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Sample records for adaptive paths give

  1. Adaptive robot path planning in changing environments

    Chen, P.C.

    1994-08-01

    Path planning needs to be fast to facilitate real-time robot programming. Unfortunately, current planning techniques are still too slow to be effective, as they often require several minutes, if not hours of computation. To overcome this difficulty, we present an adaptive algorithm that uses past experience to speed up future performance. It is a learning algorithm suitable for incrementally-changing environments such as those encountered in manufacturing of evolving products and waste-site remediation. The algorithm allows the robot to adapt to its environment by having two experience manipulation schemes: For minor environmental change, we use an object-attached experience abstraction scheme to increase the flexibility of the learned experience; for major environmental change, we use an on-demand experience repair scheme to retain those experiences that remain valid and useful. Using this algorithm, we can effectively reduce the overall robot planning time by re-using the computation result for one task to plan a path for another.

  2. Line-of-Sight Path Following for Dubins Paths with Adaptive Sideslip Compensation of Drift Forces

    Thor I. Fossen; Pettersen, Kristin Ytterstad; Galeazzi, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    We present a nonlinear adaptive path-following controller that compensates for drift forces through vehicle sideslip. Vehicle sideslip arises during path following when the vehicle is subject to drift forces caused by ocean currents, wind and waves. The proposed algorithm is motivated by a lineof-sight (LOS) guidance principle used by ancient navigators, which is here extended to path following of Dubins paths. The unknown sideslip angle is treated as a constant parameter, which is estimated ...

  3. ACO in e-Learning: Towards an adaptive learning path

    Pushpa. M

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Today we are in an era where drastic advancements in networking and information technology are in action. The learning process has also taken these advancements, as a result of which e-learning came to thescene. Personalization in e-learning will improve the performance of the system. Recent researches are concentrating on providing adaptability to the learning management systems, depending upon the varying user needs and contexts. Adaptability can be provided at different levels .Providing an adaptive learning path according to the context of the learners’ is an important issue. An optimal adaptive learning path will help the learners in reducing the cognitive overload and disorientation, and thereby improving the efficiency of the Learning Management System (LMS. Ant Colony Optimization (ACO is a widely accepted technique since it provides an adaptive learning path to the learners. Meta-heuristic which is used in intelligent tutoring systems provides the learning path in an adaptive way. The most interesting feature of ACO is its adaptation and robustness in an environment where the learning materials and learners are changing frequently. In this paper we can have a look through the existing ACO approaches towards providing an adaptive learning path and an introduction towards an enhanced attribute ant for making the e-learning system more adaptive.

  4. Adaptive path planning: Algorithm and analysis

    Chen, Pang C.

    1995-03-01

    To address the need for a fast path planner, we present a learning algorithm that improves path planning by using past experience to enhance future performance. The algorithm relies on an existing path planner to provide solutions difficult tasks. From these solutions, an evolving sparse work of useful robot configurations is learned to support faster planning. More generally, the algorithm provides a framework in which a slow but effective planner may be improved both cost-wise and capability-wise by a faster but less effective planner coupled with experience. We analyze algorithm by formalizing the concept of improvability and deriving conditions under which a planner can be improved within the framework. The analysis is based on two stochastic models, one pessimistic (on task complexity), the other randomized (on experience utility). Using these models, we derive quantitative bounds to predict the learning behavior. We use these estimation tools to characterize the situations in which the algorithm is useful and to provide bounds on the training time. In particular, we show how to predict the maximum achievable speedup. Additionally, our analysis techniques are elementary and should be useful for studying other types of probabilistic learning as well.

  5. Robust Adaptive Photon Tracing using Photon Path Visibility

    Hachisuka, Toshiya; Jensen, Henrik Wann

    2011-01-01

    We present a new adaptive photon tracing algorithm which can handle illumination settings that are considered difficult for photon tracing approaches such as outdoor scenes, close-ups of a small part of an illuminated region, and illumination coming through a small gap. The key contribution in our...... algorithm is the use of visibility of photon path as the importance function which ensures that our sampling algorithm focuses on paths that are visible from the given viewpoint. Our sampling algorithm builds on two recent developments in Markov chain Monte Carlo methods: adaptive Markov chain sampling and...... replica exchange. Using these techniques, each photon path is adaptively mutated and it explores the sampling space efficiently without being stuck at a local peak of the importance function. We have implemented this sampling approach in the progressive photon mapping algorithm which provides visibility...

  6. Minimum-Risk Path Finding by an Adaptive Amoebal Network

    Nakagaki, Toshiyuki; Iima, Makoto; Ueda, Tetsuo; Nishiura, Yasumasa; Saigusa, Tetsu; Tero, Atsushi; Kobayashi, Ryo; Showalter, Kenneth

    2007-08-01

    When two food sources are presented to the slime mold Physarum in the dark, a thick tube for absorbing nutrients is formed that connects the food sources through the shortest route. When the light-avoiding organism is partially illuminated, however, the tube connecting the food sources follows a different route. Defining risk as the experimentally measurable rate of light-avoiding movement, the minimum-risk path is exhibited by the organism, determined by integrating along the path. A model for an adaptive-tube network is presented that is in good agreement with the experimental observations.

  7. Robot path adaptation for shared human-robot workspaces

    Zube, Angelika; Jung, A.; Frese, Christian

    2014-01-01

    In shared human-robot workspaces, safety has to be ensured by monitoring humans and other obstacles in the robot’s environment and by performing suitable robot motions to avoid collisions. In this contribution, information from multiple depth sensors is fused in an octree representing the current obstacles in consideration of occlusions. Based on this octree, the previously planned robot path is adapted using elastic bands in order to prevent collisions with humans.

  8. Adaptation in protein fitness landscapes is facilitated by indirect paths

    Wu, Nicholas C; Dai, Lei; Olson, C Anders; Lloyd-Smith, James O; Sun, Ren

    2016-01-01

    The structure of fitness landscapes is critical for understanding adaptive protein evolution. Previous empirical studies on fitness landscapes were confined to either the neighborhood around the wild type sequence, involving mostly single and double mutants, or a combinatorially complete subgraph involving only two amino acids at each site. In reality, the dimensionality of protein sequence space is higher (20L) and there may be higher-order interactions among more than two sites. Here we experimentally characterized the fitness landscape of four sites in protein GB1, containing 204 = 160,000 variants. We found that while reciprocal sign epistasis blocked many direct paths of adaptation, such evolutionary traps could be circumvented by indirect paths through genotype space involving gain and subsequent loss of mutations. These indirect paths alleviate the constraint on adaptive protein evolution, suggesting that the heretofore neglected dimensions of sequence space may change our views on how proteins evolve. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.16965.001 PMID:27391790

  9. Horizontal Path Laser Communications Employing MEMS Adaptive Optics Correction

    Thompson, C A; Wilks, S C; Brase, J M; Young, R A; Johnson, G W; Ruggiero, A J

    2001-09-05

    Horizontal path laser communications are beginning to provide attractive alternatives for high-speed optical communications, In particular, companies are beginning to sell fiberless alternatives for intranet and sporting event video. These applications are primarily aimed at short distance applications (on the order of 1 km pathlength). There exists a potential need to extend this pathlength to distances much greater than a 1km. For cases of long distance optical propagation, atmospheric turbulence will ultimately limit the maximum achievable data rate. In this paper, we propose a method of improved signal quality through the use of adaptive optics. In particular, we show work in progress toward a high-speed, small footprint Adaptive Optics system for horizontal path laser communications. Such a system relies heavily on recent progress in Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) deformable mirrors as well as improved communication and computational components. In this paper we detail two Adaptive Optics approaches for improved through-put, the first is the compensated receiver (the traditional Adaptive Optics approach), the second is the compensated transmitter/receiver. The second approach allows for correction of the optical wavefront before transmission from the transmitter and prior to detection at the receiver.

  10. A morphological adaptation approach to path planning inspired by slime mould

    Jones, Jeff

    2015-04-01

    Path planning is a classic problem in computer science and robotics which has recently been implemented in unconventional computing substrates such as chemical reaction-diffusion computers. These novel computing schemes utilise the parallel spatial propagation of information and often use a two-stage method involving diffusive propagation to discover all paths and a second stage to highlight or visualise the path between two particular points in the arena. The true slime mould Physarum polycephalum is known to construct efficient transport networks between nutrients in its environment. These networks are continuously remodelled as the organism adapts its body plan to changing spatial stimuli. It can be guided towards attractant stimuli (nutrients, warm regions) and it avoids locations containing hazardous stimuli (light irradiation, repellents, or regions occupied by predatory threats). Using a particle model of slime mould we demonstrate scoping experiments which explore how path planning may be performed by morphological adaptation. We initially demonstrate simple path planning by a shrinking blob of virtual plasmodium between two attractant sources within a polygonal arena. We examine the case where multiple paths are required and the subsequent selection of a single path from multiple options. Collision-free paths are implemented via repulsion from the borders of the arena. Finally, obstacle avoidance is implemented by repulsion from obstacles as they are uncovered by the shrinking blob. These examples show proof-of-concept results of path planning by morphological adaptation which complement existing research on path planning in novel computing substrates.

  11. UCAV Path Planning by Fitness-Scaling Adaptive Chaotic Particle Swarm Optimization

    Yudong Zhang; Lenan Wu; Shuihua Wang

    2013-01-01

    Path planning plays an extremely important role in the design of UCAVs to accomplish the air combat task fleetly and reliably. The planned path should ensure that UCAVs reach the destination along the optimal path with minimum probability of being found and minimal consumed fuel. Traditional methods tend to find local best solutions due to the large search space. In this paper, a Fitness-scaling Adaptive Chaotic Particle Swarm Optimization (FAC-PSO) approach was proposed as a fast and robust ...

  12. Adaptive Management of Social-Ecological Systems: The Path Forward

    Adaptive management remains at the forefront of environmental management nearly 40 years after its original conception, largely because we have yet to develop other methodologies that offer the same promise. Despite the criticisms of adaptive management and the numerous failed at...

  13. Adaptation in protein fitness landscapes is facilitated by indirect paths.

    Wu, N.; Dai, L.; Olson, CA; Lloyd-Smith, JO; Sun, R

    2016-01-01

    The structure of fitness landscapes is critical for understanding adaptive protein evolution. Previous empirical studies on fitness landscapes were confined to either the neighborhood around the wild type sequence, involving mostly single and double mutants, or a combinatorially complete subgraph involving only two amino acids at each site. In reality, the dimensionality of protein sequence space is higher (20(L)) and there may be higher-order interactions among more than two sites. Here we e...

  14. An adaptation of Krylov subspace methods to path following

    Walker, H.F. [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Krylov subspace methods at present constitute a very well known and highly developed class of iterative linear algebra methods. These have been effectively applied to nonlinear system solving through Newton-Krylov methods, in which Krylov subspace methods are used to solve the linear systems that characterize steps of Newton`s method (the Newton equations). Here, we will discuss the application of Krylov subspace methods to path following problems, in which the object is to track a solution curve as a parameter varies. Path following methods are typically of predictor-corrector form, in which a point near the solution curve is {open_quotes}predicted{close_quotes} by some easy but relatively inaccurate means, and then a series of Newton-like corrector iterations is used to return approximately to the curve. The analogue of the Newton equation is underdetermined, and an additional linear condition must be specified to determine corrector steps uniquely. This is typically done by requiring that the steps be orthogonal to an approximate tangent direction. Augmenting the under-determined system with this orthogonality condition in a straightforward way typically works well if direct linear algebra methods are used, but Krylov subspace methods are often ineffective with this approach. We will discuss recent work in which this orthogonality condition is imposed directly as a constraint on the corrector steps in a certain way. The means of doing this preserves problem conditioning, allows the use of preconditioners constructed for the fixed-parameter case, and has certain other advantages. Experiments on standard PDE continuation test problems indicate that this approach is effective.

  15. Adaptive neural control for cooperative path following of marine surface vehicles: state and output feedback

    Wang, H.; Wang, D.; Peng, Z. H.

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses the cooperative path-following problem of multiple marine surface vehicles subject to dynamical uncertainties and ocean disturbances induced by unknown wind, wave and ocean current. The control design falls neatly into two parts. One is to steer individual marine surface vehicle to track a predefined path and the other is to synchronise the along-path speed and path variables under the constraints of an underlying communication network. Within these two formulations, a robust adaptive path-following controller is first designed for individual vehicles based on backstepping and neural network techniques. Then, a decentralised synchronisation control law is derived by means of consensus on along-path speed and path variables based on graph theory. The distinct feature of this design lies in that synchronised path following can be reached for any undirected connected communication graphs without accurate knowledge of the model. This result is further extended to the output feedback case, where an observer-based cooperative path-following controller is developed without measuring the velocity of each vehicle. For both designs, rigorous theoretical analysis demonstrate that all signals in the closed-loop system are semi-global uniformly ultimately bounded. Simulation results validate the performance and robustness improvement of the proposed strategy.

  16. Adaptive QoS Class Allocation Schemes in Multi-Domain Path-Based Networks

    Ogino, Nagao; Nakamura, Hajime

    MPLS-based path technology shows promise as a means of realizing reliable IP networks. Real-time services such as VoIP and video-conference supplied through a multi-domain MPLS network must be able to guarantee end-to-end QoS of the inter-domain paths. Thus, it is important to allocate an appropriate QoS class to the inter-domain paths in each domain traversed by the inter-domain paths. Because each domain has its own policy for QoS class allocation, it is necessary to adaptively allocate the optimum QoS class based on estimation of the QoS class allocation policies in other domains. This paper proposes two kinds of adaptive QoS class allocation schemes, assuming that the arriving inter-domain path requests include the number of downstream domains traversed by the inter-domain paths and the remaining QoS value toward the destination nodes. First, a measurement-based scheme, based on measurement of the loss rates of inter-domain paths in the downstream domains, is proposed. This scheme estimates the QoS class allocation policies in the downstream domains, using the measured loss rates of path requests. Second, a state-dependent type scheme, based on measurement of the arrival rates of path requests in addition to the loss rates of paths in the downstream domains, is also proposed. This scheme allows an appropriate QoS class to be allocated according to the domain state. This paper proposes an application of the Markov decision theory to the modeling of state-dependent type scheme. The performances of the proposed schemes are evaluated and compared with those of the other less complicated non-adaptive schemes using a computer simulation. The results of the comparison reveal that the proposed schemes can adaptively increase the number of inter-domain paths accommodated in the considered domain, even when the QoS class allocation policies change in the other domains and the arrival pattern of path requests varies in the considered domain.

  17. Walking on an Oscillating Treadmill: Two Paths to Functional Adaptation

    Brady, Rachel A.; Peters, Brian T.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

    2010-01-01

    We mounted a treadmill on top of a six degree-of-freedom motion base platform to investigate and characterize locomotor responses produced by healthy adults when introduced to a novel walking condition. Subjects were classified into two groups according to how their stride times were affected by the perturbation. Our data suggest that a person's choice of adaptation strategy is influenced by the relationship between his unique, natural stride frequency and the external frequency imposed by the motion base. Our data suggest that a person's stride time response while walking on a laterally oscillating treadmill is influenced by the relationship between his unique, natural stride frequency and the imposed external frequency of the motion base. This relationship may be useful for checking the efficacy of gait training and rehabilitation programs. Preselecting and manipulating a person's EST could be one way to draw him out of his preferred "entrainment well" during therapy or training.

  18. Do spatial and institutional path dependencies present barriers to climate adaptation? A case study of Copenhagen

    Driscoll, Patrick Arthur; Nicolaisen, Morten Skou

    2016-01-01

    There is a rich body of literature addressing a number of potential or actual barriers to adaptation, including informational, social, institutional, political, financial, technical, and so on. This paper posits that the spatial and temporal dimensions of barriers are missing, and proposes the...... inclusion of path dependency as a possible remedy. Through a critical case study of the process of developing and implementing three concrete plans (Copenhagen Climate Plan, Copenhagen Adaptation Plan, and Copenhagen Cloudburst Management Plan), the findings indicate that physical/spatial and institutional...... path dependencies do present challenges in the implementation of the adaptation measures. Further, empirical evidence suggests that informational, political, and financial barriers do not have a notable effect upon adaptation planning....

  19. STDP in adaptive neurons gives close-to-optimal information transmission

    Wulfram Gerstner

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Spike-frequency adaptation is known to enhance the transmission of information in sensory spiking neurons, by rescaling the dynamic range for input processing, matching it to the temporal statistics of the sensory stimulus. Achieving maximal information transmission has also been recently postulated as a role for Spike-Timing Dependent Plasticity (STDP. However, the link between optimal plasticity and STDP in cortex remains loose, and so does the relationship between STDP and adaptation processes. We investigate how STDP, as described by recent minimal models derived from experimental data, influences the quality of information transmission in an adapting neuron. We show that a phenomenological model based on triplets of spikes yields almost the same information rate as an optimal model specially designed to this end. In contrast, the standard pair-based model of STDP does not improve information transmission as much. This result holds not only for additive STDP with hard weight bounds, known to produce bimodal distributions of synaptic weights, but also for weight-dependent STDP in the context of unimodal but skewed weight distributions. We analyze the similarities between the triplet model and the optimal learning rule, and find that the triplet effect is an important feature of the optimal model when the neuron is adaptive. If STDP is optimized for information transmission, it must take into account the dynamical properties of the postsynaptic cell, which might explain the target-cell specificity of STDP. In particular, it accounts for the differences found in vitro between STDP at excitatory synapses onto principal cells and those onto fast-spiking interneurons.

  20. Exome sequencing of geographically diverse barley landraces and wild relatives gives insights into environmental adaptation.

    Russell, Joanne; Mascher, Martin; Dawson, Ian K; Kyriakidis, Stylianos; Calixto, Cristiane; Freund, Fabian; Bayer, Micha; Milne, Iain; Marshall-Griffiths, Tony; Heinen, Shane; Hofstad, Anna; Sharma, Rajiv; Himmelbach, Axel; Knauft, Manuela; van Zonneveld, Maarten; Brown, John W S; Schmid, Karl; Kilian, Benjamin; Muehlbauer, Gary J; Stein, Nils; Waugh, Robbie

    2016-09-01

    After domestication, during a process of widespread range extension, barley adapted to a broad spectrum of agricultural environments. To explore how the barley genome responded to the environmental challenges it encountered, we sequenced the exomes of a collection of 267 georeferenced landraces and wild accessions. A combination of genome-wide analyses showed that patterns of variation have been strongly shaped by geography and that variant-by-environment associations for individual genes are prominent in our data set. We observed significant correlations of days to heading (flowering) and height with seasonal temperature and dryness variables in common garden experiments, suggesting that these traits were major drivers of environmental adaptation in the sampled germplasm. A detailed analysis of known flowering-associated genes showed that many contain extensive sequence variation and that patterns of single- and multiple-gene haplotypes exhibit strong geographical structuring. This variation appears to have substantially contributed to range-wide ecogeographical adaptation, but many factors key to regional success remain unidentified. PMID:27428750

  1. Online adaptation of path formation in UAV search-and-identify missions

    Willigen, W.H. van; Schut, M.C.; Eiben, A.E.; Kester, L.J.H.M.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a technique for optimisation and online adaptation of search paths of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in search-and-identify missions. In these missions, a UAV has the objective to search for targets and to identify those. We extend earlier work that was restricted to offli

  2. A note on "Multicriteria adaptive paths in stochastic, time-varying networks"

    Pretolani, Daniele; Nielsen, Lars Relund; Andersen, Kim Allan

    In a recent paper, Opasanon and Miller-Hooks study multicriteria adaptive paths in stochastic time-varying networks. They propose a label correcting algorithm for finding the full set of efficient strategies. In this note we show that their algorithm is not correct, since it is based on a property...

  3. IIR filtering based adaptive active vibration control methodology with online secondary path modeling using PZT actuators

    Boz, Utku; Basdogan, Ipek

    2015-12-01

    Structural vibrations is a major cause for noise problems, discomfort and mechanical failures in aerospace, automotive and marine systems, which are mainly composed of plate-like structures. In order to reduce structural vibrations on these structures, active vibration control (AVC) is an effective approach. Adaptive filtering methodologies are preferred in AVC due to their ability to adjust themselves for varying dynamics of the structure during the operation. The filtered-X LMS (FXLMS) algorithm is a simple adaptive filtering algorithm widely implemented in active control applications. Proper implementation of FXLMS requires availability of a reference signal to mimic the disturbance and model of the dynamics between the control actuator and the error sensor, namely the secondary path. However, the controller output could interfere with the reference signal and the secondary path dynamics may change during the operation. This interference problem can be resolved by using an infinite impulse response (IIR) filter which considers feedback of the one or more previous control signals to the controller output and the changing secondary path dynamics can be updated using an online modeling technique. In this paper, IIR filtering based filtered-U LMS (FULMS) controller is combined with online secondary path modeling algorithm to suppress the vibrations of a plate-like structure. The results are validated through numerical and experimental studies. The results show that the FULMS with online secondary path modeling approach has more vibration rejection capabilities with higher convergence rate than the FXLMS counterpart.

  4. Giving Context to the Physician Competency Reference Set: Adapting to the Needs of Diverse Populations.

    Eckstrand, Kristen L; Potter, Jennifer; Bayer, Carey Roth; Englander, Robert

    2016-07-01

    Delineating the requisite competencies of a 21st-century physician is the first step in the paradigm shift to competency-based medical education. Over the past two decades, more than 150 lists of competencies have emerged. In a synthesis of these lists, the Physician Competency Reference Set (PCRS) provided a unifying framework of competencies that define the general physician. The PCRS is not context or population specific; however, competently caring for certain underrepresented populations or specific medical conditions can require more specific context. Previously developed competency lists describing care for these populations have been disconnected from an overarching competency framework, limiting their uptake. To address this gap, the Association of American Medical Colleges Advisory Committee on Sexual Orientation, Gender Identity, and Sex Development adapted the PCRS by adding context- and content-specific qualifying statements to existing PCRS competencies to better meet the needs of diverse patient populations. This Article describes the committee's process in developing these qualifiers of competence. To facilitate widespread adoption of the contextualized competencies in U.S. medical schools, the committee used an established competency framework to develop qualifiers of competence to improve the health of individuals who are lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender; gender nonconforming; or born with differences in sexual development. This process can be applied to other underrepresented populations or medical conditions, ensuring that relevant topics are included in medical education and, ultimately, health care outcomes are improved for all patients inclusive of diversity, background, and ability. PMID:26796092

  5. Adaptive path planning for unmanned aerial vehicles based on bi-level programming and variable planning time interval

    Liu Wei; Zheng Zheng; Cai Kaiyuan

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an adaptive path planner for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) to adapt a real-time path search procedure to variations and fluctuations of UAVs' relevant performances,with respect to sensory capability,maneuverability,and flight velocity limit.On the basis of a novel adaptability-involved problem statement,bi-level programming (BLP) and variable planning step techniques are introduced to model the necessary path planning components and then an adaptive path planner is developed for the purpose of adaptation and optimization.Additionally,both probabilistic-risk-based obstacle avoidance and performance limits are described as path search constraints to guarantee path safety and navigability.A discrete-search-based path planning solution,embedded with four optimization strategies,is especially designed for the planner to efficiently generate optimal flight paths in complex operational spaces,within which different surface-to-air missiles (SAMs) are deployed.Simulation results in challenging and stochastic scenarios firstly demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed planner,and then verify its great adaptability and relative stability when planning optimal paths for a UAV with changing or fluctuating performances.

  6. Aircraft-on-ground path following control by dynamical adaptive backstepping

    Chen Bihua; Jiao Zongxia; Shuzhi Sam Ge

    2013-01-01

    The necessity of improving the air traffic and reducing the aviation emissions drives to investigate automatic steering for aircraft to effectively roll on the ground.This paper addresses the path following control problem of aircraft-on-ground and focuses on the task that the aircraft is required to follow the desired path on the runway by nose wheel automatic steering.The proposed approach is based on dynamical adaptive backstepping so that the system model does not have to be transformed into a canonical triangular form which is necessary in conventional backstepping design.This adaptive controller performs well despite the lack of information on the aerodynamic load and the tire cornering stiffness parameters.Simulation results clearly demonstrate the advantages and effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  7. An Approach for Self-Adaptive Path Loss Modelling for Positioning in Underground Environments

    Evgeny Osipov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a real-time self-adaptive approach for accurate path loss estimation in underground mines or tunnels based on signal strength measurements from heterogeneous radio communication technologies. The proposed model features simplicity of implementation. The methodology is validated in simulations and verified by measurements taken in real environments. The proposed method leverages accuracy of positioning matching the existing approaches while requiring smaller engineering efforts.

  8. E-Learning and Personalized Learning Path: A Proposal Based on the Adaptive Educational Hypermedia System

    Francesco Colace

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The E-Learning is becoming an effective approach for the improving of quality of learning. Many institutions are adopting this approach both to improve their traditional courses both to increase the potential audience. In the last period great attention is paid in the introduction of methodologies and techniques for the adaptation of learning process to the real needs of students. In this scenario the Adaptive Educational Hypermedia System can be an effective approach. Adaptive hypermedia is a promising area of research at the crossroads of hypermedia and adaptive systems. One of the most important fields where this approach can be applied is just the e-Learning. In this context the adaptive learning resources selection and sequencing is recognized as among one of the most interesting research questions. An Adaptive Educational Hypermedia System is composed by services for the management of the Knowledge Space, the definition of a User Model, the observation of student during his learning period and, as previously said, the adaptation of the learning path according to the real needs of the students. In particular the use of ontologyཿs formalism for the modeling of the ཿknowledge space࿝ related to the course can increase the sharable of learning objects among similar courses or better contextualize their role in the course. This paper addresses the design problem of an Adaptive hypermedia system by the definition of methodologies able to manage each its components, In particular an original user, learning contents, tracking strategies and adaptation model are developed. The proposed Adaptive Educational Hypermedia System has been integrated in an e-Learning platform and an experimental campaign has been conducted. In particular the proposed approach has been introduced in three different blended courses. A comparison with traditional approach has been described and the obtained results seem to be very promising.

  9. A new online secondary path modeling method for adaptive active structure vibration control

    This paper proposes a new variable step size FXLMS algorithm with an auxiliary noise power scheduling strategy for online secondary path modeling. The step size for the secondary path modeling filter and the gain of auxiliary noise are varied in accordance with the parameters available directly. The proposed method has a low computational complexity. Computer simulations show that an active vibration control system with the proposed method gives much better vibration attenuation and modeling accuracy at a faster convergence rate than existing methods. National Instruments’ CompactRIO is used as an embedded processor to control simply supported beam vibration. Experimental results indicate that the vibration of the beam has been effectively attenuated. (papers)

  10. Adaptive Environmental Source Localization and Tracking with Unknown Permittivity and Path Loss Coefficients

    Barış Fidan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Accurate signal-source and signal-reflector target localization tasks via mobile sensory units and wireless sensor networks (WSNs, including those for environmental monitoring via sensory UAVs, require precise knowledge of specific signal propagation properties of the environment, which are permittivity and path loss coefficients for the electromagnetic signal case. Thus, accurate estimation of these coefficients has significant importance for the accuracy of location estimates. In this paper, we propose a geometric cooperative technique to instantaneously estimate such coefficients, with details provided for received signal strength (RSS and time-of-flight (TOF-based range sensors. The proposed technique is integrated to a recursive least squares (RLS-based adaptive localization scheme and an adaptive motion control law, to construct adaptive target localization and adaptive target tracking algorithms, respectively, that are robust to uncertainties in aforementioned environmental signal propagation coefficients. The efficiency of the proposed adaptive localization and tracking techniques are both mathematically analysed and verified via simulation experiments.

  11. Determining paths by which farmers can adapt effectively to scarce freshwater resources

    Watson, R.; Hornberger, G.; Carrico, A. R.

    2012-12-01

    Stress on freshwater resources is a significant risk associated with climatic change. The risk is even greater given the expected changes in overall resource use as the developing world develops, as the world's population continues to grow, and as land use changes dramatically. Effective water management has implications for food security, health, and political stability worldwide. This is particularly true in developing regions heavily dependent on agriculture, and where agriculture depends on irrigation. Adaptation to water stress requires both managing water allocation among competing users and ensuring that each user is efficient in his or her use of a limited allotment: the problem is a quintessential common-pool resource (CPR) dilemma. In the future even more so than in the past, adaptation will be essential as the world evolves. The problem that we identify—determining paths by which farmers can adapt effectively to increasingly scarce freshwater resources—is one of great scientific and societal importance. The issue lies at the intersection of water-cycle processes and social-psychological processes that influence and are influenced by water availability and use. This intersection harbors intriguing unresolved scientific questions; advances in natural and social sciences will stem from attacks on the overall problem. The issue is societally compelling because the ability of the world to supply adequate food for a population expected to grow to over 9 billion by 2050 may well be determined by how farmers, consumers, and government institutions adapt to changing conditions of water availability. Major strides have been made in recent decades in understanding why Hardin's envisioned "tragedy of the commons" is avoided under certain circumstances, in some cases through self-organization rather than government intervention originally considered a necessity. Furthermore, we now know that the impacts of decisions about allocation and use of water can be

  12. Path Integral Molecular Dynamics within the Grand Canonical-like Adaptive Resolution Technique: Quantum-Classical Simulation of Liquid Water

    Agarwal, Animesh

    2015-01-01

    Quantum effects due to the spatial delocalization of light atoms are treated in molecular simulation via the path integral technique. Among several methods, Path Integral (PI) Molecular Dynamics (MD) is nowadays a powerful tool to investigate properties induced by spatial delocalization of atoms; however computationally this technique is very demanding. The abovementioned limitation implies the restriction of PIMD applications to relatively small systems and short time scales. One possible solution to overcome size and time limitation is to introduce PIMD algorithms into the Adaptive Resolution Simulation Scheme (AdResS). AdResS requires a relatively small region treated at path integral level and embeds it into a large molecular reservoir consisting of generic spherical coarse grained molecules. It was previously shown that the realization of the idea above, at a simple level, produced reasonable results for toy systems or simple/test systems like liquid parahydrogen. Encouraged by previous results, in this ...

  13. Adaptive capacities, path creation and variants of sectoral change: The case of the transformation of the German energy supply system

    Fuchs, Gerhard; Hinderer, Nele; Kungl, Gregor; Neukirch, Mario

    2012-01-01

    "Since the proclamation of the German 'Energiewende' by the Federal Government in 2011, the transition of the energy supply system has accelerated. In 2011, the 'Helmholtz-Alliance' - 'ENERGY TRANS - Future Infrastructures for Meeting Energy Demands. Towards Sustainability and Social Compatibility" - was launched to perform an interdisciplinary analysis of the social challenges presented by the energy transition. The study presented here, 'Adaptive Capacities, Path Creation, and Variants o...

  14. Thanatosis as an adaptive male mating strategy in the nuptial gift-giving spider Pisaura mirabilis

    Hansen, Line S.; Gonzalez, Sofía F.; Toft, Søren;

    2008-01-01

    Males and females often experience different optima in mating rate, which may cause evolution of female resistance to matings and male counter adaptations to increase mating rate. Males of the spider Pisaura mirabilis display a spectacular mating behavior involving a nuptial gift and thanatosis...... (death feigning). Thanatosis in a sexual context is exceptional and was suggested to function as an antipredation strategy toward potentially cannibalistic females. If thanatosis serves as a protection strategy, males should death feign in response to female aggression or when they are more vulnerable to...... attack. We tested these predictions in a factorial design: males that were handicapped (1 leg removed) and hence vulnerable and control males were paired with females that were more or less aggressive intrinsically (measured toward prey). In mating trials, we recorded the tendency of males to death feign...

  15. Giving a chance to the 2nd path: Focal points of the 62 immediate measures and chances of their political realization

    The Commission wants especially to give preference to the measures concerning improved energy utilization and energy conservation in the following 10 years; it wants, in some way, the making up of conservation techniques to be taken for granted as opposed to the expansion of nuclear energy utilization. In addition to this rather general recommendation a majority vote was made for those famous '62 recommendations of action'. It must be assumed that the public shall be convinced that there is a further demand for nuclear power plants only if anything has been made to close the supply gaps by using energy sources like conservation and solar energy. (orig./HSCH)

  16. An Adaptive Three-Dimensional Nonlinear Path Following Method for a Fix-Wing Micro Aerial Vehicle

    Cun-Xiao Miao

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an adaptive control approach of three‐dimensional (3D nonlinear path following for a fix‐wing micro aerial vehicle (MAV with wind disturbances in complicated terrain. We derive the control laws of course and flight path angle by the constructed Lyapunov function applying vector field theory based on the error equations in the Serret‐Frenet frame, which are built by virtue of the relationship between the nonlinear desired trajectory and MAV. The 3D desired trajectory is fitted by using the fifth‐order B‐splines method through a sequence of waypoints created and sent by the ground station. Furthermore, the control laws are proved to be converged asymptotically and stably based on Lyapunov stability arguments. The results of the flight test experiment show that the flight could perform well under wind disturbances with a good trajectory tracking precision and high flight quality.

  17. The optimal paths of climate change mitigation and adaptation under certainty and uncertainty

    Felgenhauer, T.; Bruin, de K.C.

    2009-01-01

    Tradeoffs between climate change mitigation and adaptation policies are explored under both certainty and uncertainty with learning using a numerical two-period decision model. We first replicate a version of the Adaptation in DICE climate model (AD-DICE) (de Bruin et al., 2009), which modifies the

  18. Scaling properties of evolutionary paths in a biophysical model of protein adaptation

    Manhart, Michael; Morozov, Alexandre V.

    2015-07-01

    The enormous size and complexity of genotypic sequence space frequently requires consideration of coarse-grained sequences in empirical models. We develop scaling relations to quantify the effect of this coarse-graining on properties of fitness landscapes and evolutionary paths. We first consider evolution on a simple Mount Fuji fitness landscape, focusing on how the length and predictability of evolutionary paths scale with the coarse-grained sequence length and alphabet. We obtain simple scaling relations for both the weak- and strong-selection limits, with a non-trivial crossover regime at intermediate selection strengths. We apply these results to evolution on a biophysical fitness landscape that describes how proteins evolve new binding interactions while maintaining their folding stability. We combine the scaling relations with numerical calculations for coarse-grained protein sequences to obtain quantitative properties of the model for realistic binding interfaces and a full amino acid alphabet.

  19. Path integral molecular dynamics within the grand canonical-like adaptive resolution technique: Simulation of liquid water

    Agarwal, Animesh, E-mail: animesh@zedat.fu-berlin.de; Delle Site, Luigi, E-mail: dellesite@fu-berlin.de [Institute for Mathematics, Freie Universität Berlin, Berlin (Germany)

    2015-09-07

    Quantum effects due to the spatial delocalization of light atoms are treated in molecular simulation via the path integral technique. Among several methods, Path Integral (PI) Molecular Dynamics (MD) is nowadays a powerful tool to investigate properties induced by spatial delocalization of atoms; however, computationally this technique is very demanding. The above mentioned limitation implies the restriction of PIMD applications to relatively small systems and short time scales. One of the possible solutions to overcome size and time limitation is to introduce PIMD algorithms into the Adaptive Resolution Simulation Scheme (AdResS). AdResS requires a relatively small region treated at path integral level and embeds it into a large molecular reservoir consisting of generic spherical coarse grained molecules. It was previously shown that the realization of the idea above, at a simple level, produced reasonable results for toy systems or simple/test systems like liquid parahydrogen. Encouraged by previous results, in this paper, we show the simulation of liquid water at room conditions where AdResS, in its latest and more accurate Grand-Canonical-like version (GC-AdResS), is merged with two of the most relevant PIMD techniques available in the literature. The comparison of our results with those reported in the literature and/or with those obtained from full PIMD simulations shows a highly satisfactory agreement.

  20. Path integral molecular dynamics within the grand canonical-like adaptive resolution technique: Simulation of liquid water

    Agarwal, Animesh; Delle Site, Luigi

    2015-09-01

    Quantum effects due to the spatial delocalization of light atoms are treated in molecular simulation via the path integral technique. Among several methods, Path Integral (PI) Molecular Dynamics (MD) is nowadays a powerful tool to investigate properties induced by spatial delocalization of atoms; however, computationally this technique is very demanding. The above mentioned limitation implies the restriction of PIMD applications to relatively small systems and short time scales. One of the possible solutions to overcome size and time limitation is to introduce PIMD algorithms into the Adaptive Resolution Simulation Scheme (AdResS). AdResS requires a relatively small region treated at path integral level and embeds it into a large molecular reservoir consisting of generic spherical coarse grained molecules. It was previously shown that the realization of the idea above, at a simple level, produced reasonable results for toy systems or simple/test systems like liquid parahydrogen. Encouraged by previous results, in this paper, we show the simulation of liquid water at room conditions where AdResS, in its latest and more accurate Grand-Canonical-like version (GC-AdResS), is merged with two of the most relevant PIMD techniques available in the literature. The comparison of our results with those reported in the literature and/or with those obtained from full PIMD simulations shows a highly satisfactory agreement.

  1. Path integral molecular dynamics within the grand canonical-like adaptive resolution technique: Simulation of liquid water

    Quantum effects due to the spatial delocalization of light atoms are treated in molecular simulation via the path integral technique. Among several methods, Path Integral (PI) Molecular Dynamics (MD) is nowadays a powerful tool to investigate properties induced by spatial delocalization of atoms; however, computationally this technique is very demanding. The above mentioned limitation implies the restriction of PIMD applications to relatively small systems and short time scales. One of the possible solutions to overcome size and time limitation is to introduce PIMD algorithms into the Adaptive Resolution Simulation Scheme (AdResS). AdResS requires a relatively small region treated at path integral level and embeds it into a large molecular reservoir consisting of generic spherical coarse grained molecules. It was previously shown that the realization of the idea above, at a simple level, produced reasonable results for toy systems or simple/test systems like liquid parahydrogen. Encouraged by previous results, in this paper, we show the simulation of liquid water at room conditions where AdResS, in its latest and more accurate Grand-Canonical-like version (GC-AdResS), is merged with two of the most relevant PIMD techniques available in the literature. The comparison of our results with those reported in the literature and/or with those obtained from full PIMD simulations shows a highly satisfactory agreement

  2. Path integral molecular dynamics within the grand canonical-like adaptive resolution technique: Simulation of liquid water.

    Agarwal, Animesh; Delle Site, Luigi

    2015-09-01

    Quantum effects due to the spatial delocalization of light atoms are treated in molecular simulation via the path integral technique. Among several methods, Path Integral (PI) Molecular Dynamics (MD) is nowadays a powerful tool to investigate properties induced by spatial delocalization of atoms; however, computationally this technique is very demanding. The above mentioned limitation implies the restriction of PIMD applications to relatively small systems and short time scales. One of the possible solutions to overcome size and time limitation is to introduce PIMD algorithms into the Adaptive Resolution Simulation Scheme (AdResS). AdResS requires a relatively small region treated at path integral level and embeds it into a large molecular reservoir consisting of generic spherical coarse grained molecules. It was previously shown that the realization of the idea above, at a simple level, produced reasonable results for toy systems or simple/test systems like liquid parahydrogen. Encouraged by previous results, in this paper, we show the simulation of liquid water at room conditions where AdResS, in its latest and more accurate Grand-Canonical-like version (GC-AdResS), is merged with two of the most relevant PIMD techniques available in the literature. The comparison of our results with those reported in the literature and/or with those obtained from full PIMD simulations shows a highly satisfactory agreement. PMID:26342354

  3. A Neural Path Integration Mechanism for Adaptive Vector Navigation in Autonomous Agents

    Goldschmidt, Dennis; Dasgupta, Sakyasingha; Wörgötter, Florentin;

    2015-01-01

    simulated sixlegged artificial agent. Input signals from an allothetic compass and odometry are sustained through leaky neural integrator circuits, which are then used to compute the home vector by local excitation-global inhibition interactions. The home vector is computed and represented in circular...... arrays of neurons, where compass directions are population-coded and linear displacements are rate-coded. The mechanism allows for robust homing behavior in the presence of external sensory noise. The emergent behavior of the controlled agent does not only show a robust solution for the problem of......Animals show remarkable capabilities in navigating their habitat in a fully autonomous and energy-efficient way. In many species, these capabilities rely on a process called path integration, which enables them to estimate their current location and to find their way back home after long...

  4. From Classical to Quantum and Back: A Hamiltonian Scheme for Adaptive Multiresolution Classical/Path-Integral Simulations.

    Kreis, Karsten; Tuckerman, Mark E; Donadio, Davide; Kremer, Kurt; Potestio, Raffaello

    2016-07-12

    Quantum delocalization of atomic nuclei affects the physical properties of many hydrogen-rich liquids and biological systems even at room temperature. In computer simulations, quantum nuclei can be modeled via the path-integral formulation of quantum statistical mechanics, which implies a substantial increase in computational overhead. By restricting the quantum description to a small spatial region, this cost can be significantly reduced. Herein, we derive a bottom-up, rigorous, Hamiltonian-based scheme that allows molecules to change from quantum to classical and vice versa on the fly as they diffuse through the system, both reducing overhead and making quantum grand-canonical simulations possible. The method is validated via simulations of low-temperature parahydrogen. Our adaptive resolution approach paves the way to efficient quantum simulations of biomolecules, membranes, and interfaces. PMID:27214610

  5. Adaptive Multi-Path Routing with Guaranteed Target-Delivery Ratio of Critical Events in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Baek, Jang Woon; Nam, Young Jin; Seo, Dae-Wha

    Wireless sensor networks are subject to node and link failures for a variety of reasons. This paper proposes a k-disjoint-path routing algorithm that varies the number of disjoint paths (k) in order to meet a target-delivery ratio of critical events and to reduce energy consumption. The proposed algorithm sends packets to the base station through a single path without the occurrence of critical events, however, it sends packets to the base station through k disjoint paths (k > 1) under the occurrence of critical events, where k is computed from a well-defined fault model. The proposed algorithm detects the occurrence of critical events by monitoring collected data patterns. The simulation results reveal that the proposed algorithm is more resilient to random node failure and patterned failure than other routing algorithms, and it also decreases energy consumption much more than the multi-path and path-repair algorithms.

  6. 适应性学习路径推荐算法及应用研究%Recommendation Algorithm and Application of Adaptive Learning Path

    赵呈领; 陈智慧; 黄志芳

    2015-01-01

    在适应性学习路径推荐中,推荐算法起着至关重要的作用。本研究从算法性质的角度归类,将学习路径推荐系统中的推荐算法归为三大类:智能优化算法、数据挖掘算法以及基于知识的推荐算法。结合已开发的学习路径推荐系统,本文从算法性能、学习路径推荐中考虑的因素及算法应用三方面进行比较与分析,总结出上述推荐算法在学习路径推荐中的应用策略和应用中的优势及不足,最后探讨了学习路径推荐的实践应用价值,以期为适应性学习路径推荐领域的研究提供有价值的参考与借鉴。%In the adaptive learning path recommendation, the recommendation algorithm plays a vital role. From the perspective of the nature of algorithm, the recommendation algorithm in learning path recommendation system are grouped into three categories:swarm intelligence optimization algorithm, data mining algorithms and knowledge-based recommendation algorithm. Combined with the developed recommendation system, the paper compared and analyzed from three aspects including performance of the algorithm, the parameter settings in the learning path recommendation and the application. the paper summarized the application strategies of relevant algorithm in the learning path recommendation, as well as the strengths and weaknesses in the application, and discussed the practical application value of learning path recommendation to provide valuable information and reference for research in the ifeld of adaptive learning path recommendation.

  7. Physarum Can Compute Shortest Paths

    Bonifaci, Vincenzo; Varma, Girish

    2011-01-01

    A mathematical model has been proposed by biologists to describe the feedback mechanism used by the Physarum Polycephalum slime mold to adapt its tubular channels while foraging two food sources $s_0$ and $s_1$. We give a proof of the fact that, under this model, the mass of the mold will eventually converge to the shortest $s_0$-$s_1$ path of the network that the mold lies on, independently of the structure of the network or of the initial mass distribution. This matches the experimental observations by the biologists and can be seen as an example of a "natural algorithm", that is, an algorithm developed by evolution over millions of years.

  8. Adapt

    Bargatze, L. F.

    2015-12-01

    Active Data Archive Product Tracking (ADAPT) is a collection of software routines that permits one to generate XML metadata files to describe and register data products in support of the NASA Heliophysics Virtual Observatory VxO effort. ADAPT is also a philosophy. The ADAPT concept is to use any and all available metadata associated with scientific data to produce XML metadata descriptions in a consistent, uniform, and organized fashion to provide blanket access to the full complement of data stored on a targeted data server. In this poster, we present an application of ADAPT to describe all of the data products that are stored by using the Common Data File (CDF) format served out by the CDAWEB and SPDF data servers hosted at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. These data servers are the primary repositories for NASA Heliophysics data. For this purpose, the ADAPT routines have been used to generate data resource descriptions by using an XML schema named Space Physics Archive, Search, and Extract (SPASE). SPASE is the designated standard for documenting Heliophysics data products, as adopted by the Heliophysics Data and Model Consortium. The set of SPASE XML resource descriptions produced by ADAPT includes high-level descriptions of numerical data products, display data products, or catalogs and also includes low-level "Granule" descriptions. A SPASE Granule is effectively a universal access metadata resource; a Granule associates an individual data file (e.g. a CDF file) with a "parent" high-level data resource description, assigns a resource identifier to the file, and lists the corresponding assess URL(s). The CDAWEB and SPDF file systems were queried to provide the input required by the ADAPT software to create an initial set of SPASE metadata resource descriptions. Then, the CDAWEB and SPDF data repositories were queried subsequently on a nightly basis and the CDF file lists were checked for any changes such as the occurrence of new, modified, or deleted

  9. Path Integral and Asset Pricing

    Zura Kakushadze

    2014-01-01

    We give a pragmatic/pedagogical discussion of using Euclidean path integral in asset pricing. We then illustrate the path integral approach on short-rate models. By understanding the change of path integral measure in the Vasicek/Hull-White model, we can apply the same techniques to "less-tractable" models such as the Black-Karasinski model. We give explicit formulas for computing the bond pricing function in such models in the analog of quantum mechanical "semiclassical" approximation. We al...

  10. Career Path Descriptions

    Charkiewicz, A

    2000-01-01

    Before the Career Path system, jobs were classified according to grades with general statutory definitions, guided by the "Job Catalogue" which defined 6 evaluation criteria with example illustrations in the form of "typical" job descriptions. Career Paths were given concise statutory definitions necessitating a method of description and evaluation adapted to their new wider-band salary concept. Evaluations were derived from the same 6 criteria but the typical descriptions became unusable. In 1999, a sub-group of the Standing Concertation Committee proposed a new guide for describing Career Paths, adapted to their wider career concept by expanding the 6 evaluation criteria into 9. For each criterion several levels were established tracing the expected evolution of job level profiles and personal competencies over their longer salary ranges. While providing more transparency to supervisors and staff, the Guide's official use would be by services responsible for vacancy notices, Career Path evaluations and rela...

  11. Giving an insulin injection

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000660.htm Giving an insulin injection To use the sharing features on this ... and syringes. Filling the Syringe - One Type of Insulin Wash your hands with soap and water. Dry ...

  12. Business Gift Giving Etiquette

    Paris, Dubravka

    2015-01-01

    Business world today is faced with cultural similarities and cultural gaps. Every business person should be familiar with the business etiquette, in order to avoid a cultural faux pas. The topic of this paper is business gift giving in various parts of the world with the special emphasis on the English speaking countries. It comprises the basic rules of business gift giving etiquette, the types of gifts, especially the difference between the gifts for clients, the gifts for employees and the ...

  13. Give blood at CERN

    SC Unit

    2008-01-01

    ACCIDENTS and ILLNESSES don’t take a break! DO SOMETHING AMAZING - GIVE BLOOD! IT’S IN ALL OUR INTERESTS. 30 July 2008 from 9.30 a.m. to 4 p.m. CERN RESTAURANT NOVAE First floor - Salle des Pas Perdus After you have given blood, you are invited to partake of refreshments kindly offered by NOVAE.

  14. Giving Students Feedback.

    Lowman, Joseph

    1987-01-01

    Some of the special challenges associated with evaluation and grading in the large class are discussed. Suggestions for evaluation methods include seeking clarity, reducing the stress of test administration, giving feedback, guarding against errors in record keeping, and returning exams efficiently and with respect. (MLW)

  15. Asian International Students at an Australian University: Mapping the Paths between Integrative Motivation, Competence in L2 Communication, Cross-Cultural Adaptation and Persistence with Structural Equation Modelling

    Yu, Baohua

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the interrelationships of integrative motivation, competence in second language (L2) communication, sociocultural adaptation, academic adaptation and persistence of international students at an Australian university. Structural equation modelling demonstrated that the integrative motivation of international students has a…

  16. How to Safely Give Acetaminophen

    ... All About Food Allergies How to Safely Give Acetaminophen KidsHealth > For Parents > How to Safely Give Acetaminophen ... without getting a doctor's OK first. What Is Acetaminophen Also Called? Acetaminophen is the generic name of ...

  17. Are stationary hyperinflation paths learnable?

    Adam, Klaus; W., George; Honkapohja, Seppo

    2003-01-01

    Earlier studies of the seigniorage inflation model have found that the high-inflation steady state is not stable under adaptive learning. We reconsider this issue and analyze the full set of solutions for the linearized model. Our main focus is on stationary hyperinflationary paths near the high-inflation steady state. The hyperinflationary paths are stable under learning if agents can utilize contemporaneous data. However, in an economy populated by a mixture of agents, some of whom only hav...

  18. Molecular path for ligand search

    Tao Lu; Yuan Yuan Qiao; Pan Wen Shen

    2011-01-01

    A ligand is a small molecule bind to several residues of a receptor. We adapt the concept of molecular path for effective ligand search with its contacting residues. Additionally, we allow wild type definitions on atoms and bonds of molecular paths for fuzzy algorithms on structural match. We choose hydrogen bond interactions to characterize the binding mode of a ligand by several proper molecular paths and use them to query the deposited ligands in PDBe that interact with their residues in the same way. Expression of molecular path and format of database entries are described with examples. Our molecular path provides a new approach to explore the ligand-receptor interactions and to provide structural framework reference on new ligand design.

  19. An improved adaptive artificial potential field method for the path planning of multi-robot%一种改进的多机器人路径规划自适应人工势场法

    高瑜; 过金超; 崔光照

    2013-01-01

    Based on the study of the traditional multi-robot path planning,an improved adaptive artificial potential field method was proposed.In this method,the local minimum problem of the traditional artificial potential field could be solved by setting the virtual target point for mobile robot to escape local minimum. At the same time,according to the task and speed of the robot,it used the adaptive priority strategy to real-ize the adaptive obstacle avoidance of the robot.The results of the simulation proved the effectiveness and feasibility of this method.%在研究多机器人路径规划传统方法的基础上,提出了一种改进的自适应人工势场法。该方法通过设置虚拟目标点来解决传统人工势场法易陷入局部极小点的问题,同时根据各个机器人所承担的任务和速度,采用自适应优先权策略来实现机器人之间的自适应避障。仿真实验验证了该方法的有效性和可行性。

  20. Path Integration in Conical Space

    Inomata, Akira; Junker, Georg

    2011-01-01

    Quantum mechanics in conical space is studied by the path integral method. It is shown that the curvature effect gives rise to an effective potential in the radial path integral. It is further shown that the radial path integral in conical space can be reduced to a form identical with that in flat space when the discrete angular momentum of each partial wave is replaced by a specific non-integral angular momentum. The effective potential is found proportional to the squared mean curvature of ...

  1. Gender differences in charitable giving

    Piper, Greg; Schnepf, Sylke Viola

    2008-01-01

    The predominant part of the literature states that women are more likely to donate to charitable causes but men are more generous in terms of the amount given. The latter result generally derives from the focus on mean amount given. This paper examines gender differences in giving focusing on the distribution of amounts donated and the probability of giving using UK micro-data on individual giving to charitable causes. Results indicate that most women are more generous than men also in te...

  2. Who gives for overseas development?

    Micklewright, John; Schnepf, Sylke Viola

    2007-01-01

    Individuals' donations to overseas charities are an important source of funding for development assistance from rich industrialised countries. But little is known about the nature of these charitable donations. The literature on giving focuses on total donations to all causes and does not identify separately the pattern or the determinants of giving to any particular cause. We investigate giving to overseas causes using UK survey microdata that record individuals' donations to different types...

  3. Lexicographic Path Induction

    Schürmann, Carsten; Sarnat, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    Programming languages theory is full of problems that reduce to proving the consistency of a logic, such as the normalization of typed lambda-calculi, the decidability of equality in type theory, equivalence testing of traces in security, etc. Although the principle of transfinite induction is...... routinely employed by logicians in proving such theorems, it is rarely used by programming languages researchers, who often prefer alternatives such as proofs by logical relations and model theoretic constructions. In this paper we harness the well-foundedness of the lexicographic path ordering to derive an...... induction principle that combines the comfort of structural induction with the expressive strength of transfinite induction. Using lexicographic path induction, we give a consistency proof of Martin-Löf’s intuitionistic theory of inductive definitions. The consistency of Heyting arithmetic follows directly...

  4. Fitting In, without Giving In

    Nielsen, Rikke K.; Straub-Bauer, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Adapting your leadership style to a different cultural setting can be tough, especially when the new setting demands a style different from how you would normally and comfortably behave at home. So how do you adapt your leadership behavior across cultures without losing yourself in the process?...

  5. Path Creation

    Karnøe, Peter; Garud, Raghu

    2012-01-01

    This paper employs path creation as a lens to follow the emergence of the Danish wind turbine cluster. Supplier competencies, regulations, user preferences and a market for wind power did not pre-exist; all had to emerge in a tranformative manner involving multiple actors and artefacts....... Competencies emerged through processes and mechanisms such as co-creation that implicated multiple learning processes. The process was not an orderly linear one as emergent contingencies influenced the learning processes. An implication is that public policy to catalyse clusters cannot be based on an...

  6. Deconstructing Giving: Donor Types and How They Give

    Lata Gangadharan; Philip J. Grossman; Kristy Jones

    2014-01-01

    We examine the extent to which individual donors are warm glow or altruistic givers and whether this distinction motivates giving decisions, particularly paternalism. Results from our experiment suggest that motivations for giving are heterogeneous, ranging from pure altruism to impure altruism to pure warm glow. Of 115 donors, in our setting 30 are purely altruistic givers, 36 are impure givers and up to 17 could be considered pure warm-glow givers. We find that donors are predominantly pate...

  7. Give Me Your John Hancock

    王海云

    2006-01-01

    @@ When you sign your name, that's known as giving your John Hancock. John Hancock is most famous for his bold1 signature2. On August 2, 1776, he was the first member of the Continental Congress3 to sign the Declaration of Independence4, the document first demanding independence for the United States from the rule of Great Britain. Hancock wrote his name in big, bold letters that day, acting as5 president of the Second Continental Congress. This inspired6 the phrase "give me your John Hancock", meaning "give me your signature".

  8. Path integral evaluation of Dbrane amplitudes

    Chaudhuri, Shyamoli

    1999-01-01

    We extend Polchinski's evaluation of the measure for the one-loop closed string path integral to open string tree amplitudes with boundaries and crosscaps embedded in Dbranes. We explain how the nonabelian limit of near-coincident Dbranes emerges in the path integral formalism. We give a careful path integral derivation of the cylinder amplitude including the modulus dependence of the volume of the conformal Killing group.

  9. Path Minima Queries in Dynamic Weighted Trees

    Davoodi, Pooya; Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Satti, Srinivasa Rao

    2011-01-01

    In the path minima problem on a tree, each edge is assigned a weight and a query asks for the edge with minimum weight on a path between two nodes. For the dynamic version of the problem, where the edge weights can be updated, we give data structures that achieve optimal query time\\todo{what about...

  10. Infinite Unicorn Paths and Gromov Boundaries

    Pho-on, Witsarut

    2015-01-01

    We extend the notion of unicorn paths between two arcs introduced by Hensel, Przytycki and Webb to the case where we replace one arc with a geodesic asymptotic to a lamination. Using these paths, we give new proofs of the results of Klarreich and Schleimer identifying the Gromov boundaries of the curve graph and the arc graph, respectively, as spaces of laminations.

  11. The Shortest Path with Intelligent Algorithm

    Surachai Panich

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Path planning algorithms need to be developed and implemented in a suitable manner to give better understanding about the intelligent system and also stimulates technological supply to enormous demands in an intelligent vehicle industry. Approach: This study concerned with intelligent path planning using A* search algorithm. Results: This study introduced intelligent path planning with A* search algorithm, which use to generate the most efficient path to goal. The algorithm was tested on simulator. Conclusion: This study is an implementation of a path planning for an intelligent path planning. The implementations are tested and verified with the simulation software. The path planning algorithms were selected for the implementation and to verify them.

  12. 基于网格化曲面的自适应自动铺放轨迹算法%Algorithm of Adaptive Path Planning for Automated Placement on Meshed Surface

    熊文磊; 肖军; 王显峰; 李俊斐; 黄志军

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes the causes of prepreg distortion and discusses its influence for the requirement of trajectory placement ability. A new algorithm of geodesic generation based on meshed surfaces is proposed according to the definition of geodesic, which possesses features of efficiency and highaccuracy, etc. Both the manufacturability of the prepreg and its distribution of strength in a product are considered in the algorithm of path planning, providing it with the ability of adapting to surfaces. The algorithm first figures out the maximum geodesic curvature allowed for the central path, and applies it to the design of trajectory. The trajectory obtained both has good ability of placement and can satisfy the demands of strength distribution in a product. Finally, the path planning aiming at one type of S-inlet with database of SQL Server and VC+ + is carried out. The disperse trajectory points are then fitted to be a curve in CATIA to verify the validity and effectiveness of the algorithm of geodesic generation and trajectory placement generation.%基于轨迹的可铺放性要求分析了铺放过程中预浸料产生畸变的原因及影响轨迹可铺放性的因素.根据测地线定义构造了一种基于网格化曲面的测地线新算法,具有高效率、高精度等特点;在此基础上综合考虑预浸料的可铺放性和构件强度分布要求,提出了具有曲面自适应功能的铺放轨迹算法,可根据预浸料带宽计算得到铺放轨迹容许的最大测地曲率,并将其运用于铺放轨迹设计,使轨迹能够保证预浸料良好可铺放性的同时又满足构件的强度分布要求.最后通过数据库SQL Server和VC++针对某型号S型进气道进行铺放轨迹设计,在CATIA中将计算获取的离散轨迹点拟合成曲线并进行了实际的铺放试验,验证了测地线生成算法和铺放轨迹生成算法的正确性和有效性.

  13. 基于白适应蚁群算法的无人飞行器航迹规划%Unmanned aerial vehicle flight path planning based on adaptive ant colony optimization algorithm

    胡中华; 赵敏; 刘世豪; 章婷

    2012-01-01

    To solve the problem of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle(UAV)route planning, Adaptive Ant Golony Optlmiza- tion(AACO)algorithm was proposed. Different from the global search mode of standard Ant Colony Optimizatio (ACO), local search mode was adopted by AACO. Based on the relative position of starting node and destination node, one of the appropriate search mode in four was selected, and transition probabilities of each candidate node were calculated. The next node was selected according to the roulette principle. The simulation result showed that AACO algorithm had advantages such as few search nodes, quick speed and so on. It could reduce flight path cost and computing time. In addition, AACO could also avoided singular flight path segment, thus the attained practical flight path could fly was guaranteed. Therefore,the performance of AACO was much better than standard ACO.%为求解无人飞行器航迹规划问题,提出自适应蚁群算法,区别于标准蚁群算法的全部搜索模式,该算法采用局部搜索模式。首先根据起始节点与目标节点的相对位置关系选择相应的搜索模式,然后计算各个待选节点的转移概率,最后按照轮盘赌规则选择下一个节点。仿真结果表明,自适应蚁群算法具有搜寻节点数少、速度快等优点,在降低了航迹代价的同时,减小了计算时间。此外,自适应蚁群算法可以避免奇异航迹段的出现,从而保证所获的航迹实际可飞,表明所提算法整体性能明显较标准蚁群算法优异。

  14. Shortest Paths between Shortest Paths and Independent Sets

    Kamiński, Marcin; Medvedev, Paul; Milanič, Martin

    We study problems of reconfiguration of shortest paths in graphs. We prove that the shortest reconfiguration sequence can be exponential in the size of the graph and that it is NP-hard to compute the shortest reconfiguration sequence even when we know that the sequence has polynomial length. Moreover, we also study reconfiguration of independent sets in three different models and analyze relationships between these models, observing that shortest path reconfiguration is a special case of independent set reconfiguration in perfect graphs, under any of the three models. Finally, we give polynomial results for restricted classes of graphs (even-hole-free and P 4-free graphs).

  15. Give Someone the Cold Shoulder

    程炜

    2002-01-01

    The snowman in this illustration is happy to allow a bird to rest on its cold shoulder.., but that's not what this idiom means.To give someone the cold shoulder is to be un-friendly, usually by ignoring them.

  16. Paths of algebraic hyperbolic curves

    Ya-juan LI; Li-zheng LU; Guo-zhao WANG

    2008-01-01

    Cubic algebraic hyperbolic (AH) Bezier curves and AH spline curves are defined with a positive parameter α in the space spanned by {1, t, sinht, cosht}. Modifying the value of α yields a family of AH Bezier or spline curves with the family parameter α. For a fixed point on the original curve, it will move on a defined curve called "path of AH curve" (AH Bezier and AH spline curves) when α changes. We describe the geometric effects of the paths and give a method to specify a curve passing through a given point.

  17. Ranking paths in stochastic time-dependent networks

    Nielsen, Lars Relund; Andersen, Kim Allan; Pretolani, Daniele D.

    2014-01-01

    some particular cases an origin–destination path must be chosen a priori, since time-adaptive choices are not allowed. Unfortunately, finding the a priori shortest path is an NP-hard problem. In this paper, we propose a solution method for the a priori shortest path problem, and we show that it can be...

  18. 角色适应及职业紧张对护士组织氛围影响路径分析%Path analysis on the effect of role adaptation and job stress to nurses'organizational climate

    罗艺; 曹小萍; 孟润堂; 刘冰

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨护士角色适应、职业紧张对组织氛围的影响及其相互作用。方法采用多阶段抽样法抽取湖北省十堰市579名护理人员,采用医院组织气氛量表、职业紧张简洁量表和护士角色适应量表进行问卷调查。采用SPSS 18.0统计软件进行Spearman相关分析和路径分析。结果护士组织氛围处于中等偏上水平,职业紧张处于中等水平,角色适应处于中等偏下水平。职业紧张的工作控制维度和工作支持维度呈正相关[ Spearman相关系数(rS)=0.514, P<0.01]。角色适应的工作与家人维度和护理者与医院职工维度呈正相关(rS =0.327,P<0.01),和工作与本我维度呈正相关(rS=0.419, P<0.01)。角色适应、工作控制维度和工作支持维度对组织氛围的标准回归系数分别为0.386、-0.232、-0.411(P<0.01)。工作需求、工作控制和工作支持3个维度对角色适应的标准回归系数分别为-0.377、-0.126、-0.289(P<0.01)。职业紧张3个维度均直接反向影响角色适应,角色适应直接正向作用于组织氛围,职业紧张的工作需求维度可通过角色适应间接作用于组织氛围。结论职业紧张反向影响角色适应,角色适应正向作用于组织氛围,职业紧张的工作需求维度在角色适应与组织氛围之间起中介作用。%Objective To explore the effect of nursing role adaptation , occupational stress on organizational climate and its interaction.Methods Five hundred and seventy-nine nurses participated in the study according to multi-stage stratified sampling and the questionnaires of Organizational Climate Questionnaire , Brief Job Stress Questionnaire and Role Adapta-tion Questionnaire .Spearman correlation analysis and Path analysis were performed by SPSS 18.0 statistical software . Results The score of nurses ’ organizational climate was higher than the average level

  19. Robot path planning in dynamic environment based on reinforcement learning

    2001-01-01

    Proposes an adaptive learning method based on reinforcement learning for robot path planning prob lem, which enables the robot to adaptively learn and perform effective path planning, to avoid the moving obsta cles and reach the target. Thereby achieving automatic construction of path planning strategy and making the system adaptive to multi-robots system dynamic environments, and concludes from computer simulation experi ment that the method is powerful to solve the problem of multi-robot path planning, and it is a meaningful try to apply reinforcement learning techniques in multi-robot systems to develop the system's intelligence degree.

  20. Giving a grand rounds presentation.

    Morrison, Laura J; Portenoy, Russell

    2010-12-01

    Giving a Grand Rounds presentation provides the hospice and palliative medicine subspecialist with the occasion to participate in a time-honored and respected event. It remains an opportunity to promote the discipline, support institutional culture change, and favorably influence the attitudes, knowledge, skills, and performance of colleagues. For those pursuing academic careers, it also is a chance to establish academic currency and develop teaching and presentation skills. In most academic settings, the format of Grand Rounds has shifted over time from a patient and problem-based discussion to a didactic, topic-focused lecture. A body of literature questions the value of this shift toward a more passive learner. Limited evidence prevents a definitive answer but many advocate for the integration of more interactive methods to improve the effectiveness of Grand Rounds. This article provides a flexible framework to guide those preparing to give a Grand Rounds and those teaching and supporting others to do so. To do this well, adult learning principles must be thoughtfully incorporated into a presentation style and method appropriate to the venue. The approach emphasizes learner-centeredness, interactive strategies, and evaluation. Room for creativity exists at every step and can add enjoyment and challenge along the way. PMID:21155643

  1. K shortest paths in stochastic time-dependent networks

    Nielsen, Lars Relund; Pretolani, Daniele; Andersen, Kim Allan

    2004-01-01

    A substantial amount of research has been devoted to the shortest path problem in networks where travel times are stochastic or (deterministic and) time-dependent. More recently, a growing interest has been attracted by networks that are both stochastic and time-dependent. In these networks, the...... best route choice is not necessarily a path, but rather a time-adaptive strategy that assigns successors to nodes as a function of time. In some particular cases, the shortest origin-destination path must nevertheless be chosen a priori, since time-adaptive choices are not allowed. Unfortunately......, finding the a priori shortest path is NP-hard, while the best time-adaptive strategy can be found in polynomial time. In this paper, we propose a solution method for the a priori shortest path problem, and we show that it can be easily adapted to the ranking of the first K shortest paths. Moreover, we...

  2. Analysis gives sensibility two models gives migration and transport gives radionuclides in the geosphere

    An sensibility analysis it was applied two models, the first one, a model compressible for the near field (I finish source) The second, a simple model gives migration and transport radionuclides in the geosphere. The study was developed varying the securities ed simultaneously at the same time each parameter and observing the results in changes in the output and input. The intention in analysis it is to determine the parameter that but it influences in the variation the concentration. The statistical technique Regression it was employee in the study. This statistical method is used to analyze the dependence between a dependent variable and an or but independent variables

  3. Path Separability of Graphs

    Diot, Emilie; Gavoille, Cyril

    In this paper we investigate the structural properties of k-path separable graphs, that are the graphs that can be separated by a set of k shortest paths. We identify several graph families having such path separability, and we show that this property is closed under minor taking. In particular we establish a list of forbidden minors for 1-path separable graphs.

  4. Directed Paths in a Wedge

    van Rensburg, E J J; Rechnitzer, A

    2007-01-01

    Directed paths have been used extensively in the scientific literature as a model of a linear polymer. Such paths models in particular the conformational entropy of a linear polymer and the effects it has on the free energy. These directed models are simplified versions of the self-avoiding walk, but they do nevertheless give insight into the phase behaviour of a polymer, and also serve as a tool to study the effects of conformational degrees of freedom in the behaviour of a linear polymer. In this paper we examine a directed path model of a linear polymer in a confining geometry (a wedge). The main focus of our attention is $c_n$, the number of directed lattice paths of length $n$ steps which takes steps in the North-East and South-East directions and which is confined to the wedge $Y=\\pm X/p$, where $p$ is an integer. In this paper we examine the case $p=2$ in detail, and we determine the generating function using the iterated kernel method. We also examine the asymtotics of $c_n$. In particular, we show th...

  5. The universal path integral

    Lloyd, Seth; Dreyer, Olaf

    2013-01-01

    Path integrals represent a powerful route to quantization: they calculate probabilities by summing over classical configurations of variables such as fields, assigning each configuration a phase equal to the action of that configuration. This paper defines a universal path integral, which sums over all computable structures. This path integral contains as sub-integrals all possible computable path integrals, including those of field theory, the standard model of elementary particles, discrete...

  6. Fractional path planning and path tracking

    This paper presents the main results of the application of fractional approach in path planning and path tracking. A new robust path planning design for mobile robot was studied in dynamic environment. The normalized attractive force applied to the robot is based on a fictitious fractional attractive potential. This method allows to obtain robust path planning despite robot mass variation. The danger level of each obstacles is characterized by the fractional order of the repulsive potential of the obstacles. Under these conditions, the robot dynamic behavior was studied by analyzing its X - Y path planning with dynamic target or dynamic obstacles. The case of simultaneously mobile obstacles and target is also considered. The influence of the robot mass variation is studied and the robustness analysis of the obtained path shows the robustness improvement due to the non integer order properties. Pre shaping approach is used to reduce system vibration in motion control. Desired systems inputs are altered so that the system finishes the requested move without residual vibration. This technique, developed by N.C. Singer and W.P.Seering, is used for flexible structure control, particularly in the aerospace field. In a previous work, this method was extended for explicit fractional derivative systems and applied to second generation CRONE control, the robustness was also studied. CRONE (the French acronym of Commande Robuste d'Ordre Non Entier) control system design is a frequency-domain based methodology using complex fractional integration.

  7. Paths to iDeath

    Vincent DUSSOL

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available I am grateful to Ray DiPalma for his generously giving me access to copies of An August Daybook (2005, Mules at the Wake (2006 and Ascoso (2006. All other quotes from DiPalma are from a private correspondence.There is a delicate balance in iDEATH. It suits us.(Richard Brautigan In Watermelon SugarAn autobiography is about an “I” and it traces a path. But the “I” and teleology have long been called into question by poets. This interrogation continues: wanderers blaze new trails. We propose...

  8. Adaptable positioner

    This paper describes the circuits and programs in assembly language, developed to control the two DC motors that give mobility to a mechanical arm with two degrees of freedom. As a whole, the system is based in a adaptable regulator designed around a 8 bit microprocessor that, starting from a mode of regulation based in the successive approximation method, evolve to another mode through which, only one approximation is sufficient to get the right position of each motor. (Author) 22 fig. 6 ref

  9. Adaptive positioner

    This paper describes the circuits and programs in assembly language, developed to control the two DC motors that give mobility to a mechanical arm with two degrees of freedom. As a whole, the system is based in a adaptable regulator designed around a 8 bit microprocessor that, starting from a mode of regulation based in the successive approximation method, evolve to another mode through which, only one approximation is sufficient to get the right position of each motor. (Author) 6 refs

  10. Path Integral Methods for Stochastic Differential Equations

    Chow, Carson C.; Buice, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Stochastic differential equations (SDEs) have multiple applications in mathematical neuroscience and are notoriously difficult. Here, we give a self-contained pedagogical review of perturbative field theoretic and path integral methods to calculate moments of the probability density function of SDEs. The methods can be extended to high dimensional systems such as networks of coupled neurons and even deterministic systems with quenched disorder.

  11. Charitable Giving Expenditures and the Faith Factor

    Vince E. Showers; Linda S. Showers; Jeri M. Beggs; James E. Cox, Jr.

    2011-01-01

    Using a permanent income hypothesis approach and an income-giving status interaction effect, a double hurdle model provides evidence of significant differences from the impact of household income and various household characteristics on both a household's likelihood of giving and its level of giving to religion, charity, education, others outside the household, and politics. An analysis of resulting income elasticity estimates revealed that households consider religious giving a necessity goo...

  12. End Simplicial Vertices in Path Graphs

    Gutierrez Marisa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A graph is a path graph if there is a tree, called UV -model, whose vertices are the maximal cliques of the graph and for each vertex x of the graph the set of maximal cliques that contains it induces a path in the tree. A graph is an interval graph if there is a UV -model that is a path, called an interval model. Gimbel [3] characterized those vertices in interval graphs for which there is some interval model where the interval corresponding to those vertices is an end interval. In this work, we give a characterization of those simplicial vertices x in path graphs for which there is some UV -model where the maximal clique containing x is a leaf in this UV -model.

  13. Charitable giving expenditures and the faith factor.

    Showers, Vince E; Showers, Linda S; Beggs, Jeri M; Cox, James E

    2011-01-01

    Using a permanent income hypothesis approach and an income-giving status interaction effect, a double hurdle model provides evidence of significant differences from the impact of household income and various household characteristics on both a household's likelihood of giving and its level of giving to religion, charity, education, others outside the household, and politics. An analysis of resulting income elasticity estimates revealed that households consider religious giving a necessity good at all levels of income, while other categories of giving are generally found to be luxury goods. Further, those who gave to religion were found to give more to education and charity then those not giving to religion, and higher education households were more likely to give to religion than households with less education. This analysis suggests that there may be more to religious giving behavior than has been assumed in prior studies and underscores the need for further research into the motivation for religious giving. Specifically, these findings point to an enduring, internal motivation for giving rather than an external, “What do I get for what I give,” motive. PMID:21322897

  14. Income Tax Policy and Charitable Giving

    Brooks, Arthur C.

    2007-01-01

    Many studies over the past 20 years have looked at the response of charitable donations to tax incentives--the tax price elasticity of giving. Generally, authors have assumed this elasticity is constant across all types of giving. Using the 2001 Panel Study of Income Dynamics data on charitable giving, this paper estimates the tax price elasticity…

  15. Path Problems in Networks

    Baras, John

    2010-01-01

    The algebraic path problem is a generalization of the shortest path problem in graphs. Various instances of this abstract problem have appeared in the literature, and similar solutions have been independently discovered and rediscovered. The repeated appearance of a problem is evidence of its relevance. This book aims to help current and future researchers add this powerful tool to their arsenal, so that they can easily identify and use it in their own work. Path problems in networks can be conceptually divided into two parts: A distillation of the extensive theory behind the algebraic path pr

  16. Adaptive versus non-adaptive strategies for quantum channel discrimination

    Harrow, Aram W.; Hassidim, Avinatan; Leung, Debbie W.; Watrous, John

    2009-01-01

    We provide a simple example that illustrates the advantage of adaptive over non-adaptive strategies for quantum channel discrimination. In particular, we give a pair of entanglement-breaking channels that can be perfectly discriminated by means of an adaptive strategy that requires just two channel evaluations, but for which no non-adaptive strategy can give a perfect discrimination using any finite number of channel evaluations.

  17. Mapping the imaginary of charitable giving

    Bajde, Domen

    2012-01-01

    The meaningfulness of charitable giving is largely owed to the imaginary conceptions that underpin this form of giving. Building on Taylor's notion of “social imaginary” and Godelier's work on “gift imaginary,” we theorize the imaginary of charitable giving. Through a combination of qualitative m...... across relatively stable assemblages of conceptions of poverty, donors, end-recipients and charitable giving. These assemblages are suggested to form a multifaceted imaginary that is both cultural (shared) and personal (individually performed).......The meaningfulness of charitable giving is largely owed to the imaginary conceptions that underpin this form of giving. Building on Taylor's notion of “social imaginary” and Godelier's work on “gift imaginary,” we theorize the imaginary of charitable giving. Through a combination of qualitative...

  18. The maximal commutative subalgebra of a Leavitt path algebra

    Canto, Cristóbal Gil; Nasr-Isfahani, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    For any unital commutative ring $R$ and for a graph $E$, we identify a maximal commutative subalgebra of the Leavitt path algebra of $E$ with coefficients in $R$. Besides we are able to characterize injectivity of representations which gives a generalization of Cuntz-Krieger uniqueness theorem, and by other hand, to generalize and simplify the result about commutative Leavitt path algebras over fields.

  19. Hamiltonian Paths in Two Classes of Grid Graphs

    Keshavarz-Kohjerdi, Fatemeh; Bagheri, Alireza

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we give the necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of Hamiltonian paths in $L-$alphabet and $C-$alphabet grid graphs. We also present a linear-time algorithm for finding Hamiltonian paths in these graphs.

  20. Multi-Dimensional Path Queries

    Bækgaard, Lars

    1998-01-01

    to create nested path structures. We present an SQL-like query language that is based on path expressions and we show how to use it to express multi-dimensional path queries that are suited for advanced data analysis in decision support environments like data warehousing environments......We present the path-relationship model that supports multi-dimensional data modeling and querying. A path-relationship database is composed of sets of paths and sets of relationships. A path is a sequence of related elements (atoms, paths, and sets of paths). A relationship is a binary path that...

  1. Identification Method of Attack Path Based on Immune Intrusion Detection

    Wenhua Huang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This thesis takes researches on the immune intrusion detection and IP trace back technology. To find out the network data features of the real-time analyses, the distributed immune intrusion detection system and the packet marking theory are used; to guide the dynamically processing of path signs technology, the immune intrusion detection system is used; what’s more, to dynamically adaptive different methods of characteristics of network data, the path signs technology is adopted. After that, the attack paths can be quickly identified to provide path information for feature detector on attack path in the immune intrusion detection system. Experiment results show that this scheme can quickly reconstruct the attack path information, and the performance on the aspects of the convergence is with efficiency rate and false positive rate, which is superior to the current probabilistic packet marking algorithm and can provide characteristic path information for immune intrusion detection system

  2. Path integrals for pedestrians

    Gozzi, Ennio; Pagani, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    This book serves as a pedagogical tool to teach path integrals to students and provide work-out problems. It covers the path integral for Wigner functions and for classical mechanics. This book is also useful for researchers and professionals not familiar with the topics but are interested to learn.

  3. Path dependence and creation

    Garud, Raghu; Karnøe, Peter

    the place of agency in these theories that take history so seriously. In the end, they are as interested in path creation and destruction as they are in path dependence. This book is compiled of both theoretical and empirical writing. It shows relatively well-known industries such as the automobile...

  4. Phase space representations and path integrals

    Within frameworks of phase space representations in quantum mechanics and quantum field theory the Wigner distribution functions are considered, which are solutions of corresponding generalized Liouville equations. A derivation is given for representation of these distribution functions (solving of the Liouville equation) in the form of functional integrals (method is analogous to the Feynman path integral one for amplitudes). This way gives a full equality of coordinates and momenta. The expressions found are also reduced to amplitudes in the form of Feynman path integrals. A formal transition to the classical limit (h=0) is considered. Some relations of the theory of phase representations are reviewed

  5. Quantum Thermal Bath for Path Integral Molecular Dynamics Simulation.

    Brieuc, Fabien; Dammak, Hichem; Hayoun, Marc

    2016-03-01

    The quantum thermal bath (QTB) method has been recently developed to account for the quantum nature of the nuclei by using standard molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. QTB-MD is an efficient but approximate method when dealing with strongly anharmonic systems, while path integral molecular dynamics (PIMD) gives exact results but in a huge amount of computation time. The QTB and PIMD methods have been combined in order to improve the PIMD convergence or correct the failures of the QTB-MD technique. Therefore, a new power spectral density of the random force within the QTB has been developed. A modified centroid-virial estimator of the kinetic energy, especially adapted to QTB-PIMD, has also been proposed. The method is applied to selected systems: a one-dimensional double-well system, a ferroelectric phase transition, and the position distribution of an hydrogen atom in a fuel cell material. The advantage of the QTB-PIMD method is its ability to give exact results with a more reasonable computation time for strongly anharmonic systems. PMID:26799437

  6. Pulled directed lattice paths

    Van Rensburg, E J Janse, E-mail: rensburg@yorku.c [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, York University, Toronto, Ontario M3J 1P3 (Canada)

    2010-05-28

    The generating functions of models of directed walks pulled by an external force f are determined using the kernel method. These paths are models of linear polymers subject to an external force. The generating function is related to the generating function of ballot paths, and has an unexpected and non-physical singularity for the model of Dyck paths pulled at its central vertex. In each model the force-extension curve is determined exactly, and has a sigmoid shape partially given by Ctanh (cf) if f is the applied force and where c and C are the model-dependent constants. This result is consistent with previous results for models of pulled directed paths, and also with data obtained from the numerical simulation of self-avoiding walk models of linear polymers.

  7. Path Optimization Using APSO

    Deepak Goyal

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the malicious node detection and path optimization problem for wireless sensor networks. Malicious node detection in neighborhood is a needed because that node may cause incorrect decisions or energy depletion. In this paper APSO (combination of Artificial bee colony and particular swarm optimization is used to choose an optimized path. Through this improved version we will overcome the disadvantage of local optimal which comes when we use PSO approach.

  8. Path Optimization Using APSO

    Deepak Goyal; Malay Ranjan Tripathy

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the malicious node detection and path optimization problem for wireless sensor networks. Malicious node detection in neighborhood is a needed because that node may cause incorrect decisions or energy depletion. In this paper APSO (combination of Artificial bee colony and particular swarm optimization) is used to choose an optimized path. Through this improved version we will overcome the disadvantage of local optimal which comes when we use PSO approach.

  9. Ipel educative path

    A presentation of the environmental focus of the company and its goals to the professional as well as laic public can be presented very effectively also by educative paths. On one hand, they present natural and cultural and historical features of the area but since all the objects created by human activity are located directly in this area, the paths can be used also for stressing the purpose of these objects out, on the other hand. (author)

  10. Robot Swarms in an Uncertain World: Controllable Adaptability

    Alexandr Shillerov

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available There is a belief that complexity and chaos are essential for adaptability. But life deals with complexity every moment, without the chaos that engineers fear so, by invoking goal-directed behaviour. Goals can be programmed. That is why living organisms give us hope to achieve adaptability in robots. In this paper a method for the description of a goal-directed, or programmed, behaviour, interacting with uncertainty of environment, is described. We suggest reducing the structural (goals, intentions and stochastic components (probability to realise the goal of individual behaviour to random variables with nominal values to apply probabilistic approach. This allowed us to use a Normalized Entropy Index to detect the system state by estimating the contribution of each agent to the group behaviour. The number of possible group states is 27. We argue that adaptation has a limited number of possible paths between these 27 states. Paths and states can be programmed so that after adjustment to any particular case of task and conditions, adaptability will never involve chaos. We suggest the application of the model to operation of robots or other devices in remote and/or dangerous places.

  11. Self-calibrating common-path interferometry.

    Porras-Aguilar, Rosario; Falaggis, Konstantinos; Ramirez-San-Juan, Julio C; Ramos-Garcia, Ruben

    2015-02-01

    A quantitative phase measuring technique is presented that estimates the object phase from a series of phase shifted interferograms that are obtained in a common-path configuration with unknown phase shifts. The derived random phase shifting algorithm for common-path interferometers is based on the Generalized Phase Contrast theory [pl. Opt.40(2), 268 (2001)10.1063/1.1404846], which accounts for the particular image formation and includes effects that are not present in two-beam interferometry. It is shown experimentally that this technique can be used within common-path configurations employing nonlinear liquid crystal materials as self-induced phase filters for quantitative phase imaging without the need of phase shift calibrations. The advantages of such liquid crystal elements compared to spatial light modulator based solutions are given by the cost-effectiveness, self-alignment, and the generation of diminutive dimensions of the phase filter size, giving unique performance advantages. PMID:25836191

  12. Giving the 'Green Light' to Migraine Relief

    ... fullstory_158888.html Giving the 'Green Light' to Migraine Relief Experimental light therapy finds it can ease ... light -- literally -- on a potential means of easing migraine pain. Researchers in Boston exposed 69 migraine patients ...

  13. Know Concentration Before Giving Acetaminophen to Infants

    ... For Consumers Consumer Updates Know Concentration Before Giving Acetaminophen to Infants Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... Consumer Updates RSS Feed Download PDF (221 K) Acetaminophen Safety (Podcast) On this page Overdosing Has Been ...

  14. Lament: giving words to nurses' grief.

    Lick, Renee C

    2012-01-01

    Nurses are intimately present with people who are seriously ill, suffering and dying--giving rise to the need to cry out and give words to personal pain and grief. Practicing a regular rhythm of lament to God as found in the psalms of the Bible can assist nurses in coping with grief and prepare them to continue to care for the hurting with God's strength and hope. PMID:22866376

  15. Differential Equations driven by \\Pi-rough paths

    Gyurkó, Lajos Gergely

    2012-01-01

    This paper revisits the concept of rough paths of inhomogeneous degree of smoothness (geometric \\Pi-rough paths in our terminology) sketched by Lyons ("Differential equations driven by rough signals", Revista Mathematica Iber. Vol 14, Nr. 2,215-310, 1998). Although geometric \\Pi-rough paths can be treated as p-rough paths for a sufficiently large p and the theory of integration of Lip-\\gamma one-forms (\\gamma>p-1) along geometric p-rough paths applies, we prove the existence of integrals of one-forms under weaker conditions. Moreover, we consider differential equations driven by geometric \\Pi-rough paths and give sufficient conditions for existence and uniqueness of solution.

  16. EPISTEMOLOGY, TRANSLATION AND A PATH FOR MEANING

    Heidy Gutierrez

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: Basically, this essay traces an epistemological line. It starts by mentioning how positivism has influenced thought and knowledge today, especially in the field of Translation Studies. There is also reference to the influence of continental philosophy, known as well as post-structuralism and its influence on what has been called the Cultural Turn in Translation Studies. From both paradigms, scholars work hard in order to give a scientific status to the discipline. In his path to...

  17. Optimal Holder exponent for the SLE path

    Johansson, Fredrik; Lawler, Gregory F.

    2009-01-01

    We prove an upper bound on the optimal H\\"older exponent for the chordal SLE path parameterized by capacity and thereby establish the optimal exponent as conjectured by J. Lind. We also give a new proof of the lower bound. Our proofs are based on the sharp estimates of moments of the derivative of the inverse map. In particular, we improve an estimate of the second author.

  18. On path hypercompositions in graphs and automata

    Massouros Christos G.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paths in graphs define hypercompositions in the set of their vertices and therefore it is feasible to associate hypercompositional structures to each graph. Similarly, the strings of letters from their alphabet, define hypercompositions in the automata, which in turn define the associated hypergroups to the automata. The study of the associated hypercompositional structures gives results in both, graphs and automata theory.

  19. Shortest Paths in Microseconds

    Agarwal, Rachit; Godfrey, P Brighten; Zhao, Ben Y

    2013-01-01

    Computing shortest paths is a fundamental primitive for several social network applications including socially-sensitive ranking, location-aware search, social auctions and social network privacy. Since these applications compute paths in response to a user query, the goal is to minimize latency while maintaining feasible memory requirements. We present ASAP, a system that achieves this goal by exploiting the structure of social networks. ASAP preprocesses a given network to compute and store a partial shortest path tree (PSPT) for each node. The PSPTs have the property that for any two nodes, each edge along the shortest path is with high probability contained in the PSPT of at least one of the nodes. We show that the structure of social networks enable the PSPT of each node to be an extremely small fraction of the entire network; hence, PSPTs can be stored efficiently and each shortest path can be computed extremely quickly. For a real network with 5 million nodes and 69 million edges, ASAP computes a short...

  20. Unbiased sampling of lattice Hamilton path ensembles

    Mansfield, Marc L.

    2006-10-01

    Hamilton paths, or Hamiltonian paths, are walks on a lattice which visit each site exactly once. They have been proposed as models of globular proteins and of compact polymers. A previously published algorithm [Mansfield, Macromolecules 27, 5924 (1994)] for sampling Hamilton paths on simple square and simple cubic lattices is tested for bias and for efficiency. Because the algorithm is a Metropolis Monte Carlo technique obviously satisfying detailed balance, we need only demonstrate ergodicity to ensure unbiased sampling. Two different tests for ergodicity (exact enumeration on small lattices, nonexhaustive enumeration on larger lattices) demonstrate ergodicity unequivocally for small lattices and provide strong support for ergodicity on larger lattices. Two other sampling algorithms [Ramakrishnan et al., J. Chem. Phys. 103, 7592 (1995); Lua et al., Polymer 45, 717 (2004)] are both known to produce biases on both 2×2×2 and 3×3×3 lattices, but it is shown here that the current algorithm gives unbiased sampling on these same lattices. Successive Hamilton paths are strongly correlated, so that many iterations are required between statistically independent samples. Rules for estimating the number of iterations needed to dissipate these correlations are given. However, the iteration time is so fast that the efficiency is still very good except on extremely large lattices. For example, even on lattices of total size 10×10×10 we are able to generate tens of thousands of uncorrelated Hamilton paths per hour of CPU time.

  1. Paths correlation matrix.

    Qian, Weixian; Zhou, Xiaojun; Lu, Yingcheng; Xu, Jiang

    2015-09-15

    Both the Jones and Mueller matrices encounter difficulties when physically modeling mixed materials or rough surfaces due to the complexity of light-matter interactions. To address these issues, we derived a matrix called the paths correlation matrix (PCM), which is a probabilistic mixture of Jones matrices of every light propagation path. Because PCM is related to actual light propagation paths, it is well suited for physical modeling. Experiments were performed, and the reflection PCM of a mixture of polypropylene and graphite was measured. The PCM of the mixed sample was accurately decomposed into pure polypropylene's single reflection, pure graphite's single reflection, and depolarization caused by multiple reflections, which is consistent with the theoretical derivation. Reflection parameters of rough surface can be calculated from PCM decomposition, and the results fit well with the theoretical calculations provided by the Fresnel equations. These theoretical and experimental analyses verify that PCM is an efficient way to physically model light-matter interactions. PMID:26371930

  2. Path Integration Working Memory for Multi Task Dead Reckoning and Visual Navigation

    Hasson, Cyril; Gaussier, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    International audience Biologically inspired models for navigation use mechanisms like path integration or sensori-motor learning. This paper describes the use of a proprioceptive working memory to give path integration the potential to store several goals. Then we coupled the path integration working memory to place cell sensori-motor learning to test the potential autonomy this gives to the robot. This navigation architecture intends to combine the benefits of both strategies in order to...

  3. Give and Take in Dictator Games

    Cappelen, Alexander W.; Nielsen, Ulrik Haagen; Sørensen, Erik Ø.;

    2014-01-01

    It has been shown that participants in the dictator game are less willing to give money to the other participant when their choice set also includes the option to take money. We examine whether this effect is due to the choice set providing a signal about entitlements in a setting where...... Denmark. The findings are consistent with dictator giving partly being motivated by a desire to signal that one is not entirely selfish or by a desire to follow a social norm that is choice-set dependent....

  4. Homework: should we give it or not?

    Simpson, Adam John

    2014-01-01

    Homework… should we or shouldn’t we? What are the benefits and what are the drawbacks? Are we really helping our learners develop their language skills or are we merely complicating their lives? Here are my favourite four arguments for and against giving learners homework

  5. A Season of Giving. Learning with Literature.

    Freeman, Judy

    1992-01-01

    Reviews elementary school books that help steer children away from the commercial aspects of gift giving and receiving during the holiday season and focus on the gifts of caring, generosity, selflessness, friendship, and tolerance. Teaching tips, class discussions, and literary tie-ins are included. (SM)

  6. Termination of Commercial Contracts by giving Notice

    Edlund, Hans Henrik

    2008-01-01

    Some long-term contracts are brought to an end if one of the parties gives notice. Usually, such a step is not considered a breach of contract. It causes the contract to end in accordance with the contract. When no express rules cover the situation, it is often not entirely clear whether or not t...

  7. Charitable Giving, Emotions, and the Default Effect

    Noussair, Charles; Habetinova, Lenka

    2015-01-01

    We report an experiment to study the effect of defaults on charitable giving. In three different treatments, participants face varying default levels of donation. In three other treatments that are paired with the first three, they receive the same defaults, but are informed that defaults are though

  8. Profiles of Effective Corporate Giving Programs.

    Knauft, E. B.

    A research study of 48 United States corporate giving programs is described. The companies are generally large or mid-range in size and represent 15 different business and industry classifications. The size of their contributions programs ranged from $98,000 to $53 million in annual grants, with a median of $4.3 million. About three-fourths of the…

  9. CAS paleoichthyologist gives Artedi Lecture in Sweden

    2009-01-01

    @@ Prof. ZHANG Miman (CHANG Mee-mann), a CAS Member from the CAS Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology, was invited to give a talk at the Artedi Lectures at the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences in Stockholm, Sweden, on 5 December, 2008.

  10. When does an interest path "look good"? Criteria for an appropriate future interest rate path

    Qvigstad, Jan F.

    2006-01-01

    Svensson (2004) suggested that a monetary policy committee of a central bank (MPC) should “find an instrument-rate path such that projections of inflation and output gap ‘look good’.” Academic literature on monetary policy gives guidance as to what the words “look good” means. However, there is a need for a translation of the theoretical framework into concrete criteria when an MPC shall evaluate interest rate paths in practice. Six criteria for an appropriate interest rate ...

  11. Path integration on manifolds

    These notes form a fairly standard introduction to Wiener integration on Rsup(n) and on Riemannian manifolds. Feynman path integrals for non-relativistic quantum mechanics are also considered and compared to Wiener integrals. The basic approach is via cylinder set measures, Gaussian measures, and abstract Wiener spaces. (Auth.)

  12. Autonomous Car Path Optimalization

    Vladyka, V.

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with path search and optimalisation of model car in unknown space. All data from sensors are processed in real-time onboard at ARM Cortex M4 microcontroller. Model’s main sensor is line-scan camera.

  13. On the ''Feynman paths''

    The problem of time evolution of a quantum-mechanical system, which is continually observed, is rev+sited. The theorem about ''Zeno's paradox'' due to Subarshan and Misra is strengthened. Recent results of Aharonov and Vardi about ''Feynman paths'' are obtained rigorously without particular assumptions about Hamiltonian and a measuring device

  14. An Unplanned Path

    McGarvey, Lynn M.; Sterenberg, Gladys Y.; Long, Julie S.

    2013-01-01

    The authors elucidate what they saw as three important challenges to overcome along the path to becoming elementary school mathematics teacher leaders: marginal interest in math, low self-confidence, and teaching in isolation. To illustrate how these challenges were mitigated, they focus on the stories of two elementary school teachers--Laura and…

  15. Evolution of adaptation mechanisms: Adaptation energy, stress, and oscillating death.

    Gorban, Alexander N; Tyukina, Tatiana A; Smirnova, Elena V; Pokidysheva, Lyudmila I

    2016-09-21

    In 1938, Selye proposed the notion of adaptation energy and published 'Experimental evidence supporting the conception of adaptation energy.' Adaptation of an animal to different factors appears as the spending of one resource. Adaptation energy is a hypothetical extensive quantity spent for adaptation. This term causes much debate when one takes it literally, as a physical quantity, i.e. a sort of energy. The controversial points of view impede the systematic use of the notion of adaptation energy despite experimental evidence. Nevertheless, the response to many harmful factors often has general non-specific form and we suggest that the mechanisms of physiological adaptation admit a very general and nonspecific description. We aim to demonstrate that Selye׳s adaptation energy is the cornerstone of the top-down approach to modelling of non-specific adaptation processes. We analyze Selye׳s axioms of adaptation energy together with Goldstone׳s modifications and propose a series of models for interpretation of these axioms. Adaptation energy is considered as an internal coordinate on the 'dominant path' in the model of adaptation. The phenomena of 'oscillating death' and 'oscillating remission' are predicted on the base of the dynamical models of adaptation. Natural selection plays a key role in the evolution of mechanisms of physiological adaptation. We use the fitness optimization approach to study of the distribution of resources for neutralization of harmful factors, during adaptation to a multifactor environment, and analyze the optimal strategies for different systems of factors. PMID:26801872

  16. Giving Birth No Longer Means Death

    1999-01-01

    GIVING birth to a child was a life-or-death struggle forthe mother and baby as late as the early half of thiscentury;an estimate survey revealed a mortality rate amongmothers as high as 15 per thousand and infant mortality as highas 200 per tnousand at that time.Midwifery was oftenpracticed by the mother-in-law,the mother herself,or morepopularly,by an elderly woman in the village who practiced

  17. Giving to Africa and Perceptions of Poverty

    Alvin Etang Ndip; David Fielding; Stephen Knowles

    2010-01-01

    We conduct a simple experiment in which student participants are invited to give some of the money that they have earned to an international development charity. In different treatments, participants are given different information about the country in which the donation will be spent. The information on the country includes the countryÕs income per capita and, in some treatments, different possible reasons as to why the country is poor. We find that experimental behaviour depends largely on ...

  18. Automatic tool path generation for finish machining

    Kwok, Kwan S.; Loucks, C.S.; Driessen, B.J.

    1997-03-01

    A system for automatic tool path generation was developed at Sandia National Laboratories for finish machining operations. The system consists of a commercially available 5-axis milling machine controlled by Sandia developed software. This system was used to remove overspray on cast turbine blades. A laser-based, structured-light sensor, mounted on a tool holder, is used to collect 3D data points around the surface of the turbine blade. Using the digitized model of the blade, a tool path is generated which will drive a 0.375 inch diameter CBN grinding pin around the tip of the blade. A fuzzified digital filter was developed to properly eliminate false sensor readings caused by burrs, holes and overspray. The digital filter was found to successfully generate the correct tool path for a blade with intentionally scanned holes and defects. The fuzzified filter improved the computation efficiency by a factor of 25. For application to general parts, an adaptive scanning algorithm was developed and presented with simulation results. A right pyramid and an ellipsoid were scanned successfully with the adaptive algorithm.

  19. Spanning paths in hypercubes

    Dvořák, Tomáš; Gregor, Petr; Koubek, Václav

    2005-01-01

    Given a family \\u_i,v_i\\_i=1^k of pairwise distinct vertices of the n-dimensional hypercube Q_n such that the distance of u_i and v_i is odd and k≤n-1, there exists a family \\P_i\\_i=1^k of paths such that u_i and v_i are the endvertices of P_i and \\V(P_i)\\_i=1^k partitions V(Q_n). This holds for any n≥2 with one exception in the case when n=k+1=4. On the other hand, for any n≥3 there exist n pairs of vertices satisfying the above condition for which such a family of spanning paths does not ex...

  20. Graphs and Path Equilibria

    Roux, Stéphane Le

    2007-01-01

    The quest for optimal/stable paths in graphs has gained attention in a few practical or theoretical areas. To take part in this quest this chapter adopts an equilibrium-oriented approach that is abstract and general: it works with (quasi-arbitrary) arc-labelled digraphs, and it assumes very little about the structure of the sought paths and the definition of equilibrium, \\textit{i.e.} optimality/stability. In this setting, this chapter presents a sufficient condition for equilibrium existence for every graph; it also presents a necessary condition for equilibrium existence for every graph. The necessary condition does not imply the sufficient condition a priori. However, the chapter pinpoints their logical difference and thus identifies what work remains to be done. Moreover, the necessary and the sufficient conditions coincide when the definition of optimality relates to a total order, which provides a full-equivalence property. These results are applied to network routing.

  1. Sustainable Energy Path

    Hiromi Yamamoto; Kenji Yamaji

    2005-01-01

    The uses of fossil fuels cause not only the resources exhaustion but also the environmental problems such as global warming. The purposes of this study are to evaluate paths toward sustainable energy systems and roles of each renewable. In order to realize the purposes, the authors developed the global land use and energy model that figured the global energy supply systems in the future considering the cost minimization. Using the model, the authors conducted a simulation in C30R scenario, wh...

  2. Learning to improve path planning performance

    In robotics, path planning refers to finding a short. collision-free path from an initial robot configuration to a desired configuratioin. It has to be fast to support real-time task-level robot programming. Unfortunately, current planning techniques are still too slow to be effective, as they often require several minutes, if not hours of computation. To remedy this situation, we present and analyze a learning algorithm that uses past experience to increase future performance. The algorithm relies on an existing path planner to provide solutions to difficult tasks. From these solutions, an evolving sparse network of useful robot configurations is learned to support faster planning. More generally, the algorithm provides a speedup-learning framework in which a slow but capable planner may be improved both cost-wise and capability-wise by a faster but less capable planner coupled with experience. The basic algorithm is suitable for stationary environments, and can be extended to accommodate changing environments with on-demand experience repair and object-attached experience abstraction. To analyze the algorithm, we characterize the situations in which the adaptive planner is useful, provide quantitative bounds to predict its behavior, and confirm our theoretical results with experiments in path planning of manipulators. Our algorithm and analysis are sufficiently, general that they may also be applied to other planning domains in which experience is useful

  3. Quad-rotor flight path energy optimization

    Kemper, Edward

    Quad-Rotor unmanned areal vehicles (UAVs) have been a popular area of research and development in the last decade, especially with the advent of affordable microcontrollers like the MSP 430 and the Raspberry Pi. Path-Energy Optimization is an area that is well developed for linear systems. In this thesis, this idea of path-energy optimization is extended to the nonlinear model of the Quad-rotor UAV. The classical optimization technique is adapted to the nonlinear model that is derived for the problem at hand, coming up with a set of partial differential equations and boundary value conditions to solve these equations. Then, different techniques to implement energy optimization algorithms are tested using simulations in Python. First, a purely nonlinear approach is used. This method is shown to be computationally intensive, with no practical solution available in a reasonable amount of time. Second, heuristic techniques to minimize the energy of the flight path are tested, using Ziegler-Nichols' proportional integral derivative (PID) controller tuning technique. Finally, a brute force look-up table based PID controller is used. Simulation results of the heuristic method show that both reliable control of the system and path-energy optimization are achieved in a reasonable amount of time.

  4. Damage detection using frequency shift path

    Wang, Longqi; Lie, Seng Tjhen; Zhang, Yao

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel concept called FREquency Shift (FRESH) path to describe the dynamic behavior of structures with auxiliary mass. FRESH path combines the effects of frequency shifting and amplitude changing into one space curve, providing a tool for analyzing structure health status and properties. A damage index called FRESH curvature is then proposed to detect local stiffness reduction. FRESH curvature can be easily adapted for a particular problem since the sensitivity of the index can be adjusted by changing auxiliary mass or excitation power. An algorithm is proposed to adjust automatically the contribution from frequency and amplitude in the method. Because the extraction of FRESH path requires highly accurate frequency and amplitude estimators; therefore, a procedure based on discrete time Fourier transform is introduced to extract accurate frequency and amplitude with the time complexity of O (n log n), which is verified by simulation signals. Moreover, numerical examples with different damage sizes, severities and damping are presented to demonstrate the validity of the proposed damage index. In addition, applications of FRESH path on two steel beams with different damages are presented and the results show that the proposed method is valid and computational efficient.

  5. Learning to improve path planning performance

    Chen, Pang C.

    1995-04-01

    In robotics, path planning refers to finding a short. collision-free path from an initial robot configuration to a desired configuratioin. It has to be fast to support real-time task-level robot programming. Unfortunately, current planning techniques are still too slow to be effective, as they often require several minutes, if not hours of computation. To remedy this situation, we present and analyze a learning algorithm that uses past experience to increase future performance. The algorithm relies on an existing path planner to provide solutions to difficult tasks. From these solutions, an evolving sparse network of useful robot configurations is learned to support faster planning. More generally, the algorithm provides a speedup-learning framework in which a slow but capable planner may be improved both cost-wise and capability-wise by a faster but less capable planner coupled with experience. The basic algorithm is suitable for stationary environments, and can be extended to accommodate changing environments with on-demand experience repair and object-attached experience abstraction. To analyze the algorithm, we characterize the situations in which the adaptive planner is useful, provide quantitative bounds to predict its behavior, and confirm our theoretical results with experiments in path planning of manipulators. Our algorithm and analysis are sufficiently, general that they may also be applied to other planning domains in which experience is useful.

  6. Nurses' intentions to give lifestyle support.

    McKenzie, Karen

    Models of behaviour change can help identify factors that influence health behaviours such as eating a healthy diet and physical activity. The Theory of Planned Behaviour has been shown to be relatively effective at predicting people's intention to engage in health-related behaviours. More recent research has explored whether it can help predict the intentions of one group of people to support another group to engage in healthy behaviour. This has implications for nurses, who are often facilitators of patient health. This article gives an overview of the model and discusses its potential implications for nurses. PMID:25087266

  7. Multiple paths through a network

    Harris, Britton

    2002-01-01

    The most sophisticated iterative algorithm for balancing network congestion for a given set of desired vehicle movement from origins to destinations can generate thousands of paths of equal cost to connect a single O-D pair. Some sets of paths are combinations of minor variations on one main path, while other sets contain various degrees of difference, possibly up to complete independence. Present methods for comparing paths do not take into account the multi-dimensional nature of similaritie...

  8. Shortest Paths and Vehicle Routing

    Petersen, Bjørn; Pisinger, David

    2011-01-01

    This thesis presents how to parallelize a shortest path labeling algorithm. It is shown how to handle Chvátal-Gomory rank-1 cuts in a column generation context. A Branch-and-Cut algorithm is given for the Elementary Shortest Paths Problem with Capacity Constraint. A reformulation of the Vehicle Routing Problem based on partial paths is presented. Finally, a practical application of finding shortest paths in the telecommunication industry is shown.

  9. Path planning in dynamic environments

    Berg, J.P. van den

    2007-01-01

    Path planning plays an important role in various fields of application, such as CAD design, computer games and virtual environments, molecular biology, and robotics. In its most general form, the path planning problem is formulated as finding a collision-free path for a moving entity between a start

  10. Path Integral for Quantum Operations

    Tarasov, Vasily E.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we consider a phase space path integral for general time-dependent quantum operations, not necessarily unitary. We obtain the path integral for a completely positive quantum operation satisfied Lindblad equation (quantum Markovian master equation). We consider the path integral for quantum operation with a simple infinitesimal generator.

  11. Quantum Measurement and Extended Feynman Path Integral

    文伟; 白彦魁

    2012-01-01

    Quantum measurement problem has existed many years and inspired a large of literature in both physics and philosophy, but there is still no conclusion and consensus on it. We show it can be subsumed into the quantum theory if we extend the Feynman path integral by considering the relativistic effect of Feynman paths. According to this extended theory, we deduce not only the Klein-Gordon equation, but also the wave-function-collapse equation. It is shown that the stochastic and instantaneous collapse of the quantum measurement is due to the "potential noise" of the apparatus or environment and "inner correlation" of wave function respectively. Therefore, the definite-status of the macroscopic matter is due to itself and this does not disobey the quantum mechanics. This work will give a new recognition for the measurement problem.

  12. Glueball masses from ratios of path integrals

    Della Morte, Michele

    2011-01-01

    By generalizing our previous work on the parity symmetry, the partition function of a Yang-Mills theory is decomposed into a sum of path integrals each giving the contribution from multiplets of states with fixed quantum numbers associated to parity, charge conjugation, translations, rotations and central conjugations. Ratios of path integrals and correlation functions can then be computed with a multi-level Monte Carlo integration scheme whose numerical cost, at a fixed statistical precision and at asymptotically large times, increases power-like with the time extent of the lattice. The strategy is implemented for the SU(3) Yang-Mills theory, and a full-fledged computation of the mass and multiplicity of the lightest glueball with vacuum quantum numbers is carried out at two values of the lattice spacing (0.17 and 0.12 fm).

  13. Improving the Virtual Laboratories Which Give the Possibility of Evaluating the Experimental Data and Giving Feedback

    Özdener, Nesrin; Erdoğan, Barış

    2013-01-01

    The answer for “how a simulation not only giving experimental application possibility but also giving the possibility of analyzing the experimental data and being able to give feedback should be?” was searched with this study. The evaluation results by students’ observations from Newton’s II.Motion Law which is known as the main law of dynamic was aimed with the simulation developed in the study. Delphi and Flash 5 as the tool of development, Photoshop as the tool of visual design were used i...

  14. Electron density measurements for plasma adaptive optics

    Neiswander, Brian; Matlis, Eric; Corke, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the feasibility of using plasma as an adaptive optical medium for applications such as beam steering, wavefront control, and adaptive filtering. The optical path length of light propagating through plasma depends on the plasma electron density, which may be controlled via the prescribed voltage, frequency, pressure, gas, and electrode geometry. Accurate control of the optical path length requires characterization of the electron density over all operating conditions. E...

  15. Two Generations of Path Dependence

    Madsen, Mogens Ove

      Even if there is no fully articulated and generally accepted theory of Path Dependence it has eagerly been taken up across a wide range of social sciences - primarily coming from economics. Path Dependence is most of all a metaphor that offers reason to believe, that some political, social or e...... economic processes have multiple possible paths of outcomes, rather than a unique path of equilibria. The selection among outcomes may depend on contingent choices or events - outcomes of path-dependent processes require a very relevant study - a perception of history....

  16. Portage and Path Dependence*

    Bleakley, Hoyt; Lin, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    We examine portage sites in the U.S. South, Mid-Atlantic, and Midwest, including those on the fall line, a geomorphological feature in the southeastern U.S. marking the final rapids on rivers before the ocean. Historically, waterborne transport of goods required portage around the falls at these points, while some falls provided water power during early industrialization. These factors attracted commerce and manufacturing. Although these original advantages have long since been made obsolete, we document the continuing importance of these portage sites over time. We interpret these results as path dependence and contrast explanations based on sunk costs interacting with decreasing versus increasing returns to scale. PMID:23935217

  17. JAVA PathFinder

    Mehhtz, Peter

    2005-01-01

    JPF is an explicit state software model checker for Java bytecode. Today, JPF is a swiss army knife for all sort of runtime based verification purposes. This basically means JPF is a Java virtual machine that executes your program not just once (like a normal VM), but theoretically in all possible ways, checking for property violations like deadlocks or unhandled exceptions along all potential execution paths. If it finds an error, JPF reports the whole execution that leads to it. Unlike a normal debugger, JPF keeps track of every step how it got to the defect.

  18. Thermoalgebras and path integral

    Khanna, F. C.; Malbouisson, A. P. C.; Malbouisson, J. M. C.; Santana, A. E.

    2009-09-01

    Using a representation for Lie groups closely associated with thermal problems, we derive the algebraic rules of the real-time formalism for thermal quantum field theories, the so-called thermo-field dynamics (TFD), including the tilde conjugation rules for interacting fields. These thermo-group representations provide a unified view of different approaches for finite-temperature quantum fields in terms of a symmetry group. On these grounds, a path integral formalism is constructed, using Bogoliubov transformations, for bosons, fermions and non-abelian gauge fields. The generalization of the results for quantum fields in (S1)d×R topology is addressed.

  19. Rocket Flight Path

    Jamie Waters

    2014-01-01

    This project uses Newton’s Second Law of Motion, Euler’s method, basic physics, and basic calculus to model the flight path of a rocket. From this, one can find the height and velocity at any point from launch to the maximum altitude, or apogee. This can then be compared to the actual values to see if the method of estimation is a plausible. The rocket used for this project is modeled after Bullistic-1 which was launched by the Society of Aeronautics and Rocketry at the University of South Fl...

  20. Rocket Flight Path

    Jamie Waters

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This project uses Newton’s Second Law of Motion, Euler’s method, basic physics, and basic calculus to model the flight path of a rocket. From this, one can find the height and velocity at any point from launch to the maximum altitude, or apogee. This can then be compared to the actual values to see if the method of estimation is a plausible. The rocket used for this project is modeled after Bullistic-1 which was launched by the Society of Aeronautics and Rocketry at the University of South Florida.

  1. Giving Devices the Ability to Exercise Reason

    Thomas Keeley

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the capabilities that separates humans from computers has been the ability to exercise "reason / judgment". Computers and computerized devices have provided excellent platforms for following rules. Computer programs provide the scripts for processing the rules. The exercise of reason, however, is more of an image processing function than a function composed of a series of rules. The exercise of reason is more right brain than left brain. It involves the interpretation of information and balancing inter-related alternatives. This paper will discuss a new way to define and process information that will give devices the ability to exercise human-like reasoning and judgment. The paper will discuss the characteristics of a "dynamic graphical language" in the context of addressing judgment, since judgment is often required to adjust rules when operating in a dynamic environment. The paper will touch on architecture issues and how judgment is integrated with rule processing.

  2. Symmetry Adapted Basis Sets

    Avery, John Scales; Rettrup, Sten; Avery, James Emil

    In theoretical physics, theoretical chemistry and engineering, one often wishes to solve partial differential equations subject to a set of boundary conditions. This gives rise to eigenvalue problems of which some solutions may be very difficult to find. For example, the problem of finding...... such problems can be much reduced by making use of symmetry-adapted basis functions. The conventional method for generating symmetry-adapted basis sets is through the application of group theory, but this can be difficult. This book describes an easier method for generating symmetry-adapted basis sets...

  3. Giving to Family versus Giving to the Community Within and Across Generations

    Partha Deb; Cagla Okten; Una Okonkwo Osili

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we examine relationship between giving to family, and community institutions, within and across generations, a previously unexplored subject. We investigate the relationship between these two types of transfer networks using new data from the Indonesian Family Life Surveys (IFLS). From our results, financial transfers to family members are positively correlated with giving to community organizations for both parent or origin households and adult split-offs living outside their ...

  4. Noncommutative Quantum Mechanics with Path Integral

    Dragovich, B; Dragovich, Branko; Rakic, Zoran

    2005-01-01

    We consider classical and quantum mechanics related to an additional noncommutativity, symmetric in position and momentum coordinates. We show that such mechanical system can be transformed to the corresponding one which allows employment of the usual formalism. In particular, we found explicit connections between quadratic Hamiltonians and Lagrangians, in their commutative and noncommutative regimes. In the quantum case we give general procedure how to compute Feynman's path integral in this noncommutative phase space with quadratic Lagrangians (Hamiltonians). This approach is applied to a charged particle in the noncommutative plane exposed to constant homogeneous electric and magnetic fields.

  5. International cooperation on climate change adaptation from an economic perspective

    Bruin, de, W.; Dellink, R.B.; Tol, R.S.J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the economic incentives of countries to cooperate on international adaptation financing. Adaptation is generally implicitly incorporated in the climate change damage functions as used in Integrated Assessment Models. We replace the implicit decision on adaptation with explicit adaptation in a multi-regional setting by using an adjusted RICE model. We show that making adaptation explicit will not affect the optimal mitigation path when adaptation is set at its optimal l...

  6. The Path Research of Commercial Bank Executive Compensation Reform to Adapt to the New Normal Characteristics%商业银行高管薪酬改革适应新常态特征的路径研究

    陆岷峰; 史丽霞

    2014-01-01

    LOpment Law,fOLLOw the principLe Of the Law Of vaLue. This paper aLsO gives the basic strategies Of cOmmerciaL bank executive pay refOrm under the new nOrmaL back-grOund,such as prOmOte the restrictive Ownership system,stOck OptiOn system and the perfOrmance recycLing system, increase the deferred payments,buiLd sOciaL parity guidance and active prOfessiOnaL manager market,and imprOve the gOvernance structure Of cOmmerciaL banks.

  7. A discrete history of the Lorentzian path integral

    Loll, R.

    2006-01-01

    In these lecture notes, I describe the motivation behind a recent formulation of a non-perturbative gravitational path integral for Lorentzian (instead of the usual Euclidean) space-times, and give a pedagogical introduction to its main features. At the regularized, discrete level this approach solv

  8. Path integral in holomorphic representation without gauge fixation

    The way of path integral (PI) construction without a gauge fixation in holomorphic representation is proposed for finite-dimensional models with a gauge group. This PI gives a manifest gauge-invariant form for the evolution operator kernel. 10 refs

  9. innovation path exploration

    Li Jian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The world has entered the information age, all kinds of information technologies such as cloud technology, big data technology are in rapid development, and the “Internet plus” appeared. The main purpose of “Internet plus” is to provide an opportunity for the further development of the enterprise, the enterprise technology, business and other aspects of factors combine. For enterprises, grasp the “Internet plus” the impact of the market economy will undoubtedly pave the way for the future development of enterprises. This paper will be on the innovation path of the enterprise management “Internet plus” era tied you study, hope to be able to put forward some opinions and suggestions.

  10. AUV Local Path Planning Based on Acoustic Image Processing

    LI Ye; CHANG Wen-tian; JIANG Da-peng; ZHANG Tie-dong; SU Yu-min

    2006-01-01

    The forward-looking image sonar is a necessary vision device for Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUV). Based on the acoustic image received from forward-looking image sonar, AUV local path is planned. When the environment model is made to adapt to local path planning, an iterative algorithm of binary conversion is used for image segmentation. Raw data of the acoustic image, which were received from serial port, are processed. By the use of "Mathematic Morphology" to filter noise, a mathematic model of environment for local path planning is established after coordinate transformation. The optimal path is searched by the distant transmission (Dt) algorithm. Simulation is conducted for the analysis of the algorithm. Experiment on the sea proves it reliable.

  11. Evolution-based path planning and management for autonomous vehicles

    Capozzi, Brian Joseph

    2001-07-01

    This dissertation describes an approach to adaptive path planning based on the problem solving capabilities witnessed in nature---namely the influence of natural selection in uncovering solutions to the characteristics of the environment. The competition for survival forces organisms to either respond to changes or risk being evolved out of the population. We demonstrate the applicability of this process to the problem of finding paths for an autonomous vehicle through a number of different static and dynamic environments. In doing so, we develop a number of different ways in which these paths can be modeled for the purposes of evolution. Through analysis and experimentation, we develop and reinforce a set of principles and conditions which must hold for the search process to be successful. Having demonstrated the viability of evolution as a guide for path planning, we discuss implications for on-line, real-time planning for autonomous vehicles.

  12. An Improved Robot Path Planning Algorithm Based on Genetic Algorithm

    Hammin Liu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Robot path planning is a NP problem; traditional optimization methods are not very effective to solve it. Traditional genetic algorithm trapped into the local minimum easily. Therefore, based on a simple genetic algorithm and combine the base ideology of orthogonal design method then applied it to the population initialization, using the intergenerational elite mechanism, as well as the introduction of adaptive local search operator to prevent trapped into the local minimum and improve the convergence speed to form a new genetic algorithm. Through the series of numerical experiments, the new algorithm has been proved to be efficiency. We also use the proposed algorithm to solve the robot path planning problem and the experiment results indicated that the new algorithm is efficiency for solving the robot path planning problems and the best path usually can be found.

  13. Cogema gives its communication a new impetus

    Starting 2 November 1999, COGEMA launched a mass public communication campaign and creating an Internet site, equipped with cameras (web-cams), to make everyone familiar with the COGEMA plant at La Hague. This system is designed to serve a communication policy that is resolutely open and attentive to French public concerns: - The COGEMA plant at La Hague is often perceived as a mystery, occult and dehumanized world. This communication campaign, entitled 'We have nothing to hide', illustrated COGEMA's determination to inform the citizens in the greatest possible transparence and its wish to bring the Group's industrial operations and the persons working there closer to the public. The campaign included TV commercials and press ads. The underlying principle is to work on issues that have made news. The televised system included two films, shot at La Hague. The first, lasting 90 seconds, consists of interviews and testimonies of employees who represent the professional and human diversity of the plant. The second, in 45-second format, presents the questions to which public opinion wants answers. These questions are also repeated in the press ads. - To ensure that everyone obtains all the answers to his questions, the TV spots and press ads refer to the website http://www.cogemalahague.fr and to a toll-free number 0800-64-64-64. This campaign was the first stage of a long-term approach. Its positive reception from the public strengthens COGEMA's resolution to anticipate the legitimate information's needs expressed by the public opinion. As a responsible firm, COGEMA means to adapt her communication policy in order to make the whole activities of the Group widely known. Beyond communication, COGEMA intends to carry on showing her attachment to nuclear industry and bolstering this sector's interests on the international scene. (authors)

  14. Cognitive patterns: giving autonomy some context

    Dumond, Danielle; Stacy, Webb; Geyer, Alexandra; Rousseau, Jeffrey; Therrien, Mike

    2013-05-01

    Today's robots require a great deal of control and supervision, and are unable to intelligently respond to unanticipated and novel situations. Interactions between an operator and even a single robot take place exclusively at a very low, detailed level, in part because no contextual information about a situation is conveyed or utilized to make the interaction more effective and less time consuming. Moreover, the robot control and sensing systems do not learn from experience and, therefore, do not become better with time or apply previous knowledge to new situations. With multi-robot teams, human operators, in addition to managing the low-level details of navigation and sensor management while operating single robots, are also required to manage inter-robot interactions. To make the most use of robots in combat environments, it will be necessary to have the capability to assign them new missions (including providing them context information), and to have them report information about the environment they encounter as they proceed with their mission. The Cognitive Patterns Knowledge Generation system (CPKG) has the ability to connect to various knowledge-based models, multiple sensors, and to a human operator. The CPKG system comprises three major internal components: Pattern Generation, Perception/Action, and Adaptation, enabling it to create situationally-relevant abstract patterns, match sensory input to a suitable abstract pattern in a multilayered top-down/bottom-up fashion similar to the mechanisms used for visual perception in the brain, and generate new abstract patterns. The CPKG allows the operator to focus on things other than the operation of the robot(s).

  15. Adaptive Clustering of Hypermedia Documents.

    Johnson, Andrew; Fotouhi, Farshad

    1996-01-01

    Discussion of hypermedia systems focuses on a comparison of two types of adaptive algorithm (genetic algorithm and neural network) in clustering hypermedia documents. These clusters allow the user to index into the nodes to find needed information more quickly, since clustering is "personalized" based on the user's paths rather than representing…

  16. Risk Sensitive Path Integral Control

    Broek, L.J. van den; Wiegerinck, W.A.J.J.; Kappen, H. J.

    2012-01-01

    Recently path integral methods have been developed for stochastic optimal control for a wide class of models with non-linear dynamics in continuous space-time. Path integral methods find the control that minimizes the expected cost-to-go. In this paper we show that under the same assumptions, path integral methods generalize directly to risk sensitive stochastic optimal control. Here the method minimizes in expectation an exponentially weighted cost-to-go. Depending on the exponential weight,...

  17. Path integrals on finite sets

    Thomas, EGF

    1996-01-01

    We construct an analogue of the Feynman path integral for the case of -1/i partial derivative/partial derivative t phi t = H-o phi t in which H-o is a self-adjoint operator in the space L(2)(M) = C-M, where M is a finite set, the paths being functions of R with values in M. The path integral is a fa

  18. Path Integral and Asian Options

    Peng Zhang

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we analytically study the problem of pricing an arithmetically averaged Asian option in the path integral formalism. By a trick about the Dirac delta function, the measure of the path integral is defined by an effective action functional whose potential term is an exponential function. This path integral is evaluated by use of the Feynman-Kac theorem. After working out some auxiliary integrations involving Bessel and Whittaker functions, we arrive at the spectral expansion for t...

  19. Teaching Techniques: Give or Take? Test Review in the ESL/EFL Classroom

    Mermelstein, Aaron David

    2016-01-01

    This article describes "Give or Take?", a fun game that teachers can use to review vocabulary in the English as a second language or foreign language (ESL/EFL) classroom. This game is easy to prepare, and it is a fun and efficient way to review for quizzes or larger midterm or final exams. It can be adapted to almost any grade level or…

  20. Optimal Path Selection for Mobile Robot Navigation Using Genetic Algorithm

    D Tamilselvi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The proposed Navigation Strategy using GA(Genetic Algorithm finds an optimal path in the simulated grid environment. GA forces to find a path that is connected to the robot start and target positions via predefined points. Each point in the environmental model is called genome and the path connecting Start and Target is called as Chromosome. According to the problem formulation, the length of the algorithm chromosomes (number of genomes is dynamic. Moreover every genome is not a simple digit. In this case, every genome represents the nodes in the 2D grid environment. After implementing the cross over and mutation concepts the resultant chromosome (path is subjected to optimization process which gives the optimal path as a result. The problem faced with is there may be chances for the loss of the fittest chromosome while performing the reproduction operations. The solution is achieved by inducing the concept of elitism thereby maintaining the population richness. The efficiency of the algorithm is analyzed with respect to execution time and path cost to reach the destination. Path planning, collision avoidance and obstacle avoidance are achieved in both static and dynamic environment.

  1. Path Integral Quantization of the Symplectic Leaves of the SU(2)* Poisson-Lie Group

    Morariu, Bogdan

    1997-01-01

    The Feynman path integral is used to quantize the symplectic leaves of the Poisson-Lie group SU(2)*. In this way we obtain the unitary representations of U_q(su(2)). This is achieved by finding explicit Darboux coordinates and then using a phase space path integral. I discuss the *-structure of SU(2)* and give a detailed description of its leaves using various parametrizations and also compare the results with the path integral quantization of spin.

  2. Path Constitution Analysis: A Methodology for Understanding Path Dependence and Path Creation

    Jörg Sydow

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Although an increasing number of studies of technological, institutional and organizational change refer to the concepts of path dependence and path creation, few attempts have been made to consider these concepts explicitly in their methodological accounts. This paper addresses this gap and contributes to the literature by developing a comprehensive methodology that originates from the concepts of path dependence and path creation – path constitution analysis (PCA – and allows for the integration of multi-actor constellations on multiple levels of analysis within a process perspective. Based upon a longitudinal case study in the field of semiconductors, we illustrate PCA ‘in action’ as a template for other researchers and critically examine its adequacy. We conclude with implications for further path-oriented inquiries.

  3. Adaptive Lighting

    Petersen, Kjell Yngve; Søndergaard, Karin; Kongshaug, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive LightingAdaptive lighting is based on a partial automation of the possibilities to adjust the colour tone and brightness levels of light in order to adapt to people’s needs and desires. IT support is key to the technical developments that afford adaptive control systems. The possibilities offered by adaptive lighting control are created by the ways that the system components, the network and data flow can be coordinated through software so that the dynamic variations are controlled i...

  4. Spin Path Integral And Quantum Mechanics In Rotating Reference of Frame

    Chern, Tong; Ning, Wu; Yue, YU

    2011-01-01

    We developed a path integral formalism for the quantum mechanics in a rotating reference of frame, and proposed a spin path integral description for the spin degrees of freedom in it. We have also give some examples for the applications of our foramlism.

  5. Path Integrals and Anomalies in Curved Space

    Bastianelli and van Nieuwenhuizen's monograph 'Path Integrals and Anomalies in Curved Space' collects in one volume the results of the authors' 15-year research programme on anomalies that arise in Feynman diagrams of quantum field theories on curved manifolds. The programme was spurred by the path-integral techniques introduced in Alvarez-Gaume and Witten's renowned 1983 paper on gravitational anomalies which, together with the anomaly cancellation paper by Green and Schwarz, led to the string theory explosion of the 1980s. The authors have produced a tour de force, giving a comprehensive and pedagogical exposition of material that is central to current research. The first part of the book develops from scratch a formalism for defining and evaluating quantum mechanical path integrals in nonlinear sigma models, using time slicing regularization, mode regularization and dimensional regularization. The second part applies this formalism to quantum fields of spin 0, 1/2, 1 and 3/2 and to self-dual antisymmetric tensor fields. The book concludes with a discussion of gravitational anomalies in 10-dimensional supergravities, for both classical and exceptional gauge groups. The target audience is researchers and graduate students in curved spacetime quantum field theory and string theory, and the aims, style and pedagogical level have been chosen with this audience in mind. Path integrals are treated as calculational tools, and the notation and terminology are throughout tailored to calculational convenience, rather than to mathematical rigour. The style is closer to that of an exceedingly thorough and self-contained review article than to that of a textbook. As the authors mention, the first part of the book can be used as an introduction to path integrals in quantum mechanics, although in a classroom setting perhaps more likely as supplementary reading than a primary class text. Readers outside the core audience, including this reviewer, will gain from the book a

  6. Application of Pre-evolution Genetic Algorithm in Fast Path Planning for UCAV

    Lu Cao

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to the complex constraints, more uncertain factors and critical real-time demand of path planning for unmanned combat aerial vehicle (UCAV, an approach of fast path planning based on Voronoi diagram and pre-evolution genetic algorithm (PEGA is proposed, which makes use of the principle of hierarchical path planning. First the Voronoi diagram is utilized to generate the initial paths and calculate the weight of the paths by considering the constraints. Then the optimal path is searched by using PEGA. Multiprocessors parallel computing techniques are used for PEGA to improve the traditional genetic algorithm and the optimal time is greatly reduced. Simulation results verify that the method of path planning is more favorable in the real-time operation. It can improve the adaptability of dynamic battlefield and unexpected threats for UCAV.

  7. Sustainable Energy Path

    Hiromi Yamamoto

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The uses of fossil fuels cause not only the resources exhaustion but also the environmental problems such as global warming. The purposes of this study are to evaluate paths toward sustainable energy systems and roles of each renewable. In order to realize the purposes, the authors developed the global land use and energy model that figured the global energy supply systems in the future considering the cost minimization. Using the model, the authors conducted a simulation in C30R scenario, which is a kind of strict CO2 emission limit scenarios and reduced CO2 emissions by 30% compared with Kyoto protocol forever scenario, and obtained the following results. In C30R scenario bioenergy will supply 33% of all the primary energy consumption. However, wind and photovoltaic will supply 1.8% and 1.4% of all the primary energy consumption, respectively, because of the limits of power grid stability. The results imply that the strict limits of CO2 emissions are not sufficient to achieve the complete renewable energy systems. In order to use wind and photovoltaic as major energy resources, we need not only to reduce the plant costs but also to develop unconventional renewable technologies.

  8. Adaptive trial designs.

    Lai, Tze Leung; Lavori, Philip William; Shih, Mei-Chiung

    2012-01-01

    We review adaptive designs for clinical trials, giving special attention to the control of the Type I error in late-phase confirmatory trials, when the trial planner wishes to adjust the final sample size of the study in response to an unblinded analysis of interim estimates of treatment effects. We point out that there is considerable inefficiency in using the adaptive designs that employ conditional power calculations to reestimate the sample size and that maintain the Type I error by using certain weighted test statistics. Although these adaptive designs have little advantage over familiar group-sequential designs, our review also describes recent developments in adaptive designs that are both flexible and efficient. We also discuss the use of Bayesian designs, when the context of use demands control over operating characteristics (Type I and II errors) and correction of the bias of estimated treatment effects. PMID:21838549

  9. On Hilbert space of paths

    A Hilbert space of paths, the elements of which are determined by trigonometric series, was proposed and used recently by Truman. This space is shown to consist precisely of all absolutely continuous paths ending in the origin with square-integrable derivatives

  10. Chromatic roots and hamiltonian paths

    Thomassen, Carsten

    2000-01-01

    We present a new connection between colorings and hamiltonian paths: If the chromatic polynomial of a graph has a noninteger root less than or equal to t(n) = 2/3 + 1/3 (3)root (26 + 6 root (33)) + 1/3 (3)root (26 - 6 root (33)) = 1.29559.... then the graph has no hamiltonian path. This result is...

  11. Rainbow paths with prescribed ends

    Alishahi, Meysam; Taherkhani, Ali; Thomassen, Carsten

    2011-01-01

    It was conjectured in [S. Akbari, F. Khaghanpoor, and S. Moazzeni. Colorful paths in vertex coloring of graphs. Preprint] that, if G is a connected graph distinct from C-7, then there is a chi(G)-coloring of G in which every vertex v is an element of V(G) is an initial vertex of a path P with chi...

  12. Path Integral Simulations of Graphene

    Yousif, Hosam

    2007-10-01

    Some properties of graphene are explored using a path integral approach. The path integral method allows us to simulate relatively large systems using monte carlo techniques and extract thermodynamic quantities. We simulate the effects of screening a large external charge potential, as well as conductivity and charge distributions in graphene sheets.

  13. Analysis gives the use he/she gives radioactive sources declared in disuse

    Presently work is carried out an analysis the different factors that impact in the possibility for application the radioactive sources declared in disuse in the oriental territory entities in Cuba. With the objective to define the feasibility application sources declared in disuse, valuing the technical characteristics, the requirements give radiological protection, convenience use in other technological processes and the cost for those localized ones in the territory

  14. To Give Or Not To Give: A Step Towards Addressing The Heart Of Innovative Climates

    Livesay, Zackary Steven

    2013-01-01

    Innovative climates are largely affected by the relationships between the individualsinvolved. This thesis addresses the topic of trying to improve the quality ofrelationships by giving engineers some tools and principles to understand in order forthem to be able to contribute positively to a creative and productive atmosphere.Through the experiences drawn from universities both in India and Bhutan, thestudent tries to grasp some fundamental ideas about human values that can be sharedto other...

  15. Line-of-Sight Path Following for Dubins Paths with Adaptive Sideslip Compensation of Drift Forces

    Fossen, Thor Inge; Pettersen, Kristin Ytterstad; Galeazzi, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    proposed guidance law is intended for maneuvering in the horizontal-plane at given speeds and typical applications are marine craft, autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs), unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) as well as other vehicles and craft where the goal is to follow a predefined parametrized curve without...

  16. Adaptive radar resource management

    Moo, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Radar Resource Management (RRM) is vital for optimizing the performance of modern phased array radars, which are the primary sensor for aircraft, ships, and land platforms. Adaptive Radar Resource Management gives an introduction to radar resource management (RRM), presenting a clear overview of different approaches and techniques, making it very suitable for radar practitioners and researchers in industry and universities. Coverage includes: RRM's role in optimizing the performance of modern phased array radars The advantages of adaptivity in implementing RRMThe role that modelling and

  17. Group theoretical approach to path integration on spheres

    The path integral over compact and non-compact spheres (denoted by Hα) is discussed. The short time propagator is decomposed in unitary irreducible representations of the corresponding transformation group G of Hα. Two cases are considered. For G ≅ Hα the Fourier analysis leads to an expansion in group characters. However, in the general case Hα ≅ G/H the decomposition gives an expansion in zonal spherical functions of G is contained in H. The path integral is performed using the orthogonality of the representations. The groups SO(n), SO(n - 1,1) SU(2) and SU(1,1) are considered. (author). 10 refs

  18. Pathways with PathWhiz.

    Pon, Allison; Jewison, Timothy; Su, Yilu; Liang, Yongjie; Knox, Craig; Maciejewski, Adam; Wilson, Michael; Wishart, David S

    2015-07-01

    PathWhiz (http://smpdb.ca/pathwhiz) is a web server designed to create colourful, visually pleasing and biologically accurate pathway diagrams that are both machine-readable and interactive. As a web server, PathWhiz is accessible from almost any place and compatible with essentially any operating system. It also houses a public library of pathways and pathway components that can be easily viewed and expanded upon by its users. PathWhiz allows users to readily generate biologically complex pathways by using a specially designed drawing palette to quickly render metabolites (including automated structure generation), proteins (including quaternary structures, covalent modifications and cofactors), nucleic acids, membranes, subcellular structures, cells, tissues and organs. Both small-molecule and protein/gene pathways can be constructed by combining multiple pathway processes such as reactions, interactions, binding events and transport activities. PathWhiz's pathway replication and propagation functions allow for existing pathways to be used to create new pathways or for existing pathways to be automatically propagated across species. PathWhiz pathways can be saved in BioPAX, SBGN-ML and SBML data exchange formats, as well as PNG, PWML, HTML image map or SVG images that can be viewed offline or explored using PathWhiz's interactive viewer. PathWhiz has been used to generate over 700 pathway diagrams for a number of popular databases including HMDB, DrugBank and SMPDB. PMID:25934797

  19. Geodesic flows on path spaces

    XIANG; Kainan

    2001-01-01

    [1] Cruzeiro, A. B., Malliavin, P., Renormalized differential geometry on path spaces: Structural equation, curvature, J. Funct. Anal., 1996, 139: 119-181.[2] Stroock, D. W., Some thoughts about Riemannian structures on path spaces, preprint, 1996.[3] Driver, B., A Cameron-Martin type quasi-invariance theorem for Brownian motion on a compact manifold, J. Funct. Anal., 1992, 109: 272-376.[4] Enchev, O., Stroock, D. W., Towards a Riemannian geometry on the path space over a Riemannian manifold, J. Funct. Anal., 1995, 134: 392-416.[5] Hsu, E., Quasi-invariance of the Wiener measure on the path space over a compact Riemannian manifold, J. Funct. Anal., 1995, 134: 417-450.[6] Lyons, T. J., Qian, Z. M., A class of vector fields on path space, J.Funct. Anal., 1997, 145: 205-223.[7] Li, X. D., Existence and uniqueness of geodesics on path spaces, J. Funct. Anal., to be published.[8] Driver, B., Towards calculus and geometry on path spaces, in Proc. Symp. Pure and Appl. Math. 57 (ed. Cranston, M., Pinsky, M.), Cornell: AMS, 1993, 1995.

  20. Adaptive skills

    Staša Stropnik; Jana Kodrič

    2013-01-01

    Adaptive skills are defined as a collection of conceptual, social and practical skills that are learned by people in order to function in their everyday lives. They include an individual's ability to adapt to and manage her or his surroundings to effectively function and meet social or community expectations. Good adaptive skills promote individual's independence in different environments, whereas poorly developed adaptive skills are connected to individual's dependency and with g...

  1. Path Dependent Option Pricing: the path integral partial averaging method

    Andrew Matacz

    2000-01-01

    In this paper I develop a new computational method for pricing path dependent options. Using the path integral representation of the option price, I show that in general it is possible to perform analytically a partial averaging over the underlying risk-neutral diffusion process. This result greatly eases the computational burden placed on the subsequent numerical evaluation. For short-medium term options it leads to a general approximation formula that only requires the evaluation of a one d...

  2. LP-Based Approximation Algorithms for Traveling Salesman Path Problems

    An, Hyung-Chan

    2011-01-01

    We present a (5/3 - epsilon)-approximation algorithm for some constant epsilon>0 for the traveling salesman path problem under the unit-weight graphical metric, and prove an upper bound on the integrality gap of the path-variant Held-Karp relaxation both under this metric and the general metric. Given a complete graph with the metric cost and two designated endpoints in the graph, the traveling salesman path problem is to find a minimum Hamiltonian path between these two endpoints. The best previously known performance guarantee for this problem was 5/3 and was due to Hoogeveen. We give the first constant upper bound on the integrality gap of the path-variant Held-Karp relaxation, showing it to be at most 5/3 by providing a new analysis of Hoogeveen's algorithm. This analysis exhibits a well-characterized critical case, and we show that the recent result of Oveis Gharan, Saberi and Singh on the traveling salesman circuit problem under the unit-weight graphical metric can be modified for the path case to compl...

  3. Pathways with PathWhiz

    Pon, Allison; Jewison, Timothy; Su, Yilu; Liang, Yongjie; Knox, Craig; Maciejewski, Adam; Wilson, Michael; Wishart, David S.

    2015-01-01

    PathWhiz (http://smpdb.ca/pathwhiz) is a web server designed to create colourful, visually pleasing and biologically accurate pathway diagrams that are both machine-readable and interactive. As a web server, PathWhiz is accessible from almost any place and compatible with essentially any operating system. It also houses a public library of pathways and pathway components that can be easily viewed and expanded upon by its users. PathWhiz allows users to readily generate biologically complex pa...

  4. On the direct path problem of s-elementary frame wavelets

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the path-connectivity between two s-elementary normalized tight frame wavelets via the so-called direct paths. We show that the existence of such a direct path is equivalent to the non-existence of an atom of a σ-algebra defined over the defining sets of the corresponding frame wavelets, using a mapping defined by the natural translation and dilation operations between the sets. In particular, this gives an equivalent condition for the existence of a direct path between two s-elementary wavelets.

  5. Ask-Elle: an adaptable programming tutor for Haskell giving automated feedback

    Gerdes, Alex; Heeren, Bastiaan; Jeuring, J.T.; Binsbergen, Thomas van

    2015-01-01

    Ask-Elle is a tutor for learning the higher-order, strongly-typed functional programming language Haskell. It supports the stepwise development of Haskell programs by verifying the correctness of incomplete programs, and by providing hints. Programming exercises are added to Ask-Elle by providing a

  6. Evaluating an Abbreviated Version of the Paths Curriculum Implemented by School Mental Health Clinicians

    Gibson, Jennifer E.; Werner, Shelby S.; Sweeney, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    When evidence-based prevention programs are implemented in schools, adaptations are common. It is important to understand which adaptations can be made while maintaining positive outcomes for students. This preliminary study evaluated an abbreviated version of the Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies (PATHS) Curriculum implemented by…

  7. Freshwater paths across the ocean: molecular phylogeny of the frog Ptychadena newtoni gives insights into amphibian colonization of oceanic islands

    Measey, John G.; Vences, M.; Drewes, R. C.; Chiari, Y.; Melo, M.; Bourlès, Bernard

    2007-01-01

    Aim Amphibians are a model group for studies of the biogeographical origins of salt-intolerant taxa on oceanic islands. We used the Gulf of Guinea islands to explore the biogeographical origins of island endemism of one species of frog, and used this to gain insights into potential colonization mechanisms. Location Sao Tome and Principe, two of the four major islands in the Gulf of Guinea, West Africa, are truly oceanic and have an exceptionally high biodiversity. Methods Mitochondrial DNA is...

  8. Q-Deformed Path Integral

    Chaichian, M.; Demichev, A. P.

    1993-01-01

    Using differential and integral calculi on the quantum plane which are invariant with respect to quantum inhomogeneous Euclidean group E(2)q , we construct path integral representation for the quantum mechanical evolution operator kernel of q-oscillator.

  9. The Internet's unexploited path diversity

    Arjona-Villicaña, Pedro David; Stepanenko, Alexander S

    2009-01-01

    The connectivity of the Internet at the Autonomous System level is influenced by the network operator policies implemented. These in turn impose a direction to the announcement of address advertisements and, consequently, to the paths that can be used to reach back such destinations. We propose to use directed graphs to properly represent how destinations propagate through the Internet and the number of arc-disjoint paths to quantify this network's path diversity. Moreover, in order to understand the effects that policies have on the connectivity of the Internet, numerical analyses of the resulting directed graphs were conducted. Results demonstrate that, even after policies have been applied, there is still path diversity which the Border Gateway Protocol cannot currently exploit.

  10. Path summation: Achievements and goals

    The Proceedings of the Adriatico Research Conference on ''Path Integral Method with Applications'' held in Trieste, between 1-4 September 1987, includes 26 papers. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers. Refs, figs and tabs

  11. Innovation paths in wind power

    Lema, Rasmus; Nordensvärd, Johan; Urban, Frauke;

    to the 1970s, but it has gained particular traction in recent years thus opening up new innovation paths. This paper explores the key features, similarities and differences in innovation paths in Denmark and Germany and sheds light on their main determinants. The paper shows that there are many...... Denmark and Germany have common national causes, while company-specific strategies also influence the innovation paths in significant ways. This raises important questions about the national specificity of innovation paths in wind power development. Finally, the paper briefly addresses the increasing......Denmark and Germany both make substantial investments in low carbon innovation, not least in the wind power sector. These investments in wind energy are driven by the twin objectives of reducing carbon emissions and building up international competitive advantage. Support for wind power dates back...

  12. Path-based Queries on Trajectory Data

    Krogh, Benjamin Bjerre; Pelekis, Nikos; Theodoridis, Yannis;

    2014-01-01

    In traffic research, management, and planning a number of path-based analyses are heavily used, e.g., for computing turn-times, evaluating green waves, or studying traffic flow. These analyses require retrieving the trajectories that follow the full path being analyzed. Existing path queries cannot...... sufficiently support such path-based analyses because they retrieve all trajectories that touch any edge in the path. In this paper, we define and formalize the strict path query. This is a novel query type tailored to support path-based analysis, where trajectories must follow all edges in the path...... a specific path by only retrieving data from the first and last edge in the path. To correctly answer strict path queries existing network-constrained trajectory indexes must retrieve data from all edges in the path. An extensive performance study of NETTRA using a very large real-world trajectory data set...

  13. Adaptive Lighting

    Petersen, Kjell Yngve; Søndergaard, Karin; Kongshaug, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive Lighting Adaptive lighting is based on a partial automation of the possibilities to adjust the colour tone and brightness levels of light in order to adapt to people’s needs and desires. IT support is key to the technical developments that afford adaptive control systems. The possibilities...... offered by adaptive lighting control are created by the ways that the system components, the network and data flow can be coordinated through software so that the dynamic variations are controlled in ways that meaningfully adapt according to people’s situations and design intentions. This book discusses...... distributed differently into an architectural body. We also examine what might occur when light is dynamic and able to change colour, intensity and direction, and when it is adaptive and can be brought into interaction with its surroundings. In short, what happens to an architectural space when artificial...

  14. Phase Diagram of Optimal Paths

    Hansen, Alex; Kertesz, Janos

    2004-01-01

    We show that choosing appropriate distributions of the randomness, the search for optimal paths links diverse problems of disordered media like directed percolation, invasion percolation, directed and non-directed spanning polymers. We also introduce a simple and efficient algorithm, which solves the d-dimensional model numerically in order N^(1+d_f/d) steps where d_f is the fractal dimension of the path. Using extensive simulations in two dimensions we identify the phase boundaries of the di...

  15. Fieldwork on selected educational paths

    Charzyński, Przemysław; Podgórski, Zbigniew; Brykała, Dariusz; Zaparucha, Aleksandra; Barwińska, Sylwia

    2015-01-01

    The paper concerns the possibilities of using educational paths as one form of fieldwork for activating learning. Educational paths, also fostering informal education of a wider society, allow for conducting direct observations and measurements, and are a great source of knowledge about the immediate environment. This form of learning enables interdisciplinary education, combining geography with other school subjects. To become a useful tool in education, however, an educationa...

  16. Flows driven by rough paths

    Bailleul, Ismael

    2012-01-01

    We show in this work how the familiar Taylor formula can be used in a simple way to reprove from scratch the main existence and well-posedness results from rough paths theory; the explosion question and Taylor expansion are also dealt with. Unlike other approaches, we work mainly with flows of maps rather than with paths. We illustrate our approach by proving a well-posedness result for some mean field rough differential equation.

  17. Formal language constrained path problems

    Barrett, C.; Jacob, R.; Marathe, M.

    1997-07-08

    In many path finding problems arising in practice, certain patterns of edge/vertex labels in the labeled graph being traversed are allowed/preferred, while others are disallowed. Motivated by such applications as intermodal transportation planning, the authors investigate the complexity of finding feasible paths in a labeled network, where the mode choice for each traveler is specified by a formal language. The main contributions of this paper include the following: (1) the authors show that the problem of finding a shortest path between a source and destination for a traveler whose mode choice is specified as a context free language is solvable efficiently in polynomial time, when the mode choice is specified as a regular language they provide algorithms with improved space and time bounds; (2) in contrast, they show that the problem of finding simple paths between a source and a given destination is NP-hard, even when restricted to very simple regular expressions and/or very simple graphs; (3) for the class of treewidth bounded graphs, they show that (i) the problem of finding a regular language constrained simple path between source and a destination is solvable in polynomial time and (ii) the extension to finding context free language constrained simple paths is NP-complete. Several extensions of these results are presented in the context of finding shortest paths with additional constraints. These results significantly extend the results in [MW95]. As a corollary of the results, they obtain a polynomial time algorithm for the BEST k-SIMILAR PATH problem studied in [SJB97]. The previous best algorithm was given by [SJB97] and takes exponential time in the worst case.

  18. Adaptive positioner; Posicionador adaptativo

    Labrador Pavon, I.

    1993-07-01

    This paper describes the circuits and programs in assembly language, developed to control the two DC motors that give mobility to a mechanical arm with two degrees of freedom. As a whole, the system is based in a adaptable regulator designed around a 8 bit microprocessor that, starting from a mode of regulation based in the successive approximation method, evolve to another mode through which, only one approximation is sufficient to get the right position of each motor. (Author) 6 refs.

  19. Greater Emotional Gain from Giving in Older Adults: Age-Related Positivity Bias in Charitable Giving.

    Bjälkebring, Pär; Västfjäll, Daniel; Dickert, Stephan; Slovic, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Older adults have been shown to avoid negative and prefer positive information to a higher extent than younger adults. This positivity bias influences their information processing as well as decision-making. We investigate age-related positivity bias in charitable giving in two studies. In Study 1 we examine motivational factors in monetary donations, while Study 2 focuses on the emotional effect of actual monetary donations. In Study 1, participants (n = 353, age range 20-74 years) were asked to rate their affect toward a person in need and then state how much money they would be willing to donate to help this person. In Study 2, participants (n = 108, age range 19-89) were asked to rate their affect toward a donation made a few days prior. Regression analysis was used to investigate whether or not the positivity bias influences the relationship between affect and donations. In Study 1, we found that older adults felt more sympathy and compassion and were less motivated by negative affect when compared to younger adults, who were motivated by both negative and positive affect. In Study 2, we found that the level of positive emotional reactions from monetary donations was higher in older participants compared to younger participants. We find support for an age-related positivity bias in charitable giving. This is true for motivation to make a future donation, as well as affective thinking about a previous donation. We conclude that older adults draw more positive affect from both the planning and outcome of monetary donations and hence benefit more from engaging in monetary charity than their younger counterparts. PMID:27378966

  20. Polymer density functional approach to efficient evaluation of path integrals

    Brukhno, Andrey; Vorontsov-Velyaminov, Pavel N.; Bohr, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    A polymer density functional theory (P-DFT) has been extended to the case of quantum statistics within the framework of Feynman path integrals. We start with the exact P-DFT formalism for an ideal open chain and adapt its efficient numerical solution to the case of a ring. We show that, similarly......, the path integral problem can, in principle, be solved exactly by making use of the two-particle pair correlation function (2p-PCF) for the ends of an open polymer, half of the original. This way the exact data for one-dimensional quantum harmonic oscillator are reproduced in a wide range of...... simple self-consistent iteration so as to correctly account for the interparticle interactions. The algorithm is speeded up by taking convolutions with the aid of fast Fourier transforms. We apply this approximate path integral DFT (PI-DFT) method to systems within spherical symmetry: 3D harmonic...

  1. Asteroidal Quadruples in non Rooted Path Graphs

    Gutierrez Marisa

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A directed path graph is the intersection graph of a family of directed subpaths of a directed tree. A rooted path graph is the intersection graph of a family of directed subpaths of a rooted tree. Rooted path graphs are directed path graphs. Several characterizations are known for directed path graphs: one by forbidden induced subgraphs and one by forbidden asteroids. It is an open problem to find such characterizations for rooted path graphs. For this purpose, we are studying in this paper directed path graphs that are non rooted path graphs. We prove that such graphs always contain an asteroidal quadruple.

  2. Balanced Path Routing and Detection Mechanism for Wireless Sensor Networks

    T.Shanmuga priya

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available - An Enhanced Dijkstra’s algorithm is presented in this paper. In this proposed approach, a new form of Balanced Path Routing technique is used in which the data send from source node is being transferred to the alternate node and then pass through the nodes to reach the destination. This prevents cuts in between the nodes and gives prior estimation of the shortest route path from source to destination. In Enhanced Dijkstra’s algorithm, the packet delivery ratio is maintained at 80% even when the number of nodes gets increased. This finding indicates that proposed method guarantees reliable communication in wireless sensor networks. The simulation results show the best shortest path with better transmission time.

  3. Optimum Strategies for Selecting Descent Flight-Path Angles

    Wu, Minghong G. (Inventor); Green, Steven M. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    An information processing system and method for adaptively selecting an aircraft descent flight path for an aircraft, are provided. The system receives flight adaptation parameters, including aircraft flight descent time period, aircraft flight descent airspace region, and aircraft flight descent flyability constraints. The system queries a plurality of flight data sources and retrieves flight information including any of winds and temperatures aloft data, airspace/navigation constraints, airspace traffic demand, and airspace arrival delay model. The system calculates a set of candidate descent profiles, each defined by at least one of a flight path angle and a descent rate, and each including an aggregated total fuel consumption value for the aircraft following a calculated trajectory, and a flyability constraints metric for the calculated trajectory. The system selects a best candidate descent profile having the least fuel consumption value while the fly ability constraints metric remains within aircraft flight descent flyability constraints.

  4. Rethinking the social and cultural dimensions of charitable giving

    Bajde, Domen

    2009-01-01

    socially symbolic dimensions of charitable giving are critically examined in light of postmodern consumer culture and the recent social corporate responsibility trends. By openly engaging the proposed complexities of gift-giving, our vocabulary and understanding of postmodern giving can be revised so as to...

  5. A New Class of Lattice Paths and Partitions with Copies of

    S Anand; A K Agarwal

    2012-02-01

    Agarwal and Bressoud (Pacific J. Math. 136(2)(1989) 209–228) defined a class of weighted lattice paths and interpreted several -series combinatorially. Using the same class of lattice paths, Agarwal (Utilitas Math. 53(1998) 71–80; ARS Combinatoria 76(2005) 151–160) provided combinatorial interpretations for several more -series. In this paper, a new class of weighted lattice paths, which we call associated lattice paths is introduced. It is shown that these new lattice paths can also be used for giving combinatorial meaning to certain -series. However, the main advantage of our associated lattice paths is that they provide a graphical representation for partitions with + copies of introduced and studied by Agarwal (Partitions with copies of , Lecture Notes in Math., No. 1234 (Berlin/New York: Springer-Verlag) (1985) 1–4) and Agarwal and Andrews (J. Combin. Theory A45(1)(1987) 40–49).

  6. Device and proceeding of dry storage for materials giving out heat

    The invention concerns a device and a proceeding of dry storage for material giving out heat. It is adapted to radioactive waste storage. Radioactive waste can be packaged in containers and then put in a well with a concrete enclosure. This well has an entrance opening for cold air in its low part, and an other opening in its high part to allow to evacuate the hot fluid

  7. Adaptive Lighting

    Petersen, Kjell Yngve; Søndergaard, Karin; Kongshaug, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive Lighting Adaptive lighting is based on a partial automation of the possibilities to adjust the colour tone and brightness levels of light in order to adapt to people’s needs and desires. IT support is key to the technical developments that afford adaptive control systems. The possibilities...... offered by adaptive lighting control are created by the ways that the system components, the network and data flow can be coordinated through software so that the dynamic variations are controlled in ways that meaningfully adapt according to people’s situations and design intentions. This book discusses...... the investigations of lighting scenarios carried out in two test installations: White Cube and White Box. The test installations are discussed as large-scale experiential instruments. In these test installations we examine what could potentially occur when light using LED technology is integrated and...

  8. Who gives? Multilevel effects of gender and ethnicity on workplace charitable giving.

    Leslie, Lisa M; Snyder, Mark; Glomb, Theresa M

    2013-01-01

    Research on diversity in organizations has largely focused on the implications of gender and ethnic differences for performance, to the exclusion of other outcomes. We propose that gender and ethnic differences also have implications for workplace charitable giving, an important aspect of corporate social responsibility. Drawing from social role theory, we hypothesize and find that gender has consistent effects across levels of analysis; women donate more money to workplace charity than do men, and the percentage of women in a work unit is positively related to workplace charity, at least among men. Alternatively and consistent with social exchange theory, we hypothesize and find that ethnicity has opposing effects across levels of analysis; ethnic minorities donate less money to workplace charity than do Whites, but the percentage of minorities in a work unit is positively related to workplace charity, particularly among minorities. The findings provide a novel perspective on the consequences of gender and ethnic diversity in organizations and highlight synergies between organizational efforts to increase diversity and to build a reputation for corporate social responsibility. PMID:22985116

  9. Majorana and the path-integral approach to Quantum Mechanics

    Esposito, S

    2006-01-01

    We give, for the first time, the English translation of a manuscript by Ettore Majorana, which probably corresponds to the text for a seminar delivered at the University of Naples in 1938, where he lectured on Theoretical Physics. Some passages reveal a physical interpretation of the Quantum Mechanics which anticipates of several years the Feynman approach in terms of path integrals, independently of the underlying mathematical formulation.

  10. Perfect Matchings in Lattice Animals and Lattice Paths with Constraints

    Došlić, Tomislav

    2005-01-01

    In the first part of this paper it is shown how to use ear decomposition techniques in proving existence and establishing lower bounds to the number of perfect matchings in lattice animals. A correspondence is then established between perfect matchings in certain classes of benzenoid graphs and paths in the rectangular lattice that satisfy certain diagonal constraints. This correspondence is used to give explicit formulas for the number of perfect matchings in hexagonal benzenoid graphs and t...

  11. Rings of quotients of incidence algebras and path algebras

    Esparza, Eduardo Ortega

    2006-01-01

    We compute the maximal right/left/symmetric rings of quotients of finite dimensional incidence and graph algebras. We show that these rings of quotients are Morita equivalent to incidence algebras and path algebras respectively, with respect to simpler, well determined partially ordered sets and...... finite quivers, respectively. The geometric background of these algebras gives us an intuitive idea of the construction of their maximal ring of quotients....

  12. Adaptive skills

    Staša Stropnik

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive skills are defined as a collection of conceptual, social and practical skills that are learned by people in order to function in their everyday lives. They include an individual's ability to adapt to and manage her or his surroundings to effectively function and meet social or community expectations. Good adaptive skills promote individual's independence in different environments, whereas poorly developed adaptive skills are connected to individual's dependency and with greater need for control and help with everyday tasks. Assessment of adaptive skills is often connected to assessment of intellectual disability, due to the reason that the diagnosis of intellectual disability includes lower levels of achievements on standardized tests of intellectual abilities as well as important deficits in adaptive skills. Assessment of adaptive behavior is a part of standard assessment battery with children and adults with different problems, disorders or disabilities that affect their everyday functioning. This contribution also presents psychometric tools most regularly used for assessment of adaptive skills and characteristics of adaptive skills with individual clinical groups.

  13. ADAPT Dataset

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Diagnostics and Prognostics Testbed (ADAPT) Project Lead: Scott Poll Subject Fault diagnosis in electrical power systems Description The Advanced...

  14. Some practical crack path examples

    Les P. Pook

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that many engineering structures and components, as well as consumer items, contain cracks or crack-like flaws. It is widely recognised that crack growth must be considered both in designand in the analysis of failures. The complete solution of a crack growth problem includes determination of the crack path. Macroscopic aspects of crack paths have been of industrial interest for a very long time.At the present state of the art the factors controlling the path taken by a crack are not completely understood.Eight brief case studies are presented. These are taken from the author’s professional and personal experience of macroscopic crack paths over many years. They have been chosen to illustrate various aspects of crack paths. One example is in a component from a major structure, three examples are in laboratory specimens, and four are in nuisance failures. Such nuisance failures cause, in total, a great deal of inconvenience and expensive, but do not normally receive much publicity.

  15. Modeling Adaptive Educational Methods with IMS Learning Design

    Specht, Marcus; Burgos, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    The paper describes a classification system for adaptive methods developed in the area of adaptive educational hypermedia based on four dimensions: What components of the educational system are adapted? To what features of the user and the current context does the system adapt? Why does the system adapt? How does the system get the necessary information? Based on this taxonomy several classical methods of adaptive educational hypermedia are classified. In a second step the paper gives an over...

  16. Verification and Generation of Safe Straight Paths for a 4-DOF Spherical Manipulator

    Rawand Ehsan J.T.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Sometimes in a manufacturing environment, a robotic arm is wanted to move in a straight path such as welding, painting and assembling. This straight path causes the manipulator to actuate all or most of its joints in the same time to track the path. Along this path, the manipulator may reach a specific singular configuration in its workspace at which one or more joints are in their limits, or a part of the path lies outside the workspace. These conditions make the arm’s movement be unsmooth and may cause damage to the manufacturing process. In this paper, the singularities inside the workspace of a 4-DOF spherical manipulator are indicated and a method is presented for finding the arm configurations (assuming that all joints are actuated at the same time along a straight path between an initial and a goal configurations. All joint limits are presented and if a part of the path lies outside the workspace, the model processes this condition by introducing a new initial configuration through changing the third joint’s (q3 position only. A smooth straight path is generated between any two configurations using the parametric equations of the line connecting them. Unlike the analytical inverse kinematics, which needs a (4 x 4 homogeneous transformations convention matrix (DH to find the joint variables, this method needs only the initial configuration, goal configuration, link lengths and the corresponding Cartesian coordinates of the path. It always gives the correct solution for the under taken path

  17. Spin Observables and Path Integrals

    López, J A

    2000-01-01

    We discuss the formulation of spin observables associated to a non-relativistic spinning particles in terms of grassmanian differential operators. We use as configuration space variables for the pseudo-classical description of this system the positions $x$ and a Grassmanian vector quantum amplitudes as path integrals in this superspace. We compute the quantum action necessary for this description including an explicit expression for the boundary terms. Finally we shown how for simple examples, the path integral may be performed in the semi-classical approximation, leading to the correct quantum propagator.

  18. Path Integrals in Quantum Mechanics

    Jean Zinn-Justin's textbook Path Integrals in Quantum Mechanics aims to familiarize the reader with the path integral as a calculational tool in quantum mechanics and field theory. The emphasis is on quantum statistical mechanics, starting with the partition function Tr exp(-β H) and proceeding through the diffusion equation to barrier penetration problems and their semiclassical limit. The 'real time' path integral is defined via analytic continuation and used for the path-integral representation of the nonrelativistic S-matrix and its perturbative expansion. Holomorphic and Grassmannian path integrals are introduced and applied to nonrelativistic quantum field theory. There is also a brief discussion of path integrals in phase space. The introduction includes a brief historical review of path integrals, supported by a bibliography with some 40 entries. As emphasized in the introduction, mathematical rigour is not a central issue in the book. This allows the text to present the calculational techniques in a very readable manner: much of the text consists of worked-out examples, such as the quartic anharmonic oscillator in the barrier penetration chapter. At the end of each chapter there are exercises, some of which are of elementary coursework type, but the majority are more in the style of extended examples. Most of the exercises indeed include the solution or a sketch thereof. The book assumes minimal previous knowledge of quantum mechanics, and some basic quantum mechanical notation is collected in an appendix. The material has a large overlap with selected chapters in the author's thousand-page textbook Quantum Field Theory and Critical Phenomena (2002 Oxford: Clarendon). The stand-alone scope of the present work has, however, allowed a more focussed organization of this material, especially in the chapters on, respectively, holomorphic and Grassmannian path integrals. In my view the book accomplishes its aim admirably and is eminently usable as a textbook

  19. Multiple paths in complex tasks

    Galanter, Eugene; Wiegand, Thomas; Mark, Gloria

    1987-01-01

    The relationship between utility judgments of subtask paths and the utility of the task as a whole was examined. The convergent validation procedure is based on the assumption that measurements of the same quantity done with different methods should covary. The utility measures of the subtasks were obtained during the performance of an aircraft flight controller navigation task. Analyses helped decide among various models of subtask utility combination, whether the utility ratings of subtask paths predict the whole tasks utility rating, and indirectly, whether judgmental models need to include the equivalent of cognitive noise.

  20. Strings, paths, and standard tableaux

    Dasmahapatra, S

    1996-01-01

    For the vacuum sectors of regime-III ABF models, we observe that two sets of combinatorial objects: the strings which parametrize the row-to-row transfer matrix eigenvectors, and the paths which parametrize the corner transfer matrix eigenvectors, can both be expressed in terms of the same set of standard tableaux. Furthermore, the momenta of the strings, the energies of the paths, and the charges of the tableaux are such that there is a weight-preserving bijection between the two sets of eigenvectors, wherein the tableaux play an interpolating role. This bijection is so natural, that we conjecture that it exists in general.

  1. Hamiltonian paths on directed grids

    Hujter, Mihály; Kaszanyitzky, András

    2015-01-01

    Our studies are related to a special class of FASS-curves, which can be described in a node-rewriting Lindenmayer-system. These ortho-tile (or diagonal) type recursive curves inducing Hamiltonian paths. We define a special directed graph on a rectangular grid, and we enumerate all Hamiltonian paths on this graph. Our formulas are strongly related to both the Fibonacci numbers and the domino tilings of chessboards. The constructability of the regular $17$-gon with straightedge and compass is a...

  2. Calculating Least Risk Paths in 3d Indoor Space

    Vanclooster, A.; De Maeyer, Ph.; Fack, V.; Van de Weghe, N.

    2013-08-01

    Over the last couple of years, research on indoor environments has gained a fresh impetus; more specifically applications that support navigation and wayfinding have become one of the booming industries. Indoor navigation research currently covers the technological aspect of indoor positioning and the modelling of indoor space. The algorithmic development to support navigation has so far been left mostly untouched, as most applications mainly rely on adapting Dijkstra's shortest path algorithm to an indoor network. However, alternative algorithms for outdoor navigation have been proposed adding a more cognitive notion to the calculated paths and as such adhering to the natural wayfinding behaviour (e.g. simplest paths, least risk paths). These algorithms are currently restricted to outdoor applications. The need for indoor cognitive algorithms is highlighted by a more challenged navigation and orientation due to the specific indoor structure (e.g. fragmentation, less visibility, confined areas…). As such, the clarity and easiness of route instructions is of paramount importance when distributing indoor routes. A shortest or fastest path indoors not necessarily aligns with the cognitive mapping of the building. Therefore, the aim of this research is to extend those richer cognitive algorithms to three-dimensional indoor environments. More specifically for this paper, we will focus on the application of the least risk path algorithm of Grum (2005) to an indoor space. The algorithm as proposed by Grum (2005) is duplicated and tested in a complex multi-storey building. The results of several least risk path calculations are compared to the shortest paths in indoor environments in terms of total length, improvement in route description complexity and number of turns. Several scenarios are tested in this comparison: paths covering a single floor, paths crossing several building wings and/or floors. Adjustments to the algorithm are proposed to be more aligned to the

  3. Arithmetic area for m planar Brownian paths

    Desbois, Jean

    2012-01-01

    We pursue the analysis made in [1] on the arithmetic area enclosed by m closed Brownian paths. We pay a particular attention to the random variable S{n1,n2, ...,n} (m) which is the arithmetic area of the set of points, also called winding sectors, enclosed n1 times by path 1, n2 times by path 2, ...,nm times by path m. Various results are obtained in the asymptotic limit m->infinity. A key observation is that, since the paths are independent, one can use in the m paths case the SLE information, valid in the 1-path case, on the 0-winding sectors arithmetic area.

  4. When breastfeeding is unsuccessful - mothers' experiences after giving up breastfeeding

    Larsen, Jette Schilling; Kronborg, Hanne

    2013-01-01

    Some mothers have to give up breastfeeding even though they want to breastfeed. To give up breastfeeding can be a sensitive issue in a time when breastfeeding is promoted as the healthiest for mother and child. The aim of this study was to describe mothers’ experiences after they gave up breastfe......Some mothers have to give up breastfeeding even though they want to breastfeed. To give up breastfeeding can be a sensitive issue in a time when breastfeeding is promoted as the healthiest for mother and child. The aim of this study was to describe mothers’ experiences after they gave up...... breastfeeding even though they intended to breastfeed. A qualitative social constructive approach was used to describe mothers’ experiences after giving up breastfeeding. Danish first-time mothers who had expected and wanted to breastfeed were interviewed four months after birth. The interviews were analysed by...... aware that mothers who have to give up breastfeeding need special attention and support....

  5. Economics of adaptation to climate change

    This report proposes a general economic framework for the issue of adaptation to climate change in order to help public and private actors to build up efficient adaptation strategies. It proposes a general definition of adaptation, identifies the major stakes for these strategies, and discusses the assessment of global costs of adaptation to climate change. It discusses the role and modalities of public action and gives some examples of possible adaptation measures in some important sectors (building and town planning, energy and transport infrastructures, water and agriculture, ecosystems, insurance). It examines the regional and national dimensions of adaptation and their relationship, and defines steps for implementing an adaptation strategy. It describes and discusses the use of economic tools in the elaboration of an adaptation strategy, i.e. how to take uncertainties into account, which scenarios to choose, how to use economic calculations to assess adaptation policies

  6. Montreal Protocol: The Gift that Keeps on Giving

    Reifsnyder, D. A.

    2012-12-01

    be followed by developing countries. The question was, could we do it? And if we could, how could we get others developed countries and then developing countries on side? After our internal discussions, State and EPA convened a workshop with U.S. stakeholders from the private sector and the environmental community. To our delight, both groups thought the United States should take the initiative. In retrospect, the winds were favorable - 2007 marked the 25th Anniversary of the Montreal Protocol and many wanted to celebrate it with something significant. The private sector felt that it could meet an accelerated timetable for phasing out HCFCs - the technology was there. It was also clear that money in the Montreal Protocol Multilateral Fund had begun to decline with the developing country phaseout of CFCs and would decline even more steeply unless a new basis were found to continue it. But favorable winds do not always make for a smooth sail - and path to the accelerated phaseouts of 2007 proved challenging. At the time, practically no one thought the effort would succeed. Still, we did succeed. Yet even then it took time to for many to appreciate the significant benefits for the climate system, beyond the benefits to the stratospheric ozone layer. In fact, the continuing story of the Montreal Protocol is one of the gift that keeps on giving.

  7. Determinants of weighted path matrices

    Talaska, Kelli

    2012-01-01

    We find rational expressions for all minors of the weighted path matrix of a directed graph, generalizing the classical Lindstrom/Gessel-Viennot result for acyclic directed graphs. The formulas are given in terms of certain flows in the graph.

  8. Adaptive Gas Metal Arc (GMA) Welder

    Nachev, G.; Petkov, B.; Blagoev, L.; Tsankarski, I.

    1984-02-01

    Unlike NC machine-tools, where the tool path is primary and the product shape results from it, in arc welding the product is primary, and the welder - human or robot - has to contend with poor fitups, bad preparations, inexact positionning etc. All this means one thing - adaptivity. The axtent to which this is reasonable is discussed, and then a research project, conducted at IICR with the aim to create an adaptive GMA robot, is presented.

  9. Promoting social emotional learning in Chinese schools: a feasibility study of PATHS implementation in Hong Kong

    Chi-Ming Kam; Lance Wai-lap Wong; Kennis Mei-sze Fung

    2011-01-01

    Social emotion learning (SEL) can be taught in schools. The present report describes a pilot trial of the PATHS Curriculum, a US developed evidence-based SEL program, among schools in Hong Kong SAR (China). Three elementary schools, 318 students in 12 first grade classrooms, participated in the study. The first grade PATHS lessons were adapted and translated into Chinese. Twelve teachers learned and adopted these lessons in their teaching. Students in these classrooms learned about different ...

  10. Guidewire path determination for intravascular applications.

    Cardoso, Fernando M; Furuie, Sergio S

    2016-01-01

    Vascular diseases are among the major causes of death in developed countries and the treatment of those pathologies may require endovascular interventions, in which the physician utilizes guidewires and catheters through the vascular system to reach the injured vessel region. Several computational studies related to endovascular procedures are in constant development. Thus, predicting the guidewire path may be of great value for both physicians and researchers. However, attaining good accuracy and precision is still an important issue. We propose a method to simulate and predict the guidewire and catheter path inside a blood vessel based on equilibrium of a new set of forces, which leads, iteratively, to the minimum energy configuration. This technique was validated with phantoms using a ∅0.33 mm stainless steel guidewire and compared to other relevant methods in the literature. This method presented RMS error 0.30 mm and 0.97 mm, which represents less than 2% and 20% of the lumen diameter of the phantom, in 2D and 3D cases, respectively. The proposed technique presented better results than other methods from the literature, which were included in this work for comparison. Moreover, the algorithm presented low variation (σ=0:03 mm) due to the variation of the input parameters. Therefore, even for a wide range of different parameters configuration, similar results are presented for the proposed approach, which is an important feature and makes this technique easier to work with. Since this method is based on basic physics, it is simple, intuitive, easy to learn and easy to adapt. PMID:26176911

  11. How to Give Effective Feedback to Your Students

    Brookhart, Susan M.

    2008-01-01

    Giving students good feedback on all their schoolwork is one of the toughest challenges every teacher faces. But here at last is a guide that helps you always know how to give the right feedback for all kinds of assignments, in every grade level and subject area. Susan M. Brookhart covers every possible aspect of the topic, including: (1) What…

  12. Gratitude, Guilt, Goodwill, and Giving Back: Lessons from Madagascar

    Christopher D. Golden

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This research note is part of the thematic section, Practical Realities of Giving Back, in the special issue titled “Giving Back in Field Research,” published as Volume 10, Issue 2 in the Journal of Research Practice.

  13. A Pilot Study of Nurses' Experience of Giving Spiritual Care

    Deal, Belinda

    2010-01-01

    Using spiritual and religious resources gives patients and families strength to cope during a crisis, but nurses often do not offer spiritual care (Kloosterhouse & Ames, 2002). The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore nurses" lived experience of giving spiritual care. A descriptive phenomenological approach was used to interview 4…

  14. Territorial Entanglements: Ambiguities of Giving Back in Northwestern Laos

    Michael Benjamin Dwyer

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This research note is part of the thematic section, Limits to Giving Back, in the special issue titled “Giving Back in Field Research,” published as Volume 10, Issue 2 in the Journal of Research Practice.

  15. 20 CFR 404.704 - Your responsibility for giving evidence.

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Your responsibility for giving evidence. 404.704 Section 404.704 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Evidence General § 404.704 Your responsibility for giving evidence....

  16. Ambiguous Adaptation

    Møller Larsen, Marcus; Lyngsie, Jacob

    We investigate why some exchange relationships terminate prematurely. We argue that investments in informal governance structures induce premature termination in relationships already governed by formal contracts. The formalized adaptive behavior of formal governance structures and the flexible and...... reciprocal adaptation of informal governance structure create ambiguity in situations of contingencies, which, subsequently, increases the likelihood of premature relationship termination. Using a large sample of exchange relationships in the global service provider industry, we find support for a hypothesis...

  17. Strategic Adaptation

    Andersen, Torben Juul

    2015-01-01

    This article provides an overview of theoretical contributions that have influenced the discourse around strategic adaptation including contingency perspectives, strategic fit reasoning, decision structure, information processing, corporate entrepreneurship, and strategy process. The related...... concepts of strategic renewal, dynamic managerial capabilities, dynamic capabilities, and strategic response capabilities are discussed and contextualized against strategic responsiveness. The insights derived from this article are used to outline the contours of a dynamic process of strategic adaptation...

  18. Prototyping Adaptive Online Learning Courses

    Geleverya, Tim; Malinovskaya, Olga; Gavrilova, Tatiana; Golenkov, Vladimir

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the process of prototyping adaptive online learning using the authoring tool for developers, which is based on ontologies. The article also gives a brief overview of contemporary situation and describes modern trends of evolution e-learning courses and present standards in this area. It also describes architecture of system VITA II.

  19. OPINION GIVING SERVICES AS A SOURCE OF CONSUMER INFORMATION

    Joanna Wyrwisz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article is to determine the place and role of opinion giving services in consumer behaviours. The discussion is conducted around the thesis saying that in the information society, opinion giving services constitute an important source of information for consumers in the process of selecting and purchasing both products and services. In the article the research approach based on the theoretical and empirical examinations was presented. The discussion starts with presenting a defi nition and types of opinion giving services which constitute the base for the characteristics of activities and usefulness of web portals collecting consumers opinions. The use of opinion giving services provided in the purchase process was evaluated. An essential interest in other consumers opinions, placed in Internet, was observed together with perceiving them as credible. Positive assessment of the functionality of opinion giving services was noticed.

  20. Pythia: An object-orientated gas path analysis computer program for general applications

    Escher, P. C.

    1995-01-01

    For both civil and military aero gas turbines, technological advances and high cost of ownership have resulted in considerable interest in advanced maintenance techniques. Some of these techniques are now ready for application to industrial gas turbines. This thesis attempts to give an overview of engine maintenance and engine health monitoring techniques. One way to tackle the high cost is to employ Gas Path Analysis techniques. Gas Path C Analysis helps to identify deteriorated co...

  1. Exact sampling of self-avoiding paths via discrete Schramm-Loewner evolution

    Gherardi, Marco

    2010-01-01

    We present an algorithm, based on the iteration of conformal maps, that produces independent samples of self-avoiding paths in the plane. It is a discrete process approximating radial Schramm-Loewner evolution growing to infinity. We focus on the problem of reproducing the parametrization corresponding to that of lattice models, namely self-avoiding walks on the lattice, and we propose a strategy that gives rise to discrete paths where consecutive points lie an approximately constant distance...

  2. Huygens' principle and the path integral

    Huygens' principle is shown to be the relativistic generalization of Feynman's path integral, i.e. the latter can be derived from the former if the speed of light goes to affinity. There are two quite different views which have to be disentangled: the well-known diffraction patterns as in the propagation of light waves through one or more slits, are associated with monochromatic light and satisfy the Helmholtz equation, whereas Huygens's wave theory is based on time-varying light pulses which satisfy the wave equation. the Helmholtz equation, or equivalently the stationary Schroedinger equation, are elliptic partial differential equation for which nothing resembling Huygens' original construction applies, as will be explained in some detail because it is often not well understood. The full wave equation leads in 1 and 3 space dimensions quite naturally to this construction in terms of spherical wave pulses, but not generally to the usual diffraction pattern. For 2 space dimensions, however, or for relativistic particles with a non-vanishing mass, and for hyperbolic partial differential equations in general, one gets only the weak form of Huygens' principle where the amplitude is propagated both on and inside the light cone. Explicit integral formulas are given for the amplitude at some later time t>0 in terms of the amplitude and its time-derivative at time t = 0 using the work of Hadamard and its explicit results as found in the treatise by Courant and Hilbert. We give a short sketch of how these formulas can be applied to the Dirac equation, and then lead directly to the path integral for the time-dependent Schroedinger equation. 11 refs, 2 figs

  3. Intelligent PID guidance control for AUV path tracking

    李晔; 姜言清; 王磊峰; 曹建; 张国成

    2015-01-01

    Based on rational behavior model of three layers, a tracking control system is designed for straight line tracking which is commonly used in underwater survey missions. An intelligent PID control law implemented as planning level during the control system using transverse deviation is came up with. Continuous tracking of path expressed by a point sequence can be realized by the law. Firstly, a path tracking control system based on rational behavior model of three layers is designed, mainly satisfying the needs of underactuated AUV. Since there is no need to perform spatially coupled maneuvers, the 3D path tracking control is decoupled into planar 2D path tracking and depth or height tracking separately. Secondly, planar path tracking controller is introduced. For the reason that more attention is paid to comparing with vertical position control, transverse deviation in analytical form is derived. According to the Lyapunov direct theory, control law is designed using discrete PID algorithm whose parameters obey adaptive fuzzy adjustment. Reference heading angle is given as an output of the guidance controller conducted by lateral deviation together with its derivative. For the purpose of improving control quality and facilitating parameter modifying, data normalize modules based on Sigmoid function are applied to input-output data manipulation. Lastly, a sequence of experiments was carried out successfully, including tests in Longfeng lake and at the Yellow sea. In most challenging sea conditions, tracking errors of straight line are below 2 m in general. The results show that AUV is able to compensate the disturbance brought by sea current. The provided test results demonstrate that the designed guidance controller guarantees stably and accurately straight route tracking. Besides, the proposed control system is accessible for continuous comb-shaped path tracking in region searching.

  4. Arithmetic area for m planar Brownian paths

    Desbois, Jean; Ouvry, Stephane

    2012-01-01

    We pursue the analysis made in [1] on the arithmetic area enclosed by m closed Brownian paths. We pay a particular attention to the random variable S{n1,n2, ...,n} (m) which is the arithmetic area of the set of points, also called winding sectors, enclosed n1 times by path 1, n2 times by path 2, ...,nm times by path m. Various results are obtained in the asymptotic limit m->infinity. A key observation is that, since the paths are independent, one can use in the m paths case the SLE informatio...

  5. Path querying system on mobile devices

    Lin, Xing; Wang, Yifei; Tian, Yuan; Wu, Lun

    2006-01-01

    Traditional approaches to path querying problems are not efficient and convenient under most circumstances. A more convenient and reliable approach to this problem has to be found. This paper is devoted to a path querying solution on mobile devices. By using an improved Dijkstra's shortest path algorithm and a natural language translating module, this system can help people find the shortest path between two places through their cell phones or other mobile devices. The chosen path is prompted in text of natural language, as well as a map picture. This system would be useful in solving best path querying problems and have potential to be a profitable business system.

  6. An exact formulation of the time-ordered exponential using path-sums

    Giscard, P.-L., E-mail: p.giscard1@physics.ox.ac.uk [Clarendon Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Lui, K. [Colby College, 4000 Mayflower Hill Dr., Waterville, Maine 04901 (United States); Thwaite, S. J. [Department of Physics and Arnold Sommerfeld Center for Theoretical Physics, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Theresienstraße 37, 80333 Munich (Germany); Jaksch, D. [Clarendon Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Centre for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 2, Singapore 117543 (Singapore)

    2015-05-15

    We present the path-sum formulation for the time-ordered exponential of a time-dependent matrix. The path-sum formulation gives the time-ordered exponential as a branched continued fraction of finite depth and breadth. The terms of the path-sum have an elementary interpretation as self-avoiding walks and self-avoiding polygons on a graph. Our result is based on a representation of the time-ordered exponential as the inverse of an operator, the mapping of this inverse to sums of walks on a graphs, and the algebraic structure of sets of walks. We give examples demonstrating our approach. We establish a super-exponential decay bound for the magnitude of the entries of the time-ordered exponential of sparse matrices. We give explicit results for matrices with commonly encountered sparse structures.

  7. An exact formulation of the time-ordered exponential using path-sums

    Giscard, P.-L.; Lui, K.; Thwaite, S. J.; Jaksch, D.

    2015-05-01

    We present the path-sum formulation for the time-ordered exponential of a time-dependent matrix. The path-sum formulation gives the time-ordered exponential as a branched continued fraction of finite depth and breadth. The terms of the path-sum have an elementary interpretation as self-avoiding walks and self-avoiding polygons on a graph. Our result is based on a representation of the time-ordered exponential as the inverse of an operator, the mapping of this inverse to sums of walks on a graphs, and the algebraic structure of sets of walks. We give examples demonstrating our approach. We establish a super-exponential decay bound for the magnitude of the entries of the time-ordered exponential of sparse matrices. We give explicit results for matrices with commonly encountered sparse structures.

  8. Monitoring the Hydrologic Cycle With the PATH Mission

    Lambrigtsen, B.

    2012-12-01

    One of the 15 decadal-survey missions the National Research Council recommended that NASA undertake is the Precipitation and All-weather Temperature and Humidity (PATH) mission. It consists of a microwave sounder placed on a geostationary platform to observe atmospheric processes related to the hydrologic cycle. The primary observables consist of precipitation, cloud liquid water and vertical profiles of temperature and humidity, and secondary derived products include vertical profiles of horizontal wind vectors (derived by tracking the motion of humidity features) and vertical profiles of reflectivity when there is convection. All products will be available regardless of cloud cover and some even in the presence of precipitation. The Geostationary vantage point makes it possible to get very rapid updates, every 5-30 minutes, which is sufficient to resolve the most dynamic processes. The PATH mission will give a nearly complete simultaneous view of the atmospheric component of the hydrologic cycle and will enable a number of studies that have not yet been feasible. For example, it will be possible to fully resolve the diurnal cycle of cloud formation, convection, precipitation and storm evolution. PATH covers a very wide range in the spatio-temporal domain and will enable studies ranging from the evolution of tornado-generating thunderstorm complexes to continental-scale moisture flow. We describe the sensor system and the technology that enables PATH as well as some of the science applications. We also discuss the prospects for a PATH precursor mission in the near future as well as the long-term prospects for a full PATH mission. Copyright 2012 California Institute of Technology. Government sponsorship acknowledged.

  9. Is adaptation. Truly an adaptation? Is adaptation. Truly an adaptation?

    Thais Flores Nogueira Diniz

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The article begins by historicizing film adaptation from the arrival of cinema, pointing out the many theoretical approaches under which the process has been seen: from the concept of “the same story told in a different medium” to a comprehensible definition such as “the process through which works can be transformed, forming an intersection of textual surfaces, quotations, conflations and inversions of other texts”. To illustrate this new concept, the article discusses Spike Jonze’s film Adaptation. according to James Naremore’s proposal which considers the study of adaptation as part of a general theory of repetition, joined with the study of recycling, remaking, and every form of retelling. The film deals with the attempt by the scriptwriter Charles Kaufman, cast by Nicholas Cage, to adapt/translate a non-fictional book to the cinema, but ends up with a kind of film which is by no means what it intended to be: a film of action in the model of Hollywood productions. During the process of creation, Charles and his twin brother, Donald, undergo a series of adventures involving some real persons from the world of film, the author and the protagonist of the book, all of them turning into fictional characters in the film. In the film, adaptation then signifies something different from itstraditional meaning. The article begins by historicizing film adaptation from the arrival of cinema, pointing out the many theoretical approaches under which the process has been seen: from the concept of “the same story told in a different medium” to a comprehensible definition such as “the process through which works can be transformed, forming an intersection of textual surfaces, quotations, conflations and inversions of other texts”. To illustrate this new concept, the article discusses Spike Jonze’s film Adaptation. according to James Naremore’s proposal which considers the study of adaptation as part of a general theory of repetition

  10. Scan path entropy and arrow plots: capturing scanning behavior of multiple observers.

    Hooge, Ignace; Camps, Guido

    2013-01-01

    Designers of visual communication material want their material to attract and retain attention. In marketing research, heat maps, dwell time, and time to AOI first hit are often used as evaluation parameters. Here we present two additional measures (1) "scan path entropy" to quantify gaze guidance and (2) the "arrow plot" to visualize the average scan path. Both are based on string representations of scan paths. The latter also incorporates transition matrices and time required for 50% of the observers to first hit AOIs (T50). The new measures were tested in an eye tracking study (48 observers, 39 advertisements). Scan path entropy is a sensible measure for gaze guidance and the new visualization method reveals aspects of the average scan path and gives a better indication in what order global scanning takes place. PMID:24399993

  11. Scan path entropy and Arrow plots: Capturing scanning behavior of multiple observers

    Ignace T C Hooge

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Designers of visual communication material want their material to attract and retain attention. In marketing research, heat maps, dwell time, and time to AOI first hit are often used as evaluation parameters. Here we present two additional measures 1 scan path entropy to quantify gaze guidance and 2 the arrow plot to visualize the average scan path. Both are based on string representations of scan paths. The latter also incorporates transition matrices and time required for 50% of the observers to first hit AOIs (T50. The new measures were tested in an eye tracking study (48 observers, 39 advertisements. Scan path entropy is a sensible measure for gaze guidance and the new visualization method reveals aspects of the average scan path and gives a better indication in what order global scanning takes place.

  12. How is an optimized path of classical mechanics affected by random noise?

    The variational principle is one of important guiding principles in physics. Classical equations of motion of particle can be formulated so as to give the optimized path of an action. However, when there exist uncontrollable degrees of freedom such as noise, the optimized path is affected and the original classical equations of motion may not correspond to the optimized path. The stochastic variational method (SVM) is a framework to calculate the modified optimized path by the effect of noise. This method has been developed to show that the Schrödinger equation can be derived from the classical action which leads to Newton's equation of motion by taking into account the modification of the optimized path due to noise. In this work, we will extend this idea to the case of the continuum media and show that the Euler equation of the ideal fluid is converted to the Navier-Stokes equation or the Gross-Pitaevskii equation in SVM.

  13. Path modeling and process control

    Høskuldsson, Agnar; Rodionova, O.; Pomerantsev, A.

    2007-01-01

    be performed regarding the foreseeable output property y, and with respect to an admissible range of correcting actions for the parameters of the next stage. In this paper the basic principles of path modeling is presented. The mathematics is presented for processes having only one stage, having two stages...... and having three or more stages. The methods are applied to a process control of a multi-stage production process having 25 variables and one output variable. When moving along the process, variables change their roles. It is shown how the methods of path modeling can be applied to estimate variables......Many production processes are carried out in stages. At the end of each stage, the production engineer can analyze the intermediate results and correct process parameters (variables) of the next stage. Both analysis of the process and correction to process parameters at next stage should...

  14. Shortest Paths With Side Sensors

    Salaris, Paolo; Bicchi, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    We present a complete characterization of shortest paths to a goal position for a vehicle with unicycle kinematics and a limited range sensor, constantly keeping a given landmark in sight. Previous work on this subject studied the optimal paths in case of a frontal, symmetrically limited Field--Of--View (FOV). In this paper we provide a generalization to the case of arbitrary FOVs, including the case that the direction of motion is not an axis of symmetry for the FOV, and even that it is not contained in the FOV. The provided solution is of particular relevance to applications using side-scanning, such as e.g. in underwater sonar-based surveying and navigation.

  15. Adaptation of College English Classroom Materials

    余跃

    2015-01-01

    Materials adaptation involves changing existing materials so that they become more suitable for specific learners, teach⁃ers or situations. This paper reviews the current state of this field, and makes suggestions for and gives example of innovative and principled approaches to college English classroom materials adaptation.

  16. Facilitating Description and Selection of Learning Paths: the learning path specification put to the test

    Janssen, José

    2008-01-01

    Jansen, J. (2008). Facilitating Description and Selection of Learning Paths: the learning path specification put to the test. Presentation at the Otec Colloquium. April, 2008, Heerlen, The Netherlands.

  17. Rethinking China's path of industrialization

    Wu, Harry X

    2011-01-01

    This study shows that China's post-1949 state-led industrialization has closely followed an underlying path that began in the late nineteenth century. It was initiated by pressing national defence needs and has since been motivated by the same and strong incentives for a faster catch-up with the West despite radical regime shifts. Government determined or influenced resource allocation benefited selected industries and hence nurtured vested interest groups connecting and integrating with the ...

  18. Path integral on star graph

    In this paper we study path integral for a single spinless particle on a star graph with N edges, whose vertex is known to be described by U(N) family of boundary conditions. After carefully studying the free particle case, both at the critical and off-critical levels, we propose a new path integral formulation that correctly captures all the scale-invariant subfamily of boundary conditions realized at fixed points of boundary renormalization group flow. Our proposal is based on the folding trick, which maps a scalar-valued wave function on star graph to an N-component vector-valued wave function on half-line. All the parameters of scale-invariant subfamily of boundary conditions are encoded into the momentum independent weight factors, which appear to be associated with the two distinct path classes on half-line that form the cyclic group Z2. We show that, when bulk interactions are edge-independent, these weight factors are generally given by an N-dimensional unitary representation of Z2. Generalization to momentum dependent weight factors and applications to worldline formalism are briefly discussed. - Highlights: ► We propose the new path integral formulation on star graph with N edges. ►U(N) family of boundary conditions is well-described by weight factors. ► The scale-invariant weight factor is given by N-dimensional unitary representation of Z2. ► Generalization to momentum dependent weight factors is briefly discussed.

  19. Path optimization for oil probe

    Smith, O'Neil; Rahmes, Mark; Blue, Mark; Peter, Adrian

    2014-05-01

    We discuss a robust method for optimal oil probe path planning inspired by medical imaging. Horizontal wells require three-dimensional steering made possible by the rotary steerable capabilities of the system, which allows the hole to intersect multiple target shale gas zones. Horizontal "legs" can be over a mile long; the longer the exposure length, the more oil and natural gas is drained and the faster it can flow. More oil and natural gas can be produced with fewer wells and less surface disturbance. Horizontal drilling can help producers tap oil and natural gas deposits under surface areas where a vertical well cannot be drilled, such as under developed or environmentally sensitive areas. Drilling creates well paths which have multiple twists and turns to try to hit multiple accumulations from a single well location. Our algorithm can be used to augment current state of the art methods. Our goal is to obtain a 3D path with nodes describing the optimal route to the destination. This algorithm works with BIG data and saves cost in planning for probe insertion. Our solution may be able to help increase the energy extracted vs. input energy.

  20. Accelerating cleanup: Paths to closure

    Edwards, C.

    1998-06-30

    This document was previously referred to as the Draft 2006 Plan. As part of the DOE`s national strategy, the Richland Operations Office`s Paths to Closure summarizes an integrated path forward for environmental cleanup at the Hanford Site. The Hanford Site underwent a concerted effort between 1994 and 1996 to accelerate the cleanup of the Site. These efforts are reflected in the current Site Baseline. This document describes the current Site Baseline and suggests strategies for further improvements in scope, schedule and cost. The Environmental Management program decided to change the name of the draft strategy and the document describing it in response to a series of stakeholder concerns, including the practicality of achieving widespread cleanup by 2006. Also, EM was concerned that calling the document a plan could be misconstrued to be a proposal by DOE or a decision-making document. The change in name, however, does not diminish the 2006 vision. To that end, Paths to Closure retains a focus on 2006, which serves as a point in time around which objectives and goals are established.

  1. VFI-based Robotic Arm Control for Natural Adaptive Motion

    Woosung Yang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Since neural oscillator based control methods can generate rhythmic motion without information on system dynamics, they can be a promising alternative to traditional motion planning based control approaches. However, for field application, they still need to be robust against unexpected forces or changes in environments so as to be able to generate “natural motion” like most biological systems. In this study a biologically inspired control algorithm that combines neural oscillators and virtual force is proposed. This work gives the condition with respect to parameters tuning to stably activate the neural oscillators. This is helpful to achieve motion adaptability to environmental changes keeping the motion repeatability. He efficacy and efficiency of the proposed methods are tested in the control of a planar three-linkage robotic arm. It is shown that the proposed controller generates a given circular path stably and repeatedly, even with unexpected contact with a wall. The adaptivity of motion control is also tested in control of a robotic arm with redundant degrees of freedom. The proposed control algorithm works throughout the simulations and experiments.

  2. Testing for Altruism and Social Pressure in Charitable Giving

    Stefano DellaVigna; List, John A.; Ulrike Malmendier

    2009-01-01

    Every year, 90 percent of Americans give money to charities. Is such generosity necessarily welfare enhancing for the giver? We present a theoretical framework that distinguishes two types of motivation: individuals like to give, e.g., due to altruism or warm glow, and individuals would rather not give but dislike saying no, e.g., due to social pressure. We design a door-to-door fund-raising drive in which some households are informed about the exact time of solicitation with a flyer on their...

  3. Path integrals in quantum physics. Lectures given at ETH Zurich during summer semester 1997

    This lectures aim at giving graduate students an introduction to a working knowledge of path integral methods in a wide variety of fields in physics. Consequently, the the lecture notes are organized in three main parts dealing with non-relativistic quantum mechanics, many-body physics and field theory. In the first part the basic concepts of path integrals are developed in the usual heuristic, non-mathematical way followed by the standard examples of quadratic Lagrangians for which the path integrals can be solved exactly. Applications include semi-classical expansions, scattering problems and the representation of Green functions as path integrals. In the last chapter of this part it is shown how (euclidean) path integrals can be treated numerically by Monte-Carlo methods with a program for the anharmonic oscillator as an explicit example. The second part deals with the application of path integrals in statistical mechanics and many-body problems. Various chapters treat the partition functions, the polaron problem as a non-relativistic field theory and path integrals over ordinary and Grassmannian coherent states. Perturbation theory and the diagrammatic rules are derived in an unified way for both bosons and fermions and illustrated by simple examples. Finally, in the third part path integrals in relativistic quantum field theory are discussed. Standard topics like the generating functional for Green functions, perturbative expansions, effective actions and quantization of gauge theories are treated. Some special applications (the wordline formalism and spin in relativistic path integrals, the derivation of anomalies by path integral methods) are contained in additional chapters. The last section tries to give a simple introduction into lattice (gauge) field theory including a numerical example which can be run on a PC. The set of problems which accompanied the lectures is also included in the present notes. (author) 15 figs., refs

  4. On p-adic path integral

    Dragovich, Branko

    2000-01-01

    Feynman's path integral is generalized to quantum mechanics on p-adic space and time. Such p-adic path integral is analytically evaluated for quadratic Lagrangians. Obtained result has the same form as that one in ordinary quantum mechanics.

  5. Path Integral and the Induction Law

    Barone, F. A.; Farina, C.

    2005-01-01

    We show how the induction law is correctly used in the path integral computation of the free particle propagator. The way this primary path integral example is treated in most textbooks is a little bit missleading.

  6. Time optimal paths for high speed maneuvering

    Reister, D.B.; Lenhart, S.M.

    1993-01-01

    Recent theoretical results have completely solved the problem of determining the minimum length path for a vehicle with a minimum turning radius moving from an initial configuration to a final configuration. Time optimal paths for a constant speed vehicle are a subset of the minimum length paths. This paper uses the Pontryagin maximum principle to find time optimal paths for a constant speed vehicle. The time optimal paths consist of sequences of axes of circles and straight lines. The maximum principle introduces concepts (dual variables, bang-bang solutions, singular solutions, and transversality conditions) that provide important insight into the nature of the time optimal paths. We explore the properties of the optimal paths and present some experimental results for a mobile robot following an optimal path.

  7. Electron Inelastic-Mean-Free-Path Database

    SRD 71 NIST Electron Inelastic-Mean-Free-Path Database (PC database, no charge)   This database provides values of electron inelastic mean free paths (IMFPs) for use in quantitative surface analyses by AES and XPS.

  8. Classifying characteristic functions giving Weyl-Heisenberg frames

    Casazza, P. G.; Lammers, M. C.

    2000-01-01

    We examine the question of which characteristic functions yield Weyl-Heisenberg frames for various values of the parameters. We also give numerous applications of frames of characteristic functions to the general case (g,a,b).

  9. Caregivers Often Give Up Necessities to Cover Alzheimer's Costs

    ... html Caregivers Often Give Up Necessities to Cover Alzheimer's Costs Many skip food and health care, cut ... 30, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Caring for someone with Alzheimer's disease means caregivers often skimp on their own ...

  10. Music Might Give Babies' Language Skills a Boost

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158486.html Music Might Give Babies' Language Skills a Boost Small ... April 25, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Can listening to music boost your baby's brainpower? Maybe, at least in ...

  11. Time Zone Changes Give Edge to Athletes from West

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_159440.html Time Zone Changes Give Edge to Athletes From West Professional teams traveling from later to earlier time zones win more, study finds To use the ...

  12. Music Might Give Babies' Language Skills a Boost

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_158486.html Music Might Give Babies' Language Skills a Boost Small ... April 25, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Can listening to music boost your baby's brainpower? Maybe, at least in ...

  13. Ramsey Clark to give peace talk at Virginia Tech

    Brunais, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    Ramsey Clark, former U.S. attorney general and prominent figure on the modern international stage, will give his perspectives on peace in a speech at Virginia Tech on Oct. 28. The speech is free and open to the public.

  14. Feynman Path Integrals Over Entangled States

    Green, A.G.; Hooley, C. A.; Keeling, J.; Simon, S. H.

    2016-01-01

    The saddle points of a conventional Feynman path integral are not entangled, since they comprise a sequence of classical field configurations. We combine insights from field theory and tensor networks by constructing a Feynman path integral over a sequence of matrix product states. The paths that dominate this path integral include some degree of entanglement. This new feature allows several insights and applications: i. A Ginzburg-Landau description of deconfined phase transitions. ii. The e...

  15. Timeless path integral for relativistic quantum mechanics

    Chiou, Dah-Wei

    2010-01-01

    Starting from the canonical formalism of relativistic (timeless) quantum mechanics, the formulation of timeless path integral is rigorously derived. The transition amplitude is reformulated as the sum, or functional integral, over all possible paths in the constraint surface specified by the (relativistic) Hamiltonian constraint, and each path contributes with a phase identical to the classical action divided by $\\hbar$. The timeless path integral manifests the timeless feature as it is compl...

  16. Concept Based Approach for Adaptive Personalized Course Learning System

    Salahli, Mehmet Ali; Özdemir, Muzaffer; Yasar, Cumali

    2013-01-01

    One of the most important factors for improving the personalization aspects of learning systems is to enable adaptive properties to them. The aim of the adaptive personalized learning system is to offer the most appropriate learning path and learning materials to learners by taking into account their profiles. In this paper, a new approach to…

  17. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF MULTI-PATH TCP NETWORK

    Hamzah M A Hijawi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available MPTCP is proposed by IETF working group, it allows a single TCP stream to be split across multiple paths. It has obvious benefits in performance and reliability. MPTCP has implemented in Linux-based distributions that can be compiled and installed to be used for both real and experimental scenarios. In this article, we provide performance analyses for MPTCP with a laptop connected to WiFi access point and 3G cellular network at the same time. We prove experimentally that MPTCP outperforms regular TCP for WiFi or 3G interfaces. We also compare four types of congestion control algorithms for MPTCP that are also implemented in the Linux Kernel. Results show that Alias Linked Increase Congestion Control algorithm outperforms the others in the normal traffic load while Balanced Linked Adaptation algorithm outperforms the rest when the paths are shared with heavy traffic, which is not supported by MPTCP.

  18. Does Generosity Beget Generosity? Alumni Giving and Undergraduate Financial Aid

    2012-01-01

    We investigate how undergraduates' financial aid packages affect their subsequent donative behavior as alumni. The empirical work is based upon micro data on alumni giving at an anonymous research university. We focus on three types of financial aid, scholarships, loans, and campus jobs. A novel aspect of our modeling strategy is that, consistent with the view of some professional fundraisers, we allow the receipt of a given form of aid per se to affect alumni giving. At the same time, our mo...

  19. Adaptive test

    Kjeldsen, Lars Peter; Eriksen, Mette Rose

    2010-01-01

    Artikelen er en evaluering af de adaptive tests, som blev indført i folkeskolen. Artiklen sætter særligt fokus på evaluering i folkeskolen, herunder bidrager den med vejledning til evaluering, evalueringsværktøjer og fagspecifkt evalueringsmateriale.......Artikelen er en evaluering af de adaptive tests, som blev indført i folkeskolen. Artiklen sætter særligt fokus på evaluering i folkeskolen, herunder bidrager den med vejledning til evaluering, evalueringsværktøjer og fagspecifkt evalueringsmateriale....

  20. The diagnostic path, a useful visualisation tool in virtual microscopy

    Hufnagl Peter

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Virtual Microscopy based on completely digitalised histological slide. Concerning this digitalisation many new features in mircoscopy can be processed by the computer. New applications are possible or old, well known techniques of image analyses can be adapted for routine use. Aims A so called diagnostic path observes in the way of a professional sees through a histological virtual slide combined with the text information of the dictation process. This feature can be used for image retrieval, quality assurance or for educational purpose. Materials and methods The diagnostic path implements a metadata structure of image information. It stores and processes the different images seen by a pathologist during his "slide viewing" and the obtained image sequence ("observation path". Contemporary, the structural details of the pathology reports were analysed. The results were transferred into an XML structure. Based on this structure, a report editor and a search function were implemented. The report editor compiles the "diagnostic path", which is the connection from the image viewing sequence ("observation path" and the oral report sequence of the findings ("dictation path". The time set ups of speech and image viewing serve for the link between the two sequences. The search tool uses the obtained diagnostic path. It allows the user to search for particular histological hallmarks in pathology reports and in the corresponding images. Results The new algorithm was tested on 50 pathology reports and 74 attached histological images. The creation of a new individual diagnostic path is automatically performed during the routine diagnostic process. The test prototype experienced an insignificant prolongation of the diagnosis procedure (oral case description and stated diagnosis by the pathologist and a fast and reliable retrieval, especially useful for continuous education and quality control of case description and diagnostic work

  1. Adaptive versus nonadaptive strategies for quantum channel discrimination

    We provide a simple example that illustrates the advantage of adaptive over nonadaptive strategies for quantum channel discrimination. In particular, we give a pair of entanglement-breaking channels that can be perfectly discriminated by means of an adaptive strategy that requires just two channel evaluations, but for which no nonadaptive strategy can give a perfect discrimination using any finite number of channel evaluations.

  2. Robust adaptive beamforming for MIMO monopulse radar

    Rowe, William; Ström, Marie; Li, Jian; Stoica, Petre

    2013-05-01

    Researchers have recently proposed a widely separated multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar using monopulse angle estimation techniques for target tracking. The widely separated antennas provide improved tracking performance by mitigating complex target radar cross-section fades and angle scintillation. An adaptive array is necessary in this paradigm because the direct path from any transmitter could act as a jammer at a receiver. When the target-free covariance matrix is not available, it is critical to include robustness into the adaptive beamformer weights. This work explores methods of robust adaptive monopulse beamforming techniques for MIMO tracking radar.

  3. Heuristic estimates in shortest path algorithms

    Pijls, Wim

    2006-01-01

    textabstractShortest path problems occupy an important position in Operations Research as well as in Arti¯cial Intelligence. In this paper we study shortest path algorithms that exploit heuristic estimates. The well-known algorithms are put into one framework. Besides we present an interesting application of binary numbers in the shortest path theory.

  4. Symbolic PathFinder v7

    Luckow, Kasper Søe; Păsăreanu, Corina

    2014-01-01

    We describe Symbolic PathFinder v7 in terms of its updated design addressing the changes of Java PathFinder v7 and of its new optimization when computing path conditions. Furthermore, we describe the Symbolic Execution Tree Extension; a newly added feature that allows for outputting the symbolic ...

  5. A SCALED CENTRAL PATH FOR LINEAR PROGRAMMING

    Ya-xiang Yuan

    2001-01-01

    Interior point methods are very efficient methods for solving large scale linear programming problems. The central path plays a very important role in interior point methods. In this paper we propose a new central path, which scales the variables. Thus it has the advantage of forcing the path to have roughly the same distance from each active constraint boundary near the solution.

  6. Fuzzy Shortest Path For Steiner Tree Problem

    A.Nagoorgani,

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a modification of the shortest path approximation based on the fuzzy shortest paths evaluations. The Steiner tree problem on a graph in which a fuzzy number instead of a real number is assigned to each edge. Here, to solve the fuzzy shortest path using a new approach ranking method.

  7. Fuzzy Shortest Path For Steiner Tree Problem

    A.Nagoorgani,; A. Mumtaj Begam

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a modification of the shortest path approximation based on the fuzzy shortest paths evaluations. The Steiner tree problem on a graph in which a fuzzy number instead of a real number is assigned to each edge. Here, to solve the fuzzy shortest path using a new approach ranking method.

  8. Partial Path Column Generation for the ESPPRC

    Jepsen, Mads Kehlet; Petersen, Bjørn

    This talk introduces a decomposition of the Elementary Shortest Path Problem with Resource Constraints(ESPPRC), where the path is combined by smaller sub paths. We show computational result by comparing different approaches for the decomposition and compare the best of these with existing algorit...

  9. On the path separation number of graphs

    Balogh, József; Csaba, Béla; Martin, Ryan R.; Pluhár, András

    2013-01-01

    A path separator of a graph $G$ is a set of paths $\\mathcal{P}=\\{P_1,\\ldots,P_t\\}$ such that for every pair of edges $e,f\\in E(G)$, there exist paths $P_e,P_f\\in\\mathcal{P}$ such that $e\\in E(P_e)$, $f\

  10. Automatically Communication Path Creation and ReConfiguration in Dynamic Network Environment for Optimizing Performance to Netowk Applications

    Rakesh Kumar Singh

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Accessing network services across a wide area network still remains a challenging task and the difficulty mainly comes from the heterogeneous and constantly changing network environment, which usually causes undesirable user experience for network-oblivious applications. A promising approach to address this is to provide network awareness in communication paths. Many challenging problems remain, in particular: how to automatically create effective network paths whose performance is optimized for encountered network conditions; how to dynamically reconfigure such paths when network conditions change; and how to manage and distribute network resources among different paths and between different network regions. This paper describes solutions for these problems, built into a programmable network infrastructure called Switching Network Services (SNS. The SNS infrastructure provides applications with network-aware communication paths that are automatically created and dynamically modified. SNS highlights four key mechanisms which are: a high-level integrated type-based specification of components and network resources; automatic path creation strategies; system support for low overhead path reconfiguration; and distributed strategies for managing and allocating network resources.We evaluate these mechanisms using experiments with typical applications running in the SNS infrastructure, and extensive simulation of a large scale network topology to compare with other alternatives. Experimental results validate the effectiveness of our approach, verifying that (1 the path-based approach provides the best and the most robust performance under a wide range of network configurations as compared to end-point or proxy-based alternatives; (2 automatic generation of network-aware paths is feasible and provides considerable performance advantages, requiring only minimal input from applications; (3 path reconfiguration strategies ensure continuous adaptation and

  11. Inequality in the Effectiveness of Climate Change Adaptation - A Case Study of Strategic Local Adaptation in Nepal

    Boutrup Møller, Esben; Nielsen, Mette Marie

    2013-01-01

    The need for adaptation to climate change impacts have led to an increased focus on strategic adaptation targeted at community level, which has become one of the new drivers for change within the developing sector. Although community-based adaptation approaches have become popular there is, however, a lack of empirical based research showing the effectiveness of such adaptation measures. Critiques have been raised that strategic adaptation interventions, tends to give priority to technical-, ...

  12. Hierarchical path planning and control of a small fixed-wing UAV: Theory and experimental validation

    Jung, Dongwon

    2007-12-01

    problem is formulated by setting up geometric linear constraints as well as boundary conditions. Subsequently, we construct B-spline path templates by solving a set of distinct optimization problems. For application in UAV motion planning, the path templates are incorporated to replace parts of the entire path by the smooth B-spline paths. Each path segment is stitched together while preserving continuity to obtain a final smooth reference path to be used for path following control. The path following control for a small fixed-wing UAV to track the prescribed smooth reference path is also addressed. Assuming the UAV is equipped with an autopilot for low level control, we adopt a kinematic error model with respect to the moving Serret-Frenet frame attached to a path for tracking controller design. A kinematic path following control law that commands heading rate is presented. Backstepping is applied to derive the roll angle command by taking into account the approximate closed-loop roll dynamics. A parameter adaptation technique is employed to account for the inaccurate time constant of the closed-loop roll dynamics during actual implementation. Finally, we implement the proposed hierarchical path control of a small UAV on the actual hardware platform, which is based on an 1/5 scale R/C model airframe (Decathlon) and the autopilot hardware and software. Based on the hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation environment, the proposed hierarchical path control algorithm has been validated through on-line, real-time implementation on a small micro-controller. By a seamless integration of the control algorithms for path planning, path smoothing, and path following, it has been demonstrated that the UAV equipped with a small autopilot having limited computational resources manages to accomplish the path control objective to reach the goal while avoiding obstacles with minimal human intervention.

  13. Consistent mutational paths predict eukaryotic thermostability

    van Noort Vera

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proteomes of thermophilic prokaryotes have been instrumental in structural biology and successfully exploited in biotechnology, however many proteins required for eukaryotic cell function are absent from bacteria or archaea. With Chaetomium thermophilum, Thielavia terrestris and Thielavia heterothallica three genome sequences of thermophilic eukaryotes have been published. Results Studying the genomes and proteomes of these thermophilic fungi, we found common strategies of thermal adaptation across the different kingdoms of Life, including amino acid biases and a reduced genome size. A phylogenetics-guided comparison of thermophilic proteomes with those of other, mesophilic Sordariomycetes revealed consistent amino acid substitutions associated to thermophily that were also present in an independent lineage of thermophilic fungi. The most consistent pattern is the substitution of lysine by arginine, which we could find in almost all lineages but has not been extensively used in protein stability engineering. By exploiting mutational paths towards the thermophiles, we could predict particular amino acid residues in individual proteins that contribute to thermostability and validated some of them experimentally. By determining the three-dimensional structure of an exemplar protein from C. thermophilum (Arx1, we could also characterise the molecular consequences of some of these mutations. Conclusions The comparative analysis of these three genomes not only enhances our understanding of the evolution of thermophily, but also provides new ways to engineer protein stability.

  14. A Path to Collaborative Strategic Learning

    Nancy M. Carlson

    2003-10-01

    Collaborative learning is critical for the future of any organization and must align with the strategic organizational processes that result in products valued by others. To discover these processes, proposal preparation is explored using topic-oriented ethnography, grounded theory, and an innovative addition to qualitative interviewing, called metainquiry. Using interview data from editors, graphic artists, text processors, scientists, engineers, and technical managers, substantive theory emerges. The research discovers the five essential processes of owning, visioning, reviewing, producing, and contributing needed for organizational strategic learning to occur. The dimensions of these processes are made explicit and can be used to gauge the health of any organization. The substantive theory also provides insight into the ability of collaborative learning to evolve, flourish, and adapt to the strategic advantage of the organization. Lastly, actionable goals with ten essential elements emerge that link owning, visioning, reviewing, producing, and contributing as a path for all organizations to follow to promote collaborative learning communities and enhance their competitive advantage.

  15. Dispersion of surface waves along various paths to Uppsala, Sweden

    A. S. TETSUO

    1962-06-01

    Full Text Available In continuation of Part I (Santo 1902, group velocity dispersionof surface waves along various oceanic patlis to Uppsala, Sweden, willbe reported in this paper. Materials and tlie method used are quitesiinilar to the previous ones, i. e. group velocities of Love and Eayleighwaves were obtained from records by ultra-long-period Press-Ewingseismographs for the shocks with numbers 00-60 and 61-90, and forthe other shocks from the records by long-period Benioff seismographsat the Seismological Institute, Uppsala, Sweden. In order to give characteristicnumbers to the dispersion data along every oceanic path, tlieyare compared witli the classifìed curves which the writer has obtainedpreviously (see Fig. 1 of Part I along other oceanic paths. Love wavedispersion curves are denoted by Roman numerals and Rayleigh wavecurves by Arabie numerals.

  16. Robotic Path Finding with Collision Avoidance Using Expert System

    蔡自兴

    1989-01-01

    A rule-based expert system has been developed and used into a robotic planning system with collision-avoidance,The world model is represented as the knowledge data and stored in the knowledge base with rules.The expert system can find a collision-avoidance path.Otherwise.it shows the collision secton in which the moved object is blocked,Several examples for the different objects to pass through the different channels and to find a collision-free path have been tested.The simulating results of the palnner give out the planning sequence or blocked section(s).The output information is useful for making decision of the robot motion and modifyting the technological parameters of the world.

  17. Robotic Path Finding with Collision Avoidance Using Expert System

    蔡自兴

    1989-01-01

    A rule-based expert system has been developed and used into a robotic planning system with collision-avoidance, The world model is represented as the knowledge data and stored in the knowledge base with rules. The expert system can find a collision-avoidance path . Otherwise, it shows the collision secton in which the moved object is blocked . Several examples for the different objects to pass throngli the different channels and to find a collision-free path have been testnd. The simulating resuks of the planner give out the planning sequence or blocked section(s) . The output information is useful for making decision of the robot motion and modifying the technological parameters of the world .

  18. Reachability by paths of bounded curvature in a convex polygon

    Ahn, Heekap

    2012-01-01

    Let B be a point robot moving in the plane, whose path is constrained to forward motions with curvature at most 1, and let P be a convex polygon with n vertices. Given a starting configuration (a location and a direction of travel) for B inside P, we characterize the region of all points of P that can be reached by B, and show that it has complexity O(n). We give an O(n2) time algorithm to compute this region. We show that a point is reachable only if it can be reached by a path of type CCSCS, where C denotes a unit circle arc and S denotes a line segment. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  19. Is the Polyakov path integral prescription too restrictive?

    Mathur, S D

    1993-01-01

    In the first quantised description of strings, we integrate over target space co-ordinates $X^\\mu$ and world sheet metrics $g_{\\alpha\\beta}$. Such path integrals give scattering amplitudes between the `in' and `out' vacuua for a time-dependent target space geometry. For a complete description of `particle creation' and the corresponding backreaction, we need instead the causal amplitudes obtained from an `initial value formulation'. We argue, using the analogy of a scalar particle in curved space, that in the first quantised path integral one should integrate over $X^\\mu$ and world sheet {\\it zweibiens}. This extended formalism can be made to yield causal amplitudes; it also naturally allows incorporation of density matrices in a covariant manner. (This paper is an expanded version of hep-th 9301044)

  20. Economics of adaptation to climate change; Economie de l'adaptation au changement climatique

    Perthuis, Ch.; Hallegatte, St.; Lecocq, F.

    2010-02-15

    This report proposes a general economic framework for the issue of adaptation to climate change in order to help public and private actors to build up efficient adaptation strategies. It proposes a general definition of adaptation, identifies the major stakes for these strategies, and discusses the assessment of global costs of adaptation to climate change. It discusses the role and modalities of public action and gives some examples of possible adaptation measures in some important sectors (building and town planning, energy and transport infrastructures, water and agriculture, ecosystems, insurance). It examines the regional and national dimensions of adaptation and their relationship, and defines steps for implementing an adaptation strategy. It describes and discusses the use of economic tools in the elaboration of an adaptation strategy, i.e. how to take uncertainties into account, which scenarios to choose, how to use economic calculations to assess adaptation policies

  1. Attention trees and semantic paths

    Giusti, Christian; Pieroni, Goffredo G.; Pieroni, Laura

    2007-02-01

    In the last few decades several techniques for image content extraction, often based on segmentation, have been proposed. It has been suggested that under the assumption of very general image content, segmentation becomes unstable and classification becomes unreliable. According to recent psychological theories, certain image regions attract the attention of human observers more than others and, generally, the image main meaning appears concentrated in those regions. Initially, regions attracting our attention are perceived as a whole and hypotheses on their content are formulated; successively the components of those regions are carefully analyzed and a more precise interpretation is reached. It is interesting to observe that an image decomposition process performed according to these psychological visual attention theories might present advantages with respect to a traditional segmentation approach. In this paper we propose an automatic procedure generating image decomposition based on the detection of visual attention regions. A new clustering algorithm taking advantage of the Delaunay- Voronoi diagrams for achieving the decomposition target is proposed. By applying that algorithm recursively, starting from the whole image, a transformation of the image into a tree of related meaningful regions is obtained (Attention Tree). Successively, a semantic interpretation of the leaf nodes is carried out by using a structure of Neural Networks (Neural Tree) assisted by a knowledge base (Ontology Net). Starting from leaf nodes, paths toward the root node across the Attention Tree are attempted. The task of the path consists in relating the semantics of each child-parent node pair and, consequently, in merging the corresponding image regions. The relationship detected in this way between two tree nodes generates, as a result, the extension of the interpreted image area through each step of the path. The construction of several Attention Trees has been performed and partial

  2. Complexity Analysis of the Lasso Regularization Path

    Mairal, Julien

    2012-01-01

    The regularization path of the Lasso can be shown to be piecewise linear, making it possible to "follow" and explicitly compute the entire path. We analyze in this paper this popular strategy, and prove that its worst case complexity is exponential in the number of variables. We then oppose this pessimistic result to an (optimistic) approximate analysis: We show that an approximate path with at most O(1/sqrt(epsilon)) linear segments can always be obtained, where every point on the path is guaranteed to be optimal up to a relative epsilon-duality gap. We complete our theoretical analysis with a practical algorithm to compute these approximate paths.

  3. Two Generations of Path Dependence in Economics?

    Madsen, Mogens Ove

    2010-01-01

    Even if there is no fully articulated and generally accepted theory of Path Dependence it has eagerly been taken up across a wide range of social sciences – primarily coming from economics. Path Dependence is most of all a metaphor that offers reason to believe, that some political, social or eco...... economic processes have multiple possible paths of outcomes, rather than a unique path of equilibria. The selection among outcomes may depend on contingent choices or events – outcomes of path-dependent processes require a very relevant study – a perception of history....

  4. Relations between Coherence and Path Information

    Bagan, Emilio; Bergou, János A.; Cottrell, Seth S.; Hillery, Mark

    2016-04-01

    We find two relations between coherence and path information in a multipath interferometer. The first builds on earlier results for the two-path interferometer, which used minimum-error state discrimination between detector states to provide the path information. For visibility, which was used in the two-path case, we substitute a recently defined l1 measure of quantum coherence. The second is an entropic relation in which the path information is characterized by the mutual information between the detector states and the outcome of the measurement performed on them, and the coherence measure is one based on relative entropy.

  5. On the path to differentiation

    Martinsen, Dorte Sindbjerg; Uygur, Ayca

    2014-01-01

    Studies of the upward transfer of power to European Union (EU) institutions have long focused on how integration is progressed. However, the burgeoning literature on differentiation has brought flexibility and variation into the picture. This contribution aims to add to this strand of literature by...... examining the ‘path to differentiation’ within EU working time regulation as it has unfolded over time. It identifies the ‘opt-out’ as a means of differentiation adopted to overcome policy deadlocks within collective decision-making, albeit one with unforeseen consequences. In particular, the contribution...... sub-optimal policy outcomes and a decline in integration over time....

  6. Deterministic Circular Self Test Path

    WEN Ke; HU Yu; LI Xiaowei

    2007-01-01

    Circular self test path (CSTP) is an attractive technique for testing digital integrated circuits(IC) in the nanometer era, because it can easily provide at-speed test with small test data volume and short test application time. However, CSTP cannot reliably attain high fault coverage because of difficulty of testing random-pattern-resistant faults. This paper presents a deterministic CSTP (DCSTP) structure that consists of a DCSTP chain and jumping logic, to attain high fault coverage with low area overhead. Experimental results on ISCAS'89 benchmarks show that 100% fault coverage can be obtained with low area overhead and CPU time, especially for large circuits.

  7. Uncommon paths in quantum physics

    Kazakov, Konstantin V

    2014-01-01

    Quantum mechanics is one of the most fascinating, and at the same time most controversial, branches of contemporary science. Disputes have accompanied this science since its birth and have not ceased to this day. Uncommon Paths in Quantum Physics allows the reader to contemplate deeply some ideas and methods that are seldom met in the contemporary literature. Instead of widespread recipes of mathematical physics, based on the solutions of integro-differential equations, the book follows logical and partly intuitional derivations of non-commutative algebra. Readers can directly penetrate the

  8. What drives the gender gap in charitable giving? Lower empathy leads men to give less to poverty relief.

    Willer, Robb; Wimer, Christopher; Owens, Lindsay A

    2015-07-01

    We draw upon past research on gender and prosocial emotions in hypothesizing that empathy can help explain the gender gap in charitable giving. In a nationally representative survey, we found that men reported less willingness to give money or volunteer time to a poverty relief organization, gaps that were mediated by men's lower reported feelings of empathy toward others. We also experimentally tested how effective a variety of different ways of framing poverty relief were for promoting giving. Framing poverty as an issue that negatively affects all Americans increased men's willingness to donate to the cause, eliminating the gender gap. Mediation analysis revealed that this "aligned self-interest" framing worked by increasing men's reported poverty concern, not by changing their understanding of the causes of poverty. Thus, while men were generally less motivated by empathy, they responded to a framing that recast charitable giving as consistent with their self-interest. Exposure to the same framing, however, led women to report lower willingness to volunteer time for poverty relief, suggesting that framing giving as consistent with self-interest may discourage those who give because of an empathic response to poverty. PMID:26004450

  9. Social Relations of Fieldwork: Giving Back in a Research Setting

    Clare Gupta

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The project of this special issue emerged from the guest editors' experiences as field researchers in sub-Saharan Africa. During this time both researchers faced the difficult question of "giving back" to the communities in which, and with whom, they worked—communities that were often far less privileged than the researchers were in terms of wealth, mobility, education, and access to health care. Returning from their field sites, both researchers felt a combination of guilt and frustration that they had not done enough or had not done things right. Thus emerged the idea of bringing together a group of researchers, from a range of disciplines, to discuss the topic of giving back in field research. This editorial describes the idea and process that led to the present collection of articles. The guest editors situate the project in the literature on feminist studies and briefly summarize each of the four thematic sections in this special issue. They conclude by emphasizing that their collection is not a guide to giving back. Rather than lay out hard and fast rules about what, how much, and to whom field researchers should give, their collection offers a series of examples and considerations for giving back in fieldwork.

  10. Arithmetic area for m planar Brownian paths

    We pursue the analysis made in Desbois and Ouvry (2011 J. Stat. Mech. P05024) on the arithmetic area enclosed by m closed Brownian paths. We pay particular attention to the random variable Sn1,n2,...,nm(m), which is the arithmetic area of the set of points, also called winding sectors, enclosed n1 times by path 1, n2 times by path 2,..., and nm times by path m. Various results are obtained in the asymptotic limit m→∞. A key observation is that, since the paths are independent, one can use in the m-path case the SLE information, valid in the one-path case, on the zero-winding sectors arithmetic area

  11. Arithmetic area for m planar Brownian paths

    Desbois, Jean; Ouvry, Stéphane

    2012-05-01

    We pursue the analysis made in Desbois and Ouvry (2011 J. Stat. Mech. P05024) on the arithmetic area enclosed by m closed Brownian paths. We pay particular attention to the random variable Sn1, n2,..., nm(m), which is the arithmetic area of the set of points, also called winding sectors, enclosed n1 times by path 1, n2 times by path 2,..., and nm times by path m. Various results are obtained in the asymptotic limit m\\to \\infty . A key observation is that, since the paths are independent, one can use in the m-path case the SLE information, valid in the one-path case, on the zero-winding sectors arithmetic area.

  12. Path integral measure factorization in path integrals for diffusion of Yang--Mills fields

    Storchak, S. N.

    2007-01-01

    Factorization of the (formal) path integral measure in a Wiener path integrals for Yang--Mills diffusion is studied. Using the nonlinear filtering stochastic differential equation, we perform the transformation of the path integral defined on a total space of the Yang--Mills principal fiber bundle and come to the reduced path integral on a Coulomb gauge surface. Integral relation between the path integral representing the "quantum" evolution given on the original manifold of Yang--Mills field...

  13. Collective Philanthropy: Describing and Modeling the Ecology of Giving

    Gottesman, William L; Dodds, Peter Sheridan

    2013-01-01

    Reflective of income and wealth distributions, philanthropic gifting appears to follow an approximate power-law size distribution as measured by the size of gifts received by individual institutions. We explore the ecology of gifting by analysing data sets of individual gifts for a diverse group of institutions dedicated to education, medicine, art, public support, and religion. We find that the detailed forms of gift-size distributions differ across but are relatively constant within charity categories. We construct a model for how a donor's income affects their giving preferences in different charity categories, offering a mechanistic explanation for variations in institutional gift-size distributions. We discuss how knowledge of gift-sized distributions may be used to assess an institution's gift-giving profile, to help set fundraising goals, and to design an institution-specific giving pyramid.

  14. Influences on authorship issues: an evaluation of giving credit.

    Seeman, Jeffrey I; House, Mark C

    2010-05-01

    A survey on authorship issues was conducted with academic chemists in Ph.D.-granting institutions in the United States. Six hundred faculty members responded. The respondents reported a wide range in their attitudes and behavior regarding giving credit in a publication. The various guidelines for authorship are independent of academic background factors such as the relationship between the senior author and the contributor-potential author. However, the survey data reveal significant context-dependency by the respondents. Many respondents would give more credit to their own student than to another professor's student for the exact same contribution to a research project. The survey data further shows that the faculty who received their Ph.D. in the 1940s, 1950s, and 1960s are the most likely to provide authorship, while those who received their Ph.D. in the 1990s and 2000s would most likely give either no credit or acknowledgements. PMID:20461570

  15. Dyck Paths, Standard Young Tableaux, and Pattern Avoiding Permutations

    Gudmundsson, Hilmar

    2009-01-01

    We present a generating function and a closed counting formula in two variables that enumerate a family of classes of permutations that avoid or contain an increasing pattern of length three and have a prescribed number of occurrences of another pattern of length three. This gives a refinement of some previously studied statistics, most notably one by Noonan. The formula is also shown to enumerate a family of classes of Dyck paths and Standard Young Tableaux, and a bijection is given between the corresponding classes of these two families of objects. Finally, the results obtained are used to solve an optimization problem for a certain card game.

  16. MM98.83 Quantification of Combined Strain Paths

    Nielsen, Morten Sturgård; Lindegren, Maria; Wanheim, Tarras

    1998-01-01

    concept and the uniqueness of the SHC representation.The SHC may be used to give a useful representation of the total course of the deformation with respect to directions and magnitudes of strains, snd hence the development of the plastic properties, butmay also be used for developing variables describing...... sheared case. Here the latter is a superset of plateworking processes and axisymmetrical processes.The origin and use of the SHC in this paper, is to make a method of classifying processes after strain path and hence the need for using advanced plasticity models. As an example the extrusion process is...

  17. Adaptive building skin structures

    The concept of adaptive and morphing structures has gained considerable attention in the recent years in many fields of engineering. In civil engineering very few practical applications are reported to date however. Non-conventional structural concepts like deployable, inflatable and morphing structures may indeed provide innovative solutions to some of the problems that the construction industry is being called to face. To give some examples, searches for low-energy consumption or even energy-harvesting green buildings are amongst such problems. This paper first presents a review of the above problems and technologies, which shows how the solution to these problems requires a multidisciplinary approach, involving the integration of architectural and engineering disciplines. The discussion continues with the presentation of a possible application of two adaptive and dynamically morphing structures which are proposed for the realization of an acoustic envelope. The core of the two applications is the use of a novel optimization process which leads the search for optimal solutions by means of an evolutionary technique while the compatibility of the resulting configurations of the adaptive envelope is ensured by the virtual force density method

  18. Authorization gives the personnel he/she gives the center he/she gives Isotopes for the acting he/she gives tied functions with the security and the radiological protection

    The conception is described used in a center production labelled compound and radiopharmaceuticals for the authorization to the support, operation and supervision personnel The approaches are exposed used to define the excellent positions for the security the installation. The are described the training programs, designed starting from the indentification the specific competitions for each duty station and with particular emphasis in the development gives abilities you practice. It is used for the administration and evaluation gives the programs training the Automated System Administration Programs Training (GESAT)

  19. Formulas giving prime numbers under Cram\\'er's conjecture

    Farhi, Bakir

    2006-01-01

    Under Cram\\'er's conjecture concerning the prime numbers, we prove that for any $x>1$, there exists a real $A=A(x)>1$ for which the formula $[A^{n^x}]$ (where $[]$ denotes the integer part) gives a prime number for any positive integer $n$. Under the same conjecture, we also prove that for any $\\epsilon>0$, there exists a positive real number $B$ for which the formula $[B.{n!}^{2+\\epsilon}]$ gives a prime number for any sufficiently large positive integer $n$.

  20. An Application of Self-Organizing Map for Multirobot Multigoal Path Planning with Minmax Objective

    Jan Faigl

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, Self-Organizing Map (SOM for the Multiple Traveling Salesman Problem (MTSP with minmax objective is applied to the robotic problem of multigoal path planning in the polygonal domain. The main difficulty of such SOM deployment is determination of collision-free paths among obstacles that is required to evaluate the neuron-city distances in the winner selection phase of unsupervised learning. Moreover, a collision-free path is also needed in the adaptation phase, where neurons are adapted towards the presented input signal (city to the network. Simple approximations of the shortest path are utilized to address this issue and solve the robotic MTSP by SOM. Suitability of the proposed approximations is verified in the context of cooperative inspection, where cities represent sensing locations that guarantee to “see” the whole robots’ workspace. The inspection task formulated as the MTSP-Minmax is solved by the proposed SOM approach and compared with the combinatorial heuristic GENIUS. The results indicate that the proposed approach provides competitive results to GENIUS and support applicability of SOM for robotic multigoal path planning with a group of cooperating mobile robots. The proposed combination of approximate shortest paths with unsupervised learning opens further applications of SOM in the field of robotic planning.

  1. An Application of Self-Organizing Map for Multirobot Multigoal Path Planning with Minmax Objective.

    Faigl, Jan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, Self-Organizing Map (SOM) for the Multiple Traveling Salesman Problem (MTSP) with minmax objective is applied to the robotic problem of multigoal path planning in the polygonal domain. The main difficulty of such SOM deployment is determination of collision-free paths among obstacles that is required to evaluate the neuron-city distances in the winner selection phase of unsupervised learning. Moreover, a collision-free path is also needed in the adaptation phase, where neurons are adapted towards the presented input signal (city) to the network. Simple approximations of the shortest path are utilized to address this issue and solve the robotic MTSP by SOM. Suitability of the proposed approximations is verified in the context of cooperative inspection, where cities represent sensing locations that guarantee to "see" the whole robots' workspace. The inspection task formulated as the MTSP-Minmax is solved by the proposed SOM approach and compared with the combinatorial heuristic GENIUS. The results indicate that the proposed approach provides competitive results to GENIUS and support applicability of SOM for robotic multigoal path planning with a group of cooperating mobile robots. The proposed combination of approximate shortest paths with unsupervised learning opens further applications of SOM in the field of robotic planning. PMID:27340395

  2. An Application of Self-Organizing Map for Multirobot Multigoal Path Planning with Minmax Objective

    Faigl, Jan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, Self-Organizing Map (SOM) for the Multiple Traveling Salesman Problem (MTSP) with minmax objective is applied to the robotic problem of multigoal path planning in the polygonal domain. The main difficulty of such SOM deployment is determination of collision-free paths among obstacles that is required to evaluate the neuron-city distances in the winner selection phase of unsupervised learning. Moreover, a collision-free path is also needed in the adaptation phase, where neurons are adapted towards the presented input signal (city) to the network. Simple approximations of the shortest path are utilized to address this issue and solve the robotic MTSP by SOM. Suitability of the proposed approximations is verified in the context of cooperative inspection, where cities represent sensing locations that guarantee to “see” the whole robots' workspace. The inspection task formulated as the MTSP-Minmax is solved by the proposed SOM approach and compared with the combinatorial heuristic GENIUS. The results indicate that the proposed approach provides competitive results to GENIUS and support applicability of SOM for robotic multigoal path planning with a group of cooperating mobile robots. The proposed combination of approximate shortest paths with unsupervised learning opens further applications of SOM in the field of robotic planning. PMID:27340395

  3. Adaptation Laboratory

    Huq, Saleemul

    2011-11-15

    Efforts to help the world's poor will face crises in coming decades as climate change radically alters conditions. Action Research for Community Adapation in Bangladesh (ARCAB) is an action-research programme on responding to climate change impacts through community-based adaptation. Set in Bangladesh at 20 sites that are vulnerable to floods, droughts, cyclones and sea level rise, ARCAB will follow impacts and adaptation as they evolve over half a century or more. National and international 'research partners', collaborating with ten NGO 'action partners' with global reach, seek knowledge and solutions applicable worldwide. After a year setting up ARCAB, we share lessons on the programme's design and move into our first research cycle.

  4. Hedonic "adaptation"

    Paul Rozin

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available People live in a world in which they are surrounded by potential disgust elicitors such as ``used'' chairs, air, silverware, and money as well as excretory activities. People function in this world by ignoring most of these, by active avoidance, reframing, or adaptation. The issue is particularly striking for professions, such as morticians, surgeons, or sanitation workers, in which there is frequent contact with major disgust elicitors. In this study, we study the ``adaptation'' process to dead bodies as disgust elicitors, by measuring specific types of disgust sensitivity in medical students before and after they have spent a few months dissecting a cadaver. Using the Disgust Scale, we find a significant reduction in disgust responses to death and body envelope violation elicitors, but no significant change in any other specific type of disgust. There is a clear reduction in discomfort at touching a cold dead body, but not in touching a human body which is still warm after death.

  5. Adaptive ethnography

    Berth, Mette

    2005-01-01

    This paper focuses on the use of an adaptive ethnography when studying such phenomena as young people's use of mobile media in a learning perspective. Mobile media such as PDAs and mobile phones have a number of affordances which make them potential tools for learning. However, before we begin to...... design and develop educational materials for mobile media platforms we must first understand everyday use and behaviour with a medium such as a mobile phone. The paper outlines the research design for a PhD project on mobile learning which focuses on mobile phones as a way to bridge the gap between...... formal and informal learning contexts. The paper also proposes several adaptive methodological techniques for studying young people's interaction with mobiles....

  6. Adaptive noise

    Viney, Mark; Reece, Sarah E.

    2013-01-01

    In biology, noise implies error and disorder and is therefore something which organisms may seek to minimize and mitigate against. We argue that such noise can be adaptive. Recent studies have shown that gene expression can be noisy, noise can be genetically controlled, genes and gene networks vary in how noisy they are and noise generates phenotypic differences among genetically identical cells. Such phenotypic differences can have fitness benefits, suggesting that evolution can shape noise ...

  7. Climatic change impacts, adaptation and associated costs in France. Intermediate report. June 2008

    This report aims at promoting the awareness of sector-based and land challenges of climate change in terms of impacts. It gives a wide overview of the present knowledge on sector-based vulnerabilities, and allows the identification of some paths for the alleviation of these vulnerabilities. After a discussion of objectives and context, of methodological choices (data, modalities to take impacts and adaptation into account, impact assessment approach) thematic woks are reported. They are dealing with health (population vulnerability to climate change with the example of 2006 heat wave), agriculture, forest and water, energy, tourism, natural risks and insurance, territories. For each of these topics, the reports discusses vulnerability aspects, the present knowledge about the impact of climate change, and identifies the core problems as well as studies which remain to be performed

  8. Solving a Hamiltonian Path Problem with a bacterial computer

    Treece Jessica

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Hamiltonian Path Problem asks whether there is a route in a directed graph from a beginning node to an ending node, visiting each node exactly once. The Hamiltonian Path Problem is NP complete, achieving surprising computational complexity with modest increases in size. This challenge has inspired researchers to broaden the definition of a computer. DNA computers have been developed that solve NP complete problems. Bacterial computers can be programmed by constructing genetic circuits to execute an algorithm that is responsive to the environment and whose result can be observed. Each bacterium can examine a solution to a mathematical problem and billions of them can explore billions of possible solutions. Bacterial computers can be automated, made responsive to selection, and reproduce themselves so that more processing capacity is applied to problems over time. Results We programmed bacteria with a genetic circuit that enables them to evaluate all possible paths in a directed graph in order to find a Hamiltonian path. We encoded a three node directed graph as DNA segments that were autonomously shuffled randomly inside bacteria by a Hin/hixC recombination system we previously adapted from Salmonella typhimurium for use in Escherichia coli. We represented nodes in the graph as linked halves of two different genes encoding red or green fluorescent proteins. Bacterial populations displayed phenotypes that reflected random ordering of edges in the graph. Individual bacterial clones that found a Hamiltonian path reported their success by fluorescing both red and green, resulting in yellow colonies. We used DNA sequencing to verify that the yellow phenotype resulted from genotypes that represented Hamiltonian path solutions, demonstrating that our bacterial computer functioned as expected. Conclusion We successfully designed, constructed, and tested a bacterial computer capable of finding a Hamiltonian path in a three node

  9. Real-time fuzzy inference based robot path planning

    Pacini, Peter J.; Teichrow, Jon S.

    1990-01-01

    This project addresses the problem of adaptive trajectory generation for a robot arm. Conventional trajectory generation involves computing a path in real time to minimize a performance measure such as expended energy. This method can be computationally intensive, and it may yield poor results if the trajectory is weakly constrained. Typically some implicit constraints are known, but cannot be encoded analytically. The alternative approach used here is to formulate domain-specific knowledge, including implicit and ill-defined constraints, in terms of fuzzy rules. These rules utilize linguistic terms to relate input variables to output variables. Since the fuzzy rulebase is determined off-line, only high-level, computationally light processing is required in real time. Potential applications for adaptive trajectory generation include missile guidance and various sophisticated robot control tasks, such as automotive assembly, high speed electrical parts insertion, stepper alignment, and motion control for high speed parcel transfer systems.

  10. Path Following of an Underactuated AUV Based on Fuzzy Backstepping Sliding Mode Control

    Xiao Liang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the path following problem of an underactuated autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV with the aim of dealing with parameter uncertainties and current disturbances. An adaptive robust control system was proposed by employing fuzzy logic, backstepping and sliding mode control theory. Fuzzy logic theory is adopted to approximate unknown system function, and the controller was designed by combining sliding mode control with backstepping thought. Firstly, the longitudinal speed was controlled, then the yaw angle was made as input of path following error to design the calm function and the change rate of path parameters. The controller stability was proved by Lyapunov stable theory. Simulation and outfield tests were conducted and the results showed that the controller is of excellent adaptability and robustness in the presence of parameter uncertainties and external disturbances. It is also shown to be able to avoid the chattering of AUV actuators.

  11. Give clean air the economic value it deserves

    India contributes more to the management of the atmosphere than a country like the Netherlands. This is not to the credit of the Indian government; rather, it is merely a consequence of poverty. Poor people use almost no fossil fuels and emit almost no CO2. Paying developing countries for this environmental service to the world community would create a financial incentive to continue to provide this service in the future, while at the same time generating additional funds to improve the living standards of the poorest people. The attractiveness of this approach depends on one important assumption: the conventional development path - economic growth implies emissions - must be replaced by a sustainable development path delinks economic growth from increasing emissions. Rich industrialised countries also have an interest in such decoupling. The compensation they pay the developing countries would fall proportionately to the reduction of their CO2 emissions. So an incentive is created on both sides to switch over to a low-carbon energy strategy. After the completion of this transition, every country can use as much energy as it wants, because energy consumption would then no longer cause CO2 emissions. This is the picture of the future to which the United Air Fund aspires

  12. Giving the Gift of Life at the End of Life

    ... a DO Video Library Giving the Gift of Life at the End of Life Page Content ​ Today there are more than 120, ... using organ transplantation to treat a number of life-threatening diseases, there hasn’t been a corresponding ...

  13. "What Advice Would You Give to Students Starting Your Course?"

    Meedin, Aneeqa

    2007-01-01

    In this essay, the author, a Biomedical Sciences student at the University of Sheffield, presents an atypical way of addressing the question "What advice would you give to students starting your course?" by transcribing the much-evoked and revered Ten Commandments, the original guide to life, into advice for new and bewildered Biomedical…

  14. 33 CFR 54.03 - Persons authorized to give notices.

    2010-07-01

    ... PERSONNEL ALLOTMENTS FROM ACTIVE DUTY PAY FOR CERTAIN SUPPORT OBLIGATIONS § 54.03 Persons authorized to give... effect a plan approved under Part D of Title IV of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 651-664), who has the duty or authority to seek recovery of any amounts owed as child or child and spousal...

  15. Training Feedforward Neural Networks: An Algorithm Giving Improved Generalization.

    Lee, Charles W.

    1997-01-01

    An algorithm is derived for supervised training in multilayer feedforward neural networks. Relative to the gradient descent backpropagation algorithm it appears to give both faster convergence and improved generalization, whilst preserving the system of backpropagating errors through the network. Copyright 1996 Elsevier Science Ltd. PMID:12662887

  16. Education Philanthropy Catching a Chill as Economy Cools Charitable Giving

    Robelen, Erik W.

    2009-01-01

    This article reports that the recession tearing into the U.S. economy is not only straining the public coffers that support K-12 schooling, it's also taking a toll on education philanthropy. From family foundations to corporate philanthropies, charitable giving to K-12 education appears to be facing a downturn. Although no national figures are…

  17. Adaptive Multilevel Monte Carlo Simulation

    Hoel, H

    2011-08-23

    This work generalizes a multilevel forward Euler Monte Carlo method introduced in Michael B. Giles. (Michael Giles. Oper. Res. 56(3):607–617, 2008.) for the approximation of expected values depending on the solution to an Itô stochastic differential equation. The work (Michael Giles. Oper. Res. 56(3):607– 617, 2008.) proposed and analyzed a forward Euler multilevelMonte Carlo method based on a hierarchy of uniform time discretizations and control variates to reduce the computational effort required by a standard, single level, Forward Euler Monte Carlo method. This work introduces an adaptive hierarchy of non uniform time discretizations, generated by an adaptive algorithmintroduced in (AnnaDzougoutov et al. Raùl Tempone. Adaptive Monte Carlo algorithms for stopped diffusion. In Multiscale methods in science and engineering, volume 44 of Lect. Notes Comput. Sci. Eng., pages 59–88. Springer, Berlin, 2005; Kyoung-Sook Moon et al. Stoch. Anal. Appl. 23(3):511–558, 2005; Kyoung-Sook Moon et al. An adaptive algorithm for ordinary, stochastic and partial differential equations. In Recent advances in adaptive computation, volume 383 of Contemp. Math., pages 325–343. Amer. Math. Soc., Providence, RI, 2005.). This form of the adaptive algorithm generates stochastic, path dependent, time steps and is based on a posteriori error expansions first developed in (Anders Szepessy et al. Comm. Pure Appl. Math. 54(10):1169– 1214, 2001). Our numerical results for a stopped diffusion problem, exhibit savings in the computational cost to achieve an accuracy of ϑ(TOL),from(TOL−3), from using a single level version of the adaptive algorithm to ϑ(((TOL−1)log(TOL))2).

  18. On the homological dimensions of Leavitt path algebras with coefficients in commutative rings

    Lopatkin, V.; Nam, T. G.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we give sharp bounds for the homological dimensions of the Leavitt path algebra $L_R(E)$ of a finite graph $E$ with coefficients in a commutative ring $R$, as well as establish a formula for calculating the homological dimensions of $L_R(E)$ when $R$ is a commutative unital algebra over a field.

  19. OPEN-PATH FTIR MEASUREMENTS OF NOX AND OTHER DIESEL EMISSIONS

    The paper gives results of a demonstration of the feasibility of using an open-path Fourier transform infrared (OP-FTIR) monitoring technique to address the across-road characterization of diesel vehicle emissions of criteria pollutants and hazardous air pollutants. Four sets of ...

  20. The Logic Behind Feynman's Paths

    García Álvarez, Edgardo T.

    The classical notions of continuity and mechanical causality are left in order to reformulate the Quantum Theory starting from two principles: (I) the intrinsic randomness of quantum process at microphysical level, (II) the projective representations of symmetries of the system. The second principle determines the geometry and then a new logic for describing the history of events (Feynman's paths) that modifies the rules of classical probabilistic calculus. The notion of classical trajectory is replaced by a history of spontaneous, random and discontinuous events. So the theory is reduced to determining the probability distribution for such histories accordingly with the symmetries of the system. The representation of the logic in terms of amplitudes leads to Feynman rules and, alternatively, its representation in terms of projectors results in the Schwinger trace formula.

  1. Exclusive paths and difficult choices

    The authors argue basically for a process by which one may objectively analyze the desirability of future energy goals. A table is presented that projects the U.S. primary energy supply in the year 2000. The authors note that according to the table, oil and gas demand are still dangerously close to today's level. Nuclear and coal production rise sharply, but are limited by practical constraints to the rate of expansion, and new energy sources (geothermal, wind, solar, and biomass) provide only about 5 to 6% of demand in the year 2000. An analysis is given of Amory Lovins's hard and soft path energy projections for the years 2000-2025 for coal, oil and gas, and nuclear energies

  2. Counting paths with Schur transitions

    Diaz, Pablo; Veliz-Osorio, Alvaro

    2016-01-01

    In this work we explore the structure of the branching graph of the unitary group using Schur transitions. We find that these transitions suggest a new combinatorial expression for counting paths in the branching graph. This formula, which is valid for any rank of the unitary group, reproduces known asymptotic results. We proceed to establish the general validity of this expression by a formal proof. The form of this equation strongly hints towards a quantum generalization. Thus, we introduce a notion of quantum relative dimension and subject it to the appropriate consistency tests. This new quantity finds its natural environment in the context of RCFTs and fractional statistics; where the already established notion of quantum dimension has proven to be of great physical importance.

  3. Adaptive security systems -- Combining expert systems with adaptive technologies

    The Adaptive Multisensor Integrated Security System (AMISS) uses a variety of computational intelligence techniques to reason from raw sensor data through an array of processing layers to arrive at an assessment for alarm/alert conditions based on human behavior within a secure facility. In this paper, the authors give an overview of the system and briefly describe some of the major components of the system. This system is currently under development and testing in a realistic facility setting

  4. Closed Light Paths in Equiangular Spiral Disks

    Hitzer, Eckhard

    2013-01-01

    A new type of deformation for microscopic laser disks, the \\textit{equiangular spiral deformation} is proposed. First a short review of the geometry of light paths in equiangular spirals in the language of real two-dimensional geometric calculus is given. Second, the constituting equations for \\textit{closed paths} inside equiangular spirals are derived. Third, their numerical solution is performed and found to yield two generic types of closed light paths. \\textit{Degenerate} closed paths that exist over large intervals of the deformation parameter, and \\textit{nondegenerate} closed paths which only exist over relatively small deformation parameter intervals spanning less than 1% of the nondegenerate intervals. Fourth, amongst the nondegenerate paths a \\textit{stable asymmetric bow-tie} shaped light trajectory was found.

  5. Dynamic behavior of shortest path routing algorithms for communication networks

    Bertsekas, D. P.

    1980-06-01

    Several proposed routing algorithms for store and forward communication networks, including one currently in operation in the ARPANET, route messages along shortest paths computed by using some set of link lengths. When these lengths depend on current traffic conditions as they must in an adaptive algorithm, dynamic behavior questions such as stability convergence, and speed of convergence are of interest. This paper is the first attempt to analyze systematically these issues. It is shown that minimum queuing delay path algorithms tend to exhibit violent oscillatory behavior in the absence of a damping mechanism. The oscillations can be damped by means of several types of schemes, two of which are analyzed in this paper. In the first scheme a constant bias is added to the queuing delay thereby providing a preference towards paths with a small number of links. In the second scheme the effects of several past routings are averaged as, for example, when the link lengths are computed and communicated asynchronously throughout the network.

  6. Intelligent Online Path Planning for UAVs in Adversarial Environments

    Xingguang Peng

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Online path planning (OPP for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs is a basic issue of intelligent flight and is indeed a dynamic multi‐objective optimization problem (DMOP. In this paper, an OPP framework is proposed in the sense of model predictive control (MPC to continuously update the environmental information for the planner. For solving the DMOP involved in the MPC we propose a dynamic multi‐objective evolutionary algorithm based on linkage and prediction (LP‐DMOEA. Within this algorithm, the historical Pareto sets are collected and analysed to enhance the performance. For intelligently selecting the best path from the output of the OPP, the Bayesian network and fuzzy logic are used to quantify the bias to each optimization objective. The DMOEA is validated on three benchmark problems characterized by different changing types in decision and objective spaces. Moreover, the simulation results show that the LP‐DMOEA overcomes the restart method for OPP. The decision‐making method for solution selection can assess the situation in an adversarial environment and accordingly adapt the path planner.

  7. Stress path dependent hydromechanical behaviour of heterogeneous carbonate rock

    Dimanov A.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The influence of stress paths, representative of reservoir conditions, on the hydromechanical behavior of a moderately heterogeneous carbonate has been investigated. Multiscale structural heterogeneities, common for instance in carbonate rocks, can strongly alter the mechanical response and significantly influence the evolution of flow properties with stress. Using a triaxial cell, the permeability evolutions during compression and the effects of brittle (fracture and plastic (pore collapse deformations at yield, were measured. A strong scattering was observed on the mechanical response both in term of compressibility and failure threshold. Using the porosity scaling predicted by an adapted effective medium theory (based on crack growth under Hertzian contact, we have rescaled the critical pressures by the normalized porosity deviation. This procedure reduces efficiently the scattering, revealing in the framework of proportional stress path loading, a linear relation between the critical pressures and the stress path parameter through all the deformation regimes. It leads to a new formulation for the critical state envelope in the 'mean stress, deviatoric stress' diagram. The attractive feature of this new yield envelope formulation relies on the fact that only the two most common different mechanical tests 'Uniaxial Compression' and 'Hydrostatic Compression', are needed to define entirely the yield envelope. Volumic strains and normalized permeabilities are finally mapped in the stresses diagram and correlated.

  8. Comment on 'Path integral solution for a Mie-type potential'

    We comment on several incorrect results given in a recent paper by Erkoc and Sever (ES). In particular, it is pointed out that their path integral formula for the one-dimensional Mie-Lennard-Jones potential is wrong, since a quantum correction proportional to (h/2π)2 - which is a consequence of the stochastic nature of the Feynman paths - has been overlooked. The correct expression can be obtained from a general path integral formula, which we have derived in a previous paper. For the particular potential discussed in detail by ES, we give a complete path integral treatment, which allows us to derive the energies and normalized wave functions of the discrete spectrum. (orig.)

  9. Critical Review of Path Integral Formulation

    Fujita, Takehisa

    2008-01-01

    The path integral formulation in quantum mechanics corresponds to the first quantization since it is just to rewrite the quantum mechanical amplitude into many dimensional integrations over discretized coordinates $x_n$. However, the path integral expression cannot be connected to the dynamics of classical mechanics, even though, superficially, there is some similarity between them. Further, the field theory path integral in terms of many dimensional integrations over fields does not correspo...

  10. Continuous-Discrete Path Integral Filtering

    Bhashyam Balaji

    2008-01-01

    A summary of the relationship between the Langevin equation, Fokker-Planck-Kolmogorov forward equation (FPKfe) and the Feynman path integral descriptions of stochastic processes relevant for the solution of the continuous-discrete filtering problem is provided in this paper. The practical utility of the path integral formula is demonstrated via some nontrivial examples. Specifically, it is shown that the simplest approximation of the path integral formula for the fundamental solution of the F...

  11. Strategic Team AI Path Plans: Probabilistic Pathfinding

    Chaudhari, Narendra S.; Edmond C. Prakash; John, Tng C. H.

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel method to generate strategic team AI pathfinding plans for computer games and simulations using probabilistic pathfinding. This method is inspired by genetic algorithms (Russell and Norvig, 2002), in that, a fitness function is used to test the quality of the path plans. The method generates high-quality path plans by eliminating the low-quality ones. The path plans are generated by probabilistic pathfinding, and the elimination i...

  12. The evaluation of bicycle paths on bridges

    Wang, Hwa-chyi; De Backer, Hans; Lauwers, Dirk; Chang, SK Jason

    2016-01-01

    Bicycle accidents have increasingly caused casualties and property damage. Many countries have therefore started to pay more attention to designing the space of bicycle paths. However, few studies have focused on the design of bicycle continuity between each bicycle path. In this study, the concept of using both spatial crash probability (P) and crash severity index (CSI) is introduced to address the bicycle safety issue on bridges in Central Business Districts (CBDs). Bicycle paths on bridge...

  13. Multi-path BGP: motivations and solutions

    Valera, Francisco; Van Beijnum, Iljitsch; García-Martínez, Alberto; Bagnulo, Marcelo

    2011-01-01

    Although there are many reasons towards the adoption of a multi-path routing paradigm in the Internet, nowadays the required multi-path support is far from universal. It is mostly limited to some domains that rely on IGP features to improve load distribution in their internal infrastructure or some multi-homed parties that base their load balance on traffic engineering. This chapter explains the motivations for a multi-path routing Internet scheme, commenting the existing alternatives and det...

  14. Least expected time paths in stochastic, time-varying transportation networks

    Miller-Hooks, E.D. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Mahmassani, H.S. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    1999-06-01

    The authors consider stochastic, time-varying transportation networks, where the arc weights (arc travel times) are random variables with probability distribution functions that vary with time. Efficient procedures are widely available for determining least time paths in deterministic networks. In stochastic but time-invariant networks, least expected time paths can be determined by setting each random arc weight to its expected value and solving an equivalent deterministic problem. This paper addresses the problem of determining least expected time paths in stochastic, time-varying networks. Two procedures are presented. The first procedure determines the a priori least expected time paths from all origins to a single destination for each departure time in the peak period. The second procedure determines lower bounds on the expected times of these a priori least expected time paths. This procedure determines an exact solution for the problem where the driver is permitted to react to revealed travel times on traveled links en route, i.e. in a time-adaptive route choice framework. Modifications to each of these procedures for determining least expected cost (where cost is not necessarily travel time) paths and lower bounds on the expected costs of these paths are given. Extensive numerical tests are conducted to illustrate the algorithms` computational performance as well as the properties of the solution.

  15. Crack path predictions and experiments in plane structures considering anisotropic properties and material interfaces

    P.O. Judt

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In many engineering applications special requirements are directed to a material's fracture behavior and the prediction of crack paths. Especially if the material exhibits anisotropic elastic properties or fracture toughnesses, e.g. in textured or composite materials, the simulation of crack paths is challenging. Here, the application of path independent interaction integrals (I-integrals, J-, L- and M-integrals is beneficial for an accurate crack tip loading analysis. Numerical tools for the calculation of loading quantities using these path-invariant integrals are implemented into the commercial finite element (FE-code ABAQUS. Global approaches of the integrals are convenient considering crack tips approaching other crack faces, internal boundaries or material interfaces. Curved crack faces require special treatment with respect to integration contours. Numerical crack paths are predicted based on FE calculations of the boundary value problem in connection with an intelligent adaptive re-meshing algorithm. Considering fracture toughness anisotropy and accounting for inelastic effects due to small plastic zones in the crack tip region, the numerically predicted crack paths of different types of specimens with material interfaces and internal boundaries are compared to subcritically grown paths obtained from experiments.

  16. Why Alumni Give: How Campus Environment and Sense of Belonging Shape Nontraditional Students' Intent to Give Financially to Their University

    Miller, Myra E.

    2013-01-01

    Institutions of higher learning are dependent on financial giving from alumni, individuals, companies, foundations, and organizations whose gifts help strengthen the core of the university. Donations improve academic programs, fund research, enhance student life, provide better facilities, and assist with initiatives of the institution.…

  17. Processes give selection location like fundamental approach gives the security for the repositories radioactive waste (radioactive installation) in Cuba

    On the base for the best international practice, the requirements given by the IAEA, specialized national experience, the technician economic conditions and social matters give Cuba, it has been documented in the country the process the documented location for evacuation and storage the worn-out fuel lingeringly

  18. Continuous-Discrete Path Integral Filtering

    Bhashyam Balaji

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available A summary of the relationship between the Langevin equation, Fokker-Planck-Kolmogorov forward equation (FPKfe and the Feynman path integral descriptions of stochastic processes relevant for the solution of the continuous-discrete filtering problem is provided in this paper. The practical utility of the path integral formula is demonstrated via some nontrivial examples. Specifically, it is shown that the simplest approximation of the path integral formula for the fundamental solution of the FPKfe can be applied to solve nonlinear continuous-discrete filtering problems quite accurately. The Dirac-Feynman path integral filtering algorithm is quite simple, and is suitable for real-time implementation.

  19. Continuous-Discrete Path Integral Filtering

    Balaji, Bhashyam

    2008-01-01

    A summary of the relationship between the Langevin equation, Fokker-Planck-Kolmogorov forward equation (FPKfe) and the Feynman path integral descriptions of stochastic processes relevant for the solution of the continuous-discrete filtering problem is provided in this paper. The practical utility of the path integral formula is demonstrated via some nontrivial examples. Specifically, it is shown that the simplest approximation of the path integral formula for the fundamental solution of the FPKfe can be applied to solve nonlinear continuous-discrete filtering problems quite accurately. The Dirac-Feynman path integral filtering algorithm is quite simple, and is suitable for real-time implementation.

  20. Techniques and applications of path integration

    Schulman, L S

    2005-01-01

    A book of techniques and applications, this text defines the path integral and illustrates its uses by example. It is suitable for advanced undergraduates and graduate students in physics; its sole prerequisite is a first course in quantum mechanics. For applications requiring specialized knowledge, the author supplies background material.The first part of the book develops the techniques of path integration. Topics include probability amplitudes for paths and the correspondence limit for the path integral; vector potentials; the Ito integral and gauge transformations; free particle and quadra

  1. Coverage path planning for autonomous underwater vehicles

    Galceran Yebenes, Enric

    2014-01-01

    This thesis proposes new methods to find collision-free paths allowing an AUV to cover an area of the ocean floor with its sensors, which is known as coverage path planning. First, we propose a coverage path planning method to plan 2D, safe-altitude surveys which provides a principled way to account for obstacles in AUV survey planning. Its main advantage is that it minimizes redundant coverage when the vehicle navigates at constant depth, leading to shorter paths. Second, we provide a method...

  2. Path integrals for arbitrary canonical transformations

    Some aspects of the path integral formulation of quantum mechanics are studied. This formalism is generalized to arbitrary canonical transformations, by means of an association between path integral probalility amplitudes and classical generators of transformations, analogous to the usual Hamiltonian time development phase space expression. Such association turns out to be equivalent to the Weyl quantization rule, and it is also shown that this formalism furnishes a path integral representation for a Lie algebra of a given set of classical generators. Some physical considerations about the path integral quantization procedure and about the relationship between classical and quantum dynamical structures are also discussed. (Author)

  3. Path Network Recovery Using Remote Sensing Data and Geospatial-Temporal Semantic Graphs

    McLendon, William C.,; Brost, Randolph

    2016-05-01

    Remote sensing systems produce large volumes of high-resolution images that are difficult to search. The GeoGraphy (pronounced Geo-Graph-y) framework [2, 20] encodes remote sensing imagery into a geospatial-temporal semantic graph representation to enable high level semantic searches to be performed. Typically scene objects such as buildings and trees tend to be shaped like blocks with few holes, but other shapes generated from path networks tend to have a large number of holes and can span a large geographic region due to their connectedness. For example, we have a dataset covering the city of Philadelphia in which there is a single road network node spanning a 6 mile x 8 mile region. Even a simple question such as "find two houses near the same street" might give unexpected results. More generally, nodes arising from networks of paths (roads, sidewalks, trails, etc.) require additional processing to make them useful for searches in GeoGraphy. We have assigned the term Path Network Recovery to this process. Path Network Recovery is a three-step process involving (1) partitioning the network node into segments, (2) repairing broken path segments interrupted by occlusions or sensor noise, and (3) adding path-aware search semantics into GeoQuestions. This report covers the path network recovery process, how it is used, and some example use cases of the current capabilities.

  4. Giving away used injection equipment: missed prevention message?

    Anstice Susan

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our objective was to examine factors associated with distributive injection equipment sharing and how needle exchange programs (NEPs can help reduce distributive sharing among injection drug users (IDUs. Methods 145 English speaking Canadian IDUs ages 16 years and over who had injected in the past 30 days were recruited for a cross-sectional survey. Participants were asked about their socio-demographic characteristics, HIV risk behaviours, social support, drug treatment readiness, program satisfaction, health and social service use and NEP drug use. Bivariate statistics and logistic regression were used to characterize the population and examine correlates of sharing behaviour. Results More IDUs reported distributive sharing of cookers (45% than needles (36% or other types of equipment (water 36%; filters 29%; swabs 8%. Regression analyses revealed the following factors associated with distributing used cookers: a history of cocaine/crack injection, an Addiction Severity Index (ASI score indicative of a mental health problem, and older than 30 years of age. Factors associated with giving away used water included: male, injected methadone, injected other stimulants and moved 3+ times in the past 6 months. Factors associated with giving away used filters included: injected cocaine/crack or stayed overnight on the street or other public place. Factors associated with giving away swabs included: an ASI mental health score indicative of a mental health problem, and HCV negative status. Conclusions Our findings show that more IDUs give away cookers than needles or other injection equipment. While the results showed that correlates of sharing differed by piece of equipment, each point to distributive sharing by the most marginalized IDUs. Targeting prevention efforts to reduce equipment sharing in general, and cookers in particular is warranted to reduce use of contaminated equipment and viral transmission.

  5. Linguistic incompetence: giving an account of researching multilingually

    Phipps, A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers the place of linguistic competence and incompetence in the context of researching multilingually. It offers a critique of the concept of competence and explores the performative dimensions of multilingual research and its narration, through the philosophy of Judith Butler, and in particular her study Giving an account of oneself. It explores aspects of risk, justice, narrative limit and a morality of multilingualism in emergent multilingual research frameworks. These theo...

  6. Governance and value creation in grant-giving foundations

    Fabio Monteduro; Alessandro Hinna; Giacomo Boesso

    2010-01-01

    Grant giving foundation leaders are increasingly concerned with understanding the primary role their institutions are pressured to play in financing the growing non-profit sectors of developed economies. Furthermore, many academics, political leaders and practitioners are expecting foundations to play the unique role of merchant banks and venture capitalists to foster the positive impact of non-profit organizations on societies, people and issues they affect. The main contribution of this stu...

  7. Evolutionary aspects of gift-giving dynamics among Norwegian students

    2007-01-01

    Data from questionnaires filled out by 336 students during a nine day period in January and February 1999 at the University of Oslo, Norway was analyzed to find patterns in gift-giving behavior corresponding to predicted evolutionary biological and evolutionary psychological hypotheses. Gifts given and received, people given to and received from, monetary value of gifts given and estimated monetary value of gifts received were tallied. We tested the effects of four main factors: kin and non-k...

  8. Self gift Giving: A New Widespread Consumption Culture

    KAR, Yrd.Doç.Dr. Altan

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY The meanings derived from consumption goods have an increasing impact on the psychological formation of individuals Hence to understand the complex nature of consumer behavior a multidisciplinary approach is needed Consumption goods become magical fetish objects which satisfy individual pleasures The gift in this concept becomes a token that the individual gives her himself and evolves from being a collective system to an individual form of consumption The aim of this study...

  9. Engagement driven Topic Selection for an Information-Giving Agent

    Glas, Nadine; Prepin, Ken; Pelachaud, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    International audience We propose a model for conversational agents to select the topic of interaction in agent-initiated information-giving chat. By taking into account the agent's dynamically updated perception of the user's engagement, the agent's own preferences and its associations between topics, the agent tries to select the topic that max-imises the agent and user's combined engagement. The model offers engagement driven dialogue management on the topic level.

  10. Dictator game giving: Rules of fairness versus acts of kindness

    Gary E Bolton; Rami Zwick; Elena Katok

    1998-01-01

    In both dictator and impunity games, one player, the dictator, divides a fixed amount of money between himself and one other, the recipient. Recent lab studies of these games have produced seemingly inconsistent results, reporting substantially divergent amounts of dictator giving. Also, one prominent explanation for some of these differences, the impact of experimenter observation, displayed weak explanatory power in a different but related lab game. Data from the new experiment reported her...

  11. Giving a Newborn a Bath in her Parents' Presence.

    Didry, Pascale; Didry, Emmanuelle

    2015-11-01

    Today, Sophie is working on the maternity ward. She is going to give Manon, David and Laura's first born, a bath. Manon was born on the day before. She weighs 3.350kg and is 49cm long. She has already got a lot of fuzzy brown hair. Both parents are looking forward to watching and learning how to care for their new baby. PMID:26548395

  12. Philanthropy in a Changing World: An Evolving Attitude to Giving?

    Vladimir Hyanek; Marie Hladka

    2012-01-01

    Even though philanthropy tends to be considered a sociological theme rather than an economic one, it poses a number of questions that challenge economists as well. We chose to address the following: How can economists contribute to the theories related to philanthropy? Can we consider voluntary giving a demonstration of generosity rather than a market-based solution? We examine some terms that are used in public economics theory and use them to explore the issues of philanthropy. The terms we...

  13. Incapacity to give informed consent owing to mental disorder

    Van Staden, C W; Kruger, C.

    2003-01-01

    What renders some mentally disordered patients incapable of informed consent to medical interventions? It is argued that a patient is incapable of giving informed consent owing to mental disorder, if a mental disorder prevents a patient from understanding what s/he consents to; if a mental disorder prevents a patient from choosing decisively; if a mental disorder prevents a patient from communicating his/her consent; or if a mental disorder prevents a patient from accepting the need for a med...

  14. Giving an account of one's pain in the anthropological interview.

    Buchbinder, Mara

    2010-03-01

    In this paper, I analyze the illness stories narrated by a mother and her 13-year-old son as part of an ethnographic study of child chronic pain sufferers and their families. In examining some of the moral, relational and communicative challenges of giving an account of one's pain, I focus on what is left out of some accounts of illness and suffering and explore some possible reasons for these elisions. Drawing on recent work by Judith Butler (Giving an Account of Oneself, 2005), I investigate how the pragmatic context of interviews can introduce a form of symbolic violence to narrative accounts. Specifically, I use the term "genre of complaint" to highlight how anthropological research interviews in biomedical settings invoke certain typified forms of suffering that call for the rectification of perceived injustices. Interview narratives articulated in the genre of complaint privilege specific types of pain and suffering and cast others into the background. Giving an account of one's pain is thus a strategic and selective process, creating interruptions and silences as much as moments of clarity. Therefore, I argue that medical anthropologists ought to attend more closely to the institutional structures and relations that shape the production of illness narratives in interview encounters. PMID:19957024

  15. Adaptive dynamics of saturated polymorphisms.

    Kisdi, Éva; Geritz, Stefan A H

    2016-03-01

    We study the joint adaptive dynamics of n scalar-valued strategies in ecosystems where n is the maximum number of coexisting strategies permitted by the (generalized) competitive exclusion principle. The adaptive dynamics of such saturated systems exhibits special characteristics, which we first demonstrate in a simple example of a host-pathogen-predator model. The main part of the paper characterizes the adaptive dynamics of saturated polymorphisms in general. In order to investigate convergence stability, we give a new sufficient condition for absolute stability of an arbitrary (not necessarily saturated) polymorphic singularity and show that saturated evolutionarily stable polymorphisms satisfy it. For the case [Formula: see text], we also introduce a method to construct different pairwise invasibility plots of the monomorphic population without changing the selection gradients of the saturated dimorphism. PMID:26676357

  16. Climate Change Adaptation

    Hudecz, Adriána

    The European Union ROADEX Project 1998 – 2012 was a trans-national roads co-operation aimed at developing ways for interactive and innovative management of low traffic volume roads throughout the cold climate regions of the Northern Periphery Area of Europe. Its goals were to facilitate co......-operation and research into the common problems of the Northern Periphery. This report is an output of the ROADEX “Implementing Accessibility” project (2009-2012). It gives a summary of the results of research into adaptation measures to combat climate change effects on low volume roads in the Northern...... Periphery. The research was carried out between January 2000 and March 2012. One of the biggest challenges that mankind has to face is the prospect of climate change resulting from emissions of greenhouse gases. These gases trap energy in the atmosphere and cause global surface temperatures to rise. This...

  17. A Novel Path Tracing Scheme In All-Optical Networks Using Benes Network

    Pankaj Singh

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A novel path tracing scheme is described in this paper which is known as Prime number encoding scheme using Benes network. In this scheme every data packet consist a label which is default 1 and every node consist of a prime number tag, as this data packet pass through the network label will be multiplied with the tag of the node. Prime number multiplication is done with encoder. At the receiver end factorization is done which gives the information of travelled path. In this scheme optical cross connects (OXC is replaced with the Benes network which gives the better result than OXC. System having Benes network gives less attenuation than OXC and complexity of the system also decreases.

  18. Adaptive Routing Algorithm for MANET:TERMITE

    Sharvani G S

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Ad hoc network consists of a set of mobile nodes. This network does not have anyinfrastructure or central administration, hence it is called infrastructure less network. As the nodes aremobile, it is very difficult to find the path between two end points. This paper presents a solution forfinding path between nodes in mobile ad hoc network. Termite is an innovative algorithm for packetrouting in communication networks. Termite is an adaptive, distributed, mobile-agents-based algorithmwhich was inspired by recent work on the ant colony metaphor. According to this algorithm, a group ofmobile agents (or artificial termites build paths between pair of nodes; exploring the networkconcurrently and exchanging obtained information to update the routing tables. Some of the parametersused to evaluate its performance are packet delays and throughput. The results of this algorithm showsbetter throughput as compared to existing algorithms. So, Termite algorithm is a promising alternativefor routing of data in commercial networks.

  19. Gerbertian paths for the Jubilee

    Sigismondi, Costantino

    2015-04-01

    Gerbert before becoming Pope Sylvester II came several times in Rome, as reported in his Letters and in the biography of Richerus. Eight places in Rome can be connected with Gerbertian memories. 1. The Cathedral of St. John in the Lateran where the gravestone of his tumb is still preserved near the Holy Door; 2. the “Basilica Hierusalem” (Santa Croce) where Gerbert had the stroke on May 3rd 1003 which lead him to death on May 12th; 3. the Aventine hill, with the church of the Knights of Malta in the place where the palace of the Ottonian Emperors was located; 4. the church of St. Bartholomew in the Tiber Island built in 997 under Otto III; 5. the Obelisk of Augustus in Montecitorio to remember the relationship between Gerbert, Astronomy and numbers which led the birth of the legends on Gerbert magician; 6. St. Mary Major end of the procession of August 15, 1000; 7. St. Paul outside the walls with the iconography of the Popes and 8. St. Peter's tumb end of all Romaei pilgrimages. This Gerbertian path in Rome suggests one way to accomplish the pilgrimage suggested by Pope Francis in the Bulla Misericordiae Vultus (14) of indiction of the new Jubilee.

  20. Precision Cleaning - Path to Premier

    Mackler, Scott E.

    2008-01-01

    ITT Space Systems Division s new Precision Cleaning facility provides critical cleaning and packaging of aerospace flight hardware and optical payloads to meet customer performance requirements. The Precision Cleaning Path to Premier Project was a 2007 capital project and is a key element in the approved Premier Resource Management - Integrated Supply Chain Footprint Optimization Project. Formerly precision cleaning was located offsite in a leased building. A new facility equipped with modern precision cleaning equipment including advanced process analytical technology and improved capabilities was designed and built after outsourcing solutions were investigated and found lacking in ability to meet quality specifications and schedule needs. SSD cleans parts that can range in size from a single threaded fastener all the way up to large composite structures. Materials that can be processed include optics, composites, metals and various high performance coatings. We are required to provide verification to our customers that we have met their particulate and molecular cleanliness requirements and we have that analytical capability in this new facility. The new facility footprint is approximately half the size of the former leased operation and provides double the amount of throughput. Process improvements and new cleaning equipment are projected to increase 1st pass yield from 78% to 98% avoiding $300K+/yr in rework costs. Cost avoidance of $350K/yr will result from elimination of rent, IT services, transportation, and decreased utility costs. Savings due to reduced staff expected to net $4-500K/yr.

  1. Path integral for inflationary perturbations

    Prokopec, Tomislav; Rigopoulos, Gerasimos

    2010-07-01

    The quantum theory of cosmological perturbations in single-field inflation is formulated in terms of a path integral. Starting from a canonical formulation, we show how the free propagators can be obtained from the well-known gauge-invariant quadratic action for scalar and tensor perturbations, and determine the interactions to arbitrary order. This approach does not require the explicit solution of the energy and momentum constraints, a novel feature which simplifies the determination of the interaction vertices. The constraints and the necessary imposition of gauge conditions is reflected in the appearance of various commuting and anticommuting auxiliary fields in the action. These auxiliary fields are not propagating physical degrees of freedom but need to be included in internal lines and loops in a diagrammatic expansion. To illustrate the formalism we discuss the tree-level three-point and four-point functions of the inflaton perturbations, reproducing the results already obtained by the methods used in the current literature. Loop calculations are left for future work.

  2. Adaptive management

    Rist, Lucy; Campbell, Bruce Morgan; Frost, Peter

    2013-01-01

    in scientific articles, policy documents and management plans, but both understanding and application of the concept is mixed. This paper reviews recent literature from conservation and natural resource management journals to assess diversity in how the term is used, highlight ambiguities and consider how......Adaptive management (AM) emerged in the literature in the mid-1970s in response both to a realization of the extent of uncertainty involved in management, and a frustration with attempts to use modelling to integrate knowledge and make predictions. The term has since become increasingly widely used...... the concept might be further assessed. AM is currently being used to describe many different management contexts, scales and locations. Few authors define the term explicitly or describe how it offers a means to improve management outcomes in their specific management context. Many do not adhere to the idea...

  3. Coordinated Path Following of Multiple UAVs for Time-Critical Missions in the Presence of Time-Varying Communication Topologies

    Aguiar, A. P.; Kaminer, I.; Ghabcheloo, R.; Pascoal, A. M.; Xargay, E.; Hovakimyan, N.; Cao, C; Dobrokhodov, V.

    2008-01-01

    We address the problem of steering multiple unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) along given paths (path-following) under strict temporal coordination constraints requiring, for example, that the vehicles arrive at their final destinations at exactly the same time. Pathfollowing relies on a nonlinear Lyapunov based control strategy derived at the kinematic level with the augmentation of existing autopilots with L1 adaptive output feedback control laws to obtain inner-outer loop control...

  4. Path integrals with generalized Grassmann variables

    Chaichian, M. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Physics; Demichev, A.P.

    1995-04-01

    The path integral representations the evolution of q-oscillators with root of unity values of q-parameter is constructed using Bargmann-Fock representations with commuting and non-commuting variables, the differential calculi being q-deformed in both cases. For q{sup 2} = -1 a new form of Grassmann-like path integral is obtained. (author). 14 refs.

  5. Heuristic estimates in shortest path algorithms

    W.H.L.M. Pijls (Wim)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractShortest path problems occupy an important position in Operations Research as well as in Arti¯cial Intelligence. In this paper we study shortest path algorithms that exploit heuristic estimates. The well-known algorithms are put into one framework. Besides we present an interesting appli

  6. Graphic method for analyzing common path interferometers

    Glückstad, J.

    1998-01-01

    Common path interferometers are widely used for visualizing phase disturbances and fluid flows. They are attractive because of the inherent simplicity and robustness in the setup. A graphic method will be presented for analyzing and optimizing filter parameters in common path interferometers....

  7. Path Integral Quantization of Spinning Superparticle

    ELEGLA, H. A.; FARAHAT, N. I.

    2008-01-01

    The Hamilton-Jacobi formalism is used to discuss the path integral quantization of a spinning superparticle model. The equations of motion are obtained as total differential equations in many variables. The equations of motion are integrable, and the path integral is obtained as an integration over the canonical phase space coordinates.

  8. 't Hooft's quantum determinism -- path integral viewpoint

    Blasone, Massimo; Jizba, Petr; Kleinert, Hagen

    2005-01-01

    We present a path integral formulation of 't Hooft's derivation of quantum from classical physics. Our approach is based on two concepts: Faddeev-Jackiw's treatment of constrained systems and Gozzi's path integral formulation of classical mechanics. This treatment is compared with our earlier one [quant-ph/0409021] based on Dirac-Bergmann's method.

  9. Path Integral for Relativistic Equations of Motion

    Gosselin, Pierre; Polonyi, Janos

    1997-01-01

    A non-Grassmanian path integral representation is given for the solution of the Klein-Gordon and the Dirac equations. The trajectories of the path integral are rendered differentiable by the relativistic corrections. The nonrelativistic limit is briefly discussed from the point of view of the renormalization group.

  10. Path integral representation for spin systens

    Karchev, Naoum

    2012-01-01

    The present paper is a short review of different path integral representations of the partition function of quantum spin systems. To begin with, I consider coherent states for SU(2) algebra. Different parameterizations of the coherent states lead to different path integral representations. They all are unified within an U(1) gauge theory of quantum spin systems.

  11. Robot path planning using genetic algorithms

    2001-01-01

    Presents a strategy for soccer robot path planning using genetic algorithms for which, real number coding method is used, to overcome the defects of binary coding method, and the double crossover operation a dopted, to avoid the common defect of early convergence and converge faster than the standard genetic algo rithms concludes from simulation results that the method is effective for robot path planning.

  12. The Path of Carbon in Photosynthesis VI.

    Calvin, M.

    1949-06-30

    This paper is a compilation of the essential results of our experimental work in the determination of the path of carbon in photosynthesis. There are discussions of the dark fixation of photosynthesis and methods of separation and identification including paper chromatography and radioautography. The definition of the path of carbon in photosynthesis by the distribution of radioactivity within the compounds is described.

  13. Private Giving Crowding Government Funding in Public Higher Education

    G. Thomas Sav

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Private giving and government funding are critical revenue sources for public colleges and universities. If increased private giving reduces government funding, then that type and extent of crowding out carries important managerial and public policy implications. Approach: The study used a government funding reaction function and an instrumental variable approach to empirically estimate the potential for crowding out. Results: The study examined the extent to which private giving reduces or crowds out state government funding of public colleges and universities. Government free riding was at question and investigated to determine how active it is in terms of private donations partially or wholly displacing state government funding. The findings suggested that the rate of crowding out was 43% on the dollar. That compares to the 45% political substitution of the 1960’s but is much diminished from the 1980’s dollar for dollar crowding out. Those are aggregate comparisons for all public institutions. A disaggregated approach in this study additionally revealed that doctoral universities were victims of the same 43% crowd out but that at two other levels, master degree granting and associate degree granting colleges, there was the opposite effect of crowding in. Those colleges received state funding augmentations of 32-92% on their dollar of privately provided donations. Conclusion/Recommendations: The study’s finding of the existence of both crowding out and crowding in can carry important policy implications for college and university funding. Future managerial and public policy decision making should take that into account. However, political sustainability and economy wide and localized effects over time of crowding out and in could prove fruitful avenues of inquiry for future research.

  14. Analyzing the applicability of the least risk path algorithm in indoor space

    Vanclooster, A.; Viaene, P.; Van de Weghe, N.; Fack, V.; De Maeyer, Ph.

    2013-11-01

    Over the last couple of years, applications that support navigation and wayfinding in indoor environments have become one of the booming industries. However, the algorithmic support for indoor navigation has so far been left mostly untouched, as most applications mainly rely on adapting Dijkstra's shortest path algorithm to an indoor network. In outdoor space, several alternative algorithms have been proposed adding a more cognitive notion to the calculated paths and as such adhering to the natural wayfinding behavior (e.g. simplest paths, least risk paths). The need for indoor cognitive algorithms is highlighted by a more challenged navigation and orientation due to the specific indoor structure (e.g. fragmentation, less visibility, confined areas…). Therefore, the aim of this research is to extend those richer cognitive algorithms to three-dimensional indoor environments. More specifically for this paper, we will focus on the application of the least risk path algorithm of Grum (2005) to an indoor space. The algorithm as proposed by Grum (2005) is duplicated and tested in a complex multi-story building. Several analyses compare shortest and least risk paths in indoor and in outdoor space. The results of these analyses indicate that the current outdoor least risk path algorithm does not calculate less risky paths compared to its shortest paths. In some cases, worse routes have been suggested. Adjustments to the original algorithm are proposed to be more aligned to the specific structure of indoor environments. In a later stage, other cognitive algorithms will be implemented and tested in both an indoor and combined indoor-outdoor setting, in an effort to improve the overall user experience during navigation in indoor environments.

  15. Confounding Issues in the Deadweight Loss of Gift-Giving

    H. Kristl Davison; Bing, Mark N.; E. Bruce Hutchinson; Leila J. Pratt

    2008-01-01

    When a gift is given, someone other than the final consumer makes the consumption choice. Thus there is a possibility that the gift will not match the preferences of the receiver, i.e., the gift will represent a wise use of the money given the gift-giver's tastes but not necessarily a wise use of money given the recipient's tastes. In other words, gift giving can result in a deadweight loss. This paper addresses and clarifies the discrepancy between Waldfogel's (1993) finding of a deadweight ...

  16. Reluctant altruism and peer pressure in charitable giving

    Diane Reyniers

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Subjects donate individually (control group or in pairs (treatment group. Those in pairs reveal their donation decision to each other. Average donations in the treatment group are significantly higher than in the control group. Paired subjects have the opportunity to revise their donation decision after discussion. Pair members shift toward each others' initial decisions. Subjects are happier with their decision when their donations are larger, but those in pairs are less happy, controlling for amount donated. These findings suggest reluctant altruism due to peer pressure in charitable giving.

  17. Can Maxwell's fish eye lens really give perfect imaging?

    Sun, Fei; He, Sailing

    2010-01-01

    Both explicit analysis and FEM numerical simulation are used to analyze the field distribution of a line current in the so-called Maxwell's fish eye lens [bounded with a perfectly electrical conductor (PEC) boundary]. We show that such a 2D Maxwell's fish eye lens cannot give perfect imaging due to the fact that high order modes of the object field can hardly reach the image point in Maxwell's fish eye lens. If only zeroth order mode is excited, a good image of a sharp object may be achieved ...

  18. What are the impacts of giving up the driving licence?

    Siren, Anu Kristiina; Haustein, Sonja

    2014-01-01

    Driving cessation is a gradual process, where driver’s self-regulation plays an important role. Age-based licence renewal may interfere with this process and trigger premature driving cessation. The present study compares Danish drivers (aged 69 years at the baseline) who either renewed or gave up...... their activities after giving up their licence. In travel frequency, neither the differences between renewers and non-renewers nor the changes over time within the groups were pronounced. The groups differed in their use of transport modes already at the baseline: the renewers drove, while nonrenewers...

  19. A Childhood Rich in Culture Gives a Socioeconomic Bonus

    Austring, Bennye Düranc

    2015-01-01

    Artiklen ridser den nyeste forskning op inden for feltet 'art rich learning', altså æstetiske læreprocesser af god kvalitet. In the book ”Art and Culture Give Children a Life that Works” 60 (Danish and non-Danish) experts, practitioners, artists and several Ministers from the Danish Government...... focus on the significance of Art and Culture for children. The book provides lots of inspiration for teachers, pedagogues and cultural mediators and contains many examples of specific cultural activities, links and bibliographic references....

  20. On k-Path Pancyclic Graphs

    Bi Zhenming

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available For integers k and n with 2 ≤ k ≤ n − 1, a graph G of order n is k-path pancyclic if every path P of order k in G lies on a cycle of every length from k + 1 to n. Thus a 2-path pancyclic graph is edge-pancyclic. In this paper, we present sufficient conditions for graphs to be k-path pancyclic. For a graph G of order n ≥ 3, we establish sharp lower bounds in terms of n and k for (a the minimum degree of G, (b the minimum degree-sum of nonadjacent vertices of G and (c the size of G such that G is k-path pancyclic

  1. Feynman Path Integrals Over Entangled States

    Green, A G; Keeling, J; Simon, S H

    2016-01-01

    The saddle points of a conventional Feynman path integral are not entangled, since they comprise a sequence of classical field configurations. We combine insights from field theory and tensor networks by constructing a Feynman path integral over a sequence of matrix product states. The paths that dominate this path integral include some degree of entanglement. This new feature allows several insights and applications: i. A Ginzburg-Landau description of deconfined phase transitions. ii. The emergence of new classical collective variables in states that are not adiabatically continuous with product states. iii. Features that are captured in product-state field theories by proliferation of instantons are encoded in perturbative fluctuations about entangled saddles. We develop a general formalism for such path integrals and a couple of simple examples to illustrate their utility.

  2. A HYBRID ADAPTIVE ALGORITHM FOR LINEAR OPTIMIZATION

    MAZIAR SALAHI; TAMÁS TERLAKY

    2009-01-01

    Recently, using the framework of self-regularity, Salahi in his Ph.D. thesis proposed an adaptive single step algorithm which takes advantage of the current iterate information to find an appropriate barrier parameter rather than using a fixed fraction of the current duality gap. However, his algorithm might do at most one bad step after each good step in order to keep the iterate in a certain neighborhood of the central path. In this paper, using the same framework, we propose a hybrid adapt...

  3. Sparse adaptive filters for echo cancellation

    Paleologu, Constantin

    2011-01-01

    Adaptive filters with a large number of coefficients are usually involved in both network and acoustic echo cancellation. Consequently, it is important to improve the convergence rate and tracking of the conventional algorithms used for these applications. This can be achieved by exploiting the sparseness character of the echo paths. Identification of sparse impulse responses was addressed mainly in the last decade with the development of the so-called ``proportionate''-type algorithms. The goal of this book is to present the most important sparse adaptive filters developed for echo cancellati

  4. Real-time optical path control method that utilizes multiple support vector machines for traffic prediction

    Kawase, Hiroshi; Mori, Yojiro; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Sato, Ken-ichi

    2016-02-01

    An effective solution to the continuous Internet traffic expansion is to offload traffic to lower layers such as the L2 or L1 optical layers. One possible approach is to introduce dynamic optical path operations such as adaptive establishment/tear down according to traffic variation. Path operations cannot be done instantaneously; hence, traffic prediction is essential. Conventional prediction techniques need optimal parameter values to be determined in advance by averaging long-term variations from the past. However, this does not allow adaptation to the ever-changing short-term variations expected to be common in future networks. In this paper, we propose a real-time optical path control method based on a machinelearning technique involving support vector machines (SVMs). A SVM learns the most recent traffic characteristics, and so enables better adaptation to temporal traffic variations than conventional techniques. The difficulty lies in determining how to minimize the time gap between optical path operation and buffer management at the originating points of those paths. The gap makes the required learning data set enormous and the learning process costly. To resolve the problem, we propose the adoption of multiple SVMs running in parallel, trained with non-overlapping subsets of the original data set. The maximum value of the outputs of these SVMs will be the estimated number of necessary paths. Numerical experiments prove that our proposed method outperforms a conventional prediction method, the autoregressive moving average method with optimal parameter values determined by Akaike's information criterion, and reduces the packet-loss ratio by up to 98%.

  5. Different Selection Pressures Give Rise to Distinct Ethnic Phenomena

    Moya, Cristina; Boyd, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Many accounts of ethnic phenomena imply that processes such as stereotyping, essentialism, ethnocentrism, and intergroup hostility stem from a unitary adaptation for reasoning about groups. This is partly justified by the phenomena’s co-occurrence in correlational studies. Here we argue that these behaviors are better modeled as functionally independent adaptations that arose in response to different selection pressures throughout human evolution. As such, different mechanisms may be triggered by different group boundaries within a single society. We illustrate this functionalist framework using ethnographic work from the Quechua-Aymara language boundary in the Peruvian Altiplano. We show that different group boundaries motivate different ethnic phenomena. For example, people have strong stereotypes about socioeconomic categories, which are not cooperative units, whereas they hold fewer stereotypes about communities, which are the primary focus of cooperative activity. We also show that, despite the cross-cultural importance of ethnolinguistic boundaries, the Quechua-Aymara linguistic distinction does not strongly motivate any of these intergroup processes. PMID:25731969

  6. Organometallic chemistry meets crystal engineering to give responsive crystalline materials.

    Bacchi, A; Pelagatti, P

    2016-01-25

    Dynamically porous crystalline materials have been obtained by engineering organometallic molecules. This feature article deals with organometallic wheel-and-axle compounds, molecules with two relatively bulky groups (wheels) connected by a linear spacer. The wheels are represented by half-sandwich Ru(ii) moieties, while the spacer can be covalent or supramolecular in character. Covalent spacers are obtained using divergent bidentate ligands connecting two [(arene)RuX2] groups. Supramolecular spacers are instead obtained by exploiting the dimerization of COOH or C(O)NH2 groups appended to N-based ligands. A careful choice of ligand functional groups and X ligands leads to the isolation of crystalline materials with remarkable host-guest properties, evidenced by the possibility of reversibly capturing/releasing volatile guests through heterogenous solid-gas reactions. Structural correlations between the crystalline arrangement of the apohost and the host-guest compounds allow us to envisage the structural path followed by the system during the exchange processes. PMID:26673552

  7. Experiencing a natural disaster alters children's altruistic giving.

    Li, Yiyuan; Li, Hong; Decety, Jean; Lee, Kang

    2013-09-01

    Altruism is thought to be a major contributor to the development of large-scale human societies. However, much of the evidence supporting this belief comes from individuals living in pacific and often affluent environments. It is entirely unknown whether humans act altruistically when facing adversity. Adversity is arguably a common human experience (as manifested in, e.g., personal tragedies, political upheavals, and natural disasters). In the research reported here, we found that experiencing a natural disaster affected children's altruistic giving. Immediately after witnessing devastations caused by a major earthquake, 9-year-olds became more altruistic. In addition, the more empathic they were, the more they gave. In contrast, experiencing a major earthquake caused 6-year-olds to be more selfish. Three years after the earthquake, children's altruistic tendencies returned to pre-earthquake levels, which suggests that changes in children's altruistic giving are an acute response to the immediate aftermath of a major natural disaster. These findings suggest that environmental insults and empathy play crucial roles in human altruism. PMID:23842959

  8. Reaction path synthesis methodology for waste minimization

    HU Shanying; LI Mingheng; LI Yourun; SHEN Jingzhu; LIU Zheng

    2004-01-01

    It is a key step for reducing waste generation in chemical processes to design optimal reaction paths. In this paper, methods of waste minimization for reaction path synthesis problems are proposed to realize eco-industrial production mode with minimum waste emission. A new conception of simple stoichiometric reaction is presented for reaction path synthesis problem. All simple stoichiometric reactions can be obtained by mathematical transformation for atom matrix of a reaction system. Based on the conception, a two-tier optimization method for complex reaction path synthesis problems is addressed. The first step is to determine the economic optimal overall reactions, and the second step to decompose each overall reaction into several sub-reactions and find out the best thermodynamic feasible reaction path. Further, a method of reaction path synthesis with waste closed-cycle is proposed based on simple stoichiometric reactions for achieving zero waste emission to poly-generation problem of multi-products. Case studies show that the proposed methods can efficiently solve practical reaction path synthesis problems.

  9. Hybridizing Particle Swarm Optimization and Differential Evolution for the Mobile Robot Global Path Planning

    Biwei Tang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Global path planning is a challenging issue in the filed of mobile robotics due to its complexity and the nature of nondeterministic polynomial-time hard (NP-hard. Particle swarm optimization (PSO has gained increasing popularity in global path planning due to its simplicity and high convergence speed. However, since the basic PSO has difficulties balancing exploration and exploitation, and suffers from stagnation, its efficiency in solving global path planning may be restricted. Aiming at overcoming these drawbacks and solving the global path planning problem efficiently, this paper proposes a hybrid PSO algorithm that hybridizes PSO and differential evolution (DE algorithms. To dynamically adjust the exploration and exploitation abilities of the hybrid PSO, a novel PSO, the nonlinear time-varying PSO (NTVPSO, is proposed for updating the velocities and positions of particles in the hybrid PSO. In an attempt to avoid stagnation, a modified DE, the ranking-based self adaptive DE (RBSADE, is developed to evolve the personal best experience of particles in the hybrid PSO. The proposed algorithm is compared with four state-of-the-art evolutionary algorithms. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm is highly competitive in terms of path optimality and can be considered as a vital alternative for solving global path planning.

  10. UAV feasible path planning based on disturbed fluid and trajectory propagation

    Yao Peng

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel algorithm based on disturbed fluid and trajectory propagation is developed to solve the three-dimensional (3-D path planning problem of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV in static environment. Firstly, inspired by the phenomenon of streamlines avoiding obstacles, the algorithm based on disturbed fluid is developed and broadened. The effect of obstacles on original fluid field is quantified by the perturbation matrix, where the tangential matrix is first introduced. By modifying the original flow field, the modified one is then obtained, where the streamlines can be regarded as planned paths. And the path proves to avoid all obstacles smoothly and swiftly, follow the shape of obstacles effectively and reach the destination eventually. Then, by considering the kinematics and dynamics equations of UAV, the method called trajectory propagation is adopted to judge the feasibility of the path. If the planned path is unfeasible, repulsive and tangential parameters in the perturbation matrix will be adjusted adaptively based on the resolved state variables of UAV. In most cases, a flyable path can be obtained eventually. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of this method.

  11. Fuzzy Optimized Metric for Adaptive Network Routing

    Ahmad Khader Haboush

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Network routing algorithms used today calculate least cost (shortest paths between nodes. The cost of a path is the sum of the cost of all links on that path. The use of a single metric for adaptive routing is insufficient to reflect the actual state of the link. In general, there is a limitation on the accuracy of the link state information obtained by the routing protocol. Hence it becomes useful if two or more metrics can be associated to produce a single metric that can describe the state of the link more accurately. In this paper, a fuzzy inference rule base is implemented to generate the fuzzy cost of each candidate path to be used in routing the incoming calls. This fuzzy cost is based on the crisp values of the different metrics; a fuzzy membership function is defined. The parameters of these membership functions reflect dynamically the requirement of the incoming traffic service as well as the current state of the links in the path. And this paper investigates how three metrics, the mean link bandwidth, queue utilization and the mean link delay, can be related using a simple fuzzy logic algorithm to produce a optimized cost of the link for a certain interval that is more „precise‟ than either of the single metric, to solve routing problem .

  12. Adaptive Feedback Cancellation With Band-Limited LPC Vocoder in Digital Hearing Aids

    Ma, Guilin; Gran, Fredrik; Jacobsen, Finn; Agerkvist, Finn T.

    2011-01-01

    Feedback oscillation is one of the major issues with hearing aids. An effective way of feedback suppression is adaptive feedback cancellation, which uses an adaptive filter to estimate the feedback path. However, when the external input signal is correlated with the receiver input signal, the estimate of the feedback path is biased. This so-called “bias problem” results in a large modeling error and a cancellation of the desired signal. This paper proposes a band-limited linear predictive cod...

  13. When may doctors give nurses telephonic treatment instructions?

    McQuoid-Mason, David Jan

    2016-08-01

    Doctors are expected to examine their patients before issuing telephonic instructions to nurses. However, in emergencies or when they are aware of the health status of their patients, it may be justified for a doctor to issue telephonic instructions to nurses without examining the patient. Doctors on call owe a special duty to patients, who they may have to examine or arrange for another doctor to do so before issuing telephonic instructions. In deciding whether doctors acted reasonably in issuing telephonic instructions to nurses, the courts will decide whether they exercised the same degree of skill and care as reasonably competent practitioners in their branch of the profession. Suggestions are made concerning doctors giving telephonic instructions to nurses regarding patients they have not examined. PMID:27499403

  14. Giving back: activist research with undocumented migrants in Berlin.

    Huschke, Susann

    2015-01-01

    In this article, I draw on my doctoral field work in Berlin (2008-2010), on the illness experiences of undocumented Latin American labor migrants, and on my work as an activist for the Berlin-based nongovernmental organization Medibüro, an anti-racist migrant health organization. I highlight how my attempts to 'give back,' and the various forms of engagements and commitments that resulted from it, shaped my relationships with actors in the field, the data I gathered, and the analytical framework I employed. I offer solutions on how to address these (unintended) effects of activism, and highlight the unique potential of activist research in regard to the forms of data available to the researcher and in gaining and retaining field access. By probing into some of its concrete methodological and analytical implications, I explore how to do activist research. PMID:25084824

  15. What are the impacts of giving up the driving licence?

    Siren, Anu Kristiina; Haustein, Sonja

    2014-01-01

    their activities after giving up their licence. In travel frequency, neither the differences between renewers and non-renewers nor the changes over time within the groups were pronounced. The groups differed in their use of transport modes already at the baseline: the renewers drove, while nonrenewers...... travelled as passengers, used public transport, walked or cycled. Not renewing the licence was a strong predictor of unmet mobility needs, especially in relation to leisure activities. The present study indicates that younger seniors’ mobility is not likely to be affected by the strict renewal policies...... their driving licence. Data were collected in 2009 (N= 1,792) and in 2012 (N=863). The standardised interviews covered respondents’ background information, health and wellbeing, and transportation patterns. Non-renewers had poorer health already at baseline but did become more dependent on others in...

  16. What are the impacts of giving up the driver license?

    Siren, Anu Kristiina; Haustein, Sonja

    -being, and modal choices and transportation patterns. Results: Non-renewers had poorer health already at baseline. However, they did become more dependent on others in their out-of-home activities after giving up their license. In travel frequency, neither the differences between renewers and non...... renewed their driver’s license (“renewers”) or did not (“non-renewers”) over a two-year period. Methods: Data were collected by interviewing a sample of older Danish people in 2009 (n = 1,792) and in 2012 (n = 863). The standardized interviews covered respondents’ background information, health and well......-renewers nor the changes over time within the groups were pronounced. Non-renewers reported more unmet mobility needs both in 2009 and 2012, especially in relation to leisure activities. The groups differed significantly in their use of transport modes. The renewers drove more often as the main transport mode...

  17. The Effect of Giving Feedback to Students' Writing

    Mochamad Zainuddin

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Although writing is as important as other skills such as listening, speaking, and reading, it needs more special attention. In order to write well, students need a long process to learn to write and they need continous feedback. The aim of this article is to know whether giving feedback to students' writing has a significant effect or not. Two groups of students, experimental and control, were involved. The compositions of the first group were given feedback, while those of the second group were not given feedback. The study shows that provision of feedback improves student's writing. In light of the result of the study, it is recommended that teachers provide feedback on students' writing.

  18. Integrated path towards geological storage

    Among solutions to contribute to CO2 emissions mitigation, sequestration is a promising path that presents the main advantage of being able to cope with the large volume at stake when considering the growing energy demand. Of particular importance, geological storage has widely been seen as an effective solution for large CO2 sources like power plants or refineries. Many R and D projects have been initiated, whereby research institutes, government agencies and end-users achieve an effective collaboration. So far, progress has been made towards reinjection of CO2, in understanding and then predicting the phenomenon and fluid dynamics inside the geological target, while monitoring the expansion of the CO2 bubble in the case of demonstration projects. A question arises however when talking about sequestration, namely the time scale to be taken into account. Time is indeed of the essence, and points out the need to understand leakage as well as trapping mechanisms. It is therefore of prime importance to be able to predict the fate of the injected fluids, in an accurate manner and over a relevant period of time. On the grounds of geology, four items are involved in geological storage reliability: the matrix itself, which is the recipient of the injected fluids; the seal, that is the mechanistic trap preventing the injected fluids to flow upward and escape; the lower part of the concerned structure, usually an aquifer, that can be a migration way for dissolved fluids; and the man- made injecting hole, the well, whose characteristics should be as good as the geological formation itself. These issues call for specific competencies such as reservoir engineering, geology and hydrodynamics, mineral chemistry, geomechanics, and well engineering. These competencies, even if put to use to a large extent in the oil industry, have never been connected with the reliability of geological storage as ultimate goal. This paper aims at providing an introduction to these interactions and

  19. Path statistics, memory, and coarse-graining of continuous-time random walks on networks

    Manhart, Michael; Kion-Crosby, Willow; Morozov, Alexandre V.

    2015-12-01

    Continuous-time random walks (CTRWs) on discrete state spaces, ranging from regular lattices to complex networks, are ubiquitous across physics, chemistry, and biology. Models with coarse-grained states (for example, those employed in studies of molecular kinetics) or spatial disorder can give rise to memory and non-exponential distributions of waiting times and first-passage statistics. However, existing methods for analyzing CTRWs on complex energy landscapes do not address these effects. Here we use statistical mechanics of the nonequilibrium path ensemble to characterize first-passage CTRWs on networks with arbitrary connectivity, energy landscape, and waiting time distributions. Our approach can be applied to calculating higher moments (beyond the mean) of path length, time, and action, as well as statistics of any conservative or non-conservative force along a path. For homogeneous networks, we derive exact relations between length and time moments, quantifying the validity of approximating a continuous-time process with its discrete-time projection. For more general models, we obtain recursion relations, reminiscent of transfer matrix and exact enumeration techniques, to efficiently calculate path statistics numerically. We have implemented our algorithm in PathMAN (Path Matrix Algorithm for Networks), a Python script that users can apply to their model of choice. We demonstrate the algorithm on a few representative examples which underscore the importance of non-exponential distributions, memory, and coarse-graining in CTRWs.

  20. Non Abelian Dual Maps in Path Space

    Martin, I

    1999-01-01

    We study an extension of the procedure to construct duality transformations among abelian gauge theories to the non abelian case using a path space formulation. We define a pre-dual functional in path space and introduce a particular non local map among Lie algebra valued 1-form functionals that reduces to the ordinary Hodge-* duality map of the abelian theories. Further, we establish a full set of equations on path space representing the ordinary Yang Mills equations and Bianchi identities of non abelian gauge theories of 4-dimensional euclidean space.

  1. Path integral representations on the complex sphere

    In this paper we discuss the path integral representations for the coordinate systems on the complex sphere S3C. The Schroedinger equation, respectively the path integral, separates in exactly 21 orthogonal coordinate systems. We enumerate these coordinate systems and we are able to present the path integral representations explicitly in the majority of the cases. In each solution the expansion into the wave-functions is stated. Also, the kernel and the corresponding Green function can be stated in closed form in terms of the invariant distance on the sphere, respectively on the hyperboloid. (orig.)

  2. Integrated robust controller for vehicle path following

    Mashadi, Behrooz; Ahmadizadeh, Pouyan, E-mail: p-ahmadizadeh@iust.ac.ir; Majidi, Majid, E-mail: m-majidi@iust.ac.ir [Iran University of Science and Technology, School of Automotive Engineering (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mahmoodi-Kaleybar, Mehdi, E-mail: m-mahmoodi-k@iust.ac.ir [Iran University of Science and Technology, School of Mechanical Engineering (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    The design of an integrated 4WS+DYC control system to guide a vehicle on a desired path is presented. The lateral dynamics of the path follower vehicle is formulated by considering important parameters. To reduce the effect of uncertainties in vehicle parameters, a robust controller is designed based on a μ-synthesis approach. Numerical simulations are performed using a nonlinear vehicle model in MATLAB environment in order to investigate the effectiveness of the designed controller. Results of simulations show that the controller has a profound ability to making the vehicle track the desired path in the presence of uncertainties.

  3. Test Derivation Through Critical Path Transitions

    李卫东; 魏道政

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, a new technique called test derivation is presented,aiming at the promotion of the random testing efficiency for combinational circuits,Combined with a fault simulator based on critical path tracing method,we introduce the concept of seed test derivation and attempt to generate a group of new tests from the seed test by means of critical path transition.The neccessary conditions and efficient algorithms are proposed to guarantee the usefulness of the newly derived tests and the correctness of the critical path transitions.Also,examples are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the technique.

  4. Multi-block and path modelling procedures

    Høskuldsson, Agnar

    2008-01-01

    of sub-processes, overall model can be specified. There can be several useful path models during the process, where the data blocks in a path are the ones that are actual or important at given stages of the process. Data collection equipments are getting more and more advanced and cheap. Data analysis...... that lead to it. Methods of standard regression analysis are extended to this type of modelling. Three types of 'strengths' of relationship are computed for each set of two connected data blocks. First is the strength in the path, second the strength where only the data blocks leading to the last one...

  5. Path planning strategies for autonomous ground vehicles

    Gifford, Kevin Kent

    Several key issues involved with the planning and executing of optimally generated paths for autonomous vehicles are addressed. Two new path planning algorithms are developed, and examined, which effectively minimize replanning as unmapped hazards are encountered. The individual algorithms are compared via extensive simulation. The search strategy results are implemented and tested using the University of Colorado's autonomous vehicle test-bed, RoboCar, and results show the advantages of solving the single-destination all-paths problem for autonomous vehicle path planning. Both path planners implement a graph search methodology incorporating dynamic programming that solves the single-destination shortest-paths problem. Algorithm 1, termed DP for dynamic programming, searches a state space where each state represents a potential vehicle location in a breadth-first fashion expanding from the goal to all potential start locations in the state space. Algorithm 2, termed DP*, couples the heuristic search power of the well-known A* search procedure (Nilsson-80) with the dynamic programming principle applied to graph searching to efficiently make use of overlapping subproblems. DP* is the primary research contribution of the work contained within this thesis. The advantage of solving the single-destination shortest-paths problem is that the entire terrain map is solved in terms of reaching a specified goal. Therefore, if the robot is diverted from the pre-planned path, an alternative path is already computed. The search algorithms are extended to include a probabilistic approach using empirical loss functions to incorporate terrain map uncertainties into the path considering terrain planning process. The results show the importance of considering terrain uncertainty. If the map representation ignores uncertainty by marking any area with less than perfect confidence as unpassable or assigns it the worst case rating, then the paths are longer than intuitively necessary. A

  6. Integrated robust controller for vehicle path following

    The design of an integrated 4WS+DYC control system to guide a vehicle on a desired path is presented. The lateral dynamics of the path follower vehicle is formulated by considering important parameters. To reduce the effect of uncertainties in vehicle parameters, a robust controller is designed based on a μ-synthesis approach. Numerical simulations are performed using a nonlinear vehicle model in MATLAB environment in order to investigate the effectiveness of the designed controller. Results of simulations show that the controller has a profound ability to making the vehicle track the desired path in the presence of uncertainties

  7. Climatic change impacts, adaptation and associated costs in France. Intermediate report. June 2008; Impacts du changement climatique, adaptation et couts associes en France. Document d'etape. Juin 2008

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This report aims at promoting the awareness of sector-based and land challenges of climate change in terms of impacts. It gives a wide overview of the present knowledge on sector-based vulnerabilities, and allows the identification of some paths for the alleviation of these vulnerabilities. After a discussion of objectives and context, of methodological choices (data, modalities to take impacts and adaptation into account, impact assessment approach) thematic woks are reported. They are dealing with health (population vulnerability to climate change with the example of 2006 heat wave), agriculture, forest and water, energy, tourism, natural risks and insurance, territories. For each of these topics, the reports discusses vulnerability aspects, the present knowledge about the impact of climate change, and identifies the core problems as well as studies which remain to be performed

  8. A genome survey of Moniliophthora perniciosa gives new insights into Witches' Broom Disease of cacao

    Bailey Bryan A

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The basidiomycete fungus Moniliophthora perniciosa is the causal agent of Witches' Broom Disease (WBD in cacao (Theobroma cacao. It is a hemibiotrophic pathogen that colonizes the apoplast of cacao's meristematic tissues as a biotrophic pathogen, switching to a saprotrophic lifestyle during later stages of infection. M. perniciosa, together with the related species M. roreri, are pathogens of aerial parts of the plant, an uncommon characteristic in the order Agaricales. A genome survey (1.9× coverage of M. perniciosa was analyzed to evaluate the overall gene content of this phytopathogen. Results Genes encoding proteins involved in retrotransposition, reactive oxygen species (ROS resistance, drug efflux transport and cell wall degradation were identified. The great number of genes encoding cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (1.15% of gene models indicates that M. perniciosa has a great potential for detoxification, production of toxins and hormones; which may confer a high adaptive ability to the fungus. We have also discovered new genes encoding putative secreted polypeptides rich in cysteine, as well as genes related to methylotrophy and plant hormone biosynthesis (gibberellin and auxin. Analysis of gene families indicated that M. perniciosa have similar amounts of carboxylesterases and repertoires of plant cell wall degrading enzymes as other hemibiotrophic fungi. In addition, an approach for normalization of gene family data using incomplete genome data was developed and applied in M. perniciosa genome survey. Conclusion This genome survey gives an overview of the M. perniciosa genome, and reveals that a significant portion is involved in stress adaptation and plant necrosis, two necessary characteristics for a hemibiotrophic fungus to fulfill its infection cycle. Our analysis provides new evidence revealing potential adaptive traits that may play major roles in the mechanisms of pathogenicity in the M. perniciosa

  9. Is adaptive co-management ethical?

    Fennell, David; Plummer, Ryan; Marschke, Melissa

    2008-07-01

    'Good' governance and adaptive co-management hold broad appeal due to their positive connotations and 'noble ethical claims'. This paper poses a fundamental question: is adaptive co-management ethical? In pursuing an answer to this question, the concept of adaptive co-management is succinctly summarized and three ethical perspectives (deontology, teleology and existentialism) are explored. The case of adaptive co-management in Cambodia is described and subsequently considered through the lens of ethical triangulation. The case illuminates important ethical considerations and directs attention towards the need for meditative thinking which increases the value of tradition, ecology, and culture. Giving ethics a central position makes clear the potential for adaptive co-management to be an agent for governance, which is good, right and authentic as well as an arena to embrace uncertainty. PMID:17391840

  10. Covariant path integrals and black holes

    Vendrell, F

    1997-01-01

    The thermal nature of the propagator in a collapsed black-hole spacetime is shown to follow from the non-trivial topology of the configuration space in tortoise coordinates by using the path integral formalism.

  11. Numerical path integration with Coulomb potential

    Myrheim, Jan

    2003-01-01

    A simple and efficient method for quantum Monte Carlo simulation is presented, based on discretization of the action in the path integral, and a Gaussian averaging of the potential, which works well e.g. with the Coulomb potential.

  12. Northern Pintail - Flight Path Telemetry [ds117

    California Department of Resources — North-south flight paths of radio-tagged female northern pintails were monitored in a section of Highway 152 near Los Banos, California during 4 and 11 November and...

  13. A path dependent model for ductile fracture

    A path dependent model for ductile fracture has been developed which uses the principle of accumulation of damage up to some critical value at which failure occurs. The damage is calculated from void growth equations which depend on the strain path and the value of hydrostatic tension along this path. The model developed on this basis enables the critical damage for failure to be calculated from a simple test such as the tensile test in which the hydrostatic tension can be calculated at all points along the strain path. The method has been verified using some of Bridgman's data over a wide range of strain and hydrostatic tension and more recent data on a high purity iron. (orig.)

  14. Path integral distance for data interpretation

    Volchenkov, D

    2015-01-01

    The process of data interpretation is always based on the implicit introduction of equivalence relations on the set of walks over the database. Every equivalence relation on the set of walks specifies a Markov chain describing the transitions of a discrete time random walk. In order to geometrize and interpret the data, we propose the new distance between data units defined as a "Feynman path integral", in which all possible paths between any two nodes in a graph model of the data are taken into account, although some paths are more preferable than others. Such a path integral distance approach to the analysis of databases has proven its efficiency and success, especially on multivariate strongly correlated data where other methods fail to detect structural components (urban planning, historical language phylogenies, music, street fashion traits analysis, etc. ). We believe that it would become an invaluable tool for the intelligent complexity reduction and big data interpretation.

  15. Exploring Zika's Path Through the Placenta

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159075.html Exploring Zika's Path Through the Placenta Researchers find the virus ... research seems to shed light on how the Zika virus infects, but doesn't kill, placenta cells. ...

  16. Nonclassical Paths in Quantum Interference Experiments

    Sawant, Rahul; Samuel, Joseph; Sinha, Aninda; Sinha, Supurna; Sinha, Urbasi

    2014-09-01

    In a double slit interference experiment, the wave function at the screen with both slits open is not exactly equal to the sum of the wave functions with the slits individually open one at a time. The three scenarios represent three different boundary conditions and as such, the superposition principle should not be applicable. However, most well-known text books in quantum mechanics implicitly and/or explicitly use this assumption that is only approximately true. In our present study, we have used the Feynman path integral formalism to quantify contributions from nonclassical paths in quantum interference experiments that provide a measurable deviation from a naive application of the superposition principle. A direct experimental demonstration for the existence of these nonclassical paths is difficult to present. We find that contributions from such paths can be significant and we propose simple three-slit interference experiments to directly confirm their existence.

  17. Non-classical paths in interference experiments

    Sawant, Rahul; Sinha, Aninda; Sinha, Supurna; Sinha, Urbasi

    2014-01-01

    In a double slit interference experiment, the wave function at the screen with both slits open is not exactly equal to the sum of the wave functions with the slits individually open one at a time. The three scenarios represent three different boundary conditions and as such, the superposition principle should not be applicable. However, most well known text books in quantum mechanics implicitly and/or explicitly use this assumption which is only approximately true. In our present study, we have used the Feynman path integral formalism to quantify contributions from non-classical paths in quantum interference experiments which provide a measurable deviation from a naive application of the superposition principle. A direct experimental demonstration for the existence of these non-classical paths is hard. We find that contributions from such paths can be significant and we propose simple three-slit interference experiments to directly confirm their existence.

  18. Path Integral Formulation of Noncommutative Quantum Mechanics

    Acatrinei, C S

    2001-01-01

    We propose a phase-space path integral formulation of noncommutative quantum mechanics, and prove its equivalence to the operatorial formulation. As an illustration, the partition function of a noncommutative two-dimensional harmonic oscillator is calculated.

  19. Exploring Zika's Path Through the Placenta

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_159075.html Exploring Zika's Path Through the Placenta Researchers find the virus ... research seems to shed light on how the Zika virus infects, but doesn't kill, placenta cells. ...

  20. Path count asymptotics and Stirling numbers

    Petersen, K.; Varchenko, A.

    2009-01-01

    We obtain formulas for the growth rate of the numbers of certain paths in infinite graphs built on the two-dimensional Eulerian graph. Corollaries are identities relating Stirling numbers of the first and second kinds.

  1. Long paths and Hamiltonicity in random graphs

    Krivelevich, Michael

    2015-01-01

    We discuss several classical results about long paths and Hamilton cycles in random graphs and present accessible versions of their proofs, relying on the Depth First Search (DFS) algorithm and the notion of boosters.

  2. Modeling DNA Dynamics by Path Integrals

    Zoli, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Complementary strands in DNA double helix show temporary fluctuational openings which are essential to biological functions such as transcription and replication of the genetic information. Such large amplitude fluctuations, known as the breathing of DNA, are generally localized and, microscopically, are due to the breaking of the hydrogen bonds linking the base pairs (\\emph{bps}). I apply imaginary time path integral techniques to a mesoscopic Hamiltonian which accounts for the helicoidal geometry of a short circular DNA molecule. The \\emph{bps} displacements with respect to the ground state are interpreted as time dependent paths whose amplitudes are consistent with the model potential for the hydrogen bonds. The portion of the paths configuration space contributing to the partition function is determined by selecting the ensemble of paths which fulfill the second law of thermodynamics. Computations of the thermodynamics in the denaturation range show the energetic advantage for the equilibrium helicoidal g...

  3. Use Case Design for AdaptIVe

    Wolter, Stefan; Kelsch, Johann

    2014-01-01

    AdaptIVe is a large scale European project on vehicle automation and the pertaining human-machine interaction. The use case design process is a crucial part of the system design process and a part of the human-vehicle integration subproject. This paper explains the methodology for describing use cases in AdaptIVe. They are primarily based on sequence diagrams with main and alternative flows.

  4. Acquisition of Adaptation Knowledge for Breast Cancer Treatment Decision Support

    Lieber, Jean; D'Aquin, Mathieu; Bey, Pierre; Napoli, Amedeo; Rios, Maria; Sauvagnac, Catherine

    2003-01-01

    The elaboration of a treatment in cancerology depends on the particular practice of decision protocols. These protocols are often adapted rather than used straightforwardly. This paper deals with the acquisition of the knowledge exploited during protocol adaptations. It shows that this knowledge acquisition process can be based on similarity paths, that are used for representing the matchings between decision problems (e.g., source and target problems within a case-based reasoning process).

  5. Effect of inertia parameters on static fission path

    Properties of static (minimum potential) fission path in the formalism of Hofmann are investigated. It is pointed out that the inertial parameters greatly affect the fission path and hence the penetrability. The difficulty of determining fission path is discussed

  6. Path-integral method for the source apportionment of photochemical pollutants

    Dunker, A. M.

    2015-06-01

    A new, path-integral method is presented for apportioning the concentrations of pollutants predicted by a photochemical model to emissions from different sources. A novel feature of the method is that it can apportion the difference in a species concentration between two simulations. For example, the anthropogenic ozone increment, which is the difference between a simulation with all emissions present and another simulation with only the background (e.g., biogenic) emissions included, can be allocated to the anthropogenic emission sources. The method is based on an existing, exact mathematical equation. This equation is applied to relate the concentration difference between simulations to line or path integrals of first-order sensitivity coefficients. The sensitivities describe the effects of changing the emissions and are accurately calculated by the decoupled direct method. The path represents a continuous variation of emissions between the two simulations, and each path can be viewed as a separate emission-control strategy. The method does not require auxiliary assumptions, e.g., whether ozone formation is limited by the availability of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) or nitrogen oxides (NOx), and can be used for all the species predicted by the model. A simplified configuration of the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with Extensions (CAMx) is used to evaluate the accuracy of different numerical integration procedures and the dependence of the source contributions on the path. A Gauss-Legendre formula using three or four points along the path gives good accuracy for apportioning the anthropogenic increments of ozone, nitrogen dioxide, formaldehyde, and nitric acid. Source contributions to these increments were obtained for paths representing proportional control of all anthropogenic emissions together, control of NOx emissions before VOC emissions, and control of VOC emissions before NOx emissions. There are similarities in the source contributions from the

  7. Path Models of Vocal Emotion Communication

    Bänziger, Tanja; Hosoya, Georg; Klaus R. Scherer

    2015-01-01

    We propose to use a comprehensive path model of vocal emotion communication, encompassing encoding, transmission, and decoding processes, to empirically model data sets on emotion expression and recognition. The utility of the approach is demonstrated for two data sets from two different cultures and languages, based on corpora of vocal emotion enactment by professional actors and emotion inference by naïve listeners. Lens model equations, hierarchical regression, and multivariate path analys...

  8. Feasible Path Planning for Autonomous Vehicles

    Vu Trieu Minh; John Pumwa

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to find feasible path planning algorithms for nonholonomic vehicles including flatness, polynomial, and symmetric polynomial trajectories subject to the real vehicle dynamical constraints. Performances of these path planning methods are simulated and compared to evaluate the more realistic and smoother generated trajectories. Results show that the symmetric polynomial algorithm provides the smoothest trajectory. Therefore, this algorithm is recommended for the d...

  9. Feasible Path Planning for Autonomous Vehicles

    Vu Trieu Minh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to find feasible path planning algorithms for nonholonomic vehicles including flatness, polynomial, and symmetric polynomial trajectories subject to the real vehicle dynamical constraints. Performances of these path planning methods are simulated and compared to evaluate the more realistic and smoother generated trajectories. Results show that the symmetric polynomial algorithm provides the smoothest trajectory. Therefore, this algorithm is recommended for the development of an automatic control for autonomous vehicles.

  10. Acquisition Path Analysis as a Collaborative Activity

    In the International Atomic Energy Agency, acquisition path analysis (APA) is indispensable to safeguards implementation. It is an integral part of both State evaluation process and the development of State level safeguards approaches, all performed through ongoing collaborative analysis of all available safeguards relevant information by State evaluation groups (SEG) with participation of other contributors, as required. To perform comprehensive State evaluation, to develop and revise State-level safeguards approaches, and to prepare annual implementation plans, the SEG in its collaborative analysis follows accepted safeguards methodology and guidance. In particular, the guide ''Performing Acquisition Path Analysis for the Development of a State-level Safeguards Approach for a State with a CSA'' is used. This guide identifies four major steps of the APA process: 1. Consolidating information about the State's past, present and planned nuclear fuel cycle-related capabilities and infrastructure; 2. Identifying and visually presenting technically plausible acquisition paths for the State; 3. Assessing acquisition path steps (State's technical capabilities and possible actions) along the identified acquisition paths; and 4. Assessing the time needed to accomplish each identified technically plausible acquisition path for the State. The paper reports on SEG members' and other contributors' experience with APA when following the above steps, including the identification of plausible acquisition pathways, estimation of time frames for all identified steps and determination of the time needed to accomplish each acquisition path. The difficulties that the SEG encountered during the process of performing the APA are also addressed. Feedback in the form of practical suggestions for improving the clarity of the acquisition path step assessment forms and a proposal for software support are also included. (author)

  11. Path Finding under Uncertainty through Probabilistic Inference

    Tolpin, David; Paige, Brooks; van de Meent, Jan Willem; Wood, Frank

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a new approach to solving path-finding problems under uncertainty by representing them as probabilistic models and applying domain-independent inference algorithms to the models. This approach separates problem representation from the inference algorithm and provides a framework for efficient learning of path-finding policies. We evaluate the new approach on the Canadian Traveler Problem, which we formulate as a probabilistic model, and show how probabilistic inference allows hig...

  12. Path Integrals over Velocities in Quantum Mechanics

    Gitman, D. M.; Shvartsman, Sh. M.

    1993-01-01

    Representations of propagators by means of path integrals over velocities are discussed both in nonrelativistic and relativistic quantum mechanics. It is shown that all the propagators can only be expressed through bosonic path integrals over velocities of space-time coordinates. In the representations the integration over velocities is not restricted by any boundary conditions; matrices, which have to be inverted in course of doing Gaussian integrals, do not contain any derivatives in time, ...

  13. Path Integral Control and State Dependent Feedback

    Thijssen, Sep; Kappen, H. J.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we address the problem to compute state dependent feedback controls for path integral control problems. To this end we generalize the path integral control formula and utilize this to construct parameterized state dependent feedback controllers. In addition, we show a novel relation between control and importance sampling: better control, in terms of control cost, yields more efficient importance sampling, in terms of effective sample size. The optimal control provides a zero-va...

  14. Time Parameterization of Humanoid-Robot Paths

    Suleiman, Wael; Kanehiro, Fumio; Yoshida, Eiichi; Laumond, Jean-Paul; Monin, André

    2010-01-01

    International audience This paper proposes a unified optimization framework to solve the time-parameterization problem of humanoid-robot paths. Even though the time-parameterization problem is well known in robotics, the application to humanoid robots has not been addressed. This is because of the complexity of the kinematical structure as well as the dynamical motion equation. The main contribution of this paper is to show that the time parameterization of a statically stable path to be t...

  15. Converging towards the optimal path to extinction

    Schwartz, Ira B.; Forgoston, Eric; Bianco, Simone; Shaw, Leah B.

    2011-01-01

    Extinction appears ubiquitously in many fields, including chemical reactions, population biology, evolution, and epidemiology. Even though extinction as a random process is a rare event, its occurrence is observed in large finite populations. Extinction occurs when fluctuations due to random transitions act as an effective force which drives one or more components or species to vanish. Although there are many random paths to an extinct state, there is an optimal path that maximizes the probab...

  16. Create three distinct career paths for innovators.

    O'Connor, Gina Colarelli; Corbett, Andrew; Pierantozzi, Ron

    2009-12-01

    Large companies say they Create Three Distinct want to be Career Paths for Innovators innovative, but they fundamentally mismanage their talent. Expecting innovators to grow along with their projects-from discovery to incubation to acceleration--sets them up to fail. Most people excel at one of the phases, not all three. By allowing innovation employees to develop career paths suited to their strengths, companies will create a sustainable innovation function. PMID:19968059

  17. New Firm Growth: Exploring Processes and Paths

    Garnsey, E.; Stam, Erik; Heffernan, P.; Hugo, O.

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThis paper provides a new methodology for the diachronic study of new firm growth, theoretically grounded in the work of Penrose (1995). We show that a model of firm growth as an unfolding process makes possible draw simple, measurable inferences from firm level to aggregate evidence on growth paths of new firms, expressed as propositions. Metrics on growth paths of new firms in three longitudinal samples of new firms are examined for evidence at the aggregate level consistent wit...

  18. Optimal Vehicle Path Generator Using Optimization Methods

    Ramanata, Peeroon Pete

    1998-01-01

    This research explores the idea of developing an optimal path generator that can be used in conjunction with a feedback steering controller to automate track testing experiment. This study specifically concentrates on applying optimization concepts to generate paths that meet two separate objective functions; minimum time and maximum tire forces. A three-degree-of freedom vehicle model is used to approximate the handling dynamics of the vehicle. ...

  19. Discontinuous Adoption Paths with Dynamic Scale Economies.

    Agliardi, Elettra

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to show that 'catastrophes' can arise in a simple model of the adoption of innovations with increasing returns to adoption. The equilibrium adoption path for two innovations is studied when there are network externalities and heterogeneous potential adopters. Sufficient conditions for a discontinuous equilibrium adoption path are derived. Copyright 1995 by The London School of Economics and Political Science.

  20. Realistic Human Path Planning using Fluid Simulation

    Burgess, Rene G.; Darken, Christian J.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes an approach for obtaining very realistic movement paths through a terrain set by applying the properties of a fluid simulation to produce intuitively human-like results. Similar to the concepts described in the physical world by the Principle of Least Action, realistic paths for human movement generally tend to follow "natural lines of drift". This common military term describes a method of route selection based on least effort expenditure (or highest possible speed) en...

  1. Path Simulator for Machine Tools and Robots

    Belda, Květoslav; Novotný, P.

    Szczecin: West Pomeranian University of Technology, 2012, s. 373-378. ISBN 978-1-4673-2123-5. [17th IEEE International Conference on Methods and Models in Automation and Robotics .. Miedzyzdroje (PL), 22.08.2012-30.08.2012] Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : time parameterization * motion path * path simulator Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2012/AS/belda-0380039.pdf

  2. The path to corporate responsibility.

    Zadek, Simon

    2004-12-01

    Nike's tagline,"Just do it," is an inspirational call to action for the millions who wear the company's athletic gear. But in terms of corporate responsibility, Nike didn't always follow its own advice. In the 1990s, protesters railed against sweatshop conditions at some of its overseas suppliers and made Nike the global poster child for corporate ethical fecklessness. The intense pressure that activists exerted on the athletic apparel giant forced it to take a long, hard look at corporate responsibility--sooner than it might have otherwise. In this article, Simon Zadek, CEO of the UK-based institute AccountAbility, describes the bumpy route Nike has traveled to get to a better ethical place, one that cultivates and champions responsible business practices. Organizations learn in unique ways, Zadek contends, but they inevitably pass through five stages of corporate responsibility, from defensive ("It's not our fault") to compliance ("We'll do only what we have to") to managerial ("It's the business") to strategic ("It gives us a competitive edge") and, finally, to civil ("We need to make sure everybody does it"). He details Nike's arduous trek through these stages-from the company's initial defensive stance, when accusations about working conditions arose, all the way to its engagement today in the international debate about business's role in society and in public policy. As he outlines this evolution, Zadek offers valuable insights to executives grappling with the challenge of managing responsible business practices. Beyond just getting their own houses in order, the author argues, companies need to stay abreast of the public's evolving ideas about corporate roles and responsibilities. Organizations that do both will engage in what he calls"civil learning". PMID:15605571

  3. Which fMRI clustering gives good brain parcellations?

    Bertrand eThirion

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Analysis and interpretation of neuroimaging data often require one to divide the brain into a number of regions, or parcels, with homogeneous characteristics, be these regions defined in the brain volume or on on the cortical surface. While predefined brain atlases do not adapt to the signal in the individual subjects images, parcellation approaches use brain activity (e.g. found in some functional contrasts of interest and clustering techniques to define regions with some degree of signal homogeneity. In this work, we address the question of which clustering technique is appropriate and how to optimize the corresponding model. We use two principled criteria: goodness of fit (accuracy, and reproducibility of the parcellation across bootstrap samples. We study these criteria on both simulated and two task-based functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging datasets for the Ward, spectral and K-means clustering algorithms. We show that in general Ward’s clustering performs better than alternative methods with regards to reproducibility and accuracy and that the two criteria diverge regarding the preferred models (reproducibility leading to more conservative solutions, thus deferring the practical decision to a higher level alternative, namely the choice of a trade-off between accuracy and stability.

  4. Adaptively robust filtering with classified adaptive factors

    CUI Xianqiang; YANG Yuanxi

    2006-01-01

    The key problems in applying the adaptively robust filtering to navigation are to establish an equivalent weight matrix for the measurements and a suitable adaptive factor for balancing the contributions of the measurements and the predicted state information to the state parameter estimates. In this paper, an adaptively robust filtering with classified adaptive factors was proposed, based on the principles of the adaptively robust filtering and bi-factor robust estimation for correlated observations. According to the constant velocity model of Kalman filtering, the state parameter vector was divided into two groups, namely position and velocity. The estimator of the adaptively robust filtering with classified adaptive factors was derived, and the calculation expressions of the classified adaptive factors were presented. Test results show that the adaptively robust filtering with classified adaptive factors is not only robust in controlling the measurement outliers and the kinematic state disturbing but also reasonable in balancing the contributions of the predicted position and velocity, respectively, and its filtering accuracy is superior to the adaptively robust filter with single adaptive factor based on the discrepancy of the predicted position or the predicted velocity.

  5. Adaptive Non-linear Control of Hydraulic Actuator Systems

    Hansen, Poul Erik; Conrad, Finn

    Presentation of two new developed adaptive non-liner controllers for hydraulic actuator systems to give stable operation and improved performance.Results from the IMCIA project supported by the Danish Technical Research Council (STVF).......Presentation of two new developed adaptive non-liner controllers for hydraulic actuator systems to give stable operation and improved performance.Results from the IMCIA project supported by the Danish Technical Research Council (STVF)....

  6. Adaptive Non-linear Control of Hydraulic Actuator Systems

    Hansen, Poul Erik; Conrad, Finn

    1998-01-01

    Presentation of two new developed adaptive non-liner controllers for hydraulic actuator systems to give stable operation and improved performance.Results from the IMCIA project supported by the Danish Technical Research Council (STVF).......Presentation of two new developed adaptive non-liner controllers for hydraulic actuator systems to give stable operation and improved performance.Results from the IMCIA project supported by the Danish Technical Research Council (STVF)....

  7. Linkage disequilibrium network analysis (LDna) gives a global view of chromosomal inversions, local adaptation and geographic structure

    Kemppainen, Petri; Knight, C. G.; Sarma, D. K.; Hlaing, T.; Prakash, A.; Maung, Y. N. M.; Somboon, P.; Mahanta, J.; Walton, C.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 5 (2015), s. 1031-1045. ISSN 1755-098X R&D Projects: GA MŠk EE2.3.20.0303 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Anopheles dirus * Anopheles gambiae * chromosomal rearrangement * graph theory * landscape genomics * R package Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.712, year: 2014

  8. High-resolution path-integral development of financial options

    Ingber, L

    2000-01-01

    The Black-Scholes theory of option pricing has been considered for many years as an important but very approximate zeroth-order description of actual market behavior. We generalize the functional form of the diffusion of these systems and also consider multi-factor models including stochastic volatility. Daily Eurodollar futures prices and implied volatilities are fit to determine exponents of functional behavior of diffusions using methods of global optimization, Adaptive Simulated Annealing (ASA), to generate tight fits across moving time windows of Eurodollar contracts. These short-time fitted distributions are then developed into long-time distributions using a robust non-Monte Carlo path-integral algorithm, PATHINT, to generate prices and derivatives commonly used by option traders.

  9. Path optimization with limited sensing ability

    Kang, Sung Ha; Kim, Seong Jun; Zhou, Haomin

    2015-10-01

    We propose a computational strategy to find the optimal path for a mobile sensor with limited coverage to traverse a cluttered region. The goal is to find one of the shortest feasible paths to achieve the complete scan of the environment. We pose the problem in the level set framework, and first consider a related question of placing multiple stationary sensors to obtain the full surveillance of the environment. By connecting the stationary locations using the nearest neighbor strategy, we form the initial guess for the path planning problem of the mobile sensor. Then the path is optimized by reducing its length, via solving a system of ordinary differential equations (ODEs), while maintaining the complete scan of the environment. Furthermore, we use intermittent diffusion, which converts the ODEs into stochastic differential equations (SDEs), to find an optimal path whose length is globally minimal. To improve the computation efficiency, we introduce two techniques, one to remove redundant connecting points to reduce the dimension of the system, and the other to deal with the entangled path so the solution can escape the local traps. Numerical examples are shown to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  10. Dynamic Shortest Path Monitoring in Spatial Networks

    Shuo Shang; Lisi Chen; Zhe-Wei Wei; Dan-Huai Guo; Ji-Rong Wen

    2016-01-01

    With the increasing availability of real-time traffic information, dynamic spatial networks are pervasive nowa-days and path planning in dynamic spatial networks becomes an important issue. In this light, we propose and investigate a novel problem of dynamically monitoring shortest paths in spatial networks (DSPM query). When a traveler aims to a des-tination, his/her shortest path to the destination may change due to two reasons: 1) the travel costs of some edges have been updated and 2) the traveler deviates from the pre-planned path. Our target is to accelerate the shortest path computing in dynamic spatial networks, and we believe that this study may be useful in many mobile applications, such as route planning and recommendation, car navigation and tracking, and location-based services in general. This problem is challenging due to two reasons: 1) how to maintain and reuse the existing computation results to accelerate the following computations, and 2) how to prune the search space effectively. To overcome these challenges, filter-and-refinement paradigm is adopted. We maintain an expansion tree and define a pair of upper and lower bounds to prune the search space. A series of optimization techniques are developed to accelerate the shortest path computing. The performance of the developed methods is studied in extensive experiments based on real spatial data.

  11. Quantum cosmology based on discrete Feynman paths

    Although the rules for interpreting local quantum theory imply discretization of process, Lorentz covariance is usually regarded as precluding time quantization. Nevertheless a time-discretized quantum representation of redshifting spatially-homogeneous universe may be based on discrete-step Feynman paths carrying causal Lorentz-invariant action--paths that not only propagate the wave function but provide a phenomenologically-promising elementary-particle Hilbert-space basis. In a model under development, local path steps are at Planck scale while, at a much larger ''wave-function scale'', global steps separate successive wave-functions. Wave-function spacetime is but a tiny fraction of path spacetime. Electromagnetic and gravitational actions are ''at a distance'' in Wheeler-Feynman sense while strong (color) and weak (isospin) actions, as well as action of particle motion, are ''local'' in a sense paralleling the action of local field theory. ''Nonmaterial'' path segments and ''trivial events'' collaborate to define energy and gravity. Photons coupled to conserved electric charge enjoy privileged model status among elementary fermions and vector bosons. Although real path parameters provide no immediate meaning for ''measurement'', the phase of the complex wave function allows significance for ''information'' accumulated through ''gentle'' electromagnetic events involving charged matter and ''soft'' photons. Through its soft-photon content the wave function is an ''information reservoir''

  12. Path optimization with limited sensing ability

    We propose a computational strategy to find the optimal path for a mobile sensor with limited coverage to traverse a cluttered region. The goal is to find one of the shortest feasible paths to achieve the complete scan of the environment. We pose the problem in the level set framework, and first consider a related question of placing multiple stationary sensors to obtain the full surveillance of the environment. By connecting the stationary locations using the nearest neighbor strategy, we form the initial guess for the path planning problem of the mobile sensor. Then the path is optimized by reducing its length, via solving a system of ordinary differential equations (ODEs), while maintaining the complete scan of the environment. Furthermore, we use intermittent diffusion, which converts the ODEs into stochastic differential equations (SDEs), to find an optimal path whose length is globally minimal. To improve the computation efficiency, we introduce two techniques, one to remove redundant connecting points to reduce the dimension of the system, and the other to deal with the entangled path so the solution can escape the local traps. Numerical examples are shown to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method

  13. Can Maxwell's fish eye lens really give perfect imaging?

    Sun, Fei

    2010-01-01

    Both explicit analysis and FEM numerical simulation are used to analyze the field distribution of a line current in the so-called Maxwell's fish eye lens [bounded with a perfectly electrical conductor (PEC) boundary]. We show that such a 2D Maxwell's fish eye lens cannot give perfect imaging due to the fact that high order modes of the object field can hardly reach the image point in Maxwell's fish eye lens. If only zeroth order mode is excited, a good image of a sharp object may be achieved in some cases, however, its spot-size is larger than the spot size of the initial object field. The image resolution is determined by the field spot size of the image corresponding to the zeroth order component of the object field. Our explicit analysis consists very well with the FEM results for a fish eye lens. Time-domain simulation is also given to verify our conclusion. Multi-point images for a single object point are also demonstrated.

  14. Does friendship give us non-derivative partial reasons ?

    Andrew Reisner

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available One way to approach the question of whether there are non-derivative partial reasons of any kind is to give an account of what partial reasons are, and then to consider whether there are such reasons. If there are, then it is at least possible that there are partial reasons of friendship. It is this approach that will be taken here, and it produces several interesting results. The first is a point about the structure of partial reasons. It is at least a necessary condition of a reason’s being partial that it has an explicit relational component. This component, technically, is a relatum in the reason relation that itself is a relation between the person to whom the reason applies and the person whom the action for which there is a reason concerns. The second conclusion of the paper is that this relational component is also required for a number of types of putatively impartial reasons. In order to avoid trivialising the distinction between partial and impartial reasons, some further sufficient condition must be applied. Finally, there is some prospect for a way of distinguishing between impartial reasons that contain a relational component and partial reasons, but that this approach suggests that the question of whether ethics is partial or impartial will be settled at the level of normative ethical discourse, or at least not at the level of discourse about the nature of reasons for action.

  15. Small wins matter in advocacy movements: giving voice to patients.

    Jason, Leonard A

    2012-06-01

    In this article, the various players are delineated in a story of a contested illness and patient advocacy, played out within the corridors of federal power. It is suggested that the mistreatment and negative attitudes that health care providers and others have towards those with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is possibly due to the social construction of this illness as being a "Yuppie flu" disease. Institutional factors are identified that created these norms and attributions, as well as the multiple stakeholders and constituent groups invested in exerting pressure on policy makers to effect systemic change. This article also provides examples of how the field of Community Psychology, which is fundamentally committed to/based on listening to and giving voice to patients, is broadly relevant to patient activism communities. This approach focused, over time, on epidemiological studies, the name, the case definition, and ultimately the change in CFS leadership at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Keys to this "small wins" approach were coalition building, use of "oppositional experts" (professionals in the scientific community who support patient advocacy goals) to challenge federal research, and taking advantage of developing events/shifts in power. Ultimately, this approach can result in significant scientific and policy gains, and changes in medical and public perception of an illness. PMID:21858612

  16. Service Priority based Reliable Routing Path Select Method in Smart Grid Communication Network

    Kaixuan Wang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The new challenges and schemes for the Smart Grid require high reliable transmission technologiesto support various types of electrical services and applications. This paper concentrates the degree of importance of services and tries to allocate more important service to more reliable network routing path to deliver the key instructions in the Smart Grid communication networks. Pareto probability distribution is used to weight the reliability of IP-based router path. In order to definition the relationship of service and reliability of router path, we devise a mapping and optimal function is presented to access. An optimal method is used for adapting to find the appropriate value to match the objective function. Finally, we validate the proposed algorithms by experiments. The simulation results show that the proposed algorithm outperforms the random routing algorithms.

  17. Application of Artificial Intelligence Methods of Tool Path Optimization in CNC Machines: A Review

    Khashayar Danesh Narooei

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Today, in most of metal machining process, Computer Numerical Control (CNC machine tools have been very popular due to their efficiencies and repeatability to achieve high accuracy positioning. One of the factors that govern the productivity is the tool path travel during cutting a work piece. It has been proved that determination of optimal cutting parameters can enhance the machining results to reach high efficiency and minimum the machining cost. In various publication and articles, scientist and researchers adapted several Artificial Intelligence (AI methods or hybrid method for tool path optimization such as Genetic Algorithms (GA, Artificial Neural Network (ANN, Artificial Immune Systems (AIS, Ant Colony Optimization (ACO and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO. This study presents a review of researches in tool path optimization with different types of AI methods that show the capability of using different types of optimization methods in CNC machining process.

  18. Robot Global Path Planning Based on Improved Artificial Fish-Swarm Algorithm

    Jiansheng Peng

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In This study, a new artificial fish-swarm optimization, to improve the foraging behavior of artificial fish swarm algorithm is closer to reality in order to let the fish foraging behavior, increase a look at the link (search ambient, after examining environment, artificial fish can get more status information of the surrounding environment. Artificial fish screened from the information obtained optimal state for the best direction of movement. Will improve the foraging behavior of artificial fish-swarm algorithm applied to robot global path planning, including the robot to bypass the analog obstacles selected three ways: go obstructions outside, go inside the obstacles, both away obstructions and went outside obstacles Thing achieve robot shortest path planning. Via the MATLAB software emulation test: the improved foraging behavior of artificial fish-swarm algorithm to improve the rapid convergence of the algorithm and stability, improve fish swarm algorithm to the adaptability of the robot global path planning.

  19. Construction of Time-Stamped Mobility Map for Path Tracking via Smith-Waterman Measurement Matching

    Mu Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Path tracking in wireless and mobile environments is a fundamental technology for ubiquitous location-based services (LBSs. In particular, it is very challenging to develop highly accurate and cost-efficient tracking systems applied to the anonymous areas where the floor plans are not available for security and privacy reasons. This paper proposes a novel path tracking approach for large Wi-Fi areas based on the time-stamped unlabeled mobility map which is constructed from Smith-Waterman received signal strength (RSS measurement matching. Instead of conventional location fingerprinting, we construct mobility map with the technique of dimension reduction from the raw measurement space into a low-dimensional embedded manifold. The feasibility of our proposed approach is verified by the real-world experiments in the HKUST campus Wi-Fi networks, sMobileNet. The experimental results prove that our approach is adaptive and capable of achieving an adequate precision level in path tracking.

  20. Drosophila learn efficient paths to a food source.

    Navawongse, Rapeechai; Choudhury, Deepak; Raczkowska, Marlena; Stewart, James Charles; Lim, Terrence; Rahman, Mashiur; Toh, Alicia Guek Geok; Wang, Zhiping; Claridge-Chang, Adam

    2016-05-01

    Elucidating the genetic, and neuronal bases for learned behavior is a central problem in neuroscience. A leading system for neurogenetic discovery is the vinegar fly Drosophila melanogaster; fly memory research has identified genes and circuits that mediate aversive and appetitive learning. However, methods to study adaptive food-seeking behavior in this animal have lagged decades behind rodent feeding analysis, largely due to the challenges presented by their small scale. There is currently no method to dynamically control flies' access to food. In rodents, protocols that use dynamic food delivery are a central element of experimental paradigms that date back to the influential work of Skinner. This method is still commonly used in the analysis of learning, memory, addiction, feeding, and many other subjects in experimental psychology. The difficulty of microscale food delivery means this is not a technique used in fly behavior. In the present manuscript we describe a microfluidic chip integrated with machine vision and automation to dynamically control defined liquid food presentations and sensory stimuli. Strikingly, repeated presentations of food at a fixed location produced improvements in path efficiency during food approach. This shows that improved path choice is a learned behavior. Active control of food availability using this microfluidic system is a valuable addition to the methods currently available for the analysis of learned feeding behavior in flies. PMID:27063671