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Sample records for addictions self-inventory riasi

  1. Examining Factors in the Research Institute on Addictions Self-Inventory (RIASI: Associations with Alcohol Use and Problems at Assessment and Follow-Up

    Elisabeth Wells-Parker

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Impaired driving is a leading cause of alcohol-related deaths and injuries. Rehabilitation or remedial programs, involving assessment and screening of convicted impaired drivers to determine problem severity and appropriate programs, are an important component of society’s response to this problem. Ontario’s remedial program, Back on Track (BOT, involves an assessment process that includes administration of the Research Institute on Addictions Self-Inventory (RIASI to determine assignment to an education or treatment program. The purpose of this study is to identify factors within the RIASI and examine how factor scores are associated with alcohol use and problem indicators at assessment and six-month follow-up. The sample included 22,298 individuals who completed BOT from 2000 to 2005. Principal component factor analysis with varimax rotation was conducted on RIASI data and an eight factor solution was retained: (1 Negative Affect, (2 Sensation Seeking, (3 Alcohol-Quantity, (4 Social Conformity, (5 High Risk Lifestyle, (6 Alcohol Problems, (7 Interpersonal Competence, and (8 Family History. Regression analyses were conducted to examine associations between factors and alcohol and problem measures obtained at assessment and at follow-up. Most factors, except for Interpersonal Competence, were associated with more alcohol use and problems at assessment. A similar pattern was observed at 6-month follow-up, but interestingly some factors (Negative Affect, Sensation Seeking, Alcohol-Quantity and Family History predicted fewer days of alcohol use. The Interpersonal Competence factor was associated with significantly lower levels of alcohol use and problems at both assessment and follow-up. This work suggests that the RIASI provides information on several domains that have important relationships with alcohol problem severity and outcomes.

  2. Addiction.

    Naim-Feil, Jodie; Zangen, Abraham

    2013-01-01

    Drug and alcohol addiction is a debilitating disorder characterized by persistent drug-seeking behaviors despite negative physiological, medical, or social consequences. Neurobiological models of addiction propose that the reinforcing effects of addictive drugs are associated with altered neurotransmission within the reward 'mesocorticolimbic' circuitry in the brain. Immense efforts are therefore designed to target the mesocorticolimbic circuitry in attenuating drug dependence and addiction-related behaviors. Yet, to date, most addiction treatments have demonstrated only limited success in reducing addiction-related behaviors. Accumulating and compelling evidence suggests that novel nonsurgical brain stimulation techniques, such as transcranial magnetic stimulation and transcranial direct current stimulation, could serve as promising tools for indexing altered neurotransmission associated with repetitive drug use, and moreover, may hold therapeutic potential for the treatment of drug dependence and addiction-related behaviors. This chapter reviews and discusses the current and potential applications of such techniques in the study and treatment of addiction; we focus on a number of common drugs of abuse, including nicotine, alcohol, cocaine, cannabis, and ecstasy. PMID:24112928

  3. Gambling Addiction

    ... Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Gambling Addiction KidsHealth > For Teens > Gambling Addiction Print A A ... worth my time?" "What are the risks?" Gambling Addiction Some people have a higher chance of becoming ...

  4. Overcoming Addiction

    Full Text Available ... as an addiction. And it seems to be one of the hardest addictions to overcome. Bill Saxby: ... who smoke are first and foremost individuals and one thing we've learned is that there's not ...

  5. Overcoming Addiction

    Full Text Available ... but it was only ten years ago that the Surgeon General identified cigarette smoking as an addiction. And it seems to be one of the hardest addictions to overcome. Bill Saxby: My name ...

  6. [Work addiction].

    Mentzel, G

    1979-01-01

    The symptomatology of workaholism (work addiction) was presented in the form of a questionnaire and compared with other forms of addiction, especially alcoholism. Then a case was used as example to illustrate the development of the illness and its psychodynamics. The therapy procedure was also briefly explained. Moreover the psychodynamics of workaholism (work addiction) are described, once again in comparison to other addictions. Finally the author gives general guidelines for therapy. PMID:452731

  7. Exercise addiction

    Lichtenstein, Mia Beck; Christiansen, Erik; Elklit, Ask;

    2014-01-01

    Exercise addiction is characterized by excessive exercise patterns with potential negative consequences such as overuse injuries. The aim of this study was to compare eating disorder symptoms, quality of life, personality traits and attachments styles in exercisers with and without indications of...... exercise addiction. A case-control study with 121 exercisers was conducted. The exercisers were categorized into an addiction group (n=41) or a control group (n=80) on the basis of their responses to the Exercise Addiction Inventory. The participants completed the Eating Disorder Inventory 2, the Short......-Form 36, the NEO Personality Inventory Revised and the Adult Attachment Scale. The addiction group scored higher on eating disorder symptoms, especially on perfectionism but not as high as eating disorder populations. The characteristic personality traits in the addiction group were high levels of...

  8. Overcoming Addiction

    Full Text Available Announcer: It's been well-known for a long time that smoking is bad for your health, but it was only ten years ago that the Surgeon General identified cigarette smoking as an addiction. And it seems to be one of the hardest addictions ...

  9. [Gambling addiction].

    Böning, J; Meyer, G; Hayer, T

    2013-05-01

    Extensive coherent clinical, psychopathological, neurobiological and genetic similarities with substance-related addictions justify the forthcoming classification of gambling addiction under the new category "Substance Use and Addictive Disorders" in the DSM-5. Thus, gambling addiction can be regarded as the prototype of behavioral addiction. In general it should be kept in mind that isolated gambling forms are associated with varying addictive potential due to specific situational and structural game characteristics. High rates of indebtedness, suicidality, social isolation and gambling-related crime often accompany pathological gambling. As a consequence gambling addiction represents a mental disorder with a significant economic burden. In Germany 12-month prevalence rates for problem gambling in adulthood range from 0.24 % to 0.64  % and for pathological gambling from 0.20 % to 0.56 %. Because gambling products rank among the so-called demeriting (i.e. potentially harmful) social activities, player and youth protection measures to prevent gambling disorders and associated crime should be best regulated as a state monopoly. PMID:23529775

  10. Overcoming Addiction

    Full Text Available ... been well-known for a long time that smoking is bad for your health, but it was ... years ago that the Surgeon General identified cigarette smoking as an addiction. And it seems to be ...

  11. Overcoming Addiction

    Full Text Available ... a habit, it's addictive. The sad part is after you've smoked as long as I do you ... that's definitely up there. Within a few hours after you quit, that will start to come down. Bill: ...

  12. [Cocaine addiction].

    Pitchot, W; Scantamburlo, G; Pinto, E; Karila, L

    2013-01-01

    Cocaine is the second most commonly used illicit drug after cannabis in the general population. Cocaine is a powerful stimulating agent of the central nervous system and a highly addictogenic drug. Somatic and psychiatric consequences of cocaine addiction are major and clinically relevant. The increasing consumption of cocaine and the importance of its consequences justify an update of our knowledge about cocaine addiction. PMID:23888579

  13. Dealing with Addiction

    ... I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Dealing With Addiction KidsHealth > For Teens > Dealing With Addiction Print A ... is even harder. What Are Substance Abuse and Addiction? The difference between substance abuse and addiction is ...

  14. Brain and Addiction

    ... Teens / Drug Facts / Brain and Addiction Brain and Addiction Print Your Brain Your brain is who you ... is taken over and over. What Is Drug Addiction? Addiction is a chronic brain disease that causes ...

  15. [Exercise addiction].

    Petit, A; Lejoyeux, M

    2013-01-01

    Socially valorised, sport like other forms of behaviour, can take on an addictive aspect. A review of the English and French literatures from 1979 to 2012 was conducted, using PubMed, Google Scholar, EMBASE, and PsycInfo, using the following key words alone or combined :sport, dependence, exercise, addiction. Exercise dependence is defined as a craving for physical activity that leads to extreme exercise intensity and generates physiological and psychological symptoms. Measurement scales have been proposed to make the diagnosis. No epidemiological studies have examined the prevalence of exercise dependence in the general population, although some studies suggest a frequency ranging from 10 to 80%. Disorders begin with a search for pleasure in physical effort, which then gives way to an obsession for sport resulting in a need to practice a sport more and more frequently and intensely. This addiction is more common among alcohol and illicit drug addicts than among the general population, while the rate of eating disorders can reach 40%. Personality traits most often associated are perfectionism, extraversion, and sensation seeking, while possible links between sporting activity and intensive doping will be discussed. PMID:23888586

  16. Heroin Addiction

    ... collaborations that involve scientists working together with public health and safety personnel will help overcome barriers to adoption of these proven effective treatments. These advances will have a global impact not just on heroin addiction but on the spread of HIV, particularly ...

  17. Overcoming Addiction

    Full Text Available ... be one of the hardest addictions to overcome. Bill Saxby: My name is Bill Saxby. I'm 63 years old and I've smoked for 50 years, at least. Announcer: Bill is an electrician. He has tried to quit ...

  18. Tobacco Addiction

    ... Those cravings have less to do with nicotine addiction and more to do with the habit of smoking. Will I gain weight when I quit? Some people gain a few pounds. Other people lose weight. The main reason some people gain weight is because they eat more food as a substitute for smoking. You can avoid ...

  19. Drug Addiction

    Justinova, Zuzana; Panlilio, Leigh V; Goldberg, Steven R.

    2009-01-01

    Many drugs of abuse, including cannabinoids, opioids, alcohol and nicotine, can alter the levels of endocannabinoids in the brain. Recent studies show that release of endocannabinoids in the ventral tegmental area can modulate the reward-related effects of dopamine and might therefore be an important neurobiological mechanism underlying drug addiction. There is strong evidence that the endocannabinoid system is involved in drug-seeking behavior (especially behavior that is reinforced by drug-...

  20. Understanding Drug Use and Addiction

    ... Use and Addiction DrugFacts: Understanding Drug Use and Addiction Email Facebook Twitter Revised August 2016 Many people ... addiction and lead productive lives. What Is drug addiction? Addiction is a chronic disease characterized by drug ...

  1. Etiology of Food Addiction

    Öyekçin, Demet Güleç; Deveci, Artuner

    2012-01-01

    Food addiction is a new topic of focus in the scientific literature. Food intake might be concerned as food addiction in some cases, especially in obese cases and over-eaters. Addiction like behaviours are commonly observed mong these people. Recent animal, epidemiological, clinical and genetic studies partly shows the clinical validity of food addiction while the neurobiological studies focused on the similarity between the reward systems present in obesity and drug addiction. However some ...

  2. Epigenetics and addiction.

    Cadet, J L; McCoy, M T; Jayanthi, S

    2016-05-01

    Addictions are public health menaces. However, despite advances in addiction research, the cellular or molecular mechanisms that cause transition from recreational use to addiction remain to be elucidated. We have recently suggested that addiction may be secondary to long-term epigenetic modifications that determine the clinical course of substance use disorders. A better understanding of epigenetic mechanisms in animal models that mimic human conditions should help to usher in a new area of drug development against addiction. PMID:26841306

  3. Etiology of Food Addiction

    Demet Gulec Oyekcin; Artuner Deveci

    2012-01-01

    Food addiction is a new topic of focus in the scientific literature. Food intake might be concerned as food addiction in some cases, especially in obese cases and over-eaters. Addiction like behaviours are commonly observed mong these people. Recent animal, epidemiological, clinical and genetic studies partly shows the clinical validity of food addiction while the neurobiological studies focused on the similarity between the reward systems present in obesity and drug addiction. However some s...

  4. Treatment Approaches for Drug Addiction

    ... for Drug Addiction DrugFacts: Treatment Approaches for Drug Addiction Email Facebook Twitter Revised July 2016 NOTE: This ... treatment options in your state. What is drug addiction? Drug addiction is a chronic disease characterized by ...

  5. Etiology of Food Addiction

    Demet Gulec Oyekcin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Food addiction is a new topic of focus in the scientific literature. Food intake might be concerned as food addiction in some cases, especially in obese cases and over-eaters. Addiction like behaviours are commonly observed mong these people. Recent animal, epidemiological, clinical and genetic studies partly shows the clinical validity of food addiction while the neurobiological studies focused on the similarity between the reward systems present in obesity and drug addiction. However some studies still emphasizes the differences between two. The aim of this article was to review clinical and biological aspects of etiological perspectives of food addiction via available clinical, preclinical and genetic studies.

  6. [Internet addiction].

    Nakayama, Hideki; Higuchi, Susumu

    2015-09-01

    Internet technologies have made a rapid progress, bringing convenience to daily life. On the other hand, internet use disorder and internet addiction (IA) have become reportedly serious health and social problems. In 2013, internet gaming disorder criteria have been proposed in the section of Conditions for Further Study of DSM-5. Existing epidemiological studies by questionnaire methods have reported that the prevalence of IA ranges between 2.8% and 9.9% among youths in Japan. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), sleeping disorders, depression, obsessive compulsive disorder, and phobic anxiety disorder are extremely common comorbid mental disorders with IA. Some psychotherapies (e.g., cognitive behavioral therapy, motivational interviewing) and medical treatments (e.g., antidepressant drugs, methylphenidate) for comorbid mental disorders as well as rehabilitation (e.g., treatment camp) are effective for IA remission. However, some serious cases of IA may be difficult to treat, and prevention is very important. In future, the prevention, rehabilitations and treatments for IA will be more required in Japan. PMID:26394521

  7. Related Addictive Disorders.

    Buck, Tina; Sales, Amos

    This paper provides an overview of addiction related to substance abuse. It provides basic information, prevalence, diagnostic criteria, assessment tools, and treatment issues for eating disorders, compulsive gambling, sex addictions, and work addictions. Eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, especially affect adolescents.…

  8. Addiction and Will

    Brian eJohnson

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available ADDICTION AND WILLA hypothesis about the neurobiological bases of drive, drive reduction and will in addictive illness is presented. Drive reduction seems to require both SEEKING and gratification. Will is the everyday term for our experience of drives functioning within us. Addictive drugs take over the will by altering neurotransmission in the SEEKING system. As a result of this biological change, psychological defenses are arrayed that allow partial gratification and reduce anxiety about the consequences of drug use. Repeated partial gratification of the addictive drive creates a cathexis to the drug and the drug seller. It also keeps the addicted person in a permanent state of SEEKING.The cathexis to the drug and drug seller creates a difficult situation for psychoanalytic therapists. The actively addicted patient will have one set of feelings for the analyst, and a split off set of feelings for the drug dealer. Addictive neuroses, which feature a split transference, are contrasted with Freud’s concept of transference and narcissistic neuroses. For treatment of an actively addicted patient, the treater must negotiate the split transference. By analyzing the denial system the relationship with the drug dealer ends and the hostility involved in addictive behavior enters the transference where it can be interpreted.Selling drugs that take over the will is a lucrative enterprise. The addictive drug industry, about the size of the oil and gas industry worldwide, produces many patients in need of treatment. The marketers of addictive drugs understand the psychology of inducing initial ingestion of the drugs, and of managing their addicted populations. The neuropsychoanalytic understanding of addiction might be used to create more effective public health interventions to combat this morbid and mortal illness.

  9. Internet Addiction and Other Behavioral Addictions.

    Jorgenson, Alicia Grattan; Hsiao, Ray Chih-Jui; Yen, Cheng-Fang

    2016-07-01

    The Internet is increasingly influential in the lives of adolescents. Although there are many positives, there are also risks related to excessive use and addiction. It is important to recognize clinical signs and symptoms of Internet addiction (compulsive use, withdrawal, tolerance, and adverse consequences), treat comorbid conditions (other substance use disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, anxiety, depression, and hostility), and initiate psychosocial interventions. More research on this topic will help to provide consensus on diagnostic criteria and further clarify optimal management. PMID:27338971

  10. How addicts think about addiction and community problems?

    Meysamie, A; B. Faramarzi; K Holakouie Naieni

    2006-01-01

    Background: addiction and drug abuse have many risk factors in community and individual attitude; also causes much diversity in community perception and attitude toward addiction. Methods: in this study we assessed attitude toward an addict in 42 addict men and asked about problems in their community and recreational behaviors. They were residents of a rural area in Babol city. In the control group we assessed the same parameters in 268 non addicts in the same area. All of the addicts have be...

  11. What is addiction?

    Kranzler, Henry R; Li, Ting-Kai

    2008-01-01

    This issue of Alcohol Research & Health examines addiction to multiple substances--that is, combined dependence on alcohol and other drugs (AODs), including marijuana, cocaine, and opioids. It seems fitting, then, to begin the issue with a look at what constitutes "addiction." The Oxford English Dictionary (pp. 24-25) traces the term addiction to Roman law, under which addiction was a "formal giving over by sentence of court; hence, a dedication of person to a master." This notion of relinquishment of control by the addicted person is the central feature of many lay and professional definitions of the term. The study of addictive behavior crosses several disciplines, including, among others, behavioral neuroscience, epidemiology, genetics, molecular biology, pharmacology, psychology, psychiatry, and sociology. Articles in this issue examine aspects of AOD use disorders from the perspective of some of these varied disciplines. PMID:23584810

  12. Causes of Internet Addiction Disorder

    2008-01-01

    The Internet Addiction Disorder diagnostic manual approved by psychologists on November 8 divides Internet addiction into five categories,which are addiction to online games,pornography,social networking,Internet information and Internetshopping.

  13. Does Addiction Run in Families?

    ... runs in some families. Addiction runs in ours." Matt's family has a history of addiction. He realizes ... may be more likely to become addicted. Read Matt's story About the National Institute on Drug Abuse ( ...

  14. [Neurobiology of behavioral addictions].

    Kiefer, F; Fauth-Bühler, M; Heinz, A; Mann, K

    2013-05-01

    Reward learning represents a crucial mechanism in the acquisition and maintenance of addictive behavior. The underlying neurobiological foundations and associated neurobiological pathways are identified in this review and similarities between substance abuse and behavioral addictions will be discussed. In the second section current neuroimaging findings on neurobiological mechanisms of pathological gambling and computer and internet addiction are discussed. The main focuses are on changes in neurocognitive processes, such as cue reactivity, reward and punishment processing and behavioral control. PMID:23632569

  15. Anti-addiction vaccines

    Shen, Xiaoyun; Orson, Frank M.; Kosten, Thomas R.

    2011-01-01

    Despite intensive efforts to eradicate it, addiction to both legal and illicit drugs continues to be a major worldwide medical and social problem. Anti-addiction vaccines can produce the antibodies to block the effects of these drugs on the brain, and have great potential to ameliorate the morbidity and mortality associated with illicit drug intoxications. This review provides a current overview of anti-addiction vaccines that are under clinical trial and pre-clinical research evaluation. It ...

  16. CIMP Internet Addiction Guideline

    Azizah Zainudin; Marina Md Din; Marini Othman

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, Internet addiction has become a major problem to the university students. The purpose of this study is to present a guideline to helps people to overcome their Internet addiction especially for students. There were 653 university students (341 females and 312 males) from five different universities in Malaysia have completed related survey. The survey questionnaires were taken from Young?s Addiction Scale (1996) and some questions were created by the researcher. In this paper, there...

  17. Addiction and will.

    Johnson, Brian

    2013-01-01

    A hypothesis about the neurobiological bases of drive, drive reduction and will in addictive illness is presented. Drive reduction seems to require both SEEKING and gratification. Will is the everyday term for our experience of drives functioning within us. Addictive drugs take over the will by altering neurotransmission in the SEEKING system. As a result of this biological change, psychological defenses are arrayed that allow partial gratification and reduce anxiety about the consequences of drug use. Repeated partial gratification of the addictive drive creates a cathexis to the drug and the drug seller. It also keeps the addicted person in a permanent state of SEEKING. The cathexis to the drug and drug seller creates a difficult situation for psychoanalytic therapists. The actively addicted patient will have one set of feelings for the analyst, and a split off set of feelings for the drug dealer. Addictive neuroses, which feature a split transference, are contrasted with Freud's concept of transference and narcissistic neuroses. For treatment of an actively addicted patient, the treater must negotiate the split transference. By analyzing the denial system the relationship with the drug dealer ends and the hostility involved in addictive behavior enters the transference where it can be interpreted. Selling drugs that take over the will is a lucrative enterprise. The addictive drug industry, about the size of the oil and gas industry worldwide, produces many patients in need of treatment. The marketers of addictive drugs understand the psychology of inducing initial ingestion of the drugs, and of managing their addicted populations. The neuropsychoanalytic understanding of addiction might be used to create more effective public health interventions to combat this morbid and mortal illness. PMID:24062657

  18. What Is Addiction?

    Kranzler, Henry R.; Li, Ting-Kai

    2008-01-01

    This issue of Alcohol Research & Health examines addiction to multiple substances—that is, combined dependence on alcohol and other drugs (AODs), including marijuana, cocaine, and opioids. It seems fitting, then, to begin the issue with a look at what constitutes “addiction.” The Oxford English Dictionary (pp. 24–25) traces the term addiction to Roman law, under which addiction was a “formal giving over by sentence of court; hence, a dedication of person to a master.” This notion of relinquis...

  19. Pleasure and Addiction

    Jeanette Marie Kennett

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available What is the role and value of pleasure in addiction? Foddy and Savalescu (2010 have claimed that substance use is just pleasure-oriented behaviour. They describe addiction as ‘strong appetites toward pleasure’ and argue that addicts suffer in significant part because of strong social and moral disapproval of lives dominated by pleasure seeking. But such lives, they claim, can be autonomous and rational. The view they offer is largely in line with the choice model and opposed to a disease model of addiction. Foddy and Savulescu are sceptical of self-reports that emphasize the ill effects of addiction such as loss of family and possessions, or that claim an absence of pleasure after tolerance sets in. Such reports they think are shaped by social stigma which makes available a limited set of socially approved addiction narratives. We will not question the claim that a life devoted to pleasure can be autonomously chosen. Nor do we question the claim that the social stigma attached to the use of certain drugs increases the harm suffered by the user. However our interviews with addicts (as philosophers rather than health professionals or peers reveal a genuinely ambivalent and complex relationship between addiction, value and pleasure. Our subjects did not shy away from discussing pleasure and its role in use. But though they usually valued the pleasurable properties of substances, and this played that did not mean that they valued an addictive life. Our interviews distinguished changing attitudes towards drug related pleasures across the course of substance use, including diminishing pleasure from use over time and increasing resentment at the effects of substance use on other valued activities. In this paper we consider the implications of what drug users say about pleasure and value over the course of addiction for models of addiction.

  20. Internet Addiction and Psychopathology

    Koc, Mustafa

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between university students' internet addiction and psychopathology in Turkey. The study was based on data drawn from a national survey of university students in Turkey. 174 university students completed the SCL-90-R scale and Addicted Internet Users Inventory. Results show that students who use internet six…

  1. Addiction: Choice or compulsion?

    EdmundHenden

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Normative thinking about addiction has traditionally been divided between, on the one hand, a medical model which sees addiction as a disease characterized by compulsive and relapsing drug use over which the addict has little or no control and, on the other, a moral model which sees addiction as a choice characterized by voluntary behaviour under the control of the addict. Proponents of the former appeal to evidence showing that regular consumption of drugs causes persistent changes in the brain structures and functions known to be involved in the motivation of behavior. On this evidence, it is often concluded that becoming addicted involves a transition from voluntary, chosen drug use to non-voluntary compulsive drug use. Against this view, proponents of the moral model provide ample evidence that addictive drug use involves voluntary chosen behaviour. In this article we argue that although they are right about something, both views are mistaken. We present a third model that neither rules out the view of addictive drug use as compulsive, nor that it involves voluntary chosen behavior.

  2. Internet Addiction among Adolescence

    Sargin, Nurten

    2012-01-01

    Each innovation brings along many risks. One of the risks related with the Internet use is Internet addiction. The aim of this study is to examine Internet addiction in adolescence in terms of gender, Internet access at home and grades. The research design used was survey method. The study population consisted of second stage students attending…

  3. Attitudes about Addiction: A National Study of Addiction Educators

    Broadus, Angela D.; Hartje, Joyce A.; Roget, Nancy A.; Cahoon, Kristy L.; Clinkinbeard, Samantha S.

    2010-01-01

    The following study, funded by the National Institute of Drug Abuse (NIDA), utilized the "Addiction Belief Inventory" (ABI; Luke, Ribisl, Walton, & Davidson, 2002) to examine addiction attitudes in a national sample of U.S. college/university faculty teaching addiction-specific courses (n = 215). Results suggest that addiction educators view…

  4. [Functional neuroimaging of addiction].

    Takahashi, Hidehiko

    2015-09-01

    Positron emission tomography studies investigating dopamine release by drug or reward demonstrated blunted dopamine release in relation to addiction to psychostimulants such as cocaine and amphetamine. However, recent studies reported that nicotine and gambling addiction showed opposite results. Several factors such as illness stage or neurotoxicity of substances could be considered for this discrepancy. Behavioral addiction such as gambling disorder is a good target of neuroimaging because it is free from overt neurotoxicity. However, even in gambling disorder, the results of fMRI studies investigating neural response to reward are mixed. Neuroimaging together with taking the various backgrounds of patients into account should contribute not only to a better understanding of the neurobiology of addiction but also to the development of more effective and individually tailored treatment strategies for addiction. PMID:26394506

  5. How prevalent is 'food addiction'?

    Adrian eMeule

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence suggests that binge eating-related disorders could be related to addiction-like eating patterns due to the addictive potential of hyperpalatable foods. Subsequently, important implications have been derived for treatment of those disorders and even political actions. However, studies on the prevalence of food addiction are rare. Few recent studies investigated addictive eating in children, adolescents, and adults. This mini-review presents these first attempts to assess addictive eating and how prevalent addictive eating patterns were in the respective studies. It is concluded that the prevalence of food addiction is increased in obese individuals and even more so in obese patients with binge eating disorder. However, prevalence of food addiction is not sufficient to account for the obesity epidemic. Conversely, an arguably high prevalence of food addiction can also be found in under-, normal-, and overweight individuals. Future studies may investigate which factors are associated with addictive eating in non-obese individuals.

  6. Psychopharmacology of Addiction

    Tugce Toker Ugurlu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Addiction is a primary, chronic, neurobiological disease, with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development. Developments in the psychopharmacology of addiction is much slower than the other disciplines of psychiatry. For a long time, social and behavioral therapeutic approaches are the only choices for the treatment of addictive disorders. Disulfiram was the only pharmacological agent approved for addiction treatment until the end of 20th century. Pharmacological treatment options available for treatment have grown along with our understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms underlying the development and persistence of addiction. Several new medications like naltrexone, acamprosate, methadone and buprenoprhine have been approved for the treatment of alcohol and opioid use disorders ever since. Based on ever-increasing information about neurotransmitter and receptors, many studies have been performed concerning craving and relapse prevention in recent years. Besides many other pharmacological agents have been focus of new researches for treatment of different types of addiction. The aim of this article is to briefly review the literature on psychopharmacology of addictive disorders and recent developments in this area.

  7. Internet addiction: A case report

    Pejović-Milovančević Milica; Popović-Deušić Smiljka; Draganić-Gajić Saveta; Lečić-Toševski Dušica

    2009-01-01

    Some addictions cannot be connected with substance abuse (pathological) gambling, video games playing, binge eating, compulsive physical activity, emotional relationship addiction, TV addiction). Since 1995, Internet addiction has been accepted as a clinical entity with profound negative effect on social, familial, educational and economical personal functioning. The diagnosis of Internet addiction could be established if the person spends more than 38 hours per week on the Internet exempting...

  8. How addicts think about addiction and community problems?

    A. Meysamie

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: addiction and drug abuse have many risk factors in community and individual attitude; also causes much diversity in community perception and attitude toward addiction. Methods: in this study we assessed attitude toward an addict in 42 addict men and asked about problems in their community and recreational behaviors. They were residents of a rural area in Babol city. In the control group we assessed the same parameters in 268 non addicts in the same area. All of the addicts have been using opium more than many times a week at least for recent 6 months. Data collected via a semi structured questionnaire through conversation. Results: There was a significant difference between addicts’ attitude toward toward addiction compare to non-addicts’. Both addicts and non-addicts indicated that the first three community problems in their area were unemployment, lack of recreational facilities and addiction, in respective order. Answering questions about recreational activities, both groups indicated that there were no recreational facilities in the community. Conclusion: In planning a preventive approach, there is a major role for attitude toward addiction in any community. The conflict seen in this study between addicts’ attitudes toward an addicted person and addiction as a community problem has it’s interesting feature. Recreation and physical and cultural facilities need to pay more attention as indicated by our study participants. This seems to have an important impact in prevention of many community problems as well as addiction.

  9. [Online addictive disease].

    Neuenschwander, Martin

    2014-10-01

    Digital media are indispensable in school, profession, family and leisure time. 1 to 6 % of all users show dsyfunctional ans addictive patterns, first of all in online and "social" media. In Switzerland over 80 % of young people own a smartphone and "pocket internet". Time of interaction with online-media (hours/day), as well as peer group pattern are markers for risk of addiction. Active music making and sports are protective factors. Family physicians are important in early recognition of "internet addictive disease". Care-givers with special experience in this field are often successful in reducing time of harmful interaction with the internet. Internet addictive disease is not yet classified in ICD and DSM-5 lists, even though it is an increasing reality. PMID:25257114

  10. Stress and addiction.

    Hildebrandt, Tom; Greif, Rebecca

    2013-09-01

    Appetitive behaviors such as substance use and eating are under significant regulatory control by the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal (HPA) and hypothalamic pituitary gonadal (HPG) axes. Recent research has begun to examine how these systems interact to cause and maintain poor regulation of these appetitive behaviors. A range of potential molecular, neuroendocrine, and hormonal mechanisms are involved in these interactions and may explain individual differences in both risk and resilience to a range of addictions. This manuscript provides a commentary on research presented during the International Society of Psychoneuroendocrinology's mini-conference on sex differences in eating and addiction with an emphasis on how HPG and HPA axis interactions affect appetitive behaviors in classic addictions and may be used to help inform the ongoing debate about the validity of food addiction. PMID:23849597

  11. [Work: a potential addiction].

    Karila, L; Liot, K; Reynaud, M

    2010-02-01

    Although the term workaholism is widely used, there is very little consensus about its meaning. Since the seventies, workaholism has been described as a work addiction such as drug or alcohol addiction. Similarities with other addictions include craving, withdrawal, tolerance, progressive involvement, and denial. Although considerable attention has been devoted to the concept of workaholism in recent years, little empirical research has been undertaken to further the understanding of this phenomenon. The existence of different types of workaholism has been described. Questionnaires were developed to assess this concept. This heterogeneous disease has negative health, personal, family relationships and professional consequences. Many therapeutic interventions are possible for this unknown addictive trouble. The objective of this paper is to gain a better understanding and knowledge regarding the phenomenon of workaholism. Data obtained for this review are based on a Medline, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Google Scholar search of English- and French-language articles published between 1968 and 2009. PMID:20344916

  12. Computer games addiction

    Nejepínský, Adam

    2010-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with the problem of computer games addiction. The attention is paid mainly to on-line games for more players. The purpose of this thesis was to describe this problem and to check - through questionnaire investigation - if the addiction to computer games and the impacts connected with the games really deserve excessive experts and laics attention. The thesis has two parts -- theoretical and practical ones. The theoretical part describes the possibilities of diagnosin...

  13. Glutamate Transmission in Addiction

    Kalivas, Peter W.; LaLumiere, Ryan; Knackstedt, Lori; Shen, Haowei

    2008-01-01

    Cortico-striatal glutamate transmission has been implicated in both the initiation and expression of addiction related behaviors, such as locomotor sensitization and drug seeking. While glutamate transmission onto dopamine cells in the ventral tegmental area undergoes transient plasticity important for establishing addiction-related behaviors, glutamatergic plasticity in the nucleus accumbens is critical for the expression of these behaviors. This information points to the value of exploring ...

  14. Opiate addiction and cocaine addiction: underlying molecular neurobiology and genetics

    Kreek, Mary Jeanne; Levran, Orna; Reed, Brian; Schlussman, Stefan D.; Zhou, Yan; Butelman, Eduardo R.

    2012-01-01

    Addictive diseases, including addiction to heroin, prescription opioids, or cocaine, pose massive personal and public health costs. Addictions are chronic relapsing diseases of the brain caused by drug-induced direct effects and persisting neuroadaptations at the epigenetic, mRNA, neuropeptide, neurotransmitter, or protein levels. These neuroadaptations, which can be specific to drug type, and their resultant behaviors are modified by various internal and external environmental factors, including stress responsivity, addict mindset, and social setting. Specific gene variants, including variants encoding pharmacological target proteins or genes mediating neuroadaptations, also modify vulnerability at particular stages of addiction. Greater understanding of these interacting factors through laboratory-based and translational studies have the potential to optimize early interventions for the therapy of chronic addictive diseases and to reduce the burden of relapse. Here, we review the molecular neurobiology and genetics of opiate addiction, including heroin and prescription opioids, and cocaine addiction. PMID:23023708

  15. The Addict in Us All

    Brendan eDill

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we contend that the psychology of addiction is similar to the psychology of ordinary, non-addictive temptation in important respects, and explore the ways in which these parallels can illuminate both addiction and ordinary action. The incentive salience account of addiction proposed by Robinson and Berridge (1993; 2001; 2008 entails that addictive desires are not in their nature different from many of the desires had by non-addicts; what is different is rather the way that addictive desires are acquired, which in turn affects their strength. We examine these 'incentive salience' desires, both in addicts and non-addicts, contrasting them with more cognitive desires. On this account the self-control challenge faced by addicted agents is not different in kind from that faced by non-addicted agents—though the two may, of course, differ greatly in degree of difficulty. We explore a general model of self-control for both the addict and the non-addict, stressing that self-control may be employed at three different stages, and examining the ways that it might be strengthened. This helps elucidate a general model of intentional action.

  16. Understanding Drug Abuse and Addiction

    ... as family disintegration, loss of employment, failure in school, domestic violence, and child abuse. What Is Drug Addiction? Addiction is a chronic, often relapsing brain disease that causes compulsive drug seeking and use, despite harmful consequences ...

  17. [DGRW update: alcohol addiction].

    Vogelgesang, M

    2011-10-01

    First, epidemiological data and socioeconomic consequences of alcohol addiction are summarized. Research findings, in particular in intervention and evaluation, from 2009-2011 in the field of alcohol addiction treatment are then discussed concerning their relevance for rehabilitation practice. The search was based on PubMed and PSYNDEX. The interventions most frequently evaluated and found most effective in alcohol addiction treatment are cognitive-behavioural interventions. Further topics dealt with are: pharmacological relapse prevention; technologically based therapies (e. g. e-therapy); systemic interventions; 12-steps; effectiveness of addiction treatment as confirmed in large-scale catamnestic studies; treatment of addiction and comorbidity; various subgroups (like elderly people and women); as well as other new and interesting developments such as rehab case management, dovetailing of medical and vocational interventions, stepped-care interventions, rehab management category groups as well as a new focus on individual treatment experiences and the pre-eminence of the therapeutic relationship. Finally, priority areas of future research are described. PMID:21976262

  18. How prevalent is 'food addiction'?

    Adrian eMeule

    2011-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that binge eating-related disorders could be related to addiction-like eating patterns due to the addictive potential of hyperpalatable foods. Subsequently, important implications have been derived for treatment of those disorders and even political actions. However, studies on the prevalence of food addiction are rare. Few recent studies investigated addictive eating in children, adolescents, and adults. This mini-review presents these first attempts to assess ad...

  19. Exercise rehabilitation for smartphone addiction

    Kim, Hyunna

    2013-01-01

    Internet addiction after launching smartphone is becoming serious. Therefore this paper has attempted to sketch out the diverse addiction treatment and then check the feasibility of exercise rehabilitation. The reason to addict the internet or smartphone is personalized individual characters related personal psychological and emotional factors and social environmental factors around them. We have shown that 2 discernible approaches due to 2 different addiction causes: that is behavioral treat...

  20. Internet Addiction: A Logotherapeutic Approach

    Didelot, Mary J.; Hollingsworth, Lisa; Buckenmeyer, Janet A.

    2012-01-01

    Internet addiction (IA) is both the most rapidly growing addiction and the least understood addiction (Watson, 2005). For counselors, treatment issues surrounding the disease are also growing. At the forefront is the lack of understanding concerning treatment protocol to manage the challenging recovery and maintenance stages after IA behavior has…

  1. Peer Influence and Addiction Recurrence

    Paul Markdissi

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we highlight the role of peers in the recurrence of addictive behavior. To do so, we use a simple “forward looking” model with procrastination and peers influence. Our results show that while procrastination can explain the decision to postpone rehabilitation, peers influence is essential to explain the cyclical patterns of addiction-rehabilitation-addiction.

  2. [Complications of cocaine addiction].

    Karila, Laurent; Lowenstein, William; Coscas, Sarah; Benyamina, Amine; Reynaud, Michel

    2009-06-20

    Addiction is a chronic relapsing disorder characterized by repetitive and compulsive drug-seeking behavior and drug abuse despite negative health or social consequences. Cocaine addiction is a significant worldwide public health problem, which has somatic, psychological, psychiatric, socio-economic and judicial complications. Some of the most frequent complications are cardiovascular effects (acute coronary syndrome, cardiac arrhythmias, increased blood pressure); respiratory effects (fibrosis, interstitial pneumonitis, pulmonary hypertension, alveolar haemorrhage, asthma exacerbation; emphysema), neurological effects (strokes, aneurysms, seizures, headaches); risk for contracting HIV/AIDS, hepatitis B and C, sexual transmitted disease and otolaryngologic effects. Other complications are not discussed here. The vast majority of studies indicate that there are cognitive deficits induced by cocaine addiction. Attention, visual and working memories, executive functioning are affected in cocaine users. Psychiatric complications found in clinical practice are major depressive disorders, cocaine-induced paranoia, cocaine-induced compulsive foraging and panic attacks. PMID:19642439

  3. Circuit breakers for addiction.

    Foy, A

    2007-05-01

    The phenomenon of addiction is complex, although its expression clinically is relatively straightforward. There is a series of neurophysiological changes that mediate changes in the mesolimbic and mesocortical systems which in turn lead to disturbances in reward mechanisms. These then act to perpetuate the cycle of intoxication and reinforcement, withdrawal, craving and compulsive use. As our understanding of the pathophysiology of this process has improved, new pharmacological agents have been developed with the potential to moderate or even reverse it. This article briefly reviews the treatment of addiction with particular reference to emerging pharmaceutical agents. PMID:17504280

  4. Internet addiction: A case report

    Pejović-Milovančević Milica

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Some addictions cannot be connected with substance abuse (pathological gambling, video games playing, binge eating, compulsive physical activity, emotional relationship addiction, TV addiction. Since 1995, Internet addiction has been accepted as a clinical entity with profound negative effect on social, familial, educational and economical personal functioning. The diagnosis of Internet addiction could be established if the person spends more than 38 hours per week on the Internet exempting online professional needs. Basic symptoms are the increased number of hours spent in front of the computer along with the Internet use, development of abstinent syndrome if the Internet access is prohibited, sleep inversion, neglect of basic social requirements and personal hygiene, many somatic symptoms developed due to prolonged sitting or monitor watching, dissocial behavior. In this paper, data about the Internet addiction are presented and a case report of an adolescent with developed Internet addiction.

  5. Behavioral addictions: an overview.

    Karim, Reef; Chaudhri, Priya

    2012-01-01

    The legitimacy of nonsubstance addictions has received increased attention from clinicians, researchers and the general population as more and more individuals report symptoms consistent with impairment of impulse control. The clinical presentation of these disorders is varied, as compulsive activities may include: gambling, eating, sex, shopping, use of the Internet or videogames or even exercising, working or falling in love. As such, there is great controversy in diagnosing, treating or even naming these conditions, as many of these behaviors are daily rituals instrumental to our ultimate survival. Historically, the phrase "impulse control disorders" described these conditions but many researchers and clinicians also use the term "behavioral addictions," "process addictions" or "impulsive-compulsive behaviors" to report behavioral pathology. This review summarizes the data of each of these behavioral addictions from epidemiology to neurobiology to treatment options. Research suggests similarities between natural and drug reward processing but clinical evidence supports the utilization of treatment modalities for these behavioral conditions that can sometimes differ from traditional drug treatment. PMID:22641961

  6. Addiction, risk, and resources.

    Allamani, Allaman

    2007-01-01

    Addiction is a contemporary social issue bound to the myth of self-control and control of the other, which is typical of the contemporary "market ideology" society. In its broad definition it includes not only the use and misuse of "substances" and addictive behaviors, but also the concept of risk. There is a continuum between "addicted behaviors" and behaviors that are not "addicted" but may induce and/or be related to both physical and psycho-social problems on a micro- to macrolevel. Different studies have documented substantial changes in the consumption of tobacco, drugs, alcoholic beverages, as well as "junk foods" during the last decades in various countries. All too often politicians, health administrators, and local providers believe that consumption prevention programs are able, per se, to effect such changes. In fact, the impact of factors such as international trade, globalization and societal values, among many others, are considered relevant. On the other hand, sufficient place must be given to national and community-based preventive initiatives. PMID:17558940

  7. Comparing Personality Characteristics of Addicts with Non Addicts in Hamadan

    A. Heidari Pahlavian

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available A Sizeable sector of the population in Iran continues to use substance abuse despite government efforts to prevent addiction. Present study was designed to compare personality characteristics of addicts with non addicts. One hundred and six addicts who sought treatment at addiction rehabilitation department of Hamadan , were recruited in this study. A selective control group matched for demographic variables with the first group were also requested to take part in the study. The structured clinical interview for DSM-IV and MMPI were administered. The results showed that patients in studied group represented a significantly different personality characteristics in contrast to the control group. Overal 77.8% of addicts were diagnosed as mental disorder. This figure for control group was 26.2% . Also 41.3% of addicts were diagnosed as personality disorders, while the figure for non addicts was 5.8%. High rates of mental disorders and personality problems are reported for addicts. It Seems that psychiatric symptoms and psychological vulnerabilities have important role in addictive behavior.

  8. Coexisting addiction and pain in people receiving methadone for addiction.

    St Marie, Barbara

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this qualitative study was to examine the narratives of people who experience chronic pain (lasting 6 months or more) and were receiving methadone for the treatment of their opiate addiction through a major methadone clinic. This paper featured the pathway of how the participants developed chronic pain and addiction, and their beliefs of how prescription opioids would impact their addiction in the future. Thirty-four participants who experienced chronic pain and received methadone for treatment of opiate addiction were willing to tell the story of their experiences. The findings in three areas are presented: (a) whether participants experienced addiction first or pain first and how their exposures to addictive substances influenced their experiences, (b) the significance of recreational drug use and patterns of abuse behaviors leading to chronic pain, and (c) participants' experiences and beliefs about the potential for abuse of prescription opioid used for treatment of pain. PMID:23858068

  9. Opiate addiction and cocaine addiction: underlying molecular neurobiology and genetics

    Kreek, Mary Jeanne; Levran, Orna; Reed, Brian; Schlussman, Stefan D.; Zhou, Yan; Butelman, Eduardo R.

    2012-01-01

    Addictive diseases, including addiction to heroin, prescription opioids, or cocaine, pose massive personal and public health costs. Addictions are chronic relapsing diseases of the brain caused by drug-induced direct effects and persisting neuroadaptations at the epigenetic, mRNA, neuropeptide, neurotransmitter, or protein levels. These neuroadaptations, which can be specific to drug type, and their resultant behaviors are modified by various internal and external environmental...

  10. Cortisol secretion patterns in addiction and addiction risk

    LOVALLO, WILLIAM R.

    2006-01-01

    Addiction to alcohol or nicotine involves altered functioning of the brain's motivational systems. Altered functioning of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenocortical (HPA) axis may hold clues to the nature of the motivational changes accompanying addiction and vulnerability to addiction. Alcohol and nicotine show at least three forms of interaction with HPA functioning. Acute intake of both substances causes stress-like cortisol responses. Their persistent use may dysregulate the HPA. Finally, ...

  11. Treatment of addiction and addiction-related behavior

    Dewey, Stephen L.; Brodie, Jonathan D.; Ashby, Jr., Charles R.

    2004-12-07

    The present invention provides a highly efficient method for treating substance addiction and for changing addiction-related behavior of a mammal suffering from substance addiction. The method includes administering to a mammal an effective amount of gamma vinylGABA or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof. The present invention also provides a method of treatment of cocaine, morphine, heroin, nicotine, amphetamine, methamphetamine, or ethanol addiction by treating a mammal with an effective amount of gamma vinylGABA or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

  12. Cortisol secretion patterns in addiction and addiction risk.

    Lovallo, William R

    2006-03-01

    Addiction to alcohol or nicotine involves altered functioning of the brain's motivational systems. Altered functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis may hold clues to the nature of the motivational changes accompanying addiction and vulnerability to addiction. Alcohol and nicotine show at least three forms of interaction with HPA functioning. Acute intake of both substances causes stress-like cortisol responses. Their persistent use may dysregulate the HPA. Finally, the risk for dependence and for relapse after quitting may be associated with deficient cortisol reactivity to a variety of stressors. The HPA is regulated at the hypothalamus by diurnal and metabolic signals, but during acute emotional states, its regulation is superseded by signals from the limbic system and prefrontal cortex. This top-down organization makes the HPA responsive to inputs that reflect motivational processes. The HPA is accordingly a useful system for studying psychophysiological reactivity in persons who may vary in cognitive, emotional, and behavioral tendencies associated with addiction and risk for addiction. Chronic, heavy intake of alcohol and nicotine may cause modifications in these frontal-limbic interactions and may account for HPA response differences in seen in alcoholics and smokers. In addition, preexisting alterations in frontal-limbic interactions with the HPA may reflect addiction-proneness, as shown in studies of offspring of alcohol- and drug-abusing parents. Continuing research on the relationship between HPA function, stress responsivity, and the addictions may yield insights into how the brain's motivational systems support addictions and risk for addictions. PMID:16434116

  13. Food addiction and neuroimaging.

    Zhang, Yi; von Deneen, Karen M; Tian, Jie; Gold, Mark S; Liu, Yijun

    2011-01-01

    Obesity has become a serious epidemic and one of the leading global health problems. However, much of the current debate has been fractious, and etiologies of obesity have been attributed to eating behavior (i.e. fast food consumption), personality, depression, addiction or genetics. One of the interesting new hypotheses for explaining the development of obesity involves a food addiction model, which suggests that food is not eaten as much for survival as pleasure and that hedonic overeating is relevant to both substance-related disorders and eating disorders. Accumulating evidence has shown that there are a number of shared neural and hormonal pathways as well as distinct differences in these pathways that may help researchers discover why certain individuals continue to overeat despite health and other consequences, and becomes more and more obese. Functional neuroimaging studies have further revealed that pleasant smelling, looking, and tasting food has reinforcing characteristics similar to drugs of abuse. Many of the brain changes reported for hedonic eating and obesity are also seen in various types of addictions. Most importantly, overeating and obesity may have an acquired drive similar to drug addiction with respect to motivation and incentive craving. In both cases, the desire and continued satisfaction occur after early and repeated exposure to stimuli. The acquired drive for eating food and relative weakness of the satiety signal would cause an imbalance between the drive and hunger/reward centers in the brain and their regulation. In the current paper, we first provide a summary of literature on food addition from eight different perspectives, and then we proposed a research paradigm that may allow screening of new pharmacological treatment on the basis of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). PMID:21492080

  14. Addiction and Cognition

    Gould, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    The brain regions and neural processes that underlie addiction overlap extensively with those that support cognitive functions, including learning, memory, and reasoning. Drug activity in these regions and processes during early stages of abuse foster strong maladaptive associations between drug use and environmental stimuli that may underlie future cravings and drug-seeking behaviors. With continued drug use, cognitive deficits ensue that exacerbate the difficulty of establishing sustained a...

  15. [Addiction and personality].

    Franques, P; Auriacombe, M; Tignol, J

    2000-01-01

    Within the field of substance abuse, it is now widely admitted that the addictive personality does not exist. No one personality type is predisposed to addiction. The predisposition to drug dependence involves many different factors: psychological, social, familial, biological. None of these factors can be the sole determinant of drug dependence. Keeping that in mind, it is of interest to review the recent data on the relationship between personality traits or disorders and opiate and cocaine dependence. Using DSM and ICD categorical assessment, no single personality disorder emerged, instead a range of personality disorders has been evaluated in opiate and cocaine dependent subjects. Every type of personality disorders (PD) existed but cluster BPD were the most common (especially antisocial personality disorder in opiate addicts). However, it is noteworthy that a large minority to a majority of subjects did not display any king of PD. The implication of these results is that antisocial PD is probably over-diagnosed in drug dependence clinical settings. The studies reviewed failed to demonstrate that personality disorders were strong predictors of outcome in opiate or cocaine dependence. However, opiate dependent PD subjects entering treatment had more severe problems and lower retention rate than non PD subjects. But the amount of improvement was not significantly different between PD subjects and non PD subjects. This demonstrated that substance dependent PD patients could benefit from treatment whose intensity and duration must be adjusted. There is good support for the idea that Sensation Seeking trait is a vulnerability factor to substance abuse. But after dependence develops, sensation seeking is probably irrelevant to continued use of the drugs. This break between the psychopathology of vulnerability of substance abuse and the psychopathology of dependence raises the question of the existence of dramatically different factors involved in both phases of

  16. Animal Studies of Addictive Behavior

    Vanderschuren, Louk J. M. J.; Serge H Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    It is increasingly recognized that studying drug taking in laboratory animals does not equate to studying genuine addiction, characterized by loss of control over drug use. This has inspired recent work aimed at capturing genuine addiction-like behavior in animals. In this work, we summarize empirical evidence for the occurrence of several DSM-IV-like symptoms of addiction in animals after extended drug use. These symptoms include escalation of drug use, neurocognitive deficits, resistance to...

  17. Drug addiction and periodontal diseases

    Saini, Gurpreet Kaur; N D Gupta; Prabhat, K. C.

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of drug addiction is increasing globally. Drug abuse damages many parts of the body such as oral cavity, lungs, liver, brain, heart etc., Addicts suffer from physical, psychological, emotional and behavioral problems. Their nutrition is also compromised. There is certainly an impact of all these factors on the health of periodontium. Dentists should be aware of the effects of drugs while treating the drug addicts. This article correlates the studies done on the impact of abused...

  18. A Research on Brand Addiction

    Canbaz, Serdar; Çiçek, Hüseyin; Eyidiker, Uğur

    2014-01-01

    Brand is an acknowledged concept increasing the value of a product and services as well as providing convenience to its buyer. Seller, along with availing himself, obtains a link between himself and buyer. This phenomena which we come across as an addiction turns into a kind of a sense of belonging in which buyers would under no circumstances change their ideas. Therefore the desire to create a brand and brand addiction is unavoidable. Brand addiction, in other words brand loyalty constitutes...

  19. Transcriptional Mechanisms of Drug Addiction

    Nestler, Eric J.

    2012-01-01

    Regulation of gene expression is considered a plausible mechanism of drug addiction given the stability of behavioral abnormalities that define an addicted state. Numerous transcription factors, proteins that bind to regulatory regions of specific genes and thereby control levels of their expression, have been implicated in the addiction process over the past decade or two. Here we review the growing evidence for the role played by several prominent transcription factors, including a Fos fami...

  20. STRESS COPING SKILLS IN ADDICTS

    A. Ebrahimi; SG MOOSAVI; R SAMOOEIE; A ,HASAN ZADEH

    2002-01-01

    Introduction. Stress coping skills is one of the most important factors in prediction of addictive behavior. The purpose of this study was to determine this pattern and to compare them with those of non-addicts. Methods. One hundred subjects with substance dependency and 100 non-addict subjects were selected. Both groups were matched on the basis of their socioeconomic state. Stress coping skills of study participants were examined using CS-R scale. Results. Stress coping skills in ...

  1. What is sexual addiction?

    Levine, Stephen B

    2010-01-01

    Married men labeled as sexual addicts seek help after being discovered to have had broken monogamy rules for sexual behavior through their use of masturbation, pornography, cybersex, commercial sex involvement, paraphilic pursuits, or affairs. This study analyzed the sexual patterns and dynamics of 30 men who presented to 1 clinician between 2005 and 2009. Their important differences were captured by a 6-category spectrum: (a) no sexual excess beyond breaking the spouse's restrictive rules (n = 2), (b) discovery of husband's longstanding sexual secrets (n = 5), (c) new discovery of the joys of commercial sex (n = 4), (d) the bizarre or paraphilic (n = 7), (e) alternate concept of normal masculinity (n = 5), and (f) spiraling psychological deterioration (n = 7). Only the men with a spiraling psychological deterioration-about 25% of the sample with sexual issues-could reasonably be described as having a sexual addiction. This group experienced significant psychological failures before the onset of their deterioration. Another 25% were adequately defined as paraphilic. Half of the sample was not adequately described using addiction, compulsivity, impulsivity, and relationship incapacity models. The authors discuss the implications of these findings for DSM-5 and treatment. PMID:20432125

  2. What Are the Treatments for Heroin Addiction?

    ... Facebook Twitter What are the treatments for heroin addiction? A variety of effective treatments are available for heroin addiction, including both behavioral and pharmacological (medications). Both approaches ...

  3. The Comparison Schema in the Successful Addiction, Unsuccessful Addiction and Non-Addiction Popular

    Anisi Khoshlahjeh; Khadejeh Abolmaali; Zahra Khoshlahjeh; Hasan Alizadeh, F; Ehsan Imani

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this research was to compere schema in the successful addiction, unsuccessful addiction and non-addiction popular. Method: The method of the research the sample population in this study includes institutes f Birth again charity institutions in 1389. The variables like education (degree of high school), gender (only man) and age (25- ….) were controlled in three groups. The statistical sample consisted those 90 individuals who were tested by from GHQ and selected thro...

  4. A discursive analysis exploring constructions of sex addiction in clinical text and 'addict' accounts

    Briggs, James

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Numerous accounts have been developed which portray sex addiction and the sex addict. These in turn have led to screening tools, said to be capable of accurately distinguishing the sex addict from non-addicts. However, there are a wealth of various, diverse and conflicting understandings of addiction, sexuality and sex addiction. Sex addiction also carries moral implications, leading some to argue the term is used as stigmatising label for those who deviate from a socially...

  5. Pharmacogenetic aspects of addictive behaviors

    Hejazi, Nadia S.

    2007-01-01

    Addictions are illnesses of complex causation, including inheritance and a role for gene/environment interactions. Functional alleles influencing pharmacodynamic (tissue response) and pharmacokinetic (absorption, distribution, and metabolism) play a role, but these interact with diverse environmental factors including early Ife stress, underage drug exposure, availability of addictive agents, and response to clinical interventions including pharmacotherapies. Identification of genetic factors...

  6. Comprehensive Treatment of Addictive Families.

    Schlesinger, Stephen E.; Horberg, Lawrence K.

    This article describes a practical approach to treating addictive families, designed to help them repair the damage, create more satisfying lives, and prevent long-lasting deleterious effects, commonly associated with "co-dependency" and "children of addicts." This approach is grounded in a developmental model of family recovery which was devised…

  7. Epigenetic regulation of cocaine addiction

    Martínez Martínez, Arturo

    2015-01-01

    Addiction is defined as a chronic, relapsing brain disease that is characterized by compulsive drug seeking and use, despite harmful consequences. The addictive phenotype can persist for the lenght of an individual's life, suggesting that drugs of abuse may induced long-lasting changes in the brain.

  8. Unbalanced Neuronal Circuits in Addiction

    Volkow, Nora D; Wang, Gen-Jack; Tomasi, Dardo; Baler, Ruben D.

    2013-01-01

    Through sequential waves of drug-induced neurochemical stimulation, addiction co-opts the brain's neuronal circuits that mediate reward, motivation, , to behavioral inflexibility and a severe disruption of self-control and compulsive drug intake. Brain imaging technologies have allowed neuroscientists to map out the neural landscape of addiction in the human brain and to understand how drugs modify it.

  9. STRESS COPING SKILLS IN ADDICTS

    A EBRAHIMI

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Stress coping skills is one of the most important factors in prediction of addictive behavior. The purpose of this study was to determine this pattern and to compare them with those of non-addicts. Methods. One hundred subjects with substance dependency and 100 non-addict subjects were selected. Both groups were matched on the basis of their socioeconomic state. Stress coping skills of study participants were examined using CS-R scale. Results. Stress coping skills in addicts were different from those of non-addicts in most of the coping procedures. Nonaddicts reported that they used problem-focused coping and some of the emotional-focused coping strategies. In contrast, addicts shown that they used unuseful and noneffective stress coping strategies. Discussion. These data indicate that using ineffective stress coping skills is one of-the predisposing and precipitating factors in addictive behavior. It seems that stress coping skills training is necessary in prevention of addiction.

  10. Harry Potter: Agency or Addiction?

    Mills, Alice

    2010-01-01

    This article considers limitations on agency for characters in the Harry Potter novels, in particular, how far they are driven by an addictive yearning for their beloved dead. As well as Harry's yearning for his dead parents, Dumbledore's guilt, Snape's longing and Slughorn's craving can be read as evidence of addiction rather than love, while the…

  11. Animal studies of addictive behavior.

    Vanderschuren, Louk J M J; Ahmed, Serge H

    2013-04-01

    It is increasingly recognized that studying drug taking in laboratory animals does not equate to studying genuine addiction, characterized by loss of control over drug use. This has inspired recent work aimed at capturing genuine addiction-like behavior in animals. In this work, we summarize empirical evidence for the occurrence of several DSM-IV-like symptoms of addiction in animals after extended drug use. These symptoms include escalation of drug use, neurocognitive deficits, resistance to extinction, increased motivation for drugs, preference for drugs over nondrug rewards, and resistance to punishment. The fact that addiction-like behavior can occur and be studied in animals gives us the exciting opportunity to investigate the neural and genetic background of drug addiction, which we hope will ultimately lead to the development of more effective treatments for this devastating disorder. PMID:23249442

  12. Internet addiction in young people.

    Ong, Say How; Tan, Yi Ren

    2014-07-01

    In our technology-savvy population, mental health professionals are seeing an increasing trend of excessive Internet use or Internet addiction. Researchers in China, Taiwan and Korea have done extensive research in the field of Internet addiction. Screening instruments are available to identify the presence of Internet addiction and its extent. Internet addiction is frequently associated with mental illnesses such as anxiety, depression, conduct disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Treatment modalities include individual and group therapies, cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), family therapy and psychotropic medications. A significant proportion of Singapore adolescents engaging in excessive Internet use are also diagnosed to have concomitant Internet addiction. Despite the presence of a variety of treatment options, future research in this area is needed to address its growing trend and to minimise its negative psychological and social impact on the individuals and their families. PMID:25142474

  13. Internet gaming addiction: current perspectives.

    Kuss, Daria J

    2013-01-01

    In the 2000s, online games became popular, while studies of Internet gaming addiction emerged, outlining the negative consequences of excessive gaming, its prevalence, and associated risk factors. The establishment of specialized treatment centers in South-East Asia, the US, and Europe reflects the growing need for professional help. It is argued that only by understanding the appeal of Internet gaming, its context, and neurobiologic correlates can the phenomenon of Internet gaming addiction be understood comprehensively. The aim of this review is to provide an insight into current perspectives on Internet gaming addiction using a holistic approach, taking into consideration the mass appeal of online games, the context of Internet gaming addiction, and associated neuroimaging findings, as well as the current diagnostic framework adopted by the American Psychiatric Association. The cited research indicates that the individual's context is a significant factor that marks the dividing line between excessive gaming and gaming addiction, and the game context can gain particular importance for players, depending on their life situation and gaming preferences. Moreover, the cultural context is significant because it embeds the gamer in a community with shared beliefs and practices, endowing their gaming with particular meaning. The cited neuroimaging studies indicate that Internet gaming addiction shares similarities with other addictions, including substance dependence, at the molecular, neurocircuitry, and behavioral levels. The findings provide support for the current perspective of understanding Internet gaming addiction from a disease framework. The benefits of an Internet gaming addiction diagnosis include reliability across research, destigmatization of individuals, development of efficacious treatments, and the creation of an incentive for public health care and insurance providers. The holistic approach adopted here not only highlights empirical research that

  14. Cocaine – Characteristics and addiction

    Katarzyna Girczys-Połedniok

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Cocaine use leads to health, social and legal problems. The aim of this paper is to discuss cocaine action, addicts characteristics, use patterns and consequences, as well as addiction treatment methods. A literature review was based on the Medline, PubMed, Polish Medical Bibliography databases and the Silesian Library resources. The Police and Central Statistical Office statistics, as well as the World Health Organization, the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction and the National Office for Combating Drug Addiction reports were used. Cocaine leads to mood improvement, appetite decrease, physical and intellectual activity enhancement, euphoria, inflated self-esteem, social networking ease and increased sexual desire. Cocaine hydrochloride is mainly used intranasaly, but also as intravenous and subcutaneous injections. Cocaine use and first addiction treatment fall in later age compared to other psychoactive substances. There is a high men to women ratio among addicts. There is a relationship between cocaine addiction, the presence of other disorders and genetic predisposition to addiction development. Polish reports indicate higher popularity of cocaine among people with a high economic and social status. Although Poland is a country with the low percentage of cocaine use, its popularity is growing. The consequences of cocaine use concern somatic and mental health problems, socioeconomic and legal conditions. The drug plays a role in crimes and traffic accidents. Because of the risks associated with cocaine use, it has been listed in a register of drugs attached to the Act on Counteracting Drug Addiction. Addiction treatment includes psychological, pharmacological and harm reduction strategies. Med Pr 2016;67(4:529–536

  15. Childhood Food Addiction and the Family

    Carlisle, Kristy L.; Buser, Juleen K.; Carlisle, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    Food addiction among children is a concerning issue. Few empirical studies have examined the relevance of food addiction among pediatric samples, but emerging evidence suggests that some children experience their eating patterns as addictive. The present review will discuss the issue of food addiction among children, and will also attend to the…

  16. Intertemporal bargaining in addiction.

    Ainslie, George

    2013-01-01

    The debate between disease models of addiction and moral or voluntarist models has been endless, and often echoes the equally endless debate between determinism and free will. I suggest here that part of the problem comes from how we picture the function of motivation in self-control. Quantitative experiments in both humans and non-humans have shown that delayed reward loses its effectiveness in proportion to its delay. The resulting instability of preference is best controlled by a recursive self-prediction process, intertemporal bargaining, which is the likely mechanism of both the strength and the experienced freedom of will. In this model determinism is consistent with more elements of free will than compatibilist philosophers have heretofore proposed, and personal responsibility is an inseparable, functional component of will. Judgments of social responsibility can be described as projections of personal responsibility, but normative responsibility in addiction is elusive. The cited publications that are under the author's control can be downloaded from www.picoeconomics.org. PMID:23966954

  17. Intertemporal Bargaining in Addiction

    George Ainslie

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The debate between disease models of addiction and moral or voluntarist models has been endless, and often echoes the equally endless debate between determinism and free will. I suggest here that part of the problem comes from how we picture the function of motivation in self-control. Quantitative experiments in both humans and nonhumans have shown that delayed reward loses its effectiveness in proportion to its delay. The resulting instability of preference is best controlled by a recursive self-prediction process, intertemporal bargaining, which is the likely mechanism of both the strength and the experienced freedom of will. In this model determinism is consistent with more elements of free will than compatibilist philosophers have heretofore proposed, and personal responsibility is an inseparable, functional component of will. Judgments of social responsibility can be described as projections of personal responsibility, but normative responsibility in addiction is elusive. The cited publications that are under the author’s control can be downloaded from www.picoeconomics.org.

  18. The Comparison of Alexithymia and Spiritual Intelligence in Addicts, Addicts under Methadone Treatment, and Non-Addicts

    Mohammad Narimani

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of the present study was to compare of the rate of alexithymia and spiritual intelligence in addicts, addicts under Methadone Treatment, and non-Addicts. Method: A causal-comparative research design was used. The study sample included 30 individuals under Methadone Treatment, 30 drug-dependent Addicted, and 30 non-addicted individuals selected by convenience sampling procedure. Toronto alexithymia scale and King's spiritual intelligence self-report inventory were administered among selected sample. Results: Findings revealed significant differences among addicted individuals and non-addicted adults also among individuals under methadone treatment and non-addicted adults in total alexithymia scores as well as on all three subscale scores. Furthermore, addicted individuals differed from those under methadone treatment in their scores on the subscale pertaining to difficulty in identifying feelings. Results also indicated differences among addicted individuals and those under methadone treatment in total spiritual intelligence and its four component scale scores, while addicted individuals differed from non-addicted individuals in total spiritual intelligence scores and only three of its component scale scores (personal meaning production, transcendental awareness, and conscious state expansion. Conclusion: Findings of this study indicate the advantages of the ability to control, emotional regulation and spiritual intelligence as a defense against addiction. By development of these characteristics addicts can be helped to gain relief from their addiction.

  19. Transcriptional Mechanisms of Drug Addiction

    2012-01-01

    Regulation of gene expression is considered a plausible mechanism of drug addiction given the stability of behavioral abnormalities that define an addicted state. Numerous transcription factors, proteins that bind to regulatory regions of specific genes and thereby control levels of their expression, have been implicated in the addiction process over the past decade or two. Here we review the growing evidence for the role played by several prominent transcription factors, including a Fos family protein (ΔFosB), cAMP response element binding protein (CREB), and nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB), among several others, in drug addiction. As will be seen, each factor displays very different regulation by drugs of abuse within the brain's reward circuitry, and in turn mediates distinct aspects of the addiction phenotype. Current efforts are geared toward understanding the range of target genes through which these transcription factors produce their functional effects and the underlying molecular mechanisms involved. This work promises to reveal fundamentally new insight into the molecular basis of addiction, which will contribute to improved diagnostic tests and therapeutics for addictive disorders. PMID:23430970

  20. Modeling Addictive Consumption as an Infectious Disease

    Alamar Benjamin; Glantz Stanton A.

    2006-01-01

    The dominant model of addictive consumption in economics is the theory of rational addiction. The addict in this model chooses how much they are going to consume based upon their level of addiction (past consumption), the current benefits and all future costs. Several empirical studies of cigarette sales and price data have found a correlation between future prices and consumption and current consumption. These studies have argued that the correlation validates the rational addiction model an...

  1. Gaming: from Addiction Mechanisms to Clinical Practices

    Thorens, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    Video game addiction is the main theme of this thesis. After a brief definition of addiction, the focus is on the specific addictive properties of Internet and games. Massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs) are described, as they tend to be the most addictive type of game, with a specific focus on World of Warcraft (WoW). Issues of diagnostic criteria for Internet addiction and Internet gaming disorder (IGD) are be presented.

  2. Genetic signatures of heroin addiction

    Chen, Shaw-Ji; Liao, Ding-Lieh; Shen, Tsu-Wang; Yang, Hsin-Chou; Chen, Kuang-Chi; Chen, Chia-Hsiang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Heroin addiction is a complex psychiatric disorder with a chronic course and a high relapse rate, which results from the interaction between genetic and environmental factors. Heroin addiction has a substantial heritability in its etiology; hence, identification of individuals with a high genetic propensity to heroin addiction may help prevent the occurrence and relapse of heroin addiction and its complications. The study aimed to identify a small set of genetic signatures that may reliably predict the individuals with a high genetic propensity to heroin addiction. We first measured the transcript level of 13 genes (RASA1, PRKCB, PDK1, JUN, CEBPG, CD74, CEBPB, AUTS2, ENO2, IMPDH2, HAT1, MBD1, and RGS3) in lymphoblastoid cell lines in a sample of 124 male heroin addicts and 124 male control subjects using real-time quantitative PCR. Seven genes (PRKCB, PDK1, JUN, CEBPG, CEBPB, ENO2, and HAT1) showed significant differential expression between the 2 groups. Further analysis using 3 statistical methods including logistic regression analysis, support vector machine learning analysis, and a computer software BIASLESS revealed that a set of 4 genes (JUN, CEBPB, PRKCB, ENO2, or CEBPG) could predict the diagnosis of heroin addiction with the accuracy rate around 85% in our dataset. Our findings support the idea that it is possible to identify genetic signatures of heroin addiction using a small set of expressed genes. However, the study can only be considered as a proof-of-concept study. As the establishment of lymphoblastoid cell line is a laborious and lengthy process, it would be more practical in clinical settings to identify genetic signatures for heroin addiction directly from peripheral blood cells in the future study. PMID:27495086

  3. Drug addiction and social discourses

    Rita de Cássia dos Santos Canabarro

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the various discursive positions found in the phenomenon of addiction. The relations these discursive positions establish with the discourses of the master, the hysteric, the university and the capitalist are discussed. By analyzing material from clinical listening at a public outpatient drug and alcohol rehab center, it was seen that addiction can be described in different discourses. This article shows that the shift of focus from the symptom to the discursive position of the subject is an indicator for the clinical treatment of addiction.

  4. Drug addiction and periodontal diseases

    Saini, Gurpreet Kaur; Gupta, N. D.; Prabhat, K. C.

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of drug addiction is increasing globally. Drug abuse damages many parts of the body such as oral cavity, lungs, liver, brain, heart etc., Addicts suffer from physical, psychological, emotional and behavioral problems. Their nutrition is also compromised. There is certainly an impact of all these factors on the health of periodontium. Dentists should be aware of the effects of drugs while treating the drug addicts. This article correlates the studies done on the impact of abused drugs such as alcohol, tobacco, opiates, cannabis, amphetamines etc., on general and periodontal health. PMID:24174750

  5. New Dimensions, New Addictions: The Internet Sex Addiction

    Silvia Sánchez Zaldívar; Itziar Iruarrizaga Díez

    2010-01-01

    The network is endless: going anywhere, finding anything, being anyone. Typing the word sex on Google gives a figure of 96 million results. The network is changing our way of communication and relation; we can construct space-time coordinates before incompatible. Internet addiction is not recognized as a disorder in DSM-IV-TR or ICD-10. Both types of Internet addiction with sexual content are cybersex and pornography. Cybersex consists in experiencing sexual stimulation while maintaining s...

  6. Comparison of Personality Characteristics and Problem Solving Styles in Addicted and Non-Addicted Men

    Mohammad Narimani; Yaghob Habibi; Saeed Rajabi

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The present study sought to compare emotional intelligence and quality of life in addicted and non-addicted men. Method: The samples included 80 addicted and 80 non-addicted men who addicted men were selected by available sampling and non-addicted men were chosen by cloning methods according to age and marital status. For data collection, emotional intelligence scale and quality of life questionnaire were used. Variance test and Pearson correlation were used for data analysis. ...

  7. Cocaine Addiction: Psychology and Neurophysiology.

    Gawin, Frank H.

    1991-01-01

    The clinical characteristics of cocaine addiction, cocaine abstinence symptoms, and the short-term and long-term neurochemical actions of cocaine are discussed. The relative therapeutic value of various medications and treatment programs are discussed. (KR)

  8. Internet gaming addiction: current perspectives

    Kuss DJ

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Daria J KussPsychology Research and Behavior Management, Birmingham City University, Birmingham, UKAbstract: In the 2000s, online games became popular, while studies of Internet gaming addiction emerged, outlining the negative consequences of excessive gaming, its prevalence, and associated risk factors. The establishment of specialized treatment centers in South-East Asia, the US, and Europe reflects the growing need for professional help. It is argued that only by understanding the appeal of Internet gaming, its context, and neurobiologic correlates can the phenomenon of Internet gaming addiction be understood comprehensively. The aim of this review is to provide an insight into current perspectives on Internet gaming addiction using a holistic approach, taking into consideration the mass appeal of online games, the context of Internet gaming addiction, and associated neuroimaging findings, as well as the current diagnostic framework adopted by the American Psychiatric Association. The cited research indicates that the individual's context is a significant factor that marks the dividing line between excessive gaming and gaming addiction, and the game context can gain particular importance for players, depending on their life situation and gaming preferences. Moreover, the cultural context is significant because it embeds the gamer in a community with shared beliefs and practices, endowing their gaming with particular meaning. The cited neuroimaging studies indicate that Internet gaming addiction shares similarities with other addictions, including substance dependence, at the molecular, neurocircuitry, and behavioral levels. The findings provide support for the current perspective of understanding Internet gaming addiction from a disease framework. The benefits of an Internet gaming addiction diagnosis include reliability across research, destigmatization of individuals, development of efficacious treatments, and the creation of an incentive

  9. Relapse prevention for addictive behaviors

    George William H; Witkiewitz Katie; Hendershot Christian S; Marlatt G Alan

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The Relapse Prevention (RP) model has been a mainstay of addictions theory and treatment since its introduction three decades ago. This paper provides an overview and update of RP for addictive behaviors with a focus on developments over the last decade (2000-2010). Major treatment outcome studies and meta-analyses are summarized, as are selected empirical findings relevant to the tenets of the RP model. Notable advances in RP in the last decade include the introduction of a reformul...

  10. The epigenetic landscape of addiction

    Maze, Ian; Nestler, Eric J.

    2011-01-01

    Drug-induced alterations in gene expression throughout the reward circuitry of the brain are likely components of the persistence of the drug-addicted state. Recent studies examining the molecular mechanisms controlling drug-induced transcriptional, behavioral and synaptic plasticity have indicated a direct role for chromatin remodeling in the regulation and stability of drug-mediated neuronal gene programs, and the subsequent promulgation of addictive behaviors. In this review, we discuss re...

  11. Epigenetic Mechanisms of Drug Addiction

    Nestler, Eric J.

    2013-01-01

    Drug addiction involves potentially life-long behavioral abnormalities that are caused in vulnerable individuals by repeated exposure to a drug of abuse. The persistence of these behavioral changes suggests that long-lasting changes in gene expression, within particular regions of the brain, may contribute importantly to the addiction phenotype. Work over the past decade has demonstrated a crucial role for epigenetic mechanisms in driving lasting changes in gene expression in diverse tissues,...

  12. Imaging the Addicted Human Brain

    Fowler, Joanna S.; Volkow, Nora D.; Kassed, Cheryl A; Chang, Linda

    2007-01-01

    Modern imaging techniques enable researchers to observe drug actions and consequences as they occur and persist in the brains of abusing and addicted individuals. This article presents the five most commonly used techniques, explains how each produces images, and describes how researchers interpret them. The authors give examples of key findings illustrating how each technique has extended and deepened our knowledge of the neurobiological bases of drug abuse and addiction, and they address po...

  13. What Does Addiction Mean to Me

    Hesse, Morten

    2006-01-01

    Addiction is compulsive need for and use of a habit-forming substance. Addiction is accepted as a mental illness in the diagnostic nomenclature and results in substantial health, social and economic problems. In the diagnostic nomenclature, addiction was originally included in the personality...... disorders along with other behaviours considered deviant. But it is now considered a clinical syndrome. Addiction is multifactorially determined, with substantial genetic influence. The development of addictions is also influenced by environmental factors, and interplay between the two. In the clinical...... context, addiction puts problem substance use on the agenda, and helps focus on the difficulties associated with drug use. But the concept of addiction is also used to distance the user from addicts, and in this way, may be counter-therapeutic. The addiction concept has also had a substantial influence on...

  14. Addiction: Beyond dopamine reward circuitry

    Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.; Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.-J.; Fowler, J.S.; Tomasi, D.; Telang, F.

    2011-09-13

    Dopamine (DA) is considered crucial for the rewarding effects of drugs of abuse, but its role in addiction is much less clear. This review focuses on studies that used PET to characterize the brain DA system in addicted subjects. These studies have corroborated in humans the relevance of drug-induced fast DA increases in striatum [including nucleus accumbens (NAc)] in their rewarding effects but have unexpectedly shown that in addicted subjects, drug-induced DA increases (as well as their subjective reinforcing effects) are markedly blunted compared with controls. In contrast, addicted subjects show significant DA increases in striatum in response to drug-conditioned cues that are associated with self-reports of drug craving and appear to be of a greater magnitude than the DA responses to the drug. We postulate that the discrepancy between the expectation for the drug effects (conditioned responses) and the blunted pharmacological effects maintains drug taking in an attempt to achieve the expected reward. Also, whether tested during early or protracted withdrawal, addicted subjects show lower levels of D2 receptors in striatum (including NAc), which are associated with decreases in baseline activity in frontal brain regions implicated in salience attribution (orbitofrontal cortex) and inhibitory control (anterior cingulate gyrus), whose disruption results in compulsivity and impulsivity. These results point to an imbalance between dopaminergic circuits that underlie reward and conditioning and those that underlie executive function (emotional control and decision making), which we postulate contributes to the compulsive drug use and loss of control in addiction.

  15. Moral judgment of alcohol addicts

    Mladenović Ivica

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Alcoholism could represent an important factor of crime and different forms of abuse of family members (physical and emotional exist in many alcohol-addict cases, as well as characteristics of immoral behaviour. Objective. The objective of our study was to determine the predominating forms in moral judgment of alcohol addicts, and to examine whether there was any statistically significant difference in moral judgment between alcohol addicted persons and non-alcoholics from general population. Methods. The sample consisted of 62 subjects, divided into a study (alcoholics and a control group (non-alcoholics from general population. The following instruments were used: social-demographic data, AUDIT, MMPI-201, cybernetic battery of IQ tests (KOG-3 and the TMR moral reasoning test. Results. Mature forms of moral judgment prevailed in both group of subjects, alcohol addicted persons and non-alcoholics. Regarding mature forms of moral judgment (driven by emotions and cognitive non-alcoholics from the general population had higher scores, but the difference was not statistically significant. Regarding socially adapted and egocentric orientation alcohol addicted persons had higher scores. However, only regarding intuitive-irrational orientation there was a statistically significant difference in the level of moral judgment (p<0.05 between alcoholics and non-alcoholics, in favour of the alcoholics. Conclusion. Moral judgment is not a category differing alcohol addicted persons from those who are not. Nevertheless, the potential destructivity of alcoholism is reflected in lower scores regarding mature orientations in moral judgment.

  16. Addiction: Beyond dopamine reward circuitry

    Dopamine (DA) is considered crucial for the rewarding effects of drugs of abuse, but its role in addiction is much less clear. This review focuses on studies that used PET to characterize the brain DA system in addicted subjects. These studies have corroborated in humans the relevance of drug-induced fast DA increases in striatum [including nucleus accumbens (NAc)] in their rewarding effects but have unexpectedly shown that in addicted subjects, drug-induced DA increases (as well as their subjective reinforcing effects) are markedly blunted compared with controls. In contrast, addicted subjects show significant DA increases in striatum in response to drug-conditioned cues that are associated with self-reports of drug craving and appear to be of a greater magnitude than the DA responses to the drug. We postulate that the discrepancy between the expectation for the drug effects (conditioned responses) and the blunted pharmacological effects maintains drug taking in an attempt to achieve the expected reward. Also, whether tested during early or protracted withdrawal, addicted subjects show lower levels of D2 receptors in striatum (including NAc), which are associated with decreases in baseline activity in frontal brain regions implicated in salience attribution (orbitofrontal cortex) and inhibitory control (anterior cingulate gyrus), whose disruption results in compulsivity and impulsivity. These results point to an imbalance between dopaminergic circuits that underlie reward and conditioning and those that underlie executive function (emotional control and decision making), which we postulate contributes to the compulsive drug use and loss of control in addiction.

  17. Exercise rehabilitation for smartphone addiction.

    Kim, Hyunna

    2013-01-01

    Internet addiction after launching smartphone is becoming serious. Therefore this paper has attempted to sketch out the diverse addiction treatment and then check the feasibility of exercise rehabilitation. The reason to addict the internet or smartphone is personalized individual characters related personal psychological and emotional factors and social environmental factors around them. We have shown that 2 discernible approaches due to 2 different addiction causes: that is behavioral treatment and complementary treatment. In the behavioral treatment, cognitive behavioral approach (CBT) is representative methods for changing additive thoughts and behaviors. Motivational interviewing (MI) is also the brief approach for persons not ready to change their behavior. Mindfulness behavioral cognitive treatment (MBCT) also the adapted treatment based on CBT. There are different types following the emphatic point, mindfulness-based relapse prevention (MBRP) or mindfulness oriented recovery enhancement (MORE). It is apparent that therapeutic recreation, music therapy using drumming activity, and art therapy are useful complementary treatment. Exercise rehabilitation contained the systematic procedures and comprehensive activities compared to previous addiction treatments by contents and techniques. Exercise rehabilitation can treat both physical symptoms at first and mental problems in the next step. So more evidence-based exercise rehabilitation researches need to do, but it is highly probable that exercise rehab can apply for smartphone addiction. PMID:24409425

  18. Drug Addiction Treatment in the Criminal Justice System

    ... Addiction Treatment in the Criminal Justice System Drug Addiction Treatment in the Criminal Justice System Email Facebook ... Research-Based Guide provides research-based principles of addiction treatment. The 13 principles are: Drug addiction is ...

  19. A Framework for the Specificity of Addictions

    Myriam Forster

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Research over the last two decades suggests that a wide range of substance and behavioral addictions may serve similar functions. Yet, co-occurrence of addictions has only been reported among a minority of addicts. “Addiction specificity” pertains to a phenomenon in which one pattern of addictive behaviors may be acquired whereas another is not. This paper presents the PACE model as a framework which might help explain addiction specificity. Pragmatics, attraction, communication, and expectation (PACE variables are described, which may help give some direction to future research needs in this arena.

  20. [Addiction--who is not affected?].

    Bäwert, Andjela; Fischer, Gabriele

    2005-12-01

    Addiction and addiction-related behaviour increased during the past decades. Several substances with psychoactive attributes, like opioids, cocaine or alcohol, can lead to dependence with physical and/or mental symptoms. In addition to substance-related addiction, non-substance-related dependence requires special attention. Increasing numbers of workaholics and patients suffering from internet-addiction, gambling or eating-disorders can be observed. To meet international treatment standards for addiction, diversification of therapy is necessary and, additionally, gender-related aspects in development and treatment of dependence and addiction-related behaviour are essential for state-of-the-art therapy of this patient population. PMID:16425010

  1. Cerebral edema in drug addicts

    Daruši Dragana J.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The effect of drugs leaves permanent consequences on the brain, organic in type, followed by numerous manifestations, and it significantly affects the development of mental dysfunctions. The clinicians are often given a task to estimate a patient’s personality during treatment or during experts estimate of a drug addict. The aim of this research was to determine the differences, if any, in characteristics of addicts experience and personality traits in drug addicts with or without cerebral edema. Methods. The research was conducted on a sample of 252 male drug addicts, the average age of 23.3 (SD = 4.3 years. Cerebral edema was confirmed on magnetic resonance (MR images of the brain performed during the treatment of the addicts. The participants were tested by the psychologists using Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-201 test, and the data were processed using canonical discriminate analysis within the SPSS program. The dependent variable in the study was cerebral edema. A block of independent variables, designed for the requirements of this study, consisted of two subgroups. The first one consisted of 12 variables describing the relevant characteristics of drug abuse. The second subgroup consisted of 8 psychopathological tendencies in the personality defined by the mentioned test. Results. Cerebral edema was confirmed in 52 (20.63% of the drug addicts. The differences between the groups of drug addicts with and without cerebral edema were determined in the following: the time span of taking drugs (0.301, use of alcohol parallel with drugs (0.466, and treatment for addiction (0.603. In the drug addicts with a cerebral edema, MMPI-201 confirmed the increase in the scales for hypochondria, psychopathic deviations and psychastenia, and the decrease in the scales for schizophrenia and depression. Conclusion. Our study confirmed a possible connection between cerebral edema and personality traits in a number of the

  2. Epigenetic mechanisms of drug addiction.

    Nestler, Eric J

    2014-01-01

    Drug addiction involves potentially life-long behavioral abnormalities that are caused in vulnerable individuals by repeated exposure to a drug of abuse. The persistence of these behavioral changes suggests that long-lasting changes in gene expression, within particular regions of the brain, may contribute importantly to the addiction phenotype. Work over the past decade has demonstrated a crucial role for epigenetic mechanisms in driving lasting changes in gene expression in diverse tissues, including brain. This has prompted recent research aimed at characterizing the influence of epigenetic regulatory events in mediating the lasting effects of drugs of abuse on the brain in animal models of drug addiction. This review provides a progress report of this still early work in the field. As will be seen, there is robust evidence that repeated exposure to drugs of abuse induces changes within the brain's reward regions in three major modes of epigenetic regulation-histone modifications such as acetylation and methylation, DNA methylation, and non-coding RNAs. In several instances, it has been possible to demonstrate directly the contribution of such epigenetic changes to addiction-related behavioral abnormalities. Studies of epigenetic mechanisms of addiction are also providing an unprecedented view of the range of genes and non-genic regions that are affected by repeated drug exposure and the precise molecular basis of that regulation. Work is now needed to validate key aspects of this work in human addiction and evaluate the possibility of mining this information to develop new diagnostic tests and more effective treatments for addiction syndromes. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'NIDA 40th Anniversary Issue'. PMID:23643695

  3. The "addicted" spine.

    Spiga, Saturnino; Mulas, Giovanna; Piras, Francesca; Diana, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Units of dendritic branches called dendritic spines represent more than simply decorative appendages of the neuron and actively participate in integrative functions of "spinous" nerve cells thereby contributing to the general phenomenon of synaptic plasticity. In animal models of drug addiction, spines are profoundly affected by treatments with drugs of abuse and represent important sub cellular markers which interfere deeply into the physiology of the neuron thereby providing an example of the burgeoning and rapidly increasing interest in "structural plasticity". Medium Spiny Neurons (MSNs) of the Nucleus Accumbens (Nacc) show a reduced number of dendritic spines and a decrease in TH-positive terminals upon withdrawal from opiates, cannabinoids and alcohol. The reduction is localized "strictly" to second order dendritic branches where dopamine (DA)-containing terminals, impinging upon spines, make synaptic contacts. In addition, long-thin spines seems preferentially affected raising the possibility that cellular learning of these neurons may be selectively hampered. These findings suggest that dendritic spines are affected by drugs widely abused by humans and provide yet another example of drug-induced aberrant neural plasticity with marked reflections on the physiology of synapses, system structural organization, and neuronal circuitry remodeling. PMID:25324733

  4. Addiction and Pain Medicine

    Douglas Gourlay

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The adequate cotreatment of chronic pain and addiction disorders is a complex and challenging problem for health care professionals. There is great potential for cannabinoids in the treatment of pain; however, the increasing prevalence of recreational cannabis use has led to a considerable increase in the number of people seeking treatment for cannabis use disorders. Evidence that cannabis abuse liability is higher than previously thought suggests that individuals with a history of substance abuse may be at an increased risk after taking cannabinoids, even for medicinal purposes. Smoked cannabis is significantly more reinforcing than other cannabinoid administration methods. In addition, it is clear that the smoked route of cannabis delivery is associated with a number of adverse health consequences. Thus, there is a need for pharmaceutical-grade products of known purity and concentration using delivery systems optimized for safety. Another factor that needs to be considered when assessing the practicality of prescribing medicinal cannabinoids is the difficulty in differentiating illicit from prescribed cannabinoids in urine drug testing. Overall, a thorough assessment of the risk/benefit profile of cannabinoids as they relate to a patient’s substance abuse history is suggested.

  5. Pain Raises Risk of Opioid Addiction

    ... fullstory_160033.html Pain Raises Risk of Opioid Addiction Men and younger people had higher odds of ... had a 41 percent higher risk of opioid addiction than those with no pain. That increased risk ...

  6. FDA Approves Implant to Battle Opioid Addiction

    ... gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_159050.html FDA Approves Implant to Battle Opioid Addiction Experts say steady dosing ... 26, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- A new long-acting implant that can help treat people addicted to heroin ...

  7. Behavioral Therapy, Incentives Enhance Addiction Treatment

    ... Research News From NIH Behavioral Therapy, Incentives Enhance Addiction Treatment Past Issues / Summer 2006 Table of Contents ... that people who are trying to end their addiction to marijuana can benefit from a treatment program ...

  8. Signs of Drug Abuse and Addiction

    ... Download "I feel so helpless against his addiction." Matt's brother Stephen is addicted to meth. Matt wants to help Stephen, but he isn't sure how. Read Matt's story About the National Institute on Drug Abuse ( ...

  9. [Does really sex addiction exist?].

    Echeburúa, Enrique

    2012-01-01

    Hypersexual Disorder has been proposed as a new psychiatric disorder for DSM-V, characterized by an increased frequency and intensity of sexually motivated fantasies, arousal, urges, and enacted behavior in association with an impulsivity component. Excessive appetitive and consummatory behaviors, including hypersexuality, can become a non-chemical addiction. Sexual addiction afflicts people having paraphilic or nonparaphilic behaviors associated with progressive risk-taking sexual behaviors, escalation or progression of sexual behaviors (tolerance), loss of control and significant adverse psychosocial consequences, such as unplanned pregnancy, pair-bond dysfunction, marital separation, financial problems and sexually transmitted diseases including HIV. The most common behaviors involved in sexual addiction are fantasy sex, compulsive masturbation, pornography, cybersex, voyeuristic sex, anonymous sex and multiple sexual partners. These behaviors are intended to reduce anxiety and other dysphoric affects (e.g., shame and depression). Axis I psychiatric diagnosis, especially mood disorders, psychoactive substance abuse disorders and attention deficit hyperactivity disorders, are common comorbid disorders with sexual addiction. There are significant gaps in the current scientific knowledge base regarding the clinical course, development risk factors and family history and data on women with sexual addiction are lacking. PMID:23241714

  10. Rationally Addicted to Drinking and Smoking?

    Bask, Mikael; Melkersson, Maria

    2001-01-01

    When modeling demand for addictive consumption goods, the most widely used framework is the rational addiction model proposed by Becker and Murphy (1988). In the present paper, we extend the rational addiction model to include two addictive consumption goods, alcohol and cigarettes. We estimate the aggregate demand for alcohol and cigarettes in Sweden, using aggregate annual time series on sales volumes for the period 1955-1999. OLS estimates are compared to GMM estimates allowing for possibl...

  11. The Neural Rejuvenation Hypothesis of Cocaine Addiction

    Dong, Yan; Nestler, Eric J.

    2014-01-01

    A leading hypothesis guiding current molecular and cellular research of drug addiction conceptualizes key aspects of addiction as a form of memory, in which common neuroplasticity mechanisms that mediate normal learning and memory processes are “hijacked” by exposure to drugs of abuse to produce pathologic addiction-related memories. Such addiction-related memories are particularly robust and long-lasting and once formed, less amenable to updating. Here, we propose the Neural Rejuvenation Hyp...

  12. Addiction-as-a-kind hypothesis

    Ylikoski, Petri; Pöyhönen, Samuli

    2015-01-01

    The psychiatric category of addiction has recently been broadened to include new behaviors. This has prompted critical discussion about the value of a concept that covers so many different substances and activities. Many of the debates surrounding the notion of addiction stem from different views concerning what kind of a thing addiction fundamentally is. In this essay, we put forward an account that conceptualizes different addictions as sharing a cluster of relevant properties (the syndrome...

  13. Systems Level Neuroplasticity in Drug Addiction

    Feltenstein, Matthew W.; See, Ronald E.

    2013-01-01

    Drug addiction is a chronic relapsing disorder for which research has been dedicated to understand the various factors that contribute to development, loss of control, and persistence of compulsive addictive behaviors. In this review, we provide a broad overview of various theories of addiction, drugs of abuse, and the neurobiology involved across the addiction cycle. Specific focus is devoted to the role of the mesolimbic pathway in acute drug reinforcement and occasional drug use, the mesoc...

  14. Binge Eating Disorder and Food Addiction

    Gearhardt, Ashley N.; White, Marney A.; POTENZA, MARC N.

    2011-01-01

    Binge eating disorder (BED) shares many characteristics with addictive behaviors (e.g., diminished control, continued use despite negative consequences), and a body of scientific literature is building to support addiction conceptualizations of problematic eating. Despite similarities, BED and “food addiction” may represent unique yet overlapping conditions. Although the exploration of food addiction is relatively new, understanding the relationship between food addiction and BED may be infor...

  15. Family Functioning of Addicted and Non-Addicted Individuals: A Comparative Study

    Hosseinbor, Mohsen; Bakhshani, Nour-Mohammad; Shakiba, Mansour

    2012-01-01

    Background Family functioning is considered to have a significant impact on the beginnings and maintenance of substance use. Objectives The main purpose of this study was to examine and compare the dimensions of family functioning among addicted and non-addicted individuals. Patients and Methods In this cross-sectional study, the study sample consisted of 228 individuals, including 118 addicted and 110 non-addicted subjects. The addicted persons were recruited from patients who attended the B...

  16. The Experience of Addiction as Told by the Addicted: Incorporating Biological Understandings into Self-Story

    Hammer, Rachel R.; Dingel, Molly J; Ostergren, Jenny E.; Nowakowski, Katherine E; Koenig, Barbara A.

    2012-01-01

    How do the addicted view addiction against the framework of formal theories that attempt to explain the condition? In this empirical paper, we report on the lived experience of addiction based on 63 semi-structured, open-ended interviews with individuals in treatment for alcohol and nicotine abuse at five sites in Minnesota. Using qualitative analysis, we identified four themes that provide insights into understanding how people who are addicted view their addiction, with particular emphasis ...

  17. A Comparison of Attentional Bias Towards Drug Cues in Addicts and Non-Addicts

    Zamani, Seyedeh Narjes; Mansouri, Houri; Fazilatpour, Masoud; Shamsai, Zahra

    2014-01-01

    Background: According to recent theories on addiction, attentional bias towards drug-related stimuli plays a pivotal role in the initiation of drug abuse. Objectives: The present study attempted to investigate attentional bias towards drug-related words in addicts and non-addicts. Patients and Methods: To attain the objectives, following a causal-comparative study, a number of 15 addicts under treatment in anonymous groups, and 15 non-addicts from among students at Isfahan University were sel...

  18. Addiction to smartphone games : Using smartphone game components to create an addiction

    Holmgren, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Smartphone games are very popular and have the highest revenue of all smartphone application categories. Some even suggest that the the games can create an addiction. This addiction has however not been classified as a disorder and the components in the games that create an addiction have not been determined. This thesis had two goals. The first was to investigate and identify addictive components in smartphone games. The second goal was to use these components to develop an addictive proof o...

  19. Tobacco Addiction: 'Why Do I Smoke?' Quiz

    MENU Return to Web version Tobacco Addiction | “Why do I smoke?" Quiz Why do I smoke? If you learn the answer to this question, it will be easier to ... m hooked." In addition to having a psychological addiction to smoking, you may also be physically addicted ...

  20. A Meaning-Centered Therapy for Addictions

    Thompson, Geoff

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a treatment for addictions, based on the idea that addiction is a response to living a life that has little personal meaning. First, it presents the theory of Meaning-Centered Therapy (MCT) as developed by Paul Wong, particularly the need to understand intoxication from the addict's perspective. Next, it presents the…

  1. Real-Life Stories about Addiction Struggles

    ... turn Javascript on. Feature: Preventing Drug Abuse and Addiction Real-Life Stories About Addiction Struggles Past Issues / Fall 2011 Table of Contents “ ... VIDEO NIHSeniorHealth Videos Offer Real-Life Stories About Addiction Struggles—and Much More Many of the health ...

  2. [Workaholism, another form of addiction].

    Scheen, A J

    2013-01-01

    Workaholism belongs to the behavioural addictions, also called ((without substances)) addictions, and is rather common in our society. The differential diagnosis must distinguish a hard worker, who has pleasure in his/her job, still profits from leisure time and maintains an excellent quality of life, from a true workaholic, who is prisoner of this compulsive behaviour that has negative consequences on his mental and physical health, his social and familial relationships and finally, his work performance itself. We describe here the various typologies of this mental disorder, its mode of evolution, its diagnostic approach, its multiple negative consequences for both patient and family as well as the main principles of management based on cognitive-behavioural therapy of this disorder that may be considered as a true addiction. PMID:23888592

  3. Modeling nicotine addiction in rats.

    Caille, Stephanie; Clemens, Kelly; Stinus, Luis; Cador, Martine

    2012-01-01

    Among the human population, 15% of drug users develop a pathological drug addiction. This figure increases substantially with nicotine, whereby more than 30% of those who try smoking develop a nicotine addiction. Drug addiction is characterized by compulsive drug-seeking and drug-taking behaviors (craving), and loss of control over intake despite impairment in health, social, and occupational functions. This behavior can be accurately modeled in the rat using an intravenous self-administration (IVSA) paradigm. Initial attempts at establishing nicotine self-administration had been problematic, yet in recent times increasingly reliable models of nicotine self-administration have been developed. The present article reviews different characteristics of the nicotine IVSA model that has been developed to examine nicotine reinforcing and motivational properties in rats. PMID:22231818

  4. Substance abuse precedes Internet addiction.

    Lee, Young Sik; Han, Doug Hyun; Kim, Sun Mi; Renshaw, Perry F

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of the current study was to evaluate possible overlapping substance abuse and internet addiction in a large, uniformly sampled population, ranging in age from 13 to 18 years. Participants (N=73,238) in the current study were drawn from the 6th Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBWS-V) for students from 400 middle schools and 400 high schools in 16 cities within South Korea. Of adolescent internet users, 85.2% were general users (GU), 11.9% were users with potential risk for internet addiction (PR), and 3.0% were users with high risk for internet addiction (HR). There was a difference in the number of students with alcohol drinking among the GU, PR, and HR groups (20.8% vs 23.1% vs 27.4%). There was a difference in the number of students who smoked among the GS, PR, and HR groups (11.7% vs 13.5% vs 20.4%). There was a difference in the number of students with drug use among the GU, PR, and HR groups (1.7% vs 2.0% vs 6.5%). After adjusting for sex, age, stress, depressed mood, and suicidal ideation, smoking may predict a high risk for internet addiction (OR=1.203, p=0.004). In addition, drug use may predict a high risk for internet addiction (OR=2.591, psubstance abuse should be evaluated and, if found, treated in adolescents with internet addiction. PMID:23384457

  5. Social Anomie and Drug Addiction

    2004-01-01

    The present article addresses the relationshop between social anomie and drug addiction and tries to show that how we can apply anomie theory to clarify the aspects of this social problem in our society. By reviewing Durkheim’s and Merton’s anomie theories and Agnew’s mental-social theory، this article attempts to show that despite of fundamental differences in these two theories، Iranian Society has an anomic situation and this situation has a high poteniality for tendency toward drug addict...

  6. Treatment of addiction and addiction-related behavior

    Dewey, Stephen L. (Manorville, NY); Brodie, Jonathan D. (Cos Cob, CT); Ashby, Jr., Charles R. (Miller Place, NY)

    2003-01-01

    The present invention provides a highly efficient method for treating substance addiction and for changing addiction-related behavior of a mammal suffering from substance addiction. The method includes administering to a mammal an effective amount of gamma vinylGABA or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof. The present invention also provides a method of treatment of cocaine, morphine, heroin, nicotine, amphetamine, methamphetamine, or ethanol addiction by treating a mammal with an effective amount of gamma vinylGABA or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof. In one embodiment, the method of the present invention includes administering to the mammal an effective amount of a composition which increases central nervous system GABA levels wherein the effective amount is sufficient to diminish, inhibit or eliminate behavior associated with craving or use of drugs of abuse. The composition includes GVG, gabapentin, valproic acid, progabide, gamma-hydroxybutyric acid, fengabine, cetylGABA, topiramate or tiagabine or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, or an enantiomer or a racemic mixture thereof.

  7. Case Presentations from the Addiction Academy.

    Laes, JoAn R; Wiegand, Timothy

    2016-03-01

    In this article, a case-based format is used to address complex clinical issues in addiction medicine. The cases were developed from the authors' practice experience, and were presented at the American College of Medical Toxicology Addiction Academy in 2015. Section I: Drug and Alcohol Dependence and Pain explores cases of patients with co-occurring pain and substance use disorders. Section II: Legal and Policy Issues in Substance Use Disorders highlights difficult legal and policy questions in addiction medicine. Section III: Special Populations and Addictive Disorders delves into the complexity of addiction in special populations (pregnant, pediatric, and geriatric patients). PMID:26586253

  8. Phenomenology and treatment of behavioural addictions.

    Grant, Jon E; Schreiber, Liana R N; Odlaug, Brian L

    2013-05-01

    Behavioural addictions are characterized by an inability to resist an urge or drive resulting in actions that are harmful to oneself or others. Behavioural addictions share characteristics with substance and alcohol abuse, and in areas such as natural history, phenomenology, and adverse consequences. Behavioural addictions include pathological gambling, kleptomania, pyromania, compulsive buying, compulsive sexual behaviour, Internet addiction, and binge eating disorder. Few studies have examined the efficacy of pharmacological and psychological treatment for the various behavioural addictions, and therefore, currently, no treatment recommendations can be made. PMID:23756285

  9. Association between morningness/eveningness, addiction severity and psychiatric disorders among individuals with addictions.

    Kervran, Charlotte; Fatséas, Mélina; Serre, Fuschia; Taillard, Jacques; Beltran, Virginie; Leboucher, Juliette; Debrabant, Romain; Alexandre, Jean-Marc; Daulouède, Jean-Pierre; Philip, Pierre; Auriacombe, Marc

    2015-10-30

    Studies have shown that Evening-Type (ET) subjects used more stimulating and sedative substances, and presented more psychiatric disorders than Morning-Type (MT) subject. However, there is a lack of data on the chronotype of patients with addiction. The aim of our study was to describe chronotype and associated factors in a sample of outpatients beginning treatment for addiction. Subjects were assessed with the Morningness-Eveningness questionnaire of Hörne & Ostberg, the Addiction Severity Index and the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. In the 333 subjects with an addiction, 20% were MT and 32% were ET. When comparing ET to MT, multivariate analysis showed that ET was significantly associated with poly-problematic addiction, non-substance addictions, cannabis addiction, and mood disorders, but not with severity of addiction. MT was associated with antisocial personality disorder. Results suggested that chronotype was associated with specific addiction pattern and psychiatric disorders. PMID:26250146

  10. [Internet addiction--a case report].

    Pejović-Milovancević, Milica; Popović-Deusić, Smiljka; Draganić-Gajić, Saveta; Lecić-Tosevski, Dusica

    2009-01-01

    Some addictions cannot be connected with substance abuse (pathological gambling, video games playing, binge eating, compulsive physical activity, emotional relationship addiction, TV addiction). Since 1995, Internet addiction has been accepted as a clinical entity with profound negative effect on social, familial, educational and economical personal functioning. The diagnosis of Internet addiction could be established if the person spends more than 38 hours per week on the Internet exempting online professional needs. Basic symptoms are the increased number of hours spent in front of the computer along with the Internet use, development of abstinent syndrome if the Internet access is prohibited, sleep inversion, neglect of basic social requirements and personal hygiene, many somatic symptoms developed due to prolonged sitting or monitor watching, dissocial behaviour. In this paper, data about the Internet addiction are presented and a case report of an adolescent with developed Internet addiction. PMID:19370973

  11. Doctors, lies and the addiction bureaucracy.

    Dalrymple, Theodore

    2008-04-01

    Almost everything you know about heroin addiction is wrong. Not only is it wrong, but it is obviously wrong. Heroin is not highly addictive; withdrawal from it is not medically serious; addicts do not become criminals to feed their habit; addicts do not need any medical assistance to stop taking heroin; and contrary to received wisdom, heroin addiction most certainly is a moral or spiritual problem. A literary tradition dating back to De Quincey and Coleridge, and continuing up to the deeply sociopathic William Burroughs and beyond, has misled all Western societies for generations about the nature of heroin addiction. These writers' self-dramatizing and dishonest accounts of their own addiction have been accepted uncritically, and have been more influential by far in forming public attitudes than the whole of pharmacological science. As a result, a self-serving, self-perpetuating and completely useless medical bureaucracy has been set up to deal with the problem. PMID:18416920

  12. Internet Addiction: Stability and Change

    Huang, Chiungjung

    2010-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined five indices of stability and change in Internet addiction: structural stability, mean-level stability, differential stability, individual-level stability, and ipsative stability. The study sample was 351 undergraduate students from end of freshman year to end of junior year. Convergent findings revealed stability…

  13. Neurocognitive Insights in Nicotine Addiction

    M. Luijten (Maartje)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractIn the Netherlands, 27% of the population is currently smoking. Nicotine is among the most addictive substances of abuse. Thirty-two percent of the people who tried smoking develop nicotine dependence within ten year. This percentage is higher for nicotine than for other substances of ab

  14. Using Meditation in Addiction Counseling

    Young, Mark E.; DeLorenzi, Leigh de Armas; Cunningham, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Meditation has been studied as a way of reducing stress in counseling clients since the 1960s. Alcoholics Anonymous, Narcotics Anonymous, and new wave behavior therapies incorporate meditation techniques in their programs. This article identifies meditation's curative factors and limitations when using meditation in addiction settings.

  15. Femoral pseudoaneurysms in drug addicts

    Levi-Mazloum, Niels Donald; Rørdam, Peter; Jensen, L P;

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the outcome of treatment of femoral pseudoaneurysms in drug addicts. METHODS: The records of eight patients undergoing vascular surgery for femoral pseudoaneurysms from substance abuse identified from a vascular database were reviewed. RESULTS: Were good in four out of five...

  16. Comparison of Personality Characteristics and Problem Solving Styles in Addicted and Non-Addicted Men

    Mohammad Narimani

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The present study sought to compare emotional intelligence and quality of life in addicted and non-addicted men. Method: The samples included 80 addicted and 80 non-addicted men who addicted men were selected by available sampling and non-addicted men were chosen by cloning methods according to age and marital status. For data collection, emotional intelligence scale and quality of life questionnaire were used. Variance test and Pearson correlation were used for data analysis. Findings: The results showed that there is a significant difference between emotional intelligence and quality of life of addicted and non-addicted men. In fact, the emotional intelligence and quality of life among addicted men were lower than non-addicted men. Also the results showed that there is a significant correlation between emotional intelligence and quality of life among addicts and non addicts. Conclusion: People with low emotional intelligence are more likely to do substance abuse and drug abuse lowers the quality of life of the people. It is likely to develop emotional intelligence of people in order to prevent them from getting addicted.

  17. Towards an animal model of food addiction.

    de Jong, Johannes W; Vanderschuren, Louk J M J; Adan, Roger A H

    2012-01-01

    The dramatically increasing prevalence of obesity, associated with potentially life-threatening health problems, including cardiovascular diseases and type II diabetes, poses an enormous public health problem. It has been proposed that the obesity epidemic can be explained by the concept of 'food addiction'. In this review we focus on possible similarities between binge eating disorder (BED), which is highly prevalent in the obese population, and drug addiction. Indeed, both behavioral and neural similarities between addiction and BED have been demonstrated. Behavioral similarities are reflected in the overlap in DSM-IV criteria for drug addiction with the (suggested) criteria for BED and by food addiction-like behavior in animals after prolonged intermittent access to palatable food. Neural similarities include the overlap in brain regions involved in food and drug craving. Decreased dopamine D2 receptor availability in the striatum has been found in animal models of binge eating, after cocaine self-administration in animals as well as in drug addiction and obesity in humans. To further explore the neurobiological basis of food addiction, it is essential to have an animal model to test the addictive potential of palatable food. A recently developed animal model for drug addiction involves three behavioral characteristics that are based on the DSM-IV criteria: i) extremely high motivation to obtain the drug, ii) difficulty in limiting drug seeking even in periods of explicit non-availability, iii) continuation of drug-seeking despite negative consequences. Indeed, it has been shown that a subgroup of rats, after prolonged cocaine self-administration, scores positive on these three criteria. If food possesses addictive properties, then food-addicted rats should also meet these criteria while searching for and consuming food. In this review we discuss evidence from literature regarding food addiction-like behavior. We also suggest future experiments that could

  18. New Dimensions, New Addictions: The Internet Sex Addiction

    Silvia Sánchez Zaldívar

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The network is endless: going anywhere, finding anything, being anyone. Typing the word sex on Google gives a figure of 96 million results. The network is changing our way of communication and relation; we can construct space-time coordinates before incompatible. Internet addiction is not recognized as a disorder in DSM-IV-TR or ICD-10. Both types of Internet addiction with sexual content are cybersex and pornography. Cybersex consists in experiencing sexual stimulation while maintaining sexual contact with other person. There is no user profile, it is a widespread behaviour and might have a positive aspect (in some communities, persons with fewer social skills, to spice sex life and a negative aspect (addiction, loss of control, marital and family problems. Sex is safe, anonymous and without complications. Internet pornography voyeurism allows the visualization of all types of practices, the use of real models not professional and to spy our behaviour through the IP code. These sexual activities on the network seems to be powered by the “Triple A” engine: accessibility, anonymity, affordability. We must assess the individual, the couples and the Internet activities. There is no proven pharmacological or psychological treatment but cognitive behavioural programs and techniques used in other addictions are helpful. There is large comorbidity. The goal of treatment refers to the adaptive use of Internet. Health professionals should be in advance and learn about this kind of behaviours, as well as to disseminate the information appropriately not launching simplistic messages, providing markers and developing studies, research and prevention programs.

  19. Hypomanic personality trait in cocaine addiction.

    Lemere, F; Smith, J W

    1990-04-01

    An analysis of 292 private patients treated for cocaine addiction showed the following. Comorbid Axis I psychiatric disorders were found in 19% and preaddiction Axis I disorders in 9% of these patients. Psychopathology at the time of treatment appeared to be more the result of than the cause of the addiction. Of these patients 63% had become addicted pursuing euphoria. A definitive nonpathologic unipolar hypomanic subtype of cocaine addict was observed in 13% of these 292 patients. This was manifested more as a trait than a disorder. This subgroup had been reasonably well adjusted, fun-loving and action oriented extroverts before their addiction. The rush and lifestyle of cocaine fit the imperatives of their personality. In a significant subtype of cocaine addict, an underlying hypomanic personality trait is ego-syntonic with the abuse of cocaine. PMID:2346798

  20. The neural rejuvenation hypothesis of cocaine addiction.

    Dong, Yan; Nestler, Eric J

    2014-08-01

    A leading hypothesis guiding current molecular and cellular research into drug addiction conceptualizes key aspects of addiction as a form of memory in which common neuroplasticity mechanisms that mediate normal learning and memory processes are 'hijacked' by exposure to drugs of abuse to produce pathologic addiction-related memories. Such addiction-related memories are particularly robust and long-lasting and once formed are less amenable to updating. Here we propose a neural rejuvenation hypothesis of cocaine addiction. According to this hypothesis, repeated exposure to drugs of abuse induces some plasticity mechanisms normally associated with brain development within the reward circuitry that mediate the highly efficient and unusually stable memory abnormalities that characterize addiction. PMID:24958329

  1. Neuroimaging for drug addiction and related behaviors

    In this review, we highlight the role of neuroimaging techniques in studying the emotional and cognitive-behavioral components of the addiction syndrome by focusing on the neural substrates subserving them. The phenomenology of drug addiction can be characterized by a recurrent pattern of subjective experiences that includes drug intoxication, craving, bingeing, and withdrawal with the cycle culminating in a persistent preoccupation with obtaining, consuming, and recovering from the drug. In the past two decades, imaging studies of drug addiction have demonstrated deficits in brain circuits related to reward and impulsivity. The current review focuses on studies employing positron emission tomography (PET), functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and electroencephalography (EEG) to investigate these behaviors in drug-addicted human populations. We begin with a brief account of drug addiction followed by a technical account of each of these imaging modalities. We then discuss how these techniques have uniquely contributed to a deeper understanding of addictive behaviors.

  2. Neuroimaging for drug addiction and related behaviors

    Parvaz, Muhammad A.; Alia-Klein, Nelly; Woicik, Patricia A.; Volkow, Nora D.; Goldstein, Rita Z.

    2012-01-01

    In this review, we highlight the role of neuroimaging techniques in studying the emotional and cognitive-behavioral components of the addiction syndrome by focusing on the neural substrates subserving them. The phenomenology of drug addiction can be characterized by a recurrent pattern of subjective experiences that includes drug intoxication, craving, bingeing, and withdrawal with the cycle culminating in a persistent preoccupation with obtaining, consuming, and recovering from the drug. In the past two decades, imaging studies of drug addiction have demonstrated deficits in brain circuits related to reward and impulsivity. The current review focuses on studies employing positron emission tomography (PET), functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and electroencephalography (EEG) to investigate these behaviors in drug-addicted human populations. We begin with a brief account of drug addiction followed by a technical account of each of these imaging modalities. We then discuss how these techniques have uniquely contributed to a deeper understanding of addictive behaviors. PMID:22117165

  3. Neuroimaging for drug addiction and related behaviors

    Parvaz M. A.; Parvaz, M.A.; Alia-Klein, N.; Woicik,P.A.; Volkow, N.D.; Goldstein, R.Z.

    2011-10-01

    In this review, we highlight the role of neuroimaging techniques in studying the emotional and cognitive-behavioral components of the addiction syndrome by focusing on the neural substrates subserving them. The phenomenology of drug addiction can be characterized by a recurrent pattern of subjective experiences that includes drug intoxication, craving, bingeing, and withdrawal with the cycle culminating in a persistent preoccupation with obtaining, consuming, and recovering from the drug. In the past two decades, imaging studies of drug addiction have demonstrated deficits in brain circuits related to reward and impulsivity. The current review focuses on studies employing positron emission tomography (PET), functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and electroencephalography (EEG) to investigate these behaviors in drug-addicted human populations. We begin with a brief account of drug addiction followed by a technical account of each of these imaging modalities. We then discuss how these techniques have uniquely contributed to a deeper understanding of addictive behaviors.

  4. Obesity and Its Relationship to Addictions: Is Overeating a Form of Addictive Behavior?

    Barry, Danielle; Clarke, Megan; Petry, Nancy M.

    2009-01-01

    Obesity is a major public health problem and notoriously difficult to treat. There are many parallels between obesity/overeating and addictions to alcohol and drugs. This paper discusses similarities between obesity and addictive disorders, including common personality characteristics, disruptive behavior syndromes, and brain mechanisms. Although there are important differences between overeating and other addictive behaviors, an addiction model of overeating may effectively inform prevention...

  5. Factors influencing alcohol and tobacco addiction among patients attending a de-addiction Centre, South India

    Prabhu, Poornima; Srinivas, Raju; Vishwanathan, Kashi; Raavi, Abhilash

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Alcohol and tobacco consumption are highly correlated behaviors. Aim: To assess the factors influencing alcohol and tobacco addiction and their impact on personal, family, and social life among patients attending the Spandana Nursing Home and De-addiction Centre, Bangalore. The objectives are to assess the various factors leading to alcohol and tobacco addiction, to assess the influence of addiction on personal, family, and social life, and also to create awareness among the com...

  6. A 50-Year-Old Woman Addicted to Heroin: Review of Treatment of Heroin Addiction

    O’Brien, Charles P.

    2008-01-01

    Heroin addiction is a complicated medical and psychiatric issue, with well-established as well as newer modes of treatment. The case of Ms W, a 50-year-old woman with a long history of opiate addiction who has been treated successfully with methadone for 9 years and who now would like to consider newer alternatives, illustrates the complex issues of heroin addiction. The treatment of heroin addiction as a chronic disease is reviewed, including social, medical, and cultural issues and pharmaco...

  7. Behavioral Addiction versus Substance Addiction: Correspondence of Psychiatric and Psychological Views

    Seyyed Salman Alavi

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Similar to substance abuse prevention, programs aimed at addicted individuals and specialized training can educate adolescents about the warning signs of online addiction, in order to assist the early detection of this disorder. For prevention of behavioral addiction (such as internet addiction authorities, cultural institutions and parents should monitor the use of internet and teach to the adolescent and children, the useful and appropriate methods of internet use.

  8. The Prevalence of Food Addiction as Assessed by the Yale Food Addiction Scale: A Systematic Review

    Pursey, Kirrilly M.; Peter Stanwell; Gearhardt, Ashley N.; Clare E. Collins; Burrows, Tracy L.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a global issue and it has been suggested that an addiction to certain foods could be a factor contributing to overeating and subsequent obesity. Only one tool, the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS) has been developed to specifically assess food addiction. This review aimed to determine the prevalence of food addiction diagnosis and symptom scores, as assessed by the YFAS. Published studies to July 2014 were included if they reported the YFAS diagnosis or symptom score and were publi...

  9. Behavioral Addiction versus Substance Addiction: Correspondence of Psychiatric and Psychological Views

    Seyyed Salman Alavi; Masoud Ferdosi; Fereshte Jannatifard; Mehdi Eslami; Hamed Alaghemandan; Mehrdad Setare

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Behavioral science experts believe that all entities capable of stimulating a person can be addictive; and whenever a habit changes into an obligation, it can be considered as an addiction. Researchers also believe that there are a number of similarities as well as some differences between drug addiction and behavioral addiction diagnostic symptoms. The purpose of this study is to consider different approaches in this field. Methods: This is a descriptive research using conte...

  10. Assessing internet addiction using the parsimonious internet addiction components model—A preliminary study.

    Kuss, D.J.; Shorter, G.W.; Rooij, A.J. van; Griffiths, M.D.; Schoenmakers, T.M.

    2014-01-01

    Internet usage has grown exponentially over the last decade. Research indicates that excessive Internet use can lead to symptoms associated with addiction. To date, assessment of potential Internet addiction has varied regarding populations studied and instruments used, making reliable prevalence estimations difficult. To overcome the present problems a preliminary study was conducted testing a parsimonious Internet addiction components model based on Griffiths’ addiction components (Journal ...

  11. The Internet Process Addiction Test: Screening for Addictions to Processes Facilitated by the Internet

    Northrup, Jason C.; Coady Lapierre; Jeffrey Kirk; Cosette Rae

    2015-01-01

    The Internet Process Addiction Test (IPAT) was created to screen for potential addictive behaviors that could be facilitated by the internet. The IPAT was created with the mindset that the term “Internet addiction” is structurally problematic, as the Internet is simply the medium that one uses to access various addictive processes. The role of the internet in facilitating addictions, however, cannot be minimized. A new screening tool that effectively directed researchers and clinicians to the...

  12. Common Bile Duct (CBD) diameter in opium-addicted men: Comparison with non-addict controls

    Zahedi-Nejad, Nina; Narouei, Shahin; Fahimy, Farnaz

    2010-01-01

    Summary Background: Opium and its derivatives are widely abused throughout the world. Recent case reports and a few limited studies have suggested that opiates cause dilation of the common bile duct of the abusers. Material/Methods: Our case-control study, lasting 7.5 months, investigated 121 male adult addicts and 142 non-addicted controls for biliary tract diameters, using ultrasonography. The study was conducted in Bahonar Hospital in Kerman. Neither the addiction cases nor the non-addict ...

  13. Clarifying Exercise Addiction: Differential Diagnosis, Co-occurring Disorders, and Phases of Addiction

    Marilyn Freimuth; Kim, Shari R.; Sandy Moniz

    2011-01-01

    This paper sets out to clarify the unique features of exercise addiction. It begins by examining how this addiction can be distinguished from compulsions and impulse control disorders both of which, like an addiction, involve excessive behavior that creates adverse effects. Assessment of exercise addiction also requires that clinicians be attuned to other forms of excessive behavior, especially eating disorders that can co-occur with exercise. Finally in an effort to clarify exercise addictio...

  14. Treating a Sex Addict Through Marital Sex Therapy.

    Sprenkle, Douglas H.

    1987-01-01

    Views treatment of sexual addiction within context of addiction and family therapy. Presents a case of sexual addiction and explicates an intervention model which emphasizes the importance of family participation in the treatment. (Author/NB)

  15. Biology of Addiction: Drugs and Alcohol Can Hijack Your Brain

    ... External link, please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Biology of Addiction Drugs and Alcohol Can Hijack Your ... scientists are working to learn more about the biology of addiction. They’ve shown that addiction is ...

  16. Biopsychosocial implications of heroin addiction

    Cheng, Lai-fung, Gordon; 鄭禮鋒

    2014-01-01

    Heroin abuse is devastating to both the individual abusers and society. Owing to its ability to elicit rapid feelings of euphoria and transcendent relaxation, coupled with adverse withdrawal effects, it is one of the most addictive illicit drugs of abuse. The severe and persistent socio-economic detriment caused by heroin abuse signifies an urgent need for understanding how this substance affects abusers. Currently, scientific research into the biopsychosocial functioning of heroin abusers is...

  17. Assessing Addiction: Concepts and Instruments

    Samet, Sharon; Waxman, Rachel; Hatzenbuehler, Mark; Hasin, Deborah S.

    2007-01-01

    Efficient, organized assessment of substance use disorders is essential for clinical research, treatment planning, and referral to adjunctive services. In this article, we discuss the basic concepts of formalized assessment for substance abuse and addiction, as established by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision, and describe six widely used structured assessment instruments. Our aim is to help researchers and clinical programs identify the ins...

  18. Molecular Mechanisms of Psychostimulant Addiction

    Jin-Chung Chen; Pei-Chun Chen; Yao-Chang Chiang

    2009-01-01

    Drug addiction represents a pathological form of neuroplasticity along with the emergenceof aberrant behaviors involving a cascade of neurochemical changes mainly in thebrain’s rewarding circuitry. The aberrant behavioral phenotypes can be assessed by an animalmodel of drug-induced behavioral sensitization, which is characterized by an initiationstage that is formed in the ventral tegmental area and a behavioral expression stage determinedmainly in the nucleus accumbens. Numerous studies duri...

  19. Addiction and the adrenal cortex

    Vinson, Gavin P; Brennan, Caroline H.

    2013-01-01

    Substantial evidence shows that the hypophyseal–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis and corticosteroids are involved in the process of addiction to a variety of agents, and the adrenal cortex has a key role. In general, plasma concentrations of cortisol (or corticosterone in rats or mice) increase on drug withdrawal in a manner that suggests correlation with the behavioural and symptomatic sequelae both in man and in experimental animals. Corticosteroid levels fall back to normal values in resumptio...

  20. Treating cocaine addiction with viruses

    Carrera, M. Rocio A.; Kaufmann, Gunnar F.; Mee, Jenny M.; Meijler, Michael M.; Koob, George F.; Janda, Kim D.

    2004-01-01

    Cocaine addiction continues to be a major health and social problem in the United States and other countries. Currently used pharmacological agents for treating cocaine abuse have proved inadequate, leaving few treatment options. An alternative is to use protein-based therapeutics that can eliminate the load of cocaine, thereby attenuating its effects. This approach is especially attractive because the therapeutic agents exert no pharmacodynamic action of their own and therefore have little p...

  1. Methamphetamine Cured my Cocaine Addiction

    Haile, Colin N.; De La Garza, Richard; Newton, Thomas F.

    2010-01-01

    Cocaine dependence is an enduring problem and years of research and drug development has yet to produce an efficacious pharmacotherapy. Recent clinical research suggests that chronic treatment with amphetamine-like medications produces tolerance to cocaine’s reinforcing effects and may offer a viable pharmacotherapy. Three methamphetamine-dependent participants that had been in our clinical laboratory experiments and previously addicted to cocaine are reviewed. Data obtained from initial scre...

  2. Internet gaming addiction: current perspectives

    Kuss DJ

    2013-01-01

    Daria J KussPsychology Research and Behavior Management, Birmingham City University, Birmingham, UKAbstract: In the 2000s, online games became popular, while studies of Internet gaming addiction emerged, outlining the negative consequences of excessive gaming, its prevalence, and associated risk factors. The establishment of specialized treatment centers in South-East Asia, the US, and Europe reflects the growing need for professional help. It is argued that only by understanding the appeal o...

  3. Reducing the addictiveness of cigarettes

    HENNINGFIELD, J.; Benowitz, N.; Slade, J.; Houston, T; DAVIS, R.; Deitchman, S.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To assess the feasibility of reducing tobacco-caused disease by gradually removing nicotine from cigarettes until they would not be effective causes of nicotine addiction.
DATA SOURCES—Issues posed by such an approach, and potential solutions, were identified from analysis of literature published by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in its 1996 Tobacco Rule, comments of the tobacco industry and other institutions and individuals on the rule, review of the reference lists of ...

  4. Topical corticosteroid addiction and phobia

    Aparajita Ghosh; Sujata Sengupta; Arijit Coondoo; Amlan Kusum Jana

    2014-01-01

    Corticosteroids, one of the most widely prescribed topical drugs, have been used for about six decades till date. However, rampant misuse and abuse down the years has given the drug a bad name. Topical steroid abuse may lead to two major problems which lie at the opposing ends of the psychosomatic spectrum. Topical steroid addiction, a phenomenon that came to be recognized about a decade after the introduction of the molecule is manifested as psychological distress and rebound phenomenon on s...

  5. Acupuncture therapy for drug addiction

    Motlagh, Farid Esmaeili; Ibrahim, Fatimah; Rashid , Rusdi Abd.; SEGHATOLESLAM, Tahereh; Habil, Hussain

    2016-01-01

    Acupuncture therapy has been used to treat substance abuse. This study aims to review experimental studies examining the effects of acupuncture on addiction. Research and review articles on acupuncture treatment of substance abuse published between January 2000 and September 2014 were searched using the databases ISI Web of Science Core Collection and EBSCO’s MEDLINE Complete. Clinical trial studies on the efficacy of acupuncture therapy for substance abuse were classified according to substa...

  6. Epigenetic mechanisms in drug addiction

    Renthal, William; Nestler, Eric J.

    2008-01-01

    Changes in gene expression in brain reward regions are thought to contribute to the pathogenesis and persistence of drug addiction. Recent studies have begun to focus on the molecular mechanisms by which drugs of abuse and related environmental stimuli, such as drug-associated cues or stress, converge on the genome to alter specific gene programs. Increasing evidence suggests that these stable gene expression changes in neurons are mediated in part by epigenetic mechanisms that alter chromati...

  7. Histone Acetylation in Drug Addiction

    Renthal, William; Nestler, Eric J.

    2009-01-01

    Regulation of chromatin structure through post-translational modifications of histones (e.g. acetylation) has emerged as an important mechanism to translate a variety of environmental stimuli, including drugs of abuse, into specific changes in gene expression. Since alterations in gene expression are thought to contribute to the development and maintenance of the addicted state, recent efforts are aimed at identifying how drugs of abuse alter chromatin structure and the enzymes which regulate...

  8. Applying incentive sensitization models to behavioral addiction

    Rømer Thomsen, Kristine; Fjorback, Lone; Møller, Arne;

    2014-01-01

    The incentive sensitization theory is a promising model for understanding the mechanisms underlying drug addiction, and has received support in animal and human studies. So far the theory has not been applied to the case of behavioral addictions like Gambling Disorder, despite sharing clinical...... symptoms and underlying neurobiology. We examine the relevance of this theory for Gambling Disorder and point to predictions for future studies. The theory promises a significant contribution to the understanding of behavioral addiction and opens new avenues for treatment....

  9. Mapping Smoking Addiction Using Effective Connectivity Analysis

    Tang, Rongxiang; Razi, Adeel; Friston, Karl J.; Tang, Yi-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Prefrontal and parietal cortex, including the default mode network (DMN; medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), and posterior cingulate cortex, PCC), have been implicated in addiction. Nonetheless, it remains unclear which brain regions play a crucial role in smoking addiction and the relationship among these regions. Since functional connectivity only measures correlations, addiction-related changes in effective connectivity (directed information flow) among these distributed brain regions remain ...

  10. Trauma and addiction: Implications for practice

    Misouridou, Evdokia

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Trauma is common in many individuals who face addiction problems and their families while the risk of secondary traumatic stress disorder for professionals working in the addiction field has been recently recognized. Aim: The aim of the present paper was to enhance understanding of the continuing effects of trauma and its impact in the lives of addicted individuals, their families and the mental health care professionals who strive to provide support and care for them. M...

  11. Heroin addiction: the past and future

    Robson , Noorzurani; H , Hussain; AR, Rusdi; AZ, Muhammad Muhsin

    2008-01-01

    Substance misuse, in particular heroin addiction contributes to health and social problems. Although effective medical treatment was available, earlier efforts confined the treatment of heroin addicts to in-house rehabilitation which required them to be estranged from the community and their families for 2 years. The in-house rehabilitative programme, implemented for at least three decades has produced low abstinence rates. On the other hand, being ‘away’ meant that many heroin addicts faced ...

  12. Environmental enrichment and drug addiction revised

    Marcello Solinas

    2013-01-01

    Accumulating evidence demonstrates that exposure to environmental enrichment (EE) has positive effects on drug addiction. In fact, animals exposed to EE appear less vulnerable than animals reared in standard environments (SE) to develop addiction-related behaviors. In addition, exposing already « addicted » animals to EE during periods of withdrawal dramatically reduces the risks of relapse. These findings highlight the interest of EE for the treatment of psychiatric diseases and, from a tran...

  13. Evidence-based treatments of addiction

    O'Brien, Charles P

    2008-01-01

    Both pharmacotherapy and behavioural treatment are required to relieve the symptoms of addictive disorders. This paper reviews the evidence for the benefits of pharmacotherapy and discusses mechanisms where possible. Animal models of addiction have led to some medications that are effective in reducing symptoms and improving function but they do not produce a cure. Addiction is a chronic disease that tends to recur when treatment is stopped; thus, long-term treatment is recommended.

  14. Drug Addiction as Risk for Suicide Attempts

    Dragisic, Tatjana; Dickov, Aleksandra; Dickov, Veselin; Mijatovic, Vesna

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Suicide is closely linked to the substances use. Therefore it is very important to confirm the factors that affect the possibility of suicidal behavior. Methodology: The survey included 200 respondents; 100 heroin addicts on the substitution program that attempted suicide and 100 opiate addicts who have not attempted suicide. The evaluation included a questionnaire with socio-demographic, hereditary and addiction data, legal problems and then the Minnesota Multiphasic Personalit...

  15. [Internet addiction - between enter and escape].

    Poppe, Hubert

    2014-12-01

    Internet addiction, a non-substantial addiction, is to be regarded as a highly complex mental disorder which requires complex and diverse treatment options. Initially smiled at, it shows, if it were severe, a typical addictive behaviour pattern, similar to pathological gambling, oniomanie and workaholism. In the International Classification of mental disorders (ICD-10) only pathological gambling in the category of impulse control disorders (F63.0) is specified. PMID:25377375

  16. Neurobiologic Processes in Drug Reward and Addiction

    Adinoff, Bryon

    2004-01-01

    Neurophysiologic processes underlie the uncontrolled, compulsive behaviors defining the addicted state. These “hard-wired” changes in the brain are considered critical for the transition from casual to addictive drug use. This review of preclinical and clinical (primarily neuroimaging) studies will describe how the delineation between pleasure, reward, and addiction has evolved as our understanding of the biologic mechanisms underlying these processes has progressed. Although the mesolimbic d...

  17. Young drug addicts and the drug scene.

    Lucchini, R

    1985-01-01

    The drug scene generally comprises the following four distinct categories of young people: neophytes, addicts who enjoy a high status vis-à-vis other addicts, multiple drug addicts, and non-addicted drug dealers. It has its own evolution, hierarchy, structure and criteria of success and failure. The members are required to conform to the established criteria. The integration of the young addict into the drug scene is not voluntary in the real sense of the word, for he is caught between the culture that he rejects and the pseudo-culture of the drug scene. To be accepted into the drug scene, the neophyte must furnish proof of his reliability, which often includes certain forms of criminal activities. The addict who has achieved a position of importance in the drug world serves as a role model for behaviour to the neophyte. In a more advanced phase of addiction, the personality of the addict and the social functions of the drug scene are overwhelmed by the psychoactive effects of the drug, and this process results in the social withdrawal of the addict. The life-style of addicts and the subculture they develop are largely influenced by the type of drug consumed. For example, it is possible to speak of a heroin subculture and a cocaine subculture. In time, every drug scene deteriorates so that it becomes fragmented into small groups, which is often caused by legal interventions or a massive influx of new addicts. The fragmentation of the drug scene is followed by an increase in multiple drug abuse, which often aggravates the medical and social problems of drug addicts. PMID:4075000

  18. Molecular Mechanisms of Psychostimulant Addiction

    Jin-Chung Chen

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Drug addiction represents a pathological form of neuroplasticity along with the emergenceof aberrant behaviors involving a cascade of neurochemical changes mainly in thebrain’s rewarding circuitry. The aberrant behavioral phenotypes can be assessed by an animalmodel of drug-induced behavioral sensitization, which is characterized by an initiationstage that is formed in the ventral tegmental area and a behavioral expression stage determinedmainly in the nucleus accumbens. Numerous studies during past decades demonstratethat the mesocorticolimbic dopamine pathway plays an essential role in the development ofbehavioral sensitization. Moreover, a series of cellular signaling pathways and gene expressiondetermine the severity of addictive behaviors. In addition to the well-characterizeddopamine D1 receptor-mediated cAMP/protein kinase A up-regulation in the nucleus accumbens,recent reports indicate the cellular mediator dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoproteinof 32 kDa (DARPP-32 and transcription regulator ΔFosB are associated with theaccumbal PKA pathway to modulate the development of behavioral sensitization. The findingof cAMP-independent and dopamine D2 receptor-mediated Akt/GSK3 in activation inthe nucleus accumbens of behaviorally sensitized animals implies that a signal cascadedown-stream of both dopamine D1 and D2 receptors comprises the mainstay of the addictionnetwork. This review outlines the cellular pathways that have been demonstrated to participatein psychostimulant addiction, focused particularly in the nucleus accumbens.

  19. Responsibility and choice in addiction.

    2002-06-01

    The treatment of patients with substance use disorders requires that providers be aware of their own views on the relative roles of personal responsibility and of forces outside personal control in the onset and progression of and recovery from these disorders. The authors review the role of responsibility for addiction from several viewpoints: biological, psychological, sociocultural, self-help, religious, and forensic. Factors that affect personal responsibility in addictive diseases include awareness of the problem, knowledge of a genetic predisposition, understanding of addictive processes, comorbid psychiatric or medical conditions, adequacy of the support network, nature of the early environment, degree of tolerance of substance abuse in the sociocultural context, and the availability of competent psychiatric, medical, and chemical dependency treatment. Factors that affect societal responsibility include degree of access to illicit drugs, society's level of tolerance of drug use, the courts' approach to deterring substance abuse (punishment versus treatment), individuals' refusal to obtain substance abuse treatment, presence of clear behavioral norms, availability of early assessment and prevention, presence of community education, and degree of access to outpatient and community treatment. PMID:12045307

  20. Nicotinic receptors in addiction pathways.

    Leslie, Frances M; Mojica, Celina Y; Reynaga, Daisy D

    2013-04-01

    Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are ligand-gated ion channels that consist of pentameric combinations of α and β subunits. These receptors are widely distributed throughout the brain and are highly expressed in addiction circuitry. The role of nAChRs in regulating neuronal activity and motivated behavior is complex and varies both in and among brain regions. The rich diversity of central nAChRs has hampered the characterization of their structure and function with use of classic pharmacological techniques. However, recent molecular approaches using null mutant mice with specific regional lentiviral re-expression, in combination with neuroanatomical and electrophysiological techniques, have allowed the elucidation of the influence of different nAChR types on neuronal circuit activity and behavior. This review will address the influence of nAChRs on limbic dopamine circuitry and the medial habenula-interpeduncular nucleus complex, which are critical mediators of reinforced behavior. Characterization of the mechanisms underlying regulation of addiction pathways by endogenous cholinergic transmission and by nicotine may lead to the identification of new therapeutic targets for treating tobacco dependence and other addictions. PMID:23247824

  1. Acupuncture therapy for drug addiction.

    Motlagh, Farid Esmaeili; Ibrahim, Fatimah; Rashid, Rusdi Abd; Seghatoleslam, Tahereh; Habil, Hussain

    2016-01-01

    Acupuncture therapy has been used to treat substance abuse. This study aims to review experimental studies examining the effects of acupuncture on addiction. Research and review articles on acupuncture treatment of substance abuse published between January 2000 and September 2014 were searched using the databases ISI Web of Science Core Collection and EBSCO's MEDLINE Complete. Clinical trial studies on the efficacy of acupuncture therapy for substance abuse were classified according to substance (cocaine, opioid, nicotine, and alcohol), and their treatment protocols, assessments, and findings were examined. A total of 119 studies were identified, of which 85 research articles addressed the efficacy of acupuncture for treating addiction. There were substantial variations in study protocols, particularly regarding treatment duration, frequency of electroacupuncture, duration of stimulation, and choice of acupoints. Contradictory results, intergroup differences, variation in sample sizes, and acupuncture placebo effects made it difficult to evaluate acupuncture effectiveness in drug addiction treatment. This review also identified a lack of rigorous study design, such as control of confounding variables by incorporating sham controls, sufficient sample sizes, reliable assessments, and adequately replicated experiments. PMID:27053944

  2. What does addiction mean to me

    Morten Hesse

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Addiction is compulsive need for and use of a habit-forming substance. It is accepted as a mental illness in the diagnostic nomenclature and results in substantial health, social and economic problems. In the diagnostic nomenclature, addiction was originally included in the personality disorders along with other behaviours considered deviant. But it is now considered a clinical syndrome. Addiction is multifactorially determined, with substantial genetic influence. The development of addictions is also influenced by environmental factors, and an interplay between the two. In the clinical context, addiction puts problem substance use on the agenda, and helps focus on the difficulties associated with drug use. But the concept of addiction is also used to distance the user from addicts, and in this way, may be counter-therapeutic. The addiction concept has also had a substantial influence on policy. The almost universal prohibition against drugs such as opiates, cocaine, cannabis and amphetamine has much support. But unfortunately, it has not been able to hinder the development of substance use problems. Optimism is fostered by the development of respectful ways of thinking about people with addictions, in particular, from advocates of motivational interviewing.

  3. Genes and (common pathways underlying drug addiction.

    Chuan-Yun Li

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug addiction is a serious worldwide problem with strong genetic and environmental influences. Different technologies have revealed a variety of genes and pathways underlying addiction; however, each individual technology can be biased and incomplete. We integrated 2,343 items of evidence from peer-reviewed publications between 1976 and 2006 linking genes and chromosome regions to addiction by single-gene strategies, microrray, proteomics, or genetic studies. We identified 1,500 human addiction-related genes and developed KARG (http://karg.cbi.pku.edu.cn, the first molecular database for addiction-related genes with extensive annotations and a friendly Web interface. We then performed a meta-analysis of 396 genes that were supported by two or more independent items of evidence to identify 18 molecular pathways that were statistically significantly enriched, covering both upstream signaling events and downstream effects. Five molecular pathways significantly enriched for all four different types of addictive drugs were identified as common pathways which may underlie shared rewarding and addictive actions, including two new ones, GnRH signaling pathway and gap junction. We connected the common pathways into a hypothetical common molecular network for addiction. We observed that fast and slow positive feedback loops were interlinked through CAMKII, which may provide clues to explain some of the irreversible features of addiction.

  4. Neuroimaging in nuclear medicine: drug addicted brain

    Addiction to illicit drugs in one of today's most important social issues. Most addictive drugs lead to irreversible parenchymal changes in the human brain. Neuroimaging data bring to light the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of the abused drugs, and demonstrate that addiction is a disease of the brain. Continuous researches better illustrate the neurochemical alterations in brain function, and attempt to discover the links to consequent behavioral changes. Newer hypotheses and theories follow the numerous results, and more rational methods of approaching therapy are being developed. Substance abuse is on the rise in Korea, and social interest in the matter as well. On the other hand, diagnosis and treatment of drug addiction is still very difficult, because how the abused substance acts in the brain, or how it leads to behavioral problems in not widely known. Therefore, understanding the mechanism of drug addiction can improve the process of diagnosing addict patients, planning therapy, and predicting the prognosis . Neuroimaging approaches by nuclear medicine methods are expected to objectively judge behavioral and neurochemical changes, and response to treatment. In addition, as genes associated with addictive behavior are discovered, functional nuclear medicine images will aid in the assessment of individuals. Reviewing published literature on neuroimaging regarding nuclear medicine is expected to be of assistance to the management of drug addict patients. What's more, means of applying nuclear medicine to the care of drug addict patients should be investigated further

  5. Neuroimaging in nuclear medicine: drug addicted brain

    Chung, Yong-An; Kim, Dae-Jin [The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-02-15

    Addiction to illicit drugs in one of today's most important social issues. Most addictive drugs lead to irreversible parenchymal changes in the human brain. Neuroimaging data bring to light the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of the abused drugs, and demonstrate that addiction is a disease of the brain. Continuous researches better illustrate the neurochemical alterations in brain function, and attempt to discover the links to consequent behavioral changes. Newer hypotheses and theories follow the numerous results, and more rational methods of approaching therapy are being developed. Substance abuse is on the rise in Korea, and social interest in the matter as well. On the other hand, diagnosis and treatment of drug addiction is still very difficult, because how the abused substance acts in the brain, or how it leads to behavioral problems in not widely known. Therefore, understanding the mechanism of drug addiction can improve the process of diagnosing addict patients, planning therapy, and predicting the prognosis . Neuroimaging approaches by nuclear medicine methods are expected to objectively judge behavioral and neurochemical changes, and response to treatment. In addition, as genes associated with addictive behavior are discovered, functional nuclear medicine images will aid in the assessment of individuals. Reviewing published literature on neuroimaging regarding nuclear medicine is expected to be of assistance to the management of drug addict patients. What's more, means of applying nuclear medicine to the care of drug addict patients should be investigated further.

  6. The Need for National Credentialing Standards for Addiction Counselors

    Miller, Geri; Scarborough, Jim; Clark, Catherine; Leonard, Justin C.; Keziah, Tyler B.

    2010-01-01

    The authors review the current state of credentialing for addiction counselors in the United States and provide recommendations to the addiction counseling field regarding national standards for credentialing.

  7. Evolutionary and neuropsychological perspectives on addictive behaviors and addictive substances: relevance to the "food addiction" construct

    Davis C

    2014-01-01

    Caroline Davis School of Kinesiology and Health Science, York University, Toronto, ON, Canada Abstract: It has been argued that food cannot be "addictive", unlike conventional drugs of abuse, because it is an essential part of life. In this paper, evidence is reviewed, largely from an evolutionary psychobiological perspective, that plant-based psychoactive drugs (such as those derived from the opium poppy and the coca leaf) and gambling-related behaviors were once adaptive for huma...

  8. Evolutionary and neuropsychological perspectives on addictive behaviors and addictive substances: relevance to the "food addiction" construct

    Davis C

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Caroline Davis School of Kinesiology and Health Science, York University, Toronto, ON, Canada Abstract: It has been argued that food cannot be "addictive", unlike conventional drugs of abuse, because it is an essential part of life. In this paper, evidence is reviewed, largely from an evolutionary psychobiological perspective, that plant-based psychoactive drugs (such as those derived from the opium poppy and the coca leaf and gambling-related behaviors were once adaptive for human health and survival in a similar manner as energy-based foods were for nourishment. "Evolutionary mismatch" viewpoints contend that certain behaviors were enhanced during the hunter-gatherer lifestyle – from which our genetic endowment had its origins – because they bestowed both survival and reproductive advantages to the species. However, in the context of advanced technology and other rapid environmental changes, these same behaviors have tended to become maladaptive and greatly overexpressed. Similar to the manufactured purification of psychotropic plant-based substances, the reward impact of processed and hyperpalatable foods, with their high levels of sugar, fat, and salt, is much increased from foods produced in nature. It is concluded therefore that what was once beneficial and necessary for our survival has been altered and ultraprocessed into edible products that may be disadvantageous and potentially addictive. Keywords: food addiction, evolution, drugs, gambling

  9. Genetic variants associated with addictive behavior in Colombian addicted and non-addicted to heroin or cocaine

    Isaza, Carlos

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Determine the prevalence and compare some genetic markers involved in addictive behavior in a group of addicts to derivative of coca (cocaine/crack or heroin and a control group of non-addicted people matched for gender, age and ethnicity.Methods: A 120 addicts and 120 non-addicts Colombian male were surveyed and genotyped for 18 polymorphism of the OPRM1, DRD2, DRD4, SLC6A3, SLC6A4, ABCB1, DβH and CYP2B6 genes. For the identification of alleles markers were used mini-sequencing and fragment multiplex PCR techniques; ethnicity of cases and controls was analyzed with 61 AIMs. Results: The age of onset use of heroin or coca derivatives (cocaine/crack was 16,5±6 years and 99,2% of them consume several illicit drugs. It showed that controls and addicts belong to the same ethnic group. Significant differences between addicts and controls in relation to schooling, marital status, social security family history of substance abuse (pT ABCB1 gene (p=0,001 were found. Conclusion: The present results indicate that the VNTR-6R polymorphism of the gene SLC6A3 and the genotype 3435CC in the ABCB1 gene, are both associated with addictive behavior to heroin or cocaine.

  10. Social network site addiction - an overview.

    Andreassen, Cecilie Schou; Pallesen, Ståle

    2014-01-01

    Research into frequent, excessive, and compulsive social network activity has increased the last years, in which terms such as "social network site addiction" and "Facebook addiction" have been used interchangeably. The aim of this review is to offer more knowledge and better understanding of social network site addiction (SNS-addiction) among researchers as well as clinicians by presenting a narrative overview of the research field in terms of definition, measurement, antecedents, consequences, and treatment as well as recommendations for future research efforts. Seven different measures of SNS-addiction have been developed, although they have to a very little extent been validated against each other. The small number of studies conducted so far on this topic suggests that SNS-addiction is associated with health-related, academic, and interpersonal problems/issues. However such studies have relied on a simple cross-sectional study design. It is therefore hard to draw any conclusions about potential causality and long-term effects at this point, beyond hypothetical speculations. Empirical studies suggest that SNS-addiction is caused by dispositional factors (e.g., personality, needs, self-esteem), although relevant explanatory socio-cultural and behavioral reinforcement factors remain to be empirically explored. No well-documented treatment for SNS-addiction exists, but knowledge gained from Internet addiction treatment approaches might be transferable to SNS-addiction. Overall, the research on this topic is in its infancy, and as such the SNS-addiction construct needs further conceptual and empirical exploration. There is a great demand for studies using careful longitudinal designs and studies which include objective measures of both behavior and health based on broad representative samples. PMID:24001298

  11. The Internet Process Addiction Test: Screening for Addictions to Processes Facilitated by the Internet.

    Northrup, Jason C; Lapierre, Coady; Kirk, Jeffrey; Rae, Cosette

    2015-01-01

    The Internet Process Addiction Test (IPAT) was created to screen for potential addictive behaviors that could be facilitated by the internet. The IPAT was created with the mindset that the term "Internet addiction" is structurally problematic, as the Internet is simply the medium that one uses to access various addictive processes. The role of the internet in facilitating addictions, however, cannot be minimized. A new screening tool that effectively directed researchers and clinicians to the specific processes facilitated by the internet would therefore be useful. This study shows that the Internet Process Addiction Test (IPAT) demonstrates good validity and reliability. Four addictive processes were effectively screened for with the IPAT: Online video game playing, online social networking, online sexual activity, and web surfing. Implications for further research and limitations of the study are discussed. PMID:26226007

  12. On the Comparison of Public Health and Social Support in Addicts and Non-Addicts

    touraj hashemi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed at comparing the degree of public health and social support in addicted and non-addicted people. Method: This study was causative-comparative and all addicts who had referred to addiction treatment centers in city of Khoy in 2012 constituted its population. From among this population, 60 addicts through convenience sampling method were selected and then peered with 60 normal subjects by age, gender, and education. The measurement tools were Goldberg Public Health (Ghq-28 and Social Support (Fleming questionnaires. Results: The results showed That Addicts enjoy a lower degree of Mental Health and Social Support. Conclusion: Providing social support for the addicts under treatment programs is one of the important factors in withdrawal from drug use.

  13. Maternal Cocaine Addiction: Correlates and Consequences.

    Hawley, Theresa Lawton

    This study investigated the effects of cocaine addiction on mothers' ability to care for their children. The population interviewed included 25 cocaine-addicted mothers in a drug treatment center and a comparison group of 25 mothers of children in a Head Start program. Each mother was questioned about: (1) her pregnancy with a specific child…

  14. Behavioral Therapy, Incentives Enhance Addiction Treatment

    ... Issue Past Issues Research News From NIH Behavioral Therapy, Incentives Enhance Addiction Treatment Past Issues / Summer 2006 Table of Contents For ... be continued efforts to develop and evaluate effective treatments for marijuana addiction," Dr. Volkow adds. Summer 2006 Issue: Page 26

  15. Medication-assisted therapy for opioid addiction

    Tai, Betty; Saxon, Andrew J.; Ling, Walter

    2013-01-01

    The “Medication-Assisted Therapy for Opioid Addiction” session was chaired by Dr. Betty Tai and had three presenters. The presenters (and their topics) were: Dr. Andrew J. Saxon (Methadone and Buprenorphine for Treatment of Opioid Addiction and HIV Risk Reduction), Dr. Walter Ling (Opioid Antagonist Treatment for Opioid Addiction), and Dr. Betty Tai (Chronic Care Model for Substance Use Disorder).

  16. Factors of Addiction: New Jersey Correctional Population

    Wojtowicz, James P.; Liu, Tongyin; Hedgpeth, G. Wayne

    2007-01-01

    Most state inmates incarcerated under the jurisdiction of the New Jersey Department of Corrections are driven to crimes by drug abuse. Understanding the factors contributing to addiction is the first step in developing strategies for successful inmate reintegration. This study presents an analysis of inmate addiction and factor association using…

  17. Internet Addiction among High Schoolers in Taiwan.

    Lin, Sunny S. J.; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    The purpose of this study was to develop a reliable and valid measurement for the identification of Internet addictive high school students. There were 615 subjects selected by a stratified sampling from the population of Taiwanese 10th to 12th graders. The final version of the Internet Addiction Scale for Taiwan High Schoolers (IAST) contained 20…

  18. Behavioural addiction-A rising tide?

    Chamberlain, Samuel R; Lochner, Christine; Stein, Dan J; Goudriaan, Anna E; van Holst, Ruth Janke; Zohar, Joseph; Grant, Jon E

    2016-05-01

    The term 'addiction' was traditionally used in relation to centrally active substances, such as cocaine, alcohol, or nicotine. Addiction is not a unitary construct but rather incorporates a number of features, such as repetitive engagement in behaviours that are rewarding (at least initially), loss of control (spiralling engagement over time), persistence despite untoward functional consequences, and physical dependence (evidenced by withdrawal symptoms when intake of the substance diminishes). It has been suggested that certain psychiatric disorders characterized by maladaptive, repetitive behaviours share parallels with substance addiction and therefore represent 'behavioural addictions'. This perspective has influenced the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), which now has a category 'Substance Related and Addictive Disorders', including gambling disorder. Could other disorders characterised by repetitive behaviours, besides gambling disorder, also be considered 'addictions'? Potential examples include kleptomania, compulsive sexual behaviour, 'Internet addiction', trichotillomania (hair pulling disorder), and skin-picking disorder. This paper seeks to define what is meant by 'behavioural addiction', and critically considers the evidence for and against this conceptualisation in respect of the above conditions, from perspectives of aetiology, phenomenology, co-morbidity, neurobiology, and treatment. Research in this area has important implications for future diagnostic classification systems, neurobiological models, and novel treatment directions. PMID:26585600

  19. Cellular basis of memory for addiction.

    Nestler, Eric J

    2013-12-01

    DESPITE THE IMPORTANCE OF NUMEROUS PSYCHOSOCIAL FACTORS, AT ITS CORE, DRUG ADDICTION INVOLVES A BIOLOGICAL PROCESS: the ability of repeated exposure to a drug of abuse to induce changes in a vulnerable brain that drive the compulsive seeking and taking of drugs, and loss of control over drug use, that define a state of addiction. Here, we review the types of molecular and cellular adaptations that occur in specific brain regions to mediate addiction-associated behavioral abnormalities. These include alterations in gene expression achieved in part via epigenetic mechanisms, plasticity in the neurophysiological functioning of neurons and synapses, and associated plasticity in neuronal and synaptic morphology mediated in part by altered neurotrophic factor signaling. Each of these types of drug-induced modifications can be viewed as a form of "cellular or molecular memory." Moreover, it is striking that most addiction-related forms of plasticity are very similar to the types of plasticity that have been associated with more classic forms of "behavioral memory," perhaps reflecting the finite repertoire of adaptive mechanisms available to neurons when faced with environmental challenges. Finally, addiction-related molecular and cellular adaptations involve most of the same brain regions that mediate more classic forms of memory, consistent with the view that abnormal memories are important drivers of addiction syndromes. The goal of these studies which aim to explicate the molecular and cellular basis of drug addiction is to eventually develop biologically based diagnostic tests, as well as more effective treatments for addiction disorders. PMID:24459410

  20. The Role of Meditation in Addiction Recovery

    Pruett, James M.; Nishimura, Nancy J.; Priest, Ronnie

    2007-01-01

    The authors examined the role of meditation as an important component in addiction recovery. Successful addiction recovery is often related to an individual's ability to develop and use a repertoire of coping behaviors, including the ability to maintain an ongoing awareness of one's vulnerability. These learned behaviors serve as reliable…

  1. The relationships between behavioral addictions and the five-factor model of personality.

    Andreassen, Cecilie Schou; Griffiths, Mark D; Gjertsen, Siri Renate; Krossbakken, Elfrid; Kvam, Siri; Pallesen, Ståle

    2013-06-01

    Aims Although relationships between addiction and personality have previously been explored, no study has ever simultaneously investigated the interrelationships between several behavioral addictions, and related these to the main dimensions of the five-factor model of personality. Methods In this study, 218 university students completed questionnaires assessing seven different behavioral addictions (i.e., Facebook addiction, video game addiction, Internet addiction, exercise addiction, mobile phone addiction, compulsive buying, and study addiction) as well as an instrument assessing the main dimensions of the five-factor model of personality. Results Of the 21 bivariate intercorrelations between the seven behavioral addictions, all were positive (and nine significantly). The results also showed that (i) Neuroticism was positively associated with Internet addiction, exercise addiction, compulsive buying, and study addiction, (ii) Extroversion was positively associated with Facebook addiction, exercise addiction, mobile phone addiction, and compulsive buying, (iii) Openness to experience was negatively associated with Facebook addiction and mobile phone addiction, (iv) Agreeableness was negatively associated with Internet addiction, exercise addiction, mobile phone addiction, and compulsive buying, and (v) Conscientiousness was negatively associated with Facebook addiction, video game addiction, Internet addiction, and compulsive buying and positively associated with exercise addiction and study addiction. Conclusions The positive associations between the seven behavioral addictions suggest one or several underlying pathological factors. Hierarchical multiple regressions showed that personality traits explained between 6% and 17% of the variance in the seven behavioral addictions, suggesting that personality to a varying degree explains scores on measures of addictive behaviors. PMID:26165928

  2. Cocaine abuse among heroin addicts in Spain.

    Torrens, M; San, L; Peri, J M; Olle, J M

    1991-01-01

    Abuse of cocaine is becoming a major problem among heroin addicts in Spain. Between 1987 and 1988, 75% of patients admitted as inpatients for detoxification from opiate dependence had consumed cocaine during the 6 months prior to admission and 25% had abused cocaine daily or several times/week. These cocaine abusers showed more toxicologic and psychopathologic problems than opiate addicts who did not abuse cocaine. The opiate addicts who also abused cocaine had begun using illicit drugs earlier and showed a higher frequency of anti-HIV antibodies. They also had more antisocial personality disorders and persistence of depressive symptoms during opiate detoxification than heroin addicts who did not abuse cocaine. Based on these findings, we insist on the need to develop different treatments for detoxifying patients with this dual addiction. PMID:2029857

  3. Facebook addiction: a reply to Griffiths (2012).

    Andreassen, Cecilie Schou; Pallesen, Ståle

    2013-12-01

    Our recent paper about a new Facebook addiction scale has stimulated an interesting and very welcome debate among researchers concerning the assessment of excessive use of social networking sites. The critique put forward by Griffiths (2012) is mainly built on the conception of "Facebook" as too narrow of a concept, and that assessment of addiction to social network sites in general would be more appropriate. We argue that the concept of "social network site" is not more specific than "Facebook," so "Facebook addiction" rather than "social network addiction" is defensible. We acknowledge that more research in this area is needed and point specifically to new and important directions for future research that can shed light on the mechanism of addiction to social network sites. PMID:24693818

  4. Systems Level Neuroplasticity in Drug Addiction

    Feltenstein, Matthew W.

    2013-01-01

    Drug addiction is a chronic relapsing disorder for which research has been dedicated to understand the various factors that contribute to development, loss of control, and persistence of compulsive addictive behaviors. In this review, we provide a broad overview of various theories of addiction, drugs of abuse, and the neurobiology involved across the addiction cycle. Specific focus is devoted to the role of the mesolimbic pathway in acute drug reinforcement and occasional drug use, the mesocortical pathway and associated areas (e.g., the dorsal striatum) in escalation/dependence, and the involvement of these pathways and associated circuits in mediating conditioned responses, drug craving, and loss of behavioral control thought to underlie withdrawal and relapse. With a better understanding of the neurobiological factors that underlie drug addiction, continued preclinical and clinical research will aid in the development of novel therapeutic interventions that can serve as effective long-term treatment strategies for drug-dependent individuals. PMID:23580792

  5. Connecting the Dots between Games and Addiction

    Nielsen, Rune Kristian; Karlsen, Faltin; Goggin, Joyce;

    That computer games are addictive and socially isolating were taken as a given more than thirty years ago, when one of the world's most (in)famous psychologists, Phillip Zimbardo, declared that: “[t]he video games that are proving so addictive to young people may not only be socially isolating...... but may actually encourage violence between people” (Zimbardo 1982, p. 59 in Loftus and Loftus 1983). Three decades later we are still debating what game addiction is and if it even exists. In this time span, however, many different branches of research have provided alternative perspectives...... on the subject. Though game addiction remains the most widely used term variants such as excessive-, obsessive-, compulsive-, problematic-, dependent-, and pathological gaming has emerged. Aside from the psychological perspective, however, a host of other perspectives have emerged. In this sense 'game addiction...

  6. [Benzodiazepin addiction: a silent addiction among older people].

    Oude Voshaar, R C

    2012-06-01

    Benzodiazepines are frequently prescribed for a longer period of time for anxiety disorders and insomnia in spite of the many guidelines to prescribe these drugs only short-term. These guidelines are based on the risk-benefit balance between long-term effectiveness and side effects like addiction, anterograde amnesia, and increased risk on falling (resulting in hip fractures), traffic accidents and even mortality. Also low-dose benzodiazepine use can lead to benzodiazepine dependence. Although initially most attention has been paid to the physical withdrawal syndrome, psychological aspects of benzodiazepine dependence have received more and more attention in the past decades. Recently, a relationship between the brain-reward system, involved in addiction, and benzodiazepine use, was demonstrated. When long-term benzodiazepine use is recognised as problematic by both physician and patient, different treatment modalities are available to support patients in achieving abstinence. One of every four patients is able to stop by themselves with the aid of a minimal intervention providing psychoeducation and encouragement. Two out of three long-term uses are able to stop their usage with the aid of systematic tapering protocols guided by a physician or psychologist. In case of an underlying insomnia or anxiety disorder, cognitive-behavioural therapy should be added to the tapering protocol. In contrast to the general opinion, advanced old age has no negative impact on the treatment response. PMID:22826915

  7. Methamphetamine Cured my Cocaine Addiction

    Haile, Colin N.; De La Garza, Richard; Newton, Thomas F.

    2011-01-01

    Cocaine dependence is an enduring problem and years of research and drug development has yet to produce an efficacious pharmacotherapy. Recent clinical research suggests that chronic treatment with amphetamine-like medications produces tolerance to cocaine’s reinforcing effects and may offer a viable pharmacotherapy. Three methamphetamine-dependent participants that had been in our clinical laboratory experiments and previously addicted to cocaine are reviewed. Data obtained from initial screen and informal conversation suggested that all participants considered methamphetamine to have helped them stop using cocaine and eliminate cocaine craving. Methamphetamine also significantly decreased their alcohol consumption but did not alter cannabis or nicotine use. PMID:23066512

  8. The Neurobiology of Cocaine Addiction

    Nestler, Eric J.

    2005-01-01

    Cocaine produces its psychoactive and addictive effects primarily by acting on the brain’s limbic system, a set of interconnected regions that regulate pleasure and motivation. An initial, short-term effect—a buildup of the neurochemical dopamine—gives rise to euphoria and a desire to take the drug again. Researchers are seeking to understand how cocaine’s many longer term effects produce addiction’s persistent cravings and risk of relapse. In the author’s laboratory, work has focused on buil...

  9. Substance abuse precedes internet addiction

    Lee, Young Sik; Han, Doug Hyun; Kim, Sun Mi; Renshaw, Perry F.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to evaluate possible overlapping substance abuse and internet addiction in a large, uniformly sampled population, ranging in age from 13 to 18 years. Participants (N=73,238) in the current study were drawn from the 6th Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBWS-V) for students from 400 middle schools and 400 high schools in 16 cities within South Korea. Of adolescent internet users, 85.2% were general users (GU), 11.9% were users with potential ris...

  10. Stress related neuropeptides and addictive behaviors: Beyond the usual suspects

    Schank, Jesse R.; Ryabinin, Andrey E.; Giardino, William J.; Ciccocioppo, Roberto; Heilig, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Addictive disorders are chronic, relapsing conditions that cause extensive disease burden. Genetic factors partly account for susceptibility to addiction, but environmental factors such as stressful experiences and prolonged exposure of the brain to addictive drugs promote its development. Progression to addiction involves neuroadaptations within neurocircuitry that mediates stress responses, and is influenced by several peptidergic neuromodulators. While corticotropin releasing factor is the...

  11. The Addiction-Stroop Test: Theoretical Considerations and Procedural Recommendations

    Cox, W. Miles; Fadardi, Javad Salehi; Pothos, Emmanuel M.

    2006-01-01

    Decisions about using addictive substances are influenced by distractions by addiction-related stimuli, of which the user might be unaware. The addiction-Stroop task is a paradigm used to assess this distraction. The empirical evidence for the addiction-Stroop effect is critically reviewed, and meta-analyses of alcohol-related and smoking-related…

  12. The Role of Death in the Addict Family

    Coleman, Sandra B.; Stanton, M. Duncan

    1978-01-01

    Drug addiction is a potentially life-threatening problem with suicidal ramifications. Within the family of the addict, addiction takes on a special, participatory, meaning; the addicted member is treated as one undergoing a slow death. Treatment can make the mourning explicit. The death issue can be a vehicle for family change. (Author)

  13. An Exploratory Study of Internet Addiction, Usage and Communication Pleasure.

    Chou, Chien; Chou, Jung; Tyan, Nay-Ching Nancy

    This study examined the correlation between Internet addiction, usage, and communication pleasure. Research questions were: (1) What is computer network addiction? (2) How can one measure the degree of computer network addiction? (3) What is the correlation between the degree of users' network addiction and their network usage? (4) What is the…

  14. Relapse prevention for addictive behaviors

    George William H

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Relapse Prevention (RP model has been a mainstay of addictions theory and treatment since its introduction three decades ago. This paper provides an overview and update of RP for addictive behaviors with a focus on developments over the last decade (2000-2010. Major treatment outcome studies and meta-analyses are summarized, as are selected empirical findings relevant to the tenets of the RP model. Notable advances in RP in the last decade include the introduction of a reformulated cognitive-behavioral model of relapse, the application of advanced statistical methods to model relapse in large randomized trials, and the development of mindfulness-based relapse prevention. We also review the emergent literature on genetic correlates of relapse following pharmacological and behavioral treatments. The continued influence of RP is evidenced by its integration in most cognitive-behavioral substance use interventions. However, the tendency to subsume RP within other treatment modalities has posed a barrier to systematic evaluation of the RP model. Overall, RP remains an influential cognitive-behavioral framework that can inform both theoretical and clinical approaches to understanding and facilitating behavior change.

  15. Economic aspects of addiction policy.

    Maynard, A

    1986-05-01

    One definition of policy or government action in the Oxford English Dictionary is "craftiness" i.e. cunning or deceit. Such qualities have to be employed by governments because of the potential vote-losing effects of radical addiction policies. Health promotion, in relation to addictive substances such as alcohol and tobacco in particular, involves a trade-off between the costs of such policies, especially to industry (which seeks regulation to protect itself from competitors), and the benefits--improvements in the quality and length of life. Measures of such benefits (quality-adjusted life-years or QALYs) are available now to use in the evaluation of competing health promotion policies to determine their efficiency at the margin. Analysis of the market for tobacco indicates that consumption has been falling generally in the UK except among teenagers who appear to be the target of the industry's advertising and sponsorship efforts. This fall in consumption appears to be explained by health promotion rather than the active use of fiscal instruments of control. The recognition of the health effects of passive smoking and the impact of advertising and sponsorship, especially on the young, are policy areas requiring careful review and the evaluation of the costs and benefits of competing policies.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:10318048

  16. NEUROBIOLOGICAL BASES OF ALCOHOL ADDICTION.

    Matošić, Ana; Marušić, Srđan; Vidrih, Branka; Kovak-Mufić, Ana; Cicin-Šain, Lipa

    2016-03-01

    Alcohol addiction is a heterogeneous psychiatric disorder according to both phenotype and etiology. Difference in phenotype characteristics manifests in the manner the addiction arises, history of the alcoholic and history of drinking, comorbid disorders, and the phenomenon of abstinence difficulties. Concerning the etiology of alcoholism, the disease itself is considered to be a consequence of an interactive influence of the environment and genetic factors. Numerous researches conducted in the last decades discovered many aspects of the biochemical, cell and molecular bases of alcohol addiction, leading to a conclusion that alcoholism is, like many other addictions, a brain disease. By recognizing alcoholism as a disease which basically implies changes of the neurobiological mechanisms, as well as a clear genetic basis, it was supposed that the disease, having its basis solely in the symptomatology, is essentially heterogeneous. By trying to solve the problem of a clinically heterogeneous nature of the disease during the last fifty years, various sub-classifications of such patients have been suggested. According to Cloninger, subtypes of alcoholism differ also according to changes in the brain neurotransmission systems, i.e. it is supposed that patients suffering from alcoholism type 1 have a more pronounced dopaminergic transmission deficit, while dopaminergic transmission is not disturbed significantly in patients diagnosed with alcoholism type 2, who, however, have a significant lack of serotonergic transmission. In such a way, Cloninger actually presented the basis of the so-called neurobiological alcoholism model. Since he has connected differences in neurotransmission with differences in personality characteristics, this model is also known as the psychobiological model of alcoholism. The characteristic of alcoholism type 1 is avoiding damage (Harm Avoidance, HA) decreased dopamine transmission and increased serotonin transmission, while the significant

  17. INFLUENCE OF DOPAMINERGIC SYSTEM ON INTERNET ADDICTION

    Jelena Jović

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Internet addiction is a clinical anomaly with strong negative consequences on social, work-related, family, financial, and economic function of a person. It is regarded as a serious public health issue. The basic idea of this paper is to, based on the currently available body of research work on this topic, point out to neurobiological pathos of Internet addiction, and its connection to the dopaminergic system. Dopamine contains all physiological functions of neurotransmitters and it is a part of chatecholamine family. Five dopaminergic receptors (D1 - D5 belong to the super family of receptors related to G-protein. Through these receptors, dopamine achieves its roles: regulation of voluntary movement, regulation of center of pleasure, hormonal regulation, and regulation of hypertension. In order to recognize an Internet user as an addict, he or she needs to comply with the criteria suggested by the American Psychiatric Association (APA. Phenomenological, neurobiological, and pharmacological data indicates similarities in pathopsychology of substance addiction and pathological gambling, which are indirectly related to the similarity with the Internet addiction. Responding to stimuli from the game, addicts have shown more brain activity in the nape region, left dorsolateral, prefrontal cortex, and left parachipocampal gyrus than in the control group. After the six-week bupropion therapy, desire to play Internet and video games, the total duration of playing, and induced brain activity in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex are lowered with the addicts.

  18. Multiple faces of BDNF in cocaine addiction.

    Li, Xuan; Wolf, Marina E

    2015-02-15

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been found to play roles in many types of plasticity including drug addiction. Here, we focus on rodent studies over the past two decades that have demonstrated diverse roles of BDNF in models of cocaine addiction. First, we will provide an overview of studies showing that cocaine exposure alters (and generally increases) BDNF levels in reward-related regions including the ventral tegmental area, nucleus accumbens, prefrontal cortex, and amygdala. Then we will review evidence that BDNF contributes to behavioral changes in animal models of cocaine addiction, focusing on conditioned place preference, behavioral sensitization, maintenance and reinstatement of self-administration, and incubation of cocaine craving. Last, we will review the role of BDNF in synaptic plasticity, particularly as it relates to plasticity of AMPA receptor transmission after cocaine exposure. We conclude that BDNF regulates cocaine-induced behaviors in a highly complex manner that varies depending on the brain region (and even among different cell types within the same brain region), the nature of cocaine exposure, and the "addiction phase" examined (e.g., acquisition vs maintenance; early vs late withdrawal). These complexities make BDNF a daunting therapeutic target for treating cocaine addiction. However, recent clinical evidence suggests that the serum BDNF level may serve as a biomarker in cocaine addicts to predict future relapse, providing an alternative direction for exploring BDNF's potential relevance to treating cocaine addiction. PMID:25449839

  19. Behavioral addictions: a novel challenge for psychopharmacology.

    Marazziti, Donatella; Presta, Silvio; Baroni, Stefano; Silvestri, Stefano; Dell'Osso, Liliana

    2014-12-01

    Although addictive syndromes have been traditionally related to substance-use disorders, during the last few decades a novel addictive group, including the so-called "behavioral or no-drug addictions," has been recognized and has attracted increasing attention for its relevant social impact. This group includes pathological gambling, compulsive shopping, TV/Internet/social network/videogame addictions, workaholism, sex and relationship addictions, orthorexia, and overtraining syndrome. Substance and behavioral addictions show similar phenomenological features, such as craving, dependence, tolerance, and abstinence, and perhaps they share a common possible pathophysiology. It is, however, controversial whether all or at least some of them should be considered real disorders or just normal, albeit extreme, behaviors. The aim of this article is to review current data on pharmacological treatment of behavioral addictions. As no specific and validated treatment algorithms are currently available, only an improved knowledge on their psychopathological, clinical, and neurobiological features may have relevant implications for more focused preventive and therapeutic strategies. PMID:24589040

  20. Chronic pain, substance abuse and addiction.

    Compton, Peggy; Athanasos, Peter

    2003-09-01

    Health care professionals face numerous challenges in assessing and treating chronic pain patients with a substance abuse history. Societal perspectives on morality and criminality, imprecise addiction terminology, litigation fears, and genuine concern for a patient's relapse into or escalation of substance abuse result in unrelieved and under-relieved pain in precisely the population that--as increasing evidence indicates--is generally intolerant of pain. Before adequate pain relief can occur in chronic pain patients with current or past substance abuse issues, it is imperative that the clinician recognize addiction as a disease with known symptoms and treatments. Further, the clinician must realize the difference between true addiction and similar conditions, so the patient's condition can be monitored and regulated properly. Although clinicians are often reluctant to medicate with opioids, it is always best to err on the side of adequate pain relief. Withholding opioids from chronic pain patients in order to avoid the onset or relapse of addiction is contrary to the growing body of evidence and results only in unnecessary pain for the patient. Chronic pain in patients with a history of addictive disease can be treated successfully with opiate analgesia; it just requires caution and careful monitoring of medication use. If addiction is treated as a known risk when providing opioid analgesia to a recovering addict, its development can be minimized while pain relief is provided. PMID:14567207

  1. Food addiction-diagnosis and treatment.

    Dimitrijević, Ivan; Popović, Nada; Sabljak, Vera; Škodrić-Trifunović, Vesna; Dimitrijević, Nina

    2015-03-01

    In this article we summarized the recent research of the food addiction, diagnosis, treatment and prevention, which is carried out in this area. The concept of food addiction is new and complex, but proven to be very important for understanding and solving the problem of obesity. First part of this paper emphasizes the neurological studies, whose results indicate the similarity of brain processes that are being activated during drug abuse and during eating certain types of food. In this context, different authors speak of "hyper-palatable", industrial food, saturated with salt, fat and sugar, which favor an addiction. In the section on diagnostic and instruments constructed for assessing the degree of dependence, main diagnostic tool is standardized Yale Food Addiction Scale constructed by Ashley Gearhardt, and her associates. Since 2009, when it was first published, this scale is used in almost all researches in this area and has been translated into several languages. Finally, distinguish between prevention and treatment of food addiction was made. Given that there were similarities with other forms of addictive behavior, the researchers recommend the application of traditional addiction treatment. PMID:25751444

  2. Addiction and choice: Theory and new data

    Gene M Heyman

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Addiction’s biological basis has been the focus of much research. The findings have persuaded experts and the public that drug use in addicts is compulsive. But the word compulsive identifies patterns of behavior. Thus, the question is not whether addiction has a biology, but whether it is sensible to say that addicts use drugs compulsively. Research shows most of those who meet the American Psychiatric Association’s criteria for addiction quit using illegal drugs by age thirty, that they usually quit without professional help, and that the correlates of quitting include legal concerns, economic pressures, and the desire for respect, particularly from family members. That is, the correlates of quitting are the correlates of choice. However, addiction is, by definition, a disorder, and thereby not beneficial in the long run. This is precisely the pattern of choices predicted by quantitative choice principles, such as the matching law, melioration, and hyperbolic discounting. Although the brain disease model of addiction is perceived by many as received knowledge it is not supported by research or logic. In contrast, well established, quantitative choice principles predict both the possibility and the details of addiction.

  3. Multiple faces of BDNF in cocaine addiction

    Li, Xuan; Wolf, Marina E.

    2014-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been found to play roles in many types of plasticity including drug addiction. Here we focus on rodent studies over the past two decades that have demonstrated diverse roles of BDNF in models of cocaine addiction. First, we will provide an overview of studies showing that cocaine exposure alters (and generally increases) BDNF levels in reward-related regions including the ventral tegmental area, nucleus accumbens, prefrontal cortex, and amygdala. Then we will review evidence that BDNF contributes to behavioral changes in animal models of cocaine addiction, focusing on conditioned place preference, behavioral sensitization, maintenance and reinstatement of self-administration, and incubation of cocaine craving. Last, we will review the role of BDNF in synaptic plasticity, particularly as it relates to plasticity of AMPA receptor transmission after cocaine exposure. We conclude that BDNF regulates cocaine-induced behaviors in a highly complex manner that varies depending on the brain region (and even among different cell types within the same brain region), the nature of cocaine exposure, and the “addiction phase” examined (e.g., acquisition vs maintenance; early vs late withdrawal). These complexities make BDNF a daunting therapeutic target for treating cocaine addiction. However, recent clinical evidence suggests that the serum BDNF level may serve as a biomarker in cocaine addicts to predict future relapse, providing an alternative direction for exploring BDNF’s potential relevance to treating cocaine addiction. PMID:25449839

  4. Comparing of Early Maladaptive Schemas between Healthy and Addicted Men

    Vida Razavi; Ali Soltaninezhad; Afsoon Rafiee

    2012-01-01

    Background: Early maladaptive schemas are self-defeating emotional and cognitive patterns that develop early in life and repeat during the life cycle. They may cause a lot of psychological disorders including anxiety, depression, and drug abuse. Regarding to the importance of the prevention and treatment of addiction and regarding to obscurity of schemas about addiction, we compared the schemas of addicted and non-addicted men. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 205 addicte...

  5. The Optimal Consumption and the Quitting of Harmful Addictive Goods

    Ruqu Wang

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we study a model of rational consumption and quitting in the context of harmful addictive goods. We assume that a person has imperfect information about his ability to resist and terminate the addiction. We first characterize the optimal consumption path of a non-addicted person, along which his stock of the addictive substance is either always increasing (and thus addiction occurs stochastically), always decreasing, or always unchanged. We then characterize the optimal consumpt...

  6. The Optimal Consumption and the Quitting of Harmful Addictive Goods

    Wang Ruqu

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we study a model of rational consumption and quitting in the context of harmful addictive goods. We assume that a person has imperfect information about his ability to resist and terminate the addiction. We first characterize the optimal consumption path of a non-addicted person, along which his stock of the addictive substance is either always increasing (and thus addiction occurs stochastically), always decreasing, or always unchanged. We then characterize the optimal consumpt...

  7. Food addiction in the light of DSM-5

    Adrian Meule; Gearhardt, Ashley N.

    2014-01-01

    The idea that specific kind of foods may have an addiction potential and that some forms of overeating may represent an addicted behavior has been discussed for decades. In recent years, the interest in food addiction is growing and research on this topic lead to more precise definitions and assessment methods. For example, the Yale Food Addiction Scale has been developed for the measurement of addiction-like eating behavior based on the diagnostic criteria for substance dependence of the fou...

  8. Reduced orbitofrontal cortical thickness in male adolescents with internet addiction

    Hong, Soon-Beom; Kim, Jae-Won; Choi, Eun-Jung; Kim, Ho-Hyun; Suh, Jeong-Eun; Kim, Chang-Dai; Klauser, Paul; Whittle, Sarah; Yűcel, Murat; Pantelis, Christos; Yi, Soon-Hyung

    2013-01-01

    Background The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) has consistently been implicated in the pathology of both drug and behavioral addictions. However, no study to date has examined OFC thickness in internet addiction. In the current study, we investigated the existence of differences in cortical thickness of the OFC in adolescents with internet addiction. On the basis of recently proposed theoretical models of addiction, we predicted a reduction of thickness in the OFC of internet addicted individuals....

  9. Ruminative Response Styles and Metacognitions in Internet Addicts

    Senormanci, Omer; Konkan, Ramazan; Guclu, Oya; Guliz SENORMANCI

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Although cognitive behavioral model of Internet addiction has been well described, studies on metacognitions and ruminative response styles related with Internet addiction are very limited. The aim of the present study was to compare metacognitions and ruminative response style in Internet addicts with a healthy control group. Method: The study included 30 males who presented to our Internet Addiction Outpatient clinic, and diagnosed with Internet addiction, and a c...

  10. Opiate versus psychostimulant addiction: the differences do matter

    Badiani, Aldo; Belin, David; Epstein, David; Calu, Donna; Shaham, Yavin

    2011-01-01

    The publication of the psychomotor stimulant theory of addiction in 1987 and the finding that addictive drugs increase dopamine concentrations in the rat mesolimbic system in 1988 have led to a predominance of psychobiological theories that consider addiction to opiates and addiction to psychostimulants as essentially identical phenomena. Indeed, current theories of addiction — hedonic allostasis, incentive sensitization, aberrant learning and frontostriatal dysfunction — all argue for a unit...

  11. Role of environmental factors in cocaine addiction.

    Badiani, Aldo; Spagnolo, Primavera A

    2013-01-01

    Decades of experimentation with a variety of pharmacological treatments have identified some effective therapies for heroin addiction but not for cocaine addiction. This may be due, at least in part, to our incomplete understanding of the factors involved in the differential vulnerability to these addictions, which are often considered mere variations of the same disorder. Indeed, the preference for one drug or another has been variously attributed to factors such as drug availability or price, to the addict's lifestyle, or even to chance. Yet, there is evidence of substance-specific influences on drug taking. Data from twin registries, for example, suggest that a sizeable portion of the variability in the susceptibility to drug abuse is due to environmental factors that are unique to opiates or to psychostimulants. Very little is known about the nature of these environmental influences. We report here original data, based on retrospective reports in human addicts, indicating that the setting of drug taking exerts a differential influence on heroin versus cocaine use. We also review additional clinical and pre-clinical data pointing to fundamental differences in the way in which the environment interacts with cocaine relative to heroin and other addictive drugs. These findings - as well as other evidence, including the lack of pharmacological treatments effective for both cocaine and heroin addiction - support the notion that much is to be gained by taking into account the substance-specific aspects of drug addiction. At a therapeutic level, for example, it appears reasonable to propose that cognitive-behavioral approaches should be tailored in a substance-specific manner in order to allow the addict to anticipate, and cope with, the risks associated to the various environmental settings of drug use. PMID:23574438

  12. Striatal signal transduction and drug addiction

    Scott D. Philibin

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Drug addiction is a severe neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by loss of control over motivated behavior. The need for effective treatments mandates a greater understanding of the causes and identification of new therapeutic targets for drug development. Drugs of abuse subjugate normal reward-related behavior to uncontrollable drug-seeking and -taking. Contributions of brain reward circuitry are being mapped with increasing precision. The role of synaptic plasticity in addiction and underlying molecular mechanisms contributing to the formation of the addicted state are being delineated. Thus we may now consider the role of striatal signal transduction in addiction from a more integrative neurobiological perspective. Drugs of abuse alter dopaminergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission in medium spiny neurons of the striatum. Dopamine receptors important for reward serve as principle targets of drugs abuse, which interact with glutamate receptor signaling critical for reward learning. Complex networks of intracellular signal transduction mechanisms underlying these receptors are strongly stimulated by addictive drugs. Through these mechanisms, repeated drug exposure alters functional and structural neuroplasticity, resulting in transition to the addicted biological state and behavioral outcomes that typify addiction. Ca2+ and cAMP represent key second messengers that initiate signaling cascades, which regulate synaptic strength and neuronal excitability. Protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation are fundamental mechanisms underlying synaptic plasticity that are dysregulated by drugs of abuse. Increased understanding of the regulatory mechanisms by which protein kinases and phosphatases exert their effects during normal reward learning and the addiction process may lead to novel targets and pharmacotherapeutics with increased efficacy in promoting abstinence and decreased side effects, such as interference with natural reward, for drug

  13. Striatal Signal Transduction and Drug Addiction

    Philibin, Scott D.; Hernandez, Adan; Self, David W.; Bibb, James A.

    2011-01-01

    Drug addiction is a severe neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by loss of control over motivated behavior. The need for effective treatments mandates a greater understanding of the causes and identification of new therapeutic targets for drug development. Drugs of abuse subjugate normal reward-related behavior to uncontrollable drug-seeking and -taking. Contributions of brain reward circuitry are being mapped with increasing precision. The role of synaptic plasticity in addiction and underlying molecular mechanisms contributing to the formation of the addicted state are being delineated. Thus we may now consider the role of striatal signal transduction in addiction from a more integrative neurobiological perspective. Drugs of abuse alter dopaminergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission in medium spiny neurons of the striatum. Dopamine receptors important for reward serve as principle targets of drugs abuse, which interact with glutamate receptor signaling critical for reward learning. Complex networks of intracellular signal transduction mechanisms underlying these receptors are strongly stimulated by addictive drugs. Through these mechanisms, repeated drug exposure alters functional and structural neuroplasticity, resulting in transition to the addicted biological state and behavioral outcomes that typify addiction. Ca2+ and cAMP represent key second messengers that initiate signaling cascades, which regulate synaptic strength and neuronal excitability. Protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation are fundamental mechanisms underlying synaptic plasticity that are dysregulated by drugs of abuse. Increased understanding of the regulatory mechanisms by which protein kinases and phosphatases exert their effects during normal reward learning and the addiction process may lead to novel targets and pharmacotherapeutics with increased efficacy in promoting abstinence and decreased side effects, such as interference with natural reward, for drug addiction. PMID

  14. The Comparative Study of the Rate of Social Capital among Addicted and non-Addicted Youth

    Alireza Heydarnejad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The present study aimed to compare the rate of social capital among addicted and non-addicted youth in Mashhad. Method: The samples included of 160 addicted and 160 non-addicted men selected by cluster random sampling. Both groups matched on age, and marital status. The social capital questionnaire designed by researcher administered among selected samples. Results: The results showed that social capital of young addicts was significantly lower than their counterparts. Also, results showed that the indicators of social capital, the idea of social participation, social trust, and social networks were significantly lower than their counterparts. Conclusion: With consideration of positive effects of social participation, social trust, social connection networks in addicted people, they should have appropriate conditions and headstock for tendency to involve to social events like developing of organizations, and voluntaries’ and non government societies should be more attended.

  15. The Internet Process Addiction Test: Screening for Addictions to Processes Facilitated by the Internet

    Jason C. Northrup

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Internet Process Addiction Test (IPAT was created to screen for potential addictive behaviors that could be facilitated by the internet. The IPAT was created with the mindset that the term “Internet addiction” is structurally problematic, as the Internet is simply the medium that one uses to access various addictive processes. The role of the internet in facilitating addictions, however, cannot be minimized. A new screening tool that effectively directed researchers and clinicians to the specific processes facilitated by the internet would therefore be useful. This study shows that the Internet Process Addiction Test (IPAT demonstrates good validity and reliability. Four addictive processes were effectively screened for with the IPAT: Online video game playing, online social networking, online sexual activity, and web surfing. Implications for further research and limitations of the study are discussed.

  16. Internet addiction neuroscientific approaches and therapeutical interventions

    Reuter, Martin

    2015-01-01

    This book combines a scholarly introduction with state-of-the-art research in the characterization of Internet addiction. It is intended for a broad audience including scientists, students and practitioners. The first part of the book contains an introduction to Internet addiction and their pathogenesis. The second part of the book is dedicated to an in-depth review of neuroscientific findings which cover studies using a variety of biological techniques including brain imaging and molecular genetics. The last part of the book will focus on therapeutic interventions for Internet addiction.

  17. Fatal poisoning among patients with drug addiction

    Simonsen, K. W.; Christoffersen, D. J.; Banner, J.;

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Fatal poisonings among drug addicts in Denmark in 2012 were examined. Cause of death, abuse pattern and geographic differences are discussed and data are compared with previous studies. Methods: All fatal poisonings examined at the three institutes of forensic medicine in Denmark in...... on Funen and in South Jutland. Cocaine was most frequently detected in East Denmark, while amphetamine was more frequent in West Denmark. ConclusionS: The number of fatal poisonings among drug addicts has stabilised around 200. The increase in methadone deaths continued and, as in 2007, methadone was...... compared with 2007, indicating that a considerable number of drug addicts also have psychiatric illness....

  18. Connecting the Dots between Games and Addiction

    Nielsen, Rune Kristian; Karlsen, Faltin; Goggin, Joyce; Aarseth, Espen

    2014-01-01

    That computer games are addictive and socially isolating were taken as a given more than thirty years ago, when one of the world's most (in)famous psychologists, Phillip Zimbardo, declared that: “[t]he video games that are proving so addictive to young people may not only be socially isolating but may actually encourage violence between people” (Zimbardo 1982, p. 59 in Loftus and Loftus 1983). Three decades later we are still debating what game addiction is and if it even exists. In this time...

  19. A neurocomputational model for cocaine addiction.

    Dezfouli, Amir; Piray, Payam; Keramati, Mohammad Mahdi; Ekhtiari, Hamed; Lucas, Caro; Mokri, Azarakhsh

    2009-10-01

    Based on the dopamine hypotheses of cocaine addiction and the assumption of decrement of brain reward system sensitivity after long-term drug exposure, we propose a computational model for cocaine addiction. Utilizing average reward temporal difference reinforcement learning, we incorporate the elevation of basal reward threshold after long-term drug exposure into the model of drug addiction proposed by Redish. Our model is consistent with the animal models of drug seeking under punishment. In the case of nondrug reward, the model explains increased impulsivity after long-term drug exposure. Furthermore, the existence of a blocking effect for cocaine is predicted by our model. PMID:19635010

  20. Internet addiction: a 21st century epidemic?

    Christakis Dimitri A

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Internet addiction, while not yet officially codified within a psychopathological framework, is growing both in prevalence and within the public consciousness as a potentially problematic condition with many parallels to existing recognized disorders. The rapid and unfettered increase in the number of people accessing a relatively unrestricted internet substantially increases the possibility that those suffering with an underlying psychological comorbidity may be at serious risk of developing an addiction to the internet, lending further credence to this hitherto understudied condition. In this commentary, I outline my recommendations for improved diagnosis, study and prevention of internet addiction.

  1. Video game addiction: Impact on teenagers' lifestyle.

    Sharma, Manoj Kumar; Mahindru, Poornima

    2015-01-01

    Use of video games as a leisure-time activity has increased among teenagers. Excessive use of video games is associated with psychosocial dysfunctions in the user's life. Two teenagers came for consultation to our Service for Healthy Use of Technology (SHUT) clinic for management of addiction due to video games. They were assessed using a clinical interview as well as the General Health Questionnaire and Griffith criteria for video games. The cases emphasize the addictive potential of video games and their association with lifestyle changes. Addiction to video games has implications for screening and intervention among teenagers. PMID:27294452

  2. Addictive personality and problematic mobile phone use.

    Takao, Motoharu; Takahashi, Susumu; Kitamura, Masayoshi

    2009-10-01

    Mobile phone use is banned or regulated in some circumstances. Despite recognized safety concerns and legal regulations, some people do not refrain from using mobile phones. Such problematic mobile phone use can be considered to be an addiction-like behavior. To find the potential predictors, we examined the correlation between problematic mobile phone use and personality traits reported in addiction literature, which indicated that problematic mobile phone use was a function of gender, self-monitoring, and approval motivation but not of loneliness. These findings suggest that the measurements of these addictive personality traits would be helpful in the screening and intervention of potential problematic users of mobile phones. PMID:19817562

  3. Reward processing in obesity, substance addiction and non-substance addiction

    García-García, Isabel; Horstmann, Annette; Jurado, María Angeles; Garolera, Maite; Chaudhry, Shereen J.; Margulies, Daniel S.; Villringer, Arno; Neumann, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Similarities and differences between obesity and addiction are a prominent topic of ongoing research. We conducted an activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis on 87 studies in order to map the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) response to reward in participants with obesity, substance addiction and non-substance (or behavioural) addiction, and to identify commonalities and differences between them. Our study confirms the existence of alterations during reward processing in ob...

  4. Neuroscience of Internet Pornography Addiction: A Review and Update.

    Love, Todd; Laier, Christian; Brand, Matthias; Hatch, Linda; Hajela, Raju

    2015-01-01

    Many recognize that several behaviors potentially affecting the reward circuitry in human brains lead to a loss of control and other symptoms of addiction in at least some individuals. Regarding Internet addiction, neuroscientific research supports the assumption that underlying neural processes are similar to substance addiction. The American Psychiatric Association (APA) has recognized one such Internet related behavior, Internet gaming, as a potential addictive disorder warranting further study, in the 2013 revision of their Diagnostic and Statistical Manual. Other Internet related behaviors, e.g., Internet pornography use, were not covered. Within this review, we give a summary of the concepts proposed underlying addiction and give an overview about neuroscientific studies on Internet addiction and Internet gaming disorder. Moreover, we reviewed available neuroscientific literature on Internet pornography addiction and connect the results to the addiction model. The review leads to the conclusion that Internet pornography addiction fits into the addiction framework and shares similar basic mechanisms with substance addiction. Together with studies on Internet addiction and Internet Gaming Disorder we see strong evidence for considering addictive Internet behaviors as behavioral addiction. Future research needs to address whether or not there are specific differences between substance and behavioral addiction. PMID:26393658

  5. Neuroscience of Internet Pornography Addiction: A Review and Update

    Love, Todd; Laier, Christian; Brand, Matthias; Hatch, Linda; Hajela, Raju

    2015-01-01

    Many recognize that several behaviors potentially affecting the reward circuitry in human brains lead to a loss of control and other symptoms of addiction in at least some individuals. Regarding Internet addiction, neuroscientific research supports the assumption that underlying neural processes are similar to substance addiction. The American Psychiatric Association (APA) has recognized one such Internet related behavior, Internet gaming, as a potential addictive disorder warranting further study, in the 2013 revision of their Diagnostic and Statistical Manual. Other Internet related behaviors, e.g., Internet pornography use, were not covered. Within this review, we give a summary of the concepts proposed underlying addiction and give an overview about neuroscientific studies on Internet addiction and Internet gaming disorder. Moreover, we reviewed available neuroscientific literature on Internet pornography addiction and connect the results to the addiction model. The review leads to the conclusion that Internet pornography addiction fits into the addiction framework and shares similar basic mechanisms with substance addiction. Together with studies on Internet addiction and Internet Gaming Disorder we see strong evidence for considering addictive Internet behaviors as behavioral addiction. Future research needs to address whether or not there are specific differences between substance and behavioral addiction. PMID:26393658

  6. Neuroscience of Internet Pornography Addiction: A Review and Update

    Todd Love

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Many recognize that several behaviors potentially affecting the reward circuitry in human brains lead to a loss of control and other symptoms of addiction in at least some individuals. Regarding Internet addiction, neuroscientific research supports the assumption that underlying neural processes are similar to substance addiction. The American Psychiatric Association (APA has recognized one such Internet related behavior, Internet gaming, as a potential addictive disorder warranting further study, in the 2013 revision of their Diagnostic and Statistical Manual. Other Internet related behaviors, e.g., Internet pornography use, were not covered. Within this review, we give a summary of the concepts proposed underlying addiction and give an overview about neuroscientific studies on Internet addiction and Internet gaming disorder. Moreover, we reviewed available neuroscientific literature on Internet pornography addiction and connect the results to the addiction model. The review leads to the conclusion that Internet pornography addiction fits into the addiction framework and shares similar basic mechanisms with substance addiction. Together with studies on Internet addiction and Internet Gaming Disorder we see strong evidence for considering addictive Internet behaviors as behavioral addiction. Future research needs to address whether or not there are specific differences between substance and behavioral addiction.

  7. ADDicted.

    Ruenzel, David

    1996-01-01

    Debates the use of Ritalin for children with Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD), highlighting the experience of one boy who takes the drug. The article examines diagnosis of ADD, school and home lives of families affected by ADD, and controversy over the widespread use of Ritalin. (SM)

  8. The Comparison of Personality Characteristics and Problem Solving Styles in Addicted And Non-Addicted Men

    Fatemeh Saber

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available introduction: The goal of this study was to compare the personality characteristics and problem solving styles of addicted and non-addicted men. Method: This study is a causal comparative design survey. In this study 180 addicted men was selected through convenience sampling method from addicted men that refered to addiction treatment centers of Rasht city and matched in gender, age, education and job with 180 non addicted men and then two groups compared with each other. All participants completed the NEO-FFI-R and problem solving styles questionnaires. The gathered data were analyzed through SPSS software. Findings: The results showed that an addicted man in comparison with non-addicted men was upper in neuroticism and lower in agreeableness, extraversion and consciousness dimensions. Also there was no difference in openness dimension between two groups. Conclusion: The finding of present study suggests that educating efficient problem solving styles to people to cope with life stressful events could restrain and prevent addiction and other psychosocial disorders.

  9. Common Bile Duct (CBD) diameter in opium-addicted men: Comparison with non-addict controls

    Background: Opium and its derivatives are widely abused throughout the world. Recent case reports and a few limited studies have suggested that opiates cause dilation of the common bile duct of the abusers. Material/Methods: Our case-control study, lasting 7.5 months, investigated 121 male adult addicts and 142 non addicted controls for biliary tract diameters, using ultrasonography. The study was conducted in Bahonar Hospital in Kerman. Neither the addiction cases nor the non-addict controls revealed any hepatobiliary tract symptoms. The subjects were asked to fill in a questionnaire. After the exclusion of the symptomatic cases, ultrasound examinations were carried out and the findings from questionnaires and US examinations were recorded. Results: The mean ± SD diameter of the common bile duct was 4.78 ± 2.58 for addicts and 3.37 ± 2.25 for non-addicts. CBD wall thickness was 1.969 ± 0.61 mm in addicts versus 1.73 ± 0.631 in non-addicts. The differences were statistically significant. According to the multivariate analysis, the duration of opium abuse was a significant factor. Conclusions: We concluded that CBD dilation and increased CBD wall thickness can be expected in people with a prolonged history of opiate addiction. (authors)

  10. Comparison of risk and protective factors associated with smartphone addiction and Internet addiction

    Choi, Sam-Wook; Kim, Dai-Jin; Choi, Jung-Seok; Ahn, Heejune; Choi, Eun-Jeung; Song, Won-Young; Kim, Seohee; Youn, Hyunchul

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Smartphone addiction is a recent concern that has resulted from the dramatic increase in worldwide smartphone use. This study assessed the risk and protective factors associated with smartphone addiction in college students and compared these factors to those linked to Internet addiction. Methods College students (N = 448) in South Korea completed the Smartphone Addiction Scale, the Young’s Internet Addiction Test, the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, the Beck Depression Inventory I, the State–Trait Anxiety Inventory (Trait Version), the Character Strengths Test, and the Connor–Davidson Resilience Scale. The data were analyzed using multiple linear regression analyses. Results The risk factors for smartphone addiction were female gender, Internet use, alcohol use, and anxiety, while the protective factors were depression and temperance. In contrast, the risk factors for Internet addiction were male gender, smartphone use, anxiety, and wisdom/knowledge, while the protective factor was courage. Discussion These differences may result from unique features of smartphones, such as high availability and primary use as a tool for interpersonal relationships. Conclusions Our findings will aid clinicians in distinguishing between predictive factors for smartphone and Internet addiction and can consequently be utilized in the prevention and treatment of smartphone addiction. PMID:26690626

  11. [Relapse prevention in drug addicts].

    Rácz, József

    2013-12-01

    The literature review deals with methods of relapse prevention. Relapse prevention is the key in the treatment of clients with drug addictions according to the transtheoretical model of change. If relapse prevention is more effective then not only the relapse would be prevented, but the client would leave the circulus vitiosus of relapses. Among psychotherapies cognitive behavioural methods are proven effective. Shorter forms of cognitive therapies are also available: for example, cognitive bias modification. Pharmacotherapy partly decreases craving of the clients or ceases the effects of psychoactive substances. Specific pharmacotherapeutic methods prevent relapses in a non-abstinent treatment design. Here the goal is not the abstinence in a short time, but the reduction of harms associated with drug use. In this way, a new target group of drug users can be involved in treatment. PMID:24380964

  12. Glutamatergic neuroplasticity in cocaine addiction.

    Uys, Joachim D; Reissner, Kathryn J

    2011-01-01

    Neuroadaptations among glutamatergic projections within the mesocorticolimbic circuits engaged by drugs of abuse have been described since the 1990s. There is now substantial evidence that drugs of abuse lead to long-term changes in glutamatergic signaling and encompass multiple levels of analysis. For example, cocaine induces changes in extracellular glutamate concentrations and in synaptic glutamatergic transmission. In addition, glutamate receptors are required for the expression of cocaine-related behaviors, and long-term changes have been reported in the expression of proteins at glutamatergic synapses, in glutamate-related redox regulation of neurons, and in glutamatergic synaptic and structural plasticity following chronic exposure to cocaine. In this chapter, we will describe the neurocircuitry involved, and will summarize evidence for adaptations in glutamatergic neuroplasticity as a mechanism for cocaine addiction. Finally, we will discuss progress in the development of glutamate-mediated pharmacotherapies for the treatment of cocaine dependence. PMID:21199777

  13. Bone scintigraphy in drug addiction

    Lopez-Majano, V.; Miskew, D.; Sansi, P.

    1981-01-01

    In 22 drug addicts, the clinical diagnosis of osteomyelitis and/or septic arthritis was suspected because of symptoms of sepsis and pain in various locations. All patients underwent bone scintigraphy with 17-20 mCi of /sup 99/sup(m)Tc labeling either pyrophosphate or methylene diphosphonate. Whole body and spot scans located the area of disease in most patients. This permitted biopsy of the affected area when the pathogen recurs. One of the two patients whose scintigrams were normal was on adequate treatment before the bone scintigram and the other was on oxacillin. Radiographs of the affected areas were normal, which indicates bone scintigraphy should be preferred to radiography in the early diagnosis of osseous infections.

  14. Bone scintigraphy in drug addiction

    In 22 drug addicts, the clinical diagnosis of osteomyelitis and/or septic arthritis was suspected because of symptoms of sepsis and pain in various locations. All patients underwent bone scintigraphy with 17-20 mCi of 99sup(m)Tc labeling either pyrophosphate or methylene diphosphonate. Whole body and spot scans located the area of disease in most patients. This permitted biopsy of the affected area when the pathogen recurs. One of the two patients whose scintigrams were normal was on adequate treatment before the bone scintigram and the other was on oxacillin. Radiographs of the affected areas were normal, which indicates bone scintigraphy should be preferred to radiography in the early diagnosis of osseous infections. (orig.)

  15. Internet Addiction and Its Treatment

    Ozden Arisoy

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available With the introduction of new technologies, computer and internet use have become an unavoidable necessity in our daily lives. Internet was originally designed to facilitate communication and research. However the dramatic increase in use of internet in recent years has led to its pathologic use. Turkey, as a developing country with an increasing rate of internet access and computer use is at high risk for this disorder. In our country, this disorder is especially seen in young people who are more skilled in internet and computer use. And because their excessive internet use has led to negative consequences in their academic, social and family lives, patients and their families began search of treatment for this disorder. So clinicians must be aware of this newly emerging disorder and they should be able to apply the appropriate therapeutic interventions. This paper aims to summarize the pharmacological and cognitive-behavioral treatment of internet addiction.

  16. Topical corticosteroid addiction and phobia

    Aparajita Ghosh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Corticosteroids, one of the most widely prescribed topical drugs, have been used for about six decades till date. However, rampant misuse and abuse down the years has given the drug a bad name. Topical steroid abuse may lead to two major problems which lie at the opposing ends of the psychosomatic spectrum. Topical steroid addiction, a phenomenon that came to be recognized about a decade after the introduction of the molecule is manifested as psychological distress and rebound phenomenon on stoppage of the drug. The rebound phenomenon, which can affect various parts of the body particularly the face and the genitalia has been reported by various names in the literature. TC phobia which lies at the opposite end of the psychiatric spectrum of steroid abuse has been reported particularly among parents of atopic children. Management of both conditions is difficult and frustrating. Psychological counseling and support can be of immense help in both the conditions.

  17. Topical corticosteroid addiction and phobia.

    Ghosh, Aparajita; Sengupta, Sujata; Coondoo, Arijit; Jana, Amlan Kusum

    2014-09-01

    Corticosteroids, one of the most widely prescribed topical drugs, have been used for about six decades till date. However, rampant misuse and abuse down the years has given the drug a bad name. Topical steroid abuse may lead to two major problems which lie at the opposing ends of the psychosomatic spectrum. Topical steroid addiction, a phenomenon that came to be recognized about a decade after the introduction of the molecule is manifested as psychological distress and rebound phenomenon on stoppage of the drug. The rebound phenomenon, which can affect various parts of the body particularly the face and the genitalia has been reported by various names in the literature. TC phobia which lies at the opposite end of the psychiatric spectrum of steroid abuse has been reported particularly among parents of atopic children. Management of both conditions is difficult and frustrating. Psychological counseling and support can be of immense help in both the conditions. PMID:25284851

  18. Neurobiological Basis of Alcohol Addiction

    Milagros Lisset León Regal

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Alcoholism is a serious social problem due to its impact on individual and collective health. In order to provide an update on the latest findings that explain the development and symptoms of alcohol addiction, the short and long term changes that this disorder causes in the central nervous system are shown in this paper. A total of 52 information sources were consulted, including 43 journal articles, 4 books and statistical reports. The main network managers were used. The interaction of ethanol with various structures of the neuronal membrane affects the cytoarchitecture and brain function associated with the reward system, motor processing, learning and memory, resulting in the development of alcohol dependence. In addition, ethanol-induced changes in excitation/inhibition explain the phenomena of alcohol tolerance and withdrawal.

  19. Issues in Personality Conceptualizations of Addictive Behaviors.

    Sutker, Patricia B.; Allain, Albert N., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Describes issues and implications associated with personality conceptualizations of addictive behaviors. Directs attention toward characterizing the sociopolitical climate's effect on identification, evaluation, and management of substance abuse disorders. Explores alcohol and drug use in conceptual schemata encompassing multifactorial,…

  20. Addiction circuitry in the human brain (*).

    Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.; Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.-J.; Fowler, J.S.; Tomasi, D.

    2011-09-27

    A major challenge in understanding substance-use disorders lies in uncovering why some individuals become addicted when exposed to drugs, whereas others do not. Although genetic, developmental, and environmental factors are recognized as major contributors to a person's risk of becoming addicted, the neurobiological processes that underlie this vulnerability are still poorly understood. Imaging studies suggest that individual variations in key dopamine-modulated brain circuits, including circuits involved in reward, memory, executive function, and motivation, contribute to some of the differences in addiction vulnerability. A better understanding of the main circuits affected by chronic drug use and the influence of social stressors, developmental trajectories, and genetic background on these circuits is bound to lead to a better understanding of addiction and to more effective strategies for the prevention and treatment of substance-use disorders.

  1. Women and drug addiction: a historical perspective.

    Kandall, Stephen R

    2010-04-01

    The history of women and addiction in America extends back more than 150 years. Although the true epidemiology of women and addiction has always been difficult to determine, the spectrum of female addicts extends well beyond those women who make sensationalistic headlines by "abandoning" or "battering" their children. Historically, female addiction has been largely the result of inappropriate overmedication practices by physicians and pharmacists, media manipulation, or individuals own attempts to cope with social or occupational barriers preventing equality and self-fulfillment. From the mid-nineteenth century, uneasy tolerance, social ostracism, vilification, persecution, and legal prosecution have grudgingly, but not completely, given way to more humane treatment opportunities in the setting of more enlightened comprehensive care. PMID:20407971

  2. Signs of Heroin Abuse and Addiction

    ... just to get by." Deon was addicted to heroin. Here, he describes the drug's effects on his ... is part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) , the principal biomedical and behavioral research agency ...

  3. Development of a Facebook Addiction Scale.

    Andreassen, Cecilie Schou; Torsheim, Torbjørn; Brunborg, Geir Scott; Pallesen, Ståle

    2012-04-01

    The Bergen Facebook Addiction Scale (BFAS), initially a pool of 18 items, three reflecting each of the six core elements of addiction (salience, mood modification, tolerance, withdrawal, conflict, and relapse), was constructed and administered to 423 students together with several other standardized self-report scales (Addictive Tendencies Scale, Online Sociability Scale, Facebook Attitude Scale, NEO-FFI, BIS/BAS scales, and Sleep questions). That item within each of the six addiction elements with the highest corrected item-total correlation was retained in the final scale. The factor structure of the scale was good (RMSEA = .046, CFI = .99) and coefficient alpha was .83. The 3-week test-retest reliability coefficient was .82. The scores converged with scores for other scales of Facebook activity. Also, they were positively related to Neuroticism and Extraversion, and negatively related to Conscientiousness. High scores on the new scale were associated with delayed bedtimes and rising times. PMID:22662404

  4. Internet sex addiction treated with naltrexone.

    Bostwick, J Michael; Bucci, Jeffrey A

    2008-02-01

    Malfunctioning of the brain's reward center is increasingly understood to underlie all addictive behavior. Composed of mesolimbic incentive salience circuitry, the reward center governs all behavior in which motivation has a central role, including acquiring food, nurturing young, and having sex. To the detriment of normal functioning, basic survival activities can pale in importance when challenged by the allure of addictive substances or behaviors. Dopamine is the neurotransmitter driving both normal and addictive behavior. Other neurotransmitters modulate the amount of dopamine released in response to a stimulus, with the salience determined by the intensity of the dopamine pulse. Opiates (either endogenous or exogenous) exemplify such modulators. Prescribed for treating alcoholism, naltrexone blocks opiates' capacity to augment dopamine release. This article reviews naltrexone's mechanism of action in the reward center and describes a novel use for naltrexone in suppressing a euphorically compulsive and interpersonally devastating addiction to Internet pornography. PMID:18241634

  5. 75 FR 4900 - Drug Addiction and Alcoholism

    2010-01-29

    ...We are requesting your comments about our operating procedures for determining disability for persons whose drug addiction or alcoholism (DAA) may be a contributing factor material to our determination of...

  6. Molecular and Functional Imaging of Internet Addiction

    Yunqi Zhu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Maladaptive use of the Internet results in Internet addiction (IA, which is associated with various negative consequences. Molecular and functional imaging techniques have been increasingly used for analysis of neurobiological changes and neurochemical correlates of IA. This review summarizes molecular and functional imaging findings on neurobiological mechanisms of IA, focusing on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and nuclear imaging modalities including positron emission tomography (PET and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT. MRI studies demonstrate that structural changes in frontal cortex are associated with functional abnormalities in Internet addicted subjects. Nuclear imaging findings indicate that IA is associated with dysfunction of the brain dopaminergic systems. Abnormal dopamine regulation of the prefrontal cortex (PFC could underlie the enhanced motivational value and uncontrolled behavior over Internet overuse in addicted subjects. Further investigations are needed to determine specific changes in the Internet addictive brain, as well as their implications for behavior and cognition.

  7. National Addiction & HIV Data Archive Program (NAHDAP)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NAHDAP acquires, preserves and disseminates data relevant to drug addiction and HIV research. By preserving and making available an easily accessible library of...

  8. Using DREADDs to investigate addiction behaviors

    Ferguson, Susan M.; Neumaier, John F.

    2016-01-01

    Drug addiction is characterized by compulsive drug-seeking and drug-taking, and a high propensity for relapse. Although the brain regions involved in regulating addiction processes have long been identified, the ways in which individual cell types govern addiction behaviors remain elusive. New technologies for modulating the activity of defined cell types have recently emerged that are allowing us to address these important questions. Here, we review how one such technology, DREADDs (Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs), can be used to refine our knowledge of addiction circuitry. These engineered receptors modulate cellular activity by acting on G protein coupled signaling cascades and in this review we pay particular attention to how this slower-onset modulation preferentially regulates behaviors that develop over time.

  9. Medical students' attitudes towards the addictions

    Mullen, Kenneth; Smith, Iain

    2016-01-01

    Background: The need for medical students to engage with patients with addictive problems is projected to increase in coming years. There will also be a concomitant greater emphasis on community-based learning. The present study assessed the impact of a community based teaching initiative, the Student Selected Component (SSC) Lay and Professional Perspectives on the Addictions, on students' attitudes to these groups. Summary of Work: The SSC is assessed by a final student report which i...

  10. Rational Addiction Evidence From Carbonated Soft Drinks

    Xiaoou, Liu

    2009-01-01

    This paper applies the Becker-Murphy (1988) theory of rational addiction to the case of carbonated soft drinks, using a time-varying parameter model and scanner data from 46 U.S. cities. Empirical results provide strong evidence that carbonated soft drinks are rationally addictive, thus opening the door to taxation and regulation. Taking rational addition into account, estimated demand elasticities are much lower than previous estimates using scanner data.

  11. Monopoly and competition in addictive markets

    Murray, Sean

    1984-01-01

    This paper models monopoly markets on which demand is addictive as defined by Stigler and Becker; and hence dynamic. It is shown that the monopolists' equilibrium is unique and stable and the time path taken to reach it is also unique. The comparative statics and comparative dynamics of these markets are analysed. It is proved formally that the harmfully (beneficially) addictive monopolist will produce to the left (right) of the equality between marginal revenue and marginal cost, and that th...

  12. Naltrexone: A Pan-Addiction Treatment?

    Aboujaoude, Elias; Salame, Wael O

    2016-08-01

    Addiction is a major public health problem with few efficacious and safe treatments. The goal of this review is to provide an evidence-based assessment of the therapeutic role of the opioid antagonist naltrexone across the addiction spectrum-substance-based and behavioral. The PubMed database was searched for randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials that investigated the oral or intramuscular long-acting formulation of naltrexone in substance use disorders or behavioral addictions such as pathological gambling, kleptomania, and trichotillomania. Thirty-nine efficacy studies were retrieved, covering alcohol use disorder (n = 22), opioid use disorder (n = 6), nicotine use disorder (n = 5), stimulant use disorder (n = 2), gambling disorder (n = 2), trichotillomania (n = 1), and kleptomania (n = 1). Despite the very different presentations within and between both addiction categories, the data, as a whole, show consistency in favor of naltrexone's relative efficacy and safety. Given the potential benefit and good tolerability revealed in the studies, the high morbidity associated with addiction, and the dearth of alternate treatments, naltrexone would seem like an underutilized treatment option. Further, naltrexone's seemingly broad anti-addiction efficacy supports a shared role for brain opioid pathways in the pathophysiology of addiction, broadly defined. More studies investigating the efficacy and tolerability of naltrexone and other opioid modulators are warranted. Studies should also further examine the effect of combining psychotherapy with naltrexone, as well as the potential role of naltrexone in treating comorbid addictions. PMID:27401883

  13. How bulimia nervosa relates to addictive behavior

    Iorio, Daniela; Sovinsky, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Using longitudinal data that tracks bulimic behavior among young girls (National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study), we examine (1) whether bulimic behavior is consistent with addiction criteria as stated in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders DSM-IV (APA, 1994); and 2) whether the persistence in bulimia nervosa (BN) reflects tolerance formed from an addiction or if it can be attributed to slow learning about the deleterious health effects of BN. M...

  14. Preventing Addiction Related Suicide: A Pilot Study

    Voss, William D.; Kaufman, Erin; O’Connor, Stephen S.; Comtois, Katherine Anne; Connor, Kenneth R.; Ries, Richard K.

    2013-01-01

    Persons addicted to alcohol and drugs are at 5–10 times higher risk for suicide as compared to the general population. To address the need for improved suicide prevention strategies in this population, the Preventing Addiction Related Suicide (PARS) module was developed. Pilot testing of 78 patients demonstrated significant post-treatment changes in knowledge (t (66) = 12.07, p= .000) and attitudes (t (75) = 6.82, p = .000) toward suicide prevention issues. Significant gains were maintained a...

  15. Text Messaging for Addiction: A Review

    Keoleian, Victoria; Polcin, Douglas; Galloway, Gantt P.

    2015-01-01

    Individuals seeking treatment for addiction often experience barriers due to cost, lack of local treatment resources, or either school or work schedule conflicts. Text messaging-based addiction treatment is inexpensive and has the potential to be widely accessible in real time. We conducted a comprehensive literature review identifying 11 published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating text messaging-based interventions for tobacco smoking, 4 studies for reducing alcohol consumption,...

  16. New insights into the genetics of addiction

    Li, Ming D.; Burmeister, Margit

    2009-01-01

    Drug addiction is a common brain disorder that is extremely costly to the individual and to society. Genetics contributes significantly to vulnerability to this disorder, but identification of susceptibility genes has been slow. Recent genome-wide linkage and association studies have implicated several regions and genes in addiction to various substances, including alcohol and, more recently, tobacco. Current efforts aim not only to replicate these findings in independent samples but also to ...

  17. Age-related aspects of addiction

    Koechl, Birgit; Unger, Annemarie; Fischer, Gabriele

    2012-01-01

    Research has shown that substance use, abuse and addiction are not limited to a specific age group. Problems related to substance addiction are an important cause of morbidity in the population aged 65 and above, especially the abuse of prescription drugs and legal substances. A lack of evidence-based studies and tailored treatment options for the aging population is evident. Appropriate and effective health-care is an important goal to improve health-related quality of life of elderly people...

  18. Multiple faces of BDNF in cocaine addiction

    Li, Xuan; Wolf, Marina E.

    2014-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been found to play roles in many types of plasticity including drug addiction. Here we focus on rodent studies over the past two decades that have demonstrated diverse roles of BDNF in models of cocaine addiction. First, we will provide an overview of studies showing that cocaine exposure alters (and generally increases) BDNF levels in reward-related regions including the ventral tegmental area, nucleus accumbens, prefrontal cortex, and amygdala. T...

  19. Reversal of cocaine addiction by environmental enrichment

    Solinas, Marcello; Chauvet, Claudia; Thiriet, Nathalie; El Rawas, Rana; Jaber, Mohamed

    2008-01-01

    Environmental conditions can dramatically influence the behavioral and neurochemical effects of drugs of abuse. For example, stress increases the reinforcing effects of drugs and plays an important role in determining the vulnerability to develop drug addiction. On the other hand, positive conditions, such as environmental enrichment, can reduce the reinforcing effects of psychostimulants and may provide protection against the development of drug addiction. However, whether environmental enri...

  20. Periostitis and osteomyelitis in chronic drug addicts

    Periostitis and osteomyelitis can occur in drug addicts not only by hematogeneous dissemination of the infecting organisms, but as a result of introduction of bacteria by direct injection into periosteum or injection through infected skin and subcutaneous tissues. A spectrum of examples of osteomyelitis of the bones of the forearm in drug addicts is presented to illustrate this phenomenon. Neglect of these infections and the trauma of continued injections can lead to extensive tissue and bone loss. (orig.)

  1. Periostitis and osteomyelitis in chronic drug addicts

    Taylor, C.R.; Lawson, J.P.

    1986-03-01

    Periostitis and osteomyelitis can occur in drug addicts not only by hematogeneous dissemination of the infecting organisms, but as a result of introduction of bacteria by direct injection into periosteum or injection through infected skin and subcutaneous tissues. A spectrum of examples of osteomyelitis of the bones of the forearm in drug addicts is presented to illustrate this phenomenon. Neglect of these infections and the trauma of continued injections can lead to extensive tissue and bone loss.

  2. Food Addiction: An Evolving Nonlinear Science

    Richard Shriner; Mark Gold

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to familiarize readers with the role that addiction plays in the formation and treatment of obesity, type 2 diabetes and disorders of eating. We will outline several useful models that integrate metabolism, addiction, and human relationship adaptations to eating. A special effort will be made to demonstrate how the use of simple and straightforward nonlinear models can and are being used to improve our knowledge and treatment of patients suffering from nutrition...

  3. The dark side of food addiction

    Parylak, Sarah L.; Koob, George F.; Zorrilla, Eric P.

    2011-01-01

    In drug addiction, the transition from casual drug use to dependence has been linked to a shift away from positive reinforcement and towards negative reinforcement. That is, drugs ultimately are relied on to prevent or relieve negative states that otherwise result from abstinence (e.g., withdrawal) or from adverse environmental circumstances (e.g., stress). Recent work has suggested that this “dark side” shift also is key in the development of food addiction. Initially, palatable food consump...

  4. Internet Gaming Addiction: A Technological Hazard

    Sachdeva; Verma

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The Internet is considered a beneficial tool in research, communication, and information. Still, its excessive and prolonged use has the potential of causing addiction. The presentation of this technological hazard may range from a mild socio-personal distress to a gross disorganization in behavior and self-care. No reported study on Internet gaming addiction is available from India. Case Presentation We reported a ca...

  5. SOCIAL IMPLICATIONS OF THE INTERNET ADDICTION

    Egor Grigoryevich Gaynzev

    2015-01-01

    The paper examined the Internet that turned to be the main communication gear and information transfer tool round the world. Every year a growing number of Internet users appear, many people thereof are prone to Internet addiction. The Internet addiction involves multiple social challenges namely the family issues, workplace constraints, proneness to conflict, negligence in daily pursuits and many other issues. The number of Internet users over the past 10 years grew from 10 million users to ...

  6. DRUG DELIVERY METHODS RANKING ADDICTION POTENTIAL

    K. Sujatha*, T. Arundathi, S. Rubina, B.V. Ramana, G. Nagarajan

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Substance abusers and drug addicts generally seek the fastest and most effective methods of getting high this means that drug delivery methods are important to users, and typically an addict will prefer one method over another. However, because there are a wide variety of drug delivery methods, substance abusers will often fluctuate between these techniques when the need arises. Understanding the different ways that people use drugs can aid in creating awareness and recognition skil...

  7. Drug Addiction, Love, and the Higher Power

    Sussman, Steve; Reynaud, Michel; Aubin, Henri-Jean; Leventhal, Adam M.

    2011-01-01

    This discussion piece suggests that reliance on a Higher Power in drug abuse recovery programs is entertained among some addicts for its psychobiological effects. Prayer, meditation, early romantic love, and drug abuse may have in common activation of mesolimbic dopaminergic pathways of the brain and the generation of intense emotional states. In this sense, reliance on a Higher Power may operate as a substitute addiction, which replaces the psychobiological functions formerly served by drug use. Implications of this perspective are discussed. PMID:21411471

  8. Drug Addiction, Love, and the Higher Power

    Sussman, Steve; Reynaud, Michel; Aubin, Henri-Jean; Leventhal, Adam M.

    2011-01-01

    This discussion piece suggests that reliance on a Higher Power in drug abuse recovery programs is entertained among some addicts for its psychobiological effects. Prayer, meditation, early romantic love, and drug abuse may have in common activation of mesolimbic dopaminergic pathways of the brain and the generation of intense emotional states. In this sense, reliance on a Higher Power may operate as a substitute addiction, which replaces the psychobiological functions formerly served by drug ...

  9. Chromatin regulation in drug addiction and depression

    Renthal, William; Nestler, Eric J.

    2009-01-01

    Alterations in gene expression are implicated in the pathogenesis of several neuropsychiatrie disorders, including drug addiction and depression, increasing evidence indicates that changes in gene expression in neurons, in the context of animal models of addiction and depression, are mediated in part by epigenetic mechanisms that alter chromatin structure on specific gene promoters. This review discusses recent findings from behavioral, molecular, and bioinformatic approaches that are being u...

  10. Striatal signal transduction and drug addiction

    Philibin, Scott D.; Adan eCortes; Self, David W.; Bibb, James A.

    2011-01-01

    Drug addiction is a severe neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by loss of control over motivated behavior. The need for effective treatments mandates a greater understanding of the causes and identification of new therapeutic targets for drug development. Drugs of abuse subjugate normal reward-related behavior to uncontrollable drug-seeking and -taking. Contributions of brain reward circuitry are being mapped with increasing precision. The role of synaptic plasticity in addiction and unde...

  11. Neuroimaging for drug addiction and related behaviors

    Parvaz, Muhammad A.; Alia-Klein, Nelly; Woicik, Patricia A.; Volkow, Nora D.; Goldstein, Rita Z.

    2011-01-01

    In this review, we highlight the role of neuroimaging techniques in studying the emotional and cognitive-behavioral components of the addiction syndrome by focusing on the neural substrates subserving them. The phenomenology of drug addiction can be characterized by a recurrent pattern of subjective experiences that includes drug intoxication, craving, bingeing, and withdrawal with the cycle culminating in a persistent preoccupation with obtaining, consuming, and recovering from the drug. In ...

  12. Addiction Circuitry in the Human Brain*

    Volkow, Nora D.; Wang, Gene-Jack; Fowler, Joanna S.; Tomasi, Dardo

    2011-01-01

    A major challenge in understanding substance-use disorders lies in uncovering why some individuals become addicted when exposed to drugs, whereas others do not. Although genetic, developmental, and environmental factors are recognized as major contributors to a person’s risk of becoming addicted, the neurobiological processes that underlie this vulnerability are still poorly understood. Imaging studies suggest that individual variations in key dopamine-modulated brain circuits, including circ...

  13. How is acceptance of the brain disease model of addiction related to Australians’ attitudes towards addicted individuals and treatments for addiction?

    Meurk, Carla; Carter, Adrian; Partridge, Brad; Lucke, Jayne; Hall, Wayne

    2014-01-01

    Background We investigated whether beliefs about addiction being a ‘disease’ or ‘brain disease’, and holding certain beliefs about addiction aetiology, are associated with public views about addicted persons and support for different types of treatment, coerced treatment and punishment for addiction. Methods Data were collected as part of the 2012 Queensland Social Survey, a computer assisted telephone interview of 1263 residents of Queensland, Australia. Participants were presented with scen...

  14. History of the Concept of Addiction.

    Nathan, Peter E; Conrad, Mandy; Skinstad, Anne Helene

    2016-03-28

    Our distant forebears wrestled with concepts of alcohol addiction not unlike those of today: Is addiction a sin or a disease? Is addiction caused by the gods, the substance, the individual's vulnerability, or psychological or social factors? Luther, Calvin, and Catholic Church leaders viewed moderate alcohol use as God's gift; used intemperately, it was a moral transgression. The founders of modern scientific psychiatry rejected moral explanations for addiction in favor of an early biological model. The first two versions of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-I and DSM-II) stigmatized addiction by listing it with other societally disapproved disorders stemming from personality disorder. DSM-III espoused atheoretical, descriptive diagnoses but required tolerance or withdrawal to diagnose dependence. Substance dependence in DSM-III-R included physiological and behavioral symptoms and reflected the substance dependence syndrome. DSM-IV's emphasis on biology in its concept of dependence was unchanged from its immediate predecessors. DSM-5 declared that all drugs taken in excess have in common the direct activation of the brain reward system. This article examines evolving concepts of alcohol addiction through 12,000 years of recorded human history, from the first mention of alcohol consumption in China more than 12,000 years ago to alcohol use and abuse in the DSM era, 1952 to the present. PMID:26565120

  15. MEMORY SYSTEMS AND THE ADDICTED BRAIN

    Jarid eGoodman

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The view that anatomically distinct memory systems differentially contribute to the development of drug addiction and relapse has received extensive support. The present brief review revisits this hypothesis as it was originally proposed twenty years ago (White, 1996 and highlights several recent developments. Extensive research employing a variety of animal learning paradigms indicates that dissociable neural systems mediate distinct types of learning and memory. Each memory system potentially contributes unique components to the learned behavior supporting drug addiction and relapse. In particular, the shift from recreational drug use to compulsive drug abuse may reflect a neuroanatomical shift from cognitive control of behavior mediated by the hippocampus/dorsomedial striatum toward habitual control of behavior mediated by the dorsolateral striatum (DLS. In addition, stress/anxiety may constitute a cofactor that facilitates DLS-dependent memory, and this may serve as a neurobehavioral mechanism underlying the increased drug use and relapse in humans following stressful life events. Evidence supporting the multiple systems view of drug addiction comes predominantly from studies of learning and memory that have employed as reinforcers addictive substances often considered within the context of drug addiction research, including cocaine, alcohol, and amphetamines. In addition, recent evidence suggests that the memory systems approach may also be helpful for understanding topical sources of addiction that reflect emerging health concerns, including marijuana use, high-fat diet, and video game playing.

  16. Addiction is Not a Natural Kind

    Jeremy Michael Pober

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available I argue that addiction is not an appropriate category to support generalizations for the purposes of scientific prediction. That is, addiction is not a natural kind. I discuss the Homeostatic Property Cluster theory of kinds, according to which members of a kind share a cluster of properties generated by a common mechanism or set of mechanisms. Leading accounts of addiction in literature fail to offer a mechanism that explains addiction across substances. I discuss popular variants of the disease conception and demonstrate that at least one class of substances that fails to confirm a major prediction of each account. When no mechanism can be found to explain the occurrence of the relevant properties in members of a category, the HPC view suggests that we revise our categories. I discuss options offered by the HPC view, including category revision and category replacement. I then conclude that talk of addiction as a prediction-supporting category should be replaced with categories such as ‘S-addiction’ and ‘T-addiction,’ where S and T are substances or sets of substances of abuse, as these categories are genuine natural kinds.

  17. Memory Systems and the Addicted Brain

    Goodman, Jarid; Packard, Mark G.

    2016-01-01

    The view that anatomically distinct memory systems differentially contribute to the development of drug addiction and relapse has received extensive support. The present brief review revisits this hypothesis as it was originally proposed 20 years ago (1) and highlights several recent developments. Extensive research employing a variety of animal learning paradigms indicates that dissociable neural systems mediate distinct types of learning and memory. Each memory system potentially contributes unique components to the learned behavior supporting drug addiction and relapse. In particular, the shift from recreational drug use to compulsive drug abuse may reflect a neuroanatomical shift from cognitive control of behavior mediated by the hippocampus/dorsomedial striatum toward habitual control of behavior mediated by the dorsolateral striatum (DLS). In addition, stress/anxiety may constitute a cofactor that facilitates DLS-dependent memory, and this may serve as a neurobehavioral mechanism underlying the increased drug use and relapse in humans following stressful life events. Evidence supporting the multiple systems view of drug addiction comes predominantly from studies of learning and memory that have employed as reinforcers addictive substances often considered within the context of drug addiction research, including cocaine, alcohol, and amphetamines. In addition, recent evidence suggests that the memory systems approach may also be helpful for understanding topical sources of addiction that reflect emerging health concerns, including marijuana use, high-fat diet, and video game playing. PMID:26941660

  18. Memory Systems and the Addicted Brain.

    Goodman, Jarid; Packard, Mark G

    2016-01-01

    The view that anatomically distinct memory systems differentially contribute to the development of drug addiction and relapse has received extensive support. The present brief review revisits this hypothesis as it was originally proposed 20 years ago (1) and highlights several recent developments. Extensive research employing a variety of animal learning paradigms indicates that dissociable neural systems mediate distinct types of learning and memory. Each memory system potentially contributes unique components to the learned behavior supporting drug addiction and relapse. In particular, the shift from recreational drug use to compulsive drug abuse may reflect a neuroanatomical shift from cognitive control of behavior mediated by the hippocampus/dorsomedial striatum toward habitual control of behavior mediated by the dorsolateral striatum (DLS). In addition, stress/anxiety may constitute a cofactor that facilitates DLS-dependent memory, and this may serve as a neurobehavioral mechanism underlying the increased drug use and relapse in humans following stressful life events. Evidence supporting the multiple systems view of drug addiction comes predominantly from studies of learning and memory that have employed as reinforcers addictive substances often considered within the context of drug addiction research, including cocaine, alcohol, and amphetamines. In addition, recent evidence suggests that the memory systems approach may also be helpful for understanding topical sources of addiction that reflect emerging health concerns, including marijuana use, high-fat diet, and video game playing. PMID:26941660

  19. AN EPIDEMIOLOGICAL APPROACH TOWARD THE DRUG ADDICTION IN TEHRAN

    D.Shojaizadeh; M. Rabiian

    1997-01-01

    This study took an epidemiological approach toward the problem of drug addiction in Tehran. The subjects were 300 addicts chosen on the basis of stratified random selection out of the population of 3627 prisoners who were all proven addicts and sentenced to imprisonment by the court in the year 1370. A descriptive survey showed that drug addiction generally, and heroin addiction specifically, is more common among the youth. In fact, 89.7% of the addicts were between 15 and 40 years old, with ...

  20. The Factors Affecting Drug Abuse Among Addicted Women

    Mohammad Mehdi Rahmati

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to describe and analyse some background factors that has some effect on the formation and continuity of addictive behavior among a sample of 1500 addicted persons on the 10 provinces of Iran. The article explores the processes under which the addictive behavior occures. Based on the findings of a survey research on a sample of 1500 drug abusers, it is concluded that factors such as addiction to cigarettes, alcohol, drug type, and methods and situations of approaching and access to drugs are effective in beginning of addiction. At last , the article pays special attention to addiction among women as the drug abusers.

  1. Addictions Neuroclinical Assessment: A Neuroscience-Based Framework for Addictive Disorders.

    Kwako, Laura E; Momenan, Reza; Litten, Raye Z; Koob, George F; Goldman, David

    2016-08-01

    This article proposes a heuristic framework for the Addictions Neuroclinical Assessment that incorporates key functional domains derived from the neurocircuitry of addiction. We review how addictive disorders (ADs) are presently diagnosed and the need for new neuroclinical measures to differentiate patients who meet clinical criteria for addiction to the same agent while differing in etiology, prognosis, and treatment response. The need for a better understanding of the mechanisms provoking and maintaining addiction, as evidenced by the limitations of current treatments and within-diagnosis clinical heterogeneity, is articulated. In addition, recent changes in the nosology of ADs, challenges to current classification systems, and prior attempts to subtype individuals with ADs are described. Complementary initiatives, including the Research Domain Criteria project, that have established frameworks for the neuroscience of psychiatric disorders are discussed. Three domains-executive function, incentive salience, and negative emotionality-tied to different phases in the cycle of addiction form the core functional elements of ADs. Measurement of these domains in epidemiologic, genetic, clinical, and treatment studies will provide the underpinnings for an understanding of cross-population and temporal variation in addictions, shared mechanisms in addictive disorders, impact of changing environmental influences, and gene identification. Finally, we show that it is practical to implement such a deep neuroclinical assessment using a combination of neuroimaging and performance measures. Neuroclinical assessment is key to reconceptualizing the nosology of ADs on the basis of process and etiology, an advance that can lead to improved prevention and treatment. PMID:26772405

  2. Addiction as an attempt at self-regulation (contemporary psychoanalytic theories of addiction

    Gregor Žvelc

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article author presents the development of psychoanalytic theory of addiction from early writings to contemporary ego, self psychological and theories of object relations. Classical psychoanalysis understood addiction as a regressive gratification of libidinal drives, whereas contemporary authors understand it as an attempt of adaptation to certain problems and worries. The neurotic conflict is not anymore in the foreground, but disturbances in ego, self and object relations. On the basis of a review of contemporary psychoanalytical theories, the author concludes that individuals prone to addiction have a disturbance in self-regulation. Because of that, they have problems in tolerating and coping with certain emotions. With the help of outer means they tend to re-establish internal balance, which they can't manage alone. This outer 'help' can be seen in various forms of addiction (drugs, food, relationships, sex .... So, the core problem of addicted people is a deficit of self-regulation, which is a consequence of a lack of internalisaton of regulatory functions of primary object. Contemporary psychoanalytical theories of addiction bring us greater insight in personality factors which influence the formation of addiction, thus giving us guidelines for adequate psychotherapy of addiction.

  3. Cue-induced craving for Internet among Internet addicts.

    Niu, Geng-Feng; Sun, Xiao-Jun; Subrahmanyam, Kaveri; Kong, Fan-Chang; Tian, Yuan; Zhou, Zong-Kui

    2016-11-01

    Intense craving is a core feature of addictive disorder, and cue-induced craving is believed to be a key factor in the maintenance and relapse of addictive behaviors. With the rapid development of the Internet, Internet addiction has become a widespread behavioral problem accompanied by many negative effects. This study used the cue-reactivity paradigm to examine cue-induced craving for the Internet among Internet addicts and non-addicts. Participants were exposed to Internet-related words, and asked to report their craving for the Internet. Results indicated that Internet-related words aroused cue-induced craving for the Internet among both Internet addicts and non-addicts; however, the craving was more intense among Internet addicts. These results suggest that craving may not be a unipolar, all or none state found only in addicts, but may also be present among non-addicts. They indicate that Internet-related words may be able to induce craving for the Internet, and that Internet addiction and other addictions may share similar underlying mechanisms. This finding has important implications for designing interventions for Internet addiction. PMID:27305097

  4. Long-term course of opioid addiction.

    Hser, Yih-Ing; Evans, Elizabeth; Grella, Christine; Ling, Walter; Anglin, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    Opioid addiction is associated with excess mortality, morbidities, and other adverse conditions. Guided by a life-course framework, we review the literature on the long-term course of opioid addiction in terms of use trajectories, transitions, and turning points, as well as other factors that facilitate recovery from addiction. Most long-term follow-up studies are based on heroin addicts recruited from treatment settings (mostly methadone maintenance treatment), many of whom are referred by the criminal justice system. Cumulative evidence indicates that opioid addiction is a chronic disorder with frequent relapses. Longer treatment retention is associated with a greater likelihood of abstinence, whereas incarceration is negatively related to subsequent abstinence. Over the long term, the mortality rate of opioid addicts (overdose being the most common cause) is about 6 to 20 times greater than that of the general population; among those who remain alive, the prevalence of stable abstinence from opioid use is low (less than 30% after 10-30 years of observation), and many continue to use alcohol and other drugs after ceasing to use opioids. Histories of sexual or physical abuse and comorbid mental disorders are associated with the persistence of opioid use, whereas family and social support, as well as employment, facilitates recovery. Maintaining opioid abstinence for at least five years substantially increases the likelihood of future stable abstinence. Recent advances in pharmacological treatment options (buprenorphine and naltrexone) include depot formulations offering longer duration of medication; their impact on the long-term course of opioid addiction remains to be assessed. PMID:25747921

  5. Non-Addictive Painkiller Shows Promise in Animal Trials

    ... as OxyContin, but without the same potential for addiction or serious side effects. The experimental medication "has ... is currently in the throes of an opioid addiction epidemic. More than 40 Americans die every day ...

  6. Addiction Risk Low for Seniors Taking Post-Op Opioids

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160358.html Addiction Risk Low for Seniors Taking Post-Op Opioids: ... many worry that post-surgical use might trigger addiction. But a new study suggests that painkiller abuse ...

  7. Drugs, Brains, and Behavior: The Science of Addiction

    ... Preface Drugs, Brains, and Behavior: The Science of Addiction Email Facebook Twitter Preface How Science Has Revolutionized the Understanding of Drug Addiction For much of the past century, scientists studying ...

  8. Facts about Buprenorphine for Treatment of Opioid Addiction

    the facts about BUPRENORPHINE for Treatment of Opioid Addiction U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Substance ... escape from the misery and risks of drug addiction? Most people cannot do it on their own. ...

  9. Scientific and conceptual flaws of coercive treatment models in addiction.

    Uusitalo, Susanne; van der Eijk, Yvette

    2016-01-01

    In conceptual debates on addiction, neurobiological research has been used to support the idea that addicted drug users lack control over their addiction-related actions. In some interpretations, this has led to coercive treatment models, in which, the purpose is to 'restore' control. However, neurobiological studies that go beyond what is typically presented in conceptual debates paint a different story. In particular, they indicate that though addiction has neurobiological manifestations that make the addictive behaviour difficult to control, it is possible for individuals to reverse these manifestations through their own efforts. Thus, addicted individuals should not be considered incapable of making choices voluntarily, simply on the basis that addiction has neurobiological manifestations, and coercive treatment models of addiction should be reconsidered in this respect. PMID:26463621

  10. Opioid Painkiller May Be New Treatment for Heroin Addicts

    ... html Opioid Painkiller May Be New Treatment for Heroin Addicts Study finds hydromorphone an effective, widely available, ... opioid painkiller -- may be another treatment option for heroin addiction, a new Canadian study suggests. The research ...

  11. Anti-Addiction Drug May Help Curb Painkiller, Heroin Dependence

    ... html Anti-Addiction Drug May Help Curb Painkiller, Heroin Dependence Study finds lower relapse rate associated with ... the country's escalating addiction to opioid painkillers and heroin, a new study suggests. Researchers found that monthly ...

  12. Path to Smoking Addiction Starts at Very Young Ages

    ... substantially higher risk of causing addiction than heroin, cocaine, alcohol, or cannabis. 12 This early exposure and addiction to nicotine can negatively impact brain development and have big implications for future tobacco ...

  13. Examination of neural systems sub-serving facebook "addiction".

    Turel, Ofir; He, Qinghua; Xue, Gui; Xiao, Lin; Bechara, Antoine

    2014-12-01

    Because addictive behaviors typically result from violated homeostasis of the impulsive (amygdala-striatal) and inhibitory (prefrontal cortex) brain systems, this study examined whether these systems sub-serve a specific case of technology-related addiction, namely Facebook "addiction." Using a go/no-go paradigm in functional MRI settings, the study examined how these brain systems in 20 Facebook users (M age = 20.3 yr., SD = 1.3, range = 18-23) who completed a Facebook addiction questionnaire, responded to Facebook and less potent (traffic sign) stimuli. The findings indicated that at least at the examined levels of addiction-like symptoms, technology-related "addictions" share some neural features with substance and gambling addictions, but more importantly they also differ from such addictions in their brain etiology and possibly pathogenesis, as related to abnormal functioning of the inhibitory-control brain system. PMID:25489985

  14. Temperament and Character Dimensions in Narcotics Addicts and Normal people

    Abbas Abolghasemi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare the temperament and character dimensions in narcotics addicted and normal persons. Method: The method of research was causative-comparative. The study sample consisted of 120 addicts and non addicts who had referred to 3 narcotics addicts treatment centers in Ardabil city. The subjects were selected through simple random sampling. To collect data, temperament/character inventory were used. Findings: The results showed that novelty seeking and harm avoidance in addicts is significantly greater than normal persons. Also, results showed that reward dependence, self-directedness, and cooperativeness in narcotics addicts is significantly lower than normal persons. Conclusion: The results show that temperament and character dimensions determine the addiction intensity in addicted people.

  15. REGULASI KORTISOL PADA KONDISI STRES DAN ADDICTION

    Lisdiana -

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Stres adalah suatu kondisi dimanan tuntutan yang harus dipenuhi melebihi kemampuan yang dimilikinya, penyebab stres dinamakan stresor. Stres dapat terjadi akibat ketidakmampuan seseorang dalam merespon suatu stresor, sehingga dapat mengakibatkan gangguan badan atau jiwa. Addiction adalah suatu dorongan yang kuat, seperti dipaksakan untuk mengulangi suatu perbuatan tertentu meskipun tahu akan berakibat merugikan. Stress dan adicction akibat penyalahgunaan narkotika akan direspon oleh Hipotlamus-Pituitary-Adrenalin (HPA-axis, sehingga menye-babkan kadar hormon kortisol akan meningkat. Desain penelitian adalah Quasi-Eksperimental dengan Randomized Control Pretest-Postest Design Dengan subyek penelitian 22 Addict recovery yang memenuhi kriteria inklusi dan eksklusi di Balai Kasih Sayang Pamardisiwi BNN Jakata.Variabel yang diukur adalah hormone yang disekresikan oleh HPA-axis, yakni hormon kortisol. Pemeriksaan kadar kortisol dengan menggunakan Radioimmunoassay (RIA. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan kadar kortisol pada Addict recovery yang menjalani rehabilitasi sebesar 9,2 – 13,97 µg/dl dan 16,5-16,9 µg/dl pada Addict recovery yang tidak menjalani rehabilitasi. Hal ini dapat disimpulkan bahwa terjadi perubahan hormone yang disekresikan HPA-axis pada kondisi stress dan addiction. Stress is a condition where the demands to be met is beyond the capabilities of a person, and something that causes a stress is called stressor. Stress can occur as a result of the inability of a person in responding a stressor, and the stress can cause physical or mental disorders. Addiction is a strong drive, forced to repeat a particular action even it is known that it will harm the body. Stress and adicction to drug abuse will be responded by the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenalin (HPA-axis, causing the levels of the hormone cortisol to rise. The study design was a randomized Quasi-Experimental Control Pretest-posttest design with 22 addict recovery study

  16. New development of drugs against opioid addiction

    LiJin; SuRui-bin; LuXin-qiang; LiuYin

    2004-01-01

    Opioid addiction has been a big trouble for human being for several centuries. In China, it also has become a main direct threat against national safety, society advancement, economic development and public health. Based on the national report in 2002, the number of addicts registered in due form is over 1 million, which are distributed in 2148 counties and cities in China. The real number of addicts, however, is much more than those as mentioned above. Money used for buying opioids each year in China might be over 10 billion except for other payment. Base on the statistics, 20 - 50% crimes are commited by addicts. On the other hand, drug abuse often induces contagion spread, such as tuberculosis, hepatitis and HIV disease. About 70% HIV positive subjects in China are related to drug abuse. We are very happy to see more andmore attention has been paid to the problem in our country. Recently, a program on neurobiological basis and medical biological measures of addiction has been supported by National Science and Technology Ministry as a 973 program.

  17. Dopamine and food addiction: lexicon badly needed.

    Salamone, John D; Correa, Mercè

    2013-05-01

    Over the last few years, the concept of food addiction has become a common feature in the scientific literature, as well as the popular press. Nevertheless, the use of the term addiction to describe pathological aspects of food intake in humans remains controversial, and even among those who affirm the validity of the concept, there is considerable disagreement about its utility for explaining the increasing prevalence of obesity throughout much of the world. An examination of the literature on food addiction indicates that mesolimbic and nigrostriatal dopamine systems often are cited as mechanisms that contribute to the establishment of food addiction. However, in reviewing this literature, it is important to have a detailed consideration of the complex nature of dopaminergic involvement in motivational processes. For example, although it is often stated that mesolimbic dopamine mediates reward, there is no standard or consistent technical meaning of this term. Moreover, there is a persistent tendency to link dopamine transmission with pleasure or hedonia, as opposed to other aspects of motivation or learning. The present article provides a critical discussion of some aspects of the food addiction literature, viewed through the lens of recent findings and current theoretical views of dopaminergic involvement in food motivation. Furthermore, compulsive food intake and binge eating will be considered from an evolutionary perspective, in terms of the motivational subsystems that are involved in adaptive patterns of food consumption and seeking behaviors and a consideration of how these could be altered in pathological conditions. PMID:23177385

  18. A multistep general theory of transition to addiction

    Piazza, Pier Vincenzo; Deroche-Gamonet, Véronique

    2013-01-01

    Background Several theories propose alternative explanations for drug addiction. Objectives We propose a general theory of transition to addiction that synthesizes knowledge generated in the field of addiction into a unitary explanatory frame. Major principles of the theory Transition to addiction results from a sequential three-step interaction between: (1) individual vulnerability; (2) degree/amount of drug exposure. The first step, sporadic recreational drug use is a learning process media...

  19. Quality of life, social integration and alcohol addiction

    Čuček-Trifkovič, Klavdija

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol addiction is the most common type of addiction in Slovenia, and worldwide. It develops gradually as interplay of various factors (individual and social) and has numerous consequences for individuals at psychophysical, economic and social level. Experts agree that alcohol addiction is an important bio-psycho-socio problem, which needs to be addressed holistically and extensively. The theoretical part of the present doctoral thesis discusses the development of addiction, the models ...

  20. Addiction: Current Criticism of the Brain Disease Paradigm

    Hammer, Rachel; Dingel, Molly; Ostergren, Jenny; Partridge, Brad; McCormick, Jennifer; Koenig, Barbara A.

    2013-01-01

    To deepen understanding of efforts to consider addiction a “brain disease,” we review critical appraisals of the disease model in conjunction with responses from in-depth semistructured stakeholder interviews with (1) patients in treatment for addiction and (2) addiction scientists. Sixty-three patients (from five alcohol and/or nicotine treatment centers in the Midwest) and 20 addiction scientists (representing genetic, molecular, behavioral, and epidemiologic research) were asked to describ...

  1. REVIEW OF HEYMAN'S ADDICTION: A DISORDER OF CHOICE

    Kurti, Allison N; Dallery, Jesse

    2012-01-01

    Gene Heyman's Addiction: A Disorder of Choice (2009) advances the important, albeit controversial, view that addiction is not a chronic, relapsing brain disease, but instead is an example of typical everyday choice that is both voluntary and self-destructive. This review highlights Heyman's arguments for conceptualizing addiction as choice and discusses the utility of the treatment implications that are derived from the melioration model in which Heyman frames addiction. Self-control and beha...

  2. PROGNOSTIC SIGNIFICANCE OF PSYCHOPATHOLOGY IN THE ABSTINENCE FROM OPIATE ADDICTION

    Satija, D.C.; Sharma, D. K.; Gaur, Arun; Nathawat, S. S.

    1989-01-01

    SUMMARY The aim of the present study was to find out the influence of psychopathology on abstinence from opiate addiction. A group of 54 opiate addicts with psychopathology was compared with another group of 55 opiate addicts without psychopathology. Both the groups were detoxified and followed up for a period of 12 months. Common psychopathology in opiate addicts consisted of psychopathic personality disorder, manic depressive psychosis, schizophrenia and psychosomatic and neurotic disorders...

  3. Social Networking Addiction among Health Sciences Students in Oman

    Ken Masters

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Addiction to social networking sites (SNSs) is an international issue with numerous methods of measurement. The impact of such addictions among health science students is of particular concern. This study aimed to measure SNS addiction rates among health sciences students at Sultan Qaboos University (SQU) in Muscat, Oman. Methods: In April 2014, an anonymous English-language six-item electronic self-reporting survey based on the Bergen Facebook Addiction Scale was admi...

  4. Circadian Rhythms, the Mesolimbic Dopaminergic Circuit, and Drug Addiction

    McClung, Colleen A.

    2007-01-01

    Drug addiction is a devastating disease that affects millions of individuals worldwide. Through better understanding of the genetic variations that create a vulnerability for addiction and the molecular mechanisms that underlie the progression of addiction, better treatment options can be created for those that suffer from this condition. Recent studies point to a link between abnormal or disrupted circadian rhythms and the development of addiction. In addition, studies suggest a role for spe...

  5. Eating addiction? The nerves and fibers that control food intake

    De Jong, J.W.

    2015-01-01

    Subtle cues in our environment, like the smell of palatable food or the logo of a popular food chain, might provoke feelings of hunger and cravings for food. When exposed to a palatable treat it takes self-control to inhibit intake. These behaviors are reminiscent of addictive behavior. Indeed the topics 'food addiction', 'chocolate addiction' or 'sugar addiction' have been extensively covered in the popular press. The scientific community however, remains divided. Here we review the literatu...

  6. The Development of Indonesian Online Game Addiction Questionnaire

    Jap, Tjibeng; Tiatri, Sri; Jaya, Edo Sebastian; Suteja, Mekar Sari

    2013-01-01

    Online game is an increasingly popular source of entertainment for all ages, with relatively prevalent negative consequences. Addiction is a problem that has received much attention. This research aims to develop a measure of online game addiction for Indonesian children and adolescents. The Indonesian Online Game Addiction Questionnaire draws from earlier theories and research on the internet and game addiction. Its construction is further enriched by including findings from qualitative inte...

  7. Integrating addiction medicine training into medical school and residency curricula

    Klimas, Jan; Rieb, Launette; Bury, Gerard; Muench, John; O’Toole, Thomas; Rieckman, Traci; Cullen, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Background: The Affordable Care Act (2010) brings an opportunity to increase the integration of addiction treatment into the health care system. With the anticipated expansion of addiction care services in primary care, challenges, such as workforce training, can be expected. This presentation discusses challenges and opportunities for addiction medicine training of primary care professionals in Ireland, Canada and Portland, OR. Objectives: To explore ideas for integrating addiction medic...

  8. Decreased Functional Brain Connectivity in Adolescents with Internet Addiction

    Soon-Beom Hong; Andrew Zalesky; Luca Cocchi; Alex Fornito; Eun-Jung Choi; Ho-Hyun Kim; Jeong-Eun Suh; Chang-Dai Kim; Jae-Won Kim; Soon-Hyung Yi

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Internet addiction has become increasingly recognized as a mental disorder, though its neurobiological basis is unknown. This study used functional neuroimaging to investigate whole-brain functional connectivity in adolescents diagnosed with internet addiction. Based on neurobiological changes seen in other addiction related disorders, it was predicted that connectivity disruptions in adolescents with internet addiction would be most prominent in cortico-striatal circuitry. METHOD...

  9. A case report of pornography addiction with dhat syndrome

    Darshan, M. S.; Sathyanarayana Rao, T. S.; Manickam, Sam; Tandon, Abhinav; Ram, Dushad

    2014-01-01

    A case of pornography addiction with dhat syndrome was diagnosed applying the existing criteria for substance dependence in International Classification for Diseases-10 and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fourth Edition, Text Revision. There is a lack of clear-cut criteria for identifying and defining such behavioural addictions and also lack of medical documents on pornography addiction. An applied strategy in lines with any substance addiction is used, and we found it ...

  10. [Drug addiction: A link between sexuality and maternal desire].

    Rosenblum, O

    2006-10-01

    If addictions lead to a strategy in order to delay the access to adult sexuality, addiction to heroin satisfies some needs which annihilate one's own sexual desire. This investment in addiction reduces fertility because of the difficulty of drug-addict women to care of their body. A specific taking charge with the help of drug substitutes can lead to the introduction of a sponsorship for the future parents. PMID:17000128

  11. The Representation Methods of Addiction in Iran’s Movies

    M Soltani Gerd Faramarzi; AA Esmaeil Zadeh

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of research was answer to this question that movie after revolution how was represented matters of addicts and addiction? Method: For answering to question 33 movies made between 1360 till 1390 which main characters were addicts, studied by content analysis. Results: The results showed that in studied movies, addicts were men, bachelor, or divorced and majority of them were educated. Also, Heroin consumption was more that other narcotics in movies. Addicts’ personal home a...

  12. Effectiveness and organization of addiction medicine training across the globe

    Ayu, A.P.; Schellekens, A.F.A.; S Iskandar; Pinxten, W.J.L.; Jong, C.A.J. de

    2015-01-01

    Background: Over the past decade, addiction medicine training curricula have been developed to prepare physicians to work with substance use disorder patients. This review paper aimed at ( 1) summarizing scientific publications that outline the content of addiction medicine curricula and ( 2) evaluating the evidence for efficacy for training in addiction medicine. Methods: We carried out a literature search on articles about addiction medicine training initiatives across the world, using PubM...

  13. Policy Progress for Physician Treatment of Opiate Addiction

    Merrill, Joseph O

    2002-01-01

    Medical treatment of heroin addiction with methadone and other pharmacotherapies has important benefits for individuals and society. However, regulatory policies have separated this treatment from the medical care system, limiting access to care and contributing to the social stigma of even effective addiction pharmacotherapy. Increasing problems caused by heroin addiction have added urgency to the search for policies and programs that improve the access to and quality of opiate addiction tre...

  14. Cortical Thickness Abnormalities in Late Adolescence with Online Gaming Addiction

    Yuan, Kai; Cheng, Ping; DONG, tao; Bi, Yanzhi; Xing, Lihong; Yu, Dahua; Zhao, Limei; Dong, Minghao; von Deneen, Karen M.; Liu, Yijun; Qin, Wei; Tian, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Online gaming addiction, as the most popular subtype of Internet addiction, had gained more and more attention from the whole world. However, the structural differences in cortical thickness of the brain between adolescents with online gaming addiction and healthy controls are not well unknown; neither was its association with the impaired cognitive control ability. High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging scans from late adolescence with online gaming addiction (n = 18) and age-, education...

  15. Neuroscience of Internet Pornography Addiction: A Review and Update

    Todd Love; Christian Laier; Matthias Brand; Linda Hatch; Raju Hajela

    2015-01-01

    Many recognize that several behaviors potentially affecting the reward circuitry in human brains lead to a loss of control and other symptoms of addiction in at least some individuals. Regarding Internet addiction, neuroscientific research supports the assumption that underlying neural processes are similar to substance addiction. The American Psychiatric Association (APA) has recognized one such Internet related behavior, Internet gaming, as a potential addictive disorder warranting further ...

  16. Network-Assisted Prediction of Potential Drugs for Addiction

    2014-01-01

    Drug addiction is a chronic and complex brain disease, adding much burden on the community. Though numerous efforts have been made to identify the effective treatment, it is necessary to find more novel therapeutics for this complex disease. As network pharmacology has become a promising approach for drug repurposing, we proposed to apply the approach to drug addiction, which might provide new clues for the development of effective addiction treatment drugs. We first extracted 44 addictive dr...

  17. Addict and non-addict drug dealers in Istanbul, Turkey: Profiles and differences

    Ali Ünlü

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to explore profiles of and differences between addict and non-addict street-level drug dealers. This is a cross-sectional study using the data of street-level drug dealers who were captured in 2008 by Istanbul Narcotics Police (N=486. Most of the street-level drug dealers were male, drug addict, had limited education and lower income, and more than half had past criminal records. Addict dealers and non-addict dealers are found significantly different from each other as far as the gender, income, amount of seized substance, type of seized substance, the number of arrested dealers in the same group, and past criminal records. The drug business usually works on people who know the underground drug world, but not the ones who have problems with substances. Addict dealers may play roles in this business for enjoyment and/or requirement. Addict dealers are also more likely to be arrested alone, which may indicate that they work for themselves and their ultimate aim is to afford drugs for their personal use and make money for their needs.

  18. The Juvenile Addiction Risk Rating: Development and Initial Psychometrics

    Powell, Michael; Newgent, Rebecca A.

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the development and psychometrics of the Juvenile Addiction Risk Rating. The Juvenile Addiction Risk Rating is a brief screening of addiction potential based on 10 risk factors predictive of youth alcohol and drug-related problems that assists examiners in more accurate treatment planning when self-report information is…

  19. Substitute Addiction: A Concern for Researchers and Practitioners

    Sussman, Steve; Black, David S.

    2008-01-01

    An understanding of the role of substitute addictions remains unclear. This article examines the range and possible reward functions of substitute addictions. We suggest that prevention education and treatment need to take into account substitute addictions as an influential aspect of recovery. Research is needed to better understand the…

  20. Specialized Training on Addictions for Physicians in the United States

    Tontchev, Gramen V.; Housel, Timothy R.; Callahan, James F.; Kunz, Kevin B.; Miller, Michael M.; Blondell, Richard D.

    2011-01-01

    In the United States accredited residency programs in addiction exist only for psychiatrists specializing in addiction psychiatry (ADP); nonpsychiatrists seeking training in addiction medicine (ADM) can train in nonaccredited "fellowships," or can receive training in some ADP programs, only to not be granted a certificate of completion of…

  1. Internet Addiction and Delay Discounting in College Students

    Saville, Bryan K.; Gisbert, Amanda; Kopp, Jason; Telesco, Carolyn

    2010-01-01

    To examine the relation between Internet addiction and delay discounting, we gave 276 college students a survey designed to measure Internet addiction and a paper-based delay-discounting task. In our larger sample, we identified 14 students who met the criteria for Internet addiction; we also identified 14 matched controls who were similar to the…

  2. Temperament and Character Dimensions: Correlates of Impulsivity in Morphine Addicts

    Abassi; Abolghasemi

    2015-01-01

    Background Given the role of temperament and character dimensions on impulsivity in addicts, the purpose of this study was to temperament and character dimensions: correlates of impulsivity in morphine addicts. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine and verify the association of temperament and character dimensions with impulsivity in morphine addicts. Patients and Methods ...

  3. Process Improvement Education with Professionals in the Addiction Treatment Field

    Pulvermacher, Alice

    2006-01-01

    Continuing education is being provided to professionals in the addiction treatment field to help them develop skills in process improvement and better meet the needs and requests they encounter. Access and retention of individuals seeking addiction treatment have been two of the greatest challenges addiction treatment professionals face.…

  4. Video game addiction test: validity and psychometric characteristics.

    Rooij, A.J. van; Schoenmakers, T.M.; Eijnden, R.J.J.M. van den; Vermulst, A.A.; Mheen, D. van de

    2012-01-01

    The study explores the reliability, validity, and measurement invariance of the Video game Addiction Test (VAT). Game-addiction problems are often linked to Internet enabled online games; the VAT has the unique benefit that it is theoretically and empirically linked to Internet addiction. The study

  5. Addiction: Pulling at the Neural Threads of Social Behaviors

    Volkow, Nora D.; Baler, Ruben D.; Goldstein, Rita Z.

    2011-01-01

    Addiction coopts the brain’s neuronal circuits necessary for insight, reward, motivation, and social behaviors. This functional overlap results in addicted individuals making poor choices despite awareness of the negative consequences; it explains why previously rewarding life situations and the threat of judicial punishment cannot stop drug taking and why a medical rather than a criminal approach is more effective in curtailing addiction.

  6. Addiction: pulling at the neural threads of social behaviors.

    Volkow, Nora D; Baler, Ruben D; Goldstein, Rita Z

    2011-02-24

    Addiction coopts the brain's neuronal circuits necessary for insight, reward, motivation, and social behaviors. This functional overlap results in addicted individuals making poor choices despite awareness of the negative consequences; it explains why previously rewarding life situations and the threat of judicial punishment cannot stop drug taking and why a medical rather than a criminal approach is more effective in curtailing addiction. PMID:21338873

  7. Development and validation of a game addiction scale

    J.S. Lemmens; P.M. Valkenburg; J. Peter

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and validate a scale to measure computer and videogame addiction. Inspired by earlier theories and research on game and internet addiction, we created 21 items to measure seven criteria for game addiction (i.e., salience, tolerance, mood modification, relapse, wi

  8. 28 CFR 2.3 - Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act.

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act... § 2.3 Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act. A Federal prisoner committed under the Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act may be released on parole in the discretion of the Commission after completion of at least...

  9. Addiction: Pulling at the Neural Threads of Social Behaviors

    Addiction coopts the brain's neuronal circuits necessary for insight, reward, motivation, and social behaviors. This functional overlap results in addicted individuals making poor choices despite awareness of the negative consequences; it explains why previously rewarding life situations and the threat of judicial punishment cannot stop drug taking and why a medical rather than a criminal approach is more effective in curtailing addiction.

  10. Internet addiction: a new disorder enters the medical lexicon.

    OReilly, M

    1996-01-01

    The latest consequence of the information age may be addiction to the Internet. A psychologist who has established the Centre for Online Addiction in the US says the disorder causes the same type of social problems as other established addictions. Michael OReilly went on line to find physicians interested in discussing potential problems posed by the Internet.

  11. The Consequences of Internet Addiction: Implications for Counseling Practice.

    Jones, Karyn Dayle; Minatrea, Neresa B.

    2001-01-01

    With an increase in Internet use has come the potential problem of excessive Internet usage or "Internet addiction." It is important that counselors recognize the signs and symptoms of Internet addiction. The purpose of this article is to present the characteristics, the consequences, and the emerging treatment approaches of Internet addiction.…

  12. Video Game Addiction Test: Validity and Psychometric Characteristics

    Rooij, A.J. van; Schoenmakers, T.M.; Eijnden, R.J.J.M. van den; Vermulst, A.A.; Mheen, H. van de

    2012-01-01

    The study explores the reliability, validity, and measurement invariance of the Video game Addiction Test (VAT). Game-addiction problems are often linked to Internet enabled online games; the VAT has the unique benefit that it is theoretically and empirically linked to Internet addiction. The study

  13. Behavioral Perspectives on the Neuroscience of Drug Addiction

    Winger, Gail; Woods, James H.; Galuska, Chad M.; Wade-Galuska, Tammy

    2005-01-01

    Neuroscientific approaches to drug addiction traditionally have been based on the premise that addiction is a process that results from brain changes that in turn result from chronic administration of drugs of abuse. An alternative approach views drug addiction as a behavioral disorder in which drugs function as preeminent reinforcers. Although…

  14. Addictive and Compulsive Disorders: A View from the Trenches.

    Lauderdale, Katherine Lynn, Ed.; Roberson, Jerry L., Ed.; Bonilla, Carlos A., Ed.

    The many faces of addiction are described; not only different types of addiction but also different stages. Information is presented on causes and treatments. Patterns of thought which support addictions are explored. This illustrated, readable compendium, which will be of use to teachers, counselors, parents, and students, offers brief, factual…

  15. Measuring workaholism: content validity of the Work Addiction Risk Test.

    Robinson, B E; Phillips, B

    1995-10-01

    A total of 20 psychotherapists, randomly selected from a state list, critically examined the 25 items on the Work Addiction Risk Test for content validity. Subjects were asked to identify 25 items from a list of 35 which most accurately measured work addiction. Selected test items have generally high content validity for the domain of work addiction. PMID:8559897

  16. Review of current researches on internet addiction

    Internet addiction (IA) is a mental illness emerged in recent years with increasing use of computer and internet. The serious consequences such as mental and physical illness and social function impairment caused by IA have attracted extensive attention of the whole society. IA affects human beings at a high prevalence all over the world which has highlighted the importance of prevention and treatment of IA. Although there is still debate about definition of IA, increasing evidences including the result from genetic research,neurobiology study and clinical manifestation show that IA may share the same mechanisms with substance addiction, and be probably classified as behavioral addiction which is represented by pathological gambling. However, since the study on IA is yet on the initial stage and neuro biological research on IA is still limited, more reliable investigations especially neuro biological research remains uppermost in this area. (authors)

  17. Neuroimmune mechanisms of alcohol and drug addiction.

    Cui, Changhai; Shurtleff, David; Harris, R Adron

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol and other drugs of abuse have significant impacts on the neuroimmune system. Studies have demonstrated that drugs of abuse interact with the neuroimmune system and alter neuroimmune gene expression and signaling, which in turn contribute to various aspects of addiction. As the key component of the CNS immune system, neuroimmune factors mediate neuroinflammation and modulate a wide range of brain function including neuronal activity, endocrine function, and CNS development. These neuromodulatory properties of immune factors, together with their essential role in neuroinflammation, provide a new framework to understand neuroimmune mechanisms mediating brain functional and behavioral changes contributing to addiction. This chapter highlights recent advances in understanding neuroimmune changes associated with exposure to alcohol and other drugs of abuse, including opiates, marijuana, methamphetamine, and cocaine. It provides a brief overview on what we know about neuroimmune signaling and its role in drug action and addiction. PMID:25175859

  18. Sociocultural context for sex differences in addiction.

    Becker, Jill B; McClellan, Michelle; Reed, Beth Glover

    2016-09-01

    In this review, we discuss the importance of investigating both sex and gender differences in addiction and relapse in studies of humans and in animal models. Addiction is both a cultural and biological phenomenon. Sex and gender differences are not solely determined by our biology, nor are they entirely cultural; they are interactions between biology and the environment that are continuously played out throughout development. Lessons from the historical record illustrate how context and attitudes affect the way that substance use in men and women is regarded. Finally, cultural and environmental influences may differentially affect men and women, and affect how they respond to drugs of abuse and to treatment protocols. We recommend that both animal models and clinical research need to be developed to consider how contextual and social factors may influence the biological processes of addiction and relapse differentially in men and women. PMID:26935336

  19. Ecological momentary assessment in addiction.

    Lukasiewicz, M; Fareng, M; Benyamina, A; Blecha, L; Reynaud, M; Falissard, B

    2007-08-01

    Numerous symptoms in psychiatry are subjective (e.g., sadness, anxiety, craving or fatigue), fluctuate and are environment dependent. Accurate measurement of these phenomena requires repeated measures, and ideally needs to be performed in the patient's natural environment rather than in an artificial laboratory environment or a protected hospital environment. The usual paper and pencil questionnaires do not meet these two conditions for reasons of logistics. A recently developed method, ecological momentary assessment (EMA), made it possible to implement these field assessments via ingenious use of various devices (most frequently an electronic diary) coupling an auditory signal with computerized data capture. The subject carries the device with him/her at all times, and data is recorded in vivo in real time. The programming of repeated measures in the form of a Likert scale or pull-down menu is easily achieved. A recall alarm system can help increase compliance. Compared with classical self-report, EMA improves the validity of the assessment of certain symptoms, which are the main evaluation criteria in clinical trials concerning certain pathologies (e.g., craving and treatment of addiction), where measurement was previously liable to bias. This article sets out to present this method, its advantages and disadvantages, and the interest it presents in psychiatry, in particular via three original applications developed by the authors including: measurement of reaction time without the knowledge of the subject in order to test certain cognitive models; use of a graphic solution for the data recorded for functional analysis of disorders; and the use of data collection via mobile phone and text messages, which also enables therapeutic interventions in real time by text messages, personalized on the basis of the situational data collected (e.g., in the case of craving, the associated mood, solitary or group consumption or concomitant occupations). PMID:17678488

  20. The Relationship of Early Maladaptive Schemas, Attributional Styles and Learned Helplessness among Addicted and Non-Addicted Men

    Shaghaghy, Farhad; Saffarinia, Majid; Iranpoor, Mohadeseh; Soltanynejad, Ali

    2011-01-01

    Background Addiction is considered as one of the major problems in family and community in the world. According to cognitive view, organizing the experiences determines how to behave. Due to their importance in interpretation of special situations, cognitive schemas and attributional styles have a significant role in cognitive theories. The aim of this study was to compare early maladaptive schemas and attributional styles in addicts and non-addicts to recognize their role in addiction. Metho...

  1. Cyber addictions: toward a psychosocial perspective.

    Suissa, Amnon Jacob

    2015-04-01

    The concept of cyberaddiction is far from being unanimously accepted by scientists (Ko, Yen, Yen, Chen, & Chen 2012; Pezoa-Jares, Espinoza-Luna & Vasquez-Medina 2012; Nadeau et al., 2011; Perraton, Fusaro & Bonenfant 2011). The same is true of addiction to videogames (Hellman, Schoenmakers, Nordstrom, & Van Holst 2013; Coulombe 2010); or to Facebook (Andreassen et al., 2012; Levard & Soulas, 2010). While certain researchers wished to see this condition included in the DSM-5 (Block, 2008), others question the operational and practical bases for the diagnostic criteria. Some see cyberaddiction as a problem linked more to time management, to brain deficits, to an impulse-control disorder or to psychosocial conditions while others consider it to be a pre-existing comorbidity. Considering that most addiction problems are generally understood more as individual and pathological problems rather than the result of psychosocial conditions (poverty, unemployment, weak social ties, social exclusion, hyper individualism, etc), the aim of this article is to propose a psychosocial perspective for this emerging trend in cyberaddictions. To what extent social conditions and cyberaddiction behaviors constitute a potential pathology? Can we include a psychosocial approach to gain a more general picture of this contemporary issue? In response to these questions, a contextualization and an attempt to define cyberaddiction will be followed by an analysis of some major issues in the development of this type of addiction. A demonstration of the cycle of addiction on how people develop addictions, including cyberaddictions, will be done within a psychosocial perspective in order to seize the multifactorial aspects of this addiction. PMID:25541291

  2. Internet Addiction in Malaysia Causes and Effects

    Ashish Kapahi; Choo Siow Ling; Sureswaran Ramadass; Nibras Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    The Internet started as a divine gift to the human society, it was meant to enlighten the human society by transferring knowledge, making available all the information needed for human well being, growth and prosperity. But as the Internet grew, it created its own set of problems—one of the key ones being Internet Addiction. According to Dr. Jerald J. Block, from the Center for Internet Addiction, “Internet addiction” affects as many as one in eight Americans. Block also defined Internet add...

  3. Dopamine D4 Receptors in Psychostimulant Addiction

    Di Ciano, Patricia; Grandy, David; Le Foll, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    Since the cloning of the D4 receptor in the 1990s, interest has been building in the role of this receptor in drug addiction, given the importance of dopamine in addiction. Like the D3 receptor, the D4 receptor has limited distribution within the brain suggesting it may have a unique role in drug abuse. However, compared to the D3 receptor, few studies have evaluated the importance of the D4 receptor. This may be due, in part, to the relative lack of compounds selective for the D4 receptor; t...

  4. Fast Food, Addiction, and Market Power

    Richards, Timothy J.; Patterson, Paul M.; Hamilton, Stephen F.

    2007-01-01

    Many attribute the rise in obesity since the early 1980's to the overconsumption of fast food. A dynamic model of a different-product industry equilibrium shows that a firm with market power will price below marginal cost in a steady-state equilibrium. A spatial hedonic pricing model is used to test whether fast food firms set prices in order to exploit their inherent addictiveness. The results show that firms price products dense in addictive nutrients below marginal cost, but price products...

  5. Identifying and Intervening with Students Exhibiting Signs of Gaming Addiction and Other Addictive Behaviors: Implications for Professional School Counselors

    Hagedorn, W. Bryce; Young, Tabitha

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses strategies professional school counselors can use to recognize and intervene with students who are presenting with signs of addictive behaviors. First, the authors present a definition of addictive behaviors. The authors then define and discuss the most common addictive behaviors impacting adolescents, with a special…

  6. Violent Behaviors in Drug Addiction: Differential Profiles of Drug-Addicted Patients with and without Violence Problems

    Fernandez-Montalvo, Javier; Lopez-Goni, Jose J.; Arteaga, Alfonso

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the prevalence of violent behaviors in patients who are addicted to drugs. A sample of 252 addicted patients (203 male and 49 female) who sought outpatient treatment was assessed. Information on violent behaviors, sociodemographic factors, consumption factors (assessed by the European version of the Addiction Severity Index…

  7. Notions of Video Game Addiction and Their Relation to Self-Reported Addiction among Players of World of Warcraft

    Oggins, Jean; Sammis, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    In this study, 438 players of the online video game, World of Warcraft, completed a survey about video game addiction and answered an open-ended question about behaviors they considered characteristic of video game addiction. Responses were coded and correlated with players' self-reports of being addicted to games and scores on a modified video…

  8. The effect of opium addiction on thyroid function tests

    Gozashti, Mohammad Hossein; Mohammadzadeh, Elham; Divsalar, Kouros; Shokoohi, Mostafa

    2014-01-01

    Background A number of abnormalities has been identified among drug addicted users especially heroin addicts. However, there are a few studies to assess the opium effects on thyroid hormones. the aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of opium on the thyroid function tests. Method In this case–control, 50 male addicts, aged 20–50 years, with history of addiction to opium lasting more than two years, and 50 male non-addicts as control group were randomly selected. 10 cc blood sa...

  9. Video game addiction in children and teenagers in Taiwan.

    Chiu, Shao-I; Lee, Jie-Zhi; Huang, Der-Hsiang

    2004-10-01

    Video game addiction in children and teenagers in Taiwan is associated with levels of animosity, social skills, and academic achievement. This study suggests that video game addiction can be statistically predicted on measures of hostility, and a group with high video game addiction has more hostility than others. Both gender and video game addiction are negatively associated with academic achievement. Family function, sensation seeking, gender, and boredom have statistically positive relationships with levels of social skills. Current models of video game addiction do not seem to fit the findings of this study. PMID:15667052

  10. The Comparison of Personality Characteristics and Coping Styles in Addicted and Non-Addicted Adolescents

    Salman Zarei

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of present research was to compare the personality characteristics and coping styles of addicted adolescents with normal adolescent. Method: In this ex post facto research, two groups (normal adolescent=50 and addicted adolescent=50 were selected via cluster sampling and convenience sampling respectively. Two instruments included of NEO-FFI personality questionnaire and coping style inventory were administered, then data were analyzed by using of multivariate analysis of variance. Findings: The result revealed that there was significant difference between both group in personality characteristics and coping styles. Neuroticism and emotional focused coping styles in addicted adolescent‌s were higher than normal counterparts, and on agreeableness, conscientiousness and problem solving style were lower than them. Conclusion: The finding of present study suggests that training of efficient problem solving styles to people in order to cope with life stressful events could restrain and prevent addiction and other psychosocial disorders.

  11. Balancing motherhood and drug addiction: the transition to parenthood of addicted mothers.

    Silva, Sofia A; Pires, António P; Guerreiro, Cristina; Cardoso, Antónia

    2013-03-01

    This is a study about balancing motherhood and drug addiction, during the transition to parenthood. Few studies have dealt with the parental experience of drug-addicted mothers. The participants included 24 drug-addicted mothers, on methadone, with ages 25-42 and with children 1-32 months of age. Semi-structured interviews were conducted and analyzed according to Grounded Theory. The mothers' main concern was the ambivalence they felt towards pregnancy/motherhood and drug addiction, which was associated with strong feelings of guilt. Confronted with this ambivalence their maternal role becomes merely functional. They focus on providing the basic care to the child, but show little willingness to talk or play. Social support, especially from the partner seems to have a positive role. PMID:22544158

  12. The invisible addiction: Cell-phone activities and addiction among male and female college students

    Roberts, James A; PETNJI YAYA, LUC HONORE; MANOLIS, CHRIS

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims: The primary objective of the present study was to investigate which cell-phone activities are associated with cell-phone addiction. No research to date has studied the full-range of cell-phone activities, and their relationship to cell-phone addiction, across male and female cell-phone users. Methods: College undergraduates (N = 164) participated in an online survey. Participants completed the questionnaire as part of their class requirements. The questionnaire took 10 an...

  13. Lormetazepam addiction: data analysis from an Italian medical unit for addiction

    Faccini M; Leone R; Pajusco B; Quaglio GL; Casari R; Albiero A; Donati M.; Lugoboni F

    2012-01-01

    Marco Faccini,1 Roberto Leone,2 Benedetta Pajusco,1 Gianluca Quaglio,1 Rebecca Casari,1 Anna Albiero,1 Monia Donati,2 Fabio Lugoboni11Department of Internal Medicine, Addiction Unit, 2Pharmacology Unit, Reference Center for Education and Communication within the World Health Organization Program for International Drug Monitoring, University Hospital of Verona, Verona, ItalyBackground: The purpose of this study was to determine, in the context of a hospital addiction unit, which benzodiazepine...

  14. Addiction as an attempt at self-regulation (contemporary psychoanalytic theories of addiction)

    Gregor Žvelc

    2001-01-01

    In the article author presents the development of psychoanalytic theory of addiction from early writings to contemporary ego, self psychological and theories of object relations. Classical psychoanalysis understood addiction as a regressive gratification of libidinal drives, whereas contemporary authors understand it as an attempt of adaptation to certain problems and worries. The neurotic conflict is not anymore in the foreground, but disturbances in ego, self and object relations. On the ba...

  15. Core and Peripheral Criteria of Video Game Addiction in the Game Addiction Scale for Adolescents

    Brunborg, Geir Scott; Hanss, Daniel; Mentzoni, Rune Aune; Pallesen, Ståle

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Assessment of video game addiction often involves measurement of peripheral criteria that indicate high engagement with games, and core criteria that indicate problematic use of games. A survey of the Norwegian population aged 16–74 years (N=10,081, response rate 43.6%) was carried out in 2013, which included the Gaming Addiction Scale for Adolescents (GAS). Confirmatory factor analysis showed that a two-factor structure, which separated peripheral criteria from core criteria, fitted...

  16. Addictive Behaviors Amongst University Students: Contributing Factors, Student's Perception and Addiction Rates

    Ahmad Houri; Mirvat Hammoud

    2005-01-01

    Factors contributing to addictive behaviors affecting student health are analyzed in this study. Smoking, alcohol consumption, and the use of illegal drugs are assessed in a sample of 290 university students. General averages indicate that 37.2% of students smoke cigarettes, 49.8% drink alcohol regularly, and 17.9% have tried illegal drugs while 4.8% of them use it regularly. Age, academic achievement, gender, religion, family status and financial status were correlated to these addictive beh...

  17. Network-Assisted Prediction of Potential Drugs for Addiction

    Jingchun Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug addiction is a chronic and complex brain disease, adding much burden on the community. Though numerous efforts have been made to identify the effective treatment, it is necessary to find more novel therapeutics for this complex disease. As network pharmacology has become a promising approach for drug repurposing, we proposed to apply the approach to drug addiction, which might provide new clues for the development of effective addiction treatment drugs. We first extracted 44 addictive drugs from the NIDA and their targets from DrugBank. Then, we constructed two networks: an addictive drug-target network and an expanded addictive drug-target network by adding other drugs that have at least one common target with these addictive drugs. By performing network analyses, we found that those addictive drugs with similar actions tended to cluster together. Additionally, we predicted 94 nonaddictive drugs with potential pharmacological functions to the addictive drugs. By examining the PubMed data, 51 drugs significantly cooccurred with addictive keywords than expected. Thus, the network analyses provide a list of candidate drugs for further investigation of their potential in addiction treatment or risk.

  18. Steve Sussman on Matilda Hellman’s “Mind the Gap! Failure in Understanding Key Dimensions of an Addicted Drug User’s Life”: Addictive Effects

    SUSSMAN, STEVE

    2012-01-01

    Addictive effects” are experiential states sought by individuals that underlie addictive behaviors. Consistent with ideas that addictive effects mimic satiation of appetitive motives, a literature search-derived heuristic catalogue of addictive behaviors is offered and contrasted across four general appetitive-like motives that have been posited as underlying addictive behaviors (dominance, submissiveness, self-pleasure, and nurturance). I suggest, in part, that addictive behaviors are misdi...

  19. [Workaholism: between illusion and addiction].

    Elowe, J

    2010-09-01

    Workaholism surfaced some years ago as a veritable addiction in the wide sense of the term, dependence. It differs from other sorts of dependence in that it is very often viewed in a positive perspective in the sense that it conveys to the person concerned the illusion of well-being, as well as a motivation and dedication in their professional activity. During the past 30 years, several authors have attempted to define this concept and to determine its characteristics. Robinson believes that workaholics have an approach to life whereby their work feeds on time, energy and physical activity. This provokes consequences that affect their physical health and interpersonal relationships. They have a tendency to live in the future rather than in the present. For Scott, Moore and Micelli , the compulsion for work is not necessarily viewed as being detrimental to one's health. Spence and Robbins highlight the notion of the pleasure experienced at work in their theoretical approach. The prevalence of the dependence on work is estimated at between 27 and 30% in the general population. It is correlated to the number of hours of work per week and tends to be higher as annual revenue increases. The sex ratio is 1, and the parents of children 5 to 18 years of age are the most susceptible to considering themselves workaholics. The physical and psychological consequences of professional exhaustion are characterized primarily by the decrease in self-esteem, symptoms of fatigue, anxiety, depression, irritability and the manifestation of physical problems including cardiovascular ailments, as evidenced by hypertension, as well as heart and kidney complications. All the theoretical point of views, from the psychoanalytical models to the contemporary models, highlight self esteem as being the centerpiece of the question regarding the problem of workaholism. In fact, the narcissism articulated from the sociological evolution of our western way of life permits us to delineate the psychic

  20. Exploring personality characteristics of Chinese adolescents with internet-related addictive behaviors: trait differences for gaming addiction and social networking addiction.

    Wang, Chong-Wen; Ho, Rainbow T H; Chan, Cecilia L W; Tse, Samson

    2015-03-01

    This study investigated the associations between personality traits, based on the Big Five model, and addictive behaviors to different online activities among adolescents. A sample of 920 participants was recruited from four secondary schools in different districts using random cluster sampling. A structured questionnaire, including demographic information, internet usage pattern, the Internet Addiction Test, the Game Addiction Scale, the Bergen Facebook Addiction Scale - Revised, and the Big Five Inventory, was administered to each participant. The results demonstrated a significant difference in personality traits for addictive behaviors related to different online activities. Specifically, higher neuroticism (β=0.15, paddiction in general; less conscientiousness (β=0.09, paddiction; and neuroticism (β=0.15, paddiction. Our findings may provide a better understanding of the etiopathology of internet-related addictive behaviors and have implications for psychoeducation and psychotherapy programs. PMID:25462651

  1. Addiction to opioids in chronic pain patients: a literature review

    Højsted, Jette; Sjøgren, Per

    2007-01-01

    , incidence and prevalence of addiction in opioid treated pain patients, screening tools for assessing opioid addiction in chronic pain patients and recommendations regarding addiction problems in national and international guidelines for opioid treatment in cancer patients and chronic non-malignant pain...... patients. The review indicates that the prevalence of addiction varied from 0% up to 50% in chronic non-malignant pain patients, and from 0% to 7.7% in cancer patients depending of the subpopulation studied and the criteria used. The risk of addiction has to be considered when initiating long-term opioid...... treatment as addiction may result in poor pain control. Several screening tools were identified, but only a few were thoroughly validated with respect to validity and reliability. Most of the identified guidelines mention addiction as a potential problem. The guidelines in cancer pain management are...

  2. Gambling disorder and other behavioral addictions: recognition and treatment.

    Yau, Yvonne H C; Potenza, Marc N

    2015-01-01

    Addiction professionals and the public are recognizing that certain nonsubstance behaviors--such as gambling, Internet use, video-game playing, sex, eating, and shopping--bear resemblance to alcohol and drug dependence. Growing evidence suggests that these behaviors warrant consideration as nonsubstance or "behavioral" addictions and has led to the newly introduced diagnostic category "Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders" in DSM-5. At present, only gambling disorder has been placed in this category, with insufficient data for other proposed behavioral addictions to justify their inclusion. This review summarizes recent advances in our understanding of behavioral addictions, describes treatment considerations, and addresses future directions. Current evidence points to overlaps between behavioral and substance-related addictions in phenomenology, epidemiology, comorbidity, neurobiological mechanisms, genetic contributions, responses to treatments, and prevention efforts. Differences also exist. Recognizing behavioral addictions and developing appropriate diagnostic criteria are important in order to increase awareness of these disorders and to further prevention and treatment strategies. PMID:25747926

  3. The Representation Methods of Addiction in Iran’s Movies

    M Soltani Gerd Faramarzi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of research was answer to this question that movie after revolution how was represented matters of addicts and addiction? Method: For answering to question 33 movies made between 1360 till 1390 which main characters were addicts, studied by content analysis. Results: The results showed that in studied movies, addicts were men, bachelor, or divorced and majority of them were educated. Also, Heroin consumption was more that other narcotics in movies. Addicts’ personal home and his/her friends’ home were important places for consumption and friends were important narcotics preparators and they most important factor in initiate of consumption. On the other hand, divorce and child selling had the most frequency in movie. Family and friend groups were the most important factors in addiction and its etiology. Conclusion: The results showed that movies represented one kind of popular addiction study that overlapped with academic addiction study.

  4. The Prevalence of Food Addiction as Assessed by the Yale Food Addiction Scale: A Systematic Review

    Kirrilly M. Pursey

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a global issue and it has been suggested that an addiction to certain foods could be a factor contributing to overeating and subsequent obesity. Only one tool, the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS has been developed to specifically assess food addiction. This review aimed to determine the prevalence of food addiction diagnosis and symptom scores, as assessed by the YFAS. Published studies to July 2014 were included if they reported the YFAS diagnosis or symptom score and were published in the English language. Twenty-five studies were identified including a total of 196,211 predominantly female, overweight/obese participants (60%. Using meta-analysis, the weighted mean prevalence of YFAS food addiction diagnosis was 19.9%. Food addiction (FA diagnosis was found to be higher in adults aged >35 years, females, and overweight/obese participants. Additionally, YFAS diagnosis and symptom score was higher in clinical samples compared to non-clinical counterparts. YFAS outcomes were related to a range of other eating behavior measures and anthropometrics. Further research is required to explore YFAS outcomes across a broader spectrum of ages, other types of eating disorders and in conjunction with weight loss interventions to confirm the efficacy of the tool to assess for the presence of FA.

  5. The genetics of addiction: A translational perspective

    Agrawal, A.; Verweij, C.J.H.; Gillespie, N.A.; Heath, A.C.; Lessov-Schlaggar, C.N.; Martin, N.G.; Nelson, E.C.; Slutske, W.S.; Whitfield, J.B.; Lynskey, M.T.

    2012-01-01

    Addictions are serious and common psychiatric disorders, and are among the leading contributors to preventable death. This selective review outlines and highlights the need for a multi-method translational approach to genetic studies of these important conditions, including both licit (alcohol, nico

  6. Five Experiential Learning Activities in Addictions Education

    Warren, Jane A.; Hof, Kiphany R.; McGriff, Deborah; Morris, Lay-nah Blue

    2012-01-01

    This article describes five creative experiential classroom activities used in teaching addictions. The activities were integrated into the classroom curriculum and were processed weekly in focused dialogue. Student reflections throughout the article add depth to the meaning gained from the experience of the change process. The students' feedback…

  7. Self-Compassion and Internet Addiction

    Iskender, Murat; Akin, Ahmet

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine the relationship of self-compassion and internet addiction. Participants were 261 university students who completed a questionnaire package that included the Self-compassion Scale and the Online Cognition Scale. The hypothesis model was tested through structural equation modeling. In correlation analysis,…

  8. Parent’s Addiction and Child Abuse

    Alireza Jazayeri

    2002-10-01

    The aim of this study is review the theorical approches of child abuse and its prevalency, ethiology, prevention, assessment and treatment. Also, we try to difine the relationship between child abuse and parents addiction and their side effects in different areas of childs life .

  9. Neurobiology of Addictions: Implications for Clinical Practice.

    Spence, Richard T., Ed.; DiNitto, Diana M., Ed.; Straussner, Shulamith Lala Ashenberg, Ed.

    This book offers helping professionals an introduction to the neurobiological aspects of substance abuse. It presents the basic information on the subject, including the various neurobiological theories of addiction, and places them in a psychosocial context. In addition to connecting the theoretical information with practical applications, the…

  10. Interrelationship between Attachment Styles and Facebook Addiction

    Eroglu, Yuksel

    2016-01-01

    Social networking sites have started to become one of the most frequently used online communication types in the world. It is reported that one of the commonly used social networking sites is Facebook. Since Facebook use is new yet, it can be stated that researches on the Facebook addiction are at the beginning level. For this reason, determining…

  11. [Cocaine addiction: current data for the clinician].

    Karila, Laurent; Zarmdini, Rim; Petit, Aymeric; Lafaye, Geneviève; Lowenstein, William; Reynaud, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Cocaine remains the second most commonly used illicit drug worldwide after cannabis. Observed levels of cocaine use among countries considerably vary. An increased cocaine use is recorded in the general European population. Cocaine addiction is a worldwide public health problem, which has somatic, psychiatric, socio-economic and judicial complications. It is a multifactorial disorder variable in its clinical manifestations and heritable. Compared to the general population, there is a high prevalence of somatic and psychiatric disorders among cocaine-dependent patients. There are predictable dose-related effects of pharmacological action of cocaine and effects which are uncommon, unrelated to dose and occur randomly in this population. The number of patients entering drug treatment for primary cocaine use has been increasing in Europe for several years. However, there is no specific pharmacotherapy with established efficacy for the treatment of cocaine addiction, nor is any medication approved by regulatory authorities for such treatment. Recent controlled clinical studies and laboratory studies have highlighted some very promising medications. The perfect therapeutic platform for abstinence initiation and relapse prevention of cocaine addiction is a combination of pharmacological treatments and behavioral treatments. Targeting somatic and psychiatric comorbidity is another way to use pharmacological treatments in addictions. PMID:23727012

  12. An unusual suspect in cocaine addiction.

    Huang, Yanhua H; Schlüter, Oliver M; Dong, Yan

    2013-11-20

    Development of drug addiction is extremely complex, but its initiation can be as simple as the flip-flop of glutamatergic receptor subtypes triggered by an "unusual" type of NMDA receptors, as suggested by Yuan et al. (2013) in this issue of Neuron. PMID:24267643

  13. An Unusual Suspect in Cocaine Addiction

    Huang, Yanhua H.; Schlüter, Oliver M.; Dong, Yan

    2013-01-01

    Development of drug addiction is extremely complex, but its initiation can be as simple as the flip-flop of glutamatergic receptor subtypes triggered by an “unusual” type of NMDA receptors, as suggested by Yuan and colleagues in this issue of Neuron.

  14. [Pharmacogenetics and the treatment of addiction

    Schellekens, A.F.A.

    2013-01-01

    - This article describes the current scientific knowledge regarding pharmacogenetic predictors of treatment outcome for substance-dependent patients.- PubMed was searched for articles on pharmacogenetics and addiction. This search yielded 53 articles, of which 27 were selected.- The most promising p

  15. Marathon Group Therapy with Female Narcotic Addicts.

    Kilmann, Peter R.

    This study evaluated the impact of structured and unstructured marathon therapy on institutionalized female narcotic addicts. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of five groups: two structured therapy groups, two unstructured therapy groups, and a no-treatment control group. The Personal Orientation Inventory, the Adjective Check List, and a…

  16. Addiction to near Death in Adolescence

    Shaw, Janet

    2012-01-01

    This paper takes Betty Joseph's concept of "addiction to near death," which describes a clinical situation in which sadism and masochism dominate the relationships of a particular group of patients, and applies it specifically to the case material of a girl in adolescent psychotherapy treatment. A link is made between the patient's retreat from…

  17. Classic hallucinogens in the treatment of addictions.

    Bogenschutz, Michael P; Johnson, Matthew W

    2016-01-01

    Addictive disorders are very common and have devastating individual and social consequences. Currently available treatment is moderately effective at best. After many years of neglect, there is renewed interest in potential clinical uses for classic hallucinogens in the treatment of addictions and other behavioral health conditions. In this paper we provide a comprehensive review of both historical and recent clinical research on the use of classic hallucinogens in the treatment of addiction, selectively review other relevant research concerning hallucinogens, and suggest directions for future research. Clinical trial data are very limited except for the use of LSD in the treatment of alcoholism, where a meta-analysis of controlled trials has demonstrated a consistent and clinically significant beneficial effect of high-dose LSD. Recent pilot studies of psilocybin-assisted treatment of nicotine and alcohol dependence had strikingly positive outcomes, but controlled trials will be necessary to evaluate the efficacy of these treatments. Although plausible biological mechanisms have been proposed, currently the strongest evidence is for the role of mystical or other meaningful experiences as mediators of therapeutic effects. Classic hallucinogens have an excellent record of safety in the context of clinical research. Given our limited understanding of the clinically relevant effects of classic hallucinogens, there is a wealth of opportunities for research that could contribute important new knowledge and potentially lead to valuable new treatments for addiction. PMID:25784600

  18. Cocaine addiction and personality: a mathematical model.

    Caselles, Antonio; Micó, Joan C; Amigó, Salvador

    2010-05-01

    The existence of a close relation between personality and drug consumption is recognized, but the corresponding causal connection is not well known. Neither is it well known whether personality exercises an influence predominantly at the beginning and development of addiction, nor whether drug consumption produces changes in personality. This paper presents a dynamic mathematical model of personality and addiction based on the unique personality trait theory (UPTT) and the general modelling methodology. This model attempts to integrate personality, the acute effect of drugs, and addiction. The UPTT states the existence of a unique trait of personality called extraversion, understood as a dimension that ranges from impulsive behaviour and sensation-seeking (extravert pole) to fearful and anxious behaviour (introvert pole). As a consequence of drug consumption, the model provides the main patterns of extraversion dynamics through a system of five coupled differential equations. It combines genetic extraversion, as a steady state, and dynamic extraversion in a unique variable measured on the hedonic scale. The dynamics of this variable describes the effects of stimulant drugs on a short-term time scale (typical of the acute effect); while its mean time value describes the effects of stimulant drugs on a long-term time scale (typical of the addiction effect). This understanding may help to develop programmes of prevention and intervention in drug misuse. PMID:20030966

  19. Dimensionality of Cognitions in Behavioral Addiction

    Morris, L. S.; Voon, V.

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive constructs provide conceptual frameworks for transpathological characterization and improved phenotyping of apparently disparate psychiatric groups. This dimensional approach can be applied to the examination of individuals with behavioral addictions, for example, towards gambling, video-games, the internet, food, and sex, allowing operationalization of core deficits. We use this approach to review constructs such as impulsivity, compulsivity, and attention regulation, which may be ...

  20. Problematic Internet Use: Perceptions of Addiction Counsellors

    Acier, Didier; Kern, Laurence

    2011-01-01

    Despite a growing number of publications on problematic Internet use (PIU), there is no consensus on the nature of the phenomenon, its constituent criteria, and its clinical threshold. This qualitative study examines the perceptions of addiction counsellors who have managed individuals with PIU in Quebec (Canada). Four focus groups were conducted…

  1. Some comorbidities of benzodiazepine addicted patients

    Romeo Dobrin

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Comorbidity represents the diagnosis of one or more disorders in addition to the primary disease in a person for a certain period of time. In other words, comorbidity refers to a simultaneous process not related to the main pathological process. However, patients with addiction to alcohol or other drugs have anxiety comorbidity which requires an efficient and appropriate pharmacotherapy.

  2. Stress Levels of Recovering Drug Addicts.

    LaMon, Brent C.; Alonzo, Anthony

    It appears that chronic drug use may develop as a means of coping in which individuals use self-medication to produce a more desirable state of being. Because drugs are often used to cope with stress, this study examined stress among recovering male drug addicts (N=23) from an urban substance abuse program by administering a self-report inventory…

  3. Comparing of Early Maladaptive Schemas between Healthy and Addicted Men

    Vida Razavi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Early maladaptive schemas are self-defeating emotional and cognitive patterns that develop early in life and repeat during the life cycle. They may cause a lot of psychological disorders including anxiety, depression, and drug abuse. Regarding to the importance of the prevention and treatment of addiction and regarding to obscurity of schemas about addiction, we compared the schemas of addicted and non-addicted men. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 205 addicted and non-addicted men were selected in the city of Kerman through cluster sampling. To collect information, a questionnaire with acceptable validity and reliability consisting of demographic information and early maladaptive schemas was used. Data analysis was performed with SPSS-17 software.Results: Totally, 96 addicted and 106 non-addicted men with a mean age of 33.3±9.8 years participated in the study. There were significant differences between early maladaptive schemas in two groups of addicted and non-addicted men (p=0.001. Logistic regression analysis showed that enmeshment, emotional deprivation, and vulnerability to harm or illness maladaptive schemas can predict addiction (p=0.001.Conclusion: According to this study, the most important schemas for addicted men are emotional deprivation, self-sacrifice, emotional inhibition, unrelenting standards, entitlement, insufficient self-control/self-discipline, and disconnection as well as enmeshment, vulnerability to harm or illness, and emotional deprivation predictor schemas that require special notion from related institutions and addiction therapist for addiction rehabilitation and prevention.

  4. MicroRNAs and drug addiction

    Paul J Kenny

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Drug addiction is considered a disorder of neuroplasticity in brain reward and cognition systems resulting from aberrant activation of gene expression programs in response to prolonged drug consumption. Noncoding RNAs are key regulators of almost all aspects of cellular physiology. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small (~21–23 nucleotides noncoding RNA transcripts that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Recently, microRNAs were shown to play key roles in the drug-induced remodeling of brain reward systems that likely drives the emergence of addiction. Here, we review evidence suggesting that one particular miRNA, miR-212, plays a particularly prominent role in vulnerability to cocaine addiction. We review evidence showing that miR-212 expression is increased in the dorsal striatum of rats that show compulsive-like cocaine-taking behaviors. Increases in miR-212 expression appear to protect against cocaine addiction, as virus-mediated striatal miR-212 over-expression decreases cocaine consumption in rats. Conversely, disruption of striatal miR-212 signaling using an antisense oligonucleotide increases cocaine intake. We also review data that identify two mechanisms by which miR-212 may regulate cocaine intake. First, miR-212 has been shown to amplify striatal CREB signaling through a mechanism involving activation of Raf1 kinase. Second, miR-212 was also shown to regulate cocaine intake by repressing striatal expression of methyl CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2, consequently decreasing protein levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF. The concerted actions of miR-212 on striatal CREB and MeCP2/BDNF activity greatly attenuate the motivational effects of cocaine. These findings highlight the unique role for miRNAs in simultaneously controlling multiple signaling cascades implicated in addiction.

  5. Development of a work addiction scale.

    Andreassen, Cecilie Schou; Griffiths, Mark D; Hetland, Jørn; Pallesen, Ståle

    2012-06-01

    Research into excessive work has gained increasing attention over the last 20 years. Terms such as "workaholism,"work addiction" and "excessive work" have been used interchangeably. Given the increase in empirical research, this study presents the development of the Bergen Work Addiction Scale (BWAS), a new psychometrically validated scale for the assessment of work addiction. A pool of 14 items, with two reflecting each of seven core elements of addiction (i.e., salience, mood modification, tolerance, withdrawal, conflict, relapse, and problems) was initially constructed. The items were then administered to two samples, one recruited by a web survey following a television broadcast about workaholism (n = 11,769) and one comprising participants in the second wave of a longitudinal internet-based survey about working life (n = 368). The items with the highest corrected item-total correlation from within each of the seven addiction elements were retained in the final scale. The assumed one-factor solution of the refined seven-item scale was acceptable (root mean square error of approximation = 0.077, Comparative Fit Index = 0.96, Tucker-Lewis Index = 0.95) and the internal reliability of the two samples were 0.84 and 0.80, respectively. The scores of the BWAS converged with scores on other workaholism scales, except for a Work Enjoyment subscale. A suggested cut-off for categorization of workaholics showed good discriminative ability in terms of working hours, leadership position, and subjective health complaints. It is concluded that the BWAS has good psychometric properties. PMID:22490005

  6. Experiential Avoidance and Technological Addictions in Adolescents.

    García-Oliva, Carlos; Piqueras, José A

    2016-06-01

    Background and aims This study focuses on the use of popular information and communication technologies (ICTs) by adolescents: the Internet, mobile phones, and video games. The relationship of ICT use and experiential avoidance (EA), a construct that has emerged as underlying and transdiagnostic to a wide variety of psychological problems, including behavioral addictions, is examined. EA refers to a self-regulatory strategy involving efforts to control or escape from negative stimuli such as thoughts, feelings, or sensations that generate strong distress. This strategy, which may be adaptive in the short term, is problematic if it becomes an inflexible pattern. Thus, the aim of this study was to explore whether EA patterns were associated with addictive or problematic use of ICT in adolescents. Methods A total of 317 students of the Spanish southeast between 12 and 18 years old were recruited to complete a questionnaire that included questions about general use of each ICTs, an experiential avoidance questionnaire, a brief inventory of the Big Five personality traits, and specific questionnaires on problematic use of the Internet, mobile phones, and video games. Results Correlation analysis and linear regression showed that EA largely explained results regarding the addictive use of the Internet, mobile phones, and video games, but not in the same way. As regards gender, boys showed a more problematic use of video games than girls. Concerning personality factors, conscientiousness was related to all addictive behaviors. Discussion and conclusions We conclude that EA is an important construct that should be considered in future models that attempt to explain addictive behaviors. PMID:27363463

  7. Social Meanings of Disease: Changing Concepts of Addiction in the Twentieth Century.

    Acker, Caroline J.

    1991-01-01

    Compares scientific explanations of addiction of the 1920s and 1930s to today's. Details the history of addiction testing and research, the development of criteria for defining addiction, and both physiological and psychological definitions of addiction. Suggests that the changing status of addiction as a disease reflects different meanings…

  8. An investigation of Goodman's addictive disorder criteria in eating disorders.

    Speranza, Mario; Revah-Levy, Anne; Giquel, Ludovic; Loas, Gwenolé; Venisse, Jean-Luc; Jeammet, Philippe; Corcos, Maurice

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine how far Goodman's addictive disorder criteria were met by individuals with eating disorders according to subtypes. The study provided a cross-sectional comparison among three samples of eating disorders [restricting anorexia nervosa (R-AN), N = 68; purging anorexia nervosa (P-AN), N = 42; and bulimia nervosa (BN), N = 66], a sample of substance-related disorders (SRDs, N = 48) and a sample of matched controls (N = 201). Diagnosis of addictive disorder was made following Goodman's criteria. Addictive personality traits were assessed with the Addiction Potential Scale of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory--2 and with the Zuckerman's Sensation Seeking Scale. Results showed that individuals with BN met Goodman's addictive disorder criteria in the same proportion as drug-addicted individuals (65% vs 60%, p = NS). They both showed higher rates than R-AN individuals (35%; R-AN versus BN: F = 11.9, p addictive disorders compared with P-AN, differences were not significant. Scores on the Sensation Seeking and on the Addictive Potential scales paralleled the distribution of addictive disorders, with individuals with BN and with P-AN showing higher levels than individuals with R-AN. Results showed that a subgroup of individuals with an eating disorder experiences their disorder as an addiction and may deserve specific therapeutic attention. PMID:21834026

  9. Ruminative Response Styles and Metacognitions in Internet Addicts

    Omer SENORMANCI

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Although cognitive behavioral model of Internet addiction has been well described, studies on metacognitions and ruminative response styles related with Internet addiction are very limited. The aim of the present study was to compare metacognitions and ruminative response style in Internet addicts with a healthy control group. Method: The study included 30 males who presented to our Internet Addiction Outpatient clinic, and diagnosed with Internet addiction, and a control group of 30 healthy males with similar sociodemographic characteristics. A sociodemographic data form, Internet Addiction Test (IAT, Metacognitions Questionnaire (MCQ-30, Ruminative Response Scale-short version (RRS-SV, and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI were used for data collection. Results: The MCQ-30 total, MCQ-30 uncontrollability and danger score, MCQ-30 need to control thoughts score and RRS-SV scores statistically significantly higher in study group compared the control group. After correcting for BDI by ANCOVA, the difference between MCQ-30 total score and RRS-SV disappeared. Conclusion: Internet addicts show ruminative responses instead of having an effective problem-solving attitude and defining problems; and this self-focused rumination leads an individual to recall more reinforced memories about the Internet so that the problem of Internet addiction becomes deeper. As a result of this study, although Internet addiction is accompanied by depression primarily or secondarily, manifestation of Internet addiction is exacerbated by depression through ruminative responses and metacognitions

  10. The invisible addiction: Cell-phone activities and addiction among male and female college students

    PETNJI YAYA, LUC HONORE; MANOLIS, CHRIS

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims: The primary objective of the present study was to investigate which cell-phone activities are associated with cell-phone addiction. No research to date has studied the full-range of cell-phone activities, and their relationship to cell-phone addiction, across male and female cell-phone users. Methods: College undergraduates (N = 164) participated in an online survey. Participants completed the questionnaire as part of their class requirements. The questionnaire took 10 and 15 minutes to complete and contained a measure of cell-phone addiction and questions that asked how much time participants spent daily on 24 cell-phone activities. Results: Findings revealed cell-phone activities that are associated significantly with cell-phone addiction (e.g., Instagram, Pinterest), as well as activities that one might logically assume would be associated with this form of addiction but are not (e.g., Internet use and Gaming). Cell-phone activities that drive cell-phone addiction (CPA) were found to vary considerably across male and female cell-phone users. Although a strong social component drove CPA for both males and females, the specific activities associated with CPA differed markedly. Conclusions: CPA amongst the total sample is largely driven by a desire to connect socially. The activities found to be associated with CPA, however, differed across the sexes. As the functionality of cell-phones continues to expand, addiction to this seemingly indispensable piece of technology becomes an increasingly realistic possibility. Future research must identify the activities that push cell-phone use beyond its “;tipping point” where it crosses the line from a helpful tool to one that undermines our personal well-being and that of others. PMID:25595966

  11. Training the next generation of providers in addiction medicine.

    Rasyidi, Ernest; Wilkins, Jeffery N; Danovitch, Itai

    2012-06-01

    Within the United States there exists a profound discrepancy between the significant public health problem of substance abuse and the access to treatment for addicted individuals. Part of the insufficient access to treatment is a function of relatively low levels or professional experts in addiction medicine. Part of the low levels of professional addiction experts is the result of inadequate addiction medicine training of medical students and residents. This article outlines deficits in addiction medicine training among medical students and residents, yet real change in the addiction medicine training process will always be subject to the complexity of producing alterations across multiple credentialing institutions as well as the keen competition between educators for “more time” for their particular subject. Other hurdles include the broad-based issue of stigma regarding alcoholism and other substance abuse that likely impact all systems that regulate physician addiction medicine training. As noted in the discussion of psychiatry residency, even psychiatry residents manifest stigma regarding substance abusing patients. Five currently active processes may allow for fundamental change to the inertia in physician addiction medicine training while also potentially impacting stigma: 1. We appear to be at the beginning of the integration of addiction into traditional medicine through the formation of a legitimized addiction medicine subspecialty. 2. The training of primary care trainees and practitioners in the use of SBIRT is accelerating, thus creating another process of addiction integration into traditional medicine. 3. The PCMH is being established as a model for primary care 4. The Paul Wellstone and Pete Domenici Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act of 2008 (MHPAEA) became effective for group health care plan years beginning on or after July 1, 2010; thereby, substance abuse benefits and cost are to be the same as general medical or surgical

  12. Addressing the Question of Disorder-Specific Risk Factors of Internet Addiction: A Comparison of Personality Traits in Patients with Addictive Behaviors and Comorbid Internet Addiction

    K. W. Müller

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Uncontrolled use of the internet has been reported to affect the lives of some users in a negative way. According to epidemiological studies, about 1% of the general population is showing signs of internet addiction. Since internet addiction is becoming a growing health concern, research on potential risk factors is becoming more important in order to develop strategies for prevention and to adopt therapeutic treatment. Although there are some studies investigating personality traits in internet addiction, most of these studies are based on samples of healthy subjects. In this research project, we compared personality profiles of a sample of patients in different rehabilitation centers. 70 patients with an addiction disorder that additionally met the criteria for internet addiction were compared to 48 patients suffering from alcohol dependence. Besides Big Five personality traits, we also assessed depressive symptoms. It was shown that patients with comorbid internet addiction can be discriminated from other patients by higher neuroticism and lower extraversion as well as lower conscientiousness. After controlling for depressive symptoms, lower conscientiousness especially turned out to be a disorder-specific risk factor. As internet addiction is related to unique patterns of personality traits and can be discriminated from alcohol dependence, treatment approaches are needed that meet the specific requirements of patients with internet addiction.

  13. Transgression as addiction: religiosity and moral disapproval as predictors of perceived addiction to pornography.

    Grubbs, Joshua B; Exline, Julie J; Pargament, Kenneth I; Hook, Joshua N; Carlisle, Robert D

    2015-01-01

    Perceived addiction to Internet pornography is increasingly a focus of empirical attention. The present study examined the role that religious belief and moral disapproval of pornography use play in the experience of perceived addiction to Internet pornography. Results from two studies in undergraduate samples (Study 1, N = 331; Study 2, N = 97) indicated that there was a robust positive relationship between religiosity and perceived addiction to pornography and that this relationship was mediated by moral disapproval of pornography use. These results persisted even when actual use of pornography was controlled. Furthermore, although religiosity was negatively predictive of acknowledging any pornography use, among pornography users, religiosity was unrelated to actual levels of use. A structural equation model from a web-based sample of adults (Study 3, N = 208) revealed similar results. Specifically, religiosity was robustly predictive of perceived addiction, even when relevant covariates (e.g., trait self-control, socially desirable responding, neuroticism, use of pornography) were held constant. In sum, the present study indicated that religiosity and moral disapproval of pornography use were robust predictors of perceived addiction to Internet pornography while being unrelated to actual levels of use among pornography consumers. PMID:24519108

  14. The development of children of drug addicts.

    Bauman, P S; Levine, S A

    1986-08-01

    The present study compared 70 methadone-maintained mothers (MM) and their 70 preschool-age children to a matched control group of 70 non-drug-addicted mothers (NDA) and their 70 preschool-age children on mothers' personalities, intelligence levels, and parenting attitudes and behavior; and on children's behavior and intelligence and developmental levels. Findings showed that in comparison to the control group, MM mothers performed less adaptively on measures of intelligence, personality, and parenting behavior. Their scores on the parenting attitude measures reflected authoritarian childrearing beliefs. Children of MM mothers performed more poorly than children of NDA mothers on measures of intelligence and socially adaptive behavior. In a comparison of children of MM mothers who experienced withdrawal from drugs at birth to children of MM mothers who were not born addicted to drugs, results revealed a tendency for withdrawal children to have developmental delays, lower IQ scores, and lower heights and weights. PMID:3771015

  15. Food addiction: an evolving nonlinear science.

    Shriner, Richard; Gold, Mark

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this review is to familiarize readers with the role that addiction plays in the formation and treatment of obesity, type 2 diabetes and disorders of eating. We will outline several useful models that integrate metabolism, addiction, and human relationship adaptations to eating. A special effort will be made to demonstrate how the use of simple and straightforward nonlinear models can and are being used to improve our knowledge and treatment of patients suffering from nutritional pathology. Moving forward, the reader should be able to incorporate some of the findings in this review into their own practice, research, teaching efforts or other interests in the fields of nutrition, diabetes, and/or bariatric (weight) management. PMID:25421535

  16. Withdrawal: Expanding a Key Addiction Construct.

    Piper, Megan E

    2015-12-01

    Withdrawal is an essential component of classical addiction theory; it is a vital manifestation of dependence and motivates relapse. However, the traditional conceptualization of withdrawal as a cohesive collection of symptoms that emerge during drug deprivation and decline with either the passage of time or reinstatement of drug use, may be inadequate to explain scientific findings or fit with modern theories of addiction. This article expands the current understanding of tobacco withdrawal by examining: (1) withdrawal variability; (2) underlying causes of withdrawal variability, including biological and person factors, environmental influences, and the influence of highly routinized behavioral patterns; (3) new withdrawal symptoms that allow for enhanced characterization of the withdrawal experience; and (4) withdrawal-related cognitive processes. These topics provide guidance regarding the optimal assessment of withdrawal and illustrate the potential impact modern withdrawal conceptualization and assessment could have on identifying treatment targets. PMID:25744958

  17. [Psychopathological heterogeneity in opium drug addicts].

    Pani, P P; Carta, M; Rudas, N

    1991-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the presence and nature of psychiatric disorders in opium drug addicts. One hundred and six subjects receiving treatment at the CMAS in Cagliari were included in the study. Hathawai and McKinley's MMPI test was preventively carried out on all subjects; each drug addict was then interviewed three times in the space of three weeks in order to formulate a diagnosis in line with DSM III R criteria. The results obtained show a high incidence of psychopathological disorders which are not included among those caused by drug abuse, and a high degree of diagnostic heterogeneity on both axis I and axis II. The comparative assessment of three subsamples undergoing different phases of treatment reveals both qualitative and quantitative differences. PMID:1749353

  18. Addiction Competencies in the 2009 CACREP Clinical Mental Health Counseling Program Standards

    Lee, Tiffany K.; Craig, Stephen E.; Fetherson, Bianca T. L.; Simpson, C. Dennis

    2013-01-01

    The Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs developed addiction competencies for clinical mental health counseling students. This article highlights these competencies, provides an overview of current addiction training, and describes methods to integrate addiction education into curricula.

  19. Real-Life Stories About Addiction Struggles | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    ... on. Feature: Preventing Drug Abuse and Addiction Real-Life Stories About Addiction Struggles Past Issues / Fall 2011 ... TO PLAY THE VIDEO NIHSeniorHealth Videos Offer Real-Life Stories About Addiction Struggles—and Much More Many ...

  20. Morphine and heroin vary in addiction processes

    2007-01-01

    @@ Morphine and heroin as effective pain relievers are among the most widely consumed drugs of abuse today, capable of arousing physiological and psychological dependences by severely disturbing people's neuron functions. Despite their slight structural differences (Figl), a number of distinctive properties between the two have already been revealed by previous researches. In a recent study, CAS scientists show that the two drugs have different modulation effects on hippocampal synaptic plasticity during the addiction process.

  1. Humoral immune variation in drug addicts

    Masoud A

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available Studies were undertaken to evaluate content of IgG, IgM, C3, C4, CH50 and proteines of sera from 53 drug addicts by immunological methods. Results shows an increase of IgG and no significant variatrion in the level of other Ig(S. In the same time we have seen an augmentation of gamma globuline in the protein electrophoresis pattern. The level of C3 and C4 of complement component rest unchanged.

  2. Coerced addiction treatment: How, when and whom?

    Orešković, Anto; Bodor, Davor; Mimica, Nino; Milovac, Željko; Glavina, Trpimir

    2013-01-01

    From the psychiatric point of view the aim and purpose of coercive treatment of addicts imply the creation of positive therapeutic pressure which could induce mobilization of all available motivational mechanisms focused on improving general health and on correction of inappropriate social behavior. An increasing number of individuals have been referred to treatment protocol under legal coercion from the criminal justice system related to family law act, whereat optimal therapeutic results...

  3. Does Anorexia Nervosa Resemble an Addiction?

    Barbarich-Marsteller, Nicole C.; Foltin, Richard W.; Walsh, B. Timothy

    2011-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa is a severe psychiatric disorder characterized by unrelenting self-starvation and life-threatening weight loss. The relentlessness with which individuals with anorexia nervosa pursue starvation and in some cases exercise despite the negative physical, emotional, and social consequences parallels features of addictive disorders. From a clinical perspective, individuals with anorexia nervosa behave similarly to individuals with substance abuse by narrowing their behavioral repe...

  4. Dynorphin and the Pathophysiology of Drug Addiction

    Shippenberg, T.S.; Zapata, A.; Chefer, V.I.

    2007-01-01

    Drug addiction is a chronic relapsing disease in which drug administration becomes the primary stimulus that drives behavior regardless of the adverse consequence that may ensue. As drug use becomes more compulsive, motivation for natural rewards that normally drive behavior decreases. The discontinuation of drug use is associated with somatic signs of withdrawal, dysphoria, anxiety and anhedonia. These consequences of drug use are thought to contribute to the maintenance of drug use and to t...

  5. DOPAMINE AND FOOD ADDICTION: LEXICON BADLY NEEDED

    Salamone, John D; Correa, Mercè

    2012-01-01

    Over the last few years, the concept of food addiction has become a common feature in the scientific literature, as well as the popular press. Nevertheless, the use of the term “addiction” to describe pathological aspects of food intake in humans remains controversial, and even among those who affirm the validity of the concept, there is considerable disagreement about its utility for explaining the increasing prevalence of obesity throughout much of the world. An examination of the literatur...

  6. Memory Systems and the Addicted Brain

    Goodman, Jarid; Packard, Mark G.

    2016-01-01

    The view that anatomically distinct memory systems differentially contribute to the development of drug addiction and relapse has received extensive support. The present brief review revisits this hypothesis as it was originally proposed 20 years ago (1) and highlights several recent developments. Extensive research employing a variety of animal learning paradigms indicates that dissociable neural systems mediate distinct types of learning and memory. Each memory system potentially contribute...

  7. Microdialysis and the Neurochemistry of Addiction

    Torregrossa, Mary M; Kalivas, Peter W.

    2007-01-01

    Drug addiction is a process beginning with the initial exposure to a drug of abuse, and leading, in some individuals, to chronic habitual use, and high rates of relapse. Microdialysis allows researchers to monitor the neurochemical changes that occur in the brain after the initial exposure to a drug, and the neurochemical changes that occur with repeated exposure. These changes in the brain are often referred to as drug-induced neuroplasticity, and the aim of this article is to review studies...

  8. The Role of Acetylcholine in Cocaine Addiction

    Williams, Mark J.; Adinoff, Bryon

    2007-01-01

    Central nervous system cholinergic neurons arise from several discrete sources, project to multiple brain regions, and exert specific effects on reward, learning, and memory. These processes are critical for the development and persistence of addictive disorders. Although other neurotransmitters, including dopamine, glutamate, and serotonin, have been the primary focus of drug research to date, a growing preclinical literature reveals a critical role of acetylcholine (ACh) in the experience a...

  9. Resilience to Meet the Challenge of Addiction

    Alim, Tanja N.; Lawson, William B.; Feder, Adriana; Iacoviello, Brian M.; Saxena, Shireen; Bailey, Christopher R.; Greene, Allison M.; Neumeister, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Acute and chronic stress–related mechanisms play an important role in the development of addiction and its chronic, relapsing nature. Multisystem adaptations in brain, body, behavioral, and social function may contribute to a dysregulated physiological state that is maintained beyond the homeostatic range. In addition, chronic abuse of substances leads to an altered set point across multiple systems. Resilience can be defined as the absence of psychopathology despite exposure to high stress a...

  10. Addictive Facebook Use among University Students

    Zeinab Zaremohzzabieh; Bahaman Abu Samah; Siti Zobidah Omar; Jusang Bolong; Nurul Akhtar Kamarudin

    2015-01-01

    The Facebook has become an essential part of almost every university students’ daily life, and while a large number of students seem to get benefits from use of the Facebook by exchanging information for educational goals, make friends, and other activities, the literature indicates that this social networking site can become addictive to some university students’ users, which is one of the today’s higher education matters. The aim of this study, therefore, is to explore the phenomenon of Fac...

  11. Internet addiction: a 21st century epidemic?

    Christakis Dimitri A

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Internet addiction, while not yet officially codified within a psychopathological framework, is growing both in prevalence and within the public consciousness as a potentially problematic condition with many parallels to existing recognized disorders. The rapid and unfettered increase in the number of people accessing a relatively unrestricted internet substantially increases the possibility that those suffering with an underlying psychological comorbidity may be at serious risk of d...

  12. Molecular and Functional Imaging of Internet Addiction

    Yunqi Zhu; Hong Zhang; Mei Tian

    2015-01-01

    Maladaptive use of the Internet results in Internet addiction (IA), which is associated with various negative consequences. Molecular and functional imaging techniques have been increasingly used for analysis of neurobiological changes and neurochemical correlates of IA. This review summarizes molecular and functional imaging findings on neurobiological mechanisms of IA, focusing on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and nuclear imaging modalities including positron emission tomography (PET) an...

  13. Characterizing Intercellular Signaling Peptides in Drug Addiction

    Romanova, Elena V.; Hatcher, Nathan G.; Rubakhin, Stanislav S.; Sweedler, Jonathan V.

    2008-01-01

    Intercellular signaling peptides (SPs) coordinate the activity of cells and influence organism behavior. SPs, a chemically and structurally diverse group of compounds responsible for transferring information between neurons, are broadly involved in neural plasticity, learning and memory, as well as in drug addiction phenomena. Historically, SP discovery and characterization has tracked advances in measurement capabilities. Today, a suite of analytical technologies is available to investigate ...

  14. Neuroimmune Mechanisms of Alcohol and Drug Addiction

    Cui, Changhai; Shurtleff, David; Harris, R. Adron

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol and other drugs of abuse have significant impacts on the neuroimmune system. Studies have demonstrated that drugs of abuse interact with the neuroimmune system and alter neuroimmune gene expression and signaling, which in turn contribute to various aspects of addiction. As the key component of the CNS immune system, neuroimmune factors mediate neuroinflammation and modulate a wide range of brain function including neuronal activity, endocrine function, and CNS development. These neuro...

  15. COMPUTER GAME ADDICTION SCALE FOR CHILDREN

    Horzum, Mehmet Barış; ARAS, Tuncay; ÇAKIR BALTA, Özlem

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a valid and reliable scale to measure the children’s computer game addiction. The sample of this study consists of 460 students, attending primary schools from different socioeconomic levels in Trabzon. The scale was examined by instructors for validity of extent. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted to examine the construct validity. The results of factor analysis indicate that the scale, consists of 21 items and four factors, is accounting for 45...

  16. Trends in telemedicine use in addiction treatment

    Molfenter, Todd; Boyle, Mike; Holloway, Don; Zwick, Janet

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Telemedicine use in addiction treatment and recovery services is limited. Yet, because it removes barriers of time and distance, telemedicine offers great potential for enhancing treatment and recovery for people with substance use disorders (SUDs). Telemedicine also offers clinicians ways to increase contact with SUD patients during and after treatment. Case description A project conducted from February 2013 to June 2014 investigated the adoption of telemedicine services among p...

  17. OBESITY AND NUTRIENT CONSUMPTION: A RATIONAL ADDICTION?

    Richards, Timothy J.; Patterson, Paul M.; Tegene, Abebayehu

    2004-01-01

    Widespread obesity in the U.S. is a relatively recent phenomenon, reaching epidemic proportions only in the last 15 years. However, existing research shows that while calorie expenditure through physical activity has not changed appreciably since 1980, calorie consumption has risen dramatically. Consequently, any explanation of obesity must address the reason why consumers tend to overeat in spite of somewhat obvious future health implications. This study tests for an addiction to food nutrie...

  18. Exercise addiction- diagnosis, bio-psychological mechanisms and treatment issues.

    Weinstein, Aviv; Weinstein, Yitzhak

    2014-01-01

    Exercise and sports activity are beneficial both physically and psychologically but excessive exercise may have adverse physiological and psychological effects. There are methodological issues in the definition, diagnosis and etiology of exercise addiction. Several questionnaires and diagnostic tools have been developed and validated and they show high validity and reliability. Exercise addiction has been suggested as having an obsessive-compulsive dimension as well as rewarding aspects that may include it among the behavioral addictions. Biological studies show that in rodents, exercise such as wheel running activates the dopamine reward system and thus contributing to stress reduction. Further evidence suggests that running is associated with endorphins and cannabinoids thus explaining the "runners high" or euphoric feelings that may lead to exercise addiction. Genetic studies suggest that genes which control preference for drugs also control the preference for naturally rewarding behaviors such as exercise. Psychological studies also explain exercise addiction in terms of reward, habituation, social support, stress-relief, avoidance of withdrawal and reduction of anxiety. It has been suggested that exercise addiction is a part of a continuum of sportive activity that develops in stages from the recreational exercise to at-risk exercise, problematic exercise and finally into exercise addiction. Assessment and treatment should take into account the various stages of exercise addiction development, its comorbidity with other psychiatric disorders such as eating disorders or substance use and alcohol disorders. Treatment approaches for exercise addiction are based on the cognitive-behavioral approach but little is known about their effectiveness. A single-case study shows promise of pharmacological treatment for exercise addiction and further studies are required. This review summarizes diagnostic and phenomenology of exercise addiction with emphasis on

  19. Addictions and Personality Traits: Impulsivity and Related Constructs

    Mitchell, Marci R.; Potenza, Marc N.

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral tendencies that might be captured through self-report measures may provide insight into personality features that are associated with substance addictions. Recently, impulsivity and related constructs, such as sensation-seeking, have been examined to help better understand their relationships with addictions. Here, we review recent findings that show links over developmental epochs between addictive behaviors and impulsivity, sensation-seeking, and other constructs that are theoret...

  20. Evidence of Rational Addiction to Carbonated Soft Drinks?

    Rigoberto A. Lopez; Xiaoou Liu

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to apply the Becker-Murphy theory of rational addiction to the case of carbonated soft drinks. The research aims to reveal the rational addiction evidence of carbonated soft drinks and derive policy implications under this evidence. Consumers' rational addictive evidence for carbonated soft drinks provides a warning for the Chinese government to regulate the industry, due to its bad health consequences. – The authors empirically apply a time-varying parameter mode...

  1. Addiction: Pulling at the Neural Threads of Social Behaviors

    Volkow, N.D.; Goldstein, R.; Volkow, N.D.; Baler, R.D.; Goldstein, R.Z.

    2011-01-27

    Addiction coopts the brain's neuronal circuits necessary for insight, reward, motivation, and social behaviors. This functional overlap results in addicted individuals making poor choices despite awareness of the negative consequences; it explains why previously rewarding life situations and the threat of judicial punishment cannot stop drug taking and why a medical rather than a criminal approach is more effective in curtailing addiction.

  2. Family indicators for the risk of addictive behavior

    Florova N.B.

    2012-01-01

    The empirical findings in family problems relating to addictive behavior in children and adolescents, can serve a foundation for forming up a multiaxial system of indicators and backbone risk factors of addictive behavior in the family. On the ground of analysis of several publications the following risk indicators of addictive behavior in families can be introduced: environmental toxicity, family structure, parents' educational level, quality of parental styles, level of parents' aggravation...

  3. Is Opium Addiction a Risk Factor for Bone Loss?

    Gozashti, M H; Shahesmaeili, A; Amini Zadeh, N

    2011-01-01

    Background Drug abuse is one of the most important public health problems worldwide as in Iran. The aim of present study was to determine whether opium addiction can affect bone mineral density or not. Methods Fifty opium addicted and 50 non-addicted volunteer men aged between 25-45 were enrolled. The subjects with positive history of other osteoporosis risk factors were excluded. The vertebral bone density and potential confounders (age, cigarette smoking and body mass index) were measured i...

  4. Challenges in Translational Research: The Views of Addiction Scientists

    Ostergren, Jenny E; Hammer, Rachel R.; Dingel, Molly J.; Koenig, Barbara A.; McCormick, Jennifer B

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To explore scientists' perspectives on the challenges and pressures of translating research findings into clinical practice and public health policy. Methods We conducted semi-structured interviews with a purposive sample of 20 leading scientists engaged in genetic research on addiction. We asked participants for their views on how their own research translates, how genetic research addresses addiction as a public health problem and how it may affect the public's view of addiction....

  5. Opportunities for the development of neuroimmune therapies in addiction

    Ray, LA; Roche, DJO; Heinzerling, K; Shoptaw, S

    2014-01-01

    Studies have implicated neuroinflammatory processes in the pathophysiology of various psychiatric conditions, including addictive disorders. Neuroimmune signaling represents an important and relatively poorly understood biological process in drug addiction. The objective of this review is to update the field on recent developments in neuroimmune therapies for addiction. First, we review studies of neuroinflammation in relation to alcohol and methamphetamine dependence followed by a section on...

  6. EYSENCK'S PERSONALITY QUESTIONNAIRE SCORES OF HEROIN ADDICTS IN INDIA

    Sahasi, G.; Chawla, H.M.; Bhushan, Bharat; Kacker, Chitra

    1990-01-01

    SUMMARY One hundred and ten male heroin addicts were administered ‘Eysenck Personality Questionnaire’ a self reporting measure. High scores on psychoticism, neuroticism and lie scale and low scores on extroversion in heroin addicts as compared to normal controls (n=50) were observed in this study which were comparable with those reported earlier. Further, it appears that high neuroticism scores are more consistent feature of heroin addicts than deviation on extraversion. Also an attempt to un...

  7. Thai men’s experiences of alcohol addiction and treatment

    Hanpatchaiyakul, Kulnaree; Eriksson, Henrik; Kijsompon, Jureerat; Östlund, Gunnel

    2014-01-01

    Background: Men are overrepresented with regard to alcohol addiction and in terms of alcohol treatment worldwide. In Thailand, alcohol consumption continues to rise, but few of those afflicted with alcohol addiction attend alcohol treatment programs, even though there is universal care for all. No comprehensive studies have been done on men’s experiences with addiction and alcohol treatment programs in Thailand.Objective: The aim of this study was to explore men’s experiences in terms of the ...

  8. Development of pharmacotherapies for drug addiction: a Rosetta Stone approach

    Koob, George F.; Kenneth Lloyd, G.; Mason, Barbara J.

    2009-01-01

    Current pharmacotherapies for addiction represent opportunities for facilitating treatment and are forming a foundation for evaluating new medications. Furthermore, validated animal models of addiction and a surge in understanding of neurocircuitry and neuropharmacological mechanisms involved in the development and maintenance of addiction — such as the neuroadaptive changes that account for the transition to dependence and the vulnerability to relapse — have provided numerous potential thera...

  9. Addiction and psychopathology: a multidimensional approach to clinical practice

    Hendriks, Vincent

    1990-01-01

    textabstractThe etiology of addiction has a long history of clinical and scientific interest, which is characterized by differences in conceptual approach, conflicting data and public controversy. There have been numerous attempts to describe the antecedents and consequences of addiction in theoretical models and by classifying addicts on the basis of personal, pathological and environmental characteristics (Lettieri, Sayers, & Pearson, 1980). Despite these considerable efforts, the insights ...

  10. Addiction Treatment Professionals are not the Gatekeepers of Recovery

    Humphreys, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Addiction treatment is beneficial to many individuals who have substance use disorders. However, only a minority of individuals who recover from addiction receive it. Despite this, addiction treatment is sometimes granted the status of the “gatekeeper of recovery”. The myth that treatment is necessary for recovery has no empirical support. It also undermines the confidence of individuals in their ability to change on their own and is unduly dismissive of the efforts of nonprofessional helpers...

  11. PATTERN OF DRUG USE IN INDIAN HEROIN ADDICTS

    Sharma, A. K.; Sahai, M.

    1990-01-01

    SUMMMARY The pattern of drag use was studied in 213 heroin addicts, constituting 80.7% of the patient population attending ABHAY-II Deaddication Cum Rehabilitation Centre. All heroin addicts were male and 98.6% of all had consumed or have been consuming other drugs concurrently. Tobacco, cannabis and alcohol were the drugs commonly used by the addicts. The mean age for begining tobacco consumption was lowest and highest for medicinal drugs like sedatives, hypnotics and tranquillizers. The seq...

  12. Gambling Disorder and Other Behavioral Addictions: Recognition and Treatment

    Yau, Yvonne H. C.; POTENZA, MARC N.

    2015-01-01

    Addiction professionals and the public are recognizing that certain nonsubstance behaviors—such as gambling, Internet use, video-game playing, sex, eating, and shopping—bear resemblance to alcohol and drug dependence. Growing evidence suggests that these behaviors warrant consideration as nonsubstance or “behavioral” addictions and has led to the newly introduced diagnostic category “Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders” in DSM-5. At present, only gambling disorder has been placed in thi...

  13. Differential Psychological Impact of Internet Exposure on Internet Addicts

    Michela Romano; Lisa A Osborne; Roberto Truzoli; Phil Reed

    2013-01-01

    The study explored the immediate impact of internet exposure on the mood and psychological states of internet addicts and low internet-users. Participants were given a battery of psychological tests to explore levels of internet addiction, mood, anxiety, depression, schizotypy, and autism traits. They were then given exposure to the internet for 15 min, and re-tested for mood and current anxiety. Internet addiction was associated with long-standing depression, impulsive nonconformity, and aut...

  14. Internet Addiction and Antisocial Internet Behavior of Adolescents

    Hing Keung Ma

    2011-01-01

    Internet addiction and the moral implication of antisocial Internet behavior will be investigated in this paper. More and more people use the Internet in their daily life. Unfortunately the percentage of people who use the internet excessively also increases. The concept of Internet addiction or pathological use of Internet is discussed in detail, and the characteristics of Internet addicts are also delineated. The social (especially the antisocial) use of Internet is discussed. It is argued ...

  15. Optogenetic and chemogenetic insights into the food addiction hypothesis

    Krashes, Michael J.; Kravitz, Alexxai V.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is clinically diagnosed by a simple formula based on the weight and height of a person (body mass index), but is associated with a host of other behavioral symptoms that are likely neurological in origin. In recent years, many scientists have asked whether similar behavioral and cognitive changes occur in drug addiction and obesity, lending many to discuss the potential for food addiction. Advances in understanding the circuitry underlying both feeding behaviors and drug addiction m...

  16. Nicotine and Hippocampus-Dependent Learning: Implications for Addiction

    Gould, Thomas J.

    2006-01-01

    Addiction is a complex disorder because many factors contribute to the development and maintenance of addiction. One factor is learning. For example, drug–context associations that develop during drug use could facilitate drug craving upon re-exposure to contexts previously associated with drugs. Additionally, deficits in cognitive processes associated with withdrawal could precipitate relapse in attempts to ameliorate those deficits. Because addiction and learning involve common neural areas...

  17. The incentive sensitization theory of addiction: some current issues

    Robinson, Terry E; Berridge, Kent C.

    2008-01-01

    We present a brief overview of the incentive sensitization theory of addiction. This posits that addiction is caused primarily by drug-induced sensitization in the brain mesocorticolimbic systems that attribute incentive salience to reward-associated stimuli. If rendered hypersensitive, these systems cause pathological incentive motivation (‘wanting’) for drugs. We address some current questions including: what is the role of learning in incentive sensitization and addiction? Does incentive s...

  18. Plasticity of Addiction: a Mesolimbic Dopamine Short-Circuit?

    Niehaus, Jason L.; Cruz-Bermúdez, Nelson D.; Kauer, Julie A.

    2009-01-01

    The development of drug addiction progresses along a continuum from acute drug use to compulsive use and drug seeking behavior. Many researchers have focused on identifying the physiological mechanisms involved in drug addiction in order to develop effective pharmacotherapies. Neuroplasticity, the putative mechanism underlying learning and memory, is modified by drugs of abuse and may contribute to the development of the eventual addicted state. Innovative treatments directly targeting these ...

  19. Food Addiction: Current Understanding and Implications for Regulation and Research

    Sorenson, Margareta

    2014-01-01

    The idea that some processed foods can be addictive has gained support in recent years. Animal and human studies show extensive overlap between the neuronal signaling involved in palatable food consumption and drug addiction. A growing number of individuals also repor being unable to stop consuming certain foods despite repeated efforts, and consuming them to feel better emotionally, rather than to satisfy hunger. While food addiction can contribute to overconsumption of calories and exces...

  20. Rational Development of Addiction Pharmacotherapies: Successes, Failures, and Prospects

    Christopher Pierce, R.; O’Brien, Charles P.; Kenny, Paul J.; Vanderschuren, Louk J. M. J.

    2012-01-01

    There are currently effective, U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved therapies for alcohol, nicotine, and opioid addiction. In some cases these therapeutics were rationally designed and tested using a combination of various animal models of addiction. In many cases, however, effective drug therapies for addiction were derived from the testing of compounds developed for other CNS disorders (e.g., analgesics and antidepressants), which were tested clinically in the absence of prior a...

  1. Is food addiction a valid and useful concept?

    Ziauddeen, H; Fletcher, P C

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the concept of food addiction from a clinical and neuroscientific perspective. Food addiction has an established and growing currency in the context of models of overeating and obesity, and its acceptance shapes debate and research. However, we argue that the evidence for its existence in humans is actually rather limited and, in addition, there are fundamental theoretical difficulties that require consideration. We therefore review food addiction as a phenotypic de...

  2. Extensive Internet Involvement—Addiction or Emerging Lifestyle?

    Karin Helmersson Bergmark; Olle Findahl; Anders Bergmark

    2011-01-01

    In the discussions for the future DSM-5, the Substance-Related Disorders Work Group has been addressing “addiction-like” behavioral disorders such as “Internet addiction” to possibly be considered as potential additions for the diagnostic system. Most research aiming to specify and define the concept of Internet addiction (or: Excessive/Compulsive/Problematic Internet Use—PIU), takes its point of departure in conventional terminology for addiction, based in established DSM indicators. Still, ...

  3. Prevalence of internet addiction among schoolchildren in Novi Sad

    Ač-Nikolić Eržebet; Zarić Dragana; Nićiforović-Šurković Olja

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Internet use has increased rapidly all over the world. Excessive Internet use tends to lead to the creation of a non-chemical addiction, most commonly known as “Internet addiction.” Objective. The aim of this study was an assessment of the prevalence of Internet use and Internet addiction among school children aged 14-18 years in the Municipality of Novi Sad, Serbia, and influence of sociodemographic variables on Internet use. Methods. A cross...

  4. The Relationship between General Health and Internet Addiction

    Nastiezaie Nasser

    2009-01-01

    Background: Internet is a neutral tool on its own. However, excessive use of internet poses the risk of being addicted to it. This study was performed to investigate the association between general health and internet addiction.Materials and Methods: In this descriptive study a total number of 375 students (189 female and 186 male) were randomly selected from Sistan and Baluchestan University between 2007 to 2008. Using the internet addiction test (IAT), the students were divided into two gro...

  5. Differential psychological impact of internet exposure on internet addicts

    Romano, M.; L.A. Osborne; R. Truzoli; Reed, P.

    2013-01-01

    The study explored the immediate impact of internet exposure on the mood and psychological states of internet addicts and low internet-users. Participants were given a battery of psychological tests to explore levels of internet addiction, mood, anxiety, depression, schizotypy, and autism traits. They were then given exposure to the internet for 15 min, and re-tested for mood and current anxiety. Internet addiction was associated with long-standing depression, impulsive nonconformity, and aut...

  6. Video game addiction test: validity and psychometric characteristics.

    Rooij, A.J. van; Schoenmakers, T.M.; Eijnden, R.J.J.M. van den; Vermulst, A.A.; van de Mheen, D.

    2012-01-01

    The study explores the reliability, validity, and measurement invariance of the Video game Addiction Test (VAT). Game-addiction problems are often linked to Internet enabled online games; the VAT has the unique benefit that it is theoretically and empirically linked to Internet addiction. The study used data (n=2,894) from a large-sample paper-and-pencil questionnaire study, conducted in 2009 on secondary schools in Netherlands. Thus, the main source of data was a large sample of schoolchildr...

  7. Facebook Addiction and Aggression: Is There a Profound Relation?

    Arendain, Jonathan; Murcia, John Vianne

    2016-01-01

    The study intends to investigate the relation of Facebook addiction and aggression among college students, and to determine if there is gender specificity in their aggression levels. The Bergen Facebook Addiction Scale (BFAS) by Andreassen et al. (2012), which measures Facebook addiction in the areas of salience, tolerance, mood modification, withdrawal, conflict and relapse, and the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire (BPAQ) of Buss and Perry (1992), which measures four forms of aggression ...

  8. Behavioral Perspectives on the Neuroscience of Drug Addiction

    Winger, Gail; Woods, James H; Galuska, Chad M; Wade-Galuska, Tammy

    2005-01-01

    Neuroscientific approaches to drug addiction traditionally have been based on the premise that addiction is a process that results from brain changes that in turn result from chronic administration of drugs of abuse. An alternative approach views drug addiction as a behavioral disorder in which drugs function as preeminent reinforcers. Although there is a fundamental discrepancy between these two approaches, the emerging neuroscience of reinforcement and choice behavior eventually may shed li...

  9. Homers regulate drug-induced neuroplasticity: Implications for addiction

    Szumlinski, Karen K; Ary, Alexis W.; Lominac, Kevin D

    2007-01-01

    Drug addiction is a chronic, relapsing disorder, characterized by an uncontrollable motivation to seek and use drugs. Converging clinical and preclinical observations implicate pathologies within the corticolimbic glutamate system in the genetic predisposition to, and the development of, an addicted phenotype. Such observations pose cellular factors regulating glutamate transmission as likely molecular candidates in the etiology of addiction. Members of the Homer family of proteins regulate s...

  10. Development of Korean Smartphone Addiction Proneness Scale for Youth

    Dongil Kim; Yunhee Lee; Juyoung Lee; JeeEun Karin Nam; Yeoju Chung

    2014-01-01

    This study developed a Smartphone Addiction Proneness Scale (SAPS) based on the existing internet and cellular phone addiction scales. For the development of this scale, 29 items (1.5 times the final number of items) were initially selected as preliminary items, based on the previous studies on internet/phone addiction as well as the clinical experience of involved experts. The preliminary scale was administered to a nationally representative sample of 795 students in elementary, middle, and ...

  11. Development and Validation of a Smartphone Addiction Scale (SAS)

    Min Kwon; Joon-Yeop Lee; Wang-Youn Won; Jae-Woo Park; Jung-Ah Min; Changtae Hahn; Xinyu Gu; Ji-Hye Choi; Dai-Jin Kim

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to develop a self-diagnostic scale that could distinguish smartphone addicts based on the Korean self-diagnostic program for Internet addiction (K-scale) and the smartphone's own features. In addition, the reliability and validity of the smartphone addiction scale (SAS) was demonstrated. METHODS: A total of 197 participants were selected from Nov. 2011 to Jan. 2012 to accomplish a set of questionnaires, including SAS, K-scale, modified Kimberly Young Inter...

  12. Disordered gambling: the evolving concept of behavioral addiction

    Clark, Luke

    2014-01-01

    The reclassification of gambling disorder within the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) addictions category marks an important step for addiction science. The similarities between gambling disorder and the substance use disorders have been well documented. As gambling is unlikely to exert actively damaging effects on the brain, the cognitive sequelae of gambling disorder may provide insights into addictive vulnerabilities; this idea is critically eval...

  13. A Novel Perspective on Dopaminergic Processing of Human Addiction

    Badgaiyan, Rajendra D

    2012-01-01

    Converging evidence from clinical, animal, and neuroimaging experiments suggests that the addictive behavior is associated with dysregulated dopamine neurotransmission. The precise role of dopamine in establishment and maintenance of addiction however is unclear. In this context animal studies on the brain reward system and the associative memory processing provide a novel insight. It was shown that both processing involve dopamine neurotransmission and both are disrupted in addiction. These ...

  14. Microstructure Abnormalities in Adolescents with Internet Addiction Disorder

    Yuan, Kai; Qin, Wei; Wang, Guihong; Zeng, Fang; Zhao, Liyan; Yang, Xuejuan; Liu, Peng; Liu, Jixin; Sun, Jinbo; von Deneen, Karen M.; Gong, Qiyong; Liu, Yijun; Tian, Jie

    2011-01-01

    Background Recent studies suggest that internet addiction disorder (IAD) is associated with structural abnormalities in brain gray matter. However, few studies have investigated the effects of internet addiction on the microstructural integrity of major neuronal fiber pathways, and almost no studies have assessed the microstructural changes with the duration of internet addiction. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated the morphology of the brain in adolescents with IAD (N = 18) using...

  15. Endocannabinoid involvement in reward and impulsivity in addiction

    van Hell, H H

    2011-01-01

    Addiction is one of the most disabling diseases in the world. An important neurotransmitter system that has recently been implicated in addiction is the endocannabinoid system. The endocannabinoid system consists of cannabinoid receptors and endocannabinoid ligands that work on these receptors. Animal studies have shown that blocking the cannabinoid system prevents relapse to addiction, while activating the cannabinoid system with an agonist evokes relapse. Still, the involvement of the endoc...

  16. Addiction Related Alteration in Resting-state Brain Connectivity

    Ma, Ning; Liu, Ying; Li, Nan; Wang, Chang-Xin; Zhang, Hao; Jiang, Xiao-Feng; Xu, Hu-Sheng; Fu, Xian-ming; Hu, Xiaoping; Zhang, Da-Ren

    2009-01-01

    It is widely accepted that addictive drug use is related to abnormal functional organization in the user’s brain. The present study aimed to identify this type of abnormality within the brain networks implicated in addiction by resting-state functional connectivity measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). With fMRI data acquired during resting state from 14 chronic heroin users (12 of whom were being treated with methadone) and 13 non-addicted controls, we investigated the ...

  17. Neuronal apoptosis in morphine addiction and its molecular mechanism

    Liu, Li-wei; Lu, Jun; Wang, Xin-Hua; Fu, Shu-kun; Li, Quan; Lin, Fu-qing

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to investigate neuronal apoptosis and expression of apoptosis related proteins (Fas, Caspase-3 and Bcl-2) in the brain of rates with morphine addiction. Methods: A total of 48 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 190-210 g were randomly divided into 3 groups (n=16 per group): morphine addiction group, morphine abstinence group and control group. Rats in the addiction group and the abstinence group were intraperitoneally treated with morphine for 13 days to induc...

  18. Challenges for Game Addiction as a Mental Health Diagnosis

    Nielsen, Rune Kristian; Aarseth, Espen; Poulsen, Arne

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we outline the proposed PhD project: "Challenges for Game Addiction as a Mental Health Diagnosis". The project aims to bridge gaps between the perspectives, theories and data of current research trajectories that engage with the concept of game addiction; from psychology, psychiatry, cognitive neuroscience to media and game studies. The project has several proposed outcomes. Based on a review of the literature, the adequacy of 'game addiction' as a concept is questioned. The co...

  19. Neurobiology of addiction: a neurocircuitry analysis.

    Koob, George F; Volkow, Nora D

    2016-08-01

    Drug addiction represents a dramatic dysregulation of motivational circuits that is caused by a combination of exaggerated incentive salience and habit formation, reward deficits and stress surfeits, and compromised executive function in three stages. The rewarding effects of drugs of abuse, development of incentive salience, and development of drug-seeking habits in the binge/intoxication stage involve changes in dopamine and opioid peptides in the basal ganglia. The increases in negative emotional states and dysphoric and stress-like responses in the withdrawal/negative affect stage involve decreases in the function of the dopamine component of the reward system and recruitment of brain stress neurotransmitters, such as corticotropin-releasing factor and dynorphin, in the neurocircuitry of the extended amygdala. The craving and deficits in executive function in the so-called preoccupation/anticipation stage involve the dysregulation of key afferent projections from the prefrontal cortex and insula, including glutamate, to the basal ganglia and extended amygdala. Molecular genetic studies have identified transduction and transcription factors that act in neurocircuitry associated with the development and maintenance of addiction that might mediate initial vulnerability, maintenance, and relapse associated with addiction. PMID:27475769

  20. User profiles of internet addicts in Serbia

    Hinić Darko

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This work was a part of a broader empirical study of Internet users with excessive and dysfunctional Internet use symptoms. The aim of this particular article was to describe user profiles of Internet addicts in Serbia. The study recruited 100 subjects in total, 50 in both the clinical and control group. The clinical group included the Internet users who asked for professional help due to the symptoms of the excessive Internet use and fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for Internet behavior disorder proposed by the American Psychology Association. The results have shown that population with Internet addiction symptoms equally included both males and females, mostly adolescent and younger population, teenagers and university students, persons with higher income and users from economically more developed areas of Serbia. The user profile of this group is characterized by frequent logging on with intervals of several hours online at one time, mainly in the evening or at night, and also intensive negative reactions to any form of Internet access deprivation. By means of factor analysis, three dimensions of pathological use have been established: mixed type with particular need for up-to-date information, social interaction addiction and need for fun-seeking, namely pursuing hobbies online (cyberpornography, online games, music, art and so on.