique, where measured atmospheric CO2 concentrations and isotopic compositions are analysed by use of an atmospheric transport model and estimates of regional sources and sinks of atmospheric carbon. The uncertainty associated to carbon flux estimates even on a regional scale can be improved considerably using the inversion technique. In this approach, besides the necessary control on the precision of atmospheric transport models and on the constraints for surface fluxes, an important component is the calibration of atmospheric CO2 concentration and isotope measurements. The recent improved situation in respect to data comparability is discussed using results of conducted interlaboratory comparison exercises and larger scale calibration programs are proposed for the future to further improve the comparability of analytical data. (author)

2002-01-01

278

The Cultural Challenges of Managing Global Project Teams: a Study of Brazilian Multinationals  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english The internationalization of Brazilian companies brings a new reality: the need for implementation of global projects that bring, in turn, the challenge of managing multicultural teams. Since this is a recent phenomenon with little theoretical development, this study sought to understand the relation [...] ships between cultural characteristics and management teams of global projects in Brazilian multinationals. To carry this discussion forward, we studied six cases of Brazilian multinational companies, with the aim of deepening the understanding of the management of global teams, involving the planning, deployment, development and management of human resources. Among the projects studied, it was found that there is very little concern with the specific issue of multiculturalism and little inter-cultural incentive to the development of team members, which ends up hindering the construction of a global mindset, important for the Brazilian multinational companies to perform successfully abroad. Faced with this situation, each of the managerial processes mentioned were presented with a number of actions to be undertaken by the project manager in three different dimensions: the project itself, the organization and the global environment. The work contributes, thus, to enable Brazilian multinational companies to manage their global teams in order to maximize the advantages of global teams, such as increased creativity and innovative capacity, but avoid the problems that multiculturalism can bring, ranging from conflicts between people to project failure.

Ivete, Rodrigues; Roberto, Sbragia.

279

The Cultural Challenges of Managing Global Project Teams: A Study of Brazilian Multinationals  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The internationalization of Brazilian companies brings a new reality: the need for implementation of global projects that bring, in turn, the challenge of managing multicultural teams. Since this is a recent phenomenon with little theoretical development, this study sought to understand the relationships between cultural characteristics and management teams of global projects in Brazilian multinationals. To carry this discussion forward, we studied six cases of Brazilian multinational companies, with the aim of deepening the understanding of the management of global teams, involving the planning, deployment, development and management of human resources. Among the projects studied, it was found that there is very little concern with the specific issue of multiculturalism and little inter-cultural incentive to the development of team members, which ends up hindering the construction of a global mindset, important for the Brazilian multinational companies to perform successfully abroad. Faced with this situation, each of the managerial processes mentioned were presented with a number of actions to be undertaken by the project manager in three different dimensions: the project itself, the organization and the global environment. The work contributes, thus, to enable Brazilian multinational companies to manage their global teams in order to maximize the advantages of global teams, such as increased creativity and innovative capacity, but avoid the problems that multiculturalism can bring, ranging from conflicts between people to project failure.

Ivete Rodrigues

2013-07-01

280

High-skill mobility : addressing the challenges of a knowledge-based economy at times of crisis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the milieu of the current economic crisis, the most difficult challenge for high-skill migrants is their entry to and progression within the job markets of their host societies. Offering them the best opportunities for earning, career development and high quality of life; the OECD region remains the major zone of high-skill migration (HSM). There is a policy dilemma, however. On the one hand, the OECD countries need skilled migrants. On the other hand, the economic austerity caused by...

Isaakyan, Irina; Triandafyllidou, Anna

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Challenges created by data dissemination and access restrictions when attempting to address community concerns: individual privacy versus public wellbeing  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Population health data are vital for the identification of public health problems and the development of public health strategies. Challenges arise when attempts are made to disseminate or access anonymised data that are deemed to be potentially identifiable. In these situations, there is debate about whether the protection of an individual's privacy outweighs potentially beneficial public health initiatives developed using potentially identifiable information. While these ...

2012-01-01

282

The Forensic Curator: Digital Forensics as a Solution to Addressing the Curatorial Challenges Posed by Personal Digital Archives  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The growth of computing technology during the previous three decades has resulted in a large amount of content being created in digital form. As their creators retire or pass away, an increasing number of personal data collections, in the form of digital media and complete computer systems, are being offered to the academic institutional archive. For the digital curator or archivist, the handling and processing of such digital material represents a considerable challenge, requiring developmen...

2012-01-01

283

The UK Government's global partnership programme - Its achievements over the past five years and challenges ahead  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Through the Global Partnership the UK continues to make a significant contribution to improve national and global security. Over the past year the UK has continued to implement a wide range of projects across the breadth of its Global Partnership Programme. As well as ensuring the Programme is robust and capable of dealing with new challenges, the UK has cooperated with other donor countries to help them progress projects associated with submarine dismantling, scientist redirection, enhancing nuclear security and Chemical Weapons Destruction. The Global Partnership, although only five years old, has already achieved a great deal. Some 23 states, plus the European Union, are now working closer together under the Global Partnership, and collectively have enhanced global regional and national security by reducing the availability of Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) materials and expertise to both states of concern and terrorists. Considerable progress has already been made in, for example: - Improving the security of fissile materials, dangerous biological agents and chemical weapons stocks; - Reducing the number of sites containing radioactive materials; - Working towards closure of reactors still producing weapon-grade plutonium; - Improving nuclear safety to reduce the risks of further, Chernobyl style accidents; - Constructing facilities for destroying Chemical Weapons stocks, and starting actual destruction; - Providing sustainable employment for former WMD scientists to reduce the risk that their expertise will be misused by states or terrorists. By contributing to many of these activities, the UK has helped to make the world safer. This paper reports on the UK's practical and sustainable contribution to the Global Partnership and identifies a number of challenges that remain if it is to have a wider impact on reducing the threats from WMD material. (authors)

2007-09-02

284

Challenges of Internationalization for New Ventures, the case of Icelandic born global companies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis is a case study on Icelandic born globals, where challenges of new ventures internationalization are explored, as well as strategies of internationalization. Innovation and new ventures have been nominated as two of the most important tools in order to rebuild the Icelandic economy, in fact they have always been a key factor in the economy. Since the Icelandic market is overall relatively small or non-existent for different industries, new ventures might be strategizing from the b...

Inga Pétursdóttir Jessen 1977

2013-01-01

285

Sacred forests and the global challenge of biodiversity conservation: the case of Benin and Togo  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sacred forests and the global challenge of biodiversity conservation : the case of Benin and TogoAbstract In the study areas of south Benin and Togo, sacred forests are often the only remaining patches of forest vegetation. These forests are under threat from the growing demand for land and from cultural change. Following an outline of these changes since the arrival of Europeans in the region to provide historical and cultural context, the different stakeholders involved directly...

2008-01-01

286

Global Marketing of Readymade Garment Products from Bangladesh: Market Prospect and Challenges  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper examines the global export market and its prospect and challenges for Bangladesh readymade garment products. The shift share method is used to identify the potential export market by selected seven major categories of readymade garment products on the basis of three-digit level Standards International Trade Classification (SITC) for the period of 1987-93 and 1994-2000. The results of shift share analysis indicate that the USA, Canada and European Union (EU) countries mainly offered...

Ahasanul Haque

2002-01-01

287

Short-Term Global Health Research Projects by US Medical Students: Ethical Challenges for Partnerships  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent interest in global health among medical students has grown drastically, and many students now spend time abroad conducting short-term research projects in low-resource settings. These short-term stints in developing countries present important ethical challenges to US-based students and their medical schools as well as the institutions that host such students abroad. This paper outlines some of these ethical issues and puts forth recommendations for ethically mindful short-term student research.

Provenzano, Audrey M.; Graber, Lauren K.; Elansary, Mei; Khoshnood, Kaveh; Rastegar, Asghar; Barry, Michele

2010-01-01

288

Short-Term Global Health Research Projects by US Medical Students: Ethical Challenges for Partnerships  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Recent interest in global health among medical students has grown drastically, and many students now spend time abroad conducting short-term research projects in low-resource settings. These short-term stints in developing countries present important ethical challenges to US-based students and their medical schools as well as the institutions that host such students abroad. This paper outlines some of these ethical issues and puts forth recommendations for ethically mindful short-term student...

Provenzano, Audrey M.; Graber, Lauren K.; Elansary, Mei; Khoshnood, Kaveh; Rastegar, Asghar; Barry, Michele

2010-01-01

289

Protective efficacy of a global HIV-1 mosaic vaccine against heterologous SHIV challenges in rhesus monkeys.  

Science.gov (United States)

The global diversity of HIV-1 represents a critical challenge facing HIV-1 vaccine development. HIV-1 mosaic antigens are bioinformatically optimized immunogens designed for improved coverage of HIV-1 diversity. However, the protective efficacy of such global HIV-1 vaccine antigens has not previously been evaluated. Here, we demonstrate the capacity of bivalent HIV-1 mosaic antigens to protect rhesus monkeys against acquisition of infection following heterologous challenges with the difficult-to-neutralize simian-human immunodeficiency virus SHIV-SF162P3. Adenovirus/poxvirus and adenovirus/adenovirus vector-based vaccines expressing HIV-1 mosaic Env, Gag, and Pol afforded a significant reduction in the per-exposure acquisition risk following repetitive, intrarectal SHIV-SF162P3 challenges. Protection against acquisition of infection correlated with vaccine-elicited binding, neutralizing, and functional nonneutralizing antibodies, suggesting that the coordinated activity of multiple antibody functions may contribute to protection against difficult-to-neutralize viruses. These data demonstrate the protective efficacy of HIV-1 mosaic antigens and suggest a potential strategy for the development of a global HIV-1 vaccine. PAPERCLIP: PMID:24243013

Barouch, Dan H; Stephenson, Kathryn E; Borducchi, Erica N; Smith, Kaitlin; Stanley, Kelly; McNally, Anna G; Liu, Jinyan; Abbink, Peter; Maxfield, Lori F; Seaman, Michael S; Dugast, Anne-Sophie; Alter, Galit; Ferguson, Melissa; Li, Wenjun; Earl, Patricia L; Moss, Bernard; Giorgi, Elena E; Szinger, James J; Eller, Leigh Anne; Billings, Erik A; Rao, Mangala; Tovanabutra, Sodsai; Sanders-Buell, Eric; Weijtens, Mo; Pau, Maria G; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; Robb, Merlin L; Kim, Jerome H; Korber, Bette T; Michael, Nelson L

2013-10-24

290

The Infectious Diseases Clinical Research Program: addressing the challenge of infections related to war injuries and skin and soft tissues.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Infectious Diseases Clinical Research Program (IDCRP) at the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (USU) is a National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)-funded network of military treatment and research facilities coordinated through USU and the Henry M. Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine (HJF). IDCRP functions in collaboration with the NIAID, universities, and industry to address infectious diseases threats to the U.S. military and to the nation. Although IDCRP has projects in diseases from HIV to tuberculosis, a major focus has been on skin, soft-tissue, and war-related infections. PMID:23634479

Martin, Gregory J; Tribble, David R

2010-07-01

291

Addressing FinFET metrology challenges in 1X node using tilt-beam CD-SEM  

Science.gov (United States)

At 1X node, 3D FinFETS raise a number of new metrology challenges. Gate height and fin height are two of the most important parameters for process control. At present there is a metrology gap in inline in-die measurement of these parameters. In order to fill this metrology gap, in-column beam tilt has been developed and implemented on Applied Materials V4i+ top-down CD-SEM for height measurement. A low tilt (5°) beam and a high tilt (14°) beam have been calibrated to obtain two sets of images providing measurement of sidewall edge width to calculate height in the host. Evaluations are done with applications in both gate height and fin height. TEM correlation with R2 being 0.89 and precision of 0.81nm have been achieved on various in-die features in gate height application. Fin height measurement shows less accuracy (R2 being 0.77) and precision (1.49 nm) due to challenges brought by fin geometry, yet still promising as first attempt. Sensitivity to DOE offset, die-to-die and in-die variation is demonstrated in both gate height and fin height. Process defect is successfully captured from inline wafers with gate height measurement implemented in production. This is the first successful demonstration of inline in-die gate height measurement for 14nm FinFET process control.

Zhang, Xiaoxiao; Zhou, Hua; Ge, Zhenhua; Vaid, Alok; Konduparthi, Deepasree; Osorio, Carmen; Ventola, Stefano; Meir, Roi; Shoval, Ori; Kris, Roman; Adan, Ofer; Bar-Zvi, Maayan

2014-04-01

292

Addressing the challenges of improving primary care quality in Uzbekistan: a qualitative study of chronic heart failure management.  

Science.gov (United States)

Uzbekistan has a well-developed primary care system, with universal access to care, but faces challenges in improving the quality of clinical care provided. This study aimed to identify barriers to quality improvement by focusing on one common condition, Chronic Heart Failure (CHF), for which there are evidence-based international guidelines for management. To identify the challenges to improving the quality of care for CHF in line with such guidelines we took a qualitative approach, interviewing 15 physicians and 30 patients in detail about their experiences of CHF management. Despite recent improvements to the training of primary care physicians, their access to up-to-date information was limited, and they were disproportionately reliant on information from pharmaceutical companies. The main barriers to implementing international standards of care were: reluctance of physicians (and patients) to abandon ineffective interventions; enduring, system-wide incentives for clinically unnecessary hospitalization; and the lack of structural support for evidence-based health services improvement. Patients were in general positive about adherence to medications, but faced some problems in affording drugs and hospital care. Future interventions to strengthen primary care should be implemented with evaluations of their impact on the processes and outcomes of care for chronic conditions. PMID:22987825

Ahmedov, Mohir; Green, Judith; Azimov, Ravshan; Avezova, Guloyim; Inakov, Sherzod; Mamatkulov, Bahrom

2013-08-01

293

Born Global Challenges and Performance - A Study on Competences, Routines, and Corporate Governance Structure of Born Global Software Companies in Sweden and Norway  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Problem: How do the born global firms overcome challenges and sustain performance in international markets through their competences, routines, and corporate governance structure? Purpose: The purpose of this thesis is to explore the competences, routines, and corporate governance structure of born global companies, and understand their role in overcoming challenges of early internationalization and sustaining performance in international markets from early days. Method: This research is cond...

Tunca, Burak; Yuditskaya, Evgenia

2009-01-01

294

Opening address [International conference on challenges faced by technical and scientific support organizations in enhancing nuclear safety  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In summary, I would like to leave you with several thoughts that could shape the outcome of your deliberations this week: (a) networking among TSOs to share safety related information, knowledge and resources, thus ensuring effective support for the regulators and improving safety; (b) identifying and addressing the safety research needs, and possibly the associated education and training; (c) ensuring adequate competence and independence of the TSOs in providing technical and scientific expertise/advice; (d) building and maintaining confidence among the communities of experts and the public; (e) increasing the role of TSOs in the establishment and revision of the IAEA safety standards and their application, and in the national efforts related to the implementation of conventions and codes of conduct; (f) supporting the creation and enhancement of the safety infrastructures in those countries with limited nuclear experience that are embarking on the use of nuclear power

2007-08-01

295

HIV/AIDS: global trends, global funds and delivery bottlenecks  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Globalisation affects all facets of human life, including health and well being. The HIV/AIDS epidemic has highlighted the global nature of human health and welfare and globalisation has given rise to a trend toward finding common solutions to global health challenges. Numerous international funds have been set up in recent times to address global health challenges such as HIV.

Coovadia, Hoosen M.; Hadingham, Jacqui

2005-01-01

296

Opening Address [FR09: International Conference on Fast Reactors and Related Fuel Cycles: Challenges and Opportunities, Kyoto (Japan), 7-11 December 2009  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Distinguished guests, ladies and gentlemen. It is my honour to address participants at this opening session of the International Conference on Fast Reactors and Related Fuel Cycles: Challenges and Opportunities, organized by the IAEA and hosted by the Japan Atomic Energy Agency. Fast reactor technology has the potential to ensure that energy resources which would last hundreds of years with the technology we are using today will actually last several thousand years. In other words, it can satisfy enormous increases in demand. This innovative technology also reduces the risk to the environment and helps to limit the burden that will be placed on future generations in the form of waste products. The coming year will be an exciting one for the development of fast spectrum nuclear reactors. We expect to reach several important milestones: (a) The first criticality of the China Experimental Fast Reactor; (b) The restart of the Monju prototype fast reactor in Japan; (c) The new insights we will gain through the end-of-life studies at the Phenix reactor in France. In the near future, new fast reactors will be commissioned: the 500 MW(e) Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor in India, the first in a series of five of the same type, and the BN-800 reactor in the Russian Federation. Moreover, China, France, India, Japan and the Republic of Korea are preparing advanced prototypes and demonstration or commercial reactors for the 2020-2030 period. Nuclear power is set to become an increasingly important part of the global energy mix in the coming decades as demand for energy grows. A number of countries in both the developed and developing world have told the IAEA that they are interested in introducing nuclear power. The 30 countries which already have nuclear power reactors are set to build more. This trend is likely to be accompanied by accelerated deployment of fast reactors. Continued advances in research and technology development are necessary to ensure improved economics and maintain high safety levels with increased simplification of fast reactors. The number of countries with fast reactor development programmes is increasing steadily. Emerging economies are joining the traditional fast reactor technology holders and pursuing important research and technology activities. The IAEA provides a unique collaborative framework to enable all these players to work together to ensure that innovative fast reactor technology progresses. We provide an 'umbrella' for knowledge preservation, information exchange and collaborative R and D in order to pool resources and expertise. Our Technical Working Group on Fast Reactors promotes the exchange of information on national and multinational programmes and new developments and experience. It aims to identify problems, help find solutions and facilitate practical application of fast neutron systems. In the Programme and Budget Cycle for 2010-2011, IAEA projects on innovative fast neutron systems will continue to focus on issues addressing fast reactor economics, enhanced safety characteristics, sustainability and public acceptance. As far as public acceptance is concerned, I believe there is a growing understanding throughout the world that clean, efficient and safe nuclear energy has a key role to play in meeting the growing demand for energy while minimizing damage to the environment. Fast reactor technology has a promising future. The IAEA will continue to work with all of you to help interested Member States to benefit from it and to establish, or further enhance, the necessary safety, security and safeguards infrastructure. Let me conclude by expressing my gratitude to all of the dedicated colleagues in the International Advisory Committee, the International Scientific Committee and the Local Organizing Committee who have worked hard to organize this conference. I wish you every success in your deliberations over the next few days. (author)

2012-03-01

297

Addressing verification challenges, 16 October 2006, Vienna, Austria, Symposium on International Safeguards (16-20 October 2006)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In his talk about Verification Challenges Dr. Mohamed ElBaradei, Director General of the IAEA, welcomed the participants of the Symposium on International Safeguards. He stated that safeguards is probably the most difficult task entrusted to an international organization and that a major increase in nuclear energy around the globe is expected which means that nuclear know-how is spread to more and more countries and can be applied to both peaceful purposes and also non-peaceful purposes. More and more countries want to go in for the nuclear fuel cycle including sensitive fuel cycle activities like enrichment and reprocessing, they become so-called 'virtual nuclear weapons States. There is the need to develop a new international or multinational approach to the fuel cycle so as to avoid ending up with not just nine nuclear weapon States but another 20 or 30 States which have the capacity to develop nuclear weapons in a very short span of time. He stressed the important linkage between disarmament and non-proliferation and remembered the audience that safeguards, although very much a technical activity, operates in a politically charged environment. The IAEA's job is to make sure that countries with comprehensive safeguards are conducting all their activities exclusively for peaceful purposes. The ability to discover possible undeclared activities is a key challenge the IAEA is facing. He mentioned that the IAEA does not get all the information they would need, for example the IAEA does not get systematic information from the Nuclear Suppliers Group on exports and imports. Without the Additional Protocol the IAEA is also hampered in its ability to detect undeclared activities, e.g in the R and D activities that do not directly involve nuclear material. Another key issue are financial resources. Transparency measures in certain situations are under considerations including interviewing people, having access to documents, things that are not strictly required by the Additional Protocol but without which the IAEA cannot move forward. Environmental sampling and satellite monitoring are new tools the IAEA is now using almost routinely. New verification tools are developed in co-operation with the Member States

2006-10-16

298

A Short Study of Iranian Organizations' Needs in the Area of Globalization: Opportunities, Challenges and Relative Advantages  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Globalization and liberalization in developing countries is a lengthy process that has been a long time in the making. Some countries have accepted the reality of globalization while other undeveloped nations have yet to fully embrace this shift. For some, this has been in part due to fears among some underdeveloped nations that embracing globalization and becoming increasingly connected to a global economic network would put them in a bad position with relation to other powerful countries and multinational firms. Iran is an example of a developing country trying to be competitive in an increasingly global economy. The aim of this paper is to identify the needs for Iran and Iranian organizations in the process of globalization, focusing on opportunities, challenges, relative advantages and practical guides.Keywords: Globalization; Local development; Opportunities and Challenges

Mohammad Reza Noruzi

2010-09-01

299

Towards An Oceanographic Component Of A Global Earth Observation System Of Systems: Progress And Challenges  

Science.gov (United States)

Ocean observatories (systems of coordinated sensors and platforms providing real-time in situ observations across multiple temporal and spatial scales) have advanced rapidly during the past several decades with the integration of novel hardware, development of advanced cyber-infrastructures and data management software, and the formation of researcher networks employing fixed, drifting, and mobile assets. These advances have provided persistent, real-time, multi-disciplinary observations representing even the most extreme environmental conditions, enabled unique and informative views of complicated ocean processes, and aided in the development of more accurate and higher fidelity ocean models. Combined with traditional ship-based and remotely sensed observations, ocean observatories have yielded new knowledge across a broad spectrum of earth-ocean scales that would likely not exist otherwise. These developments come at a critical time in human history when the demands of global population growth are creating unprecedented societal challenges associated with rapid climatic change and unsustainable consumption of key ocean resources. Successfully meeting and overcoming these challenges and avoiding the ultimate tragedy of the commons will require greater knowledge of environmental processes than currently exists, including interactions between the ocean, the overlying atmosphere, and the adjacent land and synthesizing new knowledge into effective policy and management structures. To achieve this, researchers must have free and ready access to comprehensive data streams (oceanic, atmospheric, and terrestrial), regardless of location and collection system. While the precedent for the concept of free and open access to environmental data is not new (it traces back to the International Geophysical Year, 1957), implementing procedures and standards on a global scale is proving to be difficult, both logistically and politically. Observatories have been implemented in many parts of the global ocean, inspiring researchers to begin planning and developing connected regional observing systems that are networked into a Global Ocean Observing System as part of a comprehensive Global Earth Observation System of Systems. However, much remains to be accomplished, especially in the areas of standardizing observation methods and metadata, implementing procedures to assure an acceptable level of data quality, and defining and producing key derived products. This paper will briefly discuss the evolution of ocean observatories, summarize current efforts to develop local, regional and global observing networks, and suggest future steps towards a global ocean observing system.

Ackleson, S. G.

2012-12-01

300

Industry, university and government partnership to address research, education and human resource challenges for nuclear industry in Canada  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: This paper describes the outcome of an important recent initiative of Canadian nuclear industry to reinvigorate interest in education and collaborative research in prominent Canadian universities. This initiative has led to the formation of the University Network of Excellence in Nuclear Engineering (UNENE), incorporated in 2002. During the recent past, the slowdown in nuclear power development in Canada has curtailed the demand for new nuclear professionals down to a trickle. Without exciting job opportunities in sight the interest of prospective students in nuclear education and research has plunged. Consequently, with declining enrolment in nuclear studies and higher demand from competing disciplines, most universities have found it difficult to sustain nuclear programs. As such the available pool of graduating students is small and insufficient to meet emerging industry demand. With nuclear industry employees' average age hovering around mid-forties and practically no younger cohort to back up, nuclear industry faces the risk of knowledge loss and significant difficulty in recruiting new employees to replenish its depleting workforce. It is, therefore, justifiably concerned. Also, since nuclear generation is now the purview of smaller companies, their in-house capability for mid- to longer-term research is becoming inadequate. Recognizing the above challenges, Ontario Power Generation, Bruce Power and Atomic Energy of Canada Limited have formed an alliance with prominent Canadian universities and undertaken to invest money and offer in-kind support to accomplish three main objectives: Reinvigorate university-based nuclear engineering research by augmenting university resources by creating new industry supported research professorships and supporting research of other professors; Promote enrolment in graduate programs by supporting students and making use of a course-based Master of Engineering (M.Eng.) Program that is taught collectively by professors from all supported universities and which can be completed through part-time studies; Create a pool of nuclear expertise in universities that can be accessed by public and governments for impartial and trustworthy advice. The Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC), the Canadian Regulator, and Candu Owners Group are also participating in UNENE activities. Nuclear industries have linked with a select group of Canadian universities agreeable to committing to nuclear research and education and seeking investment from governments to match cash and in-kind contributions from industry. The University Network of Excellence in Nuclear Engineering (UNENE) was thus created involving universities of McMaster, Queen's, Toronto, Waterloo, Western Ontario and the new University of Ontario Institute of Technology. These universities are recipients of funds for setting up NSERC-UNENE Industry Research Chairs in Nuclear Engineering. Also, Ecole Polytechnique and the University of New Brunswick, supported respectively by Hydro Quebec and New Brunswick Power, and Royal Military College - operating a joint graduate program with Queen's University, are participants in UNENE. The following Industrial Research Chairs are either in place or approved to start within the next few months. In each case there is a provision for hiring a junior Research Chair. - Dr. John Luxat, Nuclear Safety Analysis and Thermal Hydraulics, McMaster University; - Dr. Rick Holt, Advanced Nuclear Materials, Queen's University; - Dr. Roger Newman, Nano-Engineering of Alloys for Nuclear Power Systems, University of Toronto; - Dr. Mahesh Pandey, Risk-Based Life Cycle Management of Engineering Systems, University of Waterloo; - Dr. Jin Jiang, Control, Instrumentation and Electrical Systems of Nuclear Power Plants, University of Western Ontario. Progress is being made to find a candidate and define a research program for an Industrial Research Chair:- Knowledge Management, University of Ontario Institute of Technology. Each of the above six NSERC-UNENE Industrial Research Chairs are tenured positions, funded

2004-09-07

 
 
 
 
301

THE DEFENCE OF THE EUROPEAN VALUES AND SOCIAL MODEL BEFORE THE CHALLENGE OF GLOBALIZATION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper has a clear objective. To reflect about the question: Is the Social Europe fit for glob-alization? This reflection will be organized in three parts. In first we present the institutional framework of reference: The Welfare State. In the second we try to offer a panoramic about the Wel-fare State in the European Union across the time. We deal with the concept of European Social model and with the social statistics of the different Member States in the E.U. We try to answer to another intermediate question: do exist really the European Social Model?The third part of the paper we deal with the main question: the Social Europe and the globalization challenge.

Luís PALMA MARTOS

2010-01-01

302

Creating cohesion from diversity: the challenge of collective identity formation in the global justice movement.  

Science.gov (United States)

Collective identity formation is important because it plays a crucial role in sustaining movements over time. Studying collective identity formation in autonomous groups in the Global Justice Movement poses a challenge because they encompass a multiplicity of identities, ideologies, issues, frames, collective action repertoires, and organizational forms. This article analyzes the process of collective identity formation in three anti-capitalist globalization groups in Madrid, Spain, based on 3 years of ethnographic fieldwork. The author argues that for new groups practicing participatory democracy the regular face-to-face assemblies are the crucial arena in which collective identity can form and must be both effective and participatory in order to foster a sense of commitment and belonging. The article raises the possibility that scholars should consider what seems to be an oxymoron: the possible benefits of "failure" for social movements. PMID:20795296

Fominaya, Cristina Flesher

2010-01-01

303

Global Marketing of Readymade Garment Products from Bangladesh: Market Prospect and Challenges  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper examines the global export market and its prospect and challenges for Bangladesh readymade garment products. The shift share method is used to identify the potential export market by selected seven major categories of readymade garment products on the basis of three-digit level Standards International Trade Classification (SITC for the period of 1987-93 and 1994-2000. The results of shift share analysis indicate that the USA, Canada and European Union (EU countries mainly offered the market opportunities for the export of garment products of Bangladesh. Asian countries have very negligible role in this respect. The challenges faced by the sector include: tough competition from other competitive countries such as India, Thailand, China and Vietnam, to slow progress of its high-technology adoption and slow inflow of foreign investment. Finally, in 2005, the MFA quota would be phased out.

Ahasanul Haque

2002-01-01

304

Accelerating the global nuclear renaissance: the central challenge of sustainable development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The rebirth of nuclear energy has become an unmistakable reality that is gathering speed and momentum on the full world stage. All around the world, old-school anti-nuclear environmentalism is being eclipsed by a new realism that recognises nuclear energy's essential virtue: its capacity to deliver cleanly generated power safely, reliably, and on a massive scale. For serious environmentalists, the real challenge is that nuclear energy is not yet growing fast enough to play its needed role in the clean-energy revolution our world so desperately needs. A fair assessment shows that not one of the commonly cited ''public concerns'' poses a reasonable obstacle to a global expansion of nuclear power: Proliferation, Operational Safety, Cost Reduction, Waste Management. In three areas, governments must take decisive action to grow the nuclear industry: (1) Construct a comprehensive global regime to curtail greenhouse emissions; (2) Elevate nuclear investment to a national and international policy priority; and (3) Support educational development of the nuclear profession for an expanded global role. The global nuclear industry will be indispensable if humanity is to preserve the environment that enabled civilisation to evolve. Governments must emerge from postures of timidity and equivocation to act decisively in support of that industry. Our world is in dire peril, and we have no time to lose

2006-10-15

305

Transportability of tertiary qualifications and CPD: A continuing challenge for the global health workforce  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background In workforces that are traditionally mobile and have long lead times for new supply, such as health, effective global indicators of tertiary education are increasingly essential. Difficulties with transportability of qualifications and cross-accreditation are now recognised as key barriers to meeting the rapidly shifting international demands for health care providers. The plethora of mixed education and service arrangements poses challenges for employers and regulators, let alone patients; in determining equivalence of training and competency between individuals, institutions and geographical locations. Discussion This paper outlines the shortfall of the current indicators in assisting the process of global certification and competency recognition in the health care workforce. Using Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD data we highlight how International standardisation in the tertiary education sector is problematic for the global health workforce. Through a series of case studies, we then describe a model which enables institutions to compare themselves internally and with others internationally using bespoke or prioritised parameters rather than standards. Summary The mobility of the global health workforce means that transportability of qualifications is an increasing area of concern. Valid qualifications based on workplace learning and assessment requires at least some variables to be benchmarked in order to judge performance.

Saltman Deborah C

2012-07-01

306

Piracy :a critical examination of the definition and scope of piracy and the issues arising therefrom that affect : the legal address of the crime globally.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Piracy: A critical examination of the definition and scope of piracy, and the legal issues arising there-from that affect the successful address of piracy globally. This thesis looks into the effectiveness of the existing legal maritime regime in fighting piracy worldwide. It goes to determine the extent to which the problem of modern day maritime piracy is related to the inadequacies brought about by the limitations in the definition of piracy as given by the United Nations Convention on the...

2011-01-01

307

Piracy : a critical examination of the definition and scope of piracy and the issues arising therefrom that affect : the legal address of the crime globally.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Piracy: A critical examination of the definition and scope of piracy, and the legal issues arising there-from that affect the successful address of piracy globally. This thesis looks into the effectiveness of the existing legal maritime regime in fighting piracy worldwide. It goes to determine the extent to which the problem of modern day maritime piracy is related to the inadequacies brought about by the limitations in the definition of piracy as given by the United Nations Convention on the...

2011-01-01

308

Opening Statement - Zhang Dejiang [International Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Energy in the 21. Century: Addressing Energy Needs and Environmental Challenges, Beijing (China), 20-22 April 2009  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nuclear science and technology is one of the greatest scientific and technological achievements of humankind in the 20th century. Nuclear science and technology is widely applied in various sectors, with over 50 years of development, such as energy, industry, agriculture, health and environmental protection, and is playing an important role in the prospering economy, and in improving peoples? livelihoods and promoting sustainable development. With global economic development and rising energy consumption, supply of traditional energy sources is becoming more stretched, and climate change is becoming an increasingly severe challenge. It is a common task of the international community to develop and utilize clean and renewable energy sources and properly address growing contradictions among economic development, energy development and environmental protection. Given its advantage as a clean, safe energy source that could be applied at a large scale, more and more countries are placing importance on nuclear energy. Accelerating the peaceful use of nuclear energy is the common wish and inevitable choice of many countries. China started the development of nuclear energy in the early 1950s, and with the efforts of over half a century, China has established a relatively complete nuclear industry system. The installed capacity of nuclear power has reached 9 100 MW(e), and nuclear power generation accounts for 2 per cent of the national total electricity generated. Nuclear energy is playing an incremental role in China?s economic development. However, nuclear energy utilization is rather insufficient in China, its development level is behind countries which are advanced in nuclear energy use such as the United States of America and France, and the rate of nuclear power generation in the total electricity generated still falls behind the world average level. China?s energy supply mix features a dominance of coal and a low proportion of clean energy. To achieve sustainable energy and socioeconomic development, China has formulated the energy development strategy of actively promoting energy conservation and optimizing the energy structure. Accelerating nuclear power development and enhancing the ratio of clean energy such as nuclear power in the aggregate energy supply is the priority of China?s energy development strategy. Currently, the peaceful use of nuclear energy has entered a stage of rapid development. A batch of new nuclear power projects are starting construction in coastal areas, preparation for other new projects is going on in an orderly manner, and demonstration projects of the introduction of third generation nuclear power technology are moving ahead smoothly. Scientific and research engineering programmes such as China?s experimental fast reactor, high temperature gas cooled reactor and thermal nuclear fusion device are making positive progress. The nuclear fuel cycle industry continues its development, and the ability to ensure supply of nuclear fuel is being enhanced. China has always attached great importance to nuclear safety in its promotion of nuclear energy utilization, and it has established a fairly complete nuclear safety legal, regulatory and emergency management system that is in line with international best practices. China has issued a series of instruments such as nuclear safety regulations, rules, guidelines and standards. Independent, strict and efficient nuclear safety supervision and management and scientific management of nuclear facility operators have been put in place to ensure safe and secure operation of nuclear facilities. All these efforts have led to a sound nuclear safety record and have boosted public confidence in nuclear energy

2009-09-01

309

Building a Course on Global Sustainability using the grand challenges of Energy-Water-Climate  

Science.gov (United States)

GEOL1600: Global Sustainability: Managing the Earth's Resources is a lower division integrated science course at the University of Wyoming that fulfills the university's science requirement. Course content and context has been developed using the grand challenge nexus of energy-water-and climate (EWC). The interconnection of these issues, their social relevance and timeliness has provided a framework that gives students an opportunity to recognize why STEM is relevant to their lives regardless of their ultimate professional career choices. The EWC nexus provides the filter to sieve the course's STEM content. It also provides an ideal mechanism by which the non-STEM perspectives important in grand challenge solutions can be seamlessly incorporated in the course. Through a combination of content and context, the relevance of these issues engage students in their own learning. Development of the course followed the Grand Challenge Scientific Literacy (GCSL) model independently developed by the author and two colleagues at the University of Wyoming. This course model stresses science principles centered on the nature of science (e.g., fundamental premises, habits of mind, critical thinking) and unifying scientific concepts (e.g., methods and tools, experimentation, modeling). Grand challenge principles identify the STEM and non-STEM concepts needed to understand the grand challenges, drawing on multiple STEM and non-STEM disciplines and subjects (i.e., economics, politics, unintended consequences, roles of stakeholders). Using the EWC nexus filter and building on the Grand Challenge Principles, specific content included in the course is selected is that most relevant to understanding the Grand Challenges, thereby stressing content depth over breadth. Because quantitative data and reasoning is critical to effectively evaluating challenge solutions, QR is a component of nearly all class activities, while engineering and technology aspects of grand challenges are explicitly stressed. Running concurrently through the course is a consideration of personal perspectives and their influence on student learning, particularly for controversial subjects. Organizationally, the course consists of three one hour lectures and a two hour lab each week. The lectures are used to introduce content and prepare the knowledge base students need for lab. Complementing traditional lectures are lecture worksheets (short activities applying topics previously presented in lecture) and lecture activities (more involved exercises that present a problem the students need to solve using previously learned scientific content and QR skills and tools). Labs focus on case studies set in global social contexts that are timely and relevant. Labs stress scientific skills (modeling groundwater flow) and also consider political and environmental issues, e.g. developing a policy to manage SO2 emissions from copper smelting. The ideas, concepts, educational materials and content developed in this course have been used as the basis for two Math Science Partnerships that have provided professional development for middle and high school science and math teachers and K-12 social, math and science teachers. These programs have worked with teachers to break down the barriers between disciplines and foster collaborative learning centered on socially relevant grand challenges.

Myers, J. D.

2012-12-01

310

The 2003 SARS Outbreak: Global Challenges and Innovative Infection Control Measure  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In early 2003, the global infection control community faced a great challenge, sudden acute respiratory syndrome (SARS. The rapid spread of SARS, its capacity to infect health care workers, and its many unknown features in the early days of the outbreak meant that health care workers were unsure of the most effective methods of infection control to prevent disease transmission. These conditions made designing appropriate, effective and standard infection control responses difficult. Innovation was necessary. This article provides a brief overview of global challenges in infection control and SARS. The author reports field observations and describes five selected examples of highly innovative, SARS-related infection control practices observed in three affected countries during the height of the 2003 outbreak. These examples relate to risk assessment, patient segregation, strategies to limit access to clinical areas, health care worker protection, and efforts to promote public confidence. Many of these strategies could be considered for use in the post-2003 SARS era, especially in preparation for an influenza or Avian influenza pandemic.

Cathryn Murphy

2006-01-01

311

Peak water from glaciers: advances and challenges in a global perspective (Arne Richter Award for Outstanding Young Scientists Lecture)  

Science.gov (United States)

Mountain glaciers show a high sensitivity to changes in climate forcing. In a global perspective, their anticipated retreat will pose far-reaching challenges to the manage- ment of fresh water resources and will raise sea levels significantly within only a few decades. Different model frameworks have been applied to simulate melt water con- tributions of glaciers outside the two ice sheets for the recent IPCC report. However, these models depend on strongly simplified, and often empirical descriptions of the driving processes hampering the reliability of the results. For example, glacier retreat is parameterized with volume-area scaling thus neglecting the glacier's actual geome- try and the surface elevation feedback. Frontal ablation of tidewater and lake-calving glaciers, an important mass loss component for a third of the world's glacier area, is not accounted for. Thus, a transition from the physically-based mass balance-ice flow models developed for single glaciers to the application at the global scale is urgently needed. The chal- lenges are manifold but can be tackled with the new data sets, methods and process- understanding that have emerged during the last years. Here, we present a novel glacier model for calculating the response of surface mass balance and 3D glacier geometry for each individual glacier around the globe. Our approach accounts for feedbacks due to glacier retreat and includes models for mass loss due to frontal ablation and the refreezing of water in the snow/firn. The current surface geometry and thickness distribution for each of the world's roughly 200'000 glaciers is extracted from the Randolph Glacier Inventory v3.2 and terrain models. Our simulations are driven with 14 Global Circulation Models from the CMIP5 project using the RCP4.5, RCP8.5 and RCP2.6 scenarios. Regionally specified cumulative global sea level rise due to glacier mass loss until 2100 is discussed in the light of model uncertainties and the advantages of using a physically- based approach. In particular, we focus on the timing of peak water from glacierized catchments in all climatic regions of the earth. The maximum rate of water release from glacial storage is subject to a high spatio-temporal variability. Peak water represents a crucial tipping point for sustained water supply even for regions with only a minor glacier coverage, and is relevant to the dynamics of sea level rise. Furthermore, we address the ratio between surface mass balance and frontal ablation of tidewater glaciers at the global scale.

Huss, Matthias; Hock, Regine

2014-05-01

312

Addressing Global Health, Development, and Social Inequalities through Research and Policy Analyses: the International Journal of MCH and AIDS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One year after the birth of the International Journal of MCH and AIDS (IJMA, we continue to share the passion to document, and shine the light on the myriads of global health issues that debilitate developing countries.Although the focus of IJMA is on the social determinants of health and disease as well as on the disparities in the burden of communicable and non-communicable diseases affecting infants, children, women, adults, and families in developing countries, we would like to encourage our fellow researchers and policy makers in both the developing and developed countries to consider submitting work that examines cross-national variations in heath and social inequalities.Such a global focus allows us to identify and understand social, structural, developmental, and health policy determinants underlying health inequalities between nations.Global assessment of health and socioeconomic patterns reaffirms the role of broader societal-level factors such as human development, gender inequality, gross national product, income inequality, and healthcare infrastructure as the fundamental determinants of health inequalities between nations.This is also confirmed by our analysis of the WHO data that shows a strong negative association between levels of human development and infant and maternal mortality rates.Focusing on socioeconomic, demographic, and geographical inequalities within a developing country, on the other hand, should give us a sense of how big the problem of health inequity is within its own borders.Such an assessment, then, could lead to development of policy solutions to tackle health inequalities that are unique to that country.

Romuladus E. Azuine, DrPH, RN

2012-11-01

313

The United Nations and Global Public Goods: Historical Contributions and Future Challenges.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Published by Palgrave MacmillanThis chapter explores the thesis that the United Nations’ (UN most important contribution to the production of global public goods has been its role in creating the space and capacity to generate shared values. Starting with the UN Charter itself, the chapter traces the evolution of this contribution through different historical phases. It analyses the impact of globalisation on the role of the UN; in particular it identifies the quality of porousness as a product of globalisation which is critical to understanding the current challenges faced by the UN as well as central to the global public goods agenda. Through this lens the author briefly reviews the evolution of the UN’s role in the fields of peace and security, human rights and development cooperation. He concludes by identifying eight levers for change that will determine the UN’s ability to contribute significantly to the global public goods: the generation of norms and shared values, the quality of leadership, improved governance, innovative financing, institutional realignment, the further consolidation of legal instruments, focus, and the power of networks.

Bruce Jenks

2012-03-01

314

GLOBAL CHALLENGES TO LEGAL REGULATION OF STATE AND CIVIL SOCIETY RELATIONSHIP  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to present the role of law in structuring and regulating the state-civil society relationship and the extent of the challenge globalization poses to this triangular relationship. While there are a number of different conceptualizations and formulations of the state-civil society relationship, it is only through a legal framework that this relationship is formally defined. The article begins by providing a conceptual framework for the state and civil society distinction and then introduces the evolution of law into a legal system as the precondition for ifferentiating the civil society as a non-state actor. A comparative evaluation of civil society development in totalitarian,liberal and welfare state systems provides an analytical backdrop for the contemporary transformations generated by globalization and how that affects legal systems, states and civil societies within the realm of the nation-state as well as in the larger context of a global political economic structure.

Asl?han Aykaç

2010-07-01

315

Quality Education in Tanzania: Perceptions on Global Challenges and Local Needs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study explored notions of quality in education and the challenges facing Tanzania. The inquiry adopted a humanist approach to determining levels of quality in schools, thus respondents recorded their perceptions on key issues on quality education, relevant to Tanzania. The study used mixed methods and non-probability sampling which selected 20 schools involving 200 participants. Data was collected using written accounts and qualitative questionnaires and a preliminary quantitative questionnaire, which was used before further exploration of phenomena. The participants involved students, teachers, head-teachers and education officers from both urban and rural schools in Northern Tanzania. This data was analysed to form themes for discussion so as to describe and capture the challenges faced by schools in their quest for quality education. The ensuing discussion helped provide a clearer understanding through a qualitative description of Tanzania’s local needs and global challenges regarding quality education. Despite Tanzania’s commendable efforts in increased funding on education in recent years, ahead of its East African neighbors, this investment has not gone far enough to meet citizens’ expectations and satisfaction on quality education, possibly due to widespread neglect in previous years.

Icarbord Tshabangu

2013-03-01

316

The Nigerian University System and the Challenges of Capacity Building in a Globalized Economy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract: The scaring effects of globalization and the global economic shift have affected world economic order to the extent that the weak economies are still trying to grapple with the production processes. The necessity of international discourse, alignment and reorganization generated by the new economic order has not provided the needed solution. Rather, the process has continued to erode and reorder the traditional economic activities of the weak economies to the extent that there is unprecedented unemployment. This gives the impression that the university academic system, with the courses and programmes taught, is not structured in a flexible manner to arrest the situation. This paper on the synergy between the Nigerian university academic system and the challenges of capacity building in a globalized economy investigates why, in spite of the numerous international discourses, economic restructuring, etc. unemployment, especially among the products of universities, continues to escalate, economy continues to dwindle, political structures and governance continue to deteriorate. The observation is that the Nigerian university system has failed to achieve, among the beneficiaries, the expected capacity building, intellectual capital and knowledge necessary to drive the economy in this dispensation. The paper recommends inter alia, an overhaul of the Nigerian university system to take care of the critical requirements of current production processes, flexibilization of labour and employment, ensuring that the knowledge and skills acquired are information and communication technology oriented and the development of the power and energy sector because of its regeneration and multiplier effects on job and wealth creation.
Key words: Capacity Building; Flexibilization; Intellectual Capital; Nigerian University Academic System; Globalization

E. B. J. Iheriohanma

2011-06-01

317

Opening Address by the Conference President [International Conference on Effective Nuclear Regulatory Systems: Further Enhancing the Global Nuclear Safety and Security Regime, Cape Town (South Africa), 14-18 December 2009  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Three years ago, the IAEA sponsored the first conference of government regulators to share their common perspectives and experience in addressing challenges of nuclear safety and security. The goal of the conference was to develop a global vision and to promote international cooperation. Representatives from more than 50 countries participated in that important gathering. The Moscow conference was the first of its kind, providing regulators a forum for exclusive focus on regulatory issues without limits of time, membership or subject matter. The conference discussed key cornerstones of effective regulation: the independence of the regulatory body, a firm foundation of adequate financial resources, skilled staff, quality management practices, and public confidence in the regulatory body and its decision making processes. Additionally, several key safety and security challenges were identified. We have a significant challenge to meet this week, and that is to use this unique regulatory forum to continue the progress that we made three years ago. I hope to see us converge around the four major themes of this conference and establish a concrete plan of action by the time we close on Thursday. Our four themes include: - Emerging regulatory challenges; - Regulatory independence and effectiveness; - Impact of multinational activities on the national responsibility for nuclear safety and security; - International safety and security communication and cooperation. A renewed interest in nuclear power worldwide has brought with it an increased focus on these regulatory issues, and I believe we all agree that a strong and effective regulatory program must be a prerequisite to any nuclear power programmes. At the conference this week, we will examine and discuss our priorities as regulators and work to identify and address the challenges we face - both individually and together - around safety and security. The work we do is critical for each of our countries and for the international community as a whole. I want to just touch briefly on the four themes for this week to set the stage. A robust regulatory programme has three essential components: legislation and the rules and regulations to ensure safety and security; adequate resources; and technical capability. One of the critical challenges for regulators of mature industries is the need to resist complacency. We must remain vigilant at all times about the safety and security of the existing fleet and nuclear materials. For those countries that are newcomers to nuclear power development, your greatest challenge may be to establish the infrastructure necessary for an effective and efficient regulatory programme. This is where the assistance of organizations such as this can be invaluable, in helping many of you to identify your regulatory needs and build your capacity; sharing experience, expertise, and lessons learned; and providing a foundation for international coordination and cooperation

2010-09-01

318

El proceso de globalización y los retos del desarrollo humano / Globalization and human development challenges  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish A pesar de las numerosas publicaciones que existen sobre las implicaciones de la globalización en el desarrollo económico y social de los países, no hay consenso entre los autores sobre el tema y se presentan múltiples perspectivas para su discusión. En este documento se analiza este proceso de glob [...] alización destacando su relación con el desarrollo humano, para lo cual se realiza una revisión bibliográfica y de información estadística que permite reflexionar sobre la naturaleza de ambos conceptos y sus tendencias actuales y futuras. Como resultado se plantea que las tendencias del proceso de globalización pueden llegar a profundizar las desigualdades existentes en el nivel de desarrollo humano de los países, si continúa fundamentado en un soporte ideológico neoliberal y en un modelo de desarrollo capitalista, consumista, depredador, cortoplacista y excluyente. Se concluye que mientras persista el actual esquema de reproducción capitalista a escala global, el proceso de globalización tenderá a favorecer más a un pequeño grupo de países altamente desarrollados, en detrimento de la mayoría de la población del planeta, haciendo difícil superar los retos del desarrollo humano. Abstract in english Despite the amount of publications related to globalization and its implications in the social and economic development of countries, researchers have not yet reached consensus about the subject and multiple perspectives are presented for discussion. This paper analyzes the globalization process, em [...] phasizing its relationship with human development; to do so, bibliographical and statistical information were reviewed in order to discuss the nature of both concepts and their current and future trends. As a result, the paper explains how trends in the globalization process could stimulate deeper inequalities in the level of human development in countries if it continues to be based on a neoliberal ideological support and a capitalistic, consumption-based, predatory, excluding and short-term development model. Conclusions are that as long as the current scheme of capitalist reproduction on a global scale persists, the globalization process will tend to favour a small group of highly developed countries to the detriment of most people in the planet, making it difficult to overcome human development challenges.

Alberto, Romero; Mary A, Vera Colina.

319

Ministerial Presentation: United States of America. Ambassador Schulte's Remarks on Behalf of Energy Secretary Chu [International Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Energy in the 21. Century: Addressing Energy Needs and Environmental Challenges, Beijing (China), 20-22 April 2009  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is a pleasure to participate in this second Ministerial Conference convened by the IAEA here in Beijing. Secretary of Energy Steven Chu has asked that I deliver this speech on his behalf. He sends his sincere regrets that he is unable to attend this event personally. As you know, this week is Earth Week, and the Secretary is very engaged promoting our energy and climate change agenda back in Washington. Let me assure you, however, that the United States views nuclear energy as an important part of our effort to put the world on the road to a low-carbon future. The global expansion of nuclear energy. It is now widely recognized that nuclear energy has the potential to curtail dependence on fossil fuels and greatly reduce greenhouse gas emissions while promoting greater energy security. Yet, given the stakes associated with the use (and potential misuse) of nuclear energy around the world, it is imperative that all nations with existing or new nuclear power programs play an active role in global efforts to address the safety, security, and safeguards implications of nuclear power. As President Obama recently stated, it is time we consider a new framework for civil nuclear cooperation, one that allows all interested countries to enjoy the benefits of nuclear energy while limiting the associated risks of nuclear weapons proliferation. This new framework should include measures that improve energy security, including an international fuel bank and related fuel services arrangements. This conclusion reflects our recognition of the right of nations that comply with global nonproliferation norms to share in the benefits of peaceful nuclear uses. We also share a responsibility to maintain and strengthen global standards for safety, security and nonproliferation. Today, access to nuclear energy faces significant challenges-- the development of sound infrastructure, the reliable provision of nuclear fuel, and the safe and secure management of spent fuel and nuclear waste. If we succeed in meeting these challenges and discharging these responsibilities, I am confident we will also succeed in promoting the responsible development of nuclear energy. The IAEA and multilateral cooperation. Over 50 countries have informed the IAEA of their interest in nuclear power. In response to this, the Agency has developed a high-level framework to help states chart a safe, secure, and safeguarded path to nuclear power. The Milestones document, as it is now known, has become an essential reference on the desks of planners tasked with developing a national nuclear power infrastructure. The United States is a longstanding and strong supporter of the infrastructure development concepts detailed in the Milestones document. More broadly, the United States is committed to increasing the capabilities of the IAEA to better carry out all of its vital functions. Key among them is improved international safeguards. The United States has launched a program to build next generation safeguards technologies and a new community of safeguards experts; to assist full use of IAEA inspection authorities; and to foster a culture of safeguards, security and safety in nations using nuclear energy. Though a very valuable reference, the Milestones document was not intended for use as a detailed road map to nuclear power. It is the responsibility of each state to assess its own needs, identify its own priorities, and develop its own strategic objectives. However, states need not pursue these tasks alone, and there is plenty of guidance available through pursuit of civil nuclear cooperation. In addition to the vital role of the IAEA, other multilateral groups are addressing the challenges facing nuclear energy today. Forums such as the International Energy Agency, the Nuclear Energy Agency, the Generation IV International Forum, and the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (or GNEP) complement and build upon the important work of the IAEA. The international community through GNEP, as currently structured, has established two working groups, both with significant involvement f

2009-04-20

320

Facing the challenge of change: The World Bank and the global environment facility  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In November 1990, representatives from 22 countries met in Paris and agreed to establish a new funding program for the support of actions benefiting the global environment in developing countries. The participants further agreed that the new ''mechanism'', to be called the Global Environment Facility (GEF), would be a three-year pilot program, and be set up and managed by three organizations in the United Nations system. These organizations, or ''the implementing agencies'', were the World Bank, the United Nations Development Program (UNDP), and the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP). The countries backing the GEF committed a total amount of approximately US$1.5 billion, to be used over the three-year pilot period on projects addressing four areas of global concern: Global climate change; depletion of the ozone layer; depletion of biological diversity; and pollution of international waters. This study seeks to assess, at an early stage, what the World Bank is making out of the GEF. In the GEF we have a good, fresh opportunity to ''test'' the Bank's own claim, within the limited context of a new funding program. By providing a very early assessment of the Bank's performance so far in running the GEF, we hope to contribute to the general understanding of the Bank's suitability as an investment house for the global environment. At the same time, we are just as much seeking to try out a specific approach or a method for making such an assessment, a method that could be applied later in some form, if found useful. Since we are still at a very early stage in the lifetime of the GEF, it would make sense to come back later on and provide a fuller evaluation. It is our hope that this study may be a useful point of departure for such an evaluation. 71 refs., 3 figs., 8 tabs.

Kjoerven, O.

1992-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Development of a Global Drought Information System (GDIS): The Prediction Challenge  

Science.gov (United States)

Managing drought risk requires information on past droughts, current hydrological conditions and how they are expected to evolve in the coming weeks to months to years, as well as the prospects for substantial changes in the character of drought in the coming decades to centuries. Such information is currently limited, often confined to particular regions or political boundaries, coming from a variety of different sources with at times conflicting information. In short, there is currently no global, authoritative, and consistent information on drought that is easily accessible to all users. In light of this, the WCRP and GEO, among other organizations have recommended the development of an experimental global drought information system (GDIS), with a real time monitoring and prediction system playing a central role. Here we review the challenges of producing reliable and useful predictions of drought world-wide. We in particular focus on the role of SST forcing. Issues that will be examined include the competing/reinforcing impacts of the different ocean basins, the modulating/amplifying influences of land-atmosphere feedbacks, and the importance of internal atmospheric noise in quantifying the uncertainties of drought predictions.

Schubert, S. D.

2013-12-01

322

The global energy context: Chances and challenges for the 21st century  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Energy is the driving force towards economic and social development. Global demand for energy will keep growing for many years to come due to ongoing, although reduced population growth, and due to the needs of up to 2 billion people who are still without access to commercial energy. To meet this growing demand for energy, all options have to be kept open, with fossil fuels, nuclear and hydro dominating the energy mix for the next decades, and 'new' renewables coming in only slowly. Considering the resulting strain on the environment, and looking at existing disparities in energy supply, the next few decades will not be free of tensions. A turning point may appear in the mid 21st century with world population coming to a halt, distinctly improved energy efficiency also in the Developing World, and with new technologies available. Thus, mainly challenges will determine the first half of the century, whereas chances are on hand for the second half of the century - if we act now. The single most important instrument to meet these challenges and to take advantage of the chances is a concentrated move towards energy efficiency and innovation, supported by market reform and appropriate regulation. (author)

2000-10-01

323

The global energy context -- chances and challenges for the 21st century  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Energy is the driving force towards economic and social development. Global demand for energy will keep growing for many years to come due to ongoing, although reduced population growth, and due to the needs of up to 2000 million people who are still without access to commercial energy. To meet this growing demand for energy, all options have to be kept open, with fossil fuels, nuclear and hydro dominating the energy mix for the next decades, and 'new' renewables coming in only slowly. Considering the resulting strain on the environment, and looking at existing disparities in energy supply, the next few decades will not be free of tensions. A turning point may appear in the mid 21st century with world population coming to a halt, distinctly improved energy efficiency in the Developing World, and with new technologies available. Thus, mainly challenges will determine the first half of the century, whereas chances are on hand for the second half of the century - if we act now. The single most important instrument to meet these challenges and to take advantage of the chances is a concentrated move towards energy efficiency and innovation, supported by market reform and appropriate regulation. (author)

2002-04-01

324

The effect of globalization of drug manufacturing, production, and sourcing and challenges for American drug safety.  

Science.gov (United States)

Americans benefit from one of the safest drug supplies and one of the highest standards of consumer protection in the world. Over the past decade, though, a general trend toward globalization of the supply chains for finished pharmaceutical products and active pharmaceutical ingredients has created new challenges for the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in ensuring the safety and quality of the drug supply. Explosive growth in pharmaceutical manufacturing for the US market is particularly evident in the developing regions of Asia. Manufacturing sites in China and India now comprise approximately 40% of all FDA-registered foreign sites, having increased from 30% in 2002. (In 2001, when legislation first went into effect requiring registration of all foreign drug manufacturing sites, 140 registered sites in China listed 797 drug items for potential importation; as of 1 October 2007, that number had grown to 815 registered sites and well over 3,000 listed items.) In total in 2006, the United States received >145,000 line entries of imported drug products from >160 countries, up from only 1,300 line entries in 2000. FDA regulatory oversight resources (e.g., those allocated to inspection and testing of imports) are being challenged to keep up with the explosive growth of imported drugs. (In 2006, the FDA performed inspections at 212 foreign drug firms. This number has remained relatively consistent over the past 6 years, starting at 249 in 2001 and ranging from 190 to 260 on an annual basis.) PMID:18253142

Woo, J; Wolfgang, S; Batista, H

2008-03-01

325

An overlook of the new global nuclear scenario and the emergent challenges  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this paper is to make a short overlook of the world nuclear renaissance and point out some emergent challenges. The presentation covers different subjects in which the nuclear energy shows great advantage to face concerns about climate change, energy demand growth, and relative cost of competing technologies in a global scenario. Additionally nuclear technology can deploy in a middle term an important potential development oriented to improve even more that nuclear design, safety, environment protection, economic and sustainability of the present nuclear reactors generation. The world nuclear energy scenario reveals a renaissance after a long period of lethargy. Now is the focus of considerable attention and debate about the risks and benefits of its expansion. Many countries are again planning ambitious nuclear programs. In the case of Argentina, a decision was taken to end the construction of Atucha 750 MWe power plant (NPP) and to begin the construction of another two NPP in the next decade. In the middle term and expansion of 60 % of the present world nuclear capabilities is foreseen. For the long term there could be much more if today's performance data is maintained or improved. It would require the nuclear industry to return immediately to the most rapid period of growth experienced in the past. The training of the young people is also an important challenge. But some countries are still reluctant due to the adverse local public opinion. In spite of the great accessibility and availability of the NPP confirmed by the global experience of the 350 operating nuclear power plants, the public acceptability is not confirmed. Some sectors of the society -with the support in some case of the media- are against the use of the nuclear energy. In this paper some reasons of the public concerns is explained and actions are mentioned to change its perceptions. At the end, the global society in front of the real means available to fulfill the growing energy demand and needs to protect the environments from catastrophic climate changes and limited fuel resources, must accept the great advantage of the NPP, the potential possibilities of the nuclear technology progress and the lowest risks of its expansion. (author)

2007-11-19

326

Addressing Inequality  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The global sociology currently faces one of its greatest challenges: to contribute to the debate about the most serious problem which all societies have faced in recent years. The rising inequality has led to many initiatives for reflection, discussion and evaluation of public policies in order to combat poverty. Particularly, the fact that the Millennium Goals are supposed to accomplish their significance by 2015 provides the International Sociological Association (ISA the unique opportunity to contribute to those goals through their own analyses and proposals. Over many years, the ISA has promoted the integrated debate of its members on issues related to inequalities: from different perspectives such as education, health, social movements, public policies, gender problems and violence, among others. The overlapping and accumulation of inequalities has been, so to speak, the natural environment from which the ISA can take part in this international debate. This article identifies the work lines approved in the Association Program Committee Meeting held in Mexico in 2011, in the process of theAssociation’s Congress in Yokohama in 2014.

Raquel Sosa Elízaga

2012-07-01

327

Global Challenges and Local Responses : Trade Unions in the Korean and Malaysian Auto Industries  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The paper aims to address the question whether the dynamic of autoworker unionism in South Korea and Malaysia was conditioned by, and eventually also influenced the globalization processes in the local auto industry? The conclusion is a contextualized "yes", and the core argument is the following: The financial crisis in 1997 was the dramatic peak of financial globalization in East Asia in the 1990s, and it did accelerate the existing trend in Korea towards centralized unionism in the auto industry, while it suspended the trend in the Malaysian auto industry towards decentralized unionism. Although the Korean and Malaysian unions were affected by the financial crisis from different structural and strategic positions, and were exposed to different national policies and corporate strategies of crisis management, the Korean unions and Malaysian unions generally followed, respectively, a more radical and militant and a more pragmatic and moderate strategy. In the global-local perspective we face two paradoxes. The first paradox is that in spite of the difference in union ideology, the outcome in terms of industrial relations (IR) institutions was rather similar in the sense that the auto industry contained a mixture of industrial and enterprise unions and formal or informal federations of these unions, and that collective bargaining was by and large undertaken bilaterally at the enterprise level. This situation was generated by a dynamic, which took the Malaysian system down from a centralized IR system within the low technology assembly industry (the globally subordinated local OEMs) to a rather decentralized IR system within the SOE-MNC controlled industry. The Korean system became more centralized through the confrontations between radical enterprise unions and authoritarian employers and authorities within an auto industry, which over time become much more indigenized, technologically advanced, export-oriented and diversified into multiple auto manufacturers and an under-wood of component suppliers. Yet, in both auto industries the large enterprise unions resisted organizational centralization, which could impede their autonomy. Due to the strength of unions of the market leading firms a breakthrough did happen neither in Korea nor in Malaysia, although the Koreans were a step ahead of the Malaysians having established a federation of metalworkers unions, including the important autoworkers unions. The second paradox is that the radicalism of the Korean autoworker unions was maintained during 1990s globalization of the auto industry, while radicalism was abandoned by the Malaysian autoworker unions in favor of union pragmatism, when the indigenization of the Malaysian auto industry unfolded since the early 1980s and a local auto supplier industry had been formed. This cross-country difference is partly explained by the different position held by the Korean and Malaysian auto companies in the global and local auto value chain. The radicalism and effectiveness of Korean autoworker unions sustained the development of dynamic efficiency among Korean auto manufacturing firms. In the same way, the intra-industry differences in wages and working conditions among auto manufacturing firms and components supplier firms were also related to the stratification of the domestic auto value chain, and this uneven distribution of benefits created obstacles of centralized unionization and collective bargaining. The centralized IR system in Malaysia evolved in an auto industry composed primarily of firms assembling imported CKD kits of components. The inequality of employment conditions between auto manufacturers and component suppliers was a driver of the strategy of centralized unionism and collective bargaining in Korea, while the inequality was not perceived as that significant by the Malaysian industrial union, since they had been dealing with these problems by the early 1990s. Keywords: Globalisation, trade unions, automobile industry, global value chain theory, East Asia, Malaysia, South Korea.

Wad, Peter

2005-01-01

328

ATM addressing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Requirements for addressing in an ATM network were discussed, including a description of the different addressing formats adopted by the ATM Forum. Guidelines for selecting an ATM address plan were provided. Ease of administration, unique identification of an ATM endpoint, ability to integrate addresses, and to accommodate the interworking between public and private networks, should be the principal objectives in selecting an address plan.2 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs.

Baillargeon, S. [Bell Canada Northern Electric Research Ltd., Ottawa, ON (Canada)

1996-07-01

329

Globalization of the energy sector: Environmental challenges and options for future actions.  

Science.gov (United States)

This publication relates to environmental challenges of the energy sector and options for future action. Following themes are discussed: Globalisation of the energy sector; environmental challenges; the challenge of climate change; options for future acti...

P. Benavides

1998-01-01

330

76 FR 10892 - Aquatic Ecosystems, Water Quality, and Global Change: Challenges of Conducting Multi-Stressor...  

Science.gov (United States)

...simply a state or condition; Challenges associated with calculating...or aquatic ecosystems; Challenges associated with mapping these...aggregation of the data; Challenges associated with combining...www.regulations.gov Web site is an ``anonymous...

2011-02-28

331

How current assessments of Sustainability Performance by Best Practice in the UN Global Compact challenge legitimacy  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The Scandinavian countries have been strong supporters of the UN Global Compact (UNGC) since the official launch in year 2000. This is best evidenced by the level of adoption of the UNGC, which is the most widely adopted broad sustainability-reporting standard in Scandinavia (Kjaergaard, submitted - in review). And since the UNGC in 2010 introduced the differentiation framework to their reporting standard, a significant number of Scandinavian corporations has chosen to report on an Advanced Level and self-assess their Sustainability Performance. Hence, in times where international opinion makers like the Economist (2013) turn to Scandinavia as having the solutions to some of the global sustainability-related challenges, it might also be worth reversing the optics. One approach could be to take a closer look at whether this high level of support for the UNGC translates to a high level of Sustainability Performance? And how the current assessment of Sustainability Performance by Best Practice in the UN Global Compact challenge the legitimacy of both the corporation, the UNGC and governments attempting to facilitate sustainability and CSR engagement? Best Practice is a concept frequently used by authorities sources like governments, multi-national institutions etc. to showcase corporate sustainability practices in an attempt to inspire motivate or convince for corporate engagement. UNGC applies this discourse to a great extend and even goes as far as to integrate Best Practices as the core and decisive element in assessing Sustainability Performance with the criteria for Advanced Level reporting in the UNGC differentiation framework. Though, previous empirical research by Kjaergaard (submitted, in review) has demonstrated that although the introduction of this framework generally should be acknowledged, the way it is structured and measures sustainability performance is highly problematic. This has potential to lead to a number of undesirable outcomes for both the corporations and eventually the UNGC. Especially the use of Best Practices as determinants of the self-assessed Sustainability Performance on criterions is problematic when the framework does not weigh the Best Practices individually despite obvious differences in importance. Hence the same assessment score for a criterion can be achieved by adherence to either one of two potentially very different variables. Consequentially, corporations that apply best practices of higher importance are not acknowledged for doing so. Furthermore, since adherence to only one best practice for each criterion is required to be compliant with a criterion, then corporations are also not acknowledged by the framework for adhering to more and maybe more important Best Practices. These issues were identified by assessing the Sustainability Performance and analyzing the sustainability reports of 67 Nordic corporations, whom are signatories to the UN Global Compact. This study applies a theoretical perspective to the empirical findings by Kjaergard (submitted, in review). The study finds the UNGC reporting framework and the widespread support and adoption of it in Scandinavia to be indicative of emerging neoliberal tendencies in governmental approaches to CSR (Shamir, 2008). In a governmentality perspective these tendencies can be seen as unfolding when "government assumes the role of an enabling and empowering facilitator of CSR, not a regulatory enforcer" (Vallentin & Murillo, 2012). Whereas Scandinavian governments influence how widespread the adoption of sustainability reporting is, this study questions governmentâ??s success as a facilitator of CSR and sustainability, when viewed in a Sustainability Performance perspective. The empirical findings by Kjaergard (submitted, in review) demonstrate that with only relatively few exemptions, the Sustainability Performance of Nordic corporations in general is not on a high level. Though, that is when assessed towards the Best Practices essentially constituting the UNGC reporting framework, which Kjaergaard also questions the validity of.

Kjærgaard, Thomas

332

Challenge.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sous le titre « The Hispanic Challenge », Samuel P. Huntington propose dans le numéro de Foreign Policy de mars-avril 2004 une nouvelle démonstration du danger de sa pseudo-théorie du « choc des civilisations ». Quel est donc ce «  challenge  » auquel, d'après Huntington, la société américaine serait aujourd'hui confrontée ? C'est celui de l'immigration « hispanique » qui « menace l'identité américaine, ses valeurs et son mode de vie » ...

René-Éric Dagorn

2004-04-01

333

Keynote address  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Good morning ladies and gentlemen. I am truly honored to be your keynote speaker at the first International Oil Spill R ampersand D Forum. This Forum is cosponsored by the Coast Guard, on behalf of the OPA 90 Interagency Coordinating Committee on Oil Spill Research, and the International Maritime Organization. The fact that IMO is jointly sponsoring the Forum truly reflects the global nature of our concerns for the marine environment. I was asked to speak to you today because of my purview over the entire Coast Guard R ampersand D Program, a significant portion of which is oil spill related. Our environmental awareness was renewed on March 24, 1990 when the tankship Exxon Valdez ran aground on Bligh Reef in Prince William Sound, Alaska, and caused the largest vessel related oil spill in U.S. history. During the next 15 months there were three other large oil spills that threatened the U.S. shorelines. The U.S. flag tank vessel American Trader suffered a three foot diameter hole in a cargo tank near Huntington Beach California; the Mega Borg, a Norwegian flag tank vessel, exploded and caught fire off the coast of Texas in the Gulf of Mexico; and the Greek flag tanker World Prodigy ran aground in Narragensett Bay near Rhode Island. Each spill presented a unique set of challenges to our response operations. Despite intense response and cleanup actions, which included excellent international cooperation for the Exxon Valdez spill, it was apparent that existing world-wide catastrophic spill response capabilities could easily be exceeded and that there was no international mechanism which promoted and facilitated cooperations

1992-06-01

334

Globalization and climate change challenges the Arctic communities adaptability and increases vulnerability  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Globalization and climate change challenges the Arctic communities adaptability and increases vulnerability KÃ¥re Hendriksen, PhD student, Aalborg University, Denmark The previous isolation of the Arctic will change as a wide range of areas increasingly are integrated into the globalized world. Parts of the Arctic are characterized by a relatively high material standard of living that is partially based on economic subsidies from the South, and for a number of Arctic consumers globalization appears primarily as a potential for improved supplies of consumer goods. The massive and growing pressure from multinational companies to exploit the Arctic mineral and oil resources as well as hydro-power in large scale industries appears to (local) governments as a potential for economic growth and thus reduced economic dependence on subsidies from the nation states the Arctic are dependent of. Coinciding climate changes cause an easier access for worldwide market as well as for the extraction of coastal oil and mineral resources. In an attempt to optimize the fishing fleet by economic measures it is centralized to larger units, and the exports of unprocessed fish and shellfish to low wage countries, carrying out the processing before export, are increasing. Although the local populations often are able to adapt to climate change and exploit new seasonal fluxions and species, these developments leaves a series of smaller settlements without proper basis for commercially viable activities and survival. Trusting that heavy industry and oil and mineral extraction can absorb the redundant labor from the subsistence activities and local economies and create economic growth (local) governments are installing economic and other policies leading to a further centralization of the population. There is not necessarily consistency between official political statements and the implemented measures. On top of this the population in smaller settlements has no frame or means to understand the impact of the discussed and applied interventions. They are therefore to some extent left behind and are not included in contemporary developments leaving them with a feeling of being powerless. The consequences of contemporary policies and the problems arising will be illustrated through examples from traditional hunting and fishing districts in Greenland.

Hendriksen, KÃ¥re

2011-01-01

335

The formation of the global natural gas industry: definition, constraints and challenges; A formacao da industria global de gas natural: definicao, condicionantes e desafios  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study aims to investigate the real possibilities for the natural gas industry to become a global energy industry. So, it is necessary to define what global energy industry really means. In order to do a comparative analysis between the oil and natural gas industries, it is necessary to define three distinct stages of the evolution of an energy industry, namely internationalization, mundialization and globalization. This study analyzes the evolution of the oil industry trying to identify the main aspects that promoted changes and transformed the oil business into a global industry. Then, the evolution of the natural gas industry is analyzed, looking for similarities between the structural changes in both industries, and trying to determine what is the current stage of the natural gas industry. Despite the increase in the natural gas international trade and the prospects of growth of natural gas demand, there are still some challenges for this industry to effectively become global. Some of the challenges are the need of investments in production infrastructure, transportation and distribution sectors, the access to the main reserves, the uncertainty related to the demand evolution and the possible creation of a natural gas producers cartel, like the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC). (author)

Mathias, Melissa Cristina Pinto Pires

2008-03-15

336

Opening address  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This opening address covers two main areas: first, a snapshot of the continuing threat and the recent changes having been made to the United Kingdom's counterterrorism structures to respond to it; and second, how the United Kingdom is combating nuclear terrorism through a range of measures covering physical security, decreasing vulnerability to attack and increasing resilience. Combating the threat of nuclear terrorism requires an international effort. Radiological and fissile materials are present throughout the world and, as such, it should be secured wherever it is found. All countries are encouraged to continue to enhance security and protection mechanisms for radiological and fissile material; and to develop contingency plans should the worst happen. The United Kingdom has responded to the very serious and real threat by consolidating and strengthening elements of its counterterrorist planning via the creation in May this year of the Office for Security and Counter-Terrorism (OSCT). These changes have been coupled with an unprecedented level of investment to enable the delivery of the United Kingdom counterterrorist strategy - known as CONTEST - through which we aim to (a) stop terrorist attacks; (b) where it cannot be stopped, to mitigate its impact; (c) strengthen our overall protection against terrorist attack; (d) stop people becoming terrorists or supporting violent extremism. In the case of radiological and nuclear terrorism, it is not sufficient merely to prepare for such an attack; one must also devote efforts to preventing such attacks in the first instance by intercepting dangerous materials before they reach their intended target; and by strengthening the protection of vulnerable places and detecting or mitigating any devices before they are placed or activated. As such, in terms of the United Kingdom's efforts on radiological and nuclear terrorism, there are three main strands to this work: physical protection of materials including the global threat reduction programme; decreasing vulnerability to attack; and increasing resilience should an incident occur

2008-07-01

337

Presidential address.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Secretary of India's Ministry of Health and Family Welfare serves as Chair of the Executive Council of the International Institute for Population Sciences in Bombay. She addressed its 35th convocation in 1993. Global population stands at 5.43 billion and increases by about 90 million people each year. 84 million of these new people are born in developing countries. India contributes 17 million new people annually. The annual population growth rate in India is about 2%. Its population size will probably surpass 1 billion by the 2000. High population growth rates are a leading obstacle to socioeconomic development in developing countries. Governments of many developing countries recognize this problem and have expanded their family planning programs to stabilize population growth. Asian countries that have done so and have completed the fertility transition include China, Japan, Singapore, South Korea, and Thailand. Burma, Malaysia, North Korea, Sri Lanka, and Vietnam have not yet completed the transition. Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Iran, Nepal, and Pakistan are half-way through the transition. High population growth rates put pressure on land by fragmenting finite land resources, increasing the number of landless laborers and unemployment, and by causing considerable rural-urban migration. All these factors bring about social stress and burden civic services. India has reduced its total fertility rate from 5.2 to 3.9 between 1971 and 1991. Some Indian states have already achieved replacement fertility. Considerable disparity in socioeconomic development exists among states and districts. For example, the states of Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh have female literacy rates lower than 27%, while that for Kerala is 87%. Overall, infant mortality has fallen from 110 to 80 between 1981 and 1990. In Uttar Pradesh, it has fallen from 150 to 98, while it is at 17 in Kerala. India needs innovative approaches to increase contraceptive prevalence rates and to reach replacement level fertility. PMID:12287408

Vohra, U

1993-07-01

338

SYNOPTIC GLOBAL REMOTE SENSING OF LAND SURFACE VEGETATION: OVERVIEW OF DAILY DATA QUALITY, CHALLENGES, AND OPPORTUNITIES  

Science.gov (United States)

Continuous acquisition of global satellite imagery over the years has contributed to the creation of a long data record from AVHRR, MODIS, TM, SPOT VGT, and other sensors. These records account now for 30+ years, and as the archive grows, it becomes an invaluable source of data for many environmental related studies dealing with trends and changes from local to global scale. Synoptic global remote sensing provides a multitude of land surface state variables and serves as a major foundation for global change research. However, these records are inhibited with problems that need to be accounted for in order to understand the limits and improve the science results derived from these records. The presence of clouds, aerosols, spatial gaps, variable viewing geometry, inconsistent atmosphere corrections, multiple reprocessing, and different sensors characteristics, makes it difficult to obtain frequently high quality data everywhere and every time. Moreover, these issues are location and season dependent making it even more difficult to construct the consistent time series required to study change over time. To evaluate these records, we analyzed 30+ years (1981 to 1999 and 2000 to 2009) of daily global land surface measurements (CMG resolution) from AVHRR (N07, N09, N11 and N14) and MODIS (AQUA and TERRA, Collection 5, C5). We stratified the data based on land cover, latitudinal zone, and season and we examined the daily data quality, including cloud persistence, aerosol loads, data gaps, and an index of reliability that measures how likely an observation is acceptable for research. The aim was to generate aggregate maps of cloud distribution, aerosol levels distribution, and data reliability distribution in both time and space. This information was then converted into an uncertainty measure at the pixel level that indicates how suspect or significant a result could potentially be, depending on its location and season and consequently what geographic locations and times of year require additional post-processing to reduce the uncertainty of the results. Establishing the overall data quality should be the first step for a meaningful, accurate and successful change analysis. In general we observe that due to the sun angle and persistent snow and cloud cover that obscures the land surface, high latitude regions tend to have the poorest data quality throughout the year. Similarly, the tropics with their almost perpetual cloud cover and extensive thick aerosols during the burn season show a high percentage of poor data during most of the year. These two major biomes, rainforest and boreal forest, that are subject to intense anthropogenic and climate change pressure are the most challenging to study. New data processing and analysis techniques are then needed to lessen the impact of these problems, fill the spatial and temporal gaps in order to reduce the uncertainty of these results.

Barreto-Munoz, A.; Didan, K.

2009-12-01

339

Can Advances in Science and Technology Prevent Global Warming? A Critical Review of Limitations and Challenges  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The most stringent emission scenarios published by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) would result in the stabilization of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) at concentrations of approximately 550 ppm which would produce a global temperature increase of at least 2 C by 2100. Given the large uncertainties regarding the potential risks associated with this degree of global warming, it would be more prudent to stabilize atmospheric CO2 concentrations at or below current levels which, in turn, would require a greater than 20-fold reduction (i.e., ?95%) in per capita carbon emissions in industrialized nations within the next 50 to 100 years. Using the Kaya equation as a conceptual framework, this paper examines whether CO2 mitigation approaches such as energy efficiency improvements, carbon sequestration, and the development of carbon-free energy sources would be sufficient to bring about the required reduction in per capita carbon emissions without creating unforeseen negative impacts elsewhere. In terms of energy efficiency, large improvements (?5-fold) are in principle possible given aggressive investments in R&D and if market imperfections such as corporate subsidies are removed. However, energy efficiency improvements per se will not result in a reduction in carbon emissions if, as predicted by the IPCC, the size of the global economy has expanded 12-26 fold by 2100. Terrestrial carbon sequestration via reforestation and improved agricultural soil management has many environmental advantages but has only limited CO2 mitigation potential because the global terrestrial carbon sink (ca. 200 Gt C) is small relative to the size of fossil fuel deposits (?4000 Gt C). By contrast, very large amounts of CO2 can potentially be removed from the atmosphere via sequestration in geologic formations and oceans, but carbon storage is not permanent and is likely to create many unpredictable environmental consequences. Renewable solar energy can in theory provide large amounts of carbon-free power. However, biomass and hydroelectric energy can only be marginally expanded and large-scale solar energy installations (i.e., wind, photovoltaics, and direct thermal) are likely to have significant negative environmental impacts. Expansion of nuclear energy is highly unlikely due to concerns over reactor safety, radioactive waste management, weapons proliferation, and cost. In view of the serious limitations and liabilities of many proposed CO2 mitigation approaches it appears that there remain only few no-regrets options such as drastic energy efficiency improvements, extensive terrestrial carbon sequestration, and cautious expansion of renewable energy generation. These promising CO2 mitigation technologies have the potential to bring about the required 20-fold reduction in per capita carbon emission only if population and economic growth are halted without delay. Thus, addressing the problem of global warming requires not only technological research and development but also a reexamination of core values that mistakenly equate material consumption and economic growth to happiness and well-being.

Huesemann, Michael H.

2006-07-03

340

The European Union as a Global Trade Actor: Challenges and Opportunities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article reviews the challenges and opportunities confronting the European Union in its trade and broader commercial policies, in what is a period of transition. The article begins by evaluating the foundations of the EU’s ‘actorness’ in trade policy, and in particular by identifying three underlying logics of EU policy development: the ‘internal’ logic, the ‘external’ logic and the ‘identity’ logic. The interaction between these logics is seen as driving the ways in which the EU enters into global trade relationships, and as accounting for tensions and contradictions in a number of areas. Subsequent sections of the article deal with the images presented by the EU in trade policy, with the EU’s changing position in world trade, with the current trade agenda and the new agenda of broader commercial policy. The article finishes with a review of potential future issues in EU trade and commercial policies, and with a reassessment of the ‘three logics’ and their interaction.

Michael SMITH

2010-04-01

 
 
 
 
341

Forward and pressure retarded osmosis: potential solutions for global challenges in energy and water supply.  

Science.gov (United States)

Osmotically driven membrane processes (ODMP) have gained renewed interest in recent years and they might become a potential solution for the world's most challenging problems of water and energy scarcity. Though the concept of utilizing osmotic pressure difference between high and low salinity streams across semipermeable membranes has been explored for several decades, lack of optimal membranes and draw solutions hindered competition between forward osmosis (FO) and pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) with existing water purification and power generation technologies, respectively. Driven by growing global water scarcity and by energy cost and negative environmental impacts, novel membranes and draw solutions are being developed for ODMPs, mass and heat transfer in osmotic process are becoming better understood, and new applications of ODMPs are emerging. Therefore, OMDPs might become promising green technologies to provide clean water and clean energy from abundantly available renewable resources. This review focuses primarily on new insights into osmotic membrane transport mechanisms and on novel membranes and draw solutions that are currently being developed. Furthermore, the effects of operating conditions on the overall performance of osmotic membranes will be highlighted and future perspectives will be presented. PMID:23778699

Klaysom, Chalida; Cath, Tazhi Y; Depuydt, Tom; Vankelecom, Ivo F J

2013-08-21

342

Improving the Global Energy Industry by Integrating Macro-Technologies: Challenges and Opportunities for Corporations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Emerging energy technologies and market evolution of some energy products, particularly natural gas, can converge to produce a new global scenario closer to the objectives of Sustainable Development, with a smooth transition that would avoid social and economic upheavals and could open a new cycle of growth and wealth. The first steps of unconventional gas production have induced stabilization in the gas spot price that should be continued to guarantee stable prices in the long term. Another line of development that should start a second phase of consolidation and cost reduction is the field of Renewable Energies. Besides research and technology advancements, a new financial deal could substitute for subsidies and feed-in tariffs. Last but not least, electric vehicles and other emerging technologies from the demand side will also have a main role in this quest to re-structure the Energy sector, where a new hierarchy of energy goods and energy applications will appear, and a better integral use of energy will take place. A main consequence of that will be a significant reduction of CO2 emissions, and a cheaper cost of energy, although fiscal policies could swallow this advantage. In this transition, which would likely last thirty years or so, energy corporations will have to face challenges and opportunities to consolidate their working and value-adding status.

Jose M. “Chema” Martínez-Val Piera

2013-12-01

343

The importance of global shocks for national policymakers - Rising challenges for central banks  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We analyze the importance of global shocks for the global economy and national policy makers. More specifically, we investigate whether monetary policy has become less effective in the wake of financial globalization. We also examine whether there is increasing uncertainty for central banks due to globalization-driven changes in the national economic structure. A FAVAR framework is applied to derive structural shocks on a worldwide level and their impact on other global and also national vari...

Belke, Ansgar; Rees, Andreas

2010-01-01

344

The importance of global shocks for national policymakers: Rising challenges for central banks  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We analyze the importance of global shocks for the global economy and national policy makers. More specifically, we investigate whether monetary policy has become less effective in the wake of financial globalization. We also examine whether there is increasing uncertainty for central banks due to globalization-driven changes in the national economic structure. A FAVAR framework is applied to derive structural shocks on a worldwide level and their impact on other global and also national vari...

Belke, Ansgar; Rees, Andreas

2009-01-01

345

The importance of global shocks for national policy makers: rising challenges for central banks  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We analyze the importance of global shocks for the global economy and national policy makers. More specifically, we investigate whether monetary policy has become less effective in the wake of financial globalization. We also examine whether there is increasing uncertainty for central banks due to globalization-driven changes in the national economic structure. A FAVAR framework is applied to derive structural shocks on a worldwide level and their impact on other global and also national vari...

Belke, Ansgar; Rees, Andreas

2009-01-01

346

The importance of global shocks for national policymakers: rising challenges for central banks  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We analyze the importance of global shocks for the global economy and national policy makers. More specifically, we investigate whether monetary policy has become less effective in the wake of financial globalization. We also examine whether there is increasing uncertainty for central banks due to globalization-driven changes in the national economic structure. A FAVAR framework is applied to derive structural shocks on a worldwide level and their impact on other global and also national vari...

2009-01-01

347

Healing the environment: part 2: a look at coalbed methane as a cost-effective means of addressing global climate change  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report explores the possibility of offsetting utility CO{sub 2} emissions with reductions in methane emissions from coal mines. Methane emissions from coal mining account for 7 to 12 per cent of global annual methane emissions. There are several technologies now available to capture rather than vent the methane gas, some of which are already cost-effective. The possibility is examined of the American Electric Power Company (AEP) trading reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions for reduction in methane emissions. This report suggests that the potential gains to the environment, the coal mining industry, and the utility industry of recovering coalbed methane are significant enough to warrant effort to address the concerns that are currently hampering coalbed methane utilization. 27 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

Werner, R.N.

1991-07-01

348

Opening Address [International Conference on Effective Nuclear Regulatory Systems: Further Enhancing the Global Nuclear Safety and Security Regime, Cape Town (South Africa), 14-18 December 2009  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nuclear energy is seen by many countries as providing a sustainable solution to energy security challenges. In this context, many developing countries are considering the establishment of nuclear power build programmes, while countries with mature nuclear programmes are considering the possibility of further expansion. The challenges facing countries that are embarking on this new venture include, inter alia, the development of policies, legislation as well as the establishment of appropriate institutions such as regulatory bodies with effective independence to take regulatory decisions. Regional and international cooperation and coordination are therefore of critical importance. Accordingly, the establishment of the Forum of Regulatory Bodies in Africa is a welcome initiative. We are pleased that the national nuclear programme in post-apartheid South Africa places us in a position to become active global participants in the safe use of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes. However, we all have an obligation to ensure that the presence of a plethora of cooperation mechanisms such as this body are as inclusive and as supportive as possible. This will help the global community of nations in reaping maximum benefits that surely should arise from these initiatives to ensure security of energy supply. We do not have the luxury to duplicate such bodies. The role of the International Atomic Energy Agency in nuclear safety and security cannot be over-emphasized. That alone is the reason that drove the liberation movement of the people of our country, and now the ruling party, fully to conform to all the treaties and conventions that have been drafted by this reputable institution of the peoples of the world. The same goes for the facilitation of cooperation and the sharing of knowledge and experience. The IAEA is invariably trusted to provide independent views and advice in order to strengthen safety and security while preserving the sovereignty, authority and responsibilities of Member States

2010-09-01

349

Talking my language [As the nuclear industry goes global, communication becomes a bigger challenge  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

'It's like the United Nations here' has become a familiar cry in offices and industrial plants around the world. Today, companies competing in global marketplaces seek the most talented staff and local knowledge by employing from an international rather than a local labour pool. This shift towards multinational personnel has been facilitated by the emergence of English as a global common language, which, unlike previous 'world languages', has penetrated all continents and all levels of society. The nuclear industry has been no exception to this internationalizing trend, despite its roots in many countries in national military programmes. Contributory factors have been the worldwide liberalization of energy markets and the slowdown in nuclear power development during the 1980s and 1990s, following the Three Mile Island and Chernobyl accidents. With economic pressures driving the globalization of the nuclear industry, and with internationalization of certain proliferation sensitive fuel cycle facilities being strongly advocated, cross-cultural and English-language competence will become evermore important for managers and engineers at nuclear facilities. This is related to economic pressures driving the globalization of the nuclear industry, and the strong advocacy for internationalization of certain proliferation-sensitive fuel cycle facilities. Those working in international organizations sometimes forget that such competences are still not the norm in industry, and can be difficult to acquire working on an isolated nuclear facility, remote from multicultural urban centres. They will become more common, as the English language assumes the importance of a basic skill alongside numeracy and literacy in education systems, and foreign travel and migration become more common. In the interim, it is essential that human resource managers offer appropriate training, and that professional translation and interpreting services be provided where necessary. A good way for future and existing managers to improve their cross-cultural competence, while learning about the various facets of nuclear energy, is to participate in one of the World Nuclear University (WNU) programmes. For example, the six week Summer Institute (SI) in Daejeon, South Korea in July- August 2007 will be attended by over a hundred young nuclear professionals and graduate students from over 35 countries. This is in addition to the 163 WNU 'Fellows' from 40 countries who have attended previous institutes in Idaho Falls and Stockholm. The WNU-SI comprises lectures by some of the world's foremost experts from the IAEA and industry, along with challenging leadership development tasks and technical tours. Other events being organized by the WNU Coordinating Centre in London for 2007 and 2008 also emphasize participation by a wide cross-section of learners from both developed and developing countries. They include forums for nuclear policy-makers and scientific advisers, and induction courses for executives joining the nuclear industry from other areas

2007-03-01

350

Evaluation of the first year of the Oxpal Medlink: A web-based partnership designed to address specific challenges facing medical education in the occupied Palestinian territories  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives To (1) evaluate educational needs of clinical students at Al-Quds University Medical School in the West Bank; (2) address these needs where possible using synchronous distance learning, with clinicians in Oxford providing case-based tutorials to undergraduates in the West Bank via an online platform (WizIQ) and (3) assess the impact of this education. Design Review of online OxPal Medlink database for tutorials held between March 2012 and April 2013. Needs assessment and evaluation of student and tutor experiences through online questionnaires, focus groups and semi-structured interviews. Setting Oxford University Hospitals, Oxford, UK, and Al-Quds University Medical School, Abu Dies, Palestine. Participants Doctors at Oxford University Hospitals and fourth-, fifth- and sixth-year medical students and faculty members at Al-Quds Medical School. Main outcome measures Number of tutorials, student participation, student-rated satisfaction and qualitative feedback from tutors and students. Results Students demonstrated strong theoretical knowledge but struggled to apply this in presentation-based scenarios. Between March 2012 and April 2013, 90 tutorials were delivered to 60 students. Feedback: >95% respondents rated tutorials as ‘Excellent’ or ‘Good’ and ‘Very’ or ‘Fairly’ relevant to their future practice in Palestine. Students reported the programme had modified their approach to patients but requested better synchronization with concurrent attachments and clarification of learning outcomes. Conclusions OxPal Medlink is a novel, web-based distance-learning partnership designed to overcome some of the challenges to local medical education in the occupied Palestinian territories. Evaluation of the first year indicates teaching is relevant to local practice and of high quality. This approach may have the potential to strengthen local capacity for medical education.

Ali, Mohammad A; Ali, Adam M; Patel, Ishita; MacGregor, Thomas; Shankar, Sushma; Cahill, Thomas J; Finlayson, Alexander ET; Mahmud, Imran

2014-01-01

351

Opening Address [FR09: International Conference on Fast Reactors and Related Fuel Cycles: Challenges and Opportunities, Kyoto (Japan), 7-11 December 2009  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Good morning, ladies and gentlemen. As Conference General Chair of the International Conference on Fast Reactors and Related Fuel Cycles (FR09) organized by the IAEA, and as a representative of the host organization for this conference, I would like to deliver an opening address. First of all, I would like to express my appreciation that so many participants, both from home and abroad, are attending this conference. Above all, I'm most grateful for the commitment that the International Advisory Committee, the International Scientific Programme Committee, the Local Organizational Committee and the Local Executive Committee members have shown in holding this year's conference, FR09. For this conference, about 750 participants have registered from 26 countries and three organizations (European Commission, OECD Nuclear Energy Agency, IAEA). I'm grateful that so many people are very interested in fast reactor development. Thinking back on the history of the conference of fast reactor systems, it all started back in 1974 in London. It then continued to be held every few years up until the fifth Kyoto conference in 1991. However, it has been suspended since then and so now, this year, the conference is being held for the first time in 18 years at the same location where we left off in 1991, the Kyoto International Conference Center. During this period, in the early 1990s, the FFTF and EBR-II experimental reactors in the United States of America were shut down. In 1991, the construction of the SNR-300 prototype reactor in Germany was cancelled for both economic and political reasons, and in 1994, the operation of the PFR prototype reactor was stopped in the United Kingdom. Then, in 1998, the Super Phenix demonstration reactor in France was also shut down. In Japan, there was a sodium leak accident at the Monju prototype reactor in 1995 during a plant performance test. On the other hand, since 2000, the importance of nuclear energy has been recognized once again as a global energy source for the new century. In 2000, the Generation IV International Forum and the IAEA's International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles were launched as a new framework for multilateral nuclear cooperation. In 2006, the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership started. There has been a new trend in fast reactor development in the nuclear renaissance worldwide. It has been reported that China's CEFR experimental reactor is nearly reaching criticality. The BN-800 demonstration reactor in the Russian Federation and India's PFBR prototype reactor are in preparation for construction. In Japan, Monju, which has long been suspended, is now being prepared for its restart within this fiscal year, by the end of March 2010, and the FaCT project has been promoted as one of the key national technologies aiming at the commercialization of future sodium cooled fast reactor cycles. Thus, global fast reactor development has just overcome a period of 'winter-like' hardship and has entered a new stage of commercialization. There are two key phrases to describe the new period of fast reactor development: 'stop global warming' and 'prevent the threat of nuclear weapons'. Regarding the global warming issue, 12 years ago, that is, in 1997, the Kyoto Protocol was adopted at the Third Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (COP3), which was held in Kyoto. The COP15 was held in Copenhagen with the goal of forming a framework for greenhouse gas reduction after 2013. We are aiming to achieve the world common target of reducing by half the emission of greenhouse gases by 2050. It is impossible to reach a solution on this issue without a long standing nuclear energy supply. Particularly when considering the recent rapid increase in the price of natural uranium, the necessity for fast reactor development should again be internationally recognized from the viewpoint of achieving significant effective utilization of uranium resources and decreasing the impact on the global environment, thanks to the reduction of

2012-03-01

352

Ministerial Presentation: United Kingdom [International Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Energy in the 21. Century: Addressing Energy Needs and Environmental Challenges, Beijing (China), 20-22 April 2009  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

I would firstly like to express gratitude to the Director General of the IAEA, Mohamed EIBaradei, for inviting Mike Q'Brien, the UK Minister of State for Energy, to address this conference. I know the Minister greatly respects the important work of the IAEA and would like to have been able to deliver this speech himself but, as I'm sure you can appreciate, there are many demands on his time with the fast moving developments in energy policy which is why he has asked me to make this speech on his behalf. Nuclear decision. As I'm sure you will be aware the UK government has taken the decision that it is in the public interest that new nuclear power stations should have a role to play in our country's future energy mix, alongside other low-carbon sources. This decision was reached in the context of the challenges of climate change and energy security. These are challenges that delegates in this room will be well familiar with. Adding urgency to these challenges in the UK is that 15% of electricity currently comes from nuclear power stations and that all but one of our power stations will shut by 2025. Significantly, the government believes that it is for energy companies to fund, develop and build new nuclear power stations in the UK and to meet the full cost of decommissioning and their full share of waste management costs. Our job in government is to work hard to create the right conditions for this investment. Our White Paper published in January last year set out a clear work programme of the key steps both industry and Government need to take in the next ten years to enable new build to happen. This is a partnership and we are committed to working with industry to do everything we can to remove unnecessary regulatory burdens and increase investor certainty. Facilitative actions. This translates into a number of key actions Government is taking. Firstly, in the area of reactor licensing we have introduced a form of pre-licensing - the Generic Design Assessment. This is an upfront assessment of generic aspects of reactor design which leads to economies over larger fleets as well as reduced regulatory uncertainty. Secondly, on siting we have legislated to streamline the planning system so that those aspects of siting which are strategic in nature are considered at the national level with only site specific criteria considered at the local level. And thirdly, in relation to waste and decommissioning funding, we have legislated to ensure developers put money aside from day one for eventual clean up. But of course there is still more to do. Challenges. For example, we know that the UK regulator will need additional resources to deal with its predicted future workload, with or without new build, and we are considering ways to ensure that our nuclear regulatory arrangements remain world-class We know that we must assess nominated sites for strategic suitability and we must continue our work to set the price energy companies will pay for the disposal of waste. And throughout all of our work we must remain alive to the possibility of legal challenge. Timescale and Industry interest. Although there is still much to do and doubtless challenges ahead we are confident we will able to deliver what we have promised Our work will enable energy companies to: make planning applications from 2010, begin construction of the first new nuclear power station between 2013 and 2014, start operation between 2017 and 2020. As I said, we are confident we will deliver this framework and this confidence is reflected in the growing evidence of industry interest in the UK nuclear market. We started this year with EdF investing Pounds 12.5bn buying British Energy. We have seen eleven sites nominated for possibly hosting our new generation of nuclear power stations. [And an auction of potential sites for new nuclear power stations currently owned by the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority and EdF is still ongoing with those involved showing significant interest] [NWl] UK Offer. We also believe that the industry in the UK will be ready to support such prog

2009-04-20

353

World environmental policy. Conceptual approaches of German political science in response to the challenges of Global Change; Weltumweltpolitik - Global Change als Herausforderung fuer die deutsche Politikwissenschaft  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes, first, the international community of social scientists working on global change, and elaborates on possible contributions to this community by German political scientists. Second, the paper examines three new conceptual approaches to analysing global change, namely the Syndromes of Global Change approach, Earth System Analysis, and Sustainability Science. The paper then elaborates on a number of ways in which German political science could respond to the academic and political challenges posed by global change. It concludes by emphasizing the need for a new approach, focusing on 'world environmental policy analysis' that would bridge traditional (environmental) policy analysis, international relations research, and comparative politics. (orig.) [German] Der Aufsatz beschreibt die Wissenschaftslandschaft der internationalen sozialwissenschaftlichen Global-Change-Forschung mit besonderem Augenmerk auf moegliche Beitraege der deutschen Politologie. Mit den 'Syndromen des Globalen Wandels', der 'Erdsystemanalyse' und der 'Nachhaltigkeitswissenschaft' werden drei neuere konzeptionelle Innovationen vorgestellt, mit denen der Herausforderung des Globalen Wandels begegnet werden soll. Anschliessend werden Wege skizziert, wie die Politikwissenschaft auf die neuen gesellschaftlichen und wissenschaftlichen Probleme des Globalen Wandels reagieren koennte. Eine Schlussfolgerung ist ein Plaedoyer fuer die Entwicklung einer eigenstaendigen Weltumweltpolitik-Analyse an der Schnittstelle von traditioneller Policy-Analyse, Internationalen Beziehungen/Aussenpolitik sowie Komparatistik. (orig./CB)

Biermann, F. [Potsdam-Institut fuer Klimafolgenforschung (PIK), Potsdam (Germany); Dingwerth, K. [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany). Fachbereich Politik- und Sozialwissenschaften

2001-12-01

354

Ministerial Presentation: Canada [International Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Energy in the 21. Century: Addressing Energy Needs and Environmental Challenges, Beijing (China), 20-22 April 2009  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Government of Canada extends its appreciation to the IAEA, the OECD/NEA and the Government of the People's Republic of China for organizing this International Ministerial Conference. The Honourable Lisa Raitt, Minister of Natural Resources, has asked me to convey her regrets at not being able to be here today. Let me begin by saying that Canada fully supports the objectives of this meeting. We face both auspicious opportunities and significant challenges as we witness increasing interest in the use of nuclear technologies to meet development needs, satisfy energy demands and mitigate the threat of climate change. Four years after the Paris Ministerial Conference, we believe that the time is appropriate to take stock of the many developments since then, and to continue our dialogue on future actions to carry forward the positive momentum that nuclear power has witnessed in recent years. Canada recognizes the contributions made by safe, secure nuclear energy to global energy security, the economy and the environment. We believe that nuclear power has a vital role, both domestically and internationally. For Canada, nuclear energy is now, and will continue to be, an important part of our energy supply mix. Our nuclear industry, based on uranium supply and CANDU heavy water reactors, is making a substantial contribution to the Canadian economy. Canada currently has 17 operational nuclear power reactors that produce 15% of our electricity requirements. Nine CANDU reactors are also operating in other countries around world. Canada also recognizes the contribution made to our environment by nuclear energy. By generating electricity from CANDU reactors, we are able to simultaneously reduce greenhouse gas emissions as well as other airborne pollutants. I think it is clear that nuclear energy will play an increasingly important role in striking a balance between our need for energy and our need to protect our environment, and that is certainly true in Canada where we have made an aggressive commitment to 90 and of our electricity being generated by non greenhouse gas emitting sources by 2020. There are prospects for new nuclear plant construction across Canada. In addition to the Ontario bid, the Government of New Brunswick is examining the feasibility of building a second reactor in the province; and the Governments of Alberta and Saskatchewan are both examining the potential use of nuclear power to meet their future energy needs. The major refurbishment programs underway and planned in Ontario, New Brunswick and Quebec will extend the life of CANDU reactors for 25-30 years, thereby ensuring an ongoing clean and reliable source of power for Canadians. With a solid domestic base, Canada has much to offer the international community and we look forward to sharing our capabilities as a responsible nuclear supplier country. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) is well prepared to advance Canadian technology and is currently pursuing the development of the third generation of CANDU reactor - the Advanced CANDU Reactor - an evolutionary technology based on the CANDU 6 design. The Government, as shareholder, stands fully behind AECL as it pursues commercial opportunities in home and global markets. In addition, the Government announced a review of AECL last year as part of our due diligence and our commitment to good governance and responsible management. Canada also has significant uranium resources, and currently produces 20% of the world's uranium, 85% of which is exported. These exports, including converted uranium, contribute to the reliable supply of nuclear fuel for power plants around the world. Exports of Canadian-origin uranium are subject to IAEA safeguards and bilateral nuclear cooperation agreements that assure it is used for peaceful purposes. Canada's uranium industry also operates under stringent environmental, health and safety regulations, and has an excellent environmental track record. As we look forward, we see a future which is as full of promise and optimism as it was at the start of the nuclear era. Canada i

2009-04-20

355

AI Grand Challenges for Education  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article focuses on contributions that AI can make to address long-term educational goals. It describes five challenges that would support: (1) mentors for every learner; (2) learning twenty-first century skills; (3) interaction data to support learning; (4) universal access to global classrooms; and (5) lifelong and life-wide learning. A vision and brief research agenda are described for each challenge along with goals that lead to access to global educational resources and the reuse and...

Woolf, Beverly Park University Of Massachusetts; Lane, H. Chad University Of Southern California; Chaudhri, Vinay K. Sri International; Kolodner, Janet L. Georgia Institute Of Technology

2013-01-01

356

Substantive Global Challenges to Development of the World Economy and their Influence upon the Economic Security of a State ????????????????? ?????????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ????????? ? ?? ??????? ?? ????????????? ???????????? ???????????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article studies substantive global challenges to development of the world economy under the conditions of intensification of the processes of integration, trans-nationalisation and globalisation of the world economy as the highest stage of its internationalisation in the planetary scale. It reveals and analyses main challenges to development of the global economy and studies their influence upon economic security of a state. It conducts a deep objective scientific analysis and system comprehension of new world realities from the point of view of main provisions of the modern institutional economic theory. It reveals and justifies essential aspects and existing contradictions of the developing processes of globalisation, internationalisation and trans-nationalisation. It pays a special attention to the study of influence of the said processes upon functioning of subjects of the world economic system. It analyses further prospects, directions, rates and general trends of the socio-economic development of national economies of the countries of the world.? ?????? ??????????? ????????????????? ?????????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ????????? ? ???????? ???????? ????????? ??????????, ??????????????????? ? ???????????? ??????? ????????? ??? ?????? ?????? ?? ??????????????????? ? ??????????? ????????. ???????? ? ???????????????? ???????? ?????? ???????? ?????????? ????????? ? ??????????? ?? ??????? ?? ????????????? ???????????? ???????????. ????????? ??????????? ??????????? ??????? ?????? ? ????????? ?????????? ????? ??????? ?????? ? ??????? ???????? ????????? ??????????? ????????????????? ????????????? ??????. ???????? ? ?????????? ?????????? ??????? ? ???????????? ???????????? ?????????? ????????? ????????? ????????????, ??????????????????? ? ???????????????????. ?????? ???????? ??????? ???????????? ??????? ?????????????? ????????? ?? ???????????????? ????????? ??????? ????????????? ???????. ???????????????? ?????????? ???????????, ???????????, ????? ? ????? ?????????????? ?????????-?????????????? ???????? ???????????? ???????? ????? ????.

Ivashina Alexander F.

2013-08-01

357

The global financial crisis: Countercyclical fiscal policy issues and challenges in Malaysia, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Singapore  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Several countries have employed countercyclical fiscal policy to ameliorate the impact of the global financial crisis. This study identifies some of the issues and policy implications associated with this policy response in developing countries. Included are case studies of four developing countries in the Asian region - Malaysia, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Singapore. The findings point to a rich diversity in both the size and composition of fiscal stimulus and the challenges which are c...

Doraisarni, Anita

2011-01-01

358

Problems and Challenges of Global Sourcing : A Study of Chinese Manufacturing Enterprises  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background:Scholars tend to view global sourcing as a one-way street, whereby multinational manufacturers from developed countries purchase low-cost materials and products from developing countries. Undoubtedly, one of the purchasing bases for them is China because of its abundant resources and cheap labor. That is why China is aptly called the “Global Factory.” Conversely, few Chinese manufactures currently adopt a global sourcing strategy. However, the higher demand for technical qualit...

Jiang, Chunnan; Tian, Yue

2010-01-01

359

Joint enterprise and the role of the intermediator : Challenges managing groupware in global virtual teams  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Managing groupware technologies in global virtual teams is viewed as a process of integrating technology and collaboration. This involves a continual negotia-tion of the team’s goals, processes, and technology. We investigate organizational factors constraining this integration process, by analyzing the failure of inte-grating groupware into two global virtual teams within industry. We present an empirically driven interpretive case study conducted in a large distributed global or-ganizatio...

Bjørn, Pernille; Simonsen, Jesper

2005-01-01

360

Global nuclear industry views: challenges arising from the evolution of the optimisation principle in radiological protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Over the last few decades, the steady progress achieved in reducing planned exposures of both workers and the public has been admirable in the nuclear sector. However, the disproportionate focus on tiny public exposures and radioactive discharges associated with normal operations came at a high price, and the quasi-denial of a risk of major accident and related weaknesses in emergency preparedness and response came at an even higher price. Fukushima has unfortunately taught us that radiological protection (RP) for emergency and post-emergency situations can be much more than a simple evacuation that lasts 24–48 h, with people returning safely to their homes soon afterwards. On optimisation of emergency and post-emergency exposures, the only ‘show in town’ in terms of international RP policy improvements has been the issuance of the 2007 Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). However, no matter how genuine these improvements are, they have not been ‘road tested’ on the practical reality of severe accidents. Post-Fukushima, there is a compelling case to review the practical adequacy of key RP notions such as optimisation, evacuation, sheltering, and reference levels for workers and the public, and to amend these notions with a view to making the international RP system more useful in the event of a severe accident. On optimisation of planned exposures, the reality is that, nowadays, margins for further reductions of public doses in the nuclear sector are very small, and the smaller the dose, the greater the extra effort needed to reduce the dose further. If sufficient caution is not exercised in the use of RP notions such as dose constraints, there is a real risk of challenging nuclear power technologies beyond safety reasons. For nuclear new build, it is the optimisation of key operational parameters of nuclear power technologies (not RP) that is of paramount importance to improve their overall efficiency. In pursuing further improvements in the international RP system, it should be clearly borne in mind that the system is generally based on protection against the risk of cancer and hereditary diseases. The system also protects against deterministic non-cancer effects on tissues and organs. In seeking refinements of such protective notions, ICRP is invited to pay increased attention to the fact that a continued balance must be struck between beneficial activities that cause exposures and protection. The global nuclear industry is committed to help overcome these key RP issues as part of the RP community’s upcoming international deliberations towards a more efficient international RP system.

2011-10-24

 
 
 
 
361

Ministerial Presentation: Republic of Korea [International Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Energy in the 21. Century: Addressing Energy Needs and Environmental Challenges, Beijing (China), 20-22 April 2009  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

I would first like to extend my sincere appreciation and gratitude for allowing me to speak in this forum where the most influential decision-makers of the energy policy and the experts in nuclear power have gathered together to discuss the important energy issues facing us today. This forum is indeed crucial, and should be held on a continuing basis if we are to solve the colossal challenges we face in energy, as represented by the depletion of fossil fuel energy and the climate change. I sincerely hope that this forum will take a serious look at the future role of nuclear power as the global energy source, and provide a basis for a meaningful discussion on issues related to energy on a global scale. Due to the recent fluctuation in oil prices and issues related to climate change, the world is paying a renewed attention to nuclear energy that is not only a stable source of energy but produces less greenhouse gas. The Korean government announced the national agenda, so-called ''Low-carbon, Green-growth'' to join the global efforts to tackle climate change. The Korean government recognizes the importance of nuclear power technology in achieving the Low-carbon Green-growth strategy and strongly supports its research and development activities. As part of our effort for this, Korea will lower the national dependency rate on fossil fuels such as oil and gas, while significantly increasing the share of nuclear energy and renewable energy. It has been half a century since nuclear power was first introduced to Korea. So far, the Korean government has heavily invested in research and development of nuclear energy, believing in the unlimited possibility of nuclear power. As a result, Korea started the commercial operation of Gori No. 1 nuclear power plant in 1978 which has grown to 20 nuclear power plants to this day. Today, Korea ranks 6th in the world in nuclear energy development. Korea has gone through continuous innovation in nuclear energy technology during the past 30 years. As a result, we have developed and is currently utilizing Korea Standard Type nuclear plant OPR-1000 as well as high-efficiency advanced nuclear fuel. More recently, we were able to enjoy significant achievement by developing the next-generation nuclear reactor APR-1400. Korea has actively participated in the international cooperation project for the development of future nuclear reactor system, which is for making nuclear power a sustainable energy source for the future with improved safety and environmental friendliness. Korea has established the ''Long-term Plan for Developing Future Nuclear Energy System'' in December 2008 and actively participated in the Generation IV International Forum (GIF) which is a program initiated by IAEA for developing future nuclear powered energy system. Korea will continue to be strongly committed to the peaceful and efficient use of nuclear energy and work with international community to contribute to the development of nuclear power facility and nuclear fuel cycle. Distinguished guests! As you are well aware, the rights to use nuclear power are bestowed only to those that have earned international trust and transparency by faithfully observing bilateral and multi-lateral agreements. Korea has made efforts to build trust and transparency in the international community by using nuclear power in a safe and peaceful manner. We are implementing national-level measures to strengthen the nuclear power control system including revision of legal framework and organizational restructuring, as well as faithfully observing the obligations outlined by IAEA in the Full-scope Safeguard Agreement and Additional Protocol. Korea will continue to pursue safe use of nuclear power in Korea as well as work towards gaining international trust through the international verification process in order to enhance our status as the advanced country in the use of nuclear energy technology. The world has been utilizing nuclear energy for the last 50 years. The role of nuclear energy has become more important in achieving sustainable development be

2009-04-20

362

Ministerial Presentation: Jordan. Why Nuclear? [International Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Energy in the 21. Century: Addressing Energy Needs and Environmental Challenges, Beijing (China), 20-22 April 2009  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The recent renaissance of nuclear power in the industrialized countries is not the only factor driving the interest of nuclear power in developing countries. The necessity for nuclear power in developing countries, and in particular the Middle East, is most often misunderstood by the industrialized countries, due to the abundance of oil and gas in the region . However, large disparities exist between countries of the region with per-capita consumption 0.1 toe/yr for Sudan to 34 toe/yr for Qatar. The greatest expansion of energy demand over the coming decades will be in the developing world. Global predictions of energy demand and supply are misleading for policy or planning needs. Regional and, even better, national detailed projections are more accurate. A point of illustration is the Middle East, where the conventional opinion is of a 'rich' oil-producing region. On a country-by-country basis, it is clear that many countries in the Middle East, are actually suffering under the toll of high oil prices. A case in point is Jordan, where more than 20 percent of the national budget is spent to import energy. The uncertainty of energy supplies and their increasing costs are severely affecting the growth of my country's economy and its security. Jordan imports more than 95 percent of its energy needs. Hence, the development of secure alternative energy supplies is a top priority for the country. Jordan has limited options to substitute for oil products. The chief option is imported natural gas, which can displace oil but is a short- to mid-term option and cannot be relied upon for the long term and should be used as a peaking source. Renewables will be developed to their fullest extent but have their well known limitations. Our vision is to utilize nuclear energy to transform Jordan from a net energy importer to a net electricity exporter by 2030. By that date, according to the National Nuclear Strategy, 30% of the Jordan's electricity needs will be met by nuclear power, with excess production to be made available for export. Jordan has been seriously exploring nuclear power as a long-term alternative for electricity generation, water desalination, and as insurance for both energy security and future volatility of oil and natural gas prices. Nuclear energy is an important alternative to fossil fuels and is a particularly important component in a low-carbon energy strategy. In this regard, I urge this Conference to call for the inclusion of nuclear energy in the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) of any future climate change negotiations. Nuclear power also maximizes and leverages Jordan's indigenous uranium resources. The Kingdom is endowed with rich uranium resources which have not been fully explored, with estimated reasonably assured resources of about 70,000 metric tons of uranium oxide in Central Jordan with additional quantities that could be extracted as byproduct of phosphoric acid production. There are, however, many challenges standing in the way of introducing nuclear power in Jordan such as the high investment cost, the need for skilled engineers and technicians, the limited suitable sites for power plants, the lack of adequate water sources for cooling, and the volatile regional political climate. Since 2001, Jordan has been developing a national strategy for civilian nuclear power. But only in January 2008, that Jordan's parliament empowered the Jordan Atomic Energy Commission (JAEC) to lead the national effort and implement the Kingdom's nuclear strategy ---to be the Nuclear Power Implementation Organization (NEPIO) for the country. Furthermore and In compliance with the best of international practices, the parliament established an independent Jordan Nuclear Regulatory Commission (JNRC), to promulgate the needed legal, regulatory, and security framework for the introduction of nuclear power. JAEC has concluded nuclear cooperation agreements with France, China, South Korea, Canada, and will conclude two soon with Russia and UK. One of our major challenges, and in fact a common challenge to all, is development of

2009-04-20

363

Ministerial Presentation: Lithuania [International Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Energy in the 21. Century: Addressing Energy Needs and Environmental Challenges, Beijing (China), 20-22 April 2009  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Lithuania is a state that has nuclear power plant with two RBMK type reactors. The first one was shut down in the end of the year 2004 and the second one has to be closed at the end of this year. We are facing two main challenges for the Baltic States when tackling the issue of Security of Energy Supply: The energy systems of the Baltic States are interconnected between each other, but almost totally separated from the Western European energy systems. In addition, electricity supplies from the eastern neighbours are also limited. After the scheduled INPP closure at the end of 2009, the Baltic energy system as the 'Energy Island' may face electricity supply shortages; Natural gas and oil pipelines come to the Baltic States from one direction. All three countries depend on one supplier. The closure of Ignalina NPP will even worsen the situation with the increase of natural gas use for fossil fuel power plants. What solutions do we see? Development of electricity interconnections; Additional electricity generation capacities in the region; Supply of the natural gas to the region; Oil supply to the region. Nuclear energy development. We closely follow global energy trend which shows growing energy demands and consequently significant increase in future nuclear power contribution. National Energy Strategy of Lithuania foresees rapid economic grow which is the key factor having direct impact on energy consumption and at the same time on electricity demand. Nuclear power is the largest source of energy in Lithuania, accounting for approx. 70% of the electricity produced. Lithuania has already announced its decision to expand nuclear power by building a new nuclear power plant jointly with Estonia, Latvia and Poland. The new plant titled as Visaginas Nuclear Power Plant is planned to be built in 2015 and located near existing Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant. Visaginas NPP is intended to secure energy supply to whole Baltic region. Given the fact that the project is regional, its implementation is more complex, complicated and slower than it appears. Implementation requires constant coordination among all partners participating in project. We are glad that there are already some steps accomplished which I want to share with you. After the political declaration of the three Baltic States on the construction of a common nuclear power plant Lithuania started to consider project related environmental issues. The Environmental Impact Assessment Program (EIA) was approved by the Lithuanian Ministry of Environment on November 15th, 2007 after extensive national and international commenting. In August 2008 EIA report has been prepared and presented to the public. Environmental impact assessment evaluated construction and operation of a new nuclear power plant in Lithuania with an approximate electric power of 3400 MW. The environmental impact assessment did not find any environmental or social impacts of such significance, caused by construction or operation of the new NPP, that they could not be accepted or mitigated to an acceptable level. Lithuania has established the National investor company LEO LT which is responsible for the implementation and development of New Nuclear Power Plant project. LEO LT is going to bear 100% of Lithuania's participation share in the project. The step forward to project implementation was establishing a new LEO LT subsidiary - 'Visaginas nuclear power plant'. A new subsidiary will perform all the new NPP project related preparatory works. While discussing nuclear power expansion we have to think about expansion of human resources as well. The National Energy Strategy gives the national priority to ensure timely preparation of specialists for work in the new nuclear power plant as of the phase of mounting its technological equipment. In this respect Lithuania has developed a National programme for the preparation of nuclear energy specialists for the years 2008-2015. Taking into account all those mentioned activities related to safe operation, decommissioning and future plans related to nuclear power expansi

2009-04-20

364

Meeting the Challenge of Earthquake Risk Globalisation: Towards the Global Earthquake Model GEM (Sergey Soloviev Medal Lecture)  

Science.gov (United States)

Earthquake risk, like natural risks in general, has become a highly dynamic and globally interdependent phenomenon. Due to the "urban explosion" in the Third World, an increasingly complex cross linking of critical infrastructure and lifelines in the industrial nations and a growing globalisation of the world's economies, we are presently facing a dramatic increase of our society's vulnerability to earthquakes in practically all seismic regions on our globe. Such fast and global changes cannot be captured with conventional earthquake risk models anymore. The sciences in this field are, therefore, asked to come up with new solutions that are no longer exclusively aiming at the best possible quantification of the present risks but also keep an eye on their changes with time and allow to project these into the future. This does not apply to the vulnerablity component of earthquake risk alone, but also to its hazard component which has been realized to be time-dependent, too. The challenges of earthquake risk dynamics and -globalisation have recently been accepted by the Global Science Forum of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD - GSF) who initiated the "Global Earthquake Model (GEM)", a public-private partnership for establishing an independent standard to calculate, monitor and communicate earthquake risk globally, raise awareness and promote mitigation.

Zschau, J.

2009-04-01

365

Opening address  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Discusses the importance of coal to Australia and addresses: the issue of coal contract prices; the role of the Government's export control policy with regard to prices; the response of the Government to the Mabo issue, as a basis for underpinning investment confidence in the coal mining industry; and the need for further performance improvement in the industry.

Loosley, S.

1993-01-01

366

The UK's Global Gas Challenge: 27-28 November | UK Energy ...  

Nov 12, 2013 ... 12.10 The Impact of North American Shale Gas Development on Global Gas ... \\carries out world-class research into sustainable future energy systems. ... \\development of producing nations and the geo-political aspects of all ...

367

THE HUMAN INTEGRAL DEVELOPMENT: A CHALLENGE FOR THE COMMUNITARIAN DEVELOPMENT IN THE GLOBALIZATION PROCESSES  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The predominance of the things on the people, the materialistic character of the human motivation, is what it is predominating in the globalization processes which we are facing. For "those of above" it is more and more important to face the war of the competition and his fight by the power, and "for those of below", the fight by the cultural and social survival. We are immersed in a neoliberalism that concealingly impels us to an untenable process of globalization based on th...

2005-01-01

368

Ministerial Presentation: Japan. Statement by H. E. Ms. Seiko Noda [International Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Energy in the 21. Century: Addressing Energy Needs and Environmental Challenges, Beijing (China), 20-22 April 2009  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On behalf of the Government of Japan, I would like to offer my warmest congratulations on the successful holding of the International Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Energy in the 21st Century, here in Beijing. The importance of nuclear energy as a measure against global warming. We are currently facing serious challenges. It is vital to the prosperity of humanity that all countries strive for coordination and cooperation to resolve those issues such as scarcity of food, poverty, and terrorism, in addition to the economic crisis which has shaken up the world economy since last year. In particular, measures against global warming are key issues, to which all countries must unite and respond promptly, effectively and sustainably over an extended period. At the Annual Meeting of the World Economic Forum (Davos Meeting) in this January, Prime Minister of Japan, Mr. Taro Aso, mentioned the goal of reducing the global greenhouse-gas emissions at least by half, by the year of 2050. He stressed that the Post-Kyoto framework should be all inclusive to achieve this goal, with all the big emitters joining as responsible partners. The current year is a crucial one, in which to establish the framework for 2013 and beyond. The cooperation of all countries is required more than ever. I believe that, in order to achieve a significant reduction in global greenhouse-gas emissions while ensuring secure energy supply, the expansion of the peaceful use of nuclear energy is essential, along with the maximum implementation of other effective measures such as energy conservation, energy efficiency improvement and the use of renewable energy. Recently, this role of nuclear energy has been widely recognized over the world. In the 4th Assessment Report, published in 2007 by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), nuclear energy, which emits minimal greenhouse gases, is described as one of major mitigation technologies in the energy supply area. The International Energy Agency (IEA) of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) suggested in its 'World Energy Outlook 2008' that the nuclear energy supply should be doubled in 2030 from the current figure, in order to achieve the 2050 target of halving the greenhouse-gas emissions. Last year at G8 Hokkaido-Toyako Summit, the Leaders pointed out in their declaration, that a growing number of countries have expressed their interests in nuclear power programs as a means to addressing climate change and energy security concerns. Approach toward the expansion of peaceful use of nuclear energy on a global scale. From the perspective of further promoting the peaceful use of nuclear energy on a global scale in a manner that ensures nuclear non-proliferation, nuclear safety and nuclear security, Japan is determined to play its important role as a leading country, focusing its effort on the following two approaches: Firstly, Japan will try to make it an internationally accepted common perception that the peaceful use of nuclear energy is an essential measure against global warming. This common perception would help the development of effective international frameworks for further promotion of the use of nuclear energy. Japan has been making efforts in the Forum for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia (FNCA), which is a cooperation of 10 countries in the region. At the Ministerial-Level Meeting in December 2007, a Joint Communique on 'the Peaceful Use of Nuclear Energy for Sustainable Development' was issued. In the communique, it was decided that they work towards raising global awareness that, in the Post-Kyoto framework, it is important to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy as a clean energy source, and to recognize that nuclear energy should be considered in the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). This joint communique was circulated within the IAEA member states as INFCIRC/725. Also in the ministerial-level Executive Committee of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) held in October 2008 in Paris, a joint statement of similar contents to the FNCA Joint Communique w

2009-04-20

369

Ministerial Presentation: France [International Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Energy in the 21. Century: Addressing Energy Needs and Environmental Challenges, Beijing (China), 20-22 April 2009  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Let me begin by offering my warmest thanks to our Chinese hosts, who have perfectly organised this important international conference. I would also like to thank Mohamed ElBaradei, Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency, as well as all of the participants - the calibre of those in attendance today is a clear sign of the world's interest in the IAEA and the peaceful use of nuclear energy. France attaches great importance to the work carried out within the framework of the IAEA. In fact, this conference in China is the second one of its kind, following the very successful one that was held in France in 2005. Nuclear energy's current success can be explained by the fact it represents one of the solutions to today's energy challenges. Today, there is no longer any doubt - climate change is threatening the planet. Fossil fuel resources are finite as well as the source of greenhouse gases. In both developed and developing countries, energy is one of the key factors in socio-economic development. In such a context, nuclear energy plays a crucial role. In 1974, my country made a large-scale shift over to nuclear energy for its electricity needs. Today, France boasts 58 nuclear reactors that produce 80% of our electricity. They have given us greater energy independence and security, and allowed us to limit our greenhouse gas emissions. Among the OECD countries, France is the fourth largest consumer of energy, but in terms of CO2 emissions per unit of GDP, we are in 27th place. We emit 30 to 40% less carbon dioxide per inhabitant than our large European neighbours. In addition, France's decision to reprocess spent fuel in order to recycle useable components and optimise waste handling has allowed it to implement sustainable management of nuclear fuel. It is remarkable that between the 2005 Paris conference and today the development of nuclear energy around the world has continued unabated More and more nations have chosen or are considering choosing nuclear energy, particularly developing nations (cf. the declarations made during the conference) Efforts by multilateral bodies such as the IAEA and the OECD's Nuclear Energy Agency to help these states develop a peaceful and responsible use of nuclear energy are crucial. In particular, I would like to point out the IAEA's vital work that led to the publication of ''Milestones in the Development of a National Infrastructure for Nuclear Power''. France's public services, companies, universities and research centres contribute their expertise and play an active part in this international cooperation, the goal of which is to share the benefits of peaceful nuclear energy use, while strictly complying with safety, security and non-proliferation standards. For France, nuclear energy rests on a sound technological and economic foundation France acquired considerable experience with its first- and second- generation reactors, and today we are in a position to put ground- breaking advances to work within a tried and true technology; I am speaking of the third-generation EPR reactors, and France's global offer that encompasses every part of the nuclear cycle. We believe that the fourth-generation reactors are quite promising, and France is taking an active role in international R and D efforts concerning the systems of the future. We believe in the promising long term developments of the ITER project, hosted by France. The IAEA is providing a remarkable contribution to it. Finally, our experience, backed by a number of international studies, shows that nuclear energy is economically competitive and offers an attractive alternative to fossil fuels. All of these points explain why a number of States are anxious to develop this form of energy. However, we must always keep in mind that nuclear energy implies certain responsibilities, and must form part of an overarching energy strategy. I would like to point out straight away the strict compliance with the agreements made in the area of non-proliferation. In particular, I want to stress the emphasis that France places on the IAE

2009-04-20

370

American Universities in a Global Market  

Science.gov (United States)

In higher education, the United States is the preeminent global leader, dominating the list of the world's top research universities. But there are signs that America's position of global leadership will face challenges in the future, as it has in other realms of international competition. "American Universities in a Global Market" addresses the…

Clotfelter, Charles T., Ed.

2010-01-01

371

Multinational enterprises in an integrated global economy: a challenge for trans-national trade unions cooperation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hasta el momento, la globalización parece haber promovido una creciente inte-gración económica, permitiendo un aumento en los volúmenes de comercio, tanto globales como regionales, como también un aumento en la movilidad del capital. Las empresas multinacionales (EM, precisamente por la movilidad de su capital, logran ventajas, incidiendo en los mercados de trabajo y estimulando un ?circulo vicioso? en que sindicatos y gobiernos que participan en una ?carrera hacia abajo? en torno a la regulación de las condiciones de trabajo. Este artículo analiza los roles, estrategias y desafíos que enfrentan los sindicatos en el futuro inmediato, tanto al nivel regional (Europa como global.

Domenico Buccella

2007-01-01

372

Ministerial Presentation: Bangladesh. Statement by Arch. Yeafesh Osman [International Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Energy in the 21. Century: Addressing Energy Needs and Environmental Challenges, Beijing (China), 20-22 April 2009  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is indeed a great pleasure and honour for me to have the opportunity to participate in this august gathering of International Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Energy in the 21st century. At the outset I avail of this opportunity to express my heartfelt gratitude to Chinese Atomic Energy Agency (CAEA) and the Government of the People's Republic of China (PRC) for the initiative and interest of hosting this important event in Beijing. I express my profound sense of gratefulness for the firm commitment, moral, material and intellectual support of the IAEA and its Member States which enabled organization of this important conference. The history of IAEA is a history of solidarity and the joint actions of the member states, an icon of joint collaboration for 'Atom For Peace Program'. I am confident that this conference will allow the participants to address development and emerging issues relevant to the role of nuclear power in providing clean and sustainable energy for the 21st Century. The conference will also provide an opportunity to review the status and prospects of nuclear power to carry forward the positive momentum to further raise the profile of Nuclear Energy. Respected Delegates, We all share a common understanding that nuclear science and technology is now conceived as a potential instrument of change and can play a decisive and pivotal role in efforts of achieving the much coveted goal of poverty alleviation. For ensuring sustainable development energy security is the most important strategic issue for all in the 21st Century. Global warming from greenhouse gases caused by excessive and imprudent use of fossil fuels, is a problem we must overcome together to achieve sustainable development. Meanwhile, Asia is displaying a high growth rate in both population and economic development. Therefore, the low energy consumption per capita at present will see a rapid and constant increase in demand in the near future. As such, great importance is attached to the promotion of nuclear power programme and cooperation among Asian countries for their collective response to the future energy demand and expansion of Nuclear Power Program (NPP). We deem, IAEA should come up to face this reality that we share a common fate on this crowded planet. To attain the goals of cooperation, it is imperative to combine four elements: a clear objective, an effective technology, a clear implementation strategy, and last but not the least a source of funding. The greatest challenges of our generation are energy and food security, environment, population boom, and poverty. These are at the same time our most exciting opportunities too. Ours is the generation which has the potential to eradicate extreme poverty to a remarkably substantial degree. We can turn the tide against climate change and steer forward a reversing process of massive extinction of other species. Ours is the generation that can, and must solve the unresolved conundrum of combining economic well-being with energy security and environmental sustainability. We need Nuclear Technology and professionalism, but first of all we need a meaningful and effective collaboration and cooperation having interfaces among the concerned. Bangladesh is well aware of the new challenges that the nation has to confront in the present context of globalization as well as multiple problems arising with dynamics of time in domestic development. Our Honorable Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina MP has declared her government's firm determination to bring about a meaningful change in the country. Her vision is to develop a 'Digital Bangladesh' by 2021, a poverty free mid-level developed country. The present strategy of the Government comprises of a comprehensive package approach envisaging poverty reduction and socioeconomic development. For this reliable supply of energy and electricity is a precondition. It is worth mentioning that access to electricity is a constitutional right of the citizens of Bangladesh. Accordingly the government has the vision to provide electricity to all by 2021. Over the year

2009-04-20

373

Global Crisis of Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis and Leadership of China and the BRICS: Challenges and Opportunities. Summary of a Joint Workshop.  

Science.gov (United States)

Since 2008, the Forum on Drug Discovery, Development, and Translation (the Forum) of the Institute of Medicine (IOM) has hosted or cohosted six domestic and international workshops addressing the global crisis of drug-resistant (DR) tuberculosis (TB).

A. B. Claiborne R. A. English S. Olson

2014-01-01

374

Global nuclear renaissance - today's issues, challenges and differences relative to the first wave of nuclear plant projects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The development and negotiation of an Engineering, Procurement and Construction (EPC) contract is a multi-disciplined and time consuming process. Relative to the first wave on new nuclear build projects of the 1950's - 1970's, today's EPC contracts are more complex for a variety of reasons including more demanding regulatory and environmental requirements, global supply chain versus localization issues and different world wide economic considerations. This paper discusses the impacts of some of these challenges on developing an EPC contract in today's Nuclear Renaissance. (authors)

2010-06-02

375

21st Century Challenges: Global Competition, Population Changes, and the Need for Educational Parity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Identifies factors reshaping America and forcing higher education to redefine its mission in the 21st century, including a global economy, demographic changes, greater ethnic diversity, continued poverty of many Americans, changing immigration patterns, the aging of the population, and greater diversity in family arrangements. Stresses the…

McCabe, Robert H.

1999-01-01

376

Opening address  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The impact of the Chernobyl accident on health has been dramatic but different than expected. It has posed a tremendous health, social and economic burden on the people of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. Now the picture of the impact of the accident on health and environment is clearer and the agenda can further move towards development and focused health programmes. The work of the Chernobyl Forum, which allowed this important objective to be reached, is an example of the multiplied added value that different United Nations agencies working together can achieve when addressing complex problems affecting large communities in an independent, comprehensive and credible way. This model should be the basis for future action with the Member States towards reconstruction, development and better health

2008-03-01

377

THE HUMAN INTEGRAL DEVELOPMENT: A CHALLENGE FOR THE COMMUNITARIAN DEVELOPMENT IN THE GLOBALIZATION PROCESSES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The predominance of the things on the people, the materialistic character of the human motivation, is what it is predominating in the globalization processes which we are facing. For "those of above" it is more and more important to face the war of the competition and his fight by the power, and "for those of below", the fight by the cultural and social survival. We are immersed in a neoliberalism that concealingly impels us to an untenable process of globalization based on the sobreoperation of the human resources, the degradation of the cultural diversity and the deterioration of the environment. We needed to be alert as far as which the development is an integral process that includes cultural, ethical, political, social, economic and environmental dimensions, with an interrelation that are inherent to the own phenomenon of the development, starting off of which the human being is the main protagonist and beneficiary of the same one.

María Soledad Angulo Aguilazocho

2005-09-01

378

Climate is the real challenge, not shortage. New problems arising for global energy supply  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The author of the article is Professor E. Pestel who, as an executive member of the Club of Rome, belongs to the group of experts who first gave impetus to start thinking about the global problems of mankind. In his publications on the problems linked with CO/sub 2/ emission he explains the unavoidable dilemma created by the growing world population and the growing demand for energy on the one hand, and the resulting hazards to the global climate on the other. His analyses take away the soft cushion of hopeful make-believe still widespread in the Western World, and in his capacity as an expert and realist he decidedly calls for decisions and measures to tackle the problem.

Pestel, E.

1988-11-01

379

Education for sustainable development and global citizenship. The challenge of the UN-decade  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article informs about the achievements and conceptional insufficiencies of "education for sustainable development" on the politico-educational and school level in Great Britain. Therefore attention is drawn to neglected connections between an education for sustainable development and the education for developmental policy. It is argued that questions concerning the interconnection between ecology, economy and society on a local, national and global scale should be put into the centre of ...

Bourn, Douglas

2005-01-01

380

Growing water scarcity in agriculture: future challenge to global water security.  

Science.gov (United States)

As water is an essential component of the planetary life support system, water deficiency constitutes an insecurity that has to be overcome in the process of socio-economic development. The paper analyses the origin and appearance of blue as well as green water scarcity on different scales and with particular focus on risks to food production and water supply for municipalities and industry. It analyses water scarcity originating from both climatic phenomena and water partitioning disturbances on different scales: crop field, country level and the global circulation system. The implications by 2050 of water scarcity in terms of potential country-level water deficits for food self-reliance are analysed, and the compensating dependence on trade in virtual water for almost half the world population is noted. Planetary-scale conditions for sustainability of the global water circulation system are discussed in terms of a recently proposed Planetary Freshwater Boundary, and the consumptive water use reserve left to be shared between water requirements for global food production, fuelwood production and carbon sequestration is discussed. Finally, the importance of a paradigm shift in the further conceptual development of water security is stressed, so that adequate attention is paid to water's fundamental role in both natural and socio-economic systems. PMID:24080619

Falkenmark, Malin

2013-11-13

 
 
 
 
381

Inaugural address  

Science.gov (United States)

From jets to cosmos to cosmic censorship P S Joshi Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400005, India E-mail: psj@tifr.res.in 1. Introduction At the outset, I should like to acknowledge that part of the title above, which tries to capture the main flavour of this meeting, and has been borrowed from one of the plenary talks at the conference. When we set out to make the programme for the conference, we thought of beginning with observations on the Universe, but then we certainly wanted to go further and address deeper questions, which were at the very foundations of our inquiry, and understanding on the nature and structure of the Universe. I believe, we succeeded to a good extent, and it is all here for you in the form of these Conference Proceedings, which have been aptly titled as 'Vishwa Mimansa', which could be possibly translated as 'Analysis of the Universe'! It is my great pleasure and privilege to welcome you all to the ICGC-2011 meeting at Goa. The International Conference on Gravitation and Cosmology (ICGC) series of meetings are being organized by the Indian Association for General Relativity and Gravitation (IAGRG), and the first such meeting was planned and conducted in Goa in 1987, with subsequent meetings taking place at a duration of about four years at various locations in India. So, it was thought appropriate to return to Goa to celebrate the 25 years of the ICGC meetings. The recollections from that first meeting have been recorded elsewhere here in these Proceedings. The research and teaching on gravitation and cosmology was initiated quite early in India, by V V Narlikar at the Banares Hindu University, and by N R Sen in Kolkata in the 1930s. In course of time, this activity grew and gained momentum, and in early 1969, at the felicitation held for the 60 years of V V Narlikar at a conference in Ahmedabad, P C Vaidya proposed the formation of the IAGRG society, with V V Narlikar being the first President. This was how IAGRG was born, and currently the association has about 350 members, both from within India and abroad. The full inaugural address is available in the PDF

Joshi, P. S.

2014-03-01

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