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Sample records for addiction cohort recruitment

  1. The Edinburgh Addiction Cohort: recruitment and follow-up of a primary care based sample of injection drug users and non drug-injecting controls

    Kimber Jo

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Injection drug use is an important public health problem. Epidemiological understanding of this problem is incomplete as longitudinal studies in the general population are difficult to undertake. In particular little is known about early life risk factors for later drug injection or about the life course of injection once established including the influence of medical and social interventions. Methods Individuals thought to be drug injectors were identified through a single primary medical care facility in Edinburgh between 1980 and 2006 and flagged with the General Registry Office. From October 2005 - October 2007, these cases were traced and invited to undergo interview assessment covering early life experience, substance use, health and social histories. Age and sex matched controls for confirmed cases (alive and dead were later recruited through the same health facility. Controls for living cases completed the same structured interview schedule. Data were also collected on cases and controls through linkage to routine primary care records, death registrations, hospital contact statistics and police and prison records. All interviews were conducted with the knowledge and permission of the current GP. Results The initial cohort size was 814. At start of follow up 227 had died. Of the remaining 587: 20 had no contact details and 5 had embarked from the UK; 40 declined participation; 38 did not respond to invitations; 14 were excluded by their GP on health or social grounds and 22 had their contact details withheld by administrative authorities. 448 were interviewed of whom 16 denied injection and were excluded. Of 191 dead cases with medical records 4 were excluded as their records contained no evidence of injection. 5 interviewed cases died before follow up was concluded though these individuals were counted as "live" cases. 1 control per case (dead and alive was recruited. Linkage to Scottish Morbidity Records data

  2. Addiction Treatment Experience among a Cohort of Street-Involved Youths and Young Adults

    Wong, Jellena; Marshall, Brandon D. L.; Kerr, Thomas; Lai, Calvin; Wood, Evan

    2009-01-01

    Very little is known about the accessibility and potential barriers to addiction treatment among street youths and young adults. We sought to examine the prevalence and correlates of enrollment in addiction treatment among a cohort of street-involved youths and young adults in Vancouver, Canada. Street-involved youths and young adults who use…

  3. Addiction Treatment and Stable Housing among a Cohort of Injection Drug Users

    Palepu, Anita; Marshall, Brandon D. L.; Lai, Calvin; Wood, Evan; Kerr, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Background Unstable housing and homelessness is prevalent among injection drug users (IDU). We sought to examine whether accessing addiction treatment was associated with attaining stable housing in a prospective cohort of IDU in Vancouver, Canada. Methods We used data collected via the Vancouver Injection Drug User Study (VIDUS) between December 2005 and April 2010. Attaining stable housing was defined as two consecutive “stable housing” designations (i.e., living in an apartment or house) d...

  4. Addiction.

    Naim-Feil, Jodie; Zangen, Abraham

    2013-01-01

    Drug and alcohol addiction is a debilitating disorder characterized by persistent drug-seeking behaviors despite negative physiological, medical, or social consequences. Neurobiological models of addiction propose that the reinforcing effects of addictive drugs are associated with altered neurotransmission within the reward 'mesocorticolimbic' circuitry in the brain. Immense efforts are therefore designed to target the mesocorticolimbic circuitry in attenuating drug dependence and addiction-related behaviors. Yet, to date, most addiction treatments have demonstrated only limited success in reducing addiction-related behaviors. Accumulating and compelling evidence suggests that novel nonsurgical brain stimulation techniques, such as transcranial magnetic stimulation and transcranial direct current stimulation, could serve as promising tools for indexing altered neurotransmission associated with repetitive drug use, and moreover, may hold therapeutic potential for the treatment of drug dependence and addiction-related behaviors. This chapter reviews and discusses the current and potential applications of such techniques in the study and treatment of addiction; we focus on a number of common drugs of abuse, including nicotine, alcohol, cocaine, cannabis, and ecstasy. PMID:24112928

  5. Massively multiplayer online role-playing games: comparing characteristics of addict vs non-addict online recruited gamers in a French adult population

    Monnin Julie

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPGs are a very popular and enjoyable leisure activity, and there is a lack of international validated instruments to assess excessive gaming. With the growing number of gamers worldwide, adverse effects (isolation, hospitalizations, excessive use, etc. are observed in a minority of gamers, which is a concern for society and for the scientific community. In the present study, we focused on screening gamers at potential risk of MMORPG addiction. Methods In this exploratory study, we focused on characteristics, online habits and problematic overuse in adult MMORPG gamers. In addition to socio-demographical data and gamer behavioral patterns, 3 different instruments for screening addiction were used in French MMORPG gamers recruited online over 10 consecutive months: the substance dependence criteria for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder, fourth revised edition (DSM-IV-TR that has been adapted for MMORPG (DAS, the qualitative Goldberg Internet Addiction Disorder scale (GIAD and the quantitative Orman Internet Stress Scale (ISS. For all scales, a score above a specific threshold defined positivity. Results The 448 participating adult gamers were mainly young adult university graduates living alone in urban areas. Participants showed high rates of both Internet addiction (44.2% for GIAD, 32.6% for ISS and DAS positivity (27.5%. Compared to the DAS negative group, DAS positive gamers reported significantly higher rates of tolerance phenomenon (increased amount of time in online gaming to obtain the desired effect and declared significantly more social, financial (OR: 4.85, marital (OR: 4.61, family (OR: 4.69 and/or professional difficulties (OR: 4.42 since they started online gaming. Furthermore, these gamers self-reported significantly higher rates (3 times more of irritability, daytime sleepiness, sleep deprivation due to play, low mood and emotional

  6. The Norwegian Offender Mental Health and Addiction Study – Design and Implementation of a National Survey and Prospective Cohort Study

    Anne Bukten; Ingunn Olea Lund; Eline Borger Rognli; Marianne Riksheim Stavseth; Philipp Lobmaier; Svetlana Skurtveit; Thomas Clausen; Nikolaj Kunøe

    2015-01-01

    The Norwegian prison inmates are burdened by problems before they enter prison. Few studies have managed to assess this burden and relate it to what occurs for the inmates once they leave the prison. The Norwegian Offender Mental Health and Addiction (NorMA) study is a large-scale longitudinal cohort study that combines national survey and registry data in order to understand mental health, substance use, and criminal activity before, during, and after custody among prisoners in Norway. The m...

  7. Mitochondrial and nuclear DNA analysis of genetic heterogeneity among recruitment cohorts of the European flat oyster Ostrea edulis.

    Taris, Nicolas; Boudry, Pierre; Bonhomme, François; Camara, Mark D; Lapègue, Sylvie

    2009-12-01

    Marine species with high fecundity and high early mortality may also have high variance in reproductive success among individuals due to stochastic factors, making successful reproduction a "sweepstakes." In some cases, the impact is sufficient to reduce the effective number of breeders in wild populations. We tested two predictions of the sweepstakes reproductive success hypothesis in a French Atlantic population of the European flat oyster, Ostrea edulis, by evaluating (1) whether individuals belonging to temporally discrete recruitment cohorts within a single reproductive season displayed reduced genetic variation relative to the entire adult population, and (2) whether these temporal cohorts of recruits were genetically differentiated from each other. We assayed genetic variation at four nuclear microsatellites and a 12S mitochondrial fragment in four recruitment cohorts. Nuclear markers provided no evidence for differentiation between recruitment cohorts and adults or between temporal cohorts. However, mitochondrial data indicate that the first temporal cohort showed significant differentiation with the last (Fst = 0.052, P oyster reproductive biology and different environmental conditions. PMID:20040748

  8. The Healthy Young Men’s Study: Sampling Methods to Recruit a Random Cohort of Young Men Who Have Sex with Men

    Ford, Wesley L.; Weiss, George; Kipke, Michele D.; Ritt-Olson, Anamara; Iverson, Ellen; Lopez, Donna

    2009-01-01

    Recruiting a scientifically sound cohort of young men who have sex with men (YMSM) is an enduring research challenge. The few cohort studies that have been conducted to date on YMSM have relied on non-probability sampling methods to construct their cohorts. While these studies have provided valuable information about HIV risk behaviors among YMSM, their generalizability to broader YMSM populations is limited.

  9. Strategies for recruiting Hispanic women into a prospective cohort study of modifiable risk factors for gestational diabetes mellitus

    Hastings Valerie; Fortner Renée T; Chasan-Taber Lisa; Markenson Glenn

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The purpose of this article was to describe effective strategies for recruitment of Hispanic women into a prospective cohort study of modifiable risk factors for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Although Hispanic women have two to four times the risk of developing GDM compared with non-Hispanic white women, few GDM prevention studies have included Hispanic women. Methods The study was conducted in the ambulatory obstetrical practices of Baystate Medical Center located ...

  10. Gender differences in mortality and risk factors in a 13-year cohort study of street-recruited injecting drug users

    Gjersing, Linn; Bretteville-Jensen, Anne Line

    2014-01-01

    Background Injecting drug users (IDUs) are at risk of premature mortality. This study examined gender differences in mortality, risk factors, and causes of death among IDUs. Methods In a 13-year cohort study including 172 street-recruited IDUs from Oslo, Norway in 1997, interview data was merged with the National Cause of Death Registry. Crude mortality rate (CMR) and indirect standardized mortality ratio (SMR) were estimated with 95% confidence intervals (CI). A log-logistic multivariate sur...

  11. Strategies for recruiting Hispanic women into a prospective cohort study of modifiable risk factors for gestational diabetes mellitus

    Hastings Valerie

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this article was to describe effective strategies for recruitment of Hispanic women into a prospective cohort study of modifiable risk factors for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM. Although Hispanic women have two to four times the risk of developing GDM compared with non-Hispanic white women, few GDM prevention studies have included Hispanic women. Methods The study was conducted in the ambulatory obstetrical practices of Baystate Medical Center located in a socioeconomically and ethnically diverse city in Massachusetts. The study employed a range of strategies to recruit Hispanic women based on a review of the literature as well as prior experience with the study population. Results Over a period of 32 months, a total of 851 Hispanic prenatal care patients were recruited. Among eligible women, 52.4% agreed to participate. Participants were young (70% Conclusions Findings suggest that investigators can successfully recruit pregnant women from ethnic minority groups of low socioeconomic status into observational studies. The study provides culturally appropriate recruitment strategies useful for practice-based settings recruiting Hispanic research participation.

  12. Online and Offline Recruitment of Young Women for a Longitudinal Health Survey: Findings From the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health 1989-95 Cohort

    Powers, Jennifer; Anderson, Amy E; Townsend, Natalie; Harris, Melissa L; Tuckerman, Ryan; Pease, Stephanie; Mishra, Gita; Byles, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Background In 2012, we set out to recruit a cohort of at least 10,000 women aged 18-23 from across Australia. With recent research demonstrating the inadequacy of traditional approaches to recruiting women in this age group, we elected to conduct open recruiting. Objective Our aim was to report on the overall success of open recruiting and to evaluate the relative success of a variety of recruitment methods in terms of numbers and demographics. Methods We used referrals, Facebook, formal advertising, and incentives in order to recruit the cohort. Results In all, 17,069 women were recruited for the longitudinal online survey, from 54,685 initiated surveys. Of these women, most (69.94%, n=11,799) who joined the longitudinal cohort were recruited via Facebook, 12.72% (n=2145) via the fashion promotion, 7.02% (n=1184) by referral, 4.9% (n=831) via other Web activities, and 5.4% (n=910) via traditional media. Conclusions Facebook was by far the most successful strategy, enrolling a cohort of women with a similar profile to the population of Australian women in terms of age, area of residence, and relationship status. Women recruited via fashion promotion were the least representative. All strategies underrepresented less educated women—a finding that is consistent with more traditional means of recruiting. In conclusion, flexibility in recruitment design, embracing new and traditional media, adopting a dynamic responsive approach, and monitoring the results of recruiting in terms of sample composition and number recruited led to the successful establishment of a new cohort. PMID:25940876

  13. The Norwegian Offender Mental Health and Addiction Study - Design and Implementation of a National Survey and Prospective Cohort Study.

    Bukten, Anne; Lund, Ingunn Olea; Rognli, Eline Borger; Stavseth, Marianne Riksheim; Lobmaier, Philipp; Skurtveit, Svetlana; Clausen, Thomas; Kunøe, Nikolaj

    2015-01-01

    The Norwegian prison inmates are burdened by problems before they enter prison. Few studies have managed to assess this burden and relate it to what occurs for the inmates once they leave the prison. The Norwegian Offender Mental Health and Addiction (NorMA) study is a large-scale longitudinal cohort study that combines national survey and registry data in order to understand mental health, substance use, and criminal activity before, during, and after custody among prisoners in Norway. The main goal of the study is to describe the criminal and health-related trajectories based on both survey and registry linkage information. Data were collected from 1,499 inmates in Norwegian prison facilities during 2013-2014. Of these, 741 inmates provided a valid personal identification number and constitute a cohort that will be examined retrospectively and prospectively, along with data from nationwide Norwegian registries. This study describes the design, procedures, and implementation of the ongoing NorMA study and provides an outline of the initial data. PMID:26648732

  14. The Norwegian Offender Mental Health and Addiction Study – Design and Implementation of a National Survey and Prospective Cohort Study

    Bukten, Anne; Lund, Ingunn Olea; Rognli, Eline Borger; Stavseth, Marianne Riksheim; Lobmaier, Philipp; Skurtveit, Svetlana; Clausen, Thomas; Kunøe, Nikolaj

    2015-01-01

    The Norwegian prison inmates are burdened by problems before they enter prison. Few studies have managed to assess this burden and relate it to what occurs for the inmates once they leave the prison. The Norwegian Offender Mental Health and Addiction (NorMA) study is a large-scale longitudinal cohort study that combines national survey and registry data in order to understand mental health, substance use, and criminal activity before, during, and after custody among prisoners in Norway. The main goal of the study is to describe the criminal and health-related trajectories based on both survey and registry linkage information. Data were collected from 1,499 inmates in Norwegian prison facilities during 2013–2014. Of these, 741 inmates provided a valid personal identification number and constitute a cohort that will be examined retrospectively and prospectively, along with data from nationwide Norwegian registries. This study describes the design, procedures, and implementation of the ongoing NorMA study and provides an outline of the initial data. PMID:26648732

  15. Born in Bradford, a cohort study of babies born in Bradford, and their parents: Protocol for the recruitment phase

    Raynor Pauline

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bradford, one of the most deprived cities in the United Kingdom, has a wide range of public health problems associated with socioeconomic deprivation, including an infant mortality rate almost double that for England and Wales. Infant mortality is highest for babies of Pakistani origin, who comprise almost half the babies born in Bradford. The Born in Bradford cohort study aims to examine environmental, psychological and genetic factors that impact on health and development perinatally, during childhood and subsequent adult life, and those that influence their parents' health and wellbeing. This protocol outlines methods for the recruitment phase of the study. Methods Most Bradford women attend for antenatal care and give birth at the Bradford Royal Infirmary, which has approximately 5,800 births per year. Women are eligible for recruitment if they plan to give birth here. Babies born from March 2007 are eligible to participate, recruitment is planned to continue until 2010. Fathers of babies recruited are invited to participate. Women are usually recruited when they attend for a routine oral glucose tolerance test at 26–28 weeks gestation. Recruitment of babies is at birth. Fathers are recruited whenever possible during the antenatal period, or soon after the birth. The aim is to recruit 10,000 women, their babies, and the babies' fathers. At recruitment women have blood samples taken, are interviewed to complete a semi-structured questionnaire, weighed, and have height, arm circumference and triceps skinfold measured. Umbilical cord blood is collected at birth. Within two weeks of birth babies have their head, arm and abdominal circumference measured, along with subscapular and triceps skinfold thickness. Fathers self-complete a questionnaire at recruitment, have height and weight measured, and provide a saliva sample. Participants are allocated a unique study number. NHS numbers will be used to facilitate record linkage

  16. HIV-infected individuals who delay, decline, or discontinue antiretroviral therapy: Comparing clinic- and peer-recruited cohorts

    Marya eGwadz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A substantial proportion of persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA delay, decline, or discontinue antiretroviral therapy (ART when it is medically indicated (40-45%, largely African Americans and Latinos/Hispanics. This study explores the feasibility of locating PLHA who are not on ART (PLHA-NOA through clinics and peer referral; compares the two cohorts on multi-level barriers to ART; and examines readiness to initiate/reinitiate ART, a predictor of treatment outcomes. We recruited adult HIV-infected African American and Latino/Hispanic PLHA-NOA through HIV hospital clinics and peer referral in 2012-13. Participants engaged in structured one-hour assessments with reliable/valid measures on barriers to ART. We found recruitment through peers (63.2%, 60/95 was more feasible than in clinics (36.8%, 35/90. Participants were 48.0 years old and had lived with HIV for 14.7 years on average, and 56.8% had taken ART previously. Most (61.1% were male and African American (76.8%, and 23.2% were Latino/Hispanic. Peer-recruited participants were older, had lived with HIV longer, were less engaged in HIV care, and were more likely to have taken ART previously. The cohorts differed in reasons for discontinuing ART. Levels of ART knowledge were comparable between cohorts (68.5% correct, and there were no differences in attitudes toward ART (e.g., mistrust, which were in the neutral range. In bivariate linear regression, readiness for ART was negatively associated with physician mistrust (B=-10.4, and positively associated with self-efficacy (B=5.5, positive outcome expectancies (B=6.3, beliefs about personal necessity of ART (B=17.5, and positive internal norms (B=7.9. The present study demonstrates the feasibility of engaging this vulnerable population through peer referral. Peer-recruited PLHA evidence particularly high rates of risk factors compared those in clinics. Interventions to support ART initiation and continuation are sorely needed for both subgroups.

  17. Longitudinal study of urban malaria in a cohort of Ugandan children: description of study site, census and recruitment

    Staedke Sarah G

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies of malaria in well-defined cohorts offer important data about the epidemiology of this complex disease, but few have been done in urban African populations. To generate a sampling frame for a longitudinal study of malaria incidence and treatment in Kampala, Uganda, a census, mapping and survey project was conducted. Methods All households in a geographically defined area were enumerated and mapped. Probability sampling was used to recruit a representative sample of children and collect baseline descriptive data for future longitudinal studies. Results 16,172 residents living in 4931 households in a densely-populated community (18,824 persons/km2 were enumerated. A total of 582 households were approached with at least one child less than 10 years of age in order to recruit 601 children living in 322 households. At enrollment, 19% were parasitaemic, 24% were anaemic, 43% used bednets, and 6% used insecticide-treated nets. Low G6PD activity (OR = 0.33, P = 0.009 and bednet use (OR = 0.64, P = 0.045 were associated with a decreased risk of parasitaemia. Increasing age (OR = 0.62 for each year, P Conclusion Detailed surveys of target populations in urban Africa can provide valuable descriptive data and provide a sampling frame for recruitment of representative cohorts for longitudinal studies. Plans to use a multi-disciplinary approach to improve the understanding of the distribution and determinants of malaria incidence and response to therapy in this population are discussed.

  18. Recruitment of a Community-Based Cohort for Research on Diversity and Risk of Dementia

    Hinton, Ladson; Carter, Kimberly; Reed, Bruce R.; Beckett, Laurel; Lara, Esther; DeCarli, Charles; Mungas, Dan

    2010-01-01

    We describe the history, development, and success of the recruitment and screening procedures used by researchers at the University of California, Davis Alzheimer's Disease Center (UCD ADC) to facilitate minority enrollment in research. After an initial, unsuccessful approach with satellite clinics in minority neighborhoods, the ADC shifted to an active community outreach approach. Multiple strategies were implemented to remove barriers to research participation such as providing transportati...

  19. Virtual cohorts and face-to-face recruitment: Strategies for cultivating the next generation of the IRIS Community

    Hubenthal, M.; Wysession, M. E.; Aster, R. C.

    2009-12-01

    Since 1998, the IRIS Consortium REU program has facilitated research opportunities and career development for 71 undergraduate students to work with leaders in seismological research, travel to exciting locations for fieldwork, and engage in significant research for presentation and recognition at major professional conferences. A principal program goal is to encourage more students, representing a more diverse population, to choose careers in Earth science. Of the forty-six internship alumni that have completed their undergraduate degrees thus far, 85% have attained or are currently pursuing a graduate degree in a geoscience field and an additional 6% are working in a geoscience career with an undergraduate degree. The IRIS Consortium’s program differs from traditional REUs in that students are hosted at IRIS member institutions that are geographically distributed. To capture the sprit of a traditional REU cohort, IRIS has developed and refined a model that bonds students into a cohort. Key to the model are: a) research projects that have a common focus within seismology, b) a weeklong orientation where students get to know one another, share common experiences and establish a “social presence” with the other interns, c) a cyber infrastructure to maintain their connectedness in a way that enables both learning and collaboration, d) an alumni mentor that supports the interns and serves both as a role model and an unbiased and experienced third-party to the mentor/mentee relationship, and e) an alumni reception, and scientific presentation, at the annual Fall AGU Meeting to reconnect and share experiences. Through their virtual community interns offer each other assistance, share ideas, ask questions, and relate life experiences while conducting their own unique research. In addition to developing a model for encouraging virtual cohorts, IRIS has also carefully examined recruitment strategies to increase and diversify the applicant pool. Based on applicant

  20. 北京驻地新兵网络游戏成瘾状况调查及分析%INVESTIGATION ON AND ANALYSIS OF INTERNET GAME ADDICTION AND INFLUENTIAL FACTORS AMONG NEW RECRUITS BY THE TROOPS STATIONED IN BEIJING

    刘彩谊; 张惠敏; 方晓义; 宁丽; 冯彩燕; 王磊; 陶然

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the Internet game addiction disorder and influential factors in the new recruits by the troops stationed in Beijing. Methods:A total of 617 new recruits were investigated with Internet Game Addiction Criteria Scale and a self - designed questionnaire for the general information of the new recruits. Results: Altogether 581 questionnaires were effective for analysis. Among them ,9.3% were diagnosed to have Internet game addiction disorder. Between Internet game addicts and non -addicts, there were significant discrepancies in rearing style, family atmosphere, family relationship satisfaction, parents bad habits. Difference was observed between addicts and non - addicts ( P < 0.05 ) in academic pressure, academic motivation, academic achievements, teacher - student relationship and peer relationship before playing Internet games and times of playing games at study,work and other time and self - evaluation of rational use of Internet as a student. Conclusion: The army should take effective psychological interventions to help new recruits to get rid of Internet game addiction and successfully complete the transition from an ordinary young people to a qualified soldier and lay a solid foundation for them to return to the society in the future.%目的:了解北京市刚入伍新兵网络游戏成瘾现状及有关影响因素.方法:采用《网络游戏成瘾界定量表》以及自编“新兵背景情况调查表”,对某新兵训练基地的617名新兵进行问卷调查.结果:共收到实际有效问卷581份;网络游戏成瘾检出率为9.3%;网络成瘾者与非成瘾者在教养方式、家庭气氛、家庭关系满意度、父母不良嗜好;作为学生的自我评价、学习压力、学习动力、学习成绩、玩网络游戏前师生关系、同伴关系,上网占用学习或生活或工作时间的次数、自评使用网络的合理程度、自评使用网络的时间上不同,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论:

  1. Family Functioning of Addicted and Non-Addicted Individuals: A Comparative Study

    Hosseinbor, Mohsen; Bakhshani, Nour-Mohammad; Shakiba, Mansour

    2012-01-01

    Background Family functioning is considered to have a significant impact on the beginnings and maintenance of substance use. Objectives The main purpose of this study was to examine and compare the dimensions of family functioning among addicted and non-addicted individuals. Patients and Methods In this cross-sectional study, the study sample consisted of 228 individuals, including 118 addicted and 110 non-addicted subjects. The addicted persons were recruited from patients who attended the B...

  2. Prenatal recruitment of participants for a birth cohort study including cord blood collection: results of a feasibility study in Bremen, Germany

    Ernst, Sinja Alexandra

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prospective birth cohort studies comprising follow up of children from pregnancy or birth over a long period of time, and collecting various biological samples at different times through the life-course offer a promising approach to enhance etiologic knowledge of various diseases. Especially for those where early lifetime exposures and conditions are thought to play an important role. The collection and storage of biological samples is a critical component in epidemiological studies, notably for research regarding prenatal exposures to various environmental factors as well as for DNA extraction. Our feasibility study for a birth cohort within the scope of etiology of childhood leukemia with prospective sampling of mothers and their future newborns aimed to investigate the willingness of pregnant women to participate in a birth cohort study involving collection of blood and umbilical cord blood samples. The overall aim was to develop practice-based research recommendations for a possible German birth cohort study. Methods: The study was conducted in Bremen, Germany, between January 2012 and March 2013. Pregnant women were eligible for recruitment if (i their expected date of delivery was during the study recruitment phase (September 2012–February 2013, (ii they planned to give birth at the cooperating hospital’s obstetric unit and (iii their knowledge of the German language was sufficient to understand study materials, details of participation and to fill out the prenatal self-administered questionnaire. Maternal blood and umbilical cord blood samples to be used for later research activities were collected and stored at a stem cell bank already collaborating with the hospital. 22 primary care gynecologists were invited to enroll pregnant women for the study and cooperation with one hospital was established. Expectant women were recruited during the last trimester of pregnancy, either during one of their prenatal care visits at

  3. Strategies to Build Trust and Recruit African American and Latino Community Residents for Health Research: A Cohort Study

    Sankaré, IC; Bross, R; Brown, AF; del Pino, HE; Jones, LF; Morris, DM; C. Porter; Lucas-Wright, A; Vargas, R.; Forge, N; Norris, KC; Kahn, KL

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Background: This study used Community Partnered Participatory Research (CPPR) to address low participation of racial and ethnic minorities in medical research and the lack of trust between underrepresented communities and researchers. Methods: Using a community and academic partnership in July 2012, residents of a South Los Angeles neighborhood were exposed to research recruitment strategies: referral by word-of-mouth, community agencies, direct marketing, and e...

  4. Gambling Addiction

    ... Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Gambling Addiction KidsHealth > For Teens > Gambling Addiction Print A A ... worth my time?" "What are the risks?" Gambling Addiction Some people have a higher chance of becoming ...

  5. ALS Multicenter Cohort Study of Oxidative Stress (ALS COSMOS): The study methodology, recruitment, and baseline demographic and disease characteristics

    Mitsumoto, Hiroshi; Factor-Litvak, Pam; Andrews, Howard; Goetz, Raymond R.; Andrews, Leslie; Rabkin, Judith G.; McElhiney, Martin; Nieves, Jeri; Santella, Regina M.; Murphy, Jennifer; Hupf, Jonathan; Singleton, Jess; Merle, David; Kilty, Mary; Heitzman, Daragh; Bedlack, Richard S.; Miller, Robert G; Katz, Jonathan S.; Forshew, Dallas; Barohn, Richard J.; Sorenson, Eric J.; Oskarsson, Bjorn; Filho, J Americo M. Fernandes; Kasarskis, Edward J.; Lomen-Hoerth, Catherine; Mozaffar, Tahseen; Rollins, Yvonne D.; Nations, Sharon P.; Swenson, Andrea J.; Shefner, Jeremy M.; Andrews, Jinsy A.; Koczon-Jaremko, Boguslawa A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective In a multicenter study of newly diagnosed ALS patients without a reported family history of ALS, we are prospectively investigating whether markers of oxidative stress (OS) are associated with disease progression. Methods An extensive structured telephone interview ascertained environmental, lifestyle, dietary and psychological risk factors associated with OS. Detailed assessments were performed at baseline and at 3 to 6 month intervals during the ensuing 30 months. Our biorepository includes DNA, plasma, urine, and skin. Results 355 patients were recruited. Subjects were enrolled over a 36 month-period at 16 sites. To meet the target number of subjects, the recruitment period was prolonged and additional sites were included. Demographic and disease characteristics were similar between 477 eligible/non-enrolled and enrolled patients, with the only difference being type of health insurance among enrolled patients. Sites were divided into 3 groups by the number of enrolled subjects. Comparing these 3 groups, the Columbia site had fewer “definite ALS” diagnoses. Conclusion This is the first prospective, interdisciplinary, in-depth, multicenter epidemiological investigation of OS related to ALS progression and was accomplished by an aggressive recruitment process. The baseline demographic and disease features of the study sample are now fully characterized. PMID:24564738

  6. Human papillomavirus infection and risk factors in a cohort of Tuscan women aged 18-24: results at recruitment

    Viacava Paolo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is conclusive evidence that human papillomavirus (HPV infections of the cervix are a necessary cause of cervical cancer. In Italy there are consistent data of HPV prevalence in women aged 25 - 64 years, but there is limited data for younger women. The objective of this on-going 3-year prospective cohort study is to investigate the prevalence, acquisition, clearance and persistence of HPV infections in young Tuscan women and the risk factors correlated with such events. Methods One thousand and sixty-six women aged between 18 and 24 years were enrolled and received an initial HPV test. They were asked to return to the clinic over the study period for further tests every 12 months, if their HPV HR result was negative, or every 6 months, if positive. Additionally, women with an HPV positive result were given a cytological examination and if the cytological diagnosis was ASC-US or more severe, only women with HPV HR, were referred for colposcopy. Results We present here data for the enrolment phase of the study. At baseline, within the study sample, just under 30% of women were infected by HPV and 19.3% of women were infected with oncogenic types. A relationship was highlighted between HPV infection, number of sexual partners (in particularly in the last 3 years and the lifetime number of partner's partners. Condom use showed a slight protective effect in univariate analysis but these data were not statistically significant in multivariate analysis. The association between HPV infection and demographic and behavioural variables were tested by crude odds ratio (OR. Multivariate logistic regression was applied to compute the adjusted odds ratios. Conclusions The prevalence of oncogenic HPV types was high in young Tuscan women. The 3-year follow-up of this cohort may provide a better understanding of the processes of acquisition, clearance and persistence of infection and the correlated risk factors.

  7. Comparing Personality Characteristics of Addicts with Non Addicts in Hamadan

    A. Heidari Pahlavian

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available A Sizeable sector of the population in Iran continues to use substance abuse despite government efforts to prevent addiction. Present study was designed to compare personality characteristics of addicts with non addicts. One hundred and six addicts who sought treatment at addiction rehabilitation department of Hamadan , were recruited in this study. A selective control group matched for demographic variables with the first group were also requested to take part in the study. The structured clinical interview for DSM-IV and MMPI were administered. The results showed that patients in studied group represented a significantly different personality characteristics in contrast to the control group. Overal 77.8% of addicts were diagnosed as mental disorder. This figure for control group was 26.2% . Also 41.3% of addicts were diagnosed as personality disorders, while the figure for non addicts was 5.8%. High rates of mental disorders and personality problems are reported for addicts. It Seems that psychiatric symptoms and psychological vulnerabilities have important role in addictive behavior.

  8. Protocol for ADDITION-PRO: a longitudinal cohort study of the cardiovascular experience of individuals at high risk for diabetes recruited from Danish primary care

    Johansen Nanna B

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Screening programmes for type 2 diabetes inevitably find more individuals at high risk for diabetes than people with undiagnosed prevalent disease. While well established guidelines for the treatment of diabetes exist, less is known about treatment or prevention strategies for individuals found at high risk following screening. In order to make better use of the opportunities for primary prevention of diabetes and its complications among this high risk group, it is important to quantify diabetes progression rates and to examine the development of early markers of cardiovascular disease and microvascular diabetic complications. We also require a better understanding of the mechanisms that underlie and drive early changes in cardiometabolic physiology. The ADDITION-PRO study was designed to address these issues among individuals at different levels of diabetes risk recruited from Danish primary care. Methods/Design ADDITION-PRO is a population-based, longitudinal cohort study of individuals at high risk for diabetes. 16,136 eligible individuals were identified at high risk following participation in a stepwise screening programme in Danish general practice between 2001 and 2006. All individuals with impaired glucose regulation at screening, those who developed diabetes following screening, and a random sub-sample of those at lower levels of diabetes risk were invited to attend a follow-up health assessment in 2009–2011 (n = 4,188, of whom 2,082 (50% attended. The health assessment included detailed measurement of anthropometry, body composition, biochemistry, physical activity and cardiovascular risk factors including aortic stiffness and central blood pressure. All ADDITION-PRO participants are being followed for incident cardiovascular disease and death. Discussion The ADDITION-PRO study is designed to increase understanding of cardiovascular risk and its underlying mechanisms among individuals at high risk of diabetes

  9. Overcoming Addiction

    Full Text Available ... as an addiction. And it seems to be one of the hardest addictions to overcome. Bill Saxby: ... who smoke are first and foremost individuals and one thing we've learned is that there's not ...

  10. Overcoming Addiction

    Full Text Available ... but it was only ten years ago that the Surgeon General identified cigarette smoking as an addiction. And it seems to be one of the hardest addictions to overcome. Bill Saxby: My name ...

  11. [Work addiction].

    Mentzel, G

    1979-01-01

    The symptomatology of workaholism (work addiction) was presented in the form of a questionnaire and compared with other forms of addiction, especially alcoholism. Then a case was used as example to illustrate the development of the illness and its psychodynamics. The therapy procedure was also briefly explained. Moreover the psychodynamics of workaholism (work addiction) are described, once again in comparison to other addictions. Finally the author gives general guidelines for therapy. PMID:452731

  12. Variation in the gene coding for the M5 Muscarinic receptor (CHRM5 influences cigarette dose but is not associated with dependence to drugs of addiction: evidence from a prospective population based cohort study of young adults

    Olsson Craig A

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mesolimbic structures of the brain are important in the anticipation and perception of reward. Moreover, many drugs of addiction elicit their response in these structures. The M5 muscarinic receptor (M5R is expressed in dopamine-containing neurones of the substantia nigra pars compacta and ventral tegmental area, and regulates the release of mesolimbic dopamine. Mice lacking M5R show a substantial reduction in both reward and withdrawal responses to morphine and cocaine. The CHRM5, the gene that codes for the M5R, is a strong biological candidate for a role in human addiction. We screened the coding and core promoter sequences of CHRM5 using denaturing high performance liquid chromatography to identify common polymorphisms. Additional polymorphisms within the coding and core promoter regions that were identified through dbSNP were validated in the test population. We investigated whether these polymorphisms influence substance dependence and dose in a cohort of 1947 young Australians. Results Analysis was performed on 815 participants of European ancestry who were interviewed at wave 8 of the cohort study and provided DNA. We observed a 26.8% increase in cigarette consumption in carriers of the rs7162140 T-allele, equating to 20.1 cigarettes per week (p=0.01. Carriers of the rs7162140 T-allele were also found to have nearly a 3-fold increased risk of developing cannabis dependence (OR=2.9 (95%CI 1.1-7.4; p=0.03. Conclusion Our data suggest that variation within the CHRM5 locus may play an important role in tobacco and cannabis but not alcohol addiction in European ancestry populations. This is the first study to show an association between CHRM5 and substance use in humans. These data support the further investigation of this gene as a risk factor in substance use and dependence.

  13. Exercise addiction

    Lichtenstein, Mia Beck; Christiansen, Erik; Elklit, Ask;

    2014-01-01

    Exercise addiction is characterized by excessive exercise patterns with potential negative consequences such as overuse injuries. The aim of this study was to compare eating disorder symptoms, quality of life, personality traits and attachments styles in exercisers with and without indications of...... exercise addiction. A case-control study with 121 exercisers was conducted. The exercisers were categorized into an addiction group (n=41) or a control group (n=80) on the basis of their responses to the Exercise Addiction Inventory. The participants completed the Eating Disorder Inventory 2, the Short......-Form 36, the NEO Personality Inventory Revised and the Adult Attachment Scale. The addiction group scored higher on eating disorder symptoms, especially on perfectionism but not as high as eating disorder populations. The characteristic personality traits in the addiction group were high levels of...

  14. A national population-based e-cohort of people with psychosis (PsyCymru) linking prospectively ascertained phenotypically rich and genetic data to routinely collected records: overview, recruitment and linkage.

    Lloyd, Keith; McGregor, Joanna; John, Ann; Craddock, Nick; Walters, James T; Linden, David; Jones, Ian; Bentall, Richard; Lyons, Ronan A; Ford, David V; Owen, Michael J

    2015-08-01

    PsyCymru was initially established as a proof of concept to investigate the feasibility of linking a prospectively ascertained, well-characterised (linked clinical cohort) of people with psychosis in Wales, UK with large amounts of anonymised routinely collected health record data. We are now additionally linking genetic data. PsyCymru aims to create a research platform and infrastructure for psychosis research in Wales by the establishment of two cohorts. The first is a well characterised clinically-assessed cohort of 490 individuals aged 16 and over, including genetic data. Consented individuals underwent a structured interview using a series of well-validated questionnaires and gave blood for the purpose of DNA extraction for sequencing and candidate gene identification. This data was linked to routinely collected health and social datasets with identity encryption used to protect privacy. The second is a much larger (12,097 individuals) but less well characterised population-based e-cohort of prevalent psychosis cases created using a previously validated algorithm applied to anonymised routine data. Both cohorts can be tracked prospectively and retrospectively using anonymised routinely collected electronic health and administrative data in the Secure Anonymised Information Linkage (SAIL) databank. This unique platform pools data together from multiple sources; linking clinical, psychological, biological, genetic and health care factors to address a wide variety of research questions. This resource will continue to expand over the coming years in size, breadth and depth of data, with continued recruitment and additional measures planned. PMID:26139629

  15. Overcoming Addiction

    Full Text Available Announcer: It's been well-known for a long time that smoking is bad for your health, but it was only ten years ago that the Surgeon General identified cigarette smoking as an addiction. And it seems to be one of the hardest addictions ...

  16. [Gambling addiction].

    Böning, J; Meyer, G; Hayer, T

    2013-05-01

    Extensive coherent clinical, psychopathological, neurobiological and genetic similarities with substance-related addictions justify the forthcoming classification of gambling addiction under the new category "Substance Use and Addictive Disorders" in the DSM-5. Thus, gambling addiction can be regarded as the prototype of behavioral addiction. In general it should be kept in mind that isolated gambling forms are associated with varying addictive potential due to specific situational and structural game characteristics. High rates of indebtedness, suicidality, social isolation and gambling-related crime often accompany pathological gambling. As a consequence gambling addiction represents a mental disorder with a significant economic burden. In Germany 12-month prevalence rates for problem gambling in adulthood range from 0.24 % to 0.64  % and for pathological gambling from 0.20 % to 0.56 %. Because gambling products rank among the so-called demeriting (i.e. potentially harmful) social activities, player and youth protection measures to prevent gambling disorders and associated crime should be best regulated as a state monopoly. PMID:23529775

  17. Overcoming Addiction

    Full Text Available ... been well-known for a long time that smoking is bad for your health, but it was ... years ago that the Surgeon General identified cigarette smoking as an addiction. And it seems to be ...

  18. Overcoming Addiction

    Full Text Available ... a habit, it's addictive. The sad part is after you've smoked as long as I do you ... that's definitely up there. Within a few hours after you quit, that will start to come down. Bill: ...

  19. [Cocaine addiction].

    Pitchot, W; Scantamburlo, G; Pinto, E; Karila, L

    2013-01-01

    Cocaine is the second most commonly used illicit drug after cannabis in the general population. Cocaine is a powerful stimulating agent of the central nervous system and a highly addictogenic drug. Somatic and psychiatric consequences of cocaine addiction are major and clinically relevant. The increasing consumption of cocaine and the importance of its consequences justify an update of our knowledge about cocaine addiction. PMID:23888579

  20. Dealing with Addiction

    ... I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Dealing With Addiction KidsHealth > For Teens > Dealing With Addiction Print A ... is even harder. What Are Substance Abuse and Addiction? The difference between substance abuse and addiction is ...

  1. Brain and Addiction

    ... Teens / Drug Facts / Brain and Addiction Brain and Addiction Print Your Brain Your brain is who you ... is taken over and over. What Is Drug Addiction? Addiction is a chronic brain disease that causes ...

  2. Analisis and Countermeasures of the Psychological Characteristics of Internet Addiction for Corresponding Single Recruit Students in Application Colleges%应用学院对口单招学生上网成瘾的心理特征分析及对策研究

    姜涛

    2011-01-01

    目前,大学生的心理健康教育问题,已经引起了全国高校的广泛关注,而大学生上网成瘾更是受到了社会的广泛关注。网络成瘾症(Internet addiction disorder IAD)是指由于过度使用互联网而导致明显的社会、心理损害的一种心理障碍的现象。本论文编制并发放了应用学院对口单招学生上网成瘾情况调查问卷,研究表明:应用学院对口单招学生网络成瘾学生所比例高于普通大学生,特别是男生的网络成瘾比例与普通大学生男生比例相比具有显著性差异。学院应该加强对网络成瘾学生的教育和引导,促进应用学院学生的全面发展。%Currently, college students' mental health education, has caused widespread concern in the national universities, and uni- versity lntemet addiction is a widespread concern in society. Intemet Addiction Disorder is a psychological disorder phenomenon due to excessive use of the Internet led to significant social, psychological damage. The paper prepared and distributed applications recruit college students to their counterparts in single questionnaire survey oflntemet addiction, the research shows: Application college stu- dents in a single stroke lnternet addiction is higher than normal caollege students, especially the significant difference in the proportion of boys of Internet addiction and the proportion of male college students. Colleges should strengthen the network of addiction education and guidance, promote the application of the comprehensive development of college students.

  3. Multi-center feasibility study evaluating recruitment, variability in risk factors and biomarkers for a diet and cancer cohort in India

    McAdams Mary J; Reddy K; Kapur Kavita; Graubard Barry I; Ramakrishnan Lakshmy; Morrissey Kerry; George Preethi S; Ferrucci Leah M; Shetty Hemali; Yurgalevitch Susan; Devasenapathy Niveditha; Daniel Carrie R; Sinha Rashmi; Rastogi Tanuja; Chatterjee Nilanjan

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background India's population exhibits diverse dietary habits and chronic disease patterns. Nutritional epidemiologic studies in India are primarily of cross-sectional or case-control design and subject to biases, including differential recall of past diet. The aim of this feasibility study was to evaluate whether a diet-focused cohort study of cancer could be established in India, providing insight into potentially unique diet and lifestyle exposures. Methods Field staff contacted 7...

  4. Comparación del crecimiento de Argopecten purpuratus entre cohortes obtenidas de captación de larvas en ambiente natural y de hatchery Comparison of growth among cohorts obtained Argopecten purpuratus larval recruitment in natural and hatchery

    Eduardo P Pérez

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available En Chile los cultivos del ostión del norte Argopecten purpuratus han sido desarrollados intensivamente a partir de la captación de semillas en ambiente natural y desde principios de 1980 con semillas obtenidas en hatchery. Para aportar información sobre el desempeno de semillas de ostión del norte en este estudio se comparó, mediante ANCOVA, el crecimiento en longitud entre cohortes producidas a partir de semillas de ambiente natural y de hatchery en Tongoy, Chile. Se evaluó la consistencia de esta comparación en distintos anos y estaciones, comparándose parejas de cohortes producidas simultáneamente en los anos 2003 (primavera, 2005 (invierno y 2006 (verano. El análisis estadístico mostró que existen diferencias estadísticas significativas entre cohortes obtenidas en ambiente natural y aquellas obtenidas en hatchery. La prueba de Tukey evidenció diferencias significativas entre CN2003 y CH2003 como también entre CN2005 y CH2005, pero no así entre CN2006 y CH2006. Estas diferencias indican que las cohortes de semillas de ambiente natural crecieron más rápido que las de hatchery. La comparación interanual evidenció diferencias estadísticas significativas. Estos resultados son discutidos a la luz de dos factores: la temperatura de cultivo y la heterocigocidad de la población de cultivo.In Chile crops of the northern scallop Argopecten purpuratus have been developed intensively from seeds obtained in natural environment, and since 1980 from hatchery's seed, when this technique could be controlled and developed. In order to provide information on the performance of seeds of northern scallops in this study growth in length between cohorts produced from seeds obtained in natural environment (CN and hatchery (CH in Tongoy (Chile was compared using ANCOVA. We assessed the consistency of this comparison in different years and seasons. The compared cohorts are pairs of cohorts produced simultaneously in the years 2003 (spring, 2005

  5. [Exercise addiction].

    Petit, A; Lejoyeux, M

    2013-01-01

    Socially valorised, sport like other forms of behaviour, can take on an addictive aspect. A review of the English and French literatures from 1979 to 2012 was conducted, using PubMed, Google Scholar, EMBASE, and PsycInfo, using the following key words alone or combined :sport, dependence, exercise, addiction. Exercise dependence is defined as a craving for physical activity that leads to extreme exercise intensity and generates physiological and psychological symptoms. Measurement scales have been proposed to make the diagnosis. No epidemiological studies have examined the prevalence of exercise dependence in the general population, although some studies suggest a frequency ranging from 10 to 80%. Disorders begin with a search for pleasure in physical effort, which then gives way to an obsession for sport resulting in a need to practice a sport more and more frequently and intensely. This addiction is more common among alcohol and illicit drug addicts than among the general population, while the rate of eating disorders can reach 40%. Personality traits most often associated are perfectionism, extraversion, and sensation seeking, while possible links between sporting activity and intensive doping will be discussed. PMID:23888586

  6. Heroin Addiction

    ... collaborations that involve scientists working together with public health and safety personnel will help overcome barriers to adoption of these proven effective treatments. These advances will have a global impact not just on heroin addiction but on the spread of HIV, particularly ...

  7. Overcoming Addiction

    Full Text Available ... be one of the hardest addictions to overcome. Bill Saxby: My name is Bill Saxby. I'm 63 years old and I've smoked for 50 years, at least. Announcer: Bill is an electrician. He has tried to quit ...

  8. Tobacco Addiction

    ... Those cravings have less to do with nicotine addiction and more to do with the habit of smoking. Will I gain weight when I quit? Some people gain a few pounds. Other people lose weight. The main reason some people gain weight is because they eat more food as a substitute for smoking. You can avoid ...

  9. Chronic disease and recent addiction treatment utilization among alcohol and drug dependent adults

    Samet Jeffrey

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic medical diseases require regular and longitudinal care and self-management for effective treatment. When chronic diseases include substance use disorders, care and treatment of both the medical and addiction disorders may affect access to care and the ability to focus on both conditions. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the association between the presence of chronic medical disease and recent addiction treatment utilization among adults with substance dependence. Methods Cross-sectional secondary data analysis of self-reported baseline data from alcohol and/or drug-dependent adults enrolled in a randomized clinical trial of a disease management program for substance dependence in primary care. The main independent variable was chronic medical disease status, categorized using the Katz Comorbidity Score as none, single condition of lower severity, or higher severity (multiple conditions or single higher severity condition, based on comorbidity scores determined from self-report. Asthma was also examined in secondary analyses. The primary outcome was any self-reported addiction treatment utilization (excluding detoxification in the 3 months prior to study entry, including receipt of any addiction-focused counseling or addiction medication from any healthcare provider. Logistic regression models were adjusted for sociodemographics, type of substance dependence, recruitment site, current smoking, and recent anxiety severity. Results Of 563 subjects, 184 (33% reported any chronic disease (20% low severity; 13% higher severity and 111 (20% reported asthma; 157 (28% reported any addiction treatment utilization in the past 3 months. In multivariate regression analyses, no significant effect was detected for chronic disease on addiction treatment utilization (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 0.88 lower severity vs. none, 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.60, 1.28; AOR 1.29 higher severity vs. none, 95% CI: 0.89, 1.88 nor for

  10. Boredom Proneness, Social Connectedness, and Sexual Addiction among Men Who Have Sex with Male Internet Users

    Chaney, Michael P.; Blalock, Andrew C.

    2006-01-01

    The authors collected surveys from 517 men who have sex with men (MSM) recruited from Internet chat rooms to examine the relationships among boredom, social connectedness, and sexual addiction. The results provide addictions professionals psychosocial factors to assess when working with sexually addicted MSM. (Contains 3 tables.)

  11. Drug Addiction

    Justinova, Zuzana; Panlilio, Leigh V; Goldberg, Steven R.

    2009-01-01

    Many drugs of abuse, including cannabinoids, opioids, alcohol and nicotine, can alter the levels of endocannabinoids in the brain. Recent studies show that release of endocannabinoids in the ventral tegmental area can modulate the reward-related effects of dopamine and might therefore be an important neurobiological mechanism underlying drug addiction. There is strong evidence that the endocannabinoid system is involved in drug-seeking behavior (especially behavior that is reinforced by drug-...

  12. Understanding Drug Use and Addiction

    ... Use and Addiction DrugFacts: Understanding Drug Use and Addiction Email Facebook Twitter Revised August 2016 Many people ... addiction and lead productive lives. What Is drug addiction? Addiction is a chronic disease characterized by drug ...

  13. Multi-center feasibility study evaluating recruitment, variability in risk factors and biomarkers for a diet and cancer cohort in India

    McAdams Mary J

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background India's population exhibits diverse dietary habits and chronic disease patterns. Nutritional epidemiologic studies in India are primarily of cross-sectional or case-control design and subject to biases, including differential recall of past diet. The aim of this feasibility study was to evaluate whether a diet-focused cohort study of cancer could be established in India, providing insight into potentially unique diet and lifestyle exposures. Methods Field staff contacted 7,064 households within three regions of India (New Delhi, Mumbai, and Trivandrum and found 4,671 eligible adults aged 35-69 years. Participants completed interviewer-administered questionnaires (demographic, diet history, physical activity, medical/reproductive history, tobacco/alcohol use, and occupational history, and staff collected biological samples (blood, urine, and toenail clippings, anthropometric measurements (weight, standing and sitting height; waist, hip, and thigh circumference; triceps, sub-scapula and supra-patella skin fold, and blood pressure measurements. Results Eighty-eight percent of eligible subjects completed all questionnaires and 67% provided biological samples. Unique protein sources by region were fish in Trivandrum, dairy in New Delhi, and pulses (legumes in Mumbai. Consumption of meat, alcohol, fast food, and soft drinks was scarce in all three regions. A large percentage of the participants were centrally obese and had elevated blood glucose levels. New Delhi participants were also the least physically active and had elevated lipids levels, suggesting a high prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Conclusions A high percentage of participants complied with study procedures including biological sample collection. Epidemiologic expertise and sufficient infrastructure exists at these three sites in India to successfully carry out a modest sized population-based study; however, we identified some potential problems in conducting a cohort

  14. Employee recruitment.

    Breaugh, James A

    2013-01-01

    The way an organization recruits can influence the type of employees it hires, how they perform, and their retention rate. This article provides a selective review of research that has addressed recruitment targeting, recruitment methods, the recruitment message, recruiters, the organizational site visit, the job offer, and the timing of recruitment actions. These and other topics (e.g., the job applicant's perspective) are discussed in terms of their potential influence on prehire (e.g., the quality of job applicants) and posthire (e.g., new employee retention) recruitment outcomes. In reviewing research, attention is given to the current state of scientific knowledge, limitations of previous research, and important issues meriting future investigation. PMID:23121331

  15. Factors associated with inability to access addiction treatment among people who inject drugs in Vancouver, Canada

    Prangnell, Amy; Daly-Grafstein, Ben; Dong, Huiru; Nolan, Seonaid; Milloy, M-J; Wood, Evan; Kerr, Thomas; Hayashi, Kanna

    2016-01-01

    Background Addiction treatment is an effective strategy used to reduce drug-related harm. In the wake of recent developments in novel addiction treatment modalities, we conducted a longitudinal data analysis to examine factors associated with inability to access addiction treatment among a prospective cohort of persons who inject drugs (PWID). Methods Data were derived from two prospective cohorts of PWID in Vancouver, Canada, between December 2005 and November 2013. Using multivariate genera...

  16. Exploring personality characteristics of Chinese adolescents with internet-related addictive behaviors: trait differences for gaming addiction and social networking addiction.

    Wang, Chong-Wen; Ho, Rainbow T H; Chan, Cecilia L W; Tse, Samson

    2015-03-01

    This study investigated the associations between personality traits, based on the Big Five model, and addictive behaviors to different online activities among adolescents. A sample of 920 participants was recruited from four secondary schools in different districts using random cluster sampling. A structured questionnaire, including demographic information, internet usage pattern, the Internet Addiction Test, the Game Addiction Scale, the Bergen Facebook Addiction Scale - Revised, and the Big Five Inventory, was administered to each participant. The results demonstrated a significant difference in personality traits for addictive behaviors related to different online activities. Specifically, higher neuroticism (β=0.15, paddiction in general; less conscientiousness (β=0.09, paddiction; and neuroticism (β=0.15, paddiction. Our findings may provide a better understanding of the etiopathology of internet-related addictive behaviors and have implications for psychoeducation and psychotherapy programs. PMID:25462651

  17. Neurocognitive Characterizations of Russian Heroin Addicts without a Significant History of Other Drug Use

    Fishbein, Diana H; Krupitsky, Evgeny; Flannery, Barbara A; Langevin, Doris J.; Bobashev, Georgiy; Verbitskaya, Elena; Augustine, Cynthia B.; Bolla, Karen I; Zvartau, Edwin; Schech, Barry; Egorova, Valentina; Bushara, Natali; Tsoy, Marina

    2007-01-01

    Research on the neurocognitive characteristics of heroin addiction is sparse and studies that do exist include polydrug abusers; thus, they are unable to distinguish neurocognitive effects of heroin from those of other drugs. To identify neurocognitive correlates specific to heroin addiction, the present study was conducted in St. Petersburg, Russia where individuals typically abuse and/or become addicted to only one substance, generally alcohol or heroin. Heroin addicts were recruited from a...

  18. Prevalence and Correlates of Video and Internet Gaming Addiction among Hong Kong Adolescents: A Pilot Study

    Chong-Wen Wang; Chan, Cecilia L. W.; Kwok-Kei Mak; Sai-Yin Ho; Wong, Paul W. C.; Ho, Rainbow T. H.

    2014-01-01

    This pilot study investigated the patterns of video and internet gaming habits and the prevalence and correlates of gaming addiction in Hong Kong adolescents. A total of 503 students were recruited from two secondary schools. Addictive behaviors of video and internet gaming were assessed using the Game Addiction Scale. Risk factors for gaming addiction were examined using logistical regression. An overwhelming majority of the subjects (94%) reported using video or internet games, with one in ...

  19. Cognitive interventions for addiction medicine: Understanding the underlying neurobiological mechanisms.

    Zilverstand, Anna; Parvaz, Muhammad A; Moeller, Scott J; Goldstein, Rita Z

    2016-01-01

    Neuroimaging provides a tool for investigating the neurobiological mechanisms of cognitive interventions in addiction. The aim of this review was to describe the brain circuits that are recruited during cognitive interventions, examining differences between various treatment modalities while highlighting core mechanisms, in drug addicted individuals. Based on a systematic Medline search we reviewed neuroimaging studies on cognitive behavioral therapy, cognitive inhibition of craving, motivational interventions, emotion regulation, mindfulness, and neurofeedback training in addiction. Across intervention modalities, common results included the normalization of aberrant activity in the brain's reward circuitry, and the recruitment and strengthening of the brain's inhibitory control network. Results suggest that different cognitive interventions act, at least partly, through recruitment of a common inhibitory control network as a core mechanism. This implies potential transfer effects between training modalities. Overall, results confirm that chronically hypoactive prefrontal regions implicated in cognitive control in addiction can be normalized through cognitive means. PMID:26822363

  20. Etiology of Food Addiction

    Öyekçin, Demet Güleç; Deveci, Artuner

    2012-01-01

    Food addiction is a new topic of focus in the scientific literature. Food intake might be concerned as food addiction in some cases, especially in obese cases and over-eaters. Addiction like behaviours are commonly observed mong these people. Recent animal, epidemiological, clinical and genetic studies partly shows the clinical validity of food addiction while the neurobiological studies focused on the similarity between the reward systems present in obesity and drug addiction. However some ...

  1. Epigenetics and addiction.

    Cadet, J L; McCoy, M T; Jayanthi, S

    2016-05-01

    Addictions are public health menaces. However, despite advances in addiction research, the cellular or molecular mechanisms that cause transition from recreational use to addiction remain to be elucidated. We have recently suggested that addiction may be secondary to long-term epigenetic modifications that determine the clinical course of substance use disorders. A better understanding of epigenetic mechanisms in animal models that mimic human conditions should help to usher in a new area of drug development against addiction. PMID:26841306

  2. Etiology of Food Addiction

    Demet Gulec Oyekcin; Artuner Deveci

    2012-01-01

    Food addiction is a new topic of focus in the scientific literature. Food intake might be concerned as food addiction in some cases, especially in obese cases and over-eaters. Addiction like behaviours are commonly observed mong these people. Recent animal, epidemiological, clinical and genetic studies partly shows the clinical validity of food addiction while the neurobiological studies focused on the similarity between the reward systems present in obesity and drug addiction. However some s...

  3. Prescription Opioid Abuse, Prescription Opioid Addiction, and Heroin Abuse among Adolescents in a Recovery High School: A Pilot Study

    Vosburg, Suzanne K.; Eaton, Thomas A.; Sokolowska, Marta; Osgood, Eric D.; Ashworth, Judy B.; Trudeau, Jeremiah J.; Muffett-Lipinski, Michelle; Katz, Nathaniel P.

    2016-01-01

    The progression from prescription opioid (RXO) abuse to RXO addiction is not well understood in adolescents, nor is the progression from RXO addiction to heroin abuse. The purpose of this pilot study was to characterize the development of RXO drug abuse, RXO drug addiction, and heroin abuse in a small cohort of adolescents recovering from opioid…

  4. Treatment Approaches for Drug Addiction

    ... for Drug Addiction DrugFacts: Treatment Approaches for Drug Addiction Email Facebook Twitter Revised July 2016 NOTE: This ... treatment options in your state. What is drug addiction? Drug addiction is a chronic disease characterized by ...

  5. Etiology of Food Addiction

    Demet Gulec Oyekcin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Food addiction is a new topic of focus in the scientific literature. Food intake might be concerned as food addiction in some cases, especially in obese cases and over-eaters. Addiction like behaviours are commonly observed mong these people. Recent animal, epidemiological, clinical and genetic studies partly shows the clinical validity of food addiction while the neurobiological studies focused on the similarity between the reward systems present in obesity and drug addiction. However some studies still emphasizes the differences between two. The aim of this article was to review clinical and biological aspects of etiological perspectives of food addiction via available clinical, preclinical and genetic studies.

  6. [Internet addiction].

    Nakayama, Hideki; Higuchi, Susumu

    2015-09-01

    Internet technologies have made a rapid progress, bringing convenience to daily life. On the other hand, internet use disorder and internet addiction (IA) have become reportedly serious health and social problems. In 2013, internet gaming disorder criteria have been proposed in the section of Conditions for Further Study of DSM-5. Existing epidemiological studies by questionnaire methods have reported that the prevalence of IA ranges between 2.8% and 9.9% among youths in Japan. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), sleeping disorders, depression, obsessive compulsive disorder, and phobic anxiety disorder are extremely common comorbid mental disorders with IA. Some psychotherapies (e.g., cognitive behavioral therapy, motivational interviewing) and medical treatments (e.g., antidepressant drugs, methylphenidate) for comorbid mental disorders as well as rehabilitation (e.g., treatment camp) are effective for IA remission. However, some serious cases of IA may be difficult to treat, and prevention is very important. In future, the prevention, rehabilitations and treatments for IA will be more required in Japan. PMID:26394521

  7. Related Addictive Disorders.

    Buck, Tina; Sales, Amos

    This paper provides an overview of addiction related to substance abuse. It provides basic information, prevalence, diagnostic criteria, assessment tools, and treatment issues for eating disorders, compulsive gambling, sex addictions, and work addictions. Eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, especially affect adolescents.…

  8. Development and Validation of the Smartphone Addiction Inventory (SPAI)

    Yu-Hsuan Lin; Li-Ren Chang; Yang-Han Lee; Hsien-Wei Tseng; Kuo, Terry B. J.; Sue-Huei Chen

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to develop a self-administered scale based on the special features of smartphone. The reliability and validity of the Smartphone Addiction Inventory (SPAI) was demonstrated. METHODS: A total of 283 participants were recruited from Dec. 2012 to Jul. 2013 to complete a set of questionnaires, including a 26-item SPAI modified from the Chinese Internet Addiction Scale and phantom vibration and ringing syndrome questionnaire. There were 260 males and 23 females...

  9. The relationships between self-efficacy, internet addiction and shame

    Giuseppe Craparo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Internet addiction (IAD is one of the most diffuse mental disorders among adolescents. Aims: The aim of our study was to evaluate the relationships between shame, self-efficacy and Internet addiction. Materials and Methods: We recruited a total of 670 college students (males = 164, 24.5%; females = 506, 75.5%. The subjects were aged between 18 and 36 years (M = 20.93, SD = 2.52; males: M = 21.43, SD = 2.95; females: M = 20.76, SD = 2.35. We administered the following instruments: Experience of Shame Scale; Perceived Social Self-Efficacy Scale - Adult Version; Perceived Self-Efficacy in Handling Negative Emotions Scales; Internet Addiction Test. Statistics Analysis: We applied multivariate analyses of variance (MANOVA, Pearson′s correlation indices and linear regression analysis. Results and Conclusion: We found a significant inter-relation between Internet addiction and shame. Shame could be a good predictor of Internet addiction.

  10. Social Networking Addiction among Health Sciences Students in Oman

    Ken Masters

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Addiction to social networking sites (SNSs is an international issue with numerous methods of measurement. The impact of such addictions among health science students is of particular concern. This study aimed to measure SNS addiction rates among health sciences students at Sultan Qaboos University (SQU in Muscat, Oman. Methods: In April 2014, an anonymous English-language six-item electronic self-reporting survey based on the Bergen Facebook Addiction Scale was administered to a non-random cohort of 141 medical and laboratory science students at SQU. The survey was used to measure usage of three SNSs: Facebook (Facebook Inc., Menlo Park, California, USA, YouTube (YouTube, San Bruno, California, USA and Twitter (Twitter Inc., San Francisco, California, USA. Two sets of criteria were used to calculate addiction rates (a score of 3 on at least four survey items or a score of 3 on all six items. Work-related SNS usage was also measured. Results: A total of 81 students completed the survey (response rate: 57.4%. Of the three SNSs, YouTube was most commonly used (100%, followed by Facebook (91.4% and Twitter (70.4%. Usage and addiction rates varied significantly across the three SNSs. Addiction rates to Facebook, YouTube and Twitter, respectively, varied according to the criteria used (14.2%, 47.2% and 33.3% versus 6.3%, 13.8% and 12.8%. However, addiction rates decreased when workrelated activity was taken into account. Conclusion: Rates of SNS addiction among this cohort indicate a need for intervention. Additionally, the results suggest that addiction to individual SNSs should be measured and that workrelated activities should be taken into account during measurement.

  11. Smartphone gaming and frequent use pattern associated with smartphone addiction.

    Liu, Chun-Hao; Lin, Sheng-Hsuan; Pan, Yuan-Chien; Lin, Yu-Hsuan

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the risk factors of smartphone addiction in high school students.A total of 880 adolescents were recruited from a vocational high school in Taiwan in January 2014 to complete a set of questionnaires, including the 10-item Smartphone Addiction Inventory, Chen Internet Addiction Scale, and a survey of content and patterns of personal smartphone use. Of those recruited, 689 students (646 male) aged 14 to 21 and who owned a smartphone completed the questionnaire. Multiple linear regression models were used to determine the variables associated with smartphone addiction.Smartphone gaming and frequent smartphone use were associated with smartphone addiction. Furthermore, both the smartphone gaming-predominant and gaming with multiple-applications groups showed a similar association with smartphone addiction. Gender, duration of owning a smartphone, and substance use were not associated with smartphone addiction.Our findings suggest that smartphone use patterns should be part of specific measures to prevent and intervene in cases of excessive smartphone use. PMID:27428191

  12. Compliance with dietary and nutrient recommendations in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Granada cohort at recruitment Adecuación de la ingesta dietética de la cohorte del Estudio Prospectivo Europeo sobre Nutrición y Cáncer (EPIC-Granada a las ingestas recomendadas y objetivos nutricionales

    E. Molina-Montes

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The overall intake of energy and nutrients in the Granada EPIC-cohort (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition is examined in order to assess compliance with the Spanish Nutritional Objectives (NO and the Recommended Intakes (RI. Methods: During recruitment (1992-1996, 7,789 participants, aged 35-69, were asked about diet through a validated diet history questionnaire. Nutrient intake is compared to the NO and RI that were valid at that time. Risk of inadequate intake is estimated as the percentage of the sample with intakes: ≤ 1/3 RI (high risk, ≤ 2/3 RI- > 1/3 RI (moderate risk, ≤ RI- > 2/3 RI, > RI. Differences in intakes have been analyzed by sex and age, and by smoking status and BMI. Results: The daily intake of nutrients did not meet the NO as the total contribution of energy from proteins and fats exceeded these guidelines. Whilst intake of most nutrients was above the RI, the amount of iron, magnesium and vitamins D and E provided by the diet was not enough to meet the RI: in women aged 20-49 years, about 55% were at moderate risk for iron inadequacy, and a 20% of women for magnesium. Both sexes were at high risk of inadequacy for vitamin D, although sunlight exposure may supply adequate amounts. Never smokers showed a higher compliance to the NO. Conclusion: At recruitment, the nutrient profile of the diet was unbalanced. The observed nutrient inadequacy for iron, magnesium and vitamin E might be attributed to inappropriate dietary habits, and may have implications for future disease risk.Introducción: Se ha evaluado la ingesta de energía y de nutrientes de la cohorte EPIC-Granada (Estudio Prospectivo Europeo sobre Nutrición y Cáncer en relación con la adecuación a los Objetivos Nutricionales españoles (ON y a las ingestas recomendadas (IR. Métodos: Durante el reclutamiento (1992-1996, 7,789 participantes (de 35-69 anos de edad fueron entrevistados sobre su dieta mediante el metodo de

  13. Cohort Profile: Mysore Parthenon Birth Cohort

    Krishnaveni, Ghattu V.; Veena, Sargoor R; Hill, Jacqueline C.; Karat, Samuel C.; Fall, Caroline HD

    2014-01-01

    The Mysore Parthenon Birth Cohort was established to examine the long-term effects of maternal glucose tolerance and nutritional status on cardiovascular disease risk factors in the offspring. During 1997-1998, 830 of 1233 women recruited from the antenatal clinics of the Holdsworth Memorial Hospital (HMH), Mysore, India underwent an oral glucose tolerance test. Of these, 667 women delivered live babies at HMH. Four babies with major congenital anomalies were excluded, and the remaining 663 w...

  14. Long-term course of opioid addiction.

    Hser, Yih-Ing; Evans, Elizabeth; Grella, Christine; Ling, Walter; Anglin, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    Opioid addiction is associated with excess mortality, morbidities, and other adverse conditions. Guided by a life-course framework, we review the literature on the long-term course of opioid addiction in terms of use trajectories, transitions, and turning points, as well as other factors that facilitate recovery from addiction. Most long-term follow-up studies are based on heroin addicts recruited from treatment settings (mostly methadone maintenance treatment), many of whom are referred by the criminal justice system. Cumulative evidence indicates that opioid addiction is a chronic disorder with frequent relapses. Longer treatment retention is associated with a greater likelihood of abstinence, whereas incarceration is negatively related to subsequent abstinence. Over the long term, the mortality rate of opioid addicts (overdose being the most common cause) is about 6 to 20 times greater than that of the general population; among those who remain alive, the prevalence of stable abstinence from opioid use is low (less than 30% after 10-30 years of observation), and many continue to use alcohol and other drugs after ceasing to use opioids. Histories of sexual or physical abuse and comorbid mental disorders are associated with the persistence of opioid use, whereas family and social support, as well as employment, facilitates recovery. Maintaining opioid abstinence for at least five years substantially increases the likelihood of future stable abstinence. Recent advances in pharmacological treatment options (buprenorphine and naltrexone) include depot formulations offering longer duration of medication; their impact on the long-term course of opioid addiction remains to be assessed. PMID:25747921

  15. The presence of altered craniocervical posture and mobility in smartphone-addicted teenagers with temporomandibular disorders

    Kee, In-Kyung; Byun, Jin-Seok; Jung, Jae-Kwang; Choi, Jae-Kap

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Smartphones are widely used by teenagers and adults for various purposes. As teenagers use smartphones more actively than adults, they are more prone to be addicted to smartphones. Furthermore, excessive usage of smartphones can lead to various psychosocial and physical symptoms. [Subjects and Methods] One hundred teenage subjects were recruited and divided into normal and addiction groups, based on the criteria of the smartphone addiction scale-short version questionnaire. Cranioce...

  16. Addiction and Will

    Brian eJohnson

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available ADDICTION AND WILLA hypothesis about the neurobiological bases of drive, drive reduction and will in addictive illness is presented. Drive reduction seems to require both SEEKING and gratification. Will is the everyday term for our experience of drives functioning within us. Addictive drugs take over the will by altering neurotransmission in the SEEKING system. As a result of this biological change, psychological defenses are arrayed that allow partial gratification and reduce anxiety about the consequences of drug use. Repeated partial gratification of the addictive drive creates a cathexis to the drug and the drug seller. It also keeps the addicted person in a permanent state of SEEKING.The cathexis to the drug and drug seller creates a difficult situation for psychoanalytic therapists. The actively addicted patient will have one set of feelings for the analyst, and a split off set of feelings for the drug dealer. Addictive neuroses, which feature a split transference, are contrasted with Freud’s concept of transference and narcissistic neuroses. For treatment of an actively addicted patient, the treater must negotiate the split transference. By analyzing the denial system the relationship with the drug dealer ends and the hostility involved in addictive behavior enters the transference where it can be interpreted.Selling drugs that take over the will is a lucrative enterprise. The addictive drug industry, about the size of the oil and gas industry worldwide, produces many patients in need of treatment. The marketers of addictive drugs understand the psychology of inducing initial ingestion of the drugs, and of managing their addicted populations. The neuropsychoanalytic understanding of addiction might be used to create more effective public health interventions to combat this morbid and mortal illness.

  17. Prevalence and correlates of video and internet gaming addiction among Hong Kong adolescents: a pilot study.

    Wang, Chong-Wen; Chan, Cecilia L W; Mak, Kwok-Kei; Ho, Sai-Yin; Wong, Paul W C; Ho, Rainbow T H

    2014-01-01

    This pilot study investigated the patterns of video and internet gaming habits and the prevalence and correlates of gaming addiction in Hong Kong adolescents. A total of 503 students were recruited from two secondary schools. Addictive behaviors of video and internet gaming were assessed using the Game Addiction Scale. Risk factors for gaming addiction were examined using logistical regression. An overwhelming majority of the subjects (94%) reported using video or internet games, with one in six (15.6%) identified as having a gaming addiction. The risk for gaming addiction was significantly higher among boys, those with poor academic performance, and those who preferred multiplayer online games. Gaming addiction was significantly associated with the average time spent gaming per week, frequency of spending money on gaming, period of spending money on gaming, perceived family disharmony, and having more close friends. These results suggest that effective educational and preventative programs or strategies are needed. PMID:25032242

  18. Prevalence and Correlates of Video and Internet Gaming Addiction among Hong Kong Adolescents: A Pilot Study

    Chong-Wen Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This pilot study investigated the patterns of video and internet gaming habits and the prevalence and correlates of gaming addiction in Hong Kong adolescents. A total of 503 students were recruited from two secondary schools. Addictive behaviors of video and internet gaming were assessed using the Game Addiction Scale. Risk factors for gaming addiction were examined using logistical regression. An overwhelming majority of the subjects (94% reported using video or internet games, with one in six (15.6% identified as having a gaming addiction. The risk for gaming addiction was significantly higher among boys, those with poor academic performance, and those who preferred multiplayer online games. Gaming addiction was significantly associated with the average time spent gaming per week, frequency of spending money on gaming, period of spending money on gaming, perceived family disharmony, and having more close friends. These results suggest that effective educational and preventative programs or strategies are needed.

  19. Internet Addiction and Other Behavioral Addictions.

    Jorgenson, Alicia Grattan; Hsiao, Ray Chih-Jui; Yen, Cheng-Fang

    2016-07-01

    The Internet is increasingly influential in the lives of adolescents. Although there are many positives, there are also risks related to excessive use and addiction. It is important to recognize clinical signs and symptoms of Internet addiction (compulsive use, withdrawal, tolerance, and adverse consequences), treat comorbid conditions (other substance use disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, anxiety, depression, and hostility), and initiate psychosocial interventions. More research on this topic will help to provide consensus on diagnostic criteria and further clarify optimal management. PMID:27338971

  20. How addicts think about addiction and community problems?

    Meysamie, A; B. Faramarzi; K Holakouie Naieni

    2006-01-01

    Background: addiction and drug abuse have many risk factors in community and individual attitude; also causes much diversity in community perception and attitude toward addiction. Methods: in this study we assessed attitude toward an addict in 42 addict men and asked about problems in their community and recreational behaviors. They were residents of a rural area in Babol city. In the control group we assessed the same parameters in 268 non addicts in the same area. All of the addicts have be...

  1. What is addiction?

    Kranzler, Henry R; Li, Ting-Kai

    2008-01-01

    This issue of Alcohol Research & Health examines addiction to multiple substances--that is, combined dependence on alcohol and other drugs (AODs), including marijuana, cocaine, and opioids. It seems fitting, then, to begin the issue with a look at what constitutes "addiction." The Oxford English Dictionary (pp. 24-25) traces the term addiction to Roman law, under which addiction was a "formal giving over by sentence of court; hence, a dedication of person to a master." This notion of relinquishment of control by the addicted person is the central feature of many lay and professional definitions of the term. The study of addictive behavior crosses several disciplines, including, among others, behavioral neuroscience, epidemiology, genetics, molecular biology, pharmacology, psychology, psychiatry, and sociology. Articles in this issue examine aspects of AOD use disorders from the perspective of some of these varied disciplines. PMID:23584810

  2. Causes of Internet Addiction Disorder

    2008-01-01

    The Internet Addiction Disorder diagnostic manual approved by psychologists on November 8 divides Internet addiction into five categories,which are addiction to online games,pornography,social networking,Internet information and Internetshopping.

  3. Does Addiction Run in Families?

    ... runs in some families. Addiction runs in ours." Matt's family has a history of addiction. He realizes ... may be more likely to become addicted. Read Matt's story About the National Institute on Drug Abuse ( ...

  4. [Neurobiology of behavioral addictions].

    Kiefer, F; Fauth-Bühler, M; Heinz, A; Mann, K

    2013-05-01

    Reward learning represents a crucial mechanism in the acquisition and maintenance of addictive behavior. The underlying neurobiological foundations and associated neurobiological pathways are identified in this review and similarities between substance abuse and behavioral addictions will be discussed. In the second section current neuroimaging findings on neurobiological mechanisms of pathological gambling and computer and internet addiction are discussed. The main focuses are on changes in neurocognitive processes, such as cue reactivity, reward and punishment processing and behavioral control. PMID:23632569

  5. Anti-addiction vaccines

    Shen, Xiaoyun; Orson, Frank M.; Kosten, Thomas R.

    2011-01-01

    Despite intensive efforts to eradicate it, addiction to both legal and illicit drugs continues to be a major worldwide medical and social problem. Anti-addiction vaccines can produce the antibodies to block the effects of these drugs on the brain, and have great potential to ameliorate the morbidity and mortality associated with illicit drug intoxications. This review provides a current overview of anti-addiction vaccines that are under clinical trial and pre-clinical research evaluation. It ...

  6. CIMP Internet Addiction Guideline

    Azizah Zainudin; Marina Md Din; Marini Othman

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, Internet addiction has become a major problem to the university students. The purpose of this study is to present a guideline to helps people to overcome their Internet addiction especially for students. There were 653 university students (341 females and 312 males) from five different universities in Malaysia have completed related survey. The survey questionnaires were taken from Young?s Addiction Scale (1996) and some questions were created by the researcher. In this paper, there...

  7. Addiction and will.

    Johnson, Brian

    2013-01-01

    A hypothesis about the neurobiological bases of drive, drive reduction and will in addictive illness is presented. Drive reduction seems to require both SEEKING and gratification. Will is the everyday term for our experience of drives functioning within us. Addictive drugs take over the will by altering neurotransmission in the SEEKING system. As a result of this biological change, psychological defenses are arrayed that allow partial gratification and reduce anxiety about the consequences of drug use. Repeated partial gratification of the addictive drive creates a cathexis to the drug and the drug seller. It also keeps the addicted person in a permanent state of SEEKING. The cathexis to the drug and drug seller creates a difficult situation for psychoanalytic therapists. The actively addicted patient will have one set of feelings for the analyst, and a split off set of feelings for the drug dealer. Addictive neuroses, which feature a split transference, are contrasted with Freud's concept of transference and narcissistic neuroses. For treatment of an actively addicted patient, the treater must negotiate the split transference. By analyzing the denial system the relationship with the drug dealer ends and the hostility involved in addictive behavior enters the transference where it can be interpreted. Selling drugs that take over the will is a lucrative enterprise. The addictive drug industry, about the size of the oil and gas industry worldwide, produces many patients in need of treatment. The marketers of addictive drugs understand the psychology of inducing initial ingestion of the drugs, and of managing their addicted populations. The neuropsychoanalytic understanding of addiction might be used to create more effective public health interventions to combat this morbid and mortal illness. PMID:24062657

  8. Dynamics of Neuronal Circuits in Addiction: Reward, Antireward, and Emotional Memory

    Koob, George F

    2009-01-01

    Drug addiction is conceptualized as chronic, relapsing compulsive use of drugs with significant dysregulation of brain hedonic systems. Compulsive drug use is accompanied by decreased function of brain substrates for drug positive reinforcement and recruitment of brain substrates mediating the negative reinforcement of motivational withdrawal. The neural substrates for motivational withdrawal (“dark side” of addiction) involve recruitment of elements of the extended amygdala and the brain str...

  9. What Is Addiction?

    Kranzler, Henry R.; Li, Ting-Kai

    2008-01-01

    This issue of Alcohol Research & Health examines addiction to multiple substances—that is, combined dependence on alcohol and other drugs (AODs), including marijuana, cocaine, and opioids. It seems fitting, then, to begin the issue with a look at what constitutes “addiction.” The Oxford English Dictionary (pp. 24–25) traces the term addiction to Roman law, under which addiction was a “formal giving over by sentence of court; hence, a dedication of person to a master.” This notion of relinquis...

  10. Pleasure and Addiction

    Jeanette Marie Kennett

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available What is the role and value of pleasure in addiction? Foddy and Savalescu (2010 have claimed that substance use is just pleasure-oriented behaviour. They describe addiction as ‘strong appetites toward pleasure’ and argue that addicts suffer in significant part because of strong social and moral disapproval of lives dominated by pleasure seeking. But such lives, they claim, can be autonomous and rational. The view they offer is largely in line with the choice model and opposed to a disease model of addiction. Foddy and Savulescu are sceptical of self-reports that emphasize the ill effects of addiction such as loss of family and possessions, or that claim an absence of pleasure after tolerance sets in. Such reports they think are shaped by social stigma which makes available a limited set of socially approved addiction narratives. We will not question the claim that a life devoted to pleasure can be autonomously chosen. Nor do we question the claim that the social stigma attached to the use of certain drugs increases the harm suffered by the user. However our interviews with addicts (as philosophers rather than health professionals or peers reveal a genuinely ambivalent and complex relationship between addiction, value and pleasure. Our subjects did not shy away from discussing pleasure and its role in use. But though they usually valued the pleasurable properties of substances, and this played that did not mean that they valued an addictive life. Our interviews distinguished changing attitudes towards drug related pleasures across the course of substance use, including diminishing pleasure from use over time and increasing resentment at the effects of substance use on other valued activities. In this paper we consider the implications of what drug users say about pleasure and value over the course of addiction for models of addiction.

  11. Metodología de reclutamiento y características de una cohorte de jóvenes consumidores habituales de cocaína de tres ciudades españolas (Proyecto Itínere-cocaína Recruitment methodology and characteristics of a cohort of young regular cocaine users in three Spanish cities (the Itinere-cocaine Project

    José Pulido

    2009-06-01

    the recruitment methodology and characteristics of a cohort of young cocaine users. Methods: A prospective cohort of 720 cocaine users who were not regular heroin users, recruited in the community independently of the health services by chain referral methods in the metropolitan areas of Madrid, Barcelona and Seville was studied. A computer-administered and partially self-administered questionnaire was used. A stratified analysis by city and by frequency of base cocaine use was performed. Results: In the previous 12 months, 58.8% had used cocaine 1-2 days/week; 91.9% sniffed it regularly, 5.3 smoked it, and only 2.8% injected it; 6.1% had used it at least half the time in the form of base cocaine. Polydrug use was observed with cannabis (93.6%, ecstasy (73.2% and amphetamines (60.6%. Approximately 4.0% had injected at least one drug. Crack users (22.1% had a lower educational level, more intensive cocaine use, a higher prevalence of other drug use, especially opioids, and a much higher prevalence of injection. Conclusions: This study confirms and completes the sociodemographic and drug profile provided by the information systems based on health services or population surveys. The results show that a large proportion of young cocaine users consume the drug sporadically and that two very different subpopulations exist, according to whether or not they use base cocaine.

  12. Internet Addiction and Psychopathology

    Koc, Mustafa

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between university students' internet addiction and psychopathology in Turkey. The study was based on data drawn from a national survey of university students in Turkey. 174 university students completed the SCL-90-R scale and Addicted Internet Users Inventory. Results show that students who use internet six…

  13. Addiction: Choice or compulsion?

    EdmundHenden

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Normative thinking about addiction has traditionally been divided between, on the one hand, a medical model which sees addiction as a disease characterized by compulsive and relapsing drug use over which the addict has little or no control and, on the other, a moral model which sees addiction as a choice characterized by voluntary behaviour under the control of the addict. Proponents of the former appeal to evidence showing that regular consumption of drugs causes persistent changes in the brain structures and functions known to be involved in the motivation of behavior. On this evidence, it is often concluded that becoming addicted involves a transition from voluntary, chosen drug use to non-voluntary compulsive drug use. Against this view, proponents of the moral model provide ample evidence that addictive drug use involves voluntary chosen behaviour. In this article we argue that although they are right about something, both views are mistaken. We present a third model that neither rules out the view of addictive drug use as compulsive, nor that it involves voluntary chosen behavior.

  14. Internet Addiction among Adolescence

    Sargin, Nurten

    2012-01-01

    Each innovation brings along many risks. One of the risks related with the Internet use is Internet addiction. The aim of this study is to examine Internet addiction in adolescence in terms of gender, Internet access at home and grades. The research design used was survey method. The study population consisted of second stage students attending…

  15. Attitudes about Addiction: A National Study of Addiction Educators

    Broadus, Angela D.; Hartje, Joyce A.; Roget, Nancy A.; Cahoon, Kristy L.; Clinkinbeard, Samantha S.

    2010-01-01

    The following study, funded by the National Institute of Drug Abuse (NIDA), utilized the "Addiction Belief Inventory" (ABI; Luke, Ribisl, Walton, & Davidson, 2002) to examine addiction attitudes in a national sample of U.S. college/university faculty teaching addiction-specific courses (n = 215). Results suggest that addiction educators view…

  16. [Functional neuroimaging of addiction].

    Takahashi, Hidehiko

    2015-09-01

    Positron emission tomography studies investigating dopamine release by drug or reward demonstrated blunted dopamine release in relation to addiction to psychostimulants such as cocaine and amphetamine. However, recent studies reported that nicotine and gambling addiction showed opposite results. Several factors such as illness stage or neurotoxicity of substances could be considered for this discrepancy. Behavioral addiction such as gambling disorder is a good target of neuroimaging because it is free from overt neurotoxicity. However, even in gambling disorder, the results of fMRI studies investigating neural response to reward are mixed. Neuroimaging together with taking the various backgrounds of patients into account should contribute not only to a better understanding of the neurobiology of addiction but also to the development of more effective and individually tailored treatment strategies for addiction. PMID:26394506

  17. Food addiction: its prevalence and significant association with obesity in the general population.

    Pardis Pedram

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: 'Food addiction' shares a similar neurobiological and behavioral framework with substance addiction. However whether, and to what degree, 'food addiction' contributes to obesity in the general population is unknown. OBJECTIVES: to assess 1 the prevalence of 'food addiction' in the Newfoundland population; 2 if clinical symptom counts of 'food addiction' were significantly correlated with the body composition measurements; 3 if food addicts were significantly more obese than controls, and 4 if macronutrient intakes are associated with 'food addiction'. DESIGN: A total of 652 adults (415 women, 237 men recruited from the general population participated in this study. Obesity was evaluated by Body Mass Index (BMI and Body Fat percentage measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. 'Food addiction' was assessed using the Yale Food Addiction Scale and macronutrient intake was determined from the Willet Food Frequency Questionnaire. RESULTS: The prevalence of 'food addiction' was 5.4% (6.7% in females and 3.0% in males and increased with obesity status. The clinical symptom counts of 'food addiction' were positively correlated with all body composition measurements across the entire sample (p<0.001. Obesity measurements were significantly higher in food addicts than controls; Food addicts were 11.7 (kg heavier, 4.6 BMI units higher, and had 8.2% more body fat and 8.5% more trunk fat. Furthermore, food addicts consumed more calories from fat and protein compared with controls. CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrated that 'food addiction' contributes to severity of obesity and body composition measurements from normal weight to obese individuals in the general population with higher rate in women as compared to men.

  18. Thai men's experiences of alcohol addiction and treatment

    Kulnaree Hanpatchaiyakul

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Men are overrepresented with regard to alcohol addiction and in terms of alcohol treatment worldwide. In Thailand, alcohol consumption continues to rise, but few of those afflicted with alcohol addiction attend alcohol treatment programs, even though there is universal care for all. No comprehensive studies have been done on men's experiences with addiction and alcohol treatment programs in Thailand. Objective: The aim of this study was to explore men's experiences in terms of the ‘pros and cons of alcohol consumption’ in order to identify the barriers that exist for Thai men with regard to alcohol addiction and the decision to stop drinking. Design: Purposive sampling was applied in the process of recruiting participants at an alcohol clinic in a hospital in Thailand. Thirteen men with alcohol addiction (aged 32–49 years were willing to participate and were interviewed in thematic interviews. The analysis of the data was done with descriptive phenomenology. Results: Through men's descriptions, three clusters of experiences were found that were ‘mending the body’, ‘drinking as payoff and doping related to work’, and ‘alcohol becoming a best friend’ as ways of describing the development of addiction. Conclusions: The results highlight the importance of addressing concepts of masculinity and related hegemonic ideas in order to decrease the influence of the barriers that exist for Thai men with alcohol addiction with regard to entering treatment and to stop drinking.

  19. How prevalent is 'food addiction'?

    Adrian eMeule

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence suggests that binge eating-related disorders could be related to addiction-like eating patterns due to the addictive potential of hyperpalatable foods. Subsequently, important implications have been derived for treatment of those disorders and even political actions. However, studies on the prevalence of food addiction are rare. Few recent studies investigated addictive eating in children, adolescents, and adults. This mini-review presents these first attempts to assess addictive eating and how prevalent addictive eating patterns were in the respective studies. It is concluded that the prevalence of food addiction is increased in obese individuals and even more so in obese patients with binge eating disorder. However, prevalence of food addiction is not sufficient to account for the obesity epidemic. Conversely, an arguably high prevalence of food addiction can also be found in under-, normal-, and overweight individuals. Future studies may investigate which factors are associated with addictive eating in non-obese individuals.

  20. Psychopharmacology of Addiction

    Tugce Toker Ugurlu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Addiction is a primary, chronic, neurobiological disease, with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development. Developments in the psychopharmacology of addiction is much slower than the other disciplines of psychiatry. For a long time, social and behavioral therapeutic approaches are the only choices for the treatment of addictive disorders. Disulfiram was the only pharmacological agent approved for addiction treatment until the end of 20th century. Pharmacological treatment options available for treatment have grown along with our understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms underlying the development and persistence of addiction. Several new medications like naltrexone, acamprosate, methadone and buprenoprhine have been approved for the treatment of alcohol and opioid use disorders ever since. Based on ever-increasing information about neurotransmitter and receptors, many studies have been performed concerning craving and relapse prevention in recent years. Besides many other pharmacological agents have been focus of new researches for treatment of different types of addiction. The aim of this article is to briefly review the literature on psychopharmacology of addictive disorders and recent developments in this area.

  1. Internet addiction: A case report

    Pejović-Milovančević Milica; Popović-Deušić Smiljka; Draganić-Gajić Saveta; Lečić-Toševski Dušica

    2009-01-01

    Some addictions cannot be connected with substance abuse (pathological) gambling, video games playing, binge eating, compulsive physical activity, emotional relationship addiction, TV addiction). Since 1995, Internet addiction has been accepted as a clinical entity with profound negative effect on social, familial, educational and economical personal functioning. The diagnosis of Internet addiction could be established if the person spends more than 38 hours per week on the Internet exempting...

  2. Nested Cohort

    NestedCohort is an R software package for fitting Kaplan-Meier and Cox Models to estimate standardized survival and attributable risks for studies where covariates of interest are observed on only a sample of the cohort.

  3. How addicts think about addiction and community problems?

    A. Meysamie

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: addiction and drug abuse have many risk factors in community and individual attitude; also causes much diversity in community perception and attitude toward addiction. Methods: in this study we assessed attitude toward an addict in 42 addict men and asked about problems in their community and recreational behaviors. They were residents of a rural area in Babol city. In the control group we assessed the same parameters in 268 non addicts in the same area. All of the addicts have been using opium more than many times a week at least for recent 6 months. Data collected via a semi structured questionnaire through conversation. Results: There was a significant difference between addicts’ attitude toward toward addiction compare to non-addicts’. Both addicts and non-addicts indicated that the first three community problems in their area were unemployment, lack of recreational facilities and addiction, in respective order. Answering questions about recreational activities, both groups indicated that there were no recreational facilities in the community. Conclusion: In planning a preventive approach, there is a major role for attitude toward addiction in any community. The conflict seen in this study between addicts’ attitudes toward an addicted person and addiction as a community problem has it’s interesting feature. Recreation and physical and cultural facilities need to pay more attention as indicated by our study participants. This seems to have an important impact in prevention of many community problems as well as addiction.

  4. Cohort Coefficients

    Kristensen, Gustav

    2013-01-01

    Cohorts are the aggregate of individuals who experience the same event within the same time interval. Cohorts can be based on people born in a given year, for example in 1940 or within a span of years, e.g. born in 1940-1944. The year of birth is here the defining event for cohorts. The health di...

  5. [Online addictive disease].

    Neuenschwander, Martin

    2014-10-01

    Digital media are indispensable in school, profession, family and leisure time. 1 to 6 % of all users show dsyfunctional ans addictive patterns, first of all in online and "social" media. In Switzerland over 80 % of young people own a smartphone and "pocket internet". Time of interaction with online-media (hours/day), as well as peer group pattern are markers for risk of addiction. Active music making and sports are protective factors. Family physicians are important in early recognition of "internet addictive disease". Care-givers with special experience in this field are often successful in reducing time of harmful interaction with the internet. Internet addictive disease is not yet classified in ICD and DSM-5 lists, even though it is an increasing reality. PMID:25257114

  6. Stress and addiction.

    Hildebrandt, Tom; Greif, Rebecca

    2013-09-01

    Appetitive behaviors such as substance use and eating are under significant regulatory control by the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal (HPA) and hypothalamic pituitary gonadal (HPG) axes. Recent research has begun to examine how these systems interact to cause and maintain poor regulation of these appetitive behaviors. A range of potential molecular, neuroendocrine, and hormonal mechanisms are involved in these interactions and may explain individual differences in both risk and resilience to a range of addictions. This manuscript provides a commentary on research presented during the International Society of Psychoneuroendocrinology's mini-conference on sex differences in eating and addiction with an emphasis on how HPG and HPA axis interactions affect appetitive behaviors in classic addictions and may be used to help inform the ongoing debate about the validity of food addiction. PMID:23849597

  7. [Work: a potential addiction].

    Karila, L; Liot, K; Reynaud, M

    2010-02-01

    Although the term workaholism is widely used, there is very little consensus about its meaning. Since the seventies, workaholism has been described as a work addiction such as drug or alcohol addiction. Similarities with other addictions include craving, withdrawal, tolerance, progressive involvement, and denial. Although considerable attention has been devoted to the concept of workaholism in recent years, little empirical research has been undertaken to further the understanding of this phenomenon. The existence of different types of workaholism has been described. Questionnaires were developed to assess this concept. This heterogeneous disease has negative health, personal, family relationships and professional consequences. Many therapeutic interventions are possible for this unknown addictive trouble. The objective of this paper is to gain a better understanding and knowledge regarding the phenomenon of workaholism. Data obtained for this review are based on a Medline, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Google Scholar search of English- and French-language articles published between 1968 and 2009. PMID:20344916

  8. Development of a work addiction scale.

    Andreassen, Cecilie Schou; Griffiths, Mark D; Hetland, Jørn; Pallesen, Ståle

    2012-06-01

    Research into excessive work has gained increasing attention over the last 20 years. Terms such as "workaholism,"work addiction" and "excessive work" have been used interchangeably. Given the increase in empirical research, this study presents the development of the Bergen Work Addiction Scale (BWAS), a new psychometrically validated scale for the assessment of work addiction. A pool of 14 items, with two reflecting each of seven core elements of addiction (i.e., salience, mood modification, tolerance, withdrawal, conflict, relapse, and problems) was initially constructed. The items were then administered to two samples, one recruited by a web survey following a television broadcast about workaholism (n = 11,769) and one comprising participants in the second wave of a longitudinal internet-based survey about working life (n = 368). The items with the highest corrected item-total correlation from within each of the seven addiction elements were retained in the final scale. The assumed one-factor solution of the refined seven-item scale was acceptable (root mean square error of approximation = 0.077, Comparative Fit Index = 0.96, Tucker-Lewis Index = 0.95) and the internal reliability of the two samples were 0.84 and 0.80, respectively. The scores of the BWAS converged with scores on other workaholism scales, except for a Work Enjoyment subscale. A suggested cut-off for categorization of workaholics showed good discriminative ability in terms of working hours, leadership position, and subjective health complaints. It is concluded that the BWAS has good psychometric properties. PMID:22490005

  9. Experiential Avoidance and Technological Addictions in Adolescents.

    García-Oliva, Carlos; Piqueras, José A

    2016-06-01

    Background and aims This study focuses on the use of popular information and communication technologies (ICTs) by adolescents: the Internet, mobile phones, and video games. The relationship of ICT use and experiential avoidance (EA), a construct that has emerged as underlying and transdiagnostic to a wide variety of psychological problems, including behavioral addictions, is examined. EA refers to a self-regulatory strategy involving efforts to control or escape from negative stimuli such as thoughts, feelings, or sensations that generate strong distress. This strategy, which may be adaptive in the short term, is problematic if it becomes an inflexible pattern. Thus, the aim of this study was to explore whether EA patterns were associated with addictive or problematic use of ICT in adolescents. Methods A total of 317 students of the Spanish southeast between 12 and 18 years old were recruited to complete a questionnaire that included questions about general use of each ICTs, an experiential avoidance questionnaire, a brief inventory of the Big Five personality traits, and specific questionnaires on problematic use of the Internet, mobile phones, and video games. Results Correlation analysis and linear regression showed that EA largely explained results regarding the addictive use of the Internet, mobile phones, and video games, but not in the same way. As regards gender, boys showed a more problematic use of video games than girls. Concerning personality factors, conscientiousness was related to all addictive behaviors. Discussion and conclusions We conclude that EA is an important construct that should be considered in future models that attempt to explain addictive behaviors. PMID:27363463

  10. Computer games addiction

    Nejepínský, Adam

    2010-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with the problem of computer games addiction. The attention is paid mainly to on-line games for more players. The purpose of this thesis was to describe this problem and to check - through questionnaire investigation - if the addiction to computer games and the impacts connected with the games really deserve excessive experts and laics attention. The thesis has two parts -- theoretical and practical ones. The theoretical part describes the possibilities of diagnosin...

  11. Glutamate Transmission in Addiction

    Kalivas, Peter W.; LaLumiere, Ryan; Knackstedt, Lori; Shen, Haowei

    2008-01-01

    Cortico-striatal glutamate transmission has been implicated in both the initiation and expression of addiction related behaviors, such as locomotor sensitization and drug seeking. While glutamate transmission onto dopamine cells in the ventral tegmental area undergoes transient plasticity important for establishing addiction-related behaviors, glutamatergic plasticity in the nucleus accumbens is critical for the expression of these behaviors. This information points to the value of exploring ...

  12. Addiction as a stress surfeit disorder.

    Koob, George F; Buck, Cara L; Cohen, Ami; Edwards, Scott; Park, Paula E; Schlosburg, Joel E; Schmeichel, Brooke; Vendruscolo, Leandro F; Wade, Carrie L; Whitfield, Timothy W; George, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Drug addiction has been conceptualized as a chronically relapsing disorder of compulsive drug seeking and taking that progresses through three stages: binge/intoxication, withdrawal/negative affect, and preoccupation/anticipation. Drug addiction impacts multiple motivational mechanisms and can be conceptualized as a disorder that progresses from positive reinforcement (binge/intoxication stage) to negative reinforcement (withdrawal/negative affect stage). The construct of negative reinforcement is defined as drug taking that alleviates a negative emotional state. Our hypothesis is that the negative emotional state that drives such negative reinforcement is derived from dysregulation of key neurochemical elements involved in the brain stress systems within the frontal cortex, ventral striatum, and extended amygdala. Specific neurochemical elements in these structures include not only recruitment of the classic stress axis mediated by corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) in the extended amygdala as previously hypothesized but also recruitment of dynorphin-κ opioid aversive systems in the ventral striatum and extended amygdala. Additionally, we hypothesized that these brain stress systems may be engaged in the frontal cortex early in the addiction process. Excessive drug taking engages activation of CRF not only in the extended amygdala, accompanied by anxiety-like states, but also in the medial prefrontal cortex, accompanied by deficits in executive function that may facilitate the transition to compulsive-like responding. Excessive activation of the nucleus accumbens via the release of mesocorticolimbic dopamine or activation of opioid receptors has long been hypothesized to subsequently activate the dynorphin-κ opioid system, which in turn can decrease dopaminergic activity in the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system. Blockade of the κ opioid system can also block anxiety-like and reward deficits associated with withdrawal from drugs of abuse and block the

  13. Recruiting and Advising Challenges in Actuarial Science

    Case, Bettye Anne; Guan, Yuanying Michelle; Paris, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Some challenges to increasing actuarial science program size through recruiting broadly among potential students are identified. Possible solutions depend on the structures and culture of the school. Up to three student cohorts may result from partition of potential students by the levels of academic progress before program entry: students…

  14. Opiate addiction and cocaine addiction: underlying molecular neurobiology and genetics

    Kreek, Mary Jeanne; Levran, Orna; Reed, Brian; Schlussman, Stefan D.; Zhou, Yan; Butelman, Eduardo R.

    2012-01-01

    Addictive diseases, including addiction to heroin, prescription opioids, or cocaine, pose massive personal and public health costs. Addictions are chronic relapsing diseases of the brain caused by drug-induced direct effects and persisting neuroadaptations at the epigenetic, mRNA, neuropeptide, neurotransmitter, or protein levels. These neuroadaptations, which can be specific to drug type, and their resultant behaviors are modified by various internal and external environmental factors, including stress responsivity, addict mindset, and social setting. Specific gene variants, including variants encoding pharmacological target proteins or genes mediating neuroadaptations, also modify vulnerability at particular stages of addiction. Greater understanding of these interacting factors through laboratory-based and translational studies have the potential to optimize early interventions for the therapy of chronic addictive diseases and to reduce the burden of relapse. Here, we review the molecular neurobiology and genetics of opiate addiction, including heroin and prescription opioids, and cocaine addiction. PMID:23023708

  15. The Relationships Between Self-Efficacy, Internet Addiction and Shame

    Giuseppe Craparo; Roberta Messina; Sergio Severino; Silvia Fasciano; Vincenza Cannella; Alessio Gori; Marco Cacioppo; Roberto Baiocco

    2014-01-01

    Background: Internet addiction (IAD) is one of the most diffuse mental disorders among adolescents. Aims: The aim of our study was to evaluate the relationships between shame, self-efficacy and Internet addiction. Materials and Methods: We recruited a total of 670 college students (males = 164, 24.5%; females = 506, 75.5%). The subjects were aged between 18 and 36 years (M = 20.93, SD = 2.52; males: M = 21.43, SD = 2.95; females: M = 20.76, SD = 2.35). We administered the following instrument...

  16. The Addict in Us All

    Brendan eDill

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we contend that the psychology of addiction is similar to the psychology of ordinary, non-addictive temptation in important respects, and explore the ways in which these parallels can illuminate both addiction and ordinary action. The incentive salience account of addiction proposed by Robinson and Berridge (1993; 2001; 2008 entails that addictive desires are not in their nature different from many of the desires had by non-addicts; what is different is rather the way that addictive desires are acquired, which in turn affects their strength. We examine these 'incentive salience' desires, both in addicts and non-addicts, contrasting them with more cognitive desires. On this account the self-control challenge faced by addicted agents is not different in kind from that faced by non-addicted agents—though the two may, of course, differ greatly in degree of difficulty. We explore a general model of self-control for both the addict and the non-addict, stressing that self-control may be employed at three different stages, and examining the ways that it might be strengthened. This helps elucidate a general model of intentional action.

  17. Understanding Drug Abuse and Addiction

    ... as family disintegration, loss of employment, failure in school, domestic violence, and child abuse. What Is Drug Addiction? Addiction is a chronic, often relapsing brain disease that causes compulsive drug seeking and use, despite harmful consequences ...

  18. [DGRW update: alcohol addiction].

    Vogelgesang, M

    2011-10-01

    First, epidemiological data and socioeconomic consequences of alcohol addiction are summarized. Research findings, in particular in intervention and evaluation, from 2009-2011 in the field of alcohol addiction treatment are then discussed concerning their relevance for rehabilitation practice. The search was based on PubMed and PSYNDEX. The interventions most frequently evaluated and found most effective in alcohol addiction treatment are cognitive-behavioural interventions. Further topics dealt with are: pharmacological relapse prevention; technologically based therapies (e. g. e-therapy); systemic interventions; 12-steps; effectiveness of addiction treatment as confirmed in large-scale catamnestic studies; treatment of addiction and comorbidity; various subgroups (like elderly people and women); as well as other new and interesting developments such as rehab case management, dovetailing of medical and vocational interventions, stepped-care interventions, rehab management category groups as well as a new focus on individual treatment experiences and the pre-eminence of the therapeutic relationship. Finally, priority areas of future research are described. PMID:21976262

  19. RECRUITMENT AND RECRUITMENT MODELS IN FISHERY SCIENCE

    Merica Slišković; Gordana Jelić Mrčelić

    2006-01-01

    Recruitment and growth of individuals bring the most to enlargement of fish stock biomass. Recruitment can be independent on stock size during the development of the fishery, but experience has showed that many fisheries have come to the point when recruitment decreases due to over fishing. Large parental stock does not give large number of juveniles because large number of individuals influences survival of juveniles (competition for food). In period between 1984 and 1987 this phenomenon was...

  20. How prevalent is 'food addiction'?

    Adrian eMeule

    2011-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that binge eating-related disorders could be related to addiction-like eating patterns due to the addictive potential of hyperpalatable foods. Subsequently, important implications have been derived for treatment of those disorders and even political actions. However, studies on the prevalence of food addiction are rare. Few recent studies investigated addictive eating in children, adolescents, and adults. This mini-review presents these first attempts to assess ad...

  1. Exercise rehabilitation for smartphone addiction

    Kim, Hyunna

    2013-01-01

    Internet addiction after launching smartphone is becoming serious. Therefore this paper has attempted to sketch out the diverse addiction treatment and then check the feasibility of exercise rehabilitation. The reason to addict the internet or smartphone is personalized individual characters related personal psychological and emotional factors and social environmental factors around them. We have shown that 2 discernible approaches due to 2 different addiction causes: that is behavioral treat...

  2. Neurobiology of addiction: a neurocircuitry analysis.

    Koob, George F; Volkow, Nora D

    2016-08-01

    Drug addiction represents a dramatic dysregulation of motivational circuits that is caused by a combination of exaggerated incentive salience and habit formation, reward deficits and stress surfeits, and compromised executive function in three stages. The rewarding effects of drugs of abuse, development of incentive salience, and development of drug-seeking habits in the binge/intoxication stage involve changes in dopamine and opioid peptides in the basal ganglia. The increases in negative emotional states and dysphoric and stress-like responses in the withdrawal/negative affect stage involve decreases in the function of the dopamine component of the reward system and recruitment of brain stress neurotransmitters, such as corticotropin-releasing factor and dynorphin, in the neurocircuitry of the extended amygdala. The craving and deficits in executive function in the so-called preoccupation/anticipation stage involve the dysregulation of key afferent projections from the prefrontal cortex and insula, including glutamate, to the basal ganglia and extended amygdala. Molecular genetic studies have identified transduction and transcription factors that act in neurocircuitry associated with the development and maintenance of addiction that might mediate initial vulnerability, maintenance, and relapse associated with addiction. PMID:27475769

  3. User profiles of internet addicts in Serbia

    Hinić Darko

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This work was a part of a broader empirical study of Internet users with excessive and dysfunctional Internet use symptoms. The aim of this particular article was to describe user profiles of Internet addicts in Serbia. The study recruited 100 subjects in total, 50 in both the clinical and control group. The clinical group included the Internet users who asked for professional help due to the symptoms of the excessive Internet use and fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for Internet behavior disorder proposed by the American Psychology Association. The results have shown that population with Internet addiction symptoms equally included both males and females, mostly adolescent and younger population, teenagers and university students, persons with higher income and users from economically more developed areas of Serbia. The user profile of this group is characterized by frequent logging on with intervals of several hours online at one time, mainly in the evening or at night, and also intensive negative reactions to any form of Internet access deprivation. By means of factor analysis, three dimensions of pathological use have been established: mixed type with particular need for up-to-date information, social interaction addiction and need for fun-seeking, namely pursuing hobbies online (cyberpornography, online games, music, art and so on.

  4. CORRELATIONS BETWEEN AWARENESS OF ILLNESS (INSIGHT AND HISTORY OF ADDICTION IN HEROIN-ADDICTED PATIENTS

    Angelo Giovanni Icro eMaremmani

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In a group of 1066 heroin addicts, who were seeking treatment for opioid agonist treatment, we looked for differences in historical, demographic and clinical characteristics, between patients with different levels of awareness of illness (insight. The results showed that, in the cohort studied, a majority of subjects lacked insight into their heroin-use behaviour. Compared with the impaired-insight group, those who possessed insight into their illness showed significantly greater awareness of past social, somatic and psychopathological impairments, and had a greater number of past treatment-seeking events for heroin addiction. In contrast with other psychiatric illnesses, the presence of awareness appears to be related to the passing of time and to the worsening of the illness. Methodologies to improve the insight of patients should, therefore, be targeted more directly on patients early in their history of heroin dependence, because the risk of lack of insight is greatest during this period.

  5. Internet Addiction: A Logotherapeutic Approach

    Didelot, Mary J.; Hollingsworth, Lisa; Buckenmeyer, Janet A.

    2012-01-01

    Internet addiction (IA) is both the most rapidly growing addiction and the least understood addiction (Watson, 2005). For counselors, treatment issues surrounding the disease are also growing. At the forefront is the lack of understanding concerning treatment protocol to manage the challenging recovery and maintenance stages after IA behavior has…

  6. Peer Influence and Addiction Recurrence

    Paul Markdissi

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we highlight the role of peers in the recurrence of addictive behavior. To do so, we use a simple “forward looking” model with procrastination and peers influence. Our results show that while procrastination can explain the decision to postpone rehabilitation, peers influence is essential to explain the cyclical patterns of addiction-rehabilitation-addiction.

  7. [Complications of cocaine addiction].

    Karila, Laurent; Lowenstein, William; Coscas, Sarah; Benyamina, Amine; Reynaud, Michel

    2009-06-20

    Addiction is a chronic relapsing disorder characterized by repetitive and compulsive drug-seeking behavior and drug abuse despite negative health or social consequences. Cocaine addiction is a significant worldwide public health problem, which has somatic, psychological, psychiatric, socio-economic and judicial complications. Some of the most frequent complications are cardiovascular effects (acute coronary syndrome, cardiac arrhythmias, increased blood pressure); respiratory effects (fibrosis, interstitial pneumonitis, pulmonary hypertension, alveolar haemorrhage, asthma exacerbation; emphysema), neurological effects (strokes, aneurysms, seizures, headaches); risk for contracting HIV/AIDS, hepatitis B and C, sexual transmitted disease and otolaryngologic effects. Other complications are not discussed here. The vast majority of studies indicate that there are cognitive deficits induced by cocaine addiction. Attention, visual and working memories, executive functioning are affected in cocaine users. Psychiatric complications found in clinical practice are major depressive disorders, cocaine-induced paranoia, cocaine-induced compulsive foraging and panic attacks. PMID:19642439

  8. Buprenorphine Treatment for Opioid Addiction in the Primary Care Setting: Predictors of Treatment Success and Failure

    Drago, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    Buprenorphine is a partial mu-opioid agonist with well-demonstrated efficacy in the medical treatment of opioid addiction. Little is known about which patients respond successfully to treatment with buprenorphine. To help answer this question, we performed a retrospective cohort analysis of 160 patients who received outpatient buprenorphine therapy for opioid addiction at MGH Charlestown HealthCare Center. We gathered information on 36 observable patient characteristics, and searched for vari...

  9. Circuit breakers for addiction.

    Foy, A

    2007-05-01

    The phenomenon of addiction is complex, although its expression clinically is relatively straightforward. There is a series of neurophysiological changes that mediate changes in the mesolimbic and mesocortical systems which in turn lead to disturbances in reward mechanisms. These then act to perpetuate the cycle of intoxication and reinforcement, withdrawal, craving and compulsive use. As our understanding of the pathophysiology of this process has improved, new pharmacological agents have been developed with the potential to moderate or even reverse it. This article briefly reviews the treatment of addiction with particular reference to emerging pharmaceutical agents. PMID:17504280

  10. RECRUITMENT AND RECRUITMENT MODELS IN FISHERY SCIENCE

    Merica Slišković

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Recruitment and growth of individuals bring the most to enlargement of fish stock biomass. Recruitment can be independent on stock size during the development of the fishery, but experience has showed that many fisheries have come to the point when recruitment decreases due to over fishing. Large parental stock does not give large number of juveniles because large number of individuals influences survival of juveniles (competition for food. In period between 1984 and 1987 this phenomenon was recorded in sardine population in the Adriatic Sea, when large biomass of parental stock resulted in twice less recruitment. In the period between 1993 and 2000 there was no significant recruitment of the sardine population in the Adriatic Sea and it reflected on biomass of the sardine. Large recruitment was recorded in 2001 and 2002. There are numerous mathematical models which give relation between stock and recruitment. Beverton–Holt’s and Ricker’s models are usually used. Beverton–Holt’s model assumes that recruitment depends on the density of population. Ricker’s model is based on assumption that all resources are evenly distributed among the individuals; therefore the rise in density causes the exhaustion of resources. This model is suitable for species as the sardine, which migrates in the breeding area.

  11. Unraveling Exercise Addiction: The Role of Narcissism and Self-Esteem

    Antonio Bruno; Diego Quattrone; Giuseppe Scimeca; Claudio Cicciarelli; Vincenzo Maria Romeo; Gianluca Pandolfo; Rocco Antonio Zoccali; Maria Rosaria Anna Muscatello

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the risk of exercise addiction (EA) in fitness clubs and to identify possible factors in the development of the disorder. The Exercise Addiction Inventory (EAI), the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI), and the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (SEI) were administered to a sample of 150 consecutive gym attenders recruited in fitness centers. Based on EAI total score, high EA risk group (HEA n = 51) and a low EA risk group (LEA n = 69) were identified. ...

  12. Internet Addiction Among Elementary and Middle School Students in China: A Nationally Representative Sample Study

    Li, Yajun; Zhang, Xinghui; Lu, Furong; Zhang, Qin; Wang, Yun

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of Internet addiction in a nationally representative sample of Chinese elementary and middle school students and to investigate Internet addiction among Internet users with different usages. The data were from the National Children's Study of China (NCSC) in which 24,013 fourth- to ninth-grade students were recruited from 100 counties in 31 provinces in China. Only 54.2% of the students had accessed the Internet. According to the criteri...

  13. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in on-line game addiction

    Han, Doug Hyun; Lee, Young Sik; Shi, Xianfeng; Renshaw, Perry F.

    2014-01-01

    Recent brain imaging studies suggested that both the frontal and temporal cortices are important candidate areas for mediating the symptoms of internet addiction. We hypothesized that deficits of prefrontal and temporal cortical function in patients with on-line game addiction (PGA) would be reflected in decreased levels of N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) and cytosolic, choline containing compound (Cho). Seventy three young PGA and 38 age and sex matched healthy control subjects were recruited in th...

  14. Internet addiction: A case report

    Pejović-Milovančević Milica

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Some addictions cannot be connected with substance abuse (pathological gambling, video games playing, binge eating, compulsive physical activity, emotional relationship addiction, TV addiction. Since 1995, Internet addiction has been accepted as a clinical entity with profound negative effect on social, familial, educational and economical personal functioning. The diagnosis of Internet addiction could be established if the person spends more than 38 hours per week on the Internet exempting online professional needs. Basic symptoms are the increased number of hours spent in front of the computer along with the Internet use, development of abstinent syndrome if the Internet access is prohibited, sleep inversion, neglect of basic social requirements and personal hygiene, many somatic symptoms developed due to prolonged sitting or monitor watching, dissocial behavior. In this paper, data about the Internet addiction are presented and a case report of an adolescent with developed Internet addiction.

  15. Behavioral addictions: an overview.

    Karim, Reef; Chaudhri, Priya

    2012-01-01

    The legitimacy of nonsubstance addictions has received increased attention from clinicians, researchers and the general population as more and more individuals report symptoms consistent with impairment of impulse control. The clinical presentation of these disorders is varied, as compulsive activities may include: gambling, eating, sex, shopping, use of the Internet or videogames or even exercising, working or falling in love. As such, there is great controversy in diagnosing, treating or even naming these conditions, as many of these behaviors are daily rituals instrumental to our ultimate survival. Historically, the phrase "impulse control disorders" described these conditions but many researchers and clinicians also use the term "behavioral addictions," "process addictions" or "impulsive-compulsive behaviors" to report behavioral pathology. This review summarizes the data of each of these behavioral addictions from epidemiology to neurobiology to treatment options. Research suggests similarities between natural and drug reward processing but clinical evidence supports the utilization of treatment modalities for these behavioral conditions that can sometimes differ from traditional drug treatment. PMID:22641961

  16. Addiction, risk, and resources.

    Allamani, Allaman

    2007-01-01

    Addiction is a contemporary social issue bound to the myth of self-control and control of the other, which is typical of the contemporary "market ideology" society. In its broad definition it includes not only the use and misuse of "substances" and addictive behaviors, but also the concept of risk. There is a continuum between "addicted behaviors" and behaviors that are not "addicted" but may induce and/or be related to both physical and psycho-social problems on a micro- to macrolevel. Different studies have documented substantial changes in the consumption of tobacco, drugs, alcoholic beverages, as well as "junk foods" during the last decades in various countries. All too often politicians, health administrators, and local providers believe that consumption prevention programs are able, per se, to effect such changes. In fact, the impact of factors such as international trade, globalization and societal values, among many others, are considered relevant. On the other hand, sufficient place must be given to national and community-based preventive initiatives. PMID:17558940

  17. E-recruitment

    Holm, Anna B.

    2012-01-01

    Up to now, there has been little research on the impact of e-recruitment on the recruitment process as a whole. The present study fills part of this gap by investigating the effect of e-recruitment on the design of the recruitment process. Three explorative case studies were carried out in three...... large organisations in Denmark in 2008-2010. The findings indicate that e-recruitment transforms the traditional recruitment process into a time- and space-independent, collaborative hiring process. The most significant changes are recorded in the sequence and increased divisibility of main recruitment...... tasks and subtasks. For management, the main task is now that of communicating with candidates. In addition, a new on-going task of maintaining a corporate career website has become an integral part of the new recruitment process. The new design is presented in the following, and its implications...

  18. Compulsivity in obsessive-compulsive disorder and addictions.

    Figee, Martijn; Pattij, Tommy; Willuhn, Ingo; Luigjes, Judy; van den Brink, Wim; Goudriaan, Anneke; Potenza, Marc N; Robbins, Trevor W; Denys, Damiaan

    2016-05-01

    Compulsive behaviors are driven by repetitive urges and typically involve the experience of limited voluntary control over these urges, a diminished ability to delay or inhibit these behaviors, and a tendency to perform repetitive acts in a habitual or stereotyped manner. Compulsivity is not only a central characteristic of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) but is also crucial to addiction. Based on this analogy, OCD has been proposed to be part of the concept of behavioral addiction along with other non-drug-related disorders that share compulsivity, such as pathological gambling, skin-picking, trichotillomania and compulsive eating. In this review, we investigate the neurobiological overlap between compulsivity in substance-use disorders, OCD and behavioral addictions as a validation for the construct of compulsivity that could be adopted in the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC). The reviewed data suggest that compulsivity in OCD and addictions is related to impaired reward and punishment processing with attenuated dopamine release in the ventral striatum, negative reinforcement in limbic systems, cognitive and behavioral inflexibility with diminished serotonergic prefrontal control, and habitual responding with imbalances between ventral and dorsal frontostriatal recruitment. Frontostriatal abnormalities of compulsivity are promising targets for neuromodulation and other interventions for OCD and addictions. We conclude that compulsivity encompasses many of the RDoC constructs in a trans-diagnostic fashion with a common brain circuit dysfunction that can help identifying appropriate prevention and treatment targets. PMID:26774279

  19. Belief in Food Addiction and Obesity-Related Policy Support

    Schulte, Erica M.; Tuttle, Hannah M.; Gearhardt, Ashley N.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study examines whether belief in the food addiction construct is associated with support for obesity-related policies (e.g., restrictions on foods served in schools and workplace cafeterias, subsidies on fruits and vegetables), while simultaneously examining other factors associated with policy support (e.g., political party affiliation). Design Cross-sectional. Setting Online Community. Participants 200 individuals were recruited through Amazon Mechanical Turk. Measurements P...

  20. Neurobiology of dysregulated motivational systems in drug addiction

    Edwards, Scott; Koob, George F.

    2010-01-01

    The progression from recreational drug use to drug addiction impacts multiple neurobiological processes and can be conceptualized as a transition from positive to negative reinforcement mechanisms driving both drug-taking and drug-seeking behaviors. Neurobiological mechanisms for negative reinforcement, defined as drug taking that alleviates a negative emotional state, involve changes in the brain reward system and recruitment of brain stress (or antireward) systems within forebrain structure...

  1. Prevalence of sexually transmitted infections and high risk behaviors among women who have referred to a de-addiction center in Kermanshah

    Fariba Teimouri; Nourosadat Karima; Feizollah Mansouri; Mansour Rezaei

    2011-01-01

    Background: Drug addiction is one of the social health problems at the present century. The high risk sexual behaviors as well as drug abusing are factors of sexually transmitted infections. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections and high risk behaviors among women who have referred to a de-addiction center. Methods: In this descriptive study, 76 women who have referred to Niloofar de-addiction center in Kermanshah-Western Iran, were recruited using co...

  2. Recruitment and Training. Symposium.

    2002

    This document contains three papers from a symposium on recruitment and training. "College Choice: The State of Marketing and Effective Student Recruitment Strategies" (Fredrick Muyia Nafukho, Michael F. Burnett) reports on a study of the recruitment strategies used by Louisiana State University's admissions office and College of Agriculture that…

  3. Novel recruitment strategies to increase participation of women in reproductive health research in India

    Krupp, K.; Madhivanan, P.; Karat, C; Chandrasekaran, V.; Sarvode, M.; Klausner, J; Reingold, A.

    2007-01-01

    In India, care seeking for reproductive health among women is inadequate. This poses a unique challenge to researchers recruiting cohorts for studies in clinic-based settings. The purpose of this paper is to describe the recruitment process used in a prospective cohort study investigating the relationship between bacterial vaginosis and acquisition of HSV-2 among sexually active women in Mysore, India. Participants were initially recruited from an obstetrics/gynaecology outpatient clinic. Res...

  4. Coexisting addiction and pain in people receiving methadone for addiction.

    St Marie, Barbara

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this qualitative study was to examine the narratives of people who experience chronic pain (lasting 6 months or more) and were receiving methadone for the treatment of their opiate addiction through a major methadone clinic. This paper featured the pathway of how the participants developed chronic pain and addiction, and their beliefs of how prescription opioids would impact their addiction in the future. Thirty-four participants who experienced chronic pain and received methadone for treatment of opiate addiction were willing to tell the story of their experiences. The findings in three areas are presented: (a) whether participants experienced addiction first or pain first and how their exposures to addictive substances influenced their experiences, (b) the significance of recreational drug use and patterns of abuse behaviors leading to chronic pain, and (c) participants' experiences and beliefs about the potential for abuse of prescription opioid used for treatment of pain. PMID:23858068

  5. Opiate addiction and cocaine addiction: underlying molecular neurobiology and genetics

    Kreek, Mary Jeanne; Levran, Orna; Reed, Brian; Schlussman, Stefan D.; Zhou, Yan; Butelman, Eduardo R.

    2012-01-01

    Addictive diseases, including addiction to heroin, prescription opioids, or cocaine, pose massive personal and public health costs. Addictions are chronic relapsing diseases of the brain caused by drug-induced direct effects and persisting neuroadaptations at the epigenetic, mRNA, neuropeptide, neurotransmitter, or protein levels. These neuroadaptations, which can be specific to drug type, and their resultant behaviors are modified by various internal and external environmental...

  6. Cortisol secretion patterns in addiction and addiction risk

    LOVALLO, WILLIAM R.

    2006-01-01

    Addiction to alcohol or nicotine involves altered functioning of the brain's motivational systems. Altered functioning of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenocortical (HPA) axis may hold clues to the nature of the motivational changes accompanying addiction and vulnerability to addiction. Alcohol and nicotine show at least three forms of interaction with HPA functioning. Acute intake of both substances causes stress-like cortisol responses. Their persistent use may dysregulate the HPA. Finally, ...

  7. The Recruitment Process:

    Holm, Anna

    The aim of this research was to determine whether the introduction of e-recruitment has an impact on the process and underlying tasks, subtasks and activities of recruitment. Three large organizations with well-established e-recruitment practices were included in the study. The three case studies......, which were carried out in Denmark in 2008-2009 using qualitative research methods, revealed changes in the sequence, divisibility and repetitiveness of a number of recruitment tasks and subtasks. The new recruitment process design was identified and presented in the paper. The study concluded that the...

  8. The presence of altered craniocervical posture and mobility in smartphone-addicted teenagers with temporomandibular disorders

    Kee, In-Kyung; Byun, Jin-Seok; Jung, Jae-Kwang; Choi, Jae-Kap

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Smartphones are widely used by teenagers and adults for various purposes. As teenagers use smartphones more actively than adults, they are more prone to be addicted to smartphones. Furthermore, excessive usage of smartphones can lead to various psychosocial and physical symptoms. [Subjects and Methods] One hundred teenage subjects were recruited and divided into normal and addiction groups, based on the criteria of the smartphone addiction scale-short version questionnaire. Craniocervical posture and mobility were examined by lateral cephalometric analysis and a cervical range of motion instrument. [Results] Cephalometric analysis showed no significant difference in the craniocervical angles of the resting positions of the two groups. However, measurement using an inclinometer revealed a significantly flexed cervical posture while using smartphones and decreased cervical range of motion in the smartphone-addicted teenagers. The clinical profile of temporomandibular disorders revealed that muscular problems were more frequently presented in the smartphone-addicted teenagers. [Conclusion] These findings suggest that smartphone addiction has a negative influence on craniocervical posture and mobility. Further, it can be postulated that smartphone addiction among teenagers may have contributed to the occurrence of myogenous temporomandibular disorders. In conclusion, smartphone-addicted teenagers may be more frequently subjected to muscular disturbance in the craniocervical area, which probably affects the pathologic process of temporomandibular disorders in teenagers. PMID:27065516

  9. The presence of altered craniocervical posture and mobility in smartphone-addicted teenagers with temporomandibular disorders.

    Kee, In-Kyung; Byun, Jin-Seok; Jung, Jae-Kwang; Choi, Jae-Kap

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Smartphones are widely used by teenagers and adults for various purposes. As teenagers use smartphones more actively than adults, they are more prone to be addicted to smartphones. Furthermore, excessive usage of smartphones can lead to various psychosocial and physical symptoms. [Subjects and Methods] One hundred teenage subjects were recruited and divided into normal and addiction groups, based on the criteria of the smartphone addiction scale-short version questionnaire. Craniocervical posture and mobility were examined by lateral cephalometric analysis and a cervical range of motion instrument. [Results] Cephalometric analysis showed no significant difference in the craniocervical angles of the resting positions of the two groups. However, measurement using an inclinometer revealed a significantly flexed cervical posture while using smartphones and decreased cervical range of motion in the smartphone-addicted teenagers. The clinical profile of temporomandibular disorders revealed that muscular problems were more frequently presented in the smartphone-addicted teenagers. [Conclusion] These findings suggest that smartphone addiction has a negative influence on craniocervical posture and mobility. Further, it can be postulated that smartphone addiction among teenagers may have contributed to the occurrence of myogenous temporomandibular disorders. In conclusion, smartphone-addicted teenagers may be more frequently subjected to muscular disturbance in the craniocervical area, which probably affects the pathologic process of temporomandibular disorders in teenagers. PMID:27065516

  10. Epidemiology of internet behaviors and addiction among adolescents in six Asian countries.

    Mak, Kwok-Kei; Lai, Ching-Man; Watanabe, Hiroko; Kim, Dong-Il; Bahar, Norharlina; Ramos, Milen; Young, Kimberly S; Ho, Roger C M; Aum, Na-Rae; Cheng, Cecilia

    2014-11-01

    Internet addiction has become a serious behavioral health problem in Asia. However, there are no up-to-date country comparisons. The Asian Adolescent Risk Behavior Survey (AARBS) screens and compares the prevalence of Internet behaviors and addiction in adolescents in six Asian countries. A total of 5,366 adolescents aged 12-18 years were recruited from six Asian countries: China, Hong Kong, Japan, South Korea, Malaysia, and the Philippines. Participants completed a structured questionnaire on their Internet use in the 2012-2013 school year. Internet addiction was assessed using the Internet Addiction Test (IAT) and the Revised Chen Internet Addiction Scale (CIAS-R). The variations in Internet behaviors and addiction across countries were examined. The overall prevalence of smartphone ownership is 62%, ranging from 41% in China to 84% in South Korea. Moreover, participation in online gaming ranges from 11% in China to 39% in Japan. Hong Kong has the highest number of adolescents reporting daily or above Internet use (68%). Internet addiction is highest in the Philippines, according to both the IAT (5%) and the CIAS-R (21%). Internet addictive behavior is common among adolescents in Asian countries. Problematic Internet use is prevalent and characterized by risky cyberbehaviors. PMID:25405785

  11. Treatment of addiction and addiction-related behavior

    Dewey, Stephen L.; Brodie, Jonathan D.; Ashby, Jr., Charles R.

    2004-12-07

    The present invention provides a highly efficient method for treating substance addiction and for changing addiction-related behavior of a mammal suffering from substance addiction. The method includes administering to a mammal an effective amount of gamma vinylGABA or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof. The present invention also provides a method of treatment of cocaine, morphine, heroin, nicotine, amphetamine, methamphetamine, or ethanol addiction by treating a mammal with an effective amount of gamma vinylGABA or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

  12. Cortisol secretion patterns in addiction and addiction risk.

    Lovallo, William R

    2006-03-01

    Addiction to alcohol or nicotine involves altered functioning of the brain's motivational systems. Altered functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis may hold clues to the nature of the motivational changes accompanying addiction and vulnerability to addiction. Alcohol and nicotine show at least three forms of interaction with HPA functioning. Acute intake of both substances causes stress-like cortisol responses. Their persistent use may dysregulate the HPA. Finally, the risk for dependence and for relapse after quitting may be associated with deficient cortisol reactivity to a variety of stressors. The HPA is regulated at the hypothalamus by diurnal and metabolic signals, but during acute emotional states, its regulation is superseded by signals from the limbic system and prefrontal cortex. This top-down organization makes the HPA responsive to inputs that reflect motivational processes. The HPA is accordingly a useful system for studying psychophysiological reactivity in persons who may vary in cognitive, emotional, and behavioral tendencies associated with addiction and risk for addiction. Chronic, heavy intake of alcohol and nicotine may cause modifications in these frontal-limbic interactions and may account for HPA response differences in seen in alcoholics and smokers. In addition, preexisting alterations in frontal-limbic interactions with the HPA may reflect addiction-proneness, as shown in studies of offspring of alcohol- and drug-abusing parents. Continuing research on the relationship between HPA function, stress responsivity, and the addictions may yield insights into how the brain's motivational systems support addictions and risk for addictions. PMID:16434116

  13. Food addiction and neuroimaging.

    Zhang, Yi; von Deneen, Karen M; Tian, Jie; Gold, Mark S; Liu, Yijun

    2011-01-01

    Obesity has become a serious epidemic and one of the leading global health problems. However, much of the current debate has been fractious, and etiologies of obesity have been attributed to eating behavior (i.e. fast food consumption), personality, depression, addiction or genetics. One of the interesting new hypotheses for explaining the development of obesity involves a food addiction model, which suggests that food is not eaten as much for survival as pleasure and that hedonic overeating is relevant to both substance-related disorders and eating disorders. Accumulating evidence has shown that there are a number of shared neural and hormonal pathways as well as distinct differences in these pathways that may help researchers discover why certain individuals continue to overeat despite health and other consequences, and becomes more and more obese. Functional neuroimaging studies have further revealed that pleasant smelling, looking, and tasting food has reinforcing characteristics similar to drugs of abuse. Many of the brain changes reported for hedonic eating and obesity are also seen in various types of addictions. Most importantly, overeating and obesity may have an acquired drive similar to drug addiction with respect to motivation and incentive craving. In both cases, the desire and continued satisfaction occur after early and repeated exposure to stimuli. The acquired drive for eating food and relative weakness of the satiety signal would cause an imbalance between the drive and hunger/reward centers in the brain and their regulation. In the current paper, we first provide a summary of literature on food addition from eight different perspectives, and then we proposed a research paradigm that may allow screening of new pharmacological treatment on the basis of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). PMID:21492080

  14. Addiction and Cognition

    Gould, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    The brain regions and neural processes that underlie addiction overlap extensively with those that support cognitive functions, including learning, memory, and reasoning. Drug activity in these regions and processes during early stages of abuse foster strong maladaptive associations between drug use and environmental stimuli that may underlie future cravings and drug-seeking behaviors. With continued drug use, cognitive deficits ensue that exacerbate the difficulty of establishing sustained a...

  15. [Addiction and personality].

    Franques, P; Auriacombe, M; Tignol, J

    2000-01-01

    Within the field of substance abuse, it is now widely admitted that the addictive personality does not exist. No one personality type is predisposed to addiction. The predisposition to drug dependence involves many different factors: psychological, social, familial, biological. None of these factors can be the sole determinant of drug dependence. Keeping that in mind, it is of interest to review the recent data on the relationship between personality traits or disorders and opiate and cocaine dependence. Using DSM and ICD categorical assessment, no single personality disorder emerged, instead a range of personality disorders has been evaluated in opiate and cocaine dependent subjects. Every type of personality disorders (PD) existed but cluster BPD were the most common (especially antisocial personality disorder in opiate addicts). However, it is noteworthy that a large minority to a majority of subjects did not display any king of PD. The implication of these results is that antisocial PD is probably over-diagnosed in drug dependence clinical settings. The studies reviewed failed to demonstrate that personality disorders were strong predictors of outcome in opiate or cocaine dependence. However, opiate dependent PD subjects entering treatment had more severe problems and lower retention rate than non PD subjects. But the amount of improvement was not significantly different between PD subjects and non PD subjects. This demonstrated that substance dependent PD patients could benefit from treatment whose intensity and duration must be adjusted. There is good support for the idea that Sensation Seeking trait is a vulnerability factor to substance abuse. But after dependence develops, sensation seeking is probably irrelevant to continued use of the drugs. This break between the psychopathology of vulnerability of substance abuse and the psychopathology of dependence raises the question of the existence of dramatically different factors involved in both phases of

  16. Animal Studies of Addictive Behavior

    Vanderschuren, Louk J. M. J.; Serge H Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    It is increasingly recognized that studying drug taking in laboratory animals does not equate to studying genuine addiction, characterized by loss of control over drug use. This has inspired recent work aimed at capturing genuine addiction-like behavior in animals. In this work, we summarize empirical evidence for the occurrence of several DSM-IV-like symptoms of addiction in animals after extended drug use. These symptoms include escalation of drug use, neurocognitive deficits, resistance to...

  17. Drug addiction and periodontal diseases

    Saini, Gurpreet Kaur; N D Gupta; Prabhat, K. C.

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of drug addiction is increasing globally. Drug abuse damages many parts of the body such as oral cavity, lungs, liver, brain, heart etc., Addicts suffer from physical, psychological, emotional and behavioral problems. Their nutrition is also compromised. There is certainly an impact of all these factors on the health of periodontium. Dentists should be aware of the effects of drugs while treating the drug addicts. This article correlates the studies done on the impact of abused...

  18. A Research on Brand Addiction

    Canbaz, Serdar; Çiçek, Hüseyin; Eyidiker, Uğur

    2014-01-01

    Brand is an acknowledged concept increasing the value of a product and services as well as providing convenience to its buyer. Seller, along with availing himself, obtains a link between himself and buyer. This phenomena which we come across as an addiction turns into a kind of a sense of belonging in which buyers would under no circumstances change their ideas. Therefore the desire to create a brand and brand addiction is unavoidable. Brand addiction, in other words brand loyalty constitutes...

  19. Transcriptional Mechanisms of Drug Addiction

    Nestler, Eric J.

    2012-01-01

    Regulation of gene expression is considered a plausible mechanism of drug addiction given the stability of behavioral abnormalities that define an addicted state. Numerous transcription factors, proteins that bind to regulatory regions of specific genes and thereby control levels of their expression, have been implicated in the addiction process over the past decade or two. Here we review the growing evidence for the role played by several prominent transcription factors, including a Fos fami...

  20. STRESS COPING SKILLS IN ADDICTS

    A. Ebrahimi; SG MOOSAVI; R SAMOOEIE; A ,HASAN ZADEH

    2002-01-01

    Introduction. Stress coping skills is one of the most important factors in prediction of addictive behavior. The purpose of this study was to determine this pattern and to compare them with those of non-addicts. Methods. One hundred subjects with substance dependency and 100 non-addict subjects were selected. Both groups were matched on the basis of their socioeconomic state. Stress coping skills of study participants were examined using CS-R scale. Results. Stress coping skills in ...

  1. What is sexual addiction?

    Levine, Stephen B

    2010-01-01

    Married men labeled as sexual addicts seek help after being discovered to have had broken monogamy rules for sexual behavior through their use of masturbation, pornography, cybersex, commercial sex involvement, paraphilic pursuits, or affairs. This study analyzed the sexual patterns and dynamics of 30 men who presented to 1 clinician between 2005 and 2009. Their important differences were captured by a 6-category spectrum: (a) no sexual excess beyond breaking the spouse's restrictive rules (n = 2), (b) discovery of husband's longstanding sexual secrets (n = 5), (c) new discovery of the joys of commercial sex (n = 4), (d) the bizarre or paraphilic (n = 7), (e) alternate concept of normal masculinity (n = 5), and (f) spiraling psychological deterioration (n = 7). Only the men with a spiraling psychological deterioration-about 25% of the sample with sexual issues-could reasonably be described as having a sexual addiction. This group experienced significant psychological failures before the onset of their deterioration. Another 25% were adequately defined as paraphilic. Half of the sample was not adequately described using addiction, compulsivity, impulsivity, and relationship incapacity models. The authors discuss the implications of these findings for DSM-5 and treatment. PMID:20432125

  2. What Are the Treatments for Heroin Addiction?

    ... Facebook Twitter What are the treatments for heroin addiction? A variety of effective treatments are available for heroin addiction, including both behavioral and pharmacological (medications). Both approaches ...

  3. The Comparison Schema in the Successful Addiction, Unsuccessful Addiction and Non-Addiction Popular

    Anisi Khoshlahjeh; Khadejeh Abolmaali; Zahra Khoshlahjeh; Hasan Alizadeh, F; Ehsan Imani

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this research was to compere schema in the successful addiction, unsuccessful addiction and non-addiction popular. Method: The method of the research the sample population in this study includes institutes f Birth again charity institutions in 1389. The variables like education (degree of high school), gender (only man) and age (25- ….) were controlled in three groups. The statistical sample consisted those 90 individuals who were tested by from GHQ and selected thro...

  4. E-recruitment

    Holm, Anna

    2012-01-01

    E-recruitment, also known as online or web-based recruitment, is little discussed in research from an organizational perspective. The purpose of this chapter is therefore to analyze and discuss the process of e-recruitment, its key constituents and organizing principles. In doing so I draw on the...... results of a qualitative study conducted in 2008-2009, and on data stemming from industrial reports, articles from practitioner magazines, and in-depth interviews. The chapter provides a summary of e-recruitment properties and a composite matrix of the overall elements of e-recruitment organizing. E-recruitment...... is viewed as a case of virtual organizing- the organization of processes and activities which, via technology and human agents, facilitate time- and space-independent interaction and collaboration. In closure I offer a brief discussion of implications of the findings for HR managers and professionals...

  5. A discursive analysis exploring constructions of sex addiction in clinical text and 'addict' accounts

    Briggs, James

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Numerous accounts have been developed which portray sex addiction and the sex addict. These in turn have led to screening tools, said to be capable of accurately distinguishing the sex addict from non-addicts. However, there are a wealth of various, diverse and conflicting understandings of addiction, sexuality and sex addiction. Sex addiction also carries moral implications, leading some to argue the term is used as stigmatising label for those who deviate from a socially...

  6. Pharmacogenetic aspects of addictive behaviors

    Hejazi, Nadia S.

    2007-01-01

    Addictions are illnesses of complex causation, including inheritance and a role for gene/environment interactions. Functional alleles influencing pharmacodynamic (tissue response) and pharmacokinetic (absorption, distribution, and metabolism) play a role, but these interact with diverse environmental factors including early Ife stress, underage drug exposure, availability of addictive agents, and response to clinical interventions including pharmacotherapies. Identification of genetic factors...

  7. Comprehensive Treatment of Addictive Families.

    Schlesinger, Stephen E.; Horberg, Lawrence K.

    This article describes a practical approach to treating addictive families, designed to help them repair the damage, create more satisfying lives, and prevent long-lasting deleterious effects, commonly associated with "co-dependency" and "children of addicts." This approach is grounded in a developmental model of family recovery which was devised…

  8. Epigenetic regulation of cocaine addiction

    Martínez Martínez, Arturo

    2015-01-01

    Addiction is defined as a chronic, relapsing brain disease that is characterized by compulsive drug seeking and use, despite harmful consequences. The addictive phenotype can persist for the lenght of an individual's life, suggesting that drugs of abuse may induced long-lasting changes in the brain.

  9. Unbalanced Neuronal Circuits in Addiction

    Volkow, Nora D; Wang, Gen-Jack; Tomasi, Dardo; Baler, Ruben D.

    2013-01-01

    Through sequential waves of drug-induced neurochemical stimulation, addiction co-opts the brain's neuronal circuits that mediate reward, motivation, , to behavioral inflexibility and a severe disruption of self-control and compulsive drug intake. Brain imaging technologies have allowed neuroscientists to map out the neural landscape of addiction in the human brain and to understand how drugs modify it.

  10. STRESS COPING SKILLS IN ADDICTS

    A EBRAHIMI

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Stress coping skills is one of the most important factors in prediction of addictive behavior. The purpose of this study was to determine this pattern and to compare them with those of non-addicts. Methods. One hundred subjects with substance dependency and 100 non-addict subjects were selected. Both groups were matched on the basis of their socioeconomic state. Stress coping skills of study participants were examined using CS-R scale. Results. Stress coping skills in addicts were different from those of non-addicts in most of the coping procedures. Nonaddicts reported that they used problem-focused coping and some of the emotional-focused coping strategies. In contrast, addicts shown that they used unuseful and noneffective stress coping strategies. Discussion. These data indicate that using ineffective stress coping skills is one of-the predisposing and precipitating factors in addictive behavior. It seems that stress coping skills training is necessary in prevention of addiction.

  11. Harry Potter: Agency or Addiction?

    Mills, Alice

    2010-01-01

    This article considers limitations on agency for characters in the Harry Potter novels, in particular, how far they are driven by an addictive yearning for their beloved dead. As well as Harry's yearning for his dead parents, Dumbledore's guilt, Snape's longing and Slughorn's craving can be read as evidence of addiction rather than love, while the…

  12. Birth cohorts

    Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Madsen, Mia

    2009-01-01

    ; provides practical guidance on how to set-up and maintain birth cohorts for completing family-based studies in life course epidemiology; describes how to undertake appropriate statistical analyses of family-based studies and correctly interpret results from these analyses; and provides examples that...

  13. Animal studies of addictive behavior.

    Vanderschuren, Louk J M J; Ahmed, Serge H

    2013-04-01

    It is increasingly recognized that studying drug taking in laboratory animals does not equate to studying genuine addiction, characterized by loss of control over drug use. This has inspired recent work aimed at capturing genuine addiction-like behavior in animals. In this work, we summarize empirical evidence for the occurrence of several DSM-IV-like symptoms of addiction in animals after extended drug use. These symptoms include escalation of drug use, neurocognitive deficits, resistance to extinction, increased motivation for drugs, preference for drugs over nondrug rewards, and resistance to punishment. The fact that addiction-like behavior can occur and be studied in animals gives us the exciting opportunity to investigate the neural and genetic background of drug addiction, which we hope will ultimately lead to the development of more effective treatments for this devastating disorder. PMID:23249442

  14. Internet addiction in young people.

    Ong, Say How; Tan, Yi Ren

    2014-07-01

    In our technology-savvy population, mental health professionals are seeing an increasing trend of excessive Internet use or Internet addiction. Researchers in China, Taiwan and Korea have done extensive research in the field of Internet addiction. Screening instruments are available to identify the presence of Internet addiction and its extent. Internet addiction is frequently associated with mental illnesses such as anxiety, depression, conduct disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Treatment modalities include individual and group therapies, cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), family therapy and psychotropic medications. A significant proportion of Singapore adolescents engaging in excessive Internet use are also diagnosed to have concomitant Internet addiction. Despite the presence of a variety of treatment options, future research in this area is needed to address its growing trend and to minimise its negative psychological and social impact on the individuals and their families. PMID:25142474

  15. Morphometric changes of whole brain in patients with alcohol addiction: a voxel-based morphometry study

    Objective: To evaluate morphometric changes of brain in patients with alcohol addiction by voxel-based morphometry. Methods: Fifteen patients with alcohol addiction and 15 health controls were recruited and underwent fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) and 3D fast spoiled gradient echo (FSPGR) T1-weighted sequences on a 3.0 T MRI system. 3D FSPGR T1 structure images were normalized, segmented and smoothed, and then underwent voxel-based morphometry. An ANCOVA was applied with age, body mass index (BMI), and education years as covariates because of exact sex match. A statistical threshold of P 0.05). Conclusions: Regional gray and white matter atrophy can be the initial changes in patients with alcohol addiction and the frontal region is a relative specific damaged brain region. VBM has a potential value for the detection of subtle brain atrophy in patients with alcohol addiction. (authors)

  16. Internet gaming addiction: current perspectives.

    Kuss, Daria J

    2013-01-01

    In the 2000s, online games became popular, while studies of Internet gaming addiction emerged, outlining the negative consequences of excessive gaming, its prevalence, and associated risk factors. The establishment of specialized treatment centers in South-East Asia, the US, and Europe reflects the growing need for professional help. It is argued that only by understanding the appeal of Internet gaming, its context, and neurobiologic correlates can the phenomenon of Internet gaming addiction be understood comprehensively. The aim of this review is to provide an insight into current perspectives on Internet gaming addiction using a holistic approach, taking into consideration the mass appeal of online games, the context of Internet gaming addiction, and associated neuroimaging findings, as well as the current diagnostic framework adopted by the American Psychiatric Association. The cited research indicates that the individual's context is a significant factor that marks the dividing line between excessive gaming and gaming addiction, and the game context can gain particular importance for players, depending on their life situation and gaming preferences. Moreover, the cultural context is significant because it embeds the gamer in a community with shared beliefs and practices, endowing their gaming with particular meaning. The cited neuroimaging studies indicate that Internet gaming addiction shares similarities with other addictions, including substance dependence, at the molecular, neurocircuitry, and behavioral levels. The findings provide support for the current perspective of understanding Internet gaming addiction from a disease framework. The benefits of an Internet gaming addiction diagnosis include reliability across research, destigmatization of individuals, development of efficacious treatments, and the creation of an incentive for public health care and insurance providers. The holistic approach adopted here not only highlights empirical research that

  17. Cocaine – Characteristics and addiction

    Katarzyna Girczys-Połedniok

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Cocaine use leads to health, social and legal problems. The aim of this paper is to discuss cocaine action, addicts characteristics, use patterns and consequences, as well as addiction treatment methods. A literature review was based on the Medline, PubMed, Polish Medical Bibliography databases and the Silesian Library resources. The Police and Central Statistical Office statistics, as well as the World Health Organization, the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction and the National Office for Combating Drug Addiction reports were used. Cocaine leads to mood improvement, appetite decrease, physical and intellectual activity enhancement, euphoria, inflated self-esteem, social networking ease and increased sexual desire. Cocaine hydrochloride is mainly used intranasaly, but also as intravenous and subcutaneous injections. Cocaine use and first addiction treatment fall in later age compared to other psychoactive substances. There is a high men to women ratio among addicts. There is a relationship between cocaine addiction, the presence of other disorders and genetic predisposition to addiction development. Polish reports indicate higher popularity of cocaine among people with a high economic and social status. Although Poland is a country with the low percentage of cocaine use, its popularity is growing. The consequences of cocaine use concern somatic and mental health problems, socioeconomic and legal conditions. The drug plays a role in crimes and traffic accidents. Because of the risks associated with cocaine use, it has been listed in a register of drugs attached to the Act on Counteracting Drug Addiction. Addiction treatment includes psychological, pharmacological and harm reduction strategies. Med Pr 2016;67(4:529–536

  18. Development and validation of the Smartphone Addiction Inventory (SPAI.

    Yu-Hsuan Lin

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to develop a self-administered scale based on the special features of smartphone. The reliability and validity of the Smartphone Addiction Inventory (SPAI was demonstrated. METHODS: A total of 283 participants were recruited from Dec. 2012 to Jul. 2013 to complete a set of questionnaires, including a 26-item SPAI modified from the Chinese Internet Addiction Scale and phantom vibration and ringing syndrome questionnaire. There were 260 males and 23 females, with ages 22.9 ± 2.0 years. Exploratory factor analysis, internal-consistency test, test-retest, and correlation analysis were conducted to verify the reliability and validity of the SPAI. Correlations between each subscale and phantom vibration and ringing were also explored. RESULTS: Exploratory factor analysis yielded four factors: compulsive behavior, functional impairment, withdrawal and tolerance. Test-retest reliabilities (intraclass correlations  = 0.74-0.91 and internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.94 were all satisfactory. The four subscales had moderate to high correlations (0.56-0.78, but had no or very low correlation to phantom vibration/ringing syndrome. CONCLUSION: This study provides evidence that the SPAI is a valid and reliable, self-administered screening tool to investigate smartphone addiction. Phantom vibration and ringing might be independent entities of smartphone addiction.

  19. The Relationship between Alexithymia, Anxiety, Depression, and Internet Addiction Severity in a Sample of Italian High School Students

    Giuseppe Scimeca; Antonio Bruno; Lucia Cava; Gianluca Pandolfo; Maria Rosaria Anna Muscatello; Rocco Zoccali

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to assess whether Internet addiction (IA) severity was related to alexithymia scores among high school students, taking into account the role of gender differences and the possible effect of anxiety, depression, and age. Participants in the study were 600 students (ages ranging from 13 to 22; 48.16% girls) recruited from three high schools in two cities from Southern Italy. Participants completed a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Toronto Alexithymia Scale, the Internet Addiction ...

  20. Childhood Food Addiction and the Family

    Carlisle, Kristy L.; Buser, Juleen K.; Carlisle, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    Food addiction among children is a concerning issue. Few empirical studies have examined the relevance of food addiction among pediatric samples, but emerging evidence suggests that some children experience their eating patterns as addictive. The present review will discuss the issue of food addiction among children, and will also attend to the…

  1. Intertemporal bargaining in addiction.

    Ainslie, George

    2013-01-01

    The debate between disease models of addiction and moral or voluntarist models has been endless, and often echoes the equally endless debate between determinism and free will. I suggest here that part of the problem comes from how we picture the function of motivation in self-control. Quantitative experiments in both humans and non-humans have shown that delayed reward loses its effectiveness in proportion to its delay. The resulting instability of preference is best controlled by a recursive self-prediction process, intertemporal bargaining, which is the likely mechanism of both the strength and the experienced freedom of will. In this model determinism is consistent with more elements of free will than compatibilist philosophers have heretofore proposed, and personal responsibility is an inseparable, functional component of will. Judgments of social responsibility can be described as projections of personal responsibility, but normative responsibility in addiction is elusive. The cited publications that are under the author's control can be downloaded from www.picoeconomics.org. PMID:23966954

  2. Intertemporal Bargaining in Addiction

    George Ainslie

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The debate between disease models of addiction and moral or voluntarist models has been endless, and often echoes the equally endless debate between determinism and free will. I suggest here that part of the problem comes from how we picture the function of motivation in self-control. Quantitative experiments in both humans and nonhumans have shown that delayed reward loses its effectiveness in proportion to its delay. The resulting instability of preference is best controlled by a recursive self-prediction process, intertemporal bargaining, which is the likely mechanism of both the strength and the experienced freedom of will. In this model determinism is consistent with more elements of free will than compatibilist philosophers have heretofore proposed, and personal responsibility is an inseparable, functional component of will. Judgments of social responsibility can be described as projections of personal responsibility, but normative responsibility in addiction is elusive. The cited publications that are under the author’s control can be downloaded from www.picoeconomics.org.

  3. The Comparison of Alexithymia and Spiritual Intelligence in Addicts, Addicts under Methadone Treatment, and Non-Addicts

    Mohammad Narimani

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of the present study was to compare of the rate of alexithymia and spiritual intelligence in addicts, addicts under Methadone Treatment, and non-Addicts. Method: A causal-comparative research design was used. The study sample included 30 individuals under Methadone Treatment, 30 drug-dependent Addicted, and 30 non-addicted individuals selected by convenience sampling procedure. Toronto alexithymia scale and King's spiritual intelligence self-report inventory were administered among selected sample. Results: Findings revealed significant differences among addicted individuals and non-addicted adults also among individuals under methadone treatment and non-addicted adults in total alexithymia scores as well as on all three subscale scores. Furthermore, addicted individuals differed from those under methadone treatment in their scores on the subscale pertaining to difficulty in identifying feelings. Results also indicated differences among addicted individuals and those under methadone treatment in total spiritual intelligence and its four component scale scores, while addicted individuals differed from non-addicted individuals in total spiritual intelligence scores and only three of its component scale scores (personal meaning production, transcendental awareness, and conscious state expansion. Conclusion: Findings of this study indicate the advantages of the ability to control, emotional regulation and spiritual intelligence as a defense against addiction. By development of these characteristics addicts can be helped to gain relief from their addiction.

  4. Transcriptional Mechanisms of Drug Addiction

    2012-01-01

    Regulation of gene expression is considered a plausible mechanism of drug addiction given the stability of behavioral abnormalities that define an addicted state. Numerous transcription factors, proteins that bind to regulatory regions of specific genes and thereby control levels of their expression, have been implicated in the addiction process over the past decade or two. Here we review the growing evidence for the role played by several prominent transcription factors, including a Fos family protein (ΔFosB), cAMP response element binding protein (CREB), and nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB), among several others, in drug addiction. As will be seen, each factor displays very different regulation by drugs of abuse within the brain's reward circuitry, and in turn mediates distinct aspects of the addiction phenotype. Current efforts are geared toward understanding the range of target genes through which these transcription factors produce their functional effects and the underlying molecular mechanisms involved. This work promises to reveal fundamentally new insight into the molecular basis of addiction, which will contribute to improved diagnostic tests and therapeutics for addictive disorders. PMID:23430970

  5. Cohort Profile

    Jespersen, Sanne; Hønge, Bo Langhoff; Oliveira, Inés;

    2014-01-01

    The West African country Guinea-Bissau is home to the world’s highest prevalence of HIV-2, and its HIV-1 prevalence is rising. Other chronic viral infections like human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and hepatitis B virus are common as well. The Bissau HIV Cohort was started in 2007 to gain...... new insights into the overall effect of introducing antiretroviral treatment in a treatment-naı ̈ve population with concomitant infection with three retroviruses (HIV-1, HIV-2 and HTLV-1) and tuberculosis. The cohort includes patients from the HIV clinic at Hospital Nacional Sima ̃ o Mendes, the main...... hos- pital in Bissau, the capital of the country. From July 2007 to June 2013, 3762 HIV-infected patients (69% HIV-1, 18% HIV-2, 11% HIV-1/2 and 2% HIV type unknown) were included in the world’s largest single-centre HIV-2 cohort. Demographic and clinical data are col- lected at baseline and every 6...

  6. Modeling Addictive Consumption as an Infectious Disease

    Alamar Benjamin; Glantz Stanton A.

    2006-01-01

    The dominant model of addictive consumption in economics is the theory of rational addiction. The addict in this model chooses how much they are going to consume based upon their level of addiction (past consumption), the current benefits and all future costs. Several empirical studies of cigarette sales and price data have found a correlation between future prices and consumption and current consumption. These studies have argued that the correlation validates the rational addiction model an...

  7. Gaming: from Addiction Mechanisms to Clinical Practices

    Thorens, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    Video game addiction is the main theme of this thesis. After a brief definition of addiction, the focus is on the specific addictive properties of Internet and games. Massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs) are described, as they tend to be the most addictive type of game, with a specific focus on World of Warcraft (WoW). Issues of diagnostic criteria for Internet addiction and Internet gaming disorder (IGD) are be presented.

  8. Genetic signatures of heroin addiction

    Chen, Shaw-Ji; Liao, Ding-Lieh; Shen, Tsu-Wang; Yang, Hsin-Chou; Chen, Kuang-Chi; Chen, Chia-Hsiang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Heroin addiction is a complex psychiatric disorder with a chronic course and a high relapse rate, which results from the interaction between genetic and environmental factors. Heroin addiction has a substantial heritability in its etiology; hence, identification of individuals with a high genetic propensity to heroin addiction may help prevent the occurrence and relapse of heroin addiction and its complications. The study aimed to identify a small set of genetic signatures that may reliably predict the individuals with a high genetic propensity to heroin addiction. We first measured the transcript level of 13 genes (RASA1, PRKCB, PDK1, JUN, CEBPG, CD74, CEBPB, AUTS2, ENO2, IMPDH2, HAT1, MBD1, and RGS3) in lymphoblastoid cell lines in a sample of 124 male heroin addicts and 124 male control subjects using real-time quantitative PCR. Seven genes (PRKCB, PDK1, JUN, CEBPG, CEBPB, ENO2, and HAT1) showed significant differential expression between the 2 groups. Further analysis using 3 statistical methods including logistic regression analysis, support vector machine learning analysis, and a computer software BIASLESS revealed that a set of 4 genes (JUN, CEBPB, PRKCB, ENO2, or CEBPG) could predict the diagnosis of heroin addiction with the accuracy rate around 85% in our dataset. Our findings support the idea that it is possible to identify genetic signatures of heroin addiction using a small set of expressed genes. However, the study can only be considered as a proof-of-concept study. As the establishment of lymphoblastoid cell line is a laborious and lengthy process, it would be more practical in clinical settings to identify genetic signatures for heroin addiction directly from peripheral blood cells in the future study. PMID:27495086

  9. Drug addiction and social discourses

    Rita de Cássia dos Santos Canabarro

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the various discursive positions found in the phenomenon of addiction. The relations these discursive positions establish with the discourses of the master, the hysteric, the university and the capitalist are discussed. By analyzing material from clinical listening at a public outpatient drug and alcohol rehab center, it was seen that addiction can be described in different discourses. This article shows that the shift of focus from the symptom to the discursive position of the subject is an indicator for the clinical treatment of addiction.

  10. Drug addiction and periodontal diseases

    Saini, Gurpreet Kaur; Gupta, N. D.; Prabhat, K. C.

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of drug addiction is increasing globally. Drug abuse damages many parts of the body such as oral cavity, lungs, liver, brain, heart etc., Addicts suffer from physical, psychological, emotional and behavioral problems. Their nutrition is also compromised. There is certainly an impact of all these factors on the health of periodontium. Dentists should be aware of the effects of drugs while treating the drug addicts. This article correlates the studies done on the impact of abused drugs such as alcohol, tobacco, opiates, cannabis, amphetamines etc., on general and periodontal health. PMID:24174750

  11. New Dimensions, New Addictions: The Internet Sex Addiction

    Silvia Sánchez Zaldívar; Itziar Iruarrizaga Díez

    2010-01-01

    The network is endless: going anywhere, finding anything, being anyone. Typing the word sex on Google gives a figure of 96 million results. The network is changing our way of communication and relation; we can construct space-time coordinates before incompatible. Internet addiction is not recognized as a disorder in DSM-IV-TR or ICD-10. Both types of Internet addiction with sexual content are cybersex and pornography. Cybersex consists in experiencing sexual stimulation while maintaining s...

  12. Comparison of Personality Characteristics and Problem Solving Styles in Addicted and Non-Addicted Men

    Mohammad Narimani; Yaghob Habibi; Saeed Rajabi

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The present study sought to compare emotional intelligence and quality of life in addicted and non-addicted men. Method: The samples included 80 addicted and 80 non-addicted men who addicted men were selected by available sampling and non-addicted men were chosen by cloning methods according to age and marital status. For data collection, emotional intelligence scale and quality of life questionnaire were used. Variance test and Pearson correlation were used for data analysis. ...

  13. Electronic Recruitment at CERN

    2004-01-01

    The Human Resources Department switches to electronic recruitment. From now on whenever you are involved in a recruitment action you will receive an e-mail giving you access to a Web folder. Inside you will find a shortlist of applications drawn up by the Human Resources Department. This will allow you to consult the folder, at the same time as everyone else involved in the recruitment process, for the vacancy you are interested in. This new electronic recruitment system, known as e-RT, will be introduced in a presentation given at 10 a.m. on 11 February in the Main Auditorium. Implemented by AIS (Administrative Information Services) and the Human Resources Department, e-RT will cover vacancies open in all of CERN's recruitment programmes. The electronic application system was initially made available to technical students in July 2003. By December it was extended to summer students, fellows, associates and Local Staff. Geraldine Ballet from the Recruitment Service prefers e-RT to mountains of paper! The Hu...

  14. Cohort profile: Mysore parthenon birth cohort.

    Krishnaveni, Ghattu V; Veena, Sargoor R; Hill, Jacqueline C; Karat, Samuel C; Fall, Caroline H D

    2015-02-01

    The Mysore Parthenon Birth Cohort was established to examine the long-term effects of maternal glucose tolerance and nutritional status on cardiovascular disease risk factors in the offspring. During 1997-98, 830 of 1233 women recruited from the antenatal clinics of the Holdsworth Memorial Hospital (HMH), Mysore, India, underwent an oral glucose tolerance test. Of these, 667 women delivered live babies at HMH. Four babies with major congenital anomalies were excluded, and the remaining 663 were included for further follow-up. The babies had detailed anthropometry at birth and at 6-12-monthly intervals subsequently. Detailed cardiovascular investigations were done at ages 5, 9.5 and 13.5 years in the children, and in the parents at the 5-year and 9.5-year follow-ups. This ongoing study provides extensive data on serial anthropometry and body composition, physiological and biochemical measures, dietary intake, nutritional status, physical activity measures, stress reactivity measures and cognitive function, and socio-demographic parameters for the offspring. Data on anthropometry, cardiovascular risk factors and nutritional status are available for mothers during pregnancy. Anthropometry and risk factor measures are available for both parents at follow-up. PMID:24609067

  15. Cocaine Addiction: Psychology and Neurophysiology.

    Gawin, Frank H.

    1991-01-01

    The clinical characteristics of cocaine addiction, cocaine abstinence symptoms, and the short-term and long-term neurochemical actions of cocaine are discussed. The relative therapeutic value of various medications and treatment programs are discussed. (KR)

  16. Internet gaming addiction: current perspectives

    Kuss DJ

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Daria J KussPsychology Research and Behavior Management, Birmingham City University, Birmingham, UKAbstract: In the 2000s, online games became popular, while studies of Internet gaming addiction emerged, outlining the negative consequences of excessive gaming, its prevalence, and associated risk factors. The establishment of specialized treatment centers in South-East Asia, the US, and Europe reflects the growing need for professional help. It is argued that only by understanding the appeal of Internet gaming, its context, and neurobiologic correlates can the phenomenon of Internet gaming addiction be understood comprehensively. The aim of this review is to provide an insight into current perspectives on Internet gaming addiction using a holistic approach, taking into consideration the mass appeal of online games, the context of Internet gaming addiction, and associated neuroimaging findings, as well as the current diagnostic framework adopted by the American Psychiatric Association. The cited research indicates that the individual's context is a significant factor that marks the dividing line between excessive gaming and gaming addiction, and the game context can gain particular importance for players, depending on their life situation and gaming preferences. Moreover, the cultural context is significant because it embeds the gamer in a community with shared beliefs and practices, endowing their gaming with particular meaning. The cited neuroimaging studies indicate that Internet gaming addiction shares similarities with other addictions, including substance dependence, at the molecular, neurocircuitry, and behavioral levels. The findings provide support for the current perspective of understanding Internet gaming addiction from a disease framework. The benefits of an Internet gaming addiction diagnosis include reliability across research, destigmatization of individuals, development of efficacious treatments, and the creation of an incentive

  17. Relapse prevention for addictive behaviors

    George William H; Witkiewitz Katie; Hendershot Christian S; Marlatt G Alan

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The Relapse Prevention (RP) model has been a mainstay of addictions theory and treatment since its introduction three decades ago. This paper provides an overview and update of RP for addictive behaviors with a focus on developments over the last decade (2000-2010). Major treatment outcome studies and meta-analyses are summarized, as are selected empirical findings relevant to the tenets of the RP model. Notable advances in RP in the last decade include the introduction of a reformul...

  18. The epigenetic landscape of addiction

    Maze, Ian; Nestler, Eric J.

    2011-01-01

    Drug-induced alterations in gene expression throughout the reward circuitry of the brain are likely components of the persistence of the drug-addicted state. Recent studies examining the molecular mechanisms controlling drug-induced transcriptional, behavioral and synaptic plasticity have indicated a direct role for chromatin remodeling in the regulation and stability of drug-mediated neuronal gene programs, and the subsequent promulgation of addictive behaviors. In this review, we discuss re...

  19. Epigenetic Mechanisms of Drug Addiction

    Nestler, Eric J.

    2013-01-01

    Drug addiction involves potentially life-long behavioral abnormalities that are caused in vulnerable individuals by repeated exposure to a drug of abuse. The persistence of these behavioral changes suggests that long-lasting changes in gene expression, within particular regions of the brain, may contribute importantly to the addiction phenotype. Work over the past decade has demonstrated a crucial role for epigenetic mechanisms in driving lasting changes in gene expression in diverse tissues,...

  20. Imaging the Addicted Human Brain

    Fowler, Joanna S.; Volkow, Nora D.; Kassed, Cheryl A; Chang, Linda

    2007-01-01

    Modern imaging techniques enable researchers to observe drug actions and consequences as they occur and persist in the brains of abusing and addicted individuals. This article presents the five most commonly used techniques, explains how each produces images, and describes how researchers interpret them. The authors give examples of key findings illustrating how each technique has extended and deepened our knowledge of the neurobiological bases of drug abuse and addiction, and they address po...

  1. What Does Addiction Mean to Me

    Hesse, Morten

    2006-01-01

    Addiction is compulsive need for and use of a habit-forming substance. Addiction is accepted as a mental illness in the diagnostic nomenclature and results in substantial health, social and economic problems. In the diagnostic nomenclature, addiction was originally included in the personality...... disorders along with other behaviours considered deviant. But it is now considered a clinical syndrome. Addiction is multifactorially determined, with substantial genetic influence. The development of addictions is also influenced by environmental factors, and interplay between the two. In the clinical...... context, addiction puts problem substance use on the agenda, and helps focus on the difficulties associated with drug use. But the concept of addiction is also used to distance the user from addicts, and in this way, may be counter-therapeutic. The addiction concept has also had a substantial influence on...

  2. Addiction: Beyond dopamine reward circuitry

    Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.; Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.-J.; Fowler, J.S.; Tomasi, D.; Telang, F.

    2011-09-13

    Dopamine (DA) is considered crucial for the rewarding effects of drugs of abuse, but its role in addiction is much less clear. This review focuses on studies that used PET to characterize the brain DA system in addicted subjects. These studies have corroborated in humans the relevance of drug-induced fast DA increases in striatum [including nucleus accumbens (NAc)] in their rewarding effects but have unexpectedly shown that in addicted subjects, drug-induced DA increases (as well as their subjective reinforcing effects) are markedly blunted compared with controls. In contrast, addicted subjects show significant DA increases in striatum in response to drug-conditioned cues that are associated with self-reports of drug craving and appear to be of a greater magnitude than the DA responses to the drug. We postulate that the discrepancy between the expectation for the drug effects (conditioned responses) and the blunted pharmacological effects maintains drug taking in an attempt to achieve the expected reward. Also, whether tested during early or protracted withdrawal, addicted subjects show lower levels of D2 receptors in striatum (including NAc), which are associated with decreases in baseline activity in frontal brain regions implicated in salience attribution (orbitofrontal cortex) and inhibitory control (anterior cingulate gyrus), whose disruption results in compulsivity and impulsivity. These results point to an imbalance between dopaminergic circuits that underlie reward and conditioning and those that underlie executive function (emotional control and decision making), which we postulate contributes to the compulsive drug use and loss of control in addiction.

  3. Moral judgment of alcohol addicts

    Mladenović Ivica

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Alcoholism could represent an important factor of crime and different forms of abuse of family members (physical and emotional exist in many alcohol-addict cases, as well as characteristics of immoral behaviour. Objective. The objective of our study was to determine the predominating forms in moral judgment of alcohol addicts, and to examine whether there was any statistically significant difference in moral judgment between alcohol addicted persons and non-alcoholics from general population. Methods. The sample consisted of 62 subjects, divided into a study (alcoholics and a control group (non-alcoholics from general population. The following instruments were used: social-demographic data, AUDIT, MMPI-201, cybernetic battery of IQ tests (KOG-3 and the TMR moral reasoning test. Results. Mature forms of moral judgment prevailed in both group of subjects, alcohol addicted persons and non-alcoholics. Regarding mature forms of moral judgment (driven by emotions and cognitive non-alcoholics from the general population had higher scores, but the difference was not statistically significant. Regarding socially adapted and egocentric orientation alcohol addicted persons had higher scores. However, only regarding intuitive-irrational orientation there was a statistically significant difference in the level of moral judgment (p<0.05 between alcoholics and non-alcoholics, in favour of the alcoholics. Conclusion. Moral judgment is not a category differing alcohol addicted persons from those who are not. Nevertheless, the potential destructivity of alcoholism is reflected in lower scores regarding mature orientations in moral judgment.

  4. Addiction: Beyond dopamine reward circuitry

    Dopamine (DA) is considered crucial for the rewarding effects of drugs of abuse, but its role in addiction is much less clear. This review focuses on studies that used PET to characterize the brain DA system in addicted subjects. These studies have corroborated in humans the relevance of drug-induced fast DA increases in striatum [including nucleus accumbens (NAc)] in their rewarding effects but have unexpectedly shown that in addicted subjects, drug-induced DA increases (as well as their subjective reinforcing effects) are markedly blunted compared with controls. In contrast, addicted subjects show significant DA increases in striatum in response to drug-conditioned cues that are associated with self-reports of drug craving and appear to be of a greater magnitude than the DA responses to the drug. We postulate that the discrepancy between the expectation for the drug effects (conditioned responses) and the blunted pharmacological effects maintains drug taking in an attempt to achieve the expected reward. Also, whether tested during early or protracted withdrawal, addicted subjects show lower levels of D2 receptors in striatum (including NAc), which are associated with decreases in baseline activity in frontal brain regions implicated in salience attribution (orbitofrontal cortex) and inhibitory control (anterior cingulate gyrus), whose disruption results in compulsivity and impulsivity. These results point to an imbalance between dopaminergic circuits that underlie reward and conditioning and those that underlie executive function (emotional control and decision making), which we postulate contributes to the compulsive drug use and loss of control in addiction.

  5. Exercise rehabilitation for smartphone addiction.

    Kim, Hyunna

    2013-01-01

    Internet addiction after launching smartphone is becoming serious. Therefore this paper has attempted to sketch out the diverse addiction treatment and then check the feasibility of exercise rehabilitation. The reason to addict the internet or smartphone is personalized individual characters related personal psychological and emotional factors and social environmental factors around them. We have shown that 2 discernible approaches due to 2 different addiction causes: that is behavioral treatment and complementary treatment. In the behavioral treatment, cognitive behavioral approach (CBT) is representative methods for changing additive thoughts and behaviors. Motivational interviewing (MI) is also the brief approach for persons not ready to change their behavior. Mindfulness behavioral cognitive treatment (MBCT) also the adapted treatment based on CBT. There are different types following the emphatic point, mindfulness-based relapse prevention (MBRP) or mindfulness oriented recovery enhancement (MORE). It is apparent that therapeutic recreation, music therapy using drumming activity, and art therapy are useful complementary treatment. Exercise rehabilitation contained the systematic procedures and comprehensive activities compared to previous addiction treatments by contents and techniques. Exercise rehabilitation can treat both physical symptoms at first and mental problems in the next step. So more evidence-based exercise rehabilitation researches need to do, but it is highly probable that exercise rehab can apply for smartphone addiction. PMID:24409425

  6. Drug Addiction Treatment in the Criminal Justice System

    ... Addiction Treatment in the Criminal Justice System Drug Addiction Treatment in the Criminal Justice System Email Facebook ... Research-Based Guide provides research-based principles of addiction treatment. The 13 principles are: Drug addiction is ...

  7. A Framework for the Specificity of Addictions

    Myriam Forster

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Research over the last two decades suggests that a wide range of substance and behavioral addictions may serve similar functions. Yet, co-occurrence of addictions has only been reported among a minority of addicts. “Addiction specificity” pertains to a phenomenon in which one pattern of addictive behaviors may be acquired whereas another is not. This paper presents the PACE model as a framework which might help explain addiction specificity. Pragmatics, attraction, communication, and expectation (PACE variables are described, which may help give some direction to future research needs in this arena.

  8. [Addiction--who is not affected?].

    Bäwert, Andjela; Fischer, Gabriele

    2005-12-01

    Addiction and addiction-related behaviour increased during the past decades. Several substances with psychoactive attributes, like opioids, cocaine or alcohol, can lead to dependence with physical and/or mental symptoms. In addition to substance-related addiction, non-substance-related dependence requires special attention. Increasing numbers of workaholics and patients suffering from internet-addiction, gambling or eating-disorders can be observed. To meet international treatment standards for addiction, diversification of therapy is necessary and, additionally, gender-related aspects in development and treatment of dependence and addiction-related behaviour are essential for state-of-the-art therapy of this patient population. PMID:16425010

  9. Drug-use pattern, comorbid psychosis and mortality in people with a history of opioid addiction

    Sørensen, H J; Jepsen, P W; Haastrup, S;

    2005-01-01

    . METHOD: In 1984, 188 persons (122 men and 66 women) with a history of intravenous narcotics addiction were interviewed about their drug-use pattern. A registry-based follow-up continued through 1999 and mortality was assessed. Three 1984-drug-use categories were formed. In category 1, cohort members had...... lower risk of premature death than people with continued drug use. A residual observed excess mortality in people who had apparently achieved stable abstinence from drug use is consistent with the view of drug addiction as a chronic disease....

  10. Internet addiction among Iranian adolescents: a nationwide study.

    Khodabakhsh Ahmadi

    2014-01-01

    Problematic use of the Internet by children and adolescents is a newly emerging disorder that has alerted health authorities throughout the world. In Iran, despite the very high speed rate of Internet spread, there is not enough data on the rate of Internet addiction among the adolescents. This study is the first nationwide study that addresses this issue. Overall 4500 students of high school or pre-college schools were recruited from 13/31 provinces of Iran by a cluster sampling method and 4...

  11. Cerebral edema in drug addicts

    Daruši Dragana J.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The effect of drugs leaves permanent consequences on the brain, organic in type, followed by numerous manifestations, and it significantly affects the development of mental dysfunctions. The clinicians are often given a task to estimate a patient’s personality during treatment or during experts estimate of a drug addict. The aim of this research was to determine the differences, if any, in characteristics of addicts experience and personality traits in drug addicts with or without cerebral edema. Methods. The research was conducted on a sample of 252 male drug addicts, the average age of 23.3 (SD = 4.3 years. Cerebral edema was confirmed on magnetic resonance (MR images of the brain performed during the treatment of the addicts. The participants were tested by the psychologists using Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-201 test, and the data were processed using canonical discriminate analysis within the SPSS program. The dependent variable in the study was cerebral edema. A block of independent variables, designed for the requirements of this study, consisted of two subgroups. The first one consisted of 12 variables describing the relevant characteristics of drug abuse. The second subgroup consisted of 8 psychopathological tendencies in the personality defined by the mentioned test. Results. Cerebral edema was confirmed in 52 (20.63% of the drug addicts. The differences between the groups of drug addicts with and without cerebral edema were determined in the following: the time span of taking drugs (0.301, use of alcohol parallel with drugs (0.466, and treatment for addiction (0.603. In the drug addicts with a cerebral edema, MMPI-201 confirmed the increase in the scales for hypochondria, psychopathic deviations and psychastenia, and the decrease in the scales for schizophrenia and depression. Conclusion. Our study confirmed a possible connection between cerebral edema and personality traits in a number of the

  12. Tree recruitment in an empty forest.

    Terborgh, John; Nuñez-Iturri, Gabriela; Pitman, Nigel C A; Valverde, Fernando H Cornejo; Alvarez, Patricia; Swamy, Varun; Pringle, Elizabeth G; Paine, C E Timothy

    2008-06-01

    To assess how the decimation of large vertebrates by hunting alters recruitment processes in a tropical forest, we compared the sapling cohorts of two structurally and compositionally similar forests in the Rio Manu floodplain in southeastern Peru. Large vertebrates were severely depleted at one site, Boca Manu (BM), whereas the other, Cocha Cashu Biological Station (CC), supported an intact fauna. At both sites we sampled small (> or =1 m tall, dbh) and large (> or =1 cm and dbh) saplings in the central portion of 4-ha plots within which all trees > or =10 cm dbh were mapped and identified. This design ensured that all conspecific adults within at least 50 m (BM) or 55 m (CC) of any sapling would have known locations. We used the Janzen-Connell model to make five predictions about the sapling cohorts at BM with respect to CC: (1) reduced overall sapling recruitment, (2) increased recruitment of species dispersed by abiotic means, (3) altered relative abundances of species, (4) prominence of large-seeded species among those showing depressed recruitment, and (5) little or no tendency for saplings to cluster closer to adults at BM. Our results affirmed each of these predictions. Interpreted at face value, the evidence suggests that few species are demographically stable at BM and that up to 28% are increasing and 72% decreasing. Loss of dispersal function allows species dispersed abiotically and by small birds and mammals to substitute for those dispersed by large birds and mammals. Although we regard these conclusions as preliminary, over the long run, the observed type of directional change in tree composition is likely to result in biodiversity loss and negative feedbacks on both the animal and plant communities. Our results suggest that the best, and perhaps only, way to prevent compositional change and probable loss of diversity in tropical tree communities is to prohibit hunting. PMID:18589539

  13. Researching participant recruitment times.

    O'Brien, Rachel; Black, Polly

    2015-11-01

    Conducting research in emergency departments is relatively new, and there are a number of ethical and practical challenges to recruiting patients in these settings. In 2008, the Emergency Medicine Research Group Edinburgh (EMERGE) was set up at the Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh emergency department to support researchers and encourage the growth of research in emergency medicine. As part of a review of their working methods, the group's clinical nurse researchers undertook a small study to identify participant recruitment times. The results showed a significant difference between perceived and actual recruitment times, which has implications for planning staff numbers and budgets. This article describes the evaluation process and methods of data collection, and discusses the results. PMID:26542924

  14. Epigenetic mechanisms of drug addiction.

    Nestler, Eric J

    2014-01-01

    Drug addiction involves potentially life-long behavioral abnormalities that are caused in vulnerable individuals by repeated exposure to a drug of abuse. The persistence of these behavioral changes suggests that long-lasting changes in gene expression, within particular regions of the brain, may contribute importantly to the addiction phenotype. Work over the past decade has demonstrated a crucial role for epigenetic mechanisms in driving lasting changes in gene expression in diverse tissues, including brain. This has prompted recent research aimed at characterizing the influence of epigenetic regulatory events in mediating the lasting effects of drugs of abuse on the brain in animal models of drug addiction. This review provides a progress report of this still early work in the field. As will be seen, there is robust evidence that repeated exposure to drugs of abuse induces changes within the brain's reward regions in three major modes of epigenetic regulation-histone modifications such as acetylation and methylation, DNA methylation, and non-coding RNAs. In several instances, it has been possible to demonstrate directly the contribution of such epigenetic changes to addiction-related behavioral abnormalities. Studies of epigenetic mechanisms of addiction are also providing an unprecedented view of the range of genes and non-genic regions that are affected by repeated drug exposure and the precise molecular basis of that regulation. Work is now needed to validate key aspects of this work in human addiction and evaluate the possibility of mining this information to develop new diagnostic tests and more effective treatments for addiction syndromes. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'NIDA 40th Anniversary Issue'. PMID:23643695

  15. The "addicted" spine.

    Spiga, Saturnino; Mulas, Giovanna; Piras, Francesca; Diana, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Units of dendritic branches called dendritic spines represent more than simply decorative appendages of the neuron and actively participate in integrative functions of "spinous" nerve cells thereby contributing to the general phenomenon of synaptic plasticity. In animal models of drug addiction, spines are profoundly affected by treatments with drugs of abuse and represent important sub cellular markers which interfere deeply into the physiology of the neuron thereby providing an example of the burgeoning and rapidly increasing interest in "structural plasticity". Medium Spiny Neurons (MSNs) of the Nucleus Accumbens (Nacc) show a reduced number of dendritic spines and a decrease in TH-positive terminals upon withdrawal from opiates, cannabinoids and alcohol. The reduction is localized "strictly" to second order dendritic branches where dopamine (DA)-containing terminals, impinging upon spines, make synaptic contacts. In addition, long-thin spines seems preferentially affected raising the possibility that cellular learning of these neurons may be selectively hampered. These findings suggest that dendritic spines are affected by drugs widely abused by humans and provide yet another example of drug-induced aberrant neural plasticity with marked reflections on the physiology of synapses, system structural organization, and neuronal circuitry remodeling. PMID:25324733

  16. Addiction and Pain Medicine

    Douglas Gourlay

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The adequate cotreatment of chronic pain and addiction disorders is a complex and challenging problem for health care professionals. There is great potential for cannabinoids in the treatment of pain; however, the increasing prevalence of recreational cannabis use has led to a considerable increase in the number of people seeking treatment for cannabis use disorders. Evidence that cannabis abuse liability is higher than previously thought suggests that individuals with a history of substance abuse may be at an increased risk after taking cannabinoids, even for medicinal purposes. Smoked cannabis is significantly more reinforcing than other cannabinoid administration methods. In addition, it is clear that the smoked route of cannabis delivery is associated with a number of adverse health consequences. Thus, there is a need for pharmaceutical-grade products of known purity and concentration using delivery systems optimized for safety. Another factor that needs to be considered when assessing the practicality of prescribing medicinal cannabinoids is the difficulty in differentiating illicit from prescribed cannabinoids in urine drug testing. Overall, a thorough assessment of the risk/benefit profile of cannabinoids as they relate to a patient’s substance abuse history is suggested.

  17. Pain Raises Risk of Opioid Addiction

    ... fullstory_160033.html Pain Raises Risk of Opioid Addiction Men and younger people had higher odds of ... had a 41 percent higher risk of opioid addiction than those with no pain. That increased risk ...

  18. FDA Approves Implant to Battle Opioid Addiction

    ... gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_159050.html FDA Approves Implant to Battle Opioid Addiction Experts say steady dosing ... 26, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- A new long-acting implant that can help treat people addicted to heroin ...

  19. Behavioral Therapy, Incentives Enhance Addiction Treatment

    ... Research News From NIH Behavioral Therapy, Incentives Enhance Addiction Treatment Past Issues / Summer 2006 Table of Contents ... that people who are trying to end their addiction to marijuana can benefit from a treatment program ...

  20. Signs of Drug Abuse and Addiction

    ... Download "I feel so helpless against his addiction." Matt's brother Stephen is addicted to meth. Matt wants to help Stephen, but he isn't sure how. Read Matt's story About the National Institute on Drug Abuse ( ...

  1. Sales Force Recruitment

    Flaviu MEGHISAN

    2008-01-01

    The sales plan is put into practice through the tasks associated with sales plan implementation. Whereas sales plan formulation focuses on "doing the right things," implementation emphasizes "doing things right." The three major tasks involved in implementing a sales plan are (1) salesforce recruitment and selection, (2) salesforce training, and (3) salesforce motivation and compensation.

  2. Recruitment of general practices

    Riis, Allan; Jensen, Cathrine E; Maindal, Helle T;

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Health service research often involves the active participation of healthcare professionals. However, their ability and commitment to research varies. This can cause recruitment difficulties and thereby prolong the study period and inflate budgets. Solberg has identified seven R-fac...

  3. [Does really sex addiction exist?].

    Echeburúa, Enrique

    2012-01-01

    Hypersexual Disorder has been proposed as a new psychiatric disorder for DSM-V, characterized by an increased frequency and intensity of sexually motivated fantasies, arousal, urges, and enacted behavior in association with an impulsivity component. Excessive appetitive and consummatory behaviors, including hypersexuality, can become a non-chemical addiction. Sexual addiction afflicts people having paraphilic or nonparaphilic behaviors associated with progressive risk-taking sexual behaviors, escalation or progression of sexual behaviors (tolerance), loss of control and significant adverse psychosocial consequences, such as unplanned pregnancy, pair-bond dysfunction, marital separation, financial problems and sexually transmitted diseases including HIV. The most common behaviors involved in sexual addiction are fantasy sex, compulsive masturbation, pornography, cybersex, voyeuristic sex, anonymous sex and multiple sexual partners. These behaviors are intended to reduce anxiety and other dysphoric affects (e.g., shame and depression). Axis I psychiatric diagnosis, especially mood disorders, psychoactive substance abuse disorders and attention deficit hyperactivity disorders, are common comorbid disorders with sexual addiction. There are significant gaps in the current scientific knowledge base regarding the clinical course, development risk factors and family history and data on women with sexual addiction are lacking. PMID:23241714

  4. Which foods may be addictive? The roles of processing, fat content, and glycemic load.

    Erica M Schulte

    Full Text Available We propose that highly processed foods share pharmacokinetic properties (e.g. concentrated dose, rapid rate of absorption with drugs of abuse, due to the addition of fat and/or refined carbohydrates and the rapid rate the refined carbohydrates are absorbed into the system, indicated by glycemic load (GL. The current study provides preliminary evidence for the foods and food attributes implicated in addictive-like eating.Cross-sectional.University (Study One and community (Study Two.120 undergraduates participated in Study One and 384 participants recruited through Amazon MTurk participated in Study Two.In Study One, participants (n = 120 completed the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS followed by a forced-choice task to indicate which foods, out of 35 foods varying in nutritional composition, were most associated with addictive-like eating behaviors. Using the same 35 foods, Study Two utilized hierarchical linear modeling to investigate which food attributes (e.g., fat grams were related to addictive-like eating behavior (at level one and explored the influence of individual differences for this association (at level two.In Study One, processed foods, higher in fat and GL, were most frequently associated with addictive-like eating behaviors. In Study Two, processing was a large, positive predictor for whether a food was associated with problematic, addictive-like eating behaviors. BMI and YFAS symptom count were small-to-moderate, positive predictors for this association. In a separate model, fat and GL were large, positive predictors of problematic food ratings. YFAS symptom count was a small, positive predictor of the relationship between GL and food ratings.The current study provides preliminary evidence that not all foods are equally implicated in addictive-like eating behavior, and highly processed foods, which may share characteristics with drugs of abuse (e.g. high dose, rapid rate of absorption appear to be particularly associated with

  5. Rationally Addicted to Drinking and Smoking?

    Bask, Mikael; Melkersson, Maria

    2001-01-01

    When modeling demand for addictive consumption goods, the most widely used framework is the rational addiction model proposed by Becker and Murphy (1988). In the present paper, we extend the rational addiction model to include two addictive consumption goods, alcohol and cigarettes. We estimate the aggregate demand for alcohol and cigarettes in Sweden, using aggregate annual time series on sales volumes for the period 1955-1999. OLS estimates are compared to GMM estimates allowing for possibl...

  6. The Neural Rejuvenation Hypothesis of Cocaine Addiction

    Dong, Yan; Nestler, Eric J.

    2014-01-01

    A leading hypothesis guiding current molecular and cellular research of drug addiction conceptualizes key aspects of addiction as a form of memory, in which common neuroplasticity mechanisms that mediate normal learning and memory processes are “hijacked” by exposure to drugs of abuse to produce pathologic addiction-related memories. Such addiction-related memories are particularly robust and long-lasting and once formed, less amenable to updating. Here, we propose the Neural Rejuvenation Hyp...

  7. Addiction-as-a-kind hypothesis

    Ylikoski, Petri; Pöyhönen, Samuli

    2015-01-01

    The psychiatric category of addiction has recently been broadened to include new behaviors. This has prompted critical discussion about the value of a concept that covers so many different substances and activities. Many of the debates surrounding the notion of addiction stem from different views concerning what kind of a thing addiction fundamentally is. In this essay, we put forward an account that conceptualizes different addictions as sharing a cluster of relevant properties (the syndrome...

  8. Systems Level Neuroplasticity in Drug Addiction

    Feltenstein, Matthew W.; See, Ronald E.

    2013-01-01

    Drug addiction is a chronic relapsing disorder for which research has been dedicated to understand the various factors that contribute to development, loss of control, and persistence of compulsive addictive behaviors. In this review, we provide a broad overview of various theories of addiction, drugs of abuse, and the neurobiology involved across the addiction cycle. Specific focus is devoted to the role of the mesolimbic pathway in acute drug reinforcement and occasional drug use, the mesoc...

  9. Binge Eating Disorder and Food Addiction

    Gearhardt, Ashley N.; White, Marney A.; POTENZA, MARC N.

    2011-01-01

    Binge eating disorder (BED) shares many characteristics with addictive behaviors (e.g., diminished control, continued use despite negative consequences), and a body of scientific literature is building to support addiction conceptualizations of problematic eating. Despite similarities, BED and “food addiction” may represent unique yet overlapping conditions. Although the exploration of food addiction is relatively new, understanding the relationship between food addiction and BED may be infor...

  10. The Experience of Addiction as Told by the Addicted: Incorporating Biological Understandings into Self-Story

    Hammer, Rachel R.; Dingel, Molly J; Ostergren, Jenny E.; Nowakowski, Katherine E; Koenig, Barbara A.

    2012-01-01

    How do the addicted view addiction against the framework of formal theories that attempt to explain the condition? In this empirical paper, we report on the lived experience of addiction based on 63 semi-structured, open-ended interviews with individuals in treatment for alcohol and nicotine abuse at five sites in Minnesota. Using qualitative analysis, we identified four themes that provide insights into understanding how people who are addicted view their addiction, with particular emphasis ...

  11. A Comparison of Attentional Bias Towards Drug Cues in Addicts and Non-Addicts

    Zamani, Seyedeh Narjes; Mansouri, Houri; Fazilatpour, Masoud; Shamsai, Zahra

    2014-01-01

    Background: According to recent theories on addiction, attentional bias towards drug-related stimuli plays a pivotal role in the initiation of drug abuse. Objectives: The present study attempted to investigate attentional bias towards drug-related words in addicts and non-addicts. Patients and Methods: To attain the objectives, following a causal-comparative study, a number of 15 addicts under treatment in anonymous groups, and 15 non-addicts from among students at Isfahan University were sel...

  12. Addiction to smartphone games : Using smartphone game components to create an addiction

    Holmgren, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Smartphone games are very popular and have the highest revenue of all smartphone application categories. Some even suggest that the the games can create an addiction. This addiction has however not been classified as a disorder and the components in the games that create an addiction have not been determined. This thesis had two goals. The first was to investigate and identify addictive components in smartphone games. The second goal was to use these components to develop an addictive proof o...

  13. Tobacco Addiction: 'Why Do I Smoke?' Quiz

    MENU Return to Web version Tobacco Addiction | “Why do I smoke?" Quiz Why do I smoke? If you learn the answer to this question, it will be easier to ... m hooked." In addition to having a psychological addiction to smoking, you may also be physically addicted ...

  14. A Meaning-Centered Therapy for Addictions

    Thompson, Geoff

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a treatment for addictions, based on the idea that addiction is a response to living a life that has little personal meaning. First, it presents the theory of Meaning-Centered Therapy (MCT) as developed by Paul Wong, particularly the need to understand intoxication from the addict's perspective. Next, it presents the…

  15. Real-Life Stories about Addiction Struggles

    ... turn Javascript on. Feature: Preventing Drug Abuse and Addiction Real-Life Stories About Addiction Struggles Past Issues / Fall 2011 Table of Contents “ ... VIDEO NIHSeniorHealth Videos Offer Real-Life Stories About Addiction Struggles—and Much More Many of the health ...

  16. [Workaholism, another form of addiction].

    Scheen, A J

    2013-01-01

    Workaholism belongs to the behavioural addictions, also called ((without substances)) addictions, and is rather common in our society. The differential diagnosis must distinguish a hard worker, who has pleasure in his/her job, still profits from leisure time and maintains an excellent quality of life, from a true workaholic, who is prisoner of this compulsive behaviour that has negative consequences on his mental and physical health, his social and familial relationships and finally, his work performance itself. We describe here the various typologies of this mental disorder, its mode of evolution, its diagnostic approach, its multiple negative consequences for both patient and family as well as the main principles of management based on cognitive-behavioural therapy of this disorder that may be considered as a true addiction. PMID:23888592

  17. Modeling nicotine addiction in rats.

    Caille, Stephanie; Clemens, Kelly; Stinus, Luis; Cador, Martine

    2012-01-01

    Among the human population, 15% of drug users develop a pathological drug addiction. This figure increases substantially with nicotine, whereby more than 30% of those who try smoking develop a nicotine addiction. Drug addiction is characterized by compulsive drug-seeking and drug-taking behaviors (craving), and loss of control over intake despite impairment in health, social, and occupational functions. This behavior can be accurately modeled in the rat using an intravenous self-administration (IVSA) paradigm. Initial attempts at establishing nicotine self-administration had been problematic, yet in recent times increasingly reliable models of nicotine self-administration have been developed. The present article reviews different characteristics of the nicotine IVSA model that has been developed to examine nicotine reinforcing and motivational properties in rats. PMID:22231818

  18. Substance abuse precedes Internet addiction.

    Lee, Young Sik; Han, Doug Hyun; Kim, Sun Mi; Renshaw, Perry F

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of the current study was to evaluate possible overlapping substance abuse and internet addiction in a large, uniformly sampled population, ranging in age from 13 to 18 years. Participants (N=73,238) in the current study were drawn from the 6th Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBWS-V) for students from 400 middle schools and 400 high schools in 16 cities within South Korea. Of adolescent internet users, 85.2% were general users (GU), 11.9% were users with potential risk for internet addiction (PR), and 3.0% were users with high risk for internet addiction (HR). There was a difference in the number of students with alcohol drinking among the GU, PR, and HR groups (20.8% vs 23.1% vs 27.4%). There was a difference in the number of students who smoked among the GS, PR, and HR groups (11.7% vs 13.5% vs 20.4%). There was a difference in the number of students with drug use among the GU, PR, and HR groups (1.7% vs 2.0% vs 6.5%). After adjusting for sex, age, stress, depressed mood, and suicidal ideation, smoking may predict a high risk for internet addiction (OR=1.203, p=0.004). In addition, drug use may predict a high risk for internet addiction (OR=2.591, psubstance abuse should be evaluated and, if found, treated in adolescents with internet addiction. PMID:23384457

  19. Social Anomie and Drug Addiction

    2004-01-01

    The present article addresses the relationshop between social anomie and drug addiction and tries to show that how we can apply anomie theory to clarify the aspects of this social problem in our society. By reviewing Durkheim’s and Merton’s anomie theories and Agnew’s mental-social theory، this article attempts to show that despite of fundamental differences in these two theories، Iranian Society has an anomic situation and this situation has a high poteniality for tendency toward drug addict...

  20. Prevalence and psychosocial risk factors associated with internet addiction in a nationally representative sample of college students in Taiwan.

    Lin, Min-Pei; Ko, Huei-Chen; Wu, Jo Yung-Wei

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of Internet addiction in a nationally representative sample of college students and to identify any associated psychosocial risk factors. The present study was constructed using a cross-sectional design with 3,616 participants. Participants were surveyed during the middle of the spring and fall semesters and recruited from colleges around Taiwan using stratified and cluster random sampling methods. Associations between Internet addiction and psychosocial risk factors were examined using stepwise logistic regression analysis. The prevalence of Internet addiction was found to be 15.3 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 14.1 percent to 16.5 percent). More depressive symptoms, higher positive outcome expectancy of Internet use, higher Internet usage time, lower refusal self-efficacy of Internet use, higher impulsivity, lower satisfaction with academic performance, being male, and insecure attachment style were positively correlated with Internet addiction. The prevalence of Internet addiction among college students in Taiwan was high, and the variables mentioned were independently predictive in the logistic regression analysis. This study can be used as a reference for policy making regarding the design of Internet addiction prevention programs and can also aid in the development of strategies designed to help Internet-addicted college students. PMID:21651418

  1. Cybersex addiction: Experienced sexual arousal when watching pornography and not real-life sexual contacts makes the difference.

    Laier, Christian; Pawlikowski, Mirko; Pekal, Jaro; Schulte, Frank P; Brand, Matthias

    2013-06-01

    Background and aims Cybersex addiction is discussed controversially, while empirical evidence is widely missing. With respect to its mechanisms of development and maintenance Brand et al. (2011) assume that reinforcement due to cybersex should lead to the development of cue-reactivity and craving explaining recurrent cybersex use in the face of growing but neglected negative consequences. To support this hypothesis, two experimental studies were conducted. Methods In a cue-reactivity paradigm 100 pornographic cues were presented to participants and indicators of sexual arousal and craving were assessed. The first study aimed at identifying predictors of cybersex addiction in a freely recruited sample of 171 heterosexual males. The aim of the second study was to verify the findings of the first study by comparing healthy (n = 25) and problematic (n = 25) cybersex users. Results The results show that indicators of sexual arousal and craving to Internet pornographic cues predicted tendencies towards cybersex addiction in the first study. Moreover, it was shown that problematic cybersex users report greater sexual arousal and craving reactions resulting from pornographic cue presentation. In both studies, the number and subjective quality of real-life sexual contacts were not associated to cybersex addiction. Discussion The results support the gratification hypothesis, which assumes reinforcement, learning mechanisms, and craving to be relevant processes in the development and maintenance of cybersex addiction. Poor or unsatisfying sexual real-life contacts cannot sufficiently explain cybersex addiction. Conclusions Positive reinforcement in terms of gratification plays a major role in cybersex addiction. PMID:26165929

  2. Treatment of addiction and addiction-related behavior

    Dewey, Stephen L. (Manorville, NY); Brodie, Jonathan D. (Cos Cob, CT); Ashby, Jr., Charles R. (Miller Place, NY)

    2003-01-01

    The present invention provides a highly efficient method for treating substance addiction and for changing addiction-related behavior of a mammal suffering from substance addiction. The method includes administering to a mammal an effective amount of gamma vinylGABA or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof. The present invention also provides a method of treatment of cocaine, morphine, heroin, nicotine, amphetamine, methamphetamine, or ethanol addiction by treating a mammal with an effective amount of gamma vinylGABA or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof. In one embodiment, the method of the present invention includes administering to the mammal an effective amount of a composition which increases central nervous system GABA levels wherein the effective amount is sufficient to diminish, inhibit or eliminate behavior associated with craving or use of drugs of abuse. The composition includes GVG, gabapentin, valproic acid, progabide, gamma-hydroxybutyric acid, fengabine, cetylGABA, topiramate or tiagabine or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, or an enantiomer or a racemic mixture thereof.

  3. Employee recruitment and selection

    Konečná, Lenka

    2011-01-01

    This work is target to find the answer, if the practise of the employment recruitment and their selection in the specific society for the chosen job position, is the most effective, and offers the improvement applicable in the specific society. Empirical survey has been done at Mírov prison, which is classed as a prison with high security. One hundred employees has participated the questionnaire. Fifty officers were on a supervisory shift and the other half were officers on a ...

  4. The effect of family therapy on the changes in the severity of on-line game play and brain activity in adolescents with on-line game addiction

    Han, Doug Hyun; Kim, Sun Mi; Lee, Young Sik; Renshaw, Perry F.

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated whether a brief 3-week family therapy intervention would change patterns of brain activation in response to affection and gaming cues in adolescents from dysfunctional families who met criteria for on-line game addiction. Fifteen adolescents with on-line game addiction and fifteen adolescents without problematic on-line game play and an intact family structure were recruited. Over 3 weeks, families were asked to carry out homework assignments focused on increasing family cohesion...

  5. Case Presentations from the Addiction Academy.

    Laes, JoAn R; Wiegand, Timothy

    2016-03-01

    In this article, a case-based format is used to address complex clinical issues in addiction medicine. The cases were developed from the authors' practice experience, and were presented at the American College of Medical Toxicology Addiction Academy in 2015. Section I: Drug and Alcohol Dependence and Pain explores cases of patients with co-occurring pain and substance use disorders. Section II: Legal and Policy Issues in Substance Use Disorders highlights difficult legal and policy questions in addiction medicine. Section III: Special Populations and Addictive Disorders delves into the complexity of addiction in special populations (pregnant, pediatric, and geriatric patients). PMID:26586253

  6. Phenomenology and treatment of behavioural addictions.

    Grant, Jon E; Schreiber, Liana R N; Odlaug, Brian L

    2013-05-01

    Behavioural addictions are characterized by an inability to resist an urge or drive resulting in actions that are harmful to oneself or others. Behavioural addictions share characteristics with substance and alcohol abuse, and in areas such as natural history, phenomenology, and adverse consequences. Behavioural addictions include pathological gambling, kleptomania, pyromania, compulsive buying, compulsive sexual behaviour, Internet addiction, and binge eating disorder. Few studies have examined the efficacy of pharmacological and psychological treatment for the various behavioural addictions, and therefore, currently, no treatment recommendations can be made. PMID:23756285

  7. Are major repeater patients addicted to suicidal behavior?

    Blasco-Fontecilla, Hilario; Artieda-Urrutia, Paula; Berenguer-Elias, Nuria; Garcia-Vega, Juan Manuel; Fernandez-Rodriguez, Monica; Rodriguez-Lomas, Cesar; Gonzalez-Villalobos, Isabel; Iruela-Cuadrado, Luis; de Leon, José

    2014-01-01

    The literature provides support for the hypothesis that some major repeaters (individuals with >=5 lifetime suicide attempts) are addicted to suicidal behavior (SB). This study explores whether major repeaters are addicted to SB or not using 7 criteria: tolerance (Criterion 1), withdrawal (Criterion 2), loss of control (Criterion 3), problems in quitting/cutting down (Criterion 4), much time spent using (Criterion 5), substantial reduction in activities (Criterion 6), and adverse physiological/physical consequences (Criterion 7). Total dependence on SB was indicated by the presence of 3 or more of the 7 criteria in the last 12 months. This cross-sectional study at Puerta de Hierro University Hospital (Madrid, Spain) recruited 118 suicide attempters including 8 major repeaters (7%, 8/118), who were all females. The association between each SB addiction criterion, physiological dependence and total dependence with major repeater status was tested for significance and for effect size with odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals. As hypothesized, major repeaters met significantly higher frequency of criteria for total dependence on SB, OR=62.9 (6.4-615). A backward stepwise logistic regression model was used to provide an OR between major repeater status and total dependence status corrected by confounding variables. Age, panic disorder without agoraphobia, borderline personality disorder, history of psychiatric inpatient admission, and total dependence on SB were introduced as independent variables with major repeater status as the dependent variable. The model selected total dependence and age as the remaining significant variables in the last step. Accordingly, major repeaters appear to be addicted to SB. PMID:25580865

  8. Association between morningness/eveningness, addiction severity and psychiatric disorders among individuals with addictions.

    Kervran, Charlotte; Fatséas, Mélina; Serre, Fuschia; Taillard, Jacques; Beltran, Virginie; Leboucher, Juliette; Debrabant, Romain; Alexandre, Jean-Marc; Daulouède, Jean-Pierre; Philip, Pierre; Auriacombe, Marc

    2015-10-30

    Studies have shown that Evening-Type (ET) subjects used more stimulating and sedative substances, and presented more psychiatric disorders than Morning-Type (MT) subject. However, there is a lack of data on the chronotype of patients with addiction. The aim of our study was to describe chronotype and associated factors in a sample of outpatients beginning treatment for addiction. Subjects were assessed with the Morningness-Eveningness questionnaire of Hörne & Ostberg, the Addiction Severity Index and the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. In the 333 subjects with an addiction, 20% were MT and 32% were ET. When comparing ET to MT, multivariate analysis showed that ET was significantly associated with poly-problematic addiction, non-substance addictions, cannabis addiction, and mood disorders, but not with severity of addiction. MT was associated with antisocial personality disorder. Results suggested that chronotype was associated with specific addiction pattern and psychiatric disorders. PMID:26250146

  9. [Internet addiction--a case report].

    Pejović-Milovancević, Milica; Popović-Deusić, Smiljka; Draganić-Gajić, Saveta; Lecić-Tosevski, Dusica

    2009-01-01

    Some addictions cannot be connected with substance abuse (pathological gambling, video games playing, binge eating, compulsive physical activity, emotional relationship addiction, TV addiction). Since 1995, Internet addiction has been accepted as a clinical entity with profound negative effect on social, familial, educational and economical personal functioning. The diagnosis of Internet addiction could be established if the person spends more than 38 hours per week on the Internet exempting online professional needs. Basic symptoms are the increased number of hours spent in front of the computer along with the Internet use, development of abstinent syndrome if the Internet access is prohibited, sleep inversion, neglect of basic social requirements and personal hygiene, many somatic symptoms developed due to prolonged sitting or monitor watching, dissocial behaviour. In this paper, data about the Internet addiction are presented and a case report of an adolescent with developed Internet addiction. PMID:19370973

  10. Doctors, lies and the addiction bureaucracy.

    Dalrymple, Theodore

    2008-04-01

    Almost everything you know about heroin addiction is wrong. Not only is it wrong, but it is obviously wrong. Heroin is not highly addictive; withdrawal from it is not medically serious; addicts do not become criminals to feed their habit; addicts do not need any medical assistance to stop taking heroin; and contrary to received wisdom, heroin addiction most certainly is a moral or spiritual problem. A literary tradition dating back to De Quincey and Coleridge, and continuing up to the deeply sociopathic William Burroughs and beyond, has misled all Western societies for generations about the nature of heroin addiction. These writers' self-dramatizing and dishonest accounts of their own addiction have been accepted uncritically, and have been more influential by far in forming public attitudes than the whole of pharmacological science. As a result, a self-serving, self-perpetuating and completely useless medical bureaucracy has been set up to deal with the problem. PMID:18416920

  11. Internet Addiction: Stability and Change

    Huang, Chiungjung

    2010-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined five indices of stability and change in Internet addiction: structural stability, mean-level stability, differential stability, individual-level stability, and ipsative stability. The study sample was 351 undergraduate students from end of freshman year to end of junior year. Convergent findings revealed stability…

  12. Neurocognitive Insights in Nicotine Addiction

    M. Luijten (Maartje)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractIn the Netherlands, 27% of the population is currently smoking. Nicotine is among the most addictive substances of abuse. Thirty-two percent of the people who tried smoking develop nicotine dependence within ten year. This percentage is higher for nicotine than for other substances of ab

  13. Using Meditation in Addiction Counseling

    Young, Mark E.; DeLorenzi, Leigh de Armas; Cunningham, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Meditation has been studied as a way of reducing stress in counseling clients since the 1960s. Alcoholics Anonymous, Narcotics Anonymous, and new wave behavior therapies incorporate meditation techniques in their programs. This article identifies meditation's curative factors and limitations when using meditation in addiction settings.

  14. Femoral pseudoaneurysms in drug addicts

    Levi-Mazloum, Niels Donald; Rørdam, Peter; Jensen, L P;

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the outcome of treatment of femoral pseudoaneurysms in drug addicts. METHODS: The records of eight patients undergoing vascular surgery for femoral pseudoaneurysms from substance abuse identified from a vascular database were reviewed. RESULTS: Were good in four out of five...

  15. Recruitment Practices And Institutional Change

    Holm, Anna; Ulhøi, John Parm

    Up to now, there has been little research on recruitment practices from an organizational perspective, and in part it lags behind practice. This paper attempts to rectify this by studying recent changes in the recruitment practices of Danish organizations. We employ new institutional theory...... as a theoretical lens in order to understand how shared rules, norms and beliefs guide recruitment professionals in their choice of recruitment tactics and ways of performing recruitment tasks. Our findings suggest that recruitment practices have been strongly influenced by changes in the labour market, technology......, and individuals’ social cognition. Among other things, this is reflected in the use of online recruitment and employer branding. The study concludes that the recruitment field has transformed and reviewed its practices due to institutional changes in how individuals search for employment and expect to be hired....

  16. Profile of the successful recruiter.

    Gandolfo, Robin Ragsdale.

    1987-01-01

    This thesis develops and analyzes a model to identify attributes of a successful recruiter. Expert Systems software is used to elicit from twenty U.S. Army recruiters and instructors, who are experts in the field, characteristics associated with recruiter success. An interactive computer program based on Quasi-Artificial Intelligence (QAI) captured the expert's intuition, knowledge, experience, and judgements to create expert systems that can be used to select U.S. Army recruiters before they...

  17. The association between Internet addiction and psychiatric co-morbidity: A meta-analysis

    Ho, Roger C; Zhang, Melvyn WB; Tsang, Tammy Y; Toh, Anastasia H; Pan, Fang; Lu, Yanxia; Cheng, Cecilia; Yip, Paul S; Lam, Lawrence T.; Lai, Ching-Man; Watanabe, Hiroko; Mak, Kwok-Kei

    2014-01-01

    Background This study evaluates the association between Internal Addiction (IA) and psychiatric co-morbidity in the literature. Methods Meta-analyses were conducted on cross-sectional, case–control and cohort studies which examined the relationship between IA and psychiatric co-morbidity. Selected studies were extracted from major online databases. The inclusion criteria are as follows: 1) studies conducted on human subjects; 2) IA and psychiatric co-morbidity were assessed by standardised qu...

  18. Cohort Profile: The Malaysian Cohort (TMC) project: a prospective study of non-communicable diseases in a multi-ethnic population

    Jamal, Rahman; Syed Zakaria, Syed Zulkifli; Kamaruddin, Mohd Arman; Abd Jalal, Nazihah; Ismail, Norliza; Mohd Kamil, Norkhamiwati; Abdullah, Noraidatulakma; Baharudin, Norhafizah; Hussin, Noor Hamidah; Othman, Hanita; Mahadi, Nor Muhammad; ,

    2014-01-01

    The Malaysian Cohort study was initiated in 2005 by the Malaysian government. The top-down approach to this population-based cohort study ensured the allocation of sufficient funding for the project which aimed to recruit 100 000 individuals aged 35–70 years. Participants were recruited from rural and urban areas as well as from various socioeconomic groups. The main objectives of the study were to identify risk factors, to study gene-environment interaction and to discover biomarkers for the...

  19. Employee Recruitment and Selection

    Isich, Sabina

    2012-01-01

    The goal of the bachelor's thesis is to analyse the system of employee recruitment and selection in the company XY s.r.o. in the Czech Republic, to compare the theoretical approaches and applied practices, to define main strengths and weaknesses, and to propose the application of good practices as well as solutions to identified problems. The analyzed company XY s.r.o. is a subsidiary of a Russian international oil company that declined to be named. There is used a name XY in the bachelor's t...

  20. Health and function of participants in the Long Life Family Study: A comparison with other cohorts

    Newman, Anne B; Glynn, Nancy W; Taylor, Christopher A;

    2011-01-01

    Individuals from families recruited for the Long Life Family Study (LLFS) (n= 4559) were examined and compared to individuals from other cohorts to determine whether the recruitment targeting longevity resulted in a cohort of individuals with better health and function. Other cohorts with similar...... data included the Cardiovascular Health Study, the Framingham Heart Study, and the New England Centenarian Study. Diabetes, chronic pulmonary disease and peripheral artery disease tended to be less common in LLFS probands and offspring compared to similar aged persons in the other cohorts. Pulse...

  1. Brain damages in ketamine addicts as revealed by magnetic resonance imaging

    Chunmei eWang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Ketamine, a known antagonist of N-methyl-D-aspartic (NMDA glutamate receptors, had been used as an anesthetic particularly for pediatric or for cardiac patients. Unfortunately, ketamine has become an abusive drug in many parts of the world while chronic and prolonged usage led to damages of many organs including the brain. However, no studies on possible damages in the brains induced by chronic ketamine abuse have been documented in the human via neuroimaging. This paper described for the first time via employing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI the changes in ketamine addicts of 0.5 to 12 years and illustrated the possible brain regions susceptible to ketamine abuse. Twenty-one ketamine addicts were recruited and the results showed that the lesions in the brains of ketamine addicts were located in many regions which appeared 2-4 years after ketamine addiction. Cortical atrophy was usually evident in the frontal, parietal or occipital cortices of addicts. Such study confirmed that many brain regions in the human were susceptible to chronic ketamine injury and presented a diffuse effect of ketamine on the brain which might differ from other central nervous system (CNS drugs, such as cocaine, heroin and methamphetamine.

  2. Unraveling Exercise Addiction: The Role of Narcissism and Self-Esteem

    Antonio Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the risk of exercise addiction (EA in fitness clubs and to identify possible factors in the development of the disorder. The Exercise Addiction Inventory (EAI, the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI, and the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (SEI were administered to a sample of 150 consecutive gym attenders recruited in fitness centers. Based on EAI total score, high EA risk group (HEA n=51 and a low EA risk group (LEA n=69 were identified. HEA reported significantly higher total score (mean = 20.2 versus 14.6 on the NPI scale and lower total score (mean = 32.2 versus 36.4 on the SEI scale than LEA. A stepwise regression analysis indicated that only narcissism and self-esteem total scores (F=5.66;  df=2;  P=0.006 were good predictors of days per week exercise. The present study confirms the direct and combined role of both labile self-esteem and high narcissism in the development of exercise addiction as predictive factors towards the risk of addiction. Multidisciplinary trained health care providers (physiatrists, psychologists, and psychiatrists should carefully identify potential overexercise conditions in order to prevent the potential risk of exercise addiction.

  3. Unraveling exercise addiction: the role of narcissism and self-esteem.

    Bruno, Antonio; Quattrone, Diego; Scimeca, Giuseppe; Cicciarelli, Claudio; Romeo, Vincenzo Maria; Pandolfo, Gianluca; Zoccali, Rocco Antonio; Muscatello, Maria Rosaria Anna

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the risk of exercise addiction (EA) in fitness clubs and to identify possible factors in the development of the disorder. The Exercise Addiction Inventory (EAI), the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI), and the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (SEI) were administered to a sample of 150 consecutive gym attenders recruited in fitness centers. Based on EAI total score, high EA risk group (HEA n = 51) and a low EA risk group (LEA n = 69) were identified. HEA reported significantly higher total score (mean = 20.2 versus 14.6) on the NPI scale and lower total score (mean = 32.2 versus 36.4) on the SEI scale than LEA. A stepwise regression analysis indicated that only narcissism and self-esteem total scores (F = 5.66; df = 2; P = 0.006) were good predictors of days per week exercise. The present study confirms the direct and combined role of both labile self-esteem and high narcissism in the development of exercise addiction as predictive factors towards the risk of addiction. Multidisciplinary trained health care providers (physiatrists, psychologists, and psychiatrists) should carefully identify potential overexercise conditions in order to prevent the potential risk of exercise addiction. PMID:25405056

  4. Reliability and Validity of the Behavioral Addiction Measure for Video Gaming.

    Sanders, James L; Williams, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    Most tests of video game addiction have weak construct validity and limited ability to correctly identify people in denial. The purpose of the present research was to investigate the reliability and validity of a new test of video game addiction (Behavioral Addiction Measure-Video Gaming [BAM-VG]) that was developed in part to address these deficiencies. Regular adult video gamers (n = 506) were recruited from a Canadian online panel and completed a survey containing three measures of excessive video gaming (BAM-VG; DSM-5 criteria for Internet Gaming Disorder [IGD]; and the IGD-20), as well as questions concerning extensiveness of video game involvement and self-report of problems associated with video gaming. One month later, they were reassessed for the purposes of establishing test-retest reliability. The BAM-VG demonstrated good internal consistency as well as 1 month test-retest reliability. Criterion-related validity was demonstrated by significant correlations with the following: time spent playing, self-identification of video game problems, and scores on other instruments designed to assess video game addiction (DSM-5 IGD, IGD-20). Consistent with the theory, principal component analysis identified two components underlying the BAM-VG that roughly correspond with impaired control and significant negative consequences deriving from this impaired control. Together with its excellent construct validity and other technical features, the BAM-VG represents a reliable and valid test of video game addiction. PMID:26720761

  5. A significant association between BDNF promoter methylation and the risk of drug addiction.

    Xu, Xuting; Ji, Huihui; Liu, Guili; Wang, Qinwen; Liu, Huifen; Shen, Wenwen; Li, Longhui; Xie, Xiaohu; Zhou, Wenhua; Duan, Shiwei

    2016-06-10

    As a member of the neurotrophic factor family, brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays an important role in the survival and differentiation of neurons. The aim of our work was to evaluate the role of BDNF promoter methylation in drug addiction. A total of 60 drug abusers (30 heroin and 30 methylamphetamine addicts) and 52 healthy age- and gender-matched controls were recruited for the current case control study. Bisulfite pyrosequencing technology was used to determine the methylation levels of five CpGs (CpG1-5) on the BDNF promoter. Among the five CpGs, CpG5 methylation was significantly lower in drug abusers than controls. Moreover, significant associations were found between CpG5 methylation and addictive phenotypes including tension-anxiety, anger-hostility, fatigue-inertia, and depression-dejection. In addition, luciferase assay showed that the DNA fragment of BDNF promoter played a key role in the regulation of gene expression. Our results suggest that BDNF promoter methylation is associated with drug addiction, although further studies are needed to understand the mechanisms by which BDNF promoter methylation contributes to the pathophysiology of drug addiction. PMID:26976342

  6. Differential regional gray matter volumes in patients with on-line game addiction and professional gamers

    Han, Doug Hyun; Lyoo, In Kyoon; Renshaw, Perry F.

    2012-01-01

    Patients with on-line game addiction (POGA) and professional video game players play video games for extended periods of time, but experience very different consequences for their on-line game play. Brain regions consisting of anterior cingulate, thalamus and occpito-temporal areas may increase the likelihood of becoming a pro-gamer or POGA. Twenty POGA, seventeen pro-gamers, and eighteen healthy comparison subjects (HC) were recruited. All magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed on a ...

  7. Comparison of Personality Characteristics and Problem Solving Styles in Addicted and Non-Addicted Men

    Mohammad Narimani

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The present study sought to compare emotional intelligence and quality of life in addicted and non-addicted men. Method: The samples included 80 addicted and 80 non-addicted men who addicted men were selected by available sampling and non-addicted men were chosen by cloning methods according to age and marital status. For data collection, emotional intelligence scale and quality of life questionnaire were used. Variance test and Pearson correlation were used for data analysis. Findings: The results showed that there is a significant difference between emotional intelligence and quality of life of addicted and non-addicted men. In fact, the emotional intelligence and quality of life among addicted men were lower than non-addicted men. Also the results showed that there is a significant correlation between emotional intelligence and quality of life among addicts and non addicts. Conclusion: People with low emotional intelligence are more likely to do substance abuse and drug abuse lowers the quality of life of the people. It is likely to develop emotional intelligence of people in order to prevent them from getting addicted.

  8. The stability of 'food addiction' as assessed by the Yale Food Addiction Scale in a non-clinical population over 18-months.

    Pursey, Kirrilly M; Collins, Clare E; Stanwell, Peter; Burrows, Tracy L

    2016-01-01

    The Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS) is a widely used tool to assess the behavioural indicators of addictive-like eating. No studies, however, have used a longitudinal design to determine whether these addictive-like eating behaviours are a stable or transient phenomenon in a community-based population. This study aimed to evaluate whether food addiction Diagnosis and Symptom scores as assessed by the YFAS remain stable over 18-months in a non-clinical population. Young adults aged 18-35 years were recruited from the community to a web-based survey in 2013. The survey included demographics, anthropometrics and the YFAS. Participants who volunteered to be recontacted for future research were invited to complete the same survey 18-months later. The YFAS scoring outputs Diagnosis and Symptom scores were tested for agreement and reliability between the two time points. Of the 303 participants who completed the original survey and agreed to be recontacted, 69 participants (22.8% of those recontacted, 94% female, 67% normal weight at baseline) completed the 18-month follow-up survey. At baseline, thirteen participants met the YFAS predefined criteria for Diagnosis, while eleven participants met these criteria at the 18-month follow-up. YFAS Diagnosis was found to have moderate agreement [K = .50, 95% CI (.23, .77)] between the two time points while Symptom scores had good agreement [K = .70, 95% CI (.54, .83)]. Intraclass correlation coefficients were interpreted as moderate over the 18-month period for both the Diagnosis [ICC = .71, 95% CI (.45, .88)] and Symptom scores [ICC = .72, 95% CI (.58, .82)]. YFAS assessed food addiction Diagnosis and Symptom scores were found to be relatively stable over 18-months in a non-clinical population of predominantly female, young adults. Future research is required to determine the impact of behavioural weight loss interventions on YFAS assessed addictive-like eating. PMID:26482284

  9. Towards an animal model of food addiction.

    de Jong, Johannes W; Vanderschuren, Louk J M J; Adan, Roger A H

    2012-01-01

    The dramatically increasing prevalence of obesity, associated with potentially life-threatening health problems, including cardiovascular diseases and type II diabetes, poses an enormous public health problem. It has been proposed that the obesity epidemic can be explained by the concept of 'food addiction'. In this review we focus on possible similarities between binge eating disorder (BED), which is highly prevalent in the obese population, and drug addiction. Indeed, both behavioral and neural similarities between addiction and BED have been demonstrated. Behavioral similarities are reflected in the overlap in DSM-IV criteria for drug addiction with the (suggested) criteria for BED and by food addiction-like behavior in animals after prolonged intermittent access to palatable food. Neural similarities include the overlap in brain regions involved in food and drug craving. Decreased dopamine D2 receptor availability in the striatum has been found in animal models of binge eating, after cocaine self-administration in animals as well as in drug addiction and obesity in humans. To further explore the neurobiological basis of food addiction, it is essential to have an animal model to test the addictive potential of palatable food. A recently developed animal model for drug addiction involves three behavioral characteristics that are based on the DSM-IV criteria: i) extremely high motivation to obtain the drug, ii) difficulty in limiting drug seeking even in periods of explicit non-availability, iii) continuation of drug-seeking despite negative consequences. Indeed, it has been shown that a subgroup of rats, after prolonged cocaine self-administration, scores positive on these three criteria. If food possesses addictive properties, then food-addicted rats should also meet these criteria while searching for and consuming food. In this review we discuss evidence from literature regarding food addiction-like behavior. We also suggest future experiments that could

  10. European birth cohort studies on asthma and atopic diseases

    Keil, T; Kulig, M; Simpson, A;

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The reasons for the rise in asthma and allergies remain unclear. To identify risk or protective factors, it is essential to carry out longitudinal epidemiological studies, preferably birth cohort studies. In Europe, several birth cohort studies on asthma and atopic diseases have been...... initiated over the last two decades. AIM: One of the work packages within the Global Allergy and Asthma European Network (GA(2)LEN) project was designed to identify and compare European birth cohorts on asthma and atopic diseases. The present review (part I) describes their objectives, study settings......, recruitment process and follow-up rates. A subsequent review (part II) will compare outcome and exposure parameters. METHODS: For each birth cohort, we collected detailed information regarding recruitment process, study setting, baseline data (pregnancy, birth, parents/siblings) as well as follow-up rates...

  11. New Dimensions, New Addictions: The Internet Sex Addiction

    Silvia Sánchez Zaldívar

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The network is endless: going anywhere, finding anything, being anyone. Typing the word sex on Google gives a figure of 96 million results. The network is changing our way of communication and relation; we can construct space-time coordinates before incompatible. Internet addiction is not recognized as a disorder in DSM-IV-TR or ICD-10. Both types of Internet addiction with sexual content are cybersex and pornography. Cybersex consists in experiencing sexual stimulation while maintaining sexual contact with other person. There is no user profile, it is a widespread behaviour and might have a positive aspect (in some communities, persons with fewer social skills, to spice sex life and a negative aspect (addiction, loss of control, marital and family problems. Sex is safe, anonymous and without complications. Internet pornography voyeurism allows the visualization of all types of practices, the use of real models not professional and to spy our behaviour through the IP code. These sexual activities on the network seems to be powered by the “Triple A” engine: accessibility, anonymity, affordability. We must assess the individual, the couples and the Internet activities. There is no proven pharmacological or psychological treatment but cognitive behavioural programs and techniques used in other addictions are helpful. There is large comorbidity. The goal of treatment refers to the adaptive use of Internet. Health professionals should be in advance and learn about this kind of behaviours, as well as to disseminate the information appropriately not launching simplistic messages, providing markers and developing studies, research and prevention programs.

  12. ADHD and autistic traits, family function, parenting style, and social adjustment for Internet addiction among children and adolescents in Taiwan: a longitudinal study.

    Chen, Yi-Lung; Chen, Sue-Huei; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2015-04-01

    This longitudinal study investigated the prevalence, predictors, and related factors for Internet addiction among elementary and junior high school students in Taiwan. A convenient sample of grades 3, 5, and 8 students (n = 1153) was recruited from six elementary and one junior high schools. They were assessed during the beginning and the end of the spring semester of 2013. Internet addiction was examined by the Chen Internet Addiction Scale (CIAS). Other factors were screened using the Chinese version of the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) for autistic trait, the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) for parenting, the Family APGAR for family support, the Social Adjustment Inventory for Children and Adolescents for social function, and the Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham, version IV scale (SNAP-IV) for ADHD symptoms. The prevalence of Internet addiction decreased from 11.4% to 10.6%. Male, low family support, poor social adjustment, and high ADHD-related symptoms were related to Internet addiction. However, there was an inverse relationship between autistic traits and Internet addiction. Further, its predictivity could be accounted by poor academic performance, male, and protective parenting style. Internet addiction is not uncommon among youths in Taiwan. The predictors identified in this study could be the specific measures for the development of a prevention program for Internet addiction in the youth population. PMID:25617844

  13. Review of Cohort Studies for Mood Disorders.

    Jeon, Hong Jin; Baek, Ji Hyun; Ahn, Yong-Min; Kim, Se Joo; Ha, Tae Hyun; Cha, Boseok; Moon, Eunsoo; Kang, Hee-Ju; Ryu, Vin; Cho, Chul-Hyun; Heo, Jung-Yoon; Kim, Kiwon; Lee, Heon-Jeong

    2016-05-01

    This paper aimed to review currently available cohort studies of subjects with mood disorders such as major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD). Using the PubMed and KoreaMed databases, we reviewed eight major cohort studies. Most studies recruited participants with MDD and BD separately, so direct comparison of factors associated with diagnostic changes was difficult. Regular and frequent follow-up evaluations utilizing objective mood ratings and standardized evaluation methods in a naturalistic fashion are necessary to determine detailed clinical courses of mood disorders. Further, biological samples should also be collected to incorporate clinical findings in the development of new diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. An innovative cohort study that can serve as a platform for translational research for treatment and prevention of mood disorders is critical in determining clinical, psychosocial, neurobiological and genetic factors associated with long-term courses and consequences of mood disorders in Korean patients. PMID:27247592

  14. Hypomanic personality trait in cocaine addiction.

    Lemere, F; Smith, J W

    1990-04-01

    An analysis of 292 private patients treated for cocaine addiction showed the following. Comorbid Axis I psychiatric disorders were found in 19% and preaddiction Axis I disorders in 9% of these patients. Psychopathology at the time of treatment appeared to be more the result of than the cause of the addiction. Of these patients 63% had become addicted pursuing euphoria. A definitive nonpathologic unipolar hypomanic subtype of cocaine addict was observed in 13% of these 292 patients. This was manifested more as a trait than a disorder. This subgroup had been reasonably well adjusted, fun-loving and action oriented extroverts before their addiction. The rush and lifestyle of cocaine fit the imperatives of their personality. In a significant subtype of cocaine addict, an underlying hypomanic personality trait is ego-syntonic with the abuse of cocaine. PMID:2346798

  15. The neural rejuvenation hypothesis of cocaine addiction.

    Dong, Yan; Nestler, Eric J

    2014-08-01

    A leading hypothesis guiding current molecular and cellular research into drug addiction conceptualizes key aspects of addiction as a form of memory in which common neuroplasticity mechanisms that mediate normal learning and memory processes are 'hijacked' by exposure to drugs of abuse to produce pathologic addiction-related memories. Such addiction-related memories are particularly robust and long-lasting and once formed are less amenable to updating. Here we propose a neural rejuvenation hypothesis of cocaine addiction. According to this hypothesis, repeated exposure to drugs of abuse induces some plasticity mechanisms normally associated with brain development within the reward circuitry that mediate the highly efficient and unusually stable memory abnormalities that characterize addiction. PMID:24958329

  16. Neuroimaging for drug addiction and related behaviors

    In this review, we highlight the role of neuroimaging techniques in studying the emotional and cognitive-behavioral components of the addiction syndrome by focusing on the neural substrates subserving them. The phenomenology of drug addiction can be characterized by a recurrent pattern of subjective experiences that includes drug intoxication, craving, bingeing, and withdrawal with the cycle culminating in a persistent preoccupation with obtaining, consuming, and recovering from the drug. In the past two decades, imaging studies of drug addiction have demonstrated deficits in brain circuits related to reward and impulsivity. The current review focuses on studies employing positron emission tomography (PET), functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and electroencephalography (EEG) to investigate these behaviors in drug-addicted human populations. We begin with a brief account of drug addiction followed by a technical account of each of these imaging modalities. We then discuss how these techniques have uniquely contributed to a deeper understanding of addictive behaviors.

  17. Neuroimaging for drug addiction and related behaviors

    Parvaz, Muhammad A.; Alia-Klein, Nelly; Woicik, Patricia A.; Volkow, Nora D.; Goldstein, Rita Z.

    2012-01-01

    In this review, we highlight the role of neuroimaging techniques in studying the emotional and cognitive-behavioral components of the addiction syndrome by focusing on the neural substrates subserving them. The phenomenology of drug addiction can be characterized by a recurrent pattern of subjective experiences that includes drug intoxication, craving, bingeing, and withdrawal with the cycle culminating in a persistent preoccupation with obtaining, consuming, and recovering from the drug. In the past two decades, imaging studies of drug addiction have demonstrated deficits in brain circuits related to reward and impulsivity. The current review focuses on studies employing positron emission tomography (PET), functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and electroencephalography (EEG) to investigate these behaviors in drug-addicted human populations. We begin with a brief account of drug addiction followed by a technical account of each of these imaging modalities. We then discuss how these techniques have uniquely contributed to a deeper understanding of addictive behaviors. PMID:22117165

  18. Neuroimaging for drug addiction and related behaviors

    Parvaz M. A.; Parvaz, M.A.; Alia-Klein, N.; Woicik,P.A.; Volkow, N.D.; Goldstein, R.Z.

    2011-10-01

    In this review, we highlight the role of neuroimaging techniques in studying the emotional and cognitive-behavioral components of the addiction syndrome by focusing on the neural substrates subserving them. The phenomenology of drug addiction can be characterized by a recurrent pattern of subjective experiences that includes drug intoxication, craving, bingeing, and withdrawal with the cycle culminating in a persistent preoccupation with obtaining, consuming, and recovering from the drug. In the past two decades, imaging studies of drug addiction have demonstrated deficits in brain circuits related to reward and impulsivity. The current review focuses on studies employing positron emission tomography (PET), functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and electroencephalography (EEG) to investigate these behaviors in drug-addicted human populations. We begin with a brief account of drug addiction followed by a technical account of each of these imaging modalities. We then discuss how these techniques have uniquely contributed to a deeper understanding of addictive behaviors.

  19. Obesity and Its Relationship to Addictions: Is Overeating a Form of Addictive Behavior?

    Barry, Danielle; Clarke, Megan; Petry, Nancy M.

    2009-01-01

    Obesity is a major public health problem and notoriously difficult to treat. There are many parallels between obesity/overeating and addictions to alcohol and drugs. This paper discusses similarities between obesity and addictive disorders, including common personality characteristics, disruptive behavior syndromes, and brain mechanisms. Although there are important differences between overeating and other addictive behaviors, an addiction model of overeating may effectively inform prevention...

  20. Factors influencing alcohol and tobacco addiction among patients attending a de-addiction Centre, South India

    Prabhu, Poornima; Srinivas, Raju; Vishwanathan, Kashi; Raavi, Abhilash

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Alcohol and tobacco consumption are highly correlated behaviors. Aim: To assess the factors influencing alcohol and tobacco addiction and their impact on personal, family, and social life among patients attending the Spandana Nursing Home and De-addiction Centre, Bangalore. The objectives are to assess the various factors leading to alcohol and tobacco addiction, to assess the influence of addiction on personal, family, and social life, and also to create awareness among the com...

  1. A 50-Year-Old Woman Addicted to Heroin: Review of Treatment of Heroin Addiction

    O’Brien, Charles P.

    2008-01-01

    Heroin addiction is a complicated medical and psychiatric issue, with well-established as well as newer modes of treatment. The case of Ms W, a 50-year-old woman with a long history of opiate addiction who has been treated successfully with methadone for 9 years and who now would like to consider newer alternatives, illustrates the complex issues of heroin addiction. The treatment of heroin addiction as a chronic disease is reviewed, including social, medical, and cultural issues and pharmaco...

  2. Behavioral Addiction versus Substance Addiction: Correspondence of Psychiatric and Psychological Views

    Seyyed Salman Alavi

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Similar to substance abuse prevention, programs aimed at addicted individuals and specialized training can educate adolescents about the warning signs of online addiction, in order to assist the early detection of this disorder. For prevention of behavioral addiction (such as internet addiction authorities, cultural institutions and parents should monitor the use of internet and teach to the adolescent and children, the useful and appropriate methods of internet use.

  3. The Prevalence of Food Addiction as Assessed by the Yale Food Addiction Scale: A Systematic Review

    Pursey, Kirrilly M.; Peter Stanwell; Gearhardt, Ashley N.; Clare E. Collins; Burrows, Tracy L.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a global issue and it has been suggested that an addiction to certain foods could be a factor contributing to overeating and subsequent obesity. Only one tool, the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS) has been developed to specifically assess food addiction. This review aimed to determine the prevalence of food addiction diagnosis and symptom scores, as assessed by the YFAS. Published studies to July 2014 were included if they reported the YFAS diagnosis or symptom score and were publi...

  4. Behavioral Addiction versus Substance Addiction: Correspondence of Psychiatric and Psychological Views

    Seyyed Salman Alavi; Masoud Ferdosi; Fereshte Jannatifard; Mehdi Eslami; Hamed Alaghemandan; Mehrdad Setare

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Behavioral science experts believe that all entities capable of stimulating a person can be addictive; and whenever a habit changes into an obligation, it can be considered as an addiction. Researchers also believe that there are a number of similarities as well as some differences between drug addiction and behavioral addiction diagnostic symptoms. The purpose of this study is to consider different approaches in this field. Methods: This is a descriptive research using conte...

  5. Assessing internet addiction using the parsimonious internet addiction components model—A preliminary study.

    Kuss, D.J.; Shorter, G.W.; Rooij, A.J. van; Griffiths, M.D.; Schoenmakers, T.M.

    2014-01-01

    Internet usage has grown exponentially over the last decade. Research indicates that excessive Internet use can lead to symptoms associated with addiction. To date, assessment of potential Internet addiction has varied regarding populations studied and instruments used, making reliable prevalence estimations difficult. To overcome the present problems a preliminary study was conducted testing a parsimonious Internet addiction components model based on Griffiths’ addiction components (Journal ...

  6. The Internet Process Addiction Test: Screening for Addictions to Processes Facilitated by the Internet

    Northrup, Jason C.; Coady Lapierre; Jeffrey Kirk; Cosette Rae

    2015-01-01

    The Internet Process Addiction Test (IPAT) was created to screen for potential addictive behaviors that could be facilitated by the internet. The IPAT was created with the mindset that the term “Internet addiction” is structurally problematic, as the Internet is simply the medium that one uses to access various addictive processes. The role of the internet in facilitating addictions, however, cannot be minimized. A new screening tool that effectively directed researchers and clinicians to the...

  7. Common Bile Duct (CBD) diameter in opium-addicted men: Comparison with non-addict controls

    Zahedi-Nejad, Nina; Narouei, Shahin; Fahimy, Farnaz

    2010-01-01

    Summary Background: Opium and its derivatives are widely abused throughout the world. Recent case reports and a few limited studies have suggested that opiates cause dilation of the common bile duct of the abusers. Material/Methods: Our case-control study, lasting 7.5 months, investigated 121 male adult addicts and 142 non-addicted controls for biliary tract diameters, using ultrasonography. The study was conducted in Bahonar Hospital in Kerman. Neither the addiction cases nor the non-addict ...

  8. Clarifying Exercise Addiction: Differential Diagnosis, Co-occurring Disorders, and Phases of Addiction

    Marilyn Freimuth; Kim, Shari R.; Sandy Moniz

    2011-01-01

    This paper sets out to clarify the unique features of exercise addiction. It begins by examining how this addiction can be distinguished from compulsions and impulse control disorders both of which, like an addiction, involve excessive behavior that creates adverse effects. Assessment of exercise addiction also requires that clinicians be attuned to other forms of excessive behavior, especially eating disorders that can co-occur with exercise. Finally in an effort to clarify exercise addictio...

  9. Treating a Sex Addict Through Marital Sex Therapy.

    Sprenkle, Douglas H.

    1987-01-01

    Views treatment of sexual addiction within context of addiction and family therapy. Presents a case of sexual addiction and explicates an intervention model which emphasizes the importance of family participation in the treatment. (Author/NB)

  10. Biology of Addiction: Drugs and Alcohol Can Hijack Your Brain

    ... External link, please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Biology of Addiction Drugs and Alcohol Can Hijack Your ... scientists are working to learn more about the biology of addiction. They’ve shown that addiction is ...

  11. Recruiting in remote locations

    Ionel, C. [Enerflex Systems Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    This presentation provided details of Enerflex, a leading supplier of products and services to the oil and gas industry, and outlined their personnel hiring policies. Enerflex's core values include community involvement and divisional logo branding. The extensive training that is provided places an emphasis on employee empowerment. The company also places an emphasis on employee safety, diversity, and team building. Competitive salaries are offered along with generous equipment allowances and a flexible benefits program. Benefits include travel and overtime rates; health benefits; retirement savings; scholarship programs; career opportunities; and apprenticeship programs. External technical training is provided. An employee referral program has been developed, and the company's recruitment program also advertises in remote newspapers to develop career streams within remote communities. tabs., figs.

  12. Biopsychosocial implications of heroin addiction

    Cheng, Lai-fung, Gordon; 鄭禮鋒

    2014-01-01

    Heroin abuse is devastating to both the individual abusers and society. Owing to its ability to elicit rapid feelings of euphoria and transcendent relaxation, coupled with adverse withdrawal effects, it is one of the most addictive illicit drugs of abuse. The severe and persistent socio-economic detriment caused by heroin abuse signifies an urgent need for understanding how this substance affects abusers. Currently, scientific research into the biopsychosocial functioning of heroin abusers is...

  13. Assessing Addiction: Concepts and Instruments

    Samet, Sharon; Waxman, Rachel; Hatzenbuehler, Mark; Hasin, Deborah S.

    2007-01-01

    Efficient, organized assessment of substance use disorders is essential for clinical research, treatment planning, and referral to adjunctive services. In this article, we discuss the basic concepts of formalized assessment for substance abuse and addiction, as established by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision, and describe six widely used structured assessment instruments. Our aim is to help researchers and clinical programs identify the ins...

  14. Molecular Mechanisms of Psychostimulant Addiction

    Jin-Chung Chen; Pei-Chun Chen; Yao-Chang Chiang

    2009-01-01

    Drug addiction represents a pathological form of neuroplasticity along with the emergenceof aberrant behaviors involving a cascade of neurochemical changes mainly in thebrain’s rewarding circuitry. The aberrant behavioral phenotypes can be assessed by an animalmodel of drug-induced behavioral sensitization, which is characterized by an initiationstage that is formed in the ventral tegmental area and a behavioral expression stage determinedmainly in the nucleus accumbens. Numerous studies duri...

  15. Addiction and the adrenal cortex

    Vinson, Gavin P; Brennan, Caroline H.

    2013-01-01

    Substantial evidence shows that the hypophyseal–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis and corticosteroids are involved in the process of addiction to a variety of agents, and the adrenal cortex has a key role. In general, plasma concentrations of cortisol (or corticosterone in rats or mice) increase on drug withdrawal in a manner that suggests correlation with the behavioural and symptomatic sequelae both in man and in experimental animals. Corticosteroid levels fall back to normal values in resumptio...

  16. Treating cocaine addiction with viruses

    Carrera, M. Rocio A.; Kaufmann, Gunnar F.; Mee, Jenny M.; Meijler, Michael M.; Koob, George F.; Janda, Kim D.

    2004-01-01

    Cocaine addiction continues to be a major health and social problem in the United States and other countries. Currently used pharmacological agents for treating cocaine abuse have proved inadequate, leaving few treatment options. An alternative is to use protein-based therapeutics that can eliminate the load of cocaine, thereby attenuating its effects. This approach is especially attractive because the therapeutic agents exert no pharmacodynamic action of their own and therefore have little p...

  17. Methamphetamine Cured my Cocaine Addiction

    Haile, Colin N.; De La Garza, Richard; Newton, Thomas F.

    2010-01-01

    Cocaine dependence is an enduring problem and years of research and drug development has yet to produce an efficacious pharmacotherapy. Recent clinical research suggests that chronic treatment with amphetamine-like medications produces tolerance to cocaine’s reinforcing effects and may offer a viable pharmacotherapy. Three methamphetamine-dependent participants that had been in our clinical laboratory experiments and previously addicted to cocaine are reviewed. Data obtained from initial scre...

  18. Internet gaming addiction: current perspectives

    Kuss DJ

    2013-01-01

    Daria J KussPsychology Research and Behavior Management, Birmingham City University, Birmingham, UKAbstract: In the 2000s, online games became popular, while studies of Internet gaming addiction emerged, outlining the negative consequences of excessive gaming, its prevalence, and associated risk factors. The establishment of specialized treatment centers in South-East Asia, the US, and Europe reflects the growing need for professional help. It is argued that only by understanding the appeal o...

  19. Reducing the addictiveness of cigarettes

    HENNINGFIELD, J.; Benowitz, N.; Slade, J.; Houston, T; DAVIS, R.; Deitchman, S.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To assess the feasibility of reducing tobacco-caused disease by gradually removing nicotine from cigarettes until they would not be effective causes of nicotine addiction.
DATA SOURCES—Issues posed by such an approach, and potential solutions, were identified from analysis of literature published by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in its 1996 Tobacco Rule, comments of the tobacco industry and other institutions and individuals on the rule, review of the reference lists of ...

  20. Topical corticosteroid addiction and phobia

    Aparajita Ghosh; Sujata Sengupta; Arijit Coondoo; Amlan Kusum Jana

    2014-01-01

    Corticosteroids, one of the most widely prescribed topical drugs, have been used for about six decades till date. However, rampant misuse and abuse down the years has given the drug a bad name. Topical steroid abuse may lead to two major problems which lie at the opposing ends of the psychosomatic spectrum. Topical steroid addiction, a phenomenon that came to be recognized about a decade after the introduction of the molecule is manifested as psychological distress and rebound phenomenon on s...

  1. Acupuncture therapy for drug addiction

    Motlagh, Farid Esmaeili; Ibrahim, Fatimah; Rashid , Rusdi Abd.; SEGHATOLESLAM, Tahereh; Habil, Hussain

    2016-01-01

    Acupuncture therapy has been used to treat substance abuse. This study aims to review experimental studies examining the effects of acupuncture on addiction. Research and review articles on acupuncture treatment of substance abuse published between January 2000 and September 2014 were searched using the databases ISI Web of Science Core Collection and EBSCO’s MEDLINE Complete. Clinical trial studies on the efficacy of acupuncture therapy for substance abuse were classified according to substa...

  2. Epigenetic mechanisms in drug addiction

    Renthal, William; Nestler, Eric J.

    2008-01-01

    Changes in gene expression in brain reward regions are thought to contribute to the pathogenesis and persistence of drug addiction. Recent studies have begun to focus on the molecular mechanisms by which drugs of abuse and related environmental stimuli, such as drug-associated cues or stress, converge on the genome to alter specific gene programs. Increasing evidence suggests that these stable gene expression changes in neurons are mediated in part by epigenetic mechanisms that alter chromati...

  3. Histone Acetylation in Drug Addiction

    Renthal, William; Nestler, Eric J.

    2009-01-01

    Regulation of chromatin structure through post-translational modifications of histones (e.g. acetylation) has emerged as an important mechanism to translate a variety of environmental stimuli, including drugs of abuse, into specific changes in gene expression. Since alterations in gene expression are thought to contribute to the development and maintenance of the addicted state, recent efforts are aimed at identifying how drugs of abuse alter chromatin structure and the enzymes which regulate...

  4. Applying incentive sensitization models to behavioral addiction

    Rømer Thomsen, Kristine; Fjorback, Lone; Møller, Arne;

    2014-01-01

    The incentive sensitization theory is a promising model for understanding the mechanisms underlying drug addiction, and has received support in animal and human studies. So far the theory has not been applied to the case of behavioral addictions like Gambling Disorder, despite sharing clinical...... symptoms and underlying neurobiology. We examine the relevance of this theory for Gambling Disorder and point to predictions for future studies. The theory promises a significant contribution to the understanding of behavioral addiction and opens new avenues for treatment....

  5. Mapping Smoking Addiction Using Effective Connectivity Analysis

    Tang, Rongxiang; Razi, Adeel; Friston, Karl J.; Tang, Yi-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Prefrontal and parietal cortex, including the default mode network (DMN; medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), and posterior cingulate cortex, PCC), have been implicated in addiction. Nonetheless, it remains unclear which brain regions play a crucial role in smoking addiction and the relationship among these regions. Since functional connectivity only measures correlations, addiction-related changes in effective connectivity (directed information flow) among these distributed brain regions remain ...

  6. Trauma and addiction: Implications for practice

    Misouridou, Evdokia

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Trauma is common in many individuals who face addiction problems and their families while the risk of secondary traumatic stress disorder for professionals working in the addiction field has been recently recognized. Aim: The aim of the present paper was to enhance understanding of the continuing effects of trauma and its impact in the lives of addicted individuals, their families and the mental health care professionals who strive to provide support and care for them. M...

  7. Heroin addiction: the past and future

    Robson , Noorzurani; H , Hussain; AR, Rusdi; AZ, Muhammad Muhsin

    2008-01-01

    Substance misuse, in particular heroin addiction contributes to health and social problems. Although effective medical treatment was available, earlier efforts confined the treatment of heroin addicts to in-house rehabilitation which required them to be estranged from the community and their families for 2 years. The in-house rehabilitative programme, implemented for at least three decades has produced low abstinence rates. On the other hand, being ‘away’ meant that many heroin addicts faced ...

  8. Environmental enrichment and drug addiction revised

    Marcello Solinas

    2013-01-01

    Accumulating evidence demonstrates that exposure to environmental enrichment (EE) has positive effects on drug addiction. In fact, animals exposed to EE appear less vulnerable than animals reared in standard environments (SE) to develop addiction-related behaviors. In addition, exposing already « addicted » animals to EE during periods of withdrawal dramatically reduces the risks of relapse. These findings highlight the interest of EE for the treatment of psychiatric diseases and, from a tran...

  9. Evidence-based treatments of addiction

    O'Brien, Charles P

    2008-01-01

    Both pharmacotherapy and behavioural treatment are required to relieve the symptoms of addictive disorders. This paper reviews the evidence for the benefits of pharmacotherapy and discusses mechanisms where possible. Animal models of addiction have led to some medications that are effective in reducing symptoms and improving function but they do not produce a cure. Addiction is a chronic disease that tends to recur when treatment is stopped; thus, long-term treatment is recommended.

  10. Drug Addiction as Risk for Suicide Attempts

    Dragisic, Tatjana; Dickov, Aleksandra; Dickov, Veselin; Mijatovic, Vesna

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Suicide is closely linked to the substances use. Therefore it is very important to confirm the factors that affect the possibility of suicidal behavior. Methodology: The survey included 200 respondents; 100 heroin addicts on the substitution program that attempted suicide and 100 opiate addicts who have not attempted suicide. The evaluation included a questionnaire with socio-demographic, hereditary and addiction data, legal problems and then the Minnesota Multiphasic Personalit...

  11. [Internet addiction - between enter and escape].

    Poppe, Hubert

    2014-12-01

    Internet addiction, a non-substantial addiction, is to be regarded as a highly complex mental disorder which requires complex and diverse treatment options. Initially smiled at, it shows, if it were severe, a typical addictive behaviour pattern, similar to pathological gambling, oniomanie and workaholism. In the International Classification of mental disorders (ICD-10) only pathological gambling in the category of impulse control disorders (F63.0) is specified. PMID:25377375

  12. Neurobiologic Processes in Drug Reward and Addiction

    Adinoff, Bryon

    2004-01-01

    Neurophysiologic processes underlie the uncontrolled, compulsive behaviors defining the addicted state. These “hard-wired” changes in the brain are considered critical for the transition from casual to addictive drug use. This review of preclinical and clinical (primarily neuroimaging) studies will describe how the delineation between pleasure, reward, and addiction has evolved as our understanding of the biologic mechanisms underlying these processes has progressed. Although the mesolimbic d...

  13. Young drug addicts and the drug scene.

    Lucchini, R

    1985-01-01

    The drug scene generally comprises the following four distinct categories of young people: neophytes, addicts who enjoy a high status vis-à-vis other addicts, multiple drug addicts, and non-addicted drug dealers. It has its own evolution, hierarchy, structure and criteria of success and failure. The members are required to conform to the established criteria. The integration of the young addict into the drug scene is not voluntary in the real sense of the word, for he is caught between the culture that he rejects and the pseudo-culture of the drug scene. To be accepted into the drug scene, the neophyte must furnish proof of his reliability, which often includes certain forms of criminal activities. The addict who has achieved a position of importance in the drug world serves as a role model for behaviour to the neophyte. In a more advanced phase of addiction, the personality of the addict and the social functions of the drug scene are overwhelmed by the psychoactive effects of the drug, and this process results in the social withdrawal of the addict. The life-style of addicts and the subculture they develop are largely influenced by the type of drug consumed. For example, it is possible to speak of a heroin subculture and a cocaine subculture. In time, every drug scene deteriorates so that it becomes fragmented into small groups, which is often caused by legal interventions or a massive influx of new addicts. The fragmentation of the drug scene is followed by an increase in multiple drug abuse, which often aggravates the medical and social problems of drug addicts. PMID:4075000

  14. NCI Cohort Consortium Membership

    The NCI Cohort Consortium membership is international and includes investigators responsible for more than 40 high-quality cohorts who are studying large and diverse populations in more than 15 different countries.

  15. From Traditional Recruiting To E-Recruiting in Public Organizations

    ARTENE Adela Suzana

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Recruiting is the activity that determines, in quantitative and qualitative terms, the structure of the sample of people from which the selection will be made for a specific position and / or public office, for a position that is already created in the organizational structure. The recruitment process is triggered when in the organizational structure of public institutions appear new functions or positions, or when the existing ones become vacant through retirement, death, transfer or dismissal. E-Recruiting represents the process through which the personnel is recruited using electronic resources.

  16. Molecular Mechanisms of Psychostimulant Addiction

    Jin-Chung Chen

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Drug addiction represents a pathological form of neuroplasticity along with the emergenceof aberrant behaviors involving a cascade of neurochemical changes mainly in thebrain’s rewarding circuitry. The aberrant behavioral phenotypes can be assessed by an animalmodel of drug-induced behavioral sensitization, which is characterized by an initiationstage that is formed in the ventral tegmental area and a behavioral expression stage determinedmainly in the nucleus accumbens. Numerous studies during past decades demonstratethat the mesocorticolimbic dopamine pathway plays an essential role in the development ofbehavioral sensitization. Moreover, a series of cellular signaling pathways and gene expressiondetermine the severity of addictive behaviors. In addition to the well-characterizeddopamine D1 receptor-mediated cAMP/protein kinase A up-regulation in the nucleus accumbens,recent reports indicate the cellular mediator dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoproteinof 32 kDa (DARPP-32 and transcription regulator ΔFosB are associated with theaccumbal PKA pathway to modulate the development of behavioral sensitization. The findingof cAMP-independent and dopamine D2 receptor-mediated Akt/GSK3 in activation inthe nucleus accumbens of behaviorally sensitized animals implies that a signal cascadedown-stream of both dopamine D1 and D2 receptors comprises the mainstay of the addictionnetwork. This review outlines the cellular pathways that have been demonstrated to participatein psychostimulant addiction, focused particularly in the nucleus accumbens.

  17. Responsibility and choice in addiction.

    2002-06-01

    The treatment of patients with substance use disorders requires that providers be aware of their own views on the relative roles of personal responsibility and of forces outside personal control in the onset and progression of and recovery from these disorders. The authors review the role of responsibility for addiction from several viewpoints: biological, psychological, sociocultural, self-help, religious, and forensic. Factors that affect personal responsibility in addictive diseases include awareness of the problem, knowledge of a genetic predisposition, understanding of addictive processes, comorbid psychiatric or medical conditions, adequacy of the support network, nature of the early environment, degree of tolerance of substance abuse in the sociocultural context, and the availability of competent psychiatric, medical, and chemical dependency treatment. Factors that affect societal responsibility include degree of access to illicit drugs, society's level of tolerance of drug use, the courts' approach to deterring substance abuse (punishment versus treatment), individuals' refusal to obtain substance abuse treatment, presence of clear behavioral norms, availability of early assessment and prevention, presence of community education, and degree of access to outpatient and community treatment. PMID:12045307

  18. Nicotinic receptors in addiction pathways.

    Leslie, Frances M; Mojica, Celina Y; Reynaga, Daisy D

    2013-04-01

    Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are ligand-gated ion channels that consist of pentameric combinations of α and β subunits. These receptors are widely distributed throughout the brain and are highly expressed in addiction circuitry. The role of nAChRs in regulating neuronal activity and motivated behavior is complex and varies both in and among brain regions. The rich diversity of central nAChRs has hampered the characterization of their structure and function with use of classic pharmacological techniques. However, recent molecular approaches using null mutant mice with specific regional lentiviral re-expression, in combination with neuroanatomical and electrophysiological techniques, have allowed the elucidation of the influence of different nAChR types on neuronal circuit activity and behavior. This review will address the influence of nAChRs on limbic dopamine circuitry and the medial habenula-interpeduncular nucleus complex, which are critical mediators of reinforced behavior. Characterization of the mechanisms underlying regulation of addiction pathways by endogenous cholinergic transmission and by nicotine may lead to the identification of new therapeutic targets for treating tobacco dependence and other addictions. PMID:23247824

  19. Acupuncture therapy for drug addiction.

    Motlagh, Farid Esmaeili; Ibrahim, Fatimah; Rashid, Rusdi Abd; Seghatoleslam, Tahereh; Habil, Hussain

    2016-01-01

    Acupuncture therapy has been used to treat substance abuse. This study aims to review experimental studies examining the effects of acupuncture on addiction. Research and review articles on acupuncture treatment of substance abuse published between January 2000 and September 2014 were searched using the databases ISI Web of Science Core Collection and EBSCO's MEDLINE Complete. Clinical trial studies on the efficacy of acupuncture therapy for substance abuse were classified according to substance (cocaine, opioid, nicotine, and alcohol), and their treatment protocols, assessments, and findings were examined. A total of 119 studies were identified, of which 85 research articles addressed the efficacy of acupuncture for treating addiction. There were substantial variations in study protocols, particularly regarding treatment duration, frequency of electroacupuncture, duration of stimulation, and choice of acupoints. Contradictory results, intergroup differences, variation in sample sizes, and acupuncture placebo effects made it difficult to evaluate acupuncture effectiveness in drug addiction treatment. This review also identified a lack of rigorous study design, such as control of confounding variables by incorporating sham controls, sufficient sample sizes, reliable assessments, and adequately replicated experiments. PMID:27053944

  20. What does addiction mean to me

    Morten Hesse

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Addiction is compulsive need for and use of a habit-forming substance. It is accepted as a mental illness in the diagnostic nomenclature and results in substantial health, social and economic problems. In the diagnostic nomenclature, addiction was originally included in the personality disorders along with other behaviours considered deviant. But it is now considered a clinical syndrome. Addiction is multifactorially determined, with substantial genetic influence. The development of addictions is also influenced by environmental factors, and an interplay between the two. In the clinical context, addiction puts problem substance use on the agenda, and helps focus on the difficulties associated with drug use. But the concept of addiction is also used to distance the user from addicts, and in this way, may be counter-therapeutic. The addiction concept has also had a substantial influence on policy. The almost universal prohibition against drugs such as opiates, cocaine, cannabis and amphetamine has much support. But unfortunately, it has not been able to hinder the development of substance use problems. Optimism is fostered by the development of respectful ways of thinking about people with addictions, in particular, from advocates of motivational interviewing.

  1. Genes and (common pathways underlying drug addiction.

    Chuan-Yun Li

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug addiction is a serious worldwide problem with strong genetic and environmental influences. Different technologies have revealed a variety of genes and pathways underlying addiction; however, each individual technology can be biased and incomplete. We integrated 2,343 items of evidence from peer-reviewed publications between 1976 and 2006 linking genes and chromosome regions to addiction by single-gene strategies, microrray, proteomics, or genetic studies. We identified 1,500 human addiction-related genes and developed KARG (http://karg.cbi.pku.edu.cn, the first molecular database for addiction-related genes with extensive annotations and a friendly Web interface. We then performed a meta-analysis of 396 genes that were supported by two or more independent items of evidence to identify 18 molecular pathways that were statistically significantly enriched, covering both upstream signaling events and downstream effects. Five molecular pathways significantly enriched for all four different types of addictive drugs were identified as common pathways which may underlie shared rewarding and addictive actions, including two new ones, GnRH signaling pathway and gap junction. We connected the common pathways into a hypothetical common molecular network for addiction. We observed that fast and slow positive feedback loops were interlinked through CAMKII, which may provide clues to explain some of the irreversible features of addiction.

  2. Neuroimaging in nuclear medicine: drug addicted brain

    Addiction to illicit drugs in one of today's most important social issues. Most addictive drugs lead to irreversible parenchymal changes in the human brain. Neuroimaging data bring to light the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of the abused drugs, and demonstrate that addiction is a disease of the brain. Continuous researches better illustrate the neurochemical alterations in brain function, and attempt to discover the links to consequent behavioral changes. Newer hypotheses and theories follow the numerous results, and more rational methods of approaching therapy are being developed. Substance abuse is on the rise in Korea, and social interest in the matter as well. On the other hand, diagnosis and treatment of drug addiction is still very difficult, because how the abused substance acts in the brain, or how it leads to behavioral problems in not widely known. Therefore, understanding the mechanism of drug addiction can improve the process of diagnosing addict patients, planning therapy, and predicting the prognosis . Neuroimaging approaches by nuclear medicine methods are expected to objectively judge behavioral and neurochemical changes, and response to treatment. In addition, as genes associated with addictive behavior are discovered, functional nuclear medicine images will aid in the assessment of individuals. Reviewing published literature on neuroimaging regarding nuclear medicine is expected to be of assistance to the management of drug addict patients. What's more, means of applying nuclear medicine to the care of drug addict patients should be investigated further

  3. Neuroimaging in nuclear medicine: drug addicted brain

    Chung, Yong-An; Kim, Dae-Jin [The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-02-15

    Addiction to illicit drugs in one of today's most important social issues. Most addictive drugs lead to irreversible parenchymal changes in the human brain. Neuroimaging data bring to light the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of the abused drugs, and demonstrate that addiction is a disease of the brain. Continuous researches better illustrate the neurochemical alterations in brain function, and attempt to discover the links to consequent behavioral changes. Newer hypotheses and theories follow the numerous results, and more rational methods of approaching therapy are being developed. Substance abuse is on the rise in Korea, and social interest in the matter as well. On the other hand, diagnosis and treatment of drug addiction is still very difficult, because how the abused substance acts in the brain, or how it leads to behavioral problems in not widely known. Therefore, understanding the mechanism of drug addiction can improve the process of diagnosing addict patients, planning therapy, and predicting the prognosis . Neuroimaging approaches by nuclear medicine methods are expected to objectively judge behavioral and neurochemical changes, and response to treatment. In addition, as genes associated with addictive behavior are discovered, functional nuclear medicine images will aid in the assessment of individuals. Reviewing published literature on neuroimaging regarding nuclear medicine is expected to be of assistance to the management of drug addict patients. What's more, means of applying nuclear medicine to the care of drug addict patients should be investigated further.

  4. The Need for National Credentialing Standards for Addiction Counselors

    Miller, Geri; Scarborough, Jim; Clark, Catherine; Leonard, Justin C.; Keziah, Tyler B.

    2010-01-01

    The authors review the current state of credentialing for addiction counselors in the United States and provide recommendations to the addiction counseling field regarding national standards for credentialing.

  5. Recruitment ve firmě

    Kubricht, Vojtěch

    2015-01-01

    This bachelor's thesis deals with human resources in company and focuses on personal strategy and recruitment. Its aim is to characterize and compare processes of recruitment and selection of new employees in two companies and propose solutions to increase the efficiency of these processes. The theoretical part is mainly focused on the overall characteristics of the recruitment and selection of new employees. In the practical is the theoretical knowledge confronted with real information from ...

  6. Recruitment and selection of employees

    Machů, Lucie

    2011-01-01

    Recruitment and selection of employees is one of the most important activities in the personal department of company. The aim of my thesis is to analyze the process of recruitment and selection of employees, firstly from the theoretical point of view and further from the practical experience in the company ČSOB, a.s. I have summarized theoretical findings and recommendations regarding the process of recruitment and selection of employees according to the available literature in the practical ...

  7. Recruitment and selection of employees

    Gliniarczyková, Šárka

    2013-01-01

    The Bachelor's thesis focuses on the process of recruitment and selection of employees. The thesis is divided into theoretical and practical part. The theoretical part includes concepts that are important for understanding of issues of the process of recruitment and selection of employees. The practical part is divided into three chapters. The first chapter briefly describes the company xxx. Next two chapters deal with the process of recruitment and selection of employees in the company. The ...

  8. Recruitment in small japanese company

    Jarošová, Ilona

    2007-01-01

    The thesis focuses on employee recruitment in japanese environment. Among others, the discussed topics include interview process, experiences of recruitment agences with japanese companies on the Czech market and recommendations of specific steps for the analysed company. The hypothesis of the thesis is that japanese compnanies are unsuccessful regarding employee recruitment in the Czech Republic, suffer from insufficient interest of potencial candidates . All these factors combined with gene...

  9. Evolutionary and neuropsychological perspectives on addictive behaviors and addictive substances: relevance to the "food addiction" construct

    Davis C

    2014-01-01

    Caroline Davis School of Kinesiology and Health Science, York University, Toronto, ON, Canada Abstract: It has been argued that food cannot be "addictive", unlike conventional drugs of abuse, because it is an essential part of life. In this paper, evidence is reviewed, largely from an evolutionary psychobiological perspective, that plant-based psychoactive drugs (such as those derived from the opium poppy and the coca leaf) and gambling-related behaviors were once adaptive for huma...

  10. Evolutionary and neuropsychological perspectives on addictive behaviors and addictive substances: relevance to the "food addiction" construct

    Davis C

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Caroline Davis School of Kinesiology and Health Science, York University, Toronto, ON, Canada Abstract: It has been argued that food cannot be "addictive", unlike conventional drugs of abuse, because it is an essential part of life. In this paper, evidence is reviewed, largely from an evolutionary psychobiological perspective, that plant-based psychoactive drugs (such as those derived from the opium poppy and the coca leaf and gambling-related behaviors were once adaptive for human health and survival in a similar manner as energy-based foods were for nourishment. "Evolutionary mismatch" viewpoints contend that certain behaviors were enhanced during the hunter-gatherer lifestyle – from which our genetic endowment had its origins – because they bestowed both survival and reproductive advantages to the species. However, in the context of advanced technology and other rapid environmental changes, these same behaviors have tended to become maladaptive and greatly overexpressed. Similar to the manufactured purification of psychotropic plant-based substances, the reward impact of processed and hyperpalatable foods, with their high levels of sugar, fat, and salt, is much increased from foods produced in nature. It is concluded therefore that what was once beneficial and necessary for our survival has been altered and ultraprocessed into edible products that may be disadvantageous and potentially addictive. Keywords: food addiction, evolution, drugs, gambling

  11. 6 CFR 17.310 - Recruitment.

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Recruitment. 17.310 Section 17.310 Domestic... in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 17.310 Recruitment. (a) Nondiscriminatory recruitment. A... recruitment and admission of students. A recipient may be required to undertake additional recruitment...

  12. 14 CFR 1253.310 - Recruitment.

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Recruitment. 1253.310 Section 1253.310... in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 1253.310 Recruitment. (a) Nondiscriminatory recruitment. A... recruitment and admission of students. A recipient may be required to undertake additional recruitment...

  13. 28 CFR 54.310 - Recruitment.

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recruitment. 54.310 Section 54.310... in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 54.310 Recruitment. (a) Nondiscriminatory recruitment. A... recruitment and admission of students. A recipient may be required to undertake additional recruitment...

  14. 40 CFR 5.310 - Recruitment.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recruitment. 5.310 Section 5.310... in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 5.310 Recruitment. (a) Nondiscriminatory recruitment. A... recruitment and admission of students. A recipient may be required to undertake additional recruitment...

  15. 43 CFR 41.310 - Recruitment.

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Recruitment. 41.310 Section 41.310 Public... in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 41.310 Recruitment. (a) Nondiscriminatory recruitment. A... recruitment and admission of students. A recipient may be required to undertake additional recruitment...

  16. 15 CFR 8a.310 - Recruitment.

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Recruitment. 8a.310 Section 8a.310... in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 8a.310 Recruitment. (a) Nondiscriminatory recruitment. A... recruitment and admission of students. A recipient may be required to undertake additional recruitment...

  17. 41 CFR 101-4.310 - Recruitment.

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Recruitment. 101-4.310... Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 101-4.310 Recruitment. (a) Nondiscriminatory recruitment. A recipient... recruitment and admission of students. A recipient may be required to undertake additional recruitment...

  18. Genetic variants associated with addictive behavior in Colombian addicted and non-addicted to heroin or cocaine

    Isaza, Carlos

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Determine the prevalence and compare some genetic markers involved in addictive behavior in a group of addicts to derivative of coca (cocaine/crack or heroin and a control group of non-addicted people matched for gender, age and ethnicity.Methods: A 120 addicts and 120 non-addicts Colombian male were surveyed and genotyped for 18 polymorphism of the OPRM1, DRD2, DRD4, SLC6A3, SLC6A4, ABCB1, DβH and CYP2B6 genes. For the identification of alleles markers were used mini-sequencing and fragment multiplex PCR techniques; ethnicity of cases and controls was analyzed with 61 AIMs. Results: The age of onset use of heroin or coca derivatives (cocaine/crack was 16,5±6 years and 99,2% of them consume several illicit drugs. It showed that controls and addicts belong to the same ethnic group. Significant differences between addicts and controls in relation to schooling, marital status, social security family history of substance abuse (pT ABCB1 gene (p=0,001 were found. Conclusion: The present results indicate that the VNTR-6R polymorphism of the gene SLC6A3 and the genotype 3435CC in the ABCB1 gene, are both associated with addictive behavior to heroin or cocaine.

  19. Social network site addiction - an overview.

    Andreassen, Cecilie Schou; Pallesen, Ståle

    2014-01-01

    Research into frequent, excessive, and compulsive social network activity has increased the last years, in which terms such as "social network site addiction" and "Facebook addiction" have been used interchangeably. The aim of this review is to offer more knowledge and better understanding of social network site addiction (SNS-addiction) among researchers as well as clinicians by presenting a narrative overview of the research field in terms of definition, measurement, antecedents, consequences, and treatment as well as recommendations for future research efforts. Seven different measures of SNS-addiction have been developed, although they have to a very little extent been validated against each other. The small number of studies conducted so far on this topic suggests that SNS-addiction is associated with health-related, academic, and interpersonal problems/issues. However such studies have relied on a simple cross-sectional study design. It is therefore hard to draw any conclusions about potential causality and long-term effects at this point, beyond hypothetical speculations. Empirical studies suggest that SNS-addiction is caused by dispositional factors (e.g., personality, needs, self-esteem), although relevant explanatory socio-cultural and behavioral reinforcement factors remain to be empirically explored. No well-documented treatment for SNS-addiction exists, but knowledge gained from Internet addiction treatment approaches might be transferable to SNS-addiction. Overall, the research on this topic is in its infancy, and as such the SNS-addiction construct needs further conceptual and empirical exploration. There is a great demand for studies using careful longitudinal designs and studies which include objective measures of both behavior and health based on broad representative samples. PMID:24001298

  20. Patients in long-term maintenance therapy for drug use in Italy: analysis of some parameters of social integration and serological status for infectious diseases in a cohort of 1091 patients

    Montanari Linda

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heroin addiction often severely disrupts normal social functioning. The aims of this multi-centre study of heroin users in long-term replacement treatment were: i to provide information on aspects of social condition such as employment, educational background, living status, partner status and any history of drug addiction for partners, comparing these data with that of the general population; ii to assess the prevalence of hepatitis, syphilis and HIV, because serological status could be a reflection of the social conditions of patients undergoing replacement treatment for drug addiction; iii to analyse possible relationships between social conditions and serological status. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out in sixteen National Health Service Drug Addiction Units in northern Italy. The data were collected from February 1, 2002 to August 31, 2002. Recruitment eligibility was: maintenance treatment with methadone or buprenorphine, treatment for the previous six months, and at least 18 years of age. In the centres involved in the study no specific criteria or regulations were established concerning the duration of replacement therapy. Participants underwent a face-to-face interview. Results The conditions of 1091 drug treatment patients were evaluated. The mean duration of drug use was 14.5 years. Duration was shorter in females, in subjects with a higher educational background, and in stable relationships. Most (68% had completed middle school (11–14 years of age. Seventy-nine percent were employed and 16% were unemployed. Fifty percent lived with their parents, 34% with a partner and 14% alone. Males lived more frequently with their parents (55%, and females more frequently with a partner (60%. Sixty-seven percent of male patients with a stable relationship had a partner who had never used heroin. HCV prevalence was 72%, HBV antibodies were detected in 42% of patients, while 30% had been vaccinated; 12.5% of

  1. Individualized lung recruitment during high-frequency ventilation in preterm infants is not associated with lung hyperinflation and air leaks

    De Jaegere, Anne P; Deurloo, Eline E.; van Rijn, Rick R.; Offringa, Martin; van Kaam, Anton H.

    2016-01-01

    Lung recruitment during high-frequency ventilation (HFV) in preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) has been associated with an increased risk of lung hyperinflation and air leaks. Individualizing the lung recruitment procedure to the severity of lung disease of each patient might reduce these risks. In this prospective cohort study, we evaluated chest X-ray (CXR) characteristics during individualized oxygenation-guided lung recruitment with HFV in preterm infants with RDS, b...

  2. We Can Recruit Minorities Into The Geosciences

    O'Connell, S.

    2011-12-01

    Despite the dismal numbers, efforts to recruit minorities into the geosciences are improving, thanks in part to NSF's "Opportunities for Enhancing Diversity in the Geosciences" (OEDG) initiative. At Wesleyan University, a small liberal arts college in Connecticut, we have significantly increased our recruitment of minority students. Twenty percent (four students) of the class of 2013 are African American. Most of the recruitment is done on an individual basis and working in conjunction with the "Dean for Diversity and Student Engagement" and courting minority students in introductory classes. The Dean for Diversity and Student Engagement is aware of our interest in increasing diversity and that we are able to hire minority students during the academic year and through the summer with OEDG funds. When she identifies minority students who might be interested in the geosciences, she refers them to faculty in the Earth and Environmental Sciences Department. Our faculty can provide employment, mentoring and a variety of geo-related experiences. Courting students in introductory courses can include inviting them to lunch or other activity, and attending sports, theater or dance events in which they are participating. Not all efforts result in new majors. Courses in ancillary sciences may be stumbling blocks and higher grades in less demanding courses have lured some students into other majors. Nevertheless, we now have a large enough cohort of minority students so that minority students from other majors visit their friends in our labs. A critical mass? Even a student, who chooses another major, may continue an interest in geoscience and through outreach efforts and discussions with younger family members, may provide a bridge that becomes a conduit for future students.

  3. The Internet Process Addiction Test: Screening for Addictions to Processes Facilitated by the Internet.

    Northrup, Jason C; Lapierre, Coady; Kirk, Jeffrey; Rae, Cosette

    2015-01-01

    The Internet Process Addiction Test (IPAT) was created to screen for potential addictive behaviors that could be facilitated by the internet. The IPAT was created with the mindset that the term "Internet addiction" is structurally problematic, as the Internet is simply the medium that one uses to access various addictive processes. The role of the internet in facilitating addictions, however, cannot be minimized. A new screening tool that effectively directed researchers and clinicians to the specific processes facilitated by the internet would therefore be useful. This study shows that the Internet Process Addiction Test (IPAT) demonstrates good validity and reliability. Four addictive processes were effectively screened for with the IPAT: Online video game playing, online social networking, online sexual activity, and web surfing. Implications for further research and limitations of the study are discussed. PMID:26226007

  4. On the Comparison of Public Health and Social Support in Addicts and Non-Addicts

    touraj hashemi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed at comparing the degree of public health and social support in addicted and non-addicted people. Method: This study was causative-comparative and all addicts who had referred to addiction treatment centers in city of Khoy in 2012 constituted its population. From among this population, 60 addicts through convenience sampling method were selected and then peered with 60 normal subjects by age, gender, and education. The measurement tools were Goldberg Public Health (Ghq-28 and Social Support (Fleming questionnaires. Results: The results showed That Addicts enjoy a lower degree of Mental Health and Social Support. Conclusion: Providing social support for the addicts under treatment programs is one of the important factors in withdrawal from drug use.

  5. Riyadh Mother and Baby Multicenter Cohort Study: The Cohort Profile

    Esmaeil, Samia; Alzeidan, Rasmieh; Elawad, Mamoun; Tabassum, Rabeena; Hansoti, Shehnaz; Magzoup, Mohie Edein; Al-Kadri, Hanan; Elsherif, Elham; Al-Mandil, Hazim; Al-Shaikh, Ghadeer; Zakaria, Nasria

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To assess the effects of non-communicable diseases, such as diabetes, hypertension and obesity, on the mother and the infant. Methods A multicentre cohort study was conducted in three hospitals in the city of Riyadh in Saudi Arabia. All Saudi women and their babies who delivered in participating hospitals were eligible for recruitment. Data on socio-demographic characteristics in addition to the maternal and neonatal outcomes of pregnancy were collected. The cohort demographic profile was recorded and the prevalence of maternal conditions including gestational diabetes, pre-gestational diabetes, hypertensive disorders in pregnancy and obesity were estimated. Findings The total number of women who delivered in participating hospitals during the study period was 16,012 of which 14,568 women participated in the study. The mean age of the participants was 29 ± 5.9 years and over 40% were university graduates. Most of the participants were housewives, 70% were high or middle income and 22% were exposed to secondhand smoke. Of the total cohort, 24% were married to a first cousin. More than 68% of the participants were either overweight or obese. The preterm delivery rate was 9%, while 1.5% of the deliveries were postdate. The stillbirth rate was 13/1000 live birth. The prevalence of gestational diabetes was 24% and that of pre-gestational diabetes was 4.3%. The preeclampsia prevalence was 1.1%. The labour induction rate was 15.5% and the cesarean section rate was 25%. Conclusion Pregnant women in Saudi Arabia have a unique demographic profile. The prevalence of obesity and diabetes in pregnancy are among the highest in the world. PMID:26937965

  6. Riyadh Mother and Baby Multicenter Cohort Study: The Cohort Profile.

    Hayfaa Wahabi

    Full Text Available To assess the effects of non-communicable diseases, such as diabetes, hypertension and obesity, on the mother and the infant.A multicentre cohort study was conducted in three hospitals in the city of Riyadh in Saudi Arabia. All Saudi women and their babies who delivered in participating hospitals were eligible for recruitment. Data on socio-demographic characteristics in addition to the maternal and neonatal outcomes of pregnancy were collected. The cohort demographic profile was recorded and the prevalence of maternal conditions including gestational diabetes, pre-gestational diabetes, hypertensive disorders in pregnancy and obesity were estimated.The total number of women who delivered in participating hospitals during the study period was 16,012 of which 14,568 women participated in the study. The mean age of the participants was 29 ± 5.9 years and over 40% were university graduates. Most of the participants were housewives, 70% were high or middle income and 22% were exposed to secondhand smoke. Of the total cohort, 24% were married to a first cousin. More than 68% of the participants were either overweight or obese. The preterm delivery rate was 9%, while 1.5% of the deliveries were postdate. The stillbirth rate was 13/1000 live birth. The prevalence of gestational diabetes was 24% and that of pre-gestational diabetes was 4.3%. The preeclampsia prevalence was 1.1%. The labour induction rate was 15.5% and the cesarean section rate was 25%.Pregnant women in Saudi Arabia have a unique demographic profile. The prevalence of obesity and diabetes in pregnancy are among the highest in the world.

  7. Maternal Cocaine Addiction: Correlates and Consequences.

    Hawley, Theresa Lawton

    This study investigated the effects of cocaine addiction on mothers' ability to care for their children. The population interviewed included 25 cocaine-addicted mothers in a drug treatment center and a comparison group of 25 mothers of children in a Head Start program. Each mother was questioned about: (1) her pregnancy with a specific child…

  8. Behavioral Therapy, Incentives Enhance Addiction Treatment

    ... Issue Past Issues Research News From NIH Behavioral Therapy, Incentives Enhance Addiction Treatment Past Issues / Summer 2006 Table of Contents For ... be continued efforts to develop and evaluate effective treatments for marijuana addiction," Dr. Volkow adds. Summer 2006 Issue: Page 26

  9. Medication-assisted therapy for opioid addiction

    Tai, Betty; Saxon, Andrew J.; Ling, Walter

    2013-01-01

    The “Medication-Assisted Therapy for Opioid Addiction” session was chaired by Dr. Betty Tai and had three presenters. The presenters (and their topics) were: Dr. Andrew J. Saxon (Methadone and Buprenorphine for Treatment of Opioid Addiction and HIV Risk Reduction), Dr. Walter Ling (Opioid Antagonist Treatment for Opioid Addiction), and Dr. Betty Tai (Chronic Care Model for Substance Use Disorder).

  10. Factors of Addiction: New Jersey Correctional Population

    Wojtowicz, James P.; Liu, Tongyin; Hedgpeth, G. Wayne

    2007-01-01

    Most state inmates incarcerated under the jurisdiction of the New Jersey Department of Corrections are driven to crimes by drug abuse. Understanding the factors contributing to addiction is the first step in developing strategies for successful inmate reintegration. This study presents an analysis of inmate addiction and factor association using…

  11. Internet Addiction among High Schoolers in Taiwan.

    Lin, Sunny S. J.; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    The purpose of this study was to develop a reliable and valid measurement for the identification of Internet addictive high school students. There were 615 subjects selected by a stratified sampling from the population of Taiwanese 10th to 12th graders. The final version of the Internet Addiction Scale for Taiwan High Schoolers (IAST) contained 20…

  12. Behavioural addiction-A rising tide?

    Chamberlain, Samuel R; Lochner, Christine; Stein, Dan J; Goudriaan, Anna E; van Holst, Ruth Janke; Zohar, Joseph; Grant, Jon E

    2016-05-01

    The term 'addiction' was traditionally used in relation to centrally active substances, such as cocaine, alcohol, or nicotine. Addiction is not a unitary construct but rather incorporates a number of features, such as repetitive engagement in behaviours that are rewarding (at least initially), loss of control (spiralling engagement over time), persistence despite untoward functional consequences, and physical dependence (evidenced by withdrawal symptoms when intake of the substance diminishes). It has been suggested that certain psychiatric disorders characterized by maladaptive, repetitive behaviours share parallels with substance addiction and therefore represent 'behavioural addictions'. This perspective has influenced the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), which now has a category 'Substance Related and Addictive Disorders', including gambling disorder. Could other disorders characterised by repetitive behaviours, besides gambling disorder, also be considered 'addictions'? Potential examples include kleptomania, compulsive sexual behaviour, 'Internet addiction', trichotillomania (hair pulling disorder), and skin-picking disorder. This paper seeks to define what is meant by 'behavioural addiction', and critically considers the evidence for and against this conceptualisation in respect of the above conditions, from perspectives of aetiology, phenomenology, co-morbidity, neurobiology, and treatment. Research in this area has important implications for future diagnostic classification systems, neurobiological models, and novel treatment directions. PMID:26585600

  13. Cellular basis of memory for addiction.

    Nestler, Eric J

    2013-12-01

    DESPITE THE IMPORTANCE OF NUMEROUS PSYCHOSOCIAL FACTORS, AT ITS CORE, DRUG ADDICTION INVOLVES A BIOLOGICAL PROCESS: the ability of repeated exposure to a drug of abuse to induce changes in a vulnerable brain that drive the compulsive seeking and taking of drugs, and loss of control over drug use, that define a state of addiction. Here, we review the types of molecular and cellular adaptations that occur in specific brain regions to mediate addiction-associated behavioral abnormalities. These include alterations in gene expression achieved in part via epigenetic mechanisms, plasticity in the neurophysiological functioning of neurons and synapses, and associated plasticity in neuronal and synaptic morphology mediated in part by altered neurotrophic factor signaling. Each of these types of drug-induced modifications can be viewed as a form of "cellular or molecular memory." Moreover, it is striking that most addiction-related forms of plasticity are very similar to the types of plasticity that have been associated with more classic forms of "behavioral memory," perhaps reflecting the finite repertoire of adaptive mechanisms available to neurons when faced with environmental challenges. Finally, addiction-related molecular and cellular adaptations involve most of the same brain regions that mediate more classic forms of memory, consistent with the view that abnormal memories are important drivers of addiction syndromes. The goal of these studies which aim to explicate the molecular and cellular basis of drug addiction is to eventually develop biologically based diagnostic tests, as well as more effective treatments for addiction disorders. PMID:24459410

  14. The Role of Meditation in Addiction Recovery

    Pruett, James M.; Nishimura, Nancy J.; Priest, Ronnie

    2007-01-01

    The authors examined the role of meditation as an important component in addiction recovery. Successful addiction recovery is often related to an individual's ability to develop and use a repertoire of coping behaviors, including the ability to maintain an ongoing awareness of one's vulnerability. These learned behaviors serve as reliable…

  15. Three Keys to Better Recruiting

    Brazington, Alicia

    2012-01-01

    Recruitment is an expensive business: In 2010-2011, the median cost to recruit an undergraduate was $2,185 among private colleges and universities, according to Noel-Levitz, an enrollment management consultancy. In these tough fiscal times, admissions departments are under pressure to keep those costs down even as they pursue higher enrollment and…

  16. [The "woman" in military recruitment].

    Dedić, G

    2000-01-01

    Transsexuality is a phenomenon, which presents a rarity on recruitment. A case of male-to-female genuine transsexualism was presented in term of psychological-psychiatric evaluation of a recruit for military service. A phenomenon of transsexualism is discussed through etiology, clinical picture, diagnosis, differential diagnosis and modern treatment. PMID:11039317

  17. Fast-Track Teacher Recruitment.

    Grant, Franklin Dean

    2001-01-01

    Schools need a Renaissance human-resources director to implement strategic staffing and fast-track teacher-recruitment plans. The HR director must attend to customer satisfaction, candidate supply, web-based recruitment possibilities, stabilization of newly hired staff, retention of veteran staff, utilization of retired employees, and latest…

  18. Diversity employment and recruitment sources

    1994-08-01

    Effective human resources management has been identified as one of four critical success factors in the Department of Energy Strategic Plan. The Plan states relative to this factor: ``The Department seeks greater alignment of resources with agency priorities and increased diversification of the workforce, including gender, ethnicity, age, and skills. This diversification will bring new thinking and perspectives that heretofore have not had a voice in departmental decision-making.`` This Guide has been developed as a key tool to assist Department of Energy management and administrative staff in achieving Goal 2 of this critical success factor, which is to ``Ensure a diverse and talented workforce.`` There are numerous sources from which to recruit minorities, women and persons with disabilities. Applying creativity and proactive effort, using traditional and non-traditional approaches, and reaching out to various professional, academic and social communities will increase the reservoir of qualified candidates from which to make selections. In addition, outreach initiatives will undoubtedly yield further benefits such as a richer cultural understanding and diversity awareness. The resource listings presented in this Guide are offered to encourage active participation in the diversity recruitment process. This Guide contains resource listings by state for organizations in the following categories: (1) African American Recruitment Sources; (2) Asian American/Pacific Islander Recruitment Sources; (3) Hispanic Recruitment Sources; (4) Native American/Alaskan Native Recruitment Sources; (5) Persons with Disabilities Recruitment Sources; and (6) Women Recruitment Sources.

  19. The relationships between behavioral addictions and the five-factor model of personality.

    Andreassen, Cecilie Schou; Griffiths, Mark D; Gjertsen, Siri Renate; Krossbakken, Elfrid; Kvam, Siri; Pallesen, Ståle

    2013-06-01

    Aims Although relationships between addiction and personality have previously been explored, no study has ever simultaneously investigated the interrelationships between several behavioral addictions, and related these to the main dimensions of the five-factor model of personality. Methods In this study, 218 university students completed questionnaires assessing seven different behavioral addictions (i.e., Facebook addiction, video game addiction, Internet addiction, exercise addiction, mobile phone addiction, compulsive buying, and study addiction) as well as an instrument assessing the main dimensions of the five-factor model of personality. Results Of the 21 bivariate intercorrelations between the seven behavioral addictions, all were positive (and nine significantly). The results also showed that (i) Neuroticism was positively associated with Internet addiction, exercise addiction, compulsive buying, and study addiction, (ii) Extroversion was positively associated with Facebook addiction, exercise addiction, mobile phone addiction, and compulsive buying, (iii) Openness to experience was negatively associated with Facebook addiction and mobile phone addiction, (iv) Agreeableness was negatively associated with Internet addiction, exercise addiction, mobile phone addiction, and compulsive buying, and (v) Conscientiousness was negatively associated with Facebook addiction, video game addiction, Internet addiction, and compulsive buying and positively associated with exercise addiction and study addiction. Conclusions The positive associations between the seven behavioral addictions suggest one or several underlying pathological factors. Hierarchical multiple regressions showed that personality traits explained between 6% and 17% of the variance in the seven behavioral addictions, suggesting that personality to a varying degree explains scores on measures of addictive behaviors. PMID:26165928

  20. Response of Natural Recruitment to Gap Size in Chinese Pine Plantation

    Boqian Dong

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Building the stratified uneven-aged mixed forest and promoting the natural recruitment is an important way to realize the sustainable management of forest. This study is to characterize the variation discipline of growth of natural recruitment in different size gaps in 50 years old Chinese pine Plantation as well as its community structure and spatial pattern. All recruitment individuals were measured and stem-mapped in plots and the growth indexes were quantified in different size gaps and under the canopy as well as spatial pattern of recruitment. Ripley’s K-function was selected to analyze spatial pattern of recruitment and spatial association between recruit cohorts in different development stages. Results were showed as following: (1 the proportion of Chinese pine in the natural recruitment community was all higher than 95% in gaps and under the canopy. (2 With the increase of gap size, the recruit density dropped off, whereas the average height, basal stem and age of recruit increased. Gaps enhanced the recruit density and improved the growth of recruit. However, gaps improvement will not fundamentally solve the problem of slow growth speed, low lifetime and maladjusted age structure. (3 The recruitment of Chinese pine was exhibited aggregation at research scales. Intraspecific competition and adult trees were showed with little effort on recruitment. The role of improving the recruitment by gaps was limited under the existing management technology system. Therefore, it is necessary to apply human disturbance to promote the recruitment. To introduce other tree species by human should be attempted. The effort of gaps created by more intensify disturbance and various disturbance frequency ought to be explored so as to find out the most effective interference measurements.

  1. Recruit and ADVANCE

    Rosser, Sue V.

    2007-04-01

    Beginning in 2001, the National Science Foundation launched the ADVANCE Initiative, which has now awarded more than 70 million to some thirty institutions for transformations to advance women. Results of studies on how to attract and retain women students and faculty underpinned our ADVANCE Institutional Transformation grant funded by the NSF for 3.7 million for five years, beginning in 2001. As co-principal investigator on this grant, I insured that this research informed the five major threads of the grant: 1) Four termed ADVANCE professors to mentor junior women faculty in each college; 2) Collection of MIT-Report-like data indicators to assess whether advancement of women really occurs during and after the institutional transformation undertaken through ADVANCE; 3) Family-friendly policies and practices to stop the tenure clock and provide active service, modified duties, lactation stations and day care; 4) Mini-retreats to facilitate access for tenure-track women faculty to male decision-makers and administrators for informal conversations and discussion on topics important to women faculty; 5) Removal of subtle gender, racial, and other biases in promotion and tenure. The dynamic changes resulting from the grant in quality of mentoring, new understanding of promotion and tenure, numbers of women retained and given endowed chairs, and emergence of new family friendly policies gave me hope for genuine diversification of leadership in science and technology. As the grant funding ends, the absence of NSF prestige and monitoring, coupled with a change in academic leadership at the top, provide new challenges for institutionalization, recruitment, and advancement of women into leadership positions in science and engineering.

  2. A case-control study on the causes of new HIV infection among heroin addicts attendees at the methadone maintenance treatment clinics

    王常合

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the routes and factors associated with HIV new infection of heroin addicts who had been attending the methadone maintenance treatment(MMT)program.Methods A 1∶1 nested case-control study was implemented with the cases(new HIV infections)and controls(HIV negative)selected from the treatment cohort of China MMT clients.Questionnaire

  3. Cocaine abuse among heroin addicts in Spain.

    Torrens, M; San, L; Peri, J M; Olle, J M

    1991-01-01

    Abuse of cocaine is becoming a major problem among heroin addicts in Spain. Between 1987 and 1988, 75% of patients admitted as inpatients for detoxification from opiate dependence had consumed cocaine during the 6 months prior to admission and 25% had abused cocaine daily or several times/week. These cocaine abusers showed more toxicologic and psychopathologic problems than opiate addicts who did not abuse cocaine. The opiate addicts who also abused cocaine had begun using illicit drugs earlier and showed a higher frequency of anti-HIV antibodies. They also had more antisocial personality disorders and persistence of depressive symptoms during opiate detoxification than heroin addicts who did not abuse cocaine. Based on these findings, we insist on the need to develop different treatments for detoxifying patients with this dual addiction. PMID:2029857

  4. Facebook addiction: a reply to Griffiths (2012).

    Andreassen, Cecilie Schou; Pallesen, Ståle

    2013-12-01

    Our recent paper about a new Facebook addiction scale has stimulated an interesting and very welcome debate among researchers concerning the assessment of excessive use of social networking sites. The critique put forward by Griffiths (2012) is mainly built on the conception of "Facebook" as too narrow of a concept, and that assessment of addiction to social network sites in general would be more appropriate. We argue that the concept of "social network site" is not more specific than "Facebook," so "Facebook addiction" rather than "social network addiction" is defensible. We acknowledge that more research in this area is needed and point specifically to new and important directions for future research that can shed light on the mechanism of addiction to social network sites. PMID:24693818

  5. Systems Level Neuroplasticity in Drug Addiction

    Feltenstein, Matthew W.

    2013-01-01

    Drug addiction is a chronic relapsing disorder for which research has been dedicated to understand the various factors that contribute to development, loss of control, and persistence of compulsive addictive behaviors. In this review, we provide a broad overview of various theories of addiction, drugs of abuse, and the neurobiology involved across the addiction cycle. Specific focus is devoted to the role of the mesolimbic pathway in acute drug reinforcement and occasional drug use, the mesocortical pathway and associated areas (e.g., the dorsal striatum) in escalation/dependence, and the involvement of these pathways and associated circuits in mediating conditioned responses, drug craving, and loss of behavioral control thought to underlie withdrawal and relapse. With a better understanding of the neurobiological factors that underlie drug addiction, continued preclinical and clinical research will aid in the development of novel therapeutic interventions that can serve as effective long-term treatment strategies for drug-dependent individuals. PMID:23580792

  6. Connecting the Dots between Games and Addiction

    Nielsen, Rune Kristian; Karlsen, Faltin; Goggin, Joyce;

    That computer games are addictive and socially isolating were taken as a given more than thirty years ago, when one of the world's most (in)famous psychologists, Phillip Zimbardo, declared that: “[t]he video games that are proving so addictive to young people may not only be socially isolating...... but may actually encourage violence between people” (Zimbardo 1982, p. 59 in Loftus and Loftus 1983). Three decades later we are still debating what game addiction is and if it even exists. In this time span, however, many different branches of research have provided alternative perspectives...... on the subject. Though game addiction remains the most widely used term variants such as excessive-, obsessive-, compulsive-, problematic-, dependent-, and pathological gaming has emerged. Aside from the psychological perspective, however, a host of other perspectives have emerged. In this sense 'game addiction...

  7. [Benzodiazepin addiction: a silent addiction among older people].

    Oude Voshaar, R C

    2012-06-01

    Benzodiazepines are frequently prescribed for a longer period of time for anxiety disorders and insomnia in spite of the many guidelines to prescribe these drugs only short-term. These guidelines are based on the risk-benefit balance between long-term effectiveness and side effects like addiction, anterograde amnesia, and increased risk on falling (resulting in hip fractures), traffic accidents and even mortality. Also low-dose benzodiazepine use can lead to benzodiazepine dependence. Although initially most attention has been paid to the physical withdrawal syndrome, psychological aspects of benzodiazepine dependence have received more and more attention in the past decades. Recently, a relationship between the brain-reward system, involved in addiction, and benzodiazepine use, was demonstrated. When long-term benzodiazepine use is recognised as problematic by both physician and patient, different treatment modalities are available to support patients in achieving abstinence. One of every four patients is able to stop by themselves with the aid of a minimal intervention providing psychoeducation and encouragement. Two out of three long-term uses are able to stop their usage with the aid of systematic tapering protocols guided by a physician or psychologist. In case of an underlying insomnia or anxiety disorder, cognitive-behavioural therapy should be added to the tapering protocol. In contrast to the general opinion, advanced old age has no negative impact on the treatment response. PMID:22826915

  8. Methamphetamine Cured my Cocaine Addiction

    Haile, Colin N.; De La Garza, Richard; Newton, Thomas F.

    2011-01-01

    Cocaine dependence is an enduring problem and years of research and drug development has yet to produce an efficacious pharmacotherapy. Recent clinical research suggests that chronic treatment with amphetamine-like medications produces tolerance to cocaine’s reinforcing effects and may offer a viable pharmacotherapy. Three methamphetamine-dependent participants that had been in our clinical laboratory experiments and previously addicted to cocaine are reviewed. Data obtained from initial screen and informal conversation suggested that all participants considered methamphetamine to have helped them stop using cocaine and eliminate cocaine craving. Methamphetamine also significantly decreased their alcohol consumption but did not alter cannabis or nicotine use. PMID:23066512

  9. The Neurobiology of Cocaine Addiction

    Nestler, Eric J.

    2005-01-01

    Cocaine produces its psychoactive and addictive effects primarily by acting on the brain’s limbic system, a set of interconnected regions that regulate pleasure and motivation. An initial, short-term effect—a buildup of the neurochemical dopamine—gives rise to euphoria and a desire to take the drug again. Researchers are seeking to understand how cocaine’s many longer term effects produce addiction’s persistent cravings and risk of relapse. In the author’s laboratory, work has focused on buil...

  10. Substance abuse precedes internet addiction

    Lee, Young Sik; Han, Doug Hyun; Kim, Sun Mi; Renshaw, Perry F.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to evaluate possible overlapping substance abuse and internet addiction in a large, uniformly sampled population, ranging in age from 13 to 18 years. Participants (N=73,238) in the current study were drawn from the 6th Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBWS-V) for students from 400 middle schools and 400 high schools in 16 cities within South Korea. Of adolescent internet users, 85.2% were general users (GU), 11.9% were users with potential ris...

  11. The effect of moral waivers on the success of Navy recruits

    Huth, Richard A.

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the Navy's enlisted screening process and identifies success predictors through the analysis of moral waiver and attrition data for a two-year cohort (Calendar Years 2003 and 2004) compiled from three sources: (1) Personnel Recruiting for Immediate and Delayed Enlistments (PRIDE), (2) Military Entrance Processing Command (MEPCOM) Integrated Reporting System (MIRS), and (3) Navy Recruiting District (NRD) Nashville, Tennessee. Data comparisons were performed to measure the q...

  12. The "Seeded" Focus Group: A strategy to recruit HIV+ community members into treatment research.

    Busza, J; Zaba, B; Urassa, M

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE(S): We piloted an innovative community-based recruitment approach to contact known HIV+ individuals for referral to treatment without endangering their confidentiality. METHODS: Nested within an HIV cohort study, operations research to monitor and improve rural uptake of antiretroviral therapy (ART) was conducted alongside the introduction of Tanzania's national treatment programme. We confronted the challenge of recruiting participants without inadvertently disclosing their HIV sta...

  13. Internet-Based Birth-Cohort Studies: Is This the Future for Epidemiology?

    Firestone, Ridvan; Cheng, Soo; Pearce, Neil; Douwes, Jeroen; Merletti, Franco; Pizzi, Costanza; Pivetta, Emanuele; Rusconi, Franca; Richiardi, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    Background International collaborative cohorts the NINFEA and the ELF studies are mother-child cohorts that use the internet for recruitment and follow-up of their members. The cohorts investigated the association of early life exposures and a wide range of non-communicable diseases. Objective The objective is to report the research methodology, with emphasis on the advantages and limitations offered by an Internet-based design. These studies were conducted in Turin, Italy and Wellington, New...

  14. Recruitment dynamics in adaptive social networks

    Shkarayev, Maxim S.; Schwartz, Ira B.; Shaw, Leah B.

    2011-01-01

    We model recruitment in adaptive social networks in the presence of birth and death processes. Recruitment is characterized by nodes changing their status to that of the recruiting class as a result of contact with recruiting nodes. Only a susceptible subset of nodes can be recruited. The recruiting individuals may adapt their connections in order to improve recruitment capabilities, thus changing the network structure adaptively. We derive a mean field theory to predict the dependence of the...

  15. Stress related neuropeptides and addictive behaviors: Beyond the usual suspects

    Schank, Jesse R.; Ryabinin, Andrey E.; Giardino, William J.; Ciccocioppo, Roberto; Heilig, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Addictive disorders are chronic, relapsing conditions that cause extensive disease burden. Genetic factors partly account for susceptibility to addiction, but environmental factors such as stressful experiences and prolonged exposure of the brain to addictive drugs promote its development. Progression to addiction involves neuroadaptations within neurocircuitry that mediates stress responses, and is influenced by several peptidergic neuromodulators. While corticotropin releasing factor is the...

  16. The Addiction-Stroop Test: Theoretical Considerations and Procedural Recommendations

    Cox, W. Miles; Fadardi, Javad Salehi; Pothos, Emmanuel M.

    2006-01-01

    Decisions about using addictive substances are influenced by distractions by addiction-related stimuli, of which the user might be unaware. The addiction-Stroop task is a paradigm used to assess this distraction. The empirical evidence for the addiction-Stroop effect is critically reviewed, and meta-analyses of alcohol-related and smoking-related…

  17. The Role of Death in the Addict Family

    Coleman, Sandra B.; Stanton, M. Duncan

    1978-01-01

    Drug addiction is a potentially life-threatening problem with suicidal ramifications. Within the family of the addict, addiction takes on a special, participatory, meaning; the addicted member is treated as one undergoing a slow death. Treatment can make the mourning explicit. The death issue can be a vehicle for family change. (Author)

  18. An Exploratory Study of Internet Addiction, Usage and Communication Pleasure.

    Chou, Chien; Chou, Jung; Tyan, Nay-Ching Nancy

    This study examined the correlation between Internet addiction, usage, and communication pleasure. Research questions were: (1) What is computer network addiction? (2) How can one measure the degree of computer network addiction? (3) What is the correlation between the degree of users' network addiction and their network usage? (4) What is the…

  19. Recruitment Maneuvers and PEEP Titration.

    Hess, Dean R

    2015-11-01

    The injurious effects of alveolar overdistention are well accepted, and there is little debate regarding the importance of pressure and volume limitation during mechanical ventilation. The role of recruitment maneuvers is more controversial. Alveolar recruitment is desirable if it can be achieved, but the potential for recruitment is variable among patients with ARDS. A stepwise recruitment maneuver, similar to an incremental PEEP titration, is favored over sustained inflation recruitment maneuvers. Many approaches to PEEP titration have been proposed, and the best method to choose the most appropriate level for an individual patient is unclear. A PEEP level should be selected that balances alveolar recruitment against overdistention. The easiest approach to select PEEP might be according to the severity of the disease: 5-10 cm H2O PEEP in mild ARDS, 10-15 cm H2O PEEP in moderate ARDS, and 15-20 cm H2O PEEP in severe ARDS. Recruitment maneuvers and PEEP should be used within the context of lung protection and not just as a means of improving oxygenation. PMID:26493593

  20. Human Resources Marketing and Recruiting: Essentials of Digital Recruiting

    Purvis, James

    2016-01-01

    This chapter will cover digital recruitment from its definition thru to its history in recruitment and trends. The subject itself could cover an entire book or an entire module at university, so this chapter will broadly touch upon the key elements and considerations. Under cultural perspective, the recruitment life cycle will be broken down into its individual parts, and digital solutions will be examined for each individual part of the process together with the impact this has on the knowledge and challenges for the manager and team. The economic perspective will assist in prioritizing initiatives and building a business case for the introduction of digital recruiting solutions. The risk perspective will raise awareness of the potential pitfalls and the operational perspective on the key considerations for a successful implementation. Finally, the key messages of this chapter are summarized in the Do’s and Don’ts.

  1. Relapse prevention for addictive behaviors

    George William H

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Relapse Prevention (RP model has been a mainstay of addictions theory and treatment since its introduction three decades ago. This paper provides an overview and update of RP for addictive behaviors with a focus on developments over the last decade (2000-2010. Major treatment outcome studies and meta-analyses are summarized, as are selected empirical findings relevant to the tenets of the RP model. Notable advances in RP in the last decade include the introduction of a reformulated cognitive-behavioral model of relapse, the application of advanced statistical methods to model relapse in large randomized trials, and the development of mindfulness-based relapse prevention. We also review the emergent literature on genetic correlates of relapse following pharmacological and behavioral treatments. The continued influence of RP is evidenced by its integration in most cognitive-behavioral substance use interventions. However, the tendency to subsume RP within other treatment modalities has posed a barrier to systematic evaluation of the RP model. Overall, RP remains an influential cognitive-behavioral framework that can inform both theoretical and clinical approaches to understanding and facilitating behavior change.

  2. Economic aspects of addiction policy.

    Maynard, A

    1986-05-01

    One definition of policy or government action in the Oxford English Dictionary is "craftiness" i.e. cunning or deceit. Such qualities have to be employed by governments because of the potential vote-losing effects of radical addiction policies. Health promotion, in relation to addictive substances such as alcohol and tobacco in particular, involves a trade-off between the costs of such policies, especially to industry (which seeks regulation to protect itself from competitors), and the benefits--improvements in the quality and length of life. Measures of such benefits (quality-adjusted life-years or QALYs) are available now to use in the evaluation of competing health promotion policies to determine their efficiency at the margin. Analysis of the market for tobacco indicates that consumption has been falling generally in the UK except among teenagers who appear to be the target of the industry's advertising and sponsorship efforts. This fall in consumption appears to be explained by health promotion rather than the active use of fiscal instruments of control. The recognition of the health effects of passive smoking and the impact of advertising and sponsorship, especially on the young, are policy areas requiring careful review and the evaluation of the costs and benefits of competing policies.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:10318048

  3. NEUROBIOLOGICAL BASES OF ALCOHOL ADDICTION.

    Matošić, Ana; Marušić, Srđan; Vidrih, Branka; Kovak-Mufić, Ana; Cicin-Šain, Lipa

    2016-03-01

    Alcohol addiction is a heterogeneous psychiatric disorder according to both phenotype and etiology. Difference in phenotype characteristics manifests in the manner the addiction arises, history of the alcoholic and history of drinking, comorbid disorders, and the phenomenon of abstinence difficulties. Concerning the etiology of alcoholism, the disease itself is considered to be a consequence of an interactive influence of the environment and genetic factors. Numerous researches conducted in the last decades discovered many aspects of the biochemical, cell and molecular bases of alcohol addiction, leading to a conclusion that alcoholism is, like many other addictions, a brain disease. By recognizing alcoholism as a disease which basically implies changes of the neurobiological mechanisms, as well as a clear genetic basis, it was supposed that the disease, having its basis solely in the symptomatology, is essentially heterogeneous. By trying to solve the problem of a clinically heterogeneous nature of the disease during the last fifty years, various sub-classifications of such patients have been suggested. According to Cloninger, subtypes of alcoholism differ also according to changes in the brain neurotransmission systems, i.e. it is supposed that patients suffering from alcoholism type 1 have a more pronounced dopaminergic transmission deficit, while dopaminergic transmission is not disturbed significantly in patients diagnosed with alcoholism type 2, who, however, have a significant lack of serotonergic transmission. In such a way, Cloninger actually presented the basis of the so-called neurobiological alcoholism model. Since he has connected differences in neurotransmission with differences in personality characteristics, this model is also known as the psychobiological model of alcoholism. The characteristic of alcoholism type 1 is avoiding damage (Harm Avoidance, HA) decreased dopamine transmission and increased serotonin transmission, while the significant

  4. Cohort Profile Update

    Omland, Lars Haukali; Ahlström, Magnus Glindvad; Obel, Niels

    2014-01-01

    of Causes of Death, the Danish National Prescription Registry, the Attainment Register and the Integrated Database for Labour Market Research to get information on vital status, migration, cancer, hospital contacts, causes of death, dispensed prescriptions, education and employment. Using this design, rates...... to extract an age- and sex-matched comparison cohort from the general population, as well as cohorts of family members of the HIV-infected patients and of the comparison cohort. The combined cohort is linked with CRS, the Danish Cancer Registry, the Danish National Hospital Registry, the Danish Registry...

  5. Bench-to-bedside review: Recruitment and recruiting maneuvers.

    Lapinsky, Stephen E; Mehta, Sangeeta

    2005-02-01

    In patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), the lung comprises areas of aeration and areas of alveolar collapse, the latter producing intrapulmonary shunt and hypoxemia. The currently suggested strategy of ventilation with low lung volumes can aggravate lung collapse and potentially produce lung injury through shear stress at the interface between aerated and collapsed lung, and as a result of repetitive opening and closing of alveoli. An 'open lung strategy' focused on alveolar patency has therefore been recommended. While positive end-expiratory pressure prevents alveolar collapse, recruitment maneuvers can be used to achieve alveolar recruitment. Various recruitment maneuvers exist, including sustained inflation to high pressures, intermittent sighs, and stepwise increases in positive end-expiratory pressure or peak inspiratory pressure. In animal studies, recruitment maneuvers clearly reverse the derecruitment associated with low tidal volume ventilation, improve gas exchange, and reduce lung injury. Data regarding the use of recruitment maneuvers in patients with ARDS show mixed results, with increased efficacy in those with short duration of ARDS, good compliance of the chest wall, and in extrapulmonary ARDS. In this review we discuss the pathophysiologic basis for the use of recruitment maneuvers and recent evidence, as well as the practical application of the technique. PMID:15693985

  6. INFLUENCE OF DOPAMINERGIC SYSTEM ON INTERNET ADDICTION

    Jelena Jović

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Internet addiction is a clinical anomaly with strong negative consequences on social, work-related, family, financial, and economic function of a person. It is regarded as a serious public health issue. The basic idea of this paper is to, based on the currently available body of research work on this topic, point out to neurobiological pathos of Internet addiction, and its connection to the dopaminergic system. Dopamine contains all physiological functions of neurotransmitters and it is a part of chatecholamine family. Five dopaminergic receptors (D1 - D5 belong to the super family of receptors related to G-protein. Through these receptors, dopamine achieves its roles: regulation of voluntary movement, regulation of center of pleasure, hormonal regulation, and regulation of hypertension. In order to recognize an Internet user as an addict, he or she needs to comply with the criteria suggested by the American Psychiatric Association (APA. Phenomenological, neurobiological, and pharmacological data indicates similarities in pathopsychology of substance addiction and pathological gambling, which are indirectly related to the similarity with the Internet addiction. Responding to stimuli from the game, addicts have shown more brain activity in the nape region, left dorsolateral, prefrontal cortex, and left parachipocampal gyrus than in the control group. After the six-week bupropion therapy, desire to play Internet and video games, the total duration of playing, and induced brain activity in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex are lowered with the addicts.

  7. Multiple faces of BDNF in cocaine addiction.

    Li, Xuan; Wolf, Marina E

    2015-02-15

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been found to play roles in many types of plasticity including drug addiction. Here, we focus on rodent studies over the past two decades that have demonstrated diverse roles of BDNF in models of cocaine addiction. First, we will provide an overview of studies showing that cocaine exposure alters (and generally increases) BDNF levels in reward-related regions including the ventral tegmental area, nucleus accumbens, prefrontal cortex, and amygdala. Then we will review evidence that BDNF contributes to behavioral changes in animal models of cocaine addiction, focusing on conditioned place preference, behavioral sensitization, maintenance and reinstatement of self-administration, and incubation of cocaine craving. Last, we will review the role of BDNF in synaptic plasticity, particularly as it relates to plasticity of AMPA receptor transmission after cocaine exposure. We conclude that BDNF regulates cocaine-induced behaviors in a highly complex manner that varies depending on the brain region (and even among different cell types within the same brain region), the nature of cocaine exposure, and the "addiction phase" examined (e.g., acquisition vs maintenance; early vs late withdrawal). These complexities make BDNF a daunting therapeutic target for treating cocaine addiction. However, recent clinical evidence suggests that the serum BDNF level may serve as a biomarker in cocaine addicts to predict future relapse, providing an alternative direction for exploring BDNF's potential relevance to treating cocaine addiction. PMID:25449839

  8. Behavioral addictions: a novel challenge for psychopharmacology.

    Marazziti, Donatella; Presta, Silvio; Baroni, Stefano; Silvestri, Stefano; Dell'Osso, Liliana

    2014-12-01

    Although addictive syndromes have been traditionally related to substance-use disorders, during the last few decades a novel addictive group, including the so-called "behavioral or no-drug addictions," has been recognized and has attracted increasing attention for its relevant social impact. This group includes pathological gambling, compulsive shopping, TV/Internet/social network/videogame addictions, workaholism, sex and relationship addictions, orthorexia, and overtraining syndrome. Substance and behavioral addictions show similar phenomenological features, such as craving, dependence, tolerance, and abstinence, and perhaps they share a common possible pathophysiology. It is, however, controversial whether all or at least some of them should be considered real disorders or just normal, albeit extreme, behaviors. The aim of this article is to review current data on pharmacological treatment of behavioral addictions. As no specific and validated treatment algorithms are currently available, only an improved knowledge on their psychopathological, clinical, and neurobiological features may have relevant implications for more focused preventive and therapeutic strategies. PMID:24589040

  9. Chronic pain, substance abuse and addiction.

    Compton, Peggy; Athanasos, Peter

    2003-09-01

    Health care professionals face numerous challenges in assessing and treating chronic pain patients with a substance abuse history. Societal perspectives on morality and criminality, imprecise addiction terminology, litigation fears, and genuine concern for a patient's relapse into or escalation of substance abuse result in unrelieved and under-relieved pain in precisely the population that--as increasing evidence indicates--is generally intolerant of pain. Before adequate pain relief can occur in chronic pain patients with current or past substance abuse issues, it is imperative that the clinician recognize addiction as a disease with known symptoms and treatments. Further, the clinician must realize the difference between true addiction and similar conditions, so the patient's condition can be monitored and regulated properly. Although clinicians are often reluctant to medicate with opioids, it is always best to err on the side of adequate pain relief. Withholding opioids from chronic pain patients in order to avoid the onset or relapse of addiction is contrary to the growing body of evidence and results only in unnecessary pain for the patient. Chronic pain in patients with a history of addictive disease can be treated successfully with opiate analgesia; it just requires caution and careful monitoring of medication use. If addiction is treated as a known risk when providing opioid analgesia to a recovering addict, its development can be minimized while pain relief is provided. PMID:14567207

  10. Food addiction-diagnosis and treatment.

    Dimitrijević, Ivan; Popović, Nada; Sabljak, Vera; Škodrić-Trifunović, Vesna; Dimitrijević, Nina

    2015-03-01

    In this article we summarized the recent research of the food addiction, diagnosis, treatment and prevention, which is carried out in this area. The concept of food addiction is new and complex, but proven to be very important for understanding and solving the problem of obesity. First part of this paper emphasizes the neurological studies, whose results indicate the similarity of brain processes that are being activated during drug abuse and during eating certain types of food. In this context, different authors speak of "hyper-palatable", industrial food, saturated with salt, fat and sugar, which favor an addiction. In the section on diagnostic and instruments constructed for assessing the degree of dependence, main diagnostic tool is standardized Yale Food Addiction Scale constructed by Ashley Gearhardt, and her associates. Since 2009, when it was first published, this scale is used in almost all researches in this area and has been translated into several languages. Finally, distinguish between prevention and treatment of food addiction was made. Given that there were similarities with other forms of addictive behavior, the researchers recommend the application of traditional addiction treatment. PMID:25751444

  11. Addiction and choice: Theory and new data

    Gene M Heyman

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Addiction’s biological basis has been the focus of much research. The findings have persuaded experts and the public that drug use in addicts is compulsive. But the word compulsive identifies patterns of behavior. Thus, the question is not whether addiction has a biology, but whether it is sensible to say that addicts use drugs compulsively. Research shows most of those who meet the American Psychiatric Association’s criteria for addiction quit using illegal drugs by age thirty, that they usually quit without professional help, and that the correlates of quitting include legal concerns, economic pressures, and the desire for respect, particularly from family members. That is, the correlates of quitting are the correlates of choice. However, addiction is, by definition, a disorder, and thereby not beneficial in the long run. This is precisely the pattern of choices predicted by quantitative choice principles, such as the matching law, melioration, and hyperbolic discounting. Although the brain disease model of addiction is perceived by many as received knowledge it is not supported by research or logic. In contrast, well established, quantitative choice principles predict both the possibility and the details of addiction.

  12. Multiple faces of BDNF in cocaine addiction

    Li, Xuan; Wolf, Marina E.

    2014-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been found to play roles in many types of plasticity including drug addiction. Here we focus on rodent studies over the past two decades that have demonstrated diverse roles of BDNF in models of cocaine addiction. First, we will provide an overview of studies showing that cocaine exposure alters (and generally increases) BDNF levels in reward-related regions including the ventral tegmental area, nucleus accumbens, prefrontal cortex, and amygdala. Then we will review evidence that BDNF contributes to behavioral changes in animal models of cocaine addiction, focusing on conditioned place preference, behavioral sensitization, maintenance and reinstatement of self-administration, and incubation of cocaine craving. Last, we will review the role of BDNF in synaptic plasticity, particularly as it relates to plasticity of AMPA receptor transmission after cocaine exposure. We conclude that BDNF regulates cocaine-induced behaviors in a highly complex manner that varies depending on the brain region (and even among different cell types within the same brain region), the nature of cocaine exposure, and the “addiction phase” examined (e.g., acquisition vs maintenance; early vs late withdrawal). These complexities make BDNF a daunting therapeutic target for treating cocaine addiction. However, recent clinical evidence suggests that the serum BDNF level may serve as a biomarker in cocaine addicts to predict future relapse, providing an alternative direction for exploring BDNF’s potential relevance to treating cocaine addiction. PMID:25449839

  13. 10 CFR 1042.310 - Recruitment.

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Recruitment. 1042.310 Section 1042.310 Energy DEPARTMENT... Recruitment Prohibited § 1042.310 Recruitment. (a) Nondiscriminatory recruitment. A recipient to which §§ 1042.300 through 1042.310 apply shall not discriminate on the basis of sex in the recruitment and...

  14. 45 CFR 86.23 - Recruitment.

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Recruitment. 86.23 Section 86.23 Public Welfare... in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 86.23 Recruitment. (a) Nondiscriminatory recruitment. A recipient to which this subpart applies shall not discriminate on the basis of sex in the recruitment...

  15. 22 CFR 146.310 - Recruitment.

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Recruitment. 146.310 Section 146.310 Foreign... Recruitment Prohibited § 146.310 Recruitment. (a) Nondiscriminatory recruitment. A recipient to which §§ 146.300 through 146.310 apply shall not discriminate on the basis of sex in the recruitment and...

  16. 22 CFR 229.310 - Recruitment.

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Recruitment. 229.310 Section 229.310 Foreign... and Recruitment Prohibited § 229.310 Recruitment. (a) Nondiscriminatory recruitment. A recipient to which §§ 229.300 through 229.310 apply shall not discriminate on the basis of sex in the recruitment...

  17. 49 CFR 25.310 - Recruitment.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Recruitment. 25.310 Section 25.310 Transportation... Recruitment Prohibited § 25.310 Recruitment. (a) Nondiscriminatory recruitment. A recipient to which §§ 25.300 through 25.310 apply shall not discriminate on the basis of sex in the recruitment and admission...

  18. Comparing of Early Maladaptive Schemas between Healthy and Addicted Men

    Vida Razavi; Ali Soltaninezhad; Afsoon Rafiee

    2012-01-01

    Background: Early maladaptive schemas are self-defeating emotional and cognitive patterns that develop early in life and repeat during the life cycle. They may cause a lot of psychological disorders including anxiety, depression, and drug abuse. Regarding to the importance of the prevention and treatment of addiction and regarding to obscurity of schemas about addiction, we compared the schemas of addicted and non-addicted men. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 205 addicte...

  19. The Optimal Consumption and the Quitting of Harmful Addictive Goods

    Ruqu Wang

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we study a model of rational consumption and quitting in the context of harmful addictive goods. We assume that a person has imperfect information about his ability to resist and terminate the addiction. We first characterize the optimal consumption path of a non-addicted person, along which his stock of the addictive substance is either always increasing (and thus addiction occurs stochastically), always decreasing, or always unchanged. We then characterize the optimal consumpt...

  20. The Optimal Consumption and the Quitting of Harmful Addictive Goods

    Wang Ruqu

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we study a model of rational consumption and quitting in the context of harmful addictive goods. We assume that a person has imperfect information about his ability to resist and terminate the addiction. We first characterize the optimal consumption path of a non-addicted person, along which his stock of the addictive substance is either always increasing (and thus addiction occurs stochastically), always decreasing, or always unchanged. We then characterize the optimal consumpt...

  1. Food addiction in the light of DSM-5

    Adrian Meule; Gearhardt, Ashley N.

    2014-01-01

    The idea that specific kind of foods may have an addiction potential and that some forms of overeating may represent an addicted behavior has been discussed for decades. In recent years, the interest in food addiction is growing and research on this topic lead to more precise definitions and assessment methods. For example, the Yale Food Addiction Scale has been developed for the measurement of addiction-like eating behavior based on the diagnostic criteria for substance dependence of the fou...

  2. Reduced orbitofrontal cortical thickness in male adolescents with internet addiction

    Hong, Soon-Beom; Kim, Jae-Won; Choi, Eun-Jung; Kim, Ho-Hyun; Suh, Jeong-Eun; Kim, Chang-Dai; Klauser, Paul; Whittle, Sarah; Yűcel, Murat; Pantelis, Christos; Yi, Soon-Hyung

    2013-01-01

    Background The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) has consistently been implicated in the pathology of both drug and behavioral addictions. However, no study to date has examined OFC thickness in internet addiction. In the current study, we investigated the existence of differences in cortical thickness of the OFC in adolescents with internet addiction. On the basis of recently proposed theoretical models of addiction, we predicted a reduction of thickness in the OFC of internet addicted individuals....

  3. Ruminative Response Styles and Metacognitions in Internet Addicts

    Senormanci, Omer; Konkan, Ramazan; Guclu, Oya; Guliz SENORMANCI

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Although cognitive behavioral model of Internet addiction has been well described, studies on metacognitions and ruminative response styles related with Internet addiction are very limited. The aim of the present study was to compare metacognitions and ruminative response style in Internet addicts with a healthy control group. Method: The study included 30 males who presented to our Internet Addiction Outpatient clinic, and diagnosed with Internet addiction, and a c...

  4. Opiate versus psychostimulant addiction: the differences do matter

    Badiani, Aldo; Belin, David; Epstein, David; Calu, Donna; Shaham, Yavin

    2011-01-01

    The publication of the psychomotor stimulant theory of addiction in 1987 and the finding that addictive drugs increase dopamine concentrations in the rat mesolimbic system in 1988 have led to a predominance of psychobiological theories that consider addiction to opiates and addiction to psychostimulants as essentially identical phenomena. Indeed, current theories of addiction — hedonic allostasis, incentive sensitization, aberrant learning and frontostriatal dysfunction — all argue for a unit...

  5. Role of environmental factors in cocaine addiction.

    Badiani, Aldo; Spagnolo, Primavera A

    2013-01-01

    Decades of experimentation with a variety of pharmacological treatments have identified some effective therapies for heroin addiction but not for cocaine addiction. This may be due, at least in part, to our incomplete understanding of the factors involved in the differential vulnerability to these addictions, which are often considered mere variations of the same disorder. Indeed, the preference for one drug or another has been variously attributed to factors such as drug availability or price, to the addict's lifestyle, or even to chance. Yet, there is evidence of substance-specific influences on drug taking. Data from twin registries, for example, suggest that a sizeable portion of the variability in the susceptibility to drug abuse is due to environmental factors that are unique to opiates or to psychostimulants. Very little is known about the nature of these environmental influences. We report here original data, based on retrospective reports in human addicts, indicating that the setting of drug taking exerts a differential influence on heroin versus cocaine use. We also review additional clinical and pre-clinical data pointing to fundamental differences in the way in which the environment interacts with cocaine relative to heroin and other addictive drugs. These findings - as well as other evidence, including the lack of pharmacological treatments effective for both cocaine and heroin addiction - support the notion that much is to be gained by taking into account the substance-specific aspects of drug addiction. At a therapeutic level, for example, it appears reasonable to propose that cognitive-behavioral approaches should be tailored in a substance-specific manner in order to allow the addict to anticipate, and cope with, the risks associated to the various environmental settings of drug use. PMID:23574438

  6. Striatal signal transduction and drug addiction

    Scott D. Philibin

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Drug addiction is a severe neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by loss of control over motivated behavior. The need for effective treatments mandates a greater understanding of the causes and identification of new therapeutic targets for drug development. Drugs of abuse subjugate normal reward-related behavior to uncontrollable drug-seeking and -taking. Contributions of brain reward circuitry are being mapped with increasing precision. The role of synaptic plasticity in addiction and underlying molecular mechanisms contributing to the formation of the addicted state are being delineated. Thus we may now consider the role of striatal signal transduction in addiction from a more integrative neurobiological perspective. Drugs of abuse alter dopaminergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission in medium spiny neurons of the striatum. Dopamine receptors important for reward serve as principle targets of drugs abuse, which interact with glutamate receptor signaling critical for reward learning. Complex networks of intracellular signal transduction mechanisms underlying these receptors are strongly stimulated by addictive drugs. Through these mechanisms, repeated drug exposure alters functional and structural neuroplasticity, resulting in transition to the addicted biological state and behavioral outcomes that typify addiction. Ca2+ and cAMP represent key second messengers that initiate signaling cascades, which regulate synaptic strength and neuronal excitability. Protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation are fundamental mechanisms underlying synaptic plasticity that are dysregulated by drugs of abuse. Increased understanding of the regulatory mechanisms by which protein kinases and phosphatases exert their effects during normal reward learning and the addiction process may lead to novel targets and pharmacotherapeutics with increased efficacy in promoting abstinence and decreased side effects, such as interference with natural reward, for drug

  7. Striatal Signal Transduction and Drug Addiction

    Philibin, Scott D.; Hernandez, Adan; Self, David W.; Bibb, James A.

    2011-01-01

    Drug addiction is a severe neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by loss of control over motivated behavior. The need for effective treatments mandates a greater understanding of the causes and identification of new therapeutic targets for drug development. Drugs of abuse subjugate normal reward-related behavior to uncontrollable drug-seeking and -taking. Contributions of brain reward circuitry are being mapped with increasing precision. The role of synaptic plasticity in addiction and underlying molecular mechanisms contributing to the formation of the addicted state are being delineated. Thus we may now consider the role of striatal signal transduction in addiction from a more integrative neurobiological perspective. Drugs of abuse alter dopaminergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission in medium spiny neurons of the striatum. Dopamine receptors important for reward serve as principle targets of drugs abuse, which interact with glutamate receptor signaling critical for reward learning. Complex networks of intracellular signal transduction mechanisms underlying these receptors are strongly stimulated by addictive drugs. Through these mechanisms, repeated drug exposure alters functional and structural neuroplasticity, resulting in transition to the addicted biological state and behavioral outcomes that typify addiction. Ca2+ and cAMP represent key second messengers that initiate signaling cascades, which regulate synaptic strength and neuronal excitability. Protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation are fundamental mechanisms underlying synaptic plasticity that are dysregulated by drugs of abuse. Increased understanding of the regulatory mechanisms by which protein kinases and phosphatases exert their effects during normal reward learning and the addiction process may lead to novel targets and pharmacotherapeutics with increased efficacy in promoting abstinence and decreased side effects, such as interference with natural reward, for drug addiction. PMID

  8. Drug-use pattern, comorbid psychosis and mortality in people with a history of opioid addiction

    Sørensen, H J; Jepsen, P W; Haastrup, S;

    2005-01-01

    . METHOD: In 1984, 188 persons (122 men and 66 women) with a history of intravenous narcotics addiction were interviewed about their drug-use pattern. A registry-based follow-up continued through 1999 and mortality was assessed. Three 1984-drug-use categories were formed. In category 1, cohort members had...... lower risk of premature death than people with continued drug use. A residual observed excess mortality in people who had apparently achieved stable abstinence from drug use is consistent with the view of drug addiction as a chronic disease.......OBJECTIVE: To compare the 15-year mortality of people with a history of opioid dependence that had achieved stable abstinence, with the mortality associated with continued drug use. Another objective was to study the influence of hospitalization with comorbid psychosis on the 15-year mortality...

  9. The Comparative Study of the Rate of Social Capital among Addicted and non-Addicted Youth

    Alireza Heydarnejad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The present study aimed to compare the rate of social capital among addicted and non-addicted youth in Mashhad. Method: The samples included of 160 addicted and 160 non-addicted men selected by cluster random sampling. Both groups matched on age, and marital status. The social capital questionnaire designed by researcher administered among selected samples. Results: The results showed that social capital of young addicts was significantly lower than their counterparts. Also, results showed that the indicators of social capital, the idea of social participation, social trust, and social networks were significantly lower than their counterparts. Conclusion: With consideration of positive effects of social participation, social trust, social connection networks in addicted people, they should have appropriate conditions and headstock for tendency to involve to social events like developing of organizations, and voluntaries’ and non government societies should be more attended.

  10. The Internet Process Addiction Test: Screening for Addictions to Processes Facilitated by the Internet

    Jason C. Northrup

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Internet Process Addiction Test (IPAT was created to screen for potential addictive behaviors that could be facilitated by the internet. The IPAT was created with the mindset that the term “Internet addiction” is structurally problematic, as the Internet is simply the medium that one uses to access various addictive processes. The role of the internet in facilitating addictions, however, cannot be minimized. A new screening tool that effectively directed researchers and clinicians to the specific processes facilitated by the internet would therefore be useful. This study shows that the Internet Process Addiction Test (IPAT demonstrates good validity and reliability. Four addictive processes were effectively screened for with the IPAT: Online video game playing, online social networking, online sexual activity, and web surfing. Implications for further research and limitations of the study are discussed.

  11. Characteristics and treatment response of self-identified problematic Internet users in a behavioral addiction outpatient clinic

    Thorens, Gabriel; Achab, Sophia; Billieux, Joël; Khazaal, Yasser; Khan, Riaz; Pivin, Edward; Gupta, Vishal; Zullino, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Aims: Controversies remain about the validity of the diagnosis of problematic Internet use. This might be due in part to the lack of longitudinal naturalistic studies that have followed a cohort of patients who self-identify as having Internet-related problems. Methods: This retrospective study included 57 patients who consulted the Geneva Addiction Outpatient Clinic from January 1, 2007, to January 1, 2010. Patients underwent an initial clinical psychiatric evaluation that included collectio...

  12. Internet addiction neuroscientific approaches and therapeutical interventions

    Reuter, Martin

    2015-01-01

    This book combines a scholarly introduction with state-of-the-art research in the characterization of Internet addiction. It is intended for a broad audience including scientists, students and practitioners. The first part of the book contains an introduction to Internet addiction and their pathogenesis. The second part of the book is dedicated to an in-depth review of neuroscientific findings which cover studies using a variety of biological techniques including brain imaging and molecular genetics. The last part of the book will focus on therapeutic interventions for Internet addiction.

  13. Fatal poisoning among patients with drug addiction

    Simonsen, K. W.; Christoffersen, D. J.; Banner, J.;

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Fatal poisonings among drug addicts in Denmark in 2012 were examined. Cause of death, abuse pattern and geographic differences are discussed and data are compared with previous studies. Methods: All fatal poisonings examined at the three institutes of forensic medicine in Denmark in...... on Funen and in South Jutland. Cocaine was most frequently detected in East Denmark, while amphetamine was more frequent in West Denmark. ConclusionS: The number of fatal poisonings among drug addicts has stabilised around 200. The increase in methadone deaths continued and, as in 2007, methadone was...... compared with 2007, indicating that a considerable number of drug addicts also have psychiatric illness....

  14. Connecting the Dots between Games and Addiction

    Nielsen, Rune Kristian; Karlsen, Faltin; Goggin, Joyce; Aarseth, Espen

    2014-01-01

    That computer games are addictive and socially isolating were taken as a given more than thirty years ago, when one of the world's most (in)famous psychologists, Phillip Zimbardo, declared that: “[t]he video games that are proving so addictive to young people may not only be socially isolating but may actually encourage violence between people” (Zimbardo 1982, p. 59 in Loftus and Loftus 1983). Three decades later we are still debating what game addiction is and if it even exists. In this time...

  15. A neurocomputational model for cocaine addiction.

    Dezfouli, Amir; Piray, Payam; Keramati, Mohammad Mahdi; Ekhtiari, Hamed; Lucas, Caro; Mokri, Azarakhsh

    2009-10-01

    Based on the dopamine hypotheses of cocaine addiction and the assumption of decrement of brain reward system sensitivity after long-term drug exposure, we propose a computational model for cocaine addiction. Utilizing average reward temporal difference reinforcement learning, we incorporate the elevation of basal reward threshold after long-term drug exposure into the model of drug addiction proposed by Redish. Our model is consistent with the animal models of drug seeking under punishment. In the case of nondrug reward, the model explains increased impulsivity after long-term drug exposure. Furthermore, the existence of a blocking effect for cocaine is predicted by our model. PMID:19635010

  16. Internet addiction: a 21st century epidemic?

    Christakis Dimitri A

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Internet addiction, while not yet officially codified within a psychopathological framework, is growing both in prevalence and within the public consciousness as a potentially problematic condition with many parallels to existing recognized disorders. The rapid and unfettered increase in the number of people accessing a relatively unrestricted internet substantially increases the possibility that those suffering with an underlying psychological comorbidity may be at serious risk of developing an addiction to the internet, lending further credence to this hitherto understudied condition. In this commentary, I outline my recommendations for improved diagnosis, study and prevention of internet addiction.

  17. Video game addiction: Impact on teenagers' lifestyle.

    Sharma, Manoj Kumar; Mahindru, Poornima

    2015-01-01

    Use of video games as a leisure-time activity has increased among teenagers. Excessive use of video games is associated with psychosocial dysfunctions in the user's life. Two teenagers came for consultation to our Service for Healthy Use of Technology (SHUT) clinic for management of addiction due to video games. They were assessed using a clinical interview as well as the General Health Questionnaire and Griffith criteria for video games. The cases emphasize the addictive potential of video games and their association with lifestyle changes. Addiction to video games has implications for screening and intervention among teenagers. PMID:27294452

  18. Addictive personality and problematic mobile phone use.

    Takao, Motoharu; Takahashi, Susumu; Kitamura, Masayoshi

    2009-10-01

    Mobile phone use is banned or regulated in some circumstances. Despite recognized safety concerns and legal regulations, some people do not refrain from using mobile phones. Such problematic mobile phone use can be considered to be an addiction-like behavior. To find the potential predictors, we examined the correlation between problematic mobile phone use and personality traits reported in addiction literature, which indicated that problematic mobile phone use was a function of gender, self-monitoring, and approval motivation but not of loneliness. These findings suggest that the measurements of these addictive personality traits would be helpful in the screening and intervention of potential problematic users of mobile phones. PMID:19817562

  19. Association between recruitment methods and attrition in Internet-based studies.

    Paolo Bajardi

    Full Text Available Internet-based systems for epidemiological studies have advantages over traditional approaches as they can potentially recruit and monitor a wider range of individuals in a relatively inexpensive fashion. We studied the association between communication strategies used for recruitment (offline, online, face-to-face and follow-up participation in nine Internet-based cohorts: the Influenzanet network of platforms for influenza surveillance which includes seven cohorts in seven different European countries, the Italian birth cohort Ninfea and the New Zealand birth cohort ELF. Follow-up participation varied from 43% to 89% depending on the cohort. Although there were heterogeneities among studies, participants who became aware of the study through an online communication campaign compared with those through traditional offline media seemed to have a lower follow-up participation in 8 out of 9 cohorts. There were no clear differences in participation between participants enrolled face-to-face and those enrolled through other offline strategies. An Internet-based campaign for Internet-based epidemiological studies seems to be less effective than an offline one in enrolling volunteers who keep participating in follow-up questionnaires. This suggests that even for Internet-based epidemiological studies an offline enrollment campaign would be helpful in order to achieve a higher participation proportion and limit the cohort attrition.

  20. Reward processing in obesity, substance addiction and non-substance addiction

    García-García, Isabel; Horstmann, Annette; Jurado, María Angeles; Garolera, Maite; Chaudhry, Shereen J.; Margulies, Daniel S.; Villringer, Arno; Neumann, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Similarities and differences between obesity and addiction are a prominent topic of ongoing research. We conducted an activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis on 87 studies in order to map the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) response to reward in participants with obesity, substance addiction and non-substance (or behavioural) addiction, and to identify commonalities and differences between them. Our study confirms the existence of alterations during reward processing in ob...

  1. Neuroscience of Internet Pornography Addiction: A Review and Update.

    Love, Todd; Laier, Christian; Brand, Matthias; Hatch, Linda; Hajela, Raju

    2015-01-01

    Many recognize that several behaviors potentially affecting the reward circuitry in human brains lead to a loss of control and other symptoms of addiction in at least some individuals. Regarding Internet addiction, neuroscientific research supports the assumption that underlying neural processes are similar to substance addiction. The American Psychiatric Association (APA) has recognized one such Internet related behavior, Internet gaming, as a potential addictive disorder warranting further study, in the 2013 revision of their Diagnostic and Statistical Manual. Other Internet related behaviors, e.g., Internet pornography use, were not covered. Within this review, we give a summary of the concepts proposed underlying addiction and give an overview about neuroscientific studies on Internet addiction and Internet gaming disorder. Moreover, we reviewed available neuroscientific literature on Internet pornography addiction and connect the results to the addiction model. The review leads to the conclusion that Internet pornography addiction fits into the addiction framework and shares similar basic mechanisms with substance addiction. Together with studies on Internet addiction and Internet Gaming Disorder we see strong evidence for considering addictive Internet behaviors as behavioral addiction. Future research needs to address whether or not there are specific differences between substance and behavioral addiction. PMID:26393658

  2. Neuroscience of Internet Pornography Addiction: A Review and Update

    Love, Todd; Laier, Christian; Brand, Matthias; Hatch, Linda; Hajela, Raju

    2015-01-01

    Many recognize that several behaviors potentially affecting the reward circuitry in human brains lead to a loss of control and other symptoms of addiction in at least some individuals. Regarding Internet addiction, neuroscientific research supports the assumption that underlying neural processes are similar to substance addiction. The American Psychiatric Association (APA) has recognized one such Internet related behavior, Internet gaming, as a potential addictive disorder warranting further study, in the 2013 revision of their Diagnostic and Statistical Manual. Other Internet related behaviors, e.g., Internet pornography use, were not covered. Within this review, we give a summary of the concepts proposed underlying addiction and give an overview about neuroscientific studies on Internet addiction and Internet gaming disorder. Moreover, we reviewed available neuroscientific literature on Internet pornography addiction and connect the results to the addiction model. The review leads to the conclusion that Internet pornography addiction fits into the addiction framework and shares similar basic mechanisms with substance addiction. Together with studies on Internet addiction and Internet Gaming Disorder we see strong evidence for considering addictive Internet behaviors as behavioral addiction. Future research needs to address whether or not there are specific differences between substance and behavioral addiction. PMID:26393658

  3. Neuroscience of Internet Pornography Addiction: A Review and Update

    Todd Love

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Many recognize that several behaviors potentially affecting the reward circuitry in human brains lead to a loss of control and other symptoms of addiction in at least some individuals. Regarding Internet addiction, neuroscientific research supports the assumption that underlying neural processes are similar to substance addiction. The American Psychiatric Association (APA has recognized one such Internet related behavior, Internet gaming, as a potential addictive disorder warranting further study, in the 2013 revision of their Diagnostic and Statistical Manual. Other Internet related behaviors, e.g., Internet pornography use, were not covered. Within this review, we give a summary of the concepts proposed underlying addiction and give an overview about neuroscientific studies on Internet addiction and Internet gaming disorder. Moreover, we reviewed available neuroscientific literature on Internet pornography addiction and connect the results to the addiction model. The review leads to the conclusion that Internet pornography addiction fits into the addiction framework and shares similar basic mechanisms with substance addiction. Together with studies on Internet addiction and Internet Gaming Disorder we see strong evidence for considering addictive Internet behaviors as behavioral addiction. Future research needs to address whether or not there are specific differences between substance and behavioral addiction.

  4. ADDicted.

    Ruenzel, David

    1996-01-01

    Debates the use of Ritalin for children with Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD), highlighting the experience of one boy who takes the drug. The article examines diagnosis of ADD, school and home lives of families affected by ADD, and controversy over the widespread use of Ritalin. (SM)

  5. The Comparison of Personality Characteristics and Problem Solving Styles in Addicted And Non-Addicted Men

    Fatemeh Saber

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available introduction: The goal of this study was to compare the personality characteristics and problem solving styles of addicted and non-addicted men. Method: This study is a causal comparative design survey. In this study 180 addicted men was selected through convenience sampling method from addicted men that refered to addiction treatment centers of Rasht city and matched in gender, age, education and job with 180 non addicted men and then two groups compared with each other. All participants completed the NEO-FFI-R and problem solving styles questionnaires. The gathered data were analyzed through SPSS software. Findings: The results showed that an addicted man in comparison with non-addicted men was upper in neuroticism and lower in agreeableness, extraversion and consciousness dimensions. Also there was no difference in openness dimension between two groups. Conclusion: The finding of present study suggests that educating efficient problem solving styles to people to cope with life stressful events could restrain and prevent addiction and other psychosocial disorders.

  6. Common Bile Duct (CBD) diameter in opium-addicted men: Comparison with non-addict controls

    Background: Opium and its derivatives are widely abused throughout the world. Recent case reports and a few limited studies have suggested that opiates cause dilation of the common bile duct of the abusers. Material/Methods: Our case-control study, lasting 7.5 months, investigated 121 male adult addicts and 142 non addicted controls for biliary tract diameters, using ultrasonography. The study was conducted in Bahonar Hospital in Kerman. Neither the addiction cases nor the non-addict controls revealed any hepatobiliary tract symptoms. The subjects were asked to fill in a questionnaire. After the exclusion of the symptomatic cases, ultrasound examinations were carried out and the findings from questionnaires and US examinations were recorded. Results: The mean ± SD diameter of the common bile duct was 4.78 ± 2.58 for addicts and 3.37 ± 2.25 for non-addicts. CBD wall thickness was 1.969 ± 0.61 mm in addicts versus 1.73 ± 0.631 in non-addicts. The differences were statistically significant. According to the multivariate analysis, the duration of opium abuse was a significant factor. Conclusions: We concluded that CBD dilation and increased CBD wall thickness can be expected in people with a prolonged history of opiate addiction. (authors)

  7. Comparison of risk and protective factors associated with smartphone addiction and Internet addiction

    Choi, Sam-Wook; Kim, Dai-Jin; Choi, Jung-Seok; Ahn, Heejune; Choi, Eun-Jeung; Song, Won-Young; Kim, Seohee; Youn, Hyunchul

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Smartphone addiction is a recent concern that has resulted from the dramatic increase in worldwide smartphone use. This study assessed the risk and protective factors associated with smartphone addiction in college students and compared these factors to those linked to Internet addiction. Methods College students (N = 448) in South Korea completed the Smartphone Addiction Scale, the Young’s Internet Addiction Test, the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, the Beck Depression Inventory I, the State–Trait Anxiety Inventory (Trait Version), the Character Strengths Test, and the Connor–Davidson Resilience Scale. The data were analyzed using multiple linear regression analyses. Results The risk factors for smartphone addiction were female gender, Internet use, alcohol use, and anxiety, while the protective factors were depression and temperance. In contrast, the risk factors for Internet addiction were male gender, smartphone use, anxiety, and wisdom/knowledge, while the protective factor was courage. Discussion These differences may result from unique features of smartphones, such as high availability and primary use as a tool for interpersonal relationships. Conclusions Our findings will aid clinicians in distinguishing between predictive factors for smartphone and Internet addiction and can consequently be utilized in the prevention and treatment of smartphone addiction. PMID:26690626

  8. Association between Parental Addiction and Types of Child Abuse in High-School Students of Kerman, Iran

    Eslami-Shahrbabaki, Amir; Eslami-Shahrbabaki, Mahin; Kalantari, Maryam

    2013-01-01

    Background Child abuse is one of the vulnerabilities that threaten child's physical and mental health in childhood and is associated with serious short-term and long-term complications. The present study aimed to review the association of parental addiction with types of child abuse in high-school students of Kerman, Iran. Methods In this cross-sectional study, 360 students were recruited and studied through cluster sampling method. Abuse and the related factors were assessed using a standard...

  9. [Relapse prevention in drug addicts].

    Rácz, József

    2013-12-01

    The literature review deals with methods of relapse prevention. Relapse prevention is the key in the treatment of clients with drug addictions according to the transtheoretical model of change. If relapse prevention is more effective then not only the relapse would be prevented, but the client would leave the circulus vitiosus of relapses. Among psychotherapies cognitive behavioural methods are proven effective. Shorter forms of cognitive therapies are also available: for example, cognitive bias modification. Pharmacotherapy partly decreases craving of the clients or ceases the effects of psychoactive substances. Specific pharmacotherapeutic methods prevent relapses in a non-abstinent treatment design. Here the goal is not the abstinence in a short time, but the reduction of harms associated with drug use. In this way, a new target group of drug users can be involved in treatment. PMID:24380964

  10. Glutamatergic neuroplasticity in cocaine addiction.

    Uys, Joachim D; Reissner, Kathryn J

    2011-01-01

    Neuroadaptations among glutamatergic projections within the mesocorticolimbic circuits engaged by drugs of abuse have been described since the 1990s. There is now substantial evidence that drugs of abuse lead to long-term changes in glutamatergic signaling and encompass multiple levels of analysis. For example, cocaine induces changes in extracellular glutamate concentrations and in synaptic glutamatergic transmission. In addition, glutamate receptors are required for the expression of cocaine-related behaviors, and long-term changes have been reported in the expression of proteins at glutamatergic synapses, in glutamate-related redox regulation of neurons, and in glutamatergic synaptic and structural plasticity following chronic exposure to cocaine. In this chapter, we will describe the neurocircuitry involved, and will summarize evidence for adaptations in glutamatergic neuroplasticity as a mechanism for cocaine addiction. Finally, we will discuss progress in the development of glutamate-mediated pharmacotherapies for the treatment of cocaine dependence. PMID:21199777

  11. Bone scintigraphy in drug addiction

    Lopez-Majano, V.; Miskew, D.; Sansi, P.

    1981-01-01

    In 22 drug addicts, the clinical diagnosis of osteomyelitis and/or septic arthritis was suspected because of symptoms of sepsis and pain in various locations. All patients underwent bone scintigraphy with 17-20 mCi of /sup 99/sup(m)Tc labeling either pyrophosphate or methylene diphosphonate. Whole body and spot scans located the area of disease in most patients. This permitted biopsy of the affected area when the pathogen recurs. One of the two patients whose scintigrams were normal was on adequate treatment before the bone scintigram and the other was on oxacillin. Radiographs of the affected areas were normal, which indicates bone scintigraphy should be preferred to radiography in the early diagnosis of osseous infections.

  12. Bone scintigraphy in drug addiction

    In 22 drug addicts, the clinical diagnosis of osteomyelitis and/or septic arthritis was suspected because of symptoms of sepsis and pain in various locations. All patients underwent bone scintigraphy with 17-20 mCi of 99sup(m)Tc labeling either pyrophosphate or methylene diphosphonate. Whole body and spot scans located the area of disease in most patients. This permitted biopsy of the affected area when the pathogen recurs. One of the two patients whose scintigrams were normal was on adequate treatment before the bone scintigram and the other was on oxacillin. Radiographs of the affected areas were normal, which indicates bone scintigraphy should be preferred to radiography in the early diagnosis of osseous infections. (orig.)

  13. Internet Addiction and Its Treatment

    Ozden Arisoy

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available With the introduction of new technologies, computer and internet use have become an unavoidable necessity in our daily lives. Internet was originally designed to facilitate communication and research. However the dramatic increase in use of internet in recent years has led to its pathologic use. Turkey, as a developing country with an increasing rate of internet access and computer use is at high risk for this disorder. In our country, this disorder is especially seen in young people who are more skilled in internet and computer use. And because their excessive internet use has led to negative consequences in their academic, social and family lives, patients and their families began search of treatment for this disorder. So clinicians must be aware of this newly emerging disorder and they should be able to apply the appropriate therapeutic interventions. This paper aims to summarize the pharmacological and cognitive-behavioral treatment of internet addiction.

  14. Topical corticosteroid addiction and phobia

    Aparajita Ghosh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Corticosteroids, one of the most widely prescribed topical drugs, have been used for about six decades till date. However, rampant misuse and abuse down the years has given the drug a bad name. Topical steroid abuse may lead to two major problems which lie at the opposing ends of the psychosomatic spectrum. Topical steroid addiction, a phenomenon that came to be recognized about a decade after the introduction of the molecule is manifested as psychological distress and rebound phenomenon on stoppage of the drug. The rebound phenomenon, which can affect various parts of the body particularly the face and the genitalia has been reported by various names in the literature. TC phobia which lies at the opposite end of the psychiatric spectrum of steroid abuse has been reported particularly among parents of atopic children. Management of both conditions is difficult and frustrating. Psychological counseling and support can be of immense help in both the conditions.

  15. Topical corticosteroid addiction and phobia.

    Ghosh, Aparajita; Sengupta, Sujata; Coondoo, Arijit; Jana, Amlan Kusum

    2014-09-01

    Corticosteroids, one of the most widely prescribed topical drugs, have been used for about six decades till date. However, rampant misuse and abuse down the years has given the drug a bad name. Topical steroid abuse may lead to two major problems which lie at the opposing ends of the psychosomatic spectrum. Topical steroid addiction, a phenomenon that came to be recognized about a decade after the introduction of the molecule is manifested as psychological distress and rebound phenomenon on stoppage of the drug. The rebound phenomenon, which can affect various parts of the body particularly the face and the genitalia has been reported by various names in the literature. TC phobia which lies at the opposite end of the psychiatric spectrum of steroid abuse has been reported particularly among parents of atopic children. Management of both conditions is difficult and frustrating. Psychological counseling and support can be of immense help in both the conditions. PMID:25284851

  16. Neurobiological Basis of Alcohol Addiction

    Milagros Lisset León Regal

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Alcoholism is a serious social problem due to its impact on individual and collective health. In order to provide an update on the latest findings that explain the development and symptoms of alcohol addiction, the short and long term changes that this disorder causes in the central nervous system are shown in this paper. A total of 52 information sources were consulted, including 43 journal articles, 4 books and statistical reports. The main network managers were used. The interaction of ethanol with various structures of the neuronal membrane affects the cytoarchitecture and brain function associated with the reward system, motor processing, learning and memory, resulting in the development of alcohol dependence. In addition, ethanol-induced changes in excitation/inhibition explain the phenomena of alcohol tolerance and withdrawal.

  17. Issues in Personality Conceptualizations of Addictive Behaviors.

    Sutker, Patricia B.; Allain, Albert N., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Describes issues and implications associated with personality conceptualizations of addictive behaviors. Directs attention toward characterizing the sociopolitical climate's effect on identification, evaluation, and management of substance abuse disorders. Explores alcohol and drug use in conceptual schemata encompassing multifactorial,…

  18. Addiction circuitry in the human brain (*).

    Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.; Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.-J.; Fowler, J.S.; Tomasi, D.

    2011-09-27

    A major challenge in understanding substance-use disorders lies in uncovering why some individuals become addicted when exposed to drugs, whereas others do not. Although genetic, developmental, and environmental factors are recognized as major contributors to a person's risk of becoming addicted, the neurobiological processes that underlie this vulnerability are still poorly understood. Imaging studies suggest that individual variations in key dopamine-modulated brain circuits, including circuits involved in reward, memory, executive function, and motivation, contribute to some of the differences in addiction vulnerability. A better understanding of the main circuits affected by chronic drug use and the influence of social stressors, developmental trajectories, and genetic background on these circuits is bound to lead to a better understanding of addiction and to more effective strategies for the prevention and treatment of substance-use disorders.

  19. Women and drug addiction: a historical perspective.

    Kandall, Stephen R

    2010-04-01

    The history of women and addiction in America extends back more than 150 years. Although the true epidemiology of women and addiction has always been difficult to determine, the spectrum of female addicts extends well beyond those women who make sensationalistic headlines by "abandoning" or "battering" their children. Historically, female addiction has been largely the result of inappropriate overmedication practices by physicians and pharmacists, media manipulation, or individuals own attempts to cope with social or occupational barriers preventing equality and self-fulfillment. From the mid-nineteenth century, uneasy tolerance, social ostracism, vilification, persecution, and legal prosecution have grudgingly, but not completely, given way to more humane treatment opportunities in the setting of more enlightened comprehensive care. PMID:20407971

  20. Signs of Heroin Abuse and Addiction

    ... just to get by." Deon was addicted to heroin. Here, he describes the drug's effects on his ... is part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) , the principal biomedical and behavioral research agency ...

  1. Development of a Facebook Addiction Scale.

    Andreassen, Cecilie Schou; Torsheim, Torbjørn; Brunborg, Geir Scott; Pallesen, Ståle

    2012-04-01

    The Bergen Facebook Addiction Scale (BFAS), initially a pool of 18 items, three reflecting each of the six core elements of addiction (salience, mood modification, tolerance, withdrawal, conflict, and relapse), was constructed and administered to 423 students together with several other standardized self-report scales (Addictive Tendencies Scale, Online Sociability Scale, Facebook Attitude Scale, NEO-FFI, BIS/BAS scales, and Sleep questions). That item within each of the six addiction elements with the highest corrected item-total correlation was retained in the final scale. The factor structure of the scale was good (RMSEA = .046, CFI = .99) and coefficient alpha was .83. The 3-week test-retest reliability coefficient was .82. The scores converged with scores for other scales of Facebook activity. Also, they were positively related to Neuroticism and Extraversion, and negatively related to Conscientiousness. High scores on the new scale were associated with delayed bedtimes and rising times. PMID:22662404

  2. Internet sex addiction treated with naltrexone.

    Bostwick, J Michael; Bucci, Jeffrey A

    2008-02-01

    Malfunctioning of the brain's reward center is increasingly understood to underlie all addictive behavior. Composed of mesolimbic incentive salience circuitry, the reward center governs all behavior in which motivation has a central role, including acquiring food, nurturing young, and having sex. To the detriment of normal functioning, basic survival activities can pale in importance when challenged by the allure of addictive substances or behaviors. Dopamine is the neurotransmitter driving both normal and addictive behavior. Other neurotransmitters modulate the amount of dopamine released in response to a stimulus, with the salience determined by the intensity of the dopamine pulse. Opiates (either endogenous or exogenous) exemplify such modulators. Prescribed for treating alcoholism, naltrexone blocks opiates' capacity to augment dopamine release. This article reviews naltrexone's mechanism of action in the reward center and describes a novel use for naltrexone in suppressing a euphorically compulsive and interpersonally devastating addiction to Internet pornography. PMID:18241634

  3. 75 FR 4900 - Drug Addiction and Alcoholism

    2010-01-29

    ...We are requesting your comments about our operating procedures for determining disability for persons whose drug addiction or alcoholism (DAA) may be a contributing factor material to our determination of...

  4. Molecular and Functional Imaging of Internet Addiction

    Yunqi Zhu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Maladaptive use of the Internet results in Internet addiction (IA, which is associated with various negative consequences. Molecular and functional imaging techniques have been increasingly used for analysis of neurobiological changes and neurochemical correlates of IA. This review summarizes molecular and functional imaging findings on neurobiological mechanisms of IA, focusing on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and nuclear imaging modalities including positron emission tomography (PET and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT. MRI studies demonstrate that structural changes in frontal cortex are associated with functional abnormalities in Internet addicted subjects. Nuclear imaging findings indicate that IA is associated with dysfunction of the brain dopaminergic systems. Abnormal dopamine regulation of the prefrontal cortex (PFC could underlie the enhanced motivational value and uncontrolled behavior over Internet overuse in addicted subjects. Further investigations are needed to determine specific changes in the Internet addictive brain, as well as their implications for behavior and cognition.

  5. National Addiction & HIV Data Archive Program (NAHDAP)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NAHDAP acquires, preserves and disseminates data relevant to drug addiction and HIV research. By preserving and making available an easily accessible library of...

  6. Using DREADDs to investigate addiction behaviors

    Ferguson, Susan M.; Neumaier, John F.

    2016-01-01

    Drug addiction is characterized by compulsive drug-seeking and drug-taking, and a high propensity for relapse. Although the brain regions involved in regulating addiction processes have long been identified, the ways in which individual cell types govern addiction behaviors remain elusive. New technologies for modulating the activity of defined cell types have recently emerged that are allowing us to address these important questions. Here, we review how one such technology, DREADDs (Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs), can be used to refine our knowledge of addiction circuitry. These engineered receptors modulate cellular activity by acting on G protein coupled signaling cascades and in this review we pay particular attention to how this slower-onset modulation preferentially regulates behaviors that develop over time.

  7. Effects of intraspecific diversity on survivorship, growth, and recruitment of the eastern oyster across sites.

    Hanley, Torrance C; Hughes, A Randall; Williams, Bethany; Garland, Hanna; Kimbro, David L

    2016-06-01

    Intraspecific diversity, particularly of foundation species, can significantly affect population, community, and ecosystem processes. Examining how genetic diversity relates to demographic traits provides a key mechanistic link from genotypic and phenotypic variation of taxa with complex life histories to their population dynamics. We conducted a field experiment to assess how two metrics of intraspecific diversity (cohort diversity, the number of independent juvenile cohorts created from different adult source populations, and genetic relatedness, genetic similarity among individuals within and across cohorts) affect the survivorship, growth, and recruitment of the foundation species Crassostrea virginica. To assess the effects of both cohort diversity and genetic relatedness on oyster demographic traits under different environmental conditions, we manipulated juvenile oyster diversity and predator exposure (presence/absence of a cage) at two sites differing in resource availability and predation intensity. Differences in predation pressure between sites overwhelmingly determined post-settlement survivorship of oysters. However, in the absence of predation (i.e., cage treatment), one or both metrics of intraspecific diversity, in addition to site, influenced long-term survivorship, growth, and recruitment. While both cohort diversity and genetic relatedness were negatively associated with long-term survivorship, genetic relatedness alone showed a positive association with growth and cohort diversity alone showed a positive association with recruitment. Thus, our results demonstrate that in the absence of predation, intraspecific diversity can affect multiple demographic traits of a foundation species, but the relative importance of these effects depends on the environmental context. Moreover, the magnitude and direction of these effects vary depending on the diversity metric, cohort diversity or genetic relatedness, suggesting that although they are inversely

  8. Recruitment and Retention Strategies for Minority or Poor Clinical Research Participants: Lessons From the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity Across the Life Span Study

    Ejiogu, Ngozi; Norbeck, Jennifer H.; Mason, Marc A.; Cromwell, Bridget C.; Zonderman, Alan B.; Evans, Michele K.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of the study: Investigating health disparities requires studies designed to recruit and retain racially and socioeconomically diverse cohorts. It is critical to address the barriers that disproportionately affect participation in clinical research by minorities and the socioeconomically disadvantaged. This study sought to identify and rectify these barriers to recruit and retain a biracial (African American and non-Hispanic White) and socioeconomically diverse cohort for a longitudina...

  9. Hostility in the real world and online: the effect of internet addiction, depression, and online activity.

    Yen, Ju-Yu; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Wu, Hsiu-Yi; Huang, Chun-Jen; Ko, Chih-Hung

    2011-11-01

    Hostility online has not been evaluated by an empirical investigation. This study aims to evaluate (a) the difference between hostility in the real world and that online and (b) whether the difference is associated with Internet addiction, depression, or online activities. A total of 2,348 college students (1,124 males and 1,224 females) were recruited and completed the Chen Internet Addiction Scale, the Center for Epidemiological Studies' Depression Scale, and the questionnaire for online activity. Further, the Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory-Chinese version-short form was utilized to evaluate hostility in both real and virtual worlds. The results demonstrated that the levels of all four dimensions of hostility were lower when getting online than those in the real world. Subjects with Internet addiction had higher hostility both in the real world and online as do subjects with depression. Further, college students with Internet addiction had increased expressive hostility behavior and those with depression had decreased hostility cognition, hostility affection, and suppressive hostility behavior when getting online. Lastly, the buffering effect of the Internet on hostility was attenuated among subjects paying the most online time in chatting, and those using the Internet mainly for online gaming had higher expressive hostility behavior not only in the real world but also online. These results suggest that attention should be paid to interventions concerning aggressive behavior among subjects with Internet addiction or online gaming and chatting. On the other hand, depressed college students would be less hostile after entering the Internet. It is suggested that the Internet would be one possible interactive media to provide intervention for depression. PMID:21476897

  10. Medical students' attitudes towards the addictions

    Mullen, Kenneth; Smith, Iain

    2016-01-01

    Background: The need for medical students to engage with patients with addictive problems is projected to increase in coming years. There will also be a concomitant greater emphasis on community-based learning. The present study assessed the impact of a community based teaching initiative, the Student Selected Component (SSC) Lay and Professional Perspectives on the Addictions, on students' attitudes to these groups. Summary of Work: The SSC is assessed by a final student report which i...

  11. Rational Addiction Evidence From Carbonated Soft Drinks

    Xiaoou, Liu

    2009-01-01

    This paper applies the Becker-Murphy (1988) theory of rational addiction to the case of carbonated soft drinks, using a time-varying parameter model and scanner data from 46 U.S. cities. Empirical results provide strong evidence that carbonated soft drinks are rationally addictive, thus opening the door to taxation and regulation. Taking rational addition into account, estimated demand elasticities are much lower than previous estimates using scanner data.

  12. Monopoly and competition in addictive markets

    Murray, Sean

    1984-01-01

    This paper models monopoly markets on which demand is addictive as defined by Stigler and Becker; and hence dynamic. It is shown that the monopolists' equilibrium is unique and stable and the time path taken to reach it is also unique. The comparative statics and comparative dynamics of these markets are analysed. It is proved formally that the harmfully (beneficially) addictive monopolist will produce to the left (right) of the equality between marginal revenue and marginal cost, and that th...

  13. Naltrexone: A Pan-Addiction Treatment?

    Aboujaoude, Elias; Salame, Wael O

    2016-08-01

    Addiction is a major public health problem with few efficacious and safe treatments. The goal of this review is to provide an evidence-based assessment of the therapeutic role of the opioid antagonist naltrexone across the addiction spectrum-substance-based and behavioral. The PubMed database was searched for randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials that investigated the oral or intramuscular long-acting formulation of naltrexone in substance use disorders or behavioral addictions such as pathological gambling, kleptomania, and trichotillomania. Thirty-nine efficacy studies were retrieved, covering alcohol use disorder (n = 22), opioid use disorder (n = 6), nicotine use disorder (n = 5), stimulant use disorder (n = 2), gambling disorder (n = 2), trichotillomania (n = 1), and kleptomania (n = 1). Despite the very different presentations within and between both addiction categories, the data, as a whole, show consistency in favor of naltrexone's relative efficacy and safety. Given the potential benefit and good tolerability revealed in the studies, the high morbidity associated with addiction, and the dearth of alternate treatments, naltrexone would seem like an underutilized treatment option. Further, naltrexone's seemingly broad anti-addiction efficacy supports a shared role for brain opioid pathways in the pathophysiology of addiction, broadly defined. More studies investigating the efficacy and tolerability of naltrexone and other opioid modulators are warranted. Studies should also further examine the effect of combining psychotherapy with naltrexone, as well as the potential role of naltrexone in treating comorbid addictions. PMID:27401883

  14. How bulimia nervosa relates to addictive behavior

    Iorio, Daniela; Sovinsky, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Using longitudinal data that tracks bulimic behavior among young girls (National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study), we examine (1) whether bulimic behavior is consistent with addiction criteria as stated in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders DSM-IV (APA, 1994); and 2) whether the persistence in bulimia nervosa (BN) reflects tolerance formed from an addiction or if it can be attributed to slow learning about the deleterious health effects of BN. M...

  15. Preventing Addiction Related Suicide: A Pilot Study

    Voss, William D.; Kaufman, Erin; O’Connor, Stephen S.; Comtois, Katherine Anne; Connor, Kenneth R.; Ries, Richard K.

    2013-01-01

    Persons addicted to alcohol and drugs are at 5–10 times higher risk for suicide as compared to the general population. To address the need for improved suicide prevention strategies in this population, the Preventing Addiction Related Suicide (PARS) module was developed. Pilot testing of 78 patients demonstrated significant post-treatment changes in knowledge (t (66) = 12.07, p= .000) and attitudes (t (75) = 6.82, p = .000) toward suicide prevention issues. Significant gains were maintained a...

  16. Text Messaging for Addiction: A Review

    Keoleian, Victoria; Polcin, Douglas; Galloway, Gantt P.

    2015-01-01

    Individuals seeking treatment for addiction often experience barriers due to cost, lack of local treatment resources, or either school or work schedule conflicts. Text messaging-based addiction treatment is inexpensive and has the potential to be widely accessible in real time. We conducted a comprehensive literature review identifying 11 published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating text messaging-based interventions for tobacco smoking, 4 studies for reducing alcohol consumption,...

  17. New insights into the genetics of addiction

    Li, Ming D.; Burmeister, Margit

    2009-01-01

    Drug addiction is a common brain disorder that is extremely costly to the individual and to society. Genetics contributes significantly to vulnerability to this disorder, but identification of susceptibility genes has been slow. Recent genome-wide linkage and association studies have implicated several regions and genes in addiction to various substances, including alcohol and, more recently, tobacco. Current efforts aim not only to replicate these findings in independent samples but also to ...

  18. Age-related aspects of addiction

    Koechl, Birgit; Unger, Annemarie; Fischer, Gabriele

    2012-01-01

    Research has shown that substance use, abuse and addiction are not limited to a specific age group. Problems related to substance addiction are an important cause of morbidity in the population aged 65 and above, especially the abuse of prescription drugs and legal substances. A lack of evidence-based studies and tailored treatment options for the aging population is evident. Appropriate and effective health-care is an important goal to improve health-related quality of life of elderly people...

  19. Multiple faces of BDNF in cocaine addiction

    Li, Xuan; Wolf, Marina E.

    2014-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been found to play roles in many types of plasticity including drug addiction. Here we focus on rodent studies over the past two decades that have demonstrated diverse roles of BDNF in models of cocaine addiction. First, we will provide an overview of studies showing that cocaine exposure alters (and generally increases) BDNF levels in reward-related regions including the ventral tegmental area, nucleus accumbens, prefrontal cortex, and amygdala. T...

  20. Reversal of cocaine addiction by environmental enrichment

    Solinas, Marcello; Chauvet, Claudia; Thiriet, Nathalie; El Rawas, Rana; Jaber, Mohamed

    2008-01-01

    Environmental conditions can dramatically influence the behavioral and neurochemical effects of drugs of abuse. For example, stress increases the reinforcing effects of drugs and plays an important role in determining the vulnerability to develop drug addiction. On the other hand, positive conditions, such as environmental enrichment, can reduce the reinforcing effects of psychostimulants and may provide protection against the development of drug addiction. However, whether environmental enri...

  1. Periostitis and osteomyelitis in chronic drug addicts

    Periostitis and osteomyelitis can occur in drug addicts not only by hematogeneous dissemination of the infecting organisms, but as a result of introduction of bacteria by direct injection into periosteum or injection through infected skin and subcutaneous tissues. A spectrum of examples of osteomyelitis of the bones of the forearm in drug addicts is presented to illustrate this phenomenon. Neglect of these infections and the trauma of continued injections can lead to extensive tissue and bone loss. (orig.)

  2. Periostitis and osteomyelitis in chronic drug addicts

    Taylor, C.R.; Lawson, J.P.

    1986-03-01

    Periostitis and osteomyelitis can occur in drug addicts not only by hematogeneous dissemination of the infecting organisms, but as a result of introduction of bacteria by direct injection into periosteum or injection through infected skin and subcutaneous tissues. A spectrum of examples of osteomyelitis of the bones of the forearm in drug addicts is presented to illustrate this phenomenon. Neglect of these infections and the trauma of continued injections can lead to extensive tissue and bone loss.

  3. Food Addiction: An Evolving Nonlinear Science

    Richard Shriner; Mark Gold

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to familiarize readers with the role that addiction plays in the formation and treatment of obesity, type 2 diabetes and disorders of eating. We will outline several useful models that integrate metabolism, addiction, and human relationship adaptations to eating. A special effort will be made to demonstrate how the use of simple and straightforward nonlinear models can and are being used to improve our knowledge and treatment of patients suffering from nutrition...

  4. The dark side of food addiction

    Parylak, Sarah L.; Koob, George F.; Zorrilla, Eric P.

    2011-01-01

    In drug addiction, the transition from casual drug use to dependence has been linked to a shift away from positive reinforcement and towards negative reinforcement. That is, drugs ultimately are relied on to prevent or relieve negative states that otherwise result from abstinence (e.g., withdrawal) or from adverse environmental circumstances (e.g., stress). Recent work has suggested that this “dark side” shift also is key in the development of food addiction. Initially, palatable food consump...

  5. Internet Gaming Addiction: A Technological Hazard

    Sachdeva; Verma

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The Internet is considered a beneficial tool in research, communication, and information. Still, its excessive and prolonged use has the potential of causing addiction. The presentation of this technological hazard may range from a mild socio-personal distress to a gross disorganization in behavior and self-care. No reported study on Internet gaming addiction is available from India. Case Presentation We reported a ca...

  6. SOCIAL IMPLICATIONS OF THE INTERNET ADDICTION

    Egor Grigoryevich Gaynzev

    2015-01-01

    The paper examined the Internet that turned to be the main communication gear and information transfer tool round the world. Every year a growing number of Internet users appear, many people thereof are prone to Internet addiction. The Internet addiction involves multiple social challenges namely the family issues, workplace constraints, proneness to conflict, negligence in daily pursuits and many other issues. The number of Internet users over the past 10 years grew from 10 million users to ...

  7. DRUG DELIVERY METHODS RANKING ADDICTION POTENTIAL

    K. Sujatha*, T. Arundathi, S. Rubina, B.V. Ramana, G. Nagarajan

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Substance abusers and drug addicts generally seek the fastest and most effective methods of getting high this means that drug delivery methods are important to users, and typically an addict will prefer one method over another. However, because there are a wide variety of drug delivery methods, substance abusers will often fluctuate between these techniques when the need arises. Understanding the different ways that people use drugs can aid in creating awareness and recognition skil...

  8. Drug Addiction, Love, and the Higher Power

    Sussman, Steve; Reynaud, Michel; Aubin, Henri-Jean; Leventhal, Adam M.

    2011-01-01

    This discussion piece suggests that reliance on a Higher Power in drug abuse recovery programs is entertained among some addicts for its psychobiological effects. Prayer, meditation, early romantic love, and drug abuse may have in common activation of mesolimbic dopaminergic pathways of the brain and the generation of intense emotional states. In this sense, reliance on a Higher Power may operate as a substitute addiction, which replaces the psychobiological functions formerly served by drug use. Implications of this perspective are discussed. PMID:21411471

  9. Drug Addiction, Love, and the Higher Power

    Sussman, Steve; Reynaud, Michel; Aubin, Henri-Jean; Leventhal, Adam M.

    2011-01-01

    This discussion piece suggests that reliance on a Higher Power in drug abuse recovery programs is entertained among some addicts for its psychobiological effects. Prayer, meditation, early romantic love, and drug abuse may have in common activation of mesolimbic dopaminergic pathways of the brain and the generation of intense emotional states. In this sense, reliance on a Higher Power may operate as a substitute addiction, which replaces the psychobiological functions formerly served by drug ...

  10. Chromatin regulation in drug addiction and depression

    Renthal, William; Nestler, Eric J.

    2009-01-01

    Alterations in gene expression are implicated in the pathogenesis of several neuropsychiatrie disorders, including drug addiction and depression, increasing evidence indicates that changes in gene expression in neurons, in the context of animal models of addiction and depression, are mediated in part by epigenetic mechanisms that alter chromatin structure on specific gene promoters. This review discusses recent findings from behavioral, molecular, and bioinformatic approaches that are being u...

  11. Striatal signal transduction and drug addiction

    Philibin, Scott D.; Adan eCortes; Self, David W.; Bibb, James A.

    2011-01-01

    Drug addiction is a severe neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by loss of control over motivated behavior. The need for effective treatments mandates a greater understanding of the causes and identification of new therapeutic targets for drug development. Drugs of abuse subjugate normal reward-related behavior to uncontrollable drug-seeking and -taking. Contributions of brain reward circuitry are being mapped with increasing precision. The role of synaptic plasticity in addiction and unde...

  12. Neuroimaging for drug addiction and related behaviors

    Parvaz, Muhammad A.; Alia-Klein, Nelly; Woicik, Patricia A.; Volkow, Nora D.; Goldstein, Rita Z.

    2011-01-01

    In this review, we highlight the role of neuroimaging techniques in studying the emotional and cognitive-behavioral components of the addiction syndrome by focusing on the neural substrates subserving them. The phenomenology of drug addiction can be characterized by a recurrent pattern of subjective experiences that includes drug intoxication, craving, bingeing, and withdrawal with the cycle culminating in a persistent preoccupation with obtaining, consuming, and recovering from the drug. In ...

  13. Addiction Circuitry in the Human Brain*

    Volkow, Nora D.; Wang, Gene-Jack; Fowler, Joanna S.; Tomasi, Dardo

    2011-01-01

    A major challenge in understanding substance-use disorders lies in uncovering why some individuals become addicted when exposed to drugs, whereas others do not. Although genetic, developmental, and environmental factors are recognized as major contributors to a person’s risk of becoming addicted, the neurobiological processes that underlie this vulnerability are still poorly understood. Imaging studies suggest that individual variations in key dopamine-modulated brain circuits, including circ...

  14. How is acceptance of the brain disease model of addiction related to Australians’ attitudes towards addicted individuals and treatments for addiction?

    Meurk, Carla; Carter, Adrian; Partridge, Brad; Lucke, Jayne; Hall, Wayne

    2014-01-01

    Background We investigated whether beliefs about addiction being a ‘disease’ or ‘brain disease’, and holding certain beliefs about addiction aetiology, are associated with public views about addicted persons and support for different types of treatment, coerced treatment and punishment for addiction. Methods Data were collected as part of the 2012 Queensland Social Survey, a computer assisted telephone interview of 1263 residents of Queensland, Australia. Participants were presented with scen...

  15. History of the Concept of Addiction.

    Nathan, Peter E; Conrad, Mandy; Skinstad, Anne Helene

    2016-03-28

    Our distant forebears wrestled with concepts of alcohol addiction not unlike those of today: Is addiction a sin or a disease? Is addiction caused by the gods, the substance, the individual's vulnerability, or psychological or social factors? Luther, Calvin, and Catholic Church leaders viewed moderate alcohol use as God's gift; used intemperately, it was a moral transgression. The founders of modern scientific psychiatry rejected moral explanations for addiction in favor of an early biological model. The first two versions of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-I and DSM-II) stigmatized addiction by listing it with other societally disapproved disorders stemming from personality disorder. DSM-III espoused atheoretical, descriptive diagnoses but required tolerance or withdrawal to diagnose dependence. Substance dependence in DSM-III-R included physiological and behavioral symptoms and reflected the substance dependence syndrome. DSM-IV's emphasis on biology in its concept of dependence was unchanged from its immediate predecessors. DSM-5 declared that all drugs taken in excess have in common the direct activation of the brain reward system. This article examines evolving concepts of alcohol addiction through 12,000 years of recorded human history, from the first mention of alcohol consumption in China more than 12,000 years ago to alcohol use and abuse in the DSM era, 1952 to the present. PMID:26565120

  16. MEMORY SYSTEMS AND THE ADDICTED BRAIN

    Jarid eGoodman

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The view that anatomically distinct memory systems differentially contribute to the development of drug addiction and relapse has received extensive support. The present brief review revisits this hypothesis as it was originally proposed twenty years ago (White, 1996 and highlights several recent developments. Extensive research employing a variety of animal learning paradigms indicates that dissociable neural systems mediate distinct types of learning and memory. Each memory system potentially contributes unique components to the learned behavior supporting drug addiction and relapse. In particular, the shift from recreational drug use to compulsive drug abuse may reflect a neuroanatomical shift from cognitive control of behavior mediated by the hippocampus/dorsomedial striatum toward habitual control of behavior mediated by the dorsolateral striatum (DLS. In addition, stress/anxiety may constitute a cofactor that facilitates DLS-dependent memory, and this may serve as a neurobehavioral mechanism underlying the increased drug use and relapse in humans following stressful life events. Evidence supporting the multiple systems view of drug addiction comes predominantly from studies of learning and memory that have employed as reinforcers addictive substances often considered within the context of drug addiction research, including cocaine, alcohol, and amphetamines. In addition, recent evidence suggests that the memory systems approach may also be helpful for understanding topical sources of addiction that reflect emerging health concerns, including marijuana use, high-fat diet, and video game playing.

  17. Addiction is Not a Natural Kind

    Jeremy Michael Pober

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available I argue that addiction is not an appropriate category to support generalizations for the purposes of scientific prediction. That is, addiction is not a natural kind. I discuss the Homeostatic Property Cluster theory of kinds, according to which members of a kind share a cluster of properties generated by a common mechanism or set of mechanisms. Leading accounts of addiction in literature fail to offer a mechanism that explains addiction across substances. I discuss popular variants of the disease conception and demonstrate that at least one class of substances that fails to confirm a major prediction of each account. When no mechanism can be found to explain the occurrence of the relevant properties in members of a category, the HPC view suggests that we revise our categories. I discuss options offered by the HPC view, including category revision and category replacement. I then conclude that talk of addiction as a prediction-supporting category should be replaced with categories such as ‘S-addiction’ and ‘T-addiction,’ where S and T are substances or sets of substances of abuse, as these categories are genuine natural kinds.

  18. Memory Systems and the Addicted Brain

    Goodman, Jarid; Packard, Mark G.

    2016-01-01

    The view that anatomically distinct memory systems differentially contribute to the development of drug addiction and relapse has received extensive support. The present brief review revisits this hypothesis as it was originally proposed 20 years ago (1) and highlights several recent developments. Extensive research employing a variety of animal learning paradigms indicates that dissociable neural systems mediate distinct types of learning and memory. Each memory system potentially contributes unique components to the learned behavior supporting drug addiction and relapse. In particular, the shift from recreational drug use to compulsive drug abuse may reflect a neuroanatomical shift from cognitive control of behavior mediated by the hippocampus/dorsomedial striatum toward habitual control of behavior mediated by the dorsolateral striatum (DLS). In addition, stress/anxiety may constitute a cofactor that facilitates DLS-dependent memory, and this may serve as a neurobehavioral mechanism underlying the increased drug use and relapse in humans following stressful life events. Evidence supporting the multiple systems view of drug addiction comes predominantly from studies of learning and memory that have employed as reinforcers addictive substances often considered within the context of drug addiction research, including cocaine, alcohol, and amphetamines. In addition, recent evidence suggests that the memory systems approach may also be helpful for understanding topical sources of addiction that reflect emerging health concerns, including marijuana use, high-fat diet, and video game playing. PMID:26941660

  19. Memory Systems and the Addicted Brain.

    Goodman, Jarid; Packard, Mark G

    2016-01-01

    The view that anatomically distinct memory systems differentially contribute to the development of drug addiction and relapse has received extensive support. The present brief review revisits this hypothesis as it was originally proposed 20 years ago (1) and highlights several recent developments. Extensive research employing a variety of animal learning paradigms indicates that dissociable neural systems mediate distinct types of learning and memory. Each memory system potentially contributes unique components to the learned behavior supporting drug addiction and relapse. In particular, the shift from recreational drug use to compulsive drug abuse may reflect a neuroanatomical shift from cognitive control of behavior mediated by the hippocampus/dorsomedial striatum toward habitual control of behavior mediated by the dorsolateral striatum (DLS). In addition, stress/anxiety may constitute a cofactor that facilitates DLS-dependent memory, and this may serve as a neurobehavioral mechanism underlying the increased drug use and relapse in humans following stressful life events. Evidence supporting the multiple systems view of drug addiction comes predominantly from studies of learning and memory that have employed as reinforcers addictive substances often considered within the context of drug addiction research, including cocaine, alcohol, and amphetamines. In addition, recent evidence suggests that the memory systems approach may also be helpful for understanding topical sources of addiction that reflect emerging health concerns, including marijuana use, high-fat diet, and video game playing. PMID:26941660

  20. Uncover the recruiter in you!

    2013-01-01

    2013 saw the launch of the one-day training course "Selecting the best person for CERN". So far, 10 courses have taken place and over 100 participants have taken part in this interactive, hands on experience.   The course has been met with much enthusiasm and positive feedback, with participants not only feeling better prepared and organised for the recruitment boards, but also equipped with concrete tools on how to prepare and conduct an effective selection interview. Following on from this success, further sessions are planned in 2014: we look forward to welcoming recruiting supervisors and board members who are likely to take part in a recruitment process, whether for LD or LD2IC, and who are interested in finding out more about how to get the most out of this important process! To enrol to this course, please follow this link: "Selecting the best person for CERN".

  1. Facilitating Alzheimer disease research recruitment.

    Grill, Joshua D; Galvin, James E

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer disease (AD) research faces challenges to successful enrollment, especially to clinical trials and biomarker studies. Failure to recruit the planned number of participants in a timely manner threatens the internal validity and success of clinical research, raising concerns about external validity and generalizability of results, and possibly leading to disparities in disease treatment. Methods to improve recruitment exist, but require varying levels of staff effort and financial resources, and evidence of effectiveness is often lacking or inconsistent. In this review, we summarize some of the available methods to improve AD research recruitment, the available literature to support or refute these strategies, and some of the experiences at the authors' AD Research Centers. We discuss the use of community-based participatory research principles and participant registries as a means to enhance research enrollment and increase diversity of research samples. PMID:24322484

  2. Microvascular Recruitment in Insulin Resistance

    Sjøberg, Kim Anker

    hormone glucagon-like-peptide-1 (GLP-1) in the microcirculation. Glucagon-like-peptide-1 analogs are drugs used for treatments of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes but the vascular effects of GLP-1 in vivo are elusive. Here it was shown that GLP-1 rapidly increased the microvascular recruitment...... the resonating sound from the microbubbles in the systemic circulation were recorded for determination of microvascular recruitment in designated muscle segments. Results showed that microvascular recruitment increased with insulin stimulation by ~30% in rats and ~40% in humans (study I). Furthermore......, it was observed that muscle contractions increased muscle perfusion rapidly by 3-4 fold and by 1-2 fold compared to basal and insulin, respectively, in both rat and human skeletal muscle (study I). The real-time contrast-enhanced ultrasound method was applied to investigate the vaso-active effect of the incretin...

  3. AN EPIDEMIOLOGICAL APPROACH TOWARD THE DRUG ADDICTION IN TEHRAN

    D.Shojaizadeh; M. Rabiian

    1997-01-01

    This study took an epidemiological approach toward the problem of drug addiction in Tehran. The subjects were 300 addicts chosen on the basis of stratified random selection out of the population of 3627 prisoners who were all proven addicts and sentenced to imprisonment by the court in the year 1370. A descriptive survey showed that drug addiction generally, and heroin addiction specifically, is more common among the youth. In fact, 89.7% of the addicts were between 15 and 40 years old, with ...

  4. The Factors Affecting Drug Abuse Among Addicted Women

    Mohammad Mehdi Rahmati

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to describe and analyse some background factors that has some effect on the formation and continuity of addictive behavior among a sample of 1500 addicted persons on the 10 provinces of Iran. The article explores the processes under which the addictive behavior occures. Based on the findings of a survey research on a sample of 1500 drug abusers, it is concluded that factors such as addiction to cigarettes, alcohol, drug type, and methods and situations of approaching and access to drugs are effective in beginning of addiction. At last , the article pays special attention to addiction among women as the drug abusers.

  5. Addictions Neuroclinical Assessment: A Neuroscience-Based Framework for Addictive Disorders.

    Kwako, Laura E; Momenan, Reza; Litten, Raye Z; Koob, George F; Goldman, David

    2016-08-01

    This article proposes a heuristic framework for the Addictions Neuroclinical Assessment that incorporates key functional domains derived from the neurocircuitry of addiction. We review how addictive disorders (ADs) are presently diagnosed and the need for new neuroclinical measures to differentiate patients who meet clinical criteria for addiction to the same agent while differing in etiology, prognosis, and treatment response. The need for a better understanding of the mechanisms provoking and maintaining addiction, as evidenced by the limitations of current treatments and within-diagnosis clinical heterogeneity, is articulated. In addition, recent changes in the nosology of ADs, challenges to current classification systems, and prior attempts to subtype individuals with ADs are described. Complementary initiatives, including the Research Domain Criteria project, that have established frameworks for the neuroscience of psychiatric disorders are discussed. Three domains-executive function, incentive salience, and negative emotionality-tied to different phases in the cycle of addiction form the core functional elements of ADs. Measurement of these domains in epidemiologic, genetic, clinical, and treatment studies will provide the underpinnings for an understanding of cross-population and temporal variation in addictions, shared mechanisms in addictive disorders, impact of changing environmental influences, and gene identification. Finally, we show that it is practical to implement such a deep neuroclinical assessment using a combination of neuroimaging and performance measures. Neuroclinical assessment is key to reconceptualizing the nosology of ADs on the basis of process and etiology, an advance that can lead to improved prevention and treatment. PMID:26772405

  6. Addiction as an attempt at self-regulation (contemporary psychoanalytic theories of addiction

    Gregor Žvelc

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article author presents the development of psychoanalytic theory of addiction from early writings to contemporary ego, self psychological and theories of object relations. Classical psychoanalysis understood addiction as a regressive gratification of libidinal drives, whereas contemporary authors understand it as an attempt of adaptation to certain problems and worries. The neurotic conflict is not anymore in the foreground, but disturbances in ego, self and object relations. On the basis of a review of contemporary psychoanalytical theories, the author concludes that individuals prone to addiction have a disturbance in self-regulation. Because of that, they have problems in tolerating and coping with certain emotions. With the help of outer means they tend to re-establish internal balance, which they can't manage alone. This outer 'help' can be seen in various forms of addiction (drugs, food, relationships, sex .... So, the core problem of addicted people is a deficit of self-regulation, which is a consequence of a lack of internalisaton of regulatory functions of primary object. Contemporary psychoanalytical theories of addiction bring us greater insight in personality factors which influence the formation of addiction, thus giving us guidelines for adequate psychotherapy of addiction.

  7. Evaluation of the role of location and distance in recruitment in respondent-driven sampling

    Hayes Richard J

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Respondent-driven sampling(RDS is an increasingly widely used variant of a link tracing design for recruiting hidden populations. The role of the spatial distribution of the target population has not been robustly examined for RDS. We examine patterns of recruitment by location, and how they may have biased an RDS study findings. Methods Total-population data were available on a range of characteristics on a population of 2402 male household-heads from an open cohort of 25 villages in rural Uganda. The locations of households were known a-priori. An RDS survey was carried out in this population, employing current RDS methods of sampling and statistical inference. Results There was little heterogeneity in the population by location. Data suggested more distant contacts were less likely to be reported, and therefore recruited, but if reported more distant contacts were as likely as closer contacts to be recruited. There was no evidence that closer proximity to a village meeting place was associated with probability of being recruited, however it was associated with a higher probability of recruiting a larger number of recruits. People living closer to an interview site were more likely to be recruited. Conclusions Household location affected the overall probability of recruitment, and the probability of recruitment by a specific recruiter. Patterns of recruitment do not appear to have greatly biased estimates in this study. The observed patterns could result in bias in more geographically heterogeneous populations. Care is required in RDS studies when choosing the network size question and interview site location(s.

  8. Cancer Epidemiology Cohorts

    Cohort studies are fundamental for epidemiological research by helping researchers better understand the etiology of cancer and provide insights into the key determinants of this disease and its outcomes.

  9. 7 CFR 15a.53 - Recruitment.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Recruitment. 15a.53 Section 15a.53 Agriculture Office... Activities Prohibited § 15a.53 Recruitment. (a) Nondiscriminatory recruitment and hiring. A recipient shall not discriminate on the basis of sex in the recruitment and hiring of employees. Where a recipient...

  10. 45 CFR 2555.310 - Recruitment.

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Recruitment. 2555.310 Section 2555.310 Public... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 2555.310 Recruitment. (a) Nondiscriminatory recruitment. A recipient to which §§ 2555.300 through 2555.310 apply shall not discriminate on...

  11. 22 CFR 229.510 - Recruitment.

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Recruitment. 229.510 Section 229.510 Foreign... in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 229.510 Recruitment. (a) Nondiscriminatory recruitment and hiring. A recipient shall not discriminate on the basis of sex in the recruitment and...

  12. 34 CFR 106.53 - Recruitment.

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recruitment. 106.53 Section 106.53 Education... Recruitment. (a) Nondiscriminatory recruitment and hiring. A recipient shall not discriminate on the basis of sex in the recruitment and hiring of employees. Where a recipient has been found to be...

  13. 20 CFR 655.156 - Recruitment report.

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Recruitment report. 655.156 Section 655.156... the United States (H-2A Workers) Post-Acceptance Requirements § 655.156 Recruitment report. (a) Requirements of a recruitment report. The employer must prepare, sign, and date a written recruitment...

  14. 36 CFR 1211.510 - Recruitment.

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recruitment. 1211.510 Section... Recruitment. (a) Nondiscriminatory recruitment and hiring. A recipient shall not discriminate on the basis of sex in the recruitment and hiring of employees. Where a recipient has been found to be...

  15. 13 CFR 113.510 - Recruitment.

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Recruitment. 113.510 Section 113... Recruitment. (a) Nondiscriminatory recruitment and hiring. A recipient shall not discriminate on the basis of sex in the recruitment and hiring of employees. Where a recipient has been found to be...

  16. 32 CFR 196.510 - Recruitment.

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recruitment. 196.510 Section 196.510 National... Recruitment. (a) Nondiscriminatory recruitment and hiring. A recipient shall not discriminate on the basis of sex in the recruitment and hiring of employees. Where a recipient has been found to be...

  17. 20 CFR 655.30 - Supervised recruitment.

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Supervised recruitment. 655.30 Section 655.30... Workers) § 655.30 Supervised recruitment. (a) Supervised recruitment. Where an employer is found to have... failed to adequately conduct recruitment activities or failed in any obligation of this part, the CO...

  18. 18 CFR 1317.310 - Recruitment.

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Recruitment. 1317.310... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 1317.310 Recruitment. (a) Nondiscriminatory recruitment. A recipient to which §§ 1317.300 through 1317.310 apply shall not discriminate on...

  19. 49 CFR 25.510 - Recruitment.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Recruitment. 25.510 Section 25.510 Transportation... Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 25.510 Recruitment. (a) Nondiscriminatory recruitment and hiring. A recipient shall not discriminate on the basis of sex in the recruitment and hiring of...

  20. 44 CFR 19.310 - Recruitment.

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Recruitment. 19.310 Section... RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 19.310 Recruitment. (a) Nondiscriminatory recruitment. A recipient to which §§ 19.300 through...