Sample records for additional heating systems

  1. Thermal Efficiency of Power Module “Boiler with Solar Collectors as Additional Heat Source” For Combined Heat Supply System

    Denysova A.E.; Mazurenko A.S.; Denysova A.S.


    The purpose of work is to increase the efficiency of the combined heat supply system with solar collectors as additional thermal generators. In order to optimize the parameters of combined heat supply system the mathematical modeling of thermal processes in multi module solar collectors as additional thermal generators for preheating of the water for boiler have been done. The method of calculation of multi-module solar collectors working with forced circulation for various configurations of ...

  2. Influence of Dispersed Heat-Resistant Additives on Ignition and Combustion of Heterogeneous Systems

    Arkhipov V.A.


    Full Text Available The results of experimental studies of the effect of dispersion of heat-resistant additives powders on ignition and combustion of heterogeneous condensed systems. The method of measuring the time delay ignition conductive and radiant heating, and combustion rate at atmospheric pressure. The effect of additives powders of boron, silicon and titanium dioxide on the ignition and combustion of heterogeneous condensed systems.

  3. Proper use of sludge-control additives in residential heating oil systems

    Tatnall, R.E. [MIC Associates, Inc., Chadds Ford, PA (United States)


    Discussed are various aspects of heating oil `sludge`: How it forms, typical problems it causes, how sludge-control additives work, what should be expected of them, and what happens in a contaminated system when such additives are used. Test results from laboratory and field experiments demonstrate that performance of commercially available additives varies greatly. The concept of `end-of-the-line` treatment is described and compared with bulk fuel treatment. A procedure is described whereby a retailer can test additives himself, and thus determine just what those additives will or will not do for his business. Finally, the economics of an effective treatment program are outlined.

  4. Thermal Efficiency of Power Module “Boiler with Solar Collectors as Additional Heat Source” For Combined Heat Supply System

    Denysova A.E.


    Full Text Available The purpose of work is to increase the efficiency of the combined heat supply system with solar collectors as additional thermal generators. In order to optimize the parameters of combined heat supply system the mathematical modeling of thermal processes in multi module solar collectors as additional thermal generators for preheating of the water for boiler have been done. The method of calculation of multi-module solar collectors working with forced circulation for various configurations of hydraulic connection of solar collector modules as the new result of our work have been proposed. The results of numerical simulation of thermal efficiency of solar heat source for boiler of combined heat supply system with the account of design features of the circuit; regime parameters of thermal generators that allow establishing rational conditions of its functioning have been worked out. The conditions of functioning that provide required temperature of heat carrier incoming to boiler and value of flow rate at which the slippage of heat carrier is not possible for different hydraulic circuits of solar modules have been established.

  5. Electron-beam welding of the grill flanges of the FTU additional heating system

    The research and development program of the fusion sector of ENEA (Italian Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Environment) Frascati center is mainly based on experiments on the Frascati Tokamak Upgrade (FTU) machine. The FTU is a medium-high magnetic field (8 T) tokamak with a radio-frequency (RF) additional heating system (8 MW, 8 GHz) that can heat the plasma to temperatures of fusionistic interest. The RF power is coupled to the plasma by a coupling structure consisting of three grills, each formed of an array of waveguides welded at the terminal flanges by an electron-beam technique. This solution allows highly accurate dimensions and optimum clean-surface conditions of the welded copper joints

  6. Additional adiabatic heating of plasma

    A theoretical possibility of a plasma additional adiabatic heating up to temperatures needed for the begin of D-T thermonuclear fusion reaction, has been found on the base of the polyenergetic conjugation expression, developed in the Thermodynamics of Accumulation Processes. TAP is a branch of the non-equilibrium thermodynamics. The thermodynamics of irreversible processes is another branch of the entire non-equilibrium thermodynamics. TAP deals with the phenomena associated with the introduction, conversion and accumulation of mass or energy or both in the affected, open or closed systems. (author) 2 refs

  7. Effect of Cu addition and heat treatment self-propagating high temperature synthesis reaction in Al-Ti-C system

    Li Y.X.; Hu J.D.; Liu Y.H.; Guo Z.X.


    Effect of Cu addition and heat treatment on the self-propagating high temperature synthesis reaction have been investigated. The results show that Cu reacts with Al to form Al2Cu phase. With the addition of Cu, the combustion temperature of the system decreases and the porosity of the products is reduced, the size of TiC particulate decreases in the SHS reaction products. Specially, when heat treatment is carried out for the sintering products at 800 ◦C, the rigid framework (sintering neck) b...

  8. Evaluation of hydrazine as an additive to provide reducing condition in the main heat transport system of AHWR

    Hydrogen is known to be injected in boiling water reactors to mitigate stress corrosion cracking (SCC) due to the oxidizing environment prevailing in the reactor coolant system. Further this technique has been modified by addition of noble metals such as Pt, Ir so that the required ECP can be achieved by injecting a lower concentration of hydrogen. All the boiling water reactors are pot type reactors. Unlike BWRs, the Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR) is a boiling tube type reactor. Here, boiling takes place in the tube and the coolant exits the core with 18 % steam. The steam containing water exits the core through tail pipes connected to each fuel channel. The material of construction of most of the AHWR main coolant system components is stainless steel. Hence, the possibility of stress corrosion cracking of stainless steel components can not be ruled out if oxidizing chemistry conditions prevail in the coolant. Addition of hydrogen and hydrogen with noble metal may not be effective in controlling the radiolytic generation of oxygen/hydrogen peroxide under the two phase conditions prevailing in the fuel channels (tubes) of the core. Hence, the feasibility of using hydrazine to provide reducing condition to the main heat transport system of AHWR was studied. Computation on the generation of oxidizing species (O2 and H2O2) and their distribution in steam and water phase were made. The difference in the distribution behavior of hydrogen and hydrazine under AHWR condition is explained in the paper. Analytical methods have been standardized to study the distribution of hydrazine, ammonia, oxygen and hydrogen peroxide and tested by carrying out radiolysis of water containing hydrazine etc. Experiments were also carried out in the High Temperature and High Pressure (HTHP) system at WSCD to study the thermal stability of hydrazine and to evaluate its effect on the redox potential and corrosion potential of stainless steel under the simulated AHWR temperature conditions

  9. Additively Manufactured Propulsion System

    Dushku, Matthew; Mueller, Paul


    New high-performance, carbon-fiber reinforced polymer material allows additive manufacturing to produce pressure vessels capable of high pressures (thousands of pounds per square inch). This advancement in turn allows integral hybrid propulsion which is revolutionary for both CubeSats and additively-manufactured spacecraft. Hybrid propulsion offers simplicity as compared to bipropellant liquid propulsion, significantly better safety compared to solid or monopropellant hydrazine propulsion, an...

  10. Ground Source Heat Pump in Heating System with Electronics Monitoring

    NEAMŢU Ovidiu


    Full Text Available The monitoring system is implemented for a ground coupled heat pump in heating/ system. The borehole heat exchangers – which are 150 m long - are filled with a mixture of water and ethilene glycol calledbrine. Metering and monitoring energy consumption is achieved for: heat pump, circulation pumps, additional electrical heating, hot air ventilation systems, control systems with sensors: analog and smart sensors. Instantaneous values are stored in a local computer.

  11. Additive Manufacturing of Heat Pipe Wicks Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Wick properties are often the limiting factor in a heat pipe design. Current technology uses conventional sintering of metal powders, screen wick, or grooves to...

  12. Additional heating power supplies: Design concept and first operation

    Two additional heating methods are used in JET, e.g. the Neutral Injection (NI heating) and the Ion Cyclotron Resonance Heating (RF Heating). In the RF heating, 10 generators each deliver 3MW to their antenna; for the NI heating 16 ion sources each delivering 4.8MW ion beam are installed. In order to minimize the internal dissipation in the generator and hence to obtain the maximum output power of the RF generators under the varying load conditions given by the plasma, the high voltage on the anode of the tetrode is varied. This is one of the main features of the power supply. The requirements for the NI power supply are different to the ones for the RF power supply. The accelerating grid (G1) power supply has to be very stable and must be able to switch off in 10 microsec in case of a breakdown in the accelerating structure and re-apply within 50 ms. Both these functions, voltage regulation and switching on and off are performed by a high power tetrode (protection system). In addition to the accelerating grid power supply, other power supplies (Aux PS) are necessary. They are the arc power supply, the filament power supply, the suppression grid (G3) power supply, the gradient grid (G2) power supply and the bending magnet power supply

  13. Heating systems for heating subsurface formations

    Nguyen, Scott Vinh (Houston, TX); Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX)


    Methods and systems for heating a subsurface formation are described herein. A heating system for a subsurface formation includes a sealed conduit positioned in an opening in the formation and a heat source. The sealed conduit includes a heat transfer fluid. The heat source provides heat to a portion of the sealed conduit to change phase of the heat transfer fluid from a liquid to a vapor. The vapor in the sealed conduit rises in the sealed conduit, condenses to transfer heat to the formation and returns to the conduit portion as a liquid.

  14. Heat rejection system

    Smith, Gregory C.; Tokarz, Richard D.; Parry, Jr., Harvey L.; Braun, Daniel J.


    A cooling system for rejecting waste heat consists of a cooling tower incorporating a plurality of coolant tubes provided with cooling fins and each having a plurality of cooling channels therein, means for directing a heat exchange fluid from the power plant through less than the total number of cooling channels to cool the heat exchange fluid under normal ambient temperature conditions, means for directing water through the remaining cooling channels whenever the ambient temperature rises above the temperature at which dry cooling of the heat exchange fluid is sufficient and means for cooling the water.

  15. 40 CFR 97.76 - Additional requirements to provide heat input data.


    ... heat input data. 97.76 Section 97.76 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Monitoring and Reporting § 97.76 Additional requirements to provide heat input data. The owner or operator of... a flow system shall also monitor and report heat input rate at the unit level using the...

  16. Waste heat recovery system

    Full text: The Konzen in-house designed anaerobic digester system for the POME (Palm Oil Mill Effluent) treatment process is one of the registered Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects in Malaysia. It is an organic wastewater treatment process which achieves excellent co-benefits objectives through the prevention of water pollution and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, which is estimated to be 40,000 to 50,000 t-CO2 per year. The anaerobic digester was designed in mesophile mode with temperature ranging from 37 degree Celsius to 45 degree Celsius. A microorganisms growth is optimum under moderately warm temperature conditions. The operating temperature of the anaerobic digester needs to be maintained constantly. There are two waste heat recovery systems designed to make the treatment process self-sustaining. The heat recovered will be utilised as a clean energy source to heat up the anaerobic digester indirectly. The first design for the waste heat recovery system utilises heat generated from the flue gas of the biogas flaring system. A stainless steel water tank with an internal water layer is installed at the top level of the flare stack. The circulating water is heated by the methane enriched biogas combustion process. The second design utilizes heat generated during the compression process for the biogas compressor operation. The compressed biogas needs to be cooled before being recycled back into the digester tank for mixing purposes. Both the waste heat recovery systems use a design which applies a common water circulation loop and hot water tank to effectively become a closed loop. The hot water tank will perform both storage and temperature buffer functions. The hot water is then used to heat up recycled sludge from 30 degree Celsius to 45 degree Celsius with the maximum temperature setting at 50 degree Celsius. The recycled sludge line temperature will be measured and monitored by a temperature sensor and transmitter, which will activate the

  17. Heat Pipe Systems


    The heat pipe was developed to alternately cool and heat without using energy or any moving parts. It enables non-rotating spacecraft to maintain a constant temperature when the surface exposed to the Sun is excessively hot and the non Sun-facing side is very cold. Several organizations, such as Tropic-Kool Engineering Corporation, joined NASA in a subsequent program to refine and commercialize the technology. Heat pipes have been installed in fast food restaurants in areas where humid conditions cause materials to deteriorate quickly. Moisture removal was increased by 30 percent in a Clearwater, FL Burger King after heat pipes were installed. Relative humidity and power consumption were also reduced significantly. Similar results were recorded by Taco Bell, which now specifies heat pipe systems in new restaurants in the Southeast.

  18. Boiler efficiency increase by building-in the additional heating surfaces (heat utilizer)

    Rationalization of the energy consumption is of general social interest, and therefore it is necessary to undertake all measures that will increase the degree of utilization of the power plants. One way of rationalization in thermal energy production is reducing the temperature of flue gases by building-in the additional heating surfaces in boiler flue channel. The results and analyses of several years measuring of boiler parameters, with built-in heat exchanger, by system of the remote control and data acquisition are presented in this paper. The particular review is given for fuel saving and time of the investment payback. Working on this problem in cooperation with the Institute for energetic and process techniques of the Faculty of Technical Sciences in Novi Sad, hot water boiler of 9.3 MW power is chosen for concrete checking of the previous investigations. The feasibility of building-in additional water heater (utilizer) in flue channel of the existing hot water boiler was established in the paper. From the table and presented diagrams obtained by measuring, and on the basis of tech-economic analysis it can be concluded that there is the complete feasibility of building-in the additional heat exchanger. The building-in costs are very quickly paid back. The efficiency of water reheater in utmost extent depends on the inlet water temperature as well, and it is higher as the inlet water temperature is lower, and even the condensation of flue gases is desirable. At boilers that use natural gas as the fuel there is no danger of low temperature corrosion, as natural gas doesn't contain sulphur. The experience during the natural gas fired boiler exploitation shows that steam condensation from flue gases does not influence the heating surface corrosion in great extent, as the condensate is almost neutral. Due to the mentioned reasons it is desirable for boilers that use natural gas to have as large as possible heating surfaces, which can be obtained at the existing

  19. Additive manufacturing of a compact flat-panel cryogenic gas-gap heat switch

    Vanapalli, S.; Vermeer, C.H.; Tirolien, T.


    State-of-the-art heat switches are only rarely employed in thermal system architectures, since they are rather bulky and have a limited thermal performance (expressed as the heat transfer ratio between the "On" and "Off" state). Using selective laser melting additive manufacturing technology, also k

  20. Low-cost Electromagnetic Heating Technology for Polymer Extrusion-based Additive Manufacturing

    Carter, William G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Rios, Orlando [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Akers, Ronald R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Morrison, William A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)


    To improve the flow of materials used in in polymer additive manufacturing, ORNL and Ajax Tocco created an induction system for heating fused deposition modeling (FDM) nozzles used in polymer additive manufacturing. The system is capable of reaching a temperature of 230 C, a typical nozzle temperature for extruding ABS polymers, in 17 seconds. A prototype system was built at ORNL and sent to Ajax Tocco who analyzed the system and created a finalized power supply. The induction system was mounted to a PrintSpace Altair desktop printer and used to create several test parts similar in quality to those created using a resistive heated nozzle.

  1. A new waste heat district heating system with combined heat and power (CHP) based on ejector heat exchangers and absorption heat pumps

    A new waste heat district heating system with CHP based on ejector heat exchangers and absorption heat pumps (DH-EHE) is presented to decrease heating energy consumption of existing CHP systems by recovering waste heat of exhausted steam from a steam turbine, which could also increase heat transmission capacity of the primary heating network (PHN) by decreasing temperature of the return water of existing PHN. A new ejector heat exchanger based on ejector refrigeration cycle is invented to decrease temperature of the return water of PHN to 30 °C under the designed case. DH-EHE is analyzed in terms of laws of thermodynamics and economics. Compared to conventional district heating systems with CHP (CDH), DH-EHE can decrease consumption of steam extracted from a steam turbine by 41.4% and increase heat transmission capacity of the existing PHN by 66.7% without changing the flow rate of circulating water. The heating cost of DH-EHE is 8.62 ¥/GJ less than that of CDH. Compared to CDH, the recovery period of additional investment of DH-EHE is about two years. DH-EHE shows better economic and environmental benefits, which is promising for both district heating systems for long-distance heat transmission and waste heat district heating systems. - Highlights: • Heating capacity of this new heating system increases by 41% by waste heat recovery. • Temperature of return water of the primary heating network can be reduced to 30 °C. • Heating cost of new heating system is 8.62¥/GJ less than that of conventional one. • The recovery period of additional investment of new heating system is about 2 years. • This new heating system shows better economic and environmental benefits

  2. Calculation of additional heat loss through heat-conducting inclusions (on the example of window reveal

    I.S. Safin


    Full Text Available To solve the problem of improving the energy efficiency in buildings the materials with low thermal conductivity are used. The constructive difficulty of the modern walling and the heterogeneity of materials must be carefully calculated in designing, constructing and operating of buildings.The method of thermotechnical calculation based on the determination of the additional heat loss through heat-conducting inclusions (on the example of the jamb construction unit has been considered in this work. The determination of the value of additional heat flows is carried out by calculating the temperature fields.The results show that the value of the additional heat flows depends not only on the constructive solution of nodes, but also on the architectural design of buildings. That’s why it is necessary to define a reduced thermal resistance for each building’s facade. The proportion of heat loss through consideration of heat-conducting inclusion of major heat loss, calculated by design coats, can reach more than 20%.

  3. Recommender system for nuitrition additives

    Koštrun, Simon


    Food supplements are becoming more and more common every day. The question arises, how to help the user in the selection of them. The goal is to create a web application, which returns to user the most appropriate food supplements, how he or she should take them, what to avoid, where to buy, etc. For implementation, we used validated and extended web technologies. For users and system administrators we use HTML5, CSS and JavaScript, while PHP and MySQL perform the background work. For each us...

  4. Development of heating system

    The detailed designs and development of components of NBI, RF, ECH, and LHCD heating and current drive system have been performed. The prototype ion source for the KSTAR NBI system and the beam line components such as calorimeter, neutralizer, bending magnet, and ion dump had been developed. The power supplies for the stable beam of 120 kV and 65 A including acceleration power supply, deceleration power supply, arc power supply, and filament power supply have been developed. Finally a KSATR NB test facility has been completed at KAERI to test and upgrade the ion source and the beam line components. The RF system is under development. Antenna has been fabricated and tested. Transmission components (vacuum feedthrough, impedance matching and water-cooled transmission line) for transmitting MW level of power have been developed. For transmitter, we optimized performance of 100kW transmitter and completed the fabrication of 300 kW transmitter. We will finalize the procurement specification of 2 MW transmitter system in the third phase. The detailed design of a 500 kW, 84 GHz ECH system has been completed. The gyrotron has been fabricated and successfully tested at Communications and Power Industries(CPI), USA. It is delivered to POSTECH, and under short pulse conditioning test with a pulse modulator operated at 20 μs with 60 Hz repetition rate and a acceleration power supply (APS). The ECH transmission line components are being purchased from General Atomics (GA), USA. The LH frequency of the 2.0 MW LHCD system is chosen to 5.0 GHz for extending the density limit condition. The LHCD system is under design process. The basic design of the 5.0 GHz LHCD launcher (coupler) has been finished using the HFSS and ANSYS programs.

  5. KSTAR RF heating system development

    Kwak, J. G.; Kim, S. K.; Hwang, C. K. (and others)


    Design, high-voltage test, and installation of 6 MW ICRF heating system for KSTAR is completed. The antenna demonstrated satisfactory standoff at high voltages up to 41 kV for 300 sec. The result indicates good power handling capabilities of the antenna as high as 10 MW/m2. This power density is equivalent to RF power coupling of 6 MW into a 4 {omega}/m target plasma, and is typical of advanced tokamak heating scenarios. In addition, vacuum feed through, DC break, and liquid stub developed for 300 sec operation are installed, as well as a 2 MW, 30-60MHz transmitter. The transmitter successfully produced output powers of 600 kW continuously, 1.5{approx}1.8 MW for 300 sec, and 2 MW for 100 msec or shorter pulses. A realtime control system based on DSP and EPICS is developed, installed, and tested on the ICRF system. Initial results from feasibility study indicate that the present antenna and the transmission lines could allow load-resilient operation on KSTAR. Until the KSTAR tokamak start to produce plasmas in 2008, however, hands-on operational experiences are obtained from participating in ICRF heating experiments at ASDEX and DIII-D tokamaks arranged through international cooperation.

  6. Studies Concerning Heat-Resisting Additives for Bitumens

    Livia Groll


    Full Text Available The improvement of causeway’s bitumen adhesiveness is becoming a current practice in our country, especially when is used acid (siliceous aggregate. One of the most important properties of bitumen is its adhesiveness to aggregate, and this property determine the using of bitumen in causeways area. Usually the adhesiveness is defined as the capacity of a binder to cover an aggregate without dispersing itself when touching the water or the traffic aggressions. Therefore, the adhesiveness additives are products that improve the adhesiveness of the bitumen to a certain aggregate. The used additives – ADETEN type (A01 and A03 have a high stocking stability, a low toxicity degree toward the amine, diamine, polyamine-based additives and are liquid products perfectly compatible with all bitumens and easy to use, in comparison to the paste or solid additives, which must be made liquid to be used. But a very important condition, which must be fulfilled by these promoters is the heat-resisting condition.

  7. Operation of Geothermal Heat System in The Hague, Netherlands

    Geothermal Heat system The Hague needs a provision in the shape of a geothermal heat system for additional heat supply to approximately 4000 dwellings in the Southwest of The Hague. Some interested persons and residents have questions about the operation of the system, the linkage to the source of geothermal heat, the need for an auxiliary heat boiler, the emission, the operating hours, the noise and the plume formation. This memo contains an explanation of the various components of the geothermal heat plant.

  8. Heat pipe cooling system with sensible heat sink

    Silverstein, Calvin C.


    A heat pipe cooling system which employs a sensible heat sink is discussed. With this type of system, incident aerodynamic heat is transported via a heat pipe from the stagnation region to the heat sink and absorbed by raising the temperature of the heat sink material. The use of a sensible heat sink can be advantageous for situations where the total mission heat load is limited, as it is during re-entry, and a suitable radiation sink is not available.

  9. Preliminary design package for solar heating and cooling systems


    Summarized preliminary design information on activities associated with the development, delivery and support of solar heating and cooling systems is given. These systems are for single family dwellings and commercial applications. The heating/cooling system use a reversible vapor compression heat pump that is driven in the cooling mode by a Rankine power loop, and in the heating mode by a variable speed electric motor. The heating/cooling systems differ from the heating-only systems in the arrangement of the heat pump subsystem and the addition of a cooling tower to provide the heat sink for cooling mode operation.

  10. Solar Heating System with Building-Integrated Heat Storage

    Heller, Alfred


    Traditional solar heating systems cover between 5 and 10% of the heat demand fordomestic hot water and comfort heating. By applying storage capacity this share can beincreased much. The Danish producer of solar heating systems, Aidt-Miljø, markets such a system including storage of dry sand heated...... by PP-pipe heat exchanger. Heat demand is reduced due to direct solar heating, and due to storage. Heat demand is reduced due to direct solar heating, due to storage and due to lower heat losses through the ground. In theory, by running the system flow backwards through the sand storage, active heating...... can be achieved.The objective of the report is to present results from measured system evaluation andcalculations and to give guidelines for the design of such solar heating systems with building integrated sand storage. The report is aimed to non-technicians. In another report R-006 the main results...

  11. Heat exchanger demonstration expert system

    Bagby, D. G.; Cormier, R. A.


    A real-time expert system intended for detecting and diagnosing faults in a 20 kW microwave transmitter heat exchanger is described. The expert system was developed on a LISP machine, Incorporated (LMI), Lambda Plus computer using Process Intelligent Control (PICON) software. The Heat Exhanger Expert System was tested and debugged. Future applications and extensions of the expert system to transmitters, masers, and antenna subassemblies are discussed.

  12. Heat Pumps in CHP Systems

    Ommen, Torben Schmidt

    capacity constraints limit the efficient operation of the CHP plants. Heat pumps (HPs) can be used to decouple such constraints, but current state of the art are not competitive all things considered. Methods to improve the high energy efficiency are required to match the politically agreed carbon emission......In the current Danish energy system, the majority of electricity and heat is produced in combined heat and power (CHP) plants. With increasing shares of intermittent renewable power production, it becomes a challenging task to match power and heat production to its demand curves, as production...... goals. The presented study investigates the possible introduction of HPs from both a thermodynamic and a system/operation management perspective, in order to find optimal integration schemes in both current and future energy scenarios. Five generic configurations of HPs in district heating (DH) systems...

  13. Boise geothermal district heating system

    Hanson, P.J.


    This document describes the Boise geothermal district heating project from preliminary feasibility studies completed in 1979 to a fully operational system by 1983. The report includes information about the two local governments that participated in the project - the City of Boise, Idaho and the Boise Warm Springs Water District. It also discusses the federal funding sources; the financial studies; the feasibility studies conducted; the general system planning and design; design of detailed system components; the legal issues involved in production; geological analysis of the resource area; distribution and disposal; the program to market system services; and the methods of retrofitting buildings to use geothermal hot water for space heating. Technically this report describes the Boise City district heating system based on 170/sup 0/F water, a 4000 gpm production system, a 41,000 foot pipeline system, and system economies. Comparable data are also provided for the Boise Warm Springs Water District. 62 figs., 31 tabs.

  14. Supply temperature control concepts in heat pump heating systems

    Huchtemann, Kristian


    In recent years, electrically driven compression heat pumps have come to be widely used for the heating of buildings. Their efficiency strongly depends on the temperature lift which is influenced by the supply temperature of the heat sink. When used with radiator heating systems it is challenging to operate heat pumps efficiently because high supply temperatures are required. Therefore, in order to efficiently operate heat pumps, this work analyses advanced control concepts for heatpump heati...

  15. Caustic addition system operability test procedure

    This test procedure provides instructions for performing operational testing of the major components of the 241-AN-107 Caustic Addition System by WHC and Kaiser personnel at the Rotating Equipment Shop run-in pit (Bldg. 272E)

  16. Estimation of Heating Device‘s Convective Heat Transfer of Heat Supply Systems with Rotational Heat Generator

    A. Nesenchuk


    Full Text Available In this article, on the base of heat exchange analysis in heat supply systems with rotational heat generator, a calculated formula for estimation of heat transfer from the surface of heating device is obtained, taking into account its probability (random orientation in space. It is shown the most probable position of heating devices in heating system of mobile object.

  17. Estimation of Heating Device‘s Convective Heat Transfer of Heat Supply Systems with Rotational Heat Generator

    A. Nesenchuk; I. Iokova; T. Rizova; P. Lasij; D. Shklovchik; Z. Aidarova


    In this article, on the base of heat exchange analysis in heat supply systems with rotational heat generator, a calculated formula for estimation of heat transfer from the surface of heating device is obtained, taking into account its probability (random) orientation in space. It is shown the most probable position of heating devices in heating system of mobile object.

  18. Prototype solar heating and combined heating cooling systems


    The design and development of eight prototype solar heating and combined heating and cooling systems is discussed. The program management and systems engineering are reported, and operational test sites are identified.

  19. CAREM-25: Residual heat removal system

    The objective of this work was the definition and consolidation of the residual heat removal system for the CAREM 25 reactor. The function of this system is cool down the primary circuit, removing the core decay heat from hot stand-by to cold shutdown and during refueling. In addition, this system heats the primary water from the cold shutdown condition to hot stand-by condition during the reactor start up previous to criticality. The system has been designed according to the requirements of the standards: ANSI/ANS 51.1 'Nuclear safety criteria for the design of stationary PWR plants'; ANSI/ANS 58.11 'Design criteria for safe shutdown following selected design basis events in light water reactors' and ANSI/ANS 58.9 'Single failure criteria for light water reactor safety-related fluid systems'. The suggested design fulfills the required functions and design criteria standards. (author)

  20. Solar heating systems. Part 1

    Results of a survey, undertaken by a Danish specialist firm, concerning solar heating systems. The main aim of the analysis was to build up a basis for the choice of a strategy for a campaign for marketing these systems. The survey was founded on telephone interviews with ca. 500 house-owners located throughout the country. Questions posed related to the individuals' current mode of space heating and future wishes in this respect, the amount of acquired information on the subject and the nature of considerations regarding acquisition, the level of information acquired and the choice of information sources, the amount of realistic information on prices, possible subsidies and oil savings related to the supplementary use of solar energy, the name of the relevant commercial supplier and attitudes to a number of aspects connected with the solar heating systems. The results are presented by means of a short explanatory text and a large volume of data. Generally speaking, it is concluded that most people in Denmark are reasonably well-informed on solar heating systems, and that they take environmental considerations seriously. Differences of opinion were related to the fact that some felt that the system itself, placed on roofs, was ugly and could perhaps appear pretentious. Only 5% of the interviewed persons had actually been in contact with an installator, although the majority had a positive attitude towards solar heating systems. (AB)

  1. Competitive solar heating systems for residential buildings

    Furbo, Simon; Thür, Alexander; Fiedler, Frank;


    The paper describes the ongoing research project “Competitive solar heating systems for residential buildings”. The aim of the project is to develop competitive solar combisystems which are attractive to buyers. The solar combisystems must be attractive compared to traditional energy systems, both...... onto the market. In Denmark and Norway the focus is on solar heating/natural gas systems, and in Sweden and Latvia the focus is on solar heating/pellet systems. Additionally, Lund Institute of Technology and University of Oslo are studying solar collectors of various types being integrated into the......, are the universities: Technical University of Denmark, Dalarna University, University of Oslo, Riga Technical University and Lund Institute of Technology, as well as the companies: Metro Therm A/S (Denmark), Velux A/S (Denmark), Solentek AB (Sweden) and SolarNor (Norway). The project consists of a...


    Y. Baradey


    Full Text Available Energy conversion technologies, where waste heat recovery systems are included, have received significant attention in recent years due to reasons that include depletion of fossil fuel, increasing oil prices, changes in climatic conditions, and global warming. For low temperature applications, there are many sources of thermal waste heat, and several recovery systems and potential useful applications have been proposed by researchers [1-4]. In addition, many types of equipment are used to recover waste thermal energy from different systems at low, medium, and high temperature applications, such as heat exchangers, waste heat recovery boiler, thermo-electric generators, and recuperators. In this paper, the focus is on waste heat recovery from air conditioners, and an efficient application of these energy resources. Integration of solar energy with heat pump technologies and major factors that affect the feasibility of heat recovery systems have been studied and reviewed as well. KEYWORDS: waste heat recovery; heat pump.

  3. Loop heat pipes - highly efficient heat-transfer devices for systems of sun heat supply

    Maydanik, Yu. [Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation). Inst. of Thermophysics


    Loop heat pipes (LHPs) are hermetic heat-transfer devices operating on a closed evaporation-condensation cycle with the use of capillary pressure for pumping the working fluid [1]. In accordance with this, they possess all the main advantages of conventional heat pipes, but, as distinct from the latter, have a considerably higher heat-transfer capacity, especially when operating in the ''antigravity'' regime, when heat is transferred from above downwards. Besides, LHPs possess a higher functional versatility, are adaptable to different operating conditions and provide great scope for various design embodiments. This is achieved at the expense of both the original design of the device and the properties of the wick - a special capillary structure used for the creation of capillary pressure. The LHP schematic diagram is given in Fig. 1. The device contains an evaporator and a condenser - heat exchanger connected by means of smooth-walled pipe-lines with a relatively small diameter intended for separate motion of vapor and liquid. At present loop heat pipes are most extensively employed in thermoregulation systems of spacecrafts. Miniature LHPs are used for cooling electronics and computers. At the same time there exists a considerable potential of using these devices for the recovery of low-grade (waste) heat from different sources, and also in systems of sun heat supply. In the latter case LHPs may serve as an efficient heat-transfer link between a sun collector and a heat accumulator, which has a low thermal resistance and does not consume any additional energy for pumping the working fluid between them. (orig.)

  4. Geothermal heat-pump systems of heat supply

    The data on the multilayer operation of the objects, located in the climatic conditions of the central area of Russia and equipped with the geothermal heat-pumping systems of the heat supply are presented. The results of the analytical studies on evaluating the geothermal heat-pumping systems of the heat supply integration efficiency into the structure of the energy supply system, prevailing in the country, are presented


    A. I. Kolosov


    Full Text Available Problem statement. The paper discusses the problem of estimation of prospects of heat accumulation in the combined systems of heat supply with the use of low potential energy of renewable sources (sun and ground and heat pumps for increase of their potential.Results and conclusions. The use of heat accumulators in combined heating systems that utilize low-potential solar and ground energy as primary energy sources and heat pumps to boost the po-tential of the latter was discussed. A method of calculating ground heat exchangers that use the heat pump cycle to increase a thermal potential of renewable energy sources was set forth. An at-tempt was made at addressing the problem of heat and mass transfer in ground when ground ac-cumulators like “a Field’s tube” are used: a geothermal circulation system comprises two wells (pumping and operational.


    A. I. Kolosov; A. A. Sedaev


    Problem statement. The paper discusses the problem of estimation of prospects of heat accumulation in the combined systems of heat supply with the use of low potential energy of renewable sources (sun and ground) and heat pumps for increase of their potential.Results and conclusions. The use of heat accumulators in combined heating systems that utilize low-potential solar and ground energy as primary energy sources and heat pumps to boost the po-tential of the latter was discussed. A method o...

  7. Model Scramjet Inlet Unstart Induced by Mass Addition and Heat Release

    Im, Seong-Kyun; Baccarella, Damiano; McGann, Brendan; Liu, Qili; Wermer, Lydiy; Do, Hyungrok


    The inlet unstart phenomena in a model scramjet are investigated at an arc-heated hypersonic wind tunnel. The unstart induced by nitrogen or ethylene jets at low or high enthalpy Mach 4.5 freestream flow conditions are compared. The jet injection pressurizes the downstream flow by mass addition and flow blockage. In case of the ethylene jet injection, heat release from combustion increases the backpressure further. Time-resolved schlieren imaging is performed at the jet and the lip of the model inlet to visualize the flow features during unstart. High frequency pressure measurements are used to provide information on pressure fluctuation at the scramjet wall. In both of the mass and heat release driven unstart cases, it is observed that there are similar flow transient and quasi-steady behaviors of unstart shockwave system during the unstart processes. Combustion driven unstart induces severe oscillatory flow motions of the jet and the unstart shock at the lip of the scramjet inlet after the completion of the unstart process, while the unstarted flow induced by solely mass addition remains relatively steady. The discrepancies between the processes of mass and heat release driven unstart are explained by flow choking mechanism.

  8. Additive Manufacturing for Cost Efficient Production of Compact Ceramic Heat Exchangers and Recuperators

    Shulman, Holly [Ceralink Incorporated, Troy, NY (United States); Ross, Nicole [Ceralink Incorporated, Troy, NY (United States)


    An additive manufacture technique known as laminated object manufacturing (LOM) was used to fabricate compact ceramic heat exchanger prototypes. LOM uses precision CO2 laser cutting of ceramic green tapes, which are then precision stacked to build a 3D object with fine internal features. Modeling was used to develop prototype designs and predict the thermal response, stress, and efficiency in the ceramic heat exchangers. Build testing and materials analyses were used to provide feedback for the design selection. During this development process, laminated object manufacturing protocols were established. This included laser optimization, strategies for fine feature integrity, lamination fluid control, green handling, and firing profile. Three full size prototypes were fabricated using two different designs. One prototype was selected for performance testing. During testing, cross talk leakage prevented the application of a high pressure differential, however, the prototype was successful at withstanding the high temperature operating conditions (1300 °F). In addition, analysis showed that the bulk of the part did not have cracks or leakage issues. This led to the development of a module method for next generation LOM heat exchangers. A scale-up cost analysis showed that given a purpose built LOM system, these ceramic heat exchangers would be affordable for the applications.

  9. Calcium bromide hydration for heat storage systems

    Ai Niwa; Noriyuki Kobayashi


    A chemical reaction is a common and simple way to produce heat for a heat storage system. The reaction produces heat energy without the use of electricity or fuel. The goal of this study was to develop a heat storage system for use in automobiles, which is able to provide heat rapidly via a hydration reaction. A heat storage system without an evaporator stores high-density heat and has a high heat output rate since the solid–liquid product that is formed is transferred as a heat medium to the...

  10. 添加回热回质器的太阳能恒温沼气系统性能%Performance of solar thermostatic marsh gas system with additional heat and mass recycling implement

    李金平; 翟盼盼; 周丹丹


    为了提高太阳能恒温沼气系统的太阳能利用率,给系统添加回热回质器,通过模拟新旧系统的换热过程,对新系统性能进行研究.根据兰州地区典型年最冷月气象资料计算的结果显示,新系统在30℃发酵条件下,回热回质器每天回热过程需要41 min,可把进料系统中的水由5℃提升至17.5℃;添加回热回质器后系统每日能耗从229~259 MJ降低到150~180 MJ,回收热量2 436.2 MJ,可节约太阳能集热器面积24.8 m2,新系统能耗降低到原系统总能耗的67.7%.研究结果也适用于其他热源加热的恒温沼气系统.%In order to improve the utilization rate of the solar energy in the solar thermostatic marsh gas system, a heat and mass recycling implement was added into this system. The performance of this system was investigated through the simulation of heat exchanging process in the original and new system. It was shown by the result of calculation of based on the meteorological data of the coldest month in typical year in Lanzhou area that the heat and mass recycling implement would need 41 min every day for the recycle during fermentation process at 30 ℃ and could increase the temperature of the water in the feed system from 5℃ to 17. 5 ℃. The energy consumption would be reduced from 220—260 MJ/d to 150—170 MJ/d and the heat recovery was 2 436. 2 MJ, saving the area of the solar collector by 24. 8 m2. Compared with that of original system, the total energy consumption of new system was reduced by 32. 3%. The investigation result would be as well suitable for other heat sources in the thermostatic marsh gas system.

  11. Performance enhancement of a household refrigerator by addition of latent heat storage

    Azzouz, K.; Leducq, D. [Cemagref: Refrigerating Processes Unit, Parc de Tourvoie BP 44, 92163 Antony (France); Gobin, D. [Univ Pierre et Marie Curie, CNRS, Lab FAST, F-91405 Orsay (France)


    This paper studies the effect of adding a phase change material (PCM) slab on the outside face of a refrigerator evaporator. A dynamic model of the vapour compression cycle including the presence of the phase change material and its experimental validation is presented. The simulation results of the system with PCM show that the addition of thermal inertia globally enhances heat transfer from the evaporator and allows a higher evaporating temperature, which increases the energy efficiency of the system. The energy stored in the PCM is yielded to the refrigerator cell during the off cycle and allows for several hours of continuous operation without power supply. (author)

  12. Heat exchanges in coarsening systems

    This paper is a contribution to the understanding of the thermal properties of ageing systems where statistically independent degrees of freedom with greatly separated time scales are expected to coexist. Focusing on the prototypical case of quenched ferromagnets, where fast and slow modes can be respectively associated with fluctuations in the bulk of the coarsening domains and in their interfaces, we perform a set of numerical experiments specifically designed to compute the heat exchanges between different degrees of freedom. Our studies promote a scenario with fast modes acting as an equilibrium reservoir to which interfaces may release heat through a mechanism that allows fast and slow degrees to maintain their statistical properties independently

  13. Rankine-cycle heating and cooling systems


    Design for domestic or commercial solar heating and cooling system based on rankine heat pump cycle includes detailed drawings, performance data, equipment specifications, and other pertinent information.

  14. Facets and cuts from additive systems

    Araoz, J.


    Integer Program Facets with non-negative entries could be derived from Additive System Problems, like Semigroup or Gomory`s Group Problems. These facets can be used as cuts for Branch and Cuts Algorithms. In fact, any Master Problem facet with some equal coefficients came from lifting a facet of a easily related Multivalued Additive System. A morphism type relation between problems allow us to obtain facets for Master Problems or cuts for Integer Programs. We use Knapsack Problems as examples either to present results about sequential lifting for non-Master Problems, pseudo-morphisms for facet generation for Master Problems and cut generation for Integer Programs solving small subadditive linear programs or to state open problems.

  15. Study of plutonium-addition systems

    Steady state phase diagrams and calculated values of concentrations on the solid and liquid curves, the steady state distribution coefficient and thermodynamic control are presented for temperatures ranging from the eutectic reaction temperatures to the Pu melting point temperature for binary systems plutonium-addition (Mg, Al, Si, Ti, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, Zr, Ru, Os, Th, U, Np). (J.P.)

  16. Design manual. [High temperature heat pump for heat recovery system

    Burch, T.E.; Chancellor, P.D.; Dyer, D.F.; Maples, G.


    The design and performance of a waste heat recovery system which utilizes a high temperature heat pump and which is intended for use in those industries incorporating indirect drying processes are described. It is estimated that use of this heat recovery system in the paper, pulp, and textile industries in the US could save 3.9 x 10/sup 14/ Btu/yr. Information is included on over all and component design for the heat pump system, comparison of prime movers for powering the compressor, control equipment, and system economics. (LCL)

  17. Calcium bromide hydration for heat storage systems

    Ai Niwa


    Full Text Available A chemical reaction is a common and simple way to produce heat for a heat storage system. The reaction produces heat energy without the use of electricity or fuel. The goal of this study was to develop a heat storage system for use in automobiles, which is able to provide heat rapidly via a hydration reaction. A heat storage system without an evaporator stores high-density heat and has a high heat output rate since the solid–liquid product that is formed is transferred as a heat medium to the object that requires heat. The exothermic heat produced from the solid–liquid reaction was measured, and the relationship between the equivalence ratio and the reaction heat was evaluated. The heat output and heat recovered by the heat storage system, which comprised a reaction vessel and a heat exchanger, were measured. We selected solid CaBr2 because it was the best metal halide for a hydration reaction and had a high heat yield from the dissolution reaction. With this system, we were able to achieve a heat recovery rate of 582 kJ/L-H2O. We found no degradation in the chemical composition of CaBr2 after it being recycled 100 times.

  18. Comprehensive Evaluation and Prediction of Enhancement of Boiling Heat Transfer with Additives


    A model of evaluation and prediction of enhancement of boiling heat transfer with additives has been propoeed according to fuzzy fundamentals. Correlative appraisement of boiling heat transfer augmentation was done with the model based on 39 additives which were tested by the authors and other researchers. The results show that the evaluation of 35 additives is consistent with experiments, which means that the accuracy of the model is 89.7 percent. In addition, the prediction of the ability of boiling heat transfer enhancement with sodium oleate,polyethylene glycol and Tween-40 is also in good agreement with correspondent experiments.

  19. Compact seasonal PCM heat storage for solar heating systems

    Dannemand, Mark

    Space heating of buildings and preparation of domestic hot water accounts for a large part of the society’s energy consumption. Solar radiation is an abundant and renewable energy source which can be harvested by solar collectors and used to cover heating demands in the built environment....... The seasonal availability of solar energy does however not match with the heating demands in buildings which typically are large in winter periods when limited solar energy is available. Heat can be stored over a few days in water stores but continuous heat losses limits the storage periods. The possibility...... of storing heat from summer where solar energy is widely available to winter periods where the heating demands are large, allows for implementing more renewable energy in our energy system. The phase change material (PCM) sodium acetate trihydrate (SAT) melts at 58 °C. The melting process requires...

  20. Heat pumps in combined heat and power systems

    Ommen, Torben Schmidt; Markussen, Wiebke Brix; Elmegaard, Brian


    of the considered cases. When considering a case where the heat pump is located at a CHP (combined heat and power) plant, a configuration that increases the DH return temperature proposes the lowest operation cost, as low as 12 EUR MWh-1 for a 90 °C e 40 °C DH network. Considering the volumetric heating capacity......Heat pumps have previously been proposed as a way to integrate higher amounts of renewable energy in DH (district heating) networks by integrating, e.g., wind power. The paper identifies and compares five generic configurations of heat pumps in DH systems. The operational performance......, a third configuration is superior in all cases. Finally, the three most promising heat pump configurations are integrated in a modified PQ-diagram of the CHP plant. Each show individual advantages, and for two, also disadvantages in order to achieve flexible operation....

  1. Lighting system with heat distribution face plate

    Arik, Mehmet; Weaver, Stanton Earl; Stecher, Thomas Elliot; Kuenzler, Glenn Howard; Wolfe, Jr., Charles Franklin; Li, Ri


    Lighting systems having a light source and a thermal management system are provided. The thermal management system includes synthetic jet devices, a heat sink and a heat distribution face plate. The synthetic jet devices are arranged in parallel to one and other and are configured to actively cool the lighting system. The heat distribution face plate is configured to radially transfer heat from the light source into the ambient air.

  2. Decay Heat Removal System of Monju

    MONJU has three decay heat removal systems. The intermediate heat exchanger of the decay heat removal system is incorporated within the main IHX shell, and the heat from the secondary system is rejected to the air. Forced circulation is adopted for both primary and secondary coolant, though natural circulation capability is designed into the plant itself. Feasibility of rejecting the decay heat through steam plant is also being studied. In this paper, MONJU's decay heat removal system design, operational procedures, and the considerations behind the concept will be presented. (author)

  3. Eddy damping effect of additional conductors in superconducting levitation systems

    Jiang, Zhao-Fei; Gou, Xiao-Fan


    Passive superconducting levitation systems consisting of a high temperature superconductor (HTSC) and a permanent magnet (PM) have demonstrated several fascinating applications such as the maglev system, flywheel energy storage. Generally, for the HTSC-PM levitation system, the HTSC with higher critical current density Jc can obtain larger magnetic force to make the PM levitate over the HTSC (or suspended below the HTSC), however, the process of the vibration of the levitated PM, provides very limited inherent damping (essentially hysteresis). To improve the dynamic stability of the levitated PM, eddy damping of additional conductors can be considered as the most simple and effective approach. In this article, for the HTSC-PM levitation system with an additional copper damper attached to the HTSC, we numerically and comprehensively investigated the damping coefficient c, damping ratio, Joule heating of the copper damper, and the vibration frequency of the PM as well. Furthermore, we comparatively studied four different arrangements of the copper damper, on the comprehensive analyzed the damping effect, efficiency (defined by c/VCu, in which VCu is the volume of the damper) and Joule heating, and finally presented the most advisable arrangement.

  4. Additive layer manufactured sinter-style aluminium/ammonia heat pipes

    Masoud Ameli, Seied


    A novel heat pipe (HP) manufacturing method has been developed based on an additive layer manufacturing technique called “selective laser melting” or SLM. This innovation is expected to benefit current applications of aluminium/ammonia heat pipes in space and terrestrial projects as well as many new HP applications. The project was jointly sponsored by the Northumbria University and Thermacore, a world leading heat pipe manufacturing company in the UK, and formed the feasibility stage of ...

  5. Ecological Optimization and Parametric Study of an Irreversible Regenerative Modified Brayton Cycle with Isothermal Heat Addition

    Vivek Tiwari; Subhash Chandra Kaushik; Sudhir Kumar Tyagi


    Abstract: An ecological optimization along with a detailed parametric study of an irreversible regenerative Brayton heat engine with isothermal heat addition have been carried out with external as well as internal irreversibilities. The ecological function is defined as the power output minus the power loss (irreversibility) which is ambient temperature times the entropy generation rate. The external irreversibility is due to finite temperature difference between the heat engine and the exter...

  6. Optimization of Temperature Schedule Parameters on Heat Supply in Power-and-Heat Supply Systems

    V. A. Sednin


    Full Text Available The paper considers problems concerning optimization of a temperature schedule in the district heating systems with steam-turbine thermal power stations having average initial steam parameters. It has been shown in the paper that upkeeping of an optimum network water temperature permits to increase an energy efficiency of heat supply due to additional systematic saving of fuel. 

  7. Optimization of Temperature Schedule Parameters on Heat Supply in Power-and-Heat Supply Systems

    V. A. Sednin; A. V. Sednin; M. L. Bogdanovich


    The paper considers problems concerning optimization of a temperature schedule in the district heating systems with steam-turbine thermal power stations having average initial steam parameters. It has been shown in the paper that upkeeping of an optimum network water temperature permits to increase an energy efficiency of heat supply due to additional systematic saving of fuel. 


    Shah, Louise Jivan; Furbo, Simon

    Two simulation models have been used to analyse the heat storage design’s influence on the thermal performance of solar domestic hot water (SDHW) systems. One model is especially designed for traditional SDHW systems based on a heat storage design where the solar heat exchanger is a built-in spiral...... of the tank design’s influence on the thermal performance of the systems is possible. By means of the calculations design rules for the two heat storage types are proposed....

  9. Effect of sulfur addition and heat treatment on electrical conductivity of barium vanadate glasses containing iron

    Highlights: → Selected glasses of V2O5-BaO-5Fe2O3 system have been transformed into nanomaterials by annealing at temperature close to crystallization temperature (Tc) for 1 h. → Glass ceramic nanocrystals are important because of their physical properties which are not obtainable in other classes of materials. → Crystal and grain sizes are the most significant structural parameters in electronic nanocrystalline glassy phases. → These phases have very high electrical conductivity, hence glass-ceramic nanocrystals are expected to be used, for example, as a gas sensor. - Abstract: Six glass samples with a composition of 75V2O5 + 10BaO + 15Fe2O3 mol%, with 0, 10, 15, 20, and 25 wt% of sulfur were prepared by using a quenching method. The samples were measured by XRD, DSC, TEM, Moessbauer spectrometry and D.C. conductivity. The prepared samples were heat treated at temperature close to their crystallization temperatures for 1 h, and then the previous measurements were repeated. The results showed that the treatment process caused the formation of V2O5 and FeVO4 nanocrystals with size of 17-25 nm dispersed in the glass matrix. The addition of sulfur reduced only the vanadium ions to V4+, while it was found that iron ions were Fe3+ only. D.C. conduction enhanced due to the small polaron or electron hopping from V4+ to V5+ ions. The heat treated samples exhibit much higher conductivity and much lower activation energy than the as-prepared glasses. The heat treated samples showed decreased thermal stability with the addition of sulfur. This considerable enhancement of electrical conductivity after nanocrystallization referred to the formation of extensive and dense network of electronic conduction paths which are situated between V2O5 nanocrystals and their surfaces.

  10. Influence of supplemental heat addition on performance of pilot-scale bioreactor landfills.

    Abdallah, Mohamed; Kennedy, Kevin; Narbaitz, Roberto; Warith, Mostafa; Sartaj, Majid


    Implementation of supplemental heat addition as a means of improving bioreactor landfill performance was investigated. The experimental work was conducted with two pilot-scale bioreactor setups (control cell and heated cell) operated for 280 days. Supplemental heat was introduced by recirculating leachate heated up to 35 °C compared to the control which used similar quantities of leachate at room temperature (21 ± 1 °C). The temporal and spatial effects of recirculating heated leachate on the landfill internal temperature were determined, and performance was assessed in terms of leachate parameters and biogas production. Recirculation of heated leachate helped establish balanced anaerobic microbial consortia that led to earlier (70 days) and greater (1.4-fold) organic matter degradation rates, as well as threefold higher methane production compared to the non-heated control. Despite the significant enhancements in performance resulting from supplemental heat addition, heated leachate recirculation did not significantly impact waste temperatures, and the effects were mainly restricted to short periods after recirculation and mostly at the upper layers of the waste. These findings suggest that improvements in bioreactor landfill performance may be achieved without increasing the temperature of the whole in-place waste, but rather more economically by raising the temperature at the leachate/waste interface which is also exposed to the maximum moisture levels within the waste matrix. PMID:23780222

  11. Carbon footprints of heating oil and LPG heating systems

    For European homes without access to the natural gas grid, the main fuels-of-choice for heating are heating oil and LPG. How do the carbon footprints of these compare? Existing literature does not clearly answer this, so the current study was undertaken to fill this gap. Footprints were estimated in seven countries that are representative of the EU and constitute two-thirds of the EU-27 population: Belgium, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Poland and the UK. Novelties of the assessment were: systems were defined using the EcoBoiler model; well-to-tank data were updated according to most-recent research; and combustion emission factors were used that were derived from a survey conducted for this study. The key finding is that new residential heating systems fuelled by LPG are 20% lower carbon and 15% lower overall-environmental-impact than those fuelled by heating oil. An unexpected finding was that an LPG system's environmental impact is about the same as that of a bio heating oil system fuelled by 100% rapeseed methyl ester, Europe's predominant biofuel. Moreover, a 20/80 blend (by energy content) with conventional heating oil, a bio-heating-oil system generates a footprint about 15% higher than an LPG system's. The final finding is that fuel switching can pay off in carbon terms. If a new LPG heating system replaces an ageing oil-fired one for the final five years of its service life, the carbon footprint of the system's final five years is reduced by more than 50%.

  12. Heat pump for district cooling and heating at Oslo Airport, Gardermoen[Aquifer thermal energy systems (ATES)

    Eggen, Geir; Vangsnes, Geir


    At Gardermoen, one of the largest groundwater reservoirs in Norway is located. This aquifer is used for both heating and cooling of Gardermoen Airport. In the summer, ground water is pumped from cold wells and used for cooling before it is returned to the warm wells. In winter, this process is turned around, as ground water from the warm wells is used as heat source for the heat pump. The heat pump is mainly designed for cooling, and the design cooling demand is 9 MW. The district cooling water is pre-cooled by the ground water, and post cooled by the combined heat pump/refrigeration plant. The base heat load is covered by the heat pump. Additional heat is supplied from a heat energy central with bio fuels as well as oil heated and electrically heated boilers. During the last years, heat production from the heat pump was about 11 GWh/year, and the heat pump also provides about 8 GWh/year of the cooling demand. In addition, approximately 3 GWh/year cold is produced by direct heat exchange with ground water. Compared with a district heating system heated by fossil fuels, and a conventional refrigeration system for district cooling, the pay back period for the aquifer heat pump system is within a couple of years (author) (ml)

  13. Implementing slab solar water heating system

    Raveendran, S. K.; Shen, C. Q.


    Water heating contributes a significant part of energy consumption in typical household. One of the most employed technologies today that helps in reducing the energy consumption of water heating would be conventional solar water heating system. However, this system is expensive and less affordable by most family. The main objective of this project is to design and implement an alternative type of solar water heating system that utilize only passive solar energy which is known as slab solar water heating system. Slab solar water heating system is a system that heat up cold water using the solar radiance from the sun. The unique part of this system is that it does not require any form of electricity in order to operate. Solar radiance is converted into heat energy through convection method and cold water will be heated up by using conduction method [1]. The design of this system is governed by the criteria of low implementation cost and energy saving. Selection of material in the construction of a slab solar water heating system is important as it will directly affect the efficiency and performance of the system. A prototype has been built to realize the idea and it had been proven that this system was able to provide sufficient hot water supply for typical household usage at any given time.

  14. A district heating system as a sink for carbon dioxide

    Within a strategy of carbn dioxide (CO2) abatement, district heating systems, driven by small nuclear heating reactors, could be used not only to deliver sensible heat to the consumers, but also as a CO2-absorber/desorber system for the collection of diffusively scattered CO2-sources. For this, potassium carbonate (K2CO3) is dissolved in the heating system which converts into potassium bicarbonate (KHCO3) when CO2 from flue gases is absorbed. At the heating reactor CO2 is desorbed and disposed of. Hence, a district heating system could work as a 'CO2-collecting system', too. Using this additional feature of a district heating system, its so-called effective, climate-related, CO2-neutrality factor is increased by almost a factor of three compared with the direct substitution effect of the CO2-free nuclear heating energy alone. Such a hybrid system could be of interest in a transitional phase when nuclear district heating energy will penetrate into a yet fossil-fuelled heating market. (orig.)

  15. Heat Roadmap Europe: Combining district heating with heat savings to decarbonise the EU energy system

    Six different strategies have recently been proposed for the European Union (EU) energy system in the European Commission's report, Energy Roadmap 2050. The objective for these strategies is to identify how the EU can reach its target of an 80% reduction in annual greenhouse gas emissions in 2050 compared to 1990 levels. None of these scenarios involve the large-scale implementation of district heating, but instead they focus on the electrification of the heating sector (primarily using heat pumps) and/or the large-scale implementation of electricity and heat savings. In this paper, the potential for district heating in the EU between now and 2050 is identified, based on extensive and detailed mapping of the EU heat demand and various supply options. Subsequently, a new ‘district heating plus heat savings’ scenario is technically and economically assessed from an energy systems perspective. The results indicate that with district heating, the EU energy system will be able to achieve the same reductions in primary energy supply and carbon dioxide emissions as the existing alternatives proposed. However, with district heating these goals can be achieved at a lower cost, with heating and cooling costs reduced by approximately 15%. - Highlights: • A new heat atlas is created for the EU27. • District heating and renewable heat potentials are determined for 2030 and 2050. • A new heat strategy based on district heating and individual heat pumps is designed for the EU27. • This new heat strategy is compared to the energy efficiency scenario proposed by the European Commission. • Results indicate that this new heat strategy can reduce heating and cooling costs by ∼15%, which is €100 billion per year

  16. Potential and limits of sodium hydroxide as an additive to the binary system ammonia/water in absorption heat pumps; Potenzial und Grenzen von Natriumhydroxid als Zusatz zum Stoffpaar Ammoniak/Wasser in Absorptions-Waermepumpen

    Kotenko, Oleksandr; Moser, Harald; Fenzl, Thomas; Rieberer, Rene [Technische Univ. Graz (Austria). Inst. fuer Waermetechnik


    Several authors proposed the use of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) as an additive to the ammonia/water working fluid mixture (NH{sub 3} / H{sub 2}O), especially in solar air conditioners. Measured vapour-liquid equilibrium data of this tertiary mixture are found in the relevant literature. Thermodynamic calculations carried out with these data show that the efficiency (COP) will be enhanced in theory while the rectification time will decrease. To verify these theoretical considerations and to gain practical experience with the tertiary mixture NH{sub 3} / H{sub 2}O / NaOH, a test stand was constructed at the Institut fuer Waermetechnik, and measurements were carried out on the mixture NH{sub 3} / H{sub 2}O, i.e. without NaOH, and with 5% NaOH. The technical feasibility of the process was established, although NaOH depositions in the refrigerating circuit caused operational disturbances, so that the mixture had to be renewed regularly and the plant had to be flushed with water. The expected efficiency improvement was not observed. Analyses using ''ASPEN Plus'' showed that this was the result of lower absorber efficiency, which may be due to the higher circulation rate and higher viscosity of the working fluid mixture. Measurements showed a moderate improvements of heat transfer in the expeller after addition of NaOH; no effects were found in the evaporator, solvent heat exchanger and rectification column. The findings suggest that fast implementation of NH{sub 3} / H{sub 2}O / NaOH-AWP is not realistic. Considerable research and development will still be required for optimisation of the absorber for operation with NaOH. [German] Die Verwendung von Natriumhydroxid (NaOH) als Zusatz zum Arbeitsstoffgemisch Ammoniak / Wasser (NH{sub 3} / H{sub 2}O) wurde von verschiedenen Autoren insbesondere fuer das Anwendungsgebiet der solaren Klimatisierung vorgeschlagen. In der einschlaegigen Literatur wurden gemessene Dampf-Fluessig-Gleichgewichts-Daten von diesem

  17. Solar dynamic space power system heat rejection

    Carlson, A. W.; Gustafson, E.; Mclallin, K. L.


    A radiator system concept is described that meets the heat rejection requirements of the NASA Space Station solar dynamic power modules. The heat pipe radiator is a high-reliability, high-performance approach that is capable of erection in space and is maintainable on orbit. Results are present of trade studies that compare the radiator system area and weight estimates for candidate advanced high performance heat pipes. The results indicate the advantages of the dual-slot heat pipe radiator for high temperature applications as well as its weight-reduction potential over the range of temperatures to be encountered in the solar dynamic heat rejection systems.


    Y. Baradey; M. N. A. Hawlader; Ahmad Faris Ismail; Meftah Hrairi


    Energy conversion technologies, where waste heat recovery systems are included, have received significant attention in recent years due to reasons that include depletion of fossil fuel, increasing oil prices, changes in climatic conditions, and global warming. For low temperature applications, there are many sources of thermal waste heat, and several recovery systems and potential useful applications have been proposed by researchers [1-4]. In addition, many types of equipment are used to rec...

  19. Waste Heat Recapture from Supermarket Refrigeration Systems

    Fricke, Brian A [ORNL


    The objective of this project was to determine the potential energy savings associated with improved utilization of waste heat from supermarket refrigeration systems. Existing and advanced strategies for waste heat recovery in supermarkets were analyzed, including options from advanced sources such as combined heat and power (CHP), micro-turbines and fuel cells.

  20. Dynamics of heat transfer between nano systems

    Biehs, Svend-Age; Agarwal, Girish S.


    We develop a dynamical theory of heat transfer between two nano systems. In particular, we consider the resonant heat transfer between two nanoparticles due to the coupling of localized surface modes having a finite spectral width. We model the coupled nanosystem by two coupled quantum mechanical oscillators, each interacting with its own heat bath, and obtain a master equation for the dynamics of heat transfer. The damping rates in the master equation are related to the lifetimes of localize...

  1. Novel heat recovery systems for building applications

    Ahmad, Mardiana Idayu


    The work presented in this thesis will explore the development of novel heat recovery systems coupled with low carbon technologies, and its integration to become one device with multifunction (building integrated heat recovery/cooling/air dehumidifier. In the first part of this thesis, an experimental performance of an individual heat recovery unit using Micro Heat and Mass Cycle Core (MHM3C) made of fibre papers with cross flow arrangement has been carried out. The unit was tested in an env...

  2. Control challenges in domestic heating systems

    Thybo, Honglian; Larsen, Lars F. S.; Weitzmann, Peter


    The objective of this paper is to analyze domestic heating applications and identify unfavorable building constructions and control challenges to be addressed by high performance heating control systems. Heating of domestic houses use a large amount of the total energy consumption in Scandinavia...... with water based floor heating affect the control challenge. The analysis is documented with simulation results........ Hence the potential of reducing energy consumption by applying high performance control is vast. Indoor climate issues are becoming more in focus, which also leads to a demand for high performance heating systems. The paper presents an analysis of how the building elements of today's domestic houses...

  3. Residential CO{sub 2} heat pump system for combined space heating and hot water heating

    Stene, Joern


    Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}, R-744) has been identified as a promising alternative to conventional working fluids in a number of applications due to its favourable environmental and thermophysical properties. Previous work on residential CO{sub 2} heat pumps has been dealing with systems for either space heating or hot water heating, and it was therefore considered interesting to carry out a theoretical and experimental study of residential CO{sub 2} heat pump systems for combined space heating and hot water heating - o-called integrated CO{sub 2} heat pump systems. The scope of this thesis is limited to brine-to-water and water-to-water heat pumps connected to low-temperature hydronic space heating systems. The main conclusions are: (1) Under certain conditions residential CO{sub 2} heat pump systems for combined space heating and hot water heating may achieve the same or higher seasonal performance factor (SPF) than the most energy efficient state-of-the-art brine-to-water heat pumps. (2) In contrary to conventional heat pump systems for combined space heating and DHW heating, the integrated CO{sub 2} heat pump system achieves the highest COP in the combined heating mode and the DHW heating mode, and the lowest COP in the space heating mode. Hence, the larger the annual DHW heating demand, the higher the SPF of the integrated CO{sub 2} heat pump system. (3) The lower the return temperature in the space heating system and the lower the DHW storage temperature, the higher the COP of the integrated CO{sub 2} heat pump. A low return temperature in the space heating system also results in a moderate DHW heating capacity ratio, which means that a relatively large part of the annual space heating demand can be covered by operation in the combined heating mode, where the COP is considerably higher than in the space heating mode. (4) During operation in the combined heating mode and the DHW heating mode, the COP of the integrated CO{sub 2} heat pump is heavily influenced by

  4. Advances in Solar Heating and Cooling Systems

    Ward, Dan S.


    Reports on technological advancements in the fields of solar collectors, thermal storage systems, and solar heating and cooling systems. Diagrams aid in the understanding of the thermodynamics of the systems. (CP)

  5. Intensification of Convective Heat Transfer in Heating Device of Mobile Heating System with BH-Heat Generator

    N. Nesenchuk


    Full Text Available Directions pertaining to intensification of convective heat transfer in a soft heating device have been experimentally investigated  in the paper and the most efficient one has been selected that is creation of artificial roughness on the device surface. The considered heating device for a heat supply system of a mobile object has been made of soft polymer material (polyvinyl chloride. Following  evaluation results of  heat exchange intensification a criteria equation has been obtained for calculation of external heat transfer with due account of heat transfer intensification.

  6. Improving Process Heating System Performance v3



    Improving Process Heating System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry is a development of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced Manufacturing Office (AMO) and the Industrial Heating Equipment Association (IHEA). The AMO and IHEA undertook this project as part of an series of sourcebook publications developed by AMO on energy-consuming industrial systems, and opportunities to improve performance. Other topics in this series include compressed air systems, pumping systems, fan systems, steam systems, and motors and drives

  7. Design of an additional heat sink based on natural circulation in pressurized water reactors

    Residual heat removal through the steam generators in Nuclear Power Plant with pressurized water reactors (PWR) or pressurized heavy water reactors (PHWR in pressured vessel or pressured tube types) requires the maintenance of the steam generator inventory and the availability of and appropriate heat sink, which are based on the operability of the steam generators feedwater system. This paper describes the conceptual design of an assured heat removal system which includes only passive elements and is based on natural circulation. The system can supplement the original systems of the plant. The new system includes a condenser/boiler heat exchanger to condense the steam produced in the steam generator, transferring the heat to the water of an open pool at atmospheric pressure. The condensed steam flows back to the steam generators by natural circulation effects. The performance of an Atucha type PHWR nuclear power station with and without the proposed system is calculated in an emergency power case for the first 5000 seconds after the incident. The analysis shows that the proposed system offers the possibility to cool-down the plant to a low energy state during several hours and avoids the repeated actuation of the primary and secondary system safety valves. (Author)

  8. Optimization analysis of high temperature heat pump coupling to desiccant wheel air conditioning system

    Sheng, Ying; Zhang, Yufeng; Fang, Lei;


    The high temperature heat pump and desiccant wheel (HTHP&DW) system can make full use of heat released from the condenser of heat pump for DW regeneration without additional heat. In this study, DW operation in the HTHP&DW system was investigated experimentally, and the optimization analysis of H...

  9. Radiant Heating and Cooling Systems. Part one

    Kim, Kwan Woo; Olesen, Bjarne W.


    The use of radiant heating systems has several thousand years of history.1,2 The early stage of radiant system application was for heating purposes, where hot air from flue gas (cooking, fires) was circulated under floors or in walls. After the introduction of plastic piping water-based radiant h...

  10. Radiant Heating and Cooling Systems. Part two

    Kim, Kwan Woo; Olesen, Bjarne W.


    Control of the heating and cooling system needs to be able to maintain the indoor temperatures within the comfort range under the varying internal loads and external climates. To maintain a stable thermal environment, the control system needs to maintain the balance between the heat gain/loss of...

  11. Rankine cycle waste heat recovery system

    Ernst, Timothy C.; Nelson, Christopher R.


    A waste heat recovery (WHR) system connects a working fluid to fluid passages formed in an engine block and/or a cylinder head of an internal combustion engine, forming an engine heat exchanger. The fluid passages are formed near high temperature areas of the engine, subjecting the working fluid to sufficient heat energy to vaporize the working fluid while the working fluid advantageously cools the engine block and/or cylinder head, improving fuel efficiency. The location of the engine heat exchanger downstream from an EGR boiler and upstream from an exhaust heat exchanger provides an optimal position of the engine heat exchanger with respect to the thermodynamic cycle of the WHR system, giving priority to cooling of EGR gas. The configuration of valves in the WHR system provides the ability to select a plurality of parallel flow paths for optimal operation.

  12. Comprehensive thermodynamic analysis of a renewable energy sourced hybrid heating system combined with latent heat storage

    Highlights: • An experimental thermal investigation of hybrid renewable heating system is presented. • Analyses were done by using real data obtained from a prototype structure. • Exergy efficiency of system components investigated during discharging period are close to each other as 32%. • The average input energy and exergy rates to the LHS were 0.770 and 0.027 kW. • Overall total energy and exergy efficiencies of LHS calculated as 72% and 28.4%. - Abstract: In this study an experimental thermal investigation of hybrid renewable heating system is presented. Latent heat storage stores energy, gained by solar collectors and supplies medium temperature heat to heat pump both day time also night time while solar energy is unavailable. In addition to this an accumulation tank exists in the system as sensible heat storage. It provides supply–demand balance with storing excess high temperature heat. Analyses were done according to thermodynamic’s first and second laws by using real data obtained from a prototype structure, built as part of a project. Results show that high percent of heat loses took place in heat pump with 1.83 kW where accumulator-wall heating cycle followed it with 0.42 kW. Contrarily highest break-down of exergy loses occur accumulator-wall heating cycle with 0.28 kW. Averagely 2.42 kW exergy destruction took place in whole system during the experiment. Solar collectors and heat pump are the promising components in terms of exergy destruction with 1.15 kW and 1.09 kW respectively. Exergy efficiency of system components, investigated during discharging period are in a close approximately of 32%. However, efficiency of solar collectors and charging of latent heat storage are 2.3% and 7% which are relatively low. Average overall total energy and exergy efficiencies of latent heat storage calculated as 72% and 28.4% respectively. Discharging energy efficiency of latent heat storage is the highest through all system components. Also heat

  13. 3D Additive Construction with Regolith for Surface Systems

    Mueller, Robert P.


    Planetary surface exploration on Asteroids, the Moon, Mars and Martian Moons will require the stabilization of loose, fine, dusty regolith to avoid the effects of vertical lander rocket plume impingement, to keep abrasive and harmful dust from getting lofted and for dust free operations. In addition, the same regolith stabilization process can be used for 3 Dimensional ( 3D) printing, additive construction techniques by repeating the 2D stabilization in many vertical layers. This will allow in-situ construction with regolith so that materials will not have to be transported from Earth. Recent work in the NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Surface Systems Office (NE-S) Swamp Works and at the University of Southern California (USC) under two NASA Innovative Advanced Concept (NIAC) awards have shown promising results with regolith (crushed basalt rock) materials for in-situ heat shields, bricks, landing/launch pads, berms, roads, and other structures that could be fabricated using regolith that is sintered or mixed with a polymer binder. The technical goals and objectives of this project are to prove the feasibility of 3D printing additive construction using planetary regolith simulants and to show that they have structural integrity and practical applications in space exploration.

  14. The effects of the coke addition and the heating time on the efficiency of chlorination process

    The preparation of mixed pellet, ZrO2, coke and sucrose, for chlorinating process of ZrO2 pellet has been performed. In this experiments the studied parameters were coke addition and the heating time. The addition of coke was 9.72 grams, 10.5 grams and 11 for the mixture of the 87 grams ZrO2 and 3.5 grams sucrose. The purpose of the coke addition is to from ZrC, which is corresponding to Kroll process with carbon-chlor methos. The weight of cokes had been calculated beyond the stoichiometry. The heating times was held in 10 minutes, 15 minutes, and 20 minutes at the temperature of 100oC that was below the evaporation coke temperature of 315oC. The result show that the efficiency of chlorinating of ZrO2 pellet could be reached of 82.16% with the addition of coke mass of 11 grams at the heating temperature of 100oC with the heating time of 20 minutes

  15. Transport code for Tokamak including some anomalous electronic effects and lower hybrid additional heating terms

    The operation of a tokamak device, the MHD equations, the transport phenomena and the inelastic processes are reviewed. The additional heating by waves at the lower hybrid frequency is studied. The numerical analysis methods employed are described and the results obtained discussed

  16. Modular district heating system MODiS

    Sipilae, K.; Ranne, A.; Koljonen, T. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Systems


    MODiS (Modular District Heating System) products were developed for either building an entirely new district heating (DH) system or for renovating and extending an existing system. MODiS products comprise highly integrated prefabricated and pre- tested modules, where the modules themselves may be boilers, pumping stations, substations, metering devices, automation equipment, planning tools, information and management systems. The MODiS Concept tool was developed by VTT Energy for the rough planning of a MODiS district heating system. As a result, the MODiS Concept model can give the budget for a DH-system divided into the boiler plant, the district heating pipelines and the consumer substations. The annual investment and running cost of the system are evaluated. A dynamic simulation model for MODiS was also created with a real time simulation tool called APROS. The simulator can be used for studying normal operation, behaviour under emergency conditions, and process failures. The APROS simulation program has also been used to investigate an ejector connection in an apartment building and for analysing the operation of the ejector in relation to the entire heating system. A DH system in a Russian district heating zone was modelled with the programs. A knowledge-based tool, PIPECOR, has been developed and it estimates the remaining service life of the pipelines under the defined conditions, and the current corrosion rate. Renovation principles for the East European district heating systems have been developed during the project. (orig.)

  17. Energy cascading in large district heating systems

    The study shows that it is possible to force a district heating system with low flow- and return-line temperatures by using energy cascading, which means that the heat is transmitted to several consumer regions at different temperature ranges. Thereby results an evident reduction of the electric power loss in the power station and the district heating system can be supplied now economically with heat by a nuclear power station built at a great distance to the supply region because of reasons of security. (M.S.)

  18. Specifying the auxiliary heating system on TFCX

    This paper reviews the status of heating systems for the TFCX-S (all superconducting coil) and TFCX-H (hybrid coil) options. Three systems were defined; preheating (electron), current drive, and bulk (ion) heating. Application of systems engineering techniques facilitated fruitful discussions of requirements and their impact on equipment between physicists and engineers. A low-cost, flexible combination of systems allows plasma experiments using all rf startup and current drive

  19. Demonstrations of electric heating systems. Final Report

    Haapakoski, M.; Laitila, R.; Ruska, T.


    In 1991, Imatran Voima launched the Demonstration Project of Electric Heating Systems. The project investigated in detail the energy consumption, housing comfort and electric power output rates of approximately one hundred electrically heated single-family houses and updated the investment cost information of heating systems. The project implemented and monitored quality electric heating concepts that guarantee a high standard of housing comfort. The targets in the project provided with combinations of floor, ceiling and window heating systems totalled 33. Furthermore, the project included 42 targets provided with water-circulated floor or radiator heating systems and 22 houses that had moved from oil or district heating systems into electric heating. The number of metering years received in the energy consumption measurements totalled 339. During the course of the project, six partial reports, one master's thesis and three summary reports were published. This is the final report of the project. It deals in brief with the major results. The best electric heating concept, in terms of housing comfort, is a floor heating system using cables supplemented by ceiling and window heating. Thanks to the heating units installed in the structures, the operative temperature grows by about one degree in comparison with a corresponding target heated with radiators. A typical, room-specifically-heated 140 m{sup 2} house consumes a total of 24,000 kWh of energy per year. Of this amount, electric space heating accounts for 11,500 kWh, heating with wood for 1,500 kWh, heating of tap water for 4,000 kWh and household electricity for 7,000 kWh. In a house provided with a water-circulated electric heating system the total energy consumption is, owing to the adjustment and storage losses, about 10 % higher. Of the energy consumption in the house, most part takes place during the period of nighttime electricity. The nighttime load in a 24-hour period with very low temperatures

  20. Solar/electric heating systems for the future energy system

    Furbo, S.; Dannemand, M.; Perers, B. [and others


    The aim of the project is to elucidate how individual heating units for single family houses are best designed in order to fit into the future energy system. The units are based on solar energy, electrical heating elements/heat pump, advanced heat storage tanks and advanced control systems. Heat is produced by solar collectors in sunny periods and by electrical heating elements/heat pump. The electrical heating elements/heat pump will be in operation in periods where the heat demand cannot be covered by solar energy. The aim is to use the auxiliary heating units when the electricity price is low, e.g. due to large electricity production by wind turbines. The unit is equipped with an advanced control system where the control of the auxiliary heating is based on forecasts of the electricity price, the heat demand and the solar energy production. Consequently, the control is based on weather forecasts. Three differently designed heating units are tested in a laboratory test facility. The systems are compared on the basis of: 1) energy consumption for the auxiliary heating; 2) energy cost for the auxiliary heating; 3) net utilized solar energy. Starting from a normal house a solar combi system (for hot water and house heating) can save 20-30% energy cost, alone, depending on sizing of collector area and storage volume. By replacing the heat storage with a smart tank based on electric heating elements and a smart control based on weather/load forecast and electricity price information 24 hours ahead, another 30-40% can be saved. That is: A solar heating system with a solar collector area of about 10 m{sup 2}, a smart tank based on electric heating element and a smart control system, can reduce the energy costs of the house by at least 50%. No increase of heat storage volume is needed to utilize the smart control. The savings in % are similar for different levels of building insulation. As expected a heat pump in the system can further reduce the auxiliary electricity

  1. Air leakage in residential solar heating systems

    Shingleton, J. G.; Cassel, D. E.; Overton, R. L.


    A series of computer simulations was performed to evaluate the effects of component air leakage on system thermal performance for a typical residential solar heating system, located in Madison, Wisconsin. Auxiliary energy required to supplement solar energy for space heating was determined using the TRNSYS computer program, for a range of air leakage rates at the solar collector and pebble bed storage unit. The effects of heat transfer and mass transfer between the solar equipment room and the heated building were investigated. The effect of reduced air infiltration into the building due to pressurized by the solar air heating system were determined. A simple method of estimating the effect of collector array air leakage on system thermal performance was evaluated, using the f CHART method.

  2. Review of preliminary additional heating experiments in JT-60 (Aug. - Nov., 1986)

    This is a prompt report on preliminary additional heating experiments in JT-60 from August to November in 1986. Neutral beam heating power was raised up to 20 MW in about a month. Plasma stored energy is about 2 MJ and energy confinement time is 0.1 ∼ 0.12 sec with the maximum heating power. The energy confinement time shows L-mode like deterioration with power, while it has little dependence on electron density. The maximum ion temperature of ∼ 7 keV and electron temperature of 4.5 keV were obtained at relatively low electron density (n-bare = 2 - 3 x 1019 m-3). Lower hybrid wave could efficiently drive plasma current up to 1.7 MA with 1.2 MW LH power. The current drive efficiency is 1 ∼ 1.7 in ohmically heated plasmas and 2 ∼ 2.8 in NB heated plasmas. Futhermore the energy confinement was improved when neutral beam was injected into entirely current driven discharges of 1 MA by LH in contrast to inductively driven target plasmas. Similar improvement in energy confinement was observed during combined heating with NB and ion cyclotron wave. (author)

  3. Ion Cyclotron Resonance Heating System on EAST

    Wang, Lei


    Ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) system which will provide at least than 10 MW heating power, with a frequency range from 25 MHz to 100 MHz, is being built up for the EAST. The system includes high-power and wide-frequency radio amplifier, transmission line as well as resonant double loop (RDL) antenna. As a part of this system a sub-ICRH system unit with a ultimate output power of 2.5 MW was set up and employed for heating experiment. The maximum of the launched power reached 200 kW in 2008.

  4. Ion Cyclotron Resonance Heating System on EAST

    Ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) system which will provide at least than 10 MW heating power, with a frequency range from 25 MHz to 100 MHz, is being built up for the EAST. The system includes high-power and wide-frequency radio amplifier, transmission line as well as resonant double loop (RDL) antenna. As a part of this system a sub-ICRH system unit with a ultimate output power of 2.5 MW was set up and employed for heating experiment. The maximum of the launched power reached 200 kW in 2008. (magnetically confined plasma)

  5. Safety characteristics of decay heat removal systems

    Safety features of the decay heat removal systems including power sunply and final heat sink are described. A rather high reliability and an utmost degree of independence from energy supply are goals to be attained in the design of the European Fast Reactor (EFR) decay heat removal scheme. Natural circulation is an ambitious design goal for EFR. All the considerations are performed within the frame of risk minimization

  6. Estimation of low-potential heat recuperation efficiency of smoke fumes in a condensation heat utilizer under various operation conditions of a boiler and a heating system

    Ionkin, I. L.; Ragutkin, A. V.; Luning, B.; Zaichenko, M. N.


    For enhancement of the natural gas utilization efficiency in boilers, condensation heat utilizers of low-potential heat, which are constructed based on a contact heat exchanger, can be applied. A schematic of the contact heat exchanger with a humidifier for preheating and humidifying of air supplied in the boiler for combustion is given. Additional low-potential heat in this scheme is utilized for heating of the return delivery water supplied from a heating system. Preheating and humidifying of air supplied for combustion make it possible to use the condensation utilizer for heating of a heat-transfer agent to temperature exceeding the dewpoint temperature of water vapors contained in combustion products. The decision to mount the condensation heat utilizer on the boiler was taken based on the preliminary estimation of the additionally obtained heat. The operation efficiency of the condensation heat utilizer is determined by its structure and operation conditions of the boiler and the heating system. The software was developed for the thermal design of the condensation heat utilizer equipped by the humidifier. Computation investigations of its operation are carried out as a function of various operation parameters of the boiler and the heating system (temperature of the return delivery water and smoke fumes, air excess, air temperature at the inlet and outlet of the condensation heat utilizer, heating and humidifying of air in the humidifier, and portion of the circulating water). The heat recuperation efficiency is estimated for various operation conditions of the boiler and the condensation heat utilizer. Recommendations on the most effective application of the condensation heat utilizer are developed.

  7. Exergy performance of different space heating systems: A theoretical study

    Kazanci, Ongun Berk; Shukuya, Masanori; Olesen, Bjarne W.


    Three space heating systems (floor heating with different floor covering resistances, radiator heating with different working temperatures, warm-air heating with and without heat recovery) were compared using a natural gas fired condensing boiler as the heat source. For the floor heating systems,...

  8. Influence of Alumina Addition to Aluminum Fins for Compact Heat Exchangers Produced by Cold Spray Additive Manufacturing

    Farjam, Aslan; Cormier, Yannick; Dupuis, Philippe; Jodoin, Bertrand; Corbeil, Antoine


    In this work, aluminum and aluminum-alumina powder mixtures were used to produce pyramidal fin arrays on aluminum substrates using cold spray as an additive manufacturing process. Using aluminum-alumina mixtures instead of pure aluminum powder could be seen as a cost-effective measure, preventing nozzle clogging or the need to use expensive polymer nozzles that wear out rapidly during cold spray. The fin geometries that were produced were observed using a 3D digital microscope to determine the flow passages width and fins' geometric details. Heat transfer and pressure drop tests were carried out using different ranges of appropriate Reynolds numbers for the sought commercial application to compare each fin array and determine the effect of alumina content. It was found that the presence of alumina reduces the fins' performance when compared to pure aluminum fins but that they were still outperforming traditional fins. Numerical simulations were performed to model the fin arrays and were used to predict the pressure loss in the fin array and compare these results with experimental values. The numerical model opens up new avenues in predicting different applicable operating conditions and other possible fin shapes using the same fin composition, instead of performing costly and time-consuming experiments.


    M. N. Chepurnoy


    Full Text Available The  article  considers  comparative  operation-efficiency  of  the  low-temperature  heatsupply systems with heat pumping plants (HPP and with hot-water boilers. The paper shows that for energy evaluation of the alternative heat-supply systems effectiveness one cannot employ the transformation ratio (heating coefficient and the fuel heat-utilization factor in the HPP. Nonetheless the transformation ratio enters the formulae designating the efficiency of HPP operation. The authors obtain a generalized formula for ascertainment of transformation ratio and suggest evaluating the operation efficiency of the heat-supply systems by means of indicators specifying relative gain in the exergy-efficiency factor, fuel savings and saving expenditures connected with fuel and utilities. They attain formulae and build nomographic charts for those indicators ascertainment. The operation-efficiency comparative analysis of the low-temperature heat supply systems with HPP and with hot-water boilers shows that the HPP systems increase their effectiveness with transformation ratio, fuel price increase as well as with low electric-energy prices. The article specifies that with fuel low prices, the transformation-ratios limiting values with which the HPP operation-efficacy gains, grow. Energy-efficiency increase in the HPP does not always guaranty their economic effectiveness. These findings are true only for the heating systems. The hot water-supply systems will require the HPP condenser water additional heating to the assumed temperature from another thermal source, which reduces the effectiveness of the heat pump plants utilizing.

  10. District Heating Systems Performance Analyses. Heat Energy Tariff

    Ziemele, Jelena; Vigants, Girts; Vitolins, Valdis; Blumberga, Dagnija; Veidenbergs, Ivars


    The paper addresses an important element of the European energy sector: the evaluation of district heating (DH) system operations from the standpoint of increasing energy efficiency and increasing the use of renewable energy resources. This has been done by developing a new methodology for the evaluation of the heat tariff. The paper presents an algorithm of this methodology, which includes not only a data base and calculation equation systems, but also an integrated multi-criteria analysis module using MADM/MCDM (Multi-Attribute Decision Making / Multi-Criteria Decision Making) based on TOPSIS (Technique for Order Performance by Similarity to Ideal Solution). The results of the multi-criteria analysis are used to set the tariff benchmarks. The evaluation methodology has been tested for Latvian heat tariffs, and the obtained results show that only half of heating companies reach a benchmark value equal to 0.5 for the efficiency closeness to the ideal solution indicator. This means that the proposed evaluation methodology would not only allow companies to determine how they perform with regard to the proposed benchmark, but also to identify their need to restructure so that they may reach the level of a low-carbon business.


    Doroshenko A.V.


    Full Text Available The basic circuits of multifunctional solar systems of air drainage, heating (hot water supply and heating, cooling and air conditioning are developed on the basis of open absorption cycle with a direct absorbent regeneration. Basic decisions for new generation of gas-liquid solar collectors are developed. Heat-mass-transfer apparatus included in evaporative cooling system, are based on film interaction of flows of gas and liquid and in them, for the creation of nozzle, multi-channel structures from polymeric materials and porous ceramics are used. Preliminary analysis of multifunctional systems possibilities is implemented.

  12. The dry heat exchanger calorimeter system

    This paper reports on a radiometric isothermal heat flow calorimeter and preconditioner system that uses air instead of water as the heat exchange medium which has been developed for use with nuclear material. The dry heat exchanger calorimeter is 42 in. high by 18 in. in diameter and the preconditioner is a 22 in. cube, making it extremely compact compared to existing units. The new system is ideally suited for transportable, stand-alone, or glovebox applications. Preliminary tests of the system have produced sample measurements with standard deviations less than 0.25% and sample errors less than 0.50%. These tests have shown that the dry heat exchanger system will yield acceptable data with an accuracy comparable to those of Mound water bath systems now in use

  13. Heating, ventilation and air conditioning system modelling

    Whalley, R.; Abdul-Ameer, A. [British University in Dubai (United Arab Emirates)


    Heating, ventilation and air conditioning modelling methods, for large scale, spatially dispersed systems are considered. Existing techniques are discussed and proposals for the application of novel analysis approaches are outlined. The use of distributed-lumped parameter procedures enabling the incorporation of the relatively concentrated and significantly dispersed, system element characteristics, is advocated. A dynamic model for a heating, ventilation and air conditioning system comprising inlet and exhaust fans, with air recirculation, heating/cooling and filtration units is presented. Pressure, airflow and temperature predictions within the system are computed following input, disturbance changes and purging operations. The generalised modelling advancements adopted and the applicability of the model for heating, ventilation and air conditioning system simulation, re-configuration and diagnostics is emphasised. The employment of the model for automatic, multivariable controller design purposes is commented upon. (author)

  14. The dry heat exchanger calorimeter system

    A radiometric isothermal heat flow calorimeter and preconditioner system that uses air instead of water as the heat exchange medium has been developed at Mound. The dry heat exchanger calorimeter is 42 inches high by 18 inches in diameter and the preconditioner is a 22 inch cube, making it extremely compact compared to existing units. The new system is ideally suited for transportable, stand-alone, or glovebox applications. Preliminary tests of the system have produced sample measurements with standard deviations less than 0.25% and sample errors less than 0.50%. These tests have shown that the dry heat exchanger system will yield acceptance data with an accuracy comparable to those of Mound water bath systems now in use. 4 figs., 1 tab

  15. Application for EURATOM priority support of additional heating for ASDEX Upgrade, phase I and phase II

    In order to reach the full performance plasma parameters of ASDEX Upgrade as provided by the machine technique a heating power of 12 to 15 MW is required. For the minimum required power the appropriate choice for the basic heating system are 6 MW ICRH and 6 MW neutral injection, both with a long pulse capability of up to 10 seconds. ICRH in a frequency range of 30 to 120 MHz shall cover He3 minority, hydrogen fundamental and 2nd harmonic and deuterium 2nd harmonic heating. For neutral injection four JET sources with 60 keV H0 and 80 A combined in one injection box were chosen. The averaged injection angle is 240 to perpendicular at Rsub(O) = 1.7 m. Both systems shall be installed during 1988. The costs are 57.4 MDM for both. (orig./GG)

  16. Evidence for an Additional Heat Source in the Warm Ionized Medium of Galaxies

    Reynolds, R J; Tufte, S L


    Spatial variations of the [S II]/H-Alpha and [N II]/H-Alpha line intensity ratios observed in the gaseous halo of the Milky Way and other galaxies are inconsistent with pure photoionization models. They appear to require a supplemental heating mechanism that increases the electron temperature at low densities n_e. This would imply that in addition to photoionization, which has a heating rate per unit volume proportional to n_e^2, there is another source of heat with a rate per unit volume proportional to a lower power of n_e. One possible mechanism is the dissipation of interstellar plasma turbulence, which according to Minter & Spangler (1997) heats the ionized interstellar medium in the Milky Way at a rate ~ 1x10^-25 n_e ergs cm^-3 s^-1. If such a source were present, it would dominate over photoionization heating in regions where n_e < 0.1 cm^-3, producing the observed increases in the [S II]/H-Alpha and [N II]/H-Alpha intensity ratios at large distances from the galactic midplane, as well as accoun...

  17. Rankine cycle waste heat recovery system

    Ernst, Timothy C.; Nelson, Christopher R.


    This disclosure relates to a waste heat recovery (WHR) system and to a system and method for regulation of a fluid inventory in a condenser and a receiver of a Rankine cycle WHR system. Such regulation includes the ability to regulate the pressure in a WHR system to control cavitation and energy conversion.

  18. Investigation on Solar Heating System with Building-Integrated Heat Storage

    Heller, Alfred


    Traditional solar heating systems cover between 5 and 10% of the heat demand fordomestic hot water and comfort heating. By applying storage capacity this share can beincreased much. The Danish producer of solar heating systems, Aidt-Miljø, markets such a system including storage of dry sand heated...... by PP-pipe heat exchanger. Heat demand is reduced due to direct solar heating and due to storage. The storage affects the heat demand passively due to higher temperatures. Hence heat loss is reduced and passive heating is optioned. In theory, by running the system flow backwards, active heating can...... be self-made to keep the price down. The system is working, but heat exchange from plastic piping to sand is rather poor. The dimensioning of the volume is rather difficult based on common knowledge. Passive heating, hence reduction of heat demand, due to the storage and especially due to the oversized...

  19. LPV Identification of a Heat Distribution System

    Trangbæk, K; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon


    This paper deals with incremental system identification of district heating systems to improve control performance. As long as various parameters, e.g. valve settings, are kept fixed, the dynamics of district heating systems can be approximated well by linear models; however, the dynamics change...... significantly when these parameters change. For this reason, we attempt to identify the system using linear parameter varying models. We demonstrate how the so-called ``Hansen Scheme," for linear time-invariant systems, can be employed for incremental identification of linear parameter varying systems as well....... The approach is tested on a laboratory setup emulating a district heating system, where local controllers regulate pumps connected to a common supply. Experiments show that cross-couplings in the system can indeed be identified in closed-loop operation....

  20. Efficiency of insulation passive system of solar heating with transforming flat plate reflector of radiation and accumulator of heat

    Key words: solar radiation, window, reflector of radiation, short-term accumulator of heat, solar heating, insulation passive system, thermal efficiency, heating building. Subjects of research: insulation passive system of solar heating with short-term accumulators of heat, combining the function of collector of solar radiation and hingedly transformed flat plate reflector for additional illumination of heating building and without them. Purpose of work: determination of real possibility of insulation passive system of solar heating with transformed flat plate reflectors of radiation and short-term accumulators of heat and on this basis development of scientific dates for experimental designing and construction of them for natural condition of Uzbekistan. Methods of research: thermal-technical calculation and experiment under natural conditions. The results obtained and their novelty: offered calculation expressions for determining of optimal inclination angle to horizon and coefficient of reflection of direct solar radiation of flat plate reflector with back reflection layer; developed and offered method of calculation of using efficiency of transformed flat plate reflectors of radiation for additional illumination of heating building in the daytime and decreasing of heat losses through window insulation passive systems of solar heating at night; optimized of specific heat of short-time accumulators of heat in insulation passive systems of solar heating; determined real thermal efficiency and replacement coefficient of thermal load to heating of proposed system by the example of operational testing this systems under conditions of Karshi City. Practical value: the results of performed investigations allow to develop the scientific basic dates on designing and marketing on climate conditions in the south of The Republic of Uzbekistan insulation passive systems of solar heating with flat plate reflectors and short-time accumulators of heat, providing to save the

  1. District heating with SLOWPOKE energy systems

    The SLOWPOKE Energy System, a benign nuclear heat source designed to supply 10 thermal megawatts in the form of hot water for local heating systems in buildings and institutions, is at the forefront of these developments. A demonstration unit has been constructed in Canada and is currently undergoing an extensive test program. Because the nuclear heat source is small, operates at atmospheric pressure, and produces hot water below 100 degrees Celcius, intrinsic safety features will permit minimum operator attention and allow the heat source to be located close to the load and hence to people. In this way, a SLOWPOKE Energy System can be considered much like the oil- or coal-fired furnace it is designed to replace. The low capital investment requirements, coupled with a high degree of localization, even for the first unit, are seen as attractive features for the implementation of SLOWPOKE Energy Systems in many countries

  2. Heat reduction of the MWD telemetry system

    Matviykiv, Taras


    In this paper the simplified thermal model of conventional downhole MWD (Measurements While Drilling) telemetry system has been made. The heat reduction methods for the IC (integrated circuits) components of downhole drilling tools have been analyzed.

  3. The influence analysis of addition number of plate to heat exchanger performance of TRIGA 2000 reactor

    In order to reduce the existing bubble in the core of Bandung TRIGA 2000 reactor during its operation above 1000 kW, was done by increasing the effectivity of the heat exchanger (HE). One of the methods for increasing this effectivity is done by adding the number of plate to heat exchanger. To get an appropriate number of plate to be added on achieving its requirement, the analysis to know how the comparison of its performance on variation of addition the number of plate, is needed. The analysis was done by using the NTU-Effectivity method. The variables which influence its effectivity was obtained from the operational experiences since of the year 2000 until 2005. Besides that, it was assumed that the properties of working fluid had not much changed on its temperature and its pressure and small fouling deposit on the plate of HE. The results show that generally the addition of the number of plate would increase the effectivity of the heat exchanger. But for the low flow rate of the primary(600 gpm) and the high flow rate of the secondary(6000 gpm), a little bit of increasing effectivity was obtained for the addition the number of plate, and the effectivity had been reached to above 98%. (author)

  4. Performance improvement of a 330MWe power plant by flue gas heat recovery system

    Xu Changchun; Xu Min; Zhao Ming; Liang Junyu; Sai Juncong; Qiu Yalin; Xiang Wenguo


    In a utility boiler, the most heat loss is from the exhaust flue gas. In order to reduce the exhaust flue gas temperature and further boost the plant efficiency, an improved indirect flue gas heat recovery system and an additional economizer system are proposed. The waste heat of flue gas is used for high-pressure condensate regeneration heating. This reduces high pressure steam extraction from steam turbine and more power is generated. The waste heat recov...

  5. In situ heat treatment process utilizing a closed loop heating system

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Nguyen, Scott Vinh (Houston, TX)


    Systems and methods for an in situ heat treatment process that utilizes a circulation system to heat one or more treatment areas are described herein. The circulation system may use a heated liquid heat transfer fluid that passes through piping in the formation to transfer heat to the formation. In some embodiments, the piping may be positioned in at least two of the wellbores.

  6. Design of biomass district heating systems

    The biomass exploitation takes advantage of the agricultural, forest, and manure residues and in extent, urban and industrial wastes, which under controlled burning conditions, can generate heat and electricity, with limited environmental impacts. Biomass can - significantly - contribute in the energy supplying system, if the engineers will adopt the necessary design changes to the traditional systems and become more familiar with the design details of the biomass heating systems. The aim of this paper is to present a methodology of the design of biomass district heating systems taking into consideration the optimum design of building structure and urban settlement around the plant. The essential energy parameters are presented for the size calculations of a biomass burning-district heating system, as well as for the environmental (i.e. Greenhouse Gas Emissions) and economic evaluation (i.e. selectivity and viability of the relevant investment). Emphasis has been placed upon the technical parameters of the biomass system, the economic details of the boiler, the heating distribution network, the heat exchanger and the Greenhouse Gas Emissions

  7. Design and Evaluation of a Photovoltaic/Thermal-Assisted Heat Pump Water Heating System

    Huan-Liang Tsai


    Full Text Available This paper presents the design, modelling and performance evaluation of a photovoltaic/thermal-assisted heat pump water heating (PVTA-HPWH system. The cooling effect of a refrigerant simultaneously enhances the PVT efficiency and effectively improves the coefficient of performance (COP of the HPWH system. The proposed model was built in the MATLAB/Simulink environment by considering the reciprocal energy exchange between a PVT evaporator and a HPWH system. In addition, the power consumption needs of the HPWH are provided by the PV electricity using a model-based control methodology. System performance is evaluated through a real field test. The results have demonstrated the power autarchy of the proposed PVTA-HPWH system with better PVT efficiency and COP. In addition, the good agreement between the model simulation and the experimental measurements demonstrate the proposed model with sufficient confidence.

  8. Ion cyclotron resonance heating system on EAST

    The Ion Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ICRH) system which can provide no less than 10 MW radio frequency (RF) heating power (frequency range from 25 MHz to 100 MHz) is being set up for the experimental advanced superconducting tokamak (EAST) in the institute of plasma physics. System includes High-power and wide-frequency radio amplifier, liquid phase shifter and resonant double loop (RDL) antenna. Now one ICRH system unit whose ultimate output is 2.5 MW has been set up and employed for RF heating experiment and maximum of the injected RF power reached to 200 kW in 2008 EAST tokamak experiment. The results of ICRH heating are satisfying. (author)

  9. Residential solar-heating/cooling system


    Report documents progress of residential solar-heating and cooling system development program at 5-month mark of anticipated 17-month program. System design has been completed, and development and component testing has been initiated. Report includes diagrams, operation overview, optimization studies of subcomponents, and marketing plans for system.

  10. Prototype solar heating and cooling systems


    A collection of monthly status reports are given on the development of eight prototype solar heating and cooling systems. This effort calls for the development, manufacturing, test, system installation, maintenance, problem resolution, and performance evaluation. The systems are 3-, 25-, and 75-ton size units.

  11. A Freezable Heat Exchanger for Space Suit Radiator Systems

    Nabity, James A.; Mason, Georgia R.; Copeland, Robert J.; Trevino, Luis a.


    During an ExtraVehicular Activity (EVA), both the heat generated by the astronaut s metabolism and that produced by the Portable Life Support System (PLSS) must be rejected to space. The heat sources include the heat of adsorption of metabolic CO2, the heat of condensation of water, the heat removed from the body by the liquid cooling garment and the load from the electrical components. Although the sublimator hardware to reject this load weighs only 1.58 kg (3.48 lbm), an additional 3.6 kg (8 lbm) of water are loaded into the unit, most of which is sublimated and lost to space, thus becoming the single largest expendable during an eight-hour EVA. Using a radiator to reject heat from the astronaut during an EVA can reduce the amount of expendable water consumed in the sublimator. Radiators have no moving parts and are thus highly reliable. Past freezable radiators have been too heavy, but the weight can be greatly reduced by placing a small and freeze tolerant heat exchanger between the astronaut and radiator, instead of making the very large radiator freeze tolerant. Therefore, the key technological innovation to improve space suit radiator performance was the development of a lightweight and freezable heat exchanger that accommodates the variable heat load generated by the astronaut. Herein, we present the heat transfer performance of a newly designed heat exchanger that endured several freeze / thaw cycles without any apparent damage. The heat exchanger was also able to continuously turn down or turn up the heat rejection to follow the variable load.

  12. The influence of heat accumulation on the surface roughness in powder-bed additive manufacturing

    The influence of heat accumulation on surface roughness during powder-bed additive manufacturing was investigated. A series of Ti-6Al-4V thin plates were produced by using an identical heat input by electron beam melting® (EBM). Spacing distances of 5 mm, 10 mm, and 20 mm were used. The surface roughness of as-built thin plates was measured using a two-axis profilometer. A numerical model was developed to study the influence of spacing distance on heat accumulation. An inverse relationship between the spacing distance and surface roughness was revealed. The experimental and numerical results showed that the surface quality of buildups could be controlled not only by process parameters, but also by the arrangement of components in the buildup chamber. At a constant spacing distance, an increase in the number of powder layers resulted in the accumulation of more heat between the thin plates. An increase in the spacing distance resulted in an upward translation of the Bearing Area Curve (BAC) toward shallower depths, with a reduced core roughness depth (Rk) and peak height (Rpk). A logarithmic regression equation was established from the experimental data. This equation could be used to predict the surface roughness of parts fabricated by EBM® in the studied range of spacing distances. (paper)

  13. Heat Loss Evaluation of the SMART-ITL Primary System

    Ryu, Sung Uk; Bae, Hwang; Kim, Dong Eok; Park, Keun Tae; Park, Hyun Sik; Yi, Sung Jae [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    It is considered that the heat loss rate is one of the critical factors affecting the transient behavior of an integral effect test facility. This paper presents the experimental results of the heat loss rate for the primary system of a SMART-ITL (System-Integrated Modular Advanced ReacTor-Integral Test Loop) facility including the pressurizer (PZR). To evaluate the heat loss rate of the primary system, two different approaches were pursued, i. e., integral and differential approaches. The integral approach is a constant temperature method which controls the core and PZR powers at a desired temperature condition and the differential approach is a natural cooling-down measurement method that lasts for a long period of time. In the present work, the heat losses derived from integral and differential approaches were acquired for the primary system of the SMART-ITL. The results obtained by the two approaches were very similar. In addition, an empirical correlation with respect to the difference between the wall temperature and the ambient temperature was proposed to represent the heat loss characteristics of the SMART-ITL facility. The estimated heat losses could be used to estimate the heat loss during the tests and code simulations.

  14. House owners' perceptions and factors influencing their choice of specific heating systems in Germany

    Against the background of global climate changes and several legal obligations, the target of this paper is to analyze the buying behavior of house owners in Germany with respect to heating systems and the main factors influencing choice when purchasing a specific heating system (e.g., oil heating or wood pellet heating). To investigate these issues, a Germany-wide written survey was conducted and the completed questionnaires of 775 respondents analyzed using multinomial logistic regression. Of 29 different variables influencing the purchase of a heating system, 12 statistically significant variables have been identified which characterize the owners of oil heating, a heat pump, gas heating and wood pellet heating. The membership of different ecological clusters primarily segregates the owners of a specific heating system, but the assessment of the different combustibles also plays a major role in this context. Suppliers of heating systems can use the results of this study to fine-tune their marketing strategies. With respect to policy issues only limited room for additional economic incentives can be identified to promote replacement of fossil-fuel based heating systems in favor of renewable ones. -- Highlights: •Current regulations support renewable heating systems insufficiently in Germany. •We developed a model to characterize the purchasers of different heating systems. •Ecological attitudes differentiate the purchasers of the different heating systems. •Economic reasons are mainly important for owners of gas and oil heating systems

  15. Heat savings in buildings in a 100% renewable heat and power system in Denmark with different shares of district heating

    Zvingilaite, Erika; Balyk, Olexandr


    The paper examines implementation of heat saving measures in buildings in 2050, under the assumption that heat and power supply comes solely from renewable resources in Denmark.Balmorel – a linear optimisation model of heat and power sectors in Denmark is used for investigating economically viabl...... penetration of heat savings slightly decreases along with lower capacity investments and system costs.......The paper examines implementation of heat saving measures in buildings in 2050, under the assumption that heat and power supply comes solely from renewable resources in Denmark.Balmorel – a linear optimisation model of heat and power sectors in Denmark is used for investigating economically viable...... levels of heat savings, which can be implemented by reducing heat transmission losses through building elements and by installing ventilation systems with heat recovery, in different future Danish heat and power system scenarios. Today almost 50% of heat demand in Denmark is covered by district heating...

  16. Dual energy use systems: District heating survey


    The current status of and problems facing district heating systems operated by electric utilities were identified. The technical and economic factors which can affect the present and future success of district heating systems in the United States were evaluated. A survey of 59 district heating electric utilities was conducted to determine the current status of the industry. Questions developed to obtain data on technical, economic, regulator, and marketing factors were included in the survey. Literature on district heating in the U.S. and abroad was collected from governments, industry and foreign sources and reviewed to aid in evaluating the current and future potential of the industry. Interviews were held with executives of 16 utilities that operate district heating systems in order to determine corporate attitudes. A summary of the literature obtained is provided. Survey results are tabulated and described. The interviews and survey data were used to compile 10 case studies of utilities operating district heating systems under a braod range of circumstances.

  17. Heat transfer and material flow during laser assisted multi-layer additive manufacturing

    A three-dimensional, transient, heat transfer, and fluid flow model is developed for the laser assisted multilayer additive manufacturing process with coaxially fed austenitic stainless steel powder. Heat transfer between the laser beam and the powder particles is considered both during their flight between the nozzle and the growth surface and after they deposit on the surface. The geometry of the build layer obtained from independent experiments is compared with that obtained from the model. The spatial variation of melt geometry, cooling rate, and peak temperatures is examined in various layers. The computed cooling rates and solidification parameters are used to estimate the cell spacings and hardness in various layers of the structure. Good agreement is achieved between the computed geometry, cell spacings, and hardness with the corresponding independent experimental results.

  18. Primary energy savings using heat storage for biomass heating systems

    Mitrović Dejan M.; Janevski Jelena N.; Laković Mirjana S.


    District heating is an efficient way to provide heat to residential, tertiary and industrial users. The heat storage unit is an insulated water tank that absorbs surplus heat from the boiler. The stored heat in the heat storage unit makes it possible to heat even when the boiler is not working, thus increasing the heating efficiency. In order to save primary energy (fuel), the boiler operates on nominal load every time it is in operation (for the purpose of this research). The aim of th...

  19. Use of geothermal energy for heating systems



    TFG en intercambio académico. Jade Hochschule (Wilhelmshaven/Oldenburg/Elsfleth) [en] This project makes a study of heat extraction from the soil in order to provide heat to a building. This energy is renewable and clean. Low temperature geothermal energy has very low levels of use. In the last decades, the use of renewable energy is growing exponentially. The biggest part of energy consumption goes to heating systems, that is why the use of geothermal energy can save lots of natural resou...

  20. Project of the solar heating system

    Pořízka, Jaromír


    The diploma thesis studies the elaboration of project about thermal solar systém for all- season service. System is used for heating of outdoor pool and in the winter season for the heating of nearby garage in the village Lipůvka. The aim of the work was to make a proportioning, choosing the right parts and calculating the economic and ecologic balance.

  1. Performance analysis of hybrid district heating system

    Mikulandric, Robert; Krajačić, Goran; Khavin, Gennadii;


    more extensively used in district heating systems either separately or as a supplement to traditional fossil fuels in order to achieve national energy policy objectives. However, they are still facing problems such as high intermittences, high energy production costs and low load factors as well as...... sources that can complement each other on daily and yearly basis and reduce negative aspects of particular energy source utilisation. In district heating systems, hybridisation could be performed through utilisation of renewable and non-renewable energy sources. Potential of fuel and emission reduction...... could reach up to 20% with utilisation of solar energy as supplement energy source in traditional fossil fuel based district heating systems. In this work, the performance of hybrid district energy system for a particular location will be analysed. For performance analysis, mathematical model that...

  2. Optimising corrosion monitoring in district heating systems

    Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel; Thorarinsdottir, R.I.; Andersen, A.; Nielsen, Lars Vendelbo


    A three-year project - financially supported by the Nordic Industrial Fund - on monitoring of corrosion in district heating systems has been initiated with participation of researchers and industrial partners in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. The primary objective of the project is...... to improve the quality control in district heating systems by corrosion monitoring. In Danish systems electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), linear polarisation resistance (LPR), high-sensitive electrical resistance (ER) technology, crevice corrosion probes, as well as weight loss coupons will...

  3. Indoor temperatures for calculating room heat loss and heating capacity of radiant heating systems combined with mechanical ventilation systems

    Wu, Xiaozhou; Olesen, Bjarne W.; Fang, Lei;


    In this study, a typical office room with a radiant heating system and a mechanical ventilation system was selected as the research subject. Indoor temperature formulas for calculating the room heat loss (including transmission heat loss and ventilation heat loss) and heating capacity of the hybrid.......0 and 20.3 degrees C and between 19.6 and 20.5 degrees C, respectively, and the indoor temperature for calculating the heating capacity of the hybrid system was between 18.2 and 19.8 degrees C. Accordingly, the relative calculation errors were between 0.3% and 0.5% and between -10.2% and 11.......8% for calculating the transmission heat loss and ventilation heat loss, respectively, and between 16.0% and 17.4% for calculating the heating capacity of the hybrid system. Due to large relative calculation errors, it is necessary to consider the effect of heated surface and cool supply air on indoor temperatures...

  4. Modelling the Size of Seasonal Thermal Storage in the Solar District Heating System

    Giedrė Streckienė; Salomėja Bagdonaitė


    The integration of a thermal storage system into the solar heating system enables to increase the use of solar thermal energy in buildings and allows avoiding the mismatch between consumers’ demand and heat production in time. The paper presents modelling a seasonal thermal storage tank various sizes of which have been analyzed in the district solar heating system that could cover a part of heat demand for the district of individual houses in Vilnius. A biomass boiler house, as an additional ...

  5. Exergy Analysis and Second Law Efficiency of a Regenerative Brayton Cycle with Isothermal Heat Addition

    Naser M. Jubeh


    Full Text Available Abstract: The effect of two heat additions, rather than one, in a gas turbine engine is analyzed from the second law of thermodynamics point of view. A regenerative Brayton cycle model is used for this study, and compared with other models of Brayton cycle. All fluid friction losses in the compressor and turbine are quantified by an isentropic efficiency term. The effect of pressure ratio, turbine inlet temperature, ambient temperature, altitude, and altitude with variable ambient temperature on irreversibility "exergy destroyed" and second law efficiency was investigated and compared for all models. The results are given graphically with the appropriate discussion and conclusion.

  6. Energy Savings for Solar Heating Systems

    Thür, Alexander; Furbo, Simon; Shah, Louise Jivan


    , various simulations of solar heating systems were done for different hot water demands and collector sizes. The result shows that the potential of fuel reduction can be much higher than the solar gain of the solar thermal system. For some conditions the fuel reduction can be up to the double of the solar...

  7. 14 CFR 27.859 - Heating systems.


    ...) General. For each heating system that involves the passage of cabin air over, or close to, the exhaust manifold, there must be means to prevent carbon monoxide from entering any cabin or pilot compartment. (b... heater fuel system, fire within the ventilating air passage, or any other heater malfunction, each...

  8. Demand modelling for central heating systems

    Heller, A.


    Most researchers in the field of heat demand estimation have focussed on explaning the load for a given plant based on rather few measurements. This approach is simply the only one adaptable with the very limited data material and limited computer power. This way of dealing with the subject is here called the top-down approach, due to the fact that one tries to explain the load from the overall data. The results of such efforts are discussed in the report, leading to inspiration for own work. Also the significance of the findings to the causes for given heat loads are discussed and summarised. Contrary to the top-down approach applied in literature, a here-called bottom-up approach is applied in this work, describing the causes of a given partial load in detail and combining them to explain the total load for the system. Three partial load 'components' are discussed: 1) Space heating. 2) Hot-Water Consumption. 3) Heat losses in pipe networks. The report is aimed at giving an introduction to these subjects, but at the same time at collecting the previous work done by the author. Space heating is shortly discussed and loads are generated by an advanced simulation model. A hot water consumption model is presented and heat loads, generated by this model, utilised in the overall work. Heat loads due to heat losses in district heating a given a high priority in the current work. Hence a detailed presentation and overview of the subject is given to solar heating experts normally not dealing with district heating. Based on the 'partial' loads generated by the above-mentioned method, an overall load model is built in the computer simulation environment TRNSYS. The final tool is then employed for the generation of time series for heat demand, representing a district heating area. The results are compared to alternative methods for the generation of heat demand profiles. Results form this comparison will be presented. Computerised modelling of systems

  9. Sensitivity of district heating system operation to heat demand reductions and electricity price variations: A Swedish example

    In the future, district heating companies in Sweden must adapt to energy efficiency measures in buildings and variable fuel and electricity prices. Swedish district heating demands are expected to decrease by 1–2% per year and electricity price variations seem to be more unpredictable in the future. A cost-optimisation model of a Swedish local district heating system is constructed using the optimisation modelling tool MODEST. A scenario for heat demand changes due to increased energy efficiency in buildings, combined with the addition of new buildings, is studied along with a sensitivity analysis for electricity price variations. Despite fears that heat demand reductions will decrease co-generation of clean electricity and cause increased global emissions, the results show that anticipated heat demand changes do not increase the studied system's primary energy use or global CO2 emissions. The results further indicate that the heat production plants and the fuels used within the system have crucial importance for the environmental impact of district heat use. Results also show that low seasonal variations in electricity price levels with relatively low winter prices promote the use of electric heat pumps. High winter prices on the other hand promote co-generation of heat and electricity in CHP plants. -- Highlights: ► A MODEST optimisation model of the Uppsala district heating system is built. ► The impact of heat demand change on heat and electricity production is examined. ► An electricity price level sensitivity analysis for district heating is performed. ► Heat demand changes do not increase the primary energy use or global CO2 emissions. ► Low winter prices promote use of electric heat pumps for district heating production.

  10. Use and groundwater risk potential of additives in heat transfer fluids for borehole heat exchangers; Verwendung und Grundwassergefaehrdungspotenzial von Additiven in Waermetraegerfluessigkeiten fuer Erdwaermesonden

    Ilieva, Dafina


    Ground based heat exchanger systems need to be evaluated in terms of potential effects on groundwater quality due to the risk of leakage of borehole heat exchanger fluids. The aim of this work was to identify the compounds which are present in additive mixtures and to investigate experimentally their biodegradability and effects on the biodegradation of the major organic component in borehole heat exchanger fluids. A data survey was carried out in cooperation with the State Ministry of the Environment Baden-Wuerttemberg, Germany to collect detailed information about the identity and application amounts of additives in borehole heat exchanger fluids. The survey revealed that numerous additives of various chemical classes and properties are used as corrosion inhibitors, alkalis, dyes, organic solvents, flavors, defoamers and surfactants. Furthermore, it was shown that glycols are among the most often applied antifreeze agents, the main component of the heat exchanger fluids. Based on the prioritization criteria (i) abundance in the borehole heat exchanger fluids, (ii) persistence, and (iii) mobility in the subsurface, the additives benzotriazole, tolyltriazole, 2-ethylhexanoate, benzoate and decane dicarboxylate were selected for further biodegradation experiments. The biodegradation experiments were carried out in batch systems with 60- or 70-m-deep sediments (sandstone or marl) as inoculum. The samples were taken during the installation of borehole heat exchanger systems at two different sites. The microcosms were conducted under oxic, denitrifying, iron- and sulfate-reducing as well as fermentative conditions at the presumed aquifer temperature of 12 C. The major component ethylene glycol was degraded under all conditions studied. The fastest biodegradation occurred under oxic and nitrate-reducing conditions (< 15 days). In all anoxic, nitrate free experiments with marl-sediment fermentation was the predominant process involved in the biodegradation of ethylene

  11. Effects of Si Addition and Heating Ar on the Electromigration Performance of Al-Alloy Interconnects

    Lee, Dok Won; Lee, Byung-Zu; Jeong, Jong Yeul; Park, Hyun; Shim, Kyu Cheol; Kim, Jong Seok; Park, Young Bae; Woo, Sun-Woong; Lee, Jeong-gun


    The electromigration (EM) performance of Ti/Al-alloy multilayered metallization with one-step sputtered Al-alloy has been studied. The Al-alloys investigated included Al-1.0%Si-0.5%Cu and Al-0.5%Cu, and the Al-alloy films were prepared with and without heating Ar. The package-level EM test results indicate that the EM resistance of the Al-Si-Cu stack is nearly identical to that of the Al-Cu stack. Si addition was found to degrade the microstructure of the Al-alloy film, while it had the retarding effect on the Ti/Al reaction, which suggests that there exists a trade-off between the film microstructure and the formation of TiAl3 intermetallic compound. The EM performance of the one-step sputtered Al-alloy stack was enhanced by the use of heating Ar during the deposition of Al-alloy film, which has been attributed to the improved microstructure of the Al-alloy film by the use of heating Ar.

  12. Test report - caustic addition system operability test procedure

    This Operability Test Report documents the test results of test procedure WHC-SD-WM-OTP-167 ''Caustic Addition System Operability Test Procedure''. The Objective of the test was to verify the operability of the 241-AN-107 Caustic Addition System. The objective of the test was met

  13. Additive impacts on particle emissions from heating low emitting cooking oils

    Amouei Torkmahalleh, M.; Zhao, Y.; Hopke, P. K.; Rossner, A.; Ferro, A. R.


    The effect of five additives, including table salt, sea salt, black pepper, garlic powder, and turmeric, on the emission of PM2.5 and ultrafine particles (UFP) from heated cooking oil (200 °C) were studied. One hundred milligrams of the additives were added individually to either canola or soybean oil without stirring. Black pepper, table salt, and sea salt reduced the PM2.5 emission of canola oil by 86% (p Turmeric and garlic powder showed no changes in the PM2.5 and total number emissions of canola oil. Table salt and sea salt, decreased the level of PM2.5 emissions from soybean oil by 47% (p Turmeric and garlic powder had no effect on soybean oil with respect to total particle number emissions. Our results indicate that table salt, sea salt, and black pepper can be used to reduce the particle total number and PM2.5 emissions when cooking with oil.

  14. House-internal heating systems; Husinterna vaermesystem

    Johansson, Per-Olof; Wollerstrand, Janusz [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Heat and Power Engineering


    In this report the placement of the circulation-pump in of waterborne radiator systems, as well as their filling and deairation are investigated. The study was done by literature studies and interviews with consultants and companies active on the HVAC-market. It was concluded that different placements of the pump in relationship to the heat exchanger exist, and the arguments for the choice of placement are varying. The main explanation of the choice of placement is that it is based on experience/or by practical reasons. The most important factor influencing the placement of the pump found, was how the pump is situated in relation to the expansion-tank. To maintain pressure in the whole system the expansion-tank should be placed on the suction side of the pump without any intermediate pressure-dropping devices in between. This placement ensures overpressure in the whole radiator-system and reduces the risk of unwanted leak in of air. To avoid cavitation sufficient static pressure on the suction side of the pump is necessary. The pressure increases with the temperature, which must be taken into consideration if the pump is placed on the warm side of the heat-exchanger. From this point of view a placement in the return-pipe from the radiator-system is to be preferred. Before advices for HVAC-branch regarding placement of the circulation-pump in the heating systems can be implemented, it is of big importance to analyse and clearly specify the advantages and disadvantages of a certain placement of the pump. There is a need of directions to get house-internal systems to operate properly together with district heating system. This is especially important when older heating systems with burners and shunt valves are being connected. Filling and deairation of the radiator system is of great importance for the function of the system. A radiator-system with significant level of air remains is difficult to adjust and will not work properly. Air in the radiators leads to

  15. Creep of heat treated silicon nitride with neodymium and yttrium oxides additions

    Research highlights: → In all cases, microstructural examination of crept samples showed that existing phases at grain boundaries were associated to the deformation processes. This highlights the importance of the presence and the amount of grain boundary glass. → Crystallization of the remnant phase during heat treatment in nitrogen atmosphere gives rise to further crystallization of the new phases in the Nd-Si-O-N system such as Nd4Si3O12 and Nd2Si3O3N4. A consequence of this crystallization is a significant reduction in stress exponents and creep rates for the heat treated samples. → Diffusional creep may prevail for lower temperatures, low glass content and stresses. Cavitation would start to operate and become increasingly prevalent with increase in stress, temperature and decrease in crystallinity of the grain boundary phase. - Abstract: At the present work, samples of silicon nitride with 12 wt% of yttrium/neodymium oxides mixture were formed by gas-pressure sintering. Pos sintering heat treatments in nitrogen with a stepwise temperature variation were performed in some samples. The short term compressive creep tests were undertaken in an argon atmosphere, over a stress range of 50-300 MPa and temperature range of 1200-1400 deg. C. Values of stress exponents near unity for (i) low temperature testing in all materials and (ii) all temperatures for heat treated samples suggest diffusion accommodation processes, involving ambipolar diffusion of ionic species in the grain boundary phases. Crystallization of the remnant phase during heat treatment in a nitrogen atmosphere gives rise to further formation of new phases in the Nd-Si-O-N system such as Nd4Si3O12 and Nd2Si3O3N4. A consequence of this crystallization is a significant reduction in stress exponents and creep rates for the heat treated samples. The wedge crack observed after creep testing at specimens in its as-sintered condition may be related to the increased probability of cavitation in the

  16. Creep of heat treated silicon nitride with neodymium and yttrium oxides additions

    Moreira da Silva, Cosme Roberto, E-mail: [Universidade de Brasilia, UNB, Brasilia-DF 70910-900 (Brazil); Aparecida Pereira Reis, Danieli [Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica - Sao Jose dos Campos CEP (Brazil); Santos, Claudinei dos [Faculdade de Engenharia Quimica de Lorena, DEMAR, Lorena 12600-000 (Brazil)


    Research highlights: {yields} In all cases, microstructural examination of crept samples showed that existing phases at grain boundaries were associated to the deformation processes. This highlights the importance of the presence and the amount of grain boundary glass. {yields} Crystallization of the remnant phase during heat treatment in nitrogen atmosphere gives rise to further crystallization of the new phases in the Nd-Si-O-N system such as Nd{sub 4}Si{sub 3}O{sub 12} and Nd{sub 2}Si{sub 3}O{sub 3}N{sub 4}. A consequence of this crystallization is a significant reduction in stress exponents and creep rates for the heat treated samples. {yields} Diffusional creep may prevail for lower temperatures, low glass content and stresses. Cavitation would start to operate and become increasingly prevalent with increase in stress, temperature and decrease in crystallinity of the grain boundary phase. - Abstract: At the present work, samples of silicon nitride with 12 wt% of yttrium/neodymium oxides mixture were formed by gas-pressure sintering. Pos sintering heat treatments in nitrogen with a stepwise temperature variation were performed in some samples. The short term compressive creep tests were undertaken in an argon atmosphere, over a stress range of 50-300 MPa and temperature range of 1200-1400 deg. C. Values of stress exponents near unity for (i) low temperature testing in all materials and (ii) all temperatures for heat treated samples suggest diffusion accommodation processes, involving ambipolar diffusion of ionic species in the grain boundary phases. Crystallization of the remnant phase during heat treatment in a nitrogen atmosphere gives rise to further formation of new phases in the Nd-Si-O-N system such as Nd{sub 4}Si{sub 3}O{sub 12} and Nd{sub 2}Si{sub 3}O{sub 3}N{sub 4}. A consequence of this crystallization is a significant reduction in stress exponents and creep rates for the heat treated samples. The wedge crack observed after creep testing at specimens


    M.Tabuchi; M.Kondo; T.Watanabe; H.Hongo; F.Yin; F.Abe


    Creep lives of high Cr ferritic heat resisting steel weldments decrease due to Type IV fracture, which occurs as a result of formation and growth of creep voids and cracks on grain boundaries in fine-grained heat affected zone (HAZ). Because boron is considered to suppress the coarsening of grain boundary precipitates and growth of creep voids, we have investigated the effect of boron addition on the creep properties of 9Cr steel weldments. Four kinds of 9Cr3W3CoVNb steels with boron content varying from 4.7×10-5 to 1.8×10-4 and with nitrogen as low as 2.0×10-5 were prepared.The steel plates were welded by gas tungsten arc welding and crept at 923K. It was found that the microstructures of HAZ were quite different from those of conventional high Cr steels such as P91 and P92, namely the fine-grained HAZ did not exist in the present steel weldments. Boron addition also has the effect to suppress coarsening of grain boundary carbides in HAZ during creep. As a result of these phenomena,the welded joints of present steels showed no Type IV fractures and much better creep lives than those of conventional steels.

  18. One—Dimensional Analysis of Thermal Choking in Case of Heat Addition in Ducts

    YoshiakiMiyazato; MasashiKashitani; 等


    The thermal choking phenomenon is of great importance in an inlet isolator in dual-mode ram jet/scramjet combustor.In some cases the choked flow creates a pseudo-shock wave including a shock train in it at the engine inlet and causes large amounts of drag and radically reduces the performance of the engine at high flight Mach numbers,The present paper describes a one-dimensional flow model taking account of the upstream boundary-layer as well as heat addition by using a mass-weighted averaging technique.The simple relationships for the flow field in a constant area duct in which the effect of the usptream boundary-layer is considered but the effect of the wall friction in the duct can be neglected are presented.The results of the calculation such as the maximum heat addition when the thermal choking occurs,the downstream Mach number and the static pressure ratio are presented and examined in detail.

  19. Heat flux dynamics in dissipative cascaded systems

    de Lorenzo, S.; Farace, A.; Ciccarello, F.; De Palma, G; Giovannetti, V.


    We study the dynamics of heat flux in the thermalization process of a pair of identical quantum system that interact dissipatively with a reservoir in a {\\it cascaded} fashion. Despite the open dynamics of the bipartite system S is globally Lindbladian, one of the subsystems "sees" the reservoir in a state modified by the interaction with the other subsystem and hence it undergoes a non-Markovian dynamics. As a consequence, the heat flow exhibits a non-exponential time behaviour which can gre...

  20. Primary energy savings using heat storage for biomass heating systems

    Mitrović Dejan M.


    Full Text Available District heating is an efficient way to provide heat to residential, tertiary and industrial users. The heat storage unit is an insulated water tank that absorbs surplus heat from the boiler. The stored heat in the heat storage unit makes it possible to heat even when the boiler is not working, thus increasing the heating efficiency. In order to save primary energy (fuel, the boiler operates on nominal load every time it is in operation (for the purpose of this research. The aim of this paper is to analyze the water temperature variation in the heat storage, depending on the heat load and the heat storage volume. Heat load is calculated for three reference days, with average daily temperatures from -5 to 5°C. The primary energy savings are also calculated for those days in the case of using heat storage in district heating.[Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 33051: The concept of sustainable energy supply of settlements with energy efficient buildings

  1. A simplified heat pump model for use in solar plus heat pump system simulation studies

    Perers, Bengt; Andersen, Elsa; Nordman, Roger; Kovacs, Peter


    Solar plus heat pump systems are often very complex in design, with sometimes special heat pump arrangements and control. Therefore detailed heat pump models can give very slow system simulations and still not so accurate results compared to real heat pump performance in a system. The idea here is...

  2. Design software for solar water heating systems

    Zheng Ruicheng; Li Zhong; He Tao; Zhange Xinyu; Feng Airong; Sun Zhifeng [Inst. of Air Conditioning, China Academy of Building Research, BJ (China)


    It is introduced that the ''Design Software for Solar Water Heating Systems'' which is the first design software suitable to China's weather condition and product's performance in the paper. The software developed by IAC, CABR independently and has CABR own knowledge property right. There are three databases and four function modules in the software and the capacity of the software is both of system design and system effect analysis. (orig.)

  3. Case Studies in Low-Energy District Heating Systems: Determination of Dimensioning Methods for Planning the Future Heating Infrastructure

    Tol, Hakan; Nielsen, Susanne Balslev; Svendsen, Svend

    The climate crisis and the new technological possibilities for building low energy buildings give the opportunity to improve the municipal heating systems. The heating demand will be less in the future and renewable energy has to be integrated in the design of district heating systems. The paper...... future’s sustainable and energy efficient heating infrastructure. In this paper, a case study which focuses on dimensioning method of piping network of low-energy DH system in a new settlement, located in Roskilde Municipality, Denmark, is presented. In addition to the developed dimensioning method......, results about the optimal network layout and substation type for low-energy DH systems are also pointed out regarding to this case study. A second case study, included in this paper, focuses on technical and economical aspects of replacing natural gas heating system to low-energy DH system in an existing...

  4. Assessment of dynamic energy conversion systems for radioisotope heat sources

    The use of dynamic conversion systems to convert the heat generated in a 7500 W(t) 90 Sr radioisotopic heat source to electricity is examined. The systems studies were Stirling; Brayton Cycle; three organic Rankines (ORCs) (Barber-Nichols/ORMAT, Sundstrand, and TRW); and an organic Rankine plus thermoelectrics. The systems were ranked for a North Warning System mission using a Los Alamos Multiattribute Decision Theory code. Three different heat source designs were used: case I with a beginning of life (BOL) source temperature of 640 C, case II with a BOL source temperature of 7450C, and case III with a BOL source temperature of 9450C. The Stirling engine system was the top-ranked system of cases I and II, closely followed by the ORC systems in case I and ORC plus thermoelectrics in case II. The Brayton cycle system was top-ranked for case III, with the Stirling engine system a close second. The use of 238Pu in heat source sizes of 7500 W(t) was examined and found to be questionable because of cost and material availability and because of additional requirements for analysis of safeguards and critical mass

  5. Additive Units of Product System of Hilbert Modules

    Biljana Vujosevic


    Full Text Available In this paper we consider the notion of additive units and roots of a central unital unit in a spatial product system of two-sided Hilbert C∗-modules. This is a generalization of the notion of additive units and roots of a unit in a spatial product system of Hilbert spaces introduced in [B. V. R. Bhat, M. Lindsay, M. Mukherjee, Additive units of product system, arXiv:1501.07675v1 [math.FA] 30 Jan 2015]. We introduce the notion of continuous additive unit and continuous root of a central unital unit ω in a spatial product system over C∗-algebra B and prove that the set of all continuous additive units of ω can be endowed with a structure of two-sided Hilbert B − B module wherein the set of all continuous roots of ω is a Hilbert B − B submodule.

  6. Developing the Mathematical Model of Regenerative Heat Exchangers for Energy and Heat Supply Systems of High Temperature Heat Process Units

    Кошельник, Александр Вадимович; Лавинский, Денис Владимирович; Хавин, Евгений Валерьевич; Павлова, Виктория Геннадиевна; Гордиенко, Елена Петровна


    A mathematical model for the computation of the heat exchange in the heat accumulation elements of the regenerative heat exchangers of energy and heat supply systems for high temperature heat process units has been presented. The model allows us to obtain the design data about the operation parameters of the regenerators, nozzle temperature state, and a change in heat carrier parameters. The obtained data can be used for the selection of structural and mode-related parameters for the regenera...

  7. Analysis and Interpretation of the Plasma Dynamic Response to Additional Heating Power using different Diagnostics

    The main goal in the research of nuclear fusion, and therefore in tokamak research as well, is the development of a high power, steady-state power plant. To obtain the high power required for igniting the plasma, the size of the device must be very large. The performance of the tokamak plasma depends in particular on the plasma shape and on the internal plasma profiles. These profiles include those of the current density and the pressure, two quantities that can be modified by means of auxiliary heating methods such as Electron Cyclotron Heating (ECH). ECH is a very important tool due to its capability of injecting highly localised and intense power. Off-axis ECH and Electron Cyclotron Current Drive (ECCD) modify both current density and electron temperature profiles, leading to modification of confinement and stability properties. in particular, complete stabilisation of magnetohydrodynamic modes using ECCD is feasible. Furthermore, ECH is crucial as a mean of increasing the bootstrap current fraction through the formation of internal transport barriers, so that confinement is also improved. Finally, it is also noted that modulated ECH (MECH) is a very effective tool for perturbative energy transport experiments in many different regimes. Experiments performed in the TCV and the ASDEX Upgrade tokamaks are presented. The role of TCV is very important due to its flexibility of varying the plasma shape, its versatile high power ECH system at both the second and third electron cyclotron harmonics, and due to the numerous diagnostics installed, e.g. the two soft X-ray (SXR) diagnostics which simultaneously allow high temporal and spatial resolutions. The importance of ASDEX Upgrade is related to its large size, which makes it a reactor-relevant experimental facility, and to the Neutral Beam Injection (NBI) and ECH heating facilities, which allow a study of heat and particle transport in either mostly ion-heated or mostly electron-heated regimes. Moreover, for the

  8. Analysis and Interpretation of the Plasma Dynamic Response to Additional Heating Power using different Diagnostics

    Manini, A


    The main goal in the research of nuclear fusion, and therefore in tokamak research as well, is the development of a high power, steady-state power plant. To obtain the high power required for igniting the plasma, the size of the device must be very large. The performance of the tokamak plasma depends in particular on the plasma shape and on the internal plasma profiles. These profiles include those of the current density and the pressure, two quantities that can be modified by means of auxiliary heating methods such as Electron Cyclotron Heating (ECH). ECH is a very important tool due to its capability of injecting highly localised and intense power. Off-axis ECH and Electron Cyclotron Current Drive (ECCD) modify both current density and electron temperature profiles, leading to modification of confinement and stability properties. in particular, complete stabilisation of magnetohydrodynamic modes using ECCD is feasible. Furthermore, ECH is crucial as a mean of increasing the bootstrap current fraction through the formation of internal transport barriers, so that confinement is also improved. Finally, it is also noted that modulated ECH (MECH) is a very effective tool for perturbative energy transport experiments in many different regimes. Experiments performed in the TCV and the ASDEX Upgrade tokamaks are presented. The role of TCV is very important due to its flexibility of varying the plasma shape, its versatile high power ECH system at both the second and third electron cyclotron harmonics, and due to the numerous diagnostics installed, e.g. the two soft X-ray (SXR) diagnostics which simultaneously allow high temporal and spatial resolutions. The importance of ASDEX Upgrade is related to its large size, which makes it a reactor-relevant experimental facility, and to the Neutral Beam Injection (NBI) and ECH heating facilities, which allow a study of heat and particle transport in either mostly ion-heated or mostly electron-heated regimes. Moreover, for the

  9. Design of A District Heating System Including The Upgrading of Residual Industrial Waste Heat

    Falcao, P.W.; Mesbah, A.; Suherman, M.V.; Wennekes, S.


    This study was aimed to evaluate the feasibility of using a waste heat stream from DSM for a District Heating System. A conceptual design was carried out with emphasis on the unit for upgrading the residual waste heat. Having reviewed heat pump technology, mechanical heat pump was found to be the be

  10. Heat-Flux Gage thermophosphor system

    Tobin, K.W.


    This document describes the installation, hardware requirements, and application of the Heat-Flux Gage (Version 1.0) software package developed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Applied Technology Division. The developed software is a single component of a thermographic phosphor-based temperature and heat-flux measurement system. The heat-flux transducer was developed by EG G Energy Measurements Systems and consists of a 1- by 1-in. polymethylpentene sheet coated on the front and back with a repeating thermographic phosphor pattern. The phosphor chosen for this application is gadolinium oxysulphide doped with terbium. This compound has a sensitive temperature response from 10 to 65.6{degree}C (50--150{degree}F) for the 415- and 490-nm spectral emission lines. 3 refs., 17 figs.

  11. Solar water heating systems : a buyer's guide

    Noble, M. [EnerWorks, London, ON (Canada)


    The basic operation of domestic solar water heaters was described to inform consumers about the various types currently available on the market and to assist them in choosing a product for residential needs. In addition to reducing energy costs by 50 per cent compared to conventional water heaters, their use minimizes greenhouse gas emissions. A typical unit, which can be easily retrofitted to an existing system for year-round or seasonal use, consists of a solar collector mounted on a roof where sunlight passes through an absorbing material and is converted into heat. It also includes a pump which circulates heat transfer fluid, a heat exchanger, and storage tanks. Dealers recognized by the Canadian Solar Industries Association and the Solar Energy Society of Canada can recommend qualified installers who comply with CSA standards. The primary factors which determine energy conservation are routine maintenance, the size of the collector, appliance efficiency, amount of sunlight and amount of water consumed. Laundering during the day, installing low-flow showerheads, insulating pipes, and using tepid water for laundry can further reduce energy costs. Solar energy can also be used for residential pool heating, passive and active solar space heating and photovoltaic systems which are commonly used in remote off-grid areas. A simple method to calculate annual dollar saving from a solar water heating system was included with this guide along with a glossary, a reader survey and a list of sources for more information on solar energy. 2 tabs., 11 figs.

  12. Geometric principles in additive systems for construction of vaults

    Jaeger, Thomas Arvid


    and the reinforced concrete made new large spans possible. These was in-situ casted and not additive systems. Utzon’s Sydney opera house from the mid-fifties combined the additive system, iron reinforcement and concrete into at new prefabricated vault system, which could handle the complex geometry of...... are at last compared to principles of joining elements in other materials. Keywords: Vaults, additive systems, shells, complex geometry, basic geometric principles....... della Fiore. The Barouque style followed with the domes of Borromini; Bernini and Guarini. The Period of Enlightenment had iconic tunnel- and dome vault projects by Etienne l. Boulée. All these stone vaults were made by additive systems in bricks and mortar. In the century concrete was introduced...

  13. Dynamic behavior of district heating systems

    The goal of this study is to develop a simulation model of a hot water system taking into account the time dependent phenomena which are important for the operational management of such a system. A state of the art literature review has shown that there is no such model considering all parts from the generation of the heat at the plant to its consumption in the connected buildings so far. First, an exhaustive list of all dynamic phenomena occurring in district heating systems has been drawn and analyzed. Considering this list, this thesis proposes that a model which satisfies the criteria listed above can be developed by superposing four sub-models which are a dynamic model of the heat generation plant, a steady state model of the hydraulic calculation of the distribution network, a dynamic model of the thermal behavior of the network and a dynamic model of the heat consumers. The development of the four sub-models starts from the fundamental conservation equations for fluid systems, i.e. the conservation of mass, momentum and energy. The transformations of those general equations into simple calculation formulas show and justify the hypotheses made in the modeling process. The heat generation plant model itself is a set of sub-models: the models for steam boilers, hot water boilers and heat accumulators which take account of the dynamic evolution of the water temperature by a simple form of the energy conservation equation, as well as the steady state models for circulation pumps and pressurizers. Since the velocities in the network pipes are small, a consideration of steady states is adopted. A network model allowing to calculate the hydraulic variables in every point is adopted from the graph theory. The pressures and flow rates in the network are calculated at discrete time steps and they are considered to be constant for the duration between the time steps. (author) figs., tabs., refs

  14. Design and operation of the power installation for the TCV ECR additional heating

    Following a brief introduction to the TCV project, this paper concentrates on the Regulated High Voltage Power Supply (RHVPS) system chosen to supply the nine gyrotrons, distributed in three clusters, that will deliver 4.5 MW of Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ECRH) to TCV plasmas. The configuration of these clusters is described in some detail, including the results of site test both with dummy load (80 kV, 85 A, 2 sec) and the gyrotrons themselves (70 kV, 25 A, 2 sec). Some details are also given of gyrotron auxiliaries, interlock circuitry, control and data acquisition, and integration into TCV control environment. (author) 4 figs., 1 tab., 4 refs

  15. Energy Integrated Lighting-Heating-Cooling System.

    Meckler, Gershon; And Others


    Energy balance problems in the design of office buildings are analyzed. Through the use of integrated systems utilizing dual purpose products, a controlled environment with minimum expenditure of energy, equipment and space can be provided. Contents include--(1) office building occupancy loads, (2) office building heating load analysis, (3) office…

  16. Graphene Platelets as Morphology Tailoring Additive in Carbon Nanotube Transparent and Flexible Electrodes for Heating Applications

    Grzegorz Wroblewski


    Full Text Available Flexible and transparent electrodes were fabricated with spray coating technique from paints based on multiwalled carbon nanotubes with the addition of graphene platelets. The work presents the influence of graphene platelets on the paints rheology and layers morphology, which has a strong connection to the electrooptical parameters of the electrodes. The paints rheology affects the atomization during spray coating and later the leveling of the coating on the substrate. Both technological aspects shape the morphology of the electrode and the distribution of nanoparticles in the coating. All these factors influence the sheet resistance and roughness, which is linked to the optical transmission and absorbance. In our research the electrode was applied as a transparent and elastic heating element with 68% optical transmission at 550 nm wavelength and 8.4 kΩ/□ sheet resistance. The elastic heating element was tested with a thermal camera at the 3 diverse supply voltages −20, 30, and 60 VDC. The test successfully confirmed and supported our proposed uses of elaborated electrodes.

  17. Corrosion Rate Monitoring in District Heating Systems

    Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel; Nielsen, Lars Vendelbo; Andersen, A.


    Quality control in district heating systems to keep uniform corrosion rates low and localized corrosion minimal is based on water quality control. Side-stream units equipped with carbon steel probes for online monitoring were mounted in district heating plants to investigate which techniques would...... measurements was too long for real time data, and reliable mass loss data could only be obtained after 6 months exposure. It was furthermore found that localized corrosion events detected by the carbon steel crevice corrosion cell correlated with oxygen peaks of even a few hours duration....

  18. Field Measurements of Heating System Efficiency in Nine Electrically-Heated Manufactured Homes.

    Davis, Bob; Siegel, J.; Palmiter, L.; Baylon, D.


    This report presents the results of field measurements of heating efficiency performed on nine manufactured homes sited in the Pacific Northwest. The testing procedure collects real-time data on heating system energy use and heating zone temperatures, allowing direct calculation of heating system efficiency.

  19. A heat receiver design for solar dynamic space power systems

    Baker, Karl W.; Dustin, Miles O.; Crane, Roger


    An advanced heat pipe receiver designed for a solar dynamic space power system is described. The power system consists of a solar concentrator, solar heat receiver, Stirling heat engine, linear alternator and waste heat radiator. The solar concentrator focuses the sun's energy into a heat receiver. The engine and alternator convert a portion of this energy to electric power and the remaining heat is rejected by a waste heat radiator. Primary liquid metal heat pipes transport heat energy to the Stirling engine. Thermal energy storage allows this power system to operate during the shade portion of an orbit. Lithium fluoride/calcium fluoride eutectic is the thermal energy storage material. Thermal energy storage canisters are attached to the midsection of each heat pipe. The primary heat pipes pass through a secondary vapor cavity heat pipe near the engine and receiver interface. The secondary vapor cavity heat pipe serves three important functions. First, it smooths out hot spots in the solar cavity and provides even distribution of heat to the engine. Second, the event of a heat pipe failure, the secondary heat pipe cavity can efficiently transfer heat from other operating primary heat pipes to the engine heat exchanger of the defunct heat pipe. Third, the secondary heat pipe vapor cavity reduces temperature drops caused by heat flow into the engine. This unique design provides a high level of reliability and performance.

  20. Heat storage in solar thermal systems

    Sedmidubský, Petr


    This bachelor´s thesis deals with heat storage in solar thermal systems. The first part of the thesis is devoted to the solar energy. The problems with its use are described in this part. The second part is devoted to solar thermal systems. Various types and designs of solar thermal systems are described in this part. The third part of thesis is devoted to the various types of solar thermal systems. The principle of their operation, advantages, disadvantages and the possibility of their pract...

  1. Nonlinear feedback in a six-dimensional Lorenz model: impact of an additional heating term

    Shen, B.-W.


    In this study, a six-dimensional Lorenz model (6DLM) is derived, based on a recent study using a five-dimensional (5-D) Lorenz model (LM), in order to examine the impact of an additional mode and its accompanying heating term on solution stability. The new mode added to improve the representation of the streamfunction is referred to as a secondary streamfunction mode, while the two additional modes, which appear in both the 6DLM and 5DLM but not in the original LM, are referred to as secondary temperature modes. Two energy conservation relationships of the 6DLM are first derived in the dissipationless limit. The impact of three additional modes on solution stability is examined by comparing numerical solutions and ensemble Lyapunov exponents of the 6DLM and 5DLM as well as the original LM. For the onset of chaos, the critical value of the normalized Rayleigh number (rc) is determined to be 41.1. The critical value is larger than that in the 3DLM (rc ~ 24.74), but slightly smaller than the one in the 5DLM (rc ~ 42.9). A stability analysis and numerical experiments obtained using generalized LMs, with or without simplifications, suggest the following: (1) negative nonlinear feedback in association with the secondary temperature modes, as first identified using the 5DLM, plays a dominant role in providing feedback for improving the solution's stability of the 6DLM, (2) the additional heating term in association with the secondary streamfunction mode may destabilize the solution, and (3) overall feedback due to the secondary streamfunction mode is much smaller than the feedback due to the secondary temperature modes; therefore, the critical Rayleigh number of the 6DLM is comparable to that of the 5DLM. The 5DLM and 6DLM collectively suggest different roles for small-scale processes (i.e., stabilization vs. destabilization), consistent with the following statement by Lorenz (1972): "If the flap of a butterfly's wings can be instrumental in generating a tornado, it can

  2. Characterization of a solar photovoltaic/loop-heat-pipe heat pump water heating system

    Highlights: ► Describing concept and operating principle of the PV/LHP heat pump water heating system. ► Developing a numerical model to evaluate the performance of the system. ► Experimental testing of the prototype system. ► Characterizing the system performance using parallel comparison between the modelling and experimental results. ► Investigating the impact of the operating conditions to the system’s performance. -- Abstract: This paper introduced the concept, potential application and benefits relating to a novel solar photovoltaic/loop-heat-pipe (PV/LHP) heat pump system for hot water generation. On this basis, the paper reported the process and results of characterizing the performance of such a system, which was undertaken through dedicated thermo-fluid and energy balance analyses, computer model development and operation, and experimental verification and modification. The fundamental heat transfer, fluid flow and photovoltaic governing equations were applied to characterize the energy conversion and transfer processes occurring in each part and whole system layout; while the energy balance approach was utilized to enable inter-connection and resolution of the grouped equations. As a result, a dedicated computer model was developed and used to calculate the operational parameters, optimise the geometrical configurations and sizes, and recommend the appropriate operational condition relating to the system. Further, an experimental rig was constructed and utilized to acquire the relevant measurement data that thus enabled the parallel comparison between the simulation and experiment. It is concluded that the testing and modelling results are in good agreement, indicating that the model has the reasonable accuracy in predicting the system’s performance. Under the given experimental conditions, the electrical, thermal and overall efficiency of the PV/LHP module were around 10%, 40% and 50% respectively; whilst the system’s overall performance

  3. 46 CFR 153.430 - Heat transfer systems; general.


    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Heat transfer systems; general. 153.430 Section 153.430... Temperature Control Systems § 153.430 Heat transfer systems; general. Each cargo cooling system required by... separated from all other cooling and heating systems; and (c) Allow manual regulation of the system's...

  4. Optimal heat rejection pressure in transcritical carbon dioxide air conditioning and heat pump systems

    Liao, Shengming; Jakobsen, Arne


    Due to the urgent need for environmentally benign refrigerants, the use of the natural substance carbon dioxide in refrigeration systems has gained more and more attention. In systems such as automobile air-conditioners and heat pumps, owing to the relatively high heat rejection temperatures, the...... dioxide air conditioning or heat pump systems and for intelligent controlling such systems....

  5. Solar heating and cooling systems design and development


    The development and delivery of eight prototype solar heating and cooling systems for installation and operational test was reported. Two heating and six heating and cooling units will be delivered for single family residences, multiple family residences and commercial applications.

  6. A comparison of the heat and mechanical energy of a heat-pump wind turbine system

    Aybek, A.; Arslan, S.; Yildiz, E.; Atik, K. [University of Kahramanmaras (Turkey). Dept. of Agricultural Machinery


    While a variety of applications of wind energy have been studied in Turkey, no significant efforts have been made to utilize heat pumps for heat generation. The use of heat pumps in wind energy systems is worth considering because of the high efficiency of heat production. In this study, a directly coupled wind turbine-heat pump system was designed, constructed, and tested. Measurements determined the mechanical energy of the rotors of the wind turbine and the heat energy generated by the heat pump driven by the rotor shaft. Based on the comparisons between the power generated by the heat pump and the power of the Savonius rotors, it was found that the heat energy gained by the heat pump was four times greater than the mechanical energy obtained from the turbine. It was suggested that heat pumps could be efficiently used in wind energy systems. (Author)

  7. A study on the design and analysis of a heat pump heating system using wastewater as a heat source

    Baek, N.C. [Korea Institute of Energy, Daejeon (Korea). Solar Thermal Research Center; Shin, U.C. [Daejeon University (Korea); Yoon, J.H. [Hanbat University, Daejeon (Korea)


    In this study, the compression heat pump system using wastewater, as a heat source, from hotel with sauna was designed and analyzed. This study was performed to investigate the feasibility of the wastewater use for heat pump as a heat source and to obtain engineering data for system design. This heat pump system uses off-peak electricity that is a cheap energy compared to fossil fuel in Korea. For this, the charging process of heat into the hot water storage tank is achieved only at night time (22:00-08:00). TRNSYS was used for the system simulation with some new components like the heat pump, which we create ourselves. As a result, it was forecasted that the yearly mean COP of heat pump is about 4.8 and heat pump can supply 100% of hot water load except weekend of winter season. The important thing that should be considered for the system design is to decrease the temperature difference between condenser and evaporator working fluids during the heat charging process by the heat pump. This heat pump system using wastewater from sauna, public bath, building, etc. can therefore be effectively applied not only for water heating but also space heating and cooling in regions like as Korea. (author)

  8. Modelling of the heating system for a building

    The district-heating systems for the heat-energy supply to the building consume substantial resources and the possibility to analyse the behaviour of the building as a part of the system is very important. The dynamic modelling of such a system may be simplified by using modelling software, such as MatLab. The model of the heat flows in the building and in the heating system and domestic water-heating system with heat-energy controllers has been developed. The model is based on the different equations of the heat flows between the elements of the building

  9. 40 CFR 63.104 - Heat exchange system requirements.


    ... heat exchange system or at locations where the cooling water enters and exits each heat exchanger or... manufacturing process units. (iii) For samples taken at the entrance and exit of each heat exchanger or any... cooling water enters the individual heat exchanger or group of heat exchangers and the exit is the...

  10. CHF enhancement in pool boiling system with additives under atmospheric pressure

    In this study, CHF behavior on a small SS304 plate (200 x 50 x 1 mm) at varying inclination angle of the heated surface under atmospheric pressure was studied in pool boiling system with distilled water or several additive solutions. Four fluids, including distilled water, were used to investigate the effect of each additive on CHF at given condition, which were distilled water, boric acid solution (2000, 4000 ppm), TSP (Tri-sodium phosphate) solution (2000, 5000 ppm). All additives showed CHF enhancement effect in comparison with distilled water. The orientation angle was ranged from 5 degrees (near downward facing position) to 90 degrees (vertical position). CHF was increased with the increase of the tilting angle. For the reason of the enhancement with additives, change of heated surface characteristic was discussed. Contact angle was measured, and change of this surface characteristic was discussed as the dominant factor for the enhancement of CHF. (authors)


    Baturkin, Volodya


    The heat pipes application in passive radiative cooling system is considered on the base of the analysis of thermal balance of consecutive thermal elements in system „Sensor - heat pipe – radiator-space“. This analysis defines the points of main thermal attention – heat leakage from mounting place, heat exchange with external radiative surrounding, minimization of thermal resistance of conductors and interaction between these factors. The secularities of heat pipe application as a heat tra...

  12. Performance of Integrated Hydronic Heating Systems.



    A variety of system configurations are used in North America to meet the heating and domestic hot water needs of single-family homes. This includes, for example: warm air furnaces with electric water heaters; boilers with integrated hot water coils; and boilers with 'indirect' hot water storage tanks. Integrated hydronic systems which provide both heat and hot water are more popular only in the Northeast and mid-Atlantic regions. For those making decisions about configurations of these integrated hydronic systems, including control options, little information is available concerning the annual energy cost implications of these decisions. This report presents results of a project to use a direct load emulation approach to measure the performance of hydronic systems, develop performance curves, and to provide decision tools to consumers. This is a laboratory measurement system involving direct energy input and output measurements under different load patterns. These results are then used to develop performance correlations for specific systems that can be used to predict energy use in specific applications. A wide range of system types have been tested under this project including conventional boilers with 'tankless' internal coils for domestic hot water production, boilers with indirect external storage tanks, tank type water heaters which may also be used for space heating, condensing oil- and gas-fired systems, and systems with custom control features. It is shown that low load and idle energy losses can have a very large impact on the total annual energy use and that the potential energy savings associated with replacing old equipment with newer, high efficiency equipment with low losses at idle or low load can be in the 25% range. These savings are larger than simple combustion efficiency measurements would indicate.

  13. Energy Savings for Solar Heating Systems

    Thür, Alexander; Furbo, Simon; Shah, Louise Jivan


    showed a good degree of similarity. With the boiler model, various simulations of solar domestic hot water heating systems were done for different hot water demands and collector sizes. The result shows that the potential of fuel reduction can be much higher than the solar gain of the solar thermal...... system. For some conditions the fuel reduction can be up to the double of the solar gain due to a strong increase of the system efficiency. As the monitored boilers were not older than 3 years, it can be assumed that the saving potential with older boilers could be even higher than calculated in this...

  14. Preliminary design activities for solar heating and cooling systems


    Information on the development of solar heating and cooling systems is presented. The major emphasis is placed on program organization, system size definition, site identification, system approaches, heat pump and equipment design, collector procurement, and other preliminary design activities.

  15. Solar system for domestic hot water and space heating

    Weiss, W. [Arbeitsgemeinschaf Erneubare Energie, Gleisdorf (Austria)


    The solar thermal markets, different types of solar systems for hot water and space heating, the dimensioning and the components of solar heating systems, the properties of the systems are reviewed in this presentation

  16. Theory of specific heat in glass-forming systems.

    Hentschel, H G E; Ilyin, Valery; Procaccia, Itamar; Schupper, Nurith


    Experimental measurements of the specific heat in glass-forming systems are obtained from the linear response to either slow cooling (or heating) or to oscillatory perturbations with a given frequency about a constant temperature. The latter method gives rise to a complex specific heat with the constraint that the zero frequency limit of the real part should be identified with thermodynamic measurements. Such measurements reveal anomalies in the temperature dependence of the specific heat, including the so called "specific heat peak" in the vicinity of the glass transition. The aim of this paper is to provide theoretical explanations of these anomalies in general and a quantitative theory in the case of a simple model of glass formation. We first present interesting simulation results for the specific heat in a classical model of a binary mixture glass former. We show that in addition to the formerly observed specific heat peak there is a second peak at lower temperatures which was not observable in earlier simulations. Second, we present a general relation between the specific heat, a caloric quantity, and the bulk modulus of the material, a mechanical quantity, and thus offer a smooth connection between the liquid and amorphous solid states. The central result of this paper is a connection between the micromelting of clusters in the system and the appearance of specific heat peaks; we explain the appearance of two peaks by the micromelting of two types of clusters. We relate the two peaks to changes in the bulk and shear moduli. We propose that the phenomenon of glass formation is accompanied by a fast change in the bulk and the shear moduli, but these fast changes occur in different ranges of the temperature. Last, we demonstrate how to construct a theory of the frequency dependent complex specific heat, expected from heterogeneous clustering in the liquid state of glass formers. A specific example is provided in the context of our model for the dynamics of

  17. Analysis of a combined system of an earth-heat-exchanger and a heat pump

    Herz, J.; Doll, A. [Umwelt-Campus Birkenfeld (Germany). Automation and Energy System Technology; Brinkmann, K.


    This paper presents an analysis of the system technology of an earth-heatexchanger combined to a heat pump, which was (ca. 1995 - 2002) realised at the building of the Umwelt-Campus in Birkenfeld, which belongs to the University of Applied Sciences Trier in Germany. The heat pump works for a recovery of the stored heat in a massive absorber at the air-outlet, in order to minimise energy losses in the atmosphere. Examinations and comparisons to others up to now realised earth-heat-exchanger projects in Germany, done by Joern Herz for reaching his diploma degree, show, that the special configuration at the Umwelt-Campus Birkenfeld seems to be the first of that kind. This presentation gives an overview of the system technology and working principle. Measurements and mathematical modelling were done, in order to evaluate the efficiency of this combined system and to identify to advantages and disadvantages of this realisation. Additional, practical experiences with stability and working conditions etc., made by Andreas Doll, the responsible technical engineer for the Campus Buildings, are integrated. (orig.)

  18. Corrosion and Heat Transfer Characteristics of Water Dispersed with Carboxylate Additives and Multi Walled Carbon Nano Tubes

    Moorthy, Chellapilla V. K. N. S. N.; Srinivas, Vadapalli


    This paper summarizes a recent work on anti-corrosive properties and enhanced heat transfer properties of carboxylated water based nanofluids. Water mixed with sebacic acid as carboxylate additive found to be resistant to corrosion and suitable for automotive environment. The carboxylated water is dispersed with very low mass concentration of carbon nano tubes at 0.025, 0.05 and 0.1 %. The stability of nanofluids in terms of zeta potential is found to be good with carboxylated water compared to normal water. The heat transfer performance of nanofluids is carried out on an air cooled heat exchanger similar to an automotive radiator with incoming air velocities across radiator at 5, 10 and 15 m/s. The flow Reynolds number of water is in the range of 2500-6000 indicating developing flow regime. The corrosion resistance of nanofluids is found to be good indicating its suitability to automotive environment. There is a slight increase in viscosity and marginal decrease in the specific heat of nanofluids with addition of carboxylate as well as CNTs. Significant improvement is observed in the thermal conductivity of nanofluids dispersed with CNTs. During heat transfer experimentation, the inside heat transfer coefficient and overall heat transfer coefficient has also improved markedly. It is also found that the velocity of air and flow rate of coolant plays an important role in enhancement of the heat transfer coefficient and overall heat transfer coefficient.

  19. Estimation of Power Efficiency of Combined Heat Pumping Stations in Heat Power Supply Systems

    I. I. Matsko


    Full Text Available The paper considers realization of heat pumping technologies advantages at heat power generation for heat supply needs on the basis of combining electric drive heat pumping units with water heating boilers as a part of a combined heat pumping station.The possibility to save non-renewable energy resources due to the combined heat pumping stations utilization instead of water heating boiler houses is shown in the paper.The calculation methodology for power efficiency for introduction of combined heat pumping stations has been developed. The seasonal heat needs depending on heating system temperature schedule, a low potential heat source temperature and regional weather parameters are taken into account in the calculations.

  20. Multilevel Flow Modeling of Domestic Heating Systems

    Hu, Junjie; Lind, Morten; You, Shi;


    Multilevel Flow Modeling (MFM) is a well recognized methodology for functional modeling of complex systems which primarily focuses on the representation of their goals and functions. It has been successfully used in industrial process, e.g. nuclear power plant, chemical plants etc. to facilitate ...... the MFM models. The ‘role’ concept is used to associate the relation between physical structures and functions in all MFM models. This study contributes to MFM library expansion and provides a significant test of the expressivity of MFM....... the operation on fault analysis and control. A significant improvement of the MFM methodology has been recently proposed, where the “role” concept was introduced to enable the representation of structural entities and the conveyance of important information for building up knowledge bases, with the purpose...... of complementing this reasoning methodology. Domestic heating systems, as the main resource to meet the thermal requirements of end-users, have different implementations in Europe in order to achieve various degrees of controllability and heating efficiencies. As all the heating systems serve the same basic needs...

  1. Performance Analysis of a Hybrid District Heating System

    Mikulandric, Robert; Krajačić, Goran; Duic, Neven;


    Hybridisation of district heating systems can contribute to more efficient heat generation through cogeneration power plants or through the share increase of renewable energy sources in total energy consumption while reducing negative aspects of particular energy source utilisation. In this work...... systems could contribute to heat production costs decrease in district heating systems up to 30% in comparison with highly efficient heat production technologies based on conventional fuels....

  2. The capric and lauric acid mixture with chemical additives as latent heat storage materials for cooling application

    Roxas-Dimaano, M.N. [University of Santo Tomas, Manila (Philippines). Research Center for the Natural Sciences; Watanabe, T. [Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan). Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors


    The mixture of capric acid and lauric acid (C-L acid), with the respective mole composition of 65% and 35%, is a potential phase change material (PCM). Its melting point of 18.0{sup o}C, however, is considered high for cooling application of thermal energy storage. The thermophysical and heat transfer characteristics of the C-L acid with some organic additives are investigated. Compatibility of C-L acid combinations with additives in different proportions and their melting characteristics are analyzed using the differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). Among the chemical additives, methyl salicylate, eugenol, and cineole presented the relevant melting characteristics. The individual heat transfer behavior and thermal storage performance of 0.1 mole fraction of these additives in the C-L acid mixture are evaluated. The radial and axial temperature distribution during charging and discharging at different concentrations of selected PCM combinations are experimentally determined employing a vertical cylindrical shell and tube heat exchanger. The methyl salicylate in the C-L acid provided the most effective additive in the C-L acid. It demonstrated the least melting band width aimed at lowering the melting point of the C-L acid with the highest heat of fusion value with relatively comparable rate of heat transfer. Furthermore, the thermal performance based on the total amount of transferred energy and their rates, established the PCM's latent heat storage capability. (author)

  3. Thermal Protection System (Heat Shield) Development - Advanced Development Project

    Kowal, T. John


    The Orion Thermal Protection System (TPS) ADP was a 3 1/2 year effort to develop ablative TPS materials for the Orion crew capsule. The ADP was motivated by the lack of available ablative TPS's. The TPS ADP pursued a competitive phased development strategy with succeeding rounds of development, testing and down selections. The Project raised the technology readiness level (TRL) of 8 different TPS materials from 5 different commercial vendors, eventual down selecting to a single material system for the Orion heat shield. In addition to providing a heat shield material and design for Orion on time and on budget, the Project accomplished the following: 1) Re-invigorated TPS industry & re-established a NASA competency to respond to future TPS needs; 2) Identified a potentially catastrophic problem with the planned MSL heat shield, and provided a viable, high TRL alternate heat shield design option; and 3) Transferred mature heat shield material and design options to the commercial space industry, including TPS technology information for the SpaceX Dragon capsule.


    Shah, Louise Jivan; Furbo, Simon


    programme that simulates the thermal behaviour of low flow SDHW systems. The yearly thermal performance of low flow SDHW systems with different designed mantle tanks has been calculated. The influence of the mantle tank design on the thermal performance is investigated by means of the calculations with the...... programme and by means of tests of three SDHW systems with different designed mantle tanks. Based on the investigations design rules for mantle tanks are proposed. The model, describing the heat transfer coefficients in the mantle is approximate. In addition, the measurements have revealed that a...

  5. Investigations of Intelligent Solar Heating Systems for Single Family House

    Andersen, Elsa; Chen, Ziqian; Fan, Jianhua;


    tank in tank heat storage with domestic hot water in the inner tank and space heating water in the outer tank. The total tank volume is 750 liters and the solar collector area is 9 m2. The auxiliary energy supply system is based on electrical heating element(s)/heat pump and is different for all three...... systems.The system will be equipped with an intelligent control system where the control of the electrical heating element(s)/heat pump is based on forecasts of the variable electricity price, the heating demand and the solar energy production.By means of numerical models of the systems made in Trnsys......, the control strategy of intelligent solar heating systems is investigated and the yearly auxiliary energy use of the systems and the electricity price for supplying the consumers with domestic hot water and space heating are calculated....

  6. Ion cyclotron resonance heating system on Aditya

    D Bora; Sunil Kumar; Raj Singh; S V Kulkarni; A Mukherjee; J P Singh; Raguraj Singh; S Dani; A Patel; Sai Kumar; V George; Y S S Srinivas; P Khilar; M Kushwah; P Shah; H M Jadav; Rajnish Kumar; S Gangopadhyay; H Machhar; B Kadia; K Parmar; A Bhardwaj; Suresh Adav; D Rathi; D S Bhattacharya


    An ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) system has been designed, fabricated indigenously and commissioned on Tokamak Aditya. The system has been commissioned to operate between 20·0 and 47·0 MHz at a maximum power of 200 kW continuous wave (CW). Duration of 500 ms is sufficient for operation on Aditya, however, the same system feeds the final stage of the 1·5 MW ICRH system being prepared for the steady-state superconducting tokamak (SST-1) for a duration of 1000 s. Radio frequency (RF) power (225 kW) has been generated and successfully tested on a dummy load for 100s at 30·0 MHz. Lower powers have been coupled to Aditya in a breakdown experiment. We describe the system in detail in this work.

  7. Prototype solar heating and combined heating and cooling systems


    Designs were completed, hardware was received, and hardware was shipped to two sites. A change was made in the heat pump working fluid. Problem investigation of shroud coatings for the collector received emphasis.

  8. Web Based Information System for Heat Supply Monitoring

    Stoyanov, Borislav; Strahilov, Strahil


    The paper presents web based information system for heat supply monitoring. The proposed model  and information system for gathering data from heating station heat-flow meters and regulators is software realized. The novel system with proved functionality can be commercialized at the cost of minimal investments, finding wildly use on Bulgarian market as cheap and quality alternative of the western systems.

  9. Solution to problems of bacterial impurity of heating systems

    Sharapov, V. I.; Zamaleev, M. M.


    The article describes the problems of the operation of open and closed district heating systems related to the bacteriological contamination of heating-system water. It is noted that district heating systems are basically safe in sanitary epidemiological terms. Data on the dangers of sulfide contamination of heating systems are given. It is shown that the main causes of the development of sulfate-reducing and iron bacteria in heating systems are a significant biological contamination of source water to fuel heating systems, which is determined by water oxidizability, and a low velocity of the motion of heating-system water in the heating system elements. A case of sulfide contamination of a part of the outdoor heat-supply system of the city of Ulyanovsk is considered in detail. Measures for cleaning pipelines and heating system equipment from the waste products of sulfate-reducing bacteria and iron bacteria and for improving the quality of heating-system water by organizing the hydraulic and water-chemistry condition that makes it possible to avoid the bacteriological contamination of heating systems are proposed. The positive effect of sodium silicate on the prevention of sulfide contamination of heating systems is shown.

  10. A survey of district heating systems in the heating regions of northern China

    To investigate the status quo of heating supply and the impact of energy saving policies in northern China, a survey was conducted on the DHSs (district heating systems) in 15 Chinese cities. The average heating energy consumption was 19.2% lower than in 2008 due to the corresponding policies formulated and promoted by the authorities. Additionally, parameters of DHSs in cold and severe cold zones were collected, which include the energy consumption, operating efficiency, monitoring and control level, and gas emissions. These essential data can serve as a reference for energy efficiency retrofits and further analysis of comprehensive energy consumption of the DHSs in northern China. Finally, suggestions for improving existing policies during “the Twelfth Five-Year Plan” period are put forward to further improve the energy efficiency of DHSs. - Highlights: • To find out the status quo of DHSs (district heating systems) in northern China, a survey was conducted. • Through analyzing the results of survey, main parameters of DHS can be concluded. • By analyzing the existing problems of DHS, the way of retrofit is proposed. • Suggestions are presented to improve relevant policies of DHS in northern China

  11. Total Energy Recovery System for Agribusiness. [Geothermally heated]. Final Report

    Fogleman, S.F.; Fisher, L.A.; Black, A.R.; Singh, D.P.


    An engineering and economic study was made to determine a practical balance of selected agribusiness subsystems resulting in realistic estimated produce yields for a geothermally heated system known as the Total Energy Recovery System for Agribusiness. The subsystem cycles for an average application at an unspecified hydrothermal resources site in the western United States utilize waste and by-products from their companion cycles insofar as practicable. Based on conservative estimates of current controlled environment yields, produce wholesale market prices, production costs, and capital investment required, it appears that the family-operation-sized TERSA module presents the potential for marginal recovery of all capital investment costs. In addition to family- or small-cooperative-farming groups, TERSA has potential users in food-oriented corporations and large-cooperative-agribusiness operations. The following topics are considered in detail: greenhouse tomatoes and cucumbers; fish farming; mushroom culture; biogas generation; integration methodology; hydrothermal fluids and heat exchanger selection; and the system. 133 references. (MHR)

  12. Auxiliary Heating Systems for the Ignitor Project

    Sassi, M.; Mantovani, S.; Coppi, B.


    Auxiliary plasma heating systems directed at extending the range of plasma regimes that can be accessed by Ohmic heating only are important components of the Ignitor machine. In order to affect the entire plasma column an appropriate ICRH systemhas been designed and components of it have been tested. The adoption of a 280 GHz system affecting, by ECRH, the outer edge of the plasma column has been proposed in order to influence temperature and density profiles in this important region. The ICRH system will operate over the range 80-120 MHz, consistent with magnetic fields in the range 9-13 T. The maximum delivered power goes from 8 MW (at 80 MHz) to 6 MW (at 120 MHz) distributed over 4 ports. A full size prototype of the VTL between the port flange and the antenna straps, with the external support and precise guiding system has been constructed. The innovative quick latching system located at the end of the coaxial cable has been successfully tested, providing perfect interference with the spring Be-Cu electrical contacts. Vacuum levels of 10-6, compatible with the limit of material degassing, and electrical tests up to 12 kV without discharges have been obtained. Special attention was given to the finishing of the inox surfaces, and to the TIG welds. U.S. DOE sponsored.

  13. Efficiency of heat pump ventilation and water heating system in an indoor swimming pool

    Безродний, Михайло Костянтинович; Кутра, Дмитро Сергійович; Морощук, Олександр Олександрович


    The thermodynamic efficiency of the heat pump ventilation and water heating system of indoor swimming pool with partial exhaust air recirculation and heat pump bypass is analyzed in the paper. The purpose of the work is to determine the system efficiency depending on the change of fresh supply air temperature, ventilation system intensity and heat pump bypassing factor. As a result of implementing the developed mathematical model using the method of successive approximations, dependences of t...

  14. Feasibility study of helically coiled tube condensation heat exchanger for a passive auxiliary feedwater system

    The Passive Auxiliary Feedwater System (PAFS) with nearly-horizontal heat exchangers is one of passive safety features of APR+ (Advanced Power Reactor Plus) which provides the auxiliary feedwater by means of natural circulation with condensation. It is feasible to increase the heat transfer capacity of the PAFS by employing a helically coiled heat exchanger due to additional secondary flow effect by centrifugal force. In addition, a compact and flexible design can be achieved in a fixed volume by using the helically coiled heat exchanger, which is one of the most important merits of implementing this heat exchanger. In this paper, the helically coiled heat exchanger has been employed for the PAFS instead of nearly-horizontal heat exchanger. In order to evaluate the heat transfer performance of the helically coiled heat exchanger, an in-tube condensation heat transfer correlation by Wongwises has been introduced into the system analysis code, MARS-KS. A comparative numerical study was conducted for both heat exchangers. The result shows that helically coiled heat exchanger has 20% higher heat transfer efficiency than existing nearly-horizontal heat exchanger. (author)

  15. Small-Scale Pellet Heating Systems from Consumer Perspective

    A questionnaire survey of 1,500 detached house owners was carried out in the autumn of 2004 to find out the factors influencing the adoption and diffusion of pellet heating systems in the Swedish residential sector. The results revealed that most of the respondents had no plans to install new heating systems as they were satisfied with their existing ones. Economic aspects and functional reliability were the most important factors in the respondents' choice of heating system while environmental factors were of less importance. Therefore, internalizing external costs, such as environmental costs, might be effective in influencing house owners to adopt environmentally benign heating systems. Installers were the most important source of information on heating systems. Hence, it is important that they could inform the consumers comprehensively and accurately about different heating systems. Respondents perceived the relative advantage of pellet boilers over oil or electricity-based heating systems, but bedrock heat pump system was ranked higher than pellet heating system in every aspect except for investment cost. Pellet heating system has advantage over district heating system with respect to investment cost and annual cost of heating. District heating system was considered as most functionally reliable and automatic

  16. Microcontroller based automatic liquid poison addition control system

    Microcontrollers are finding increasing applications in instrumentation where complex digital circuits can be substituted by a compact and simple circuit, thus enhancing the reliability. In addition to this, intelligence and flexibility can be incorporated. For applications not requiring large amount of read/write memory (RAM), microcontrollers are ideally suited since they contain programmable memory (Eprom), parallel input/output lines, data memory, programmable timers and serial interface ports in one chip. This paper describes the design of automatic liquid poison addition control system (ALPAS) using intel's 8 bit microcontroller 8751, which is used to generate complex timing control sequence signals for liquid poison addition to the moderator in a nuclear reactor. ALPAS monitors digital inputs coming from protection system and regulating system of a nuclear reactor and provides control signals for liquid poison addition for long term safe shutdown of the reactor after reactor trip and helps the regulating system to reduce the power of the reactor during operation. Special hardware and software features have been incorporated to improve performance and fault detection. (author)

  17. Test Procedure - pumping system for caustic addition project

    This test procedure provides the requirements for sub-system testing and integrated operational testing of the submersible mixer pump and caustic addition equipment by WHC and Kaiser personnel at the Rotating Equipment Shop run-in pit (Bldg. 272E)

  18. Submersible pumping system with heat transfer mechanism

    Hunt, Daniel Francis Alan; Prenger, F. Coyne; Hill, Dallas D; Jankowski, Todd Andrew


    A submersible pumping system for downhole use in extracting fluids containing hydrocarbons from a well. In one embodiment, the pumping system comprises a rotary induction motor, a motor casing, one or more pump stages, and a cooling system. The rotary induction motor rotates a shaft about a longitudinal axis of rotation. The motor casing houses the rotary induction motor such that the rotary induction motor is held in fluid isolation from the fluid being extracted. The pump stages are attached to the shaft outside of the motor casing, and are configured to impart fluid being extracted from the well with an increased pressure. The cooling system is disposed at least partially within the motor casing, and transfers heat generated by operation of the rotary induction motor out of the motor casing.


    Juravleov A.A.


    Full Text Available There is examined the structure the of control system of gas cooler of heat pump station, which uses the carbon dioxide as the working fluid in the transctitical thermodynamical cycle. It is analiyed the structure of the complex: heat pump station – district heating system.


    Juravleov A.A.; Sit M.L.; Sit B.M.; Poponova O.; Zubatii A.


    There is examined the structure the of control system of gas cooler of heat pump station, which uses the carbon dioxide as the working fluid in the transctitical thermodynamical cycle. It is analiyed the structure of the complex: heat pump station – district heating system.

  1. District heating systems for small scale development areas

    McDougall, Rory e-mail:; Jensen, Bjoernulf


    Building projects are normally developed without considering integrated heating systems, especially where properties are for further sale. Due to focus on energy efficiency and environmental impact it is worth considering district heating systems, which include several energy carriers. The choice of energy carrier is assessed to optimize energy costs, account for environmental impact and obtain reliable heating supply, thus giving an energy flexible system for several buildings as opposed to individual heating systems in each building

  2. 40 CFR 60.4176 - Additional requirements to provide heat input data.


    ... input data. 60.4176 Section 60.4176 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... requirements to provide heat input data. The owner or operator of a Hg Budget unit that monitors and reports Hg... monitor and report heat input rate at the unit level using the procedures set forth in part 75 of...

  3. Prototype testing of heat pipes for spacecraft heat control systems

    Vasil' ev, L.L.; Gil, V.V.; Zharikov, N.A.; Zelenin, V.E.; Syvorotka, O.M.; Uvarov, E.I.


    Prototype testing of heat pipes for spacecraft heat control was done on board the Interkosmos-15 satellite launched on 19 June 1976. The purpose was to gather data for optimizing the design, namely the capillary structure and the selection of heat transfer agent, as well as to verify the soundness of manufacturing technologies and test procedures. Three heat pipes were tested, each 412 mm long with a 14 mm outside diameter. All had been made of an aluminum alloy. In two pipes the capillary structure consisted of 0.6 x 0.5 mm/sup 2/ rectangular channels running axially along the inside wall, in the third pipe a 1 mm thick tubular mesh of Kh18N10T steel wire running coaxially inside served as the capillary structure. The heat transfer agent was Freon-11 in one of the first two pipes and synthetic liquid ammonia in the other two pipes. The three pipes were mounted radially around a radiator as the hub, with the test conditions controllable by means of an electric heater coil along the evaporation zone of each pipe, resistance thermometers for the evaporation zone and for the condensation zone of each, and also an external cooling fan. The radial distribution of temperature drops along the pipes was measured and the thermal fluxes were calculated, these data being indicative of the performance under conditions of weightlessness over the 0 to 70/sup 0/C temperature range. The somewhat worse performance of the heat pipe with a tubular capillary mesh inside is attributable to formation of vapor bubbles which impede the mass transfer along such an artery.

  4. One-dimensional analysis of unsteady flows due to supercritical heat addition in high speed condensing steam

    Unsteadiness in supersonic flow in nozzles can be generated by the release of heat due to spontaneous condensation. The heat released is termed 'supercritical' and may be responsible for turbine blades failure in turbine cascade as it causes a supersonic flow to decelerate. When the Mach number is reduced to unity, the flow can no longer sustain the additional heat and becomes unstable. This paper aims to numerically investigate the unsteadiness caused by supercritical heat addition in one-dimensional condensing flows. The governing equations for mass, momentum and energy, coupled with the equations describing the wetness fraction and droplet growth are integrated and solved iteratively to reveal the final solution. Comparison is made with well-established experimental and numerical solution done by previous researchers that shows similar phenomena.

  5. Heat Saving Strategies in Sustainable Smart Energy Systems

    Henrik Lund


    Full Text Available This paper investigates to which extent heat should be saved rather than produced and to which extent district heating infrastructures, rather than individual heating solutions, should be used in future sustainable smart energy systems. Based on a concrete proposal to implement the Danish governmental 2050 fossil-free vision, this paper identifies marginal heat production costs and compares these to marginal heat savings costs for two different levels of district heating. A suitable least-cost heating strategy seems to be to invest in an approximately 50% decrease in net heat demands in new buildings and buildings that are being renovated anyway, while the implementation of heat savings in buildings that are not being renovated hardly pays. Moreover, the analysis points in the direction that a least-cost strategy will be to provide approximately 2/3 of the heat demand from district heating and the rest from individual heat pumps.

  6. Operation strategy analysis of a geothermal step utilization heating system

    Geothermal energy has been successfully applied in many district heating systems. In order to promote better use of geothermal energy, it is important to analyze the operation strategy of geothermal heating system. This study proposes a comprehensive and systematic operation strategy for a geothermal step utilization heating system (GSUHS). Calculation models of radiator heating system (RHS), radiant floor heating system (RFHS), heat pump (HP), gas boiler (GB), plate heat exchanger (PHE) and pump are first established. Then the operation strategy of the GSUHS is analyzed with the aim to substantially reduce the conventional energy consumption of the whole system. Finally, the energy efficiency and geothermal tail water temperature are analyzed. With the operation strategy in this study, the geothermal energy provides the main heating amount for the system. The heating seasonal performance factor is 15.93. Compared with coal-fired heating, 75.1% of the standard coal equivalent can be saved. The results provide scientific guidance for the application of an operation strategy for a geothermal step utilization heating system. -- Highlights: ► We establish calculation models for the geothermal step utilization heating system. ► We adopt minimal conventional energy consumption to determine the operation strategy. ► The geothermal energy dominates the heating quantity of the whole system. ► The utilization efficiency of the geothermal energy is high. ► The results provide guidance to conduct operation strategy for scientific operation.

  7. Heat losses and thermal performance of commercial combined solar and pellet heating systems

    Fiedler, Frank; Persson, Tomas; Bales, Chris; Nordlander, Svante


    Various pellet heating systems are marketed in Sweden, some of them in combination with a solar heating system. Several types of pellet heating units are available and can be used for a combined system. This article compares four typical combined solar and pellet heating systems: System 1 and 2 two with a pellet stove, system 3 with a store integrated pellet burner and system 4 with a pellet boiler. The lower efficiency of pellet heaters compared to oil or gas heaters increases the primary en...

  8. Performance analysis on solar-water compound source heat pump for radiant floor heating system

    曲世林; 马飞; 仇安兵


    A solar-water compound source heat pump for radiant floor heating (SWHP-RFH) experimental system was introduced and analyzed. The SWHP-RFH system mainly consists of 11.44 m2 vacuum tube solar collector,1 000 L water tank assisted 3 kW electrical heater,a water source heat pump,the radiant floor heating system with cross-linked polyethylene (PE-X) of diameter 20 mm,temperature controller and solar testing system. The SWHP-RFH system was tested from December to February during the heating season in Beijing,China under different operation situations. The test parameters include the outdoor air temperature,solar radiation intensity,indoor air temperature,radiation floor average surface temperature,average surface temperature of the building envelope,the inlet and outlet temperatures of solar collector,the temperature of water tank,the heat medium temperatures of heat pump condenser side and evaporator side,and the power consumption includes the water source heat pump system,the solar source heat pump system,the auxiliary heater and the radiant floor heating systems etc. The experimental results were used to calculate the collector efficiency,heat pump dynamic coefficient of performance (COP),total energy consumption and seasonal heating performance during the heating season. The results indicate that the performance of the compound source heat pump system is better than that of the air source heat pump system. Furthermore,some methods are suggested to improve the thermal performance of each component and the whole SWHP-RFH system.

  9. Heating Transfer Investigation of Heater in Heat Supply System of Field Hospital Operating in Emergency

    I. L. Kachar


    Criteria dependences for assessment of heat transfer value under conditions natural convection (a horizontal slot) have been obtained in the paper. The dependences are applicable for heaters in heat supply systems.

  10. Heating Transfer Investigation of Heater in Heat Supply System of Field Hospital Operating in Emergency

    I. L. Kachar


    Full Text Available Criteria dependences for assessment of heat transfer value under conditions natural convection (a horizontal slot have been obtained in the paper. The dependences are applicable for heaters in heat supply systems.

  11. Development and testing of heat transport fluids for use in active solar heating and cooling systems

    Parker, J. C.


    Work on heat transport fluids for use with active solar heating and cooling systems is described. Program objectives and how they were accomplished including problems encountered during testing are discussed.

  12. On heat balance in coal-fired MHD systems, channel heat transfer and electrode temperature distribution

    This paper presents results from heat transfer studies performed in 7.5 MW/sub t/ and 15 MW/sub t/ direct coal-fired magnetohydrodynamic systems for electrical power generation. Heat transfer from the various components is measured to determine system heat balance and the influence of parameters related to coal combustion on heat transfer. Measured heat flux from electrode walls is compared with a quasi one-dimensional model and extended for off-design operation. The heat flux values are used in a computer model to evaluate temperature distribution in electrode frames and caps and are compared with measurements taken during power runs. 9 refs

  13. Reliability analysis of the combined district heating systems

    Sharapov, V. I.; Orlov, M. E.; Kunin, M. V.


    Technologies that improve the reliability and efficiency of the combined district heating systems in urban areas are considered. The calculation method of reliability of the CHP combined district heating systems is proposed. The comparative estimation of the reliability of traditional and combined district heating systems is performed.

  14. Heat-Transfer Fluids for Solar-Energy Systems

    Parker, J. C.


    43-page report investigates noncorrosive heat-transport fluids compatible with both metallic and nonmetallic solar collectors and plumbing systems. Report includes tables and figures of X-ray inspections for corrosion and schematics of solar-heat transport systems and heat rejection systems.

  15. Numerical Investigation of Floor Heating Systems in Low Energy Houses

    Weitzmann, Peter; Kragh, Jesper; Jensen, Claus Franceos


    to the room air and between the room surfaces. The simulation model has been used to calculate heating demand and room temperature in a typical well insulated Danish single-family house with a heating demand of approximately 6000 kWh per year, for a 130 m² house. Two different types of floor heating...... heating and cooling systems exist. In Denmark over 80 % of all new single-family houses are using the building integrated floor heating systems. Therefore methods to evaluate building integrated heating must be developed. To examine this a simulation model of a room with floor heating has been created...

  16. Residual heat removal system diagnostic advisor

    This paper reports on the Residual Heat Removal System (RHRS) Diagnostic Advisor which is an expert system designed to alert the operators to abnormal conditions that exits in the RHRS and offer advice about the cause of the abnormal conditions. The Advisor uses a combination of rule-based and model-based diagnostic techniques to perform its functions. This diagnostic approach leads to a deeper understanding of the RHRS by the Advisor and consequently makes it more robust to unexpected conditions. The main window of the interactive graphic display is a schematic diagram of the RHRS piping system. When a conclusion about a failed component can be reached, the operator can bring up windows that describe the failure mode of the component and a brief explanation about how the Advisor arrived at its conclusion

  17. Modelling the Size of Seasonal Thermal Storage in the Solar District Heating System

    Giedrė Streckienė


    Full Text Available The integration of a thermal storage system into the solar heating system enables to increase the use of solar thermal energy in buildings and allows avoiding the mismatch between consumers’ demand and heat production in time. The paper presents modelling a seasonal thermal storage tank various sizes of which have been analyzed in the district solar heating system that could cover a part of heat demand for the district of individual houses in Vilnius. A biomass boiler house, as an additional heat source, should allow covering the remaining heat demand. energyPRO software is used for system modelling. The paper evaluates heat demand, climate conditions and technical characteristics.Article in Lithuanian

  18. Power system for electric heating of pipelines

    Novik, Frode Karstein


    Direct electrical heating (DEH) of pipelines is a flow assurance method that has proven to be a good and reliable solution for preventing the formation of hydrates and wax in multiphase flow lines. The technology is installed on several pipelines in the North Sea and has become StatoilHydros preferred method for flow assurance. Tyrihans is the newest installation with 10 MW DEH for a 43 km pipline. However, the pipeline represents a considerable single-phase load which makes the power system ...

  19. Calculating the cost of heat supply systems

    The question of whether or not a cogeneration unit will be economically successful when realized is decided early on in the planning stage. Indispensable prerequisites are the exact knowledge of the cold, heat, or electricity demand of consumers on an hourly basis and a detailed analysis of the hydraulic and electrical connection possibilites for such systems. Aspects now increasingly considered when deciding on investments are not only which is the most economical form of energy generation but also comparisons regarding emissions of CO2, NOx, and ozone-depleting substances (refrigerants). (orig.)

  20. Condensing Heat Exchanger Concept Developed for Space Systems

    Hasan, Mohammad M.; Nayagam, Vedha


    The current system for moisture removal and humidity control for the space shuttles and the International Space Station uses a two-stage process. Water first condenses onto fins and is pulled through "slurper bars." These bars take in a two-phase mixture of air and water that is then separated by the rotary separator. A more efficient design would remove the water directly from the air without the need of an additional water separator downstream. For the Condensing Heat Exchanger for Space Systems (CHESS) project, researchers at the NASA Glenn Research Center in collaboration with NASA Johnson Space Center are designing a condensing heat exchanger that utilizes capillary forces to collect and remove water and that can operate in varying gravitational conditions including microgravity, lunar gravity, and Martian gravity.

  1. An Integrated Control System for Heating and Indoor Climate Applications

    Tahersima, Fatemeh


    Low temperature hydronic heating and cooling systems connected to renewable energy sources have gained more attention in the recent decades. This is due to the growing public awareness of the adverse environmental impacts of energy generation using fossil fuel. Radiant hydronic sub-floor heating...... pipes and radiator panels are two examples of such systems that have reputation of improving the quality of indoor thermal comfort compared to forced-air heating or cooling units. Specifically, a radiant water-based sub-floor heating system is usually combined with low temperature heat sources, among...... which geothermal heat pump, solar driven heat pumps and the other types are categorized as renewable or renewable energy sources. In the present study, we investigated modeling and control of hydronic heat emitters integrated with a ground-source heat pump. Optimization of the system performance...

  2. Heat pump system utilizing produced water in oil fields

    As the alternative to the heating furnace for crude oil heating, a heat pump system utilizing produced water, a main byproduct, in oil fields was proposed and the thermodynamic model of the system was established. A particular compression process with inner evaporative spray water cooling was applied in the screw compressor and an analysis method for the variable-mass compression process was introduced. The simulation results showed that the efficiency of the screw compressor, the temperature of produced water and the temperature difference in flash process are key parameters affecting the system performance. The energy cost of the heat pump system was compared to that of the heating furnace, revealing that the heat pump system with EER, 4.67, would save over 20% energy cost as compared with the heating furnace. Thus, the heat pump system was energy saving, money saving and environmentally benign

  3. Limiting biomass consumption for heating in 100% renewable energy systems

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Lund, Henrik; Connolly, David


    for other sectors, but while still enabling a 100% renewable energy system. The analyses of heating technologies shows that district heating (DH) systems are important in limiting the dependence on biomass and create cost effective solutions. DH systems are especially important in renewable energy...... such as large-scale solar thermal, large heat pumps, geothermal heat, industrial surplus heat, and waste incineration. Where the energy density in the building stock is not high enough for DH to be economical, geothermal heat pumps can be recommended for individual heating systems, even though biomass......The utilisation of biomass poses large challenges in renewable energy systems while buildings account for a substantial part of the energy supply even in 100% renewable energy systems. In this paper the focus is on how the heating sector can reduce its consumption of biomass, thus leaving biomass...

  4. Heating performance of a ground source heat pump system installed in a school building

    Jaedo; SONG; Kwangho; LEE; Youngman; JEONG; Seongir; CHEONG; Jaekeun; LEE; Yujin; HWANG; Yeongho; LEE; Donghyuk; LEE


    The heating performance of a water-to-refrigerant type ground source heat pump system is represented in this paper under the actual working conditions of the GSHP(ground source heat pump) system during the winter season of 2008.Ten heat pump equipments with the capacity of 10 HP each and a closed vertical typed-ground heat exchanger with 24 boreholes of 175 m in depth were constructed.We investigated a variety of working conditions,including the outdoor temperature,the ground temperature,and the water temperature of inlet and outlet of the ground heat exchanger in order to examine the heating performance of the GSHP system.Subsequently,the heating capacity and the input power were investigated to determine the heating performance of the GSHP system.The average heating coefficient of performance(COP) of the heat pump was noted to be 5.1 at partial load of 47%,while the overall system COP was found to be 4.2.Also,performance of the GSHP system was compared with that of air source heat pump.

  5. Texas experimental tokamak electron cyclotron resonant heating system

    Electron cyclotron resonant heating of the plasma in the Texas Experimental Tokamak (TEXT) has been achieved with a single gyrotron system, and is presently being expanded to a three gyrotron system. Each gyrotron can provide up to 200 kilowatts of rf power into the plasma. Future expansion includes a fourth gyrotron capable of delivering an additional 500 kilowatts of rf power into the plasma. A description of the overall system architecture is given in this paper. Also discussed is the overall grounding scheme and the high-voltage power distribution system. The utilization of fiber-optic links in the control system to reduce noise problems associated with high-voltage systems, provide high-voltage isolation, and eliminate ground loops is also discussed. 3 refs., 5 figs

  6. System and method for high power diode based additive manufacturing

    El-Dasher, Bassem S.; Bayramian, Andrew; Demuth, James A.; Farmer, Joseph C.; Torres, Sharon G.


    A system is disclosed for performing an Additive Manufacturing (AM) fabrication process on a powdered material forming a substrate. The system may make use of a diode array for generating an optical signal sufficient to melt a powdered material of the substrate. A mask may be used for preventing a first predetermined portion of the optical signal from reaching the substrate, while allowing a second predetermined portion to reach the substrate. At least one processor may be used for controlling an output of the diode array.

  7. Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ECRH) Control System

    The ECRH Control System was installed on the Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U) in 1980. The system provides approximately 1 MW of 28 GHz microwave power to the TMX-U plasma. The subsystems of ECRH that must be controlled include high-voltage charging supplies, series pass tubes, and magnet supplies. In addition to the devices that must be controlled, many interlocks must be continuously monitored. The previous control system used relay logic and analog controls to operate the system. This approach has many drawbacks such as lack of system flexibility and maintainability. In order to address these problems, it was decided to go with a CAMAC and Modicon based system that uses a Hewlett-Packard 9836C personal computer to replace the previous analog controls. This paper describes the advantages, disadvantages, and the day-to-day operations of this new computer-based control and data acquisition system

  8. Combined heat transfer in a system for solar heating and radiative cooling


    The goal of this work is to study a system, which covers both the demands for heating and cooling of a building. The system is designed to be one large central installation for storage and distribution. Such systems obviously reveal a large cost-competitiveness. The design foresees solar collectors for heating and radiative cooling panels, which could be combined with an external electric fan, for cooling the water in the storage. In the present system design, the heat storage tank is divided...

  9. A Numerical Study on System Performance of Groundwater Heat Pumps

    Jin Sang Kim; Yujin Nam


    Groundwater heat pumps have energy saving potential where the groundwater resources are sufficient. System Coefficients of Performance (COPs) are measurements of performance of groundwater heat pump systems. In this study, the head and power of submersible pumps, heat pump units, piping, and heat exchangers are expressed as polynomial equations, and these equations are solved numerically to determine the system performance. Regression analysis is used to find the coefficients of the polynomia...

  10. Prototype solar heating and cooling systems, including potable hot water

    Bloomquist, D.; Oonk, R. L.


    Progress made in the development, delivery, and support of two prototype solar heating and cooling systems including potable hot water is reported. The system consists of the following subsystems: collector, auxiliary heating, potable hot water, storage, control, transport, and government-furnished site data acquisition. A comparison of the proposed Solaron Heat Pump and Solar Desiccant Heating and Cooling Systems, installation drawings, data on the Akron House at Akron, Ohio, and other program activities are included.