Jalayer, Fatemeh; Herslund, Lise; Cavan, Gina; Printz, Andreas; Simonis, Ingo; Bucchignani, Edoardo; Jean-Baptiste, Nathalie; Hellevik, Siri; Fekade, Rebka; Nebebe, Alemu; Woldegerima, Tekle; Workalemahu, Liku; Workneh, Abraham; Yonas, Nebyou; Abebe Bekele, Essete; Yeshitela, Kumelachew
CLUVA (CLimate change and Urban Vulnerability in Africa; http://www.cluva.eu/) is a 3 years project, funded by the European Commission in 2010. Its objective is to develop context-centered methods to assess vulnerability and increase knowledge on managing climate related risks and to estimate the impacts of climate changes in the next 40 years at urban scale in Africa. The project downscales IPCC climate projections to evaluate threats to selected African test cities; mainly floods, sea-level rise, droughts, heat waves, desertification. It also evaluates and links: social vulnerability; urban green structures and ecosystem services; urban-rural interfaces; vulnerability of urban built environment and lifelines; and related institutional and governance dimensions of adaptation. CLUVA combines assessment approaches to investigate how cities, communities and households can resist and cope with, as well as recover from climate induced hazards. This multi-scale and multi-disciplinary qualitative, quantitative and probabilistic approach of CLUVA is currently being applied to selected African test cities (Addis Ababa - Ethiopia; Dar es Salaam - Tanzania; Douala - Cameroun; Ouagadougou - Burkina Faso; St. Louis - Senegal). In particular, the poster will report on the progresses of the Addis Ababa case study. Addis Ababa, the largest city in Ethiopia, is exposed to heat waves, drought, and, more recently, to flash floods. Due to undulating topography, poor waste management and the absence of sustainable storm water management, Addis Ababa is prone to severe flood events during the rainy seasons. Metropolitan Addis Ababa is crossed by several small watercourses. Torrential rains, very common during the rainy season, cause a sudden rise in the flow of these water courses, inundating and damaging the settlements along their banks and affecting the livelihood of the local population. The combination of climate change and development pressures are expected to exacerbate the
Mashalla, Yohana J.S.; Thupayagale-Tshweneagae, Gloria
Setting The study was conducted in Addis Ababa, the capital city of Ethiopia. Specifically, it was conducted in all healthcare facilities offering maternity and obstetric services. Objective The objective of the study was to explore the patterns of caesarean-section (CS) delivery in Addis Ababa. Methods A cross-sectional survey was carried out between December 2013 and January 2014. The population for the study were women aged between 15 and 19 years of age who had given birth in the last 1–3 years before the date of data collection. The Census and Survey Processing System software was used for data capturing and analysing both descriptive and inferential statistics using Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 20.0. Results Amongst the 835 women who delivered at health facilities, 19.2% had given birth by CS. The prevalence of CS based on medical indication was 91.3%. However, 6.9% of CS performed had no medical indication. Private health facilities performed more CSs than public health facilities, 41.1% and 11.7% respectfully. CS was high amongst women of higher socio-economic standing. Conclusion Overall, CS deliveries rate in Ethiopia is above the rate recommended by the World Health Organisation. Because socio-economic factors influence CS delivery, governments should play a key role in regulating performance of CSs in private institutions.
Eden, J. M.; Widmann, M.; Wild, S.; Evans, G. R.; Hughes, J. G.
In Ethiopia and other parts of East Africa, interannual variability of seasonal precipitation is dependent on variations in sea surface temperature (SST) and atmospheric circulation on both regional and global scales. The majority of research into large-scale atmospheric controls and predictability has focused on the heavier summer rains and the establishment of links to large-scale modes of climate variability such as ENSO. By contrast, relatively little work has focused on the potential for predictability of rainfall during the spring months, which is of great importance to much of southern Ethiopia. Additionally, failure of the spring rains may have important agricultural implications, particularly for crops requiring the full extent of the spring-summer growing season. Here, we analyse the links between Pacific SST and precipitation in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia for a century-long period (1900-2004). A tripole correlation pattern between spring precipitation and SST is found in the Pacific basin. We develop regression-based models to estimate spring precipitation from Pacific SST with a lead time of 2-3 months. When subject to a rigorous cross-validation, models based on principal component multiple linear regression (PC-MLR) calibrated on Pacific SST during December show good skill in reproducing observed temporal variability in Addis Ababa precipitation during February (r = 0.48) and March (r = 0.40), and the period spanning February to April (r = 0.44). Reconstructed precipitation is correlated with temperature and specific humidity in the surrounding region; estimates of heavy spring precipitation are associated with anomalously warm, moist conditions across the western Indian Ocean. Our findings suggest that inclusion of Pacific SST in predictive models may benefit drought forecasting across Ethiopia. The relationships identified provide a potential basis for forecasting models for spring rainfall and further analysis may focus on drought forecasting using ROC
Sanbata, Habtamu; Asfaw, Araya; Kumie, Abera
An estimated 95% of the population of Ethiopia uses traditional biomass fuels, such as wood, dung, charcoal, or crop residues, to meet household energy needs. As a result of the harmful smoke emitted from the combustion of biomass fuels, indoor air pollution is responsible for more than 50,000 deaths annually and causes nearly 5% of the burden of disease in Ethiopia. Very limited research on indoor air pollution and its health impacts exists in Ethiopia. This study was, therefore, undertaken to assess the magnitude of indoor air pollution from household fuel use in Addis Ababa, the capital city of Ethiopia. During January and February, 2012, the concentration of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in 59 households was measured using the University of California at Berkeley Particle Monitor (UCB PM). The raw data was analysed using Statistical Package of Social Science (SPSS version 20.0) software to determine variance between groups and descriptive statistics. The geometric mean of 24-h indoor PM2.5 concentration is approximately 818 μg m-3 (Standard deviation (SD = 3.61)). The highest 24-h geometric mean of PM2.5 concentration observed were 1134 μg m-3 (SD = 3.36), 637 μg m-3 (SD = 4.44), and 335 μg m-3 (SD = 2.51), respectively, in households using predominantly solid fuel, kerosene, and clean fuel. Although 24-h mean PM2.5 concentration between fuel types differed statistically (P mean concentration of PM2.5 between improved biomass stoves and traditional stoves (P > 0.05). The study revealed indoor air pollution is a major environmental and health hazard from home using biomass fuel in Addis Ababa. The use of clean fuels and efficient cooking stoves is recommended.
Background Stigma attached to tuberculosis contributes to the limited effectiveness of current TB control approaches. However, there is a dearth of studies that explore the causes of stigma attached to tuberculosis and its effects on patients and tuberculosiscontrol programs in Ethiopia. Methods An institution-based qualitative study was conducted at St. Peter Tuberculosis Specialized Hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia from July to August, 2015. Ten in-depth interviews and 6 key-informant interviews were carried out among tuberculosis patients and healthcare workers, respectively.The Open Code computer software package was used to analyze the data thematically. Results The study revealed that fear of infection and inappropriate health education messages by media were the main causes of tuberculosis stigma. The patients experienced isolation within their family and community, separation, and financial crisis. The stigma attached to tuberculosis may contribute to delayed healthcare seeking, poor treatment adherence, and poor prognosis. Conclusion Interventions thatreduce the stigma attached to tuberculosis should target on areas, such as creating community awareness, patient counseling on problem-solving and emotional skills, preparing culturally sensitive and scientifically sound media messages, providing financial support for the patients, and enhancing the qualities of the healthcare workers, such as empathy, concern, respect for the patient and cultural sensitivity. PMID:27054714
Cats are important in the epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii because they are the only hosts that excrete environmentally resistant oocysts in feces. In the present study, hearts, serum, and feces from 36 feral cats from Addis Ababa area, Ethiopia were examined for T. gondii infection. Antibodies to ...
Gemechu, Tufa; Tinsae, Mihrete; Ashenafi, Senait; Rodriguez, Victor Manuel; Lori, Alfredo; Collins, Michelle; Hurford, Rosemary; Haimanot, Rahel; Sandoval, Melissa; Mehari, Enawgaw; Langford, T. Dianne
In Ethopia, like many developing countries, autopsy is rare unless conducted in the medico-legal arena, making vital statistics that include sparse pathological diagnoses. To determine the most common factors contributing to death among individuals who died from natural or injury-related events in Ethiopia in 2006, 200 consecutive autopsies were conducted at the Forensic Medico-legal Pathology Department, Menelik II Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The results describe significant pathologica...
Debere Mesfin Kote; Gelaye Kassahun Alemu; Alamdo Andamlak Gizaw; Trifa Zemedu Mehamed
Abstract Background Healthcare waste management options are varying in Ethiopia. One of the first critical steps in the process of developing a reliable waste management plan requires a widespread understanding of the amount and the management system. This study aimed to assess the health care waste generation rate and its management system in some selected hospitals located in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods Six hospitals in Addis Ababa, (three private and three public), were selected using s...
Bayou, Yibeltal T.; Mashalla, Yohana S.; Thupayagale-Tshweneagae, Gloria
Background There are recent efforts made to eliminate inequalities in the utilisation of basic health care services. More emphasis is given for improvement of health in developing countries including maternal and child health. However, disparities for the fast-growing population of urban poor are masked by the urban averages. The aim of this paper is to report on the findings of antenatal care adequacy among slum residents in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods This was a quantitative and cross-se...
Cherie Amsale; Berhane Yemane
Abstract Background Understanding the full range of sexual behaviors of young people is crucial in developing appropriate interventions to prevent and control sexually transmitted infections including HIV. However, such information is meager in developing countries. The objective of this study was to describe oral and anal sex practices and identify associated factors among high school youth. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among high school youth in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A mul...
Abdo Abdurahman; Rudatsikira Emmanuel; Muula Adamson S
Abstract Background Tobacco smoking is a growing public health problem in the developing world. There is paucity of data on smoking and predictors of smoking among school-going adolescents in most of sub-Saharan Africa. Hence, the aim of this study is to estimate the prevalence of smoking and its associations among school-going adolescents in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods Data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) 2003 were used to determine smoking prevalence, determinants, attitudes ...
Hayal Desta; Hailu Worku; Aramde Fetene
Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) management is one of the most fundamental issues in the contemporary urban environments particularly in developing countries like Ethiopia. Huge generation of MSW coupled with unbalanced waste management services is the major challenges facing the City of Addis Ababa. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the current Municipal Solid Waste Management (MSWM) practices in Addis Ababa. Both quantitative and qualitative sampling methods were employed through primary and ...
Fikru Tesfaye, MD, MPH, PhD; Peter Byass, PhD; Yemane Berhane, MD, MPH, PhD; Ruth Bonita, PhD; Stig Wall, PhD
Introduction We assessed the prevalence of substance use and its association with high blood pressure among adults in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods We employed a cross-sectional descriptive study design. The World Health Organization instrument for stepwise surveillance of risk factors for chronic diseases was applied on a probabilistic sample of 4001 men and women aged 25 to 64 years in Addis Ababa. We determined the prevalence of cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking, and khat (Catha edulis ...
This study was undertaken to assess the extent of pollution of water and contamination of vegetables grown by irrigation with polluted river water. The study was done in the Akaki and Mekanisa areas of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia in 2002. The need to investigate the extent of contamination of vegetables is valid because of repeated occurrence of food-born disease outbreaks in many restaurants in the city of Addis Ababa. This might be partly attributed to the consumption of such contaminated raw ...
Aklilu, Addis; Kahase, Daniel; Dessalegn, Mekonnen; Tarekegn, Negatu; Gebremichael, Saba; Zenebe, Seyfe; Desta, Kassu; Mulugeta, Gebru; Mamuye, Yeshiwodim; Mama, Mohammedaman
Background Food contamination may occur at any point during its journey through production, processing, distribution, and preparation. The risk of food getting contaminated depends largely on the health status of the food handlers, their personal hygiene, knowledge and practice of food hygiene. Food borne diseases are a public health problem in developed and developing countries like Ethiopia. Method A cross sectional study was conducted among food handlers in Addis Ababa student’s cafeteria ...
Abdi, T.A.; Ruiter, R.A.C.; Adal, T.A.
Understanding risk factors of problematic gambling is prerequisite to effective intervention design to alleviate the negative consequences of gambling. This study explored the personal, social and environmental risk factors of problematic gambling in four high schools in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, among
The AIDS epidemic has been recognized as the most pressing national health problem in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Zenebe argues that HIV/AIDS prevention programs in Ethiopia are not producing expected results because they are not based on understanding the distinctive characteristics of the people’s sexual cultures shaped by relations of power, by history, and by differentiated traditions within the particular society. The focus of the thesis is on how dominant medical discourses about prevention ...
Eticha, Begna Tulu; Sisay, Zufan; Alemayehu, Addisu; Shimelis, Techalew
Objective To determine the prevalence of syphilis and its risk factors among people with HIV at a hospital in Ethiopia. Design A hospital-based cross-sectional study. Setting This study was conducted at one of the largest public hospitals in Addis Ababa , Ethiopia. Participants A consecutive 306 HIV-positive patients were recruited prospectively from January to March 2010. For comparative purposes, 224 HIV-negative consecutive attendees at the voluntary counselling and testing centre in the s...
Burnett, Delia; Aronson, Jane; Asgary, Ramin
Data on oral health status in Ethiopia are scarce. We assessed the prevalence of dental decay and gum disease and oral health practices and its barriers. We performed a cross-sectional study using comprehensive questionnaires and oral examination of 132 children aged 6-15 years in Addis Ababa. Mean age was 10 years and 50% were females. A significant number of children were HIV positive and orphaned. Forty-eight percent did not brush teeth and 43% brushed only once daily. The majority consumed sugary food despite knowing its relationship with dental decay. Seventy-four percent had between 1 and 13 dental caries and 52% showed evidence of bleeding upon brushing. Seventy-eight percent did not clean between teeth and were more likely to consume sugary food (p resources, improving access to local preventive tools and provision of oral care by training community health workers in the World Health Organization basic oral care package. PMID:25713009
Tadesse, Menelik Legesse; Kumie, Abera
Background Healthcare wastes are hazardous organic and inorganic wastes. The waste disposal management in Addis Ababa city is seen unscientific manner. The waste management practice in the health facilities are poor and need improvement. This study will help different organizations, stakeholders and policy makers to correct and improve the existing situation of healthcare waste legislation and enforcement and training of staff in the healthcare facilities in Addis Ababa. The study aimed to as...
Abdi, Tariku A.; Ruiter, Robert A.C.; Adal, Tamirie A.
Understanding risk factors of problematic gambling is prerequisite to effective intervention design to alleviate the negative consequences of gambling. This study explored the personal, social and environmental risk factors of problematic gambling in four high schools in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, among students (N = 422) ranging from 12 to 21 years of age. Results from the cross-sectional survey showed that personal feelings (e.g., self-esteem, false perceptions about winning, drug abuse), socia...
Gebretekle, Gebremedhin Beedemariam; Serbessa, Mirgissa Kaba
Background Over the counter sale of antibiotics is a global problem and it is increasingly recognized as a source of antibiotic misuse and is believed to increase treatment costs, adverse effects of treatment and emergence of resistance. The increasing trend of over the counter sale of antibiotics in Ethiopia calls for exploration of why such dispensing is practiced. This study aims to explore reasons for over the counter sale of antibiotics in the community pharmacies of Addis Ababa, Ethiopi...
Asemahagn, Mulusew Andualem
Background Health professionals need updated health information from credible sources to improve their knowledge and provide evidence based health care services. Various types of medical errors have occurred in resource-limited countries because of poor knowledge and experience sharing practices among health professionals. The aim of this study was to assess knowledge-sharing practices and determinants among health professionals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods An institutional based cross-s...
Worku, Amelmal; Mekonnen Abebe, Solomon; Wassie, Molla Mesele
Background Dietary management which is considered to be one of the cornerstones of diabetes care is based on the principle of healthy eating in the context of social, cultural and psychological influences on food choice. In Ethiopia, there is lack of data on the dietary practice of diabetic patients which underestimates its role in the management of diabetes. Hence, this study assesses the level of dietary practices and their associated factors among Type 2 diabetic patients in Addis Ababa, E...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Ethiopia is encountering a growing burden of non-communicable diseases along with infectious diseases, perinatal and nutritional problems that have long been considered major problems of public health importance. This retrospective analysis was carried out to examine the mortality patterns from communicable diseases and non communicable diseases in public and private hospitals of Addis Ababa. Methods Approximately 47,153 deaths were captured over eight years (2002–2010 in forty three public and private hospitals of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Data collectors (43 hospital clerks and coordinators (3 nurses had been extensively trained on how to review hospital death records. Information obtained included: dates of admission and death, age, sex, address, and principal cause of death. Only the diseases responsible for deaths are taken as the cause of death. Cause of death was coded using International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10 and data were double entered. Diseases were classified into: Group I (communicable diseases, maternal conditions and nutritional deficiencies; Group II (non-communicable causes; and Group III (injuries. Percentages, proportional mortality ratios, 95% confidence intervals (CI and Adjusted odd ratios (OR were calculated. Results Overall, 59% of the deaths were attributed to Group I diseases, and 31% to Group II diseases and 12% to injuries. Nearly 56% of the males and 68% of the females deaths were due to five leading causes (conditions arising during perinatal period, HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, cardiovascular diseases and respiratory infections. Significantly larger proportions of females died from Group I (67% and Group II diseases (32% compared with males (where the respective proportions were 52% and 30%. Significantly higher proportion of males (17% than females (6% were dying from Group III diseases. Deaths due to Group I diseases decreased while those due to Group II diseases increased with age
Tilaye, Mesfin; van Dijk, Meine Pieter
Privatization of urban services focuses often on the involvement of foreign enterprises. This contribution deals with micro-privatization, the partial transfer of government responsibility for solid waste collection to micro-enterprises. It tries to shed light on whether the current private sector participation (PSP) of micro-enterprises in solid waste collection service is the best way to capture the expected advantages of private sector involvement. The article examines the relations of the micro-enterprises with beneficiaries and the public sector by focusing on the contract procedure, the tariff-setting process, the cost recovery mechanism and institutionalizing of market principles for micro-enterprises. The research was carried out using secondary and primary data sources. Primary data were collected through the interviewing of public sector officials at different levels, focus group discussions with community groups and micro-enterprises, and observation. A survey was conducted among 160 micro-enterprises in the city of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, using a standard questionnaire. What are some of the factors contributing to the results of PSP in Addis Ababa, the capital of Ethiopia? Policies at higher levels of government definitely produced an overall climate conducive to micro-privatization and recognized the need to develop micro-enterprises, but it is not clear what role the micro-enterprises are to play in solid waste management. New opportunities were created by formalization and taken up by communities and micro-enterprises. Coverage and waste collected both increased. The initiation and institutionalization of the formalization process was not without problems. The public sector over-stressed the autonomy of micro-enterprises. The fate of the micro-enterprises is largely determined by the reforms undertaken at local government level. The rapid changes in policies at the local level made waste-collecting micro-enterprises lose confidence and more dependent
This study attempted to assess the practice of student assessment in the College of Natural Science of Addis Ababa University, specifically aimed at investigating whether or not science instructors are well aware of test blue-print, general principles of evaluation and rule of test construction as anticipated in the new education and training…
Full Text Available Abstract Background The risk of acquiring tuberculosis by People living with HIV (PLHIV could significantly be reduced through provision of isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT. In Ethiopia, it is neither practiced well nor researched in depth. Our objective was to assess IPT provision and awareness among PLHIV in Addis Ababa City Administration. Methods Between February 2008 and May 2008, a cross sectional facility-based survey was conducted by exit interview of 406 PLHIV from six health facilities. The findings were analyzed and described in this report. Results The proportion of PLHIV ever had been provided with IPT were 74 of 231 TB free PLHIV (32.0% and the proportion of having information about IPT among study participants was 29.8%. Females were about two times more informed about the provision of IPT in their health facilities than males [AOR (95%CI: 2.18 (1.31-3.61]. Conclusions We conclude that the practice of provision of IPT for PLHIV is high, but there is room for improvement. Provision of INH for TB free PLHIV has to be strengthened with better diagnostic facilities to certainly rule out active TB cases.
Full Text Available Yenenesh Tadesse Gebresilase Programme Quality Department, Vita, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Abstract: Research on obstetric fistula has paid limited attention to the lived experiences of survivors. This qualitative study explored the evolution of survivors' perceptions of their social relationships and health since developing this obstetric complication. In-depth interviews were conducted with eight survivors who were selected based on purposive and snowball sampling techniques. Thematic categorization and content analysis was used to analyze the data. The resultant themes included participants' understanding of factors predisposing to fistula, challenges they encounter, their coping responses, and the meaning of their experiences. First, the participants had a common understanding of the factors that predisposed them to obstetric fistula. They mentioned poor knowledge about pregnancy, early marriage, cultural practices, and a delay in or lack of access to emergency obstetric care. Second, the participants suffered from powerlessness experienced during their childhood and married lives. They also faced prolonged obstructed labor, physical injury, emotional breakdown, depression, erosion of social capital, and loss of healthy years. Third, to control their negative emotions, participants reported isolating themselves, having suicidal thoughts, positive interpretation about the future, and avoidance. To obtain relief from their disease, the women used their family support, sold their properties, and oriented to reality. Fourth, the participants were struggling to keep going, to accept their changed reality, and to change their perspectives on life. In conclusion, obstetric fistula has significant physical, psychosocial, and emotional consequences. The study participants were not passive victims but rather active survivors of these challenges. Adequate support was not provided by their formal or informal support systems. To prevent and manage obstetric
Bjerkli, Camilla Louise
This thesis explores the management of solid waste in Addis Ababa, with the objective of understanding the underlying reasons for the poor solid waste management situation that the city is faced with today. Accordingly, governance and urban political ecology are used as a theoretical framework. Governance was chosen because currently it dominates the development discourse and governance policies are implemented by governments aiming to improve urban services, whereas urban political ecology i...
Bjerkli, Camilla Louise
This thesis explores the management of solid waste in Addis Ababa, with the objective of understanding the underlying reasons for the poor solid waste management situation that the city is faced with today. Accordingly, governance and urban political ecology are used as a theoretical framework. Governance was chosen because currently it dominates the development discourse and governance policies are implemented by governments aiming to improve urban services, whereas urban political ecology i...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-adherence to tuberculosis (TB treatment is an important barrier for TB control programs because incomplete treatment may result in prolonged infectiousness, drug resistance, relapse, and death. The aim of the present study is to explore enablers and barriers in the management of TB treatment during the first five months of treatment in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods Qualitative study which included 50 in-depth interviews and two focus groups with TB patients, their relatives and health personnel. Results We found that loss of employment or the possibility to work led to a chain of interrelated barriers for most TB patients. Daily treatment was time-consuming and physically demanding, and rigid routines at health clinics reinforced many of the emerging problems. Patients with limited access to financial or practical help from relatives or friends experienced that the total costs of attending treatment exceeded their available resources. This was a barrier to adherence already during early stages of treatment. A large group of patients still managed to continue treatment, mainly because relatives or community members provided food, encouragement and sometimes money for transport. Lack of income over time, combined with daily accumulating costs and other struggles, made patients vulnerable to interruption during later stages of treatment. Patients who were poor due to illness or slow progression, and who did not manage to restore their health and social status, were particularly vulnerable to non-adherence. Such patients lost access to essential financial and practical support over time, often because relatives and friends were financially and socially exhausted by supporting them. Conclusion Patients' ability to manage TB treatment is a product of dynamic processes, in which social and economic costs and other burdens change and interplay over time. Interventions to facilitate adherence to TB treatment needs to address both
Debere Mesfin Kote
Full Text Available Abstract Background Healthcare waste management options are varying in Ethiopia. One of the first critical steps in the process of developing a reliable waste management plan requires a widespread understanding of the amount and the management system. This study aimed to assess the health care waste generation rate and its management system in some selected hospitals located in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods Six hospitals in Addis Ababa, (three private and three public, were selected using simple random sampling method for this work. Data was recorded by using an appropriately designed questionnaire, which was completed for the period of two months. The calculations were based on the weights of the health care wastes that were regularly generated in the selected hospitals over a one week period during the year 2011. Average generation indexes were determined in relation to certain important factors, like the type of hospitals (public vs private. Results The median waste generation rate was found to be varied from 0.361- 0.669 kg/patient/day, comprised of 58.69% non-hazardous and 41.31% hazardous wastes. The amount of waste generated was increased as the number of patients flow increased (rs=1. Public hospitals generated high proportion of total health care wastes (59.22% in comparison with private hospitals (40.48%. The median waste generation rate was significantly vary between hospitals with Kruskal-Wallis test (X2=30.65, p=0.0001. The amount of waste was positively correlated with the number of patients (p Conclusion These findings revealed that the management of health care waste at hospitals in Addis Ababa city was poor.
Tamrat Zeleke, Frew
The job satisfaction of higher education faculty can be affected by the kind of leadership style practiced by leaders of an institution. This study examined perceived principals' leadership styles related to faculty job satisfaction in Higher Theological Institutions of Addis Ababa (HTIAA), Ethiopia. Leadership style in this study was defined…
Fikru Tesfaye, MD, MPH, PhD
Full Text Available IntroductionWe assessed the prevalence of substance use and its association with high blood pressure among adults in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.MethodsWe employed a cross-sectional descriptive study design. The World Health Organization instrument for stepwise surveillance of risk factors for chronic diseases was applied on a probabilistic sample of 4001 men and women aged 25 to 64 years in Addis Ababa. We determined the prevalence of cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking, and khat (Catha edulis Forsk chewing. We measured blood pressure by using a digital device and determined mean levels of systolic and diastolic blood pressure.ResultsSmoking cigarettes, drinking alcohol, and chewing khat were widely prevalent among men. Among men, the prevalence of current daily smoking was 11.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 9.5%–12.5%. Binge drinking of alcohol was reported by 10.4% (95% CI, 9.0%–11.9% of men. Similarly, 15.9% (95% CI, 14.1%–17.6% of men regularly chewed khat. Consequently, 26.6% of men and 2.4% of women reported practicing one or more of the behaviors. Current daily smoking and regular khat chewing were significantly associated with elevated mean diastolic blood pressure (β = 2.1, P = .03 and β = 1.9, P = .02, respectively.ConclusionCigarette smoking and khat chewing among men in Addis Ababa were associated with high blood pressure, an established risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Health promotion interventions should aim to prevent proliferation of such behaviors among young people and adoption by women. Surveillance for risk factors for cardiovascular disease should be implemented nationwide to provide information for policy decisions and to guide prevention and control programs.
Conclusion: Prevalence of toxoplasmosis among pregnant women in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia is higher than that reported from other countries. Efforts to describe risk factors for toxoplasma infection among Ethiopians should focus in children.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Substance use remains high among Ethiopian youth and young adolescents particularly in high schools and colleges. The use of alcohol, khat and tobacco by college and university students can be harmful; leading to decreased academic performance, increased risk of contracting HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases. However, the magnitude of substance use and the factors associated with it has not been investigated among medical students in the country. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of substance use and identify factors that influenced the behavior among undergraduate medical students of Addis Ababa University in Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional study using a pre-tested structured self-administered quantitative questionnaire was conducted in June 2009 among 622 medical students (Year I to Internship program at the School of Medicine. The data were entered into Epi Info version 6.04d and analyzed using SPSS version 15 software program. Descriptive statistics were used for data summarization and presentation. Differences in proportions were compared for significance using Chi Square test, with significance level set at p Results In the last 12 months, alcohol was consumed by 22% (25% males vs. 14% females, p = 0.002 and khat use was reported by 7% (9% males vs. 1.5% females, p Khat use within the past 12 months was strongly and positively associated with alcohol consumption (adjusted OR = 15.11, 95% CI = 4.24-53.91. Similarly, ever use of cigarette was also significantly associated with alcohol consumption (adjusted OR = 8.65, 95% CI = 3.48-21.50. Conclusions Concordant use of alcohol, khat and tobacco is observed and exposure to friends' use of substances is often implicated. Alcohol consumption or khat use has been significantly associated with tobacco use. While the findings of this study suggest that substance use among the medical students was not alarming, but its trend increased among students
Full Text Available Abstract Background The health care system of Ethiopia is facing a serious shortage of health workforce. While a number of strategies have been developed to improve the training and retention of medical doctors in the country, understanding the perceptions and attitudes of medical students towards their training, future practice and intent to migrate can contribute in addressing the problem. This study was carried out to assess the attitudes of Ethiopian medical students towards their training and future practice of medicine, and to identify factors associated with the intent to practice in rural or urban settings, or to migrate abroad. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in June 2009 among 600 medical students (Year I to Internship program of the Faculty of Medicine at Addis Ababa University in Ethiopia. A pre-tested self-administered structured questionnaire was used for data collection. Descriptive statistics were used for data summarization and presentation. Degree of association was measured by Chi Square test, with significance level set at p Results Only 20% of the students felt ‘excellent’ about studying medicine; followed by ‘very good’ (19%, ‘good’ (30%, ‘fair’ (21% and ‘bad’ (11%. About 35% of respondents responded they felt the standard of medical education was below their expectation. Only 30% of the students said they would like to initially practice medicine in rural settings in Ethiopia. However, students with rural backgrounds were more likely than those with urban backgrounds to say they intended to practice medicine in rural areas (adjusted OR = 2.50, 95% CI = 1.18-5.26. Similarly, students in clinical training program preferred to practice medicine in rural areas compared to pre-clinical students (adjusted OR = 1.83, 95% CI = 1.12-2.99. About 53% of the students (57% males vs. 46% females, p = 0.017 indicated aspiration to emigrate following graduation, particularly to the
Getahun Fenta Kebede
Full Text Available It is widely recognized that social capital constitutes an important form of social regulation in informal sector and it is the major component of the asset portfolios of the urban poor.Nevertheless, the potential contribution of social capital in the informal sector remains under-investigated in African cities. Applying the network approach, this study examinedthe economic returns of social capital to microenterprises in the informal sector. To do so, the personal networks of street vendors in Addis Ababa were examined. Multi-stagesampling procedures involving purposive and systematic random-walk techniques were applied to draw samples. Data were collected through position generator surveys. The datawere analyzed using OLS and Instrumental Variable Estimators. By controlling the potential endogeneity, the estimation results revealed that network resources are positive and significant predictors of enterprise profit. But their benefit is less for married vendors than unmarried ones. The human capital measures such as education, vocational training, and business experience are not significant predictors of enterprise profit.Key Words: Social Capital, Social Networks, Informal Sector, Ethiopia, Addis Ababa
Michael Emru Tadesse
Full Text Available This study aimed at examining the benefits and challenges of practicing Taekwondo (TKD to adolescents in Addis Ababa. In so doing, the study investigated the nature of TKD training, benefits of practicing TKD, and challenges/problems related with practicing TKD. A descriptive concurrent mixed methods research design was used. Accordingly, the quantitative part of the study had 108 TKD adolescent participants while the qualitative part had 12 participants (eight TKD adolescents and four TKD coaches, from four TKD clubs in Addis Ababa. Both one-stage cluster sampling technique and purposive sampling technique were employed to select participants for the quantitative and qualitative parts of the study, respectively. Questionnaires and in-depth interviews were used to collect data from participants. Results of the study indicated: (1 the TKD training provided by the four TKD clubs was more of a modern/sport form of TKD; (2 TKD adolescents and coaches perceived that the benefits of TKD for adolescents are multifaceted, i.e., social benefits, physical benefits, mental benefits, self-defense, addiction avoidance, and other benefits; and (3 though majority (63.6% of the respondents claimed that they did not face any problem as a result of practicing TKD, the following were identified as major problems that could threaten the wellbeing of TKD adolescents: family-related problems, community-related problems, and competition-related problems. In general, results show that the training of TKD can have a multifaceted positive contribution to adolescents’ wellbeing.
Tilahun Birkneh; Worku Bogale; Tachbele Erdaw; Terefe Simegn; Kloos Helmut; Legesse Worku
Abstract Background Cockroaches have been described as potential vectors for various pathogens for decades; although studies from neonatal intensive care units are scarce. This study assessed the vector potential of cockroaches (identified as Blatella germanica) in a neonatal intensive care unit setup in Tikur Anbessa Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods A total of 400 Blatella germanica roaches were aseptically collected for five consecutive months. Standard laboratory procedures were us...
Hagos Amare Gebreyesus
Full Text Available Background: Prediabetes is a substantial risk factor for developing type-2 diabetes mellitus and its sequel, which include heart disease, stroke, nephropathy and retinopathy. Apart from the genetic and lifestyle risk factors, antiretroviral drugs aggravate the predisposition. Thus, detecting this condition can allow for the provision of better care for HIV-1-infected patients. Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of prediabetes in HIV-1 infected patients on antiretroviral therapy. Method: A cross sectional study was conducted in HIV-1 infected patients enrolled in ART program in a tertiary hospital ART clinic in Addis Ababa. A total of 134 subjects taking HAART were included in the study. 61 (45.5% were males and 73(54.5% were females. The age of the participants range from 20-69 with a median of 40 years. The median duration of HAART intake was 58 months. The prevalence of prediabetes was found to be 22.4%. Among the total study subjects, 19.4% of them had overweight. 50.5% of males and 41% females had a WHR of ≥0.90 and ≥0.85, respectively indicating a high prevalence of central obesity and future risk of cardiovascular problem among this group. Conclusion: Pre-diabetes is common in HIV-1-infected patients receiving ART; putting this group at substantial risk of developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Globally, there was an estimated number of 287,000 maternal deaths in 2010. Eighty five percent (245,000 of these deaths occurred in Sub-Saharan Africa and Southern Asia. Among the causes of these deaths were obstructed and prolonged labour which could be prevented by cost effective and affordable health interventions like the use of the partograph. The Use of the partograph is a well-known best practice for quality monitoring of labour and subsequent prevention of obstructed and prolonged labour. However, a number of cases of obstructed labour do happen in health facilities due to poor quality of intrapartum care. Methods A cross-sectional quantitative study assessed knowledge and utilization of partograph among obstetric care givers in public health institutions of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia using a structured interviewer administered questionnaire. The collected data was analyzed using SPSS version 16.0. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with knowledge and use of partograph among obstetric care givers. Results Knowledge about the partograph was fair: 189 (96.6% of all the respondents correctly mentioned at least one component of the partograph, 104 (53.3% correctly explained the function of alert line and 161 (82.6% correctly explained the function of action line. The study showed that 112 (57.3% of the obstetric care givers at public health institutions reportedly utilized partograph to monitor mothers in labour. The utilization of the partograph was significantly higher among obstetric care givers working in health centres (67.9% compared to those working in hospitals (34.4% [Adjusted OR = 3.63(95%CI: 1.81, 7.28]. Conclusions A significant percentage of obstetric care givers had fair knowledge of the partograph and why it is necessary to use it in the management of labour and over half of obstetric care givers reported use of the partograph to monitor mothers in labour. Pre-service and
Hailemariam Tewodros G
Full Text Available Abstract Background Even though remarkable progress has been achieved, HIV/AIDS continues to be a major global health priority. HIV discordant relationship is one of the emerging issues in HIV prevention endeavour. In Ethiopia, very little is known about HIV-serodiscordant couples particularly how they manage their sexual relationship and fertility desire. Therefore, we conduct this study with the aim of exploring the experiences of HIV discordant couples about their sexual life, and fertility desire in the context of long-term relationships in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods A grounded theory approach was employed using in-depth interviews among 36 informants in ART/PMTCT centers of three public hospitals, a health center and one PLHIV association in Addis Ababa. Theoretical sampling was used to recruit 28 clients who lived in a discordant relationship and eight health care providers as key informants. Data collection and analysis were undertaken simultaneously using a constant comparison. The analysis was facilitated using OpenCode software. Results A grounded theory pertaining to sexual life and desire to have a child among HIV discordant couples emerged as “maintaining the relationship” as a core category. Couples pass through a social process of struggle to maintain their relationship. The causal conditions for couples to enter into the process of struggle to maintain their relationship were collectively categorized as “Entering in-to a transition” (knowing HIV serostatus and this includes mismatch of desire to have a child, controversy on safe sex versus desire to have a child, and undeniable change in sexual desire and practice through time were the features in entering into-transition. Then after the transition, couples engaged in certain actions/strategies that are categorized as “dealing with discordancy” such as entertaining partner’s interest by scarifying once self interest to maintain their relationship. Conclusions
Michael Emru Tadesse
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of taekwondo (TKD training on the subjective well-being (SWB of adolescents (12-18 years old in Addis Ababa city. A cross-sectional survey method was used; self-administered questionnaire was the main data collection tool. A total number of 162 adolescents (108 TKD adolescents from four randomly selected TKD clubs and 54 non-TKD adolescents from a randomly selected public high school, participated in the study. The study sought to determine TKD adolescents’ level of SWB as measured by the Personal Wellbeing Index – School Children (PWI-SC. Besides, adolescents in different groups (TKD adolescents in three groups according to rank/belt level and TKD adolescents and non-TKD adolescents were compared based on their score of PWI-SC. Results of the study showed that: (1 TKD adolescents had high level (mean points of SWB as measured by the PWI-SC, i.e., 81.95 (95%CI: 79.70 to 84.20; (2 there was no significant difference in SWB among the three groups of TKD adolescents (lower, middle and high level belts (F(2, 81 = 1.58, p > .05.; and (3 when compared with non-TKD adolescents, TKD adolescents were found to have a significantly higher mean points of SWB, (t = 4.25(77.97, p < 0.001; d = 0.79. Overall, the results of this study indicated the training of TKD can have a positive contribution to adolescents’ well-being.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Isoniazide preventive therapy (IPT is given to individuals with latent infection of tuberculosis (TB to prevent the progression to active disease. One of the primary reasons for failure of IPT is poor adherence. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted in four hospitals in Addis Ababa. Data were collected using a pre-tested interviewer-administered structured questionnaire. Bivariate and multivariate analysis was done to identify predictors of IPT. Results A total of 319 (97.5% individual participated in this study. Within seven days recall period, self-reported dose adherence rate was 86.5%. Individual who received explanation about IPT from health care providers (OR = 7.74; 95%CI: 3.144, 19.058; who had good feeling/comfortable to take IPT in front of other people [OR = 5.981, 95%CI (2.308, 15.502] and who attended clinical appointment regularly (OR = 4.0; 95%CI: 1.062, 15.073 were more likely to adhere to IPT. Participants who developed IPT related adverse effect were 93% less likely to adhere to the prescribed doses (OR = 0.065; 95%CI: 0.024, 0.179. Conclusion The prevalence of self reported dose adherence over the past 7 days was higher. Non-adherence was observed among respondent who were not provided with sufficient information about IPT. The health care providers need to strengthen their educational and counseling efforts to convince the patient before putting them on IPT. To enhance adherence, health education efforts should focus on the importance of IPT, the details of the regimen and adverse effects.
Abdi, Tariku A; Ruiter, Robert A C; Adal, Tamirie A
Understanding risk factors of problematic gambling is prerequisite to effective intervention design to alleviate the negative consequences of gambling. This study explored the personal, social and environmental risk factors of problematic gambling in four high schools in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, among students (N = 422) ranging from 12 to 21 years of age. Results from the cross-sectional survey showed that personal feelings (e.g., self-esteem, false perceptions about winning, drug abuse), social factors (e.g., peer influence, parental gambling), and environmental factors (e.g., accessibility of gambling venues, advertisements) were significant correlates of problematic gambling. The study also revealed that men were more at risk for severe problematic gambling than females. Among the identified types of gambling activities, the most prevalent ones were playing cards followed by flipping coin and pool gambling while internet gambling was among the least reported gambling activities. By identifying personal, social and environmental correlates of risky gambling activities this study provides evidence-based information for the systematic design and evaluation of educational interventions to prevent problematic gambling in young people. PMID:25859576
Demise, Asrat; Gebrehiwot, Yirgu; Worku, Bogale; Spector, Jonathan M
Mortality audits are being used with increasing frequency to improve health outcomes by pinpointing precisely where deficiencies in clinical care exist. We conducted a prospective audit of stillbirths and early neonatal deaths at Tikur Anbessa Hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, as part of a broader initiative to reduce perinatal mortality in the labor room and neonatal intensive care unit. Out of 1,225 deliveries that took place during the six-month study period, there were 30 stillbirths and 31 early neonatal deaths (PMR 50/1,000). A multi-disciplinary Audit Team was established and convened monthly to review standardized data collection forms that were completed for each death. It was determined that avoidable factors were present in 70% of perinatal deaths. Health worker-related factors were the most common avoidable factors identified (accounting for 84% of avoidable factors identified), followed by patient-related factors (11%) and administrative-related factors (5%). Based on the study findings, quality improvement programs that target gaps in care are being implemented on the hospital's labor room and in the neonatal intensive care unit. PMID:27337856
Capuano, Paolo; Sellerino, Mariangela; Di Ruocco, Angela; Kombe, Wilbard; Yeshitela, Kumelachew
Last decades, new records were set in the world for tornadoes, drought, wind, floods, wildfires and hot temperatures, testifying unusual weather and climate patterns with increasing frequency and intensity of extreme weather events. Extreme heat events are natural hazards affecting many regions in the world, nevertheless limited work has been done on the analysis and effects of extreme heat events in Africa, that is considered a continent particularly vulnerable to the effects of climate change. In fact, the increase of temperature expected in the African continent during the 21st century is larger than the global mean warming, being about 3° to 4° C, about 1.5 times the global temperature increase (Christensen et al., 2007; Gualdi et al., 2012), with the subtropical regions projected to warm more than the tropical regions. Observations and downscaled model simulations (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 IPCC scenarios) are analyzed to describe heat wave characteristics in Dar es Salaam (Tanzania) and Addis Ababa (Ethiopia), spanning the last five decades as well as that projected for the 21st century. Observed data are daily maximum and minimum temperature collected in the period 1961-2011; downscaled model simulations span up to 2050. Heat waves are defined following a peak over threshold approach by statistical comparison to historical meteorological baselines (site dependent), using a fixed absolute threshold. Projected future warming in the Dar es Salaam and Addis Ababa shows a further increase in the heat waves parameters. Heat wave duration and hot days number are strictly correlated showing that the temperature rise could generate not only an increase of heat waves number but mainly a longer average duration, that can strongly affect the resilience capacity of the population, particularly the elder people. In fact, the impacts of heat waves on the society are determined also by temporal duration (Stephenson, 2008), in addition to their frequency, in fact the capacity of
Full Text Available Problem statement: TB and HIV have lethal combination making the fight against the diseases harder. Ethiopia is one of the highly affected countries in the world. Poor knowledge & practice of people on TB is believed to pose major challenge on the control program.Objective: The main objective of this study was to assess the knowledge, associated factors to knowledge and practice related to tuberculosis of HIV positive people living in Addis Ababa. Methods: A health facility based cross-sectional survey using a structured & pretested questionnaire was conducted from January to February, 2011 on PLHIV in Addis Ababa. The study subjects were selected by multistage probability sampling. Univariate, Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was done. Results: Complete data was collected from 636 study subjects, response rate of 96.2%. Out of which 624 (98.1 %; 95%CI: 96.8%-98.9% have heard about TB and 50.2% (95% CI: 46.3%-54.0% were found to have satisfactory overall knowledge on TB. Those who have Primary education [Adjusted OR (95%CI = 1.74 (1.15, 2.62] and secondary & above [Adjusted OR (95%CI = 4.08 (2.62, 6.35] were highly likely to have satisfactory knowledge than illiterates. Of the 624 respondent, 64.1% didn’t often open windows of cars during travel. Of those who had pulmonary TB (194, 22.7% didn’t cover mouth & nose during coughing and sneezing & their main reason was “not giving attention”. From those who got medical treatment for TB (228, 14.5% didn’t complete it and from those who took preventive treatment (231, 8.7% didn’t complete it. The frequently mentioned reason was drug side effect. The intended health seeking practice was 96.8%. Conclusion and Recommendation: This study suggests that PLHIV in Addis Ababa have some gaps in knowledge and acceptable practices. Therefore, a very clear and target oriented health promotion, that takes illiterates in to consideration, for the PLHIV is necessary. Aims and
S. Takele Kenea; G. Mengistu Tsidu; Blumenstock, T.; Hase, F.; Clarmann, T.; Stiller, G. P.
Since May 2009, high-resolution Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) solar absorption spectra have been recorded at Addis Ababa (9.01° N latitude, 38.76° E longitude, 2443 m altitude above sea level), Ethiopia. The vertical profiles and total column amounts of ozone (O3) are deduced from the spectra by using the retrieval code PROFFIT (V9.5) and regularly determined instrumental line shape (ILS). A detailed error analysis of the O3 retrieval is performed. Averaging kernels of t...
Mekuria, L.A. (Legese A.)
In his thesis, Legese A. Mekuria presents the results of a PhD study which was undertaken in 10 health-care facilities in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The overall aim was to estimate retention in HIV care, viral suppression, medication adherence and patients’ health-related quality of life (HRQoL). An additional aim was to investigate the predictors of attrition, detectable viremia, sub-optimal adherence and poor HRQoL. A total of 870 patients who initiated cART between May 2009 and April 2012 were...
Endalew Gemechu Sendo
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Premarital sexual practice among unmarried College students has markedly increased recently in Ethiopia. College students are recognized as one of the age groups most affected by sexually transmitted infections including HIV. However, little has been explored about the magnitude of premarital sexual activity and predisposing factors in the circumstance of private higher education institutions in Ethiopia. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the magnitude of premarital sexual practice and predisposing factors among unmarried undergraduate first year students in Alkan University College in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of college students was conducted in April-May 2013. Study participants were selected by stratified random sampling. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by 207 unmarried first year undergraduate students, and was analyzed using SPSS V.16.0. Multi-variate logistic regression was used to see association between variables. Results were summarized in frequencies and percentages and presented in tables. RESULTS: A total of 207 students took part in the survey. The mean age of respondents was 21.8 ±2.0 years. More than half of survey respondents (60.9% reported that they have had premarital sex. Multi-variate logistic regression analysis showed that male respondents were more than seven times to ever have sexual intercourse as compared to female respondents (AOR= 7.6; 95%CI: 4.51, 34.87. However, age less than 18 years was found to be protective against premarital sexual practice (AOR=0.42.; 95%CI: 0.27-0.73. Compared to respondents who do not use alcohol, those who are alcohol users after joining college were 3.8 times (AOR 3.05, 95% CI: 1.51-4.32 as likely to begin premarital sex. Similarly, ever chewing khat after joining college was found to be positively associated with premarital sex in this study. (AOR=2.60.; 95%CI: 0.62-1.43. CONCLUSION: A significant number of students had started
A community based cross-sectional study inquiring into determinants and correlates of sexual risk taking was conducted from June to December 2003. The objective of the study was describing sexual behavior and assessing socio-economic and cultural correlates of high-risk sexual behavior among urban youth in Addis Ababa. A multi-systemic perspective, an approach that focuses on the reciprocal relations among the personal, family, and extra family systems on sexual behavior was employed. Data we...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Tuberculosis (TB is the leading cause of mortality among infectious diseases worldwide. Ninty five percent of TB cases and 98% of deaths due to TB occur in developing countries. Globally, the mortality rate has declined with the introduction of effective anti TB chemotherapy. Nevertheless, some patients with active TB still die while on treatment for their disease. In Ethiopia, little is known on survival and risk factors for mortality among a cohort of TB patients. The objective of the study is to determine the magnitude and identify risk factors associated with time to death among TB patients treated under DOTS programme in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods This is a retrospective cohort study. Data was obtained by assessing medical records of TB patients registered from June 2004 to July 2009 G.C and treated under the DOTS strategy in three randomly selected health centers. A step-wise multivariable Cox's regression model and Kaplan- Meier curves were used to model the outcome of interest. Mortality was used as an outcome measure. Person-years of observation (PYO were calculated from the date of starting anti-TB treatment to date of outcome and was calculated as the number of deaths/100 PYO. Statistical analysis SPSS version 16 was used for data analysis and results were reported significant whenever P-value was less than 5%. Results From a total of 6,450 registered TB patients 236(3.7% were died. More than 75% death occurred within eight month of treatment initiation. The mean and median times of survival starting from the date of treatment initiation were 7.2 and 7.9 months, respectively. Comparison of survival curves using Kaplan Meier curves method with log-rank test showed that the survival status was significantly different between patient categories as well as across treatment centers (P Conclusions Most of the patients were died at the end of treatment period. This underlines the need for devising a mechanism of
Schmitz, Karen; Kempker, Russell R.; Tenna, Admasu; Stenehjem, Edward; Abebe, Engida; Tadesse, Lia; Jirru, Ermias Kacha; Blumberg, Henry M.
Background Hand hygiene is the cornerstone of infection control and reduces rates of healthcare associated infection. There are limited data evaluating hand hygiene adherence and hand hygiene campaign effect in resource-limited settings, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa. This study assessed the impact of implementing a World Health Organization (WHO)-recommended multimodal hand hygiene campaign at a hospital in Ethiopia. Methods This study included a before-and-after assessment of health care...
Tegegne, Minale Tareke; Mossie, Tilahun Belete; Awoke, Andargie Abate; Assaye, Ashagre Molla; Gebrie, Belete Temitm; Eshetu, Desalegn Asmare
Background Although depression and anxiety disorders are very common in people with epilepsy; there are no studies that assessed the magnitude and associated factors among epileptic people in Ethiopia. Therefore, this study determined prevalence and associated factors of depression and anxiety disorders in people with epilepsy. Method An institution based cross-sectional study was conducted from April to May, 2013, among 423 people with epilepsy from the outpatient department of Amanuel Menta...
Full Text Available This article presents the major roles of long distance bus transport that radiates from Addis Ababa to the hinterland. The purpose is to assess and identify the major roles of Long Distance Bus Transport in Addis Ababa. The methodology is focused on both primary and secondary sources. The primary informants, who were principally distinguished from the passengers, operators, and key government officials from the transport office, include the head of bus terminal and Association, and selected experts. In terms of analysis, the qualitative approach was used by applying a thick description of the issue. The findings revealed that the availability of towns comes mainly because of the routes which give access and distribution of road passenger transport. The LDB (Long Distance Bus along the line has played a great role in the making of metropolitan linkage. The presence of these routes contributes more to the rise of urbanization and it has also played a role in the creation of towns and rural areas found around certain radius at the two sides of highways. Thus, it has a high probability for the expansion of urban sprawl and formation of conurbation in the future. The prescription for this study is to work with stakeholders to reduce the congestion of passengers in the terminals and the association also should serve the society 24/7 or 18/7.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Ethiopian people have been using traditional medicine since time immemorial with 80% of its population dependent on traditional medicines. However, the documentation of traditional healers' clinics contribution to modern public health system in cosmopolitan cities is scanty. Studies conducted so far are limited and focused on the perceptions and practices of modern and traditional health practitioners about traditional medicine. Thus, a cross sectional study was conducted from February to May 2010 to assess the contribution of traditional healers' clinics to public health care system in Addis Ababa. Materials and methods Ten traditional healers who were willing to participate in the study and 306 patients who were visiting these traditional healers' clinics were interviewed using two types of semi-structured questionnaires. Data were summarized using percentages, tables and bar chart. Results The diseases mostly treated by traditional healers were wound, inflammation, herpes zoster, hemorrhoids, fracture, paralysis, back-pain, liver diseases, cancer and eczema. This study showed that traditional healers' clinics considerably contribute to public health care in Addis Ababa. Fifty two percent of patients reported that traditional healers' clinics were their first choice when they faced health problems. The reasons for visiting these clinics were 175 (57.2% efficacy, 109 (35.6% dissatisfaction with modern medicine, 10 (3.3% dissatisfaction with modern medicine and efficacy, 6 (2.0% cost and 6 (2.0% dissatisfaction and cost. Females (55.2%, young age (20-40 years, 65.0%, never married (56.9%, orthodox (73.9%, Amhara (52.3%, educational status above grade 12 (34.6% and government employees (29.4% were frequent visitors. Healers reported that there was no form of cooperation with modern health professionals. The reasons were lack of motivation to collaborate and communicate with modern health service workers. Family based
A combined application of PV and polymer thermal solar collector (PVT) of solar energy for residential electricity and thermal demand can be harnessed sustainably with effective means at a time where long sun duration and most consistent solar irradiation throughout the year is available, in place like Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.Due to frequent power shedding though out the country which Addis Ababa is part of problem, because of the energy demand in the country is increasing and a source of elect...
Disclosure experience to partner and its effect on intention to utilize prevention of mother to child transmission service among HIV positive pregnant women attending antenatal care in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Sendo, Endalew Gemechu; Cherie, Amsale; Erku, Tadese Asfaw
Background Disclosure of HIV status has become an entry criterion for prevention of mother to child transmission programs in resource-constrained countries. However, little has been explored about the prevalence of, barriers to, outcomes and factors associated with HIV status disclosure among HIV positive pregnant women in Ethiopia. Method Cross- sectional study was conducted among 107 pregnant women who were attending antenatal care in public centers from April to June 2011 in Addis Ababa ca...
Tiao, N; Darrington, C; Molla, B; Saville, W J A; Tilahun, G; Kwok, O C H; Gebreyes, W A; Lappin, M R; Jones, J L; Dubey, J P
Toxoplasma gondii and Bartonella spp. are zoonotic pathogens of cats. Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), and feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) are immunosuppressive viruses of cats that can affect T. gondii oocyst shedding. In this study, the prevalence of antibodies to T. gondii, Bartonella spp., FIV, as well as FeLV antigens were determined in sera from feral cats (Felis catus) from Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Using the modified agglutination test, IgG antibodies to T. gondii were found in 41 (85.4%) of the 48 cats with titres of 1:25 in one, 1:50 in one, 1:200 in six, 1:400 in six, 1:800 in six, 1:1600 in eight, and 1:3200 in 13 cats. Toxoplasma gondii IgM antibodies were found in 11/46 cats tested by ELISA, suggesting recent infection. Antibodies to Bartonella spp. were found in five (11%) of 46 cats tested. Antibodies to FIV or FeLV antigen were not detected in any of the 41 cats tested. The results indicate a high prevalence of T. gondii and a low prevalence of Bartonella spp. infection in cats in Ethiopia. PMID:22857007
This paper examines the non-prescription use of the sexual enhancement drug Viagra by young men in Addis Ababa. Data was collected through repeated in-depth interviews with 14 Viagra users - heterosexual men between the ages of 21 and 35 - and focus-group discussions with 21 male and 22 female university students. Study participants turned to Viagra to impress lovers, as a 'support mechanism' when feeling weak or tired, to counteract the effects of chewing the stimulant plant khat and to satisfy what they perceived as a psychological 'addiction'. More generally, young men used Viagra to quell anxieties about what they perceived as women's growing expectations about their sexual performance - informed by changing gender relations and sexual expectations, constructions of masculinity that emphasise sexual prowess, and a misreading of women's sexual desires largely fuelled by the emergence of pornography as a new standard for sexual performance. While some men gained sexual confidence by using Viagra, others - particularly those who used Viagra regularly - paradoxically experienced feelings of loss of manhood. PMID:26555512
Full Text Available Abstract Background Breastfeeding remains normative and vital for child survival in the developing world. However, knowledge of the risk of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV transmission through breastfeeding has brought to attention the controversy of whether breastfeeding can be safely practiced by HIV positive mothers. Prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT programs provide prevention services to HIV positive mothers including infant feeding counseling based on international guidelines. This study aimed at exploring infant feeding choices and how breastfeeding and the risk of HIV transmission through breastfeeding was interpreted among HIV positive mothers and their counselors in PMTCT programs in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods The study was conducted in the PMTCT clinics in two governmental hospitals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, using qualitative interviews and participant observation. Twenty two HIV positive mothers and ten health professionals working in PMTCT clinics were interviewed. Results The study revealed that HIV positive mothers have developed an immense fear of breast milk which is out of proportion compared to the evidence of risk of transmission documented. The fear is expressed through avoidance of breastfeeding or, if no other choice is available, through an intense unease with the breastfeeding situation, and through expressions of sin, guilt, blame and regret. Health professionals working in the PMTCT programs seemed to largely share the fear of HIV positive mother's breast milk, and their anxiety was reflected in the counseling services they provided. Formula feeding was the preferred infant feeding method, and was chosen also by HIV positive women who had to beg in the streets for survival. Conclusions The fear of breast milk that seems to have developed among counselors and HIV positive mothers in the wake of the HIV epidemic may challenge a well established breastfeeding culture and calls for public health
Weldegebriel, Yirgaalem; Chandravanshi, Bhagwan Singh; Wondimu, Taddese
Samples of vegetables, water and soil were collected from four vegetable farms in Addis Ababa to evaluate the extent and trend of metal accumulation in these systems and health risk concerns to consumers. Vegetable samples were digested in HNO(3) and HClO(4), soil samples in Aqua Regia and water samples were pre-concentrated with methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) using the chelating agent ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (APDC). All the samples were analyzed for Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Zn, Cd and Pb with flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The concentrations of Cd (0.12-1.13 mg kg(-1)) and Pb (0.11-0.89 mg kg(-1)) in the vegetables surpassed the maximum recommended levels. The total metal concentrations in soils were (mg kg(-1)): Cr, 9.9-22.8; Co, 28.0-47.3; Cu, 25.1-51.4, Mn, 1000-1054; Ni, 16.4-55.8; Zn, 146-149; Cd, 1.4-1.8 and Pb, 22.0-50.7. The trace metals Cd, Co, Cu, Mn and Ni in most of the water samples collected from Goffa, Kera and Akaki farms also surpassed irrigation water guideline limits, which might be a case for high accumulation of metals in the soils. However, the soil pH (6.5-7.6) and high cation exchange capacity (CEC), 38.41-50.18, coupled with high clay content, 37-51%, of the soil seemed to limit metal uptake by the vegetables. The physical parameters, pH (7.43-7.89) and electrical conductivity (0.33-1.54 dS/m) of irrigation waters measured at 25°C were found within the acceptable range. PMID:22062152
The purpose of this study was to examine the relation between the attitudes and components of attitude of the students towards algebra with their algebra achievements. The population for this study consists of all government tenth grade students and their mathematics teachers in Addis Ababa city administration. Sixteen tenth grade sections were…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Cockroaches have been described as potential vectors for various pathogens for decades; although studies from neonatal intensive care units are scarce. This study assessed the vector potential of cockroaches (identified as Blatella germanica in a neonatal intensive care unit setup in Tikur Anbessa Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods A total of 400 Blatella germanica roaches were aseptically collected for five consecutive months. Standard laboratory procedures were used to process the samples. Results From the external and gut homogenates, Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Citrobacter spp. Enterobacter cloacae, Citrobacter diversus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Providencia rettgeri, Klebsiella ozaenae, Enterobacter aeruginosa, Salmonella C1, Non Group A streptococcus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter spp. and Shigella flexneri were isolated. Multi-drug resistance was seen in all organisms. Resistance to up to all the 12 antimicrobials tested was observed in different pathogens. Conclusion Cockroaches could play a vector role for nosocomial infections in a neonatal intensive care unit and environmental control measures of these vectors is required to reduce the risk of infection. A high level of drug resistance pattern of the isolated pathogens was demonstrated.
Kelemu Tilahun Kibret
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Tuberculosis (TB is a leading morbidity and mortality, and the first presenting sign in majority of people living with Human Immune deficiency Virus (PLWH. Determinants of active TB among HIV patients on anti retroviral treatment (ART are not well described in resource limited settings. The aim of this study was to assess determinant factors for the occurrence of TB among people living with HIV after ART initiation in public hospitals and health centers in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A case control study was conducted from December 2011 to February 2012 in 2 public hospitals and 13 health centers in Addis Ababa. The study population consisted of 204 cases and 409 controls. Cases were adult people living with HIV who developed TB after ART initiation and controls were adult people living with HIV who did not develop TB after ART initiation. An interviewer administered structured questionnaire was used to collect information. After adjustment for potential confounders, presence of isoniazid prophylaxis (adjusted odd ratio [AOR] 0.35, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.125, 0.69 and cotrimoxazole prophylaxis (AOR = 0.19; 95% CI: 0.06, 0.62 had protective benefit against risk of TB. In contrary, bedridden (AOR = 9.36; 95% CI: 3.39, 25.85, having World Health Organization (WHO clinical stage III/IV (AOR = 3.40; 95% CI: 1.69, 6.87 and hemoglobin level <10 mg/dl (AOR = 7.43; 95% CI; 3.04, 18.31 at enrollment to ART care were predictors for increased risk of tuberculosis in PLWH after ART initiation. CONCLUSION: Increasing coverage of isoniazid preventive therapy and cotrimoxazole preventive therapy reduced risk of TB among HIV patients who started treatment. All PLWH should be screened for TB, but for patients who have advanced disease condition (WHO clinical stage III/IV, being bedridden and having hemoglobin level <10 mg/dl intensified screening is highly recommended during treatment follow up.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Toxoplasmosis in immuno-compromised hosts manifests primarily as a life threatening condition, toxoplasmic encephalitis. However, there is scarce information about the magnitude of Toxoplasma gondii infection among HIV-infected people in Ethiopia. This study was, therefore, conducted to determine the sero-prevalence of T. gondii infection among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected subjects. Findings Sera were collected from people with and without HIV infection for the purpose of studying hepatitis B virus (HBV at St. Paul Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia from 24 January 2007 to 15 February 2007. Among these sera, the first 330 consecutive sera, 165 from each HIV sero-group, were selected and tested for anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay. The seroprevalence of Toxoplasma infection was assessed against socio-demographic characteristics, HIV and HBV serostatus and HBV-related risk factors. The overall sero-prevalence of latent T. gondii infection among the study subjects was 90.0%. Toxoplasma infection was observed with respective prevalence of 93.3% and 86.7% among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected people. Though Toxoplasma infection seems to be influenced by age, gender and HIV serostatus, only HBV serostatus was significantly associated (OR 2.71, CI 1.12 to 6.57 in multivariate logistic regression analysis. Conclusion The seroprevalence of latent T. gondii infection is high and similar by HIV status. Educating people to prevent acquisition of new Toxoplasma infection and minimizing the risk of disease manifestations among HIV-Toxoplasma co-infected individuals is important.
A comprehensive investigative study was implemented in 2002, on the status, and development of urban mobility in three Sub-Saharan African cities - Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; Nairobi, Kenya; and, Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania. Its purpose was to gather information in terms of size, regional spread, and availability data, that would allow identification of issues affecting urban mobility in the relat...
Full Text Available Oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC and oral Candida carriage are common problem in HIV-infected populations. Early detection of oral carriage of Candida\tspecies\tis\timportant\tfor\tidentification\tof\tpatients\twith\tthe\ttendency\tfor rapid progression of HIV infection since oral carriage may influence the development\tof\tclinically\tsignificant\tcandidiasis\tin\tthese\timmunocompromised patients. This study investigated the prevalence and level of oral Candida carriage\trate\tamong\tHIV-infected\tand\tnon-infected\tindividuals\tin\tTikurAnbessa Teaching Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Oral rinse sample was collected from\t71\tHIV\tinfected\tand\t50\tHIV\tnon\tinfected\tindividuals.\tOut\tof\tthe\ttotal\t121 study participants 85(70.2% were females and 36(29.8% were males with male to female ratio of 0.4:1. It was found that 66(54.5% of the study participants were carriers of oral Candida species from which 49(74.3% were HIV positive.\tOral\tCandida carriage rate among\tHIV\tinfected participants\twas 49(69%\twhere\tas\tin\tHIV\tnon\tinfected\tparticipants\tit\twas\t17(34%.\tSix\tCandida species were identified; C. albicanswas the predominant Candida species accounted\tfor\t53(80.3%,\tfollowed\tby\tC.\tparapsilosis\t5(7.6%\tand\tthree\tsamples revealed\twith\tmore\tthan\tone\tCandida\tspecies.\tMean\tcolony\tdensity\tof\tCandida in HIV positive and HIV negative study participants were 2,145.68+3395.12 CFU/ml\tand\t684.71+1941.520\tCFU/ml respectively.\tIn\tconclusion,\tnot\tonly\toral\tCandida\tcarriage\tbut\talso\tthe density of Candida colony was higher in HIV infected than non infected populations. C. albicans was the predominant\tspecies\tfollowed\tby\tC.\tparapsilosis.
Jani, Nrupa; Vu, Lung; Kay, Lynnette; Habtamu, Kassahun; Kalibala, Samuel
Introduction Ethiopia is experiencing an increasingly urban HIV epidemic, alongside a rise in urban adolescent migration. Adolescent migrants are often confronted by unique social challenges, including living in a difficult environment, abuse and mental health problems. These issues can increase adolescents’ vulnerability to HIV and compromise their capacity to protect themselves and others from HIV. We piloted and assessed the effects of a targeted psychosocial intervention to reduce mental health problems and improve HIV-related outcomes among migrant adolescents in Addis Ababa. Methods A pre- and post-comparison design was used in a cohort of 576 female and 154 male migrant adolescents aged 15 to 18 years in Addis Ababa receiving services from two service delivery organizations, Biruh Tesfa and Retrak. We implemented a three-month client-centred, counsellor-delivered psychosocial intervention, based on findings from formative research among the same target population, to address participants’ increased vulnerability to HIV. The intervention package comprised individual, group and creative arts therapy counselling sessions. Key outcome indicators included anxiety, depression, aggressive behaviour, attention problems, social problems, knowledge of HIV, safer sex practices and use of sexual health services. Longitudinal data analysis (McNemar test and random effects regression) was used to assess changes over time in key indicators by gender. Results For females, aggressive behaviour decreased by 60% (adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 0.4 (0.25 to 0.65)) and any mental health problem decreased by 50% (AOR: 0.5 (0.36 to 0.81)) from baseline to end line. In addition, knowledge of HIV increased by 60% (AOR: 1.6 (1.08 to 2.47)), knowledge of a place to test for HIV increased by 70% (AOR: 1.7 (1.12 to 2.51)) and HIV testing increased by 80% (AOR: 1.8 (1.13 to 2.97)). For males, HIV knowledge increased by 110% (AOR: 2.1 (1.1 to 3.94)), knowledge of a place to test for HIV
Full Text Available Introduction: Ethiopia is experiencing an increasingly urban HIV epidemic, alongside a rise in urban adolescent migration. Adolescent migrants are often confronted by unique social challenges, including living in a difficult environment, abuse and mental health problems. These issues can increase adolescents’ vulnerability to HIV and compromise their capacity to protect themselves and others from HIV. We piloted and assessed the effects of a targeted psychosocial intervention to reduce mental health problems and improve HIV-related outcomes among migrant adolescents in Addis Ababa. Methods: A pre- and post-comparison design was used in a cohort of 576 female and 154 male migrant adolescents aged 15 to 18 years in Addis Ababa receiving services from two service delivery organizations, Biruh Tesfa and Retrak. We implemented a three-month client-centred, counsellor-delivered psychosocial intervention, based on findings from formative research among the same target population, to address participants’ increased vulnerability to HIV. The intervention package comprised individual, group and creative arts therapy counselling sessions. Key outcome indicators included anxiety, depression, aggressive behaviour, attention problems, social problems, knowledge of HIV, safer sex practices and use of sexual health services. Longitudinal data analysis (McNemar test and random effects regression was used to assess changes over time in key indicators by gender. Results: For females, aggressive behaviour decreased by 60% (adjusted odds ratio (AOR: 0.4 (0.25 to 0.65 and any mental health problem decreased by 50% (AOR: 0.5 (0.36 to 0.81 from baseline to end line. In addition, knowledge of HIV increased by 60% (AOR: 1.6 (1.08 to 2.47, knowledge of a place to test for HIV increased by 70% (AOR: 1.7 (1.12 to 2.51 and HIV testing increased by 80% (AOR: 1.8 (1.13 to 2.97. For males, HIV knowledge increased by 110% (AOR: 2.1 (1.1 to 3.94, knowledge of a place to test
Alemayehu, Elias Yitbarek
About eighty percent of Addis Ababa’s settlements are considered “slum”. The study examines the phenomenon of urban upgrading in tenant-dominated non-planned inner-city settlements of the city. It focuses on tenants’ responses and spatial transformations. The phenomenon is investigated through the analysis of case studies located in three localities. The data are primarily collected through qualitative techniques supplemented by a quantitative technique. The investigation is carried out from ...
Christopher C Smitson
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: There are limited data on clinical outcomes of ART-experienced patients with cryptococcal antigenemia. We assessed clinical outcomes of a predominantly asymptomatic, ART-experienced cohort of HIV+ patients previously found to have a high (8.4% prevalence of cryptococcal antigenemia. METHODS: The study took place at All Africa Leprosy, Tuberculosis and Rehabilitative Training Centre and Black Lion Hospital HIV Clinics in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A retrospective study design was used to perform 12-month follow-up of 367 mostly asymptomatic HIV-infected patients (CD4<200 cells/µl with high levels of antiretroviral therapy use (74% who were previously screened for cryptococcal antigenemia. Medical chart abstraction was performed approximately one year after initial screening to obtain data on clinic visit history, ART use, CD4 count, opportunistic infections, and patient outcome. We evaluated the association of cryptococcal antigenemia and a composite poor outcome of death and loss to follow-up using logistic regression. RESULTS: Overall, 323 (88% patients were alive, 8 (2% dead, and 36 (10% lost to follow-up. Among the 31 patients with a positive cryptococcal antigen test (titers ≥1∶8 at baseline, 28 were alive (all titers ≤1∶512, 1 dead and 2 lost to follow-up (titers ≥1∶1024. In multivariate analysis, cryptococcal antigenemia was not predictive of a poor outcome (aOR = 1.3, 95% CI 0.3-4.8. A baseline CD4 count <100 cells/µl was associated with an increased risk of a poor outcome (aOR 3.0, 95% CI 1.4-6.7 while an increasing CD4 count (aOR 0.1, 95% CI 0.1-0.3 and receiving antiretroviral therapy at last follow-up visit (aOR 0.1, 95% CI 0.02-0.2 were associated with a reduced risk of a poor outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Unlike prior ART-naïve cohorts, we found that among persons receiving ART and with CD4 counts <200 cells/µl, asymptomatic cryptococcal antigenemia was not predictive of a poor outcome.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART improves the immune function and decreases morbidity, mortality and opportunistic infections (OIs in HIV-infected patients. However, since the use of HAART, immune restoration disease (IRD has been described in association with many OIs. Our objective was to determine the proportion of IRD, changes in CD4+ T-cell count and possible risk factors of IRD in HIV-infected patients. Methods A retrospective study of all HIV- infected patients starting HAART between September 1, 2005 and August 31, 2006 at Zewditu memorial hospital HIV clinic, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia was conducted. All laboratory and clinical data were extracted from computerized clinic records and patient charts. Results A total of 1166 HIV- infected patients with mean ± SD age of 36 ± 9.3 years were on HAART. IRD was identified in 170 (14.6% patients. OIs diagnosed in the IRD patients were tuberculosis (66.5%, 113/170, toxoplasmosis (12.9%, 22/170, herpes zoster rash (12.9%, 22/170, Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (4.1%, 7/170, and cryptococcosis (3.5%, 6/170. Of the 170 patients with IRD, 124 (72.9% patients developed IRD within the first 3 months of HAART initiation. Low baseline CD4+ T-cell count (odds ratio [OR], 3.16, 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.19-4.58 and baseline extra pulmonary tuberculosis (OR, 7.7, 95% CI, 3.36-17.65 were associated with development of IRD. Twenty nine (17.1% of the IRD patients needed to use systemic anti-inflammatory treatment where as 19(11.2% patients required hospitalization associated to the IRD occurrence. There was a total of 8 (4.7% deaths attributable to IRD. Conclusions The proportion and risk factors of IRD and the pattern of OIs mirrored reports from other countries. Close monitoring of patients during the first three months of HAART initiation is important to minimize clinical deterioration related to IRD.
Erku, Daniel Asfaw; Mekuria, Abebe Basazn; Surur, Abdrrahman Shemsu; Gebresillassie, Begashaw Melaku
Purpose This study was aimed at assessing the extent of dispensing prescription-only medications without a prescription in community drug retail outlets (CDROs) of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods A descriptive cross-sectional observational study design was used to sample 31 pharmacies, 25 drug stores, and two rural drug vendors from August 11, 2015, to October 21, 2015, through a simple random sampling method. A simulated-patient method of visit was implemented to collect data. Requests of six tracer prescription-only medicines (amoxicillin + clavulanic acid capsule, amitriptyline, captopril, glibenclamide [also known as glyburide], omeprazole capsule, and sildenafil citrate) and upper respiratory tract infection were selected as the simulated clinical scenario. Results Amoxicillin–clavulanic acid capsule was dispensed when requested in 87.93% of the dispensaries. All of the CDROs dispensed omeprazole upon request. Sildenafil citrate (Viagra) was in stock in 96.55% of the CDROs, all of which issued the requested number of tablets without asking why or for whom the drug was needed. Amitriptyline, captopril, and glibenclamide (glyburide) were dispensed in 84.48%, 89.65%, and 87.93% of CDROs upon the provision of an empty container. Antibiotics were obtained from 75.86% of CDROs for presentation of upper respiratory tract infection symptoms. Among the dispensed antibiotics, the most common was amoxicillin (93.18%), followed by amoxicillin–clavulanic acid capsule (72.72%), and azithromycin (50%). Only 4.5% of the dispensaries asked about drug allergies, and 15.9% of the CDROs informed the simulated patient about the possible side effects of the drugs. Conclusion This study revealed a very high rate of dispensing of prescription-only medicines without a prescription. Antimicrobials and drugs for chronic diseases were obtained with ease from almost all of the randomly sampled CDROs. Putting good dispensing practice into effect and adhering to the existing national
Derra, F. A.; Karlsmose, Susanne; Monga, D. P.;
this study was to investigate the occurrence, antimicrobial profiles, and genetic relatedness of L. monocytogenes from raw meat and dairy products (raw milk, cottage cheese, cream cake), collected from the capital and five neighboring towns in Ethiopia. Methods. Two hundred forty food samples were...
Biadgilign Sibhatu; Ameni Gobena; Getahun Belete; Medhin Girmay
Abstract Background Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of mortality among infectious diseases worldwide. Ninty five percent of TB cases and 98% of deaths due to TB occur in developing countries. Globally, the mortality rate has declined with the introduction of effective anti TB chemotherapy. Nevertheless, some patients with active TB still die while on treatment for their disease. In Ethiopia, little is known on survival and risk factors for mortality among a cohort of TB patients. The o...
Tesfa Dejenie Habtewold
Full Text Available Background. The emotional consequences of diabetes have been scrutinized by a number of investigative teams and there are varying reports about the association of depression with type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, there is limited data about this in Ethiopia. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of comorbid depression among type 2 diabetic outpatients. Methods and Materials. Institution based cross-sectional study design was conducted on a random sample of 276 type 2 diabetic outpatients from Black Lion General Specialized Hospital. Systematic random sampling technique was used to get these individual patients from 920 type 2 diabetic outpatients who have an appointment during the data collection period. Patients’ depression status was measured using Patient Health Questionnaire 9 (PHQ 9. Result. Totally 264 type 2 diabetic outpatients were interviewed with a response rate of 95.6%. The prevalence of depression among type 2 diabetic outpatients was 13%. Based on PHQ 9 score, 28.4% (75 fulfilled the criteria for mild depression, 12.1% (32 for moderate depression, 2.7% (7 for moderately severe depression, and 1.5% (4 for severe depression. But 45.8% (121 of patients had no clinically significant depression. Conclusion. This study demonstrated that depression is a common comorbid health problem in type 2 diabetic outpatients with a prevalence rate of 13%.
Full Text Available Background. The Akaki River in Ethiopia has been found to contain elevated levels of several metals. Our objectives were to characterize metals exposures of residents living near the Akaki River and to assess metal levels in their drinking water. Methods. In 2011, we conducted a cross-sectional study of 101 households in Akaki-Kality subcity (near the Akaki River and 50 households in Yeka subcity (distant to the Akaki River. One willing adult in each household provided urine, blood, and drinking water sample. Results. Urinary molybdenum (p<0.001, tungsten (p<0.001, lead (p<0.001, uranium (p<0.001, and mercury (p=0.049 were higher in Akaki-Kality participants compared to Yeka participants. Participants in both subcities had low urinary iodine; 45% met the World Health Organization (WHO classification for being at risk of moderate iodine deficiency. In Yeka, 47% of households exceeded the WHO aesthetic-based reference value for manganese; in Akaki-Kality, only 2% of households exceeded this value (p<0.001. There was no correlation between metals levels in water samples and clinical specimens. Conclusions. Most of the exposures found during this investigation seem unlikely to cause acute health effects based on known toxic thresholds. However, toxicity data for many of these metals are very limited.
In addition to their ability to reach distant learners, interactive e-learning environments have the potential to make the teaching-learning process more effective. This paper highlights some of the e-learning implementation efforts at the Addis Ababa Institute of Technology (AAiT) in Ethiopia. This case study shows that limited resources do not deter a developing nation to exploit the power of e-learning. Based on feedback from participants in the first national videoconferencing program hel...
Gian Nicola Francesconi; Ruerd Ruben
During the last decade Ethiopia has been witnessing a return to agricultural cooperatives as means to unleash the national agri-food market. Using primary bio-economic data from Ethiopia, this study evaluates the impact of cooperative membership on milk production, productivity, quality and safety. To do so we compare the performance of cooperative and individual milk farmers sampled from the dairy belt of Addis Ababa. We use both instrumental variable regression and propensity score matching...
Full Text Available Salmonellae are ubiquitous, found in animals, humans, and the environment, a condition which facilitates transmission and cross contamination. Salmonella enterica serotypes exert huge health and economic impacts due to their virulence or carriage of antibiotic resistance traits. To address this significant issues with regard to public health, availability of adequate information on the prevalence and antibiotic resistance patterns of Salmonella, and establishment of adequate measures to control contamination and infection are needed. A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the level of Salmonella infection in slaughtered bovines and ovines at Addis Ababa abattoir. Samples were collected randomly and processed for identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Salmonella spp. From 280 animals examined, 13 (4.64% (8 bovines and 5 ovines were positive, with most samples (12/13, 92% comprising Salmonella Dublin. Very high level of resistance to some antibiotics used in human medicine was detected. Most isolates were susceptible to gentamycin and amikacin. Nine (69% of all isolates were resistant to multiple antibiotics. Serotyping revealed 12 of 13 isolates to be of the Dublin serotype with 9,12:g,p:- antigenic formula. This study emphasizes the importance of improving the evisceration practice during slaughtering and restricting the use of antibiotics in farm animals.
Desale, Adino; Taye, Bineyam; Belay, Getachew; Nigatu, Alemayehu
Introduction Logistics management information system for health commodities remained poorly implemented in most of developing countries. To assess the status of laboratory logistics management information system for HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis laboratory commodities in public health facilities in Addis Ababa. Methods A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted from September 2010-January 2011 at selected public health facilities. A stratified random sampling method was used to include a total of 43 facilities which, were investigated through quantitative methods using structured questionnaires interviews. Focus group discussion with the designated supply chain managers and key informant interviews were conducted for the qualitative method. Results There exists a well-designed logistics system for laboratory commodities with trained pharmacy personnel, distributed standard LMIS formats and established inventory control procedures. However, majority of laboratory professionals were not trained in LMIS. Majority of the facilities (60.5%) were stocked out for at least one ART monitoring and TB laboratory reagents and the highest stock out rate was for chemistry reagents. Expired ART monitoring laboratory commodities were found in 25 (73.5%) of facilities. Fifty percent (50%) of the assessed hospitals and 54% of health centers were currently using stock/bin cards for all HIV/AIDS and TB laboratory commodities in main pharmacy store, among these only 25% and 20.8% of them were updated with accurate information matching with the physical count done at the time of visit for hospitals and health centers respectively. Conclusion Even though there exists a well designed laboratory LMIS, keeping quality stock/bin cards and LMIS reports were very low. Key ART monitoring laboratory commodities were stock out at many facilities at the day of visit and during the past six months. Based on findings, training of laboratory personnel's managing laboratory commodities and keeping
Over the past two decades a body of scholarship on the Global South has begun to present new ways to conceptualize African cities and their spatio-temporal specificity. Despite this, the city of Addis Ababa in Ethiopia is moving towards the reestablishment of its faded glory through means of aspatial modernization. The city’s aspirations for distinction and visibility can be seen as responses to the variable scales of contemporary urban systems. As ‘place’ is arguably no longer a singular con...
Predictors of HIV-test utilization in PMTCT among antenatal care attendees in government health centers: institution-based cross-sectional study using health belief model in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2013
Full Text Available Fikremariam Workagegn, Getachew Kiros, Lakew Abebe Health Education and Behavioral Sciences Department, Public and Medical Sciences College, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS is the most dramatic epidemic of the century that has claimed over two decades more than 3 million deaths. Sub-Saharan Africa is heavily affected and accounts for nearly 70% of all cases. Mother-to-child transmission of HIV is responsible for 20% of all HIV transmissions. With no preventive interventions, 50% of HIV infections are transmitted from HIV-positive mothers to newborns. HIV-testing is central to prevent vertical transmission. Despite, awareness campaigns, prevention measures, and more recently, promotion of antiviral regimens, the prevalence of cases and deaths is still rising and the prevalence of prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT voluntary counseling test (VCT use remains low. This study identifies predictors and possible barriers of HIV-testing among antenatal care attendees based on the health belief model (HBM in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods: The study was an institution-based cross-sectional survey conducted from September 1 to September 30, 2013. A total of 308 individuals were interviewed using structured questionnaires adopted and modified from similar studies. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews. A logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with HIV-test use. Results: In spite of satisfactory knowledge on HIV/AIDS transmission, participants are still at high risk of contracting the infection, wherein only 51.8% tested for HIV; among the married, only 84.1% and among the gestational age of third trimester, 34.1% mothers tested for HIV. Based on the HBM, failure to use PMTCT-HIV-test was related to its perceived lack of net benefit (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =0.34, confidence interval [CI] [0.19–0.58], P<0.001, but
This study attempts to explore the livelihoods and survival strategies of migrant children who live on the street or make a living on street based activities in Addis Ababa. It also depicts and analyses the forces behind children’s migration, their encounters and experiences while attempting to cope with the new environment. Structuration theory and livelihood approach were employed as a theoretical framework to address the research problem. Children form a part of the structure of the societ...
Dejene Mamo BEKANA
This study was proposed to explore the determinants of consumer preferences in Addis Ababa restaurants. Using consumer behavior literatures and theories it was hypothesized that disposable income, price, quality, hygiene practices, friendliness of restaurant staff, safety of food and range or menu variety are important determinants of consumer choice for restaurants. Primary data were generated from 265 customers of 55 restaurants randomly selected with the use of questionnaire of which 258 o...
Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevention and control of high blood pressure or other cardiovascular diseases has not received due attention in many developing countries. This study aims to describe the epidemiology of high blood pressure among adults in Addis Ababa, so as to inform policy and lay the ground for surveillance interventions. Methods Addis Ababa is the largest urban centre and national capital of Ethiopia, hosting about 25% of the urban population in the country. A probabilistic sample of adult males and females, 25–64 years of age residing in Addis Ababa city participated in structured interviews and physical measurements. We employed a population based, cross sectional survey, using the World Health Organization instrument for stepwise surveillance (STEPS of chronic disease risk factors. Data on selected socio-demographic characteristics and lifestyle behaviours, including physical activity, as well as physical measurements such as weight, height, waist and hip circumference, and blood pressure were collected through standardized procedures. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to estimate the coefficient of variability of blood pressure due to selected socio-demographic and behavioural characteristics, and physical measurements. Results A total of 3713 adults participated in the study. About 20% of males and 38% of females were overweight (body-mass-index ≥ 25 kg/m2, with 10.8 (9.49, 12.11% of the females being obese (body-mass-index ≥ 30 kg/m2. Similarly, 17% of the males and 31% of the females were classified as having low level of total physical activity. The age-adjusted prevalence (95% confidence interval of high blood pressure, defined as systolic blood pressure (SBP ≥ 140 mmHg (millimetres of mercury or diastolic blood pressure (DBP ≥ 90 mmHg or reported use of anti-hypertensive medication, was 31.5% (29.0, 33.9 among males and 28.9% (26.8, 30.9 among females. Conclusion High blood pressure is widely
Full Text Available In addition to their ability to reach distant learners, interactive e-learning environments have the potential to make the teaching-learning process more effective. This paper highlights some of the e-learning implementation efforts at the Addis Ababa Institute of Technology (AAiT in Ethiopia. This case study shows that limited resources do not deter a developing nation to exploit the power of e-learning. Based on feedback from participants in the first national videoconferencing program held in Ethiopian higher education system between October 2011 and June 2012, the paper addresses the lessons learned and recommended actions for moving forward to a successful implementation of e-learning in Ethiopia, particularly in a videoconferencing mode.
Girgira, Timketa; Tilahun, Birkneh; Bacha, Tigist
Background Children are vulnerable to abuse and violence because their level of development makes them unable to protect themselves. Such adversities during early childhood may have a negative impact on the future lives of the victims. This study was done to determine the delay to hospital presentation, clinical manifestations and immediate health effects of child sexual abuse in two tertiary care hospitals in Ethiopia. Methods We reviewed records of all cases of child sexual and physical abu...
Minten, Bart; Tamru, Seneshaw; Engida, Ermias; Kuma, Tadesse
Urbanization is quickly increasing in Africa, raising important questions on how food value chains to cities function and what the implications of urban growth are for the local food trade and farm sector. We study the rural–urban value chain of teff in Ethiopia, by value its most important staple value chain. Relying on unique large-scale surveys at different levels in this value chain, we find—in contrast to conventional wisdom—that value chains are relatively short and that average farmers...
Buchta, Katja; Abo El Wafa, Hany; Printz, Andreas; Pauleit, Stephan
Rapid urbanization, and consequently, the dramatic spatial expansion of mostly informal urban areas increases the vulnerability of African cities to the effects of climate change such as sea level rise, more frequent flooding, droughts and heat waves. The EU FP 7 funded project CLUVA (Climate Change and Urban Vulnerability in Africa, www.cluva.eu) aims to develop strategies for minimizing the risks of natural hazards caused by climate change and to improve the coping capacity of African cities. Green infrastructure may play a particular role in climate change adaptation by providing ecosystem services for flood protection, stormwater retention, heat island moderation and provision of food and fuel wood. In this context, a major challenge is to gain a better understanding of the spatial and temporal dynamics of the cities and how these impact on green infrastructure and hence their vulnerability. Urban growth scenarios for two African cities, namely Addis Ababa, Ethiopia and Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, were developed based on a characterization of their urban morphology. A population growth driven - GIS based - disaggregation modeling approach was applied. Major impact factors influencing the urban dynamics were identified both from literature and interviews with local experts. Location based factors including proximity to road infrastructure and accessibility, and environmental factors including slope, surface and flood risk areas showed a particular impact on urban growth patterns. In Addis Ababa and Dar es Salaam, population density scenarios were modeled comparing two housing development strategies. Results showed that a densification scenario significantly decreases the loss of agricultural and green areas such as forests, bushland and sports grounds. In Dar es Salaam, the scenario of planned new settlements with a population density of max. 350 persons per hectare would lead until 2025 to a loss of agricultural land (-10.1%) and green areas (-6.6%). On the other
Ayalew Astatkie,1 Meaza Demissie,2 Yemane Berhane,2 Alemayehu Worku2,3 1School of Public and Environmental Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Hawassa University, Hawassa, Ethiopia; 2Addis Continental Institute of Public Health, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; 3School of Public Health, College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Purpose: Khat (Catha edulis) is commonly chewed for its psychostimulant and euphorigenic effects in Africa and the Arabian Peninsul...
Dejene Mamo BEKANA
Full Text Available This study was proposed to explore the determinants of consumer preferences in Addis Ababa restaurants. Using consumer behavior literatures and theories it was hypothesized that disposable income, price, quality, hygiene practices, friendliness of restaurant staff, safety of food and range or menu variety are important determinants of consumer choice for restaurants. Primary data were generated from 265 customers of 55 restaurants randomly selected with the use of questionnaire of which 258 of the questionnaire ended usable. The non parametric hypothesis testing statistical tool, chi –square tests, and measures of variation were used for statistical analysis purposes. The anticipation of the researcher was that the hypothesis testing results would be significant in parallel with the hypothesized facts. The findings of the research suggest that income has insignificant impact up on quality price trade of among consumers of different income categories. Other hypothesis associated with price, quality, friendliness of restaurant staff, quick table service and range or menu varieties are found to be statistically significant. Over all, the research results suggest that restaurateurs should design marketing strategy that integrates the attributes used in this study to satisfy the needs and wants of their customers and differentiation of their products and services on the basis of the variables scored as they are significant considerations by consumers.
Zeleke, Aytaged Sisay
This paper aims to explore the practice of continuous assessment at Unity University College and Addis Ababa University. It has also investigated constraints instructors say they have been facing in implementing continuous assessment. Students' attitudes about the practice of this assessment mode towards their course achievements were…
Tegbaru Belete; Tadesse Endale; Tebeje Mekashaw; Shimelis Techalew; Terefe Ashenafi
Abstract Background Toxoplasmosis in immuno-compromised hosts manifests primarily as a life threatening condition, toxoplasmic encephalitis. However, there is scarce information about the magnitude of Toxoplasma gondii infection among HIV-infected people in Ethiopia. This study was, therefore, conducted to determine the sero-prevalence of T. gondii infection among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected subjects. Findings Sera were collected from people with and without HIV infection for the purpose ...
Mirkuzie Alemnesh H; Sisay Mitike M; Moland Karen; Åstrøm Anne N
Abstract Background To facilitate access to the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) services, HIV counselling and testing are offered routinely in antenatal care settings. Focusing a cohort of pregnant women attending public and private antenatal care facilities, this study applied an extended version of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) to explain intended- and actual HIV testing. Methods A sequential exploratory mixed methods study was conducted in Addis Ababa in 2009...
Kaba M; Bulto T; Tafesse Z; Lingerh W; Ali I
Mirgissa Kaba,1 Tesfaye Bulto,2 Zergu Tafesse,2 Wassie Lingerh,2 Ismael Ali2 1Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Public Health, Addis Ababa University, 2Integrated Family Health Program, John Snow, Inc., Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Background: Maternal health remains a major public health problem in Ethiopia. Despite the government’s measures to ensure institutional delivery assisted by skilled attendants, home delivery remains high, estimated at over 80% of all pregnant women.Obj...
Streatfeild, K A; Gebremeskel, A
Addis Ababa is situated at an altitude of approximately 8500 ft and has a barometric pressure of close to 570 mmHg. Arterial blood gas values during the administration of anaesthesia with spontaneous ventilation have not been extensively studied. During the period January to July 1993, oxygen saturation was determined in 46 unpremedicated patients prior to minor surgery. Following this, patients received diazepam 0.1-0.2 mg/kg and ketamine 2 mg/kg during which a clear airway was maintained and peripheral oximetry was monitored continuously. The SpO2 was recorded for each patient at one minute intervals until 5 minutes and thence at 7, 10 and 15 minutes. The average SpO2 decreased below 90% at 2, 3 and 4 minutes and of the 46 patients, 8 (17.3%) required additional oxygen when their saturation fell below 80%. It is concluded that airway management and supplemental oxygen should be available when using this technique. PMID:11961876
Ballard, Karen; Atnafu,Habtamu; Belete,Zelalem; Kinfu,Hirut; Tadesse,Mebkyou; Amin, Mohammed
Habtamu Atnafu, Zelalem Belete, Hirut Kinfu, Mebkyou Tadesse, Mohammed Amin, Karen D Ballard Hamlin Fistula Ethiopia, Addis Ababa Fistula Hospital, Addis Ababa, EthiopiaObjective: To measure the impact of a maternal health package on health facility delivery and stillbirth rates.Methods: This is a cross-sectional study in Ethiopia where a maternal package was integrated into eight health centers across three regions. The package included trained midwives with a mentoring program, transport fo...
Oli, K; Porteous, J
One of the objectives of this large scale cross-sectional study of school children of the Addis Ababa city was to assess the status of rheumatic heart disease (RHD) prophylaxis among rheumatic heart disease patients identified during the survey. Awareness about the presence of the illness in those affected and reasons for poor coverage, when detected, were also assessed. Sixty of the 9388 school children surveyed were found to have rheumatic heart disease. On interviewing parents of the children with rheumatic heart disease, ten acknowledged being informed of their children's cardiac illness. Of these parents, 15% (or 9/60) had some idea that their children had heart disease related to some form of infection. However, only two of the nine (22%) children whose parents had some idea about their disease were on regular monthly benzathine penicillin prophylaxis in the previous 12 months preceding the interview. Three (33%) of the nine children had six or fewer injections in the 12 months preceding the interview. The remaining 4 parents (44%) reported that their children took treatment that included injections only at the time of initial diagnosis several years earlier and had not had any follow up since then. Their reasons for not seeking medical care for their children included lack of information on prophylaxis, inability to pay for the treatment and distance of the health facilities. The lack of awareness and the extremely low rate of regular prophylaxis, therefore, highlight the need for an urgent control programme that takes active case detection, treatment access and health education into consideration. PMID:11957312
Akala, A. O.; Somoye, E. O.; Adewale, A. O.; Ojutalayo, E. W.; Karia, S. P.; Idolor, R. O.; Okoh, D.; Doherty, P. H.
This study presents Global Positioning System-Total Electron Content (GPS-TEC) observations over Addis Ababa (Lat: 9.03°N Lon: 38.77°E Mag. lat: 0.18°N) and an evaluation of the accuracy of International Reference Ionosphere-2012 (IRI-2012) model predictions during 2010-2013. Generally, on a diurnal scale, TEC recorded minimum values at 0400-0600 LT and maximum at 1400-1600 LT. Seasonally, TEC recorded maximum values during December solstice and September equinox, and minimum during June solstice. On a year-by-year basis, 2013 recorded the highest values of TEC for both the observed and the model measurements, while 2010 recorded the lowest, implying the solar activity dependence of TEC. Furthermore, we observed discrepancies in the comparison of the GPS-TEC measurements with those derived from IRI-2012 model, after the exclusion of the contributions of plasmaspheric electron content (PEC) from the GPS-observed TEC. All the three options of IRI-2012 model overestimated TEC during early morning and post-sunset hours. Comparatively, of the three options of IRI-2012 model, NeQuick appears to be the most accurate for TEC estimation over Addis Ababa, although at a very close performance capability with the IRI01 CORR option, while IRI2001 is the least accurate.
Gebertsadik A; Worku A; Berhane Y
Achamyelesh Geberetsadik,1 Alemayehu Worku,2 Yemane Berhane3 1School of Public and Environmental Health, Hawassa University, Hawassa, 2School of Public Health, Addis Ababa University, 3Addis Continental Institute of Public Health, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Background: Acute respiratory tract infection (ARI) remains the major cause of child mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa. Various factors are associated with its occurrence and vary by context. However, available large-scale, population-based data ...
Gebertsadik Tekle, Achamyelesh
Achamyelesh Geberetsadik,1 Alemayehu Worku,2 Yemane Berhane31School of Public and Environmental Health, Hawassa University, Hawassa, 2School of Public Health, Addis Ababa University, 3Addis Continental Institute of Public Health, Addis Ababa, EthiopiaBackground: Acute respiratory tract infection (ARI) remains the major cause of child mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa. Various factors are associated with its occurrence and vary by context. However, available large-scale, population-based data ar...
Mirkuzie Alemnesh H
Full Text Available Abstract Background In the absence of reliable data, antenatal HIV surveillance has been used to monitor the HIV epidemic since the late 1980s. Currently, routine data from Prevention of Mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT programmes are increasingly available. Evaluating whether the PMTCT programme reports provide comparable HIV prevalence estimates with the antenatal surveillance reports is important. In this study, we compared HIV prevalence estimates from routine PMTCT programme and antenatal surveillance in Addis Ababa with the aim to come up with evidence based recommendation. Methods Summary data were collected from PMTCT programmes and antenatal surveillance reports within the catchment of Addis Ababa. The PMTCT programme data were obtained from routine monthly reports from 2004 to 2009 and from published antenatal HIV surveillance reports from 2003 to 2009. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics. Results In Addis Ababa, PMTCT sites had increased from six in 2004 to 54 in 2009. The site expansion was accompanied by an increased number of women testing. There were marked increases in the rate of HIV testing following the introduction of routine opt-out HIV testing approach. Paralleling these increases, the HIV prevalence showed a steady decline from 10.0% in 2004 to 4.5% in 2009. There were five antenatal surveillance sites from 2003 to 2007 in Addis Ababa and they increased to seven by 2009. Four rounds of surveillance data from five sites showed a declining trend in HIV prevalence over the years. The overall antenatal surveillance data also showed that the HIV prevalence among antenatal attendees had declined from 12.4% in 2003 to 5.5% in 2009. The HIV prevalence estimates from PMTCT programme were 6.2% and 4.5% and from antenatal surveillance 6.1 and 5.5% in 2008 and 2009 respectively. Conclusions There were consistent HIV prevalence estimates from PMTCT programme and from antenatal surveillance reports. Both data sources
Amenu Wesen Denegetu; Bethabile Lovely Dolamo
BACKGROUND: Collaborative TB/HIV management is essential to ensure that HIV positive TB patients are identified and treated appropriately, and to prevent tuberculosis (TB) in HIV positive patients. The purpose of this study was to assess HIV case finding among TB patients and Co-trimoxazole Preventive Therapy (CPT) for HIV/TB patients in Addis Ababa. METHODS: A descriptive cross-sectional, facility-based survey was conducted between June and July 2011. Data was collected by interviewing 834 T...
Urban Agriculture (UA) has the potential for achieving, food sovereignty, food security, and increased quality of life for many people in Addis Ababa. However, urban farming is faced with many barriers such as lack of access to land, input and extension services that make it less productive. Moreover, Stakeholders have different perceptions and priorities for UA. The objective of this study was therefore, initiated to understand the problematic situations by analyzing and evaluating of the po...
Berhane A; Enquselassie F
Adugnaw Berhane,1 Fikre Enquselassie2 1College of Health Sciences, Debre Berhan University, Debre Berhan, 2School of Public Health, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, EthiopiaBackground: There are a number of different international guidelines promoting the practice of observing patients’ rights in the health care service. Patients experience greater satisfaction in the health care service when their rights are protected. The purpose of this study was to examine patients’ experi...
Abegaz TM; Belachew SA; Abebe TB; Gebresilassie BM; Teni FS; Woldie HG
Tadesse Melaku Abegaz,1 Sewunet Admasu Belachew,1 Tamrat Befekadu Abebe,1 Begashaw Melaku Gebresilassie,1 Fitsum Sebsibe Teni,2 Habtamu Gebremeskel Woldie3 1Department of Clinical Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, Gondar University, Gondar, 2Department of Pharmaceutics and Social Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, 3Department of Hospital Pharmacy, Debremarkos Teaching and Referral Hospital, Debremarkos, Ethiopia Background: Acute diarr...
Mekonnen, Adugnaw Berhane
Adugnaw Berhane,1 Fikre Enquselassie2 1College of Health Sciences, Debre Berhan University, Debre Berhan, 2School of Public Health, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, EthiopiaBackground: There are a number of different international guidelines promoting the practice of observing patients’ rights in the health care service. Patients experience greater satisfaction in the health care service when their rights are protected. The purpose of this study was to examine patients&rsquo...
Gebremariam, Kidanu; Assefa, Demeke; Weldegebreal, Fitsum
Kidanu Gebremariam,1 Demeke Assefa,2 Fitsum Weldegebreal3 1Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Mekelle University, Mekelle, 2Reproductive Health and Health Service Management, School of Public Health, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, 3Medical Laboratory Science, College of Health and Medical Sciences, Haramaya University, Harar, Ethiopia Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and associated factors of female genital cutting (FGC) among young adult (...
Mirkuzie Alemnesh H
Full Text Available Abstract Background Prevention of mother to child HIV transmission (PMTCT programmes have great potential to achieve virtual elimination of perinatal HIV transmission provided that PMTCT recommendations are properly followed. This study assessed mothers and infants adherence to medication regimen for PMTCT and the proportions of exposed infants who were followed up in the PMTCT programme. Methods A prospective cohort study was conducted among 282 HIV-positive mothers attending 15 health facilities in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Descriptive statistics, bivariate and mulitivariate logistic regression analyses were done. Results Of 282 mothers enrolled in the cohort, 232 (82%, 95% CI 77-86% initiated medication during pregnancy, 154 (64% initiated combined zidovudine (ZDV prophylaxis regimen while 78 (33% were initiated lifelong antiretroviral treatment (ART. In total, 171 (60%, 95% CI 55-66% mothers ingested medication during labour. Of the 221 live born infants (including two sets of twins, 191 (87%, 95% CI 81-90% ingested ZDV and single-dose nevirapine (sdNVP at birth. Of the 219 live births (twin births were counted once, 148 (68%, 95% CI 61-73% mother-infant pairs ingested their medication at birth. Medication ingested by mother-infant pairs at birth was significantly and independently associated with place of delivery. Mother-infant pairs attended in health facilities at birth were more likely (OR 6.7 95% CI 2.90-21.65 to ingest their medication than those who were attended at home. Overall, 189 (86%, 95% CI 80-90% infants were brought for first pentavalent vaccine and 115 (52%, 95% CI 45-58% for early infant diagnosis at six-weeks postpartum. Among the infants brought for early diagnosis, 71 (32%, 95% CI 26-39% had documented HIV test results and six (8.4% were HIV positive. Conclusions We found a progressive decline in medication adherence across the perinatal period. There is a big gap between mediation initiated during pregnancy and actually
Violence appears to be a global problem as society in every nation is in a state of rapid transformation across a range of humans life domains ,such as social, economical, familial , school and political conditions. In this line of thought there is a general agreement that violence prevails in schools for different reasons and with varying degrees of prevalence. In Ethiopia as a result of different catastrophes in th...
Full Text Available This research attempts to look into what practical changes the broadcasting media in Ethiopia have experienced in light of media regulation policies, and if the intended changes have not taken place, attempts to point to reasons. The period after the coming into power of EPRDF (Ethiopian People’s Revolutionary Democratic Front, 1991 and onwards, marked a change in Ethiopian media politics. Of the reforms EPRDF made was liberalizing the media through granting different freedoms. This was done through various laws and policies. The 1992 press law that gave citizens the freedom to exercise freedom of expression through private print media, the 1999 broadcast proclamation, the 2003 press law and the newly endorsed broadcast proclamation of the year 2007 are the major policies introduced with regard to the media. The 1995 Ethiopian Constitution also is a monumental document for reinforcing freedom of expression in Ethiopia. Article 29 of the Constitution confirms that all citizens have the right to “seek, receive and impart information and ideas of all kinds regardless of frontiers, either orally, in writing or in prints in the form of art, or through any idea of his/her choice” (FDRE Constitution, Art 29. After eight years of the endorsement of the first Broadcast Proclamation in 1999, which further affirms the full grant of the right to own a private broadcasting station, there is no private television station, and radio stations are still under the control of the control of the government in one way or another. Why are the broadcast media regulated severely while full freedom of expression is granted on other arenas? Data for the study was acquired from documents and personal interviews with actors in the media industry. The conclusion of the research include: private broadcasters and licensees do not work together; the new broadcasting regulation policy gives broadcasters a chance to appeal and imprisonment is excluded from the punitive
Background To facilitate access to the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) services, HIV counselling and testing are offered routinely in antenatal care settings. Focusing a cohort of pregnant women attending public and private antenatal care facilities, this study applied an extended version of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) to explain intended- and actual HIV testing. Methods A sequential exploratory mixed methods study was conducted in Addis Ababa in 2009. The study involved first time antenatal attendees from public- and private health care facilities. Three Focus Group Discussions were conducted to inform the TPB questionnaire. A total of 3033 women completed the baseline TPB interviews, including attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control and intention with respect to HIV testing, whereas 2928 completed actual HIV testing at follow up. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, Chi-square tests, Fisher's Exact tests, Internal consistency reliability, Pearson's correlation, Linear regression, Logistic regression and using Epidemiological indices. P-values < 0.05 was considered significant and 95% Confidence Interval (CI) was used for the odds ratio. Results The TPB explained 9.2% and 16.4% of the variance in intention among public- and private health facility attendees. Intention and perceived barriers explained 2.4% and external variables explained 7% of the total variance in HIV testing. Positive and negative predictive values of intention were 96% and 6% respectively. Across both groups, subjective norm explained a substantial amount of variance in intention, followed by attitudes. Women intended to test for HIV if they perceived social support and anticipated positive consequences following test performance. Type of counselling did not modify the link between intended and actual HIV testing. Conclusion The TPB explained substantial amount of variance in intention to test but was less sufficient in explaining
Mirkuzie Alemnesh H
Full Text Available Abstract Background To facilitate access to the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT services, HIV counselling and testing are offered routinely in antenatal care settings. Focusing a cohort of pregnant women attending public and private antenatal care facilities, this study applied an extended version of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB to explain intended- and actual HIV testing. Methods A sequential exploratory mixed methods study was conducted in Addis Ababa in 2009. The study involved first time antenatal attendees from public- and private health care facilities. Three Focus Group Discussions were conducted to inform the TPB questionnaire. A total of 3033 women completed the baseline TPB interviews, including attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control and intention with respect to HIV testing, whereas 2928 completed actual HIV testing at follow up. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, Chi-square tests, Fisher's Exact tests, Internal consistency reliability, Pearson's correlation, Linear regression, Logistic regression and using Epidemiological indices. P-values Results The TPB explained 9.2% and 16.4% of the variance in intention among public- and private health facility attendees. Intention and perceived barriers explained 2.4% and external variables explained 7% of the total variance in HIV testing. Positive and negative predictive values of intention were 96% and 6% respectively. Across both groups, subjective norm explained a substantial amount of variance in intention, followed by attitudes. Women intended to test for HIV if they perceived social support and anticipated positive consequences following test performance. Type of counselling did not modify the link between intended and actual HIV testing. Conclusion The TPB explained substantial amount of variance in intention to test but was less sufficient in explaining actual HIV testing. This low explanatory power of TPB was mainly due
Tufa, Gemechu Beker
The intent of this study is to assess the challenges and Opportunity of Basketball development of in Some Selected Regions Ethiopia. The research made Addis Ababa, Oromia, Gambella and South Nation Nationality and People Regional States as the sites of this study. Both qualitative and quantitative approaches particularly a descriptive survey were…
Johnson, Jennifer Wolfe
Compared with male entrepreneurs, women entrepreneurs in Ethiopia have a lower stock of all of the resources of symbolic power: economic, cultural, and social capital. Based on interviews with 23 women entrepreneurs in Addis Ababa and more than twenty other individuals in the NGO, government, and private sector development space, I identify four key challenges facing women entrepreneurs. I argue that entrepreneurship development programmes that focus on building women’s business networks have...
Child and young domestic workers have been included in social science research in recent years. Most of this research, however, is one sided in which abuses and exploitations are considered as the only features of the lives of these girls. Moreover, domestic workers are considered as mere victims and their agency is overlooked. In these researches employers are considered as abusive and exploitative without discrimination.This study looks into the lives of young domestic workers in the capita...
Tilaye, Mesfin; Dijk, Meine Pieter
markdownabstract__Abstract__ Privatization of urban services focuses often on the involvement of foreign enterprises. This contribution deals with micro-privatization, the partial transfer of government responsibility for solid waste collection to micro-enterprises. It tries to shed light on whether the current private sector participation (PSP) of micro-enterprises in solid waste collection service is the best way to capture the expected advantages of private sector involvement. The article ...
Birhanu Zewdie; Abdissa Alemseged; Belachew Tefera; Deribew Amare; Segni Hailemariam; Tsu Vivien; Mulholland Kim; Russell Fiona M
Abstract Background Although cervical cancer is a leading cause of cancer related morbidity and mortality among women in Ethiopia, there is lack of information regarding the perception of the community about the disease. Methods Focus group discussions were conducted with men, women, and community leaders in the rural settings of Jimma Zone southwest Ethiopia and in the capital city, Addis Ababa. Data were captured using voice recorders, and field notes were transcribed verbatim from the loca...
Mekonnen TT; Woldeyohannes SM; Yigzaw T
Tensae Tadesse Mekonnen,1 Solomon Meseret Woldeyohannes,2 Tegbar Yigzaw3 1Department of Midwifery, Tseda Health Science College, 2Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Institute of Public Health, University of Gondar, Gondar, 3Jhpiego-Ethiopia, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Purpose: Women with diabetes and hypertension are at increased risk of pregnancy complications, including those from surgical delivery and their offspring are at risk for congenital anomalies. Thus, diabetic and hyperten...
Atsede Tesfaye Hailemariam; Brigitte Kroon
This paper describes how women entrepreneurs in Ethiopia define success in their own terms. Semi structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 24 women entrepreneurs from various sectors in Addis Ababa. The interview formats allowed the women to tell their life history and define success in their own terms. A common stereotype is that women entrepreneurs in Ethiopia operate businesses out of necessity and therefore women measure success in terms of financial rewards than personal rewards...
Full Text Available Ménélik II et Haylé Sellasé, les deux principaux souverains éthiopiens du xxe siècle, ont tous deux connu des fins de règne et de vie troubles, caractérisées par l’absence de funérailles au moment de leur disparition. Différentes sources endogènes et exogènes sont disponibles pour mieux appréhender leur histoire, au nombre desquelles des monuments visibles aujourd’hui dans la capitale éthiopienne. Le croisement des sources et des regards éthiopiens et étrangers permet de démêler l’écheveau des circonstances de la disparition de Ménélik II et les raisons de la dissimulation du corps du roi défunt. Il permet aussi de comprendre comment son successeur, Haylé Sellasé, a géré politiquement le corps – et, partant, la mémoire – de son prédécesseur, en plaçant également au cœur de sa politique symbolique son propre futur lieu de sépulture. Les monuments d’Addis Abeba transmettent nombre d’informations sur l’histoire des funérailles royales en Éthiopie au xxe siècle, mais aussi sur la place du corps des souverains défunts dans le système politico-religieux de la royauté éthiopienne contemporaine.Menelik II and Haile Selassie, the two major Ethiopian sovereigns during the 20th century, both experienced troubles in their lives and at the end of their reigns: no funeral ceremonies were held at the time of their death. Various sources are available for understanding these historical events, among them the monuments that can still be seen in the country’s capital. By crossing sources and viewpoints, both Ethiopian and foreign, we can unravel the set of circumstances surrounding the death of Menelik II and the reasons for concealing the body of the deceased. We thus understand how his successor, Haile Selassie, politically managed his predecessor’s corpse (and the memory of him by placing his own future place of burial at the center of this political symbolism. The monuments in Addis Ababa
1970s. The government considers the current rate of population growth not satisfactory as it is too high. This is a marked departure from the previous perception which regarded the growth rate as satisfactory. The government considers the level and trends of morbidity and mortality to be unacceptable. It also considers the current level of fertility as not satisfactory because it is too high. The government regards levels and trends of immigration to be not significant and thus satisfactory. Ethiopia is basically an agrarian country, but in the last 30 years the urban population has been growing rapidly. The government considers the trends in the population distribution within the national territory to be inappropriate. Concern covers the rapid population growth in Addis Ababa and Asmara and the population pressure in the northern plateau. PMID:12340412
Almedom, Astier M.
This thesis examines inter-relationships between the feeding, health, and growth of infants (aged 0-24 months) in low-income households in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Mixed-longitudinal data were collected from a sample of 113 infants and their mothers in Kebele 11, Keftegna 24 from November 1987 to April 1988. Breastfeeding is the culturally esteemed mode of infant feeding. The culture-specific concept of weaning places the emphasis on the termination of breastfeeding, with ...
Habteyes Hailu Tola; Davoud Shojaeizadeh; Gholamreza Garmaroudi; Azar Tol; Mir Saeed Yekaninejad; Luche Tadesse Ejeta; Abebaw Kebede; Mehrdad Karimi; Desta Kassa
Background: Psychological distress is the major comorbidity among tuberculosis (TB) patients. However, its magnitude, associated factors, and effect on treatment outcome have not been adequately studied in low-income countries. Objective: This study aimed to determine the magnitude of psychological distress and its effect on treatment outcome among TB patients on treatment. Design: A follow-up study was conducted in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, from May to December 2014. Patients (N=330) diagnosed ...
Gebrewahid, Gebreyohannes Gebreslassie
Purpose: the purpose of this research was to identify the export barriers that affect the export competitiveness of the Ethiopian leather footwear-manufacturing firms, with a special emphasis on the SMEs. SMEs occupy a prominent position in the development agenda of many developing countries like Ethiopia. Hence, this study investigated the export barriers of SMEs in ELFMFs. Research Methodology: A survey of 15 manufacturing firms was conducted in Ethiopian, Addis Ababa. Out of 100 sampled...
Fana Gebresenbet; Institute for Peace and Security Studies, Addis Ababa University
This paper argues that development through large-scale land acquisitions (LSLAs) in Gambella, western Ethiopia, belies a state-remaking project under a dispossessive political economy. This argument is based on fieldwork in Gambella, Addis Ababa, and Minneapolis and is situated within the broader development agenda pursued by Ethiopia’s ruling party. The political economy of LSLAs tells us that the deals are not occurring in a predominantly economic manner; rather, extra-economic state interv...
Dessalegn Gachena; Amsalu Mitiku
This study tries to analyze the spatial price transmission of coffee between Bench Maji Zone and Addis Ababa markets. Monthly prices data (September 2006 to August 2011) for producer and central market prices were collected from Central Statistical Agency of Ethiopia. The Engle and Granger procedure was employed to test for co-integration between prices. The ADF test for unit root was applied for individual price series. The results of stationarity tests indicate...
An Occupational Therapy Needs Assessment for an organization attending to children with autism spectrum disorder in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia : To identify the occupational therapy needs for an organization attending to children with autism spectrum disorder in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Syfte: Att identifiera behovet för arbetsterapi i Nehemiah Autism Center genom att utföra en behovsanalys. Metod: Mixad-metod användas för att utveckla en passande behovsanalys för att identifiera behovet för arbetsterapi. Resultat: Alla områden där en arbetsterapeut kan bidrag till valdes. Kommunikation och sociala färdigheter rapporterades mest frekvent och beteende förvaltning rankades som viktigast bland vårdnadshavare. Bland anställda, fritid och lek rapporterades mest frekve...
Full Text Available Background. Despite recommendations by guidelines to avoid combinations of antipsychotics unless after multiple trials of antipsychotic monotherapy, it is quite a common practice to use combinations. This practice leads to unnecessary expenses and exposes the patient to severe drug adverse effects. Methods. An institution based cross-sectional study was conducted from April to May 2014. Systematic random sampling technique was used to select 423 study subjects. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to identify associated factors of antipsychotic polypharmacy among schizophrenia outpatients. Result. The overall prevalence of antipsychotic polypharmacy was found to be 28.2%. Extra pyramidal side effects (AOR = 2.80; 95% CI: 1.38, 5.71, repeated psychiatric hospitalization (AOR = 2.83; 95% CI: 1.45, 5.50, history of substance use (AOR = 2.82; 95% CI: 1.36, 5.88, longer duration of treatment (AOR = 2.10; 95% CI: 1.14, 3.87, and drug nonadherence (AOR = 1.84; 95% CI: 1.14, 2.98 were found to be significantly associated with antipsychotic polypharmacy. Conclusion. Prevalence of antipsychotic polypharmacy was found to be high among the current study participants. Individuals who had extra pyramidal side effects, admission, substance use, duration of treatment, and drug nonadherence were associated with antipsychotic polypharmacy.
Full Text Available Background. Dermatophytosis is common worldwide and continues to increase. Objective. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of dermatophytosis and the spectrum of ringworm fungi in patients attending a tertiary hospital. Methods. Samples were collected from 305 patients. A portion of each sample was examined microscopically and the remaining portion of each sample was cultured onto plates of Sabouraud’s dextrose agar containing chloramphenicol with and without cycloheximide. Dermatophyte isolates were identified by studying macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of their colonies. Result. Of 305 samples, fungi were detected in 166 (54.4% by KOH of which 95 were dermatophytes while 242 (79.4% samples were culture positive of which 130 isolates were dermatophytes. Among dermatophyte isolates T. violaceum was the most common (37.7% cause of infection. Tinea unguium was the predominant clinical manifestation accounting for 51.1% of the cases. Patients with age group 25–44 and 45–64 years were more affected. T. violaceum was the most common pathogen in tinea unguium and tinea capitis, whereas T. mentagrophytes was the most common pathogen in tinea pedis. Conclusion. Further intensive epidemiological studies of ring worm fungus induced dermatophytosis which have public health significance are needed.
Objective: While traumatic parental loss presents an undeniable risk factor for maladaptive outcomes, some groups of children appear to manifest successful adaptation and do not follow a negative developmental pathway. The purpose of the present study was to test to what degree children orphaned by AIDS demonstrate resilience. Method: The self-report version of the strengths and difficulties questionnaire for children age ranging from 11-16 (SDQ S11-16), and a background information inventor...
The application of Mathematics in this modern world of information technology is becoming more and more crucial. Bearing this idea in mind and the contribution it can have to the development of the country, the Ethiopian government has given emphasis to the teaching of Mathematics in the Ethiopian schools. However, in spite of this understanding of its importance the overall performance of students in Mathematics is unsatisfactory. The objective of this research was to assess some of the p...
Introduction: In many countries of Africa, same-sex practicing men are described as ‘hidden’ populations. A common interpretation of this is that it is difficult to find ways of engaging with such men, for example, when pursuing HIV-related research and interventions. Despite the fact that a number of HIV-related studies have been conducted worldwide over the past decades, until recently little had been done to study the lives and circumstances of same-sex attracted men in African settings. R...
Teklebirhan, Gebreabiezgi; Bitew, Adane
Background. Dermatophytosis is common worldwide and continues to increase. Objective. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of dermatophytosis and the spectrum of ringworm fungi in patients attending a tertiary hospital. Methods. Samples were collected from 305 patients. A portion of each sample was examined microscopically and the remaining portion of each sample was cultured onto plates of Sabouraud's dextrose agar containing chloramphenicol with and without cycloheximide. Dermatophyte isolates were identified by studying macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of their colonies. Result. Of 305 samples, fungi were detected in 166 (54.4%) by KOH of which 95 were dermatophytes while 242 (79.4%) samples were culture positive of which 130 isolates were dermatophytes. Among dermatophyte isolates T. violaceum was the most common (37.7%) cause of infection. Tinea unguium was the predominant clinical manifestation accounting for 51.1% of the cases. Patients with age group 25-44 and 45-64 years were more affected. T. violaceum was the most common pathogen in tinea unguium and tinea capitis, whereas T. mentagrophytes was the most common pathogen in tinea pedis. Conclusion. Further intensive epidemiological studies of ring worm fungus induced dermatophytosis which have public health significance are needed. PMID:26448763
Alemu Agersew; Moges Feleke; Shiferaw Yitayal; Tafess Ketema; Kassu Afework; Anagaw Belay; Agegn Abebe
Abstract Background Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common health problem among pregnant women. Proper investigation and prompt treatment are needed to prevent serious life threatening condition and morbidity due to urinary tract infection that can occur in pregnant women. Recent report in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia indicated the prevalence of UTI in pregnant women was 11.6 % and Gram negative bacteria was the predominant isolates and showed multi drug resistance. This study aimed to assess bac...
Fekadu Wolde-Giorgis, Daniel
Background: Child labour is a very common global problem. There are an estimated over 250 million in the world, and about 7.5 million child labourers in Ethiopia. Most of the studies available to date focus on the social, political, and economical issues, but very little on mental health or psychosocial problems of child labourers. There is no study describing the epidemiology of psychiatric disorders among this group of children. Aims: 1. to assess the level of awareness and attitude of an u...
People in Borkena in Ethiopia suffer from a complex interplay of environmental degradation, increasing shortage of land due to population growth, conflicts between different ethnic and religious identities, and social confrontations as a result of such tensions. The most depressing problem is that...... grant from the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and by the Heinrich Böll Foundation in Germany. It was supported as part of a research effort on "Democracy from Below" in Ethiopia, in a cooperation between the Chr. Michelsen Institute, the Forum for Social Studies in Ethiopia and the University of...... Addis Ababa. The author thanks the donors for enabling him to carry out his fieldwork in Northern Shoa, Ethiopia, in Autumn 1999....
Mekonen, Seblework; Argaw, Roba; Simanesew, Aklilu; Houbraken, Michael; Senaeve, David; Ambelu, Argaw; Spanoghe, Pieter
Access to safe and reliable drinking water is vital for a healthy population. However, surface water may be contaminated with pesticides because of the nearby agricultural areas as well as from household application. Water samples were collected from water sources in Jimma zone and Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The extraction and clean up of the samples were undertaken using liquid-solid and liquid-liquid methods. Human exposure was assessed by calculating the estimated daily intake (EDI) of pesticides in water and compared with the acceptable daily intake (ADI) and the acute reference dose (ARfD). The mean concentrations of 2,4-D, malathion, diazinon and fenpropimorph were 1.59-13.90 μg/l and 0.11-138 µg/l in Jimma and Addis Ababa water sources, respectively. The residue level of some of the pesticides were above the European drinking water guide line values, which is an indication of an illegal use of pesticides in the study areas. Concerning human health risk estimation, there was no acute risk (EDI ADI) for Jimma and Addis Ababa populations, respectively. A comprehensive monitoring is required to reduce the level of pesticide residues in the water and to minimize particularly the long term human health risks. PMID:27501312
Full Text Available Ayalew Astatkie,1 Meaza Demissie,2 Yemane Berhane,2 Alemayehu Worku2,3 1School of Public and Environmental Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Hawassa University, Hawassa, Ethiopia; 2Addis Continental Institute of Public Health, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; 3School of Public Health, College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Purpose: Khat (Catha edulis is commonly chewed for its psychostimulant and euphorigenic effects in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. Students use it to help them study for long hours especially during the period of examination. However, how regularly khat is chewed among university students and its associated factors are not well documented. In this article we report on the prevalence of and factors associated with regular khat chewing among university students in Ethiopia. Methods: We did a cross-sectional study from May 20, 2014 to June 23, 2014 on a sample of 1,255 regular students recruited from all campuses of Hawassa University, southern Ethiopia. The data were collected using self-administered questionnaires. We analyzed the data to identify factors associated with current regular khat chewing using complex sample adjusted logistic regression analysis. Results: The prevalence of current regular khat chewing was 10.5% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 6.1%–14.9%. After controlling for sex, religion, year of study, having a father who chews khat, cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking in the adjusted logistic regression model, living off-campus in rented houses as compared to living in the university dormitory (adjusted odds ratio [95% CI] =8.09 [1.56–42.01], and having friends who chew khat (adjusted odds ratio [95% CI] =4.62 [1.98–10.74] were found to significantly increase the odds of current regular khat use. Conclusion: Students living outside the university campus in rented houses compared to those living in dormitory and those with khat chewing peers are more likely to use
According to Dr. Kebede Tadesse, Minister of Social and Administrative Affairs, as stated in a speech before the Consultative Group Meeting in Addis Ababa in December 1996, the health status of Ethiopia is one of the worst in the world because of "backward socio-economic development, poor environmental quality, high fertility rate, repeated natural and man-made disasters, and inadequate health services." An article in the April 11, 1997, Addis Tribune supports this claim by describing the horrific conditions found in a public hospital in Addis Ababa. Patients returned home to die because of the shortage of beds. Dr. Kebede gave the following statistics: the average daily per capita food intake is 1750 calories, 80% of that recommended; 5% of children show signs of wasting; 64% of children have stunted growth; 17% of pregnant and lactating women are anemic; the average national fertility rate is 6.1%; the percentage of AIDS cases per 100,000 people is 10.7; 18% of people have access to potable water; 14% of births are attended; 16% of people receive antenatal care; 40% of the population is immunized; 8% of the population receives family planning services; the infant mortality rate is 130/1000 live births; the maternal mortality rate is 500-700/100,000 live births; there is 1 physician per 33,333 Ethiopians; and the life expectancy at birth is 48 years. The article recommended the following "basic principles and guidelines" to improve the situation: 1) the population should be educated about good hygiene; 2) family planning should be popularized by the government; 3) the health budget should be increased to meet overall demand for health services and to target diseases such as malaria and tuberculosis; 4) private investment in health care is needed; 5) a safe drinking water supply must be made available; and 6) domestic conditions should be made favorable so that Ethiopian doctors educated abroad will return to practice in Ethiopia. PMID:12320872
Blystad Astrid; Moland Karen; Koricho Absera T
Abstract Background Breastfeeding remains normative and vital for child survival in the developing world. However, knowledge of the risk of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) transmission through breastfeeding has brought to attention the controversy of whether breastfeeding can be safely practiced by HIV positive mothers. Prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) programs provide prevention services to HIV positive mothers including infant feeding counseling based on international g...
Tegegne, Dessie; Desta, Kassu; Tegbaru, Belete; Tilahun, Tesfaye
Background Hepatitis B Virus is a major public health problem worldwide. In 2012 alone, over 350 million chronic carriers and 1. 2 million annual deaths were occurred. Hepatitis B Virus causes 60 to 80% of the world’s primary liver cancer and nearly 90% infants infected due to vertical transmission are at higher risk of developing chronic liver disease and cancer. Hence determining the burden of maternal and neonatal Hepatitis B Virus infection is a priority. Methods A cross sectional study w...
Toxoplasma gondii and Bartonella spp. are zoonotic pathogens of cats. Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV), and Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLv) are related to Human Immunodeficiency Virus, and Human T-lymphotrophic Virus, respectively, and these viruses are immunosuppressive. In the present study, the p...
Tilahun, E; Whittaker, L R
A prospective study of the accuracy of real time ultrasonography in the detection of gallstones was undertaken in 180 patients from February 1987 to February 1988. The ultrasound findings were compared with single dose oral cholecystography (OCG), and with the surgical findings where surgery was undertaken. Ultrasonography gave more accurate results than OCG, with an overall accuracy in the surgically proven patients of 97.1%, no false positive findings and a 2.9% false negative rate. OCG gave an accuracy of 80% with no false positive findings and a 20% false negative rate. Ultrasound was particularly valuable where there was non visualisation of the gall bladder at OCG, giving an overall accuracy of 93.3% in such patients. Ultrasonography is a non invasive, simple, safe and economic diagnostic test of high accuracy in the diagnosis of cholelithiasis and of particular benefit in those patients unsuited for OCG. PMID:2191856
Kalayou Kidanu Berhe*, Asrat Demissie , Alemayoh Bayeray Kahsay and Haftu Berhe Gebru
Background: Diabetes is a group of metabolic disorders that affect the body’s ability to process and use sugar (glucose) for energy. Type 2 diabetes mellitus resulting from the combination of resistance to insulin action and inadequate insulin secretion. The success of long-term maintenance therapy for diabetes depends largely on the patients’ adherence with self-care practices.Objective: The aim of this study was to assess diabetes self-care practices and associated factors among type 2 dia...
Bifftu, Berhanu Boru; Dachew, Berihun Assefa; Tiruneh, Bewket Tadesse
Background Schizophrenia is one of the most disabling and severely stigmatized mental disorders. Together with social stigma, internalized stigma and perceived stigma can trigger a vicious cycle and diminishes the stigma resistance abilities of individual. Helping patients to cope up with perceived and internalized stigma play crucial role in fighting stigma. This study aimed to assess the prevalence and associated factors of stigma resistance among people with schizophrenia attending the out...
Koricho, Absera Teshome
Background: Breastfeeding remains normative and vital for child survival in the developing world. However, the knowledge of HIV transmission through breastfeeding has become an enormous public health dilemma, and has brought to the forefront of attention the controversy linked to whether breastfeeding can safely be promoted in high HIV epidemic areas. Exclusive replacement feeding can fully prevent postnatal transmission of HIV infection in children, however, it is neither acceptable nor a fe...
Gitta, Sheba Nakacubo; Mwesiga, Allan; Stanley, Claire; Borchert, Jeff; Mensah, George; Bejtullahu, Armand; Kamadjeu, Raoul; Kebede, Amha; Berhane, Yemane; Jocker, Mathew Lado; Ebontane, Ndode Corlins; Feyissa, Daba; Yeshitila, Kidanie; Mehari, Goitom; Beffa, Gemechu
Biennially, trainees and graduates of Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Programs (FELTPs) are presented with a platform to share investigations and projects undertaken during their two-year training in Applied Epidemiology. The African Field Epidemiology Network (AFENET) Scientific Conference, is a perfect opportunity for public health professionals from various sectors and organizations to come together to discuss issues that impact on public health in Africa. This year's conference...
It is a great pleasure for me to address this Second Conference of States Parties to the Treaty of Pelindaba. I compliment the countries of Africa for their tenacity in pursuing the goal of establishing a nuclear-weapon-free zone for decades, until the Treaty finally entered into force in 2009. Nuclear-weapon-free zones are a highly effective means of non-proliferation, arms control and disarmament. The five nuclear-weapon-free zones in existence today cover a total of 113 countries. Each has its own special characteristics, but they also have many important elements in common. All nuclear-weapon-free zones prohibit the development, stationing or testing of nuclear weapons in their respective regions. They all cover large inhabited areas. They provide for IAEA verification of the non-diversion of nuclear material. Nuclear-weapon-free zones have brought real security benefits, both regionally and to the whole world. The Treaty of Pelindaba incorporates a number of special features, including some measures which go beyond undertakings assumed by States Parties to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) . For example, it makes provision for the dismantling and destruction of nuclear explosive devices manufactured by a Party to the Treaty before the Treaty entered into force. It prohibits attacks on nuclear installations in the nuclear-weapon-free zone. It bars the dumping of radioactive waste within the zone. In addition, the Treaty of Pelindaba contains a commitment to promote the use of nuclear science and technology for economic and social development. Parties are encouraged to make use of the assistance of the IAEA. They also pledge to maintain the highest standards of security and physical protection of nuclear material, facilities and equipment. In the Preamble to the Treaty, the Parties recognise that the establishment of other nuclear-weapon-free zones, especially in the Middle East, would enhance their security. Last November, I hosted an IAEA Forum on Experience of Possible Relevance to the Creation of a Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone in the Middle East. There is broad international support for the establishment of a nuclear-weapon-free zone in the Middle East. But there are long-standing differences among countries of that region, and beyond, about how the issue should be approached. That is why it took 11 years to secure agreement to hold the IAEA Forum. The Forum provided an opportunity for Member States to engage in a constructive exchange of views. However, because of the fundamental differences of views which I mentioned, it was not possible to make further progress on this important issue. Nevertheless, I was encouraged by the positive spirit in which the Middle East Forum was conducted. One of the key lessons which I took away was that it is possible to have a constructive dialogue on the establishment of a nuclear- weapon-free zone, despite the complexity of the issue and significant differences of views among States concerned. Mistrust between key parties can be overcome in time and be replaced by mutual confidence and cooperation. It is up to countries of the region concerned to decide whether to establish a nuclear-weapon-free zone. But if they decide to do so, a multilateral component can be very helpful. The IAEA will continue to assist with the establishment of new nuclear-weapon-free zones, in the Middle East and elsewhere. I believe that a successful Conference on the establishment of a Middle East zone free of nuclear weapons and all other weapons of mass destruction would be an important step forward. (IAEA)
Full Text Available Achamyelesh Geberetsadik,1 Alemayehu Worku,2 Yemane Berhane3 1School of Public and Environmental Health, Hawassa University, Hawassa, 2School of Public Health, Addis Ababa University, 3Addis Continental Institute of Public Health, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Background: Acute respiratory tract infection (ARI remains the major cause of child mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa. Various factors are associated with its occurrence and vary by context. However, available large-scale, population-based data are not fully exploited to identify locally relevant risk factors. The objective of this study was to identify factors associated with ARI in children under the age of 5 years in Ethiopia.Methods: Further analysis of the 2011 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey was carried out involving 11,645 children under the age of 5 years and their mothers. Information relevant to the current study was extracted from the main data set and a working data set was prepared. A complex survey logistic regression analysis was applied.Results: Acute ARI in this study was associated with severe malnutrition. Children who were severely wasted were highly likely to develop ARI (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.7; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1–2.5. ARI was less likely to occur in children from families with an educated father and professional mother (AOR 0.4; 95% CI 0.2–0.6 and AOR 0.1; 95% CI 0.01–0.6, respectively.Conclusion: Malnourished children from a lower socioeconomic category are more likely to suffer from ARI. Targeting disadvantaged children for effective interventions can help reduce the burden of morbidity and death due to ARI. Keywords: acute respiratory tract infection, pneumonia, severe malnutrition, children, Ethiopia
Full Text Available Firehiwot Mesfin,1 Yemane Berhane,2 Alemayehu Worku2,3 1Department of Public Health, College of Health and Medical Sciences, Haramaya University, Harar, Ethiopia; 2Addis Continental Institute of Public Health, 3School of Public Health, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, EthiopiaBackground: Stunting is a serious impediment to child survival and developing a full learning capacity. Despite several decades of efforts, stunting remained a major public health concern in Ethiopia. Thus, periodic assessment of the factors associated with stunting is imperative.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among school-age children in Eastern Ethiopia. Anthropometric measurements were taken according to the World Health Organization standard procedures. A child was identified as stunted if height-for-age z score is <−2 standard deviations of the median of the reference population. A binary logistic regression model was used to identify factors associated with stunting. Clustering of stunting within schools was controlled during analysis using cluster option in STATA syntax.Results: The prevalence of stunting among school-aged children was 8.9% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 7.6–10.3; of which 2% had severe stunting. The risk of stunting was 1.71 times greater for children born to working mothers than those born to housewives (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =1.71; 95% CI: 1.08–2.72. Those children whose families did not use a bed net in their home were 1.76 times more likely to be stunted as children than those whose families used insecticide-treated nets (AOR =1.76; 95% CI: 1.22–2.52. Moreover, the risk of stunting was 1.59 times greater for children who had suffered from illness within the last 2 weeks than children who were apparently healthy (AOR =1.59; 95% CI: 1.04–2.40. On the other hand, the risk of stunting was 30% lower for children born to an older mother than a younger one.Conclusion: Stunting, which is indicative of chronic
Full Text Available Adugnaw Berhane,1 Fikre Enquselassie2 1College of Health Sciences, Debre Berhan University, Debre Berhan, 2School of Public Health, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, EthiopiaBackground: There are a number of different international guidelines promoting the practice of observing patients’ rights in the health care service. Patients experience greater satisfaction in the health care service when their rights are protected. The purpose of this study was to examine patients’ experiences regarding their rights in hospital settings in northern Ethiopia.Patients and methods: Data were collected using semistructured interviews of 22 patients, who have had experience of health care service in the hospital setting. The patients were selected from the outpatient and inpatient departments of referral and district hospitals in northern Ethiopia. The interview data were tape-recorded, transcribed, translated, reviewed, and analyzed using a phenomenographic approach. Categories of descriptions were constructed based on the patients’ conceptions and ways of understanding the phenomenon of patients’ rights practice.Results: The findings revealed four main qualitatively different ways of understanding patients’ rights practice from the patients’ perspective. These main categories of description were patient-centered practice, being secured, respecting patients’ dignity, and getting referral.Conclusion: The different conceptions of patient rights give us a deeper understanding of how patients may experience patients’ rights practice. The result provides a foundation for developing health care practice that equips the patient with a positive experience, thus contributing in drafting patients’ bill of rights in the local context.Keywords: patient rights, phenomenography, hospital health care, patient experience
Full Text Available Abstract Background Verbal autopsy has been widely used to estimate causes of death in settings with inadequate vital registries, but little is known about its validity. This analysis was part of Addis Ababa Mortality Surveillance Program to examine the validity of verbal autopsy for determining causes of death compared with hospital medical records among adults in the urban setting of Ethiopia. Methods This validation study consisted of comparison of verbal autopsy final diagnosis with hospital diagnosis taken as a “gold standard”. In public and private hospitals of Addis Ababa, 20,152 adult deaths (15 years and above were recorded between 2007 and 2010. With the same period, a verbal autopsy was conducted for 4,776 adult deaths of which, 1,356 were deceased in any of Addis Ababa hospitals. Then, verbal autopsy and hospital data sets were merged using the variables; full name of the deceased, sex, address, age, place and date of death. We calculated sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive values with 95% confidence interval. Results After merging, a total of 335 adult deaths were captured. For communicable diseases, the values of sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive values of verbal autopsy diagnosis were 79%, 78% and 68% respectively. For non-communicable diseases, sensitivity of the verbal autopsy diagnoses was 69%, specificity 78% and positive predictive value 79%. Regarding injury, sensitivity of the verbal autopsy diagnoses was 70%, specificity 98% and positive predictive value 83%. Higher sensitivity was achieved for HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis, but lower specificity with relatively more false positives. Conclusion These findings may indicate the potential of verbal autopsy to provide cost-effective information to guide policy on communicable and non communicable diseases double burden among adults in Ethiopia. Thus, a well structured verbal autopsy method, followed by qualified physician reviews could be capable of
Franey, Cara; Evensen, Ann; Bethune, Cheri; Zemenfes, Daniel
Family Medicine (FM) is a new specialty in Ethiopia. The first seven family physicians graduated in February 2016 from the inaugural residency programme at Addis Ababa University. Cooperation amongst Ethiopian and expatriate decision-makers and physicians was needed to begin the programme. Intentional replacement of expatriates with Ethiopian family physicians has begun. Barriers include lack of understanding of FM and the human and financial resources needed for scaling up the programme. Regular programme review with resident physician involvement has allowed the FM training programme to adapt and fit the Ethiopian context. Further successes will result from ongoing support and advocacy from the Federal Ministry of Health and other Ethiopian, African, and international primary care organisations. PMID:27254792
Gossa W; Wondimagegn D; Mekonnen D; Eshetu W; Abebe Z; Fetters MD
Weyinshet Gossa,1,2 Dawit Wondimagegn,3 Demeke Mekonnen,4 Wondwossen Eshetu,5 Zerihun Abebe,6 Michael D Fetters2 1Department of Family and Community Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA; 2Department of Family Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA; 3Department of Psychiatry, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, 4Department of Pediatrics, Jimma University, Jimma, 5Federal Ministry of Health, 6St Paul's Hospital Millennium Medical College, Ad...
Full Text Available Mirgissa Kaba,1 Tesfaye Bulto,2 Zergu Tafesse,2 Wassie Lingerh,2 Ismael Ali2 1Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Public Health, Addis Ababa University, 2Integrated Family Health Program, John Snow, Inc., Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Background: Maternal health remains a major public health problem in Ethiopia. Despite the government’s measures to ensure institutional delivery assisted by skilled attendants, home delivery remains high, estimated at over 80% of all pregnant women.Objective: The study aims to identify determinants that sustain home delivery in Ethiopia.Methods: A total of 48 women who delivered their most recent child at home, 56 women who delivered their most recent child in a health facility, 55 husbands of women who delivered within 1 year preceding the study, and 23 opinion leaders in selected districts of Amhara, Oromia, Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ Region, and Tigray regions were involved in the study. Key informant interview, in-depth interviews, and focus group discussions were conducted to collect data using checklists developed for this purpose. Data reduction and analysis were facilitated by Maxqda qualitative data analysis software version 11.Results: Findings show that pregnancy and delivery is a normal and natural life event. Research participants unanimously argue that such a life event should not be linked with health problems. Home is considered a natural space for delivery and most women aspire to deliver at home where rituals during labor and after delivery are considered enjoyable. Even those who delivered in health facilities appreciate events in connection to home delivery. Efforts are underway to create home-like environments in health facilities, but health facilities are not yet recognized as a natural place of delivery. The positive tendency to deliver at home is further facilitated by poor service delivery at the facility level. Perceived poor competence of providers and limited
Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the potential impact on treatment adherence and recovery, there is a dearth of data on the extent and correlates of internalized stigma in patients with schizophrenia in low income countries. We conducted a study to determine the extent, domains and correlates of internalized stigma amongst outpatients with schizophrenia in Ethiopia. Methods The study was a cross-sectional facility-based survey conducted at a specialist psychiatric hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Consecutive consenting individuals with a diagnosis of schizophrenia were recruited and assessed using an Amharic version of the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (ISMI scale. Results Data were collected from 212 individuals, who were mostly single (71.2%, unemployed (70.3% and male (65.1%. Nearly all participants (97.4% expressed agreement to at least one stigma item contained in the ISMI; 46.7% had a moderate to high mean stigma score. Rural residence (OR = 5.67; 95% CI = 2.30, 13.00; p Conclusion Internalized stigma is a major problem among persons with schizophrenia in this outpatient setting in Ethiopia. Internalized stigma has the potential to substantially affect adherence to medication and is likely to affect the recovery process.
Objective. This study assessed the initial experiences, symptoms, and actions of patients in Ethiopia ultimately determined to have breast cancer. Methods. 69 participants in a comprehensive breast cancer treatment program at the main national cancer hospital in Ethiopia were interviewed using mixed qualitative and quantitative approaches. Participants narratives of their initial cancer experience were coded and analyzed for themes around their symptoms, time to seeking advice, triggers for action, and contextual factors. The assessment was approved by the Addis Ababa University Faculty of Medicine Institutional Review Board. Results. Nearly all women first noticed lumps, though few sought medical advice within the first year (average time to action: 1.5 years). Eventually, changes in their symptoms motivated most participants to seek advice. Most participants did not think the initial lump would be cancer, nor was a lump of any particular concern until symptoms changed. Conclusion. Given the frequency with which lumps are the first symptom noticed, raising awareness among participants that lumps should trigger medical consultation could contribute significantly to more rapid medical advice-seeking among women in Ethiopia. Primary care sites should be trained and equipped to offer evaluation of lumps so that women can be referred appropriately for assessment if needed
The non-linear inversion technique known as hedgehog is utilized to define the average crustal structure of North and North-Eastern Ethiopia. To accomplish the task a two dimensional frequency-time analysis is performed to obtain Rayleigh wave group velocity dispersion curves. Six earthquakes recorded by the broad-band digital seismograph installed at the Geophysical Observatory of Addis Ababa University are utilized. The crustal structure between the Gulf of Tadjura (western Gulf of Aden) and Addis Ababa crossing southern Afar (path I) can be approximated by a total thickness of about 22 km with average S-wave velocity in the range 2.3 - 3.9 km/s. The crust-mantle transition is poorly developed at greater depths and the shear wave velocity ranges from 4.0 km/s to 4.3 km/s. If the effect of the plateau part is taken into account the average total crustal thickness is found to be less than 18 km and the average S-wave velocity varies in the range 2.4 - 3.9 km/s. The low shear wave velocity under the Afar crust is consistent with the result of other geophysical studies. For path II, which passes through the border of the Western Ethiopian plateau, the average crustal structure is found to be approximated by a thickness of about 40 km and average S-wave velocity between 3.0 km/s and 3.9 km/s. The crust overlies a lithospheric mantle with a shear wave velocity in the range 4.1-4.4 km/s. (author). 37 refs, 11 figs, 4 tabs
Manhart, Andreas [Oeko-Institut, Inst. fuer Angewandte Oekologie e.V., Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Amera, Tadesse; Belay, Mehari [PAN (Ethiopia)
The generation and management of waste electrical and electronic equipment (e-waste) is an increasing concern in many African countries. Attempts to bridge the digital divide as well as rapid economic development continue to boost the market penetration of many types of electricity powered devices. This also leads to rapidly increasing e-waste volumes, which are mostly not yet managed in an environmentally sound manner. In order to build a strong foundation for the development of Ethiopia's e-waste management strategy, it was deemed necessary to generate reliable data on e-waste volumes and current management practices and options, as well as to investigate possibilities for improved e-waste management and other relevant aspects. This study, financed by the Solving the E-waste Problem (StEP) Initiative under a grant of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US-EPA), was jointly carried out by the Oeko-Institut e.V. and PAN-Ethiopia. It aims to fill key knowledge gaps and provide a more solid base for further decision making for both, national decision-makers and co-operation projects in this field. The information contained in this report is derived from existing literature sources and statistics, interviews conducted in Ethiopia, and field assessments in Addis Ababa in August 2012.
Mungube, E O; Tenhagen, B A; Kassa, T; Regassa, F; Kyule, M N; Greiner, M; Baumann, M P O
This study, with the objective of assessing the effect of risk factors on dairy cow mastitis in the central highlands of Ethiopia, was undertaken between February and September 2001 in the urban and peri-urban areas of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A prevalence study and questionnaire survey were carried out simultaneously. Clinical examination of lactating udders and California mastitis test (CMT) determined clinical and subclinical mastitis, respectively. Risk factors for subclinical and clinical mastitis were identified from data on animals and farm management by chi-square analysis and subsequent logistic regression. Cows aged at least 8 years, with poor body condition, with at least 8 parities and in at least the eighth month of lactation had a significantly higher risk for subclinical mastitis (p mastitis (p <0.05). The risk was reduced by the use of separate towels for udder cleaning and by drying off at the end of lactation. Most of the risk factors were in agreement with previous reports. However, stage of lactation and drying-off style were in contrast to others. Further research is needed to identify the interrelationship between production level, specific pathogens and management risk factors. PMID:15449836
Berhanu, Della; Go, Vivian F; Ruff, Andrea; Celentano, David D; Bishaw, Tewabech
Khat (Catha edulis, a natural stimulant), has been used in Ethiopia for centuries. Over the past few decades, however, its use has dramatically increased, with recent research linking khat use to HIV status. Using qualitative methods, we explored the individual and micro-environmental characteristics of khat use and the social and physical contexts influencing type, acceptability and consequences of khat use. Among khat chewers attending an HIV voluntary counselling and testing centre in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, we found that chewing typically starts at an early age (15-18 years). The majority of users are young (aged 18-35) and chew for pleasure, primarily in social settings. Over 25 types of khat, with varying effects were reported. Approximately half of the participants perceived khat to enhance sexual desire, while the rest claimed the effect on sexual desire to be the opposite. Alcohol use among chewers was high. Our findings suggest the need for culturally appropriate interventions that highlight the factors associated with khat use and the potential interplay between khat, alcohol and risky sexual behaviour. PMID:22988913
The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) provides for a comprehensive global verification regime that includes International Monitoring System (IMS). Ethiopia is expected to contribute to the system through a seismic station to be upgraded and a radionuclide station to be established yet. The capacity built at and the experience gained by the geographical observatory of the Addis Ababa University seismic monitoring makes it the leading institution on implementing activities related to verification of the treaty in Ethiopia. Assessment of the current situation indicates that the implementation is going on at a relatively slow rate. There is a general understanding that the country's contribution to and the benefits to be gained from the CTBT implementation related activities would be enhanced if it works in close collaborartion with other East and Southern African countries. However, this could be realised if and only if higher priorities are accorded to the establishment and strengthening of national monitoring and data processing capabilities and the cooperation program is provided with adequate funding. (author)
Prevalence of mental distress and associated factors among caregivers of patients with severe mental illness in the outpatient unit of Amanuel Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2013: Cross-sectional study
Sintayehu, Mezinew; Mulat, Haregwoin; Yohannis, Zegeye; Adera, Tewodros; Fekade, Maereg
Abstracts Background Caregivers like family members or other relatives are central and provide not only practical help and personal care but also give emotional support, and they are suffering from plenty of challengeable tasks. These, eventually, cast out family caregivers into multidimensional problems prominently for mental distress like depression, anxiety, sleep problem and somatic disorder which are followed by physiologic changes and impaired health habits that ultimately lead to illne...
Water Resources Programme involvement in Ethiopian projects since 1991 has been extensive. The information and training provided have equipped the country to better resolve its water resource issues. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has been working with the Ethiopian government in the areas of agriculture, nutrition, nuclear medicine and isotope hydrology over the last four decades. Eight national and four regional Technical Cooperation (TC) projects on isotope hydrology have been carried out in collaboration with various Ethiopian institutions over the last two decades (1991-2011). The IAEA has also been analyzing the monthly isotopic composition of rainfall samples collected from a meteorological station in Addis Ababa since 1961. Environmental isotopes (2H, 3H, 18O, 13C and 14C) have been used as complementary tools in water resource assessment and management and in geothermal studies. These isotopes have been implemented mainly to trace recharge provenance, estimate recharge rates and investigate lake- groundwater interaction in the Ethiopian Rift Valley. Nitrogen-15 isotopes were also used to trace the source of nitrate pollution in Diredawa, which lies in Ethiopia's south-east.
Full Text Available Kassahun Demissie,1 Shifera Asfaw,2 Lakew Abebe,2 Getachew Kiros2 1Addis Ababa Regional Laboratory, Ethiopia; 2Department of Health Education and Behavioral Science, College of Public Health and Medical Sciences, Jimma University, Ethiopia Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome is one of the major public health problems throughout the world. Nowadays, antiretroviral treatment (ART is available in health institutions and HIV-positive individuals who are eligible for ART are taking it. But studies show reinfection of HIV is occurring in them for unknown reasons. Purpose: This study aimed to assess risky sexual practice and associated factors among HIV-positive ART attendees. Methods: An institution-based cross-sectional study was employed in ten randomly selected health centers in Addis Ababa, between October 05 and November 05, 2013. Simple random sampling technique was employed to select 376 respondents for face-to-face interviews from ART registration book. After the data collection process, data were entered and analyzed using the SPSS version 20 statistical package. Then the effect of each variable was observed by regression analysis to identify the predictors for risky sexual practice at a significant level of P<0.05. Results: A total of 376 respondents were included in the study, with 100% response rate. The mean age of the total respondents was 35.28±8.94 (standard deviation. Of the 376 respondents, 30.4% had a history of risky sexual practice, which was inconsistent condom use in the last 3 months prior to the study period. Factors associated with risky sexual practice included alcohol consumption (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =2.01, 95% CI: 1.07, 3.77, being single (AOR =0.29, 95% CI: 0.15, 0.59 and widowed (AOR =0.32, 95% CI: 0.13, 0.77 respondents, and the gender of the respondents, with an AOR of 1.55 (95% CI: 1.01, 2.33, shows a significant relationship with risky sexual behavior. Conclusion
Full text: Ethiopia's current approach to assessing and managing water resources, including geothermal, assigns very high priority to the use of isotope hydrology. Incorporation of this technology into government planning began with a few activities, in local groundwater assessment and in geothermal studies, kicked off by a 1993 National Isotope Hydrology Training Workshop that the IAEA helped arrange. The first results of isotope studies were useful in characterizing the Aluto Geothermal Field, where a 7.2 MW(e) power plant was later built with support from the UNDP and the EEC. And the Government is now hoping to introduce isotope techniques to improve utilization of the field. Isotope hydrology has successfully aided attempts to better understand ground water occurrence, flow and quality problems in arid regions of Ethiopia. These efforts are continuing through studies in the Dire Dawa, Mekelle and Afar regions. Rising water levels in Lake Beseka are threatening to submerge vital rail and highway links. Isotope hydrology made a unique contribution to understanding the surface and subsurface factors responsible, leading to an engineering plan for mitigating the problem. The Government has allocated substantial funding and construction work has begun. A similar success story is emerging at Awassa Lake, where isotope hydrology is proving a very useful complement to conventional techniques. Another promising application of isotope hydrology is taking place as part of the Akaki Groundwater Study near Addis Ababa. Preliminary isotopic results indicate that earlier conclusions based on conventional techniques may have to be revised. If so, there will be significant implications for the exploitation and management strategy of the resource. Based on these encouraging results, the Government is proceeding with the preparation of a project document for the Ethiopian Groundwater Resource Assessment Programme. With the assistance of the IAEA, the U.S. Geological Survey
Getachew Tesfaye; Daniel Asrat; Yimtubezinash Woldeamanuel; Messele Gizaw
Objectives:To isolate and identify the bacterial etiologic agents,including their antibiotic susceptibility pat-tern isolated from patients with discharging ear infections.Methods:Between September 2006 and February 2007,178 patients with discharging ear visiting ENT clinics of St.Paul and Tikur Anbessa University Hospi-tals Addis Ababa,Ethiopia were investigated.Results:Of the patients investigated,52.8% were males and 47.2% were females resulting in an overall male to female ratio of 1.1:1.Ear discharge was the commonest clinical finding followed by hearing problem (91.2%),otalgia (ear pain)(74.7%),fever (17.9%)and itching of external ear (5.1%).S.aureus accounted for 30.2% of the total isolates followed by Proteus ssp. (P.mirabilis,P.vulgaris )(25.4%),and P.aeruginosa (13.4%).Both gram positive and negative bac-teria isolated from ear infections showed low resistance rates to most antimicrobial agents tested.Overall ceftri-axone and ciprofloxacin were the most effective drugs when compared to other drugs tested against the gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria.Conclusion:Otitis media was the most common clinical finding in pa-tients with ear infection.With discharging ear,the gram-negative bacteria were the predominant isolates.The susceptibility pattern of isolates from the study showed that ceftriaxone,ciprofloxacin and gentamicin were the most effective drugs.It is recommended that treatment of ear infections should be based on culture and sensi-tivity at the study sites.Therefore,efforts should be directed towards early diagnosis and treatment of acute ear infection and continued re-evaluation of the resistant patterns of organisms to optimize treatments and reduce complications.
Onarheim, Kristine Husøy; Taddesse, Mieraf; Norheim, Ole Frithjof; Abdullah, Muna; Miljeteig, Ingrid
Reproductive health services are crucial for maternal and child health, but universal health coverage is still not within reach in most societies. Ethiopia's goal of universal health coverage promises access to all necessary services for everyone while providing protection against financial risk. When moving towards universal health coverage, health plans and policies require contextualized knowledge about baseline indicators and their distributions. To understand more about the factors that explain coverage, we study the relationship between socioeconomic and geographic factors and the use of reproductive health services in Ethiopia, and further explore inequalities in reproductive health coverage. Based on these findings, we discuss the normative implications of these findings for health policy. Using population-level data from the Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey (2011) in a multivariate logistic model, we find that family planning and use of antenatal care are associated with higher wealth, higher education and being employed. Skilled attendance at birth is associated with higher wealth, higher education, and urban location. There is large variation between Addis Ababa (the capital) and other administrative regions. Concentration indices show substantial inequalities in the use of reproductive health services. Decomposition of the concentration indices indicates that difference in wealth is the most important explanatory factor for inequality in reproductive health coverage, but other factors, such as urban setting and previous health care use, are also associated with inequalities. When aiming for universal health coverage, this study shows that different socioeconomic factors as well as health-sector factors should be addressed. Our study re-confirms the importance of a broader approach to reproductive health, and in particular the importance of inequality in wealth and geography. Poor, non-educated, non-employed women in rural areas are
Sisay, Zufan; Djikeng, Appolinaire; Berhe, Nega; Belay, Gurja; Gebreyes, Wondwossen; Abegaz, Woldaregay Erku; Njahira, Moses N; Wang, Q H; Saif, Linda J
Viral gastroenteritis is a major public health problem worldwide. In Ethiopia, very limited studies have been done on the epidemiology of enteropathogenic viruses. The aim of this study was to detect and characterize noroviruses (NoVs) and sapoviruses (SaVs) from acute gastroenteritis patients of all ages. Fecal samples were collected from diarrheic patients (n = 213) in five different health centers in Addis Ababa during June-September 2013. The samples were screened for caliciviruses by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using universal and genogroup-specific primer pairs. Phylogenetic analyses were conducted using the sequences of the PCR products. Of the clinical samples, 25.3 % and 4.2 % were positive for NoV and SaV RNA, respectively. Among the norovirus positives, 22 were sequenced further, and diverse norovirus strains were identified: GI (n = 4), GII (n = 17) and GIV (n = 1). Most strains were GII (n = 17/22: 77.2 %), which were further divided into three different genotypes (GII.4, GII.12/GII.g recombinant-like and GII.17), with GII.17 being the dominant (7/17) strain detected. GI noroviruses, in particular GI.4 (n = 1), GI.5 (n = 2) and GI.8 (n = 1), were also detected and characterized. The GIV strain detected is the first from East Africa. The sapoviruses sequenced were also the first reported from Ethiopia. Collectively, this study showed the high burden and diversity of noroviruses and circulation of sapoviruses in diarrheic patients in Ethiopia. Continued surveillance to assess their association with diarrhea is needed to define their epidemiology, disease burden, and impact on public health. PMID:27193022
Hodes, R M; Kloos, H
Ethiopia is a country of 45 million people in northeast Africa. With a stagnant, agriculture-based economy and a per capita gross national product of $110 in 1984, it is one of the world's poorest nations. 70% of the children are mildly to severely malnourished, and 25.7% of children born alive die before the age of 5. Life expectancy is 41 years. The population is growing at the rate of 2.9%/year, but only 2% of the people use birth control. After the 1974 revolution, the socialist government nationalized land and created 20,000 peasant associations and kebeles (urban dwellers' associations), which are the units of local government. The government has set ambitious goals for development in all sectors, including health, but famine, near famine, forced resettlement programs, and civil war have prevented any real progress from being made. The government's approach to health care is based on an emphasis on primary health care and expansion of rural health services, but the Ministry of Health is allocated only 3.5% of the national budget. Ethiopia has 3 medical schools -- at Addis Ababa, Gondar, and the Jimma Institute of Health Sciences. Physicians are government employees but also engage in private practice. A major problem is that a large proportion of medical graduates emigrate. Ethiopia has 87 hospitals with 11,296 beds, which comes to 1 bed per 3734 people. There are 1949 health stations and 141 health centers, but many have no physician, and attrition among health workers is high due to lack of ministerial support. Health care is often dispensed legally or illegally by pharmacists. Overall, there is 1 physician for 57,876 people, but in the southwest and west central Ethiopia 1 physician serves between 200,000 and 300,000 people. In rural areas, where 90% of the population lives, 85% live at least 3 days by foot from a rural health unit. Immunization of 1-year olds against tuberculosis, diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus, poliomyelitis, and measles is 11, 6, 6, and
Woldehanna, T.; Mekonnen, A.; Jones, N.
The paper uses data from a 2002 survey of 1000 rural and urban households with eight-year old children sampled from food insecure communities in Tigray, Amhara, Oromia, SNNP and Addis Ababa Regional States. Using a probit regression model, we investigated external factors associated with child enrol
The aim of this paper is to investigate the possibility of supplying electricity from a solar-wind hybrid system to a remotely located model community detached from the main electricity grid in Ethiopia. The wind energy potential of four typical locations has been assessed in a previous article. The solar potential has also been investigated and the results are presented in detail in an accompanying article awaiting publication. For one of the sites, Addis Ababa, the results of the investigation are given here in detail. For the other sites, the results are given as sensitivity diagrams only. Based on the findings of the studies into energy potential, a feasibility study has been carried out on how to supply electricity to a model community of 200 families, which comprises 1000 people in total. The community is equipped with a community school and a health post. The electric load consists of both primary and deferrable types and comprises lighting, water pumps, radio receivers, and some clinical equipment. A software tool, Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewables (HOMER) is used for the analysis. The result of the analysis is a list of feasible power supply systems, sorted according to their net present cost. Furthermore, sensitivity diagrams, showing the influence of wind speeds, PV costs, and diesel prices on the optimum solutions are also provided. (author)
Full Text Available Tadesse Melaku Abegaz,1 Sewunet Admasu Belachew,1 Tamrat Befekadu Abebe,1 Begashaw Melaku Gebresilassie,1 Fitsum Sebsibe Teni,2 Habtamu Gebremeskel Woldie3 1Department of Clinical Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, Gondar University, Gondar, 2Department of Pharmaceutics and Social Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, 3Department of Hospital Pharmacy, Debremarkos Teaching and Referral Hospital, Debremarkos, Ethiopia Background: Acute diarrhea is the major cause of child morbidity and mortality in low-income nations. It is the second most common cause of death among children <5 years of age globally. The indispensable role of community pharmacists is clearly observed in the prevention and treatment of diarrhea. However, there is a paucity of data on how community pharmacies manage acute childhood diarrhea cases in Ethiopia. This study aimed to evaluate the experience of community pharmacies in the management of acute diarrhea in northern Ethiopia.Methods: A simulated case-based cross-sectional study was conducted in community pharmacies from five towns of northern Ethiopia between April 2015 and September 2015. Convenience sampling technique was used to select sample towns. A structured questionnaire was organized to collect the information. Descriptive statistics, chi-squared test, one-way analysis of variance, and binary logistic regression were performed to describe, infer, and test for association between the variables. SPSS for Windows Version 21 was used to enter and analyze the data. A 95% confidence interval and P-value of 0.05 were set to test the level of significance.Results: Approximately 113 community pharmacies were visited to collect the required data from five towns. Majority (78, 69% of them were located away from hospitals and health care areas. Nine components of history taking were presented for dispensers. Regarding the patient history, “age” was frequently taken, (90
Full Text Available Demewoz Haile,1 Tesfaye Setegn,2 Sibhatu Biadgilign31Department of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Madawalabu University, Bale Goba, Ethiopia; 2Department of Reproductive Health, School of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Bahir Dar University, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia; 3Independent Public Health Research Consultants, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Background: Breastfeeding reduces major causes of infant mortality and morbidity. On the other hand, it is a major mode of vertical HIV transmission. In developing countries like Ethiopia, HIV positive mothers are advised to continue breastfeeding up to 12 months. But there is scarce literature regarding the mothers' adherence to continued breastfeeding recommendations. Therefore, the objective of this study is to assess HIV positive mothers' adherence to the infant feeding recommendations of the new World Health Organization (WHO guidelines for HIV-exposed infants aged ≥6 months. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in health institutions with antiretroviral therapy and prevention of mother to child transmission facilities in Sidama Zone, Southern Ethiopia. Health institutions were considered as clusters and cluster sampling technique was employed. A total of 184 HIV positive mothers with their infants registered at respective health institutions were recruited and assessed for their infant breastfeeding practices. Descriptive statistics (frequency, mean, median, and standard deviation were computed to describe the breastfeeding practices of HIV positive mothers. Result: Almost all (181 [98.4%] of the HIV-exposed infants were “ever breastfed”. Among those mothers who had ever breastfed, 158 (87.3% initiated breastfeeding within an hour of delivery and 157 (85.8% had fed their babies colostrum while 31 (16.8% gave prelacteal food to their infants. The prevalence of continued breastfeeding at 1 year was (54.5% (46.9% for urban mothers and 75% for rural
The study area is located in the northern part of Ethiopia, Horn of Africa. It is Bounded by NW Ethiopian plateau in the west and Afar rift to the east. The study area is intermountain with volcanic rock and the graben is covered with thick sediments. The average elevation for the highland is 2200 m a.s.l, where as average elevation for the central graben and eastern highland is 1600m a.s.l. Bimodal rainfall pattern is observed in the study area. The western highland is classified as humid and the central graben is semiarid climatic condition based on UNESCO, 1979. Primary data collected during the field work includes Rainfall samples, Lake Sample, Deep well samples, Hand dug well samples, and others. Systematic sampling of water for Isotopic analysis. Secondary Isotopic data is adopted from previous study Mamo, 2007. All samples were analysed by Liquid Water Isotope analyser for oxygen-18 and deuterium in the Isotope Hydrology Laboratory of Addis Ababa University.
Full Text Available Background: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs are among the widely used drugs and are often used by pregnant women. However, they can have significant teratogenic effects. The aim of the study was to investigate pregnant women′s knowledge about NSAIDs use during pregnancy and their perception and consumption pattern. Materials and Methods: The study was a cross sectional study on women waiting for a consultation in the selected maternity hospitals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The pregnant women were selected randomly and then interviewed by using standardized questionnaires. Result : A total of 224 pregnant women were involved in the study. Out of those, 203 (90.6% of them have taken NSAIDs since the beginning of their pregnancy. About 201 (89.7%, 198 (88.4% and 189 (84.4% of the pregnant women considered that ibuprofen, diclofenac and aspirin are not NSAIDs respectively. Regarding analgesic effect of NSAIDs, 97 (43.3% of the pregnant women believed that NSAIDs are effective for treating pain. Acetaminophen was considered as the most effective treatment for pain by 84 (37.50% of the patients. Conclusion: Acetaminophen is the most common analgesic that was taken by most pregnant women. The knowledge of pregnant women about NSAIDs is poor.
G. Mengistu Tsidu
Full Text Available Water vapour is one of the most important green house gases. Long-term changes in the amount of water vapour in the atmosphere need to be monitored not only for its direct role as a green house gas but also because of its role in amplifying other feedbacks in general circulation models. In recent decades, monitoring of water vapour on regular and continuous basis is becoming possible as a result of increase in the number of deployed Global Positioning Satellite (GPS ground-based receivers at a faster pace. However, Horn of Africa region remains a data void region in this regard until recently when some GPS ground-receiver stations have been deployed to monitor tectonic movements in the Great Rift Valley. This study seizes this opportunity and the installation of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FTIR at Addis Ababa to assess the quality and comparability of Precipitable Water Vapour (PWV from GPS, FTIR, radiosonde and ERA-Interim over Ethiopia. The PWVs from the three instruments and reanalysis show good correlation in the range from 0.83 to 0.92. The radiosonde PWV shows dry bias with respect to other observations and reanalysis. ERA-Interim PWV shows wet bias with respect to all while GPS PWV exhibits wet bias with respect to FTIR. The intercomparison between GPS and ERA-Interim is extended to seven other GPS stations in the country. Despite the sensitivity of GPS PWV to uncertainty in surface pressure in general, observed surface pressure is used only at four GPS stations. The gain obtained from using observed surface pressure in terms of reducing bias and strengthening correlation is significant but shows some variations among the GPS sites. In contrast to comparison at Addis Ababa, the comparison between GPS and ERA-Interim PWVs over seven other GPS stations shows difference in the magnitude and sign of bias of ERA-Interim with respect to GPS PWV from station to station. This variation is also visible across different seasons. The
Mengistu Tsidu, G.; Blumenstock, T.; Hase, F.
Water vapour is one of the most important green house gases. Long-term changes in the amount of water vapour in the atmosphere need to be monitored not only for its direct role as a green house gas but also because of its role in amplifying other feedbacks in general circulation models. In recent decades, monitoring of water vapour on regular and continuous basis is becoming possible as a result of increase in the number of deployed Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) ground-based receivers at a faster pace. However, Horn of Africa region remains a data void region in this regard until recently when some GPS ground-receiver stations have been deployed to monitor tectonic movements in the Great Rift Valley. This study seizes this opportunity and the installation of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FTIR) at Addis Ababa to assess the quality and comparability of Precipitable Water Vapour (PWV) from GPS, FTIR, radiosonde and ERA-Interim over Ethiopia. The PWVs from the three instruments and reanalysis show good correlation in the range from 0.83 to 0.92. The radiosonde PWV shows dry bias with respect to other observations and reanalysis. ERA-Interim PWV shows wet bias with respect to all while GPS PWV exhibits wet bias with respect to FTIR. The intercomparison between GPS and ERA-Interim is extended to seven other GPS stations in the country. Despite the sensitivity of GPS PWV to uncertainty in surface pressure in general, observed surface pressure is used only at four GPS stations. The gain obtained from using observed surface pressure in terms of reducing bias and strengthening correlation is significant but shows some variations among the GPS sites. In contrast to comparison at Addis Ababa, the comparison between GPS and ERA-Interim PWVs over seven other GPS stations shows difference in the magnitude and sign of bias of ERA-Interim with respect to GPS PWV from station to station. This variation is also visible across different seasons. The main cause of the
Terje S. Skjerdal
Full Text Available Journalism programmes across the African continent have different attitudes to the issue of universal vs.
local values in journalism. This article discusses the issue in light of a post-graduate journalism
programme that opened at Addis Ababa University in 2004. In its 5-year implementation phase, the
programme engaged educators from Europe and North America in addition to local instructors. Thus, one
could expect a potential conflict between Western and Ethiopian approaches to journalism. However, on
the basis of experiences with the Addis Ababa programme, the present study questions the assumed
dichotomy between Western and Ethiopian (or African journalism discourses. Tensions did indeed come
to the fore when the programme was planned and implemented, but they were defined by determinants
such as professional background and personal preferences of the instructors involved rather than by
geographical and cultural origin.
Full Text Available Tensae Tadesse Mekonnen,1 Solomon Meseret Woldeyohannes,2 Tegbar Yigzaw3 1Department of Midwifery, Tseda Health Science College, 2Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Institute of Public Health, University of Gondar, Gondar, 3Jhpiego-Ethiopia, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Purpose: Women with diabetes and hypertension are at increased risk of pregnancy complications, including those from surgical delivery and their offspring are at risk for congenital anomalies. Thus, diabetic and hypertensive women of reproductive age are advised to use valid contraceptive methods for reducing unwanted pregnancy and its complications. However, contraceptive use among these segments of the population had not been previously assessed in Ethiopia. Hence, the aim of this study was to assess contraceptive use and associated factors among diabetic and hypertensive women of reproductive age on chronic follow-up care at University of Gondar and Felege Hiwot Hospitals.Methods: Hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted from April to May 2012 among diabetic and hypertensive women on follow-up at the chronic illness care center. The sample size calculated was 403. Structured and pretested questionnaire was used for data collection. Data were collected using interview supplemented by chart review. The data were entered using EPI info Version 2000 and analyzed using SPSS Version 16. Frequencies, proportion, and summary statistics were used to describe the study population in relation to relevant variables. Both bivariate and multivariate analyses were run to see the association of each independent variable with contraceptive practice.Results: A total of 392 married women on chronic follow-up care were interviewed making the response rate of 93.3%. The contraceptive prevalence rate was found to be 53.8%. Factors such as age 25–34 years (adjusted odds ratio, AOR [95% confidence interval, CI] =3.60 [1.05–12.36], (AOR [95% CI] =2.29 [1.15–4.53], having middle
Skjerdal, Terje S
Journalism programmes across the African continent have different attitudes to the issue of universal vs.
local values in journalism. This article discusses the issue in light of a post-graduate journalism
programme that opened at Addis Ababa University in 2004. In its 5-year implementation phase, the
programme engaged educators from Europe and North America in addition to local instructors. Thus, one
could expect a potential conflict between Wester...
Analysis of the influence of tectonics on the evolution valley network based on the SRTM DEM and the relationship of automatically extracted lineaments and the tectonic faults, Jemma River basin, Ethiopia
visualization in GIS identifies a larger number of shorter lineaments than lineaments by visual interpretation. Key words: valley network, lineaments, faults, azimuth, Jemma River basin, Ethiopian Highlands GANI, N., D., ABDELSALAM, M., G., GERA, S., GANI, M., R. (2009): Stratigraphic and structural evolution of the Blue Nile Basin, Northweastern Ethiopian Plateau. Geologic Journal, 44, s. 30-56. KAZMIN, V. (1975): Geological Map of Ethiopia. Geological Survey of Ethiopia, Adrie Ababa, Ethiopia. MANGESHA, T., CHERNET, T., HARO, W. (1996): Geological Map Of Ethiopia (1: 250,000). Geological Survey of Ethiopia: Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. PIK, R., MARTY, B., CARIGNAN, J., LAVÉ, J. (2003): Stability of the Upper Nile drainage network (Ethiopia) deduces from (U/Th)/He thermochronometry: implications for uplift and erosion of the Afar plume dome. and Planetary Science Letters, 215, s. 73 - 88.
Abegaz, Teferi; Berhane, Yemane; Worku, Alemayehu; Assrat, Abebe; Assefa, Abebayehu
The severity of injury from vehicle crash is a result of a complex interaction of factors related to drivers' behavior, vehicle characteristics, road geometric and environmental conditions. Knowing to what extent each factor contributes to the severity of an injury is very important. The objective of the study was to assess factors that contribute to crash injury severity in Ethiopia. Data was collected from June 2012 to July 2013 on one of the main and busiest highway of Ethiopia, which extends from the capital Addis Ababa to Hawassa. During the study period a total of 819 road crashes was recorded and investigated by trained crash detectors. A generalized ordered logit/partial proportional odds model was used to examine factors that might influence the severity of crash injury. Model estimation result suggested that, alcohol use (Coef.=0.5565; p-value=0.017), falling asleep while driving (Coef.=1.3102; p-value=0.000), driving at night time in the absence of street light (Coef.=0.3920; p-value=0.033), rainfall (Coef.=0.9164; p-value=0.000) and being a minibus or vans (Coef.=0.5065; p-value=0.013) were found to be increased crash injury severity. On the other hand, speeding was identified to have varying coefficients for different injury levels, its highest effects on sever and fatal crashes. In this study risky driving behaviors (speeding, alcohol use and sleep/fatigue) were a powerful predictor of crash injury severity. Therefore, better driver licensing and road safety awareness campaign complimented with strict police enforcement can play a pivotal role to improve road safety. Further effort needed as well to monitor speed control strategies like; using the radar control and physical speed restraint measures (i.e., rumble strips). PMID:24866353
Full Text Available Aklilu Habte Watiro,1 Worku Awoke,2 1Médecins Sans Frontières OCA (MSF Holland Ethiopia Mission, Addis Ababa, 2Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Bahir Dar University, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia Background: Malaria remains a major public health problem in Ethiopia. Consequently, Ethiopia designed the 2011–2015, Malaria Prevention and Control Strategic Plan to fight the vector. It was discovered that most of the studies conducted on the use of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs were not in line with the strategic plan of the country. This study aimed to assess ITN ownership and utilization, and includes barriers related to its use among the target-area population at household (HH level. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional design was employed in Itang for this study. Data were collected by trained nurses through face-to-face interview and observation. A total of 845 participants were selected through multistage sampling, and the size was determined by using a single-population proportion formula. EPI Info and SPSS was used for analysis, and all necessary statistical association was computed in order to explain the outcome variable through explanatory variables of this study. Results: Among 845 HHs interviewed, 81.7% (690 had at least one ITN, while 52.3% (361 had used the ITN the night preceding the data-collection day. HH awareness of malaria prevention, number of ITNs, family size, number of family members sharing sleeping area/beds, sleeping patterns of adolescents, HH-head age, and inconvenience of using ITNs were found to be barriers to the use of ITNs in this study. Conclusion and recommendation: The study concluded that very few HHs owned ITNs and there was very low usage of ITNs. In recommendation, the regional health bureau and district health office should consider bigger nets that can accommodate family members who share the same sleeping area/bed in the area. Keywords: consistent
Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine Tuberculosis (BTB is a widespread and endemic disease of cattle in Ethiopia posing a significant threat to public health. Regular surveillance by skin test, bacteriology and molecular methods is not feasible due to lack of resource. Thus, routine abattoir (RA inspection will continue to play a key role for national surveillance. We evaluated efficiency of RA inspection for diagnosis of Mycobacterium bovis infection and discussed its public health implications in light of a high risk of human exposure. Methods The study was conducted in five abattoirs: Addis Ababa, Adama, Hawassa, Yabello and Melge-Wondo abattoirs. The efficiency of routine abattoir (RA inspection was validated in comparison to detailed abattoir (DA inspection, followed by culture and microscopy (CM and region of difference (RD deletion analysis. Diagnostic accuracies (with corresponding measures of statistical uncertainty were determined by computing test property statistics (sensitivity and specificity and likelihood estimations using web-based SISA diagnostic statistics software. Post-test probability of detecting TB infected carcasses was estimated using nomograms. Agreement between RA and DA inspections was measured using kappa statistics. The study was conducted and reported in accordance with standards for reporting of diagnostic accuracy (STARD requirements. Both routine and detailed meat inspection protocols were performed on a subpopulation of 3322 cattle selected randomly from among 78,269 cattle slaughtered during the study period. Three hundred thirty seven carcasses identified through detailed meat inspection protocols were subjected to culture and microscopy; of the 337, a subset of 105 specimens for culture and microscopy were subjected to further molecular testing. Results There was a substantial agreement between RA and DA inspections in Addis Ababa (Kappa = 0.7 and Melge-Wondo abattoirs (Kappa = 0.67. In Adama, Hawassa and Yabello
Studies to determine the current status and efficiency of artificial insemination (AI) were undertaken by the National Artificial Insemination Centre (NAIC) of Ethiopia on 52 dairy farms (4 large and 48 small-to-medium farms) located around Addis Ababa. Milk samples were collected from 417 cows on the day of AI (day 0), and on days 10-12 and 21-23 after AI. A total of 1085 samples were assayed for the concentration of progesterone using radioimmunoassay (RIA). Data pertaining to the farm, inseminated cow, the inseminator and semen batch were recorded. Rectal palpation was done to check for pregnancy two months after AI. The overall mean interval from calving to first service was 161.7 ± 139.8 days. Cows that calved during March to August, coinciding with wet weather when the availability and quality of feed is good, had shorter intervals to first service than those that calved during the rest of the year. Results from RIA showed that 89% of the cows had low progesterone on day 0, indicating that they were in the follicular phase or anoestrous. However, only 49% of the cows had elevated progesterone on day 10, indicating that an ovulatory oestrus had occurred at the time of AI. The results from all three milk samples indicated that 45% of the cows were likely to have conceived, but only 39% were later confirmed pregnant by manual palpation. A survey was done on seven medium to large farms on the costs and benefits of a service for early non-pregnancy diagnosis and infertility management using progesterone RIA. The overall mean calving interval was 435 days, which was 70 days longer than the optimum interval of 365 days. In most farms, 50% or more of the total expenses were for feed purchases, with expenses for health care and AI services accounting for only 5%. The profit, as a percentage of income, ranged from - 4% to 50% in the seven farms. The cost of determining the progesterone concentration in one milk sample was calculated to be $8, of which 43% was
Gediwon Negash; Yonathan Kebede; Segewkal Hawaze
Background: The emergency unit is a high risk environment for inappropriate medication use due to stressors and time sensitive nature of the service. Objective: To assess incidence and type of Medication Errors in Tikur Anbesa Specialized Hospital. Materials and Methods: A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted on the interventions by prescribing physicians and attending nurses for patients seen at the emergency unit of Tikur Anbesa Specialized Hospital from May 2-20, 2011. Data ...
Conclusion: Incidence and types of medication errors committed in Tikur Anbesa Specialized Hospital Adult Emergency Unit were substantiated; moreover, necessary information on factors within the healthcare delivery system that predispose healthcare professionals to commit errors have been pointed, which should be addressed by healthcare professionals through multidisciplinary efforts and involvement of decision makers at national level.
Full Text Available Street children worldwide do not have the information, skills, health services, and support they need to go through sexual development during adolescence. This study is undertaken to systematically investigate the fit between street children’s sexual and reproductive health needs and the existing services. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 422 street children and four service providers. About 72.5% of the respondents were sexually active during data collection and 84.3% of males and 85.7% of females tended to have multiple sexual partners. More than two-thirds (67.3% of the participants had used at least one type of substance. History of substance use (OR = 2.5; 95% CI = 1.42–4.56 and being on the street for the first one to three years (OR = 5.9; 95% CI = 1.41–7.22 increased the likelihood of having sexual activity. More than half (64.9% of the street children did not attend any kind of sexual or reproductive health education programs. Lack of information on available services (26.5% was the biggest barrier for utilization of local sexual and reproductive health services. From the individual interview with coordinator, the financial and networking problems were hindering the service delivery for street children. In conclusion, street children who are special high risk group have not been targeted and hence continue to remain vulnerable and lacking in sexual and reproductive health services and sexual health services are poorly advertised and delivered to them.
Moges, Tamirat; Gedlu, Etsegenet; Isaakidis, Petros; Kumar, Ajay; Den, Rafael Van; Khogali, Mohammed; Mekasha, Amha; Hinderaker, Sven Gudmund
Introduction Infective endocarditis is an infection of the endocardial lining of the heart mainly associated with congenital and rheumatic heart disease. Although it is a rare disease in children, it is associated with high morbidity and mortality; death due to infective endocarditis has been reported to be as high as 26% in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods This was a retrospective review of routinely collected data from patient records. Results A total of 40 children (71% female) with 41 episodes...
In most societies, heterosexuality is the dominant way of expressing sexuality and masculinity and those men outside of it are stigmatised and discriminated against. This paper explores the sexual lives of men who have sex with men and the personal and social conflicts that arise as they attempt to both live up to societal expectations and manage their sexual desires. It critically explores how an overriding heteronormativity structures and influences men's perception and understanding of sexuality and masculinity/femininity. The paper draws on data from 24 in-depth/life history interviews, one focus group discussion and ethnographic observation conducted between July 2006 and June 2007. The study reveals that powerful and dominating beliefs about heteronormativity and masculinity result in men who have sex with men dealing with a number of issues of personal conflict and contradiction resulting in uncertainty, resentment, ambivalence, worry and discomfort. Heteronormativity or the expectations of parents, community and society at large is far more influential on the sexuality of men who have sex with men than their own individual desires and needs. The paper concludes that there is little room for individuality for Ethiopian men who have sex with men with their sexual bodies 'belonging' to parents, families and to society at large. PMID:21246428
Demelash Habtamu; Addisie Adamu
Street children worldwide do not have the information, skills, health services, and support they need to go through sexual development during adolescence. This study is undertaken to systematically investigate the fit between street children's sexual and reproductive health needs and the existing services. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 422 street children and four service providers. About 72.5% of the respondents were sexually active during data collection and 84.3% of males and...
Mungube, E O; Tenhagen, B A; Regassa, F; Kyule, M N; Shiferaw, Y; Kassa, T; Baumann, M P O
The objective of the study was to estimate the losses associated with subclinical mastitis (SCM) in crossbred dairy cows in the Central Highlands of Ethiopia. A split udder investigation was performed with 30 cows to determine production losses associated with SCM. Each quarter of the study cows was examined using the California Mastitis Test (CMT) and quarter milk production was measured over a period of 8 days. Production losses were determined for different CMT scores by comparing production of quarters with CMT score 0 to quarters with CMT scores trace, 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Using data from a recently published study, economic losses were determined for different farm sizes and production subsystems by multiplying the prevalence of the respective CMT scores with the production losses associated with these CMT scores. Mean quarter milk production was 0.82 +/- 0.40 kg per milking in the split udder trial. Milk production was reduced by 1.2%, 6.3%, and 33% in quarters with CMT scores 1+, 2+, and 3+, respectively. Using data from the published study, a quarter with SCM lost an average of 17.2% of its milk production. Production losses associated with SCM were estimated at 5.6% for the Addis Ababa Milk Shed. Stratified losses were highest (9.3%) in urban dairy farms (UDF) and small-scale farms (6.3%). The estimates of the financial losses ranged from US dollars 29.1 in dairy herds in secondary towns (DHIST) to US dollars 66.6 in UDF. A total loss of US dollars 38 was estimated for each cow per lactation. Reducing mastitis in UDF (highest prevalence) to the level of DHIST (lowest prevalence) could reduce the loss by US dollars 35. As this does not include costs associated with treatment or culling of diseased cows, this figure probably underestimates the possible benefits of control measures. PMID:16248222
The application of Nuclear Techniques in Ethiopia started in the early sixties in the medical field and through time has gradually expanded to other areas. Following this growth the practice of Occupational Radiation Protection in Ethiopia dates back over 15 years. Radiation Protection service was initiated as a result of the introduction of irradiation techniques for biological researches at the University of Addis Ababa. The service was extended to the users of ionizing radiation mostly for workers in x-ray departments of hospitals in the country with out any regulatory mandate and legal infrastructure. Radiation Protection Legislation 79/1993 was promulgated in December 1993, which has established an Autonomous Regulatory Authority to control and supervise the introduction and conduct of any practice involving ionizing radiation and inter-alia to ensure Occupational Radiation Protection. Since 1998 the National Radiation Protection Authority has made a remarkable progress in terms of building a National Radiation Protection Infrastructure and is in a full swing transformation process towards a dynamic credible and competent regulatory Authority. The regulatory activities are designed in line with the main regulatory instruments, Notification, Authorization, Inspection and Enforcement. NRPA has a national inventory system and fully implemented the Regulatory Authority Information System (RAIS), which provides a systemic integration and will be instrumental to enhance the effectiveness of the regulatory system. A substantial progress has been made in the development and provision of support and technical services in the areas of Metrology and Calibration Services, Instrument maintenance service, Individual Monitoring of Personnel, Environmental and Food Monitoring and Interim Storage Facility for spent sources. Development of a national system for emergency preparedness and response is the top agenda of NRPA. Towards ensuring the occupational Radiation Protection
Krömer, Pavel; Snasel, Vaclav
This volume contains accepted papers presented at AECIA2014, the First International Afro-European Conference for Industrial Advancement. The aim of AECIA was to bring together the foremost experts as well as excellent young researchers from Africa, Europe, and the rest of the world to disseminate latest results from various fields of engineering, information, and communication technologies. The first edition of AECIA was organized jointly by Addis Ababa Institute of Technology, Addis Ababa University, and VSB - Technical University of Ostrava, Czech Republic and took place in Ethiopia's capital, Addis Ababa.
Mauerhofer, Lukas; Reynard, Emmanuel; Asrat, Asfawossen; Hurni, Hans; Wildlife Conservation Authority, Ethiopian
vulnerable to human encroachment. The educational interest of most sites is high but interpretation facilities are absent. With some minor adjustments, the application of the inventory method (Reynard et al., 2015) to the SMNP has proven successful and can be recommended for application to other areas in developing countries of similar well-documented geomorphology. However, the method could prove too complex for areas where basic knowledge on geomorphology is poor, as is often the case in developing countries. Based on previous studies (in particular Asrat et al. 2012) and results of the current inventory, a road map for SMNP geomorphosite management was proposed. Eight strategic objectives and working tasks were considered, which include the development of geotourism products such as geotourist maps, geo-trails and guidebooks, geo-trekking, geo-sightseeing tours, and interpretive panels as well as the training of geo-guides and capacity building of the park staff and specific management of the Lemalemo site, one of the most accessible geosites in the park. The overall goal is to raise awareness on the rich geomorphological heritage through geotourism development and empowerment of locals and thus to contribute to long-term protection of the geomorphosites. In conclusion the study revealed important potential for sustainable rural development in the Simen. Applied research will be necessary on how exactly the promotion products should be developed. References Asrat, A., Demissie, M., Mogessie, A. (2008). Geotourism in Ethiopia: archaelogical and ancient cities, religious and cultural centres: Yeha, Axum, Wukro, and Lalibela. Addis Ababa: Shama Books. Asrat, A., Demissie, M., Mogessie, A. (2012). Geoheritage conservation in Ethiopia: the case of the Simien Mountains. Quaestiones Geographicae, 31(1), 7-23. doi:10.2478/v10117-012-0001-0. Reynard E., Perret A., Bussard J., Grangier L., Martin S. (2015). Integrated approach for the inventory and management of geomorphological
Effectiveness and Safety of Low Dose Vaginal Misoprostol Compared to Trans Cervical Foley Catheter for Cervical Ripening and Induction of Labor in Post Term Pregnant Women Admitted to Gandi Memorial Hospital, Addis Ababa and Felege Hiwot Referral Hospital, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia
Full Text Available Background: Post term pregnancy is one of the common indications of induction of labor in contemporary obstetric practice. However, the majority of women with post term pregnancy have unfavorable cervices. Therefore, it is mandatory to achieve cervical ripening in this group of women before proceeding to labor induction. These cervical ripening methods often result in onset of labor which makes them also labor inducing agents. There is paucity of studies comparing the effectiveness and safety of the aforementioned methods. Thus, this study compared the effectiveness and safety of low dose vaginal misoprostol with trans cervical Foley catheter for cervical ripening and induction of labor in post term pregnant women. Method: The study was conducted from January to December 2014 at Gandi Memorial Hospital and Felege Hiwot Referral Hospital. Quasi-experimental study design was employed and 111 post term pregnant women were enrolled to each group of cervical ripening methods. Foley catheter, number 18 gauge, was inserted trans cervically and inflated with 50 ml of normal saline in women of group I at FHRH. Women in group II received 25 μg of misoprostol vaginally every 6 hrs for a maximum of 2 doses at GMH. Oxytocin infusion began when an indication comes to picture. Results were tabulated and statistically analyzed. Results: Baseline obstetric variables such as gestational age and parity were not statistically different in both groups. Maternal age was found to be statistically significant (28.40 vs. 26.02 yrs; P=0.000. Change in Bishop score is marginally significant in favour of the Foley catheter group even after controlling for maternal age (5.67 vs. 5.33; P=0.040. Vaginal delivery within 24 hours and ripening to delivery intervals were not statistically different in both groups. Rate of vaginal delivery was found to be marginally significant being higher in the Foley catheter group (84.7% vs. 72.2%; P=0.013. When stratified for parity, the significance was in multiparous women (93.4% vs. 78.3%; P=0.012. Need for oxytocin was significantly higher in the Foley catheter group (75.7% vs. 43.2%; P<0.0001. Indications for caesarean section were NRFHRP and failed induction, no statistical difference was seen in both groups. Uterine tachysystole with FHR abnormality (0 vs. 12.6%; P<0.001 and abnormal FHR is significantly higher in the Misoprostol group (6.3% vs. 26.1%; P<0.0001. More importantly 3 cases of uterine rupture with 2 intrapartal fetal loss were encountered in the misoprostol group and all were multiparous women. Both groups were not statistically different for rates of meconium stained amniotic fluid, neonatal birthweight, low APGAR scores and NICU admissions. Furthermore 3 cases and 1 case of ENND occurred in the Misoprostol and Foley catheter group respectively. There were no cases of chorioamnionitis, endomyometritis, uterine atony and maternal death in both groups. Recommendation: Foley catheter is relatively better in ripening the cervix with more need for oxytocin compared to misoprostol in post term pregnancy. Safety issues need to be taken into account while deciding to use misoprostol as a cervical ripening agent especially for multiparous post term pregnant women. Foley catheter with 50 ml volume inflation is used for multiparous post term pregnant women. Either method can be used in nulliparous ones based on individual clinical judgement. Randomized controlled trial with larger sample size needs to be conducted in the future.
Negeri KG; Halemariam D
Keneni Gutema Negeri,1 Damen Halemariam,21School of Public and Environmental Health, Health Service Management Unit, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Hawassa University, Hawassa, 2College of Medicine and Health Sciences, School of Public Health, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Introduction: Data on the effect of health aid on the health status in developing countries are inconclusive. Moreover, studies on this issue in sub-Saharan Africa are scarce. Therefore, this stud...
Ni, Xiaopeng; Branch, Robert Maribe
The authors discuss topics appropriate for augmenting the ADDIE paradigm for instructional design. The topics selected are based on data from a study of working professionals who successfully completed an instructional design and technology certificate program and who identified related topics that they regarded as beneficial. The participants…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Urinary tract infection (UTI is a common health problem among pregnant women. Proper investigation and prompt treatment are needed to prevent serious life threatening condition and morbidity due to urinary tract infection that can occur in pregnant women. Recent report in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia indicated the prevalence of UTI in pregnant women was 11.6 % and Gram negative bacteria was the predominant isolates and showed multi drug resistance. This study aimed to assess bacterial profile that causes urinary tract infection and their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern among pregnant women visiting antenatal clinic at University of Gondar Teaching Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted at University of Gondar Teaching Hospital from March 22 to April 30, 2011. Mid stream urine samples were collected and inoculated into Cystine Lactose Electrolyte Deficient medium (CLED. Colony counts yielding bacterial growth of 105/ml of urine or more of pure isolates were regarded as significant bacteriuria for infection. Colony from CLED was sub cultured onto MacConkey agar and blood agar plates. Identification was done using cultural characteristics and a series of biochemical tests. A standard method of agar disc diffusion susceptibility testing method was used to determine susceptibility patterns of the isolates. Results The overall prevalence of UTI in pregnant women was 10.4 %. The predominant bacterial pathogens were Escherichia coli 47.5 % followed by coagulase-negative staphylococci 22.5 %, Staphylococcus aureus 10 %, and Klebsiella pneumoniae 10 %. Gram negative isolates were resulted low susceptibility to co-trimoxazole (51.9 % and tetracycline (40.7 % whereas Gram positive showed susceptibility to ceftriaxon (84.6 % and amoxicillin–clavulanic acid (92.3 %. Multiple drug resistance (resistance to two or more drugs was observed in 95 % of the isolates. Conclusion
Shiferaw, Solomon; Spigt, Mark; Tekie, Michael; Abdullah, Muna; Fantahun, Mesganaw; Dinant, Geert-Jan
Background Although there are studies showing that mobile phone solutions can improve health service delivery outcomes in the developed world, there is little empirical evidence that demonstrates the impact of mHealth interventions on key maternal health outcomes in low income settings. Methods A non-randomized controlled study was conducted in the Amhara region, Ethiopia in 10 health facilities (5 intervention, 5 control) together serving around 250,000 people. Health workers in the intervention group received an android phone (3 phones per facility) loaded with an application that sends reminders for scheduled visits during antenatal care (ANC), delivery and postnatal care (PNC), and educational messages on dangers signs and common complaints during pregnancy. The intervention was developed at Addis Ababa University in Ethiopia. Primary outcomes were the percentage of women who had at least 4 ANC visits, institutional delivery and PNC visits at the health center after 12 months of implementation of the intervention. Findings Overall 933 and 1037 women were included in the cross-sectional surveys at baseline and at follow-up respectively. In addition, the medical records of 1224 women who had at least one antenatal care visit were followed in the longitudinal study. Women who had their ANC visit in the intervention health centers were significantly more likely to deliver their baby in the same health center compared to the control group (43.1% versus 28.4%; Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR): 1.98 (95%CI 1.53–2.55)). A significantly higher percentage of women who had ANC in the intervention group had PNC in the same health center compared to the control health centers (41.2% versus 21.1%: AOR: 2.77 (95%CI 2.12–3.61)). Conclusions Our findings demonstrated that a locally customized mHealth application during ANC can significantly improve delivery and postnatal care service utilization possibly through positively influencing the behavior of health workers and their
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false ADDI allocation formula. 92.604... allocation formula. (a) General. HUD will provide ADDI funds to participating jurisdictions in amounts determined by the formula described in this section. (b) Allocation to states that are...
Tiruneh, Yordanos M.; Galárraga, Omar; Genberg, Becky; Wilson, Ira B.
Background Poor retention in HIV care challenges the success of antiretroviral therapy (ART). This study assessed how well patients stay in care and explored factors associated with retention in the context of an initial ART rollout in Sub-Saharan Africa. Methods We conducted a mixed-methods study at a teaching hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A cohort of 385 patients was followed for a median of 4.6 years from ART initiation to lost-to-follow-up (LTFU—missing appointments for more than three months after last scheduled visit or administrative censoring). We used Kaplan-Meier plots to describe LTFU over time and Cox-regression models to identify factors associated with being LTFU. We held six focus group discussions, each with 6–11 patients enrolled in care; we analyzed data inductively informed by grounded theory. Results Patients in the cohort were predominantly female (64%) and the median age was 34 years. Thirty percent were LTFU by study’s end; the median time to LTFU was 1,675 days. Higher risk of LTFU was associated with baseline CD4 counts 200 cells/μL (HR = 1.62; 95% CI:1.03–2.55; and HR = 2.06; 95% CI:1.15–3.70, respectively), compared with patients with baseline CD4 counts of 100–200 cells/μL. Bedridden participants at ART initiation (HR = 2.05; 95% CIs [1.11–3.80]) and those with no or only primary education (HR = 1.50; 95% CIs [1.00–2.24]) were more likely to be LTFU. Our qualitative data revealed that fear of stigma, care dissatisfaction, use of holy water, and economic constraints discouraged retention in care. Social support and restored health and functional ability motivated retention. Conclusion Complex socio-cultural, economic, and health-system factors inhibit optimum patient retention. Better tracking, enhanced social support, and regular adherence counseling addressing stigma and alternative healing options are needed. Intervention strategies aimed at changing clinic routines and improving patient–provider communication
This book takes an informal and in-depth look at the five steps of the ADDIE model - Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation and Evaluation - as used in library training programmes. With hints and tips and practical advice from other trainers, the aims of the book are to (1) make the training of library patrons a simple task and (2) to show library staff that training can be rewarding and extremely satisfying. Anyone who has had to design a library training programme will know that it can be quite a daunting task without guidelines, but when it comes to the various learning theories and
Urbaniak, M.; Zerihun Negussie, Y.; Zalewski, M.
The transfer of dioxins along river continuum is a well know process which indicated permanent increase of their content in the river sediments. Despite this, there is still lack of empirical data highlighting the role of lakes and reservoirs in dioxins transfer along river continuum. Using the ecohydrology as a framework for water problem solving, the reduction of dioxins bioaccumulation in aquatic food chain should be based on two steps: 1) a reduction of dioxins emission to the water ecosystems and 2) an understanding of the role that the factors determining dioxins accumulation, transportation and transformation in the river and lake/reservoir system play for implementation of ecohydrological biotechnologies and system solutions. From limnological perspective lakes and reservoirs are considered as traps for organic and mineral sediments and bounded with them nutrients and other polluting substances. As effect of long term ecological succession the amount of sedimented matter, nutrients and loads and concentrations of pollutants usually increases. Such situation was observed in Asella lake, located in the Arsi zone of the Oromia region about 175 kilometers from Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. As the results of above processes the high concentration of dioxin concentrations in the sediments was observed, inducing decline in the water resources use. During this study the spatial pattern of dioxins concentration and toxicity (measured as WHO TEQ concentration) in the sediments of Asella river and lake taken before (in 2009) and after (in 2010) construction of Sequentional BioFiltering System (SBFS) were compared. The determination of dioxin concentrations were followed according to US EPA 1613 and 1668 Methods. Among the samples collected in the 2009 year, the contamination of lake sediments amounted for 127.65 ng kg-1 dry weight (d.w.), whereas concentration of dioxins in samples taken at the lake outflow decreased to the value of 26.65 ng kg-1 d.w. The WHO
Background Though child sexual abuse is a universal phenomenon, only reported cases of the incidence are common source of information to get insight on how to understand the problem. Besides, investigating complaints presented by victims themselves would be a stepping stone for designing prevention and rehabilitation programs. The objective of this study was to identify the nature of sexual incidence and experience victims face. Methods The research was conducted by collecting reported child ...
Foster, Andrea L.
Learning is valuable, but in Africa it is more than that: It is prohibitively expensive. In Ethiopia, where the per-capita income is about $100 a year, a single textbook at Addis Ababa University can cost $50. To get more textbooks to students in developing nations, two people are leading an ambitious project to produce and freely distribute 1,000…
Habteyes Hailu Tola
Full Text Available Background: Psychological distress is the major comorbidity among tuberculosis (TB patients. However, its magnitude, associated factors, and effect on treatment outcome have not been adequately studied in low-income countries. Objective: This study aimed to determine the magnitude of psychological distress and its effect on treatment outcome among TB patients on treatment. Design: A follow-up study was conducted in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, from May to December 2014. Patients (N=330 diagnosed with all types of TB who had been on treatment for 1–2 months were enrolled consecutively from 15 randomly selected health centers and one TB specialized hospital. Data on sociodemographic variables and economic status were collected using a structured questionnaire. The presence of psychological distress was assessed at baseline (within 1–2 months after treatment initiation and end point (6 months after treatment initiation using the 10-item Kessler (K-10 scale. Alcohol use and tobacco smoking history were assessed using WHO Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test and Australian Smoking Assessment Checklist, respectively. The current WHO TB treatment outcome definition was used to differentiate the end result of each patient at completion of the treatment. Results: The overall psychological distress was 67.6% at 1–2 months and 48.5% at 6 months after treatment initiation. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that past TB treatment history [adjusted odds ratio (AOR: 3.76; 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.67–8.45], being on anti-TB and anti-HIV treatments (AOR: 5.35; 95% CI: 1.83–15.65, being unmarried (AOR: 4.29; 95% CI: 2.45–7.53, having alcohol use disorder (AOR: 2.95; 95% CI: 1.25–6.99, and having low economic status (AOR: 4.41; 95% CI: 2.44–7.97 were significantly associated with psychological distress at baseline. However, at 6 months after treatment initiation, only being a multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB patient (AOR: 3
Biadglegne, Fantahun; Tesfaye, Weghata; Anagaw, Belay; Tessema, Belay; Debebe, Tewodrose; Anagaw, Berhanu; Mulu, Andargachew; Sack, Ulrich; Rodloff, Arne C
Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the most serious public health challenges in Ethiopia. Indeed, Ethiopia ranks 7th among 22 countries with a high burden of TB worldwide. Both pulmonary TB and extrapulmonary TB (EPTB) are issues of concern. Ethiopia ranks 3rd in terms of the number of EPTB patients worldwide, with TB lymphadenitis (TBL) being the most common. According to the World Health Organization's Global TB Report 2009, the estimated number of TB patients in Ethiopia was 314,267 in 2007, with an estimated incidence rate of 378 patients per 100,000 population. Furthermore, 36% patients suffered from EPTB, with TBL accounting for 80% of these patients. In Ethiopia, pathological services, culture, and drug susceptibility testing for mycobacterium species are not available as routine tests, not even for cases with suspected infection by drug-resistant strains. Therefore, the management of multidrug-resistant (MDR) TB in Ethiopia is currently unsatisfactory. Against this background, a high index of clinical doubt and timely use of diagnostic methods, prompt confirmation of diagnosis, and early initiation of specific anti-TB treatment are the key factors for the successful management of MDR-TB and TBL in Ethiopia. PMID:23883834
Ahmed, Mohamed A. M.; Ehui, Simeon; Yemesrach, Assefa
Ethiopia holds large potential for dairy development due to its large livestock population, the favorable climate for improved, high-yielding animal breeds, and the relatively disease-free environment for livestock. Given the considerable potential for smallholder income and employment generation from high-value dairy products, development of the dairy sector in Ethiopia can contribute significantly to poverty alleviation and nutrition in the country. Like other sectors of the economy, the da...
This article analyzes community health workers' (CHW) capacities for empathic service within an AIDS treatment program in Addis Ababa. I show how CHWs' capacities to build relationships with stigmatized people, reconcile family disputes, and confront death draw on a constellation of values, desires, and emotions encouraged by CHWs' families and religious teachings. I then examine the ways in which the capacities of CHWs were valued by the institutions that deployed them. NGO and government officials recognized that empathic care was crucial to both saving and improving the quality of people's lives. These institutional actors also defended a policy of not financially remunerating CHWs, partly by constructing their capacities as so valuable that they become "priceless" and therefore only remunerable with immaterial satisfaction. Positive change within CHW programs requires ethnographic analysis of how CHWs exercise capacities for empathic care as well as consideration of how global health institutions value these capacities. PMID:25257547
Mengistu Tsidu, G.; Blumenstock, T.; Hase, F.
Water vapour is one of the most important greenhouse gases. Long-term changes in the amount of water vapour in the atmosphere need to be monitored not only for its direct role as a greenhouse gas but also because of its role in amplifying other feedbacks such as clouds and albedo. In recent decades, monitoring of water vapour on a regular and continuous basis has become possible as a result of the steady increase in the number of deployed global positioning satellite (GPS) ground-based receivers. However, the Horn of Africa remained a data-void region in this regard until recently, when some GPS ground-receiver stations were deployed to monitor tectonic movements in the Great Rift Valley. This study seizes this opportunity and the installation of a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) at Addis Ababa to assess the quality and comparability of precipitable water vapour (PWV) from GPS, FTIR, radiosonde and interim ECMWF Re-Analysis (ERA-Interim) over Ethiopia. The PWV from the three instruments and the reanalysis show good correlation, with correlation coefficients in the range from 0.83 to 0.92. On average, GPS shows the highest PWV followed by FTIR and radiosonde observations. ERA-Interim is higher than all measurements with a bias of 4.6 mm compared to GPS. The intercomparison between GPS and ERA-Interim was extended to seven other GPS stations in the country. Only four out of eight GPS stations included simultaneous surface pressure observations. Uncertainty in the model surface pressure of 1 hPa can cause up to 0.35 mm error in GPS PWV. The gain obtained from using observed surface pressure in terms of reducing bias and strengthening correlation is significant but shows some variations among the GPS sites. The comparison between GPS and ERA-Interim PWV over the seven other GPS stations shows differences in the magnitude and sign of bias of ERA-Interim with respect to GPS PWV from station to station. This feature is also prevalent in diurnal and seasonal
Sri Adelila Sari; Halimatun Sakdiah
This study aimed to develop a media mind mapping through ADDIE model in teaching the flooding material. The samples that used were students of class X-3 Madrasah Aliyah (MA) Darul Ulum totaling 30 students. This type of study was the Research and Development (R & D) by using ADDIE models. Data collected by using mind mapping sheets that students' work. Data was analyzed by descriptive statistics. Results of this study found that in developing mind mapping media through five stages, namely...
Kassa, Sophia Chanyalew
This study is about the health seeking behavior of street children and the ways in which government health care system is responding to meeting their needs and rights in Addis Ababa,Ethiopia. More specifically it seeks to explore how health is perceived by street children, identify the major health problems/needs of street children, and examine the commitment of the government in addressing the rights of street children to health care provision, according to UNCRC (United Nations Convention o...
This report summarizes the proceedings from a workshop, the first in the region designed to foster a multi-sectoral approach to development energy services for poverty reduction, held at the Hilton Hotel in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, October 23-25, 2002. It was co-organized by the World Bank-UNDP sponsored Energy Sector Management Assistance Program (ESMAP) and the World Bank Africa Energy Un...
Bashford, Tom; Reshamwalla, Sophie; McAuley, Jacqueline; Allen, Nikole H; McNatt, Zahirah; Gebremedhen, Yohannes D
Background The WHO Surgical Safety Checklist has a growing evidence base to support its role in improving perioperative safety, although its impact is likely to be directly related to the effectiveness of its implementation. There remains a paucity of documented experience from low-resource settings on Checklist implementation approaches. We report an implementation strategy in a public referral hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, based on consultation, local leadership, formal introduction, a...
This study is published in advance of the major negotiations which will take place during 2015 on reforming concessional financing, most notably the Third International Conference on Financing for Development in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. While this conference aims to address the broader issues of financing, calculating concessionality and what should be considered official development assistance (ODA), by including within it the various financial instruments which boost development finance in a ...
郭书法; 权继振; 汪田田
After introducing some domestic and overseas researches about the instructional design , this paper integrates ADDIE instructional model into EMP (English for Medical Purposes ) teaching and demonstrates the key elements and their re-lationship in medical students teaching procedure by conducting the case study of ADDIE model in EMP teaching .The results of EMP teaching with ADDIE instructional model are satisfying , the author also suggests that EMP teaching is special in ADDIE model because it is a language teaching process , all the elements in ADDIE model are dynamic and ADDIE instructional model is a generative, responsive and validating process .% 介绍了国内外关教学设计及其模型的相关研究,把ADDIE教学设计模型引入EMP(English for Medical Purposes)教学,旨在分析个变量之间的关系,优化课堂教学效果。通过ADDIE教学设计模型在EMP教学中的实践研究,探讨了EMP教学中ADDIE教学设计模型各要素的内涵和相互关系。研究发现ADDIE教学设计模型在EMP的教学卓有成效,同时指出EMP作为语言的特殊性,ADDIE教学设计环节的动态变化和ADDIE教学设计模型的生成性、回应性及验证性等内在特点。
This document reviews the current nuclear program in Ethiopia, identifying the peaceful uses of nuclear technology in the country and possible future technical cooperation activities. Separate brief sections deal with food and agriculture; human health; water and geothermal resources; industrial applications and instrumentation; radiation protection; higher education; programming, coordination and development
This Report on Observance of Standards and Codes (ROSC) provides a review of the accounting and auditing practices and the institutions underpinning the accounting and auditing environment in the corporate sector in Ethiopia. The review drew on best international practices and makes policy recommendations aimed at improving the quality of financial reporting in the country. There are some...
The study outlines the development strategy Ethiopia will need to pursue to achieve a balanced regional progress, and indicates some policy areas for attention, as the strategy develops. It examines the recent constitutional structure, government spending, and fiscal imbalances, including the capacity constraints the country faces, and governance issues. In addition, the role of municipali...
Assefa Wendimu, Mengistu; Henningsen, Arne; Gibbon, Peter
smallholders. We apply matching methods to analyze the effects of a public sugarcane outgrower scheme in Ethiopia. Participation in the outgrower scheme significantly reduces the income and asset stocks of outgrowers who contributed irrigated land to the outgrower scheme, while the effect was insignificant for...
Ingen, van, T.; Kusters, C.S.L.; Zerfu, E.; Kefyalew, D.; Peters, B; Buizer, N.N.
This report presents the findings of the endline of the evaluation of the organisational capacity component of the MFS II country evaluations. The focus of this report is Ethiopia, CARE Ethiopia. The format is based on the requirements by the synthesis team and NWO/WOTRO. The endline was carried out in 2014. The baseline was carried out in 2012.
Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB is one of the major health problems in prisons.This study was done to assess the prevalence and determinants of active tuberculosis in Ethiopian prisons.A cross-sectional study was conducted from January 2013 to December 2013 in 13 zonal prisons. All incarcerated inmates underwent TB symptom screening according to WHO criteria. From identified TB-suspects two sputum samples were analyzed using smear microscopy and solid culture. A standardized questionnaire assessing TB risk factors was completed for each TB suspect.765 (4.9% TB suspects were identified among 15,495 inmates. 51 suspects were already on anti-TB treatment (6.67% and 20 (2.8% new culture-confirmed TB cases were identified in the study, resulting in an overall TB prevalence of 458.1/100,000 (95%CI: 350-560/100,000. Risk factors for active TB were alcohol consumption, contact with a TB case before incarceration and no window in prison cell. HIV prevalence was not different between TB suspects and active TB cases. Further, the TB burden in prisons increased with advancing distance from the capital Addis Ababa.The overall TB prevalence in Ethiopian prisons was high and extremely variable among different prisons. TB risk factors related to conditions of prison facilities and the impact of implemented TB control measures need to be further studied in order to improve TB control among inmates.
Józef Razowski; Pasquale Trematerra
Twenty six new species of Tortricidae from southeast Ethiopia are reported: Russograptis albulata sp. n., Acleris baleina sp. n., Acleris harenna sp. n., Procrica dinshona sp. n., Procrica parisii sp. n., Choristoneura palladinoi sp. n., Lozotaenia karchana sp. n., Lozotaenia sciarrettae sp. n., Endothenia ethiopica sp. n., Crotalaria albapex sp. n., Eccopsis brunneopostica sp. n., Eccopsis subincana sp. n., Megalota lygaria sp. n., Bubonoxena alatheta sp. n., Plutographa xanthala sp. n., Epi...
World Bank Group
In 2000 Ethiopia had one of the highest poverty rates in the world, with 56 percent of the population living on less than United States (U.S.) $1.25 purchasing power parity (PPP) a day. Ethiopian households experienced a decade of remarkable progress in wellbeing since then and by the start of this decade less than 30 percent of the population was counted as poor. This poverty assessment d...
Pereznieto, Paola; Jones, Nicola
Ethiopia has one of the lowest primary school enrolment rates and one of the highest illiteracy rates in the world. These rates are significantly lower than those of other similarly low-income countries. There are concerns that education quality is falling due to insufficient spending to provide more teachers and textbooks and reform the curriculum. Other key problems include disparities between regions, between boys and girls, and between rural and urban areas. It remains uncertain whether E...
This document investigates prospects for the use of index based weather insurance in Ethiopia for commercial and semi-commercial farmers. The document first summarizes the impact of risk weather risk in particular on Ethiopian agriculture and the need to balance investments in weather risk mitigation and weather risk management. Because the focus of this document is on risk management in the face of potential weather shocks, this introduction is followed by a summary of the traditional risk...
Wang, Huihui; Tesfaye, Roman; Ramana, Gandham N V; Chekagn, Chala Tesfaye
As a low-income country, Ethiopia has made impressive progress in improving health outcomes. This report examines how Ethiopia’s Health Extension Program (HEP) has contributed to the country’s move toward Univeral Health Coverage (UHC), and to shed light on how other countries may learn from Ethiopia’s experiences of HEP when designing their own path to UHC. HEP is one of the government’s UHC strategies introduced in a context of limited resources and low coverage of essential health ser...
Full Text Available Twenty six new species of Tortricidae from southeast Ethiopia are reported: Russograptis albulata sp. n., Acleris baleina sp. n., Acleris harenna sp. n., Procrica dinshona sp. n., Procrica parisii sp. n., Choristoneura palladinoi sp. n., Lozotaenia karchana sp. n., Lozotaenia sciarrettae sp. n., Endothenia ethiopica sp. n., Crotalaria albapex sp. n., Eccopsis brunneopostica sp. n., Eccopsis subincana sp. n., Megalota lygaria sp. n., Bubonoxena alatheta sp. n., Plutographa xanthala sp. n., Epinotia anepenthes sp. n., Epinotia latiloba sp. n., Coccothera triorbis sp. n., Coccothera carolae sp. n., Multiquestia aequivoca sp. n., Coniostola separata sp. n., Cydia tytthaspis sp. n., Cydia dinshoi sp. n., Cydia lathetica sp. n., Grapholita insperata sp. n., Thaumatotibia spinai sp. n. Some faunistic data on the known taxa from this country are included. The material examined is too scarce to draw any zoogeographic conclusion but there are some species common to Ethiopia and the Republic of South Africa, Mozambique and Uganda or are very closely related with them. Two Acleris Hübner, 1825 described in this paper are closely allied with the Afghan species.
Hirpa, A.; Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Tesfaye, A.; Lommen, W.J.M.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Tsegaye, A.; Struik, P.C.
This study aimed to analyze the seed potato systems in Ethiopia, identify constraints and prioritize improvement options, combining desk research, rapid appraisal and formal surveys, expert elicitation, field observations and local knowledge. In Ethiopia, informal, alternative and formal seed system
A Sathiya Susuman
Full Text Available Ethiopia childhood mortality has continued to decline although at a swift pace. The drop in urban childhood mortality decline, duration of breastfeeding is the principle reason for the overall decline in mortality trends in Ethiopia. Data from the Ethiopian Demographic and Health Surveys 2000 and 2005 were used. Indirect estimation of Brass and Trussells methods were adopted. Selected demographic and socio-economic variables were included in the analysis with statistically significant effects. Findings clearly show neonatal and post neonatal mortality decline gradually. Even though, Ethiopia childhood mortality rates are still high. The result shows less than 2 years birth interval have higher infant mortality rates than higher birth interval (113 deaths per 1000. The proper spacing of births allows more time for childcare to make more maternal resources available for the care of the child and mother. Therefore, further research is urgent for regional level and national level investigation.
Full text: Radioactive exploration dates back to 1955 and since then little progress has been made. Few pits and trenches in some places show radioactive anomalies.The Wadera radioactive anomaly occurs within the lower part of Wadera series, Southern Ethiopia. As observed from a trench the anomalous bed has a thickness of 0.9-1.2 m and is made of reddish-grey thin bedded sandstones.The presence of Xenotime in arkosic sandstone points to the sedimentary origin of mineralization. It was noticed that the sandstone in the lower part of Wadera series has at places a radioactivity 2-3 times higher than adjacent gneisses. The presence of a placer of such a type in the Wadera series is probably a clue for the existence of larger deposits in the area. In 2007 geological, geochemical and geophysical surveys were conducted to identify and delineate Uranium mineralization in three localities(Kuro, Kalido and Gueti) of Werri area, southern Ethiopia. Kaolinization, silicification, epidotization and chloritization are the main types of alteration associated with different units in the area. Uranium-bearing grains which are hosted in pegmatite veins and associated with magnetite/or ilmenite were observed in the three localities. Geochemical exploration accompanied by geological mapping and radiometric survey was done by employing heavy mineral concentrate, soil, chip and trench channel sampling. Radiometric readings of total count, U,Th and K were taken using GAD-6.Soil and trench geochemical samples of the localities analyzed by ICP-MS have shown 0.1 to 3.8 ppm and 3.9 to 147 ppm Uranium and 3.5 to 104.7 ppm and 3.9 to 147ppm Thorium respectively. Radiometric reading is higher in pegmatite veins that host Uranium-bearing minerals and some course grained pegmatoidal granite varieties. The areas recognized for Uranium associations need further investigations using state-of-the-art to discover economic deposits for development and utilization of the resource. (author)
Yietagesu, Aklilu Ameha; Larsen, Helle Overgaard; Lemenih, Mulugeta
Different arrangements of decentralized forest management have been promoted as alternatives to centralized and top down approaches to halt tropical deforestation and forest degradation. Ethiopia is one of the countries piloting one of these approaches. To inform future programs and projects it is...... essential to learn from existing pilots and experiences. This paper analyses five of the pilot participatory forest management (PFM) programs undertaken in Ethiopia. The study is based on the Forest User Group (FUG) members’ analyses of the programs using selected outcome variables: forest income, change in...
Sri Adelila Sari
Full Text Available This study aimed to develop a media mind mapping through ADDIE model in teaching the flooding material. The samples that used were students of class X-3 Madrasah Aliyah (MA Darul Ulum totaling 30 students. This type of study was the Research and Development (R & D by using ADDIE models. Data collected by using mind mapping sheets that students' work. Data was analyzed by descriptive statistics. Results of this study found that in developing mind mapping media through five stages, namely: analysis, design, development, implementation and evaluation. The study concluded that the media mind mapping that have been developed and validated could be a viable and effective media used in the learning process.
This is a sector report on demographics in Ethiopia. The first part of this study puts the population issue in Ethiopia in perspective. Chapter 1 updates Ethiopia's demographic profile, looking in particular at the size of its population, its age structure, the speed at which it grows and its distribution across space. Chapter 2 explores the relationships between population growth, economi...
Casale, Carolyn Frances
Ethiopia is a developing country that has invested extensively in expanding its educational opportunities. In this expansion, there has been a drastic restructuring of its system of preparing teachers and teacher educators. Often, improving teacher quality is dependent on professional development that diversifies pedagogy (active learning). This…
The DeMPA is a methodology for assessing public debt management performance through a comprehensive set of indicators spanning the full range of government debt management functions. The DeMPA tool presents debt performance indicators along with a scoring methodology. This report pertains to a debt management performance assessment of Ethiopia in 2013, and provides an overview of strengths...
Formal financial institutions in Ethiopia have traditionally focused on the accessible urban towns leaving rural areas, where the majority of the population resides, without access to financial services. Recognizing this problem, a number of development agencies such as Redd Barna and World Vision started to provide access to financial services to the poor in rural areas in the 1980s. They...
Weldegebriel, Zerihun Berhane; Prowse, Martin
Ethiopia is vulnerable to climate change due to its limited development and dependence on agriculture. Social protection schemes like the Productive Safety Net Programme (PSNP) can play a positive role in promoting livelihoods and enhancing households’ risk management. This article examines the...
Full Text Available After thorough planning, an Ethiopian Flora Project has recently been initiated, financed by the Ethiopian Science and Technology Commission from a Swedish grant. The planning was effected by a working group including representatives of the Biology Department at Addis Ababa University and the Institute of Systematic Botany in Uppsala as well as some international experts selected by AETFAT, and was finalized by an Ethiopian Flora Committee. The project leader is Professor Tewolde Berhan G. Egziabher in Addis Ababa, assisted by an Ethiopian secretariat under the Director of the National Herbarium. A European counterpart secretariat, headed by the author, has also been organized with Dr I. Hedberg as co-ordinator. Collecting expeditions to insufficiently known areas, loans from the Addis Ababa Herbarium to collaborating taxonomists, and other activities inside Ethiopia are organized by the Ethiopian secretariat, whereas the Uppsala secretariat is responsible for the initiation and co-ordination of the taxonomic revisions and family accounts needed for the Flora. Collaborators for several of the roughly 200 families of Ethiopian vascular plants have already been secured, but many more remain to be covered. AETFAT members with specialist knowledge of the remaining families are requested to help fill the gaps in our list of contributors.
Full Text Available Catherine M Kress,1 Lisa Sharling,2 Ashli A Owen-Smith,3 Dawit Desalegn,4 Henry M Blumberg,2 Jennifer Goedken1 1Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, 2Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, 3Department of Behavioral Sciences and Health Education, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA; 4Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Addis Ababa University School of Medicine, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Background: Though cervical cancer incidence has dramatically decreased in resource rich regions due to the implementation of universal screening programs, it remains one of the most common cancers affecting women worldwide and has one of the highest mortality rates. The vast majority of cervical cancer-related deaths are among women that have never been screened. Prior to implementation of a screening program in Addis Ababa University-affiliated hospitals in Ethiopia, a survey was conducted to assess knowledge of cervical cancer etiology, risk factors, and screening, as well as attitudes and practices regarding cervical cancer screening among women’s health care providers.Methods: Between February and March 2012 an anonymous, self-administered survey to assess knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to cervical cancer and its prevention was distributed to 334 health care providers at three government hospitals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia and three Family Guidance Association clinics in Awassa, Adama, and Bahir Dar. Data were analyzed using SPSS software and chi-square test was used to test differences in knowledge, attitudes, and practices across provider type.Results: Overall knowledge surrounding cervical cancer was high, although awareness of etiology and risk factors was low among nurses and midwives. Providers had no experience performing cervical cancer screening on a routine basis with <40% having performed any type of cervical cancer screening. Reported barriers to performing screening were lack of
In Ethiopia the centrality of water is clear. With little water resources infrastructure, relatively weak management institutions and capacity, extreme hydrological variability and seasonality, and a highly vulnerable economy, Ethiopia faces an enormous challenge in building the minimum platform of water infrastructure and management capacity needed to achieve water security. But until wat...
Lensink, R.; Asenso-Okyere, K.; Bahiigwa, G.; Cao, De E.; Eriksen, S.; Jemaneh, S.; Gutu, T.; Hansen, N.; Lutz, C.; Tadesse, G.; Tefera, W.; Yirga, C.; Zerfu, E.; Berg, van der M.; Klaver, D.C.; Jacobs, J.; Hofstede, M.; Ingen, van T.; Getew, H.; Tigabu, A.; Babu, S.; Buizer, N.N.; Desalos, C.B.; Kefyalew, D.; Kusters, C.S.L.; Bulte, E.; Pradhan, M.
This report on Ethiopia is one of a series of evaluation reports, consisting of ten reports in total, reflecting the results of the jointly-organised MFS II evaluation: - Eight country reports (India, Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Uganda, Indonesia, DR Congo, Liberia, Pakistan); - A synthesis report (coveri