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Sample records for additional risk factor

  1. Anticardiolipin antibodies in proliferative diabetic retinopathy: An additional risk factor

    To report the prevalence of anticardiolipin antibodies in patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) having high-risk criteria (HRC). Diabetic patients having PDR with HRC and diabetics free of retinopathy were compared for the presence of anticardiolipin antibodies. Among the 34 patients, 6 (17.7%) of diabetics having PDR with HRC were positive for anticardiolipin antibodies. There was no significant association of aCL antibodies with sex or type of diabetes. Using Pearson's correlation test, no significant associations of aCL antibodies with duration of diabetes or age of patients were found. All patients who were positive for anticardiolipin antibodies had PDR with HRC. The difference was statistically significant. Presence of anticardiolipin antibodies may represent an additional risk factor for PDR. (author)

  2. Are major behavioral and sociodemographic risk factors for mortality additive or multiplicative in their effects?

    Mehta, Neil; Preston, Samuel

    2016-04-01

    All individuals are subject to multiple risk factors for mortality. In this paper, we consider the nature of interactions between certain major sociodemographic and behavioral risk factors associated with all-cause mortality in the United States. We develop the formal logic pertaining to two forms of interaction between risk factors, additive and multiplicative relations. We then consider the general circumstances in which additive or multiplicative relations might be expected. We argue that expectations about interactions among socio-demographic variables, and their relation to behavioral variables, have been stated in terms of additivity. However, the statistical models typically used to estimate the relation between risk factors and mortality assume that risk factors act multiplicatively. We examine empirically the nature of interactions among five major risk factors associated with all-cause mortality: smoking, obesity, race, sex, and educational attainment. Data were drawn from the cross-sectional NHANES III (1988-1994) and NHANES 1999-2010 surveys, linked to death records through December 31, 2011. Our analytic sample comprised 35,604 respondents and 5369 deaths. We find that obesity is additive with each of the remaining four variables. We speculate that its additivity is a reflection of the fact that obese status is generally achieved later in life. For all pairings of socio-demographic variables, risks are multiplicative. For survival chances, it is much more dangerous to be poorly educated if you are black or if you are male. And it is much riskier to be a male if you are black. These traits, established at birth or during childhood, literally result in deadly combinations. We conclude that the identification of interactions among risk factors can cast valuable light on the nature of the process being studied. It also has public health implications by identifying especially vulnerable groups and by properly identifying the proportion of deaths

  3. Oral anticoagulation and the risk of stroke or death in patients with atrial fibrillation and one additional stroke risk factor

    Fauchier, Laurent; Lecoq, Coralie; Clementy, Nicolas; Bernard, Anne; Angoulvant, Denis; Ivanes, Fabrice; Babuty, Dominique; Lip, Gregory Y H

    2016-01-01

    Background: It remains uncertain whether patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and a single additional stroke risk factor (CHA2DS2-VASc score = 1 in males, 2 in females) should be treated with oral anticoagulation (OAC). We investigated the risk of ischemic stroke, systemic embolism and death in...

  4. MTHFR homozygous mutation and additional risk factors for cerebral infarction in a large Italian family.

    Del Balzo, Francesca; Spalice, Alberto; Perla, Massimo; Properzi, Enrico; Iannetti, Paola

    2009-01-01

    Several cases with cerebral infarctions associated with the C677T mutation in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene (MTHFR) have been reported. Given the large number of asymptomatic individuals with the MTHFR mutation, additional risk factors for cerebral infarction should be considered. This study describes a large family with the MTHFR mutation and a combination of heterozygous factor V Leiden mutations and different additional exogenous and endogenous thrombogenic risk factors. Psychomotor retardation and a left fronto-insular infarct associated with the MTHFR mutation together with diminished factor VII and low level of protein C was documented in the first patient. In the second patient, generalized epilepsy and a malacic area in the right nucleus lenticularis was associated with the MTHFR mutation and a low level of protein C. In the third patient, right hemiparesis and a left fronto-temporal porencephalic cyst were documented, together with the MTHFR mutation and hyperhomocysteinemia. An extensive search of additional circumstantial and genetic thrombogenic risk factors should be useful for prophylaxis and prognosis of infants with cerebral infarctions associated with the MTHFR mutation and of their related family members. PMID:19068258

  5. Adiponectin provides additional information to conventional cardiovascular risk factors for assessing the risk of atherosclerosis in both genders.

    Jin-Ha Yoon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study evaluated the relation between adiponectin and atherosclerosis in both genders, and investigated whether adiponectin provides useful additional information for assessing the risk of atherosclerosis. METHODS: We measured serum adiponectin levels and other cardiovascular risk factors in 1033 subjects (454 men, 579 women from the Korean Genomic Rural Cohort study. Carotid intima-media-thickness (CIMT was used as measure of atherosclerosis. Odds ratios (ORs with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI were calculated using multiple logistic regression, and receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC, the category-free net reclassification improvement (NRI and integrated discrimination improvement (IDI were calculated. RESULTS: After adjustment for conventional cardiovascular risk factors, such as age, waist circumference, smoking history, low-density and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, systolic blood pressure and insulin resistance, the ORs (95%CI of the third tertile adiponectin group were 0.42 (0.25-0.72 in men and 0.47 (0.29-0.75 in women. The area under the curve (AUC on the ROC analysis increased significantly by 0.025 in men and 0.022 in women when adiponectin was added to the logistic model of conventional cardiovascular risk factors (AUC in men: 0.655 to 0.680, p = 0.038; AUC in women: 0.654 to 0.676, p = 0.041. The NRI was 0.32 (95%CI: 0.13-0.50, p<0.001, and the IDI was 0.03 (95%CI: 0.01-0.04, p<0.001 for men. For women, the category-free NRI was 0.18 (95%CI: 0.02-0.34, p = 0.031 and the IDI was 0.003 (95%CI: -0.002-0.008, p = 0.189. CONCLUSION: Adiponectin and atherosclerosis were significantly related in both genders, and these relationships were independent of conventional cardiovascular risk factors. Furthermore, adiponectin provided additional information to conventional cardiovascular risk factors regarding the risk of atherosclerosis.

  6. A low socio-economic status is an additional risk factor for glucose intolerance in high risk Hong Kong Chinese

    To examine whether a low socio-economic status (SES) is an additional risk factor for glucose intolerance in Hong Kong Chinese with known risk factors for glucose intolerance, a total of 2847 Chinese subjects (473 men and 2374 women) were recruited from the community for assessment. They had known risk factors for glucose intolerance including a previous history of gestational diabetes, positive family history of diabetes in first degree relatives and equivocal fasting plasma glucose concentrations between 7 and 8 mmol/l or random plasma glucose concentrations between 8 and 11 mmol/l. The 2847 subjects were classified according to their education levels and occupations: education group 1 = high school or university, group 2 = middle school, group 3 = illiterate or up to elementary school; occupational group 1 = professional or managerial, group 2 = non-manual, group 3 = manual, group 4 = unskilled, group 5 = housewife or unemployed. Different socio-economic groups were well represented in this selected population. The distribution of educational groups in this study was similar to that recorded in the 1991 Hong Kong Census. When analysed according to education levels and after adjustment for age, women in the lowest social class had the highest prevalence of diabetes, body mass index, blood pressure and plasma glucose concentrations. Men with the lowest education level had the highest prevalence of diabetes after age adjustment. The age-adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence intervals) of having diabetes was 2.3 (1.3, 4.3) in female subjects and 2.5 (1.2, 5.4) in male subjects with the lowest SES compared to subjects with the highest SES. When categorised according to occupation and after adjustment for age, women in the lowest social class had the highest prevalence of diabetes and glycaemic indexes. The age-adjusted odds ratio of having diabetes was 4.5 (1.9, 10.9) in female subjects with the lowest SES compared to those with the highest SES. The corresponding age

  7. The Addition of Vascular Calcification Scores to Traditional Risk Factors Improves Cardiovascular Risk Assessment in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

    Liabeuf, Sophie; Desjardins, Lucie; Diouf, Momar; Temmar, Mohamed; Renard, Cédric; Choukroun, Gabriel; Massy, Ziad A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Although a variety of non-invasive methods for measuring cardiovascular (CV) risk (such as carotid intima media thickness, pulse wave velocity (PWV), coronary artery and aortic calcification scores (measured either by CT scan or X-ray) and the ankle brachial index (ABI)) have been evaluated separately in chronic kidney disease (CKD) cohorts, few studies have evaluated these methods simultaneously. Here, we looked at whether the addition of non-invasive methods to traditional risk f...

  8. Fungal colonization - an additional risk factor for diseased dogs and cats?

    Biegańska, Małgorzata; Dardzińska, Weronika; Dworecka-Kaszak, Bożena

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the presented mini-review is to review the literature data referring to opportunistic mycoses in pet dogs and cats suffering from other concurrent diseases, comparable to human medical disorders with high risk of secondary mycoses. This review also presents the preliminary results of a project aimed at understanding the fungal colonization and occurrence of secondary mycoses in pets suffering from metabolic disorders, neoplasms and viral infections. The incidence of opportunistic mycoses is higher in such individuals, mostly because of their impaired immunity. The main risk factors are primary and secondary types of immunodeficiency connected with anti-cancer treatment or neoplastic disease itself. Moreover, literature data and the results of our investigations show that Candida yeasts are prevalent among diabetic animals and indicate that these fungi are the main etiological agents of secondary infections of the oral cavity, GI and urogenital tracts. Other important conditions possibly favoring the development of mycoses are concurrent infections of cats with FeLV and FIV viruses. Thus, in all cases of the mentioned underlying diseases, animals should be carefully monitored by repeated mycological examination, together with inspection of other parameters. Also, the prophylaxis of opportunistic mycoses should be carefully considered alike other factors influencing the prognosis and the outcome of primary diseases. PMID:25281810

  9. Risk Factors

    ... Depression has been found to be a risk factor for development of heart disease. Depression occurs in up to 20% of people with ... and has been found to be a risk factor also for subsequent heart attack, the ... Fortunately, depression in patients with heart disease responds well to ...

  10. Hyperhomocysteinemia - an additional risk factor of thrombosis in systemic lupus erythematosus and antiphospholipid syndrome

    I. E. Shirokova

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess homocystein (HC level in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE with antiphospholipid syndrome (APS and its relation to thrombosis development and blood lipide spectrum disturbances. Material and methods. 32 pts (12 male and 20 female with mean age 36 12 years and mean disease duration 13 11 years were included. 8 pts had SLE without APS, 13 - SLE with APS and 11 - primary APS (PAPS. All pts were divided into 2 groups depending on blood HC level. 26 pts with HC level more than 12 mcg/d! were included In group 1 and 6 pts with HC level less than 12 mcg/dl - in group 2. HC level was measured with high efficacious liquid chromatography (HELC. Lipid-protein blood spectrum was assessed in all pts. Results. Elevated HC level was revealed in 26 from 32 pts: in 16 with SLE (including 12 pts with APS and in 10 with PAPS. HC concentration did not depend on APS presence, but frequence of hyperhomocysteinemia (HHC significantly associated with APS and thrombotic complications. 20 from 26 (76,9% pts with HHC had thrombosis history. Only I from 6 (16,7% pts with normal HC level had thrombosis history (exact Fisher test p=0,02. HC level did not depend on age and sex. Changes of blood lipid-protein indices were revealed in most pts. Lipid spectrum disturbances were confined largely to cholesterol elevation due to increase of atherogenic lipoproteins cholesterol. Only 22% of pts showed decrease of antiatherogenic lipoproteins concentration. Bblood lipid-protein spectrum indices did not depend on HC level. Conclusion. HHC is present in 84,6% of pts with APS (primary and secondary. In pts with APS HHC is more frequent than in pts without APS. HHC is associated with thrombotic complications. HHC and lipid-protein spectrum disturbances are independent risk factors of thrombotic complications in pts with SLE and APS.

  11. Risk factors

    This article deals with the development of risk management in the gas sector business: why a risk factor legal mention must precede any published financial information? Do gas companies have to face new risks? Is there specific risks bound to gas activities? Why companies want to master their risks? Is it mandatory or just a new habit? Do they expect a real benefit in return? These are the risk management questions that are analyzed in this article which is based on the public communication of 15 gas companies randomly selected over the world. The information comes from their annual reports or from documents available on their web sites. The intention of this document is not to be exhaustive or to make statistics but only to shade light on the risk factors of the gas sector. (J.S.)

  12. The drone as an additional risk factor due to conditions not provided for in radiological safety at major events

    Major international events are potential targets of terrorist actions, seeking instant publicity that events of this magnitude provide, with the intention of causing terror and disseminate its power to a large number of people worldwide. In this context, the critical analysis of additional risk factor linked to procedures and protocols adopted on radiation safety is important. The possibility of unforeseen situations of risk, especially those resulting from the current global technological development, is a fact. Radioactive material can be used in this type of terrorism in a wide range of devices and illicit trafficking of this material is a reality that worries the International Atomic Energy Agency. In the current technological development scenario of the world, the potential occurrence of terrorist acts using drones combined with radioactive material dispersal devices, is real. The recent history of drones incidents presents cases where, despite not having been necessarily terrorist motivation, their circumstances and characteristics favor the occurrence of malicious acts. This paper proposes to alert the need of updating the current security protocols, considering the potential association of this technology with radioactive dispersal devices. (author)

  13. Randomised controlled feasibility trial of an evidence-informed behavioural intervention for obese adults with additional risk factors.

    Falko F Sniehotta

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Interventions for dietary and physical activity changes in obese adults may be less effective for participants with additional obesity-related risk factors and co-morbidities than for otherwise healthy individuals. This study aimed to test the feasibility and acceptability of the recruitment, allocation, measurement, retention and intervention procedures of a randomised controlled trial of an intervention to improve physical activity and dietary practices amongst obese adults with additional obesity related risk factors. METHOD: Pilot single centre open-labelled outcome assessor-blinded randomised controlled trial of obese (Body Mass Index (BMI≥30 kg/m2 adults (age≥18 y with obesity related co-morbidities such as type 2 diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance or hypertension. Participants were randomly allocated to a manual-based group intervention or a leaflet control condition in accordance to a 2∶1 allocation ratio. Primary outcome was acceptability and feasibility of trial procedures, secondary outcomes included measures of body composition, physical activity, food intake and psychological process measures. RESULTS: Out of 806 potentially eligible individuals identified through list searches in two primary care general medical practices N = 81 participants (63% female; mean-age = 56.56(11.44; mean-BMI = 36.73(6.06 with 2.35(1.47 co-morbidities were randomised. Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation (SIMD was the only significant predictor of providing consent to take part in the study (higher chances of consent for invitees with lower levels of deprivation. Participant flowcharts, qualitative and quantitative feedback suggested good acceptance and feasibility of intervention procedures but 34.6% of randomised participants were lost to follow-up due to overly high measurement burden and sub-optimal retention procedures. Participants in the intervention group showed positive trends for most psychological, behavioural

  14. Brain Tumor Risk Factors

    ... for example), unusual symptoms such as headaches or short-term memory loss can be investigated with your family history in mind. Click here to view our webinars on Causes and Risk Factors of Brain Tumors. Additional information ...

  15. Sufficient sleep duration contributes to lower cardiovascular disease risk in addition to four traditional lifestyle factors: the MORGEN study

    Hoevenaar-Blom, M.P.; Spijkerman, A.M.W.; Kromhout, D.; Verschuren, W.M.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background The contribution of sufficient sleep duration to lower CVD risk in addition to sufficient physical activity, a healthy diet, (moderate) alcohol consumption, and non-smoking has not been investigated yet. Design The MORGEN study is a prospective cohort study including 8128 men and 9759 wom

  16. Risk factors.

    Robbins, Catherine J; Connors, K C; Sheehan, Timothy J; Vaughan, James S

    2005-06-01

    Minimize surprises on your financial statement by adopting a model for integrated risk management that: Examines interrelationships among operations, investments, and financing. Incorporates concepts of the capital asset pricing model to manage unexpected volatility PMID:17240669

  17. Are blood pressure and diabetes additive or synergistic risk factors? outcome in 8494 subjects randomly recruited from 10 populations

    Sehestedt, Thomas; Hansen, Tine W; Li, Yan;

    2011-01-01

    were not different from those of diabetic patients (P-values for interaction, 0.09¿P¿0.72). In conclusion, in a large international population-based database, both diabetes mellitus and BP contributed equally to the risk of cardiovascular complications without evidence for a synergistic effect...... patients) enrolled in prospective population studies in 10 countries. In multivariable-adjusted Cox regression, we assessed the additive as opposed to the synergistic effects of BP and diabetes in relation to a composite cardiovascular endpoint by testing the significance of appropriate interaction terms......, daytime, or nighttime, systolic or diastolic ambulatory BP (P for interaction, 0.07¿P¿0.97). The only exception was a borderline synergistic effect between diabetes and daytime diastolic BP in relation to the composite cardiovascular endpoint (P=0.04). In diabetic patients, with normotension as the...

  18. Endometrial Cancer Risk Factors

    ... cancer? Next Topic What causes endometrial cancer? Endometrial cancer risk factors A risk factor is anything that affects your ... to obesity, which is a well-known endometrial cancer risk factor. Many scientists think this is the main way ...

  19. Risk Factors and Prevention

    ... Resources Risk Factors & Prevention Back to Patient Resources Risk Factors & Prevention Even people who look healthy and ... Blood Pressure , high cholesterol, diabetes, and thyroid disease. Risk Factors For Arrhythmias and Heart Disease The following ...

  20. Risk Factors for Scleroderma

    ... You are here: Home For Patients Risk Factors Risk Factors for Scleroderma The cause of scleroderma is ... what biological factors contribute to scleroderma pathogenesis. Genetic Risk Scleroderma does not tend to run in families ...

  1. Haptoglobin2-2 phenotype is an additional risk factor of retinopathy in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Mukund R Mogarekar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between haptoglobin (Hp phenotypes and risk of the development of diabetic retinopathy (DR in patients of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study included 45 normotensive type 2 diabetic patients (duration more than 5 years admitted in the hospital divided into two groups (with and without DR on the basis of fundus examination by direct ophthalmoscopy. Serum samples of all patients were subjected for Hp phenotyping by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Results: DR was associated significantly in diabetic patients with Hp2-2 phenotype (79.31% than diabetic patients with Hp2-1 phenotype (43.75% and Hp2-2 had higher odds ratio (OR for DR in univariate analysis (OR 4.929, [95% confidence interval [CI] (1.297-18.733], P = 0.016 and multivariate analysis (OR 7.704 [95% CI (0.887-66.945], P = 0.064. Furthermore, Hp2-2 was associated significantly with severe forms of DR. Conclusion: Hp2-2 phenotype is associated with susceptibility to DR showing a graded risk relationship to the number of Hp2 alleles. Determination of Hp phenotype may be useful in the risk assessment and management of DR.

  2. Heart disease - risk factors

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000106.htm Heart disease - risk factors To use the sharing features on ... a certain health condition. Some risk factors for heart disease you cannot change, but some you can. Changing ...

  3. The effectiveness of power-generating complexes constructed on the basis of nuclear power plants combined with additional sources of energy determined taking risk factors into account

    Aminov, R. Z.; Khrustalev, V. A.; Portyankin, A. V.

    2015-02-01

    The effectiveness of combining nuclear power plants equipped with water-cooled water-moderated power-generating reactors (VVER) with other sources of energy within unified power-generating complexes is analyzed. The use of such power-generating complexes makes it possible to achieve the necessary load pickup capability and flexibility in performing the mandatory selective primary and emergency control of load, as well as participation in passing the night minimums of electric load curves while retaining high values of the capacity utilization factor of the entire power-generating complex at higher levels of the steam-turbine part efficiency. Versions involving combined use of nuclear power plants with hydrogen toppings and gas turbine units for generating electricity are considered. In view of the fact that hydrogen is an unsafe energy carrier, the use of which introduces additional elements of risk, a procedure for evaluating these risks under different conditions of implementing the fuel-and-hydrogen cycle at nuclear power plants is proposed. Risk accounting technique with the use of statistical data is considered, including the characteristics of hydrogen and gas pipelines, and the process pipelines equipment tightness loss occurrence rate. The expected intensities of fires and explosions at nuclear power plants fitted with hydrogen toppings and gas turbine units are calculated. In estimating the damage inflicted by events (fires and explosions) occurred in nuclear power plant turbine buildings, the US statistical data were used. Conservative scenarios of fires and explosions of hydrogen-air mixtures in nuclear power plant turbine buildings are presented. Results from calculations of the introduced annual risk to the attained net annual profit ratio in commensurable versions are given. This ratio can be used in selecting projects characterized by the most technically attainable and socially acceptable safety.

  4. Pancreatic Cancer Risk Factors

    ... factors can affect a person’s chance of getting cancer of the pancreas. Most of these are risk factors for exocrine ... Chronic pancreatitis, a long-term inflammation of the pancreas, is linked with an increased risk of pancreatic cancer (especially in smokers), but most people with pancreatitis ...

  5. Refining Breast Cancer Risk Stratification: Additional Genes, Additional Information.

    Kurian, Allison W; Antoniou, Antonis C; Domchek, Susan M

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in genomic technology have enabled far more rapid, less expensive sequencing of multiple genes than was possible only a few years ago. Advances in bioinformatics also facilitate the interpretation of large amounts of genomic data. New strategies for cancer genetic risk assessment include multiplex sequencing panels of 5 to more than 100 genes (in which rare mutations are often associated with at least two times the average risk of developing breast cancer) and panels of common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), combinations of which are generally associated with more modest cancer risks (more than twofold). Although these new multiple-gene panel tests are used in oncology practice, questions remain about the clinical validity and the clinical utility of their results. To translate this increasingly complex genetic information for clinical use, cancer risk prediction tools are under development that consider the joint effects of all susceptibility genes, together with other established breast cancer risk factors. Risk-adapted screening and prevention protocols are underway, with ongoing refinement as genetic knowledge grows. Priority areas for future research include the clinical validity and clinical utility of emerging genetic tests; the accuracy of developing cancer risk prediction models; and the long-term outcomes of risk-adapted screening and prevention protocols, in terms of patients' experiences and survival. PMID:27249685

  6. Can the addition of regional radiotherapy counter-balance important risk factors in breast cancer patients with extracapsular invasion of axillary lymph-node metastases?

    Purpose: To evaluate if locoregional radiotherapy (RT) versus local irradiation only can alter the pattern of failure in breast cancer patients with extranodal invasion. Patients and Methods: From 08/1988 to 06/1998, 81 patients with extranodal invasion were treated with adjuvant RT (median total dose: 50.4 Gy), 46/81 only locally, 35/81 locoregionally due to presumed adverse parameters. The mean number of resected (positive) lymph nodes was 17 (seven). 78 patients received adjuvant systemic treatment(s). Results: Patients treated with locoregional RT had significantly more often lymphatic vessel invasion (LVI; 63% vs. 28%; p = 0.003), T3/T4 tumors (43% vs. 17%; p = 0.014), and four or more positive lymph nodes (91% vs. 46%; p < 0.001) than patients irradiated only locally. Disease progression occurred in 24/81 patients (locoregional RT: 26% vs. local RT: 33%). The above risk factors were highly significant of worse outcome. Despite their overrepresentation in the locoregional RT group, no difference was found between both groups in regard to disease-free survival (DFS; p = 0.83) and overall survival (OS; p = 0.56), suggesting that regional RT was able to counterbalance the increased risk. There was even a trend toward a better 3-year DFS, 61% in locoregional RT and 37% in local RT, in the subgroup of patients with four or more positive lymph nodes. In a Cox regression model, higher T-stage, four or more positive lymph nodes, and LVI remained significant. For DFS and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), the absence of estrogen receptors and the omission of regional RT were also significant. Conclusion: Our data suggest that the addition of regional RT might be beneficial in selected subgroups of patients with extranodal invasion and other poor prognostic factors. (orig.)

  7. Short-term salivary acetaldehyde increase due to direct exposure to alcoholic beverages as an additional cancer risk factor beyond ethanol metabolism

    Monakhova Yulia B

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An increasing body of evidence now implicates acetaldehyde as a major underlying factor for the carcinogenicity of alcoholic beverages and especially for oesophageal and oral cancer. Acetaldehyde associated with alcohol consumption is regarded as 'carcinogenic to humans' (IARC Group 1, with sufficient evidence available for the oesophagus, head and neck as sites of carcinogenicity. At present, research into the mechanistic aspects of acetaldehyde-related oral cancer has been focused on salivary acetaldehyde that is formed either from ethanol metabolism in the epithelia or from microbial oxidation of ethanol by the oral microflora. This study was conducted to evaluate the role of the acetaldehyde that is found as a component of alcoholic beverages as an additional factor in the aetiology of oral cancer. Methods Salivary acetaldehyde levels were determined in the context of sensory analysis of different alcoholic beverages (beer, cider, wine, sherry, vodka, calvados, grape marc spirit, tequila, cherry spirit, without swallowing, to exclude systemic ethanol metabolism. Results The rinsing of the mouth for 30 seconds with an alcoholic beverage is able to increase salivary acetaldehyde above levels previously judged to be carcinogenic in vitro, with levels up to 1000 μM in cases of beverages with extreme acetaldehyde content. In general, the highest salivary acetaldehyde concentration was found in all cases in the saliva 30 sec after using the beverages (average 353 μM. The average concentration then decreased at the 2-min (156 μM, 5-min (76 μM and 10-min (40 μM sampling points. The salivary acetaldehyde concentration depends primarily on the direct ingestion of acetaldehyde contained in the beverages at the 30-sec sampling, while the influence of the metabolic formation from ethanol becomes the major factor at the 2-min sampling point. Conclusions This study offers a plausible mechanism to explain the increased risk for oral

  8. Risk factors for neoplasms

    A broad survey is given of risk factors for neoplasms. The main carcinogenic substances (including also ionizing radiation and air pollution) are listed, and are correlated with the risk factors for various cancers most frequently explained and discussed in the literature. The study is intended to serve as a basis for a general assessment of the incidence of neoplasms in children, and of cancer mortality in the entire population of Bavaria in the years 1983-1989, or 1979-1988, respectively, with the principal idea of drawing up an environment-related health survey. The study therefore takes into account not only ionizing radiation as a main risk factor, but also other risk factors detectable within the ecologic context, as e.g. industrial installations and their effects, refuse incineration plants or waste dumps, or the social status. (orig./MG)

  9. Environmental risk factors for autism

    Rodney R. Dietert

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Autism is a devastating childhood condition that has emerged as an increasing social concern just as it has increased in prevalence in recent decades. Autism and the broader category of autism spectrum disorders are among the increasingly seen examples in which there is a fetal basis for later disease or disorder. Environmental, genetic, and epigenetic factors all play a role in determining the risk of autism and some of these effects appear to be transgenerational. Identification of the most critical windows of developmental vulnerability is paramount to understanding when and under what circumstances a child is at elevated risk for autism. No single environmental factor explains the increased prevalence of autism. While a handful of environmental risk factors have been suggested based on data from human studies and animal research, it is clear that many more, and perhaps the most significant risk factors, remain to be identified. The most promising risk factors identified to date fall within the categories of drugs, environmental chemicals, infectious agents, dietary factors, and other physical/psychological stressors. However, the rate at which environmental risk factors for autism have been identified via research and safety testing has not kept pace with the emerging health threat posed by this condition. For the way forward, it seems clear that additional focused research is needed. But more importantly, successful risk reduction strategies for autism will require more extensive and relevant developmental safety testing of drugs and chemicals.

  10. Risk Factors of Cholangiocarcinoma

    Tyson, Gia L.; El-Serag, Hashem B.

    2011-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma is the second most common primary hepatic malignancy after hepatocellular cancer. It accounts for approximately 10–25% of all hepatobiliary malignancies. There are considerable geographic and demographic variations in the incidence of cholangiocarcinoma. There are several established risk factors for CC including parasitic infections, primary sclerosing cholangitis, biliary-duct cysts, hepatolithiasis, and toxins. Other less-established, potential risk factors include infla...

  11. Elevated soluble urokinase receptor values in CSF, age and bacterial meningitis infection are independent and additive risk factors of fatal outcome

    Tzanakaki, G; Paparoupa, M; Kyprianou, M;

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the potential role of cerebrospinal fluid soluble urokinase receptor (suPAR) level, infection and age as risk factors for fatal outcome in patients suspected of having meningitis and/or bacteraemia on admission to hospital. A total of 545 cerebrospinal...

  12. Heart Disease Risk Factors

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  13. Breast cancer risk factors.

    Kamińska, Marzena; Ciszewski, Tomasz; Łopacka-Szatan, Karolina; Miotła, Paweł; Starosławska, Elżbieta

    2015-09-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed neoplastic disease in women around menopause often leading to a significant reduction of these women's ability to function normally in everyday life. The increased breast cancer incidence observed in epidemiological studies in a group of women actively participating in social and professional life implicates the necessity of conducting multidirectional studies in order to identify risk factors associated with the occurrence of this type of neoplasm. Taking the possibility of influencing the neoplastic transformation process in individuals as a criterion, all the risk factors initiating the process can be divided into two groups. The first group would include inherent factors such as age, sex, race, genetic makeup promoting familial occurrence of the neoplastic disease or the occurrence of benign proliferative lesions of the mammary gland. They all constitute independent parameters and do not undergo simple modification in the course of an individual's life. The second group would include extrinsic factors conditioned by lifestyle, diet or long-term medical intervention such as using oral hormonal contraceptives or hormonal replacement therapy and their influence on the neoplastic process may be modified to a certain degree. Identification of modifiable factors may contribute to development of prevention strategies decreasing breast cancer incidence. PMID:26528110

  14. Breast cancer risk factors

    Marzena Kamińska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed neoplastic disease in women around menopause often leading to a significant reduction of these women’s ability to function normally in everyday life. The increased breast cancer incidence observed in epidemiological studies in a group of women actively participating in social and professional life implicates the necessity of conducting multidirectional studies in order to identify risk factors associated with the occurrence of this type of neoplasm. Taking the possibility of influencing the neoplastic transformation process in individuals as a criterion, all the risk factors initiating the process can be divided into two groups. The first group would include inherent factors such as age, sex, race, genetic makeup promoting familial occurrence of the neoplastic disease or the occurrence of benign proliferative lesions of the mammary gland. They all constitute independent parameters and do not undergo simple modification in the course of an individual’s life. The second group would include extrinsic factors conditioned by lifestyle, diet or long-term medical intervention such as using oral hormonal contraceptives or hormonal replacement therapy and their influence on the neoplastic process may be modified to a certain degree. Identification of modifiable factors may contribute to development of prevention strategies decreasing breast cancer incidence.

  15. Breast cancer risk factors

    Marzena Kamińska; Tomasz Ciszewski; Karolina Łopacka-Szatan; Paweł Miotła; Elżbieta Starosławska

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed neoplastic disease in women around menopause often leading to a significant reduction of these women's ability to function normally in everyday life. The increased breast cancer incidence observed in epidemiological studies in a group of women actively participating in social and professional life implicates the necessity of conducting multidirectional studies in order to identify risk factors associated with the occurrence of this type of neopla...

  16. Neonatal Stroke : Risk Factors

    2005-01-01

    Neonatal stroke refers to cerebrovascular events between 28 weeks of gestational age and 28 days postnatal and includes thromboembolic cerebral infarction and all kinds of intracranial haemorrhage. Neonatal stroke may contribute to severe neurological deficit, such as cerebral palsy and even death. International reports suggest the incidence to be approximately 1/4000 live births per year (1). There are several etiological hypothesises regarding risk factors, such as maternal, obstetrical...

  17. Effect of intravenous ondansetron on QT interval prolongation in patients with cardiovascular disease and additional risk factors for torsades: a prospective, observational study

    Hafermann MJ

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Matthew J Hafermann1, Rocsanna Namdar2, Gretchen E Seibold2,3, Robert Lee Page 2nd2,31University of Washington Medical Center, Department of Pharmacy, Seattle, WA; 2University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, School of Pharmacy, Aurora, CO; 3University of Colorado Hospital, Department of Pharmacy, Aurora, CO USABackground: The 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 antagonists, or setrons (eg, ondansetron, are commonly used for nausea and vomiting in the hospital setting. In 2001, droperidol was given a black box warning because it was found to prolong the QT interval and induce arrhythmias. The setrons share with droperidol the same potential proarrhythmic mechanisms, but limited data exist concerning their effects on the QT interval in individuals at high risk for torsades de pointes.Methods: Forty hospitalized patients admitted for heart failure or acute coronary syndromes with one or more risk factors for torsades de pointes and an order for intravenous ondansetron 4 mg were enrolled in this prospective, observational study. The QT interval corrected for heart rate (QTc was obtained via a 12-lead electrocardiogram on admission and again 120 minutes after the first dose of ondansetron in order to determine the mean change in QTc following ondansetron exposure.Results: The mean time interval between obtaining the baseline electrocardiogram and the second electrocardiogram following ondansetron administration was 3.5 ± 2.14 hours. In the total population, the QTc interval was prolonged by 19.3 ± 18 msec (P < 0.0001 120 minutes after ondansetron administration. For patients with an acute coronary syndrome and those with heart failure, QTc was prolonged by 18.3 ± 20 msec (P < 0.0001 and 20.6 ± 20 msec (P < 0.0012, respectively. Following ondansetron exposure, 31% and 46% in the heart failure and acute coronary syndromes groups, respectively, met gender-related thresholds for a prolonged QTc.Conclusion: Our study found QTc prolongation due to

  18. Risk Factors for Eating Disorders

    Striegel-Moore, Ruth H.; Bulik, Cynthia M.

    2007-01-01

    The authors review research on risk factors for eating disorders, restricting their focus to studies in which clear precedence of the hypothesized risk factor over onset of the disorder is established. They illustrate how studies of sociocultural risk factors and biological factors have progressed on parallel tracks and propose that major advances…

  19. Risk Parity Portfolios with Risk Factors

    Roncalli, Thierry; Weisang, Guillaume

    2012-01-01

    Portfolio construction and risk budgeting are the focus of many studies by academics and practitioners. In particular, diversification has spawn much interest and has been defined very differently. In this paper, we analyze a method to achieve portfolio diversification based on the decomposition of the portfolio's risk into risk factor contributions. First, we expose the relationship between risk factor and asset contributions. Secondly, we formulate the diversification problem in terms of ri...

  20. What Are the Risk Factors?

    ... Links Stay Informed Cancer Home What Are the Risk Factors for Lung Cancer? Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend ... from your cell phone Research has found several risk factors that may increase your chances of getting lung ...

  1. Risk Factor Assessment Branch (RFAB)

    The Risk Factor Assessment Branch (RFAB) focuses on the development, evaluation, and dissemination of high-quality risk factor metrics, methods, tools, technologies, and resources for use across the cancer research continuum, and the assessment of cancer-related risk factors in the population.

  2. Stroke - risk factors

    ... Risk of stroke goes up with age. Your gender. Men have a higher risk of getting heart disease than women, except in older adults. Your genes and race. If your parents had a stroke, you are at higher risk. ...

  3. Perinatal risk factors for strabismus

    Torp-Pedersen, Tobias; Boyd, Heather A; Poulsen, Gry; Haargaard, Birgitte; Wohlfahrt, Jan; Holmes, Jonathan M; Melbye, Mads

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about the aetiological factors underlying strabismus. We undertook a large cohort study to investigate perinatal risk factors for strabismus, overall and by subtype.......Little is known about the aetiological factors underlying strabismus. We undertook a large cohort study to investigate perinatal risk factors for strabismus, overall and by subtype....

  4. Perinatal risk factors including malformation

    The study gives a survey of the factors most frequently mentioned in the literature as factors likely to adversely affect a pregnancy. One essential aspect is the discussion of those factors that can be counted among the causes of malformations, as among others, prenatal radiation exposure. The study prepared within the framework of the research project 'Radiobiological environmental monitoring in Bavaria' is intended to serve as a basis for a retrospective and prospective evaluation of infant mortality, perinatal conditions and occurrence of malformations in Bavaria, with the principal idea of drawing up an environment - related health survey. The study therefore, in addition to ionizing radiation also takes into account other detectable risks within the ecologic context, as e.g. industrial installations, refuse incineration plants or waste dumps, or urbanity. (orig./MG)

  5. Risks factoring business: accounting measurement

    Z.V. Gutsaylyuk

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper carried out the identification of risk factors for the development of possible accounting software management. Studied theoretical and methodological aspects of the risk classification of factoring operations in the part of the risk assessment factors. It is proposed to consider the risks factors as the risk that is acceptable controlled by accounting instruments and the risks that can not be taken into account in the accounting records. To minimize the risk factor, accounting-driven tools, a method of self-insurance, which is a factor in the creation of provision for factoring transactions designed to cover unexpected expenses and losses. Provision for factoring factor will establish more stable conditions of financial activity and avoid the fluctuations of profit factor in relation to the writing off of losses on factoring operatsіyam.Developed proposals allow for further research to improve the organizational and methodological basis of accounting and analysis of information as a basis for providing risk management factor, particularly in terms of improving the evaluation questions such risks and their qualitative and quantitative analysis.

  6. Genetic Risk Factors

    Full Text Available ... of Ashkenazi Jewish descent, causes a greatly increased risk of breast cancer. Zora and her relatives who carry the gene also have an increased risk of ovarian cancer. Interviewer: When there was a ...

  7. Salivary Gland Cancer: Risk Factors

    ... Factors Request Permissions Print to PDF Salivary Gland Cancer: Risk Factors Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 08/ ... anything that increases a person’s chance of developing cancer. Although risk factors often influence the development of cancer, most do ...

  8. Microalbuminuria: a Cardiovascular Risk Factor

    ERCAN, Ertuğrul

    2010-01-01

    Albumin is a protein which is charged negatively. By correcting for the daily excretion of creatinine, the albumin creatinin ratio implicates the daily excretion of albumin in spot urine. Albuminuria is a cardiovascular risk factor in patients with diabetes, hypertension, and the general population. Urinary albumin excretion is independently associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events, even after adjustment for risk factors. Risk has been shown to increase continuously with inc...

  9. Short-term salivary acetaldehyde increase due to direct exposure to alcoholic beverages as an additional cancer risk factor beyond ethanol metabolism

    Monakhova Yulia B; Lachenmeier Dirk W

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background An increasing body of evidence now implicates acetaldehyde as a major underlying factor for the carcinogenicity of alcoholic beverages and especially for oesophageal and oral cancer. Acetaldehyde associated with alcohol consumption is regarded as 'carcinogenic to humans' (IARC Group 1), with sufficient evidence available for the oesophagus, head and neck as sites of carcinogenicity. At present, research into the mechanistic aspects of acetaldehyde-related oral cancer has b...

  10. Risk Factors for Teenage Fatherhood.

    Thornberry, Terence P.; Smith, Carolyn A.; Howard, Gregory J.

    1997-01-01

    Uses data from the Rochester Youth Development Study of urban youth (N=615) to identify early risk factors for the likelihood of becoming a teen father. Results show that teen fatherhood is related to a variety of risk factors, such as social class, educational performance, precocious sexual activity, and drug use. (RJM)

  11. Genetic Risk Factors

    Full Text Available ... option for high-risk women is to take tamoxifen, a drug long used to treat cancer. Dr. ... Zora Brown's case, for example, if we had tamoxifen out -- would that have helped? She sure would ...

  12. Genetic Risk Factors

    Full Text Available ... women who believe that having prophylactic mastectomy may prevent them from having breast cancer. I have a niece who's had prophylactic mastectomy. Announcer: Another preventative option for high-risk women is to take ...

  13. Environmental risk factors and pressures

    In this chapter the physical risk factors (as radiation [air contamination, contamination of the environment components and food contamination], radon and its radioactive decay products, radioactive wastes, noise), chemical risk factors [chemical substances, xenobiotics in the food chain the ozone depletion], wastes (waste generation, waste management, municipal waste management, import, export and transit of waste) and natural an technological hazards (water quality deterioration as a result of various accidents and fire risk) in the Slovak Republic in 1997 are reviewed

  14. Genetic Risk Factors

    Full Text Available ... having prophylactic mastectomy may prevent them from having breast cancer. I have a niece who's had prophylactic mastectomy. Announcer: Another preventative option for high-risk women is to take tamoxifen, a drug long used to treat cancer. Dr. Dewitty: In ...

  15. Genetic Risk Factors

    Full Text Available ... them and their health so much. I do worry that they are at risk and I wish they weren't. Announcer: For women who have the BRCA I gene, the most radical option is a prophylactic mastectomy, where healthy breasts are removed. This is effective in preventing ...

  16. Hidden Risk Factors for Women

    ... high cholesterol. “Those are the most common risk factors,” according to Steven J. Kittner, M.D., director of the Maryland Stroke Center at the University of Maryland School of Medicine in Baltimore. “But ...

  17. Cardiac risk factors: environmental, sociodemographic, and behavioral cardiovascular risk factors.

    Anthony, David; George, Paul; Eaton, Charles B

    2014-06-01

    Several environmental exposures are associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Exposure to secondhand smoke may increase the risk by as much as 25% to 30%. Exposure to third hand smoke, residual components of tobacco smoke that remain in the environment after a cigarette is extinguished, also appears to increase risk. These residual components can remain in rooms and automobiles for up to 30 years and enter the body through the skin or via inhalation or ingestion. Exposure to particulate matter air pollution from automobile emissions, power plants, and other sources is yet another environmental risk factor for CHD, resulting in tens of thousands of deaths annually in the United States. Exposure to other environmental toxins, particularly bisphenol A and phthalates, also has been linked to CHD. There are sociodemographic risks for CHD, with numerous studies showing that lower socioeconomic status is associated with higher risk. Behavioral risk factors include poor diet, such as frequent consumption of fast food and processed meals; sleep disturbance; and psychological stress, particularly related to marital or work issues. Finally, although high alcohol consumption is associated with increased CHD risk, moderate alcohol consumption (ie, less than 1 to 2 drinks/day), particularly of wine and possibly beer, appears to reduce the risk. PMID:24936715

  18. Cardiovascular risk factors in men

    Gyllenborg, J; Rasmussen, S L; Borch-Johnsen, Knut;

    2001-01-01

    Males have higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) than premenopausal females. Gonadal steroids are probably involved in the gender difference in CVD, but previous results have been conflicting. We investigated the associations between CVD risk factors and sex hormones in a cross...

  19. Risk factors for suicidal behavior

    Antonova A.A.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available

     

    The article presents data on risk factors that contribute to the development of suicidal behavior. The development of suicidal behavior is infuenced by a number of factors. These include — gender, age, residence, occupation, marital status, health status, etc. A number of studies indicated the impact of economic and social factors on the level of suicidal activity of the population. Observed relationship between mental disorders, substance abuse (particularly alcohol and suicide. In this case, the presence of numerous investigations in the feld of Suicidology, a number of problems still remains unsolved. Further study of issues relating to risk factors that infuence the development of suicidal behavior. Of particular note is the importance of “regional” risk factors that most infuence on the formation of suicidal behavior in a particular region.

  20. Human Leptospirosis and risk factors.

    Yanelis Emilia Tabío Henry; Yailín Palmero Dones; Elizabeth Cruz Pérez

    2010-01-01

    The human leptospirosis is a zoonosis of world distribution, were risk factors exist that have favored the wild and domestic animal propagation and so man. A descpitive investigation was made with the objective of determining the behavior of risk factors in outpatients by human leptospirosis in “Camilo Cienfuegos“ University General Hospital from Sncti Spíritus In the comprised time period betwen december 1 st and 3 st , 2008.The sample of this study was conformed by 54 risk persons that kee...

  1. Ectasia risk factors in refractive surgery

    Santhiago MR

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Marcony R Santhiago,1 Natalia T Giacomin,1 David Smadja,2 Samir J Bechara1 1Department of Ophthalmology, Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil, 2Ophthalmology Department, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv, Israel Abstract: This review outlines risk factors of post-laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK ectasia that can be detected preoperatively and presents a new metric to be considered in the detection of ectasia risk. Relevant factors in refractive surgery screening include the analysis of intrinsic biomechanical properties (information obtained from corneal topography/tomography and patient’s age, as well as the analysis of alterable biomechanical properties (information obtained from the amount of tissue altered by surgery and the remaining load-bearing tissue. Corneal topo­graphy patterns of placido disk seem to play a pivotal role as a surrogate of corneal strength, and abnormal corneal topography remains to be the most important identifiable risk factor for ectasia. Information derived from tomography, such as pachymetric and epithelial maps as well as computational strategies, to help in the detection of keratoconus is additional and relevant. High percentage of tissue altered (PTA is the most robust risk factor for ectasia after LASIK in patients with normal preoperative corneal topography. Compared to specific residual stromal bed (RSB or central corneal thickness values, percentage of tissue altered likely provides a more individualized measure of biomechanical alteration because it considers the relationship between thickness, tissue altered through ablation and flap creation, and ultimate RSB thickness. Other recognized risk factors include low RSB, thin cornea, and high myopia. Age is also a very important risk factor and still remains as one of the most overlooked ones. A comprehensive screening approach with the Ectasia Risk Score System, which evaluates multiple risk factors simultaneously, is also a

  2. What Are Coronary Heart Disease Risk Factors?

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Are Coronary Heart Disease Risk Factors? Coronary heart disease risk factors are ... high blood pressure, overweight and obesity, and others. Heart Disease Risk Factors 09/30/2011 This video—presented ...

  3. Risk Factors in ERP Implementation Projects for Process Oriented

    Andrzej Partyka

    2009-01-01

    This paper present review and analysis of risk factors, which could affect successful implementation of ERP system, for project performed in project oriented organizations. Presented risk breakdown structure and the list of common risk factors, are well-suited for ERP implementation projects. Considered risk categories allow for complex risk analysis. Additionally, mapping of risk importance for particular implementation phases is presented. Making presented model an important input for proje...

  4. Lifestyle factors and risk of cardiovascular diseases

    Hoevenaar-Blom, M.P.

    2013-01-01

     Background Evidence is accumulating that lifestyle factors influence the incidence of fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular diseases (CVD). A healthy diet, being physically active, moderate alcohol consumption and not smoking are associated with a lower CVD risk. In addition to

  5. The drone as an additional risk factor due to conditions not provided for in radiological safety at major events; O drone como fator adicional de risco decorrente de condicoes nao previstas na seguranca radiologica em grandes eventos

    Oliveira, Gilberto de Jesus

    2015-07-01

    Major international events are potential targets of terrorist actions, seeking instant publicity that events of this magnitude provide, with the intention of causing terror and disseminate its power to a large number of people worldwide. In this context, the critical analysis of additional risk factor linked to procedures and protocols adopted on radiation safety is important. The possibility of unforeseen situations of risk, especially those resulting from the current global technological development, is a fact. Radioactive material can be used in this type of terrorism in a wide range of devices and illicit trafficking of this material is a reality that worries the International Atomic Energy Agency. In the current technological development scenario of the world, the potential occurrence of terrorist acts using drones combined with radioactive material dispersal devices, is real. The recent history of drones incidents presents cases where, despite not having been necessarily terrorist motivation, their circumstances and characteristics favor the occurrence of malicious acts. This paper proposes to alert the need of updating the current security protocols, considering the potential association of this technology with radioactive dispersal devices. (author)

  6. Risk Factors in ERP Implementation Projects for Process Oriented

    Andrzej Partyka

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper present review and analysis of risk factors, which could affect successful implementation of ERP system, for project performed in project oriented organizations. Presented risk breakdown structure and the list of common risk factors, are well-suited for ERP implementation projects. Considered risk categories allow for complex risk analysis. Additionally, mapping of risk importance for particular implementation phases is presented. Making presented model an important input for project risk management process, especially for the beginning phases which require identification of risk factors.

  7. Ectasia risk factors in refractive surgery.

    Santhiago, Marcony R; Giacomin, Natalia T; Smadja, David; Bechara, Samir J

    2016-01-01

    This review outlines risk factors of post-laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) ectasia that can be detected preoperatively and presents a new metric to be considered in the detection of ectasia risk. Relevant factors in refractive surgery screening include the analysis of intrinsic biomechanical properties (information obtained from corneal topography/tomography and patient's age), as well as the analysis of alterable biomechanical properties (information obtained from the amount of tissue altered by surgery and the remaining load-bearing tissue). Corneal topography patterns of placido disk seem to play a pivotal role as a surrogate of corneal strength, and abnormal corneal topography remains to be the most important identifiable risk factor for ectasia. Information derived from tomography, such as pachymetric and epithelial maps as well as computational strategies, to help in the detection of keratoconus is additional and relevant. High percentage of tissue altered (PTA) is the most robust risk factor for ectasia after LASIK in patients with normal preoperative corneal topography. Compared to specific residual stromal bed (RSB) or central corneal thickness values, percentage of tissue altered likely provides a more individualized measure of biomechanical alteration because it considers the relationship between thickness, tissue altered through ablation and flap creation, and ultimate RSB thickness. Other recognized risk factors include low RSB, thin cornea, and high myopia. Age is also a very important risk factor and still remains as one of the most overlooked ones. A comprehensive screening approach with the Ectasia Risk Score System, which evaluates multiple risk factors simultaneously, is also a helpful tool in the screening strategy. PMID:27143849

  8. Pretreatment carcinoembryonic antigen level is a risk factor for para-aortic lymph node recurrence in addition to squamous cell carcinoma antigen following definitive concurrent chemoradiotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix

    To identify pretreatment carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels as a risk factor for para-aortic lymph node (PALN) recurrence following concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) for cervical cancer. From March 1995 to January 2008, 188 patients with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the uterine cervix were analyzed retrospectively. No patient received PALN irradiation as the initial treatment. CEA and squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCC-Ag) were measured before and after radiotherapy. PALN recurrence was detected by computer tomography (CT) scans. We analyzed the actuarial rates of PALN recurrence by using Kaplan-Meier curves. Multivariate analyses were carried out with Cox regression models. We stratified the risk groups based on the hazard ratios (HR). Both pretreatment CEA levels ≥ 10 ng/mL and SCC-Ag levels < 10 ng/mL (p < 0.001, HR = 8.838), SCC-Ag levels ≥ 40 ng/mL (p < 0.001, HR = 12.551), and SCC-Ag levels of 10-40 ng/mL (p < 0.001, HR = 4.2464) were significant factors for PALN recurrence. The corresponding 5-year PALN recurrence rates were 51.5%, 84.8%, and 27.5%, respectively. The 5-year PALN recurrence rate for patients with both low (< 10 ng/mL) SCC and CEA was only 9.6%. CEA levels ≥ 10 ng/mL or SCC-Ag levels ≥ 10 ng/mL at PALN recurrence were associated with overall survival after an isolated PALN recurrence. Pretreatment CEA levels ≥ 10 ng/mL were also associated with survival after an isolated PALN recurrence. Pretreatment CEA ≥ 10 ng/mL is an additional risk factor of PALN relapse following definitive CCRT for SCC of the uterine cervix in patients with pretreatment SCC-Ag levels < 10 ng/mL. More comprehensive examinations before CCRT and intensive follow-up schedules are suggested for early detection and salvage in patients with SCC-Ag or CEA levels ≥ 10 ng/mL

  9. Risk factors for eating disorders

    Monterrosa-Castro Álvaro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: eating disorders (ED are characterized by the excessive worry aboutphysical appearance. They have high incidence in young population with more frequencyin women than in men.Objective: to identify the risk factors for ED.Methods: thematic review of publications in which are described and evaluated thedifferent risk factors to develop ED. It was done an electronic search since 1984 to2011, in english and spanish, in which were included all the methods of publications.There were reviewed the summaries to find the complete articles that treated about riskfactors associate with the development of the ED.Results: there were found 48203 about ED. 96 tried specifically about risk factors. 35(36.4% complete articles were obtained and the review was done with them.Conclusion: principal risk factors are: To be an adolescent, woman, to have distortedperception of the corporal image and the use of diet to lose weight. Rev.cienc.biomed.2012;3(2:300-305

  10. Detecting Risk Factor of Diseases

    Zvárová, Jana

    1995-01-01

    Roč. 15, 1/2 (1995), s. 203-212. ISSN 0208-5216. [Seminar on Statistics and Clinical Practice. Warsaw, 20.06.1994-23.06.1994] Keywords : risk factors * genetics * association * epidemilogy * measures of association * screening * genetics

  11. Seasonality of cardiovascular risk factors

    Marti-Soler, Helena; Gubelmann, Cédric; Aeschbacher, Stefanie;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the seasonality of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) in a large set of population-based studies. METHODS: Cross-sectional data from 24 population-based studies from 15 countries, with a total sample size of 237 979 subjects. CVRFs included Body Mass Index (BMI) and waist...

  12. [Psoriasis and cardiovascular risk factors].

    Tal, Roy; Pavlovsky, Lev; David, Michael

    2012-10-01

    Psoriasis is a common inflammatory skin disease which may dramatically affect patients' lives. This chronic disease is characterized by a protracted course of alternating remissions and relapses. In recent years, the attention of researchers has focused on the association between psoriasis and cardiovascular disease risk factors. This review summarizes the literature on this topic with an emphasis on research conducted in Israel. PMID:23316664

  13. Mediterranean Diet and Cardiovascular Risk: Beyond Traditional Risk Factors.

    Delgado-Lista, Javier; Perez-Martinez, Pablo; Garcia-Rios, Antonio; Perez-Caballero, Ana I; Perez-Jimenez, Francisco; Lopez-Miranda, Jose

    2016-04-01

    A strict adherence to the Mediterranean Diet (MedDiet) has repeatedly been linked to a low risk of cardiovascular disease in several situations. Initially, the mechanisms considered as possible causes of this were based on the effects of this dietary pattern on the so-called traditional risk factors (especially lipids and blood pressure). However, the high relative reduction in the prevalence of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality were not proportional to the limited findings about regulation of those traditional risk factors. In addition to several studies confirming the above effects, current research on the MedDiet is being focused on defining its effects on non-traditional risk factors, such as endothelial function, inflammation, oxidative stress, or on controlling the conditions which predispose people to cardiovascular events, such as obesity, metabolic syndrome or type 2 diabetes mellitus. In the current article, after briefly reviewing the known effects of the MedDiet on the traditional risk factors, we will mainly focus on reviewing the current evidence about the effects that this dietary pattern exerts on alternative factors, including postprandial lipemia or coagulation, among others, as well as providing a short review on future directions. PMID:25118147

  14. Environmental risk factors for inflammatory bowel disease.

    Molodecky, Natalie A; Kaplan, Gilaad G

    2010-05-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is characterized by chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract and is associated with significant morbidity. The etiology of IBD has been extensively studied during the last several decades; however, causative factors in disease pathology are not yet fully understood. IBD is thought to result from the interaction between genetic and environmental factors that influence the normal intestinal commensal flora to trigger an inappropriate mucosal immune response. Although many IBD susceptibility genes have been discovered, similar advances in defining environmental risk factors have lagged. A number of environmental risk factors have been explored, including smoking, appendectomy, oral contraceptives, diet, breastfeeding, infections/ vaccinations, antibiotics, and childhood hygiene. However, most of these factors have demonstrated inconsistent findings, thus making additional studies necessary to better understand the etiology of IBD. PMID:20567592

  15. CEREBRAL PALSY : ANTENATAL RISK FACTORS

    Srinivasa Rao

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Cerebral palsy (CP is a group of permanent movement disorders that appear in early childhood. Cerebral palsy is caused by abnormal development or damage to the parts of the brain that control movement, balance, and posture. Most often the problems occur during pregnancy; however, they may also occur during childbirth, or shortly after birth. Often the cause is unknown. AIM: To study the different antenatal maternal risk factors associated with cerebral palsy in the study group. MATERIA LS AND METHODS: Retrospective study was done to assess possible associated antenatal risk factors for cerebral palsy. Mothers of 100 cerebral palsy children were selected who are treated in Rani Chandramani Devi Hospital, a Government hospital in Visakhapa tn am, Andhra Pradesh State, India , from 2012 to 2014 and 100 controls, mothers of normal children were studied. Detailed antenatal history was obtained from the mothers of the children in both affected and control group. RESULTS: From the data, we conclude that the association of maternal anaemia with cerebral palsy is 7.3 times higher; association of maternal hypertension with cerebral palsy is 6.6 time higher, association with Pre - eclampsia is 6 times higher; association with Eclampsia is 8.6 times higher ; with antepartum haemorrhage, the association is 8.6 times higher and association of multiple pregnancy with cerebral palsy is 4.8 times higher than with controls. CONCLUSION: From this study of the role of antenatal risk factors, in the occurrence of cer ebral palsy in children it is concluded that the most common risk factor associated with cerebral palsy is the maternal anaemia and the other important risk factors associated being hypertension, pre eclampsia, eclampsia, antepartum haemorrhage and multipl e births.

  16. Other Possible Heart Disease Risk Factors

    ... your risk Heart Health and Stroke Other possible heart disease risk factors Related information Depression fact sheet Stress ... Return to top More information on Other possible heart disease risk factors Read more from womenshealth.gov Heart ...

  17. Women's Heart Disease: Heart Disease Risk Factors

    ... this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Women's Heart Disease Heart Disease Risk Factors Past Issues / Winter 2014 Table of ... or habits may raise your risk for coronary heart disease (CHD). These conditions are known as risk factors. ...

  18. Heart Disease Risk Factors You Can Control

    ... disease: Know your risk Heart Health and Stroke Heart disease risk factors you can control Did you know? ... overall health. Return to top More information on Heart disease risk factors you can control Read more from ...

  19. Environmental risk factors for autism

    Dietert, Rodney R.; Janice M. Dietert; DeWitt, Jamie C.

    2011-01-01

    Autism is a devastating childhood condition that has emerged as an increasing social concern just as it has increased in prevalence in recent decades. Autism and the broader category of autism spectrum disorders are among the increasingly seen examples in which there is a fetal basis for later disease or disorder. Environmental, genetic, and epigenetic factors all play a role in determining the risk of autism and some of these effects appear to be transgenerational. Identification of the most...

  20. CEREBRAL PALSY : ANTENATAL RISK FACTORS

    Srinivasa Rao; Vidyullatha; Subbalakshmi

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Cerebral palsy (CP) is a group of permanent movement disorders that appear in early childhood. Cerebral palsy is caused by abnormal development or damage to the parts of the brain that control movement, balance, and posture. Most often the problems occur during pregnancy; however, they may also occur during childbirth, or shortly after birth. Often the cause is unknown. AIM: To study the different antenatal maternal risk factors associated with cere...

  1. Chemical Mixture Risk Assessment Additivity-Based Approaches

    Powerpoint presentation includes additivity-based chemical mixture risk assessment methods. Basic concepts, theory and example calculations are included. Several slides discuss the use of "common adverse outcomes" in analyzing phthalate mixtures.

  2. Risk Factors for Wound Complications Following Abdominoplasty

    Samir K. Jabaiti

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem Statement: Abdominoplasty has become an increasingly popular procedure. Risk factors affecting wound complications of abdominoplasty are not adequately defined in literature. Identification of these risk factors is crucial for better patient’s selection and counseling. The objectives of this study were to determine wound complication rate following abdominoplasty and to examine the relationship of a set of possible risk factors with the incidence of complications. Approach: We studied 116 patients (107 women and 9 men who underwent abdominoplasty at Jordan University Hospital, between June 1997 and June 2007. Data were collected from patients’ medical records and analyzed to determine types and rates of surgical wound complications. Fourteen possible risk factors were investigated using logistic regression analysis to evaluate their relationship with the occurrence of wound complications. Risk factors examined were: age, sex, body mass index, parity number, smoking history, history of diabetes mellitus, previous gastroplasty for morbid obesity, previous abdominal surgical scars, type of abdominoplasty, plication of recti, hernia repair, operative time and operative blood loss. Results: A total of 29 patients (two males and 27 females (25% had wound complications. The most common complication was seroma. It was encountered in 15 cases (12.9%. Six patients (5.2% had wound infection. Partial skin necrosis was encountered in four cases (3.4 %. Two patients (1.7% developed wound dehiscence and two patients (1.7% had hematoma. The only factors significantly increased the complication rate were: increased body mass index (p = 0.002 and history of smoking (p = 0.004. Conclusions and Recommendations: This study confirms the adverse effect of overweight and cigarette smoking on the incidence of wound complication rate following abdominoplasty. We recommend that overweight patients and smokers undergoing abdominoplasty should be adequately

  3. Maternal Risk Factors for Congenital Cerebral Palsy

    Streja, Elani

    2012-01-01

    Congenital Cerebral Palsy (CP) is the most common physical disability in children. In spite of major advances in medical technology, the etiology of CP is still not well understood. There is growing evidence that brain damage leading to CP development occurs during pregnancy and that maternal phenotype contributes to this intrauterine environment. We hypothesized that maternal factors such as infections, smoking, comorbidities and genetics can increase the risk of CP in children. Additionally...

  4. Risk Factors in Derivatives Markets

    Raimonda Martinkutė-Kaulienė

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the article is to analyse and present the classification of risks actual to derivative securities. The analysis is based on classical and modern literature findings and analysis of newest statistical data. The analysis led to the conclusion, that the main risks typical for derivatives contracts and their traders are market risk, liquidity risk, credit and counterparty risk, legal risk and transactions risk. Pricing risk and systemic risk is also quite important. The analysis showed that market risk is the most important kind of risk that in many situations influences the level of remaining risks.

  5. Risk factors of teenage pregnancy

    Maria Siettou; Maria Saridi

    2011-01-01

    Teenage pregnancy is a worldwide medical and social issue, associated with many physical, psychological and social consequences and can result in birth, miscarriage or abortion. Aim: The aim of the present study is to find those risk factors that contribute to teenage pregnancy. Results: In U.S.A., according to data from Unicef, the birth rate among teenagers touches the 52.1% and it is four times higher, than the corresponding rate recorded in the countries of Western Europe. The United King...

  6. Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment

    ... turn Javascript on. Feature: Skin Cancer Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment Past Issues / Summer 2013 Table ... Articles Skin Cancer Can Strike Anyone / Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment / Timely Healthcare Checkup Catches Melanoma ...

  7. Risk factors identified for certain lymphoma subtypes

    In a large international collaborative analysis of risk factors for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), scientists were able to quantify risk associated with medical history, lifestyle factors, family history of blood or lymph-borne cancers, and occupation for 11

  8. Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes and Cardiovascular Risk Factor Management

    Mehta, Puja K.; Minissian, Margo; Merz, C. Noel Bairey

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading health threat to American women. In addition to established risk factors for hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, smoking, and obesity, adverse pregnancy outcomes (APOs) including pre-eclampsia, eclampsia, and gestational diabetes are now recognized as factors that increase a woman’s risk for future CVD. CVD risk factor burden is disproportionately higher in those of low socioeconomic status and in ethnic/racial minority women. Since younger wome...

  9. Risk factors for venous thromboembolism during pregnancy

    Jensen, Thomas Bo; Gerds, Thomas Alexander; Grøn, Randi; Bretler, Ditte-Marie; Schmiegelow, Michelle Dalgas; Andersson, Charlotte; Azimi, Aziza; Gislason, Gunnar; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Olesen, Jonas Bjerring

    2013-01-01

    Pregnant women are at an increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Risk factors for VTE among pregnant women are not sufficiently investigated.......Pregnant women are at an increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Risk factors for VTE among pregnant women are not sufficiently investigated....

  10. Risk factors for colorectal cancer

    Mihajlović-Božić Vesna

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers in human population. It causes significant morbidity and mortality in our country. The incidence of colorectal cancer increases in the fifth decade of life. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between colorectal cancer and potential risk factors. A case-control study of colorectal cancer was carried out between 1998 and 1999 in Clinical Center of Serbia, Center for Digestive Surgery. A total of 100 cases of newly diagnosed patients with colorectal cancer confirmed by histopathology and an equal number of controls, individually matched by gender and age (+/-5 years, were chosen from patients from the same hospital with no history of cancer at all. McNemar test and conditional logistic regression were used in the analysis. According to logistic regression analysis the following risk factors were independently related with the occurrence of colorectal cancer: cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and diet rich in red meat and fat promote the carcinogenic process; food rich in vegetables, fruits, grains, vitamin C, physical activity, and oral contraceptive use inhibit the same process. A family history of cancer and long standing inflammatory bowel diseases also have significant role. There is convincing evidence that nutrition affects colorectal carcinogenesis in a complex fashion.

  11. Cardiovascular risk factors among Chamorros

    Wu Phillis L

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known regarding the cardiovascular disease risk factors among Chamorros residing in the United States. Methods The Chamorro Directory International and the CDC's Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Questionnaire (BRFSS were used to assess the health related practices and needs of a random sample of 228 Chamorros. Results Inactivity, hypertension, elevated cholesterol and diabetes mellitus were more prevalent in this Chamorro sample compared to the US average. Participants who were 50-and-older or unemployed were more likely to report hypertension, diabetes and inactivity, but they were also more likely to consume more fruits and vegetables than their younger and employed counterparts. Women were more likely to report hypertension and diabetes, whereas men were more likely to have elevated BMI and to have never had their blood cholesterol checked. Conclusion The study provides data that will help healthcare providers, public health workers and community leaders identify where to focus their health improvement efforts for Chamorros and create culturally competent programs to promote health in this community.

  12. Configurations of Common Childhood Psychosocial Risk Factors

    Copeland, William; Shanahan, Lilly; Costello, E. Jane; Angold, Adrian

    2009-01-01

    Background: Co-occurrence of psychosocial risk factors is commonplace, but little is known about psychiatrically-predictive configurations of psychosocial risk factors. Methods: Latent class analysis (LCA) was applied to 17 putative psychosocial risk factors in a representative population sample of 920 children ages 9 to 17. The resultant class…

  13. Risk factors for age-related maculopathy.

    Connell, Paul P

    2012-02-01

    Age-related maculopathy (ARM) is the leading cause of blindness in the elderly. Although beneficial therapeutic strategies have recently begun to emerge, much remains unclear regarding the etiopathogenesis of this disorder. Epidemiologic studies have enhanced our understanding of ARM, but the data, often conflicting, has led to difficulties with drawing firm conclusions with respect to risk for this condition. As a consequence, we saw a need to assimilate the published findings with respect to risk factors for ARM, through a review of the literature appraising results from published cross-sectional studies, prospective cohort studies, case series, and case control studies investigating risk for this condition. Our review shows that, to date, and across a spectrum of epidemiologic study designs, only age, cigarette smoking, and family history of ARM have been consistently demonstrated to represent risk for this condition. In addition, genetic studies have recently implicated many genes in the pathogenesis of age-related maculopathy, including Complement Factor H, PLEKHA 1, and LOC387715\\/HTRA1, demonstrating that environmental and genetic factors are important for the development of ARM suggesting that gene-environment interaction plays an important role in the pathogenesis of this condition.

  14. Additional risk of end-of-the-pipe geoengineering technologies

    Bohle, Martin

    2014-05-01

    qualitatively from the known successes. They do not tackle the initial cause, namely the carbon-dioxide inputs that are too high. This is their additional specific risk. 'The acceptability of geoengineering will be determined as much by social, legal and political issues as by scientific and technical factors', conclude Adam Corner and Nick Pidgeon (2010) when reviewing social and ethical implications of geoengineering the climate. It is to debate in that context that most geoengineering technologies are 'end of the pipe technologies', what involves an additional specific risk. Should these technologies be part of the toolbox to tackle anthropogenic climate change? Adam Corner and Nick Pidgeon 2010, Geoengineering the climate: The social and ethical implications, Environment Vol. 52.

  15. Fine-mapping in the MHC region accounts for 18% additional genetic risk for celiac disease

    Gutierrez-Achury, Javier; Zhernakova, Alexandra; Pulit, Sara L.; Trynka, Gosia; Hunt, Karen A.; Romanos, Jihane; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; van Heel, David A.; Wijmenga, Cisca; de Bakker, Paul I.W.

    2015-01-01

    Although dietary gluten is the trigger, celiac disease risk is strongly influenced by genetic variation in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region. We fine-mapped the MHC association signal to identify additional risk factors independent of the HLA-DQ alleles and observed five novel associations that account for 18% of the genetic risk. Together with the 57 known non-MHC loci, genetic variation can now explain up to 48% of celiac disease heritability. PMID:25894500

  16. Fine-mapping in the MHC region accounts for 18% additional genetic risk for celiac disease

    Gutierrez-Achury, Javier; Zhernakova, Alexandra; Pulit, Sara L.; Trynka, Gosia; Hunt, Karen A.; Romanos, Jihane; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Van Heel, David A.; Wijmenga, Cisca; Paul I W de Bakker

    2015-01-01

    Although dietary gluten is the trigger, celiac disease risk is strongly influenced by genetic variation in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region. We fine-mapped the MHC association signal to identify additional risk factors independent of the HLA-DQ alleles and observed five novel associations that account for 18% of the genetic risk. Together with the 57 known non-MHC loci, genetic variation can now explain up to 48% of celiac disease heritability.

  17. Quantifying cardiovascular disease risk factors in patients with psoriasis

    Miller, I M; Skaaby, T; Ellervik, C;

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In a previous meta-analysis on categorical data we found an association between psoriasis and cardiovascular disease and associated risk factors. OBJECTIVES: To quantify the level of cardiovascular disease risk factors in order to provide additional data for the clinical management...

  18. Public risk perception of food additives and food scares. The case in Suzhou, China.

    Wu, Linhai; Zhong, Yingqi; Shan, Lijie; Qin, Wei

    2013-11-01

    This study examined the factors affecting public risk perception of food additive safety and possible resulting food scares using a survey conducted in Suzhou, Jiangsu Province, China. The model was proposed based on literature relating to the role of risk perception and information perception of public purchase intention under food scares. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used for data analysis. The results showed that attitude towards behavior, subjective norm and information perception exerted moderate to high effect on food scares, and the effects were also mediated by risk perceptions of additive safety. Significant covariance was observed between attitudes toward behavior, subjective norm and information perception. Establishing an effective mechanism of food safety risk communication, releasing information of government supervision on food safety in a timely manner, curbing misleading media reports on public food safety risk, and enhancing public knowledge of the food additives are key to the development and implementation of food safety risk management policies by the Chinese government. PMID:23831014

  19. Increased risk of schizophrenia from additive interaction between infant motor developmental delay and obstetric complications: evidence from a population-based longitudinal study.

    Clarke, Mary C

    2011-12-01

    Obstetric complications and developmental delay are well-established risk factors for schizophrenia. The authors investigated whether these risk factors interact in an additive manner to further increase risk for schizophrenia.

  20. Risk factors for hypospadias in China

    LingFan Xu; ChaoZhao Liang; Julia Lipianskaya; XianGuo Chen; Song Fan; Li Zhang; Jun Zhou; Sheng Tai; ChangQin Jiang

    2014-01-01

    This case‑controlled study was designed to evaluate the association between various baseline parental factors and the risk of hypospadias in China. Patients were selected from tertiary referral hospitals in Anhui, a province in mid‑eastern China. Aquestionnaire was given to the parents of each patient. The ifnal database included 193cases and 835 controls. The incidence of additional coexistent anomalies was 13.0%, primarily cryptorchidism(9.8%). Ten patients(5.1%) were from families with genital anomaly, including ifve families(2.6%) with hypospadias. The risks of hypospadias was higher for children of mothers>35 (odds ratio[OR] =1.47) and<18(OR=2.95) years of age, and in mothers who had consumed alcohol(OR=2.67), used drugs(OR=1.53) and had an infection(OR=1.87) during pregnancy. The risk of hypospadias was also higher when mothers(OR=1.68) and fathers(OR=1.74) were engaged in agriculture. Other factors assessed were not associated with the risk of hypospadias.

  1. Risk factors of thrombosis in abdominal veins

    Amit Kumar Durra; Ashok Chacko; Biju George; Joseph Anjilivelil Joseph; Sukesh Chandran Nair; Vikram Mathews

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To estimate the prevalence of inherited and acquired thrombophilic risk factors in patients with abdominal venous thrombosis and to compare the risk factor profiles between Budd-Chiari syndromes (BCS) and splanchnic vein thrombosis (SVT).METHODS: In this retrospective study, 36 patients with abdominal venous thrombosis were studied.The patients were divided into Budd-Chiari group (hepatic vein, IVC thrombosis) and splanchnic venous thrombosis group (portal, splenic, superior mesenteric veins) based on the veins involved. Hereditary and acquired thrombophilic risk factors were evaluated in all patients.RESULTS: Twenty patients had SVT, 14 had BCS,and 2 had mixed venous thrombosis. Ten patients (28%) had hereditary and 10 patients (28%) acquired thrombophilic risk factors. The acquired risk factors were significantly more common in the SVT group (SVT vs BCS:45% vs 7%,x2=5.7,P=0.02) while hereditary risk factors did not show significant differences between the two groups (SVT vs BCS: 25%vs 36%, x2=0.46,P=0.7). Multiple risk factors were present in one (7%) patient with BCS and in 3 patients (15%) with SVT. No risk factors were identified in 57% of patients with BCS and in 45% of patients with SVT.CONCLUSION: Hereditary and acquired risk factors play an important role in the etiopathogenesis of abdominal venous thrombosis. Acquired risk factors are significantly more common in SVT patients while hereditary factors are similar in both groups.

  2. Information Asymmetry as a Risk Factor

    Viktor Ya. Tsvetkov

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores information asymmetry as the cause of risks in decision making. The author describes the types of information asymmetry as a risk factor; describes the types of risk arising under different information asymmetries; describes the methods for minimizing such risks; brings to light the principal-agent issue; analyzes the principles of minimizing risks in the event of this issue arising; illustrates the application of special information models for minimizing risks in this iss...

  3. Corneal Graft Rejection: Incidence and Risk Factors

    Alireza Baradaran-Rafii

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available

    PURPOSE: To determine the incidence and risk factors of late corneal graft rejection after penetrating keratoplasty (PKP. METHODS: Records of all patients who had undergone PKP from 2002 to 2004 without immunosuppressive therapy other than systemic steroids and with at least one year of follow up were reviewed. The role of possible risk factors such as demographic factors, other host factors, donor factors, indications for PKP as well as type of rejection were evaluated. RESULTS: During the study period, 295 PKPs were performed on 286 patients (176 male, 110 female. Mean age at the time of keratoplasty was 38±20 (range, 40 days to 90 years and mean follow up period was 20±10 (range 12-43 months. Graft rejection occurred in 94 eyes (31.8% at an average of 7.3±6 months (range, 20 days to 39 months after PKP. The most common type of rejection was endothelial (20.7%. Corneal vascularization, regrafting, anterior synechiae, irritating sutures, active inflammation, additional anterior segment procedures, history of trauma, uncontrolled glaucoma, prior graft rejection, recurrence of herpetic infection and eccentric grafting increased the rate of rejection. Patient age, donor size and bilateral transplantation had no significant influence on graft rejection. CONCLUSION: Significant risk factors for corneal graft rejection include

  4. Perinatal risk factors for asthma in Finnish adolescent twins

    Rasanen, M.; Kaprio, J.; Laitinen, T.; Winter, T.; Koskenvuo, M.; Laitinen, L

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Previous studies have suggested that, in addition to genetic liability and environment in early childhood, intrauterine life also influences the risk for asthma beyond childhood. Low birth weight, prematurity, young maternal age, and maternal smoking have all shown an association with asthma. The effect of perinatal factors on the risk for asthma in relation to familial and social risk factors was studied in a nationwide population-based sample of adolescent tw...

  5. Risk Factors for High Blood Pressure

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. Risk Factors for High Blood Pressure Anyone can develop high blood pressure; however, age, ... can increase your risk for developing high blood pressure. Age Blood pressure tends to rise with age. About 65 ...

  6. CDC Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) is a state-based system of health surveys that collects information on health risk behaviors, preventive...

  7. About Alzheimer's Disease: Risk Factors and Prevention

    ... Alzheimer's Project Act (NAPA) About ADEAR About Alzheimer's Disease: Risk Factors and Prevention We can’t control some risk factors for ... Preventing Alzheimer’s Disease: What Do We Know? Alzheimer's Disease: Unraveling the Mystery ... Factors and Prevention News Summit sets the path ahead for Alzheimer's ...

  8. [General practitioner burnout: risk factors].

    Dagrada, H; Verbanck, P; Kornreich, C

    2011-09-01

    This paper aims to review current knowledge on risk factors leading to burn-out of general practitioners, who are particularly concerned by burn-out, as 50% of them are being more or less affected. This article is based on bibliographic research covering literature between 1975 and 2010, using PUB MED software, medical books and articles. 44 articles were selected as dealing well with the aspects of the burn-out reviewed here. It seems established that stress precedes burnout symptoms. Theories investigating relationships between stress and work are presented. Exogenic stress (load and organization of work, emotional interaction with the patient, constraints, lack of recognition, conflicts between private and professional life) interacts with endogenous stress (idealism, (too much) acute feeling of responsibility, mood disorder, difficulty in collaborating, character, personality). Burn-out symptoms would appear preferentially when these two stresses coexist. Despite the wealth of publications, there is still a lack of knowledge of the causes of burn-out, requiring therefore increased research efforts, in order to improve the implementation of preventive measures, beneficial to the doctors as well as to their patients. PMID:22034773

  9. What Are the Risk Factors for Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors?

    ... what causes gastrointestinal stromal tumors? What are the risk factors for gastrointestinal stromal tumors? A risk factor is ... disease like cancer. Different cancers have different risk factors. Some risk factors, like smoking, can be changed. Others, like ...

  10. Are hypertensive women at additional risk of ischaemic heart disease from physically demanding work?

    Allesoe, Karen; Sogaard, Karen; Aadahl, Mette;

    2016-01-01

    : This was a prospective cohort study. METHODS: In 1993, 12,093 female nurses from the Danish Nurse Cohort Study, aged 45-64 years answered a baseline questionnaire on physical activity at work, history of hypertension, a selection of known risk factors for IHD and occupational factors. Information on incident IHD from...... baseline to 2008 was retrieved by individual linkage to the National Register of Hospital Discharges. RESULTS: In a fully adjusted Cox model, hypertensive nurses with high physical activity at work had nearly three times higher risk of IHD (hazard ratio (HR) 2.87 (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.......12-3.87)) compared to normotensive nurses with moderate physical activity at work. Significant additive interaction between physical activity at work and hypertension was found measured by the relative excess risk due to additive interaction (RERI) (1.20 (95% CI 0.26-2.14), and in an additive hazards model...

  11. Developmental Risk Factors for Sexual Offending.

    Lee, Joseph K. P.; Jackson, Henry J.; Pattison, Pip; Ward, Tony

    2002-01-01

    A study involving 64 Australian sex offenders and 33 non-sex offenders found childhood emotional abuse and family dysfunction, childhood behavior problems, and childhood sexual abuse were developmental risk factors for paraphilia. Emotional abuse and family dysfunction was found to be a risk factor for pedophilia, exhibitionism, rape, or multiple…

  12. Gang Membership Risk Factors for Eighth-Grade Students

    James Martinez

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to identify the major risk factor domains for gang membership and the relationships of these risk factors to eighth grade students. The domains of risk factors include: individual characteristics, peer group influences, family conditions, school experiences and the community context, along with demographic information obtained from the Student Gang Survey items. Through logistic multiple regression, risk factors associated with school, peer, community-neighborhood, and family were used to predict gang membership. Demographic data were also used as predictor variables. Results indicated that an increase in Community-Neighborhood Risk was associated with a decrease in joining a gang. Non-significant findings for Peer Risk, School Risk, Family Risk and demographic variables are additionally discussed. The current research identifies issues which middle school youth encounter in a county setting; provides a homegrown report to assist stakeholders (administrators, teachers, parents, students, and law enforcement in identifying locally relevant risk factors of gang behavior; and substantiates risk factors for gang membership proliferation in those neighborhoods with no recently documented history of gangs.

  13. Epigenetic Risk Factors in PTSD and Depression

    Florian Joachim Raabe

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological and clinical studies have shown that children exposed to adverse experiences are at increased risk for the development of depression, anxiety disorders and PTSD. A history of child abuse and maltreatment increases the likelihood of being subsequently exposed to traumatic events or of developing PTSD as an adult. The brain is highly plastic during early life and encodes acquired information into lasting memories that normally subserve adaptation. Translational studies in rodents showed that enduring sensitization of neuronal and neuroendocrine circuits in response to early life adversity are likely risk factors of life time vulnerability to stress. Hereby, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis integrates cognitive, behavioural and emotional responses to early-life stress and can be epigenetically programmed during sensitive windows of development. Epigenetic mechanisms, comprising reciprocal regulation of chromatin structure and DNA methylation, are important to establish and maintain sustained, yet potentially reversible, changes in gene transcription. The relevance of these findings for the development of PTSD requires further studies in humans where experience-dependent epigenetic programming can additionally depend on genetic variation in the underlying substrates which may protect from or advance disease development. Overall, identification of early-life stress associated epigenetic risk markers informing on previous stress history can help to advance early diagnosis, personalized prevention and timely therapeutic interventions, thus reducing long-term social and health costs.

  14. Seismic Risk Perception compared with seismic Risk Factors

    Crescimbene, Massimo; La Longa, Federica; Pessina, Vera; Pino, Nicola Alessandro; Peruzza, Laura

    2016-04-01

    The communication of natural hazards and their consequences is one of the more relevant ethical issues faced by scientists. In the last years, social studies have provided evidence that risk communication is strongly influenced by the risk perception of people. In order to develop effective information and risk communication strategies, the perception of risks and the influencing factors should be known. A theory that offers an integrative approach to understanding and explaining risk perception is still missing. To explain risk perception, it is necessary to consider several perspectives: social, psychological and cultural perspectives and their interactions. This paper presents the results of the CATI survey on seismic risk perception in Italy, conducted by INGV researchers on funding by the DPC. We built a questionnaire to assess seismic risk perception, with a particular attention to compare hazard, vulnerability and exposure perception with the real data of the same factors. The Seismic Risk Perception Questionnaire (SRP-Q) is designed by semantic differential method, using opposite terms on a Likert scale to seven points. The questionnaire allows to obtain the scores of five risk indicators: Hazard, Exposure, Vulnerability, People and Community, Earthquake Phenomenon. The questionnaire was administered by telephone interview (C.A.T.I.) on a statistical sample at national level of over 4,000 people, in the period January -February 2015. Results show that risk perception seems be underestimated for all indicators considered. In particular scores of seismic Vulnerability factor are extremely low compared with house information data of the respondents. Other data collected by the questionnaire regard Earthquake information level, Sources of information, Earthquake occurrence with respect to other natural hazards, participation at risk reduction activities and level of involvement. Research on risk perception aims to aid risk analysis and policy-making by

  15. Capsaicinoids Modulating Cardiometabolic Syndrome Risk Factors: Current Perspectives

    2016-01-01

    Capsaicinoids are bioactive nutrients present within red hot peppers reported to cut ad libitum food intake, to increase energy expenditure (thermogenesis) and lipolysis, and to result in weight loss over time. In addition it has shown more benefits such as improvement in reducing oxidative stress and inflammation, improving vascular health, improving endothelial function, lowering blood pressure, reducing endothelial cytokines, cholesterol lowering effects, reducing blood glucose, improving insulin sensitivity, and reducing inflammatory risk factors. All these beneficial effects together help to modulate cardiometabolic syndrome risk factors. The early identification of cardiometabolic risk factors can help try to prevent obesity, hypertension, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. PMID:27313880

  16. Financial risks and factors affecting them on Finnish farms

    Pyykkonen, Perttu; Yrjola, Tapani; Latukka, Arto

    2008-01-01

    As a consequence of rapid structural change and new investment support scheme agricultural debts have increased and concentrated heavily in Finland. In addition, New Basel Accord (Basel II) regulating the bank business requires more in-depth credit risk assessment from banks. Therefore, there are both endogenous and exogenous reasoning for researching the agricultural credit risks. The purpose of the study is to find out the factors that affect financial risks in agriculture as well as possib...

  17. Low Fruit/Vegetable Consumption in the Home: Cumulative Risk Factors in Early Childhood

    Ward, Wendy L.; Swindle, Taren M.; Kyzer, Angela L.; Whiteside-Mansell, Leanne

    2015-01-01

    Cumulative risk theory suggests that a variety of social risk factors would have an additive effect on obesity risk. Multiple studies have suggested that obesity is related to basic resources such as transportation and financial resources. Additional research points to parental engagement and parental monitoring as additional sources of risk. This…

  18. Household energy assessment: integration of approaches and additional factors

    Parikh, J.K.

    1985-01-01

    An appropriate household energy assessment for developing countries which use substantial biomass, requires a coordinated effort between surveyors, experimentalists and analysts. This paper describes the role of each and also the additional factors which need to be considered, recorded, measured and analyzed to account for variations in energy consumption across countries, income classes, etc. These range from seasonal and regional differences, fuel scarcities and coping strategies, dietary and cooking practices, food and fuel processing, to the role of women.

  19. HUMAN PROSTATE CANCER RISK FACTORS

    Prostate cancer has the highest prevalence of any non-skin cancer in the human body, with similar likelihood of neoplastic foci found within the prostates of men around the world regardless of diet, occupation, lifestyle, or other factors. Essentially all men with circulating an...

  20. Uncertainty factors in ectotoxicological risk : uncertainty factors in ectotoxicological risk management.

    Craig, P.

    2006-01-01

    Uncertainty factors (also known as extrapolation or safety factors) are widely used in lower tier ecotoxicological risk management in order to allow for sources of variability and uncertainty for which there is only limited information. From the point of view of probabilistic risk assessment, the rationale underlying both the use of uncertainty factors and the specific values chosen is often unclear. On the other hand, uncertainty factors are a convenient approach to lower tier risk assessme...

  1. Risk factors of recurrent anal sphincter ruptures

    Jangö, Hanna; Langhoff-Roos, J; Rosthøj, Steen;

    2012-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Jangö H, Langhoff-Roos J, Rosthøj S, Sakse A. Risk factors of recurrent anal sphincter ruptures: a population-based cohort study. BJOG 2012;00:000-000 DOI: 10.1111/j.1471-0528.2012.03486.x. Objective  To determine the incidence and risk factors of recurrent anal sphincter...... rupture (ASR). Design  Population-based retrospective cohort study. Setting  Data were taken from the National Medical Birth Registry, Denmark. Population  Patients with a first and a second vaginal delivery in the time period 1997-2010. Methods  Univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression...... were used to determine risk factors of recurrent ASR. Main outcome measures  The incidence of recurrent ASR and odds ratios for possible risk factors of recurrent ASR: age, body mass index, grade of ASR, birthweight, head circumference, gestational age, presentation, induction of labour, oxytocin...

  2. Major Risk Factors for Heart Disease: Diabetes

    ... Espanol Image Library Campaign Materials The Healthy Heart Handbook for Women Major Risk Factors for Heart Disease ... on how to choose and cook low-fat foods, get more physical activity, and achieve a healthy ...

  3. Risk Factors Associated with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    Anthony Shannon; Wong, C K

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the studies reviewed here is to consider the risk factors associated with gestational diabetes mellitus. In order to abstract general features meta-analysis is utilized as the review tool.

  4. Awareness of risk factors for cancer

    Lagerlund, Magdalena; Hvidberg, Line; Hajdarevic, Senada;

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sweden and Denmark are neighbouring countries with similarities in culture, healthcare, and economics, yet notable differences in cancer statistics. A crucial component of primary prevention is high awareness of risk factors in the general public. We aimed to determine and compare...... awareness of risk factors for cancer between a Danish and a Swedish population sample, and to examine whether there are differences in awareness across age groups. Methods: Data derive from Module 2 of the International Cancer Benchmarking Partnership. Telephone interviews were conducted with 3000 adults in...... Denmark and 3070 in Sweden using the Awareness and Beliefs about Cancer measure. Data reported here relate to awareness of 13 prompted risk factors for cancer. Prevalence ratios with 95 % confidence intervals were calculated to examine associations between country, age, and awareness of risk factors...

  5. Risk factors across the eating disorders

    Hilbert, Anja; Pike, Kathleen; Goldschmidt, Andrea; Wilfley, Denise; Fairburn, Christopher; Dohm, Faith-Anne; Walsh, Timothy; Weissman, Ruth Striegel

    2014-01-01

    This study sought to examine risk and onset patterns in anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and binge eating disorder (BED). Women with AN (n=71), BN (n=66), BED (n=160) and non-psychiatric controls (n=323) were compared retrospectively on risk factors, symptom onset, and diagnostic migration. Eating disorder groups reported greater risk exposure than non-psychiatric controls. AN and BED differed on premorbid personality/behavioral problems, childhood obesity, and family overeating. ...

  6. Risk factors in prevention of drug dependences

    Orosova, Ol'ga; Gajdosova, Beata; Madarasova-Geckova, Andrea; Van Dijk, Jitse P.

    2007-01-01

    The study presents the state-of-art of knowledge of risk factors of drug use as a form of risk behaviour in adolescents in individual, interpersonal, and environmental domain (family, school, society). The attention is paid to general deviation syndrome and to the construct of general tendency to dr

  7. Psychosocial risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs)

    Heuvel, S. van den

    2014-01-01

    It has been known for some time that risk factors in the workplace can have a negative effect on health. Ramazzini was one of the first scientists to identify occupational health hazards. He wrote about diseases of the musculoskeletal system caused by sudden and irregular movements and the adoption of awkward postures. Another category of work-related risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) includes psychosocial work characteristics, such as work demands, job control and social supp...

  8. Vascular Risk Factors: Imaging and Neuropathologic Correlates

    Knopman, David S; Roberts, Rosebud

    2010-01-01

    Cerebrovascular disease plays an important role in cognitive disorders in the elderly. Cerebrovascular disease and Alzheimer’s disease interact on several levels, one important level being the overlap in risk factors. The major vascular risk factors such as diabetes and impaired glycemic control, hypertension, obesity and hyper- or dyslipidemia have been associated both with Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia. The purpose of this review is to consider the context in which vascular deme...

  9. Atherogenic Risk Factors and Hearing Thresholds

    Frederiksen, Thomas Winther; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia Høst; Stokholm, Zara Ann;

    2014-01-01

    children's day care units, financial services and 10 manufacturing trades. Associations between atherogenic risk factors (blood lipids, glycosylated hemoglobin, smoking habits, body mass index (BMI), and ambulatory blood pressure) and hearing thresholds were analyzed using multiple linear regression models...... associated with increased low-frequency hearing thresholds, but only at a borderline level of statistical significance. Associations were generally strongest with hearing levels of the worst hearing ear. We found no statistically significant associations between atherogenic risk factors and high...

  10. Endocrine Risk Factors for Cognitive Impairment

    Moon, Jae Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive impairment, including Alzheimer's disease and other kinds of dementia, is a major health problem in older adults worldwide. Although numerous investigators have attempted to develop effective treatment modalities or drugs, there is no reasonably efficacious strategy for preventing or recovering from cognitive impairment. Therefore, modifiable risk factors for cognitive impairment have received attention, and the growing literature of metabolic risk factors for cognitive impairment h...

  11. Adolescent Risk Factors for Child Maltreatment

    Thornberry, Terence P.; Matsuda, Mauri; Greenman, Sarah J.; Augustyn, Megan Bears; Henry, Kimberly L.; Smith, Carolyn A.; Ireland, Timothy O.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate adolescent risk factors, measured at both early and late adolescence, for involvement in child maltreatment during adulthood. Comprehensive assessments of risk factors for maltreatment that use representative samples with longitudinal data are scarce and can inform multilevel prevention. We use data from the Rochester Youth Development Study, a longitudinal study begun in 1988 with a sample of 1,000 seventh and eighth graders. Participants have been interviewed 14 times and, at...

  12. RISK FACTORS FOR INTIMATE PARTNER VIOLENCE

    Ceren Atakay

    2014-01-01

    Intimate partner violence has kept being one of the major societal issues in our country over the past year. It is absolutely necessary to intervene in this substantially psychological issue multi-directionally. In order to intervene in the problem from psychological aspect, it is important to estimate and interpret the risk factors for intimate partner violence. Therefore in the current study, ‘I-cube theory’ which is about the risk factors for intimate partner violence has been explained fi...

  13. Epidemiological & Risk Factors In Childhood Bronchial Asthma

    Singh Harmesh; Soni R.K; Gill P J S

    1998-01-01

    Research question: What are the epidemiological and risk factors associated with asthma in children. Objective: To determine epidemiological and risk factors in childhood bronchial asthma. Study design: Cross-sectional. Setting Hospital based. Participants: Children suffering from bronchial asthma and their parents/ attendants. Sample size: 235 children. Study variables: Age, sex place of residence, socio-economic status, age of onset of asthma, no of siblings, fuel used for cooking, smoking,...

  14. Childhood asthma and risk factors

    Ljuština-Pribić Radmila; Petrović Slobodanka; Tomić Jelena

    2010-01-01

    Introduction. This article summarizes the contribution of epidemiology to the understanding of childhood asthma. The first task in epidemiology is to determine prevalence and incidence of any disease. Prevalence. Epidemiological investigations are aimed at evaluating hypotheses about causes of disease by defining demographic characteristics of a certain population as well as by determining possible effects of environmental factors. In spite of some limitations, data obtained by epidemio...

  15. Risk factors predisposing to congenital heart defects

    Congenital heart disease (CHD) is associated with multiple risk factors, consanguinity may be one such significant factor. The role of consanguinity in the etiology of CHD is supported by inbreeding studies, which demonstrate an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance of some congenital heart defects. This study was done to find out the risk factors for CHD. A case-control study was done on pediatric patients at a tertiary care hospital, Aga Khan University Hospital, located in Karachi, Pakistan. A total of 500 patients, 250 cases and 250 controls were included in the study. Amongst the 250 cases (i.e. those diagnosed with CHD), 122 patients (48.8%) were born of consanguineous marriages while in the controls (i.e. non-CHD) only 72 patients (28.9%) showed a consanguinity amongst parents. On multivariate analysis, consanguinity emerged as an independent risk factor for CHD; adjusted odds ratio 2.59 (95% C. I. 1.73 - 3.87). Other risk factors included low birth weight, maternal co-morbidities, family history of CHD and first born child. On the other hand, medications used by the mother during the index pregnancy, maternal age and gender of the child did not significantly increase the risk of developing CHD. Analyses of our results show that parental consanguinity, family history of CHD, maternal co-morbidities, first born child and low birth weight are independent risk factors for CHD

  16. Risk factors predisposing to congenital heart defects

    Ul Haq, Faheem; Jalil, Fatima; Hashmi, Saman; Jumani, Maliha Iqbal; Imdad, Aamer; Jabeen, Mehnaz; Hashmi, Javad Tauseef; Irfan, Furqan Bin; Imran, Muhammad; Atiq, Mehnaz

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Congenital heart disease (CHD) is associated with multiple risk factors, consanguinity may be one such significant factor. The role of consanguinity in the etiology of CHD is supported by inbreeding studies, which demonstrate an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance of some congenital heart defects. This study was done to find out the risk factors for CHD. Methods: A case-control study was done on pediatric patients at a tertiary care hospital, Aga Khan University Hospital, located in Karachi, Pakistan. A total of 500 patients, 250 cases and 250 controls were included in the study. Results: Amongst the 250 cases (i.e. those diagnosed with CHD), 122 patients (48.8%) were born of consanguineous marriages while in the controls (i.e. non-CHD) only 72 patients (28.9%) showed a consanguinity amongst parents. On multivariate analysis, consanguinity emerged as an independent risk factor for CHD; adjusted odds ratio 2.59 (95% C. I. 1.73 - 3.87). Other risk factors included low birth weight, maternal co-morbidities, family history of CHD and first born child. On the other hand, medications used by the mother during the index pregnancy, maternal age and gender of the child did not significantly increase the risk of developing CHD. Conclusions: Analyses of our results show that parental consanguinity, family history of CHD, maternal co-morbidities, first born child and low birth weight are independent risk factors for CHD. PMID:21976868

  17. BREAST CANCER: IS OBESITY A RISK FACTOR?

    Anjali

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Most epidemiological studies established obesity as an important risk factor for breast cancer. It is one of the few risk factors that women can modify. Now-a-days breast cancer is considered to be a life-style disease. The relation of obesity to breast cancer is complex one. Obesity is found to be associated with increased risk of cancer in post-menopausal women, but relation is reverse in pre-menopausal women. In these patients, obesity increases risk due to enhanced oestrogenic activity in obese females. Apart from it, other factors like Insulin-like Growth Factor (IGF-1, Leptin has also been involved. Due to big breasts in obese females there is delay in seeking medical attention, delay in diagnosis, poor response to surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and associated complication during treatment. We study the effect of obesity (Weight, BMI, WHR as a risk factor in occurrence of breast cancer in local population of Southern part of Rajasthan in India. We found no significant association between obesity and increased risk of breast cancer in local population of this region where women are multiparous, physically active and usually do not use exogenous hormones.

  18. Predictive risk factors for persistent postherniotomy pain

    Aasvang, Eske K; Gmaehle, Eliza; Hansen, Jeanette B;

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Persistent postherniotomy pain (PPP) affects everyday activities in 5-10% of patients. Identification of predisposing factors may help to identify the risk groups and guide anesthetic or surgical procedures in reducing risk for PPP. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted in 464...... patients undergoing open or laparoscopic transabdominal preperitoneal elective groin hernia repair. Primary outcome was identification of risk factors for substantial pain-related functional impairment at 6 months postoperatively assessed by the validated Activity Assessment Scale (AAS). Data on potential...... risk factors for PPP were collected preoperatively (pain from the groin hernia, preoperative AAS score, pain from other body regions, and psychometric assessment). Pain scores were collected on days 7 and 30 postoperatively. Sensory functions including pain response to tonic heat stimulation were...

  19. Cannabis use motives and personality risk factors.

    Hecimovic, Karen; Barrett, Sean P; Darredeau, Christine; Stewart, Sherry H

    2014-03-01

    According to the model of substance abuse of Conrod, Pihl, Stewart, and Dongier (2000), four personality factors (i.e., anxiety sensitivity [AS], introversion/hopelessness [I/H], sensation seeking [SS], and impulsivity [IMP]) are associated with elevated risk for substance use/misuse, with each personality factor being related to preference for particular drugs of abuse (e.g., AS with anxiolytics). However, cannabis use has not been consistently linked to any one of these personality factors. This may be due to the heterogeneity in cannabis use motives. The present study explored the association between these four personality risk factors and different cannabis use motives. Cannabis users completed an interview about their motives for cannabis use as well as the self-report Substance Use Risk Profile Scale (SURPS; Woicik, Conrod, Stewart, & Pihl, 2009), which measures the four personality risk factors. Results showed that AS was associated with conformity motives and I/H was associated with coping motives for cannabis use. SS was positively associated with expansion motives and IMP was associated with drug availability motives. Thus, personality risk factors in the model of Conrod et al. (2000) are associated with distinct cannabis use motives in a pattern consistent with theory. PMID:24368004

  20. OCULAR HYPERTENSION - RISK FACTORS AND THERAPY?

    Janicijevic Katarina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction/Aim: The goal of our study was to analyze the epidemiological`s characteristics of ocular hypertension, as well as the influence of chronic risk factors on glaucoma development (conversion in glaucoma. We tried to make some entries for solving this complex ophthalmological problem. Material /Methods: From 2009 to 2015, a retrospective control study was performed on 121 patient with diagnoses of bilateral ocular hypertension and without disease progression/conversion of glaucoma (by standard protocols of diagnosis and basic procedures on tertiary level at Clinic of Ophthalmology, Clinical Centre of Kragujevac, Serbia.. The authors analyzed epidemiological characteristics: sex, age groups, positive/negative family history and personal history with chronic risk factors (one and/or two of ocular hypertension. The data obtained from this study were statistically analyzed in SPSS program, version 20.00. Results: As for the patients, 69 of them (57.02% were male and 52 female (42.98%. Dominant age group was between 40-49 (42.15% and then group between 50-59 (40.50% years of age. Anamnesis data indicated the absence of family anamnesis 71 (58.68%. Risk factors for ocular hypertension were presented in 103 (85.13% patients, 18 of them (14.87% did not respond. One risk factor - cardiovascular disease was noted in 83 (68.59%, with two risk factors - cardiovascular diseases and diabetes mellitus in 20 patients (16.53% and with PEX syndroma at other respondents. Conclusion: Ocular hypertension is not a common disease, but with risk factors, such as older age, positive family history, and chronic risk factors syndicated, represents a serious clinical and social problem, so the question remains for ophthalmologists - pro or against therapy? Those in favor of therapy would state the safety and protection from conversion/progression of glaucoma; but those against therapy would only mention adequate monitoring of patients.

  1. Environmental risk factors for chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer.

    Nitsche, Claudia; Simon, Peter; Weiss, F Ulrich; Fluhr, Gabriele; Weber, Eckhard; Gärtner, Simone; Behn, Claas O; Kraft, Matthias; Ringel, Jörg; Aghdassi, Ali; Mayerle, Julia; Lerch, Markus M

    2011-01-01

    Chronic pancreatitis has long been thought to be mainly associated with immoderate alcohol consumption. The observation that only ∼10% of heavy drinkers develop chronic pancreatitis not only suggests that other environmental factors, such as tobacco smoke, are potent additional risk factors, but also that the genetic component of pancreatitis is more common than previously presumed. Either disease-causing or protective traits have been indentified for mutations in different trypsinogen genes, the gene for the trypsin inhibitor SPINK1, chymotrypsinogen C, and the cystic fibrosis transmembane conductance regulator (CFTR). Other factors that have been proposed to contribute to pancreatitis are obesity, diets high in animal protein and fat, as well as antioxidant deficiencies. For the development of pancreatic cancer, preexisting chronic pancreatitis, more prominently hereditary pancreatitis, is a risk factor. The data on environmental risk factors for pancreatic cancer are, with the notable exception of tobacco smoke, either sparse, unconfirmed or controversial. Obesity appears to increase the risk of pancreatic cancer in the West but not in Japan. Diets high in processed or red meat, diets low in fruits and vegetables, phytochemicals such as lycopene and flavonols, have been proposed and refuted as risk or protective factors in different trials. The best established and single most important risk factor for cancer as well as pancreatitis and the one to clearly avoid is tobacco smoke. PMID:21734390

  2. Cervical artery dissection: emerging risk factors.

    Micheli, S; Paciaroni, M; Corea, F; Agnelli, G; Zampolini, M; Caso, V

    2010-01-01

    Cervical artery dissection (CAD) represents an increasingly recognized cause of stroke and the most common cause of ischemic stroke in young adults. Many factors have been identified in association with CAD such as primary disease of arterial wall (fibrodysplasia) and other non-specific diseases related to CAD like Ehlers Danlos-syndrome IV, Marfan's syndrome, vessel tortuosity. Moreover, an underlying arteriopathy which could be in part genetically determined, has been suspected. The rule of emerging risk factors for CAD such as recent respiratory tract infection, migraine and hyperhomocysteinemia are still a matter of research. Other known risks factors for CAD are major head/neck trauma like chiropractic maneuver, coughing or hyperextension injury associated to car. We examined emerging risks factors for CAD detected in the last years, as CAD pathogenesis is still not completely understood and needs further investigations. PMID:21270941

  3. Portfolio Credit Risk Modelling With Heavy-Tailed Risk Factors

    Kostadinov, Krassimir

    2007-01-01

    During the last decade, the dependencies between financial assets have increased due to globalization effects and relaxed market regulation. The standard industrial methodologies like RiskMetrics and CreditMetrics model the dependence structure in the derivatives or in the credit portfolio by assuming multivariate normality of the underlying risk factors. It has been well recognized that many financial assets exhibit a number of features which contradict the normality assumption - namely asym...

  4. Determinants of Risk Factors for Asthma

    Busse, William W.

    1999-01-01

    There are a number of risk factors for the development of asthma, including genetic and environmental components. Moreover, there is mounting evidence that a variety of genes are associated with the features of asthma, such as persistent wheezing, airway responsiveness and chronic bronchial inflammation. However, for expression of these features, other factors must also come into play. This paper focuses on the importance of environmental factors in the development of asthma, including allerg...

  5. What Are the Risk Factors for Bladder Cancer?

    ... cancer Next Topic What causes bladder cancer? Bladder cancer risk factors A risk factor is anything that changes your ... make a person more likely to develop bladder cancer. Risk factors you can change Smoking Smoking is the most ...

  6. Heart Disease Risk Factors | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    ... disease (CHD). These conditions are known as risk factors. Risk factors also increase the chance that existing CHD ... CHD, talk with your doctor or healthcare provider. Risk Factors You Can Control Smoking —Smoking is the most ...

  7. Endocrine Risk Factors for Cognitive Impairment.

    Moon, Jae Hoon

    2016-06-01

    Cognitive impairment, including Alzheimer's disease and other kinds of dementia, is a major health problem in older adults worldwide. Although numerous investigators have attempted to develop effective treatment modalities or drugs, there is no reasonably efficacious strategy for preventing or recovering from cognitive impairment. Therefore, modifiable risk factors for cognitive impairment have received attention, and the growing literature of metabolic risk factors for cognitive impairment has expanded from epidemiology to molecular pathogenesis and therapeutic management. This review focuses on the epidemiological evidence for the association between cognitive impairment and several endocrine risk factors, including insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, thyroid dysfunction, vitamin D deficiency, and subclinical atherosclerosis. Researches suggesting possible mechanisms for this association are reviewed. The research investigating modifiable endocrine risk factors for cognitive impairment provides clues for understanding the pathogenesis of cognitive impairment and developing novel treatment modalities. However, so far, interventional studies investigating the beneficial effect of the "modification" of these "modifiable risk factors" on cognitive impairment have reported variable results. Therefore, well-designed, randomized prospective interventional studies are needed. PMID:27118278

  8. Risk factors for hepatitis C virus infection

    Mijailović Željko D.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Hepatitis C viral infection represents a major health problem in the world. The estimated global incidence is about 3%, whereas the number of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV carriers worldwide is estimated to be between 150-300 million people. Material and methods This retrospective analysis included 82 patients whose diagnosis of viral hepatitis C infection was based upon the following criteria: case history, physical examination, laboratory and abdominal ultrasound examination, histological examination of the liver, radiological examination, serological analysis and viral analysis. Descriptive statistics were used to describe general data on patients of the study group, risk factor analysis and follow-up results. Results The most prominent risk factor in our study group was intravenous use of drugs in 37 patients (37%, and blood transfusion in 13 patients (13%. Less important risk factors of viral hepatitis C infection included: promiscuity (8%, sexual contact with hepatitis C carriers (5%, surgical intervention (5%, haemodialysis (3%, intranasal use of cocaine (2%. Discussion Hepatitis C viral infection has become the illness of young and middle-aged population. This is due to the epidemic profile of this illness, due to intravenous use of drugs as the most prominent risk factor. Conclusion Due to the number of infected, numerous risk factors and complications of viral hepatitis C, hepatitis C virus has become the most prominent hepatotrophic virus.

  9. THE ADDITION OF THE MOMENT RISK FACTOR FOR THREE FACTORS ASSET PRICING MODEL, DEVELOPED BY FAMA & FRENCH, APPLIED TO THE BRAZILIAN STOCK MARKET A ADIÇÃO DO FATOR DE RISCO MOMENTO AO MODELO DE PRECIFICAÇÃO DE ATIVOS DOS TRÊS FATORES DE FAMA & FRENCH APLICADO AO MERCADO ACIONÁRIO BRASILEIRO

    Adriano Mussa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to investigate the validity of the “four factors assets pricing model ”in theBrazilian stock market. This model is defined by the addition of the risk moment factor to the famous threefactors developed by Fama and French. Therefore, the four factors are: the market, as indicated by CapitalAsset Pricing Model (CAPM; the size of the enterprise, defined by the value of its net equity; the Book-toMarket rate (defined by the relation between the book value and market value; and the Moment, that is defined by the stocks valorization within a certain period of time. During this investigation it has utilized thesame methodology adopted by Fama and French (1993. Such survey focused on the shares traded throughthe Sao Paulo Stock Exchange (BOVESPA between 1995 and 2006. The signification of each factor wastested using to statistic T of Student. The model e ectiveness was tested through coefficients of determinationR2 analysis of regressions timing. The research results proof that this model is applicable to the BrazilianStock Market, being superior to the Three Factors Model, and also to CAPM, while explaining the gains ofthe sampled shares. The relevance of each factor of risk varied in accordance with the characteristics ofeach portfolio.O objetivo do presente artigo é investigar a validade do “Modelo de Precificação de Ativos dos Quatro Fatores” no mercado acionário brasileiro. Esse modelo é definido pela adição do Fator de Risco Momento ao Modelo dos Três Fatores de Fama e French. Dessa forma, os quatro fatores são: o Mercado, conforme indicado pelo CAPM; o Tamanho da Empresa, definido pelo valor de mercado do patrimônio líquido; oÍndice Book-to-Market ou B/M, definido pela relação entre o valor contábil e de mercado do patrimôniolíquido; e o Momento, definido pelo desempenho acumulado dos retornos das ações. A metodologia utilizada foi a mesma adotada por Fama e French (1993. Foram

  10. Risk Factors for Invasive Epithelial Ovarian Cancer by Histologic Subtype

    Quirk JT

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available It is unclear whether the different histologic subtypes of epithelial ovarian carcinoma have different risk factors. We investigated the relationships between selected epidemiologic variables (i.e., parity, family history of ovarian cancer, oral contraceptive use, a history of tubal ligation and noncontraceptive estrogen use and the major histologic subtypes of epithelial ovarian cancer in a hospital-based case-control study of adult women at Roswell Park Cancer Institute in Buffalo, NY, USA. Multivariate unconditional logistic regression models were used for statistical analysis. We observed a pattern of increased risk associated with family history and a pattern of risk reduction associated with parity, noncontraceptive estrogen use and tubal ligation across all histologic subtype groups. However, we did not observe a consistent pattern of risk associated with oral contraceptive use. These results provide some additional support for the hypothesis that the effects of various ovarian cancer risk factors may differ according to the histologic subtype.

  11. Risk factors of cardiac allograft vasculopathy

    Szczurek, Wioletta; Gąsior, Mariusz; Zembala, Marian

    2015-01-01

    Despite advances in prevention and treatment of heart transplant rejection, development of cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV) remains the leading factor limiting long-term survival of the graft. Cardiac allograft vasculopathy etiopathogenesis is not fully understood, but a significant role is attributed to endothelial cell damage, caused by immunological and non-immunological mechanisms. Immunological factors include the differences between the recipient's and the donor's HLA systems, the presence of alloreactive antibodies and episodes of acute rejection. Among the non-immunological factors the most important are the age of the donor, ischemia-reperfusion injury and cytomegalovirus infection. The classical cardiovascular risk factors (diabetes, hypertension, obesity and hyperlipidemia) are also important. This study presents an up-to-date overview of current knowledge on the vasculopathy etiopathogenesis and the role played by endothelium and inflammatory processes in CAV, and it also investigates the factors which may serve as risk markers of cardiac allograft vasculopathy. PMID:26855649

  12. Safety Factors in Pesticide Risk Assessment

    Elmegaard, N.; Jagers op Akkerhuis, G. A. J. M.

    to secure that the methodology is adequate. As new knowledge surfaces the risk assessment procedures develops. The present report is a contribution to the development of safety factors used to account for the uncertainty when · extrapolating from the results of test with a single species in the......Foreword It has become common practice to protect the environment from hazardous chemicals by use of risk assessment to establish environmental concentration at which only limited damage to the ecosystem can be expected. The methods and tools applied in the risk assessment need constant evaluation...... safety factors used in pesticide risk assessment: the variability in species sensitivities, and the relationship between acute LC50's and chronic NOEC's....

  13. Psychosocial risk factors and heart failure hospitalization

    Rod, Naja Hulvej; Andersen, Ingelise; Prescott, Eva

    2011-01-01

    Prospective studies on the role of psychosocial factors in heart failure development are virtually nonexistent. The authors aimed to address the effect of psychosocial factors on the risk of heart failure hospitalization in men and women free of cardiovascular disease. In 1991-1993, the 8...... population reported some degree of vital exhaustion. The vital exhaustion score was associated with a higher risk of heart failure in a dose-response manner (P <0.002), with high vital exhaustion being associated with a 2-fold higher risk of heart failure in both men (hazard ratio = 1.93, 95% confidence...... population, even a modestly higher risk of heart failure associated with vital exhaustion may be of importance in the planning of future preventive strategies for heart failure....

  14. Fall risk factors in community-dwelling elderly people

    Astrid Bergland

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Falls are a common and serious problem for older adults. Approximately one-third of older communitydwelling people fall at least once a year. The main purpose of this paper is to present risk factors for fall in older people living at home. The databases used for identifying documentation of risk factors are Cinahl, Eric, ISI Web of Science, Cochrane Medline, Psycinfo and dissertation. Many psychosocial and medical conditions and impairment of sensorimotor function, balance and gait have been shown in large epidemiological studies to be strongly associated with falls. Several of the risk factors are interrelated. The intrinsic-extrinsic distinction seem to be an oversimplification. A better understanding of falls is usually obtained when examining the person in association with the environmental factors. Advanced age, history of falls, ADL limitations, impaired gait and mobility, visual impairment, reduced sensation, muscular weakness, poor reaction time, impaired cognition, diseases as stroke, use of psychoactive medication and use of many medications are risk factors shown to be strongly associated with falls. This means recommendation of multifactorial fall risk assessment must incorporate a range of physiological and mental tests in addition to assessing balance and gait as well as taking multiple chronic diseases and medications into account. These finding underscore the importance of multidimensional fall intervention with special focus on modifiable risk factors

  15. Cardiovascular risk factors and risk of venous thromboembolism

    Brækkan, Sigrid Kufaas

    2010-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE), including deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, is a common disease, with serious short- and long-term complications and a potential fatal outcome. Despite the knowledge of several inherited and acquired risk factors for VTE, still 30-50 % of the VTE events occur in the absence of obvious predisposing factors. Traditionally, arterial and venous thrombosis has been considered as separate disease entities with different pathology, epidemiology and treatments...

  16. What Are the Risk Factors for Ovarian Cancer?

    ... cancer? What are the risk factors for ovarian cancer? A risk factor is anything that changes your chance of getting ... is a risk factor for a number of cancers. But risk factors don't tell us everything. Having a risk ...

  17. Nutritional risk factors for gestational diabetes mellitus

    Sakshi Singh; Ray, T K; Ranjan Das; Abha Singh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has been observed to be associated with increased perinatal morbidity and mortality. GDM is becoming a public health concern globally as well as in India with fast increasing trend. It affects approximately 14% of all pregnancies. Studies on the association of food items having high glycaemic index with GDM risk are sparse. Most of the literature has focused on typical risk factors like advanced maternal age, family history of diabetes mellitus,...

  18. Risk Factors for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury

    Smith, Helen C.; Vacek, Pamela; Johnson, Robert J.; Slauterbeck, James R.; Hashemi, Javad; Shultz, Sandra; Beynnon, Bruce D.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Injuries to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) are immediately disabling and are associated with long-term consequences, such as posttraumatic osteoarthritis. It is important to have a comprehensive understanding of all possible risk factors for ACL injury to identify individuals who are at risk for future injuries and to provide an appropriate level of counseling and programs for prevention. Objective: This review, part 2 of a 2-part series, highlights what is known and still unkn...

  19. Psychological Factors Linked to Risk Perception

    Armaş, I.; Creãu, R. Z.; Stǎnciugelu, I.

    2012-04-01

    Risks are mental models, which allow people to cope with dangerous phenomena (Renn, 2008; Jasanoff, 1998). The term "risk" refers to the likelihood of an adverse effect resulting from an event. The aim of the present study is to identify the psychological factors that are most predictive of risk perception in relation with age, gender, educational level and socio-economical status. Earthquake hazard was considered, because it is an emerging danger for Bucharest. 80% of the laypeople sample are waiting for this event to happen in the next three years. By integrating all the research data, it was attempted to build a risk profile of the investigated population, which could be used by institutions responsible for earthquake risk mitigation situations in Bucharest. This research appealed to the social learning Rotter (1966), auto-effectiveness Bandura (1977; 1983), and anxiety and stress theories. We used psychological variables that measured stress, personal effectiveness and the belief in personal control. The multi-modal risk perception questionnaire was structured on a 49 items sequence. The sample was composed of 1.376 participants recruited on a voluntary basis. The characteristics of risk (like probability and magnitude, time scales) are perceived differently according to psychological factors that play a role also in biases in people's ability to draw inferences from probabilistic information (like cognitive dissonance). Since the 1970's, it has been argued that those who perceive life's events as being beyond their locus of control (external locus of control) are significantly more anxious and less adapted. In this research, strongest associations and significant differences were obtained between sex, age and income categories with Stress vulnerability factor and the External Locus of Control factor. The profile of the low risk perceiver is that of a young, more educated, male individual with a higher self- efficacy level and an internal locus of control.

  20. Lung cancer risk factors among women

    Papadopoulos, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of female lung cancer in developed countries has been increasing since 1950 and particularly in France where the cigarettes consumption has also increased. Since 1980, a growing number of epidemiological surveys have pinpointed the risk of female lung cancer related to smoking. Consecutively, a debate on gender differences in lung cancer risk has appeared, but still in progress nowadays. The reproductive factors could explain these differences. In order to have recent and reliab...

  1. Stroke Prevention: Managing Modifiable Risk Factors

    Silvia Di Legge; Giacomo Koch; Marina Diomedi; Paolo Stanzione; Fabrizio Sallustio

    2012-01-01

    Prevention plays a crucial role in counteracting morbidity and mortality related to ischemic stroke. It has been estimated that 50% of stroke are preventable through control of modifiable risk factors and lifestyle changes. Antihypertensive treatment is recommended for both prevention of recurrent stroke and other vascular events. The use of antiplatelets and statins has been shown to reduce the risk of recurrent stroke and other vascular events. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI...

  2. EVALUATION OF RISK FACTORS IN ACUTE STROKE

    Putta

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cerebrovascular disease is the third most common cause of death in the developed world after cancer and ischemic heart disease. In India, community surveys have shown a crude prevalence rate of 200 per 100000 population for hemiplegia. Aims and objectives: Identification of risk factors for c erebrovascular disease. Materials and Methods: Inclusion Criteria: Cases of acute stroke admitted in S.V.R.R.G.G.H, Tirupati were taken for the study. Exclusion Criteria: Head injury cases, neoplasm cases producing cerebrovascular disease were excluded. Re sults: Stroke was more common in male, 54% patients were male 46% were female. It was more common in 6 th and 7 th decade. More common risk factors were hypertension followed by smoking, diabetes mellitus. More common pathology was infarction. Conclusion: Com mon risk factors for acute stroke are hypertension, smoking, diabetes mellitus, alcoholism, obesity, cardiac disease. Stroke was confirmed by CT scan of brain.

  3. RISK FACTORS OF MORTALITY IN NEONATAL ILLNESS

    Jeyanthi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Infant Mortality Rate (IMR is high in India. Identification of risk factors of mortality in neonatal illness is essential to reduce Neonatal Mortality Rate (NMR and ultimately the IMR. AIM To identify the risk factors of mortality in neonatal illness. SETTING AND DESIGN It was a nested case control study done at the sick neonatal unit of urban tertiary referral centre. METHODS AND MATERIALS After obtaining ethical committee approval, retrospective analysis of 150 out born neonatal case records of babies admitted during the period from October 2015 to December 2015 was done. Data such as demographic features, maternal details, referral details, perinatal events, clinical features, laboratory reports and outcome were recorded. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS These risk factors were subjected to univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis and P value calculated for the same to find out significant risk factors of mortality in neonatal illness. RESULTS Neonatal mortality rate was 22%. Male-to-female ratio was 2:1, death occurred more commonly in female neonates (23.1%. Home deliveries carried more risk of mortality. Birth order 4 and above had 25% mortality. Neonates of mother who had primary education and below had higher mortality. Perinatal asphyxia and sepsis were the most common causes of neonatal mortality. By univariate analysis, preterms had 4.9 times increased risk of mortality than term babies. Apnoeic spells, chest retractions and shock had 8 times, 3 times and 3.6 times increased risk of mortality respectively. By multivariate analysis, birth weight below 2 kilograms (kg carried 11.8 times more risk of mortality with a p value 0.00 (95% C.I 3.2, 30.4 and poor maternal intake of iron and folic acid tablets was 3.9 times more risk p value 0.003 (95% C.I 1.6, 9.6, apnoeic spells were 5.8 times more risk of mortality with p value 0.02 (95% C.I 1.3, 26.2. CONCLUSION Birth weight below 2 kg, poor maternal intake of iron and folic

  4. Risk factors for male breast cancer.

    D'Avanzo, B.; La Vecchia, C

    1995-01-01

    Risk factors for male breast cancer were investigated in a case-control study of 21 cases and 82 controls admitted to hospital for acute, non-neoplastic, non-hormone-related diseases in the Greater Milan area between 1988 and 1994. More educated men tended to be at higher risk of breast cancer, with a multivariate odds ratio (OR) of 2.6 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.7-9.4]. The OR was 3.2 (95% CI 1.1-9.6) for those in the higher social class. Men with no offspring were at higher risk than f...

  5. Lung cancer incidence and risk factors

    The possibility of developing lung cancer (lc) as a consequence of inhaling hot particles from the Chernobyl accident is discussed. The risk from various factors is reviewed in order to assess the rate of contribution for any of them to carcinogenic process. The conclusions are based on data reported by National Centre of Oncology, Sofia (BG). A total of 2873 new cases have been recorded in 1990. The data for the period 1970-1990 show a crude increase for males and tend to stabilization for females. The similar pattern is obtained in other countries and geographic areas with steady rise of lc cases with about 0.5% per year. The contribution of particular risk factor and its interaction with other factors is assessed on the basis of large number of epidemiologic and experimental studies. The risk of cigarette smoking, as the principal cause for lc, is discussed in various aspects - age, duration, possible dropping the habit. The assessment of another risk factor - exposure to relatively high doses of natural radon daughter products - is more complicated. As an occupational hazard in uranium mines radon and its progeny reveals an increase in excess lc incidence. Regarding radon and its daughters as an environmental risk factor in dwellings, no clear positive relationship between exposure and lc incidence has been observed. In this case the assessment for population living in areas with higher concentration of radon products have to rely on data from uranium mines. Non radiation factors as asbestos, ethers, chromates, metallic iron, nickel, beryllium and arsenic, are also considered. The combined effect of all these factors, as well as of pathological cell processes, viruses, malfunctions of immune system, is mentioned as well. The possibility of interpreting the findings from epidemiological studies within the framework of theoretical multistage models of carcinogenic process is pointed out. (author)

  6. Dementia risk factors for Australian baby boomers

    Peter K. Panegyres

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Baby boomers are individuals born in the years 1946 to 1965. The objective of this paper was to define the risk factors for dementia and Alzheimer’s disease (AD and their relevance to Australian baby boomers, with the aim of providing evidence-based guidelines for dementia prevention. A series of PubMed searches (1994-2010 were conducted with relevant key words. Data was included from the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS in relation to baby boomers in Australia. Article titles and abstracts were assessed by two reviewers for inclusion. Searches through ABS revealed no specific study on baby boomers at a national level; information was only available for Western Australia, South Australia and Queensland. A number of genetic and non-genetic risk factors for dementia were identified most of which remain controversial and require further study. We did not identify significant differences in the prevalence and incidence of dementia in those under 65 years in Queensland, South Australia and Western Australia. There were no correlations of risk factors and dementia between the Australian states. Modification of risk factors has not been proven to reduce the incidence and prevalence of dementia and AD in baby boomers. Nevertheless, on available evidence, we recommend: i active management of cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension; ii the encouragement of a healthy lifestyle (eg, weight reduction, exercise as offering the best pathways to reduce the emerging dementia risk for baby boomers. The implications are that activities promoting a healthy heart might lead to a healthy brain and help to prevent dementia.

  7. Gastric cancer: prevention, risk factors and treatment

    Zali, Hakimeh; Rezaei-Tavirani, Mostafa; Azodi, Mona

    2011-01-01

    Cancer starts with a change in one single cell. This change may be initiated by external agents and genetic factors. Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide and accounts for 7.6 million deaths (around 13% of all deaths) in 2008. Lung, stomach, liver, colon and breast cancer cause the most cancer deaths each year. In this review, different aspects of gastric cancer; including clinical, pathological characteristic of gastric cancer, etiology, incidence, risk factors, prevention and treatme...

  8. Epidemiology and risk factors for drug allergy

    Thong, Bernard Y-H; Tan, Teck-Choon

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this review was to describe the current evidence-based knowledge of the epidemiology, prevalence, incidence, risk factors and genetic associations of drug allergy. Articles published between 1966 and 2010 were identified in MEDLINE using the key words adult, adverse drug reaction reporting systems, age factors, anaphylactoid, anaphylaxis, anaesthetics, antibiotics, child, drug allergy, drug eruptions, ethnic groups, hypersensitivity, neuromuscular depolarizing agents, neuromuscular...

  9. Childhood risk factors for developing fibromyalgia

    Olivieri P

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Patrick Olivieri,1 Bruce Solitar,2,* Michel Dubois3,*1NYU School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA; 2Department of Rheumatology, 3Department of Pain Management, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, NY, USA*These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: Fibromyalgia is a disease process without an obvious etiology. While some evidence suggests that adverse experiences in childhood contribute to its development, specific evidence has been equivocal.Methods: A total of 36 patients with fibromyalgia from the greater New York area were recruited and surveyed using the Centers for Disease Control's Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey, and questions from the section on adverse childhood experiences were administered. The results were compared to those obtained from over 400,000 people surveyed by the Centers for Disease control each year, and were monitored for statistically significant differences.Results: A statistically significant difference was noted among the control group, suggesting that individuals reported growing up with someone who was depressed when the respondents were between the ages of 0 and 18 years old. Moreover, respondents reported that they were hit by their parents in some way, were insulted or cursed at by their parents, and had been forced to have sex with someone at least 5 years older than them or with an adult. No correlation was found with the following variables and the development of fibromyalgia: growing up with divorced or separated parents; growing up with someone sentenced to serve time in jail; or having parents that abused each other. Additionally, statistically significant differences were found for the following categories: lack of emotional support; life dissatisfaction; fair or poor health; physical, mental or emotional disability; and being divorced or not married.Discussion: Using this well-validated survey, it became clear that at least six specific adverse childhood

  10. Exploring Risk Factors for Follicular Lymphoma

    Alexander J. Ambinder

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Follicular lymphoma (FL is an indolent malignancy of germinal center B cells with varied incidence across racial groups and geographic regions. Improvements in the classification of non-Hodgkin lymphoma subtypes provide an opportunity to explore associations between environmental exposures and FL incidence. Our paper found that aspects of Western lifestyle including sedentary lifestyle, obesity, and diets high in meat and milk are associated with an increased risk of FL. Diets rich in fruits and vegetables, polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamin D, and certain antioxidants are inversely associated with FL risk. A medical history of Sjogren's syndrome, influenza vaccination, and heart disease may be associated with FL incidence. Associations between FL and exposure to pesticides, industrial solvents, hair dyes, and alcohol/tobacco were inconsistent. Genetic risk factors include variants at the 6p21.32 region of the MHC II locus, polymorphisms of the DNA repair gene XRCC3, and UV exposure in individuals with certain polymorphisms of the vitamin D receptor. Increasing our understanding of risk factors for FL must involve integrating epidemiological studies of genetics and exposures to allow for the examination of risk factors and interactions between genes and environment.

  11. Risk factors and effective management of preeclampsia

    English FA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Fred A English,1 Louise C Kenny,1 Fergus P McCarthy1,2 1Irish Centre for Fetal and Neonatal Translational Research (INFANT, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland; 2Women’s Health Academic Centre, King's Health Partners, St Thomas' Hospital, London, UK Abstract: Preeclampsia, a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy is estimated to complicate 2%–8% of pregnancies and remains a principal cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Preeclampsia may present at any gestation but is more commonly encountered in the third trimester. Multiple risk factors have been documented, including: family history, nulliparity, egg donation, diabetes, and obesity. Significant progress has been made in developing tests to predict risk of preeclampsia in pregnancy, but these remain confined to clinical trial settings and center around measuring angiogenic profiles, including placental growth factor or newer tests involving metabolomics. Less progress has been made in developing new treatments and therapeutic targets, and aspirin remains one of the few agents shown to consistently reduce the risk of developing preeclampsia. This review serves to discuss recent advances in risk factor identification, prediction techniques, and management of preeclampsia in antenatal, intrapartum, and postnatal patients. Keywords: pregnancy, treatment, risk reduction, prediction

  12. Risk factors for goiter and thyroid nodules

    Knudsen, N.; Laurberg, P.; Perrild, H.;

    2002-01-01

    The occurrence of thyroid diseases is determined by interplay between genetic and environmental factors. The major environmental factor that determines goiter prevalence is iodine status, but other environmental factors influencing entire populations have been identified such as goitrogens in food...... and drinking water. Less focus has been on individual environmental factors and the interplay between factors. The goiter prevalence is higher in certain groups in the population. The variation in goiter prevalence between the genders is well known with a higher occurrence among women. The association with age...... is probably dependent on iodine status, because it seems that the zenith of goiter prevalence appears earlier in life the more severe iodine deficiency the population is exposed to. The association with individual risk factors has been investigated in some studies, especially the association with tobacco...

  13. Risk factors for goiter and thyroid nodules

    Knudsen, N.; Laurberg, P.; Perrild, H.; Bulow, I.; Ovesen, Lars; Jørgensen, T.

    2002-01-01

    with age is probably dependent on iodine status, because it seems that the zenith of goiter prevalence appears earlier in life the more severe iodine deficiency the population is exposed to. The association with individual risk factors has been investigated in some studies, especially the association......The occurrence of thyroid diseases is determined by interplay between genetic and environmental factors. The major environmental factor that determines goiter prevalence is iodine status, but other environmental factors influencing entire populations have been identified such as goitrogens in food...... and drinking water. Less focus has been on individual environmental factors and the interplay between factors. The goiter prevalence is higher in certain groups in the population. The variation in goiter prevalence between the genders is well known with a higher occurrence among women. The association...

  14. Risk Factors for Depression in Early Adolescence

    MacPhee, Angela R.; Andrews, Jac J. W.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify salient risk factors for depression in early adolescence from a group of common predictors. The following nine predictors were examined: (1) perceived quality of peer relationships, (2) perceived parental nurturance, (3) perceived parental rejection, (4) self-esteem, (5) body image, (6) pubertal status,…

  15. Risk Factors for Domestic Violence in Curacao

    van Wijk, N. Ph. L.; de Bruijn, J. G. M.

    2012-01-01

    One out of three people (25% of men, 38% of women) in Curacao have experienced some form of domestic violence at some point in their adult lives. The most significant risk factors for domestic violence in Curacao are the female gender, a young age, low education, and experiencing domestic violence victimization in childhood. Divorce, single…

  16. Psychosocial risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs)

    Heuvel, S. van den

    2014-01-01

    It has been known for some time that risk factors in the workplace can have a negative effect on health. Ramazzini was one of the first scientists to identify occupational health hazards. He wrote about diseases of the musculoskeletal system caused by sudden and irregular movements and the adoption

  17. Adolescent Suicide Risk: Four Psychosocial Factors

    Rutter, Philip A.; Behrendt, Andrew E.

    2004-01-01

    Suicide is a leading cause of death among adolescents. This study examined the suicidal ideation, behavior, and attempt history of 100 adolescents ages seventeen to nineteen. Four psychosocial factors were found to be important for overall suicide risk: hopelessness, hostility, negative self-concept, and isolation. It is suggested that focusing on…

  18. Risk Factors for Herpes Zoster Among Adults.

    Marin, Mona; Harpaz, Rafael; Zhang, John; Wollan, Peter C; Bialek, Stephanie R; Yawn, Barbara P

    2016-09-01

    Background.  The causes of varicella-zoster virus reactivation and herpes zoster (HZ) are largely unknown. We assessed potential risk factors for HZ, the data for which cannot be obtained from the medical sector. Methods.  We conducted a matched case-control study. We established active surveillance in Olmsted County, Minnesota to identify HZ occurring among persons age ≥50 years during 2010-2011. Cases were confirmed by medical record review. Herpes zoster-free controls were age- and sex-matched to cases. Risk factor data were obtained by telephone interview. Results.  We enrolled 389 HZ case patients and 511 matched controls; the median age was 65 and 66 years, respectively. Herpes zoster was associated with family history of HZ (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.65); association was highest with first-degree or multiple relatives (aOR = 1.87 and 3.08, respectively). Herpes zoster was also associated with prior HZ episodes (aOR = 1.82), sleep disturbance (aOR = 2.52), depression (aOR = 3.81), and recent weight loss (aOR = 1.95). Stress was a risk factor for HZ (aOR = 2.80), whereas a dose-response relationship was not noted. All associations indicated were statistically significant (P .1). Conclusions.  We identified several important risk factors for HZ; however, the key attributable causes of HZ remain unknown. PMID:27382600

  19. Risk Factors for Smoking Behaviors among Adolescents

    Chung, Sung Suk; Joung, Kyoung Hwa

    2014-01-01

    Many students in Korea begin to use tobacco and develop a regular smoking habit before they reach adulthood. Yet, little is known about various signs contributing to the transition of the student smoking behaviors. This study used a national sample to explore and compare risk factors for smoking behaviors. Three types of smoking behaviors were…

  20. Risk factors for domestic violence in Curacao

    Wijk, van N.Ph.L.; Bruijn, de J.G.M.

    2012-01-01

    One out of three people (25% of men, 38% of women) in Curacao have experienced some form of domestic violence at some point in their adult lives. The most significant risk factors for domestic violence in Curacao are the female gender, a young age, low education, and experiencing domestic violence v

  1. Risk Factors and Prodromal Eating Pathology

    Stice, Eric; Ng, Janet; Shaw, Heather

    2010-01-01

    Prospective studies have identified factors that increase risk for eating pathology onset, including perceived pressure for thinness, thin-ideal internalization, body dissatisfaction, dietary restraint, and negative affect. Research also suggests that body dissatisfaction and dietary restraint may constitute prodromal stages of the development of…

  2. Guide to Atherosclerosis Risk Factors Data

    Tomečková, Marie; Rauch, J.; Berka, P.

    Caen: University of Caen, 2004 - (Berka, P.; Cremilleux, B.), s. 1-7 [ECML/PKDD 2004 Discovery Challenge. Pisa (IT), 20.09.2004-24.09.2004] R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00B107 Keywords : data mining * epidemiological study * risk factors of the atherosclerosis Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information

  3. Risk factors for feline diabetes mellitus

    Slingerland, L.I.

    2008-01-01

    The chapters of Part I of the thesis describe the development of techniques that can be used in the assessment of risk factors for the development of diabetes mellitus (DM) in cats. The hyperglycemic glucose clamp (HGC) was developed for use in conscious cats, equipped with arterial catheters for pl

  4. Smoldering multiple myeloma risk factors for progression

    Sørrig, Rasmus; Klausen, Tobias W; Salomo, Morten;

    2016-01-01

    Several risk scores for disease progression in Smoldering Multiple Myeloma (SMM) patients have been proposed, however, all have been developed using single center registries. To examine risk factors for time to progression (TTP) to Multiple Myeloma (MM) for SMM we analyzed a nationwide population......-based cohort of 321 newly diagnosed SMM patients registered within the Danish Multiple Myeloma Registry between 2005 and 2014. Significant univariable risk factors for TTP were selected for multivariable Cox regression analyses. We found that both an M-protein ≥ 30g/l and immunoparesis significantly influenced...... TTP (HR 2.7, 95%CI(1.5;4.7), p=0.001, and HR 3.3, 95%CI(1.4;7.8), p=0.002 respectively). High free light chain (FLC) ratio did not significantly influence TTP in our cohort. Therefore, our data do not support the recent IMWG proposal of identifying patients with FLC ratio above 100 as having ultra...

  5. Cardiovascular Risk Factors of Taxi Drivers.

    Elshatarat, Rami Azmi; Burgel, Barbara J

    2016-06-01

    In the United States (U.S.), cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major leading cause of death. Despite the high mortality rate related to CVD, little is known about CVD risk factors among urban taxi drivers in the U.S. A cross-sectional design was used to identify the predictors of high cardiovascular risk factors among taxi drivers. Convenience sampling method was used to recruit 130 taxi drivers. A structured questionnaire was used to obtain the data. The sample was male (94 %), age mean (45 ± 10.75) years, married (54 %), born outside of the USA (55 %), had some college or below (61.5 %), night drivers (50.8 %), and driving on average 9.7 years and 41 h/week. About 79 % of them were eligible for CVD prevention, and 35.4 % had high CVD risk factors (4-9 risk factors). A CVD high-risk profile had a significant relationship with the subjects who were ≥55 years old; had hypertension, diabetes, or hyperlipidemia; were drinking alcohol ≥2 times/week; and had insufficient physical activity. Subjects who worked as a taxi driver for more than 10 years (OR 4.37; 95 % CI 1.82, 10.50) and had mental exertion from cab driving >5 out of 10 (OR 2.63; 95 % CI 1.05, 6.57) were more likely to have a CVD high-risk profile. As a conclusion, system-level or worksite interventions include offering healthy food at taxi dispatching locations, creating a work culture of frequent walking breaks, and interventions focusing on smoking, physical activity, and weight management. Improving health insurance coverage for this group of workers is recommended. PMID:27151321

  6. Risk factors associated with lambing traits.

    McHugh, N; Berry, D P; Pabiou, T

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to establish the risk factors associated with both lambing difficulty and lamb mortality in the Irish sheep multibreed population. A total of 135 470 lambing events from 42 675 ewes in 839 Irish crossbred and purebred flocks were available. Risk factors associated with producer-scored ewe lambing difficulty score (scale of one (no difficulty) to four (severe difficulty)) were determined using linear mixed models. Risk factors associated with the logit of the probability of lamb mortality at birth (i.e. binary trait) were determined using generalised estimating equations. For each dependent variable, a series of simple regression models were developed as well as a multiple regression model. In the simple regression models, greater lambing difficulty was associated with quadruplet bearing, younger ewes, of terminal breed origin, lambing in February; for example, first parity ewes experienced greater (P7.0 kg) birth weights, quadruplet born lambs and lambs that experienced a more difficult lambing (predicted probability of death for lambs that required severe and veterinary assistance of 0.15 and 0.32, respectively); lambs from dual-purpose breeds and born to younger ewes were also at greater risk of mortality. In the multiple regression model, the association between ewe parity, age at first lambing, year of lambing and lamb mortality no longer persisted. The trend in solutions of the levels of each fixed effect that remained associated with lamb mortality in the multiple regression model, did not differ from the trends observed in the simple regression models although the differential in relative risk between the different lambing difficulty scores was greater in the multiple regression model. Results from this study show that many common flock- and animal-level factors are associated with both lambing difficulty and lamb mortality and management of different risk category groups (e.g. scanned litter sizes, ewe age groups) can be used

  7. Risk factors and their identification. First Part: What is a risk factor?

    Balkau, B; Eschwege, E

    1995-02-01

    This series of three articles reviews the designs of studies which can be used to identify risk factors of a disease, here: diabetes or complications of diabetes. In the present issue of Diabete & Metabolisme, the first article of the series, we give the definition of a risk factor, along with measures of its force--relative risk and odds ratio, followed by the epidemiological definitions of the diseases: diabetes, coronary heart disease and hypertension. Risk factors are further discussed and we complete the discussion by some observations on the bias which can arise from a study or from its analysis, which can lead the researcher to the wrong conclusion. The three types of epidemiological studies which are used to determine whether factors are associated with a disease: observational or cross-sectional studies, cohort studies and case-cohort studies will be described in the second of the series in the next issue of the journal. Examples will be provided of each of these study types; their advantages and disadvantages will be discussed. In a third issue, the final paper will provide some examples of the study types and the identification of risk factors. The first examples involve diabetes and pancreatic cancer, the second birth weight and non-insulin dependent diabetes. Having found an association between a risk factor and diabetes, then we will discuss whether it can be considered to be a risk factor and if so and whether it is likely to be a cause of the disease. PMID:7781849

  8. Risk factors and their identification second part: study designs for identification of risk factors.

    Balkau, B; Eschwege, E

    1995-06-01

    This is the second a series of three articles which reviews the identification of risk factors of a disease, here: diabetes or complications of diabetes. In the first of the series [1], we gave the definition of a risk factor, along with measures of its force-relative risk and odds ratio, followed by the epidemiological definitions of the diseases: diabetes, coronary heart disease and hypertension. Risk factors were further discussed and we completed the discussion by some observations on the bias which can arise from a study or from its analysis, which can lead the researcher to the wrong conclusion. In this second article we define the three types of epidemiological studies which are used to determine whether factors are associated with a disease: observational or cross-sectional studies, cohort studies and casecohort studies. Examples are provided of each of these study types; their advantages and disadvantages are discussed. The final paper will provide some examples of the identification of risk factors from the literature. The first example involves diabetes and pancreatic cancer, the second birth weight and non-insulin dependent diabetes. Having found an association between a risk factor and diabetes, we will discuss whether it can be considered to be a risk factor, and if so whether it is likely to be a cause of the disease. PMID:7556816

  9. Percent Mammographic Density and Dense Area as Risk Factors for Breast Cancer

    Rauh, C.; Hack, C. C.; Häberle, L.; Hein, A.; Engel, A.; Schrauder, M. G.; Fasching, P. A.; Jud, S. M.; Ekici, A.B.; Loehberg, C. R.; Meier-Meitinger, M.; Ozan, S.; Schulz-Wendtland, R.; Uder, M.; A. Hartmann

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Mammographic characteristics are known to be correlated to breast cancer risk. Percent mammographic density (PMD), as assessed by computer-assisted methods, is an established risk factor for breast cancer. Along with this assessment the absolute dense area (DA) of the breast is reported as well. Aim of this study was to assess the predictive value of DA concerning breast cancer risk in addition to other risk factors and in addition to PMD. Methods: We conducted a case control study w...

  10. What Are the Risk Factors for Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumors?

    ... carcinoid tumors? A risk factor is anything that affects your chance of getting a disease such as cancer. For example, exposure to strong sunlight is a risk factor for skin cancer, while smoking is a risk factor for cancer of the lung and several other cancers. But risk factors don’ ...

  11. Major Risk Factors for Heart Disease: High Blood Cholesterol

    ... Major Risk Factors for Heart Disease High Blood Cholesterol High blood cholesterol is another major risk factor for heart disease ... can do something about. The higher your blood cholesterol level, the greater your risk for developing heart ...

  12. Breast Cancer Risk From Modifiable and Nonmodifiable Risk Factors Among White Women in the United States

    Maas, Paige; Barrdahl, Myrto; Joshi, Amit D;

    2016-01-01

    Importance: An improved model for risk stratification can be useful for guiding public health strategies of breast cancer prevention. Objective: To evaluate combined risk stratification utility of common low penetrant single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and epidemiologic risk factors. Design...... information on individual level data on epidemiologic risk factors and 24 genotyped SNPs from prospective cohort studies, published estimate of odds ratios for 68 additional SNPs, population incidence rate from the National Cancer Institute-Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program cancer registry......, Setting, and Participants: Using a total of 17 171 cases and 19 862 controls sampled from the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3) and 5879 women participating in the 2010 National Health Interview Survey, a model for predicting absolute risk of breast cancer was developed combining...

  13. Psychosocial risk factors, weight changes and risk of obesity

    Iversen, Louise Bagger; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Prescott, Eva;

    2012-01-01

    patterns in the associations between social network, economic hardship and weight gain or obesity. The number of psychosocial risk factors, as an indicator for clustering, was not associated with weight gain or obesity. In conclusion, major life events and vital exhaustion seem to play a role for weight...... participants were asked comprehensive questions on major life events, work stress, vital exhaustion, social network, economic hardship, and intake of sleep medication. Weight and height were measured by health professionals. Weight changes and incident obesity was used as outcome measures. The participants on......The aim of the study was to establish the effects of a range of psychosocial factors on weight changes and risk of obesity. The study population consisted of the 4,753 participants in the third (1991-1994) and fourth wave (2001-2003) of the Copenhagen City Heart Study, Denmark. At baseline the...

  14. Chronic migraine: risk factors, mechanisms and treatment.

    May, Arne; Schulte, Laura H

    2016-08-01

    Chronic migraine has a great detrimental influence on a patient's life, with a severe impact on socioeconomic functioning and quality of life. Chronic migraine affects 1-2% of the general population, and about 8% of patients with migraine; it usually develops from episodic migraine at an annual conversion rate of about 3%. The chronification is reversible: about 26% of patients with chronic migraine go into remission within 2 years of chronification. The most important modifiable risk factors for chronic migraine include overuse of acute migraine medication, ineffective acute treatment, obesity, depression and stressful life events. Moreover, age, female sex and low educational status increase the risk of chronic migraine. The pathophysiology of migraine chronification can be understood as a threshold problem: certain predisposing factors, combined with frequent headache pain, lower the threshold of migraine attacks, thereby increasing the risk of chronic migraine. Treatment options include oral medications, nerve blockade with local anaesthetics or corticoids, and neuromodulation. Well-defined diagnostic criteria are crucial for the identification of chronic migraine. The International Headache Society classification of chronic migraine was recently updated, and now allows co-diagnosis of chronic migraine and medication overuse headache. This Review provides an up-to-date overview of the classification of chronic migraine, basic mechanisms and risk factors of migraine chronification, and the currently established treatment options. PMID:27389092

  15. Physical inactivity : A cardiovascular risk factor

    Prasad D

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidence regarding health benefits of physical activity is overwhelming and plays a critical role in both the primary and secondary prevention of coronary artery disease (CAD. Epidemiological investigations show approximately half the incidence of CAD in active compared to sedentary persons. A sedentary lifestyle is considered by various national and international organizations to be one of the most important modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Fortunately, a moderate level of occupational or recreational activity appears to confer a significant protective effect. Once coronary artery disease has become manifest, exercise training can clearly improve the functional capacity of patients and reduce overall mortality by decreasing the risk of sudden death. Well-designed clinical investigations, supported by basic animal studies, have demonstrated that the beneficial effects of exercise are related to direct and indirect protective mechanisms. These benefits may result from an improvement in cardiovascular risk factors, enhanced fibrinolysis, improved endothelial function, decreased sympathetic tone, and other as-yet-undetermined factors. Hence physical fitness, more than the absence of ponderosity or other factors, is the major determinant of cardiovascular and metabolic risk and long-term disease-free survival, in effect linking health span to life span. It is obviously in every individual′s interest to assume the responsibility for his or her own health and embrace this extremely effective, safe, and inexpensive treatment modality. The need for a comprehensive review of this particular topic has arisen in view of the high prevalence of physical inactivity and overwhelming evidence regarding CVD risk reduction with regular physical activity.

  16. Finding Genetic Risk Factors of Gestational Diabetes

    Kwak, Soo Heon; Jang, Hak C.; Park, Kyong Soo

    2012-01-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a complex metabolic disorder of pregnancy that is suspected to have a strong genetic predisposition. It is associated with poor perinatal outcome, and both GDM women and their offspring are at increased risk of future development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). During the past several years, there has been progress in finding the genetic risk factors of GDM in relation to T2DM. Some of the genetic variants that were proven to be significantly associa...

  17. Perinatal Risk Factors for Childhood Leukemia

    Naumburg, Estelle

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the studies described in this thesis was to assess the association between certain perinatal factors and the risk of childhood lymphatic and myeloid leukemia and infant leukemia. The five studies presented were all conducted in Sweden as population-based case-control studies. All cases were born and diagnosed between 1973-89 with leukemia up to the age of 16 years. A control was individually matched to each case. As Down’s syndrome entails a major risk for childhood leukemia, chil...

  18. Risk factors for suicidal behavior in adolescents.

    Kirkcaldy, B D; Siefen, G R; Urkin, J; Merrick, J

    2006-10-01

    Adolescent suicide is today a public health problem among the leading cause of mortality among adolescents and young adults. There seems to be many reasons for this increase (which has different trends in different populations), but associations have been found with increased substance abuse, television and video violence, socio-economic status and easy access to firearms. Gender differences have also been observed with crime, suicide and substance abuse higher among males, while eating disorder, depression and suicidal behavior more prevalent among females. This paper will review prevalence and incidence of adolescent suicidal behavior, socio-demographic and psychological risk factors, associated cognitive factors and socio-economic factors. Risk factors include previous suicide attempts, a history of others in the family who have been suicidal, mental illness, alcohol and drug use, and other self-destructive behaviors as well as consideration being given to hopelessness, hostility, negative self-concept and isolation. At the individual difference level, factors such as trait depression, anger and hostility, perfectionism and social sensitivity would seem critical variables, as would age, gender and intellectual functioning. Sociological and family-related factors may also be implicated including dysfunctional family organizations, a history of physical or psychological abuse (sexual abuse) and limited extent of social support networks. A frequently reported precipitating event of suicidal behavior is family adversity including rejection, separation and interpersonal conflict. At a socio-economic level it would seem essential to provide comprehensive document about the social and economic conditions from which the adolescent comes. PMID:17008855

  19. Breast cancer epidemiology and risk factors

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women in the Western society. Over the past decades it has become apparent that breast cancer incidence rates are increasing steadily, whereas the mortality rates for breast cancer have remained relatively constant. Information through the media on this rising number of cases has increased breast health awareness but has also introduced anxiety in the female population. This combination of factors has made the need for prevention of breast cancer an urgent matter. Breast cancer does not seem to be a single disease entity. A specific etiologic factor may therefore have more influence on one form may therefore have more influence on one form of breast cancer than another. So far though, as shown in their summary of current knowledge on established and dubious risk factors, no risk factors have been identified that can explain a major part of the incidence. Efforts to identify other ways for primary prevention have also been discouraging, even though breast cancer is one of the most investigated tumours world-wide. Thus, at this point i time, the most important strategy to reduce breast cancer mortality is early detection through individual counselling and organised breast screening programs. The recent isolation of breast cancer susceptibility genes may introduce new ways to reduce the risk of breast cancer in a small subset of women

  20. Cerebrovascular Risk Factors - In View of Stroke Prevention

    Schreiber, Angela K.; Haberl, Roman L.

    2001-01-01

    Stroke risk factors can be divided into those with evidence-based relationship and those with supposed relationship to ischemic stroke, and into potentially treatable risk factors and risk factors with no therapeutic options. Age, gender and race are risk factors with no therapeutic options, while among treatable stroke risk factors most important are high blood pressure, atrial fibrillation, patent foramen ovale, cardiac disorders, diabetes mellitus, hiperhomocysteinemia, hiperlipidemia, and...

  1. Risk factors for suicide in multiple sclerosis

    Stenager, E N; Koch-Henriksen, N; Stenager, E

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of the present study was to identify risk factors for suicide in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS: The study is based on available information about MS patients identified in the Danish MS Registry (DMSR) with onset in the period 1950-1985. We compared the MS...... suicides with the 1950-1985 onset cohort patients in the DSMR as to distribution of age at onset, presenting symptoms, and time from onset to diagnosis. We reviewed sociodemographic data, age of onset, the course of the disease, recent deterioration, type of deterioration, Kurtzke Disability Status Scale...... (DSS) score, previous mental disorder, type of mental disorder, previous suicide attempts, expression of suicidal intentions, circumstances at suicide, and suicide method for all MS patients who had committed suicide. In order to characterize MS suicides with respect to risk factors, comparisons were...

  2. Skin carcinoma and occupational risk factors

    To identify the relative contribution of different occupational risk factors associated with the occurrence of skin cancer in the provinces of Havana City and Havana, Cuba , in 2006-2007. It was designed a case-control study of hospital base that included 112 cases of non-melanoma skin cancer and 448 witnesses, following the inclusion-exclusion criteria preset. We considered the totality of patients diagnosed with basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell histological study of skin biopsy or surgical excision. Risk factors with possible association with the disease were studied, such as sun exposure, ionizing and non-ionizing radiations and a wide range of chemical and biological substances potentially carcinogenic

  3. Risk Factors for Giant Retinal Tears

    Morteza Mehdizadeh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the risk factors associated with giant retinal tears. Methods: This retrospective study was performed on medical records of 150 patients who had undergone retinal detachment surgery. Age, sex, history of trauma, lens status (phakic, pseudophakic, or aphakic, and high myopia were evaluated in association with giant retinal tears. Results: Of 150 patients with retinal detachments, 99 subjects (66% were older than 30 years while 51 (34% were 30 years of age or younger. Overall, 26 (17.3% patients had giant retinal tears. Controlling for all variables, only age had a significant correlation with giant retinal tears. Each year of advancing age was associated with a 6% decrease in the incidence of giant retinal tears. Conclusion: Young age is a significant risk factor for development of giant retinal tears.

  4. RISK FACTORS FOR INTIMATE PARTNER VIOLENCE

    Ceren Atakay

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Intimate partner violence has kept being one of the major societal issues in our country over the past year. It is absolutely necessary to intervene in this substantially psychological issue multi-directionally. In order to intervene in the problem from psychological aspect, it is important to estimate and interpret the risk factors for intimate partner violence. Therefore in the current study, ‘I-cube theory’ which is about the risk factors for intimate partner violence has been explained first. Afterwards, the findings of content analysis which was obtained from newspaper reports about femicide in 2013 have been shown and these findings have been discussed within the context of I-cube theory, respectively. Finally, solutions to prevent this violence has been suggested.

  5. Cardiovascular risk factors in subjects with psoriasis

    Jensen, Peter; Thyssen, Jacob P; Zachariae, Claus;

    2012-01-01

    Background Epidemiological data have established an association between cardiovascular disease and psoriasis. Only one general population study has so far compared prevalences of cardiovascular risk factors among subjects with psoriasis and control subjects. We aimed to determine the prevalence of...... cardiovascular risk factors in subjects with and without psoriasis in the general population. Methods During 2006-2008, a cross-sectional study was performed in the general population in Copenhagen, Denmark. A total of 3471 subjects participated in a general health examination that included assessment of current...... smoking status, weight, height, waist and hip circumferences, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, resting heart rate, and plasma lipids, hemoglobin A1c, fasting glucose, and insulin levels. Results Physician-diagnosed psoriasis was reported by 238 (7.1%) of 3374 participants. There were no differences...

  6. Risk Factors for Sudden Cardiac Death : Risk Factors for Sudden Cardiac Death

    M.N. Niemeijer (Maartje)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractSCD is a common cause of death, with around four to five million cases annually worldwide. Determining which persons are at high risk for SCD remains difficult, due to lack of knowledge on individual risk factors and because in the majority of cases, SCD is the first manifestation of

  7. Factors Influencing Cancer Risk Perception in High Risk Populations: A Systematic Review

    Tilburt Jon C

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients at higher than average risk of heritable cancer may process risk information differently than the general population. However, little is known about clinical, demographic, or psychosocial predictors that may impact risk perception in these groups. The objective of this study was to characterize factors associated with perceived risk of developing cancer in groups at high risk for cancer based on genetics or family history. Methods We searched Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid Embase, Ovid PsycInfo, and Scopus from inception through April 2009 for English-language, original investigations in humans using core concepts of "risk" and "cancer." We abstracted key information and then further restricted articles dealing with perceived risk of developing cancer due to inherited risk. Results Of 1028 titles identified, 53 articles met our criteria. Most (92% used an observational design and focused on women (70% with a family history of or contemplating genetic testing for breast cancer. Of the 53 studies, 36 focused on patients who had not had genetic testing for cancer risk, 17 included studies of patients who had undergone genetic testing for cancer risk. Family history of cancer, previous prophylactic tests and treatments, and younger age were associated with cancer risk perception. In addition, beliefs about the preventability and severity of cancer, personality factors such as "monitoring" personality, the ability to process numerical information, as well as distress/worry also were associated with cancer risk perception. Few studies addressed non-breast cancer or risk perception in specific demographic groups (e.g. elderly or minority groups and few employed theory-driven analytic strategies to decipher interrelationships of factors. Conclusions Several factors influence cancer risk perception in patients at elevated risk for cancer. The science of characterizing and improving risk perception in cancer for high risk groups, although

  8. Psychological Risk Factors in Acute Leukemia

    Gouva M.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Several theoretical models have been occasionally proposed to account for the involvement of psychological factors in cancer genesis. Family environment and relations as well as certain personality traits were correlated to cancer onset. However, little is known in the case of acute leukemia. The present study examined family environment, state-trait anxiety, hostility and the direction of hostility as well as alexithymia in 41 acute leukemia patients and their first degree relatives (70. In accordance with previous findings, the present results showed that family cohesion, conflict and organization as well as guilt, state anxiety and alexithymia were significant risk factors for the development of the disease.

  9. Risk factors of depression occurrence in Adolescence

    Miloseva, Lence

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of this lecture is focus on different aspects of occurerence of depression in Adolescence, especially with focus on risk factors. I introduced epidemiology of depression : causes, treatment, and prevention (Abela & Hankin,2008). The special part of the lecture was focus on etiology of depression. Adolescence is characterized by positive gains in cognitive maturity, better interpersonal skills, new experiences, increased autonomy, and hormonal changes (Feldman & Elliot, 1990). Alt...

  10. OCULAR HYPERTENSION - RISK FACTORS AND THERAPY?

    Janicijevic Katarina; Kocic Sanja; Todorovic Dusan; Sarenac Vulovic Tatjana

    2015-01-01

    Introduction/Aim: The goal of our study was to analyze the epidemiological`s characteristics of ocular hypertension, as well as the influence of chronic risk factors on glaucoma development (conversion in glaucoma). We tried to make some entries for solving this complex ophthalmological problem. Material /Methods: From 2009 to 2015, a retrospective control study was performed on 121 patient with diagnoses of bilateral ocular hypertension and without disease progression/conversion of glauc...

  11. Risk Factors for Jumper’s Knee

    Visnes, Håvard

    2014-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of jumper’s knee is high in sports characterized by high demands on leg extensor speed and power, such as volleyball, basketball, football and athletics. A prevalence up to 50% has been reported among male, elite volleyball players. The complex process from a healthy tendon to jumper’s knee is not fully understood. Jumper’s knee is usually described as an overuse injury, although previous studies on risk factors are not conclusive. Previous cross-...

  12. Risk Factors for Giant Retinal Tears

    Morteza Mehdizadeh; Mehrdad Afarid; Mohammad Shabanpour Haqiqi

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the risk factors associated with giant retinal tears. Methods: This retrospective study was performed on medical records of 150 patients who had undergone retinal detachment surgery. Age, sex, history of trauma, lens status (phakic, pseudophakic, or aphakic), and high myopia were evaluated in association with giant retinal tears. Results: Of 150 patients with retinal detachments, 99 subjects (66%) were older than 30 years while 51 (34%) were 30 years of age or you...

  13. Risk Factors for Giant Retinal Tears

    Mehdizadeh, Morteza; Afarid, Mehrdad; Haqiqi, Mohammad Shabanpour

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the risk factors associated with giant retinal tears. Methods This retrospective study was performed on medical records of 150 patients who had undergone retinal detachment surgery. Age, sex, history of trauma, lens status (phakic, pseudophakic, or aphakic), and high myopia were evaluated in association with giant retinal tears. Results Of 150 patients with retinal detachments, 99 subjects (66%) were older than 30 years while 51 (34%) were 30 years of age or younger. Overa...

  14. Risk factor profile in retinal detachment

    Azad Raj; Nayak B; Sharma Y; Tiwari Hem; Khosla P

    1988-01-01

    150 cases of retinal detachment comprising 50 patients each of bilateral retinal detachment, unilateral retinal detachment without any retinal lesions in the fellow eve and unilateral retinal detachment with retinal lesions in the fellow eye were studied and the various associated risk factors were statistically analysed. The findings are discussed in relation to their aetiological and prognostic significance in the different types of retinal detachment. Based on these observations certain gu...

  15. Allergy: A Risk Factor for Suicide?

    Teodor T. Postolache; Komarow, Hirsh; Tonelli, Leonardo H.

    2008-01-01

    The rates of depression, anxiety, and sleep disturbance (suicide risk factors) are greater in patients with allergic rhinitis than in the general population. The rate of allergy is also greater in patients with depression. Preliminary data suggest that patients with a history of allergy may have an increased rate of suicide. Clinicians should actively inquire to diagnose allergy in patients with depression and depression in patients with allergy.

  16. CLIMATE AS A RISK FACTOR FOR TOURISM

    ÁKOS NÉMETH; JÁNOS MIKA

    2009-01-01

    Weather and climate risk factors for tourism are surveyed and illustrated with regard to the expected climate changes in Hungary. These changes are not at all advantageous and which affect the business in question both directly and indirectly. These are the summer resort tourism (characterised by bioclimatic indices). Green tourism is the next one to characterise, including skiing, mountain climbing and eco-tourism, as well. Here both day-to-day weather extremes and long-lasting effects on th...

  17. Domestic violence. Risk factors, diagnostic & psychotherapy

    Degtyaryov A.V.

    2012-01-01

    In this article theme of domestic violence & sexual abuse against children is being considered from the cultural-historical, social-economic & psychological paradigms. Foreign authors approaches specialized on the work with children’s abuse & their practical results are presented herein. The risk factors of impact of cruel treatment & different forms of child’s mental development abuse are analyzed. The examples of prevention & psychotherapy work with the abused children are given. The articl...

  18. Studying risk factors associated with Human Leptospirosis

    Ramachandra Kamath

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Leptospirosis is one of the most under diagnosed and underreported disease in both developed and developing countries including India. It is established that environmental conditions and occupational habit of the individuals put them at risk of acquiring disease, which varies from community to community. Various seroprevalence studies across the world have documented emerging situation of this neglected tropical disease, but limited have probed to identify the risk factors, especially in India. Objectives: The objective of this study was to identify the environmental and occupational risk factors associated with the disease in Udupi District. Materials and Methods: This population-based case-control study was carried out in Udupi, a District in Southern India from April 2012 until August 2012. Udupi is considered to be endemic for Leptospirosis and reported 116 confirmed cases in the year 2011. Seventy of 116 laboratory confirmed cases and 140 sex matched neighborhood healthy controls participated in the study. A predesigned, semi-structured and validated questionnaire was used for data collection through house to house visit and observations were noted about environmental conditions. Univariate analysis followed by multivariate analysis (back ward conditional logistic regression was performed by using STATA version 9.2 (StataCorp, College Station, TX, USA to identify potential risk factors. Results: Occupational factors such as outdoor activities (matched odds ratio [OR] of 3.95, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.19-13.0, presence of cut or wound at body parts during work (matched OR: 4.88, CI: 1.83-13.02 and environmental factors such as contact with rodents through using the food materials ate by rat (matched OR: 4.29, CI: 1.45-12.73 and contact with soil or water contaminated with urine of rat (matched OR: 4.58, CI: 1.43-14.67 were the risk factors identified to be associated with disease. Conclusion: Leptospirosis is still

  19. Risk factors for antenatal depression, postnatal depression and parenting stress

    Milgrom Jeannette

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Given that the prevalence of antenatal and postnatal depression is high, with estimates around 13%, and the consequences serious, efforts have been made to identify risk factors to assist in prevention, identification and treatment. Most risk factors associated with postnatal depression have been well researched, whereas predictors of antenatal depression have been less researched. Risk factors associated with early parenting stress have not been widely researched, despite the strong link with depression. The aim of this study was to further elucidate which of some previously identified risk factors are most predictive of three outcome measures: antenatal depression, postnatal depression and parenting stress and to examine the relationship between them. Methods Primipara and multiparae women were recruited antenatally from two major hoitals as part of the beyondblue National Postnatal Depression Program 1. In this subsidiary study, 367 women completed an additional large battery of validated questionnaires to identify risk factors in the antenatal period at 26–32 weeks gestation. A subsample of these women (N = 161 also completed questionnaires at 10–12 weeks postnatally. Depression level was measured by the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI. Results Regression analyses identified significant risk factors for the three outcome measures. (1. Significant predictors for antenatal depression: low self-esteem, antenatal anxiety, low social support, negative cognitive style, major life events, low income and history of abuse. (2. Significant predictors for postnatal depression: antenatal depression and a history of depression while also controlling for concurrent parenting stress, which was a significant variable. Antenatal depression was identified as a mediator between seven of the risk factors and postnatal depression. (3. Postnatal depression was the only significant predictor for parenting stress and also acted as a mediator

  20. Risk factors for developing diabetic foot

    Julia Estela Willrich Boell

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the present study is to identify the risk factors for developing diabetic foot. A cross-sectional study, with a convenience sample, developed with 70 individuals with diabetes mellitus (DM, registered in three basic health units in the municipality of Florianópolis/SC, Brazil, in the period from November 2010 to May 2011. Biometric data was collected regarding their sociodemographic, health and illness conditions. An assessment of the feet was also carried out. The average participant age was 66.17 years and time with diagnosed disease was under ten years (61.42%. The following risk factors were identified: advanced age; time of DM diagnosis; few years of schooling; overweight/obesity; inadequate diet; physical inactivity; inadequate metabolic control; lack of proper and specific foot care; and arterial hypertension. We conclude that the majority of the population presented one or more risk factors that favor the appearance of foot-related complications. doi: 10.5216/ree.v16i2.20460.

  1. Risk factors and management of diabetic nephropathy

    Mohamed Akheel Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the risk factors for nephropathy in diabetic patients and to study the management of diabetic nephropathy (DN, we conducted a hospital-based prospective study in the Internal Medicine department of our hospital on 60 patients with DN and 60 diabetic patients without DN. An odds ratio (OR disclosed the following risk factors: Hypertension (OR = 2.06, family history of diabetes (OR = 1.23, family history of DN (OR = 2.86, uncontrolled hyperglycemia (OR = 11.80, obesity (OR = 1.07, duration of diabetes between 11 and 20 years (OR = 4.69, smoking (OR = 2.79, alcohol consumption (OR = 3.75, other complications (OR = 2.03, lack of physical activity (OR = 1.51 and anemia (OR = 2.29. According to these risk factors, we suggest that improving patient′s knowledge on diabetes and its treatment, life style modifications and aggressive management of the disease may delay the progression of disease to advanced stages.

  2. Risk factors for psychopathology among Chinese children.

    Liu, X; Kurita, H; Sun, Z; Wang, F

    1999-08-01

    The present study was designed to examine the family environment and child characteristics associated with psychopathology among Chinese children. A large epidemiological sample of 1695 children aged 6-11 was drawn from 12 elementary schools in Linyi Prefecture of China. Parents completed the Child Behaviour Checklist, the Family Environment Scale, and a self-administered questionnaire including a number of items with regard to family, parental, and child characteristics. Results indicated that the overall prevalence of child psychopathology was 17.2%. Logistic regression analyses showed that a number of family and parental, as well as prenatal, perinatal and postnatal risk factors had significant association with child psychopathology. The most notable risks were derived from poor parental rearing with regard to the child's misbehaviour, low birthweight, and poor marital relations of the parents after controlling for other factors. These findings are consistent with previously reported risk factors for child psychopathology, highlighting the importance of family and early childhood intervention as a measure to prevent child psychopathology in China. PMID:10498232

  3. Risk Factor and Comorbidity of Migraine

    Woro Riyadina

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Migraine is a chronic daily headache which interfere a quality of life. The purpose of this research is to obtain the prevalence, risk factors, and comorbidity of migraine. Methods: A cross sectional study involving 4771 subjects in 5 villages in the district of Central Bogor, Bogor City 2011–2012. Data collection was performed using WHO STEPS (interview, measurement, physical examination, and laboratory test. Results: In this study, the migraine prevalence was 22.43%, with significant risk factors were sex, age, and stress (p < 0.05. Comorbidity of migraine was coronary heart diseases (p < 0.05. There was no significant correlation between migraine with marital status, level of education, smoking, hypertension, obesity, total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, trigliseride level, and diabetes mellitus (p > 0.05. Conclusions: Risk factors which have significant association with migraine are sex, age, and stress, whereas coronary heart disease existed as a comorbidity with migraine.

  4. Bleeding after endoscopic submucosal dissection: Risk factors and preventive methods

    Kataoka, Yosuke; Tsuji, Yosuke; Sakaguchi, Yoshiki; Minatsuki, Chihiro; Asada-Hirayama, Itsuko; Niimi, Keiko; Ono, Satoshi; Kodashima, Shinya; Yamamichi, Nobutake; Fujishiro, Mitsuhiro; Koike, Kazuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) has become widely accepted as a standard method of treatment for superficial gastrointestinal neoplasms because it enables en block resection even for large lesions or fibrotic lesions with minimal invasiveness, and decreases the local recurrence rate. Moreover, specimens resected in an en block fashion enable accurate histological assessment. Taking these factors into consideration, ESD seems to be more advantageous than conventional endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR), but the associated risks of perioperative adverse events are higher than in EMR. Bleeding after ESD is the most frequent among these adverse events. Although post-ESD bleeding can be controlled by endoscopic hemostasis in most cases, it may lead to serious conditions including hemorrhagic shock. Even with preventive methods including administration of acid secretion inhibitors and preventive hemostasis, post-ESD bleeding cannot be completely prevented. In addition high-risk cases for post-ESD bleeding, which include cases with the use of antithrombotic agents or which require large resection, are increasing. Although there have been many reports about associated risk factors and methods of preventing post-ESD bleeding, many issues remain unsolved. Therefore, in this review, we have overviewed risk factors and methods of preventing post-ESD bleeding from previous studies. Endoscopists should have sufficient knowledge of these risk factors and preventive methods when performing ESD.

  5. Assessment of risk factors for noncommunicable disease risk factors among men of working age

    M. Yu. Vasilyev

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: the investigation of some modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors and poor explored as well of non-convectional diseases among men of working age.Subjects and methods. Seven thousand thirty five men in age of 18 to 60 years were examined. History data included age, gender, nationality,high blood pressure (BP episodes, antihypertensive drugs taking in case of arterial hypertension, smoking. Instrumental examination included BP measurement when seated after 5 minutes of the rest with mean BP calculation. Total cholesterol and creatinine in blood, clearance of creatinine calculation by Cockcroft–Gault formula, microalbuminuria were assayed; depression level was estimated by Beck score. With purpose to analyze the risk factors structure all examined subjects were divided into three groups according to SCORE scale.Results. Cholesterol level analysis revealed the increasing of parameter in 41.7 % of examined patients (n = 307. Microalbuminuria was revealed in 13.8 % (n = 102 of men, and 19.3 % of them (n = 80 had increased blood pressure. Some levels of depression were revealed in 42.5 % (n = 312, among them the arterial hypertension was observed in 62,5 % (n = 195. The group with low and moderate cardiovascular risk consisted of 594 persons (80.8 %. High cardiovascular risk was determined in 15.2 % men of working age (n = 112. Very high cardiovascular risk was revealed in 3.9 % (n = 29 of responders.Conclusion. Increasing of traditional risk factors rate is associated with increasing of additional risk factors. Received data are widening the perception about risk factors structure in population. Particularly the question about renal filtration function role, depressive syndrome, trophologic insufficiency is raised. Consideration of those in prophylaxis system consideration requires a specific education of general practitioners.

  6. Risk Factors for Sudden Cardiac Death: Risk Factors for Sudden Cardiac Death

    Niemeijer, Maartje

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractSCD is a common cause of death, with around four to five million cases annually worldwide. Determining which persons are at high risk for SCD remains difficult, due to lack of knowledge on individual risk factors and because in the majority of cases, SCD is the first manifestation of cardiac disease. Therefore, this thesis had three aims: (i) to study the current and past incidence of SCD, (ii) to identify new risk factors for SCD in the general population, and (iii) to study ...

  7. Multiple risk factor evaluation in a hypertension clinic.

    Thom, S; Bunker, J; Callister, W; Poulter, N; Sever, P; Zographos, D

    1989-12-01

    Hypertension is associated with abnormal lipoprotein metabolism, which may be exacerbated by some groups of antihypertensive drugs and represents an additional powerful coronary heart disease risk factor. Of our Hypertension Clinic population, 75% had a total fasting serum cholesterol greater than 5.2 mmol/l. Dietary advice and adjustment of antihypertensive therapy has achieved significant reductions in total cholesterol, serum triglycerides and body weight (14%, 18% and 4.3%, respectively) in a cohort of 65 patients reassessed over a period of 3-21 months. The reduction in cholesterol is likely to represent at least a 28% reduction in the risk of a major coronary heart disease event, even before taking account of any improvement in other coronary heart disease risk factors. PMID:2632734

  8. Recent insights on risk factors of hepatocellular carcinoma

    Nabil Mohie Abdel-Hamid

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is a disease prevalent in many populations worldwide. It initiates many economic and health problems in management modalities and leads to increasing mortality rates. Worldwide, trials have attempted to discover specific early markers for detection and prediction of the disease, hoping to set a more precise strategy for liver cancer prevention. Unfortunately, many economic, cultural and disciplinary levels contribute to confounding preventive strategies. Many risk factors contribute to predisposition to HCC, which can present individually or simultaneously. Previous articles discussed many risk factors for hepatocellular carcinogenesis; however, most of them didn't consider collectively the most recent data relating to causes. In this article, the pathogenesis and risk factors of HCC are discussed. Most of the intermediary steps of HCC involve molecular and transcriptional events leading to hepatocyte malignant transformation. These steps are mainly triggered by hepatitis B, C or transfusion-transmitted virus, either alone, or with other factors. Diabetes seems to be a major contributing risk factor. Schistosomiasis, a blood infestation, mostly affects Nile basin inhabitants leading to bladder, renal and hepatic cancers. Alcoholism, food and water pollutants and some drugs can also lead to HCC. Additionally, some hereditary diseases, as hemochromatosis, α -1-antitrypsin deficiency and tyrosinaemia are known to lead to the development of HCC, if not well managed.

  9. Risk factors for asthma: is prevention possible?

    Beasley, Richard; Semprini, Alex; Mitchell, Edwin A

    2015-09-12

    Asthma is one of the most common diseases in the world, resulting in a substantial burden of disease. Although rates of deaths due to asthma worldwide have reduced greatly over the past 25 years, no available therapeutic regimens can cure asthma, and the burden of asthma will continue to be driven by increasing prevalence. The reasons for the increase in asthma prevalence have not been defined, which limits the opportunities to develop targeted primary prevention measures. Although associations are reported between a wide range of risk factors and childhood asthma, substantiation of causality is inherently difficult from observational studies, and few risk factors have been assessed in primary prevention studies. Furthermore, none of the primary prevention intervention strategies that have undergone scrutiny in randomised controlled trials has provided sufficient evidence to lead to widespread implementation in clinical practice. A better understanding of the factors that cause asthma is urgently needed, and this knowledge could be used to develop public health and pharmacological primary prevention measures that are effective in reducing the prevalence of asthma worldwide. To achieve this it will be necessary to think outside the box, not only in terms of risk factors for the causation of asthma, but also the types of novel primary prevention strategies that are developed, and the research methods used to provide the evidence base for their implementation. In the interim, public health efforts should remain focused on measures with the potential to improve lung and general health, such as: reducing tobacco smoking and environmental tobacco smoke exposure; reducing indoor and outdoor air pollution and occupational exposures; reducing childhood obesity and encouraging a diet high in vegetables and fruit; improving feto-maternal health; encouraging breastfeeding; promoting childhood vaccinations; and reducing social inequalities. PMID:26382999

  10. Risk and protection factors in fatal accidents.

    Dupont, Emmanuelle; Martensen, Heike; Papadimitriou, Eleonora; Yannis, George

    2010-03-01

    This paper aims at addressing the interest and appropriateness of performing accident severity analyses that are limited to fatal accident data. Two methodological issues are specifically discussed, namely the accident-size factors (the number of vehicles in the accident and their level of occupancy) and the comparability of the baseline risk. It is argued that - although these two issues are generally at play in accident severity analyses - their effects on, e.g., the estimation of survival probability, are exacerbated if the analysis is limited to fatal accident data. As a solution, it is recommended to control for these effects by (1) including accident-size indicators in the model, (2) focusing on different sub-groups of road-users while specifying the type of opponent in the model, so as to ensure that comparable baseline risks are worked with. These recommendations are applied in order to investigate risk and protection factors of car occupants involved in fatal accidents using data from a recently set up European Fatal Accident Investigation database (Reed and Morris, 2009). The results confirm that the estimated survival probability is affected by accident-size factors and by type of opponent. The car occupants' survival chances are negatively associated with their own age and that of their vehicle. The survival chances are also lower when seatbelt is not used. Front damage, as compared to other damaged car areas, appears to be associated with increased survival probability, but mostly in the case in which the accident opponent was another car. The interest of further investigating accident-size factors and opponent effects in fatal accidents is discussed. PMID:20159090

  11. Risk Factors and Comorbidities for Onychomycosis

    Tosti, Antonella

    2015-01-01

    A number of comorbidities and risk factors complicate the successful management of onychomycosis. Underlying conditions and patient characteristics, such as tinea pedis, age, and obesity, contribute to risk, whereas comorbidities, such as diabetes and psoriasis, can increase susceptibility to the disease. There are limited data on treatment effectiveness in these patients. Here, the authors review post hoc analyses of efinaconazole topical solution, 10%, in mild-to-moderate onychomycosis and present new data in terms of age and obesity. The only post hoc analysis to report significant differences so far is gender, where female patients do much better; however, the reasons are unclear. The authors report significant differences in terms of efficacy in obese patients who do not respond as well as those with normal body mass index (P=0.05) and in patients who have their co-existing tinea pedis treated compared to those in whom co-existing tinea pedis was not treated (P=0.025). Although there is a trend to reduced efficacy in older patients and those with co-existing diabetes, differences were not significant. More research is needed in onychomycosis patients with these important risk factors and comorbidities to fully evaluate the treatment challengse and possible solutions. PMID:26705439

  12. Risk factors of γ-hydroxybutyrate overdosing.

    Korf, Dirk J; Nabben, Ton; Benschop, Annemieke; Ribbink, Kim; van Amsterdam, Jan G C

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify in recreational drug users the factors which increase the risk of overdosing (OD) with γ-hydroxybutyrate (GHB). A purposive sample of 45 experienced GHB users was interviewed, equally divided into three groups (never OD, occasional OD, and repeat OD). The repeat OD group scored highest on many risk factors regarding GHB use, the occasional OD group scored intermediate, and the never OD group scored lowest. Participants, whether or not they had overdosed on GHB, most often perceived GHB use (e.g. using more GHB than usual, using GHB doses too closely together) as the main reason for GHB OD, and many participants who had overdosed on GHB reported that they had taken more GHB than usual at their most recent occasion of GHB OD. No significant differences in co-use of GHB with other substances were found between the three groups. Our findings indicate that using GHB in the company of groups of friends probably reduces, but does not eliminate, the risk of OD. PMID:24080792

  13. Quantifying Risk Factors for Human Brucellosis in Rural Northern Tanzania

    John, Kunda; Fitzpatrick, Julie; French, Nigel; Kazwala, Rudovick; Kambarage, Dominic; Godfrey S. Mfinanga; MacMillan, Alastair; Cleaveland, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    Background Brucellosis is a zoonosis of veterinary, public health and economic significance in most developing countries. Human brucellosis is a severely debilitating disease that requires prolonged treatment with a combination of antibiotics. The disease can result in permanent and disabling sequel, and results in considerable medical expenses in addition to loss of income due to loss of working hours. A study was conducted in Northern Tanzania to determine the risk factors for transmission ...

  14. [Helicobacter pylori: a new cardiovascular risk factor?].

    Martínez Torres, Alejandra; Martínez Gaensly, Miguel

    2002-06-01

    There is increasing evidence that certain microbial agents may have an etiopathogenic role in the development of atherothrombosis. Helicobacter pylori, a bacterium that causes peptic ulcer disease, has been suggested as one of the microbes involved in the development of atherothrombosis. This hypothesis is based on the following observations: a) a higher prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction, or cerebrovascular disease; b) the coincidence of Helicobacter pylori infection and cardiovascular risk factors, such as serum cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations and plasma fibrinogen; c) Helicobacter pylori seropositivity correlates with acute-phase proteins associated with higher risk of coronary disease, such as C-reactive protein, and d) controversial PCR studies indicating the presence of Helicobacter pylori in atheromas. Analysis of the scientific evidence suggests that Helicobacter pylori infection could indirectly contribute to the development and severity of atherothrombosis and cardiovascular disease. PMID:12113724

  15. OCCUPATIONAL RISK FACTORS IN KNEE OSTEOARTHRITIS

    Muralidhara

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Osteoarthritis (OA, also often called “osteoarthrosis” or “degenerative joint disease” is the most common form of arthritis. MATERIALS AND METHODS Present retrospective statistical study was conducted at the Department of orthopaedics in a tertiary care hospital (Catering to a largely agricultural population over a period of 2 years from January 2012 to December 2014. RESULTS Prevalence of osteoarthritis common in farmers accounting to 70%. Other occupations at risk of OA of knee were, Teachers 12%, Housewives 08%, Athletes 04%, Policemen 04% and Drivers 02%. It is in conformity with most previous studies reviewed. CONCLUSION Osteoarthritis of Knee is a major health issue and important cause of disability in elderly population. Occupational risk factors are important in development of osteoarthritis.

  16. Assessing risk factors for periodontitis using regression

    Lobo Pereira, J. A.; Ferreira, Maria Cristina; Oliveira, Teresa

    2013-10-01

    Multivariate statistical analysis is indispensable to assess the associations and interactions between different factors and the risk of periodontitis. Among others, regression analysis is a statistical technique widely used in healthcare to investigate and model the relationship between variables. In our work we study the impact of socio-demographic, medical and behavioral factors on periodontal health. Using regression, linear and logistic models, we can assess the relevance, as risk factors for periodontitis disease, of the following independent variables (IVs): Age, Gender, Diabetic Status, Education, Smoking status and Plaque Index. The multiple linear regression analysis model was built to evaluate the influence of IVs on mean Attachment Loss (AL). Thus, the regression coefficients along with respective p-values will be obtained as well as the respective p-values from the significance tests. The classification of a case (individual) adopted in the logistic model was the extent of the destruction of periodontal tissues defined by an Attachment Loss greater than or equal to 4 mm in 25% (AL≥4mm/≥25%) of sites surveyed. The association measures include the Odds Ratios together with the correspondent 95% confidence intervals.

  17. Age as a risk factor for suicide

    Kocić Sanja S.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. World Health Organization (WHO in its plan for health policy until the year 2010, has taken reduction of risk factors of suicide as its 12th aim. Because of the fact that the problem of suicide is also significant health problem in our society, the aim of this study was to examine the influence of life period as a risk factor for suicide in the area of the town of Kragujevac. Methods. In total 211 persons, both sexes, aged between 17 and 91 years, from the area of the town of Kragujevac, who had been committed a suicide during the period from 1996 to 2005, were included in a retrospective study. This study included the analysis of: conditions prior to suicide, locations of suicide, motives for suicide, the ways of committing suicide. For statistical analysis χ2 test and univariante regression model were used. Results. Average rate of suicide, in analyzed period, moved from 8.7 to 27 with a mean value of 14.6± 6.9. Suicide rates were the lowest in the age group from 15 to 24 years and the highest in the age group above 65 years (p < 0.05. Among the presuicidal conditions, within any age groups the presence of mental disease dominated as a factor for suicide, but within the oldest one in which organic diseases prevailed as a factor for suicide (p < 0.05. Statistically significant fact is that a house (flat was the main location for committing suicide in any age groups. Motives for suicide were significantly different within the groups and they were mostly unknown. Committing suicide by hanging was the most frequent way of suicide among any age groups. Univariant regression analysis failed to show any impact of age on the analyzed factors. Conclusion. Because of the fact that an average rate of suicide in elderly increases it is obligatory to primarily determine risk factors for suicide among people more than 65 years of age. Physicians should play the most important role in that.

  18. Risk factors for mortality in burn children

    Maria Teresa Rosanova

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Studies about risk factors for mortality in burn children are scarce. We conducted this study to evaluate the risk factors for mortality in pediatric burn patients. We included 110 patients. Mean age was 31.5 months (range: 1 to 204. The burn surface was between 1% and 95%(median 27% Type of burn was: A or superfitial in 39 patients (36%, AB or intermediate in 19 (17%, and B or full thickness in 52 (47%. Inhalatory injury was present in 52 patients (47%. Invasive procedures were: venous catheter, 90 patients (82%, arterial catheter, 83patients (75.5%, urinary catheter, 86 patients (78%, and mechanical ventilation, 75 patients (68%. In 84 patients, 128 infections were diagnosed. in 53 cases (48%. Multiresistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acynetobacter baumannii were the most common organisms isolated. The median length of hospital stay was 33 days (r: 8-139 days. Seventeen patients (15% died and 14 of them of infection-related causes. Age 40% burn surface, presence of inhalatory syndrome, use of venous catheter, arterial catheter, urinary catheter and mechanical ventilation, positive blood cultures, colistin use in documented multiresistant infections, antifungal use and graft requirement, were identified as risks factors for mortality in the univariate analysis. By multivariate analysis: age <4 years, Garcés 4, colistin use in multiresistant infections, mechanical ventilation and graft requirement were independent variables related with mortality. CONCLUSIONS: In this series of burn children age < 4 years, Garces index score 4, colistin use in documented multiresistant infections, mechanical ventilation and graft requirement were identified as independent variables related with mortality.

  19. Risk factors of uveitis in ankylosing spondylitis

    Sun, Li; Wu, Rui; Xue, Qin; Wang, Feng; Lu, Peirong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Uveitis is the most common extra-articular manifestation in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). The prevalence and characteristics of uveitis in AS have been studied in previous literatures, whereas its associated risk factors have not been clarified. Therefore, this study analyzed the risk factors of uveitis in patients with AS. Methods: A total of 390 patients with AS who fulfilled the modified New York criteria were enrolled from January to December in 2015. The history of uveitis was accepted only if diagnosed by ophthalmologists. The medical records of the patients were retrospectively reviewed and associated information was collected, such as disease duration, HLA-B27, and the number of peripheral arthritis. Hip-joint lesion was identified by imaging examination. Meanwhile, biochemical examinations were performed to determine the patient's physical function. Results: Of 390 patients with AS (80.5% male, mean age 33.3 years), 38 (9.7%) had experienced 1 or more episodes of uveitis. The incidence rate for hip-joint lesion was obviously higher for patients with uveitis than the nonuveitis group (44.7% vs 22.2%; P arthritis was also larger for the uveitis group than nonuveitis group (2.18 ± 0.23 vs 0.55 ± 0.04; P HLA-B27, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and C-reactive protein (CRP) between the 2 groups. Binary logistic regression results showed that ASO (OR = 12.2, 95% CI:3.6–41.3, P arthritis (OR = 4.1, 95%CI:2.6–6.3, P arthritis, ASO, and CIC may be associated with higher rates of uveitis in AS. The results of this comprehensive analysis suggest that the possible occurrence of uveitis in AS should not be neglected if the patients have those concomitant risk factors. PMID:27428230

  20. Cholera risk factors, Papua New Guinea, 2010

    Rosewell Alexander

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cholera is newly emergent in Papua New Guinea but may soon become endemic. Identifying the risk factors for cholera provides evidence for targeted prevention and control measures. Methods We conducted a hospital-based case–control study to identify cholera risk factors. Using stool culture as the standard, we evaluated a cholera point of care test in the field. Results 176 participants were recruited: 54 cases and 122 controls. Independent risk factors for cholera were: being over 20 years of age (aOR 2.5; 95%CI 1.1, 5.4, defecating in the open air (or river (aOR 4.5; 95% CI 1.4, 14.4 and knowing someone who travelled to a cholera affected area (aOR 4.1; 95%CI 1.6, 10.7; while the availability of soap for handwashing at home was protective (aOR 0.41; 95%CI 0.19, 0.87. Those reporting access to a piped water distribution system in the home were twice as likely to report the availability of soap for handwashing. The sensitivity and specificity of the rapid test were 72% (95% CI 47–90 and 71% (95%CI 44–90%. Conclusions Improving population access to the piped water distribution system and sanitation will likely reduce transmission by enabling enhanced hygiene and limiting the contamination of water sources. The One step V. cholerae O1/O139 Antigen Test is of limited utility for clinical decision making in a hospital setting with access to traditional laboratory methods. Settlement dwellers and mobile populations of all age groups should be targeted for interventions in Papua New Guinea.

  1. Major Outcomes in Atrial Fibrillation Patients with One Risk Factor

    Proietti, Marco; Lip, Gregory Y H

    2016-01-01

    p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In atrial fibrillation patients with only one additional stroke risk factor (i.e. CHA2DS2-VASc= 1 in males or 2 in females), rates of major adverse events (stroke/systemic thromboembolic event, mortality) were high, despite anticoagulation. TTR in warfarin-treated patients was......BACKGROUND: The benefits and harms of oral anticoagulation (OAC) therapy in patients with only one stroke risk factor (i.e. CHA2DS2-VASc= 1 in males, or 2 in females) has been subject of debate. METHODS: We analysed all patients with only one stroke risk factor from the merged datasets of SPORTIF...... III and V trials. Anticoagulation control was defined according to time in therapeutic range (TTR). RESULTS: Of the original trial cohort, 1,097 patients had only one stroke risk factor. Stroke/systemic thromboembolic event had an incidence of 0.9 per 100 patient-years, with an incidence of 1.6 per...

  2. STUDY OF RISK FACTORS AND CLINICAL PROFILE OF ACUTE STROKE

    Tomar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available `INTRODUCTION: Stroke is the third leading cause of death in developed countries after cardiovascular disease and cancer. In India Community Surveys have shown a crude prevalence rate for hemiplegia 200 per 1, 00, 000 population. It accounts for nearly 1.5% of all urban admissions, 4.5 % of all medical and about 20% of neurological cases. AIMS AND OBJECTIVE: Identification of risk factors and evaluation of clinical profile of acute stroke. MATERIAL AND METHOD: INCLUSION CRITERIA: Cases of acute stoke admitted in SGMH hospital were selected for the study. EXCLUSION CRITERIA: Brain injury cases, infective, neoplastic cases producing stroke were excluded. RESULTS: Stroke was more common in male, 58 % patients were male and 42% patients were female. It was more common in 5th and 6th decade. Most common etiology was infarction. Most common risk factor was hypertension followed by smoking. In addition to limb weakness, headache and vomiting were most common presenting symptoms followed by convulsion. These symptoms were more common in hemorrhagic stroke. Right sided hemiplegia was more common than left sided. Middle cerebral artery was involved in majority of cases in atherothrombotic stroke whereas basal ganglion was most common site of bleed in hemorrhagic stroke. Coma and mortality were more in hemorrhagic stroke. CONCLUSION: The risk factors and clinical profile of acute stroke in India are similar to that of Western countries. Common risk factors are hypertension, smoking, diabetes mellitus and hyperlipidemia

  3. Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Risk Factors, Diagnosis and Treatment

    Dafina Janevska

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is the most often primary cancer of the liver and is one if the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. The incidence of HCC has geographic distribution with the highest levels in countries with developing economies. Patients with hepatocellular carcinoma have poor prognosis despite the achievements in surgery techniques and other therapeutic procedures and it is a reason why continuous attention should be paid to this issue. This article provides an overview of this disease based on an extensive review of relevant literature. The article summarizes the current risk factors, diagnosis, staging and the management of HCC.

  4. Risk factors associated with emergency peripartum hysterectomy

    Jin Rong; Guo Yuna; Chen Yan

    2014-01-01

    Background Use of an emergency peripartum hysterectomy (EPH) as a lifesaving measure to manage intractable postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) appears to be increasing recently around the world,and the indications for EPH have changed.The object of this study is to identify risk factors associated with EPH.Methods We conducted a case-control study of 21 patients who underwent EPH because of intractable PPH between January 1,2005 and June 30,2013,at the International Peace Maternity and Child Health Hospital Shanghai Jiao Tong University,School of Medicine (IPMCH).The parametric t-test,chi-square tests and Logistic regression models were used for analysis to identify the risk factors.The results were considered statistically significant when P<0.05.Results There were 89 178 deliveries during the study period.Twenty-one women had an EPH,with an incidence of 24 per 100 000 deliveries.The loss of blood during postpartum hemorrhage of the EPH group was (5 060.7±3 032.6)ml,and that of the control group was (2 040.8±723.5) ml.There was a significant difference of PHH between the EHP group and the control group (P=0.001).Independent risk factors for EPH from a logistic regression model were:disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) (OR:9.9,95% CI 2.8-34,P=0.003),previous cesarean section (OR:5.27;95% CI:1.48-17.9,P=0.009),placenta previa (OR:6.9; 95% CI 1.6-2.9,P=0.008),the loss of PPH (OR:1.001; 95% CI 1.001-1.002,P=0.002),placenta accreta (OR:68; 95% CI 10-456,P=0.004),the use of tocolytic agents prenatally (OR:6.55,95%CI 1.34-32.1,P=0.049),and fetal macrosomia (OR:6.9,95% CI 1.25-38,P=0.049).Conclusion Significant risk factors of EPH are DIC,placenta previa,PPH,previous cesarean delivery,and placenta accrete,the use of tocolytic agents prenatally,and fetal macrosomia.

  5. [Patient's Risk Factors for Perioperative Aspiration Pneumonia].

    Ishikawa, Teruhiko; Isono, Shiroh

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews patient's own risk factors for perioperative aspiration pneumonia. Maintaining the function of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES), the airway protective reflex, and the oral hygiene are the most important to prevent the pneumonia. The LES is adversely affected by excessive stomach distention, some medication given in perioperative periods, and habitual smoking, as well as pathological status such as esophageal hiatus hernia and achalasia. Postapoplectic patients may have insufficient airway protective reflex including swallowing and laryngeal reflex. It is emphasized that the perioperative oral care is increasing in its importance for the prevention of aspiration pneumonia. PMID:27004381

  6. Subconjunctival hemorrhage: risk factors and potential indicators

    Tarlan B

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Bercin Tarlan,1 Hayyam Kiratli21Department of Ophthalmology, Kozluk State Hospital, Batman, Turkey; 2Ocular Oncology Service, Hacettepe University Schoolof Medicine, Ankara, TurkeyAbstract: Subconjunctival hemorrhage is a benign disorder that is a common cause of acute ocular redness. The major risk factors include trauma and contact lens usage in younger patients, whereas among the elderly, systemic vascular diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, and arteriosclerosis are more common. In patients in whom subconjunctival hemorrhage is recurrent or persistent, further evaluation, including workup for systemic hypertension, bleeding disorders, systemic and ocular malignancies, and drug side effects, is warranted.Keywords: subconjunctival hemorrhage, contact lens, hypertension, red eye

  7. Lifestyle Decreases Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Diseases

    Slavíček, Jaroslav; Kittnar, Otomar; Fraser, Gary E.; Medová, Eva; Konečná, Jana; Žižka, Robert; Dohnalová, Alena; Novák, Vladimír

    2008-01-01

    The morbidity and mortality of the cardiovascular diseases is high in the developed countries. The lifestyle changes are capable to decrease it by 50%. The aim of the present study was to measure the parameters of some risk factors before and after a one-week NEW START rehabilitative retreat. 1,349 volunteers, 320 men, 1,029 woman, mean age 51±14.5 (SD) years participated in 30 rehabilitative retreats from 1999–2006 in the Czech Republic, using a low-fat, low-energy, lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet...

  8. Prevalence of health risk factors among fishermen

    Frantzeskou, Elpida; Jensen, Olaf; Linos, Athena

    2014-01-01

    accompanied by moderate–high alcohol consumption. On many vessels, food was limited to coffee, sandwiches and occasionally fruit on board. 66% of the Greek fishing workers did not perform any kind of exercise outside work. Obesity (Body mass index > 30.0) was found for 33 % of the Greek fishermen. Of the...... review the available information on the prevalence of these preventable risk factors in order to strengthen the preventive strategies. Methods A search for the last decade was done via Medline, Google and Google Scholar with the keywords "diet, tobacco, alcohol, physical exercise, overweight AND...

  9. Hepatocellular carcinoma: Epidemiology, risk factors and pathogenesis

    2008-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the commonest primary malignant cancer of the liver in the world. Given that the burden of chronic liver disease is expected to rise owing to increasing rates of alcoholism, hepatitis B and C prevalence and obesity-related fatty liver disease, it is expected that the incidence of HCC will also increase in the foreseeable future. This article summarizes the international epidemiology, the risk factors and the pathogenesis of HCC, including the roles of viral hepatitis, toxins, such as alcohol and aflatoxin, and insulin resistance.

  10. Predicting Prostate Cancer Mortality Among Men With Intermediate to High-Risk Disease and Multiple Unfavorable Risk Factors

    Purpose: To determine whether the number of unfavorable risk factors could be used to predict the risk of prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM) among men with intermediate- to high-risk prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: We studied 1,063 men who underwent radical prostatectomy (n = 559), external beam radiotherapy (n = 288), or radiotherapy plus androgen suppression therapy (n = 116) for prostate cancer between 1965 and 2002. Fine and Gray's regression analysis was used to determine whether an increasing number of unfavorable risk factors (prostate-specific antigen level >10 ng/mL, Gleason score of ≥7, clinical Stage T2b or greater, or pretreatment prostate-specific antigen velocity >2.0 ng/mL/y) was associated with the interval to PCSM and all-cause mortality. Results: Median follow-up was 5.6 years. Compared with those with one risk factor, the adjusted hazard ratio for PCSM was 2.3 (95% confidence interval 1.1-4.8; p = 0.03) for two risk factors, 5.4 (95% confidence interval 2.7-10.7; p < 0.0001) for three risk factors, and 13.6 (95% confidence interval 6.3-29.2; p < 0.0001) for all four risk factors. The 5-year cumulative incidence of PCSM was 2.4% for one factor, 2.4% for two factors, 7.0% for three factors, and 14.7% for all four factors. Prostate cancer deaths as a proportion of all deaths was 19% for one factor, 33% for two factors, 53% for three factors, and 80% for four factors. Conclusion: The number of unfavorable risk factors was significantly associated with PCSM. Prostate cancer was the major cause of death in men with at least three risk factors. Therefore, these men should be considered for clinical trials designed to assess whether survival is prolonged with the addition of novel agents to current standards of practice

  11. Risk factors in stage III breast carcinoma

    Five-year follow-up data of 100 patients with stage III breast cancer treated by primary irradiation from 1977 to 1981 are presented. The 5-year overall survival rate for the entire group was 38% with a median survival time of 33 months. The data were analysed to determine factors associated with prognosis. Patients with shorter premedical history and premenopausal status had a modest survival advantage. Response to radiation therapy, primary tumor status, regional lymph node condition, postirradiation histologic findings in axillary lymph nodes proved to have a prognostic value. Disease which was not controlled by radiotherapy also tended to be resistant to chemotherapy and the 5-year survival in this group was zero. Risk factors have to be taken into consideration for the combined modality treatment for stage III breast cancer. However, further studies are needed to define the indication and appropriate sequence of systemic treatment in this stage of the disease. (orig.)

  12. Dependence structure of risk factors and diversification effects

    Chen Zou

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we study the aggregated risk from dependent risk factors under the multivariate Extreme Value theory (EVT) framework. We consider the heavy-tailness of the risk factors as well a non-parametric tail dependence structure. This allows a large scope of models on the dependency. We assess the Value-at-Risk of a diversified portfolio constructed from dependent risk factors. Moreover, we examine the diversification effects under this setup.

  13. Atmospheric dust additions as a soil formation factor

    The Mediterranean area is distinguished by a least four features that determine the nature of its soils. These are its climate, its mountains, the addition of exogenous dust and ongoing anthropogenic effects. We here present three cases in which the influence of atmospheric dust additions can be detected in the soils of representative circum-Saharan contexts the Canary Islands, Betic intramontane depressions, and the Sierra Bermeja peridotite massif (Malaga). The unique position of the Canary Islands determines important rates of dust deposit, largely depending on position on the relief. the nature of the dust contrasts with the rocky substratum of the islands, and the marine and volcanic context can also affect the nature of the deposits. The numerous, extensive intramontane basins of the Betic Cordilleras act as large captors of atmospheric dust, with rates similar to those found in the Canary archipelago. The carbonate content of these exogenous additions represents a significant components that should be taken into account when establishing the carbonate accumulation regime in these soils. (Author) 13 refs.

  14. Risk factors of thyroid cancer in Babol, Northern Iran

    Moazezi, Zoleika; Mahmoudi, Mahmoud; Yahyahpour, Yousef; Alaleh, AliReza

    2011-01-01

    Background : Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy. Several risk factors were found to play a role in thyroid cancer. The purpose of the study was to determine the risk factors for thyroid cancer, in Babol, north of Iran.

  15. Bicycling to school improves the cardiometabolic risk factor profile

    Ostergaard, Lars; Børrestad, Line A B; Tarp, Jakob;

    2012-01-01

    To investigate whether bicycling to school improves cardiometabolic risk factor profile and cardiorespiratory fitness among children.......To investigate whether bicycling to school improves cardiometabolic risk factor profile and cardiorespiratory fitness among children....

  16. Patient risk factors for pressure ulcer development: Systematic review

    Coleman, S.; Gorecki, C.; Nelson, E.A.; Closs, S.J.; Defloor, T.; Halfens, R.; Farrin, A.; Brown, J.; Schoonhoven, L.; Nixon, J.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify risk factors independently predictive of pressure ulcer development in adult patient populations? DESIGN: A systematic review of primary research was undertaken, based upon methods recommended for effectiveness questions but adapted to identify observational risk factor studie

  17. Widespread non-additive and interaction effects within HLA loci modulate the risk of autoimmune diseases

    Lenz, Tobias L.; Deutsch, Aaron J.; Han, Buhm; Hu, Xinli; Okada, Yukinori; Eyre, Stephen; Knapp, Michael; Zhernakova, Alexandra; Huizinga, Tom W. J.; Abecasis, Gonçalo; Becker, Jessica; Boeckxstaens, Guy; Chen, Wei-Min; Franke, Andre; Gladman, Dafna D

    2015-01-01

    Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes confer substantial risk for autoimmune diseases on a log-additive scale. Here we speculated that differences in autoantigen-binding repertoires between a heterozygote's two expressed HLA variants might result in additional non-additive risk effects. We tested the non-additive disease contributions of classical HLA alleles in patients and matched controls for five common autoimmune diseases: rheumatoid arthritis (ncases = 5,337), type 1 diabetes (T1D; ncases...

  18. Perinatal risk factors for acute myeloid leukemia.

    Crump, Casey; Sundquist, Jan; Sieh, Weiva; Winkleby, Marilyn A; Sundquist, Kristina

    2015-12-01

    Infectious etiologies have been hypothesized for acute leukemias because of their high incidence in early childhood, but have seldom been examined for acute myeloid leukemia (AML). We conducted the first large cohort study to examine perinatal factors including season of birth, a proxy for perinatal infectious exposures, and risk of AML in childhood through young adulthood. A national cohort of 3,569,333 persons without Down syndrome who were born in Sweden in 1973-2008 were followed up for AML incidence through 2010 (maximum age 38 years). There were 315 AML cases in 69.7 million person-years of follow-up. We found a sinusoidal pattern in AML risk by season of birth (P birth order, parental age, and parental country of birth were not associated with AML. In this large cohort study, birth in winter was associated with increased risk of AML in childhood through young adulthood, possibly related to immunologic effects of early infectious exposures compared with summer birth. These findings warrant further investigation of the role of seasonally varying perinatal exposures in the etiology of AML. PMID:26113060

  19. Risk factors associated with childhood asthma

    To identify the risk factors associated with childhood asthma, in children attending Isra University Hospital, Hyderabad. The study included 398 age-matched children (200 asthmatic and 198 non-asthmatic). Information was collected concerning their familial history of atopy, birth weight, environment, breastfeeding, disease and treatment history. Odds ratio was calculated for determining the risk. The children were aged between 12 months and 8 years and 60% were male. The asthmatic children were hospitalized more frequently than the non-asthmatic children (p < 0.0001). Most of the asthmatic children lived in the urban areas of Hyderabad (odd ratio (OR) 16.7, 95% CI = 3.1-14.6, p < 0.0001), had a parental history of asthma (OR 26.8, 95% CI = 10.8-68.2, p < 0.0001) or allergic rhinitis (OR 4, 95% CI 1.2-13.4, p= 0.01), 38.5% had at least one person who smoked, and were weaned earlier than the non-asthmatic children (OR =12.4, 95% CI 1.3-4.4, p < 0.01). Childhood asthma was strongly associated with a family history of asthma and allergic rhinitis, the urban place of residence, having smokers as parents and early weaning from maternal breast milk. The results highlight the need to educate the parents about the risk of smoking and early weaning in the development of asthma. (author)

  20. Risk factors for Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection among children in Greenland

    Søborg, Bolette; Andersen, Aase Bengaard; Melbye, Mads;

    2011-01-01

    To examine the risk factors for Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (MTI) among Greenlandic children for the purpose of identifying those at highest risk of infection.......To examine the risk factors for Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (MTI) among Greenlandic children for the purpose of identifying those at highest risk of infection....

  1. CLIMATE AS A RISK FACTOR FOR TOURISM

    ÁKOS NÉMETH

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Weather and climate risk factors for tourism are surveyed and illustrated with regard to the expected climate changes in Hungary. These changes are not at all advantageous and which affect the business in question both directly and indirectly. These are the summer resort tourism (characterised by bioclimatic indices. Green tourism is the next one to characterise, including skiing, mountain climbing and eco-tourism, as well. Here both day-to-day weather extremes and long-lasting effects on the biota (e.g. drought, or inundation for plain-area eco-tourism. Last, but not least the urban (cultural- and shopping- tourism is presented, since the large towns exhibit their special climate and different risks. The paper intends to specify these meteorological factors and effects also in terms of the different types of touristic activities. The general statements on the effect of weather and climate on tourism are illustrated by a few individual parameters and also by the so called Physiologically Equivalent Temperature. Annual and diurnal course of this parameter are presented, together with various trends in this variable at different sites and in different (hot and cold extremities of the occurring values. Other examples, helping the tourism industry are presented in various climate conditions of the country. They include high precipitation and high relative humidity information. The paper also lists the possible adaptation measures to extreme events and also their likely changes in time.

  2. Post biopsy pneumothorax: Risk factors and course

    The was to study the natural course of pneumothorax produced after aspiration biopsy in the attempt to differentiate those cases that will resolve spontaneously from those that will require drainage, and to assess the possible risk factors associated with the development of this entity. Eighty-nine CT-guided aspiration biopsies were performed in 80 patients. Control CT was done immediately after the procedure and 24 hours later. When pneumothorax persisted, CT was repeated at 48 h, 72 h, day 5 and day 7 or until a drainage tube was introduced. The cases of pneumothorax were classified as minimal, anterior or anterolateral. Seven variables were assessed as possible risk factors for its occurrence. Pneumothorax developed on 29 occasions (32.5%), requiring drainage in 12 cases (13.5%). In 20 patients (22%), pneumothorax occurred immediately, while in the remaining 9 (10%) it was detected in the 24 h CT scan. When studied according to type, drainage was required in 3 of the 19 cases of minimal or anterior pneumothorax (15%) and in 9 or the 10 cases of anterolateral location (90%) (p<0.0005). The mean thickness of the parenchyma punctured was 3.4 cm +- 2.2. cm when pneumothorax developed and 1.3 cm+- 2 cm when it did not (p<0.0001). There is a statistically significant association between the development of anterolateral pneumothorax and the need for chest drainage. The thickness of the punctured parenchyma is associated with the production of pneumothorax. 16 refs

  3. Peritoneal dialysis peritonitis: risk factors and effects

    Alikari V.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Peritonitis is the most frequent complication of peritoneal dialysis. It is the main cause of failure of the method and inclusion of patients in hemodialysis Purpose: The purpose of this study is to explore the risk factors of peritoneal dialysis peritonitis as well as the acute and long-term effects of peritonitis on peritoneal membrane function and success of the method. Methods: Literature review of relevant articles in the database Pubmed as well as the official website of the International Society of Peritoneal Dialysis (ISPD was carried out. The search included articles published during the period 1986 -2012.Results: Lack of patient compliance with the peritoneal changes protocol, lack of social support, systemic diseases and connection systems are risk factors of peritonitis. Peritonitis causes transient increase of peritoneum permeability, loss of the ability of the peritoneum for ultrafiltration and, consequently, overhydration. Long-term, recurrent episodes of peritonitis resulting in permanent loss of peritoneum capacity for ultrafiltration even fibrosis that leads to failure of the method. Finally, its effect on the reduction of the residual renal function seems to be remarkable. Conclusions: Peritonitis is the most common infectious complication of peritoneal dialysis and the main cause of morbidity associated with the method. Moreover, it is the major cause of failure of the method and patients accession in hemodialysis. Any attempt to prevent peritonitis passes through the careful patient selection and effective patient education on compliance with the rules of asepsis during peritoneal changes.

  4. Lifestyle decreases risk factors for cardiovascular diseases.

    Slavícek, Jaroslav; Kittnar, Otomar; Fraser, Gary E; Medová, Eva; Konecná, Jana; Zizka, Robert; Dohnalová, Alena; Novák, Vladimir

    2008-12-01

    The morbidity and mortality of cardiovascular diseases is high in the developed countries. The lifestyle changes are capable to decrease it by 50%. The aim of the present study was to measure the parameters of some risk factors before and after a one-week NEW START rehabilitative retreat. 1349 volunteers, 320 men, 1029 woman, mean age 51 +/- 14.5 (SD) years participated in 30 rehabilitative retreats from 1999-2006 in the Czech Republic, using a low-fat, low-energy, lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet and exercise, in a stress-free environment. Body weight, height, BMI, blood pressure, heart rate, serum cholesterol and blood glucose were measured. Body weight decreased in 1223 measured persons from 71.2 +/- 14.38 (SD) to 70.6 +/- 14.02 kg (placto-ovo vegetarians and Seventh-day Adventists than in controls who never observed the diet and avail the lifestyle programs. The parameters were nonsignificantly changed one year after finishing the retreat in the sample of 68 persons showing the positive effect of retreats. Our results showed, that the intake of a low-fat, low-energy diet, over the course of one week in a stress-free environment, had positive impact on the risk factors of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:19256282

  5. Adolescent fatherhood: Risk factor or resilience?

    Denise Benatuil

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The study of the adolescent pregnancy has been historically centered in the mother, the preponderant focus has been considers the maternity in this stage of the vital cycle as a factor of risk. Nowadays, have begun some studies that focus the problem of the adolescent pregnancy being centered in the father’s figure to appear and proposing a healthy focus, starting from the introduction of such concepts like Resilience. The present article, is a theoretical work, it is carried out to leave of secondary data. The objective is the compilation of studies and information on the subject of adolescent fatherhood from a less explored focus, considering the factors of risk and resilience. Different studies are raised with Latin American youths. Also are analyzed the access possibilities to the sanitary system from the youths, the knowledge of birth-control methods and the participation in programs of reproductive health. It outlines the importance of including the males in the whole process of procreation and the boy’s upbringing. 

  6. Stroke Prevention: Managing Modifiable Risk Factors

    Silvia Di Legge

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Prevention plays a crucial role in counteracting morbidity and mortality related to ischemic stroke. It has been estimated that 50% of stroke are preventable through control of modifiable risk factors and lifestyle changes. Antihypertensive treatment is recommended for both prevention of recurrent stroke and other vascular events. The use of antiplatelets and statins has been shown to reduce the risk of recurrent stroke and other vascular events. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs are indicated in stroke prevention because they also promote vascular health. Effective secondary-prevention strategies for selected patients include carotid revascularization for high-grade carotid stenosis and vitamin K antagonist treatment for atrial fibrillation. The results of recent clinical trials investigating new anticoagulants (factor Xa inhibitors and direct thrombin inhibitors clearly indicate alternative strategies in stroke prevention for patients with atrial fibrillation. This paper describes the current landscape and developments in stroke prevention with special reference to medical treatment in secondary prevention of ischemic stroke.

  7. Risk Factors Associated with Gastropathies. Trinidad, Sancti Spiritus

    Kirenia Castellanos Sánchez

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: it is important to identify factors increasing the risk of serious gastrointestinal complications and to determine the actions to take in order to reduce them. Objective: to identify risk factors associated with gastropathies in patients attending the gastroenterology consultation. Methods: a study including cases and witness selected out of patients attending the gastroenterology consultation was conducted in a polyclinic in Trinidad, Sancti Spiritus in the year 2008. 104 cases of gastropathies diagnosed by endoscopy and 208 witnesses were studied. The variables analyzed were: age, sex, smoking habit, coffee intake, alcohol consumption and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Dichotomous logistic regression was used to control de confounding bias, and subsequently the population attributable risk percent and the dose-response curve were calculated. Results: the independent risk factors for gastropathies identified were: ingestion of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (OR 4,50 IC; 2,60 to 7,80 and RAP % 56,75 IC; 37,50 to 71,83 with a significant dose-response curve for daily tablets and months of consumption; smoking habit (OR 2,82 IC; 1,65 to 4,84 and RAP % 38,97 % IC; 18,57 to 57,40 with a significant dose-response curve for daily cigarettes and years of consumption. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs identified as independent risks were indomethacin, ibuprofen and aspirin. The increase in 1 year of age also represented a risk in this series. Conclusions: smoking habit in addition to the ingestion of indomethacin, ibuprofen and aspirin were independent risks for gastropathy. Physicians should take into account the effects of these medications to avoid prescribing high doses of them for long periods.

  8. [Perception of health risks: psychological and social factors].

    Kurzenhäuser, S; Epp, A

    2009-12-01

    This article reviews central findings and current developments of psychological and sociological research on the perception of health risks. Risk perception is influenced by numerous psychological, social, political, and cultural factors. These factors can be categorized into (a) risk characteristics, (b) characteristics of the risk perceiving person and his/her situation, and (c) characteristics of risk communication. Thus, besides individual cognitive and affective processing of risk information, social processes of risk amplification (e.g., media effects) are also involved in the construction of individual risk perceptions. We discuss the recommendations for health risk communication that follow from these findings with regard to different communication goals. PMID:19862487

  9. Risk Factors for Hyperglycaemia in Pregnancy in Tamil Nadu, India

    Karoline Kragelund Nielsen; Peter Damm; Anil Kapur; Vijayam Balaji; Balaji, Madhuri S.; Veerasamy Seshiah; Bygbjerg, Ib C

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Hyperglycaemia in pregnancy (HIP), i.e. gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and diabetes in pregnancy (DIP), increases the risk of various short- and long-term adverse outcomes. However, much remains to be understood about the role of different risk factors in development of HIP. Objective The aims of this observational study were to examine the role of potential risk factors for HIP, and to investigate whether any single or accumulated risk factor(s) could be used to predict HIP...

  10. Gang Membership Risk Factors for Eighth-Grade Students

    James Martinez; Jeremy Tost; Larry Hilgert; Tracy Woodard-Meyers

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the major risk factor domains for gang membership and the relationships of these risk factors to eighth grade students. The domains of risk factors include: individual characteristics, peer group influences, family conditions, school experiences and the community context, along with demographic information obtained from the Student Gang Survey items. Through logistic multiple regression, risk factors associated with school, peer, community-neighborhood...

  11. Risk factors of pancreatic leakage after pancreaticoduodenectomy

    Yin-Mo Yang; Xiao-Dong Tian; Yan Zhuang; Wei-Min Wang; Yuan-Lian Wan; Yan-Ting Huang

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To analyze the risk factors for pancreatic leakage after pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) and to evaluate whether duct-to-mucosa pancreaticojejunostomy could reduce the risk of pancreatic leakage.METHODS: Sixty-two patients who underwent PD at our hospital between January 2000 and November 2003 were reviewed retrospectively. The primary diseases of the patients included pancreas cancer, ampullary cancer, bile duct cancer, islet cell cancer, duodenal cancer, chronic pancreatitis, pancreatic cystadenoma, and gastric cancer.Standard PD was performed for 25 cases, PD with extended lymphadenectomy for 27 cases, pylorus-preserving PD for 10 cases. A duct-to-mucosa pancreaticojejunostomy was performed for patients with a hard pancreas and a dilated pancreatic duct, and a traditional end-to-end invagination pancreaticojejunostomy for patients with a soft pancreas and a non-dilated duct. Patients were divided into two groups according to the incidence of postoperative pancreaticojejunal anastomotic leakage: 10 cases with leakage and 52 cases without leakage. Seven preoperative and six intraoperative risk factors with the potential to affect the incidence of pancreatic leakage were analyzed with SPSS10.0 software. Logistic regression was then used to determine the effect of multiple factors on pancreatic leakage.RESULTS: Of the 62 patients, 10 (16.13%) were identified as having pancreatic leakage after operation. Other major postoperative complications included delayed gastric emptying (eight patients), abdominal bleeding (four patients), abdominal abscess (three patients) and wound infection (two patients). The overall surgical morbidity was 43.5% (27/62). The hospital mortality in this series was 4.84% (3/62), and the mortality associated with pancreatic fistula was 10% (1/10). Sixteen cases underwent duct-to-mucosa pancreaticojejunostomy and 1 case (1/16, 6.25%) devel-oped postoperative pancreatic leakage, 46 cases underwent invagination pancreaticojejunostomy and 9

  12. Nutritional risk factors for gestational diabetes mellitus

    Sakshi Singh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM has been observed to be associated with increased perinatal morbidity and mortality. GDM is becoming a public health concern globally as well as in India with fast increasing trend. It affects approximately 14% of all pregnancies. Studies on the association of food items having high glycaemic index with GDM risk are sparse. Most of the literature has focused on typical risk factors like advanced maternal age, family history of diabetes mellitus, history of abortions, previous history of GDM. Objective: To assess the risk of developing GDM in pregnant women consuming food items with high glycemic index. Material and Methods: A hospital based case control study was conducted in Lady Hardinge Medical College and associated hospital with a sample size of 104 (52 cases & 52 controls. For dietary history a validated quantitative food frequency questionnaire was used. The usual pattern of eating during days, weeks and months were asked. The data was compiled and analysed in SPSS version 12. Results: Total 30.8% cases and 13.5% controls gave history of consuming food items having high glycaemic index more frequently (at least once daily. The odds ratio of developing GDM was 2.86(CI -1.06-7.70 among the cases who were taking high glycaemic foods more frequently in comparison to those who were taking occasionally. Conclusions: Risk of developing GDM in high glycemic foods consumers is high. Simple measures like changing dietary patterns, consuming food items with low glycaemic load can contribute significantly in prevention of GDM. 

  13. What Are the Risk Factors for Thymus Cancer?

    ... cancer? What are the risk factors for thymus cancer? A risk factor is anything that affects your chance of getting ... Back to top » Guide Topics What Is Thymus Cancer? Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Treating ...

  14. What Are the Risk Factors for Gallbladder Cancer?

    ... cancer? What are the risk factors for gallbladder cancer? A risk factor is anything that affects your chance of getting ... Back to top » Guide Topics What Is Gallbladder Cancer? Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Treating ...

  15. What Are the Risk Factors for Bile Duct Cancer?

    ... What are the risk factors for bile duct cancer? A risk factor is anything that affects your chance of getting ... to top » Guide Topics What Is Bile Duct Cancer? Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Treating ...

  16. ADDITIVE-MULTIPLICATIVE MODEL FOR RISK ESTIMATION IN THE PRODUCTION OF ROCKET AND SPACE TECHNICS

    Orlov A. I.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available For the first time we have developed a general additive-multiplicative model of the risk estimation (to estimate the probabilities of risk events. In the two-level system in the lower level the risk estimates are combined additively, on the top – in a multiplicative way. Additive-multiplicative model was used for risk estimation for (1 implementation of innovative projects at universities (with external partners, (2 the production of new innovative products, (3 the projects for creation of rocket and space equipmen

  17. Hepatotoxicity with antituberculosis drugs: the risk factors

    To assess the severity and frequency of hepatotoxicity caused by different antituberculosis (ATT) drugs and to evaluate whether concurrence of risk factors influence the antituberculosis drug induced hepatotoxicity. This prospective cohort study was conducted in Medical Unit-V and OPD department of Civil Hospital Karachi from July 2004 to July 2005. A total of 339 patients diagnosed of active tuberculosis infection with normal pretreatment liver function were monitored clinically as well as biochemically. Their data were collected on proforma and patients were treated with Isoniazid, Rifampicin and Pyrazinamide. Duration after which derangement in function, if any, occurred and time taken for normalization was noted. Treatment was altered as needed, with exclusion of culprit drug. Finally data was analyzed by SPSS version 10.0. ATT induced hepatotoxicity was seen in 67 (19.76%) out of 339 patients. Females were more affected as compared to males (26.3% vs. 19.7%). BMI (kg/m2) of 91% of diseased group were less than 18.5 (p<0.01) most of them were anemic having low albumin level suggestive of lean body mass. Hepatotoxicity was more severe in AFB smear positive patients. Concomitant use of alcohol, paracetamol and low serum cholesterol were proved as predisposing factors. Isoniazid (37 patients (55.21%), p<0.01) was the main culprit followed by Rifampicin (23 patients, 34.21%) and Pyrazinamide (7 patients, 10.5%). Most of the patients (61%) developed the hepatotoxicity within two weeks of starting antituberculosis therapy with mild to moderate alteration in ALT and AST. ATT-induced hepatitis is significantly more frequent and more severe in patients with hepatotoxicity risk factors. (author)

  18. Epigenetic Biomarkers of Preterm Birth and Its Risk Factors.

    Knight, Anna K; Smith, Alicia K

    2016-01-01

    A biomarker is a biological measure predictive of a normal or pathogenic process or response. Biomarkers are often useful for making clinical decisions and determining treatment course. One area where such biomarkers would be particularly useful is in identifying women at risk for preterm delivery and related pregnancy complications. Neonates born preterm have significant morbidity and mortality, both in the perinatal period and throughout the life course, and identifying women at risk of delivering preterm may allow for targeted interventions to prevent or delay preterm birth (PTB). In addition to identifying those at increased risk for preterm birth, biomarkers may be able to distinguish neonates at particular risk for future complications due to modifiable environmental factors, such as maternal smoking or alcohol use during pregnancy. Currently, there are no such biomarkers available, though candidate gene and epigenome-wide association studies have identified DNA methylation differences associated with PTB, its risk factors and its long-term outcomes. Further biomarker development is crucial to reducing the health burden associated with adverse intrauterine conditions and preterm birth, and the results of recent DNA methylation studies may advance that goal. PMID:27089367

  19. [Screening for cardiovascular risk factors in a large workplace].

    Agner, E; Jacobsen, K; Mahnfeldt, M S; Jensen, S E; Baastrup, A; Stene, G M; Bech, J; Kjaer, A

    1990-11-01

    A screening investigation was carried out in a large industry in the Copenhagen region and 1,472 of the employees were offered examination of blood cholesterol and measurement of blood pressure. At this examination the employees completed a one-page questionnaire about other cardiovascular risk factors. 45% of those invited participated in the investigation, the poorest participation was among women and the greatest among the male officials. On account of the limited number of female employees, the majority of results were only calculated for men. Over 1/3 of these had hypercholesteremia (greater than or equal to 7.0 mmol/l) and nearly 1/3 had, simultaneously, at least two cardiovascular risk factors in addition to age and male sex. Extensive occupational investigations under the auspices of WHO have demonstrated that energetic intervention at the place of work aimed at the cardiovascular risk factors can reduce the risk of development of coronary heart disease and death within a six-year follow-up period. It is therefore emphasized that similar interventions are very necessary also in Denmark. PMID:2238226

  20. Longitudinal Risk and Protective Factors Associated with Internalizing and Externalizing Symptoms Among Male and Female Adolescents.

    Cotter, Katie L; Wu, Qi; Smokowski, Paul R

    2016-06-01

    Using ecological theory and the peer socialization model, the current study identified risk and protective factors associated with internalizing and externalizing symptoms across ecological domains. It was hypothesized that the constellation of risk and protective factors within the peer microsystem would vary by gender: future optimism and negative peer influence were expected to be significant risk/protective factors for males, whereas peer victimization was expected to be significant risk factors among females. Using four waves of data, three-level hierarchical linear models were estimated for males and females. Results revealed that negative peer influence was a particularly salient risk factor for both internalizing and externalizing behaviors among males, although future optimism did not emerge as a significant protective factor. In addition, as hypothesized, peer victimization indicators were significant risk factors for females. Parent-child conflict was also significantly and positively associated with both internalizing and externalizing symptoms for males and females. Implications are discussed. PMID:26341092

  1. Epidemiology, classification, and modifiable risk factors of peripheral arterial disease

    Nicolas W Shammas

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Nicolas W ShammasMidwest Cardiovascular Research Foundation, Cardiovascular Medicine, PC, Davenport, IA, USAAbstract: Peripheral arterial disease (PAD is part of a global vascular problem of diffuse atherosclerosis. PAD patients die mostly of cardiac and cerebrovascular-related events and much less frequently due to obstructive disease of the lower extremities. Aggressive risk factors modification is needed to reduce cardiac mortality in PAD patients. These include smoking cessation, reduction of blood pressure to current guidelines, aggressive low density lipoprotein lowering, losing weight, controlling diabetes and the use of oral antiplatelet drugs such as aspirin or clopidogrel. In addition to quitting smoking and exercise, cilostazol and statins have been shown to reduce claudication in patients with PAD. Patients with critical rest limb ischemia or severe progressive claudication need to be treated with revascularization to minimize the chance of limb loss, reduce symptoms, and improve quality of life.Keywords: peripheral arterial disease, epidemiology, risk factors, classification

  2. Environmental risk factors of systemic sclerosis.

    Marie, Isabelle; Gehanno, Jean-François

    2015-09-01

    Systemic sclerosis (SSc) has a complex pathogenesis. Although, there is a growing evidence that environmental factors have an impact on alterations and modulation of epigenetic determinants, resulting in SSc onset and progression. A marked correlation has thus been found between SSc onset and occupational exposure to crystalline silica and the following organic solvents: white spirit, aromatic solvents, chlorinated solvents, trichloroethylene, and ketones; the risk associated with high cumulative exposure to silica and organic solvents further appears to be strongly increased in SSc. Altogether, occupational exposure should be systematically checked in all SSc patients at diagnosis, as (1) exposed patients seem to develop more severe forms of SSc and (2) the identification of the occupational agents will allow its interruption, which may lead to potential improvement of SSc outcome. By contrast, based on current published data, there is insufficient evidence that exposure to other chemical agents (including notably pesticides as well as personal care such as silicone and hair dye), physical agents (ionizing radiation, ultraviolet radiation, electric and magnetic fields), and biological agents (infections and diet, foods, and dietary contaminants) is a causative factor of SSc. Further investigations are still warranted to identify other environmental factors that may be associated with SSc onset and progression. PMID:26141606

  3. Risk factors for gout: Gender differences

    Maxim Sergeyevich Eliseyev

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to comparatively assess risk factors for gout in male and female patients with this condition. Subjects and methods. The study enrolled 340 gouty patients (289 men and 51 women examined in the period 2002 to 2009. The diagno sis corresponded to the criteria developed by S.L. Wallace. The mean age was 52.3±11.4 years for the women and 52.3±10.4 years for the men. The study group included female patients with gout and a comparison group comprised male patients with this condition. All the patients were interviewed using a questionnaire to identify risk factors for gout: the regular use of diuretics or alcoholic beverages before the onset of this disease, the presence of arterial hypertension (AH, and menopause in women. Results. The intake of diuretics before gout was reported by 57% of the women and 19.7% of the men (p < 0.00001. The drugs were given to all the men according to medical indications; 10 of 29 women took diuretics to lose weight. Alcohol was consumed more than twice week ly by 17.6% of the women and 33.6% of the men (p = 0.032. The median weekly alcohol consumption was 2 (range 1-4 conventional units (CU in the women and 4 (range 2-10 CU in the men (p = 0.002. AH occurring the onset of gout was found in 30 (59% women and 136 (47% men (p = 0.13. Menopause developing prior to the onset of gout was noted in 26 (51% women. Conclusion. Among possible causes of gout, the use of diuretics is more common in the women than in the men, moreover, the former take them unfairly in one third of cases. The women consume alcohol less frequently and in smaller quantities, but the rate of female intake of alcoholic beverages is associated with younger age at the onset of gout. In early menopause or amenorrhea, gout more frequently occurs at a young age. AH is a common risk factor for gout in both the women (59% and the men (47%.

  4. Hepatocellular carcinoma: epidemiology and risk factors

    Kew MC

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Michael C Kew Department of Medicine, Groote Schuur Hospital and University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa Abstract: Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the major malignant tumors in the world today. The number of new cases of the tumor increases year by year, and hepatocellular carcinoma almost always runs a fulminant course and carries an especially grave prognosis. It has a low resectability rate and a high recurrence rate after surgical intervention, and responds poorly to anticancer drugs and radiotherapy. Hepatocellular carcinoma does not have a uniform geographical distribution: rather, very high incidences occur in Eastern and Southeastern Asia and in sub-Saharan Black Africans. In these regions and populations, the tumor shows a distinct shift in age distribution toward the younger ages, seen to greatest extent in sub-Saharan Black Africans. In all populations, males are more commonly affected. The most common risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma in resource-poor populations with a high incidence of the tumor are chronic hepatitis B virus infection and dietary exposure to the fungal hepatocarcinogen aflatoxin B1. These two causative agents act either singly or synergistically. Both the viral infection and exposure to the fungus occur from early childhood, and the tumor typically presents at an early age. Chronic hepatitis C virus infection is an important cause of hepatocellular carcinoma in resource-rich countries with a low incidence of the tumor. The infection is acquired in adulthood and hepatocellular carcinoma occurs later than it does with hepatitis B virus-induced tumors. In recent years, obesity and the metabolic syndrome have increased markedly in incidence and importance as a cause of hepatocellular carcinoma in some resource-rich regions. Chronic alcohol abuse remains an important risk factor for malignant transformation of hepatocytes, frequently in association with alcohol-induced cirrhosis. Excessive iron

  5. Risk factors for dementia of the Alzheimer and vascular type

    Krsteska Roza

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study was aimed at examining the risk factors in 30 patients with Alzheimer's dementia and 30 patients with vascular dementia. The reports of the caregivers and the medical documentation were used to estimate the risk factors. The condition for the patients to enter this study was the age above 60 years. The results showed that the average age in the patients with dementia of the Alzheimer type was statistically significantly higher than in the patients with vascular dementia (p<0.0043, which is the confirmation that the most potential risk factor for Alzheimer's disease is aging, and for vascular dementia it is an additional factor. The incomplete education is more common in patients with Alzheimer's disease than in the group with vascular dementia and the difference had statistical significance (p=0.0199. The patients with vascular dementia have higher rate of heart disease (p=0.0002, hypertension (p=0.0005 and diabetes mellitus (p=0.0228 than in the group with Alzheimer's disease with a statistically significant difference. In regard to marital status, head injury and smoking, the difference had no significance in either groups.

  6. Risk Factors of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome and Risk Factors for Sleep Disturbances

    Kelmanson, Igor A.

    2011-01-01

    Relationship between major risk factors of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and sleep disorders in the infants is the subject of review and discussion. Improper micro-environmental characteristics (especially poor environmental organisation and lack of developmental stimulation), pre-term delivery and/or infant low birth weight, prone sleep…

  7. Corruption and reduced oil production: An additional resource curse factor?

    Prominent contributions to the resource curse literature suggest weak governance and corruption are important factors behind the wide welfare variations observed among oil producing countries. How weak governance and corruption influence revenue management and expenditure decisions, as well as the possible welfare benefits derived from oil, are broadly discussed. How they impact upon volumes of oil produced has, however, attracted little attention. This paper combines a review of the resource curse and oil production literatures with findings from qualitative interviews with oil sector experts to appreciate the feasibility of connections between corruption and oil production below its potential. We make particular reference to environments where regulatory institutions or political accountability are weak and focus primarily on producer government and oil firm relations. Drawing on insights from geology, political science and economics, we suggest suboptimal production solutions can impact volumes of oil actually produced and create constraints on long term revenues for oil producing countries. We argue greater disclosure of information on oil production efficiency on a field-by-field and country-by-country basis will assist further investigation of the relationships between corruption and volumes of oil produced. - Highlights: ► We combine a literature review with qualitative interviews with oil experts. ► We focus on feasible connections between corruption and oil production levels. ► We suggest suboptimal production solutions can impact volumes of oil produced. ► Corruption may reinforce suboptimal oil production. ► More data on oil production efficiency by field and country will assist research

  8. Clinical presentation and risk factors of osteoradionecrosis

    Chronopoulos, Aristeidis

    2015-03-26

    Introduction: Osteoradionecrosis (ORN) of the jaws is defined as exposed irradiated bone that fails to heal over a period of 3 months without the evidence of a persisting or recurrent tumor. In the previous decades, numerous factors were associated with the risk of ORN development and severity. Aims: The purposes of this study were to present the data of the patients that were treated for ORN in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery in Munich (LMU), to detect factors that contributed to the onset of ORN, to identify risk factors associated with the severity of ORN and finally, to delineate and correlate these factors with the personal, health and treatment characteristics of the patients. Material and Methods: A retrospective study was conducted during the period from January 2003 until December 2012 that included all ORN cases having been treated in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery in Munich (LMU). The total sample was categorized in three groups according to stage and several variables were evaluated in an attempt to identify possible correlations between them and the necrosis severity. Results: One hundred and fifty three cases of ORN were documented. Among them, 23 (15.1%) cases were stage I, 31 (20.2%) were stage II and 99 (64.7%) were stage III and all localised in the mandible. There was a predominance of the disease in the posterior region when compared to the anterior region. The majority of cases was addicted to alcohol and tobacco abuse and was suffering from Diabetes Mellitus (DM). All cases were treated with RT and 80.4% of them with concomitant chemotherapy. The initial tumor was predominantly located in the floor of the mouth, the tongue and the pharynx. Approximately two thirds of the cases occured either after dental treatment or due to a local pathological condition. Logistic regression analysis identified Diabetes Mellitus (OR: 4.955, 95% Cl: 1.965-12.495), active smoking (OR: 13.542, 95% Cl: 2.085-87.947), excessive

  9. Clinical presentation and risk factors of osteoradionecrosis

    Introduction: Osteoradionecrosis (ORN) of the jaws is defined as exposed irradiated bone that fails to heal over a period of 3 months without the evidence of a persisting or recurrent tumor. In the previous decades, numerous factors were associated with the risk of ORN development and severity. Aims: The purposes of this study were to present the data of the patients that were treated for ORN in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery in Munich (LMU), to detect factors that contributed to the onset of ORN, to identify risk factors associated with the severity of ORN and finally, to delineate and correlate these factors with the personal, health and treatment characteristics of the patients. Material and Methods: A retrospective study was conducted during the period from January 2003 until December 2012 that included all ORN cases having been treated in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery in Munich (LMU). The total sample was categorized in three groups according to stage and several variables were evaluated in an attempt to identify possible correlations between them and the necrosis severity. Results: One hundred and fifty three cases of ORN were documented. Among them, 23 (15.1%) cases were stage I, 31 (20.2%) were stage II and 99 (64.7%) were stage III and all localised in the mandible. There was a predominance of the disease in the posterior region when compared to the anterior region. The majority of cases was addicted to alcohol and tobacco abuse and was suffering from Diabetes Mellitus (DM). All cases were treated with RT and 80.4% of them with concomitant chemotherapy. The initial tumor was predominantly located in the floor of the mouth, the tongue and the pharynx. Approximately two thirds of the cases occured either after dental treatment or due to a local pathological condition. Logistic regression analysis identified Diabetes Mellitus (OR: 4.955, 95% Cl: 1.965-12.495), active smoking (OR: 13.542, 95% Cl: 2.085-87.947), excessive

  10. Risk factors in childrenwith platelet refractoriness

    Jonliberti Purba Sri Mulatsih Neti Nurani, Teguh Triyono

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Platelet transfusions are often performed in pediatric patients. Nevertheless, platelet transfusion has its own risk and it alsoincrease the cost of care. Therefore,its effectiveness needs to be evaluated. This study aimed to assess the clinical risk factors namely sepsis, splenomegaly, DIC, severe bleeding and the history of platelet transfusion in the incidence of refractory platelets. This was a case-control study conducted during the period of August 2010 to September 2011.From a total of 1403 cases of transfusion, there were 86 incidences of refractory and 86 of nonrefractory. From the bivariate analysis, it was obtained that sepsis [OR 5.91 (2.90-12.05], p = 0.000], splenomegaly [OR 2.82 (1.32-6.04.12, p = 0006] heavy bleeding [OR 8:41 (4.19-16.871, p = 0.000 ], DIC [OR 22.96 (6.73-78.35, p = 0.000] and the history of platelet transfusions [OR 5:33 (2.78-10.23, p = 0.000] increase the risk of refractory platelets. On multivariate analysis, sepsis (OR 2.96 [95% CI: 1:19 to 7:32], p = 0019, splenomegaly (OR 3.94 [95% CI: 2:21 to 16:00], p = 0.000, severe bleeding (OR 3:53 [95% CI : 1.40-8.89], p = 0.008, DIC (5:54 OR [95% CI: 1.29-22.75], p = 0021 and platelet transfusion the history (OR 2.84 [95% CI: 2.74-9.77], p = 0.001 were the independent risk factors for the occurrence of children refractory. In conclusion, sepsis, splenomegaly, severe bleeding, DIC, andthe history of platelet transfusion are the risk factors in pediatric patients refractory platelets. ABSTRAKTransfusitrombositseringdilakukanpadapasienanak.Transfusitrombositsendirimemilikirisikoterhadappasiendanmenambahbiayaperawatan, sehinggaperludievaluasiefektifitasnya.Menilaifaktorrisikoklinisyakni sepsis, splenomegali, DIC, pendarahanberatdanriwayattransfusitrombositterhadapkejadianrefraktertrombosit.Penelitianinimerupakanpenelitiankasuskontroluntukmenilaifaktorrisikoterjadinyarefraktertrombositseperti sepsis, DIC, splenomegali, pendarahanberat, riwayattransfusitrombosit

  11. Social and psychological factors under realization of radiation risk

    In the experiments with mice of Af line, irradiated by gamma-radiation with doses of up to 1.0 Gy and subjected to psycho-emotional effect (the model of 'the provoked aggression') have been investigated the processes of tumour formation. The index of cariogenic efficiency of effects is the number of the induced adenomas in lungs. It has been shown that under separate effect of these factors the frequency of adenomas increases. Under the combined effect the additional number of adenomas per mouse is registered, which exceeds theoretically the expected value assuming additivity of effects, the synergism coefficient was 1.57 (for females). It has been marked that the character of tumour reaction on separate and the combined effect of radiation, as well as the stress-factor has sex distinctions. It has been shown that that real assessment of the radiation risk and the development of the measures system on minimization of medical and biological consequences of the accident should take into account not only the radiation factor, but also a psychological one, especially in those cases when realization of the risk of combined effect of radiation and non-radiation factors can manifest synergism

  12. Risk factor profile in retinal detachment

    Azad Raj

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available 150 cases of retinal detachment comprising 50 patients each of bilateral retinal detachment, unilateral retinal detachment without any retinal lesions in the fellow eve and unilateral retinal detachment with retinal lesions in the fellow eye were studied and the various associated risk factors were statistically analysed. The findings are discussed in relation to their aetiological and prognostic significance in the different types of retinal detachment. Based on these observations certain guidelines are offered which may be of value in decision making, in prophylactic detachment surgery. Tractional breaks in the superior temporal quadrant especially when symptomatic. mandate prophylactic treatment. Urgency is enhanced it′ the patient is aphakic. Associated myopia adds to the urgency. The higher incidence of initial right e′ e involvement in all groups suggests a vascular original possibly ischaemic.

  13. Competing hazards with shared unmeasured risk factors.

    Hill, D H; Axinn, W G; Thornton, A

    1993-01-01

    "The present paper develops a generalization of the standard discrete-time competing hazards model that allows for the types of stochastic dependencies resulting from shared unmeasured risk factors. An empirical example is provided using the process by which young women form their first conjugal residential union, with married and unmarried cohabitation representing the competing alternatives. The results suggest considerable and significant similarity of the alternatives in terms of the unmeasurables. It is also shown that, as a result, the independence assumption leads to substantially biased estimates of the net marriage and net cohabitation survival functions." The data concern a cohort of white children born in Detroit, Michigan, in 1961 and their mothers, followed up to 1985. PMID:12318164

  14. Risk factors of post renal transplant hyperparathyroidism

    It is well recognized that patients with end stage renal diseases (ESRD) have hyper-plastic parathyroid glands. In most patients, a decrease in parathyroid hormone (PTH) occurs by about 1 year after renal transplantation. However, some renal transplant recipients continue to have elevated level of PTH. We prospectively evaluated 121 patients undergoing renal transplantation between August 2000 and 2002. The duration of dialysis, calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), albumin, creatinine and iPTH levels were recorded prior to transplantation and three months and one year after transplantation. These 121 patients were on dialysis for an average period of 17.4 months prior to transplantation. An increase in the serum Ca and a decrease in serum P and iPTH level was seen in the patients after transplantation (P< 0.001). Hyperparathyroidism was in 12 (9.9%) and 7 (5.7%) patients three months and one year after transplantation respectively. Elderly patients and patients with longer duration on dialysis had an increased risk of developing post transplant hyperparathyroidism and hypercalcemia in the first year post transplant (P< 0.05). In conclusion age and duration on dialysis before transplantation seems to be important risk factors for post transplant hyperparathyroidism. (author)

  15. Risk factors for caries - control and prevention

    Melida Hasanagić

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To investigate a prevalence of caries, filled permanentand extracted permanent teeth, as well as caries risk factors inschool children aged 7, 9 and 11.Methods. The survey included 800 children (296 children aged7; 254 children aged 9 and 250 children aged 11 from the MostarMunicipality, 400 of them living in both rural and urban areas.A dental mirror and standard light of dental chair were used forexamination. The DMF index (Dental Caries, Missing Teeth andFilled Teeth was determined, as well as failure in keeping teethhygiene, sugar intake with food, and incidence of oral cavity infection.Results. The dental state of permanent teeth in children aged 7and 9 has shown significant difference between the children fromrural and urban areas (p < 0,001. Out of 2,698 and 2,790 permanentteeth in children aged 11 from rural and urban areas, 1,086(40,25 % and 884 (31.68 % had caries, respectively (p < 0.01.The difference between these groups of children has been foundin relation to the index of oral hygiene too (p < 0.05.Conclusion. An identification of risk groups for getting caries wasvery important and could help health and social structures to maintaintheir programs in order to improve oral health.

  16. Risk factors for ocular toxoplasmosis in Brazil.

    Ferreira, A I C; De Mattos, C C Brandão; Frederico, F B; Meira, C S; Almeida, G C; Nakashima, F; Bernardo, C R; Pereira-Chioccola, V L; De Mattos, L C

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate risk factors for ocular toxoplasmosis (OT) in patients who received medical attention at a public health service. Three hundred and forty-nine consecutive patients, treated in the Outpatient Eye Clinic of Hospital de Base, São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo state, Brazil, were enrolled in this study. After an eye examination, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to determine anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies. The results showed that 25.5% of the patients were seronegative and 74.5% were seropositive for IgG anti-T. gondii antibodies; of these 27.3% had OT and 72.7% had other ocular diseases (OOD). The presence of cats or dogs [odds ratio (OR) 2.22, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.24-3.98, P = 0.009] and consumption of raw or undercooked meat (OR 1.77, 95% CI 1.05-2.98, P = 0.03) were associated with infection but not with the development of OT. Age (OT 48.2 ± 21.2 years vs. OOD: 69.5 ± 14.7 years, P dogs and cats as well as eating raw/undercooked meat increases the risk of infection, but is not associated with the development of OT. PMID:23507508

  17. Reappraisal of risk factors for monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance.

    Boursi, Ben; Weiss, Brendan M; Haynes, Kevin; Mamtani, Ronac; Yang, Yu-Xiao

    2016-06-01

    A number of epidemiologic studies have demonstrated associations between obesity and diabetes and the risk of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS). However, since MGUS is an asymptomatic condition we evaluated whether these are true associations or the result of detection-bias. We conducted a nested case-control study using a large primary-care database. Cases were defined as those with incident diagnosis of MGUS. For every case, four eligible controls matched on age, sex, practice site, and duration of follow-up were selected. Exposure variables included obesity and diabetes (including antidiabetic therapies) as well as other metabolic risk factors. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using conditional logistic regression. The study included 2363 MGUS patients and 9193 matched controls. In the primary analysis, obesity and diabetes were associated with higher MGUS risk with an adjusted ORs of 1.15 (95% CI 1.02-1.29) and 1.30 (95% CI 1.13-1.50), respectively. However, after adjustment to the number of laboratory tests prior to the MGUS diagnosis, there was no association between obesity and diabetes and MGUS risk (ORs of 1.08, 95% CI 0.96-1.22 and 1.08, 95% CI 0.93-1.25, respectively). In an additional analysis of antidiabetic therapies and MGUS risk, there was a nonsignificant decrease in MGUS risk among diabetes patients treated with metformin alone compared to subjects without diabetes (OR 0.77, 95% CI 0.56-1.05). In summary, while previously described risk factors for MGUS might be the result of detection bias, metformin should be further evaluated as a possible chemoprevention modality. Am. J. Hematol. 91:581-584, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26953904

  18. [Socioeconomic class as a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases].

    Meier, Ch; Ackermann-Liebrich, U

    2005-09-01

    It's been known for a long time, that certain diseases are more frequent in lower socioeconomic classes. But knowledge about the nature of this association, its main risk factors and how to improve health outcomes in lower social groups is still limited. Social class has been defined by different indicators by e.g. occupation and job position or the highest school qualification achieved. For international comparisons different classifications such as "The Registrar General's Social Class Classification " or the "International Standard Classification of Education" have been used. Several European Studies show a higher prevalence of cardiovascular diseases and cardiovascular risk factors including smoking, obesity, physical inactivity, hypertension and hypercholesterolemia in lower socioeconomic classes. But this studies also show that all socioeconomic groups have access to medical services. The Data from the Swiss Health Survey show the distribution of cardiovascular risk factors and diseases by three levels of education: Behaviouralfactors such as smoking, obesity and physical inactivity are more commonly present in the lower socioeconomic groups. People with a lower educational level visit their GP more often, whereas people with a higher level of educational consult specialists more frequently. Medical services are often used to check of blood pressure, blood sugar and cholesterol. An indication of state of health may be shown by medication and treatment for cardiovascular disease which is more prevalent in lower socioeconomic groups. The present discussion of explanations of the poorer state of health in lower socioeconomic groups goes beyond the classical risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Studies have shown that after the correction for risk factors a correlation remains between social class and state of health. It is believed, that psychosocial factors such as self-esteem, control in the workplace or coping-strategies play an additional important role

  19. Familial Recurrence of Cerebral Palsy with Multiple Risk Factors

    Lawrence P. Richer; Dower, Nancy A.; Norma Leonard; Chan, Alicia K. J.; Robertson, Charlene M. T.

    2012-01-01

    The recurrence of cerebral palsy in the same family is uncommon. We, however, report on two families with two or more affected siblings. In both families, numerous potential risk factors were identified including environmental, obstetric, and possible maternal effects. We hypothesize that multiple risk factors may lead to the increased risk of recurrence of cerebral palsy in families. Intrinsic and maternal risk factors should be investigated in all cases of cerebral palsy to properly counsel...

  20. Established and potential risk factors for clostridum difficile infection

    Vaishnavi C

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium difficile is the aetiological agent for almost all cases of pseudo membranous colitis and 15-25% of antibiotic associated diarrhoea. In recent years, C. difficile associated disease (CDAD has been increasing in frequency and severity due to the emergence of virulent strains. Severe cases of toxic mega colon may be associated with mortality rates of 24-38%. The prevalence of CDAD is global and the incidence varies considerably from place to place. In the initial stages of its discovery, C. difficile infection was regarded mainly as an outcome of antibiotic intake and not as a life threatening disease. Intervention by man has produced conditions making C. difficile a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. The recent outbreak of CDAD in Quebec has sent the alarm bells ringing. Apart from a threefold increase in the incidence of CDAD, clinicians have also reported a higher number of cases involving toxic mega colon, colectomy or death. Among all the risk factors, inclusive of the host and the environmental factors, antibiotics are the most important ones. Surgical patients comprise 55-75% of all patients with CDAD due to the fact that perioperative prophylaxis requires the use of antibiotics. However, other drugs such as immunosuppressants and proton pump inhibitors are also important risk factors. Thus CDAD is a growing nosocomial and public health challenge. Additionally, the recognition of community acquired CDAD signals the presence of several risk factors. In this review, the established and potential risk factors of CDAD, along with the epidemiology, diagnostic modalities, management and preventive measures of the disease have been elaborated.

  1. Periodontitis as a Risk Factor of Atherosclerosis

    Jirina Bartova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last two decades, the amount of evidence corroborating an association between dental plaque bacteria and coronary diseases that develop as a result of atherosclerosis has increased. These findings have brought a new aspect to the etiology of the disease. There are several mechanisms by which dental plaque bacteria may initiate or worsen atherosclerotic processes: activation of innate immunity, bacteremia related to dental treatment, and direct involvement of mediators activated by dental plaque and involvement of cytokines and heat shock proteins from dental plaque bacteria. There are common predisposing factors which influence both periodontitis and atherosclerosis. Both diseases can be initiated in early childhood, although the first symptoms may not appear until adulthood. The formation of lipid stripes has been reported in 10-year-old children and the increased prevalence of obesity in children and adolescents is a risk factor contributing to lipid stripes development. Endothelium damage caused by the formation of lipid stripes in early childhood may lead to bacteria penetrating into blood circulation after oral cavity procedures for children as well as for patients with aggressive and chronic periodontitis.

  2. Cold - an underrated risk factor for health

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are responsible for around 20% of all deaths worldwide (approximately 14 million) and are the principal cause of death in all developed countries, accounting for 50% of all deaths. Variations in the annual per capita death rates in different countries are well documented. Less well known are seasonal variations in death rates, with the highest levels occurring during the colder winter months, which have been described in many countries. This phenomenon is referred to as excess winter mortality. CVD-related deaths account for the majority of excess winter deaths (up to 70% in some countries), while about half of the remaining are due to increases in respiratory diseases. Paradoxically, CVD mortality increases to a greater extent with a given fall in temperature in regions with warm winters. While much of the indirect evidence points to the notion that cold is somehow involved in explaining excess winter deaths, the mechanism by which seemingly mild exposure to cold ambient conditions can increase the risk of death remains unclear. The strong indirect epidemiological evidence coupling cold climate to mortality may be related to indoor rather than outdoor climatic conditions (e.g., cold/damp houses versus arm/dry houses) coupled with a plethora of factors including health status, ageing-related deterioration in physiological and behavioral thermoregulation, toxicology, and socioeconomic factors

  3. [Epidemiology and risk factors of testicular tumours].

    Kozłowski, Piotr; Starosławska, Elżbieta; Szumiło, Justyna; Jankiewicz, Małgorzata; Kozłowska, Magdalena; Burdan, Franciszek

    2016-04-01

    Testicular tumours are rare neoplasms, which most commonly affects men aged 25 to 35 years. Among young adult males it is the most common cause of testicular swelling. In recent decades, the number of cases of testicular tumours has greatly increased. The most significant predisposing factors are cryptorchidism and some endocrine disorders, especially increased levels of gonadotropins and female sex hormones. Testicular trauma, inguinal hernia, extreme values of body mass index (BMI), high-calorie diet rich in dairy products as well as high social status are also regarded as risk factors. Furthermore, some chromosomal abnormalities like increased number of chromosomes 7, 8. 12, 21 and X, loss of chromosomes 4, 5, 11, 13, 18, or Y, mutation in the gene Xq27; as well as multiplied copy of the gene i(12p) are associated with tumor development. It has been proven that high testosterone levels and regular physical activity may prevent testicular tumours. Since one of the first sign the lesion is often a lump or swelling of the testis and the appearance of abnormal structure in the scrotum routine testicular self-examination seems to be important in early detection. In all suspected cases an immediate ultrasound examination of both testicles is highly recommended. It is also advised to conduct a computerized tomography (CT) and a positron emission tomography (PET) scan for staging of the tumor to select the best mode of treatment. PMID:27137819

  4. Kimchi and soybean pastes are risk factors of gastric cancer

    Hong-Mei Nan; Heon Kim; Jin-Woo Park; Young-Jin Song; Hyo-Yung Yun; Joo-Seung Park; Taisun Hyun; Sei-Jin Youn; Yong-Dae Kim; Jong-Won Kang

    2005-01-01

    AIM: This case-control study investigated the effects of kimchi, soybean paste, fresh vegetables, nonfermented alliums, nonfermented seafood, nonfermented soybean foods, and the genetic polymorphisms of some metabolic enzymes on the risk of gastric cancer in Koreans.METHODS: We studied 421 gastric cancer patients and 632 age- and sex-matched controls. Subjects completed a structured questionnaire regarding their food intake pattern. Polymorphisms of cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1),cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1), glutathione S-transferase mu 1 (GSTM1), glutathione S-transferase theta 1 (GSTT1) and aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) were investigated. RESULTS: A decreased risk of gastric cancer was noted among people with high consumption of nonfermented alliums and nonfermented seafood. On the other hand, consumption of kimchi, and soybean pastes was associated with increased risk of gastric cancer. Individuals with the CYP1A1 Ile/Val or Val/Val genotype showed a significantly increased risk for gastric cancer. Increased intake of kimchi or soybean pastes was a significant risk factor for the CYP1A1 Ile/Ile, the CYP2E1 c1/c1, the GSTM1 non-null,the GSTT1 non-null, or the ALDH2 *1/*1 genotype. In addition, eating soybean pastes was associated with the increased risk of gastric cancer in individuals with the GSTM1 null type. Nonfermented alliums were significant in individuals with the CYP1A1 Ile/Ile, the CYP2E1 c1/c2or c2/c2, the GSTT1 null, the GSTT1 non-null, or the ALDH2 * 1/*2 or *2/*2 genotype, nonfermented seafood was those with the CYP1A1 Ile/Ile, the CYP2E1 c1/c1, the ALDH2 * 1/*1 genotype or any type of GSTM1 or GSTT1. In homogeneity tests, the odds ratios of eating kimchi for gastric cancer according to the GSTM1 or GSTT1 genotypewere not homogeneous.CONCLUSION: Kimchi, soybean pastes, and the CYP1A1 Ile/Val or Val/Val are risk factors, and nonfermented seafood and alliums are protective factors against gastric cancer in Koreans. Salt or some chemicals contained

  5. Impact and risk factors of post-stroke bone fracture.

    Huo, Kang; Hashim, Syed I; Yong, Kimberley L Y; Su, Hua; Qu, Qiu-Min

    2016-02-20

    Bone fracture occurs in stroke patients at different times during the recovery phase, prolonging recovery time and increasing medical costs. In this review, we discuss the potential risk factors for post-stroke bone fracture and preventive methods. Most post-stroke bone fractures occur in the lower extremities, indicating fragile bones are a risk factor. Motor changes, including posture, mobility, and balance post-stroke contribute to bone loss and thus increase risk of bone fracture. Bone mineral density is a useful indicator for bone resorption, useful to identify patients at risk of post-stroke bone fracture. Calcium supplementation was previously regarded as a useful treatment during physical rehabilitation. However, recent data suggests calcium supplementation has a negative impact on atherosclerotic conditions. Vitamin D intake may prevent osteoporosis and fractures in patients with stroke. Although drugs such as teriparatide show some benefits in preventing osteoporosis, additional clinical trials are needed to determine the most effective conditions for post-stroke applications. PMID:26929915

  6. RISK FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE IN PRISON POPULATION

    Ricardo Soares de OliveiraI

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to make a reflection about the risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease in the prison population, as well as the performance of the health care team in these spaces. It is a reflective approach, literature that included e-journal articles, published in the year 2003 to 2011, indexed at LILACS, Scielo, MEDLINE, and available in full. Textbooks were also consulted and ordinances of Ministry of health and Justice of Brazil. Used the descriptors "risk factors," "cardiovascular disease" and "Prisoners". It was noted that the current situation of overcrowding in prisons is, with unhealthy environment, which imposes risks the health of prisoners. The living habits, such as use of alcohol and drugs (cocaine, marijuana, tranquillizers and tobacco, increases the risk for cardiovascular disease. In addition, the authors emphasize, a priori, the low level of schooling of the detainees. The performance of the health care team must be based on educational practices for promoting and monitoring the health, with multidisciplinary support. Further studies need to be done in order to investigate the incidence of cardiovascular diseases, as well as evidence of the effectiveness of health care for this population.

  7. Risk factors for peri-anaesthetic dental injury.

    Ham, S Y; Kim, J; Oh, Y J; Lee, B; Shin, Y-S; Na, S

    2016-09-01

    In this retrospective case-control study, we evaluated peri-operative dental injury risk factors following tracheal intubation. Ninety-four of 290,415 patients experienced dental injury following tracheal intubation over a 10-y period. A control group was matched for surgery type and intubating anaesthetist. The incidence of dental injury was 0.03%. Univariate analysis revealed that previous and current difficult intubation, male gender, hepatitis, neurological disease, anticonvulsant use, pre-existing poor dentition and the use of airway devices (other than a laryngoscope) were associated with dental injury. Multivariate analysis revealed that predictors of dental injury were: history of hepatitis, odds ratio (95% CI) 10.1 (1.02-100.3); poor dentition, 8.8 (3.9-20.0); alternative airway device use, 3.1 (1.2-8.0); and intubation difficulty, 3.7 (1.0-13.3). As well as confirming previously reported risk factors for dental injury during tracheal intubation, this study also suggests hepatitis and the use of alternative airway devices as additional risk factors. PMID:27440234

  8. Pharmacological undertreatment of coronary risk factors in patients with psoriasis

    Ahlehoff, Ole; Skov, Lone; Gislason, Gunnar Hilmar; Lindhardsen, Jesper; Kristensen, Søren Lund; Iversen, Lars; Lasthein, Stine; Gniadecki, Robert; Dam, Tomas Norman; Torp-Pedersen, Christian Tobias; Hansen, Peter Riis

    2012-01-01

    Patients with psoriasis have increased prevalence of coronary risk factors and limited recent results have suggested that these risk factors are undertreated in patients with psoriasis. This may contribute to the increased risk of cardiovascular diseases observed in patients with psoriasis....

  9. Factors Associated with Sexual Risk-Taking Behaviors among Adolescents.

    Luster, Tom; Small, Stephen A.

    1994-01-01

    Describes investigation examining factors that distinguish between sexually active adolescents who are at risk for pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases and those who are at lower risk for these outcomes. Suggests factors associated with sexual risk taking include low GPA, frequent alcohol consumption, and low levels of parental…

  10. Low-risk factor profile, estrogen levels, and breast cancer risk among postmenopausal women

    Rod, Naja Hulvej; Hansen, Ase Marie; Nielsen, Jens;

    2008-01-01

    Obesity, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity and postmenopausal hormone use are known modifiable risk factors for breast cancer. We aim to measure incidence rates of breast cancer for women with favorable levels on all 4 risk factors (BMI......Obesity, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity and postmenopausal hormone use are known modifiable risk factors for breast cancer. We aim to measure incidence rates of breast cancer for women with favorable levels on all 4 risk factors (BMI...

  11. Long-Term Data Reveal Rate and Risk Factors for Subsequent Surgeries Following Initial ACL Reconstruction

    ... and Risk Factors for Subsequent Surgeries Following Initial ACL Reconstruction Nearly one-fifth of patients who undergo ... surgery to reconstruct a torn anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) eventually need to have additional surgery on the ...

  12. FEBRILE SEIZURE: RECURRENCE AND RISK FACTORS

    A. TALEBIAN

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Background:Febrile Convulsion is the most common convulsive disorder in children,occurring in 2 to 4% of the pediatric population and recurring in 30-50% of cases. Considering the varying recurrence rates reported, thisstudy was conducted at the pediatric ward of the Shaheed BeheshtiGeneral Hospital, between 2000-2001 to determine the frequencyof recurrence and related risk factors in children presenting with theirfirst episode of febrile convulsionMaterials & Methods:A two–year cohort study was performed on 50 children presentingwith the first attack of febrile convulsion. Patient demographic dataincluding age, sex, type and duration of seizure, family history offebrile seizure or epilepsy and the interval between fever onset andoccurrence of seizure were recorded in questionnaires. Those patients,for whom prophylactic medication was not administered, werefollowed at three–month intervals for up to one year. Findings werestatistically analyzed using Fisher’s exact testResults:Recurrence was observed in twelve children (24% out of the fifty,being most common in patients aged less than one year (54.4%.Recurrence rates among children with a positive family history offebrile convulsion, presence of complex febrile seizure and positivefamily history of epilepsy were 42.1%, 42.8% and 25% respectively.From among those children with a “less than one hour” intervalbetween fever onset and occurrence of seizure, recurrence occurredin 43-7% of cases, while in those with a “more than one hourinterval”, 14.7% experienced recurrence.Conclusion:Recurrence rates are increased by certain factors including age-belowone year-, positive family history of febrile convulsion, and a “lessthan one hour” interval between time of fever onset and seizureoccurrence.

  13. Risk and protective factors for recidivism among juveniles who have offended sexually.

    Spice, Andrew; Viljoen, Jodi L; Latzman, Natasha E; Scalora, Mario J; Ullman, Daniel

    2013-08-01

    Literature on risk factors for recidivism among juveniles who have sexually offended (JSOs) is limited. In addition, there have been no studies published concerning protective factors among this population. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of risk and protective factors to sexual and nonsexual recidivism among a sample of 193 male JSOs (mean age = 15.26). Youths were followed for an average of 7.24 years following discharge from a residential sex offender treatment program. The risk factor opportunities to reoffend, as coded based on the Estimate of Risk of Adolescent Sexual Offense Recidivism, was associated with sexual recidivism. Several risk factors (e.g., prior offending; peer delinquency) were associated with nonsexual recidivism. No protective factors examined were associated with sexual recidivism, although strong attachments and bonds as measured by the Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Youth was negatively related to nonsexual recidivism. These findings indicate that risk factors for nonsexual recidivism may be consistent across both general adolescent offender populations and JSOs, but that there may be distinct protective factors that apply to sexual recidivism among JSOs. Results also indicate important needs for further research on risk factors, protective factors, and risk management strategies for JSOs. PMID:23033066

  14. Using risk factors for detection and prognostication of uveal melanoma

    Pukhraj Rishi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The early detection of malignancy, particularly uveal melanoma, is crucial in protecting visual acuity, salvaging the eye, and preventing metastasis. Risk factors for early detection of uveal melanoma have been clearly delineated in the literature and allow identification of melanoma when it is tiny and simulates a nevus. These factors include thickness >2 mm, presence of subretinal fluid (SRF, symptoms, the orange pigment, margin near optic disc, acoustic hollowness, surrounding halo, and absence of drusen. The importance of early detection is realized when one considers melanoma thickness, as each millimeter increase in melanoma thickness imparts 5% increased risk for metastatic disease. Newer imaging modalities like enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography and fundus autoflouroscence facilitate in detection of SRF and orange pigment. Additional molecular biomarkers and cytological features have been identified which can predict the clinical behavior of a small melanocytic lesion. Features that suggest a poor prognosis include higher blood levels of tyrosinase m-RNA, vascular endothelial growth factor, insulin-like growth factor; monosomy 3 and gains in chromosome 8. Management of uveal melanoma includes enucleation (for large, local eye wall resection, brachytherapy, charged particle irradiation, and thermotherapy (for small to medium tumors. Although the role of a good clinical evaluation cannot be underestimated, it is advisable to evaluate the various radiological, molecular, and cytological features, to enhance the accuracy of early diagnosis and improved prognosis.

  15. Colorectal Cancer Epidemiology: Incidence, Mortality, Survival, and Risk Factors

    Haggar, Fatima A.; Boushey, Robin P.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the incidence, mortality, and survival rates for colorectal cancer are reviewed, with attention paid to regional variations and changes over time. A concise overview of known risk factors associated with colorectal cancer is provided, including familial and hereditary factors, as well as environmental lifestyle-related risk factors such as physical inactivity, obesity, smoking, and alcohol consumption.

  16. Risk Factors and Behaviors Associated with Adolescent Violence and Aggression.

    Valois, Robert F.; MacDonald, John M.; Bretous, Lena; Fischer, Megan A.; Drane, J. Wanzer

    2002-01-01

    Reviews relevant research to examine risk factors and behaviors associated with adolescent aggression and violence. Adolescent aggression and violence develop and manifest within a complex constellation of factors (individual, family, school/academic, peer-related, community and neighborhood, and situational). Different risk factors are more…

  17. Clinician Perceptions of Childhood Risk Factors for Future Antisocial Behavior

    Koegl, Christopher J.; Farrington, David P.; Augimeri, Leena K.

    2009-01-01

    We asked 176 mental health clinicians to list factors that place a child at risk for engaging in future antisocial behavior. Participants were randomly assigned to do this in relationship to boys and girls. Listed factors were then coded into broad item categories using the Early Assessment Risk Lists (EARL). Of the 1,695 factors listed, 1,476…

  18. Risk factors for sepsis-associated encephalopathy

    Jian Li; Ang Li; Yibing Weng; Shuwen Zhang; Meili Duan

    2011-01-01

    Sepsis-associated encephalopathy (SAE) is a diffuse and acute cerebral dysfunction caused by sepsis. Many sepsis patients exhibit acute deterioration in mental status during the early stage of disease, and central nervous system dysfunction has been shown to increase patient mortality. The present study selected 284 sepsis patients who were admitted to the Intensive Care Unit of Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University, from January to December 2009. The patients were assigned to SAE and non-SAE patient groups according to SAE occurrence. SAE incidence was 37.68%, and mortality was significantly greater in SAE patients compared with non-SAE patients (41.12% vs. 17.51%, P < 0.01). Univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated lower arterial partial pressure of oxygen and greater alanine aminotransferase and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II scores in the SAE group compared with the non-SAE group. Arterial partial pressure of oxygen, alanine aminotransferase, and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II scores were determined to be potential risk factors for SAE.

  19. Cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption: risk factors for spontaneous abortion

    Rasch, Vibeke

    2003-01-01

    , and caffeine consumption was studied using logistic regression analyzes while controlling for confounding variables. In addition stratified analyzes of the association between caffeine consumption and spontaneous abortion on the basis of cigarette and alcohol consumption were performed. RESULTS: Women...... 375 mg or more caffeine per day were 4.84 (2.87-8.16) and 2.21 (1.53-3.18), respectively. Women who smoked 10-19 cigarettes and 20 or more cigarettes per day did not have significantly increased ORs for having spontaneous abortions, after adjusting for other risk factors. CONCLUSION: Consumption of 5...... or more units alcohol per week and 375 mg or more caffeine per day during pregnancy may increase the risk of spontaneous abortion....

  20. Microbial translocation and cardiometabolic risk factors in HIV infection

    Trøseid, Marius; Manner, Ingjerd W; Pedersen, Karin K; Haissman, Judith M; Kvale, Dag; Nielsen, Susanne D

    2014-01-01

    crucial in order to tailor novel strategies for prophylaxis and treatment. This review will focus on advances in the field that possibly link HIV-induced alterations of the gut mucosa and consequent microbial translocation to cardiometabolic risk factors in HIV infection. Recent work suggests that markers...... translocation and cardiovascular risk factors will translate into increased risk of acute events, and whether strategies to target gut microbiota and microbial translocation might reduce such a risk....

  1. Psychological factors of financial risks management of budgetary process

    Mubarakshina, Elvira; Koshkin, Irina

    2013-01-01

    In article such concepts are considered as the risk, budgetary risk, necessity of formation of system thinking at civil servants working in budgetary process. In article the concept of professional motivation for civil servants is considered. As in article necessity of the account of various psychological factors for managerial process by budgetary risks is proved and these factors are considered. In article risks in the field of public finances and a role of civil servants in the course of c...

  2. Fraud Risk Factors and Audit Programme Modifications: Evidence from Jordan

    Modar Abdullatif

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study explores how audit firms in Jordan deal with the presence of fraud risk factors in audit clients. In doing so, the study seeks to explore which fraud risk factors are more important to Jordanianauditors, and how Jordanian auditors consider modifying their audit programmes when fraud risk factors are present in clients. The study uses a structured questionnaire that was administered to seniorlevel auditors in the largest Jordanian audit firms. The findings show that almost all of the 20 fraud risk factors included in the questionnaire were only slightly important (if not unimportant, a finding that is arguably alarming. The perceived importance of modifying the audit programme in the presence of each fraud risk factor was related to the perceived importance of the fraud risk factor itself. However, changes in the nature and extent of audit procedures were more important than changes in the timing of the procedures or the members of the audit team. The most important fraud risk factors were related to the characteristics of management and its attitude towards the audit, while the least important fraud risk factors were related to the difficulties in the client’s financial performance. Factor analysis found that the fraud risk factors could be classified into four separate groups. Possible interpretations of the findings were discussed, such as considering the Jordanian business environment characteristics, and the findings were compared to those of extant international studies.

  3. The impact of youth, family, peer and neighborhood risk factors on developmental trajectories of risk involvement from early through middle adolescence.

    Wang, Bo; Deveaux, Lynette; Li, Xiaoming; Marshall, Sharon; Chen, Xinguang; Stanton, Bonita

    2014-04-01

    Few studies have analyzed the development course beginning in pre-/early adolescence of overall engagement in health-risk behaviors and associated social risk factors that place individuals in different health-risk trajectories through mid-adolescence. The current longitudinal study identified 1276 adolescents in grade six and followed them for three years to investigate their developmental trajectories of risk behaviors and to examine the association of personal and social risk factors with each trajectory. Group-based trajectory modeling was applied to identify distinctive trajectory patterns of risk behaviors. Multivariate multinomial logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the effects of the personal and social risk factors on adolescents' trajectories. Three gender-specific behavioral trajectories were identified for males (55.3% low-risk, 37.6% moderate-risk, increasing, and 7.1% high-risk, increasing) and females (41.4% no-risk, 53.4% low-risk, increasing and 5.2% moderate to high-risk, increasing). Sensation-seeking, family, peer, and neighborhood factors at baseline predicted following the moderate-risk, increasing trajectory and the high-risk, increasing trajectory in males; these risk factors predicted following the moderate to high-risk, increasing trajectory in females. The presence of all three social risk factors (high-risk neighborhood, high-risk peers and low parental monitoring) had a dramatic impact on increased probability of being in a high-risk trajectory group. These findings highlight the developmental significance of early personal and social risk factors on subsequent risk behaviors in early to middle adolescence. Future adolescent health behavior promotion interventions might consider offering additional prevention resources to pre- and early adolescent youth who are exposed to multiple contextual risk factors (even in the absence of risk behaviors) or youth who are early-starters of delinquency and substance use behaviors

  4. Race/Ethnicity and Multiple Cancer Risk Factors among Individuals Seeking Smoking Cessation Treatment

    Kendzor, Darla E.; Costello, Tracy J.; Li, Yisheng; Vidrine, Jennifer Irvin; Mazas, Carlos A.; Reitzel, Lorraine R.; Cinciripini, Paul M.; Cofta-Woerpel, Ludmila M.; Businelle, Michael S.; Wetter, David W.

    2016-01-01

    Smoking in combination with other behavioral risk factors is known to have a negative influence on health, and individuals who smoke typically engage in multiple risk behaviors. However, little is known about the clustering of risk behaviors among smokers of varying race/ethnicity. The purpose of this study was to examine patterns of cancer risk behaviors and to identify predictors of multiple risk behaviors in a racially/ethnically diverse sample of individuals seeking smoking cessation treatment. Overweight/obesity, at-risk alcohol consumption, and insufficient physical activity were measured in 424 smokers (African American, n = 144; Latino, n = 141; Caucasian, n = 139). Results indicated that 90% of participants reported behavioral cancer risk factors in addition to smoking. Approximately 70% of participants were overweight or obese, 48% engaged in at-risk drinking, and 27% were insufficiently physically active. Univariate analyses indicated that race/ethnicity, p culturally sensitive interventions that target multiple risk behaviors. PMID:18990734

  5. Risk factors for antenatal depression, postnatal depression and parenting stress

    Milgrom Jeannette; Leigh Bronwyn

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Given that the prevalence of antenatal and postnatal depression is high, with estimates around 13%, and the consequences serious, efforts have been made to identify risk factors to assist in prevention, identification and treatment. Most risk factors associated with postnatal depression have been well researched, whereas predictors of antenatal depression have been less researched. Risk factors associated with early parenting stress have not been widely researched, despite...

  6. CORRELATION OF RISK FACTORS WITH HPE GRADING IN BREAST CANCER

    Rudramurthy; Pradeep Kumar; Avanthi; Ira

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To correlate risk factors for breast cancer with Histopathological grading. MATERIAL AND METHOD: A four year retrospective study was carried out from 2009-2012. 46 cases which were reported as breast cancer in due course were reviewed with histopathological (Scarff-Bloom-Richardson) grade of the tumor and familial, hormonal and acquired risk factors. The correlation of risk factors and the histopathological grade is done by using‘t’ test. RESULTS: Among 46 cases of breast cancer, a...

  7. Maternal Risk Factors for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    May, Philip A.; Gossage, J. Phillip

    2011-01-01

    Gathering information about drinking during pregnancy is one of the most difficult aspects of studying fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). This information is critical to linking specific risk factors to any particular diagnosis within the FASD continuum. This article reviews highlights from the literature on maternal risk factors for FASD and illustrates that maternal risk is multidimensional, including factors related to quantity, frequency, and timing of alcohol exposure; maternal age...

  8. Fraud Risk Factors and Audit Programme Modifications: Evidence from Jordan

    Modar Abdullatif

    2013-01-01

    This study explores how audit firms in Jordan deal with the presence of fraud risk factors in audit clients. In doing so, the study seeks to explore which fraud risk factors are more important to Jordanianauditors, and how Jordanian auditors consider modifying their audit programmes when fraud risk factors are present in clients. The study uses a structured questionnaire that was administered to seniorlevel auditors in the largest Jordanian audit firms. The findings show that almost all of th...

  9. Risk Factors and Biomarkers of Ischemic Stroke in Cancer Patients

    Kim, Kwangsoo; Lee, Ji-Hun

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Stroke is common among cancer patients. However, risk factors and biomarkers of stroke in cancer patients are not well established. This study aimed to investigate risk factors and biomarkers as well as etiology of ischemic stroke in cancer patients. Methods A retrospective review was conducted in cancer patients with ischemic stroke who were admitted to a general hospital in Busan, Korea, between January 2003 and December 2012. The risk factors and biomarkers for strok...

  10. Sociodemographic Variation of Caries Risk Factors in Toddlers and Caregivers

    Eckert, G.J.; R. Jackson; Fontana, M

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. Dental caries is the most common chronic childhood disease, with numerous identified risk factors. Risk factor differences could indicate the need to target caregiver/patient education/preventive care intervention strategies based on population and/or individual characteristics. The purpose of this study was to evaluate caries risk factors differences by race/ethnicity, income, and education. Methods. We enrolled 396 caregiver-toddler pairs and administered a 105-item questionnair...

  11. Prevalence of stroke/cardiovascular risk factors in Hungary

    Bodo, M.; Sipos, K.; Thuroczy, G.; Panczel, G.; Ilias, L.; Szonyi, P.; Bodo, M., Jr.; Nebella, T.; Banyasz, A.; Nagy, Z.

    2010-04-01

    A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Hungary using the Cerberus system which includes: 1) a questionnaire addressing the risk factors for stroke/cardiovascular disease; 2) amplifiers to record the pulse waves of cerebral arteries (rheoencephalography) and peripheral arteries, electrocardiogram and electroencephalogram. Additionally, subjects were measured for carotid stenosis by Doppler ultrasound and 12-lead electrocardiogram; subjects were also screened for blood cholesterol, glucose, and triglyceride levels. Prevalence of the following stroke risk factors was identified: overweight, 63.25%; sclerotic brain arteries (by rheoencephalogram), 54.29%; heart disease, 37.92%; pathologic carotid flow, 34.24%; smoking, 30.55%; high blood cholesterol, 28.70%; hypertension, 27.83%; high triglyceride, 24.35%; abnormality in electrocardiogram, 20%; high glucose, 15.95%; symptoms of transient ischemic attack, 16.07%; alcohol abuse, 6.74%; and diabetes, 4.53%. The study demonstrates a possible model for primary cardiovascular disease/stroke prevention. This method offers a standardizable, cost effective, practical technique for mass screenings by identifying the population at high risk for cardiovascular disturbances, especially cerebrovascular disease (primary prevention). In this model, the rheoencephalogram can detect cerebrovascular arteriosclerosis in the susceptibility/presymptomatic phase, earlier than the Doppler ultrasound technique. The method also provides a model for storing analog physiological signals in a computer-based medical record and is a first step in applying an expert system to stroke prevention.

  12. Personal Factors That Influence Audit Manager’s Risk Behaviour

    Ionescu Iancu Octavian; Turlea Eugeniu

    2011-01-01

    Risk is a fundamental concept in audit as well as in the business world at large. Yet, little is known about the personal factors that might influence the risk attitude of a decision maker. The business decision makers are usually faced with a degree of uncertainty when they have to assess risk and make decisions. This paper examines risk behaviour from an audit firm manager perspective and from an academic perspective. The emphasis is on the managerial risk behaviour in business decision mak...

  13. Analyzing Risk and Performance Using the Multi-Factor Concept

    Vermeulen, Erik; Spronk, Jaap; Wijst, Nico

    1996-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper, we present a new model to analyze the risk and the expected level of firm performance. This model is based on the multi-factor approach to risk, in which unexpected performance is explained through sensitivities to unexpected changes of risk factors. Instead of using the multi-factor approach for the analysis of security portfolios, it is used to analyze performance measures of firms. In this paper the multi-factor approach is not only used to analyze risk, but also...

  14. Improving adolescents’ health by identifying behavioral risk factors and protective factors

    Elaheh Baybordi; Zhila Khamnian; Reza Ziaei; Saeed Dastgiri

    2015-01-01

    In order to reduce behavioral risk factors in the 21st century accurate and valid information is required on these factors and also about protective factors during these so called stormy years. . Attention to life-long behavioral risk factors and protective factors provides an alternative paradigm. Indeed, efforts to improve adolescent and pre-adolescent health typically features interventions designed to address specific health risk behaviors, such as physical inactivity...

  15. Risk factors for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease and risk reduction by lipid control: the OMEGA study risk factor sub-analysis.

    Teramoto, Tamio; Kawamori, Ryuzo; Miyazaki, Shigeru; Teramukai, Satoshi; Mori, Yoshihiro; Okuda, Yasuyuki; Hiramatsu, Katsutoshi

    2014-01-01

    To identify risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in hypertensive patients with no history of CVD being treated with antihypertensive drugs, we examined subgroup data (n = 13 052) from the prospective, observational Olmesartan Mega Study to Determine the Relationship between Cardiovascular Endpoints and Blood Pressure Goal Achievement (OMEGA) study. Risk factors for CVD, stroke and coronary heart disease (CHD) were examined using a Cox proportional hazards model. In addition, the effect of statin therapy at baseline on CHD prevention was analyzed in dyslipidemic patients. The factors significantly related to CVD were female (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.637, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.428-0.948), older age (65-69 years: HR = 2.165, 95% CI 1.214-3.861; 70-74 years: HR = 2.324, 95% CI 1.294-4.174; ≥75 years: HR = 2.448, 95% CI 1.309-4.578), family history of CHD (HR = 1.993, 95% CI 1.249-3.179), diabetes (HR = 2.287, 95% CI 1.700-3.078), current smoking (HR = 2.289, 95% CI 1.512-3.466) and alcohol drinking socially (HR = 0.589, 95% CI 0.379-0.913). Diabetes was a risk factor for both stroke and CHD, while age, family history of CHD, and sodium intake score were risk factors for stroke alone. Sex, dyslipidemia, smoking and exercise habits were risk factors for CHD alone. The risk of CHD in dyslipidemic patients on statin treatment was comparable to the risk in patients without dyslipidemia (HR = 1.134, 95% CI 0.604-2.126). However, in dyslipidemic patients not on statin treatment, the HR increased to 1.807 (95% CI 1.156-2.825). In conclusion, some risk factors for CVD in hypertensive patients being treated with antihypertensive drugs with no history of CVD differed between CHD and stroke. These results suggest the importance of managing dyslipidemia with a statin for primary prevention of CHD, as well as the importance of hypertension therapy. PMID:23865387

  16. Risk factors for bullying among children with autism spectrum disorders.

    Zablotsky, Benjamin; Bradshaw, Catherine P; Anderson, Connie M; Law, Paul

    2014-05-01

    Although children with disabilities have been found to be at an increased risk of bullying, there are limited studies investigating predictors of bullying involvement in children with autism spectrum disorders. The current study presents findings from 1221 parents of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder who were selected from a national web-based registry. Parents completed a survey dedicated to the school and bullying experiences of their child, and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify child and school risk factors for involvement as victim, bully, or bully-victim. Additional analyses examined the risk of bullying involvement based on the amount of time spent in general education classrooms. Children diagnosed with Asperger's disorder, attending a public school or a school with a general education population, were at the greatest risk of being victimized in the past month. Children with comorbid conditions and a high level of autistic traits were the most likely to be victims, bullies, and bully-victims. Finally, children in full inclusion classrooms were more likely to be victimized than those who spend the majority of their time in special education settings. Future research studies should be invested in finding appropriate supports for children with autism spectrum disorder placed in inclusive settings. PMID:23901152

  17. "The Dose Makes the Poison": Informing Consumers About the Scientific Risk Assessment of Food Additives.

    Bearth, Angela; Cousin, Marie-Eve; Siegrist, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Intensive risk assessment is required before the approval of food additives. During this process, based on the toxicological principle of "the dose makes the poison,ˮ maximum usage doses are assessed. However, most consumers are not aware of these efforts to ensure the safety of food additives and are therefore sceptical, even though food additives bring certain benefits to consumers. This study investigated the effect of a short video, which explains the scientific risk assessment and regulation of food additives, on consumers' perceptions and acceptance of food additives. The primary goal of this study was to inform consumers and enable them to construct their own risk-benefit assessment and make informed decisions about food additives. The secondary goal was to investigate whether people have different perceptions of food additives of artificial (i.e., aspartame) or natural origin (i.e., steviolglycoside). To attain these research goals, an online experiment was conducted on 185 Swiss consumers. Participants were randomly assigned to either the experimental group, which was shown a video about the scientific risk assessment of food additives, or the control group, which was shown a video about a topic irrelevant to the study. After watching the video, the respondents knew significantly more, expressed more positive thoughts and feelings, had less risk perception, and more acceptance than prior to watching the video. Thus, it appears that informing consumers about complex food safety topics, such as the scientific risk assessment of food additives, is possible, and using a carefully developed information video is a successful strategy for informing consumers. PMID:25951078

  18. Staphylococcus aureus: resistance pattern and risk factors

    Mohammad Naghavi-Behzad

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA has emerged as a nosocomial pathogen of major worldwide importance and is an increasingly frequent cause of community-acquired infections. In this study, different risk factors and MRSA resistance pattern were investigated. Methods: In a 24 months period, all of the patients who were confined to bed in the surgery ward were included in the study. Then they were assessed to find out as if they had MRSA infection when hospitalized and once when they were discharged. Almost 48 h after admission, when patients were discharged, social and medical histories were acquired. Acquired samples were examined. Results: During the present study of 475 patients, 108 patients (22.8% had S. aureus. About frequency of antibiotic resistance among collected S. aureus colonies, erythromycin resistance, was the most frequent antibiotic resistance, also resistance to vancomycin was 0.4% that was the least. Only hospitalization duration had statistically significant correlation with antibiotic resistance, also resistance to erythromycin had statistically significant relation with history of surgery and alcohol consumption. Of all 34 MRSA species, 22 (64.7% samples were resistant to erythromycin, 17 (50.0% resistant to cefoxitin, 5 (14.7% resistant to mupirocin, 1 (2.9% resistant to vancomycin and 1 (2.9% resistant to linezolid. Conclusion: The results of the current study show that among hospitalized patients, there is resistance against methicillin. Since based on results of the study there is resistance against oxacillin and erythromycin in most cases, administering appropriate antibiotics have an important role in minimizing the resistance burden among bacterial species.

  19. Pediatric Nosocomial Infections; Incidence, Risk Factors

    Mustafa Özçetin

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study aimed to determine the prevalence and type of nosocomial infections, etiologic distrubition of organism in hospitalized children at Ege University School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics for a 12 month period. It also investigated the duration of hospitalization. Material and Method: Patients diagnosed with nosocomial infection between January 2002-December 2002 at the inpatient unit of pediatrics were included in the study. Neonatal cases were excluded from the analysis. Diagnosis of nosocomoial infection was made based on CDC criteria. Statistical analysis was made by using SPSS 10.1 for Windows packet and p<0.05 was accepted as significant. Results: During the study period, 1811 patients were investigated and 96 nosocomial infection determined (5.3%. The majority were female at 52% (n=50. The most common infections in our study were bacteriemia and urinary tract infections, 50% and 40% respectively. Although bacteriemia was the commonest infection type in the intensive care unit, urinary tract infections were the most common infections in inpatient services. Enterobacteriaceae was the most common cause with 37.5% (n=36, coagulase negative staphylococci found in 16.4% (n=16 and yeast infection was isolated in 12.5% (n=12. The majority of patients (59.3% n=57 had one or more invasive procedures which make the patients susceptible to contracting nosocomial infections. Children who are hospitalized more than 7 days are more likely to have nosocomial infections (P<0.0001. Another predisposing factor for developing nosocomial infections was increased patient numbers receiving medical care by each nurse.Conclusion: Nosocomial infections have been increasing in pediatric patients. Long hospital stays and increased patient numbers needing medical care by each nurse were associated with nosocomial infections. They are estimated to more than double the mortality and morbidity risks of any admitted patient.

  20. Menstrual Factors,Reproductive Factors and Lung Cancer Risk:A Meta-analysis

    Yue ZHANG; Zhihua YIN; Li SHEN; Yan WAN; Baosen ZHOU

    2012-01-01

    Background and objective Epidemiological studies have suggested that menstrual and reproductive factors may influence lung cancer risk,but the results are controversial.We therefore carried out a meta-analysis aiming to examine the associations of lung cancer in women with menstrual and reproductive factors.Methods Relevant studies were searched from PubMed database,CNKI,WANFANG DATA and VIP INFORMATION up to January 2012,with no language restrictions.References listed from selected papers were also reviewed.We included studies that reported the estimates of relative risks(RRs)with 95% confidence intervals(CIs)for the association between menstrual and reproductive factors and lung cancer risk.The pooled RRs were calculated after the heterogeneity test with the software Stata 11,and publication bias and sensitivity were evaluated at the same time.Results Twenty-five articles,representing 24 independent studies,were included in this meta-analysis.Older age at menarche in North America women(RR=0.83;95%CI:0.73-0.94)was associated with a significant decreased risk of lung cancer.Longer length of menstrual cycle was also associated with decreased lung cancer risk(RR=0.72;95%CI:0.57-0.90).Other exposures were not significantly associated.Conclusions Our analysis provides evidence of the hypothesis that female sex hormones influence the risk of lung cancer in women,yet additional studies are warranted to extend this finding and to clarify the underlying mechanisms.

  1. Worldwide prevalence and risk factors for feline hyperthyroidism: A review

    Joanne L. McLean

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Since first reported in the late 1970s, there has been a steady but dramatic increase in the worldwide prevalence of hyperthyroidism in cats. It is now regarded as the most common feline endocrine disorder, with diabetes mellitus coming a close second. Not only is there evidence for an increased worldwide prevalence of feline hyperthyroidism, but also for geographical variation in the prevalence of the disease. Despite its frequency, the underlying cause(s of this common disease is or are not known, and therefore prevention of the disease is not possible. Due to the multiple risk factors that have been described for feline hyperthyroidism, however, it is likely that more than one factor is involved in its pathogenesis. Continuous, lifelong exposure to environmental thyroid-disruptor chemicals or goitrogens in food or water, acting together or in an additive fashion, may lead to euthyroid goitre and ultimately to autonomous adenomatous hyperplasia, thyroid adenoma and hyperthyroidism. This review aims to summarise the available published evidence for the changes observed in the worldwide prevalence of the disease, as well as risk factors that may contribute to development of hyperthyroidism in susceptible cats.

  2. Drought Risk Assessment based on Natural and Social Factors

    Huang, Jing; Wang, Huimin; Han, Dawei

    2015-04-01

    verify the effectiveness of the CDI. In addition, GIS is applied to provide geographically referenced information, i.e. information involving location, elevation, land use, water resources distance and so on, which are essential inputs for spatial analysis in drought risk assessment. On the whole, this study has proposed a new idea on drought risk assessment integrating natural factors with social factors, as well as providing a real-time drought monitoring method in a social context.

  3. Risk Factors of Periodontal Disease: Review of the Literature

    Yousef A. AlJehani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. This paper aims to review the evidence on the potential roles of modifiable and nonmodifiable risk factors associated with periodontal disease. Data. Original articles that reported on the risk factors for periodontal disease were included. Sources. MEDLINE (1980 to Jan 2014, PubMed (using medical subject headings, and Google Scholar were searched using the following terms in different combinations: “periodontal disease,” “periodontitis,” “risk factors,” and “causal.” This was supplemented by hand-searching in peer-reviewed journals and cross-referenced with the articles accessed. Conclusions. It is important to understand the etiological factors and the pathogenesis of periodontal disease to recognize and appreciate the associated risk factors. As periodontal disease is multifactorial, effective disease management requires a clear understanding of all the associated risk factors.

  4. Multi-factoral risk analysis and the sensitivity concept

    Vermeulen, Erik; Spronk, Jaap; Wijst, Nico

    1993-01-01

    textabstractIn the multi-factor method unexpected performance changes are explained by sensitivities for unexpected changes of risk factors. In this paper, the following concepts used in the multi-factor method are defined: unexpected performance, risk factor, sensitivity and instruments. Furthermore, the relation between these concepts is investigated. Special attention is given to the way in which various instruments affect the sensitivity and the probability density function of unexpected ...

  5. Risk Factors for Knee Injuries in Children 8-15 Years

    Junge, Tina; Runge, Lisbeth; Juul-Kristensen, Birgit;

    2016-01-01

    : During the study period, 952 (15% traumatic, 85% overuse) knee injuries were diagnosed. Period prevalence for traumatic and overuse knee injuries were 0.8/1000 and 5.4/1000 sport participations, respectively. Participation in tumbling gymnastics was a risk factor for traumatic knee injuries (OR 2.......14). For overuse knee injuries, intrinsic risk factors were sex (girls OR 1.38), and previous knee injury (OR 1.78), while participation in soccer (OR 1.64), handball (OR 1.95), basket (OR 2.07), rhythmic (OR 1.98), and tumbling gymnastics (OR 1.74) were additional risk factors. For both injury types......, sport participation above two times/week increased odds (OR 1.46-2.40). CONCLUSION: Overuse knee injuries were the most frequent injury type. For traumatic knee injuries, participation in tumbling gymnastics was a risk factor. Risk factors for overuse knee injuries were being a girl, previous knee...

  6. Risk Factors for Developing Atopic Dermatitis

    G. Carson, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    developing AD at 3 years of age. Our data suggested a strong heredity of AD and confirmed the risk associated with the non-functional FLG allele mutations after adjustments for confounders. Besides this mother's dermatitis and father's allergic rhinitis were found to increase the risk of AD. Perinatal...... 7 years follow-up period (HR 1.44, 95% CI 1.05-1.99, p=0.024). The increased risk was still significant after confounder adjustment for mother's education, AD and smoking habits during the 3rd trimester. There was no association between alcohol intake during pregnancy and other atopic endpoints...

  7. Population impact of familial and environmental risk factors for schizophrenia

    Sørensen, Holger Jelling; Nielsen, Philip Finn Rising; Pedersen, Carsten B;

    2014-01-01

    environmental risk factors. The authors present rate ratios (IRR), population-attributable risks (PAR) and sex-specific cumulative incidences of the following risk factors: parental history of mental illness, urban place of birth, advanced paternal age, parental loss and immigration status. We established a...... 4.50-5.31). The study showed that risk factors with highest predictive power on the individual level have a relatively low population impact. The challenge in future studies with direct genetic data is to examine gene-environmental interactions that can move research beyond current approaches and...

  8. Suicide Clusters: A Review of Risk Factors and Mechanisms

    Haw, Camilla; Hawton, Keith; Niedzwiedz, Claire; Platt, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Suicide clusters, although uncommon, cause great concern in the communities in which they occur. We searched the world literature on suicide clusters and describe the risk factors and proposed psychological mechanisms underlying the spatio-temporal clustering of suicides (point clusters). Potential risk factors include male gender, being an…

  9. Risk factors affecting somatosensory function after sagittal split osteotomy

    Thygesen, Torben Henrik; Jensen, Allan Bardow; Helleberg, M; Norholt, SE; Jensen, John; Svensson, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate potential individual and intraoperative risk factors associated with bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO) and to correlate the findings with postoperative changes in somatosensory function. Patients and Methods A total of 18 men and 29 women (mean...... somatosensory function after BSSO is dependent on both intraoperative risk factors and preoperative sensation levels....

  10. FAMILY RISK FACTORS AS INDICATORS OF BEHAVIORAL PROBLEMS WITH YOUTH

    Ranko KOVACHEVIKJ

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This project researches whether risk factors within family have any predictive power in describing youth behavioural problems. Family risk factors such as family functioning problems and conflicts within family have the strongest predictive power. Preventive actions and treatment must be directed toward the youth living in risky families.

  11. FAMILY RISK FACTORS AS INDICATORS OF BEHAVIORAL PROBLEMS WITH YOUTH

    KOVACHEVIKJ Ranko; BIJEDIKJ Meliha; KURALIKJ-KJISHIKJ Lejla; Edin MUFTIKJ

    2009-01-01

    This project researches whether risk factors within family have any predictive power in describing youth behavioural problems. Family risk factors such as family functioning problems and conflicts within family have the strongest predictive power. Preventive actions and treatment must be directed toward the youth living in risky families.

  12. What Are the Risk Factors for Kidney Cancer?

    ... an oncocytoma , which is almost always benign (not cancer). Other risk factors Family history of kidney cancer People with a ... Back to top » Guide Topics What Is Kidney Cancer? Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Treating ...

  13. Risk Factors for Attempting Suicide in Heroin Addicts

    Roy, Alec

    2010-01-01

    In order to examine risk factors for attempting suicide in heroin dependent patients, a group of 527 abstinent opiate dependent patients had a psychiatric interview and completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Patients who had or had never attempted suicide were compared on putative suicide risk factors. It was found that 207 of the 527…

  14. Risk factors for major amputation in hospitalised diabetic foot patients.

    Namgoong, Sik; Jung, Suyoung; Han, Seung-Kyu; Jeong, Seong-Ho; Dhong, Eun-Sang; Kim, Woo-Kyung

    2016-03-01

    Diabetic foot ulcers are the main cause of non-traumatic lower extremity amputation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the risk factors for major amputation in diabetic foot patients. Eight hundred and sixty diabetic patients were admitted to the diabetic wound centre of the Korea University Guro Hospital for foot ulcers between January 2010 and December 2013. Among them, 837 patients were successfully monitored until complete healing. Ulcers in 809 patients (96·7%) healed without major amputation and those in 28 patients (3·3%) healed with major amputation. Data of 88 potential risk factors including demographics, ulcer condition, vascularity, bioburden, neurology and serology were collected from patients in the two groups and compared. Among the 88 potential risk factors, statistically significant differences between the two groups were observed in 26 risk factors. In the univariate analysis, which was carried out for these 26 risk factors, statistically significant differences were observed in 22 risk factors. In a stepwise multiple logistic analysis, six of the 22 risk factors remained statistically significant. Multivariate-adjusted odds ratios were 11·673 for ulcers penetrating into the bone, 8·683 for dialysis, 6·740 for gastrointestinal (GI) disorders, 6·158 for hind foot ulcers, 0·641 for haemoglobin levels and 1·007 for fasting blood sugar levels. The risk factors for major amputation in diabetic foot patients were bony invasions, dialysis, GI disorders, hind foot locations, low levels of haemoglobin and elevated fasting blood sugar levels. PMID:26478562

  15. Environmental risk factors for REM sleep behavior disorder

    Postuma, R B; Montplaisir, J Y; Pelletier, A;

    2012-01-01

    Idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder is a parasomnia characterized by dream enactment and is commonly a prediagnostic sign of parkinsonism and dementia. Since risk factors have not been defined, we initiated a multicenter case-control study to assess environmental and lifestyle risk factors for...... REM sleep behavior disorder....

  16. Colorectal (Colon) Cancer: What Are the Risk Factors?

    ... Glossary Stay Informed Cancer Home What Are the Risk Factors for Colorectal Cancer? Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend ... who are 50 years old or older. Other risk factors include having— Inflammatory bowel disease such as Crohn’s ...

  17. Risk factors for renal dysfunction after total hip joint replacement

    Hassan, Basim Kamil; Sahlström, Arne; Dessau, Ram Benny Christian

    2015-01-01

    , hypertension, general anesthesia, high ASA scores, low intra-operative systolic BP, and prophylactic dicloxacillin as significant risk factors. Low baseline systolic BP, low baseline diastolic blood pressure, and hip fracture diagnosis were independent risk factors for postoperative increase in serum...

  18. Psychosocial and vascular risk factors of depression in later life

    Oldehinkel, AJ; Ormel, J; Brilman, EI; van den Berg, MD

    2003-01-01

    Background: Research on the aetiology of late-life depression has typically focused on either risk factors from the psychosocial stress-vulnerability domain or degenerative biological changes (for instance, vascular disease). We examined whether vascular risk factors could be interpreted within the

  19. Global prevalence and major risk factors of diabetic retinopathy

    Yau, Joanne W Y; Rogers, Sophie L; Kawasaki, Ryo;

    2012-01-01

    To examine the global prevalence and major risk factors for diabetic retinopathy (DR) and vision-threatening diabetic retinopathy (VTDR) among people with diabetes.......To examine the global prevalence and major risk factors for diabetic retinopathy (DR) and vision-threatening diabetic retinopathy (VTDR) among people with diabetes....

  20. The risk factors of colistin methanesulfonate associated nephrotoxicity

    Elif Tükenmez Tigen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The risk factors of colistin methanesulfonate (CMS associated nephrotoxicity are important. Our study attempts look into the prevalence of CMS-associated nephrotoxicity in Intensive Care Units (ICUs, and related risk factors. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted between September 2010 and April 2012 on 55 patients who underwent CMS treatment. Nephrotoxicity risk was defined based on the Risk Injury Failure Loss End-stage kidney disease criteria. Results: Fifty-five patients included in the study. A total of 22 (40% patients developed nephrotoxicity. The correlation was detected between nephrotoxicity and patients over 65 with a high Acute Physiologic Assessment and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE II score. APACHE II score was revealed an independent risk factor for nephrotoxicity. Conclusion: Advanced age and a high APACHE II score are significant risk factors in the development of nephrotoxicity at ICUs following CMS use. Patient selection and close monitoring are critical when starting CMS treatment.

  1. Do Health Professionals Need Additional Competencies for Stratified Cancer Prevention Based on Genetic Risk Profiling?

    Susmita Chowdhury

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available There is growing evidence that inclusion of genetic information about known common susceptibility variants may enable population risk-stratification and personalized prevention for common diseases including cancer. This would require the inclusion of genetic testing as an integral part of individual risk assessment of an asymptomatic individual. Front line health professionals would be expected to interact with and assist asymptomatic individuals through the risk stratification process. In that case, additional knowledge and skills may be needed. Current guidelines and frameworks for genetic competencies of non-specialist health professionals place an emphasis on rare inherited genetic diseases. For common diseases, health professionals do use risk assessment tools but such tools currently do not assess genetic susceptibility of individuals. In this article, we compare the skills and knowledge needed by non-genetic health professionals, if risk-stratified prevention is implemented, with existing competence recommendations from the UK, USA and Europe, in order to assess the gaps in current competences. We found that health professionals would benefit from understanding the contribution of common genetic variations in disease risk, the rationale for a risk-stratified prevention pathway, and the implications of using genomic information in risk-assessment and risk management of asymptomatic individuals for common disease prevention.

  2. An Analysis Of Tensile Test Results to Assess the Innovation Risk for an Additive Manufacturing Technology

    Adamczak Stanisław; Bochnia Jerzy; Kaczmarska Bożena

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the innovation risk for an additive manufacturing process. The analysis was based on the results of static tensile tests obtained for specimens made of photocured resin. The assessment involved analyzing the measurement uncertainty by applying the FMEA method. The structure of the causes and effects of the discrepancies was illustrated using the Ishikawa diagram. The risk priority numbers were calculated. The uncertainty of the tensile test measurement was ...

  3. An Analysis of the Factors Leading to Rising Credit Risk in the Zimbabwe Banking Sector

    Maxwell Sandada

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The study sought to analyse the factors that lead to rising credit risk in the Zimbabwean banking sector. The objective was to ascertain the impact of macroeconomic, industry and bank specific factors on rising credit risk in in Zimbabwe. The study aimed at contributing to credit risk management literature by providing evidence Sub Saharan context. Being anchored on the positivist quantitative research approach, a survey was carried out gather the data that were analysed using descriptive, correlation and regression analyses. The results revealed that the most significant factors leading to credit risk in the Zimbabwean banking sector were macroeconomic and bank specific factors. The industry factors did not show a significant influence on the rising credit risk. The research findings of this study will a valuable addition to the existing knowledge and provide a platform for further research on how the credit risk problems can be dealt with. While credit risk is known as one of the risks inherent to any banking institutions, the alarming levels of credit risk in the Zimbabwe banking sector has motivated this current study to critically analyse the factors that have led to the high credit risk levels.

  4. Risk Assessment of Girls : Are There Any Sex Differences in Risk Factors for Re-offending and in Risk Profiles?

    van der Put, Claudia E.; Dekovic, Maja; Hoeve, Machteld; Stams, Geert Jan J. M.; van der Laan, Peter H.; Langewouters, Femke E. M.

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were (a) to investigate sex differences in risk factors for re-offending and (b) to provide a risk assessment model for girls. The data of 1,396 adolescents who committed a criminal offense were examined. Both generic and sex-specific risk factors for re-offending were found.

  5. Cardiovascular risk factors in a population of Brazilian schoolchildren

    A.N. Rodrigues

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological and clinical evidence suggests that a judicious diet, regular physical activity and blood pressure (BP monitoring must start in early childhood to minimize the impact of modifiable cardiovascular risk factors. This study was designed to evaluate BP and metabolic parameters of schoolchildren from Vitória, Espírito Santo State, Brazil, and correlate them with cardiovascular risk factors. The study was conducted on 380 students aged 10-14 years (177 boys, 203 girls enrolled in public schools. Baseline measurements included body mass index, BP and heart rate. The students were submitted to exercise spirometry on a treadmill. VO2max was obtained from exercise testing to voluntary exhaustion. Fasting serum total cholesterol (TC, LDL-C, HDL-C, triglycerides (TG, and glucose were measured. Nine point nine percent of the boys and 11.7% of the girls were hypertensive or had pre-hypertensive levels. There was no significant correlation between VO2max and TC, LDL-C, or TG in prepubertal children, but a slight negative correlation was detected in post-pubertal boys for HDL-C and TG. In addition, children with hypertension (3.4% or pre-hypertensive levels (6.6% also had comorbidity for overweight and blood lipid abnormalities (14% for triglycerides, 44.7% for TC, 25.9% for LDL-C, 52% for low HDL-C. The present study shows for the first time high correlations between prehypertensive blood pressure levels and the cardiovascular risk factors high TC, high LDL-C, low HDL-C in schoolchildren. These are important for the formulation of public health policies and strategies.

  6. Identifying risk factors for suicide research and prevention

    Zhang, Yi; 张一

    2013-01-01

    Research on risk factor for suicidal behaviors has been broadly conducted to enhance knowledge of suicide prevention. However, there are still challenges for risk factor research. Four major research gaps have been identified: (1) uncertain effectiveness of the population approach versus the high-risk approach for suicide prevention; (2) lack of a valid and convenient Chinese-version screening tool for the severity of suicidal ideation among adolescents; (3) demand for testing the prospectiv...

  7. Meat Consumption as a Risk Factor for Type 2 Diabetes

    Neal Barnard; Susan Levin; Caroline Trapp

    2014-01-01

    Disease risk factors identified in epidemiological studies serve as important public health tools, helping clinicians identify individuals who may benefit from more aggressive screening or risk-modification procedures, allowing policymakers to prioritize intervention programs, and encouraging at-risk individuals to modify behavior and improve their health. These factors have been based primarily on evidence from cross-sectional and prospective studies, as most do not lend themselves to rando...

  8. Risk Factors for Hyperglycaemia in Pregnancy in Tamil Nadu, India

    Bygbjerg, Ib Christian; Nielsen, Karoline Kragelund

    2016-01-01

    Nadu, India. Methodology Pregnant women underwent a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test. Data on potential risk factors was collected and analysed using logistical regression analysis. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, sensitivity, specificity and predictive values were calculated for......Abstract Introduction Hyperglycaemia in pregnancy (HIP), i.e. gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and diabetes in pregnancy (DIP), increases the risk of various short- and long-term adverse outcomes. However, much remains to be understood about the role of different risk factors in development of...... HIP. Objective The aims of this observational study were to examine the role of potential risk factors for HIP, and to investigate whether any single or accumulated risk factor(s) could be used to predict HIP among women attending GDM screening at three centres in urban, semi-urban and rural Tamil...

  9. Yoga, Anxiety, and Some Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Women

    Asim CENGIZ

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the effects of a yoga program on anxiety, and some cardiovascular risk factors. Forty - six elderly participants aged 40 – 51 years women. The yoga program was based on 3 times/week for 10 weeks a set of yoga techniques, in the form of asana (postures and deep relaxation technique, pranayama (breathing techniques and meditation three for 60 minutes three times a week. The level of anxiety and decreased the risk factors for cardiovascular disease risk factors (CVD. The yoga program reduced the level of anxiety and decreased the risk factors for cardiovascular disease risk factors (CVD in the experimental group. After 8 weeks of the yoga program. SBP, DBP, B MI, HR and WC values were improved. It is likely that the yoga practices of controlling body, mind, and spirit combine to provide useful physiological effects for healthy people and for people compromised by cardiovascular disease.

  10. Risk Factors for Hyperglycaemia in Pregnancy in Tamil Nadu, India.

    Karoline Kragelund Nielsen

    Full Text Available Hyperglycaemia in pregnancy (HIP, i.e. gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM and diabetes in pregnancy (DIP, increases the risk of various short- and long-term adverse outcomes. However, much remains to be understood about the role of different risk factors in development of HIP.The aims of this observational study were to examine the role of potential risk factors for HIP, and to investigate whether any single or accumulated risk factor(s could be used to predict HIP among women attending GDM screening at three centres in urban, semi-urban and rural Tamil Nadu, India.Pregnant women underwent a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test. Data on potential risk factors was collected and analysed using logistical regression analysis. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves, sensitivity, specificity and predictive values were calculated for significant risk factors and a risk factor scoring variable was constructed.HIP was prevalent in 18.9% of the study population (16.3% GDM; 2.6% DIP. Increasing age and BMI as well as having a mother only or both parents with diabetes were significant independent risk factors for HIP. Among women attending the rural health centre a doubling of income corresponded to an 80% increased risk of HIP (OR 1.80, 95%CI 1.10-2.93; p = 0.019, whereas it was not significantly associated with HIP among women attending the other health centres. The performance of the individual risk factors and the constructed scoring variable differed substantially between the three health centres, but none of them were good enough to discriminate between those with and without HIP.The findings highlight the importance of socio-economic circumstances and intergenerational risk transmission in the occurrence of HIP as well as the need for universal screening.

  11. Risk Factors for Hyperglycaemia in Pregnancy in Tamil Nadu, India

    Kragelund Nielsen, Karoline; Damm, Peter; Kapur, Anil; Balaji, Vijayam; Balaji, Madhuri S.; Seshiah, Veerasamy; Bygbjerg, Ib C.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Hyperglycaemia in pregnancy (HIP), i.e. gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and diabetes in pregnancy (DIP), increases the risk of various short- and long-term adverse outcomes. However, much remains to be understood about the role of different risk factors in development of HIP. Objective The aims of this observational study were to examine the role of potential risk factors for HIP, and to investigate whether any single or accumulated risk factor(s) could be used to predict HIP among women attending GDM screening at three centres in urban, semi-urban and rural Tamil Nadu, India. Methodology Pregnant women underwent a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test. Data on potential risk factors was collected and analysed using logistical regression analysis. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, sensitivity, specificity and predictive values were calculated for significant risk factors and a risk factor scoring variable was constructed. Results HIP was prevalent in 18.9% of the study population (16.3% GDM; 2.6% DIP). Increasing age and BMI as well as having a mother only or both parents with diabetes were significant independent risk factors for HIP. Among women attending the rural health centre a doubling of income corresponded to an 80% increased risk of HIP (OR 1.80, 95%CI 1.10–2.93; p = 0.019), whereas it was not significantly associated with HIP among women attending the other health centres. The performance of the individual risk factors and the constructed scoring variable differed substantially between the three health centres, but none of them were good enough to discriminate between those with and without HIP. Conclusions The findings highlight the importance of socio-economic circumstances and intergenerational risk transmission in the occurrence of HIP as well as the need for universal screening. PMID:26991305

  12. Behavioral Risk Factors: Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) MMSA Prevalence Data (2010 and Prior)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2002-2010. BRFSS SMART MMSA Prevalence land line only data. The Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) project uses the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance...

  13. Behavioral Risk Factors: Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) County Prevalence Data (2010 and prior)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2002-2010. BRFSS SMART County Prevalence land line only data. The Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) project uses the Behavioral Risk Factor...

  14. Diabetes, obesity and cancer: risk and anti-risk factors

    Lev Mikhaylovich Bershteyn

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Observable diabetes and obesity epidemics may result in alteration of cancer morbidity and mortality. This increasingly recognized problem is reviewed here from the perspective of interplay between factors that differently modify association of diabetes mellitus with malignant neoplasms. Heterogeneity and familial aspects of diabetes and obesity, genomic traits, anti-diabetic medications and weight-reducing treatment are important examples of such factors. Addressing them might promote development of efficient preventive measures.

  15. Diabetes, obesity and cancer: risk and anti-risk factors

    Lev Mikhaylovich Bershteyn

    2012-01-01

    Observable diabetes and obesity epidemics may result in alteration of cancer morbidity and mortality. This increasingly recognized problem is reviewed here from the perspective of interplay between factors that differently modify association of diabetes mellitus with malignant neoplasms. Heterogeneity and familial aspects of diabetes and obesity, genomic traits, anti-diabetic medications and weight-reducing treatment are important examples of such factors. Addressing them might promote develo...

  16. Demographic And Risk Factors Related To Military Tuberculosis

    M. Rasolinejad

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Tuberculosis is one the major health care problems in developing countries. Miliary tuberculosis is induced by blood dissemination of multiple tubercle bacilli, the paramount importance of accurate diagnosis of military tuberculosis is because of its dismal outcome if untreated and the chance of cure if diagnosis happens early in the course of the disorder. In this study we describe the demographic and risk factors related to military tuberculosis, which enables us to control and reduce the incidence of military tuberculosis. This ultimately reduces the mortality and morbidity consistent with this disorder. Materials and Methods: we conducted a retrospective case control study, which compares 28 patients with military tuberculosis and 56 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis as control. We reviewed all the patients' documents registered between years 1994-2004, after extracting raw data we analyzed them with chi-square and Fisher exact tests. Results and Conclusion: We found that HIV (P< 0.05 infection and lack of BCG vaccination (P< 0.05 increases the number of military tuberculosis among our patients. In addition we did not find any other significant risk factor.

  17. Relationship of Depression and Risk Factors in Osteoporotic Men

    Evrim Karadağ Saygı

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Although osteoporosis mainly affects women, it could also be seen in men. The aims of the this study were to evaluate the risk factors for osteoporosis in men and to determine their relationships with each other. 49 men with osteoporosis were enrolled in the study. The participants completed a questionnaire covering education, work, alcohol intake, smoking, milk consumption, physical activity and oral glucocorticoid therapy. Additionally, Beck Depression and Visual Analogue Scales were used to assess depression and back pain level. Bone mineral density measurements of the lumbar spine (L2-L4, neck of femur and Ward’s triangle zone were performed by means of dual energy x-ray absorptiometer (DEXA. Dorsal, lumbar x-ray images were taken. According to WHO criteria, patients having Tscores of BMD ≥ -2.5 SD were included. In all patients, positive correlation between the length of education and exercise (r=0.305, p=0.03 and a negative correlation with milk consumption (r= -0.428, p=0.002 were found. Beck Deepression Scale scores were lower in working patients (r=0.457, p=0.001. There was positive corelation between Beck Depression and Visual Analogue Scales values (r=0.376, p=0.01. In men, life style and habits of the individual could be risk factors for osteoporosis and these issues should be taken into consideration before the planning of the treatment.

  18. Risk Factors of Dyslexia in Pre-school Children

    Tūbele, Sarmīte

    2015-01-01

    The article is devoted to actualize early risk factors of dyslexia in pre-school children.There are a lot of research about dyslexia and its impact on the child/pupil's development, learning and other areas of life. Part of the research concerns the development of a child in pre-school age determining, what factors influence acquisition of reading skills and predict potential difficulties. The article is devoted to reveal early risk factors of specific reading disorder (dyslexia), touches dia...

  19. Risk factors for a first and recurrent venous thrombosis

    Flinterman, Linda Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to identify new risk factors for first and recurrent venous thrombosis of both the upper and lower extremity, and assess the incidence of recurrence and mortality after a first venous thrombosis. An overview was provided of the current literature on risk factors and treatment for a first venous thrombosis of the upper extremity (chapter 2). We investigated the association between levels of coagulation factors, blood group and a first venous thrombosis of the upper e...

  20. Ergonomic, psychosocial factors and risks at work in informal mining

    Milena Nunes Alves de Sousa; André Luiz Dantas Bezerra; Branca Maria de Oliveira Santos; José Eduardo Zaia; Dernival Bertoncello; Paulo Roberto Veiga Quemelo

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to identify ergonomic and psychosocial factors, and risks at informal work in the mining sector of the State of Paraíba, Brazil, from miners' perspective. A cross-sectional and descriptive study was conducted with 371 informal mining workers. They responded two questionnaires for assessing work performed in three dimensions: ergonomic factors; psychosocial factors; and occupational risks. The scores of the items of each dimension were added so that, the higher the s...

  1. Risk factors of cerebrovascular diseases and their intervention and management

    En XU; Hai-xia WEN

    2015-01-01

    Cerebrovascular diseases are important causes of clinical death and disability because of high prevalence and morbidity and easy to recurrence. A number of risk factors have involved in the progress of cerebrovascular diseases, which include uncontrolled and controlled risk factors. The former refers to old age, gender, low birth weight, race/ethnicity, genetic factors, etc. The latter includes hypertension, diabetes mellitus, atrial fibrillation and other cardiac diseases, dyslipidemia...

  2. Risk factors for postoperative seromas in Chinese breast cancer patients

    LIN Yan-ping; YIN Wen-jin; YAN Ting-ting; ZHOU Li-heng; DI Geng-hong; WU Jiong; SHEN Zhen-zhou; SHAO Zhi-min; LU Jin-song

    2011-01-01

    S:Background Seroma formation is one of the most common complications after breast cancer surgery. Various risk factors have been evaluated for their associations with the development of seromas in Western populations. However,similar data are not available in Chinese series. Therefore, we sought to investigate the potential risk factors for Chinese breast cancer patients.Methods A prospective study of female breast cancer patients undergoing surgery was carried out in Cancer Hospital of Fudan Unversity, Shanghai, China. Univariate analyses were performed by chi-square test or Student's t test or Mann-Whitney test and multivariate analyses by stepwise Logistic regression. The logistic model included age (years),total serum protein concentration (g/L), drainage volume on postoperative day 3 (POD 3; ml) and time to daily drainage volume not more than 30 ml (TTV30; days).Results A total of 158 patients with breast cancer were studied. The mean age at diagnosis was (52.14±10.77) years (range 25-92). During the follow-up period, 24 (15.2%) patients developed seromas. Calculated as continuous variables in the stepwise Logistic regression, age (OR=1.090, 95% CI 1.028-1.155, P=0.004), total serum protein concentration (OR=0.886, 95% Cl 0.791-0.992, P=0.036), drainage volume on POD3 (OR=1.013, 95% CI 1.002-1.023, P=0.017) and TTV30 (OR=1.273, 95% CI 1.039-1.561, P=0.020) were independent risk factors for seroma formation. Additionally,significant difference in daily drainage volume was substantiated in the analysis by seroma formation (P=0.034) rather than by type of surgery (P=0.713).Conclusions Although the pathogenesis of seroma remains controversial, such risk factors as age, nutritional status,drainage volume on POD3 and TTV30 should be considered for prediction and prevention of seroma formation in Chinese breast cancer patients.

  3. Perinatal stroke in Saudi children: clinical features and risk factors

    additional acquired antenatal and perinatal risk factors support a multifactorial disorder. (author)

  4. Farm specific risk factors for Campylobacter colonisation in Danish and Norwegian broilers

    Borck Høg, Birgitte; Sommer, Helle Mølgaard; Larsen, Lars Stehr;

    2016-01-01

    that reduce the probability of Campylobacter colonisation of broiler flocks, it is essential to fully understand the risk factors involved. We present a bi-national risk factor survey comprising Campylobacter data from more than 5200 Danish and Norwegian indoor, conventional broiler flocks and the...... linear model using backwards elimination and forward selection. The results show that Norwegian broiler flocks had a lower risk of being colonised than Danish flocks. Farm specific variables that increased the risk of flocks becoming colonised with Campylobacter in both countries were: broiler houses...... with nipples without cups. Additional country specific risk factors were also identified. For Norway, the risk of colonisation increased with increasing numbers of houses on a farm and when the water used for the broilers originated from surface water or bore holes instead of mains. For Denmark, having...

  5. Rationale and design of INTERSTROKE: a global case-control study of risk factors for stroke

    O'Donnell, M; Serpault, Damien Xavier; Diener, C;

    2010-01-01

    population-attributable risk. However, traditional risk factors (e.g. hypertension, cholesterol) appear to exert contrasting risks for stroke compared with coronary heart disease, and the etiology of stroke is far more heterogeneous. In addition, our knowledge of risk factors for stroke in low...... with a first stroke within 72 h of hospital presentation in whom CT or MRI is performed. Proxy respondents are used for cases unable to communicate. Etiological and topographical stroke subtype is documented for all cases. Controls are hospital- and community-based, matched for gender, ethnicity and...... urine samples are obtained from cases and controls. Study Significance: An effective global strategy to reduce the risk of stroke mandates systematic measurement of the contribution of the major vascular risk factors within defined ethnic groups and geographical locations....

  6. Systematic review of psychosocial factors at work and private life as risk factors for back pain

    Hoogendoorn, W.E.; Poppel, M.N.M. van; Bongers, P.M.; Koes, B.W.; Bouter, L.M.; Hoogendoorn, L.

    2000-01-01

    Study Design. A systematic review of observational studies. Objectives. To assess whether psychosocial factors at work and in private life are risk factors for the occurrence of back pain. Summary of Background Data. Several reviews on risk factors for back pain have paid attention to psychosocial f

  7. Factors Influencing Cancer Risk Perception in High Risk Populations: A Systematic Review

    Tilburt Jon C; James Katherine M; Sinicrope Pamela S; Eton David T; Costello Brian A; Carey Jantey; Lane Melanie A; Ehlers Shawna L; Erwin Patricia J; Nowakowski Katherine E; Murad Mohammad H

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Patients at higher than average risk of heritable cancer may process risk information differently than the general population. However, little is known about clinical, demographic, or psychosocial predictors that may impact risk perception in these groups. The objective of this study was to characterize factors associated with perceived risk of developing cancer in groups at high risk for cancer based on genetics or family history. Methods We searched Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid Em...

  8. The Essential Role of Psychosocial Risk and Protective Factors in Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury Research

    Gerring, Joan P.; Wade, Shari

    2012-01-01

    This article builds upon Traumatic Brain Injury Common Data Elements (TBI CDE) version 1.0 and the pediatric CDE Initiative by emphasizing the essential role of psychosocial risk and protective factors in pediatric TBI research. The goals are to provide a compelling rationale for including psychosocial risk and protective factors in addition to socioeconomic status (SES), age, and sex in the study design and analyses of pediatric TBI research and to describe recommendations for core common da...

  9. Identification of Psychological Risk Factors for Eating Disorder Symptomatology in Women

    Daniel B. Fassnacht

    2011-01-01

    Theoretical Background: Individuals suffering from full or partial Eating Disorders (ED) manifestations, experience substantial personal impairment, distress and a loss in quality of life. Although research about risk factors for the development of an ED, has been intensified over the last two decades, to date the empirical evidence is still sparse and inconsistent. Additionally, the temporal course of a risk factor prior to the onset of ED symptomatology has hardly been explored. Both issues...

  10. A Commentary on “Risk Factors for Renal Cell Cancer in a Japanese Population”

    Cidon, Esther Uña

    2009-01-01

    The well-written and researched article reported in Clinical Medicine: Oncology by Dr. Washio and Dr. Mori entitled “Risk factors for renal cell cancer in a Japanese population”1 makes evident the differences in incidence and mortality rates from renal cell carcinoma (RCC) between different populations and highlights the relevance of carrying out epidemiological studies, investigating additional risk factors which may explain the differences.

  11. PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS OF FINANCIAL RISKS MANAGEMENT OF BUDGETARY PROCESS

    Elvira Rustamovna Mubarakshina

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In article such concepts are considered as the risk, budgetary risk, necessity of formation of system thinking at civil servants working in budgetary process. In article the concept of professional motivation for civil servants is considered. As in article necessity of the account of various psychological factors for managerial process by budgetary risks is proved and these factors are considered. In article risks in the field of public finances and a role of civil servants in the course of control over performance of the federal budget parameters and effective and target use of budgetary funds are considered. In article the urgency of the account of psychological factors at each stage of management by risks of budgetary process, in the answer constantly changing environmental conditions is proved.Aim: to reveal and characterize budgetary process risks. Object of research: psychological factors of financial risks. Result: Substantiation of necessity of the account of psychological factors such as style of thinking, the person, professional motivation of the employee at revealing and the analysis of risks of budgetary process and decrease in influence degree of risks on budgetary process.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-7-37

  12. Risk factors for miscarriage from a prevention perspective

    Feodor Nilsson, S; Andersen, Per Kragh; Strandberg-Larsen, K;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify modifiable risk factors for miscarriage and to estimate the preventable proportion of miscarriages that could be attributed to these. DESIGN: Nationwide observational follow-up study. SETTING: Denmark. POPULATION: Ninety-one thousand four hundred and twenty seven pregnancies...... outcome. Modifiable risk factors for miscarriage were identified by multiple Cox regression analysis, which provided the background for our estimations of population attributable fractions. In all, 88 373 pregnancies had full information on all covariates and were included in this analysis. MAIN OUTCOME...... MEASURES: Miscarriage before 22 completed weeks of gestation. RESULTS: The potentially modifiable pre-pregnant risk factors associated with increased miscarriage risk were: age of 30 years or more at conception, underweight, and obesity. During pregnancy the modifiable risk factors were: alcohol...

  13. Comparison of additive (absolute) risk projection models and multiplicative (relative) risk projection models in estimating radiation-induced lifetime cancer risk

    Lifetime cancer risk estimates depend on risk projection models. While the increasing lengths of follow-up observation periods of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki bring about changes in cancer risk estimates, the validity of the two risk projection models, the additive risk projection model (AR) and multiplicative risk projection model (MR), comes into question. This paper compares the lifetime risk or loss of life-expectancy between the two projection models on the basis of BEIR-III report or recently published RERF report. With Japanese cancer statistics the estimates of MR were greater than those of AR, but a reversal of these results was seen when the cancer hazard function for India was used. When we investigated the validity of the two projection models using epidemiological human data and animal data, the results suggested that MR was superior to AR with respect to temporal change, but there was little evidence to support its validity. (author)

  14. Widespread non-additive and interaction effects within HLA loci modulate the risk of autoimmune diseases

    Lenz, Tobias L.; Deutsch, Aaron J.; Han, Buhm; Hu, Xinli; Okada, Yukinori; Eyre, Stephen; Knapp, Michael; Zhernakova, Alexandra; Huizinga, Tom W.J.; Abecasis, Goncalo; Becker, Jessica; Boeckxstaens, Guy E.; Chen, Wei-Min; Franke, Andre; Gladman, Dafna D.; Gockel, Ines; Gutierrez-Achury, Javier; Martin, Javier; Nair, Rajan P.; Nöthen, Markus M.; Onengut-Gumuscu, Suna; Rahman, Proton; Rantapää-Dahlqvist, Solbritt; Stuart, Philip E.; Tsoi, Lam C.; Van Heel, David A.; Worthington, Jane; Wouters, Mira M.; Klareskog, Lars; Elder, James T.; Gregersen, Peter K.; Schumacher, Johannes; Rich, Stephen S.; Wijmenga, Cisca; Sunyaev, Shamil R.; de Bakker, Paul I.W.; Raychaudhuri, Soumya

    2015-01-01

    Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes confer strong risk for autoimmune diseases on a log-additive scale. Here we speculated that differences in autoantigen binding repertoires between a heterozygote’s two expressed HLA variants may result in additional non-additive risk effects. We tested non-additive disease contributions of classical HLA alleles in patients and matched controls for five common autoimmune diseases: rheumatoid arthritis (RA, Ncases=5,337), type 1 diabetes (T1D, Ncases=5,567), psoriasis vulgaris (Ncases=3,089), idiopathic achalasia (Ncases=727), and celiac disease (Ncases=11,115). In four out of five diseases, we observed highly significant non-additive dominance effects (RA: P=2.5×1012; T1D: P=2.4×10−10; psoriasis: P=5.9×10−6; celiac disease: P=1.2×10−87). In three of these diseases, the dominance effects were explained by interactions between specific classical HLA alleles (RA: P=1.8×10−3; T1D: P=8.6×1027; celiac disease: P=6.0×10−100). These interactions generally increased disease risk and explained moderate but significant fractions of phenotypic variance (RA: 1.4%, T1D: 4.0%, and celiac disease: 4.1%, beyond a simple additive model). PMID:26258845

  15. Copula-based factor model for credit risk analysis

    Lu, Meng-Jou; Chen, Cathy Yi-Hsuan; Härdle, Karl Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    A standard quantitative method to access credit risk employs a factor model based on joint multivariate normal distribution properties. By extending a one-factor Gaussian copula model to make a more accurate default forecast, this paper proposes to incorporate a state-dependent recovery rate into the conditional factor loading, and model them by sharing a unique common factor. The common factor governs the default rate and recovery rate simultaneously and creates their association implicitly....

  16. Risk factors and their identification. Third Part: Examples.

    Balkau, B; Eschwege, E

    1995-10-01

    This is the final of a series of three articles in Diabete & Metabolisme which reviews the identification of risk factors of a disease, here: diabetes or complications of diabetes. In the first of the series [1], we gave the definition of a risk factor, along with measures of its force-relative risk and odds ratio, followed by the epidemiological definitions of the diseases: diabetes, coronary heart disease and hypertension. Risk factors were further discussed and we completed the discussion by some observations on the bias which can arise from a study or from its analysis, which can lead the researcher to the wrong conclusion. The three types of epidemiological studies which are used to determine whether factors are associated with a disease: observational or cross-sectional studies, cohort studies and case-cohort studies are described in the second of the series [2]. Examples were provided of each of these study types and their advantages and disadvantages were discussed. This final paper provides some examples of the study types and the identification of risk factors from the literature. The first examples involve diabetes and pancreatic cancer, the second birth weight and non-insulin dependent diabetes. Having found an association between a risk factor and a disease, we then discuss whether it can be considered to be a risk factor, and if so and whether it is likely to be a cause of the disease. PMID:8529768

  17. A Cohort Study on Risk Factors of Lung Cancer in Yunnan Tin Miners

    Yong JIANG

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Smoking is a major cause of lung cancer. Studies of lung cancer among miners have shown that occupational exposure also played an important role. The aim of this study is to investigate radon, cigarette use and other risk factors of lung cancer in Yunnan tin miners and to provide a scientific basis for the prevention and control of occupational lung cancer. Methods A prospective cohort study was conducted among Yunnan tin miners, the associations between potential risk factors for lung cancer were analyzed by multivariate Cox regression model. Effects of age at first radon exposure and radon exposure rate on lung cancer risk were analyzed. The relationship between cumulative working level month and lung cancer was analyzed according to smoking status. The joint effect of tobacco use and cumulative radon exposure was analyzed based on additive and multiplicative models. Results Increased risk of lung cancer was associated with age at enrollment, tobacco use, prior bronchitis, and cumulative arsenic and radon exposure, while higher education level was associated with decreased lung cancer risk. An inverse effect of radon exposure rate was observed. There was no significant association between lung cancer risk and first radon exposure age. There was a significant additive interaction between tobacco use and radon exposure on lung cancer risk. Conclusion Several risk factors may contribute to the high incidence of lung cancer in Yunnan tin miners. Further studies are warranted to evaluate joint effect of different risk factors.

  18. Perinatal Depression and Patterns of Attachment: A Critical Risk Factor?

    Valentina Meuti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This study aims to verify if the presence and severity of perinatal depression are related to any particular pattern of attachment. Methods. The study started with a screening of a sample of 453 women in their third trimester of pregnancy, who were administered a survey data form, the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS and the Experience in Close Relationship (ECR. A clinical group of subjects with perinatal depression (PND, 89 subjects was selected and compared with a control group (C, regarding psychopathological variables and attachment patterns. Results. The ECR showed a prevalence of “Fearful-Avoidant” attachment style in PND group (29.2% versus 1.1%, p<0.001; additionally, the EPDS average score increases with the increasing of ECR dimensions (Avoidance and Anxiety. Conclusion. The severity of depression increases proportionally to attachment disorganization; therefore, we consider attachment as both an important risk factor as well as a focus for early psychotherapeutic intervention.

  19. Contribution of Individual Risk Factor Changes to Reductions in Population Absolute Cardiovascular Risk

    Thomas Cochrane

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Few studies have investigated individual risk factor contributions to absolute cardiovascular disease (CVD risk. Even fewer have examined changes in individual risk factors as components of overall modifiable risk change following a CVD prevention intervention. Design. Longitudinal study of population CVD risk factor changes following a health screening and enhanced support programme. Methods. The contribution of individual risk factors to the estimated absolute CVD risk in a population of high risk patients identified from general practice records was evaluated. Further, the proportion of the modifiable risk attributable to each factor that was removed following one year of enhanced support was estimated. Results. Mean age of patients (533 males, 68 females was 63.7 (6.4 years. High cholesterol (57% was most prevalent, followed by smoking (53% and high blood pressure (26%. Smoking (57% made the greatest contribution to the modifiable population CVD risk, followed by raised blood pressure (26% and raised cholesterol (17%. After one year of enhanced support, the modifiable population risk attributed to smoking (56%, high blood pressure (68%, and high cholesterol (53% was removed. Conclusion. Approximately 59% of the modifiable risk attributable to the combination of high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and current smoking was removed after intervention.

  20. Drusen maculopathy: a risk factor for visual deterioration.

    Algvere, Peep V; Kvanta, Anders; Seregard, Stefan

    2016-08-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the most common cause of visual loss after the age of 65, displays a degeneration of the retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells and photoreceptors in the retinal centre (macula). The central macula (fovea) that contains mostly cone photoreceptors mediates the high visual acuity. Drusen maculopathy may lead to visual deterioration. Drusen are extracellular deposits of debris that accumulate on Bruch's membrane. Drusen attract inflammatory, immunological and vasoactive stimuli. RPE and photoreceptor cells overlying drusen exhibit biochemical and morphological signs of degeneration. Strong and intermittent light exposure (photons) induces the formation of free radicals in the very high oxygen tension milieu of the retina. The negative effects of irradiation stimulate accumulation of lipofuscin in RPE and photoreceptor cells leading to mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptotic cell death. A hydrophobic barrier is built up in Bruch's membrane reducing diffusion to the choroid. Hereditary and inflammatory factors modify the risk for AMD. There is a genetic dysregulation of the complement system leading to inappropriate complement activation. The genetic polymorphism of complement factor H (CFH) and age-related maculopathy susceptibilty 2 (ARMS2) increase the risk of progression to advanced AMD. The photoelectric effect creates free radicals, resulting in a continuous increase of lipofuscin formation and impairing mitochondrial activity. In addition, inflammation and complement dysregulation contribute to the formation of drusen and vasoproliferative reactions with neovascularization. Antioxidants neutralize reactive oxygen species and reduce lipofuscin accumulation in RPE and photoreceptor cells. For prophylactic treatment of drusen maculopathy, high doses of antioxidants such as vitamins C and E, lutein, zeaxanthine and zinc are used according to the Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 (AREDS 2). The risk of developing advanced AMD was

  1. Risk factors for the development of psychopathology following trauma.

    Sayed, Sehrish; Iacoviello, Brian M; Charney, Dennis S

    2015-08-01

    Traumatic experiences can lead to a range of mental health problems with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) leading as the most documented disorder following trauma. Epidemiological research has found the rate of exposure to trauma to far outweigh the prevalence of PTSD. Indicating that most people do not develop PTSD following a traumatic event, this phenomenon has led to an interest in evaluating risk factors to determine who develops PTSD. Risk factors for the development of psychopathology following trauma exposure fall into three categories: pre-trauma, peri-trauma and post-trauma factors. Pre-trauma factors can include age, gender, race/ethnicity, education, prior psychopathology, and neurobiological factors. Peri-trauma factors can include the duration/severity of trauma experience and the perception that the trauma has ended. Post-trauma factors can include access to needed resources, social support, specific cognitive patterns, and physical activity. To date, several important risk factors have been found to impact the risk of developing PTSD including gender, age, education, IQ, race and ethnicity, sexual orientation, pre-trauma psychopathology, prior trauma exposure, familial psychiatric history, and neurobiological factors. This article outlines the state of research findings on pretraumatic, peritraumatic, and posttraumatic risk factors for the development of PTSD and associated psychopathology following trauma. PMID:26206108

  2. Risk factors in young patients of acute myocardial infarction

    Background: Ischemic heart disease is a leading cause of death throughout the world. CAD has been recognized among younger age group more frequently in recent years. Very limited data is available regarding the prevalence of various risk factors in our younger patients that is why this study was planed. Objectives of the study were to look for the risk factors most prevalent in our young patient of first Acute Myocardial Infarction. And to also look for the number of Risk Factors present in each patient. Methods: We studied 100 consecutive patients from 16-45 years of age presenting with first acute MI. Twelve risk factors were studied namely, gender, family history of premature CAD, smoking hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, obesity, mental stress (type A personality), alcohol, oral contraceptive pills (OCPs), physical activity, and diet. We divided the patients into two groups. Group A with patients 35 years of age or less and group B with patients 36-45 years of age. All risk factors were compared in both the groups. Results: Smoking, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia and hypertension were statistically different between the two groups. Frequency wise risk factors were lined up as male sex (91%) Diet (66%), Dyslipidemia (62%), smoking (46%), Type A personality(46%), family history (32%), diabetes mellitus (28%), sedentary lifestyle (26%), hypertension (22%), obesity (17%), alcohol (3%), and OCPs (0%) Most of the patients that is 94% had 3 or more risk factors. Conclusion: Smoking, hypertension, diabetes and dyslipidemia are the major modifiable risk factors in our young adults. If a young male who is smoker or a young female who is diabetic, presents in emergency room with chest pain, always suspect coronary artery disease. Other conventional risk factors are also prevalent but alcohol and OCPs are not a major health problem for us. (author)

  3. [Risk factors for delirium tremens: a literature review].

    Thiercelin, N; Rabiah Lechevallier, Z; Rusch, E; Plat, A

    2012-01-01

    Delirium tremens (DT) is the most severe complication from alcohol withdrawal. Risk factors for DT (before the withdrawal begins) and early predictive factors for the development of the withdrawal syndrome towards DT (once withdrawal has started) are not clearly established. We reviewed the literature from PubMed/Medline database to identify risk factors for DT. Twenty-one studies were been selected. Three only were prospective. The most commonly identified risk factors included personal history of DT, seizures, presence of acute somatic comorbidity especially infectious, presence of early withdrawal symptoms, and genetic predisposition. Most of these risk factors are still debated and prospective studies might appear useful considering the DT prevalence and the absence of consensual both diagnostic and therapeutic protocols. PMID:21920639

  4. Risk factors of cerebrovascular diseases and their intervention and management

    En XU

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebrovascular diseases are important causes of clinical death and disability because of high prevalence and morbidity and easy to recurrence. A number of risk factors have involved in the progress of cerebrovascular diseases, which include uncontrolled and controlled risk factors. The former refers to old age, gender, low birth weight, race/ethnicity, genetic factors, etc. The latter includes hypertension, diabetes mellitus, atrial fibrillation and other cardiac diseases, dyslipidemia, asymptomatic carotid stenosis, obesity, smoking, unhealthy lifestyle, alcoholism, metabolic syndrome, hyperhomocysteinemia, etc. Meanwhile, hypertension is the most important one in the above-mentioned risk factors. It would effectively reduce or postpone the onset of cerebrovascular diseases through proper intervention and management on those risk factors. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.01.006

  5. Tourette Syndrome (TS): Risk Factors and Causes

    ... Articles & Key Findings Free Materials Info For Families Bullying Info for Health Professionals Info for Education Professionals ... that likely occurs as a result of the effects of multiple genes interacting with other factors in ...

  6. Effects of Disasters: Risk and Resilience Factors

    ... long-lasting mental health issues. Certain factors increase resilience after disasters: Social support Social support is one of the keys to recovery after any trauma, including disaster. Social support increases ...

  7. Changing trends of cardiovascular risk factors among Indians: a review of emerging risks

    Arun Kumar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The global burden of disease due to cardiovascular diseases (CVDs is escalating, and the changing trends of CVD risk factors are identified among Indians experiencing rapid health transition. Contributory causes include: growing population with demographic shifts and altered age profile, socio-economic factors, lifestyle changes due to urbanization. Indians are also having genetic predisposition to cardiovascular diseases and adult are susceptible to vascular disease linking possible gene-environment interactions influencing ethnic diversity. Altered diets with more of junk foods along with diminished physical activity are additive factors contributing to the acceleration of CVD epidemics, along with all form of tobacco use. The pace of health transition, however, varies across geographical regions from urban to rural population with consequent variations in the relative burdens of the dominant CVDs. A comprehensive public health response must be looked to plan over all strategies to integrate policies and programs that effectively impact on the multiple determinants of CVDs to provide protection over the life span through primordial, primary and secondary prevention. Populations as well as individuals at risk must be protected through initiatives, enable nutrition-based preventive strategies to protect and promote cardiovascular health.

  8. Changing trends of cardiovascular risk factors among Indians:a review of emerging risks

    Arun; Kumar

    2014-01-01

    The global burden of disease due to cardiovascular diseases(CVDs) is escalating,and the changing trends of CVD risk factors are identified among Indians experiencing rapid health transition.Contributory causes include:growing population with demographic shifts and altered age profile,socio-economic factors,lifestyle changes due to urbanization.Indians are also having genetic predisposition to cardiovascular diseases and adult are susceptible to vascular disease linking possible gene-environment interactions influencing ethnic diversity.Altered diets with more of junk foods along with diminished physical activity are additive factors contributing to the acceleration of CVD epidemics,along with all form of tobacco use.The pace of health transition,however,varies across geographical regions from urban to rural population with consequent variations in the relative burdens of the dominant CVDs.A comprehensive public health response must be looked to plan over all strategies to integrate policies and programs that effectively impact on the multiple determinants of CVDs to provide protection over the life span through primordial,primary and secondary prevention.Populations as well as individuals at risk must be protected through initiatives,enable nutritionbased preventive strategies to protect and promote cardiovascular health.

  9. Changing trends of cardiovascular risk factors among Indians:a review of emerging risks

    Arun Kumar

    2014-01-01

    The global burden of disease due to cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) is escalating, and the changing trends of CVD risk factors are identified among Indians experiencing rapid health transition. Contributory causes include: growing population with demographic shifts and altered age profile, socio-economic factors, lifestyle changes due to urbanization. Indians are also having genetic predisposition to cardiovascular diseases and adult are susceptible to vascular disease linking possible gene-environment interactions influencing ethnic diversity. Altered diets with more of junk foods along with diminished physical activity are additive factors contributing to the acceleration of CVD epidemics, along with all form of tobacco use. The pace of health transition, however, varies across geographical regions from urban to rural population with consequent variations in the relative burdens of the dominant CVDs. A comprehensive public health response must be looked to plan over all strategies to integrate policies and programs that effectively impact on the multiple determinants of CVDs to provide protection over the life span through primordial, primary and secondary prevention. Populations as well as individuals at risk must be protected through initiatives, enable nutrition-based preventive strategies to protect and promote cardiovascular health.

  10. Environmental Risk Factors for Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Molodecky, Natalie A; Kaplan, Gilaad G

    2010-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is characterized by chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract and is associated with significant morbidity. The etiology of IBD has been extensively studied during the last several decades; however, causative factors in disease pathology are not yet fully understood. IBD is thought to result from the interaction between genetic and environmental factors that influence the normal intestinal commensal flora to trigger an inappropriate mucosal immune res...

  11. [Diet as a cardiovascular risk factor in family medicine].

    Bergman Marković, Biserka; Katić, Milica; Vrdoljak, Davorka; Kranjcević, Ksenija; Jasna, Vucak; Ivezić Lalić, Dragica

    2010-05-01

    Although Mediterranean country by its geographic position, according to cardiovascular mortality (CVM) rate, Croatia belongs to Central-East European countries with high CV mortality. Prevention by changing nutritional habits is population (public health programmes) or individually targeted. General practitioner (GP) provides care for whole person in its environment and GP's team plays a key role in achieving lifestyle changes. GPs intervention is individually/group/family targeted by counselling or using printed leaflets (individual manner, organized programmes). Adherence to lifestyle changes is not an easy task; it is higher when recommendations are simple and part of individually tailored programme with follow- ups included. Motivation is essential, but obstacles to implementation (by patient and GPs) are also important. Nutritional intervention influences most important CV risk factors: cholesterol level, blood pressure (BP), diabetes. Restriction in total energy intake with additional nutritional interventions is recommended. Lower animal fat intake causes CVM reduction by 12%, taking additional serving of fruit/day by 7% and vegetables by 4%. Restriction of dietary salt intake (3 g/day) lowers BP by 2-8 mm Hg, CVM by 16%. Nutritional intervention gains CHD and stroke redact in healthy adults (12%, 11% respectively). Respecting individual lifestyle and nutrition, GP should suggest both home cooking and careful food declaration reading and discourage salt adding. Recommended daily salt intake is < or =6 g. In BP lowering, salt intake restriction (10-12 to 5-6 g/day) is as efficient as taking one antihypertensive drug. Lifestyle intervention targeting nutritional habits and pharmacotherapy is the most efficient combination in CV risk factors control. PMID:20649077

  12. Critical factors and paths influencing construction workers' safety risk tolerances.

    Wang, Jiayuan; Zou, Patrick X W; Li, Penny P

    2016-08-01

    While workers' safety risk tolerances have been regarded as a main reason for their unsafe behaviors, little is known about why different people have different risk tolerances even when confronting the same situation. The aim of this research is to identify the critical factors and paths that influence workers' safety risk tolerance and to explore how they contribute to accident causal model from a system thinking perceptive. A number of methods were carried out to analyze the data collected through interviews and questionnaire surveys. In the first and second steps of the research, factor identification, factor ranking and factor analysis were carried out, and the results show that workers' safety risk tolerance can be influenced by four groups of factors, namely: (1) personal subjective perception; (2) work knowledge and experiences; (3) work characteristics; and (4) safety management. In the third step of the research, hypothetical influencing path model was developed and tested by using structural equation modeling (SEM). It is found that the effects of external factors (safety management and work characteristics) on risk tolerance are larger than that of internal factors (personal subjective perception and work knowledge & experiences). Specifically, safety management contributes the most to workers' safety risk tolerance through its direct effect and indirect effect; while personal subjective perception comes the second and can act as an intermedia for work characteristics. This research provides an in-depth insight of workers' unsafe behaviors by depicting the contributing factors as shown in the accident causal model developed in this research. PMID:26775077

  13. Work Stress as a Risk Factor for Cardiovascular Disease.

    Kivimäki, Mika; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2015-09-01

    The role of psychosocial work stress as a risk factor for chronic disease has been the subject of considerable debate. Many researchers argue in support of a causal connection while others remain skeptical and have argued that the effect on specific health conditions is either negligible or confounded. This review of evidence from over 600,000 men and women from 27 cohort studies in Europe, the USA and Japan suggests that work stressors, such as job strain and long working hours, are associated with a moderately elevated risk of incident coronary heart disease and stroke. The excess risk for exposed individuals is 10-40 % compared with those free of such stressors. Differences between men and women, younger versus older employees and workers from different socioeconomic backgrounds appear to be small, indicating that the association is robust. Meta-analyses of a wider range of health outcomes show additionally an association between work stress and type 2 diabetes, though not with common cancers or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, suggesting outcome specificity. Few studies have addressed whether mitigation of work stressors would reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. In view of the limited interventional evidence on benefits, harms and cost-effectiveness, definitive recommendations have not been made (e.g. by the US Preventive Services Taskforce) for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease via workplace stress reduction. Nevertheless, governments are already launching healthy workplace campaigns, and preventing excessive work stress is a legal obligation in several countries. Promoting awareness of the link between stress and health among both employers and workers is an important component of workplace health promotion. PMID:26238744

  14. Diabetes Risk Factor Knowledge Varies Among Multiracial College Students.

    Mongiello, Lorraine Laccetti; Freudenberg, Nicholas; Jones, Hollie

    2016-10-01

    All racial/ethnic groups are at higher risk for type 2 diabetes compared to whites, but it is unknown if young adults recognize their risk. Risk knowledge and individual risk perception were examined in 1579 multiracial urban college students. Students have little knowledge of diabetes risk factors; identifying less than three of ten. Considerable variation exists in the understanding of risk; only .02 % of Asian, 14.0 % of Hispanic and 22.8 % of black students recognized that their race increased risk. Among those with ≥3 risk factors (n = 541) only 39 % perceived their risk. These under-estimators had lower knowledge scores (p = .03) than those who acknowledged their risk; indicating that the cause of under-estimating risk may be, at least, in part due to a lack of information. There is a pressing need to heighten understanding of type 2 diabetes risk among young adults to decrease the future burden of this disease. PMID:26169506

  15. Epigenetic Risk Factors in PTSD and Depression

    Florian Joachim Raabe; Dietmar eSpengler

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological and clinical studies have shown that children exposed to adverse experiences are at increased risk for the development of depression, anxiety disorders, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). A history of child abuse and maltreatment increases the likelihood of being subsequently exposed to traumatic events or of developing PTSD as an adult. The brain is highly plastic during early life and encodes acquired information into lasting memories that normally subserve adaptation...

  16. Engaging Physicians in Risk Factor Reduction

    Springrose, James V.; Friedman, Felix; Gumnit, Stephen A.; Schmidt, Eric J.

    2010-01-01

    OptumHealth tested the feasibility of physician-directed population management in 3 primary care practices and with 546 continuously insured patients who exhibited claims markers for coronary artery disease, diabetes, and/or hypertension. During the intervention portion of the study, we asked physicians to improve the following health measurements: blood pressure, body mass index, cholesterol, hemoglobin A1c, and smoking status. We offered a modest pay-for-outcomes incentive for each risk fac...

  17. Environmental Factors and Breast Cancer Risk

    ... hydrocarbons (PAHs), a primary component of urban air pollution. Although there was some evidence of a modest ... the chemicals that come in contact with our skin. Additionally, NIEHS in-house researchers are finding that ...

  18. Risk Factors for Postural Tachycardia Syndrome in Children and Adolescents

    Lin, Jing; Han, Zhenhui; Li, Xueying; Ochs, Todd; Zhao, Juan; Zhang, Xi; Yang, Jinyan; Liu, Ping; Xiong, Zhenyu; Gai, Yong; Tang, Chaoshu; Du, Junbao; Jin, Hongfang

    2014-01-01

    Background Postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS) is prevalent in children and adolescents and has a great impact on health. But its risk factors have not been fully understood. This study aimed to explore possible risk factors for children and adolescents with POTS. Methods and Findings 600 children and adolescents (test group) aged 7–18 (11.9±3.0) years old, 259 males and 341 females, were recruited for identifying its risk factors. Another 197 subjects aged from 7 to 18 (11.3±2.3) years old ...

  19. Fresh Chicken as Main Risk Factor for Campylobacteriosis, Denmark

    Wingstrand, A; Niemann, J; Engberg, Jørgen H; Nielsen, EM; Gerner-Smidt, P; Wegener, HC; Molbak, K

    2006-01-01

    We report the findings of a case-control study of risk factors for sporadic cases of human campylobacteriosis in Denmark. In 3 different analytical models, the main domestic risk factor identified was eating fresh, unfrozen chicken. Specifically, 28 of 74 domestically acquired case-patients were...... exposed to fresh chicken compared with 21 of 114 controls (multivariate matched odds ratio 5.8; 95% confidence interval 2.1-15.9). In contrast, a risk from eating other poultry, including previously frozen chicken, was only indicated from borderline significant 2-factor interactions. The marked increase...

  20. Fresh chicken as main risk factor for campylobacteriosis, Denmark

    Wingstrand, Anne; Neimann, Jakob; Engberg, Jørgen; Nielsen, Eva Møller; Gerner-Smidt, P.; Wegener, Henrik Caspar; Mølbak, K.

    2006-01-01

    We report the findings of a case-control study of risk factors for sporadic cases of human campylobacteriosis in Denmark. In 3 different analytical models, the main domestic risk factor identified was eating fresh, unfrozen chicken. Specifically, 28 of 74 domestically acquired case-patients were...... exposed to fresh chicken compared with 21 of 114 controls (multivariate matched odds ratio 5.8; 95% confidence interval 2.1-15.9). In contrast, a risk from eating other poultry, including previously frozen chicken, was only indicated from borderline significant 2-factor interactions. The marked increase...

  1. Risk factors for local recurrence after breast-conserving therapy

    Breast-conserving therapy has been widely accepted as a standard treatment for early breast cancer both in Western countries and in Japan. In Western countries, many studies have investigated the risk factors for local recurrence after breast-conserving therapy (BCT), but few such studies have been done in Japan. To determine the risk factors for local recurrence in 399 breast cancer patients (stage I and II, n=396; stage III, n=3) who had undergone BCT with or without postoperative radiation therapy, we evaluated their clinicopathological features by univariate and multivariate analyses. The patients were treated at Osaka National Hospital between February 1988 and December 1997. Univariate analysis showed that a young age (≤45 years; P=0.0005) was a significant risk factor for local recurrence, while radiation therapy (P=0.0058) and adjuvant endocrine therapy (P=0.0041) significantly reduced the risk of local recurrence. In patients with BCT, without radiation therapy a positive surgical margin significantly increased the risk of local recurrence (P=0.0470). Multivariate analysis showed that a young age (P=0.0285) was a significant independent risk factor for local recurrence, while radiation therapy (P=0.0457) significantly decreased recurrence. In patients with a negative surgical margin, radiation therapy (P=0.0158) and adjuvant endocrine therapy (P=0.0421) significantly reduced the relative risk of local recurrence, to 0.160 and 0.366, respectively. In patients with a positive surgical margin, radiation therapy marginally significantly (P=0.0756) reduced the relative risk of local recurrence, to 0.181, and adjuvant endocrine therapy significantly (P=0.0119) reduced the risk, to 0.076. Young age and lack of radiation therapy or adjuvant endocrine therapy were risk factors for local recurrence in breast cancer patients treated with breast conserving therapy, with surgical margin status also being a possible risk factor. (author)

  2. Meat Consumption as a Risk Factor for Type 2 Diabetes

    Neal Barnard

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Disease risk factors identified in epidemiological studies serve as important public health tools, helping clinicians identify individuals who may benefit from more aggressive screening or risk-modification procedures, allowing policymakers to prioritize intervention programs, and encouraging at-risk individuals to modify behavior and improve their health. These factors have been based primarily on evidence from cross-sectional and prospective studies, as most do not lend themselves to randomized trials. While some risk factors are not modifiable, eating habits are subject to change through both individual action and broader policy initiatives. Meat consumption has been frequently investigated as a variable associated with diabetes risk, but it has not yet been described as a diabetes risk factor. In this article, we evaluate the evidence supporting the use of meat consumption as a clinically useful risk factor for type 2 diabetes, based on studies evaluating the risks associated with meat consumption as a categorical dietary characteristic (i.e., meat consumption versus no meat consumption, as a scalar variable (i.e., gradations of meat consumption, or as part of a broader dietary pattern.

  3. Research on SAP Business One Implementation Risk Factors with Interpretive Structural Model

    Jiajun Hou; Jiangping Wan

    2012-01-01

    The possible risk factors during SAP Business One implementation were studied with depth interview. The results are then adjusted by experts. 20 categories of risk factors that are totally 49 factors were found. Based on the risk factors during the SAP Business One implementation, questionnaire was used to study the key risk factors of SAP Business One implementation. Results illustrate ten key risk factors, these are risk of senior managers leadership, risk of project management, risk of pro...

  4. Risk Factors Related to Low Birth Weight in Cienfuegos Municipality

    Juan Rafael Zerquera Rodriguez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: the low birth weight still constitutes a complex a complex health problem. It is determined by some factors and it is the most important predictive index of infantile mortality. Objective: identifying the risk factors related to low birth weight. Methods: a descriptive study was conducted. There were analyzed the 77 birth of children with inferior weigh to 2500g, occurred in 2010 at the municipality of Cienfuegos, puerperas were included, mothers of those children. The pregnancy's follow-up cards, patient’s clinical records and municipal and provincial statistics were checked. In addition to the socio-demographic characteristics, the nutritional state, numbers of pregnancies, heavy profit during pregnancy, age, toxic habits and diseases correlated to pregnancy were analyzed. Results: the index of low birth weigh oscillated between 3.6 and 6.7 per month. The 52% of low birth weight newborn’s mothers had school university level. The 74 % of mothers work. The 70.1 % were smokers and the 57, 1 % developed a gravidum hypertensive disease. Conclusions: the most associated factors to low birth weight were, the mother’s habit to smoke, as well as the diseases that affected them during pregnancy, fundamentally the hypertensive disease and the vaginal sepsis.

  5. A Bayesian Approach to Identifying New Risk Factors for Dementia

    Wen, Yen-Hsia; Wu, Shihn-Sheng; Lin, Chun-Hung Richard; Tsai, Jui-Hsiu; Yang, Pinchen; Chang, Yang-Pei; Tseng, Kuan-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Dementia is one of the most disabling and burdensome health conditions worldwide. In this study, we identified new potential risk factors for dementia from nationwide longitudinal population-based data by using Bayesian statistics. We first tested the consistency of the results obtained using Bayesian statistics with those obtained using classical frequentist probability for 4 recognized risk factors for dementia, namely severe head injury, depression, diabetes mellitus, and vascular diseases. Then, we used Bayesian statistics to verify 2 new potential risk factors for dementia, namely hearing loss and senile cataract, determined from the Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database. We included a total of 6546 (6.0%) patients diagnosed with dementia. We observed older age, female sex, and lower income as independent risk factors for dementia. Moreover, we verified the 4 recognized risk factors for dementia in the older Taiwanese population; their odds ratios (ORs) ranged from 3.469 to 1.207. Furthermore, we observed that hearing loss (OR = 1.577) and senile cataract (OR = 1.549) were associated with an increased risk of dementia. We found that the results obtained using Bayesian statistics for assessing risk factors for dementia, such as head injury, depression, DM, and vascular diseases, were consistent with those obtained using classical frequentist probability. Moreover, hearing loss and senile cataract were found to be potential risk factors for dementia in the older Taiwanese population. Bayesian statistics could help clinicians explore other potential risk factors for dementia and for developing appropriate treatment strategies for these patients. PMID:27227925

  6. Whose reality counts? Factors affecting the perception of volcanic risk

    Haynes, Katharine; Barclay, Jenni; Pidgeon, Nick

    2008-05-01

    Understanding how people perceive risk has become increasingly important for improving risk communication and reducing risk associated conflicts. This paper builds upon findings, methodologies and lessons learned from other fields to help understand differences between scientists, authorities and the public. Qualitative and quantitative methods were used to analyse underlying attitudes and judgements during an ongoing volcanic crisis on the Caribbean Island of Montserrat. Specific differences between the public, authorities and scientists were found to have been responsible for misunderstandings and misinterpretations of information and roles, resulting in differing perceptions of acceptable risk. Difficulties in the articulation and understanding of uncertainties pertaining to the volcanic risk led to a situation in which the roles of hazard monitoring, risk communication and public protection became confused. In addition, social, economic and political forces were found to have distorted risk messages, leading to a public reliance upon informal information networks. The implications of these findings for volcanic risk management and communication are discussed.

  7. Improving coeliac disease risk prediction by testing non-HLA variants additional to HLA variants

    Romanos, Jihane; Rosén, Anna; Kumar, Vinod; Trynka, Gosia; Franke, Lude; Szperl, Agata; Gutierrez-Achury, Javier; van Diemen, Cleo C; Kanninga, Roan; Jankipersadsing, Soesma A; Steck, Andrea; Eisenbarth, Georges; van Heel, David A; Cukrowska, Bozena; Bruno, Valentina; Mazzilli, Maria Cristina; Núñez, Concepcion; Bilbao, Jose Ramon; Mearin, M Luisa; Barisani, Donatella; Rewers, Marian; Norris, Jill M; Ivarsson, Anneli; Boezen, H Marieke; Liu, Edwin; Wijmenga, Cisca

    2014-01-01

    Background The majority of coeliac disease (CD) patients are not being properly diagnosed and therefore remain untreated, leading to a greater risk of developing CD-associated complications. The major genetic risk heterodimer, HLA-DQ2 and DQ8, is already used clinically to help exclude disease. However, approximately 40% of the population carry these alleles and the majority never develop CD. Objective We explored whether CD risk prediction can be improved by adding non-HLA-susceptible variants to common HLA testing. Design We developed an average weighted genetic risk score with 10, 26 and 57 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in 2675 cases and 2815 controls and assessed the improvement in risk prediction provided by the non-HLA SNP. Moreover, we assessed the transferability of the genetic risk model with 26 non-HLA variants to a nested case–control population (n=1709) and a prospective cohort (n=1245) and then tested how well this model predicted CD outcome for 985 independent individuals. Results Adding 57 non-HLA variants to HLA testing showed a statistically significant improvement compared to scores from models based on HLA only, HLA plus 10 SNP and HLA plus 26 SNP. With 57 non-HLA variants, the area under the receiver operator characteristic curve reached 0.854 compared to 0.823 for HLA only, and 11.1% of individuals were reclassified to a more accurate risk group. We show that the risk model with HLA plus 26 SNP is useful in independent populations. Conclusions Predicting risk with 57 additional non-HLA variants improved the identification of potential CD patients. This demonstrates a possible role for combined HLA and non-HLA genetic testing in diagnostic work for CD. PMID:23704318

  8. Meta analysis of risk factors for colorectal cancer

    Kun Chen; Jiong-Liang Qiu; Yang Zhang; Yu-Wan Zhao

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To study the risk factors for colorectal cancer in China.METHODS: A meta-analysis of the risk factors of colorectal cancer was conducted for 14 case-control studies, and reviewed 14 reports within 13 years which included 5034cases and 5205 controls. Dersimonian and Laird random effective models were used to process the results.RESULTS: Meta analysis of the 14 studies demonstrated that proper physical activites and dietary fibers were protective factors (pooled OR<0.8), while fecal mucohemorrhage,chronic diarrhea and polyposis were highly associated with colorectal cancer (all pooled OR>4). The stratified results showed that different OR values of some factors were due to geographic factors or different resourses.CONCLUSION: Risks of colorectal cancer are significantly associated with the histories of intestinal diseases or relative symptoms, high lipid diet, emotional trauma and family history of cancers. The suitable physical activities and dietary fibers are protective factors.

  9. Dynamical tendencies of health consequences caused by competitive risk factors

    The paper deals with the generalized probabilistic approach for analyzing health consequences caused by various exposure factors. Formally basing on the competitive risk theory, it is introduced a general risk model for analysis the influence of environmental risk factors to human health. The usefulness of the model approach is in the opportunity of taking into account: time delay of impact and consequence manifestation; easy comparisons of exposure factors with different nature and various consequences (morbidity and mortality, carcinogenic and genetic); social and environmental components in overall mortality. Preliminary examples of comparative risk analysis are demonstrated on the Russian demography and environmental data with the attempt of characterizing the dynamical tendencies and evolution of introduced risk index. The prospects of the probabilistic approach and the results obtaining on this basis are discussed. (author)

  10. Cytokines and clustered cardiovascular risk factors in children

    Andersen, Lars Bo; Müller, Klaus; Eiberg, Stig;

    2010-01-01

    The aim was to evaluate the possible role of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), low fitness, and fatness in the early development of clustering of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and insulin resistance. Subjects for this cross...... pronounced in fat and unfit children based on the association with CRP levels. The association between fitness and fatness variables, insulin resistance, and clustered risk could be caused by other mechanisms related to these exposures. The role of IL-6 remains unclear....... between CVD risk scores and TNF-alpha and IL-6. C-reactive protein was associated with fitness, fatness, and CVD risk score. This study does not support an association between plasma IL-6 or TNF-alpha and low insulin sensitivity or clustering of CVD risk factors in a young cohort. Inflammation was more...

  11. OSA – a risk factor for stroke

    Ryan CM

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Clodagh M RyanCentre for Sleep Health and Research, University of Toronto/Toronto General Hospital, Toronto, CanadaAbstract: Obstructive sleep apnea is a sleep breathing disorder characterized by recurrent and intermittent hypoxia with continued respiratory effort against a closed glottis. The result of this is a cascade of acute and chronic systemic pathophysiological responses that cause endothelial dysfunction, atherosclerosis and lead to cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease. This article focuses on the clinical evidence linking obstructive sleep apnea and stroke and on the specific mechanisms perpetuating stroke risk in this population.Keywords: stroke, obstructive sleep apnea, brain injury, atherosclerosis, continuous positive airway pressure, outcomes

  12. Persistent postsurgical pain: risk factors and prevention

    Kehlet, Henrik; Jensen, Troels Staehelin; Woolf, Clifford J.

    2006-01-01

    Acute postoperative pain is followed by persistent pain in 10-50% of individuals after common operations, such as groin hernia repair, breast and thoracic surgery, leg amputation, and coronary artery bypass surgery. Since chronic pain can be severe in about 2-10% of these patients, persistent...... chronic pain. Based on information about the molecular mechanisms that affect changes to the peripheral and central nervous system in neuropathic pain, several opportunities exist for multimodal pharmacological intervention. Here, we outline strategies for identification of patients at risk and for...

  13. Prevalence and associated factors of cardio-metabolic risk factors in Iranian seafarers

    Baygi, Fereshteh; Jensen, Olaf C; Qorbani, Mostafa;

    2016-01-01

    S was 14.9%. The common cardio-metabolic risk factors were excess weight (51.1%), abdominal obesity (38.5%), and smoking (27.8%) among Iranian seafarers. In multivariate analysis, age (OR: 1.05, 95% CI: 1.01-1.09) and body mass index (OR: 1.14, 95% CI: 1.01-1.27) were associated with the increase in......BACKGROUND: Since Iran's economy is based on the sale of petroleum products, seafaring is considered a crucial job. Little research has been done on issues related to seafarers' health in Iranian maritime industry. The present study investigated the prevalence and associated factors of cardio-metabolic...... (of elevated total cholesterol, elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and elevated very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol) and general obesity were included as additional cardio-metabolic risk factors. RESULTS: The mean age of the participants was 36.0 ± 10.3 years. The prevalence of Met...

  14. Prevalence and associated factors of cardio-metabolic risk factors in Iranian seafarers

    Baygi, Fereshteh; Jensen, Olaf Chresten

    S was 14.9%. The common cardio-metabolic risk factors were excess weight (51.1%), abdominal obesity (38.5%), and smoking (27.8%) among Iranian seafarers. In multivariate analysis, age (OR: 1.05, 95% CI: 1.01–1.09) and body mass index (OR: 1.14, 95% CI: 1.01–1.27) were associated with the increase in......Background: Since Iran’s economy is based on the sale of petroleum products, seafaring is considered a crucial job. Little research has been done on issues related to seafarers’ health in Iranian maritime industry. The present study investigated the prevalence and associated factors of cardio-metabolic...... (of elevated total cholesterol, elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and elevated very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol) and general obesity were included as additional cardio-metabolic risk factors. Results: The mean age of the participants was 36.0 ± 10.3 years. The prevalence of Met...

  15. Socioeconomic status, negative affect, and modifiable cancer risk factors in African-American smokers.

    Kendzor, Darla E; Cofta-Woerpel, Ludmila M; Mazas, Carlos A; Li, Yisheng; Vidrine, Jennifer Irvin; Reitzel, Lorraine R; Costello, Tracy J; Businelle, Michael S; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S; Cinciripini, Paul M; Wetter, David W

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to describe the prevalence, patterns, and predictors of cooccurring modifiable cancer risk factors among African-Americans seeking smoking cessation treatment and to evaluate previously hypothesized models of the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and health behavior. Overweight/obesity, at-risk alcohol consumption, and insufficient physical activity were measured in 399 African-American smokers. Analyses indicated that 92.8% of participants had at least one cancer risk factor in addition to smoking. Univariate ordinal logistic regression analyses revealed that female gender, unemployment, lower positive affect, and greater negative affect were associated with having a greater number of cancer risk factors. Multivariate analyses yielded similar findings. A structural equation modeling approach indicated that stress/negative affect may function as one pathway linking SES and modifiable cancer risk factors among African-American smokers and that gender has a direct effect on modifiable cancer risk factors. Thus, risk patterns identified within each gender group may guide the development of multiple risk factor interventions for African-American smokers. Stress and negative affect may be an important treatment target within behavioral interventions for African-American smokers of low SES. PMID:18842995

  16. Risk factors for the regional economic growth

    Yevgeniy Sapiro; Tatyana Mirolyubova

    2008-01-01

    The article features principal aspects of economic growth in Permsky Krai as one of the representative regions of present Russia. It determines features of performance of economy sectors in Permsky Krai and specifies structure of the export-oriented sector. The author analyses the factors affecting economic growth in the region given the existing sources of economic growth of Permsky Krai are retained.

  17. An Analysis Of Tensile Test Results to Assess the Innovation Risk for an Additive Manufacturing Technology

    Adamczak Stanisław

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the innovation risk for an additive manufacturing process. The analysis was based on the results of static tensile tests obtained for specimens made of photocured resin. The assessment involved analyzing the measurement uncertainty by applying the FMEA method. The structure of the causes and effects of the discrepancies was illustrated using the Ishikawa diagram. The risk priority numbers were calculated. The uncertainty of the tensile test measurement was determined for three printing orientations. The results suggest that the material used to fabricate the tensile specimens shows clear anisotropy of the properties in relation to the printing direction.

  18. What Are the Risk Factors for Lung Carcinoid Tumors?

    ... Research Get Involved Find Local ACS Learn About Cancer » Lung Carcinoid Tumor » Detailed Guide » What are the risk factors for lung carcinoid tumors? Share this Page Close Push escape to close share window. Print ...

  19. Neonatal Risk Factors for Treatment-Demanding Retinopathy of Prematurity

    Slidsborg, Carina; Jensen, Aksel; Forman, Julie Lyng;

    2016-01-01

    multiple logistic regression model. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Treatment-demanding ROP and its associations to candidate risk factors. RESULTS: Mechanical ventilation (odds ratio [OR], 2.84; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.99-4.08; P < 0.01) and blood transfusion (OR, 1.97; 95% CI, 1.20-3.14; P = 0.01) were......PURPOSE: One goal of the study was to identify "new" statistically independent risk factors for treatment-demanding retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Another goal was to evaluate whether any new risk factors could explain the increase in the incidence of treatment-demanding ROP over time in Denmark....... DESIGN: A retrospective, register-based cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: The study included premature infants (n = 6490) born in Denmark from 1997 to 2008. METHODS: The study sample and the 31 candidate risk factors were identified in 3 national registers. Data were linked through a unique civil registration...

  20. Risk Factors for Late Diagnosis of Rett Syndrome

    J Gordon Millichap

    2015-01-01

    Investigators at Emory University, Atlanta, GA; Stony Brook, New York; University of California, San Diego; and other centers determined the type of physician who makes the Rett syndrome (RTT) diagnosis and identified risk factors for delayed diagnosis.

  1. Behavioral Risk Factor Data: Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2011 to present. BRFSS is a continuous, state-based surveillance system that collects information about modifiable risk factors for chronic diseases and other...

  2. NIH study confirms risk factors for male breast cancer

    Pooled data from studies of about 2,400 men with breast cancer and 52,000 men without breast cancer confirmed that risk factors for male breast cancer include obesity, a rare genetic condition called Klinefelter syndrome, and gynecomastia.

  3. Risk factors for medical complications of acute hemorrhagic stroke

    Jangala Mohan Sidhartha; Aravinda Reddy Purma; Nagaswaram Krupa Sagar; Marri Prabhu Teja; Meda Venkata subbaiah; Muniswami Purushothaman

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess the risk factors leading to medical complications of hemorrhagic stroke. Methods: We conducted an observational study in neurology, emergency and general medicine wards at a tertiary care teaching hospital in Kadapa. We recruited hemorrhagic stroke patients, and excluded the patients have evidence of trauma or brain tumor as the cause of hemorrhage. We observed the subjects throughout their hospital stay to assess the risk factors and complications. Results: During period of 12 months, 288 subjects included in the study, 89% of them identified at least 1 prespecified risk factor for their admission in hospital and 75% of them experienced at least 1 prespecified complication during their stay in hospital. Around 47% of subjects deceased, among which 64% were females. Conclusions: Our study has assessed that hypertension followed by diabetes mellitus are the major risk factors for medical complications of hemorrhagic stroke. Female mortality rate was more when compared to males.

  4. Prognosis and risk factors for intrauterine growth retardation

    Sehested, Line Thousig; Pedersen, Pernille

    2014-01-01

    focusing on risk factors, catch up and neonatal outcome. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This was a retrospective descriptive study of IUGR neonates with a birth weight below 70% of the expected whose mothers were admitted to the Neonatal Ward at Hvidovre Hospital during 2007-2009. Obstetrical and maternal risk...... factors and neonatal growth and outcome at six weeks, five months and 12 months of age were collected. RESULTS: A total of 73 neonates and their mothers were included. Caesarean delivery was given in 78% of the cases. Maternal risk factors included gestational hypertension (33%), smoking (24%) and...... placental infarction (17%). Hypoglycaemic episodes developed in 31% of the neonates. At 12 months, 90% had caught up growth and 7% had a neurologically poor outcome. No infants died. CONCLUSION: Maternal smoking and gestational hypertension are important risk factors for the development of IUGR. Special...

  5. Risk factors for recurrent laryngeal nerve neuropraxia postthyroidectomy.

    Sheahan, Patrick

    2012-06-01

    Despite preservation of the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN), transient vocal cord paralysis (VCP) occurs after 1.2% to 10.9% of thyroidectomies. The objective of this study was to study risk factors for transient VCP after thyroidectomy.

  6. Risk factors for renal dysfunction after total knee joint replacement.

    Hassan, Basim K; Sahlström, Arne; Dessau, Ram B

    2015-12-01

    Renal injury and dysfunction are serious complications after major surgery, which may lead to increased morbidity and mortality. The objective of our study was to identify the possible risk factors for renal dysfunction after total knee joint replacement. A retrospective study was conducted among 702 consecutive primary knee joint replacements performed between January 2009 and December 2012 in our department. Increased postoperative serum creatinine was considered indicative of postoperative renal injury according to RIFLE criteria. Sixty three patients (9.7%) had significant moderate or severe postoperative renal dysfunction in which 8 patients (1.2%) ended with severe and permanent renal impairment. Advanced age, low intraoperative blood pressure, hypertension, general anaesthesia, and prophylactic dicloxacillin were identified as significant risk factors. Male gender and BMI were independent risk factors for postoperative increase in serum creatinine. Smoking, female gender, diabetes mellitus and duration of surgery were not identified as significant risk factors. PMID:26790786

  7. What Are the Risk Factors for Breast Cancer in Men?

    ... well as that of many other diseases and cancers. Testicular conditions Some studies have suggested that certain conditions, ... Breast Cancer In Men? Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Treating Breast Cancer ...

  8. What Are the Risk Factors for Anal Cancer?

    ... have few or no known risk factors. Human papilloma virus (HPV) infection Most squamous cell anal cancers ... to be linked to infection by the human papilloma virus (HPV), the same virus that causes cervical ...

  9. Risk factors of intracranial hemorrhage in premature neonates.

    Nasrin Khalessi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH is an important cause of brain injury in premature neonates. Current study tries to define associated risk factors of IVH in preterm neonates in Aliasghar Children Hospital during 2008 to 2011. In this study, the risk factors have been evaluated in premature neonates with IVH, who had at least one brain sonography since their admission in NICU. A total of 63 premature neonates with IVH were assessed. Mean gestational age was 29.81 (24-34 weeks and mean birth weight was 1290.83±382.96 gr. Other risk factors such as sex, mode of delivery, history of using infertility drugs, maternal disease, maternal hypertension and preeclampsia, lumbar puncture, ventilator therapy and pneumothorax were considered. Because no absolute treatment for IVH is available, identifying risk factors is important in prevention and management of IVH.

  10. Patients’ experiences managing cardiovascular disease and risk factors in prison

    Thomas, Emily H.; Wang, Emily A.; Curry, Leslie A.; Chen, Peggy G.

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite greater risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality in patients with a history of incarceration, little is known about how prisons manage CVD risk factors (CVD-RF) to mitigate this risk. Methods We conducted in-depth interviews with individuals with CVD-RF who had been recently released from prison (n = 26). These individuals were recruited through community flyers and a primary care clinic in Connecticut. Using a grounded theory approach and the constant comparative met...

  11. Factors Influencing Physical Risk Taking in Rock Climbing

    Taylor, Marcus K.; Gould, Daniel R.; Hardy, Lew; Woodman, Tim

    2006-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate factors influencing physical risk taking in the sport of rock climbing. Specifically, the relationships between physical risk taking, sensation seeking, spheres of control, and desirability of control were examined. One hundred five rock climbers from the United States completed a series of surveys measuring each of the above-mentioned psychological variables. As predicted, physical risk taking demonstrated significant positive relationships to both tota...

  12. Risk factors and novel biomarkers in breast cancer

    Fourkala, E.-O.

    2011-01-01

    Efforts continue to identify and validate novel risk factors / biomarkers for breast cancer and improve current risk prediction models in the general population due to ongoing issues with sensitivity and specificity. The overall goal of this PhD study is to add to this effort. Specific aims are to (1) examine which is the best source of getting notified for breast cancer diagnosis in the general population since accurate data is crucial for risk assessment studies (2) investigate the assoc...

  13. 30. Cardiovascular risk factors burden in Saudi Arabia: The africa middle east cardiovascular epidemiological (ace study

    A. Ahmed

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Limited data exit on the epidemiology of cardiovascular risk factors in Saudi Arabia particularly in relation to the differences between local citizens and expatriates. The aim of this analysis is to describe the current prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors among patients attending general practice clinics in Saudi Arabia. In a cross- sectional epidemiological study, the presence of cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidaemia, obesity, smoking, and abdominal obesity was evaluated in stable adult outpatients attending primary care clinics in Saudi Arabia. Groups comparison were made between local Saudi patients and expatriates. A total of 550 participant were enrolled form different clinics in Saudi Arabia (71% were male, mean age was 43 ± 10 years. Nearly half of the study cohort had more than two cardiovascular risk factors (49.6%. Dyslipidemia had the highest prevalence (68.4%. Furthermore, prevalence of hypertension (47.5% vs. 31.4%, dyslipidaemia (75.2% vs. 55.1% and abdominal obesity (63.9% vs. 52.2% were higher among expatriates compare to Saudis (p-value < 0.001. This analysis clearly shows that there is a high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors prevalence in Saudi population. In addition, a significant proportion of patients with risk factors have poor overall control. Programmed community based screening is needed for all cardiovascular risk factors in Saudi Arabia. Increased awareness and improved primary care services may decrease incidence of coronary artery disease and improve overall quality of life.

  14. Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors among Emerging Adults in College

    Abshire, Demetrius Alexander

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation was to examine factors associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk among emerging adults in college aged 18-25 years. CVD risks that develop during this period often persist into adulthood making it an ideal time to target CVD prevention. The specific aims of this dissertation were to 1) explore perceptions…

  15. Tests of risk premia in linear factor models

    F.R. Kleibergen

    2005-01-01

    We show that inference on risk premia in linear factor models that is based on the Fama-MacBeth and GLS risk premia estimators is misleading when the ß’s are small and/or the number of assets is large. We propose some novel statistics that remain trustworthy in these cases. The inadequacy of Fama-Ma

  16. Tests of risk premia in linear factor models

    F. Kleibergen

    2009-01-01

    We show that statistical inference on the risk premia in linear factor models that is based on the Fama-MacBeth (FM) and generalized least squares (GLS) two-pass risk premia estimators is misleading when the β’s are small and/or the number of assets is large. We propose novel statistics, that are ba

  17. Risk Factors for Psychiatric Disturbance in Children with Intellectual Disability

    Koskentausta, T.; Iivanainen, M.; Almqvist, F.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Children with intellectual disability (ID) have a higher risk for psychiatric disturbance than their peers with normal intelligence, but research data on risk factors are insufficient and partially conflicting. Method: The subjects comprised 75 children with ID aged 6-13 years. Data were obtained from case files and the following four…

  18. Individual-Level Risk Factors of Incarcerated Youth

    Pyle, Nicole; Flower, Andrea; Fall, Anna Mari; Williams, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    This systematic review sought to understand the individual characteristics of incarcerated youth within the major risk factor domains identified by the U.S. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP). A comprehensive search of the literature from 1979 to 2013 identified 85 articles of individual-level risk characteristics that…

  19. Familial and Temperamental Risk Factors for Social Anxiety Disorder

    Hirshfeld-Becker, Dina R.

    2010-01-01

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is a common disorder that can lead to significant impairment. In this chapter, the author provides background on the disorder and reviews hypothesized familial and temperamental risk factors. In particular, it highlights the Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) Longitudinal Study of Children at Risk for Anxiety, now…

  20. Early modifiable risk factors for childhood and adolescent mental health

    Leung, Cherry

    2015-01-01

    Childhood and adolescent mental health is a major public health concern. Childhood behavioral problems and low self-esteem can predispose children to future depression. Mental health issues often emerge in adolescence making examination of potential early modifiable risk factors for these three mental health indicators crucial. Potential risk factors for mental health issues often reflect findings from Western settings where confounding by low socioeconomic position may occur, making it diffi...

  1. Bladder cancer, a review of the environmental risk factors

    Letašiová Silvia; Medveďová Alžbeta; Šovčíková Andrea; Dušinská Mária; Volkovová Katarína; Mosoiu Claudia; Bartonová Alena

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Many epidemiological studies and reviews have been performed to identify the causes of bladder cancer. The aim of this review is to investigate the links between various environmental risk factors and cancer of the bladder. Methods A systematic literature search was performed using PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, Scholar Google and Russian Google databases to identify reviews and epidemiological studies on bladder cancer risk factors associated with the environment publish...

  2. Risk factors for cefotaxime resistance in children with pneumonia

    A. A. Made Sucipta; Ida Bagus Subanada; Samik Wahab

    2012-01-01

    Background Pneumonia is a health problem in developing countries, often caused by bacterial agents. The widespread use of cefotaxime, a third-generation of cephalosporin to increased incidence of resistance to this antibiotic. Several studies have reported on risk factors associated with resistance to cefotaxime. Objective To oidentify risk factors for cefoxime resistence in children with pneumonia. Methods We performed a case-control study at Sanglah Hospital between January 2006-Dec...

  3. Is Procidentia a Distinct Disease? Comparison of Risk Factors

    Serdar Aydin

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Total prolapse%u2014in other words, procidentia%u2014refers to the complete eversion of the total length of the vagina. Age, pregnancy, delivery, previous pelvic surgery, and conditions that increase intra-abdominal pressure, such as chronic pulmonary disease, constipation, and obesity are risk factors for pelvic organ prolapse. This study aims to assess the incidence of anterior, posterior, apical, and total prolapse and to determine differences in the risk factors for different vaginal...

  4. Risk Factors for Lower Extremity Tendinopathies in Military Personnel

    Owens, Brett D.; Wolf, Jennifer Moriatis; Seelig, Amber D.; Jacobson, Isabel G.; Boyko, Edward J.; Smith, Besa; Ryan, Margaret A. K.; Gackstetter, Gary D; Smith, Tyler C; ,

    2013-01-01

    Background: Overuse injuries have a significant impact on United States military service members, but research to date has been limited in its ability to assess occupational and behavioral risk factors. Hypothesis/Purpose: To prospectively identify risk factors for the development of lower extremity tendinopathy and plantar fasciitis in United States military personnel. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Methods: Baseline data from the Millennium Cohort Study, a long-term observati...

  5. A Bayesian Approach to Identifying New Risk Factors for Dementia

    Wen, Yen-Hsia; Wu, Shihn-Sheng; Lin, Chun-Hung Richard; Tsai, Jui-Hsiu; Yang, Pinchen; Chang, Yang-Pei; Tseng, Kuan-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Dementia is one of the most disabling and burdensome health conditions worldwide. In this study, we identified new potential risk factors for dementia from nationwide longitudinal population-based data by using Bayesian statistics. We first tested the consistency of the results obtained using Bayesian statistics with those obtained using classical frequentist probability for 4 recognized risk factors for dementia, namely severe head injury, depression, diabetes mellitus, and vascular...

  6. Dietary patterns as risk factors of differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    Elwira Przybylik-Mazurek; Alicja Hubalewska-Dydejczyk; Sylwia Kuźniarz-Rymarz; Małgorzata Kieć-Klimczak; Anna Skalniak; Anna Sowa-Staszczak; Filip Gołkowski; Marta Kostecka-Matyja; Dorota Pach

    2012-01-01

    Nutritional factors are known to be important in the development of different metabolic diseases. The history of nodular or diffuse goiter is closely related to risk of thyroid carcinoma. On account of the function of the thyroid gland, many studies focus on iodine intake.The aim of the study was to assess whether dietary patterns could be risk factors of differentiated thyroid carcinoma.Material/Methods:The case-control study was based on a questionnaire, which included information about die...

  7. RED AND PROCESSED MEAT AND CARDIOVASCULAR RISK FACTOR

    Atalić, Bruno; TOTH, JURICA; ATALIĆ, VLASTA; RADANOVIĆ, DANIJELA; Miškulin, Maja; LUČIN, ANA

    2014-01-01

    Aims: The British National Diet and Nutrition 2000/1 Survey data set records on 1,724 respondents (766 males and 958 females) were analyzed in order to assess the potential influences of red and processed meat intakes on cardiovascular risk factors. Methods: Linear regression of the associations of the red, processed, combination of red and processed, and total meat intakes with body mass index (BMI), systolic blood pressure and plasma total cholesterol as cardiovascular risk factors was cond...

  8. Multiple jeopardy: Risk and protective factors among addicted mothers' offspring

    LUTHAR, SUNIYA S.; CUSHING, GRETTA; Merikangas, Kathleen R.; Rounsaville, Bruce J.

    1998-01-01

    Objectives of this study were to ascertain risk and protective factors in the adjustment of 78 school-age and teenage offspring of opioid- and cocaine-abusing mothers. Using a multimethod, multiinformant approach, child outcomes were operationalized via lifetime psychiatric diagnoses and everyday social competence (each based on both mother and child reports), and dimensional assessments of symptoms (mother report). Risk/protective factors examined included the child sociodemographic attribut...

  9. Transfusion-related acute lung injury: incidence and risk factors

    Toy, Pearl; Gajic, Ognjen; Bacchetti, Peter; Looney, Mark R.; Gropper, Michael A.; Hubmayr, Rolf; Lowell, Clifford A.; Norris, Philip J; Murphy, Edward L; Weiskopf, Richard B.; Wilson, Gregory; Koenigsberg, Monique; Lee, Deanna; Schuller, Randy; Wu, Ping

    2012-01-01

    Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is the leading cause of transfusion-related mortality. To determine TRALI incidence by prospective, active surveillance and to identify risk factors by a case-control study, 2 academic medical centers enrolled 89 cases and 164 transfused controls. Recipient risk factors identified by multivariate analysis were higher IL-8 levels, liver surgery, chronic alcohol abuse, shock, higher peak airway pressure while being mechanically ventilated, current s...

  10. Transfusion-related acute lung injury: Incidence and risk factors

    Toy, P; Gajic, O; Bacchetti, P; Looney, MR; Gropper, MA; Hubmayr, R; Lowell, CA; Norris, PJ; Murphy, EL; Weiskopf, RB; Wilson, G; Koenigsberg, M; Lee, D.; Schuller, R.; Wu, P.

    2011-01-01

    Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is the leading cause of transfusion- related mortality. To determine TRALI incidence by prospective, active surveillance and to identify risk factors by a case-control study, 2 academic medical centers enrolled 89 cases and 164 transfused controls. Recipient risk factors identified by multivariate analysis were higher IL-8 levels, liver surgery, chronic alcohol abuse, shock, higher peak airway pressure while being mechanically ventilated, current ...

  11. Distribution of Retinopathy of Prematurity and Its Risk Factors

    Amirkhosro Ghaseminejad; Pedram Niknafs

    2011-01-01

    Objective This study was conducted to determine the distribution and risk factors of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in premature infants referred to neonates intensive care unit (NICU) of central hospital of Kerman University of Medical Sciences, to obtain primary information on ROP in Kerman, Iran. Methods In a cross sectional prospective study, data of premature infants screened for ROP including possible risk factors and eye examination results were recorded during 2006-2008 and analyzed...

  12. Correlation between B type natriuretic peptide and metabolic risk factors

    Zhu, Wen-hua; Chen, Li-Ying; Dai, Hong-Lei; CHEN, JIAN-HUA; Yan CHEN; Fang, Li-Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Introduction It has been shown that B type natriuretic peptide (BNP) level can indicate cardiovascular disease. However, the association between BNP and metabolic risk factors is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between N-terminal pro-B type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and metabolic risk factors. Material and methods A total of 11,508 subjects were selected from those who underwent health examinations in our hospital. NT-proBNP, waist circumference, blood ...

  13. Exercise and risk factors of osteoporotic fractures in elderly women

    Korpelainen, R.

    2005-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to examine lifestyle risk factors for low bone mass, falls and fractures, and to determine the effect of 30-month exercise trial on bone mass, balance, muscle strength and gait in elderly women. Reliability of an inclinometric method for assessing postural sway was evaluated. Data on risk factors, falls and fractures were collected by questionnaires, and calcaneus and radius bone mass were measured from 1,222 women. Lifetime physical activity, low occ...

  14. Prevalence of health risk factors among fishermen:a review

    Frantzeskou, Elpida; Jensen, Olaf; Linos, Athena

    2014-01-01

    BackgroundStudies have shown that fishermen have a higher mortality from cardiovascular diseases, cancer and accidents. The majority of cardiovascular disease is caused by external risk factors such as the diet, tobacco, alcohol and lack of physical activity. The purpose of this paper was to review the available information on the prevalence of these preventable risk factors in order to strengthen the preventive strategies. MethodsA search for the last decade was done via Medline, Google and ...

  15. Occupational risk factors for female breast cancer: a review.

    Goldberg, M S; Labrèche, F

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Although progress has been made in identifying personal risk factors and in improving treatment for female breast cancer, incidence rates continue to increase. With women now occupying a sizable fraction of the workforce, it is worth inquiring whether there are occupational risk factors for breast cancer. This is a review of occupational studies on female breast cancer. METHODS: Suitable reports and published articles with associations of female breast cancer and occupation were i...

  16. Types of abuse and risk factors associated with elder abuse

    Lacher, Simone; Wettstein, Albert; Senn, Oliver; Rosemann, Thomas; Hasler, Susann

    2016-01-01

    PRINCIPLES Detecting elder abuse is challenging because it is a taboo, and many cases remain unreported. This study aimed to identify types of elder abuse and to investigate its associated risk factors. METHODS Retrospective analyses of 903 dossiers created at an Independent Complaints Authority for Old Age in the Canton of Zurich, Switzerland, from January 1, 2008 to October 31, 2012. Characteristics of victims and perpetrators, types of abuse, and associated risk factors related to...

  17. Quality of Life Factor as Breast Cancer Risks

    Gledo, Ibrahim; Pranjic, Nurka; Parsko, Subhija

    2012-01-01

    Background: Numerous studies have observed risk factors for breast cancer. We investigated the association between quality life factors as breast cancer risks in a case-control study in industrial Zenica- Doboj Canton in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Methods: The case-control study was included 200 women, 100 without (control subjects) and 100 women with diagnosed breast cancer. We used questionnaires about breast cancer risks“ as study tool. Logistic regression was used to compute odds ratios (ORs...

  18. Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Cardiovascular Hyperreactivity in Young Venezuelans

    Sady Montes Amador; Mikhail Benet Rodríguez; Lenia Ramos Rodríguez; Esther Cano Andino; Erick Andrés Pérez Martín

    2015-01-01

    Background: cardiovascular hyperreactivity in young people has been associated with different risk factors and a family history of hypertension. Objective: to determine the association between a family history of hypertension and cardiovascular risk factors with cardiovascular hyperreactivity. Method: a correlational, cross-sectional study was conducted in a universe of 77 young individuals aged 18 to 40 years from the Churuguara parish of the Falcon State in Venezuela. The variables were: ag...

  19. Major histocompatibility complex harbors widespread genotypic variability of non-additive risk of rheumatoid arthritis including epistasis.

    Wei, Wen-Hua; Bowes, John; Plant, Darren; Viatte, Sebastien; Yarwood, Annie; Massey, Jonathan; Worthington, Jane; Eyre, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Genotypic variability based genome-wide association studies (vGWASs) can identify potentially interacting loci without prior knowledge of the interacting factors. We report a two-stage approach to make vGWAS applicable to diseases: firstly using a mixed model approach to partition dichotomous phenotypes into additive risk and non-additive environmental residuals on the liability scale and secondly using the Levene's (Brown-Forsythe) test to assess equality of the residual variances across genotype groups per marker. We found widespread significant (P TYK2 and ANKRD55. Both PTPN22 and TYK2 had evidence of interactions reported elsewhere. We conclude that vGWAS can help discover interacting loci for complex diseases but require large samples to find additional signals. PMID:27109064

  20. Changes in CVD risk factors in the activity counseling trial

    Meghan Baruth

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Meghan Baruth1, Sara Wilcox1, James F Sallis3, Abby C King4,5, Bess H Marcus6, Steven N Blair1,21Department of Exercise Science, 2Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Public Health Research Center, Columbia, SC, USA; 3Department of Psychology, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA, USA; 4Department of Health Research and Policy, 5Stanford Prevention Research Center, Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA; 6Behavioral and Social Sciences Section, Brown University Program in Public Health, Providence, RI, USAAbstract: Primary care facilities may be a natural setting for delivering interventions that focus on behaviors that improve cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors. The purpose of this study was to examine the 24-month effects of the Activity Counseling Trial (ACT on CVD risk factors, to examine whether changes in CVD risk factors differed according to baseline risk factor status, and to examine whether changes in fitness were associated with changes in CVD risk factors. ACT was a 24-month multicenter randomized controlled trial to increase physical activity. Participants were 874 inactive men and women aged 35–74 years. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three arms that varied by level of counseling, intensity, and resource requirements. Because there were no significant differences in change over time between arms on any of the CVD risk factors examined, all arms were combined, and the effects of time, independent of arm, were examined separately for men and women. Time × Baseline risk factor status interactions examined whether changes in CVD risk factors differed according to baseline risk factor status. Significant improvements in total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, the ratio of total cholesterol to HDL-C, and triglycerides were seen in

  1. Metabolic syndrome and risk factors for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    Mônica Rodrigues de Araújo Souza

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome, has been considered the most common liver disease nowadays, which is also the most frequent cause of elevated transaminases and cryptogenic cirrhosis. The greatest input of fatty acids into the liver and consequent increased beta-oxidation contribute to the formation of free radicals, release of inflammatory cytokines and varying degrees of hepatocytic aggression, whose histological expression may vary from steatosis (HS to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH. The differentiation of these forms is required by the potential risk of progression to cirrhosis and development of hepatocellular carcinoma. OBJECTIVE: To review the literature about the major risk factors for NAFLD in the context of metabolic syndrome, focusing on underlying mechanisms and prevention. METHOD: PubMed, MEDLINE and SciELO data basis analysis was performed to identify studies describing the link between risk factors for metabolic syndrome and NAFLD. A combination of descriptors was used, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, metabolic syndrome and risk factors. At the end, 96 clinical and experimental studies, cohorts, meta-analysis and systematic reviews of great impact and scientific relevance to the topic, were selected. RESULTS: The final analysis of all these data, pointed out the central obesity, type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia and hypertension as the best risk factors related to NAFLD. However, other factors were highlighted, such as gender differences, ethnicity, genetic factors and the role of innate immunity system. How these additional factors may be involved in the installation, progression and disease prognosis is discussed. CONCLUSION: Risk factors for NAFLD in the context of metabolic syndrome expands the prospects to 1 recognize patients with metabolic syndrome at high risk for NAFLD, 2 elucidate pathways common to other co-morbidities, 3

  2. What Are the Factors That Put a Pregnancy at Risk?

    ... disease require additional treatments, changes in diet and medication, and frequent visits to their health care provider. 4 Autoimmune disease. Autoimmune diseases include conditions such as lupus and multiple sclerosis. Some autoimmune diseases can increase a women's risk ...

  3. Cervical Artery Dissection: Emerging Risk Factors

    Micheli, S.; Paciaroni, M; Corea, F; Agnelli, G.; M. Zampolini; Caso, V

    2010-01-01

    Cervical artery dissection (CAD) represents an increasingly recognized cause of stroke and the most common cause of ischemic stroke in young adults. Many factors have been identified in association with CAD such as primary disease of arterial wall (fibrodysplasia) and other non-specific diseases related to CAD like Ehlers Danlos-syndrome IV, Marfan’s syndrome, vessel tortuosity. Moreover, an underlying arteriopathy which could be in part genetically determined, has been suspected. The rule of...

  4. Genetic risk factors for type 1 diabetes

    Pociot, Flemming; Lernmark, Åke

    2016-01-01

    the environment is generally needed. The pathogenesis can be divided into three stages: 1, appearance of β-cell autoimmunity, normoglycaemia, and no symptoms; 2, β-cell autoimmunity, dysglycaemia, and no symptoms; and 3, β-cell autoimmunity, dysglycaemia, and symptoms of diabetes. The genetic......Type 1 diabetes is diagnosed at the end of a prodrome of β-cell autoimmunity. The disease is most likely triggered at an early age by autoantibodies primarily directed against insulin or glutamic acid decarboxylase, or both, but rarely against islet antigen-2. After the initial appearance of one of...... these autoantibody biomarkers, a second, third, or fourth autoantibody against either islet antigen-2 or the ZnT8 transporter might also appear. The larger the number of β-cell autoantibody types, the greater the risk of rapid progression to clinical onset of diabetes. This association does not...

  5. Breast cancer risk assessment using genetic variants and risk factors in a Singapore Chinese population

    Lee, Charmaine Pei Ling; Irwanto, Astrid; Salim, Agus; Yuan, Jian-Min; Liu, Jianjun; Koh, Woon Puay; Hartman, Mikael

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Genetic variants for breast cancer risk identified in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in Western populations require further testing in Asian populations. A risk assessment model incorporating both validated genetic variants and established risk factors may improve its performance in risk prediction of Asian women. Methods A nested case-control study of female breast cancer (411 cases and 1,212 controls) within the Singapore Chinese Health Study was conducted to investigat...

  6. The Relationship Between Osteoporotic Risk Factors and Bone Mineral Density

    Şule Şahin Onat

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Since osteoporosis is a preventable disease to some extent, risk factor determination and if possible modification is very important. The aim of this study is to identify the relationship between ostoporotic risk factors and bone mineral density results and emphasize the importance of risk factors. Materials and Methods: The study comprised 103 postmenopausal osteoporotic women. Demographic characteristics, osteoporortic risk factors, lumbar vertebrae and femur neck T scores were recorded. Relationships between lumbar vertebra and femur neck T scores and risk factors were statistically studied. Results: Advanced age, low physical activity status, inadequte dietary calcium intake and vertebral compression fractures were found to be associated with low bone mineral density results in postmenopausal osteoporotic women whereas marital status, occupation, education level and familial fracture history were not. Furthermore early menopause was found to be associated with low femoral T scores and smoking with low lumbar T scores. Tendency to fall and number of chronic diseases were irrelevant to bone mineral density. Conclusions: Risk factor assesment is still important for osteoporosis prevention. (Turkish Journal of Osteoporosis 2013;19:74-80

  7. Risk Factors Associated with Peritoneal-Dialysis-Related Peritonitis

    Julia Kerschbaum

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Peritonitis represents a major complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD. The aim of this paper was to systematically collect data on patient-related risk factors for PD-associated peritonitis, to analyze the methodological quality of these studies, and to summarize published evidence on the particular risk factors. Methods. Studies were identified by searches of Pubmed (1990–2012 and assessed for methodological quality by using a modified form of the STROBE criteria. Results. Thirty-five methodologically acceptable studies were identified. The following nonmodifiable risk factors were considered valid and were associated with an increased risk of peritonitis: ethnicity, female gender, chronic lung disease, coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, antihepatitis C virus antibody positivity, diabetes mellitus, lupus nephritis or glomerulonephritis as underlying renal disease, and no residual renal function. We also identified the following modifiable, valid risk factors for peritonitis: malnutrition, overweight, smoking, immunosuppression, no use of oral active vitamin D, psychosocial factors, low socioeconomic status, PD against patient’s choice, and haemodialysis as former modality. Discussion. Modifiable and nonmodifiable risk factors analyzed in this paper might serve as a basis to improve patient care in peritoneal dialysis.

  8. Factors that modify risks of radiation-induced cancer

    The collective influence of biologic and physical factors that modify risks of radiation-induced cancer introduces uncertainties sufficient to deny precision of estimates of human cancer risk that can be calculated for low-dose radiation in exposed populations. The important biologic characteristics include the tissue sites and cell types, baseline cancer incidence, minimum latent period, time-to-tumor recognition, and the influence of individual host (age and sex) and competing etiologic influences. Physical factors include radiation dose, dose rate, and radiation quality. Statistical factors include time-response projection models, risk coefficients, and dose-response relationships. Other modifying factors include other carcinogens, and other biological sources (hormonal status, immune status, hereditary factors)

  9. Herd- and sow-related risk factors for lameness in organic and conventional sow herds

    Knage-Rasmussen, Kristian Møllegaard; Houe, Hans; Rousing, Tine;

    2014-01-01

    Lameness in sows is an animal welfare problem which also presents an economic challenge to pig producers. Information about the prevalence of herd lameness in organic sows is relatively scarce. The first objective of this study was to establish the prevalence of lameness and to identify risk...... factors associated with sow lameness in Danish outdoor organic sow herds by analysing the association between risk factors at both sow and herd level using clinical records of lameness. A total of 1850 sows from nine organic herds were included in the study. Second, the study examined differences in the...... prevalence of sow lameness between outdoor organic and indoor conventional herds. An additional aim here was to identify risk factors associated with clinical records of sow lameness in Danish sow herds by analysing the association between risk factors with lameness at sow and herd level. One thousand and...

  10. The Influence of Hormonal Factors on the Risk of Developing Cervical Cancer and Pre-Cancer

    Roura, Esther; Travier, Noémie; Waterboer, Tim; de Sanjosé, Silvia; Bosch, F Xavier; Pawlita, Michael; Pala, Valeria; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Margall, Núria; Dillner, Joakim; Gram, Inger T; Tjønneland, Anne; Munk, Christian; Palli, Domenico; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Overvad, Kim; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Mesrine, Sylvie; Fournier, Agnès; Fortner, Renée T; Ose, Jennifer; Steffen, Annika; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Orfanos, Philippos; Masala, Giovanna; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Polidoro, Silvia; Mattiello, Amalia; Lund, Eiliv; Peeters, Petra H; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As; Quirós, J Ramón; Sánchez, María-José; Navarro, Carmen; Barricarte, Aurelio; Larrañaga, Nerea; Ekström, Johanna; Lindquist, David; Idahl, Annika; Travis, Ruth C; Merritt, Melissa A; Gunter, Marc J; Rinaldi, Sabina; Tommasino, Massimo; Franceschi, Silvia; Riboli, Elio; Castellsagué, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In addition to HPV, high parity and hormonal contraceptives have been associated with cervical cancer (CC). However, most of the evidence comes from retrospective case-control studies. The aim of this study is to prospectively evaluate associations between hormonal factors and risk of...... developing cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 (CIN3)/carcinoma in situ (CIS) and invasive cervical cancer (ICC). METHODS AND FINDINGS: We followed a cohort of 308,036 women recruited in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Study. At enrollment, participants.......7). CONCLUSIONS: Even though HPV is the necessary cause of CC, our results suggest that several hormonal factors are risk factors for cervical carcinogenesis. Adherence to current cervical cancer screening guidelines should minimize the increased risk of CC associated with these hormonal risk factors....

  11. Coming to Terms With Risk Factors for Eating Disorders: Application of Risk Terminology and Suggestions for a General Taxonomy

    Jacobi, Corinna; Hayward, Chris; de Zwaan, Martina; Kraemer, Helena C.; Agras, W. Steward

    2004-01-01

    The aims of the present review are to apply a recent risk factor approach (H. C. Kraemer et al., 1997) to putative risk factors for eating disorders, to order these along a timeline, and to deduce general taxonomic questions. Putative risk factors were classified according to risk factor type, outcome (anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa,…

  12. Acute otitis media: characterization and risk factors

    Amalia Nieves Álvarez

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available La otitis media aguda es una de las infecciones respiratorias superiores más frecuentes en la infancia, fundamentalmente en niños menores de seis años. Su elevada incidencia y recidiva se deben a la interacción entre diferentes factores de riesgo. El signo más específico de presentación es la otalgia, acompañándose de fiebre, malestar y disminución de la audición.Por la frecuencia de niños con otitis media aguda en las consultas externas y de urgencia del hospital, nos planteamos conocer su comportamiento en el grupo estudiado. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo longitudinal retrospectivo a los pacientes que acudieron a consulta de Otorrinolaringología con otitis media aguda del Hospital Pediátrico Universitario Centro Habana, ubicado en La Habana, en el período comprendido entre enero de 2006 hasta diciembre de 2009. Se caracterizaron los pacientes en cuanto a edad, sexo, factores predisponentes, manifestaciones clínicas, etapa clínica de la otitis, recurrencia y tratamiento. Resultados: El sexo masculino y los menores de cinco años fueron los más afectados. Los factores de riesgo predominantes fueron el tabaquismo pasivo, asistencia a círculos infantiles y lactancia materna insuficiente. Las manifestaciones clínicas más frecuentes fueron los síntomas catarrales, otalgia y fiebre. La otitis media con trasudado fue la etapa clínica más observada. El grupo de edades que mayor recurrencia presentó fue el de uno a cuatro años y la terapia antimicrobiana con amoxicilina fue la más utilizada.

  13. Acute otitis media: characterization and risk factors

    Amalia Nieves Álvarez

    2011-01-01

    La otitis media aguda es una de las infecciones respiratorias superiores más frecuentes en la infancia, fundamentalmente en niños menores de seis años. Su elevada incidencia y recidiva se deben a la interacción entre diferentes factores de riesgo. El signo más específico de presentación es la otalgia, acompañándose de fiebre, malestar y disminución de la audición.Por la frecuencia de niños con otitis media aguda en las consultas externas y de urgencia del hospital, nos planteamos conocer su c...

  14. Incidence and risk factors of retinopathy of prematurity

    Rasyidah

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP is one of the main causes of visual impairment in premature infants. Objective To determine the incidence and risk factors for ROP in premature infants. Methods This retrospective study included premature infants born in Stella Mmaris Women’s and Children’s Hospital and admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU and Neonatology Department from November 2009 to May 2012. We included all premature infants with body weight (BW 32 weeks with unstable clinical courses who had been screened for ROroP. Data was analyzed with Fisher’s exact test and independent t test. Results Of the 48 premature infants in the study, ROroP was detected in 6 (12.5% of the subjects. Stages of ROP were classified according to the International Classification of of Prematurity. Stage 1 ROP was detected in 1 (2.1% subject; stage 2 ROP was detected in 3 (6.25% subjects; and stage 3 ROP was found in 2 (4.2% subjects. The 2 infants with stage 3 ROroP required surgery. No was detected in infants with GA > 30 weeks or BW > 1250 g. Respiratory distress syndrome (RrDS, sepsis, blood transfusion, and apnea were found to be associated with development of ROP. Duration of oxygen therapy was found to be a significant risk factor for ROP in a comparison of the no ROP group to the ROP group: 14.0 (SD 9.508 days vs. 3.81 (SD 5.218 days, respectively (P<0.05. In addition, the duration of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP usage was also a significant risk factor for ROP, with 1.83 (SD 1.329 days in the ROP group vs. 0.76 (SD 1.122 days in the no ROP group (P<0.05. Conclusions The incidence of ROP in the premature infants in our study is 12.5%. Retinopathy of prematurity is associated with lower BbW, lower GA, lower Apgar score at the 5th minute, RrDS,6,7sepsis, apnea, blood transfusion, aminophylline usage, as well as longer duration of oxygen therapy and CPAP usages. [Paediatr Indones. 2013;53:76-82.].

  15. Incidence and risk factors of retinopathy of prematurity

    Rasyidah

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP is one of the main causes of visual impairment in premature infants.Objective To determine the incidence and risk factors for ROP in premature infants.Methods This retrospective study included premature infants born in Stella Mmaris Women’s and Children’s Hospital and admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU and Neonatology Department from November 2009 to May 2012. We included all premature infants with body weight (BW 32 weeks with unstable clinical courses who had been screened for ROroP. Data was analyzed with Fisher’s exact test and independent t test.Results Of the 48 premature infants in the study, ROroP was detected in 6 (12.5% of the subjects. Stages of ROP were classified according to the International Classification of of Prematurity. Stage 1 ROP was detected in 1 (2.1% subject; stage 2 ROP was detected in 3 (6.25% subjects; and stage 3 ROP was found in 2 (4.2% subjects. The 2 infants with stage 3 ROroP required surgery. No was detected in infants with GA > 30 weeks or BW > 1250 g. Respiratory distress syndrome (RrDS, sepsis, blood transfusion, and apnea were found to be associated with development of ROP. Duration of oxygen therapy was found to be a significant risk factor for ROP in a comparison of the no ROP group to the ROP group: 14.0 (SD 9.508 days vs. 3.81 (SD 5.218 days, respectively (P<0.05. In addition, the duration of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP usage was also a significant risk factor for ROP, with 1.83 (SD 1.329 days in the ROP group vs. 0.76 (SD 1.122 days in the no ROP group (P<0.05.Conclusions The incidence of ROP in the premature infants in our study is 12.5%. Retinopathy of prematurity is associated with lower BbW, lower GA, lower Apgar score at the 5th minute, RrDS,6,7sepsis, apnea, blood transfusion, aminophylline usage, as well as longer duration of oxygen therapy and CPAP usages.

  16. High salt intake: independent risk factor for obesity?

    Ma, Yuan; He, Feng J; MacGregor, Graham A

    2015-10-01

    High salt intake is the major cause of raised blood pressure and accordingly leads to cardiovascular diseases. Recently, it has been shown that high salt intake is associated with an increased risk of obesity through sugar-sweetened beverage consumption. Increasing evidence also suggests a direct link. Our study aimed to determine whether there was a direct association between salt intake and obesity independent of energy intake. We analyzed the data from the rolling cross-sectional study-the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey 2008/2009 to 2011/2012. We included 458 children (52% boys; age, 10±4 years) and 785 adults (47% men; age, 49±17 years) who had complete 24-hour urine collections. Energy intake was calculated from 4-day diary and misreporting was assessed by Goldberg method. The results showed that salt intake as measured by 24-hour urinary sodium was higher in overweight and obese individuals. A 1-g/d increase in salt intake was associated with an increase in the risk of obesity by 28% (odds ratio, 1.28; 95% confidence interval, 1.12-1.45; P=0.0002) in children and 26% (odds ratio, 1.26; 95% confidence interval, 1.16-1.37; Pintake, and diet misreporting, and in adults with additional adjustment for education, smoking, and alcohol consumption. Higher salt intake was also significantly related to higher body fat mass in both children (P=0.001) and adults (P=0.001) after adjusting for age, sex, ethnic group, and energy intake. These results suggest that salt intake is a potential risk factor for obesity independent of energy intake. PMID:26238447

  17. Risk factors for cancer mortality in the general population

    Taghizadeh, Niloofar

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is a complex disease with many possible causes and is currently a major public health problem in the world. Cancer can occur in individuals of all ages; however the risk of cancer increases with age. It has been estimated that 90-95% of all types of cancer can be attributed to environmental and lifestyle risk factors, and hereditary cancers account for approximately 5-10% of all cancer cases. This thesis describes several potential risk factors for mortality due to most common types of...

  18. Neonatal Meningitis: Risk Factors, Causes, and Neurologic Complications

    KHALESSI, Nasrin; Ladan AFSHARKHAS*

    2014-01-01

    How to Cite This Article: Khalessi N, Afsharkhas L. Neonatal Meningitis: Risk Factors, Causes and Neurologic Complications.Iran J Child Neurol. 2014 Autumn;8(4): 46-50.AbstractObjectiveNeonates are at greater risk for sepsis and meningitis than other ages and in spite of rapid diagnoses of pathogens and treatments, they still contribute to complications and mortality. This study determines risk factors, causes, andneurologic complications of neonatal meningitis in  ospitalized neonates.Materi...

  19. LUTS and sleep disorders: emerging risk factor.

    Cakir, Omer Onur; McVary, Kevin T

    2012-12-01

    Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) are commonly associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and represent significant bother among aging men. Bothersome LUTS secondary to BPH, including nocturia, significantly impact men's general health-related quality of life (QoL) as do sleep disturbances. However, very few studies have examined the relationship between the severity of BPH-related urinary symptoms and sleep disturbances. This review analyzes the recent studies that report the association between the bother and severity of LUTS secondary to BPH and the severity of sleep disturbance. In addition, we address the relationship between treating LUTS and the influence that it has on treating the sleep disorders. PMID:23076504

  20. Accumulation of Risk and Promotive Factors Among Young Children in US Military Families.

    Wadsworth, Shelley MacDermid; Cardin, Jean-Francois; Christ, Sharon; Willerton, Elaine; O'Grady, Allison Flittner; Topp, David; Coppola, Elizabeth; Lester, Patricia; Mustillo, Sarah

    2016-03-01

    In the families of the new cohort of war veterans now entering the civilian population in the United States are over two million young children (Cozza, Haskins & Lerner, 2013; Institute of Medicine, 2013). Several noteworthy studies have shown that children exposed to separation from a parent due to combat-related deployment are at elevated risk for a variety of negative consequences (Lester & Flake, 2013). Cozza et al. (2013) argue that existing studies of military children focus too much on the stresses or deficits they experience, failing to give sufficient attention to their strengths, the strengths of their families, or the supports around them. In the current study we focus on risk and promotive factors in the lives of children aged 0-10 in military families. We examine the likelihood of negative outcomes as functions of additive, cumulative, and interactive relationships between risk and promotive factors and children's outcomes. Risk factors, particularly parental depression, community poverty, and cumulative risk, were more strongly associated with children's outcomes than promotive factors. There was, however, a significant risk-protective relationship between accumulations of risk and promotive factors, consistent with promotive conditions operating in a protective fashion under conditions of elevated risk. PMID:27217322