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Sample records for adaptive navigational behavior

  1. Basal ganglia contributions to adaptive navigation.

    Mizumori, Sheri J Y; Puryear, Corey B; Martig, Adria K

    2009-04-12

    The striatum has long been considered to be selectively important for nondeclarative, procedural types of memory. This stands in contrast with spatial context processing that is typically attributed to hippocampus. Neurophysiological evidence from studies of the neural mechanisms of adaptive navigation reveals that distinct neural systems such as the striatum and hippocampus continuously process task relevant information regardless of the current cognitive strategy. For example, both striatal and hippocampal neural representations reflect spatial location, directional heading, reward, and egocentric movement features of a test situation in an experience-dependent way, and independent of task demands. Thus, continual parallel processing across memory systems may be the norm rather than the exception. It is suggested that neuromodulators, such as dopamine, may serve to differentially regulate learning-induced neural plasticity mechanisms within these memory systems such that the most successful form of neural processing exerts the strongest control over response selection functions. In this way, dopamine may serve to optimize behavioral choices in the face of changing environmental demands during navigation. PMID:19056429

  2. Adaptive Human aware Navigation based on Motion Pattern Analysis

    Tranberg, Søren; Svenstrup, Mikael; Andersen, Hans Jørgen;

    2009-01-01

    are based on run-time motion pattern analysis compared to stored experience in a database. Using a potential field centered around the person, the robot positions itself at the most appropriate place relative to the person and the interaction status. The system is validated through qualitative tests...... in a real world setting. The results demonstrate that the system is able to learn to navigate based on past interaction experiences, and to adapt to different behaviors over time....

  3. Behavioral Adaptation and Acceptance

    Martens, M.H.; Jenssen, G.D.

    2012-01-01

    One purpose of Intelligent Vehicles is to improve road safety, throughput, and emissions. However, the predicted effects are not always as large as aimed for. Part of this is due to indirect behavioral changes of drivers, also called behavioral adaptation. Behavioral adaptation (BA) refers to uninte

  4. Fuzzy Behavior Modulation with Threshold Activation for Autonomous Vehicle Navigation

    Tunstel, Edward

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes fuzzy logic techniques used in a hierarchical behavior-based architecture for robot navigation. An architectural feature for threshold activation of fuzzy-behaviors is emphasized, which is potentially useful for tuning navigation performance in real world applications. The target application is autonomous local navigation of a small planetary rover. Threshold activation of low-level navigation behaviors is the primary focus. A preliminary assessment of its impact on local navigation performance is provided based on computer simulations.

  5. Adaptive Consumption Behavior

    Peter Howitt; Ömer Özak

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes and studies a theory of adaptive consumption behavior under income uncertainty and liquidity constraints. We assume that consumption is governed by a linear function of wealth, whose coefficients are revised each period by a procedure, which, although sophisticated, places few informational or computational demands on the consumer. We show that under a variety of settings, our procedure converges quickly to a set of coefficients with low welfare cost relative to a fully op...

  6. Cognitive adaptations for gathering-related navigation in humans

    Krasnow, Max M.; Truxaw, Danielle; Gaulin, Steven J.C.; New, Joshua; Ozono, Hiroki; Uono, Shota; Ueno, Taiji; Minemoto, Kazusa

    2013-01-01

    Current research increasingly suggests that spatial cognition in humans is accomplished by many specialized mechanisms, each designed to solve a particular adaptive problem. A major adaptive problem for our hominin ancestors, particularly females, was the need to efficiently gather immobile foods which could vary greatly in quality, quantity, spatial location and temporal availability. We propose a cognitive model of a navigational gathering adaptation in humans and test its predictions in samples from the US and Japan. Our results are uniformly supportive: the human mind appears equipped with a navigational gathering adaptation that encodes the location of gatherable foods into spatial memory. This mechanism appears to be chronically active in women and activated under explicit motivation in men. PMID:23833551

  7. Behavioural adaptation to in-vehicle navigation systems

    Forbes, Nicholas Lloyd

    2009-01-01

    This PhD investigates driver behavioural adaptation to in-vehicle navigation systems (IVNS). Behavioural adaptation is receiving an increasing amount of research attention in traffic psychology, but few studies have directly considered the concept in relation to IVNS. The thesis aims were addressed using a range of quantitative and qualitative methodologies. Using two online surveys, over 1300 drivers (including over 1000 IVNS users) were sampled, to identify a range of positive, neutral ...

  8. Distributed System for Automatic Improvement of Adaptive Website Navigation

    Željko Eremić

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Communication with clients is now largely conducted through websites, whether it comes to business, scientific, or educational activities. Considering that a dynamic website contains a growing amount of information, the issue of efficient navigation through websites allowing quick access to desired content is imperative. Adaptive websites can customize their navigation based on knowledge gained from previous user behaviour. Discovering such knowledge is a process that engages significant resources, and it is convenient to have it organized by the use of one or more servers. This paper describes the architecture of distributed systems for improving navigation through a greater number of adaptive websites. High flexibility, efficiency and reliability of the performance, as well as saving user's time and effort, can be obtained as a result of this system's usage.

  9. Adaptive Landmark-Based Navigation System Using Learning Techniques

    Zeidan, Bassel; Dasgupta, Sakyasingha; Wörgötter, Florentin;

    2014-01-01

    . Inspired by this, we develop an adaptive landmark-based navigation system based on sequential reinforcement learning. In addition, correlation-based learning is also integrated into the system to improve learning performance. The proposed system has been applied to simulated simple wheeled and more complex...

  10. Adaptive Rationality, Adaptive Behavior and Institutions

    Volchik Vyacheslav, V.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The economic literature focused on understanding decision-making and choice processes reveals a vast collection of approaches to human rationality. Theorists’ attention has moved from absolutely rational, utility-maximizing individuals to boundedly rational and adaptive ones. A number of economists have criticized the concepts of adaptive rationality and adaptive behavior. One of the recent trends in the economic literature is to consider humans irrational. This paper offers an approach which examines adaptive behavior in the context of existing institutions and constantly changing institutional environment. It is assumed that adaptive behavior is a process of evolutionary adjustment to fundamental uncertainty. We emphasize the importance of actors’ engagement in trial and error learning, since if they are involved in this process, they obtain experience and are able to adapt to existing and new institutions. The paper aims at identifying relevant institutions, adaptive mechanisms, informal working rules and practices that influence actors’ behavior in the field of Higher Education in Russia (Rostov Region education services market has been taken as an example. The paper emphasizes the application of qualitative interpretative methods (interviews and discourse analysis in examining actors’ behavior.

  11. Autonomous Navigation System Using a Fuzzy Adaptive Nonlinear H∞ Filter

    Fariz Outamazirt

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Although nonlinear H∞ (NH∞ filters offer good performance without requiring assumptions concerning the characteristics of process and/or measurement noises, they still require additional tuning parameters that remain fixed and that need to be determined through trial and error. To address issues associated with NH∞ filters, a new SINS/GPS sensor fusion scheme known as the Fuzzy Adaptive Nonlinear H∞ (FANH∞ filter is proposed for the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV localization problem. Based on a real-time Fuzzy Inference System (FIS, the FANH∞ filter continually adjusts the higher order of the Taylor development thorough adaptive bounds  and adaptive disturbance attenuation , which significantly increases the UAV localization performance. The results obtained using the FANH∞ navigation filter are compared to the NH∞ navigation filter results and are validated using a 3D UAV flight scenario. The comparison proves the efficiency and robustness of the UAV localization process using the FANH∞ filter.

  12. Interactive navigation of heterogeneous agents using adaptive roadmaps.

    Gayle, Russell; Sud, Avneesh; Andersen, Erik; Guy, Stephen J; Lin, Ming C; Manocha, Dinesh

    2009-01-01

    We present a novel algorithm for collision-free navigation of a large number of independent agents in complex and dynamic environments. We introduce adaptive roadmaps to perform global path planning for each agent simultaneously. Our algorithm takes into account dynamic obstacles and interagents interaction forces to continuously update the roadmap based on a physically-based dynamics simulator. In order to efficiently update the links, we perform adaptive particle-based sampling along the links. We also introduce the notion of 'link bands' to resolve collisions among multiple agents. In practice, our algorithm can perform real-time navigation of hundreds and thousands of human agents in indoor and outdoor scenes. PMID:19008554

  13. Comprehensive Evaluation Cloud Model for Ship Navigation Adaptability

    Man Zhu; Y.Q. Wen; Zhou, C. H.; C.S. Xiao

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, using cloud model and Delphi, we build a comprehensive evaluation cloud model to solve the problems of qualitative description and quantitative transformation in ship navigation adaptability comprehensive evaluation. In the model, the normal cloud generator is used to find optimal cloud models of reviews and evaluation factors. The weight of each evaluation factor is determined by cloud model and Delphi. The floating cloud algorithm is applied to aggregate the bottom level’s ev...

  14. Adaptive navigation and motion planning for autonomous mobile robots

    Aboshosha, Ashraf

    2004-01-01

    Exploring autonomy in robotics is a meaningful task. The intuitive definition of autonomy is the capability of a robot to make a decision based on its own knowledge, acquired by its distributed sensors, without any human interference. Throughout this framework we discuss some algorithms and techniques underlying the subjects of adaptive navigation and motion planning for autonomous mobile robots. Mobile Robots will play an important role in many future applications, such as ...

  15. Navigation Behaviors Based on Fuzzy ArtMap Neural Networks for Intelligent Autonomous Vehicles

    Amine Chohra; Ouahiba Azouaoui

    2011-01-01

    The use of hybrid intelligent systems (HISs) is necessary to bring the behavior of intelligent autonomous vehicles (IAVs) near the human one in recognition, learning, adaptation, generalization, decision making, and action. First, the necessity of HIS and some navigation approaches based on fuzzy ArtMap neural networks (FAMNNs) are discussed. Indeed, such approaches can provide IAV with more autonomy, intelligence, and real-time processing capabilities. Second, an FAMNN-based navigation appro...

  16. Fuzzy Adaptive Cubature Kalman Filter for Integrated Navigation Systems

    Chien-Hao Tseng

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a sensor fusion method based on the combination of cubature Kalman filter (CKF and fuzzy logic adaptive system (FLAS for the integrated navigation systems, such as the GPS/INS (Global Positioning System/inertial navigation system integration. The third-degree spherical-radial cubature rule applied in the CKF has been employed to avoid the numerically instability in the system model. In processing navigation integration, the performance of nonlinear filter based estimation of the position and velocity states may severely degrade caused by modeling errors due to dynamics uncertainties of the vehicle. In order to resolve the shortcoming for selecting the process noise covariance through personal experience or numerical simulation, a scheme called the fuzzy adaptive cubature Kalman filter (FACKF is presented by introducing the FLAS to adjust the weighting factor of the process noise covariance matrix. The FLAS is incorporated into the CKF framework as a mechanism for timely implementing the tuning of process noise covariance matrix based on the information of degree of divergence (DOD parameter. The proposed FACKF algorithm shows promising accuracy improvement as compared to the extended Kalman filter (EKF, unscented Kalman filter (UKF, and CKF approaches.

  17. Fuzzy Adaptive Cubature Kalman Filter for Integrated Navigation Systems.

    Tseng, Chien-Hao; Lin, Sheng-Fuu; Jwo, Dah-Jing

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a sensor fusion method based on the combination of cubature Kalman filter (CKF) and fuzzy logic adaptive system (FLAS) for the integrated navigation systems, such as the GPS/INS (Global Positioning System/inertial navigation system) integration. The third-degree spherical-radial cubature rule applied in the CKF has been employed to avoid the numerically instability in the system model. In processing navigation integration, the performance of nonlinear filter based estimation of the position and velocity states may severely degrade caused by modeling errors due to dynamics uncertainties of the vehicle. In order to resolve the shortcoming for selecting the process noise covariance through personal experience or numerical simulation, a scheme called the fuzzy adaptive cubature Kalman filter (FACKF) is presented by introducing the FLAS to adjust the weighting factor of the process noise covariance matrix. The FLAS is incorporated into the CKF framework as a mechanism for timely implementing the tuning of process noise covariance matrix based on the information of degree of divergence (DOD) parameter. The proposed FACKF algorithm shows promising accuracy improvement as compared to the extended Kalman filter (EKF), unscented Kalman filter (UKF), and CKF approaches. PMID:27472336

  18. Consciousness And Adaptive Behavior

    Sieb, Richard/A.

    2005-01-01

    Consciousness has resisted scientific explanation for centuries. The main problem in explaining consciousness is its subjectivity. Subjective systems may be adaptive. Humans can produce voluntary new or novel intentional (adaptive) action and such action is always accompanied by consciousness. Action normally arises from perception. Perception must be rerepresented in order to produce new or novel adaptive action. The internal explicit states produced by a widespread nonlinear emergen...

  19. Adaptive information interactive mechanism for multi-UAV visual navigation

    Liu, Hui; Dai, Qionghai

    2012-06-01

    Multi-unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) cooperative communication for visual navigation has recently generated significant concern. It has large amounts of visual information to be transmitted and processed among UAVs with realtime requirements. And the UAV clusters have self-organized, time-varying and high dynamic characteristics. Considering the above conditions, we propose an adaptive information interactive mechanism (AIIM) for multi-UAV visual navigation. In the mechanism, the function modules for UAV inter-communication interface are designed, the mobility-based link lifetime is established and the information interactive protocol is presented. Thus we combine the mobility of UAVs with the corresponding communication requirements to make effective information interaction for UAVs. Task-oriented distributed control is adopted to improve the collaboration flexibility in the multi-UAV visual navigation system. In order to timely obtain the necessary visual information, each UAV can cooperate with other relevant UAVs which meet some certain terms such as situation, task or environmental conditions. Simulation results are presented to show the validity of the proposed mechanism in terms of end-to-end delay and links stability.

  20. Exploring Adaptive Program Behavior

    Bonnichsen, Lars Frydendal; Probst, Christian W.

    . Both solutions come at a cost; adaptivity issues a runtime overhead and requires more design effort, while dynamic recompilation takes time to perform. In this project, we plan to investigate the possibilities, limitations, and benefits of these techniques. This abstract covers our thoughts on how...

  1. The Application of Adaptive Federated Filter in GPS-INS-Odometer Integrated Navigation

    LI Zengke; WANG, Jian; GAO Jingxiang; YAO Yifei

    2016-01-01

    In multi-sensor integrated navigation, extensive observation information, low computational efficiency and weak robust ability will lead to poor navigation performance. An adaptive federated filter is proposed and applied in GPS-INS-Odometer integrated navigation. First the dynamical model and observation model of GPS-INS-Odometer integrated navigation are introduced. Information allocation factor and adaptive factor are compared to find out their common characteristic. The equivalence proper...

  2. An adaptive technique for a redundant-sensor navigation system.

    Chien, T.-T.

    1972-01-01

    An on-line adaptive technique is developed to provide a self-contained redundant-sensor navigation system with a capability to utilize its full potentiality in reliability and performance. This adaptive system is structured as a multistage stochastic process of detection, identification, and compensation. It is shown that the detection system can be effectively constructed on the basis of a design value, specified by mission requirements, of the unknown parameter in the actual system, and of a degradation mode in the form of a constant bias jump. A suboptimal detection system on the basis of Wald's sequential analysis is developed using the concept of information value and information feedback. The developed system is easily implemented, and demonstrates a performance remarkably close to that of the optimal nonlinear detection system. An invariant transformation is derived to eliminate the effect of nuisance parameters such that the ambiguous identification system can be reduced to a set of disjoint simple hypotheses tests. By application of a technique of decoupled bias estimation in the compensation system the adaptive system can be operated without any complicated reorganization.

  3. An Adaptive Unscented Kalman Filtering Algorithm for MEMS/GPS Integrated Navigation Systems

    Jianhua Cheng; Daidai Chen; Rene Jr. Landry; Lin Zhao; Dongxue Guan

    2014-01-01

    MEMS/GPS integrated navigation system has been widely used for land-vehicle navigation. This system exhibits large errors because of its nonlinear model and uncertain noise statistic characteristics. Based on the principles of the adaptive Kalman filtering (AKF) and unscented Kalman filtering (AUKF) algorithms, an adaptive unscented Kalman filtering (AUKF) algorithm is proposed. By using noise statistic estimator, the uncertain noise characteristics could be online estimated to adaptively com...

  4. Design and development of adapters for electromagnetic trackers to perform navigated laparoscopic radiofrequency ablation

    Schweikard Achim

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Laparoscopic radiofrequency ablation (RFA is an accepted approach to treat unresectable liver tumours distinguishing itself from other techniques by combining minimal invasiveness and the advantages of a surgical approach. The major task of laparoscopic RFA is the accurate needle placement to achieve complete tumour ablation. The use of an ultrasound-based, laparoscopic online-navigation system could increase the safety and accuracy of punctures. To connect such a system with the laparoscopic ultrasound (LUS transducer or the RFA needle especially designed adapters are needed. In this article we present our first experiences and prototypes for different sterilizable adapters for an electromagnetic navigation system for laparoscopic RFA. Methods All adapters were constructed with the help of a standard 3D CAD software. The adapters were built from medical stainless steel alloys and polyetherketone (PEEK. Prototypes were built in aluminium and polyoxymethilen (POM. We have designed and developed several adapters for the connection of electromagnetical tracking systems with different RFA needles and a laparoscopic ultrasound transducers. Results Based on earlier experiences of the initial version of the adapter, sterilisable adapters have been developed using biocompatible materials only. After short introduction, the adapters could be mounted to the laparoscopic ultrasound probe and the RFA needle under sterile conditions without any difficulties. Laboratory tests showed no disturbance of laparoscopic navigation system by the adapters. Anatomic landmarks in the liver could be safely reached. The adapters showed good feasibility, ergonomics, sterilizability and stability. Conclusion The development of usable adapters is the prerequisite for accurate tracking of a RFA needle for laparoscopic navigation purposes as well as 3D navigated ultrasound data acquisition. We designed, tested and used different adapters for the use of a

  5. Making a stronger case for comparative research to investigate the behavioral and neurological bases of three-dimensional navigation.

    Nardi, Daniele; Bingman, Verner P

    2013-10-01

    The rich diversity of avian natural history provides exciting possibilities for comparative research aimed at understanding three-dimensional navigation. We propose some hypotheses relating differences in natural history to potential behavioral and neurological adaptations possessed by contrasting bird species. This comparative approach may offer unique insights into some of the important questions raised by Jeffery et al. PMID:24103612

  6. Online evolution for a self-adapting robotic navigation system using evolvable hardware.

    Keymeulen, D; Iwata, M; Kuniyoshi, Y; Higuchi, T

    1998-01-01

    Great interest has been shown in the application of the principles of artificial life to physically embedded systems such as mobile robots, computer networks, home devices able continuously and autonomously to adapt their behavior to changes of the environments. At the same time researchers have been working on the development of evolvable hardware, and new integrated circuits that are able to adapt their hardware autonomously and in real time in a changing environment. This article describes the navigation task for a real mobile robot and its implementation on evolvable hardware. The robot must track a colored ball, while avoiding obstacles in an environment that is unknown and dynamic. Although a model-free evolution method is not feasible for real-world applications due to the sheer number of possible interactions with the environment, we show that a model-based evolution can reduce these interactions by two orders of magnitude, even when some of the robot's sensors are blinded, thus allowing us to apply evolutionary processes online to obtain a self-adaptive tracking system in the real world, when the implementation is accelerated by the utilization of evolvable hardware. PMID:10352238

  7. An Adaptive Unscented Kalman Filtering Algorithm for MEMS/GPS Integrated Navigation Systems

    Jianhua Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available MEMS/GPS integrated navigation system has been widely used for land-vehicle navigation. This system exhibits large errors because of its nonlinear model and uncertain noise statistic characteristics. Based on the principles of the adaptive Kalman filtering (AKF and unscented Kalman filtering (AUKF algorithms, an adaptive unscented Kalman filtering (AUKF algorithm is proposed. By using noise statistic estimator, the uncertain noise characteristics could be online estimated to adaptively compensate the time-varying noise characteristics. Employing the adaptive filtering principle into UKF, the nonlinearity of system can be restrained. Simulations are conducted for MEMS/GPS integrated navigation system. The results show that the performance of estimation is improved by the AUKF approach compared with both conventional AKF and UKF.

  8. Free-Breathing Cardiac MR with a Fixed Navigator Efficiency Using Adaptive Gating Window Size

    Moghari, Mehdi H; Chan, Raymond H.; Hong-Zohlman, Susie N.; Shaw, Jaime L.; Goepfert, Lois A; Kissinger, Kraig V.; Goddu, Beth; Josephson, Mark E; Manning, Warren J; Nezafat, Reza

    2012-01-01

    A respiratory navigator with a fixed acceptance gating window is commonly used to reduce respiratory motion artifacts in cardiac MR. This approach prolongs the scan time and occasionally yields an incomplete dataset due to respiratory drifts. To address this issue, we propose an adaptive gating window approach in which the size and position of the gating window are changed adaptively during the acquisition based on the individual’s breathing pattern. The adaptive gating window tracks the brea...

  9. Navigation Behaviors Based on Fuzzy ArtMap Neural Networks for Intelligent Autonomous Vehicles

    Amine Chohra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of hybrid intelligent systems (HISs is necessary to bring the behavior of intelligent autonomous vehicles (IAVs near the human one in recognition, learning, adaptation, generalization, decision making, and action. First, the necessity of HIS and some navigation approaches based on fuzzy ArtMap neural networks (FAMNNs are discussed. Indeed, such approaches can provide IAV with more autonomy, intelligence, and real-time processing capabilities. Second, an FAMNN-based navigation approach is suggested. Indeed, this approach must provide vehicles with capability, after supervised fast stable learning: simplified fuzzy ArtMap (SFAM, to recognize both target-location and obstacle-avoidance situations using FAMNN1 and FAMNN2, respectively. Afterwards, the decision making and action consist of two association stages, carried out by reinforcement trial and error learning, and their coordination using NN3. Then, NN3 allows to decide among the five (05 actions to move towards 30∘, 60∘, 90∘, 120∘, and 150∘. Third, simulation results display the ability of the FAMNN-based approach to provide IAV with intelligent behaviors allowing to intelligently navigate in partially structured environments. Finally, a discussion, dealing with the suggested approach and how its robustness would be if implemented on real vehicle, is given.

  10. An Adaptive Technique for a Redundant-Sensor Navigation System. Ph.D. Thesis

    Chien, T. T.

    1972-01-01

    An on-line adaptive technique is developed to provide a self-contained redundant-sensor navigation system with a capability to utilize its full potentiality in reliability and performance. The gyro navigation system is modeled as a Gauss-Markov process, with degradation modes defined as changes in characteristics specified by parameters associated with the model. The adaptive system is formulated as a multistage stochastic process: (1) a detection system, (2) an identification system and (3) a compensation system. It is shown that the sufficient statistics for the partially observable process in the detection and identification system is the posterior measure of the state of degradation, conditioned on the measurement history.

  11. SENSOR-BASED MOTION CONTROLUSING ADAPTIVE NAVIGATION RULES IN THE DYNAMIC ENVIRONMENT FOR MOBILE ROBOT

    2003-01-01

    In the multi-robots system , it's important for a robot to acquire adaptive navigation rules for reaching the goal and avoiding other robots and obstacles and in the real-time environment.An efficient approach to collision-avoidance in multi-robots system is suggested .It is based on velocity information of moving objects and the distances between the robots and the obstacles in three specified directions and makes the robot navigate adaptively without collision with each other in a complicated situation.The effectiveness of algorithm is proved by the several simple examples in the physical world.

  12. An adaptable navigation strategy for Virtual Microscopy from mobile platforms.

    Corredor, Germán; Romero, Eduardo; Iregui, Marcela

    2015-04-01

    Real integration of Virtual Microscopy with the pathologist service workflow requires the design of adaptable strategies for any hospital service to interact with a set of Whole Slide Images. Nowadays, mobile devices have the actual potential of supporting an online pervasive network of specialists working together. However, such devices are still very limited. This article introduces a novel highly adaptable strategy for streaming and visualizing WSI from mobile devices. The presented approach effectively exploits and extends the granularity of the JPEG2000 standard and integrates it with different strategies to achieve a lossless, loosely-coupled, decoder and platform independent implementation, adaptable to any interaction model. The performance was evaluated by two expert pathologists interacting with a set of 20 virtual slides. The method efficiently uses the available device resources: the memory usage did not exceed a 7% of the device capacity while the decoding times were smaller than the 200 ms per Region of Interest, i.e., a window of 256×256 pixels. This model is easily adaptable to other medical imaging scenarios. PMID:25684128

  13. Articulated navigation testbed (ANT): an example of adaptable intrinsic mobility

    Brosinsky, Chris A.; Hanna, Doug M.; Penzes, Steven G.

    2000-07-01

    An important but oft overlooked aspect of any robotic system is the synergistic benefit of designing the chassis to have high intrinsic mobility which complements rather than limits, its system capabilities. This novel concept continues to be investigated by the Defence Research Establishment Suffield (DRES) with the Articulated Navigation Testbed (ANT) Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV). The ANT demonstrates high mobility through the combination of articulated steering and a hybrid locomotion scheme which utilizes individually powered wheels on the edge of rigid legs; legs which are capable of approximately 450 degrees of rotation. The configuration can be minimally configured as a 4x4 and modularly expanded to 6x6, 8x8, and so on. This enhanced mobility configuration permits pose control and novel maneuvers such as stepping, bridging, crawling, etc. Resultant mobility improvements, particularly in unstructured and off-road environments, will reduce the resolution with which the UGV sensor systems must perceive its surroundings and decreases the computational requirements of the UGV's perception systems1 for successful semi-autonomous or autonomous terrain negotiation. This paper reviews critical vehicle developments leading up to the ANT concept, describes the basis for its configuration and speculates on the impact of the intrinsic mobility concept for UGV effectiveness.

  14. Adaptive Controller Effects on Pilot Behavior

    Trujillo, Anna C.; Gregory, Irene M.; Hempley, Lucas E.

    2014-01-01

    Adaptive control provides robustness and resilience for highly uncertain, and potentially unpredictable, flight dynamics characteristic. Some of the recent flight experiences of pilot-in-the-loop with an adaptive controller have exhibited unpredicted interactions. In retrospect, this is not surprising once it is realized that there are now two adaptive controllers interacting, the software adaptive control system and the pilot. An experiment was conducted to categorize these interactions on the pilot with an adaptive controller during control surface failures. One of the objectives of this experiment was to determine how the adaptation time of the controller affects pilots. The pitch and roll errors, and stick input increased for increasing adaptation time and during the segment when the adaptive controller was adapting. Not surprisingly, altitude, cross track and angle deviations, and vertical velocity also increase during the failure and then slowly return to pre-failure levels. Subjects may change their behavior even as an adaptive controller is adapting with additional stick inputs. Therefore, the adaptive controller should adapt as fast as possible to minimize flight track errors. This will minimize undesirable interactions between the pilot and the adaptive controller and maintain maneuvering precision.

  15. Complex adaptive behavior and dexterous action

    Harrison, Steven J.; Stergiou, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Dexterous action, as conceptualized by Bernstein in his influential ecological analysis of human behavior, is revealed in the ability to flexibly generate behaviors that are adaptively tailored to the demands of the context in which they are embedded. Conceived as complex adaptive behavior, dexterity depends upon the qualities of robustness and degeneracy, and is supported by the functional complexity of the agent-environment system. Using Bernstein’s and Gibson’s ecological analyses of behavior situated in natural environments as conceptual touchstones, we consider the hypothesis that complex adaptive behavior capitalizes upon general principles of self-organization. Here, we outline a perspective in which the complex interactivity of nervous-system, body, and environment is revealed as an essential resource for adaptive behavior. From this perspective, we consider the implications for interpreting the functionality and dysfunctionality of human behavior. This paper demonstrates that, optimal variability, the topic of this special issue, is a logical consequence of interpreting the functionality of human behavior as complex adaptive behavior. PMID:26375932

  16. Adaptive integrated navigation filtering based on accelerometer calibration

    Qifan Zhou

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel GPS (Global Positioning System and DR (Dead Reckoning system which was based on the accelerometer and gyroscope integrated system was designed and implemented. In this system, the odometer used in traditional DR system was replaced by a MEMS tri-axis accelerometer in order to decrease the cost and the volume of the system. The system was integrated by the Kalman filter and a new mathematical model was introduced. In order to reasonably use the GPS information, an adaptive algorithm based on single measurement system which could estimate the measurement noise covariance was obtained. On the purpose of reducing the effect of the accumulated error caused by drift and bias of accelerometer, the accelerometer was calibrated online when GPS performed well. In this way, the integrated system could not only obtain the high-precision positioning in real time, but also perform stably in practice.

  17. Adaptive Behavior for Mobile Robots

    Huntsberger, Terrance

    2009-01-01

    The term "System for Mobility and Access to Rough Terrain" (SMART) denotes a theoretical framework, a control architecture, and an algorithm that implements the framework and architecture, for enabling a land-mobile robot to adapt to changing conditions. SMART is intended to enable the robot to recognize adverse terrain conditions beyond its optimal operational envelope, and, in response, to intelligently reconfigure itself (e.g., adjust suspension heights or baseline distances between suspension points) or adapt its driving techniques (e.g., engage in a crabbing motion as a switchback technique for ascending steep terrain). Conceived for original application aboard Mars rovers and similar autonomous or semi-autonomous mobile robots used in exploration of remote planets, SMART could also be applied to autonomous terrestrial vehicles to be used for search, rescue, and/or exploration on rough terrain.

  18. Adaptive iterated extended Kalman filter and its application to autonomous integrated navigation for indoor robot.

    Xu, Yuan; Chen, Xiyuan; Li, Qinghua

    2014-01-01

    As the core of the integrated navigation system, the data fusion algorithm should be designed seriously. In order to improve the accuracy of data fusion, this work proposed an adaptive iterated extended Kalman (AIEKF) which used the noise statistics estimator in the iterated extended Kalman (IEKF), and then AIEKF is used to deal with the nonlinear problem in the inertial navigation systems (INS)/wireless sensors networks (WSNs)-integrated navigation system. Practical test has been done to evaluate the performance of the proposed method. The results show that the proposed method is effective to reduce the mean root-mean-square error (RMSE) of position by about 92.53%, 67.93%, 55.97%, and 30.09% compared with the INS only, WSN, EKF, and IEKF. PMID:24693225

  19. Adaptive Iterated Extended Kalman Filter and Its Application to Autonomous Integrated Navigation for Indoor Robot

    Yuan Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As the core of the integrated navigation system, the data fusion algorithm should be designed seriously. In order to improve the accuracy of data fusion, this work proposed an adaptive iterated extended Kalman (AIEKF which used the noise statistics estimator in the iterated extended Kalman (IEKF, and then AIEKF is used to deal with the nonlinear problem in the inertial navigation systems (INS/wireless sensors networks (WSNs-integrated navigation system. Practical test has been done to evaluate the performance of the proposed method. The results show that the proposed method is effective to reduce the mean root-mean-square error (RMSE of position by about 92.53%, 67.93%, 55.97%, and 30.09% compared with the INS only, WSN, EKF, and IEKF.

  20. On learning navigation behaviors for small mobile robots with reservoir computing architectures.

    Antonelo, Eric Aislan; Schrauwen, Benjamin

    2015-04-01

    This paper proposes a general reservoir computing (RC) learning framework that can be used to learn navigation behaviors for mobile robots in simple and complex unknown partially observable environments. RC provides an efficient way to train recurrent neural networks by letting the recurrent part of the network (called reservoir) be fixed while only a linear readout output layer is trained. The proposed RC framework builds upon the notion of navigation attractor or behavior that can be embedded in the high-dimensional space of the reservoir after learning. The learning of multiple behaviors is possible because the dynamic robot behavior, consisting of a sensory-motor sequence, can be linearly discriminated in the high-dimensional nonlinear space of the dynamic reservoir. Three learning approaches for navigation behaviors are shown in this paper. The first approach learns multiple behaviors based on the examples of navigation behaviors generated by a supervisor, while the second approach learns goal-directed navigation behaviors based only on rewards. The third approach learns complex goal-directed behaviors, in a supervised way, using a hierarchical architecture whose internal predictions of contextual switches guide the sequence of basic navigation behaviors toward the goal. PMID:25794381

  1. Pedestrian tracking and navigation using an adaptive knowledge system based on neural networks

    Grejner-Brzezinska, Dorota A.; Toth, Charles; Moafipoor, Shahram

    2007-11-01

    The primary objective of the research presented here is to develop theoretical foundations and implementation algorithms, which integrate the Global Positioning System (GPS), micro-electromechanical inertial measurement unit (MEMS IMU), digital barometer, electronic compass, and human pedometry to provide navigation and tracking of military and rescue ground personnel. This paper discusses the design, implementation and the performance analyses of the personal navigator prototype, with a special emphasis on dead-reckoning (DR) navigation supported by the human locomotion model. The adaptive knowledge system, based on the Artificial Neural Networks (ANN), is implemented to support this functionality. The knowledge system is trained during the GPS signal reception and is used to support navigation under GPS-denied conditions. The human locomotion parameters, step frequency (SF) and step length (SL), are extracted from GPS-timed impact switches (step frequency) and GPS/IMU data (step length), respectively, during the system calibration period. SL is correlated with several data types, such as acceleration, acceleration variation, SF, terrain slope, etc. that constitute the input parameters to the ANN-based knowledge system. The ANN-predicted SL, together with the heading information from the compass and gyro, support DR navigation. The current target accuracy of the system is 3-5 m CEP (circular error probable) 50%.

  2. Analysis of the Navigation Behavior of the Users' using Grey Relational Pattern Analysis with Markov Chains

    BINDU MADHURI .Ch,; DR. ANAND CHANDULAL.J

    2010-01-01

    Generally user page visits are sequential in nature. The large number of Web pages on many Web sites has raised navigational problems. Markov chains have been used to model user sequential navigational behavior on the World Wide Web (WWW).The enormous growth in the number of documents in the WWW increases the need for improved link navigation and path analysis models. Link prediction and path analysis are important problems with a wide range of applications ranging from personalization to web...

  3. IAE-adaptive Kalman filter for INS/GPS integrated navigation system

    Bian Hongwei; Jin Zhihua; Tian Weifeng

    2006-01-01

    A marine INS/GPS adaptive navigation system is presented in this paper. GPS with two antenna providing vessel's altitude is selected as the auxiliary system fusing with INS to improve the performance of the hybrid system. The Kalman filter is the most frequently used algorithm in the integrated navigation system, which is capable of estimating INS errors online based on the measured errors between INS and GPS. The standard Kalman filter (SKF) assumes that the statistics of the noise on each sensor are given. As long as the noise distributions do not change, the Kalman filter will give the optimal estimation. However GPS receiver will be disturbed easily and thus temporally changing measurement noise will join into the outputs of GPS, which will lead to performance degradation of the Kalman filter. Many researchers introduce fuzzy logic control method into innovation-based adaptive estimation adaptive Kalman filtering (IAE-AKF) algorithm, and accordingly propose various adaptive Kalman filters. However how to design the fuzzy logic controller is a very complicated problem still without a convincing solution. A novel IAE-AKF is proposed herein, which is based on the maximum likelihood criterion for the proper computation of the filter innovation covariance and hence of the filter gain. The approach is direct and simple without having to establish fuzzy inference rules. After having deduced the proposed IAE-AKF algorithm theoretically in detail, the approach is tested by the simulation based on the system error model of the developed INS/GPS integrated marine navigation system. Simulation results show that the adaptive Kalman filter outperforms the SKF with higher accuracy, robustness and less computation. It is demonstrated that this proposed approach is a valid solution for the unknown changing measurement noise exited in the Kalman filter.

  4. Neurophysiology of performance monitoring and adaptive behavior.

    Ullsperger, Markus; Danielmeier, Claudia; Jocham, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    Successful goal-directed behavior requires not only correct action selection, planning, and execution but also the ability to flexibly adapt behavior when performance problems occur or the environment changes. A prerequisite for determining the necessity, type, and magnitude of adjustments is to continuously monitor the course and outcome of one's actions. Feedback-control loops correcting deviations from intended states constitute a basic functional principle of adaptation at all levels of the nervous system. Here, we review the neurophysiology of evaluating action course and outcome with respect to their valence, i.e., reward and punishment, and initiating short- and long-term adaptations, learning, and decisions. Based on studies in humans and other mammals, we outline the physiological principles of performance monitoring and subsequent cognitive, motivational, autonomic, and behavioral adaptation and link them to the underlying neuroanatomy, neurochemistry, psychological theories, and computational models. We provide an overview of invasive and noninvasive systemic measures, such as electrophysiological, neuroimaging, and lesion data. We describe how a wide network of brain areas encompassing frontal cortices, basal ganglia, thalamus, and monoaminergic brain stem nuclei detects and evaluates deviations of actual from predicted states indicating changed action costs or outcomes. This information is used to learn and update stimulus and action values, guide action selection, and recruit adaptive mechanisms that compensate errors and optimize goal achievement. PMID:24382883

  5. Adaptive human behavior in epidemiological models.

    Fenichel, Eli P; Castillo-Chavez, Carlos; Ceddia, M G; Chowell, Gerardo; Parra, Paula A Gonzalez; Hickling, Graham J; Holloway, Garth; Horan, Richard; Morin, Benjamin; Perrings, Charles; Springborn, Michael; Velazquez, Leticia; Villalobos, Cristina

    2011-04-12

    The science and management of infectious disease are entering a new stage. Increasingly public policy to manage epidemics focuses on motivating people, through social distancing policies, to alter their behavior to reduce contacts and reduce public disease risk. Person-to-person contacts drive human disease dynamics. People value such contacts and are willing to accept some disease risk to gain contact-related benefits. The cost-benefit trade-offs that shape contact behavior, and hence the course of epidemics, are often only implicitly incorporated in epidemiological models. This approach creates difficulty in parsing out the effects of adaptive behavior. We use an epidemiological-economic model of disease dynamics to explicitly model the trade-offs that drive person-to-person contact decisions. Results indicate that including adaptive human behavior significantly changes the predicted course of epidemics and that this inclusion has implications for parameter estimation and interpretation and for the development of social distancing policies. Acknowledging adaptive behavior requires a shift in thinking about epidemiological processes and parameters. PMID:21444809

  6. A new adaptive state space construction method for the mobile robot navigation

    Huang Bingqiang; Cao Guangyi; Fei Yanqiong; Li Jianhua

    2008-01-01

    In order to solve the combinative explosion problems in a continuous and high dimensional state space, a function approximation approach is usually used to represent the state space. The normalized radial basis function (NRBF) was adopted as the local function approximator and a kind of adaptive state space construction strategy based on the NRBF (ASC-NRBF) was proposed, which enables the system to allocate appropriate number and size of the basis functions automatically. Combined with the reinforcement learning method, the proposed ASC-NRBF method was applied to the robot navigation problem. Simulation results illustrate the performance of the proposed method.

  7. Visualizing Search Behavior with Adaptive Discriminations

    Cook, Robert G.; Qadri, Muhammad A. J.

    2013-01-01

    We examined different aspects of the visual search behavior of a pigeon using an open-ended, adaptive testing procedure controlled by a genetic algorithm. The animal had to accurately search for and peck a gray target element randomly located from among a variable number of surrounding darker and lighter distractor elements. Display composition was controlled by a genetic algorithm involving the multivariate configuration of different parameters or genes (number of distractors, element size, ...

  8. Application of Adaptive Divided Difference Filter on GPS/IMU Integrated Navigation System

    ZHAO Pei-pei; LI Shi-xin; XIAO Zhi-tao

    2009-01-01

    The efficient and accurate approximate nonlinear filters have been widely used in the estimation of states and parameters of dynamical systems.In this paper,an adaptive divided difference filter is designed for precise estimation of states and parameters of mieromechanical gyro navigation system.Based on the investigation of nonlinear divided difference filter the adaptive divided difference filter(ADDF)was designed,which takes account of the incorrect time-varying noise statistics of dynamical systems and compensation of the nonlinearity effects neglected by linearization.And its performance is superior to that of DDF and extended Kalman filter (EKF). Simulation results indicate that the advantages of the proposed nonlinear filters make them attractive alternatives to the extended Kalman filter.

  9. Exploring users’ within-site navigation behavior:A case study based on clickstream data

    Tingting; JIANG; Yu; CHI; Wenrui; JIA

    2014-01-01

    Purpose:The goal of our research is to suggest specific Web metrics that are useful for evaluating and improving user navigation experience on informational websites.Design/methodology/approach:We revised metrics in a Web forensic framework proposed in the literature and defined the metrics of footprint,track and movement.Data were obtained from user clickstreams provided by a real estate site’s administrators.There were two phases of data analysis with the first phase on navigation behavior based on user footprints and tracks,and the second phase on navigational transition patterns based on user movements.Findings:Preliminary results suggest that the apartment pages were heavily-trafficked while the agent pages and related information pages were underused to a great extent.Navigation within the same category of pages was prevalent,especially when users navigated among the regional apartment listings.However,navigation of these pages was found to be inefficient.Research limitations:The suggestions for navigation design optimization provided in the paper are specific to this website,and their applicability to other online environments needs to be verified.Preference predications or personal recommendations are not made during the current stage of research.Practical implications:Our clickstream data analysis results offer a base for future research.Meanwhile,website administrators and managers can make better use of the readily available clickstream data to evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency of their site navigation design.Originality/value:Our empirical study is valuable to those seeking analysis metrics for evaluating and improving user navigation experience on informational websites based on clickstream data.Our attempts to analyze the log file in terms of footprint,track and movement will enrich the utilization of such trace data to engender a deeper understanding of users’within-site navigation behavior.

  10. Neural Network Aided Adaptive UKF Algorithm for GPS/INS Integration Navigation

    TAN Xinglong

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The predicted residual vectors should be zero-mean Gaussian white noise, which is the precondition for multiple fading factors adaptive filtering algorithm based on statistical information in GPS/INS integration system. However the abnormalities in observations will affect the distribution of the residual vectors. In this paper, a neural network aided adaptive unscented Kalman filter (UKF algorithm with multiple fading factors based on singular value decomposition(SVD is proposed. The algorithm uses the neural network algorithm to weaken the influence of the observed abnormalities on the residual vectors. Singular value decomposition instead of unscented transformation is adopted to suppress negative definite variation in priori covariance matrix of UKF. Since single fading factor in poor tracking of multiple variables has the limitation, multiple fading factors to adjust the predicted-state covariance matrix are constructed with better robustness so that each filter channel has different adjustability. Finally, vehicle measurement data are collected to validate the proposed algorithm. It shows that the neural network algorithm can prevent the observed abnormalities from affecting the distribution of the residual vectors, expanding the applied range of the adaptive algorithm. The neural network algorithm aided SVD-UKF algorithm with multiple fading factors is able to remove influences of state anomalies on condition of the observed abnormalities. The accuracy and reliability of the navigation solution can be improved by this algorithm.

  11. A Neural Path Integration Mechanism for Adaptive Vector Navigation in Autonomous Agents

    Goldschmidt, Dennis; Dasgupta, Sakyasingha; Wörgötter, Florentin;

    2015-01-01

    simulated sixlegged artificial agent. Input signals from an allothetic compass and odometry are sustained through leaky neural integrator circuits, which are then used to compute the home vector by local excitation-global inhibition interactions. The home vector is computed and represented in circular...... arrays of neurons, where compass directions are population-coded and linear displacements are rate-coded. The mechanism allows for robust homing behavior in the presence of external sensory noise. The emergent behavior of the controlled agent does not only show a robust solution for the problem of......Animals show remarkable capabilities in navigating their habitat in a fully autonomous and energy-efficient way. In many species, these capabilities rely on a process called path integration, which enables them to estimate their current location and to find their way back home after long...

  12. Adaptive Behavior and Problem Behavior in Young Children with Williams Syndrome

    Hahn, Laura J.; Fidler, Deborah J.; Hepburn, Susan L.

    2014-01-01

    The present study compares the adaptive behavior profile of 18 young children with Williams syndrome (WS) and a developmentally matched group of 19 children with developmental disabilities and examines the relationship between adaptive behavior and problem behaviors in WS. Parents completed the Vineland Adaptive Behavioral Scales--Interview…

  13. LABRADOR: a learning autonomous behavior-based robot for adaptive detection and object retrieval

    Yamauchi, Brian; Moseley, Mark; Brookshire, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    As part of the TARDEC-funded CANINE (Cooperative Autonomous Navigation in a Networked Environment) Program, iRobot developed LABRADOR (Learning Autonomous Behavior-based Robot for Adaptive Detection and Object Retrieval). LABRADOR was based on the rugged, man-portable, iRobot PackBot unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) equipped with an explosives ordnance disposal (EOD) manipulator arm and a custom gripper. For LABRADOR, we developed a vision-based object learning and recognition system that combined a TLD (track-learn-detect) filter based on object shape features with a color-histogram-based object detector. Our vision system was able to learn in real-time to recognize objects presented to the robot. We also implemented a waypoint navigation system based on fused GPS, IMU (inertial measurement unit), and odometry data. We used this navigation capability to implement autonomous behaviors capable of searching a specified area using a variety of robust coverage strategies - including outward spiral, random bounce, random waypoint, and perimeter following behaviors. While the full system was not integrated in time to compete in the CANINE competition event, we developed useful perception, navigation, and behavior capabilities that may be applied to future autonomous robot systems.

  14. Navigator channel adaptation to reconstruct three dimensional heart volumes from two dimensional radiotherapy planning data

    Biologically-based models that utilize 3D radiation dosimetry data to estimate the risk of late cardiac effects could have significant utility for planning radiotherapy in young patients. A major challenge arises from having only 2D treatment planning data for patients with long-term follow-up. In this study, we evaluate the accuracy of an advanced deformable image registration (DIR) and navigator channels (NC) adaptation technique to reconstruct 3D heart volumes from 2D radiotherapy planning images for Hodgkin's Lymphoma (HL) patients. Planning CT images were obtained for 50 HL patients who underwent mediastinal radiotherapy. Twelve image sets (6 male, 6 female) were used to construct a male and a female population heart model, which was registered to 23 HL 'Reference' patients' CT images using a DIR algorithm, MORFEUS. This generated a series of population-to-Reference patient specific 3D deformation maps. The technique was independently tested on 15 additional 'Test' patients by reconstructing their 3D heart volumes using 2D digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRR). The technique involved: 1) identifying a matching Reference patient for each Test patient using thorax measurements, 2) placement of six NCs on matching Reference and Test patients' DRRs to capture differences in significant heart curvatures, 3) adapting the population-to-Reference patient-specific deformation maps to generate population-to-Test patient-specific deformation maps using linear and bilinear interpolation methods, 4) applying population-to-Test patient specific deformation to the population model to reconstruct Test-patient specific 3D heart models. The percentage volume overlap between the NC-adapted reconstruction and actual Test patient's true heart volume was calculated using the Dice coefficient. The average Dice coefficient expressed as a percentage between the NC-adapted and actual Test model was 89.4 ± 2.8%. The modified NC adaptation

  15. Shooting the Rapids: Navigating Transitions to Adaptive Governance of Social-Ecological Systems

    Carl Folke

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The case studies of Kristianstads Vattenrike, Sweden; the Northern Highlands Lake District and the Everglades in the USA; the Mae Nam Ping Basin, Thailand; and the Goulburn-Broken Catchment, Australia, were compared to assess the outcome of different actions for transforming social-ecological systems (SESs. The transformations consisted of two phases, a preparation phase and a transition phase, linked by a window of opportunity. Key leaders and shadow networks can prepare a system for change by exploring alternative system configurations and developing strategies for choosing from among possible futures. Key leaders can recognize and use or create windows of opportunity and navigate transitions toward adaptive governance. Leadership functions include the ability to span scales of governance, orchestrate networks, integrate and communicate understanding, and reconcile different problem domains. Successful transformations rely on epistemic and shadow networks to provide novel ideas and ways of governing SESs. We conclude by listing some 𔄬rules of thumb” that can help build leadership and networks for successful transformations toward adaptive governance of social-ecological systems.

  16. A Study in Adaptive Leadership: How Christian Associates' Teams and Individuals in Europe Navigate Change

    Schubring, Linda Louise

    2013-01-01

    This study in adaptive leadership reveals what factors contributed to how leaders and teams navigate change within the church planting context of Christian Associates (CA) Europe. In the beginning chapter, I lay the foundation for the study of individuals and teams within CA by describing my research, CA's history, and the significance of the…

  17. Adaptive Control for Autonomous Navigation of Mobile Robots Considering Time Delay and Uncertainty

    Armah, Stephen Kofi

    Autonomous control of mobile robots has attracted considerable attention of researchers in the areas of robotics and autonomous systems during the past decades. One of the goals in the field of mobile robotics is development of platforms that robustly operate in given, partially unknown, or unpredictable environments and offer desired services to humans. Autonomous mobile robots need to be equipped with effective, robust and/or adaptive, navigation control systems. In spite of enormous reported work on autonomous navigation control systems for mobile robots, achieving the goal above is still an open problem. Robustness and reliability of the controlled system can always be improved. The fundamental issues affecting the stability of the control systems include the undesired nonlinear effects introduced by actuator saturation, time delay in the controlled system, and uncertainty in the model. This research work develops robustly stabilizing control systems by investigating and addressing such nonlinear effects through analytical, simulations, and experiments. The control systems are designed to meet specified transient and steady-state specifications. The systems used for this research are ground (Dr Robot X80SV) and aerial (Parrot AR.Drone 2.0) mobile robots. Firstly, an effective autonomous navigation control system is developed for X80SV using logic control by combining 'go-to-goal', 'avoid-obstacle', and 'follow-wall' controllers. A MATLAB robot simulator is developed to implement this control algorithm and experiments are conducted in a typical office environment. The next stage of the research develops an autonomous position (x, y, and z) and attitude (roll, pitch, and yaw) controllers for a quadrotor, and PD-feedback control is used to achieve stabilization. The quadrotor's nonlinear dynamics and kinematics are implemented using MATLAB S-function to generate the state output. Secondly, the white-box and black-box approaches are used to obtain a linearized

  18. Auto-agent: a behavior-based architecture for mobile navigation

    Hwang, Kaoshing; Ju, Ming-Yi

    1998-10-01

    The design and construction of mobile robots is as much art as a science. In hardware architecture, researchers tend to construct a low-cost and reliable platform which equips with various sensory system for sensing the change of the environment to offer useful information to the navigation system. An autonomous navigation system plays a role in an mobile robot as the brain in human being. It generates action command according to those sensory data from the perception system to direct the mobile robot to go to desired positions or accomplish useful tasks without human intervention in real-world. An important problem in autonomous navigation is the need to cope with the large amount of uncertainty that is inherent of natural environment. Therefore the development of techniques for autonomous navigation in real-world environments constitutes one of the major trends in the current research on robotics. Inspired with the concept of software agents, reactive control and behavior-based control, a modular architecture, called Auto-agent, for mobile navigation is proposed. The main characteristic of Auto-agent is as following: Behavioral agents cooperate by means of communicating with other behavioral agents intermittently to achieve their local goal and the goals of the community as a whole because no one individually has sufficient competence, resources and information to solve the entire problem. Auto-agent gains advantages from the characteristics of distributed system, it offers the possibility to find an acceptable solution with a reasonable time and complexity range. Besides, the modular structure is convenient for an engineer to construct a new behavioral agent and to add it into Auto-agent.

  19. Analysis of the Navigation Behavior of the Users' using Grey Relational Pattern Analysis with Markov Chains

    BINDU MADHURI .Ch,

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Generally user page visits are sequential in nature. The large number of Web pages on many Web sites has raised navigational problems. Markov chains have been used to model user sequential navigational behavior on the World Wide Web (WWW.The enormous growth in the number of documents in the WWW increases the need for improved link navigation and path analysis models. Link prediction and path analysis are important problems with a wide range of applications ranging from personalization to websites. The complete size of the WWW coupled with the variation in users' navigation patterns makes this a very difficult sequence modeling problem. This paper generalizes the concept of grey relational analysis to develop a technique, called grey relational pattern analysis associated with Markov chains for sequential web data, for analyzing the similarity between given patterns. Based on this technique, a clustering algorithm” Grey Clustering algorithm for Sequential Data” is proposed to finding cluster of a given data set .The problem of determining the optimal number of clusters . We develop an evaluationframework in which the Sum of Squared Error (SSE is calculated to get the efficiency of proposed algorithm. The analyzed behavior of the users used in application areas for Web usage mining Personalization, System Improvement, Site Modification, Business Intelligence, and Usage Characterization.

  20. The Study of Intelligent Vehicle Navigation Path Based on Behavior Coordination of Particle Swarm.

    Han, Gaining; Fu, Weiping; Wang, Wen

    2016-01-01

    In the behavior dynamics model, behavior competition leads to the shock problem of the intelligent vehicle navigation path, because of the simultaneous occurrence of the time-variant target behavior and obstacle avoidance behavior. Considering the safety and real-time of intelligent vehicle, the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm is proposed to solve these problems for the optimization of weight coefficients of the heading angle and the path velocity. Firstly, according to the behavior dynamics model, the fitness function is defined concerning the intelligent vehicle driving characteristics, the distance between intelligent vehicle and obstacle, and distance of intelligent vehicle and target. Secondly, behavior coordination parameters that minimize the fitness function are obtained by particle swarm optimization algorithms. Finally, the simulation results show that the optimization method and its fitness function can improve the perturbations of the vehicle planning path and real-time and reliability. PMID:26880881

  1. Development and Standardization of the Diagnostic Adaptive Behavior Scale: Application of Item Response Theory to the Assessment of Adaptive Behavior

    Tassé, Marc J.; Schalock, Robert L.; Thissen, David; Balboni, Giulia; Bersani, Henry, Jr.; Borthwick-Duffy, Sharon A.; Spreat, Scott; Widaman, Keith F.; Zhang, Dalun; Navas, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    The Diagnostic Adaptive Behavior Scale (DABS) was developed using item response theory (IRT) methods and was constructed to provide the most precise and valid adaptive behavior information at or near the cutoff point of making a decision regarding a diagnosis of intellectual disability. The DABS initial item pool consisted of 260 items. Using IRT…

  2. Endogenous Nuclear RNAi Mediates Behavioral Adaptation to Odor

    Juang, Bi-Tzen; Gu, Chen; Starnes, Linda;

    2013-01-01

    acts in AWC, is loaded with siRNAs targeting odr-1, a gene whose downregulation is required for adaptation. Concomitant with increased odr-1 siRNA in AWC, we observe increased binding of the HP1 homolog HPL-2 at the odr-1 locus in AWC and reduced odr-1 mRNA in adapted animals. Phosphorylation of HPL-2......, an in vitro substrate of the EGL-4 kinase that promotes adaption, is necessary and sufficient for behavioral adaptation. Thus, environmental stimulation amplifies an endo-siRNA negative feedback loop to dynamically repress cognate gene expression and shape behavior. This class of siRNA may act...

  3. Synaptic plasticity in a recurrent neural network for versatile and adaptive behaviors of a walking robot

    Eduard Grinke

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Walking animals, like insects, with little neural computing can effectively perform complex behaviors. They can walk around their environment, escape from corners/deadlocks, and avoid or climb over obstacles. While performing all these behaviors, they can also adapt their movements to deal with an unknown situation. As a consequence, they successfully navigate through their complex environment. The versatile and adaptive abilities are the result of an integration of several ingredients embedded in their sensorimotor loop. Biological studies reveal that the ingredients include neural dynamics, plasticity, sensory feedback, and biomechanics. Generating such versatile and adaptive behaviors for a walking robot is a challenging task. In this study, we present a bio-inspired approach to solve this task. Specifically, the approach combines neural mechanisms with plasticity, sensory feedback, and biomechanics. The neural mechanisms consist of adaptive neural sensory processing and modular neural locomotion control. The sensory processing is based on a small recurrent network consisting of two fully connected neurons. Online correlation-based learning with synaptic scaling is applied to adequately change the connections of the network. By doing so, we can effectively exploit neural dynamics (i.e., hysteresis effects and single attractors in the network to generate different turning angles with short-term memory for a biomechanical walking robot. The turning information is transmitted as descending steering signals to the locomotion control which translates the signals into motor actions. As a result, the robot can walk around and adapt its turning angle for avoiding obstacles in different situations as well as escaping from sharp corners or deadlocks. Using backbone joint control embedded in the locomotion control allows the robot to climb over small obstacles. Consequently, it can successfully explore and navigate in complex environments.

  4. Adapting Behavioral Interventions for Social Media Delivery.

    Pagoto, Sherry; Waring, Molly E; May, Christine N; Ding, Eric Y; Kunz, Werner H; Hayes, Rashelle; Oleski, Jessica L

    2016-01-01

    Patients are increasingly using online social networks (ie, social media) to connect with other patients and health care professionals--a trend called peer-to-peer health care. Because online social networks provide a means for health care professionals to communicate with patients, and for patients to communicate with each other, an opportunity exists to use social media as a modality to deliver behavioral interventions. Social media-delivered behavioral interventions have the potential to reduce the expense of behavioral interventions by eliminating visits, as well as increase our access to patients by becoming embedded in their social media feeds. Trials of online social network-delivered behavioral interventions have shown promise, but much is unknown about intervention development and methodology. In this paper, we discuss the process by which investigators can translate behavioral interventions for social media delivery. We present a model that describes the steps and decision points in this process, including the necessary training and reporting requirements. We also discuss issues pertinent to social media-delivered interventions, including cost, scalability, and privacy. Finally, we identify areas of research that are needed to optimize this emerging behavioral intervention modality. PMID:26825969

  5. Adapting Behavioral Interventions for Social Media Delivery

    Waring, Molly E; May, Christine N; Ding, Eric Y; Kunz, Werner H; Hayes, Rashelle; Oleski, Jessica L

    2016-01-01

    Patients are increasingly using online social networks (ie, social media) to connect with other patients and health care professionals—a trend called peer-to-peer health care. Because online social networks provide a means for health care professionals to communicate with patients, and for patients to communicate with each other, an opportunity exists to use social media as a modality to deliver behavioral interventions. Social media-delivered behavioral interventions have the potential to reduce the expense of behavioral interventions by eliminating visits, as well as increase our access to patients by becoming embedded in their social media feeds. Trials of online social network-delivered behavioral interventions have shown promise, but much is unknown about intervention development and methodology. In this paper, we discuss the process by which investigators can translate behavioral interventions for social media delivery. We present a model that describes the steps and decision points in this process, including the necessary training and reporting requirements. We also discuss issues pertinent to social media-delivered interventions, including cost, scalability, and privacy. Finally, we identify areas of research that are needed to optimize this emerging behavioral intervention modality. PMID:26825969

  6. Adaptive Learning Models of Consumer Behavior

    Hopkins, Ed

    2007-01-01

    In a model of dynamic duopoly, optimal price policies are characterized assuming consumers learn adaptively about the relative quality of the two products. A contrast is made between belief-based and reinforcement learning. Under reinforcement learning, consumers can become locked into the habit of purchasing inferior goods. Such lock-in permits the existence of multiple history-dependent asymmetric steady states in which one firm dominates. In contrast, belief-based learning rules must lead ...

  7. Real-time adaptive off-road vehicle navigation and terrain classification

    Muller, Urs A.; Jackel, Lawrence D.; LeCun, Yann; Flepp, Beat

    2013-05-01

    We are developing a complete, self-contained autonomous navigation system for mobile robots that learns quickly, uses commodity components, and has the added benefit of emitting no radiation signature. It builds on the au­tonomous navigation technology developed by Net-Scale and New York University during the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Learning Applied to Ground Robots (LAGR) program and takes advantage of recent scientific advancements achieved during the DARPA Deep Learning program. In this paper we will present our approach and algorithms, show results from our vision system, discuss lessons learned from the past, and present our plans for further advancing vehicle autonomy.

  8. Analysis of Users’ Web Navigation Behavior using GRPA with Variable Length Markov Chains

    Bindu Madhuri. Ch

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available With the never-ending growth of Web services and Web-based information systems, the volumes of click stream and user data collected by Web-based organizations in their daily operations has reached enormous proportions. Analyzing such huge data can help to evaluate the effectiveness of promotional campaigns, optimize the functionality of Web-based applications, and provide more personalized content to visitors. In the previous work, we had proposed a method, Grey Relational Pattern Analysis using Markov chains, which involves to discovering the meaningful patterns and relationships from a large collection of data, often stored in Web and applications server access logs, proxy logs etc. Herein, we propose a novel approach to analyse the navigational behavior of User using GRPA with Variable-Length Markov Chains. A VLMC is a model extension that allows variable length history to be captured. GRPA with VariableLength Markov Chains, which reflects on sequential information in Web usage data effectively and efficiently, and it can be extended to allow integration with a Web user navigation behavior prediction model for better Web Usage mining Applications.

  9. Adding memory processing behaviors to the fuzzy behaviorist-based navigation of mobile robots

    Pin, F.G.; Bender, S.R.

    1996-05-01

    Most fuzzy logic-based reasoning schemes developed for robot control are fully reactive, i.e., the reasoning modules consist of fuzzy rule bases that represent direct mappings from the stimuli provided by the perception systems to the responses implemented by the motion controllers. Due to their totally reactive nature, such reasoning systems can encounter problems such as infinite loops and limit cycles. In this paper, we proposed an approach to remedy these problems by adding a memory and memory-related behaviors to basic reactive systems. Three major types of memory behaviors are addressed: memory creation, memory management, and memory utilization. These are first presented, and examples of their implementation for the recognition of limit cycles during the navigation of an autonomous robot in a priori unknown environments are then discussed.

  10. Socially dependent avoidance learning : mechanisms of adaptive behavior

    Lindström, Björn

    2014-01-01

    Many aspects of human social behavior are likely to be shaped by punishment, threats of punishment, and avoidance of punishment. However, surprisingly little is known about the psychological mechanisms underpinning these influences. The goal of the research presented in this thesis was to investigate how basic reinforcement-based learning processes contribute to adaptive social behavior. To this end, we investigated how human behavior is shaped by punishment and threats of punishment in simpl...

  11. Application of Genetic Control with Adaptive Scaling Scheme to Signal Acquisition in Global Navigation Satellite System Receiver

    Ho-Nien Shou

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a genetic-based control scheme that not only utilizes evolutionary characteristics to find the signal acquisition parameters, but also employs an adaptive scheme to control the search space and avoid the genetic control converging to local optimal value so as to acquire the desired signal precisely and rapidly. Simulations and experiment results show that the proposed method can improve the precision of signal parameters and take less signal acquisition time than traditional serial search methods for global navigation satellite system (GNSS signals.

  12. Driver's adaptive glance behavior to in-vehicle information systems.

    Peng, Yiyun; Boyle, Linda Ng

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the adaptive behavior of drivers as they engage with in-vehicle devices over time and in varying driving situations. Behavioral adaptation has been shown to occur among drivers after prolonged use of in-vehicle devices, but few studies have examined drivers' risk levels across different driving demands. A multi-day simulator study was conducted with 28 young drivers (under 30 years old) as they engaged in different text entry and reading tasks while driving in two different traffic conditions. Cluster analysis was used to categorize drivers based on their risk levels and random coefficient models were used to assess changes in drivers' eye glance behavior. Glance duration significantly increased over time while drivers were performing text entry tasks but not for text reading tasks. High-risk drivers had longer maximum eyes-off-road when performing long text entry tasks compared to low-risk drivers, and this difference increased over time. The traffic condition also had a significant impact on drivers' glance behavior. This study suggests that drivers may exhibit negative behavioral adaptation as they become more comfortable with using in-vehicle technologies over time. Results of this paper may provide guidance for the design of in-vehicle devices that adapt based on the context of the situation. It also demonstrates that random coefficient models can be used to obtain better estimations of driver behavior when there are large individual differences. PMID:26406538

  13. Help-Seeking Behavior and Health Care Navigation by Bhutanese Refugees.

    Yun, Katherine; Paul, Papia; Subedi, Parangkush; Kuikel, Leela; Nguyen, Giang T; Barg, Frances K

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to document barriers to care, help-seeking behaviors, and the impact of a community-based patient navigation intervention on patient activation levels among Bhutanese refugees in the U.S. Data sources comprised 35 intake and 34 post-intervention interviews with program participants, 14 intake and 14 post-intervention interviews with patient navigators, and 164 case notes. Textual data were analyzed using the constant comparison method. Patient activation level was assessed at both time points. Participants had limited English proficiency (97 %), limited literacy (69 %), and the lowest level of patient activation (69 %). Participants routinely experienced complex insurance access, coverage, and payment problems and had limited healthcare-related life skills. Help-seeking began within social networks, with high reliance on bilingual, literate family members perceived to have experience with "the system." Help-seeking was not stigmatized and was instead consistent with societal norms valuing mutual assistance. Participants preferred helpers to act as proxies and required repeated social modeling by peers to gain confidence applying healthcare-related life skills. Following the intervention, only one-third reported the lowest level of patient activation (35 %) and one-third were highly activated (32 %). Bhutanese refugees overcome healthcare access barriers by seeking help from a network of support that begins within the community. Community health workers serving as patient navigators are readily sought out, and this approach is concordant with cultural expectations for mutual assistance. Community health workers serving immigrant groups should model healthcare-related life skills in addition to providing direct assistance. PMID:26659398

  14. Adaptive Covariance Estimation Method for LiDAR-Aided Multi-Sensor Integrated Navigation Systems

    Shifei Liu; Mohamed Maher Atia; Yanbin Gao; Aboelmagd Noureldin

    2015-01-01

    The accurate estimation of measurements covariance is a fundamental problem in sensors fusion algorithms and is crucial for the proper operation of filtering algorithms. This paper provides an innovative solution for this problem and realizes the proposed solution on a 2D indoor navigation system for unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs) that fuses measurements from a MEMS-grade gyroscope, speed measurements and a light detection and ranging (LiDAR) sensor. A computationally efficient weighted line...

  15. Linking Individual and Collective Behavior in Adaptive Social Networks

    Pinheiro, Flávio L.; Santos, Francisco C.; Pacheco, Jorge M.

    2016-03-01

    Adaptive social structures are known to promote the evolution of cooperation. However, up to now the characterization of the collective, population-wide dynamics resulting from the self-organization of individual strategies on a coevolving, adaptive network has remained unfeasible. Here we establish a (reversible) link between individual (micro)behavior and collective (macro)behavior for coevolutionary processes. We demonstrate that an adaptive network transforms a two-person social dilemma locally faced by individuals into a collective dynamics that resembles that associated with an N -person coordination game, whose characterization depends sensitively on the relative time scales between the entangled behavioral and network evolutions. In particular, we show that the faster the relative rate of adaptation of the network, the smaller the critical fraction of cooperators required for cooperation to prevail, thus establishing a direct link between network adaptation and the evolution of cooperation. The framework developed here is general and may be readily applied to other dynamical processes occurring on adaptive networks, notably, the spreading of contagious diseases or the diffusion of innovations.

  16. Towards the Self-constructive Brain: emergence of adaptive behavior

    Corbacho, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Adaptive behavior is mainly the result of adaptive brains. We go a step beyond and claim that the brain does not only adapt to its surrounding reality but rather, it builds itself up to constructs its own reality. That is, rather than just trying to passively understand its environment, the brain is the architect of its own reality in an active process where its internal models of the external world frame how its new interactions with the environment are assimilated. These internal models rep...

  17. Adaptive behavior in Chinese children with Williams syndrome

    Ji, Chai; Yao, Dan; Chen, Weijun; Li, Mingyan; Zhao, Zhengyan

    2014-01-01

    Background Williams syndrome (WS) is a neurodevelopmental disease characterized by compelling psychological phenotypes. The symptoms span multiple cognitive domains and include a distinctive pattern of social behavior. The goal of this study was to explore adaptive behavior in WS patients in China. Methods We conducted a structured interview including the Infants-Junior Middle School Students Social-life Abilities Scale in three participant groups: children with WS (n = 26), normally-developi...

  18. Adaptive and robust algorithms and tests for visual-based navigation of a space robotic manipulator

    Sabatini, Marco; Monti, Riccardo; Gasbarri, Paolo; Palmerini, Giovanni B.

    2013-02-01

    Optical navigation for guidance and control of robotic systems is a well-established technique from both theoretic and practical points of view. According to the positioning of the camera, the problem can be approached in two ways: the first one, "hand-in-eye", deals with a fixed camera, external to the robot, which allows to determine the position of the target object to be reached. The second one, "eye-in-hand", consists in a camera accommodated on the end-effector of the manipulator. Here, the target object position is not determined in an absolute reference frame, but with respect to the image plane of the mobile camera. In this paper, the algorithms and the test campaign applied to the case of the planar multibody manipulator developed in the Guidance and Navigation Lab at the University of Rome La Sapienza are reported with respect to the eye-in-hand case. In fact, being the space environment the target application for this research activity, it is quite difficult to imagine a fixed, non-floating camera in the case of an orbital grasping maneuver. The classic approach of Image Base Visual Servoing considers the evaluation of the control actions directly on the basis of the error between the current image of a feature and the image of the same feature in a final desired configuration. Both simulation and experimental tests show that such a classic approach can fail when navigation errors and actuation delays are included. Moreover, changing light conditions or the presence of unexpected obstacles can lead to a camera failure in target acquisition. In order to overcome these two problems, a Modified Image Based Visual Servoing algorithm and an Extended Kalman Filtering for feature position estimation are developed and applied. In particular, the filtering shows a quite good performance if target's depth information is supplied. A simple procedure for estimating initial target depth is therefore developed and tested. As a result of the application of all the

  19. Modular neural network and classical reinforcement learning for autonomous robot navigation: inhibiting undesirable behaviors

    Antonelo, Eric; Baerveldt, Albert-Jan; Rögnvaldsson, Thorsteinn; Figueiredo, Mauricio

    2006-01-01

    Classical reinforcement learning mechanisms and a modular neural network are unified for conceiving an intelligent autonomous system for mobile robot navigation. The conception aims at inhibiting two common navigation deficiencies: generation of unsuitable cyclic trajectories and ineffectiveness in risky configurations. Distinct design apparatuses are considered for tackling these navigation difficulties, for instance: 1) neuron parameter for memorizing neuron activities (also functioning as ...

  20. Sensory Processing Subtypes in Autism: Association with Adaptive Behavior

    Lane, Alison E.; Young, Robyn L.; Baker, Amy E. Z.; Angley, Manya T.

    2010-01-01

    Children with autism are frequently observed to experience difficulties in sensory processing. This study examined specific patterns of sensory processing in 54 children with autistic disorder and their association with adaptive behavior. Model-based cluster analysis revealed three distinct sensory processing subtypes in autism. These subtypes…

  1. Biologically-Inspired Adaptive Obstacle Negotiation Behavior of Hexapod Robots

    Goldschmidt, Dennis; Wörgötter, Florentin; Manoonpong, Poramate

    2014-01-01

    these findings, we present an adaptive neural control mechanism for obstacle negotiation behavior in hexapod robots. It combines locomotion control, backbone joint control, local leg reflexes, and neural learning. While the first three components generate locomotion including walking and climbing, the...... neural learning mechanism allows the robot to adapt its behavior for obstacle negotiation with respect to changing conditions, e.g., variable obstacle heights and different walking gaits. By successfully learning the association of an early, predictive signal (conditioned stimulus, CS) and a late, reflex...... signal (unconditioned stimulus, UCS), both provided by ultrasonic sensors at the front of the robot, the robot can autonomously find an appropriate distance from an obstacle to initiate climbing. The adaptive neural control was developed and tested first on a physical robot simulation, and was then...

  2. From Consumer Behavior to Donor Behavior: Adapting Marketing Concepts

    Fábio Moraes da Costa; Patrícia Regina Caldeira Daré; Andres Rodriguez Veloso

    2004-01-01

    This paper was prepared to identify the variables involved in the decision process of an individual who donates financial resources to nonprofit organizations. To this end a research was developed and applied to donors and non-donors, so that it would be possible to identify the factors involved in the process and from that prepare a model of the donor’s behavior, besides identifying the possible factors responsible for non-donation. In order to reach this objective the following stages were ...

  3. Characteristic Symptoms and Adaptive Behaviors of Children with Autism

    Objective: To determine the characteristic symptoms and adaptive behaviors of children with autism, as well as the distribution of autism severity groups across gender. Study Design: Cross-sectional observational study. Place and Duration of Study: Special Education Schools of Rawalpindi and Islamabad, from September 2011 to January 2012. Methodology: Thirty nine children of either gender, aged 3 - 16 years and enrolled in special education schools, fulfilled the DSM-IV-TR criteria of autism. Among those, were identified as meeting the criteria of autism. The childhood autism rating scale-2 (CARS-2) was used to study the characteristics and severity of symptoms of autism. Later, adaptive behavior scale (school edition: 2) ABS-S: 2, was administered on children (n=21) to formulate the level of adaptive functioning. Results: There were 15 boys and 8 girls with mean age of 10.6 +- 2.97 years. They showed marked impairment in verbal communication (mean=3.17 +- 0.90) followed by relating to people (mean=2.75 +- 0.83) and general impression (mean=2.73 +- 0.7). Most of the children showed average to below average adaptive behaviors on number and time (n=19, 90.5%), independent functioning (n=17, 81.0%), self direction (n=17, 81.0%), physical development (n=13, 61.9%), responsibility (n=12, 57.1%) and socialization (n=13, 61.9%) as well as poor to very poor adaptive behaviors on prevocational skill (n=15, 71.4%), language development (n=13, 61.9%) and economic development (n=13, 61.9%). The frequency of boys with autism was more towards moderate to severely impaired spectrum, without gender differences in any symptom associated with autism. Conclusion: Comprehension of the presentation of characteristic symptoms of children with autism will be helpful in devising the indigenous intervention plans that are congruent with the level of adaptive functioning. (author)

  4. Consumer Use of “Dr Google”: A Survey on Health Information-Seeking Behaviors and Navigational Needs

    Lee, Kenneth; Hoti, Kreshnik; Hughes, Jeffery David

    2015-01-01

    Background The Internet provides a platform to access health information and support self-management by consumers with chronic health conditions. Despite recognized barriers to accessing Web-based health information, there is a lack of research quantitatively exploring whether consumers report difficulty finding desired health information on the Internet and whether these consumers would like assistance (ie, navigational needs). Understanding navigational needs can provide a basis for interventions guiding consumers to quality Web-based health resources. Objective We aimed to (1) estimate the proportion of consumers with navigational needs among seekers of Web-based health information with chronic health conditions, (2) describe Web-based health information-seeking behaviors, level of patient activation, and level of eHealth literacy among consumers with navigational needs, and (3) explore variables predicting navigational needs. Methods A questionnaire was developed based on findings from a qualitative study on Web-based health information-seeking behaviors and navigational needs. This questionnaire also incorporated the eHealth Literacy Scale (eHEALS; a measure of self-perceived eHealth literacy) and PAM-13 (a measure of patient activation). The target population was consumers of Web-based health information with chronic health conditions. We surveyed a sample of 400 Australian adults, with recruitment coordinated by Qualtrics. This sample size was required to estimate the proportion of consumers identified with navigational needs with a precision of 4.9% either side of the true population value, with 95% confidence. A subsample was invited to retake the survey after 2 weeks to assess the test-retest reliability of the eHEALS and PAM-13. Results Of 514 individuals who met our eligibility criteria, 400 (77.8%) completed the questionnaire and 43 participants completed the retest. Approximately half (51.3%; 95% CI 46.4-56.2) of the population was identified with

  5. Engaging African American Fathers in Behavioral Parent Training: To Adapt or Not Adapt

    Kohl, Patricia L.; Seay, Kristen D.

    2015-01-01

    The Positive Parenting Program, Triple P, is an evidence-based parenting program with strong empirical support that increases parenting skills and decreases child behavior problems. Few studies on Triple P include fathers or African American fathers. This study was undertaken to determine if adaptation to Triple P level 4 is necessary to ensure fit with urban African American fathers.

  6. Navigating a Murky Adaptive Comanagement Governance Network: Agua Fria Watershed, Arizona, USA

    Cameron Childs

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive comanagement endeavors to increase knowledge and responsiveness in the face of uncertainty and complexity. However, when collaboration between agency and nonagency stakeholders is mandated, rigid institutions may hinder participation and ecological outcomes. In this case study we analyzed qualitative data to understand how participants perceive strengths and challenges within an emerging adaptive comanagement in the Agua Fria Watershed in Arizona, USA that utilizes insight and personnel from a long-enduring comanagement project, Las Cienegas. Our work demonstrates that general lessons and approaches from one project may be transferable, but particular institutions, management structures, or projects must be place-specific. As public agencies establish and expand governance networks throughout the western United States, our case study has shed light on how to maintain a shared vision and momentum within an inherently murky and shared decision-making environment.

  7. Cognitive and Adaptive Behavior Outcomes of Behavioral Intervention for Young Children with Intellectual Disability

    Eldevik, Sigmund; Jahr, Erik; Eikeseth, Svein; Hastings, Richard P.; Hughes, Carl J.

    2010-01-01

    Data from Norway were analyzed to evaluate early behavioral intervention for children with intellectual disabilities. The intervention group (n = 11) received approximately 10 hours per week of behavioral intervention; the eclectic comparison group (n = 14) received treatment as usual. After 1 year, changes in intelligence and adaptive behavior…

  8. Adaptive Human-Aware Robot Navigation in Close Proximity to Humans

    Svenstrup, Mikael; Hansen, Søren Tranberg; Andersen, Hans Jørgen;

    2011-01-01

    For robots to be able coexist with people in future everyday human environments, they must be able to act in a safe, natural and comfortable way. This work addresses the motion of a mobile robot in an environment, where humans potentially want to interact with it. The designed system consists of ...... wishes to interact, and that the system is capable of adapting to changing behaviours of the humans in the environment....

  9. Dispersal, behavioral responses and thermal adaptation in Musca domestica

    Kjaersgaard, Anders; Blackenhorn, Wolf U.; Pertoldi, Cino;

    Behavioral traits can have great impact on an organism’s ability to cope with or avoidance of thermal stress, and are therefore of evolutionary importance for thermal adaptation. We compared the morphology, heat resistance, locomotor (walking and flying) activity and flight performance of three......) Spanish flies flew longest and Danish flies shortest. Swiss flies were the most active in terms of locomotor activity at the benign temperature (24°C), whereas the Spanish flies were able to stay active longer at the high temperature (43°C). Population differences in behavioral traits and heat resistance...

  10. Biologically-Inspired Adaptive Obstacle Negotiation Behavior of Hexapod Robots

    Dennis eGoldschmidt

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurobiological studies have shown that insects are able to adapt leg movements and posture for obstacle negotiation in changing environments. Moreover, the distance to an obstacle where an insect begins to climb is found to be a major parameter for successful obstacle negotiation. Inspired by these findings, we present an adaptive neural control mechanism for obstacle negotiation behavior in hexapod robots. It combines locomotion control, backbone joint control, local leg reflexes, and neural learning. While the first three components generate locomotion including walking and climbing, the neural learning mechanism allows the robot to adapt its behavior for obstacle negotiation with respect to changing conditions, e.g., variable obstacle heights and different walking gaits. By successfully learning the association of an early, predictive signal (conditioned stimulus, CS and a late, reflex signal (unconditioned stimulus, UCS, both provided by ultrasonic sensors at the front of the robot, the robot can autonomously find an appropriate distance from an obstacle to initiate climbing. The adaptive neural control was developed and tested first on a physical robot simulation, and was then successfully transferred to a real hexapod robot, called AMOS II. The results show that the robot can efficiently negotiate obstacles with a height up to 85% of the robot's leg length in simulation and 75% in a real environment.

  11. Adaptive behavior of neighboring neurons during adaptation-induced plasticity of orientation tuning in V1

    Shumikhina Svetlana

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sensory neurons display transient changes of their response properties following prolonged exposure to an appropriate stimulus (adaptation. In adult cat primary visual cortex, orientation-selective neurons shift their preferred orientation after being adapted to a non-preferred orientation. The direction of those shifts, towards (attractive or away (repulsive from the adapter depends mostly on adaptation duration. How the adaptive behavior of a neuron is related to that of its neighbors remains unclear. Results Here we show that in most cases (75%, cells shift their preferred orientation in the same direction as their neighbors. We also found that cells shifting preferred orientation differently from their neighbors (25% display three interesting properties: (i larger variance of absolute shift amplitude, (ii wider tuning bandwidth and (iii larger range of preferred orientations among the cluster of cells. Several response properties of V1 neurons depend on their location within the cortical orientation map. Our results suggest that recording sites with both attractive and repulsive shifts following adaptation may be located in close proximity to iso-orientation domain boundaries or pinwheel centers. Indeed, those regions have a more diverse orientation distribution of local inputs that could account for the three properties above. On the other hand, sites with all cells shifting their preferred orientation in the same direction could be located within iso-orientation domains. Conclusions Our results suggest that the direction and amplitude of orientation preference shifts in V1 depend on location within the orientation map. This anisotropy of adaptation-induced plasticity, comparable to that of the visual cortex itself, could have important implications for our understanding of visual adaptation at the psychophysical level.

  12. Adaptive behavior in Chinese children with Williams syndrome

    2014-01-01

    Background Williams syndrome (WS) is a neurodevelopmental disease characterized by compelling psychological phenotypes. The symptoms span multiple cognitive domains and include a distinctive pattern of social behavior. The goal of this study was to explore adaptive behavior in WS patients in China. Methods We conducted a structured interview including the Infants-Junior Middle School Students Social-life Abilities Scale in three participant groups: children with WS (n = 26), normally-developing children matched for mental age (MA, n = 30), and normally-developing children matched for chronological age (CA, n = 40). We compared the mean scores for each domain between the three groups. Results Children with WS had more siblings than children in the two control groups. The educational level of the caregivers of WS children was lower than that of the control children. We found no differences in locomotion, work skill, socialization, or self-management between the WS and MA groups. WS children obtained higher scores of self-dependence (df = 54, Z = −2.379, p = 0.017) and had better communication skills (df = 54, Z = −2.222, p = 0.026) compared with MA children. The CA children achieved higher scores than the WS children for all dimensions of adaptive behavior. Conclusions WS children have better adaptive behavior skills regarding communication and self-dependence than normal children matched for mental age. Targeted intervention techniques should be designed to promote social development in this population. PMID:24708693

  13. Human adaptive behavior in common pool resource systems.

    Gunnar Brandt

    Full Text Available Overexploitation of common-pool resources, resulting from uncooperative harvest behavior, is a major problem in many social-ecological systems. Feedbacks between user behavior and resource productivity induce non-linear dynamics in the harvest and the resource stock that complicate the understanding and the prediction of the co-evolutionary system. With an adaptive model constrained by data from a behavioral economic experiment, we show that users' expectations of future pay-offs vary as a result of the previous harvest experience, the time-horizon, and the ability to communicate. In our model, harvest behavior is a trait that adjusts to continuously changing potential returns according to a trade-off between the users' current harvest and the discounted future productivity of the resource. Given a maximum discount factor, which quantifies the users' perception of future pay-offs, the temporal dynamics of harvest behavior and ecological resource can be predicted. Our results reveal a non-linear relation between the previous harvest and current discount rates, which is most sensitive around a reference harvest level. While higher than expected returns resulting from cooperative harvesting in the past increase the importance of future resource productivity and foster sustainability, harvests below the reference level lead to a downward spiral of increasing overexploitation and disappointing returns.

  14. Chaotic Patterns in Lotka-Volterra Systems with Behavioral Adaptation

    Lacitignola, D.; Tebaldi, C.

    2006-03-01

    We study the properties of a n2-dimensional Lotka-Volterra system describing competition among species with behaviorally adaptive abilities, in which one species is made ecologically differentiated with respect to the others by carrying capacity and intrinsic growth rate. The case in which one species has a carrying capacity higher than the others is considered here. Stability of equilibria and time-dependent regimes have been investigated in the case of four species: an interesting example of chaotic window and period-adding sequences is presented and discussed.

  15. Adaptive vocal behavior drives perception by echolocation in bats

    Moss, Cynthia F; Chiu, Chen; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2011-01-01

    Echolocation operates through adaptive sensorimotor systems that collectively enable the bat to localize and track sonar objects as it flies. The features of sonar signals used by a bat to probe its surroundings determine the information available to its acoustic imaging system. In turn, the bat......'s perception of a complex scene guides its active adjustments in the features of subsequent sonar vocalizations. Here, we propose that the bat's active vocal-motor behaviors play directly into its representation of a dynamic auditory scene....

  16. Observations of the Behavior and Distribution of Fish in Relation to the Columbia River Navigation Channel and Channel Maintenance Activities

    Carlson, Thomas J.; Ploskey, Gene R.; Johnson, R. L.; Mueller, Robert P.; Weiland, Mark A.; Johnson, P. N.

    2001-10-19

    This report is a compilation of 7 studies conducted for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers between 1995 and 1998 which used hydroacoustic methods to study the behavior of migrating salmon in response to navigation channel maintenance activities in the lower Columbia River near river mile 45. Differences between daytime and nighttime behavior and fish densities were noted. Comparisons were made of fish distribution across the river (in the channel, channel margin or near shore) and fish depth upstream and downstream of dikes, dredges, and pile driving areas.

  17. The Pupillary Orienting Response Predicts Adaptive Behavioral Adjustment after Errors.

    Peter R Murphy

    Full Text Available Reaction time (RT is commonly observed to slow down after an error. This post-error slowing (PES has been thought to arise from the strategic adoption of a more cautious response mode following deployment of cognitive control. Recently, an alternative account has suggested that PES results from interference due to an error-evoked orienting response. We investigated whether error-related orienting may in fact be a pre-cursor to adaptive post-error behavioral adjustment when the orienting response resolves before subsequent trial onset. We measured pupil dilation, a prototypical measure of autonomic orienting, during performance of a choice RT task with long inter-stimulus intervals, and found that the trial-by-trial magnitude of the error-evoked pupil response positively predicted both PES magnitude and the likelihood that the following response would be correct. These combined findings suggest that the magnitude of the error-related orienting response predicts an adaptive change of response strategy following errors, and thereby promote a reconciliation of the orienting and adaptive control accounts of PES.

  18. Learning about stress: neural, endocrine and behavioral adaptations.

    McCarty, Richard

    2016-09-01

    In this review, nonassociative learning is advanced as an organizing principle to draw together findings from both sympathetic-adrenal medullary and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis responses to chronic intermittent exposure to a variety of stressors. Studies of habituation, facilitation and sensitization of stress effector systems are reviewed and linked to an animal's prior experience with a given stressor, the intensity of the stressor and the appraisal by the animal of its ability to mobilize physiological systems to adapt to the stressor. Brain pathways that regulate physiological and behavioral responses to stress are discussed, especially in light of their regulation of nonassociative processes in chronic intermittent stress. These findings may have special relevance to various psychiatric diseases, including depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). PMID:27294884

  19. [Adaptive behaviors to HIV risk of transmission in different populations].

    Grémy, I

    2005-05-01

    Since the beginning of the HIV epidemic in France, surveys aimed at better understanding risk perceptions of HIV infection and preventive sexual behaviors have been implemented in the general population, and in populations such as IVDU and homosexual men, more concerned by risks of HIV transmission. The objective of this article is to describe these surveys, to present their main results and to assess what has been the overall impact of prevention campaigns on the adoption of preventive sexual behaviors in these populations. The results show that very early after the beginning of the AIDS epidemic, both general and homosexual populations have adopted preventive sexual behaviors, mainly increasing condom use and implementing other preventive strategies. However, with the introduction of HAART in 1996, a slackening of these preventive behaviors is noted. The use of condom is less frequent, especially in the youngest generations of both general and homosexual populations. On the opposite, among IVDU, the use of sterile syringes increased dramatically as soon as over-the-counter sales of syringes was authorized in 1987, as well as the adoption of ways other than intravenous to take drugs. Both have contributed to almost stop the HIV epidemic in this specific group. The results of these surveys show that the benefits of prevention campaigns are different between populations and are reversible. It is necessary to renew the messages, campaigns and programs of prevention with the renewal of generations. It is also necessary to adapt these messages to the new scientific data, and to the evolution of social and individual representations of the disease. PMID:15878250

  20. Qualitative Analysis of RSSI Behavior in Cooperative Wireless Body Area Networks for Mobility Detection and Navigation Applications

    Denis, B; Amiot, Nicolas; Uguen, Bernard; Guizar, A; Goursaud, Claire; Goursaud, C; Ouni, A; Chaudet, C

    2014-01-01

    —In this paper, we account for radio-location exper-iments aiming at both indoor navigation and mobility detection applications for Wireless Body Area Networks (WBAN). This measurement campaign involved IEEE 802.15.4-compliant inte-grated radio devices organized within a full mesh topology over on-body and off-body links. The latter devices produce peer-to-peer Received Signal Strength Indicators (RSSI) that could feed ranging, positioning or tracking algorithms. An in-depth behavioral analys...

  1. The Glenwood Assessment of Behavior of the Mentally Retarded: A Well-Factored Scale of Adaptive Behavior.

    Larsen, Gary Y.

    The paper describes the reasons for developing a new instrument to measure adaptive behavior of mentally retarded residents at Glenwood State Hospital-School and recounts the processes involved in constructing the new scale. Among complaints about the American Association on Mental Deficiency Adaptive Behavior Scale (ABS) are its inappropriateness…

  2. Coordination pattern adaptability: energy cost of degenerate behaviors.

    Seifert, Ludovic; Komar, John; Crettenand, Florent; Millet, Grégoire

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated behavioral adaptability, which could be defined as a blend between stability and flexibility of the limbs movement and their inter-limb coordination, when individuals received informational constraints. Seven expert breaststroke swimmers performed three 200-m in breaststroke at constant submaximal intensity. Each trial was performed randomly in a different coordination pattern: 'freely-chosen', 'maximal glide' and 'minimal glide'. Two underwater and four aerial cameras enabled 3D movement analysis in order to assess elbow and knee angles, elbow-knee pair coordination, intra-cyclic velocity variations of the center of mass, stroke rate and stroke length and inter-limb coordination. The energy cost of locomotion was calculated from gas exchanges and blood lactate concentration. The results showed significantly higher glide, intra-cyclic velocity variations and energy cost under 'maximal glide' compared to 'freely-chosen' instructional conditions, as well as higher reorganization of limb movement and inter-limb coordination (padaptations can functionally satisfy the task-goal. PMID:25255016

  3. Adaptive Behavior among Adults with Intellectual Disabilities and Its Relationship to Community Independence

    Woolf, Steve; Woolf, Christine Merman; Oakland, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    This study examined relationships between general adaptive behavior and the degree of community independence displayed by 272 adults with intellectual disabilities. Specifically, the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-Second Edition (ABAS-II; Harrison & Oakland, 2003) was completed for each participant and compared with actual levels of work and…

  4. Adaptive Skills, Behavior Problems, and Parenting Stress in Mothers of Boys with Fragile X Syndrome

    Sarimski, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    The relationship of temperament, atypical behaviors, and adaptive behavior of young boys with Fragile X syndrome on mothers' parenting stress was analyzed. Twenty-six boys with Fragile X syndrome (30-88 months of age) participated. The overall development of the participants was significantly delayed with a specific profile of adaptive behaviors…

  5. Longitudinal Examination of Adaptive Behavior in Autism Spectrum Disorders: Influence of Executive Function

    Pugliese, Cara E.; Anthony, Laura Gutermuth; Strang, John F.; Dudley, Katerina; Wallace, Gregory L.; Naiman, Daniel Q.; Kenworthy, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    This study characterizes longitudinal change in adaptive behavior in 64 children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) without intellectual disability evaluated on multiple occasions, and examines whether prior estimate of executive function (EF) problems predicts future adaptive behavior scores. Compared to standardized estimates…

  6. Do Children With Fragile X Syndrome Show Declines or Plateaus in Adaptive Behavior?

    Hahn, Laura J; Brady, Nancy C; Warren, Steven F; Fleming, Kandace K

    2015-09-01

    This study explores if children with fragile X syndrome (FXS) show advances, declines, or plateaus in adaptive behavior over time and the relationship of nonverbal cognitive abilities and autistic behavior on these trajectories. Parents of 55 children with FXS completed the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales ( Sparrow, Balla, & Cicchetti, 1984 ; Sparrow, Cicchetti, & Balla, 2005 ) between 3 and 6 times from 2 to 10 years of age. Using raw scores, results indicate that about half of the sample showed advances in adaptive behavior, whereas the other half showed declines, indicating a regression in skills. Children who were more cognitively advanced and had less autistic behaviors had higher trajectories. Understanding the developmental course of adaptive behavior in FXS has implications for educational planning and intervention, especially for those children showing declines. PMID:26322389

  7. Neural Network-Based Landmark Recognition and Navigation with IAMRs. Understanding the Principles of Thought and Behavior.

    Doty, Keith L.

    1999-01-01

    Research on neural networks and hippocampal function demonstrating how mammals construct mental maps and develop navigation strategies is being used to create Intelligent Autonomous Mobile Robots (IAMRs). Such robots are able to recognize landmarks and navigate without "vision." (SK)

  8. Fuzzy Logic Based Behavior Fusion for Navigation of an Intelligent Mobile Robot

    李伟; 陈祖舜; 等

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents a new method for behavior fusion control of a mobile robot in uncertain environments.Using behavior fusion by fuzzy logic,a mobile robot is able to directly execute its motion according to range information about environments,acquired by ultrasonic sensors,without the need for trajectory planning.Based on low-level behavior control,an efficient strategy for integrating high-level global planning for robot motion can be formulated,since,in most applications,some information on environments is prior knowledge.A global planner,therefore,only to generate some subgoal positions rather than exact geometric paths.Because such subgoals can be easily removed from or added into the plannes,this strategy reduces computational time for global planning and is flexible for replanning in dynamic environments.Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed strategy can be applied to robot motion in complex and dynamic environments.

  9. A quantitative evolutionary theory of adaptive behavior dynamics.

    McDowell, J J

    2013-10-01

    The idea that behavior is selected by its consequences in a process analogous to organic evolution has been discussed for over 100 years. A recently proposed theory instantiates this idea by means of a genetic algorithm that operates on a population of potential behaviors. Behaviors in the population are represented by numbers in decimal integer (phenotypic) and binary bit string (genotypic) forms. One behavior from the population is emitted at random each time tick, after which a new population of potential behaviors is constructed by recombining parent behavior bit strings. If the emitted behavior produced a benefit to the organism, then parents are chosen on the basis of their phenotypic similarity to the emitted behavior; otherwise, they are chosen at random. After parent behavior recombination, the population is subjected to a small amount of mutation by flipping random bits in the population's bit strings. The behavior generated by this process of selection, reproduction, and mutation reaches equilibrium states that conform to every empirically valid equation of matching theory, exactly and without systematic error. These equations are known to describe the behavior of many vertebrate species, including humans, in a variety of experimental, naturalistic, natural, and social environments. The evolutionary theory also generates instantaneous dynamics and patterns of preference change in constantly changing environments that are consistent with the dynamics of live-organism behavior. These findings support the assertion that the world of behavior we observe and measure is generated by evolutionary dynamics. PMID:24219847

  10. Multigroup Confirmatory Factor Analysis for the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-II Parent Form, Ages 5-21

    Wei, Youhua; Oakland, Thomas; Algina, James

    2008-01-01

    The AAIDD has promulgated various models of adaptive behavior, including its 1992 model stressing 10 adaptive skills and its 2002 model that highlighted three conceptual domains. In previous studies on the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-II (ABAS-II), researchers found support for a model including both 10 adaptive skills and three conceptual…

  11. BEHAVIOR EVOLUTION OF WEB SERVICES WITH DYNAMIC ADAPTATION

    Ginjala Srikanth Reddy; Bagam Laxmaiah

    2013-01-01

    Web services are self contained, self-describing modular application that can be published, located, and invoked across the Web‖. The Business Organization and many companies provides their services to meet new needs, technological changes and requirements of these users. So the providers and web designers to provides the needs of Adaptable Web Services that supports the existing features as well as new features also. we mean to be able to automatically adapt the business processes at run-t...

  12. Reconciling White-Box and Black-Box Perspectives on Behavioral Self-adaptation

    Bruni, Roberto; Corradini, Andrea; Gadducci, Fabio; Hölzl, Matthias; Lluch Lafuente, Alberto; Vandin, Andrea; Wirsing, Martin

    This paper proposes to reconcile two perspectives on behavioral adaptation commonly taken at different stages of the engineering of autonomic computing systems. Requirements engineering activities often take a black-box perspective: A system is considered to be adaptive with respect to an...... environment whenever the system is able to satisfy its goals irrespectively of the environment perturbations. Modeling and programming engineering activities often take a white-box perspective: A system is equipped with suitable adaptation mechanisms and its behavior is classified as adaptive depending on...... whether the adaptation mechanisms are enacted or not. The proposed approach reconciles black- and white-box perspectives by proposing several notions of coherence between the adaptivity as observed by the two perspectives: These notions provide useful criteria for the system developer to assess and...

  13. Adapted Behavior Therapy for Persistently Depressed Primary Care Patients: An Open Trial

    Uebelacker, Lisa A.; Weisberg, Risa B.; Haggarty, Ryan; Miller, Ivan W.

    2009-01-01

    Major depressive disorder is commonly treated in primary care settings. Psychotherapy occurring in primary care should take advantage of the unique aspects of the setting and must adapt to the problems and limitations of the setting. In this open trial, the authors used a treatment development model to adapt behavior therapy for primary care…

  14. Profiles of School Adaptation: Social, Behavioral and Academic Functioning in Sexually Abused Girls

    Daignault, Isabelle V.; Hebert, Martine

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: The short-term outcomes of child sexual abuse (CSA) on academic, behavioral and social adaptation at school were examined in order to: (1) document the proportion of sexually abused (SA) girls struggling in school and define the nature of their difficulties, (2) explore whether different profiles of school adaptation could be…

  15. Systematic Review of Engagement in Culturally Adapted Parent Training for Disruptive Behavior

    Butler, Ashley M.; Titus, Courtney

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews the literature reporting engagement (enrollment, attendance, and attrition) in culturally adapted parent training for disruptive behavior among racial/ethnic minority parents of children ages 2 to 7 years. The review describes the reported rates of engagement in adapted interventions and how engagement is analyzed in studies,…

  16. Adaptive Behavior and Development of Infants and Toddlers with Williams Syndrome

    Kirchner, Rebecca M.; Martens, Marilee A.; Andridge, Rebecca R.

    2016-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that causes deficits in adaptive behavior, difficulties eating and sleeping, cognitive delays, and delayed development. Although researchers have conducted characterizations of children and adults with WS, less is known about young children with this disorder. This study characterizes the developmental and adaptive behavior features of 16 infants and toddlers with WS aged 3 months – 5 years. Data for this project was obtained from 2007 t...

  17. A Self-Adaptive Behavior-Aware Recruitment Scheme for Participatory Sensing

    Yuanyuan Zeng; Deshi Li

    2015-01-01

    Participatory sensing services utilizing the abundant social participants with sensor-enabled handheld smart device resources are gaining high interest nowadays. One of the challenges faced is the recruitment of participants by fully utilizing their daily activity behavior with self-adaptiveness toward the realistic application scenarios. In the paper, we propose a self-adaptive behavior-aware recruitment scheme for participatory sensing. People are assumed to join the sensing tasks along wi...

  18. Discovery of Individual User Navigation Styles

    Herder, E.; Juvina, I.

    2004-01-01

    Individual differences have been shown to lead to different navigation styles. In this paper we present a pilot study that aims at finding predictors for users’ vulnerability to experience disorientation that can be gathered unobtrusively and in real-time. We identified two navigation styles that we called flimsy navigation and laborious navigation that together predict users’ perceived disorientation. Our findings suggest that adaptive navigation support that addresses these navigation style...

  19. Behavioral training promotes multiple adaptive processes following acute hearing loss

    Keating, P; Rosenior-Patten, O.; Dahmen, J. C.; Bell, O.; King, A. J.

    2016-01-01

    eLife digest The brain normally compares the timing and intensity of the sounds that reach each ear to work out a sound’s origin. Hearing loss in one ear disrupts these between-ear comparisons, which causes listeners to make errors in this process. With time, however, the brain adapts to this hearing loss and once again learns to localize sounds accurately. Previous research has shown that young ferrets can adapt to hearing loss in one ear in two distinct ways. The ferrets either learn to rem...

  20. Translation, adaptation, and preliminary validation of the Brazilian version of the Behavior Problems Inventory (BPI-01

    Gisele da Silva Baraldi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Children with atypical development often present behavior problems that impair their psychosocial adaptation. Objective: To describe the cultural adaptation to Brazilian Portuguese of the Behavior Problems Inventory (BPI-01, as well as preliminary indicators of instrument reliability and validity. Methods: The process involved translation, back-translation, and cultural adaptation of the instrument. Psychometric properties (reliability and validity were assessed comparing scores obtained with the BPI-01, the Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children and Adults, the Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 6-18 (CBCL/6-18, and the Autism Screening Questionnaire (ASQ. The sample comprised 60 children (30 typically developing and 30 atypically developing. Results: The cultural adaptation process was considered adequate. Internal consistency of the BPI-01 was satisfactory, with a Cronbach's alpha of 0.65 for the self-injurious behavior scale, 0.82 for stereotyped behaviors, and 0.91 for aggressive/destructive behaviors. Considering a mean frequency of 0.5, the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve revealed 80% sensitivity and 3% specificity in the stereotyped behavior scale, 50 and 10% in aggressive/destructive behaviors, and 76 and 6% in self-injurious behaviors, respectively. Low-to-moderate correlations were observed between BPI-01, ASQ, and CBCL/6-18 scores. Conclusion: BPI-01 showed good psychometric properties, with satisfactory preliminary indicators of reliability, convergent validity, and sensitivity for the diagnosis of atypical development.

  1. Kindergarten Children's Perceptions of "Anthropomorphic Artifacts" with Adaptive Behavior

    Kuperman, Asi; Mioduser, David

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, children from a kindergarten in central Israel have been exposed to learning experiences in technology as part of the implementation of a curriculum based on technological thinking, including topics related to behaving-adaptive-artifacts (e.g., robots). This study aims to unveil children's stance towards behaving artifacts:…

  2. Avoid, attack or do both? Behavioral and physiological adaptations in natural enemies faced with novel hosts

    Brown Sam P

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Confronted with well-defended, novel hosts, should an enemy invest in avoidance of these hosts (behavioral adaptation, neutralization of the defensive innovation (physiological adaptation or both? Although simultaneous investment in both adaptations may first appear to be redundant, several empirical studies have suggested a reinforcement of physiological resistance to host defenses with additional avoidance behaviors. To explain this paradox, we develop a mathematical model describing the joint evolution of behavioral and physiological adaptations on the part of natural enemies to their host defenses. Our specific goals are (i to derive the conditions that may favor the simultaneous investment in avoidance and physiological resistance and (ii to study the factors that govern the relative investment in each adaptation mode. Results Our results show that (i a simultaneous investment may be optimal if the fitness costs of the adaptive traits are accelerating and the probability of encountering defended hosts is low. When (i holds, we find that (ii the more that defended hosts are rare and/or spatially aggregated, the more behavioral adaptation is favored. Conclusion Despite their interference, physiological resistance to host defensive innovations and avoidance of these same defenses are two strategies in which it may be optimal for an enemy to invest in simultaneously. The relative allocation to each strategy greatly depends on host spatial structure. We discuss the implications of our findings for the management of invasive plant species and the management of pest resistance to new crop protectants or varieties.

  3. Adaptive Thermal Comfort in Japanese Houses during the Summer Season: Behavioral Adaptation and the Effect of Humidity

    Hom B. Rijal

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to clarify effect of humidity on the room temperatures reported to be comfortable, an occupant thermal comfort and behavior survey was conducted for five summers in the living rooms and bedrooms of residences in the Kanto region of Japan. We have collected 13,525 thermal comfort votes from over 239 residents of 120 homes, together with corresponding measurements of room temperature and humidity of the air. The residents were generally well-satisfied with the thermal environment of their houses, with or without the use of air-conditioning, and thus were well-adapted to their thermal conditions. The humidity was found to have very little direct effect on the comfort temperature. However, the comfort temperature was strongly related to the reported skin moisture. Behavioral adaptation such as window opening and fan use increase air movement and improve thermal comfort.

  4. Visual Behaviors and Adaptations Associated with Cortical and Ocular Impairment in Children.

    Jan, J. E.; Groenveld, M.

    1993-01-01

    This article shows the usefulness of understanding visual behaviors in the diagnosis of various types of visual impairments that are due to ocular and cortical disorders. Behaviors discussed include nystagmus, ocular motor dyspraxia, head position, close viewing, field loss adaptations, mannerisms, photophobia, and abnormal color perception. (JDD)

  5. Researching Travel Behavior and Adaptability: Using a Virtual Reality Role-Playing Game

    Watcharasukarn, Montira; Krumdieck, Susan; Green, Richard; Dantas, Andre

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a virtual reality role-playing game that was developed as a survey tool to collect travel behavior data and explore and monitor travel behavior adaptation. The Advanced Energy and Material Systems Laboratory has designed, developed a prototype, and tested such a game platform survey tool, called Travel Activity Constraint…

  6. Making Sense by Building Sense: Kindergarten Children's Construction and Understanding of Adaptive Robot Behaviors

    Mioduser, David; Levy, Sharona T.

    2010-01-01

    This study explores young children's ability to construct and explain adaptive behaviors of a behaving artifact, an autonomous mobile robot with sensors. A central component of the behavior construction environment is the RoboGan software that supports children's construction of spatiotemporal events with an a-temporal rule structure. Six…

  7. An effective algorithm for approximating adaptive behavior in seasonal environments

    Sainmont, Julie; Andersen, Ken Haste; Thygesen, Uffe Høgsbro;

    2015-01-01

    large global models because of their high computational demand. We compare an easily integrated, computationally efficient behavioral algorithm known as Gilliam's rule against the solution from a life-history optimization. The approximation takes into account only the current conditions to optimize...... behavior; the so-called "myopic approximation", "short sighted", or "static optimization". We explore the performance of the myopic approximation with diel vertical migration (DVM) as an example of a daily routine, a behavior with seasonal dependence that trades off predation risk with foraging...... opportunities in aquatic environments. The myopic approximation proves to be a robust replacement for the life-history optimization, deviating only up to 25% in regions of strong seasonality. The myopic approximation has additional advantages in that it can readily accommodate density dependence and inter...

  8. Study of the Algorithm of Backtracking Decoupling and Adaptive Extended Kalman Filter Based on the Quaternion Expanded to the State Variable for Underwater Glider Navigation

    Haoqian Huang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available High accuracy attitude and position determination is very important for underwater gliders. The cross-coupling among three attitude angles (heading angle, pitch angle and roll angle becomes more serious when pitch or roll motion occurs. This cross-coupling makes attitude angles inaccurate or even erroneous. Therefore, the high accuracy attitude and position determination becomes a difficult problem for a practical underwater glider. To solve this problem, this paper proposes backing decoupling and adaptive extended Kalman filter (EKF based on the quaternion expanded to the state variable (BD-AEKF. The backtracking decoupling can eliminate effectively the cross-coupling among the three attitudes when pitch or roll motion occurs. After decoupling, the adaptive extended Kalman filter (AEKF based on quaternion expanded to the state variable further smoothes the filtering output to improve the accuracy and stability of attitude and position determination. In order to evaluate the performance of the proposed BD-AEKF method, the pitch and roll motion are simulated and the proposed method performance is analyzed and compared with the traditional method. Simulation results demonstrate the proposed BD-AEKF performs better. Furthermore, for further verification, a new underwater navigation system is designed, and the three-axis non-magnetic turn table experiments and the vehicle experiments are done. The results show that the proposed BD-AEKF is effective in eliminating cross-coupling and reducing the errors compared with the conventional method.

  9. Study of the algorithm of backtracking decoupling and adaptive extended Kalman filter based on the quaternion expanded to the state variable for underwater glider navigation.

    Huang, Haoqian; Chen, Xiyuan; Zhou, Zhikai; Xu, Yuan; Lv, Caiping

    2014-01-01

    High accuracy attitude and position determination is very important for underwater gliders. The cross-coupling among three attitude angles (heading angle, pitch angle and roll angle) becomes more serious when pitch or roll motion occurs. This cross-coupling makes attitude angles inaccurate or even erroneous. Therefore, the high accuracy attitude and position determination becomes a difficult problem for a practical underwater glider. To solve this problem, this paper proposes backing decoupling and adaptive extended Kalman filter (EKF) based on the quaternion expanded to the state variable (BD-AEKF). The backtracking decoupling can eliminate effectively the cross-coupling among the three attitudes when pitch or roll motion occurs. After decoupling, the adaptive extended Kalman filter (AEKF) based on quaternion expanded to the state variable further smoothes the filtering output to improve the accuracy and stability of attitude and position determination. In order to evaluate the performance of the proposed BD-AEKF method, the pitch and roll motion are simulated and the proposed method performance is analyzed and compared with the traditional method. Simulation results demonstrate the proposed BD-AEKF performs better. Furthermore, for further verification, a new underwater navigation system is designed, and the three-axis non-magnetic turn table experiments and the vehicle experiments are done. The results show that the proposed BD-AEKF is effective in eliminating cross-coupling and reducing the errors compared with the conventional method. PMID:25479331

  10. Multigroup Confirmatory Factor Analysis for the Teacher Form, Ages 5 to 21, of the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-II

    Aricak, O. Tolga; Oakland, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities has promulgated various models of adaptive behavior, including its 1992 model that highlighted 10 adaptive skills and its 2002 model that highlighted three conceptual domains. The Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-II (ABAS-II) was designed to be consistent with these models.…

  11. Options for Managing Student Behavior: Adaptations for Individual Needs.

    Richardson, Rita C.; Evans, Elizabeth T.

    This paper applies principles of situational leadership theory to the management of student behavior problems. First, it summarizes situational leadership, noting the theory's premise that leaders must consider two important factors to gain acceptance and compliance in managing people--the maturity level of the individuals and the nature of the…

  12. Navigation systems

    Ocepek, Marjan

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis we present different navigation systems which may be used also in surveying. Map as a basis of navigation is described at the beginning. Next, we focus on navigation based on celestial bodies. We present basic terms such as navigation and orientation and describe some primitive methods, which had been used for orientation without compass. We present two important time keeping instruments that facilitated the process of position determination, the chronometer and chronograph, an...

  13. Statistical behavior of adaptive multilevel splitting algorithms in simple models

    Rolland, Joran

    2014-01-01

    Adaptive multilevel splitting algorithms have been introduced rather recently for estimating tail distributions in a fast and efficient way. In particular, they can be used for computing the so-called reactive trajectories corresponding to direct transitions from one metastable state to another. The algorithm is based on successive selection-mutation steps performed on the system in a controlled way. It has two intrinsic parameters, the number of particles/trajectories and the reaction coordinate used for discriminating good or bad trajectories. We investigate first the convergence in law of the algorithm as a function of the timestep for several simple stochastic models. Second, we consider the average duration of reactive trajectories for which no theoretical predictions exist. The most important aspect of this work concerns some systems with two degrees of freedom. They are studied in details as a function of the reaction coordinate in the asymptotic regime where the number of trajectories goes to infinity...

  14. Complex Features in Lotka-Volterra Systems with Behavioral Adaptation

    Tebaldi, Claudio; Lacitignola, Deborah

    Lotka-Volterra systems have played a fundamental role for mathematical modelling in many branches of theoretical biology and proved to describe, at least qualitatively, the essential features of many phenomena, see for example Murray [Murray 2002]. Furthermore models of that kind have been considered successfully also in quite different and less mathematically formalized context: Goodwin' s model of economic growth cycles [Goodwin 1967] and urban dynamics [Dendrinos 1992] are only two of a number of examples. Such systems can certainly be defined as complex ones and in fact the aim of modelling was essentially to clarify mechanims rather than to provide actual precise simulations and predictions. With regards to complex systems, we recall that one of their main feature, no matter of the specific definition one has in mind, is adaptation, i. e. the ability to adjust.

  15. Consumer Use of “Dr Google”: A Survey on Health Information-Seeking Behaviors and Navigational Needs

    Lee, Kenneth; Hoti, Kreshnik; Hughes, Jeffery David; Emmerton, Lynne

    2015-01-01

    Background The Internet provides a platform to access health information and support self-management by consumers with chronic health conditions. Despite recognized barriers to accessing Web-based health information, there is a lack of research quantitatively exploring whether consumers report difficulty finding desired health information on the Internet and whether these consumers would like assistance (ie, navigational needs). Understanding navigational needs can provide a basis for interve...

  16. Control of cognition and adaptive behavior by the GLP/G9a epigenetic suppressor complex

    Schaefer, Anne; Sampath, Srihari C.; Intrator, Adam; Min, Alice; Gertler, Tracy S.; Surmeier, D. James; Tarakhovsky, Alexander; Greengard, Paul

    2009-01-01

    The genetic basis of cognition and behavioral adaptation to the environment remains poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that the histone methyltransferase complex GLP/G9a controls cognition and adaptive responses in a region-specific fashion in the adult brain. Using conditional mutagenesis in mice, we show that postnatal, neuron-specific deficiency of GLP/G9a leads to de-repression of numerous non-neuronal and neuron progenitor genes in adult neurons. This transcriptional alteration is as...

  17. The dimension of adaptive behavior in mental retardation research: an analysis of recent practices.

    Smith, J D; Polloway, E A

    1979-09-01

    The dimension of adaptive behavior has been accepted by many professionals as an important component of identification in mental retardation since the definitions of Heber (1961) and Grossman (1973). In order to investigate the impact of this more comprehensive concept of mental retardation on research practices, we analyzed the use of adaptive behavior in the selection and description of subjects. This investigation was based in research articles published in the Americal Journal of Mental Deficiency from 1974 through 1978. In a significant percentage of the articles reviewed, the researchers had not attended to adaptive behavior and used only measures of intellectual functioning for descriptive purposes. These results were discussed in light of the validity of research on mental retardation. Recommendations were included for future research practices. PMID:495669

  18. Stochastic adaptation and fold-change detection: from single-cell to population behavior

    Leier André

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In cell signaling terminology, adaptation refers to a system's capability of returning to its equilibrium upon a transient response. To achieve this, a network has to be both sensitive and precise. Namely, the system must display a significant output response upon stimulation, and later on return to pre-stimulation levels. If the system settles at the exact same equilibrium, adaptation is said to be 'perfect'. Examples of adaptation mechanisms include temperature regulation, calcium regulation and bacterial chemotaxis. Results We present models of the simplest adaptation architecture, a two-state protein system, in a stochastic setting. Furthermore, we consider differences between individual and collective adaptive behavior, and show how our system displays fold-change detection properties. Our analysis and simulations highlight why adaptation needs to be understood in terms of probability, and not in strict numbers of molecules. Most importantly, selection of appropriate parameters in this simple linear setting may yield populations of cells displaying adaptation, while single cells do not. Conclusions Single cell behavior cannot be inferred from population measurements and, sometimes, collective behavior cannot be determined from the individuals. By consequence, adaptation can many times be considered a purely emergent property of the collective system. This is a clear example where biological ergodicity cannot be assumed, just as is also the case when cell replication rates are not homogeneous, or depend on the cell state. Our analysis shows, for the first time, how ergodicity cannot be taken for granted in simple linear examples either. The latter holds even when cells are considered isolated and devoid of replication capabilities (cell-cycle arrested. We also show how a simple linear adaptation scheme displays fold-change detection properties, and how rupture of ergodicity prevails in scenarios where transitions between

  19. Cybernetic control model from ethology for adaptive coordination of robot behaviors

    Schlueter, Bernd

    1992-08-01

    In this paper we propose a cybernetic approach to behavior based robotics. We present a distributed adaptive control architecture for coordination of different motivations and behaviors of an autonomous vehicle. The system is based on the Zurich Model of Social Motivation, a cybernetic approach to mammalian behavior by the Swiss ethologist BISCHOF. Our system controls a simulated autonomous robot by teaching a reflective associative memory to propose an action based on the input of eight range sensors. The emerging behavior at every stage reflects the system's experience, and the robust in unexpected situations.

  20. Observations of the Behavior and Distribution of Fish in Relation to the Columbia River Navigation Channel and Channel Maintenance Activities; FINAL

    This report is a compilation of 7 studies conducted for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers between 1995 and 1998 which used hydroacoustic methods to study the behavior of migrating salmon in response to navigation channel maintenance activities in the lower Columbia River near river mile 45. Differences between daytime and nighttime behavior and fish densities were noted. Comparisons were made of fish distribution across the river (in the channel, channel margin or near shore) and fish depth upstream and downstream of dikes, dredges, and pile driving areas

  1. A Comparison of Adaptive Behaviors among Mentally Retarded and Normal Individuals: A guide to Prevention and Treatment

    Leyla Sadros

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Because of the importance of adaptive behaviors in socialand domestic lives, this study aimed at a comparison of various domainsof adaptive behaviors, between mentally retarded and normalindividuals.Methods: A number of 246 normal and 74 mentally retarded individuals(7-18 years of age, mean: 12±3.5 years, participated this study inTehran, Iran. Their adaptive behaviors scores, were obtained using"Adaptive Behavioral Scale, Residential & Community" (ABS-RC: 2,consisting of 18 domains of behavior. The scale was first translatedinto Persian by the professionals and then retranslated into English byanother translator, to ensure content non-distortion.Results: The following domains were significantly lower in mentallyretarded than in normal individuals: independent functioning, economicactivity, language development, number & time, prevocational/vocational activity, self direction, responsibility, socialization,disturbing interpersonal behavior, domestic activity, social engagement,conformity and trustworthiness. No significant difference was documentedin the physical development, stereotype & hyperactive behaviors,sexual behavior as well as self abuse behavior domains, betweenthe two groups.Conclusions: As mentally deficient subjects did worse than normalones in terms of many adaptive behavioral domains, it implies that theadaptive behavioral issues in such people might need a great deal ofattention and intervention. For these retarded people to function betterin their social and residential environment, it would be necessary todevelop their adaptive behaviors. This study may shed light on theimportance of attention to the adaptive behavioral domains of mentallyretarded people and also indicates the necessity of preventive measures,even for normal individuals.

  2. Peer Pressure and Adaptive Behavior Learning: A Study of Adolescents in Gujrat City

    Asma Yunus; Shahzad Khaver Mushtaq; Sobia Qaiser

    2012-01-01

    The study aims at discovering the influences of Peer Pressure on adaptive behavior learning in the adolescents. For the purpose two scales, Adaptive behavior scale (ABS) and Peer Pressure Scale (PPS) were developed to measure both variables. The Sample of the study was purposive in nature and comprised of late adolescents (n=120) i.e. 60 males and 60 females, from Gujrat city. Cronbach alpha was calculated and found to be significant for Peer Pressure Scale(PPS) and its subscales i.e. Belongi...

  3. Delay-induced diversity of firing behavior and ordered chaotic firing in adaptive neuronal networks

    In this paper, we study the effect of time delay on the firing behavior and temporal coherence and synchronization in Newman–Watts thermosensitive neuron networks with adaptive coupling. At beginning, the firing exhibit disordered spiking in absence of time delay. As time delay is increased, the neurons exhibit diversity of firing behaviors including bursting with multiple spikes in a burst, spiking, bursting with four, three and two spikes, firing death, and bursting with increasing amplitude. The spiking is the most ordered, exhibiting coherence resonance (CR)-like behavior, and the firing synchronization becomes enhanced with the increase of time delay. As growth rate of coupling strength or network randomness increases, CR-like behavior shifts to smaller time delay and the synchronization of firing increases. These results show that time delay can induce diversity of firing behaviors in adaptive neuronal networks, and can order the chaotic firing by enhancing and optimizing the temporal coherence and enhancing the synchronization of firing. However, the phenomenon of firing death shows that time delay may inhibit the firing of adaptive neuronal networks. These findings provide new insight into the role of time delay in the firing activity of adaptive neuronal networks, and can help to better understand the complex firing phenomena in neural networks.

  4. Interpreting problematic behavior: systematic compensatory adaptations as emergent phenomena in autism.

    Damico, Jack S; Nelson, Ryan L

    2005-01-01

    Based upon an emergent account of pragmatic ability and disability, this article provides theoretical and empirical support for a conceptually deeper understanding of some systematic behaviors that have served as diagnostic indices in communicatively impaired populations. Specifically, by employing conversation analysis, several examples of problematic behaviors in autism are analysed as a specific type of compensatory adaptation. Theoretical and clinical implications are discussed. PMID:16019784

  5. Mothers' and Fathers' Parenting Styles and Associations with Toddlers' Externalizing, Internalizing, and Adaptive Behaviors

    Rinaldi, Christina M.; Howe, Nina

    2012-01-01

    The two primary objectives of the present study were to (a) investigate mothers' and fathers' reports of their own as well as their partner's parenting styles, and (b) assess how mothers' and fathers' parenting styles uniquely and jointly predicted toddlers' externalizing, internalizing, and adaptive behaviors. Fifty-nine mothers and fathers…

  6. A Post-Genomic View of Behavioral Development and Adaptation to the Environment

    LaFreniere, Peter; MacDonald, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in molecular genetics and epigenetics are reviewed that have major implications for the bio-behavioral sciences and for understanding how organisms adapt to their environments at both phylogenetic and ontogenic levels. From a post-genomics perspective, the environment is as crucial as the DNA sequence for constructing the…

  7. Cross-Cultural Adaptation of Internationally Adopted Chinese Children: Communication and Symbolic Behavior Development

    Hwa-Froelich, Deborah A.; Matsuoh, Hisako

    2008-01-01

    Adaptation of internationally adopted children to another culture and language has not been studied extensively. This study followed four infant girls from China during the 1st year postadoption, measuring vocabulary, gestural, social, communication, and symbolic behavior development each month. The children were also tested at 2 and 3 years…

  8. Traffic flow impacts of adaptive cruise control deactivation and (Re)activation with cooperative driver behavior

    Klunder, G.; Li, M.; Minderhoud, M.

    2009-01-01

    In 2006 in the Netherlands, a field operational test was carried out to study the effect of adaptive cruise control (ACC) and lane departure warning on driver behavior and traffic flow in real traffic. To estimate the effect for larger penetration rates, simulations were needed. For a reliable impac

  9. Future Time Perspective as a Predictor of Adolescents' Adaptive Behavior in School

    Carvalho, Renato Gil Gomes

    2015-01-01

    Future time perspective (FTP) has been associated with positive outcomes in adolescents' development across different contexts. However, the extent to which FTP influences adaptation needs additional understanding. In this study, we analysed the relationship between FTP and adolescents' behavior in school, as expressed in several indicators of…

  10. Neurodevelopmental Status and Adaptive Behaviors in Preschool Children with Chronic Kidney Disease

    Duquette, Peter J.; Hooper, Stephen R.; Icard, Phil F.; Hower, Sarah J.; Mamak, Eva G.; Wetherington, Crista E.; Gipson, Debbie S.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the early neurodevelopmental function of infants and preschool children who have chronic kidney disease (CKD). Fifteen patients with CKD are compared to a healthy control group using the "Mullen Scales of Early Learning" (MSEL) and the "Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale" (VABS). Multivariate analysis reveals significant…

  11. Adaptive Behavior and Development of Infants and Toddlers with Williams Syndrome

    Kirchner, Rebecca M.; Martens, Marilee A.; Andridge, Rebecca R.

    2016-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that causes deficits in adaptive behavior, difficulties eating and sleeping, cognitive delays, and delayed development. Although researchers have conducted characterizations of children and adults with WS, less is known about young children with this disorder. This study characterizes the developmental and adaptive behavior features of 16 infants and toddlers with WS aged 3 months – 5 years. Data for this project was obtained from 2007 to 2014, and includes parent report data and standardized developmental testing. Thirty-one percent (31.3%) of parents reported that their infant/toddler with WS had sleeping problems and 58.3% reported feeding difficulties. Levels of adaptive behavior were in the Mildly Delayed range as measured by the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System, Second Edition. Self-care skills such as feeding or dressing oneself were significantly weaker than skills needed to function in the community, such as recognizing his/her home or throwing away trash. The difficulty with self-care skills is hypothesized to be related to the reported difficulties with eating and sleeping. Motor skills were significantly lower than both cognitive and language skills on the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition. The current study highlights the need for early intervention in these young children across all areas of development, particularly in self-care skills. PMID:27199832

  12. Adaptive Behavior and Development of Infants and Toddlers with Williams Syndrome.

    Kirchner, Rebecca M; Martens, Marilee A; Andridge, Rebecca R

    2016-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that causes deficits in adaptive behavior, difficulties eating and sleeping, cognitive delays, and delayed development. Although researchers have conducted characterizations of children and adults with WS, less is known about young children with this disorder. This study characterizes the developmental and adaptive behavior features of 16 infants and toddlers with WS aged 3 months - 5 years. Data for this project was obtained from 2007 to 2014, and includes parent report data and standardized developmental testing. Thirty-one percent (31.3%) of parents reported that their infant/toddler with WS had sleeping problems and 58.3% reported feeding difficulties. Levels of adaptive behavior were in the Mildly Delayed range as measured by the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System, Second Edition. Self-care skills such as feeding or dressing oneself were significantly weaker than skills needed to function in the community, such as recognizing his/her home or throwing away trash. The difficulty with self-care skills is hypothesized to be related to the reported difficulties with eating and sleeping. Motor skills were significantly lower than both cognitive and language skills on the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition. The current study highlights the need for early intervention in these young children across all areas of development, particularly in self-care skills. PMID:27199832

  13. Adaptive Behavior and Development of Infants and Toddlers with Williams Syndrome

    Rebecca M. Kirchner

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Williams syndrome (WS is a neurodevelopmental disorder that causes deficits in adaptive behavior, difficulties eating and sleeping, cognitive delays, and delayed development. Although researchers have conducted characterizations of children and adults with WS, less is known about young children with this disorder. This study characterizes the developmental and adaptive behavior features of 16 infants and toddlers with WS aged 3 months - 5 years. Data for this project was obtained from 2007-2014, and includes parent report data and standardized developmental testing. Thirty-one percent (31.3% of parents reported that their infant/toddler with WS had sleeping problems and 58.3% reported feeding difficulties. Levels of adaptive behavior were in the Mildly Delayed range as measured by the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System, Second Edition. Self care skills such as feeding or dressing oneself were significantly weaker than skills needed to function in the community, such as recognizing his/her home or throwing away trash. The difficulty with self-care skills is hypothesized to be related to the reported difficulties with eating and sleeping. Motor skills were significantly lower than both cognitive and language skills on the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition. The current study highlights the need for early intervention in these young children across all areas of development, particularly in self-care skills.

  14. Intelligence, Parental Depression, and Behavior Adaptability in Deaf Children Being Considered for Cochlear Implantation

    Kushalnagar, Poorna; Krull, Kevin; Hannay, Julia; Mehta, Paras; Caudle, Susan; Oghalai, John

    2007-01-01

    Cognitive ability and behavioral adaptability are distinct, yet related, constructs that can impact childhood development. Both are often reduced in deaf children of hearing parents who do not provide sufficient language and communication access. Additionally, parental depression is commonly observed due to parent-child communication difficulties…

  15. The adaptive problems of female teenage refugees and their behavioral adjustment methods for coping

    Mhaidat, Fatin

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at identifying the levels of adaptive problems among teenage female refugees in the government schools and explored the behavioral methods that were used to cope with the problems. The sample was composed of 220 Syrian female students (seventh to first secondary grades) enrolled at government schools within the Zarqa Directorate and who came to Jordan due to the war conditions in their home country. The study used the scale of adaptive problems that consists of four dimensions (depression, anger and hostility, low self-esteem, and feeling insecure) and a questionnaire of the behavioral adjustment methods for dealing with the problem of asylum. The results indicated that the Syrian teenage female refugees suffer a moderate degree of adaptation problems, and the positive adjustment methods they have used are more than the negatives. PMID:27175098

  16. Causes of Age-Related Decline in Adaptive Behavior of Adults with Down Syndrome: Differential Diagnoses of Dementia.

    Prasher, V. P.; Chung, Man Cheung

    1996-01-01

    A study was conducted of 201 adults with Down's syndrome to investigate the differential causes of decline in adaptive behavior. Results indicated that aging, dementia, and severity of mental retardation were significant factors, while absence of a medical illness predicted a higher level of adaptive behavior. (CR)

  17. A Self-Adaptive Behavior-Aware Recruitment Scheme for Participatory Sensing

    Yuanyuan Zeng

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Participatory sensing services utilizing the abundant social participants with sensor-enabled handheld smart device resources are gaining high interest nowadays. One of the challenges faced is the recruitment of participants by fully utilizing their daily activity behavior with self-adaptiveness toward the realistic application scenarios. In the paper, we propose a self-adaptive behavior-aware recruitment scheme for participatory sensing. People are assumed to join the sensing tasks along with their daily activity without pre-defined ground truth or any instructions. The scheme is proposed to model the tempo-spatial behavior and data quality rating to select participants for participatory sensing campaign. Based on this, the recruitment is formulated as a linear programming problem by considering tempo-spatial coverage, data quality, and budget. The scheme enables one to check and adjust the recruitment strategy adaptively according to application scenarios. The evaluations show that our scheme provides efficient sensing performance as stability, low-cost, tempo-spatial correlation and self-adaptiveness.

  18. A Self-Adaptive Behavior-Aware Recruitment Scheme for Participatory Sensing.

    Zeng, Yuanyuan; Li, Deshi

    2015-01-01

    Participatory sensing services utilizing the abundant social participants with sensor-enabled handheld smart device resources are gaining high interest nowadays. One of the challenges faced is the recruitment of participants by fully utilizing their daily activity behavior with self-adaptiveness toward the realistic application scenarios. In the paper, we propose a self-adaptive behavior-aware recruitment scheme for participatory sensing. People are assumed to join the sensing tasks along with their daily activity without pre-defined ground truth or any instructions. The scheme is proposed to model the tempo-spatial behavior and data quality rating to select participants for participatory sensing campaign. Based on this, the recruitment is formulated as a linear programming problem by considering tempo-spatial coverage, data quality, and budget. The scheme enables one to check and adjust the recruitment strategy adaptively according to application scenarios. The evaluations show that our scheme provides efficient sensing performance as stability, low-cost, tempo-spatial correlation and self-adaptiveness. PMID:26389910

  19. Sex Differences in Autism Spectrum Disorders: Does Sex Moderate the Pathway from Clinical Symptoms to Adaptive Behavior?

    Mandic-Maravic, Vanja; Pejovic-Milovancevic, Milica; Mitkovic-Voncina, Marija; Kostic, Milutin; Aleksic-Hil, Olivera; Radosavljev-Kircanski, Jelena; Mincic, Teodora; Lecic-Tosevski, Dusica

    2015-01-01

    We explored sex differences in diagnostic categories, clinical symptoms and adaptive behavior of persons with autism spectrum disorders, as well as sex-specific correlations of clinical and adaptive caracteristics. The study involved 108 patients (83 males, 6.73 ± 4.33 years old) diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Assessment included ADI-R and Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale II. Males were more often diagnosed with typical autism. There were no sex differences in the autistic sy...

  20. Positional behavior and limb bone adaptations in red howling monkeys (Alouatta seniculus).

    Schön Ybarra, M A; Schön, M A

    1987-01-01

    Morphological adaptations to climbing (a scansorial mode of quadrupedal, arboreal locomotion practised on twigs and small branches) are identified by relating anatomical details of limb bones to a sample of 6,136 instantaneous observational recordings on the positional behavior and support uses of 20 different free-ranging, adult red howlers. Our findings are used to infer the original habitat in which proto-red howlers may have acquired such adaptations and to hypothesize that climbing and its related anatomy are a primitive condition for anthropoids. PMID:3454342

  1. NAVIGATOR (FER)

    The NAVIGATOR concept is based on the negative-ion-grounded 500 keV/20 MW neutral beam injection system (NBI system), which has been proposed and studied at JAERI. The NAVIGATOR concept contains two categories; one is the NAVIGATOR machine as a tokamak reactor, and the other is the NAVIGATOR philosphy as a quiding principle in fusion research. The NAVIGATOR concept should be applied in a phased approach to and beyond the operating goal for the FER (Fusion Experimental Reactor, the next generation tokamak machine in Japan). The mission of the FER is to realize self-ignition and a long controlled burn of about 800 seconds and to develop and test fusion technologies, including the tritiumfuel cycle, superconducting magnet, remote maintenance and breeding blanket test modules. The NAVIGATOR concept is composed of three major elements, that is, reliable operation scenarios, reliable maintenability and suffiecient flexibility of the reactor. The NAVIGATOR concept well supports the ideas of phased operation and phased construction of the FER, which will result in the reduction technological risk. (author). 4 refs.; 3 figs

  2. A comparison of adaptive behaviors among mentally retarded and normal individuals: A guide to prevention and treatment

    Leyla Sadrossadat

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Because of the importance of adaptive behaviors in social and domestic lives, this study aimed at a comparison of various domains of adaptive behaviors, between mentally retarded and normal individuals. Methods: A number of 246 normal and 74 mentally retarded in-dividuals (7-18 years of age, mean: 12±3.5 years, participated this study in Tehran, Iran. Their adaptive behaviors scores, were ob-tained using "Adaptive Behavioral Scale, Residential & Commu-nity" (ABS-RC: 2, consisting of 18 domains of behavior. The scale was first translated into Persian by the professionals and then re-translated into English by another translator, to ensure content non-distortion. Results: The following domains were significantly lower in men-tally retarded than in normal individuals: independent function-ing, economic activity, language development, number & time, prevocational/vocational activity, self direction, responsibility, socialization, disturbing interpersonal behavior, domestic activity, social engagement, conformity and trustworthiness. No significant difference was documented in the physical development, stereo-type & hyperactive behaviors, sexual behavior as well as self abuse behavior domains, between the two groups. Conclusions: As mentally deficient subjects did worse than nor-mal ones in terms of many adaptive behavioral domains, it implies that the adaptive behavioral issues in such people might need a great deal of attention and intervention. For these retarded people to function better in their social and residential environment, it would be necessary to develop their adaptive behaviors. This study may shed light on the importance of attention to the adap-tive behavioral domains of mentally retarded people and also indi-cates the necessity of preventive measures, even for normal indi-viduals.

  3. Ecodesign Navigator

    Simon, M; Evans, S.; McAloone, Timothy Charles; Sweatman, A.; Bhamra, T.; Poole, S.

    The Ecodesign Navigator is the product of a three-year research project called DEEDS - DEsign for Environment Decision Support. The initial partners were Manchester Metropolitan University, Cranfield University, Engineering 6 Physical Sciences Resaech Council, Electrolux, ICL, and the Industry...

  4. Modeling the behavioral substrates of associate learning and memory - Adaptive neural models

    Lee, Chuen-Chien

    1991-01-01

    Three adaptive single-neuron models based on neural analogies of behavior modification episodes are proposed, which attempt to bridge the gap between psychology and neurophysiology. The proposed models capture the predictive nature of Pavlovian conditioning, which is essential to the theory of adaptive/learning systems. The models learn to anticipate the occurrence of a conditioned response before the presence of a reinforcing stimulus when training is complete. Furthermore, each model can find the most nonredundant and earliest predictor of reinforcement. The behavior of the models accounts for several aspects of basic animal learning phenomena in Pavlovian conditioning beyond previous related models. Computer simulations show how well the models fit empirical data from various animal learning paradigms.

  5. Evolutionary Influences of Plastic Behavioral Responses Upon Environmental Challenges in an Adaptive Radiation.

    Foster, Susan A; Wund, Matthew A; Baker, John A

    2015-09-01

    At the end of the 19th century, the suggestion was made by several scientists, including J. M. Baldwin, that behavioral responses to environmental change could both rescue populations from extinction (Baldwin Effect) and influence the course of subsequent evolution. Here we provide the historical and theoretical background for this argument and offer evidence of the importance of these ideas for understanding how animals (and other organisms that exhibit behavior) will respond to the rapid environmental changes caused by human activity. We offer examples from long-term research on the evolution of behavioral and other phenotypes in the adaptive radiation of the threespine stickleback fish (Gasterosteus aculeatus), a radiation in which it is possible to infer ancestral patterns of behavioral plasticity relative to the post-glacial freshwater radiation in northwestern North America, and to use patterns of parallelism and contemporary evolution to understand adaptive causes of responses to environmental modification. Our work offers insights into the complexity of cognitive responses to environmental change, and into the importance of examining multiple aspects of the phenotype simultaneously, if we are to understand how behavioral shifts contribute to the persistence of populations and to subsequent evolution. We conclude by discussing the origins of apparent novelties induced by environmental shifts, and the importance of accounting for geographic variation within species if we are to accurately anticipate the effects of anthropogenic environmental modification on the persistence and evolution of animals. PMID:26163679

  6. Applying computer adaptive testing to optimize online assessment of suicidal behavior: a simulation study.

    Beurs, D.P. de; Vries, A.L.M. de; Groot, M.H. de; Keijser, J. de; Kerkhof, A.J.F.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background The Internet is used increasingly for both suicide research and prevention. To optimize online assessment of suicidal patients, there is a need for short, good-quality tools to assess elevated risk of future suicidal behavior. Computer adaptive testing (CAT) can be used to reduce response burden and improve accuracy, and make the available pencil-and-paper tools more appropriate for online administration. Objective The aim was to test whether an item response–based computer adaptiv...

  7. Adaptation and Implementation of Cognitive Behavioral Intervention for Trauma in Schools with American Indian Youth

    Goodkind, Jessica R.; LaNoue, Marianna D.; Milford, Jaime

    2010-01-01

    American Indian (AI) adolescents experience higher rates of suicide and psychological distress than the overall U.S. adolescent population, and research suggests that these disparities are related to higher rates of violence and trauma exposure. Despite elevated risk, there is limited empirical information to guide culturally appropriate treatment of trauma and related symptoms. We report a pilot study of an adaptation to the Cognitive Behavioral Intervention for Trauma in Schools in a sample...

  8. Intellectual, Adaptive, and Behavioral Functioning in Children with Urea Cycle Disorders

    Krivitzky, Lauren; Babikian, Talin; Lee, Hyeseung; Thomas, Nina Hattiangadi; Burk-Paull, Karen L.; Batshaw, Mark L.

    2009-01-01

    Inborn errors of urea synthesis lead to an accumulation of ammonia in blood and brain, and result in high rates of mortality and neurodevelopmental disability. The current study seeks to characterize the cognitive, adaptive, and emotional/behavioral functioning of children with Urea Cycle Disorders (UCDs). These domains were measured through testing and parent questionnaires in 92 children with UCDs (33 neonatal onset, 59 late onset). Results indicate that children who present with neonatal o...

  9. Towards Player’s Affective and Behavioral Visual Cues as drives to Game Adaptation

    Asteriadis, Stylianos; Shaker, Noor; Karpouzis, Kostas;

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in emotion and affect recognition can play a crucial role in game technology. Moving from the typical game controls to controls generated from free gestures is already in the market. Higher level controls, however, can also be motivated by player’s affective and cognitive behavior...... player engagement and frustration, along with the degree of challenge imposed by the game is explored. The estimated levels of the induced metrics can feed an engine’s artificial intelligence, allowing for game adaptation....

  10. Numerical relations and skill level constrain co-adaptive behaviors of agents in sports teams

    Silva, Pedro; Travassos, Bruno; Vilar, Luís; Aguiar, Paulo; Davids, Keith; Araújo, Duarte; Garganta, Júlio

    2014-01-01

    Similar to other complex systems in nature (e.g., a hunting pack, flocks of birds), sports teams have been modeled as social neurobiological systems in which interpersonal coordination tendencies of agents underpin team swarming behaviors. Swarming is seen as the result of agent co-adaptation to ecological constraints of performance environments by collectively perceiving specific possibilities for action (affordances for self and shared affordances). A major principle of invasion team sports...

  11. The Association of Intelligence, Visual-Motor Functioning, and Personality Characteristics With Adaptive Behavior in Individuals With Williams Syndrome.

    Fu, Trista J; Lincoln, Alan J; Bellugi, Ursula; Searcy, Yvonne M

    2015-07-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is associated with deficits in adaptive behavior and an uneven adaptive profile. This study investigated the association of intelligence, visual-motor functioning, and personality characteristics with the adaptive behavior in individuals with WS. One hundred individuals with WS and 25 individuals with developmental disabilities of other etiologies were included in this study. This study found that IQ and visual-motor functioning significantly predicted adaptive behavior in individuals of WS. Visual-motor functioning especially predicted the most amount of unique variance in overall adaptive behavior and contributed to the variance above and beyond that of IQ. Present study highlights the need for interventions that address visual-motor and motor functioning in individuals with WS. PMID:26161466

  12. Olfaction, navigation, and the origin of isocortex

    Aboitiz, Francisco; Montiel, Juan F.

    2015-01-01

    There are remarkable similarities between the brains of mammals and birds in terms of microcircuit architecture, despite obvious differences in gross morphology and development. While in reptiles and birds the most expanding component (the dorsal ventricular ridge) displays an overall nuclear shape and derives from the lateral and ventral pallium, in mammals a dorsal pallial, six-layered isocortex shows the most remarkable elaboration. Regardless of discussions about possible homologies between mammalian and avian brains, a main question remains in explaining the emergence of the mammalian isocortex, because it represents a unique phenotype across amniotes. In this article, we propose that the origin of the isocortex was driven by behavioral adaptations involving olfactory driven goal-directed and navigating behaviors. These adaptations were linked with increasing sensory development, which provided selective pressure for the expansion of the dorsal pallium. The latter appeared as an interface in olfactory-hippocampal networks, contributing somatosensory information for navigating behavior. Sensory input from other modalities like vision and audition were subsequently recruited into this expanding region, contributing to multimodal associative networks. PMID:26578863

  13. Olfaction, navigation, and the origin of isocortex.

    Aboitiz, Francisco; Montiel, Juan F

    2015-01-01

    There are remarkable similarities between the brains of mammals and birds in terms of microcircuit architecture, despite obvious differences in gross morphology and development. While in reptiles and birds the most expanding component (the dorsal ventricular ridge) displays an overall nuclear shape and derives from the lateral and ventral pallium, in mammals a dorsal pallial, six-layered isocortex shows the most remarkable elaboration. Regardless of discussions about possible homologies between mammalian and avian brains, a main question remains in explaining the emergence of the mammalian isocortex, because it represents a unique phenotype across amniotes. In this article, we propose that the origin of the isocortex was driven by behavioral adaptations involving olfactory driven goal-directed and navigating behaviors. These adaptations were linked with increasing sensory development, which provided selective pressure for the expansion of the dorsal pallium. The latter appeared as an interface in olfactory-hippocampal networks, contributing somatosensory information for navigating behavior. Sensory input from other modalities like vision and audition were subsequently recruited into this expanding region, contributing to multimodal associative networks. PMID:26578863

  14. The role of metabotropic glutamate receptors and cortical adaptation in habituation of odor-guided behavior

    Yadon, Carly A.; Wilson, Donald A.

    2005-01-01

    Decreases in behavioral investigation of novel stimuli over time may be mediated by a variety of factors including changes in attention, internal state, and motivation. Sensory cortical adaptation, a decrease in sensory cortical responsiveness over prolonged stimulation, may also play a role. In olfaction, metabotropic glutamate receptors on cortical afferent pre-synaptic terminals have been shown to underlie both cortical sensory adaptation and habituation of odor-evoked reflexes. The present experiment examined whether blockade of sensory cortical adaptation through bilateral infusion of the group III metabotropic glutamate receptor antagonist cyclopropyl-4-phosphonophenylglycine (CPPG) into the anterior piriform cortex could reduce habituation of a more complex odor-driven behavior such as investigation of a scented object or a conspecific. The results demonstrate that time spent investigating a scented jar, or a conspecific, decreases over the course of a continuous 10 minute trial. Acute infusion of CPPG bilaterally into the anterior piriform cortex significantly enhanced the time spent investigating the scented jar compared to investigation time in control rats, without affecting overall behavioral activity levels. Infusions into the brain outside of the piriform cortex were without effect. CPPG infusion into the piriform cortex also produced an enhancement of time spent investigating a conspecific, although this effect was not significant. PMID:16322361

  15. Emotional intelligence and features of social and psychological adaptation in adolescents with deviant behavior

    Degtyarev A.V.,

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The problem of social-psychological adaptation of adolescents with deviant behavioral today is of particular relevance in relation to the current process of restructuring of educational institutions - the merging of general and specialized schools for adolescents with behavioral problems in a unified educational complexes. In these circumstances it is necessary to find an efficient tool that will simultaneously accelerate the process of adaptation and have a positive preventive effect. In this article, the author shows that such a tool can become the emotional intelligence as a construct that includes various abilities of the emotional sphere. The main hypothesis of the study was that the socio-psychological adaptation of adolescents with deviant behavior has its own characteristics, different from the norm group, and is interconnected with the components of emotional intelligence. The study was conducted on the basis of general education school № 2077 formed by the merger of five educational institutions: the former school № 738, № 703, № 702, № 7 and № 77. The study involved 222 teenagers from 14 to 16 years (111 girls and 111 boys.

  16. Sniffing Around for Providing Navigation Assistance

    Herder, E.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we describe an approach to adaptive navigation assistance that is meant to enhance a user’s information scent. The navigation assistance is composed of a combination of predictive user navigation modeling and common information retrieval methods. Besides assistance in forward browsing, the assistant helps users in deciding when to switch to searching or backtracking, while taking their navigation preferences into account.

  17. Adaptive Fiter Algorithm of Ins/Sar Intergrated Navigation Based on Barometric Altimeter%大气高度辅助的惯导/SAR组合自适应算法研究

    张旭; 熊智; 吴旋; 方峥

    2013-01-01

    Consider the shortcoming that SAR image matching navigation can only provide inertial navigation error level position correction, in order to improve the classical control theory design inertia/air damper height channel performance, fully reflect both the atmosphere and inertial navigation union performance advantage, we studied and put forward an integrated navigation scheme using atmospheric altitude auxiliary INS/SAR. The paper designed atmosphere combination model considering dynamic measurement error based on thorough analysis of the basic principle of the inertia/air altitude damping system. To enhance the combination system in transonic flight dynamic flight conditions navigation performance, the paper put forward the atmospheric height of auxiliary based on inertial navigation/ SAR combination adaptive Sage - Husa method. Integrated navigation system simulation results show that the proposed adaptive filter algorithm of INS/SAR can effectively improve transonic flight dynamic environment combination system performance, so as provides a good way to solve the inertial/SAR combination altitude channel stable performance.%在组合惯导系统优化问题的研究中,SAR图像匹配导航仅能提供对惯性导航误差水平位置修正,无法获得高度信息.为改善基于经典控制理论设计的惯性/大气阻尼高度通道性能,充分体现大气和惯性导航两者结合的优势,提出了利用大气高度辅助惯性/SAR的组合导航方案.在深入分析惯性/大气高度阻尼系统工作原理的基础上,设计了考虑大气动态测量误差的组合模型;为有效提升组合系统在跨音速等高动态飞行条件下的导航性能,提出了改进的采用大气高度辅助的惯导/SAR组合自适应Sage-Husa方法.最后仿真可行性结果表明,提出的大气高度辅助的惯导/SAR自适应组合滤波方法可以有效改善跨音速等高动态环境下的组合系统性能.

  18. Iron supplementation in infancy contributes to more adaptive behavior at 10 years of age.

    Lozoff, Betsy; Castillo, Marcela; Clark, Katy M; Smith, Julia B; Sturza, Julie

    2014-06-01

    Most studies of behavioral/developmental effects of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) or iron supplementation in infancy have found social-emotional differences. Differences could relate to behavioral inhibition or lack of positive affect and altered response to reward. To determine long-term behavioral effects, the study was a follow-up of a randomized controlled trial of behavioral/developmental effects of preventing IDA in infancy. Healthy Chilean infants free of IDA at age 6 mo were randomly assigned to iron supplementation or no added iron (formula with iron/powdered cow milk, vitamins with/without iron) from ages 6 to 12 mo. At age 10 y, 59% (666 of 1123) and 68% (366 of 534) of iron-supplemented and no-added-iron groups were assessed. Social-emotional outcomes included maternal-reported behavior problems, self-reported behavior, examiner ratings, and video coding of a social stress task and gamelike paradigms. Examiners rated the iron-supplemented group as more cooperative, confident, persistent after failure, coordinated, and direct and reality-oriented in speech and working harder after praise compared with the no-added-iron group. In a task designed to elicit positive affect, supplemented children spent more time laughing and smiling together with their mothers and started smiling more quickly. In the social stress task they smiled and laughed more and needed less prompting to complete the task. All P values were effect sizes were 0.14-0.36. There were no differences in behaviors related to behavioral inhibition, such as anxiety/depression or social problems. In sum, iron supplementation in infancy was associated with more adaptive behavior at age 10 y, especially in affect and response to reward, which may improve performance at school and work, mental health, and personal relationships. PMID:24717366

  19. Adapt

    Bargatze, L. F.

    2015-12-01

    Active Data Archive Product Tracking (ADAPT) is a collection of software routines that permits one to generate XML metadata files to describe and register data products in support of the NASA Heliophysics Virtual Observatory VxO effort. ADAPT is also a philosophy. The ADAPT concept is to use any and all available metadata associated with scientific data to produce XML metadata descriptions in a consistent, uniform, and organized fashion to provide blanket access to the full complement of data stored on a targeted data server. In this poster, we present an application of ADAPT to describe all of the data products that are stored by using the Common Data File (CDF) format served out by the CDAWEB and SPDF data servers hosted at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. These data servers are the primary repositories for NASA Heliophysics data. For this purpose, the ADAPT routines have been used to generate data resource descriptions by using an XML schema named Space Physics Archive, Search, and Extract (SPASE). SPASE is the designated standard for documenting Heliophysics data products, as adopted by the Heliophysics Data and Model Consortium. The set of SPASE XML resource descriptions produced by ADAPT includes high-level descriptions of numerical data products, display data products, or catalogs and also includes low-level "Granule" descriptions. A SPASE Granule is effectively a universal access metadata resource; a Granule associates an individual data file (e.g. a CDF file) with a "parent" high-level data resource description, assigns a resource identifier to the file, and lists the corresponding assess URL(s). The CDAWEB and SPDF file systems were queried to provide the input required by the ADAPT software to create an initial set of SPASE metadata resource descriptions. Then, the CDAWEB and SPDF data repositories were queried subsequently on a nightly basis and the CDF file lists were checked for any changes such as the occurrence of new, modified, or deleted

  20. A Risk-based Model Predictive Control Approach to Adaptive Interventions in Behavioral Health.

    Zafra-Cabeza, Ascensión; Rivera, Daniel E; Collins, Linda M; Ridao, Miguel A; Camacho, Eduardo F

    2011-07-01

    This paper examines how control engineering and risk management techniques can be applied in the field of behavioral health through their use in the design and implementation of adaptive behavioral interventions. Adaptive interventions are gaining increasing acceptance as a means to improve prevention and treatment of chronic, relapsing disorders, such as abuse of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs, mental illness, and obesity. A risk-based Model Predictive Control (MPC) algorithm is developed for a hypothetical intervention inspired by Fast Track, a real-life program whose long-term goal is the prevention of conduct disorders in at-risk children. The MPC-based algorithm decides on the appropriate frequency of counselor home visits, mentoring sessions, and the availability of after-school recreation activities by relying on a model that includes identifiable risks, their costs, and the cost/benefit assessment of mitigating actions. MPC is particularly suited for the problem because of its constraint-handling capabilities, and its ability to scale to interventions involving multiple tailoring variables. By systematically accounting for risks and adapting treatment components over time, an MPC approach as described in this paper can increase intervention effectiveness and adherence while reducing waste, resulting in advantages over conventional fixed treatment. A series of simulations are conducted under varying conditions to demonstrate the effectiveness of the algorithm. PMID:21643450

  1. Initial moments of adaptation to microgravity of human orientation behavior, in parabolic flight conditions

    Tafforin, Carole

    1996-06-01

    The first ethological studies of astronauts' adaptation to microgravity dealt with the behavioral strategies observed during short-term space missions. No attempts had however been made to consider the initial moments of adaptation dynamics, when the subject is first submitted to conditions allowing body orientations in the full three dimensions of space. The present experimental approach was both longitudinal and transversal. It consisted of analysing, during a goal-directed orientation task in parabolic flight, the orientation behavior of 12 subjects with a past experience of 0, 30 or more than 300 parabolas. During each microgravity phase, the subjects were asked to orientate their bodies and touch, with the dominant hand, four coloured targets arranged inside the aircraft. Results showed that for inexperienced subjects, the time between two target contacts was longer than experienced subjects. They often failed to reach all targets in the series during the first parabolas. They showed right-left confusion and a preference for the "up-down" vertical body orientation. Their performance, described by the efficiency of orientation in all three dimensions, improved over time and according to the level of experience. The results are discussed for the spontaneous, preliminary and integrative stages of adaptation, emphasizing new relationships between the body references and those of the surroundings. Such experiences lead the subject to develop a new mental representation of space.

  2. Human Behavior & Low Energy Architecture: Linking Environmental Adaptation, Personal Comfort, & Energy Use in the Built Environment

    Langevin, Jared

    Truly sustainable buildings serve to enrich the daily sensory experience of their human inhabitants while consuming the least amount of energy possible; yet, building occupants and their environmentally adaptive behaviors remain a poorly characterized variable in even the most "green" building design and operation approaches. This deficiency has been linked to gaps between predicted and actual energy use, as well as to eventual problems with occupant discomfort, productivity losses, and health issues. Going forward, better tools are needed for considering the human-building interaction as a key part of energy efficiency strategies that promote good Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) in buildings. This dissertation presents the development and implementation of a Human and Building Interaction Toolkit (HABIT), a framework for the integrated simulation of office occupants' thermally adaptive behaviors, IEQ, and building energy use as part of sustainable building design and operation. Development of HABIT begins with an effort to devise more reliable methods for predicting individual occupants' thermal comfort, considered the driving force behind the behaviors of focus for this project. A long-term field study of thermal comfort and behavior is then presented, and the data it generates are used to develop and validate an agent-based behavior simulation model. Key aspects of the agent-based behavior model are described, and its predictive abilities are shown to compare favorably to those of multiple other behavior modeling options. Finally, the agent-based behavior model is linked with whole building energy simulation in EnergyPlus, forming the full HABIT program. The program is used to evaluate the energy and IEQ impacts of several occupant behavior scenarios in the simulation of a case study office building for the Philadelphia climate. Results indicate that more efficient local heating/cooling options may be paired with wider set point ranges to yield up to 24

  3. Treatment Sequencing for Childhood ADHD: A Multiple-Randomization Study of Adaptive Medication and Behavioral Interventions.

    Pelham, William E; Fabiano, Gregory A; Waxmonsky, James G; Greiner, Andrew R; Gnagy, Elizabeth M; Pelham, William E; Coxe, Stefany; Verley, Jessica; Bhatia, Ira; Hart, Katie; Karch, Kathryn; Konijnendijk, Evelien; Tresco, Katy; Nahum-Shani, Inbal; Murphy, Susan A

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral and pharmacological treatments for children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were evaluated to address whether endpoint outcomes are better depending on which treatment is initiated first and, in case of insufficient response to initial treatment, whether increasing dose of initial treatment or adding the other treatment modality is superior. Children with ADHD (ages 5-12, N = 146, 76% male) were treated for 1 school year. Children were randomized to initiate treatment with low doses of either (a) behavioral parent training (8 group sessions) and brief teacher consultation to establish a Daily Report Card or (b) extended-release methylphenidate (equivalent to .15 mg/kg/dose bid). After 8 weeks or at later monthly intervals as necessary, insufficient responders were rerandomized to secondary interventions that either increased the dose/intensity of the initial treatment or added the other treatment modality, with adaptive adjustments monthly as needed to these secondary treatments. The group beginning with behavioral treatment displayed significantly lower rates of observed classroom rule violations (the primary outcome) at study endpoint and tended to have fewer out-of-class disciplinary events. Further, adding medication secondary to initial behavior modification resulted in better outcomes on the primary outcomes and parent/teacher ratings of oppositional behavior than adding behavior modification to initial medication. Normalization rates on teacher and parent ratings were generally high. Parents who began treatment with behavioral parent training had substantially better attendance than those assigned to receive training following medication. Beginning treatment with behavioral intervention produced better outcomes overall than beginning treatment with medication. PMID:26882332

  4. The significance of dynamical architecture for adaptive responses to mechanical loads during rhythmic behavior.

    Shaw, Kendrick M; Lyttle, David N; Gill, Jeffrey P; Cullins, Miranda J; McManus, Jeffrey M; Lu, Hui; Thomas, Peter J; Chiel, Hillel J

    2015-02-01

    Many behaviors require reliably generating sequences of motor activity while adapting the activity to incoming sensory information. This process has often been conceptually explained as either fully dependent on sensory input (a chain reflex) or fully independent of sensory input (an idealized central pattern generator, or CPG), although the consensus of the field is that most neural pattern generators lie somewhere between these two extremes. Many mathematical models of neural pattern generators use limit cycles to generate the sequence of behaviors, but other models, such as a heteroclinic channel (an attracting chain of saddle points), have been suggested. To explore the range of intermediate behaviors between CPGs and chain reflexes, in this paper we describe a nominal model of swallowing in Aplysia californica. Depending upon the value of a single parameter, the model can transition from a generic limit cycle regime to a heteroclinic regime (where the trajectory slows as it passes near saddle points). We then study the behavior of the system in these two regimes and compare the behavior of the models with behavior recorded in the animal in vivo and in vitro. We show that while both pattern generators can generate similar behavior, the stable heteroclinic channel can better respond to changes in sensory input induced by load, and that the response matches the changes seen when a load is added in vivo. We then show that the underlying stable heteroclinic channel architecture exhibits dramatic slowing of activity when sensory and endogenous input is reduced, and show that similar slowing with removal of proprioception is seen in vitro. Finally, we show that the distributions of burst lengths seen in vivo are better matched by the distribution expected from a system operating in the heteroclinic regime than that expected from a generic limit cycle. These observations suggest that generic limit cycle models may fail to capture key aspects of Aplysia feeding

  5. First-Year Students' Psychological and Behavior Adaptation to College: The Role of Coping Strategies and Social Support

    Wang, Aiping; Chen, Lang; Zhao, Bo; Xu, Yan

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates 311 first-year students' psychological and behavior adaptation to college and the mediate role of coping strategies and social support. The investigates reveal that: (1) first-year students who are from countryside, live in poor families, speak in dialects or major in science and engineering have poorer adaptation to…

  6. Behavioral, cognitive, and adaptive development in infants with autism spectrum disorder in the first 2 years of life

    Estes, Annette; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Gu, Hongbin; St. John, Tanya; Paterson, Sarah; Elison, Jed T.; Hazlett, Heather; Botteron, Kelly; Dager, Stephen R.; Schultz, Robert T.; Kostopoulos, Penelope; Evans, Alan; Dawson, Geraldine; Eliason, Jordana; Alvarez, Shanna

    2015-01-01

    Background To delineate the early progression of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms, this study investigated developmental characteristics of infants at high familial risk for ASD (HR), and infants at low risk (LR). Methods Participants included 210 HR and 98 LR infants across 4 sites with comparable behavioral data at age 6, 12, and 24 months assessed in the domains of cognitive development (Mullen Scales of Early Learning), adaptive skills (Vineland Adaptive Behavioral Scales), and ear...

  7. Qualitative Web Analytics: New Insights into Navigation Analysis and User Behavior - A Case Study of the German Education Server.

    Keil, Stefan; Böhm, Peter; Rittberger, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Web analytics is a common approach to monitoring and analyzing user behavior on websites. We investigated three different research aspects which can be addressed using web analytics data. Our main concern was the dana quality, followed by general findings on user behavior as well as potential usability issues. We chose an iterative, qualitative approach in order to address all three aspects. Further, we annotated usage data in detail to achieve a deeper understanding of possible user intentio...

  8. Gender differences in adapting driving behavior to accommodate visual health limitations.

    Sarkin, Andrew J; Tally, Steven R; Wooldridge, Jennalee S; Choi, Kyle; Shieh, Marian; Kaplan, Robert M

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated whether men and women are equally likely to adapt their driving behaviors in response to visual limitations. Participants were 376 (222 women and 154 men) pre-surgical cataract patients from the Shiley Eye Center in La Jolla, California. All participants completed the National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire, which assesses self-reported visual symptoms, functional limitations, and behaviors including driving during the day, at night, or in difficult conditions. Visual acuity was assessed using the log of the minimal angle of resolution (LogMAR) scale. There were no significant differences in LogMAR visual acuity between men and women who reported either that they stopped driving at night because of visual impairment or reported having no difficulty driving at night. Of participants who reported having difficulty driving at night, mean weighted LogMAR scores indicated significantly better visual acuity for women than men. There were no significant differences in LogMAR visual acuity between women and men in any of the difficult driving condition categories. Significantly more women than men reported that they stopped driving in difficult conditions because of eyesight, despite the lack of gender differences in visual acuity for this sample. We found no evidence that cataract disease had different effects on the visual acuity of older adult men and women. However, there was a significant difference between genders in self-reported driving behavior. It is possible that some women are more cautious or have less need to drive. However, failing to adapt driving behaviors to accommodate visual limitations may represent a potential behavioral public health risk for men. PMID:23852327

  9. Vibrational behavior of adaptive aircraft wing structures modelled as composite thin-walled beams

    Song, O.; Librescu, L.; Rogers, C. A.

    1992-01-01

    The vibrational behavior of cantilevered aircraft wings modeled as thin-walled beams and incorporating piezoelectric effects is studied. Based on the converse piezoelectric effect, the system of piezoelectric actuators conveniently located on the wing yield the control of its associated vertical and lateral bending eigenfrequencies. The possibility revealed by this study enabling one to increase adaptively the eigenfrequencies of thin-walled cantilevered beams could play a significant role in the control of the dynamic response and flutter of wing and rotor blade structures.

  10. Self-Adapting Reactive Autonomous Agents

    Andrecut, M.; Ali, M. K.

    This paper describes a new self-adapting control algorithm for reactive autonomous agents. The architecture of the autonomous agents integrates the reactive behavior with reinforcement learning. We show how these components perform on-line adaptation of the autonomous agents to various complex navigation situations by constructing an internal model of the environment. Also, a discussion on cooperation and coordination of teams of agents is presented.

  11. [Psychometric quality supporting the Spanish adaptation of the Behavioral Regulation in Sport Questionnaire].

    Viladrich, Carme; Torregrosa, Miquel; Cruz, Jaume

    2011-11-01

    The goal of this study is to present the Spanish adaptation of the Behavioral Regulation in Sport Questionnaire made up of 24 items that measure the 6 behavioral regulation factors expected by the self-determination theory developed by Deci and Ryan. Supporting evidence of conceptual equivalence and quality of the cultural and linguistic adaptation derive from the conciliation of different terms (experts and target population). Cognitive interviews and the fact that 94% of respondents provided complete answers and without aberrant response patterns support the feasibility of the questionnaire. A model of six correlated factors provided the best fit to the data in the confirmatory factor analysis, and 5 out of 6 subscales have acceptable internal consistency coefficients. The scores of the introjected, identified, and integrated regulation show more variability than the other ones. As expected, the 6 subscales show a graduation of direct correlation with the subjective vitality measure and an inverse correlation with competitive anxiety. The accumulation of evidence leads to the conclusion that the Spanish version is valid for use in sport psychology research. PMID:22047874

  12. Navigating to new frontiers in behavioral neuroscience: Traditional neuropsychological tests predict human performance on a rodent-inspired radial-arm maze

    Leslie C. Baxter

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We constructed an 11-arm, walk-through, human radial-arm maze (HRAM as a translational instrument to compare existing methodology in the areas of rodent and human learning and memory research. The HRAM, utilized here, serves as an intermediary test between the classic rat radial-arm maze (RAM and standard human neuropsychological and cognitive tests. We show that the HRAM is a useful instrument to examine working memory ability, explore the relationships between rodent and human memory and cognition models, and evaluate factors that contribute to human navigational ability. One-hundred-and-fifty-seven participants were tested on the HRAM, and scores were compared to performance on a standard cognitive battery focused on episodic memory, working memory capacity, and visuospatial ability. We found that errors on the HRAM increased as working memory demand became elevated, similar to the pattern typically seen in rodents, and that for this task, performance appears similar to Miller’s classic description of human working memory capacity of 7±2 items. Regression analysis revealed that measures of working memory capacity and visuospatial ability accounted for a large proportion of variance in HRAM scores, while measures of episodic memory and general intelligence did not serve as significant predictors of HRAM performance. We present the HRAM as a novel instrument for measuring navigational behavior in humans, as is traditionally done in basic science studies evaluating rodent learning and memory, thus providing a useful tool to help connect and translate between human and rodent models of cognitive functioning.

  13. Mining Unexpected Web Usage Behaviors

    Li, Haoyuan; Laurent, Anne; Poncelet, Pascal

    2009-01-01

    Recently, the applications ofWeb usage mining are more and more concentrated on finding valuable user behaviors from Web navigation record data, where the sequential pattern model has been well adapted. However with the growth of the explored user behaviors, the decision makers will be more and more interested in unexpected behaviors, but not only in those already confirmed. In this paper, we present our approach USER, that finds unexpected sequences and implication rules from sequential data...

  14. Examining the Specific Effects of Context on Adaptive Behavior and Achievement in a Rural African Community: Six Case Studies from Rural Areas of Southern Province, Zambia

    Tan, Mei; Reich, Jodi; Hart, Lesley; Thuma, Philip E.; Grigorenko, Elena L.

    2014-01-01

    Generally accepted as universal, the construct of adaptive behavior differs in its manifestations across different cultures and settings. The Vineland-II (Sparrow et al. in "Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, Second edn." AGS Publishing, Circle Pines, MN, 2005) was translated into Chitonga and adapted to the setting of rural Southern…

  15. Merge Fuzzy Visual Servoing and GPS-Based Planning to Obtain a Proper Navigation Behavior for a Small Crop-Inspection Robot

    Bengochea-Guevara, José M.; Conesa-Muñoz, Jesus; Andújar, Dionisio; Ribeiro, Angela

    2016-01-01

    The concept of precision agriculture, which proposes farming management adapted to crop variability, has emerged in recent years. To effectively implement precision agriculture, data must be gathered from the field in an automated manner at minimal cost. In this study, a small autonomous field inspection vehicle was developed to minimise the impact of the scouting on the crop and soil compaction. The proposed approach integrates a camera with a GPS receiver to obtain a set of basic behaviours required of an autonomous mobile robot to inspect a crop field with full coverage. A path planner considered the field contour and the crop type to determine the best inspection route. An image-processing method capable of extracting the central crop row under uncontrolled lighting conditions in real time from images acquired with a reflex camera positioned on the front of the robot was developed. Two fuzzy controllers were also designed and developed to achieve vision-guided navigation. A method for detecting the end of a crop row using camera-acquired images was developed. In addition, manoeuvres necessary for the robot to change rows were established. These manoeuvres enabled the robot to autonomously cover the entire crop by following a previously established plan and without stepping on the crop row, which is an essential behaviour for covering crops such as maize without damaging them. PMID:26927102

  16. Merge Fuzzy Visual Servoing and GPS-Based Planning to Obtain a Proper Navigation Behavior for a Small Crop-Inspection Robot

    José M. Bengochea-Guevara

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The concept of precision agriculture, which proposes farming management adapted to crop variability, has emerged in recent years. To effectively implement precision agriculture, data must be gathered from the field in an automated manner at minimal cost. In this study, a small autonomous field inspection vehicle was developed to minimise the impact of the scouting on the crop and soil compaction. The proposed approach integrates a camera with a GPS receiver to obtain a set of basic behaviours required of an autonomous mobile robot to inspect a crop field with full coverage. A path planner considered the field contour and the crop type to determine the best inspection route. An image-processing method capable of extracting the central crop row under uncontrolled lighting conditions in real time from images acquired with a reflex camera positioned on the front of the robot was developed. Two fuzzy controllers were also designed and developed to achieve vision-guided navigation. A method for detecting the end of a crop row using camera-acquired images was developed. In addition, manoeuvres necessary for the robot to change rows were established. These manoeuvres enabled the robot to autonomously cover the entire crop by following a previously established plan and without stepping on the crop row, which is an essential behaviour for covering crops such as maize without damaging them.

  17. Merge Fuzzy Visual Servoing and GPS-Based Planning to Obtain a Proper Navigation Behavior for a Small Crop-Inspection Robot.

    Bengochea-Guevara, José M; Conesa-Muñoz, Jesus; Andújar, Dionisio; Ribeiro, Angela

    2016-01-01

    The concept of precision agriculture, which proposes farming management adapted to crop variability, has emerged in recent years. To effectively implement precision agriculture, data must be gathered from the field in an automated manner at minimal cost. In this study, a small autonomous field inspection vehicle was developed to minimise the impact of the scouting on the crop and soil compaction. The proposed approach integrates a camera with a GPS receiver to obtain a set of basic behaviours required of an autonomous mobile robot to inspect a crop field with full coverage. A path planner considered the field contour and the crop type to determine the best inspection route. An image-processing method capable of extracting the central crop row under uncontrolled lighting conditions in real time from images acquired with a reflex camera positioned on the front of the robot was developed. Two fuzzy controllers were also designed and developed to achieve vision-guided navigation. A method for detecting the end of a crop row using camera-acquired images was developed. In addition, manoeuvres necessary for the robot to change rows were established. These manoeuvres enabled the robot to autonomously cover the entire crop by following a previously established plan and without stepping on the crop row, which is an essential behaviour for covering crops such as maize without damaging them. PMID:26927102

  18. Health problem behaviors in Iranian adolescents: A study of cross-cultural adaptation, reliability, and validity

    Ahmad Ali Eslami

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The main purpose of this study was to assess the factorial validity and reliability of the Iranian versions of the personality and behavior system scales (49 items of the AHDQ (The Adolescent Health and Development Questionnaire and interrelations among them based on Jessor′s PBT (Problem Behavior Theory. Methods: A multi-staged approach was employed. The cross-cultural adaptation was performed according to the internationally recommended methodology, using the following guidelines: translation, back-translation, revision by a committee, and pretest. After modifying and identifying of the best items, a cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the psychometric properties of Persian version using calibration and validation samples of adolescents. Also 113 of them completed it again two weeks later for stability. Results: The findings of the exploratory factor analysis suggested that the 7-factor solution with low self concept, emotional distress, general delinquency, cigarette, hookah, alcohol, and hard drugs use provided a better fitting model. The a range for these identified factors was 0.69 to 0.94, the ICC range was 0.73 to 0.93, and there was a significant difference in mean scores for these instruments in compare between the male normative and detention adolescents. The first and second-order measurement models testing found good model fit for the 7-factor model. Conclusions: Factor analyses provided support of existence internalizing and externalizing problem behavior syndrome. With those qualifications, this model can be applied for studies among Persian adolescents.

  19. Adaptive behavior for texture discrimination by the free-flying big brown bat, Eptesicus fuscus.

    Falk, Ben; Williams, Tameeka; Aytekin, Murat; Moss, Cynthia F

    2011-05-01

    This study examined behavioral strategies for texture discrimination by echolocation in free-flying bats. Big brown bats, Eptesicus fuscus, were trained to discriminate a smooth 16 mm diameter object (S+) from a size-matched textured object (S-), both of which were tethered in random locations in a flight room. The bat's three-dimensional flight path was reconstructed using stereo images from high-speed video recordings, and the bat's sonar vocalizations were recorded for each trial and analyzed off-line. A microphone array permitted reconstruction of the sonar beam pattern, allowing us to study the bat's directional gaze and inspection of the objects. Bats learned the discrimination, but performance varied with S-. In acoustic studies of the objects, the S+ and S- stimuli were ensonified with frequency-modulated sonar pulses. Mean intensity differences between S+ and S- were within 4 dB. Performance data, combined with analyses of echo recordings, suggest that the big brown bat listens to changes in sound spectra from echo to echo to discriminate between objects. Bats adapted their sonar calls as they inspected the stimuli, and their sonar behavior resembled that of animals foraging for insects. Analysis of sonar beam-directing behavior in certain trials clearly showed that the bat sequentially inspected S+ and S-. PMID:21246202

  20. Cultural adaptation of an intervention to reduce sexual risk behaviors among patients attending a STI clinic in St. Petersburg, Russia.

    Grau, Lauretta E; Krasnoselskikh, Tatiana V; Shaboltas, Alla V; Skochilov, Roman V; Kozlov, Andrei P; Abdala, Nadia

    2013-08-01

    Cultural adaptation is an important step in the process of implementing health promotion interventions that, having been proven to be effective in one culture, are being applied in another. This study describes the results of a formative investigation to culturally adapt a STI/HIV risk reduction intervention for use in St. Petersburg, Russia. Analyses of data from brief elicitation interviews, focus groups, community experts, and a pilot test of the adapted intervention identified environmental, cognitive-information processing, and affect-motivation factors that needed to be addressed during the adaptation process. The participant/counselor relationship was adapted to reflect a hierarchical (cf. collaborative) relationship in order to accommodate Russian expectations about patient interactions with healthcare experts. Key skills building activities (e.g., identification of personal risk behaviors, role-playing) were approached gradually or indirectly in order to maintain participants' engagement in the intervention, and close-ended questions were added to assist participants in understanding unfamiliar concepts such as "triggers" and self-efficacy. Information about the prevalence of HIV/STI infections and alcohol use included data specific to St. Petersburg to increase the personal relevance of these materials and messages. Intervention components were tailored to participants' risk reduction and informational needs. No gender differences that would have justified adaptation of the intervention approach or content were noted. Examples of specific adaptations and the key issues to attend to when adapting behavioral interventions for use in Russian clinical settings are discussed. PMID:23322231

  1. Adaptive Vocational Personality Questionnaire Development and Validation of an adaptive personality questionnaire to analyze the vocational behavior of university students

    Amparo Gómez-Artiga; Susana Lloret-Segura; Esperanza Rocabert-Beút; Adela Descals-Tomás

    2013-01-01

    This study presents a personality evaluation instrument adapted to the vocational setting: the Adaptive Vocational Personality Questionnaire (AVPQ). The questionnaire was developed and tested in a sample of 2160 university students in the final years of their degree programs. The purpose of the study is to validate the questionnaire, providing evidence about its internal structure and its usefulness for predicting scores on a criterion scale. A confirmatory factor analysis combined with a cro...

  2. Effects of culturally adapted parent management training on Latino youth behavioral health outcomes.

    Martinez, Charles R; Eddy, J Mark

    2005-10-01

    A randomized experimental test of the implementation feasibility and the efficacy of a culturally adapted Parent Management Training intervention was conducted with a sample of 73 Spanish-speaking Latino parents with middle-school-aged youth at risk for problem behaviors. Intervention feasibility was evaluated through weekly parent satisfaction ratings, intervention participation and attendance, and overall program satisfaction. Intervention effects were evaluated by examining changes in parenting and youth adjustment for the intervention and control groups between baseline and intervention termination approximately 5 months later. Findings provided strong evidence for the feasibility of delivering the intervention in a larger community context. The intervention produced benefits in both parenting outcomes (i.e., general parenting, skill encouragement, overall effective parenting) and youth outcomes (i.e., aggression, externalizing, likelihood of smoking and use of alcohol, marijuana, and other drugs). Differential effects of the intervention were based on youth nativity status. PMID:16287384

  3. Comparative Cost Analysis of Sequential, Adaptive, Behavioral, Pharmacological, and Combined Treatments for Childhood ADHD.

    Page, Timothy F; Pelham, William E; Fabiano, Gregory A; Greiner, Andrew R; Gnagy, Elizabeth M; Hart, Katie C; Coxe, Stefany; Waxmonsky, James G; Foster, E Michael; Pelham, William E

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a cost analysis of the behavioral, pharmacological, and combined interventions employed in a sequential, multiple assignment, randomized, and adaptive trial investigating the sequencing and enhancement of treatment for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; Pelham et al., 201X; N = 146, 76% male, 80% Caucasian). The quantity of resources expended on each child's treatment was determined from records that listed the type, date, location, persons present, and duration of all services provided. The inputs considered were the amount of physician time, clinician time, paraprofessional time, teacher time, parent time, medication, and gasoline. Quantities of these inputs were converted into costs in 2013 USD using national wage estimates from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the prices of 30-day supplies of prescription drugs from the national Express Scripts service, and mean fuel prices from the Energy Information Administration. Beginning treatment with a low-dose/intensity regimen of behavior modification (large-group parent training) was less costly for a school year of treatment ($961) than beginning treatment with a low dose of stimulant medication ($1,669), regardless of whether the initial treatment was intensified with a higher "dose" or if the other modality was added. Outcome data from the parent study (Pelham et al., 201X) found equivalent or superior outcomes for treatments beginning with low-intensity behavior modification compared to intervention beginning with medication. Combined with the present analyses, these findings suggest that initiating treatment with behavior modification rather than medication is the more cost-effective option for children with ADHD. PMID:26808137

  4. Behavioral buffering of global warming in a cold-adapted lizard.

    Ortega, Zaida; Mencía, Abraham; Pérez-Mellado, Valentín

    2016-07-01

    Alpine lizards living in restricted areas might be particularly sensitive to climate change. We studied thermal biology of Iberolacerta cyreni in high mountains of central Spain. Our results suggest that I. cyreni is a cold-adapted thermal specialist and an effective thermoregulator. Among ectotherms, thermal specialists are more threatened by global warming than generalists. Alpine lizards have no chance to disperse to new suitable habitats. In addition, physiological plasticity is unlikely to keep pace with the expected rates of environmental warming. Thus, lizards might rely on their behavior in order to deal with ongoing climate warming. Plasticity of thermoregulatory behavior has been proposed to buffer the rise of environmental temperatures. Therefore, we studied the change in body and environmental temperatures, as well as their relationships, for I. cyreni between the 1980s and 2012. Air temperatures have increased more than 3.5°C and substrate temperatures have increased by 6°C in the habitat of I. cyreni over the last 25 years. However, body temperatures of lizards have increased less than 2°C in the same period, and the linear relationship between body and environmental temperatures remains similar. These results show that alpine lizards are buffering the potential impact of the increase in their environmental temperatures, most probably by means of their behavior. Body temperatures of I. cyreni are still cold enough to avoid any drop in fitness. Nonetheless, if warming continues, behavioral buffering might eventually become useless, as it would imply spending too much time in shelter, losing feeding, and mating opportunities. Eventually, if body temperature exceeds the thermal optimum in the near future, fitness would decrease abruptly. PMID:27386098

  5. Numerical relations and skill level constrain co-adaptive behaviors of agents in sports teams.

    Silva, Pedro; Travassos, Bruno; Vilar, Luís; Aguiar, Paulo; Davids, Keith; Araújo, Duarte; Garganta, Júlio

    2014-01-01

    Similar to other complex systems in nature (e.g., a hunting pack, flocks of birds), sports teams have been modeled as social neurobiological systems in which interpersonal coordination tendencies of agents underpin team swarming behaviors. Swarming is seen as the result of agent co-adaptation to ecological constraints of performance environments by collectively perceiving specific possibilities for action (affordances for self and shared affordances). A major principle of invasion team sports assumed to promote effective performance is to outnumber the opposition (creation of numerical overloads) during different performance phases (attack and defense) in spatial regions adjacent to the ball. Such performance principles are assimilated by system agents through manipulation of numerical relations between teams during training in order to create artificially asymmetrical performance contexts to simulate overloaded and underloaded situations. Here we evaluated effects of different numerical relations differentiated by agent skill level, examining emergent inter-individual, intra- and inter-team coordination. Groups of association football players (national--NLP and regional-level--RLP) participated in small-sided and conditioned games in which numerical relations between system agents were manipulated (5v5, 5v4 and 5v3). Typical grouping tendencies in sports teams (major ranges, stretch indices, distances of team centers to goals and distances between the teams' opposing line-forces in specific team sectors) were recorded by plotting positional coordinates of individual agents through continuous GPS tracking. Results showed that creation of numerical asymmetries during training constrained agents' individual dominant regions, the underloaded teams' compactness and each team's relative position on-field, as well as distances between specific team sectors. We also observed how skill level impacted individual and team coordination tendencies. Data revealed emergence of

  6. Numerical relations and skill level constrain co-adaptive behaviors of agents in sports teams.

    Pedro Silva

    Full Text Available Similar to other complex systems in nature (e.g., a hunting pack, flocks of birds, sports teams have been modeled as social neurobiological systems in which interpersonal coordination tendencies of agents underpin team swarming behaviors. Swarming is seen as the result of agent co-adaptation to ecological constraints of performance environments by collectively perceiving specific possibilities for action (affordances for self and shared affordances. A major principle of invasion team sports assumed to promote effective performance is to outnumber the opposition (creation of numerical overloads during different performance phases (attack and defense in spatial regions adjacent to the ball. Such performance principles are assimilated by system agents through manipulation of numerical relations between teams during training in order to create artificially asymmetrical performance contexts to simulate overloaded and underloaded situations. Here we evaluated effects of different numerical relations differentiated by agent skill level, examining emergent inter-individual, intra- and inter-team coordination. Groups of association football players (national--NLP and regional-level--RLP participated in small-sided and conditioned games in which numerical relations between system agents were manipulated (5v5, 5v4 and 5v3. Typical grouping tendencies in sports teams (major ranges, stretch indices, distances of team centers to goals and distances between the teams' opposing line-forces in specific team sectors were recorded by plotting positional coordinates of individual agents through continuous GPS tracking. Results showed that creation of numerical asymmetries during training constrained agents' individual dominant regions, the underloaded teams' compactness and each team's relative position on-field, as well as distances between specific team sectors. We also observed how skill level impacted individual and team coordination tendencies. Data revealed

  7. Children with Williams syndrome: Developmental trajectories for intellectual abilities, vocabulary abilities, and adaptive behavior.

    Mervis, Carolyn B; Pitts, C Holley

    2015-06-01

    To examine longitudinal trajectories of intellectual abilities, single-word vocabulary abilities, and adaptive behavior for 76 children with Williams syndrome (WS) aged 4-15 years, we compared their standard scores (SSs) at two time points approximately 3 years apart on the same standardized measures. At the group level, mean SS declined significantly for 8 of the 12 measures and showed a slight (nonsignificant) increase or decrease for 4 measures. However, for most measures significant changes in SS were found for only a small proportion of the children, with some children evidencing significant declines and a smaller proportion evidencing significant increases. Significant SS changes were most common for adaptive behavior. For all measures, the mean magnitude of SS change was smaller for older children (>7.5 years at Time 1) than for younger children (<7.5 years at Time 1). Furthermore, correlations between Time 1 and Time 2 SSs were larger for the older cohort than for the younger cohort, indicating that SS stability was greater for older children than for younger children. Although mean SSs declined for most measures, indicating that children with WS as a group were not making the expected amount of progress relative to their general population peers who earned the same SS at Time 1, there was little evidence either of regression (loss of skills) or stagnation (failure to increase raw scores). The relations of these results to those of previous smaller-sample longitudinal studies of children with WS and the implications of the findings are considered. PMID:25989316

  8. Multi-optimization Criteria-based Robot Behavioral Adaptability and Motion Planning

    Robotic tasks are typically defined in Task Space (e.g., the 3-D World), whereas robots are controlled in Joint Space (motors). The transformation from Task Space to Joint Space must consider the task objectives (e.g., high precision, strength optimization, torque optimization), the task constraints (e.g., obstacles, joint limits, non-holonomic constraints, contact or tool task constraints), and the robot kinematics configuration (e.g., tools, type of joints, mobile platform, manipulator, modular additions, locked joints). Commercially available robots are optimized for a specific set of tasks, objectives and constraints and, therefore, their control codes are extremely specific to a particular set of conditions. Thus, there exist a multiplicity of codes, each handling a particular set of conditions, but none suitable for use on robots with widely varying tasks, objectives, constraints, or environments. On the other hand, most DOE missions and tasks are typically ''batches of one''. Attempting to use commercial codes for such work requires significant personnel and schedule costs for re-programming or adding code to the robots whenever a change in task objective, robot configuration, number and type of constraint, etc. occurs. The objective of our project is to develop a ''generic code'' to implement this Task-space to Joint-Space transformation that would allow robot behavior adaptation, in real time (at loop rate), to changes in task objectives, number and type of constraints, modes of controls, kinematics configuration (e.g., new tools, added module). Our specific goal is to develop a single code for the general solution of under-specified systems of algebraic equations that is suitable for solving the inverse kinematics of robots, is useable for all types of robots (mobile robots, manipulators, mobile manipulators, etc.) with no limitation on the number of joints and the number of controlled Task-Space variables, can adapt to real time changes in number and

  9. 简化的Sage-Husa自适应滤波算法在组合导航中的应用及仿真%APPLICATION AND SIMULATION OF SIMPLIFIED SAGE-HUSA ADAPTIVE FILTER IN INTEGRATED NAVIGATION SYSTEM

    沈云峰; 朱海; 莫军; 宋裕农

    2001-01-01

    讨论一种简化的Sage-Husa自适应Kalman滤波算法,它可对系统的量测噪声和系统干扰进行实时估计,同时在工程中又比较易实现与调整,通过在组合导航舰船运动模型的仿真发现,可以明显提高滤波精度与稳定性。%A simplified adaptive Sage-Husa filter is discussed.Generally the method of increasing the adaptive ability of normal Kalman filter is to do optimal estimation of the statistical feature of measurement noise and inteference.This way the complication of filter is enhanced also.This influences the real-time chasasteristics of the filtering.The simplified Sage-Husa filter can solve this problem partly because of its simple structure.The result of computer simulation shows the simplified filter is useful,effective and adaptive when it is applied in the ship integrated navigation system.

  10. Control strategy design for car autonomous navigation using adaptive dynamic programming%基于自适应动态规划算法的小车自主导航控制策略设计

    方啸; 郑德忠

    2014-01-01

    小车自主导航系统是路径规划领域研究的难点问题。本文利用自适应动态规划算法对小车自主寻路、避障的控制策略进行了设计。介绍了仿真过程中小车检测环境状态量的方法,提出了小车通过连续型奖励/惩罚信号自主学习寻路、避障的控制策略,并结合虚拟现实技术创建了不同路径和不同障碍物状态的仿真环境。通过不同路径状态的仿真实验,验证了自适应动态规划算法在解决小车自主导航避障控制策略问题上的可靠性和稳定性。%The car autonomous navigation system has been a hot topic in path planning. This paper focuses on control strategy design for car autonomous navigation with obstacles avoidance by using adaptive dynamic programming (ADP) approach. First, the method for car observing the environment in simulation process is introduced. Second, a continuous reward/punishmen signal for car autonomous learning the control strategy is proposed. Third, the different simulation environment with different obstacles' states are established by virtual reality (VR) technology. The simulation results show that the ADP approach provides the suitable reliability and stability for control strategy design on autonomous navigation problem.

  11. Stability of executive function and predictions to adaptive behavior from middle childhood to pre-adolescence

    Madeline eHarms

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The shift from childhood to adolescence is characterized by rapid remodeling of the brain and increased risk-taking behaviors. Current theories hypothesize that developmental enhancements in sensitivity to affective environmental cues in adolescence may undermine executive function (EF and increase the likelihood of problematic behaviors. In the current study, we examined the extent to which EF in childhood predicts EF in early adolescence. We also tested whether individual differences in neural responses to affective cues (rewards/punishments in childhood serve as a biological marker for EF, sensation-seeking, academic performance, and social skills in early adolescence. At age 8, 84 children completed a gambling task while event-related potentials (ERPs were recorded. We examined the extent to which selections resulting in rewards or losses in this task elicited (i the P300, a post-stimulus waveform reflecting the allocation of attentional resources toward a stimulus, and (ii the SPN, a pre-stimulus anticipatory waveform reflecting a neural representation of a hunch about an outcome that originates in insula and ventromedial PFC. Children also completed a Dimensional Change Card-Sort (DCCS and Flanker task to measure EF. At age 12, 78 children repeated the DCCS and Flanker and completed a battery of questionnaires. Flanker and DCCS accuracy at age 8 predicted Flanker and DCCS performance at age 12, respectively. Individual differences in the magnitude of P300 (to losses vs. rewards and SPN (preceding outcomes with a high probability of punishment at age 8 predicted self-reported sensation seeking (lower and teacher-rated academic performance (higher at age 12. We suggest there is stability in EF from age 8 to 12, and that childhood neural sensitivity to reward and punishment predicts individual differences in sensation seeking and adaptive behaviors in children entering adolescence.

  12. PNP: mining of profile navigational patterns

    Li, Hua-Fu; Shan, Man-Kwan

    2002-03-01

    Web usage mining is a key knowledge discovery research and as such has been well researched. So far, this research has focused mainly on databases containing access log data only. However, many real-world databases contain users profile data and current solutions for this situation are still insufficient. In this paper we have a large database containing of user profile information together with user web-pages navigation patterns. The user profile data includes quantitative attributes, such as salary or age, and categorical attributes, such as sex or marital status. We introduce the concept of profile navigation patterns, which discusses the problem of relating user profile information to navigational behavior. An example of such profile navigation pattern might be 20% of married people between age 25 and 30 have the similar navigational behavior , where a, c, h, i, l are web pages in a web site. The navigation patterns may contain the generic traversal behavior, e.g. trend to backward moves, cycles etc. The objective of mining profile navigation patterns is to identify browser profile for web personalization. We give an algorithm for mining such profile navigation patterns. Our method (algorithm PNP) can discover profile navigation patterns efficiently. We also present new inclination measurements to identify the interesting profile navigational patterns. Experimental results show the efficiency and scalability of PNP.

  13. Adaptive evolution of a derived radius morphology in manakins (Aves, Pipridae) to support acrobatic display behavior.

    Friscia, Anthony; Sanin, Gloria D; Lindsay, Willow R; Day, Lainy B; Schlinger, Barney A; Tan, Josh; Fuxjager, Matthew J

    2016-06-01

    The morphology of the avian skeleton is often studied in the context of adaptations for powered flight. The effects of other evolutionary forces, such as sexual selection, on avian skeletal design are unclear, even though birds produce diverse behaviors that undoubtedly require a variety of osteological modifications. Here, we investigate this issue in a family of passerine birds called manakins (Pipridae), which have evolved physically unusual and elaborate courtship displays. We report that, in species within the genus Manacus, the shaft of the radius is heavily flattened and shows substantial solidification. Past work anecdotally notes this morphology and attributes it to the species' ability to hit their wings together above their heads to produce loud mechanical sonations. Our results show that this feature is unique to Manacus compared to the other species in our study, including a variety of taxa that produce other sonations through alternate wing mechanisms. At the same time, our data reveal striking similarities across species in total radius volume and solidification. Together, this suggests that supposedly adaptive alterations in radial morphology occur within a conserved framework of a set radius volume and solidness, which in turn is likely determined by natural selection. Further allometric analyses imply that the radius is less constrained by body size and the structural demands that underlie powered flight, compared to other forelimb bones that are mostly unmodified across taxa. These results are consistent with the idea that the radius is more susceptible to selective modification by sexual selection. Overall, this study provides some of the first insight into the osteological evolution of passerine birds, as well as the way in which opposing selective forces can shape skeletal design in these species. J. Morphol. 277:766-775, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27027525

  14. An Adaptive Approach to Family Intervention: Linking Engagement in Family-Centered Intervention to Reductions in Adolescent Problem Behavior

    Connell, Arin M.; Dishion, Thomas J.; Yasui, Miwa; Kavanagh, Kathryn

    2007-01-01

    This study used Complier Average Causal Effect analysis (CACE; see G. Imbens & D. Rubin, 1997) to examine the impact of an adaptive approach to family intervention in the public schools on rates of substance use and antisocial behavior among students ages 11-17. Students were randomly assigned to a family-centered intervention (N = 998) in 6th…

  15. Adapting Phonological Awareness Interventions for Children with Down Syndrome Based on the Behavioral Phenotype: A Promising Approach?

    Lemons, Christopher J.; King, Seth A.; Davidson, Kimberly A.; Puranik, Cynthia S.; Fulmer, Deborah; Mrachko, Alicia A.; Partanen, Jane; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Fidler, Deborah J.

    2015-01-01

    Many children with Down syndrome demonstrate deficits in phonological awareness, a prerequisite to learning to read in an alphabetic language. The purpose of this study was to determine whether adapting a commercially available phonological awareness program to better align with characteristics associated with the behavioral phenotype of Down…

  16. Some psychophysiological and behavioral aspects of adaptation to simulated autonomous Mission to Mars

    Gushin, V.; Shved, D.; Vinokhodova, A.; Vasylieva, G.; Nitchiporuk, I.; Ehmann, B.; Balazs, L.

    2012-01-01

    “Mars-105” experiment was executed in March-July 2009 in Moscow, at the Institute for Bio-Medical Problems (IBMP) with participation of European Space Agency (ESA) to simulate some specific conditions of future piloted Mars mission. In the last 35 days of isolation, in order to simulate autonomous flight conditions, some serious restrictions were established for the crew resupply and communication with Mission Control (MC). The objective of the study was to investigate psychophysiological and behavioral aspects (communication) of adaptation during this period of “high autonomy”. We used computerized analysis of the crew written daily reports to calculate the frequencies of utilization of certain semantic units, expressing different psychological functions. To estimate the level of psycho-physiological stress, we measured the concentration of urinal cortisol once in two weeks. To investigate psycho-emotional state, we used the questionnaire SAN, estimating Mood, Activity and Health once in two weeks.During the simulation of autonomous flight, we found out the different tendencies of communicative behavior. One group of subjects demonstrated the tendency to “activation and self-government” under “high autonomy” conditions. The other subjects continued to use communicative strategy that we called “closing the communication channel”. “Active” communication strategy was accompanied by increasing in subjective scores of mood and activity. The subjects, whose communication strategy was attributed as “closing”, demonstrated the considerably lower subjective scores of mood and activity. Period of high autonomy causes specific changes in communication strategies of the isolated crew.

  17. Navigation Lights - USACE IENC

    Department of Homeland Security — These inland electronic Navigational charts (IENCs) were developed from available data used in maintenance of Navigation channels. Users of these IENCs should be...

  18. Adapted cognitive-behavioral therapy for religious individuals with mental disorder: a systematic review.

    Lim, Caroline; Sim, Kang; Renjan, Vidhya; Sam, Hui Fang; Quah, Soo Li

    2014-06-01

    Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is considered an evidence-based psychological intervention for various mental disorders. However, mental health clinicians should be cognizant of the population that was used to validate the intervention and assess its acceptability to a target group that is culturally different. We systematically reviewed published empirical studies of CBT adapted for religious individuals with mental disorder to determine the extent to which religiously modified CBT can be considered an empirically supported treatment following the criteria delineated by the American Psychological Association Task Force on Promotion and Dissemination of Psychological Procedures. Overall, nine randomized controlled trials and one quasi-experimental study were included that compared the effectiveness of religiously modified CBT to standard CBT or other treatment modalities for the treatment of depressive disorders, generalized anxiety disorder, and schizophrenia. The majority of these studies either found no difference in effectiveness between religiously modified CBT compared to standard CBT or other treatment modalities, or early effects that were not sustained. Considering the methodological limitations of the reviewed studies, religiously modified CBT cannot be considered a well-established psychological intervention for the treatment of the foregoing mental disorders following the a priori set criteria at this juncture. Nevertheless, melding religious content with CBT may be an acceptable treatment modality for individuals with strong religious convictions. PMID:24813028

  19. Highly Dynamic and Adaptive Traffic Congestion Avoidance in Real-Time Inspired by Honey Bee Behavior

    Wedde, Horst F.; Lehnhoff, Sebastian; van Bonn, Bernhard; Bay, Z.; Becker, S.; Böttcher, S.; Brunner, C.; Büscher, A.; Fürst, T.; Lazarescu, A. M.; Rotaru, E.; Senge, S.; Steinbach, B.; Yilmaz, F.; Zimmermann, T.

    Traffic congestions have become a major problem in metropolitan areas world-wide, within and between cities, to an extent where they make driving and transportation times largely unpredictable. Due to the highly dynamic character of congestion building and dissolving this phenomenon appears even to resist a formal treatment. Static approaches, and even more their global management, have proven counterproductive in practice. Given the latest progress in VANET technology and the remarkable commercially driven efforts like in the European C2C consortium, or the VSC Project in the US, allow meanwhile to tackle various aspects of traffic regulation through VANET communication. In this paper we introduce a novel, completely decentralized multi-agent routing algorithm (termed BeeJamA) which we have derived from the foraging behavior of honey bees. It is highly dynamic, adaptive, robust, and scalable, and it allows for both avoiding congestions, and minimizing traveling times to individual destinations. Vehicle guidance is provided well ahead of every intersection, depending on the individual speeds. Thus strict deadlines are imposed on, and respected by, the BeeJamA algorithm. We report on extensive simulation experiments which show the superior performance of BeeJamA over conventional approaches.

  20. Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-II Parent/Primary Caregiver Form: Ages 0-5--Its Factor Structure and Other Implications for Practice

    Oakland, Thomas; Algina, James

    2011-01-01

    A child's acquisition of adaptive behavior and skills may constitute his or her most important goal during infancy and early childhood. In addition, adaptive behavior data often are required when making decisions under Part C of the 2004 Individuals With Disabilities Education Improvement Act. This study reports the results of a factor analysis of…

  1. Adaptive Sage-Husa particle filtering and its application in integrated navigation%自适应Sage-Husa粒子滤波及其在组合导航中的应用

    薛丽; 高社生; 胡高歌

    2013-01-01

    Aiming at the nonlinear filtering problem, this paper proposes an improved adaptive Sage-Husa particle filtering algorithm by using Sage-Husa filtering to obtain state estimation and covariance, thus it provides a reliable importance density function that considers the latest measurement information. Then the Euclidean distance and accuracy factor constructed from statistic performance of measurement information can adaptively regulate the weight function. Thus it is more suitable for filtering calculation based on nonlinear and non-Gaussian models, through preventing the particles from degeneracy and increasing the precision of filtering. By applying the proposed algorithm into SINS/SAR integrated navigation system and comparing with extended Kalman filtering and particle filtering, the experiments demonstrate that east and north position error of adaptive Sage-Husa particle filtering are within 5.3 m± respectively, and it outperforms the extended Kalman filtering and particle filtering in terms of accuracy, thus improving the calculation precision in navigation system.%  针对非线性滤波问题,提出一种新的自适应Sage-Husa粒子滤波算法.通过Sage-Husa滤波方法计算状态估值和协方差阵来获得重要性密度分布函数,充分考虑了最新量测信息的影响,并利用欧氏距离和反映量测噪声统计特性的精度因子自适应地调整粒子权值的分布,降低粒子退化程度,提高了滤波精度,适用于非线性非高斯系统模型的滤波问题.将提出的算法应用于SINS/SAR组合导航系统中,与扩展 Kalman 滤波和粒子滤波比较,仿真结果表明,自适应 Sage-Husa 粒子滤波能提高导航系统定位的解算精度,得到的东向和北向定位误差控制在5.3 m±附近,其性能明显优于扩展 Kalman滤波和粒子滤波.

  2. Behavioral adaptations imply a direct link between ecological specialization and reproductive isolation in a sympatrically diverging ground beetle.

    Van Belleghem, Steven M; De Wolf, Katrien; Hendrickx, Frederik

    2016-08-01

    Adaptation to a previously unoccupied niche within a single population is one of the most contentious topics in evolutionary biology as it assumes the simultaneous evolution of ecologically selected and preference traits. Here, we demonstrate behavioral adaptation to contrasting hydrological regimes in a sympatric mosaic of Pogonus chalceus beetle populations, and argue that this adaptation may result in nonrandom gene flow. When exposed to experimental inundations, individuals from tidal marshes, which are naturally subjected to frequent but short floods, showed a higher propensity to remain submerged compared to individuals from seasonal marshes that are inundated for several months. This adaptive behavior is expected to decrease the probability that individuals will settle in the alternative habitat, resulting in spatial sorting and reproductive isolation of both ecotypes. Additionally, we show that this difference in behavior is induced by the environmental conditions experienced by the beetles during their nondispersive larval stages. Hence, accidental or forced ovipositioning in the alternative habitat may induce both an increased performance and preference to the natal habitat type. Such plastic traits could play an important role in the most incipient stages of divergence with gene flow. PMID:27405686

  3. The cerebellum: a new key structure in the navigation system

    Laure Rondi-Reig

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Early investigations of cerebellar function focused on motor learning, in particular on eyeblink conditioning and adaptation of the vestibulo-ocular reflex, and led to the general view that cerebellar Long Term Depression (LTD at parallel fiber-Purkinje cell synapses is the neural correlate of cerebellar motor learning. Thereafter, while the full complexity of cerebellar plasticities was being unraveled, cerebellar involvement in more cognitive tasks - including spatial navigation - was further investigated. However, cerebellar implication in spatial navigation remains a matter of debate because motor deficits frequently associated with cerebellar damage often prevent the dissociation between its role in spatial cognition from its implication in motor function. Here, we review recent findings from behavioral and electrophysiological analyses of cerebellar mutant mouse models, which show that the cerebellum might participate in the construction of hippocampal spatial representation map (i.e. place cells and thereby in goal-directed navigation. These recent advances in cerebellar research point toward a model in which computation from the cerebellum could be required for spatial representation and would involve the integration of multi-source self-motion information to: 1 transform the reference frame of vestibular signals and 2 distinguish between self- and externally-generated vestibular signals. We eventually present herein anatomical and functional connectivity data supporting a cerebello-hippocampal interaction. Whilst a direct cerebello-hippocampal projection has been suggested, recent investigations rather favor a multi-synaptic pathway involving posterior parietal and retrosplenial cortices, two regions critically involved in spatial navigation.

  4. Understanding the Social Navigation User Experience

    Goecks, Jeremy

    2009-01-01

    A social navigation system collects data from its users--its community--about what they are doing, their opinions, and their decisions, aggregates this data, and provides the aggregated data--community data--back to individuals so that they can use it to guide behavior and decisions. Social navigation systems empower users with the ability to…

  5. Evolved Navigation Theory and Horizontal Visual Illusions

    Jackson, Russell E.; Willey, Chela R.

    2011-01-01

    Environmental perception is prerequisite to most vertebrate behavior and its modern investigation initiated the founding of experimental psychology. Navigation costs may affect environmental perception, such as overestimating distances while encumbered (Solomon, 1949). However, little is known about how this occurs in real-world navigation or how…

  6. Smart swarms of bacteria-inspired agents with performance adaptable interactions.

    Adi Shklarsh

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Collective navigation and swarming have been studied in animal groups, such as fish schools, bird flocks, bacteria, and slime molds. Computer modeling has shown that collective behavior of simple agents can result from simple interactions between the agents, which include short range repulsion, intermediate range alignment, and long range attraction. Here we study collective navigation of bacteria-inspired smart agents in complex terrains, with adaptive interactions that depend on performance. More specifically, each agent adjusts its interactions with the other agents according to its local environment--by decreasing the peers' influence while navigating in a beneficial direction, and increasing it otherwise. We show that inclusion of such performance dependent adaptable interactions significantly improves the collective swarming performance, leading to highly efficient navigation, especially in complex terrains. Notably, to afford such adaptable interactions, each modeled agent requires only simple computational capabilities with short-term memory, which can easily be implemented in simple swarming robots.

  7. Universal navigation on smartphones

    Karimi, Hassan A

    2011-01-01

    Universal navigation is accessible primarily through smart phones providing users with navigation information regardless of the environment (i.e., outdoor or indoor). ""Universal Navigation for Smart Phones"" provide the most up-to-date navigation technologies and systems for both outdoor and indoor navigation. It also provides a comparison of the similarities and differences between outdoor and indoor navigation systems from both a technological stand point and user's perspective. All aspects of navigation systems including geo-positioning, wireless communication, databases, and functions wil

  8. Navigation in surgery

    Mezger, Uli; Jendrewski, Claudia; Bartels, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Introduction “Navigation in surgery” spans a broad area, which, depending on the clinical challenge, can have different meanings. Over the past decade, navigation in surgery has evolved beyond imaging modalities and bulky systems into the rich networking of the cloud or devices that are pocket-sized. Discussion This article will review various aspects of navigation in the operating room and beyond. This includes a short history of navigation, the evolution of surgical navigation, as well as t...

  9. Apollo Onboard Navigation Techniques

    Interbartolo, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews basic navigation concepts, describes coordinate systems and identifies attitude determination techniques including Primary Guidance, Navigation and Control System (PGNCS) IMU management and Command and Service Module Stabilization and Control System/Lunar Module (LM) Abort Guidance System (AGS) attitude management. The presentation also identifies state vector determination techniques, including PGNCS coasting flight navigation, PGNCS powered flight navigation and LM AGS navigation.

  10. Translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the Driving Behavior Survey (DBS

    Jessye Almeida Cantini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fear of driving has been recognized as a complex diagnostic entity. For this reason, the use of psychometric instruments is fundamental to advancing research in this area. Psychometric instruments are also necessary for clinical care, as they can help conceptualize the disorder and plan adequate treatment. OBJECTIVE: To describe the cross-cultural adaptation of a Brazilian version of the Driving Behavior Survey (DBS. Methods: The process consisted of: 1 two translations and back-translations carried out by independent evaluators; 2 development of a brief version by four bilingual experts in mental health; 3 experimental application; and 4 investigation of operational equivalence. RESULTS: The adaptation process is described and a final Brazilian version of the DBS is presented. CONCLUSION: A new instrument is now available to assess the driving behaviors of the Brazilian population, facilitating research in this field.

  11. A Study of Bending Mode Algorithm of Adaptive Front-Lighting System Based on Driver Preview Behavior

    Zhenhai Gao; Yang Li

    2014-01-01

    The function of adaptive front-lighting system is to improve the lighting condition of the road ahead and driving safety at night. The current system seldom considers characteristics of the driver’s preview behavior and eye movement. To solve this problem, an AFS algorithm modeling a driver’s preview behavior was proposed. According to the vehicle’s state, the driver’s manipulating input, and the vehicle’s future state change which resulted from the driver’s input, a dynamic predictive algori...

  12. Adapting Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Depressed Adolescents Exposed to Interpersonal Trauma: A Case Study With Two Teens

    DePrince, Anne P.; Shirk, Stephen R.

    2012-01-01

    A substantial body of evidence indicates that interpersonal trauma increases risk for adolescent and adult depression. Findings from 4 clinical trials for adolescent depression show poorer response to standard cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) among depressed adolescents with a trauma history than youth without such a history. This paper reports on the development of a modified CBT (mCBT) protocol that has been adapted for treating depressed adolescents who have been exposed to traumatic int...

  13. Behavioral Ecology of Captive Species: Using Behavioral Adaptations to Assess and Enhance Welfare of Nonhuman Zoo Animals

    Koene, P.

    2013-01-01

    This project aimed to estimate a species' adaptations in nature and in captivity, assess welfare, suggest environmental changes, and find species characteristics that underlie welfare problems in nonhuman animals in the zoo. First, the current status of zoo animal welfare assessment was reviewed, an

  14. A test of an adapted multiple domain model in predicting sexual behaviors among unmarried young adults in India.

    Mehrotra, Purnima; Zimmerman, Rick S; Noar, Seth M; Dumenci, Levant

    2013-01-01

    Theory-based, scientific research examining sexual behaviors of young adults is sparse in India, even though pre-marital sex among unmarried young people has been rising in recent years. At the same time, young people aged 15 to 24 are disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS. This has been attributed in part to rising pre-marital sexual behaviors, coupled with a lack of sex education. The objective of this study was to advance an understanding of the determinants of sexual behavior among unmarried young adults in northern India. An adaptation of a comprehensive model of health behavior, the Multiple Domain Model, was employed to study the effects of environmental/cultural influences (parental and media), structural determinants (sex, socioeconomic status, age, caste, and place of residence), personality factors (sensation-seeking and impulsive decision making), gender role identity, psychosocial variables (attitudes, norms, and self-efficacy), contextual influences (relationship status and alcohol/drug use) and preparatory behaviors (frequency of being in sexual situations) on adolescents' sexual behaviors. Results of path analysis indicated that key predictors of ever having had vaginal sex included preparatory behaviors, masculine gender role identity, attitudes toward having sex and peer norms regarding sex. Implications of these findings for future research and intervention are discussed. PMID:22206501

  15. Risk management model of winter navigation operations.

    Valdez Banda, Osiris A; Goerlandt, Floris; Kuzmin, Vladimir; Kujala, Pentti; Montewka, Jakub

    2016-07-15

    The wintertime maritime traffic operations in the Gulf of Finland are managed through the Finnish-Swedish Winter Navigation System. This establishes the requirements and limitations for the vessels navigating when ice covers this area. During winter navigation in the Gulf of Finland, the largest risk stems from accidental ship collisions which may also trigger oil spills. In this article, a model for managing the risk of winter navigation operations is presented. The model analyses the probability of oil spills derived from collisions involving oil tanker vessels and other vessel types. The model structure is based on the steps provided in the Formal Safety Assessment (FSA) by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) and adapted into a Bayesian Network model. The results indicate that ship independent navigation and convoys are the operations with higher probability of oil spills. Minor spills are most probable, while major oil spills found very unlikely but possible. PMID:27207023

  16. Interactive learning of visual topological navigation

    Filliat, David

    2008-01-01

    International audience We present a topological navigation system that is able to visually recognize the different rooms of an apartment and guide a robot between them. Specifically tailored for small entertainment robots, the system relies on vision only and learns its navigation capabilities incrementally by interacting with a user. This continuous learning strategy makes the system particularly adaptable to environmental lighting and structure modifications. From the computer vision poi...

  17. Adapting evidence-based, cognitive-behavioral interventions for anxiety for use with adults in integrated primary care settings.

    Shepardson, Robyn L; Funderburk, Jennifer S; Weisberg, Risa B

    2016-06-01

    Evidence-based treatments for adult patients with anxiety are greatly needed within primary care settings. Psychotherapy protocols, including those for cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), are often disorder-specific and were developed for specialty mental health settings, rendering them infeasible in primary care. Behavioral health consultants (BHCs) integrated into primary care settings are uniquely positioned to provide anxiety treatment. However, due to the dearth of empirically supported brief treatments for anxiety, BHCs are tasked with adapting existing treatments for use in primary care, which is quite challenging due to the abbreviated format and population-based approach to care. CBT protocols are highly effective in the treatment of anxiety and fit well with the self-management emphasis of integrated primary care. We review the rationale and procedure for 6 evidence-based CBT intervention techniques (psycho-education, mindfulness and acceptance-based behavioral techniques, relaxation training, exposure, cognitive restructuring, and behavioral activation) that can be adapted for use in the brief format typical of integrated primary care. We offer tips based on our clinical experience, highlight resources (e.g., handouts, websites, apps), and discuss 2 case examples to aid BHCs in their everyday practice. Our goal is to provide BHCs with practical knowledge that will facilitate the use of evidence-based interventions to improve the treatment of anxiety in primary care settings. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27064434

  18. Dialectical Behavior Therapy for Adolescents: Theory, Treatment Adaptations, and Empirical Outcomes

    MacPherson, Heather A.; Cheavens, Jennifer S.; Fristad, Mary A.

    2013-01-01

    Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) was originally developed for chronically suicidal adults with borderline personality disorder (BPD) and emotion dysregulation. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) indicate DBT is associated with improvements in problem behaviors, including suicide ideation and behavior, non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), attrition,…

  19. Toward a Mechanics of Adaptive Behavior: Evolutionary Dynamics and Matching Theory Statics

    McDowell, J. J.; Popa, Andrei

    2010-01-01

    One theory of behavior dynamics instantiates the idea that behavior evolves in response to selection pressure from the environment in the form of reinforcement. This computational theory implements Darwinian principles of selection, reproduction, and mutation, which operate on a population of potential behaviors by means of a genetic algorithm.…

  20. Synaptic plasticity in a recurrent neural network for versatile and adaptive behaviors of a walking robot

    Grinke, Eduard; Tetzlaff, Christian; Wörgötter, Florentin;

    2015-01-01

    mechanisms with plasticity, exteroceptive sensory feedback, and biomechanics. The neural mechanisms consist of adaptive neural sensory processing and modular neural locomotion control. The sensory processing is based on a small recurrent neural network consisting of two fully connected neurons. Online...

  1. Optical Navigation System Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal is for a flexible navigation system for deep space operations that does not require GPS measurements. The navigation solution is computed using an...

  2. Building health behavior models to guide the development of just-in-time adaptive interventions: A pragmatic framework.

    Nahum-Shani, Inbal; Hekler, Eric B; Spruijt-Metz, Donna

    2015-12-01

    Advances in wireless devices and mobile technology offer many opportunities for delivering just-in-time adaptive interventions (JITAIs)-suites of interventions that adapt over time to an individual's changing status and circumstances with the goal to address the individual's need for support, whenever this need arises. A major challenge confronting behavioral scientists aiming to develop a JITAI concerns the selection and integration of existing empirical, theoretical and practical evidence into a scientific model that can inform the construction of a JITAI and help identify scientific gaps. The purpose of this paper is to establish a pragmatic framework that can be used to organize existing evidence into a useful model for JITAI construction. This framework involves clarifying the conceptual purpose of a JITAI, namely, the provision of just-in-time support via adaptation, as well as describing the components of a JITAI and articulating a list of concrete questions to guide the establishment of a useful model for JITAI construction. The proposed framework includes an organizing scheme for translating the relatively static scientific models underlying many health behavior interventions into a more dynamic model that better incorporates the element of time. This framework will help to guide the next generation of empirical work to support the creation of effective JITAIs. PMID:26651462

  3. Advancing Behavioral HIV Prevention: Adapting an Evidence-Based Intervention for People Living with HIV and Alcohol Use Disorders

    M. L. Armstrong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol use disorders (AUDs are highly prevalent among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA and are associated with increased HIV risk behaviors, suboptimal treatment adherence, and greater risk for disease progression. We used the ADAPT-ITT strategy to adapt an evidence-based intervention (EBI, the Holistic Health Recovery Program (HHRP+, that focuses on secondary HIV prevention and antiretroviral therapy (ART adherence and apply it to PLWHA with problematic drinking. Focus groups (FGs were conducted with PLWHA who consume alcohol and with treatment providers at the largest HIV primary care clinic in New Orleans, LA. Overall themes that emerged from the FGs included the following: (1 negative mood states contribute to heavy alcohol consumption in PLWHA; (2 high levels of psychosocial stress, paired with few adaptive coping strategies, perpetuate the use of harmful alcohol consumption in PLWHA; (3 local cultural norms are related to the permissiveness and pervasiveness of drinking and contribute to heavy alcohol use; (4 healthcare providers unanimously stated that outpatient options for AUD intervention are scarce, (5 misperceptions about the relationships between alcohol and HIV are common; (6 PLWHA are interested in learning about alcohol’s impact on ART and HIV disease progression. These data were used to design the adapted EBI.

  4. Adaptive Behaviors in High-Functioning Taiwanese Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: An Investigation of the Mediating Roles of Symptom Severity and Cognitive Ability

    Chang, Chen-Lin; Lung, For-Wey; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Yang, Pinchen

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the relationship among cognitive level, autistic severity and adaptive function in a Taiwanese sample of 94 high-functioning children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) (mean full scale intelligent quotients FSIQ = 84.8). Parents and teachers both completed the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-II and the Social Responsiveness…

  5. Cognitive flexibility in adolescence: neural and behavioral mechanisms of reward prediction error processing in adaptive decision making during development.

    Hauser, Tobias U; Iannaccone, Reto; Walitza, Susanne; Brandeis, Daniel; Brem, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence is associated with quickly changing environmental demands which require excellent adaptive skills and high cognitive flexibility. Feedback-guided adaptive learning and cognitive flexibility are driven by reward prediction error (RPE) signals, which indicate the accuracy of expectations and can be estimated using computational models. Despite the importance of cognitive flexibility during adolescence, only little is known about how RPE processing in cognitive flexibility deviates between adolescence and adulthood. In this study, we investigated the developmental aspects of cognitive flexibility by means of computational models and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We compared the neural and behavioral correlates of cognitive flexibility in healthy adolescents (12-16years) to adults performing a probabilistic reversal learning task. Using a modified risk-sensitive reinforcement learning model, we found that adolescents learned faster from negative RPEs than adults. The fMRI analysis revealed that within the RPE network, the adolescents had a significantly altered RPE-response in the anterior insula. This effect seemed to be mainly driven by increased responses to negative prediction errors. In summary, our findings indicate that decision making in adolescence goes beyond merely increased reward-seeking behavior and provides a developmental perspective to the behavioral and neural mechanisms underlying cognitive flexibility in the context of reinforcement learning. PMID:25234119

  6. Short- and long-term biomarkers for bacterial robustness: a framework for quantifying correlations between cellular indicators and adaptive behavior.

    Heidy M W den Besten

    Full Text Available The ability of microorganisms to adapt to changing environments challenges the prediction of their history-dependent behavior. Cellular biomarkers that are quantitatively correlated to stress adaptive behavior will facilitate our ability to predict the impact of these adaptive traits. Here, we present a framework for identifying cellular biomarkers for mild stress induced enhanced microbial robustness towards lethal stresses. Several candidate-biomarkers were selected by comparing the genome-wide transcriptome profiles of our model-organism Bacillus cereus upon exposure to four mild stress conditions (mild heat, acid, salt and oxidative stress. These candidate-biomarkers--a transcriptional regulator (activating general stress responses, enzymes (removing reactive oxygen species, and chaperones and proteases (maintaining protein quality--were quantitatively determined at transcript, protein and/or activity level upon exposure to mild heat, acid, salt and oxidative stress for various time intervals. Both unstressed and mild stress treated cells were also exposed to lethal stress conditions (severe heat, acid and oxidative stress to quantify the robustness advantage provided by mild stress pretreatment. To evaluate whether the candidate-biomarkers could predict the robustness enhancement towards lethal stress elicited by mild stress pretreatment, the biomarker responses upon mild stress treatment were correlated to mild stress induced robustness towards lethal stress. Both short- and long-term biomarkers could be identified of which their induction levels were correlated to mild stress induced enhanced robustness towards lethal heat, acid and/or oxidative stress, respectively, and are therefore predictive cellular indicators for mild stress induced enhanced robustness. The identified biomarkers are among the most consistently induced cellular components in stress responses and ubiquitous in biology, supporting extrapolation to other microorganisms

  7. Mexican American women's perspectives on a culturally adapted cognitive-behavioral therapy guided self-help program for binge eating.

    Shea, Munyi; Cachelin, Fary M; Gutierrez, Guadalupe; Wang, Sherry; Phimphasone, Phoutdavone

    2016-02-01

    The prevalence of bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorder (BED) among Latinas is comparable to those of the general population; however, few interventions and treatment trial research have focused on this group. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is the treatment of choice for binge eating related disorders. CBT-based guided self-help (CBTgsh)-a low-cost minimal intervention-has also been shown effective in improving binge eating related symptom, but the effectiveness of the CBTgsh among ethnic minority women is not well understood. Cultural adaptation of evidence-based treatments can be an important step for promoting treatment accessibility and engagement among underserved groups. This qualitative study was part of a larger investigation that examined the feasibility and efficacy of a culturally adapted CBTgsh program among Mexican American women with binge eating disorders. Posttreatment focus groups were conducted with 12 Mexican American women with BN or BED who participated in the intervention. Data were analyzed with the grounded theory methodology (Corbin & Strauss, 2008). Three themes emerged from the data: (a) eating behavior and body ideals are socially and culturally constructed, (b) multifaceted support system is crucial to Mexican American women's treatment engagement and success, and (c) the culturally adapted CBTgsh program is feasible and relevant to Mexican American women's experience, but it can be strengthened with increased family and peer involvement. The findings provide suggestions for further adaptation and refinement of the CBTgsh, and implications for future research as well as early intervention for disordered eating in organized care settings. PMID:26462112

  8. Linking foraging behavior to lifetime reproductive succes for an insect parasitoid: adaptation to host distributions

    Vos, M.; Hemerik, L.

    2003-01-01

    European and American populations of the parasitoid Cotesia glomerata show pronounced differences in foraging behavior across plants and leaves. This variation in spatial aspects of foraging behavior was observed about 350 generations after the introduction of C. glomerata from Europe to North Ameri

  9. Linking foraging behavior to lifetime reproductive success for an insect parasitoid: adaptation to host distributions.

    Vos, M.; Hemerik, L.

    2003-01-01

    European and American populations of the parasitoid Cotesia glomerata show pronounced differences in foraging behavior across plants and leaves. This variation in spatial aspects of foraging behavior was observed about 350 generations after the introduction of C glomerata from Europe to North Americ

  10. Radar and electronic navigation

    Sonnenberg, G J

    2013-01-01

    Radar and Electronic Navigation, Sixth Edition discusses radar in marine navigation, underwater navigational aids, direction finding, the Decca navigator system, and the Omega system. The book also describes the Loran system for position fixing, the navy navigation satellite system, and the global positioning system (GPS). It reviews the principles, operation, presentations, specifications, and uses of radar. It also describes GPS, a real time position-fixing system in three dimensions (longitude, latitude, altitude), plus velocity information with Universal Time Coordinated (UTC). It is accur

  11. Research on Web Navigations

    Qian Zhongsheng

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Web applications employ various new languages, technologies, and programming models to implement applications with very high quality requirements. In building Web applications, three types of models must be considered, which are conceptual model, navigation model and presentation model. Navigation problems are significant among them that must be confronted. This work illuminates three different classifications of Web navigations as well as their feature, analyzes and compares various popular Web navigation models. Moreover, it also presents and suggests some guidelines for Web navigation design based on Web development design pattern experiences.

  12. A Study of Disaster Adaptation Behavior and Risk Communication for watershed Area Resident - the Case of Kaoping River Watershed in Taiwan

    Te Pai, Jen; Chen, Yu-Yun; Huang, Kuan-Hua

    2016-04-01

    Along with the global climate change, the rainfall patterns become more centralized and cause natural disasters more frequently and heavily. Residents in river watersheds area are facing high risk of natural disasters and severe impacts, especially in Taiwan. From the experience of Typhoon Morakot in 2009, we learned that poor risk communication between the governments and the households and communities would lead to tremendous loss of property and life. Effective risk communication can trigger action to impending and current events. On the other hand, it can also build up knowledge on hazards and risks and encourage adaptation behaviors. Through the participation and cooperation of different stakeholders in disaster management, can reduce vulnerability, enhance adaptive capacity, improve the interaction between different stakeholders and also avoid conflicts. However, in Taiwan there are few studies about how households and communities perceive flood disaster risks, the process of risk communications between governments and households, or the relationship between risk communication and adaptation behaviors. Therefore, this study takes household and community of Kaoping River Watershed as study area. It aims to identify important factors in the process of disaster risk communication and find out the relationship between risk communication and adaptation behaviors. A framework of risk communication process was established to describe how to trigger adaptation behaviors and encourage adaptation behaviors with risk communication strategies. An ISM model was utilized to verify the framework by using household questionnaire survey. Moreover, a logit choice model was build to test the important factors for effective risk communication and adaption behavior. The result of this study would provide governments or relevant institutions suggestions about risk communication strategies and adaptation strategies to enhance the adaptive capacity of households and reduce the

  13. Sleep Disruption as a Correlate to Cognitive and Adaptive Behavior Problems in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Taylor, Matthew A.; Schreck, Kimberly A.; Mulick, James A.

    2012-01-01

    Sleep problems associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have been well documented, but less is known about the effects of sleep problems on day-time cognitive and adaptive performance in this population. Children diagnosed with autism or pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS) (N = 335) from 1 to 10 years of age…

  14. Aggressive Behavior in Response to Violence Exposure: Is It Adaptive for Middle-School Children?

    Salzinger, Suzanne; Rosario, Margaret; Feldman, Richard S.; Ng-Mak, Daisy S.

    2008-01-01

    The role of aggression in adaptation to family and community violence was examined in a sample of 667 inner-city schoolchildren studied annually over three years in middle school. Regression analyses indicated that the association between Year 1 exposure to family and community violence and Year 2 aggression was mediated by aggression occurring…

  15. Human hippocampal processing of environmental novelty during spatial navigation.

    Kaplan, Raphael; Horner, Aidan J; Bandettini, Peter A; Doeller, Christian F; Burgess, Neil

    2014-07-01

    The detection and processing of novel information encountered as we explore our environment is crucial for learning and adaptive behavior. The human hippocampus has been strongly implicated in laboratory tests of novelty detection and episodic memory, but has been less well studied during more ethological tasks such as spatial navigation, typically used in animals. We examined fMRI BOLD activity as a function of environmental and object novelty as humans performed an object-location virtual navigation task. We found greater BOLD response to novel relative to familiar environments in the hippocampus and adjacent parahippocampal gyrus. Object novelty was associated with increased activity in the posterior parahippocampal/fusiform gyrus and anterior hippocampus extending into the amygdala and superior temporal sulcus. Importantly, whilst mid-posterior hippocampus was more sensitive to environmental novelty than object novelty, the anterior hippocampus responded similarly to both forms of novelty. Amygdala activity showed an increase for novel objects that decreased linearly over the learning phase. By investigating how participants learn and use different forms of information during spatial navigation, we found that medial temporal lobe (MTL) activity reflects both the novelty of the environment and of the objects located within it. This novelty processing is likely supported by distinct, but partially overlapping, sets of regions within the MTL. PMID:24550152

  16. Excel VBA-based Navigation Offline Adaptive Test System Design and Realization%基于Excel VBA的航海学离线自适应考试系统的设计与实现

    黄跃华

    2014-01-01

    the proposed navigation offline adaptive testing system based on ExcellVBA ,topics can be difficult grading ,enables the system to automatically select the right topic for candidates ,to selec-tively test .Excellin a high rate of teacher computers installed in ,user is easier to accept .This system is low cost ,low demand for computer ,easy maintenance ,low requirements for users ,could serve as a day-to-day classroom teachers use in unit tests or final examination ,and can also be used for student practice regularly ,promptly make available to students through a self -test answers and scoring ,enab-ling consolidation ,intensifying what they have learned .%本文所提出的基于Excel VBA的航海学离线自适应考试系统,可对题目进行难度分级,并对学生水平进行分级,从而实现了系统自动为考生选择适合的题目,对其进行有选择性的测试。Excel在教师电脑中装机率很高,能够比较容易让用户接受。此系统成本低、对电脑要求低、维护方便、对使用者要求低、可作为教师日常课堂单元测验或期末上机考试之用,同时也可用作学生平时练习,及时让学生通过自测得到答案及评分,便于学生巩固、强化所学知识。

  17. Stability of executive function and predictions to adaptive behavior from middle childhood to pre-adolescence

    Madeline eHarms; Vivian eZayas; Andrew eMeltzoff; Stephanie eCarlson

    2014-01-01

    The shift from childhood to adolescence is characterized by rapid remodeling of the brain and increased risk-taking behaviors. Current theories hypothesize that developmental enhancements in sensitivity to affective environmental cues in adolescence may undermine executive function (EF) and increase the likelihood of problematic behaviors. In the current study, we examined the extent to which EF in childhood predicts EF in early adolescence. We also tested whether individual differences in ne...

  18. Adapting dialectical behavior therapy for outpatient adult anorexia nervosa-A pilot study

    Chen, Eunice Y; Segal, Kay; Weissman, Jessica; Zeffiro, Thomas A.; GALLOP, ROBERT; Linehan, Marsha M.; Bohus, Martin; Lynch, Thomas R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Anorexia Nervosa (AN) is associated with excessive self-control. This iterative case series describes the augmentation of Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) for outpatient adult AN with skills addressing emotional and behavioral overcontrol. An overly controlled style is theorized to develop from the transaction between an individual with heightened threat sensitivity and reduced reward sensitivity, interacting with an environment reinforcing overcontrol and punishing imperfecti...

  19. Coping Power Adapted as Universal Prevention Program: Mid Term Effects on Children's Behavioral Difficulties and Academic Grades.

    Muratori, Pietro; Bertacchi, Iacopo; Giuli, Consuelo; Nocentini, Annalaura; Ruglioni, Laura; Lochman, John E

    2016-08-01

    Aggressive behaviors in schools have the potential to cause serious harm to students' emotional and social well-being and to limit their ability to achieve their full academic potential. Prevention programs developed to reduce children's aggressive behaviors in school settings can provide interventions at a universal or targeted level. The main aim of our randomized control study was to examine the efficacy of Coping Power, adapted as a universal prevention program, in reducing children's behavioral problems and improving school grades. Nine classes participated (184 students, mean age 91 months) from two elementary state schools in Tuscany, Italy. Study findings showed a significant reduction in behavioral problems and an improvement in school grades for the intervention classes relative to the control classes. This study suggests the Coping Power program can be delivered in school settings at both universal and targeted prevention levels, and that in this multi-tiered prevention model, teachers, educators and school psychologists can learn a set of intervention skills which can be delivered with flexibility, thus reducing some of the complexity and costs of schools using multiple interventions. PMID:27129573

  20. RBUIS: simplifying enterprise application user interfaces through engineering role-based adaptive behavior

    P. Akiki; Bandara, A. K.; Yu, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Enterprise applications such as customer relationship management (CRM) and enterprise resource planning (ERP) are very large scale, encompassing millions of lines-of-code and thousands of user interfaces (UI). These applications have to be sold as feature-bloated off-the-shelf products to be used by people with diverse needs in required feature-set and layout preferences based on aspects such as skills, culture, etc. Although several approaches have been proposed for adapting UIs to various c...

  1. Adaptation Behaviors of Communities and Households to Extreme Climate Events in Quang Nam Province, Viet Nam: Towards a Set of Possible Adaptation Measures

    Phong Tran; Tran Huu Tuan; Bui Dung The; Bui Duc Tinh

    2010-01-01

    Climate change and adaptation to its impacts are pressing issues. Great efforts have been made locally to prevent and adapt to climate change events but problems related to climate change are exacerbated in poor communities in developing countries. Understanding local adaptation capacity and responses to climate change events is important so that barriers that constrain adaptation capacity can be identified and solutions to bridge the gaps and enhance local capacity can be sought. Located in ...

  2. Comparative Analysis of Behavioral Models for Adaptive Learning in Changing Environments

    Marković, Dimitrije; Kiebel, Stefan J.

    2016-01-01

    Probabilistic models of decision making under various forms of uncertainty have been applied in recent years to numerous behavioral and model-based fMRI studies. These studies were highly successful in enabling a better understanding of behavior and delineating the functional properties of brain areas involved in decision making under uncertainty. However, as different studies considered different models of decision making under uncertainty, it is unclear which of these computational models provides the best account of the observed behavioral and neuroimaging data. This is an important issue, as not performing model comparison may tempt researchers to over-interpret results based on a single model. Here we describe how in practice one can compare different behavioral models and test the accuracy of model comparison and parameter estimation of Bayesian and maximum-likelihood based methods. We focus our analysis on two well-established hierarchical probabilistic models that aim at capturing the evolution of beliefs in changing environments: Hierarchical Gaussian Filters and Change Point Models. To our knowledge, these two, well-established models have never been compared on the same data. We demonstrate, using simulated behavioral experiments, that one can accurately disambiguate between these two models, and accurately infer free model parameters and hidden belief trajectories (e.g., posterior expectations, posterior uncertainties, and prediction errors) even when using noisy and highly correlated behavioral measurements. Importantly, we found several advantages of Bayesian inference and Bayesian model comparison compared to often-used Maximum-Likelihood schemes combined with the Bayesian Information Criterion. These results stress the relevance of Bayesian data analysis for model-based neuroimaging studies that investigate human decision making under uncertainty.

  3. Navigating the Internet.

    Powsner, S M; Roderer, N K

    1994-01-01

    Navigating any complex set of information resources requires tools for both browsing and searching. A number of tools are available today for using Internet resources, and more are being developed. This article reviews existing navigational tools, including two developed at the Yale University School of Medicine, and points out their strengths and weaknesses. A major shortcoming of the present Internet navigation methods is the lack of controlled descriptions of the available resources. As a ...

  4. Indoor wayfinding and navigation

    2015-01-01

    Due to the widespread use of navigation systems for wayfinding and navigation in the outdoors, researchers have devoted their efforts in recent years to designing navigation systems that can be used indoors. This book is a comprehensive guide to designing and building indoor wayfinding and navigation systems. It covers all types of feasible sensors (for example, Wi-Fi, A-GPS), discussing the level of accuracy, the types of map data needed, the data sources, and the techniques for providing routes and directions within structures.

  5. Group dialectical behavior therapy adapted for obese emotional eaters; a pilot study

    Roosen, M.A.; Safer, D.; Adler, S.; Cebolla, A.; Strien, T. van

    2012-01-01

    Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) has been shown to effectively target binge eating disorder (BED). This study pilots the effectiveness of group DIVE for obese "emotional eaters" to reduce eating psychopathology and achieve weight maintenance. Thirty-five obese male and female emotional eaters rece

  6. Treating Adaptive Living Skills of Persons with Autism Using Applied Behavior Analysis: A Review

    Matson, Johnny L.; Hattier, Megan A.; Belva, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Work, self-help, leisure, and hygiene skill deficits are often associated with Autistic Disorder, a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by pervasive impairments in socialization, communication, and repetitive and restricted behaviors or interests. A number of interventions have been established to assist individuals with these impairments.…

  7. A biologically inspired meta-control navigation system for the Psikharpax rat robot

    A biologically inspired navigation system for the mobile rat-like robot named Psikharpax is presented, allowing for self-localization and autonomous navigation in an initially unknown environment. The ability of parts of the model (e.g. the strategy selection mechanism) to reproduce rat behavioral data in various maze tasks has been validated before in simulations. But the capacity of the model to work on a real robot platform had not been tested. This paper presents our work on the implementation on the Psikharpax robot of two independent navigation strategies (a place-based planning strategy and a cue-guided taxon strategy) and a strategy selection meta-controller. We show how our robot can memorize which was the optimal strategy in each situation, by means of a reinforcement learning algorithm. Moreover, a context detector enables the controller to quickly adapt to changes in the environment—recognized as new contexts—and to restore previously acquired strategy preferences when a previously experienced context is recognized. This produces adaptivity closer to rat behavioral performance and constitutes a computational proposition of the role of the rat prefrontal cortex in strategy shifting. Moreover, such a brain-inspired meta-controller may provide an advancement for learning architectures in robotics. (paper)

  8. Social cognitive model of career self-management: toward a unifying view of adaptive career behavior across the life span.

    Lent, Robert W; Brown, Steven D

    2013-10-01

    Social cognitive career theory (SCCT) currently consists of 4 overlapping, segmental models aimed at understanding educational and occupational interest development, choice-making, performance and persistence, and satisfaction/well-being. To this point, the theory has emphasized content aspects of career behavior, for instance, prediction of the types of activities, school subjects, or career fields that form the basis for people's educational/vocational interests and choice paths. However, SCCT may also lend itself to study of many process aspects of career behavior, including such issues as how people manage normative tasks and cope with the myriad challenges involved in career preparation, entry, adjustment, and change, regardless of the specific educational and occupational fields they inhabit. Such a process focus can augment and considerably expand the range of the dependent variables for which SCCT was initially designed. Building on SCCT's existing models, we present a social cognitive model of career self-management and offer examples of the adaptive, process behaviors to which it can be applied (e.g., career decision making/exploration, job searching, career advancement, negotiation of work transitions and multiple roles). PMID:23815631

  9. A Study of Bending Mode Algorithm of Adaptive Front-Lighting System Based on Driver Preview Behavior

    Zhenhai Gao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The function of adaptive front-lighting system is to improve the lighting condition of the road ahead and driving safety at night. The current system seldom considers characteristics of the driver’s preview behavior and eye movement. To solve this problem, an AFS algorithm modeling a driver’s preview behavior was proposed. According to the vehicle’s state, the driver’s manipulating input, and the vehicle’s future state change which resulted from the driver’s input, a dynamic predictive algorithm of the vehicle’s future track was established based on an optimal preview acceleration model. Then, an experiment on the change rule of the driver’s preview distance with different speeds and different road curvatures was implemented with the eye tracker and the calibration method of the driver’s preview time was established. On the basis of these above theories and experiments, the preview time was introduced to help predict the vehicle’s future track and an AFS algorithm modeling the driver’s preview behavior was built. Finally, a simulation analysis of the AFS algorithm was carried out. By analyzing the change process of the headlamp’s lighting region while bend turning which was controlled by the algorithm, its control effect was verified to be precise.

  10. [Adaptations in reproduction and behavior of captive chimpanzees-- zoobiological and veterinary managements].

    Böer, M

    2000-10-01

    Monitoring of renal LH-excretion, changes in genital tumescence and menses assesses reproductive status in zookept female chimpanzees. Temporary detumescence of female sex skin in estrus is a reliable indicator for stress. Assessment of female chimpanzee reproductive status relates to local and individual variation of cycle length and temporal correlation of investigated parameters. Monitoring of neonate chimpanzee behavioural ontogeny is an essential tool of evaluating applied rearing methods since individuals were to be integrated into the adult group during adolescence. Slow and continuous transition periods between consecutive rearing phases avoid irreversible disturbed behaviour. Care by one person up to the age of 12 months, followed by a 3 year stay in a peer group guarantee normal development in zookept infant chimpanzees. 4-5 years old chimpanzees with infantile attributes and abilities to submit and appease can be integrated to adults with low risk. In female gorillas sexual cyclicity was monitored by renal excretion of LH, length of menses, sexual behaviour and--in tame females--by basal body temperature and variation of length of the urogenital cleft. Intraspecific variation of cyclicity allowed individual fertility assessment after comparison of several cycles. Analyses of behaviour gave hints to overcharged adaptability and reduced infertility under inadequate maintenance. Data on semen and testicular biopsy improve fertility evaluation in gorilla males and point to degree and time of tissue alteration and etiology. Body hygiene analogous to the human, tool use and interspecific play with chimpanzees and humans behind window screens were observed in inadequately kept gorillas. Homosexual behaviour among females was reversible with environmental and social changes. Coalitions among nonrelated females were an effective social strategy against an aggressive male. Cyclicity was disturbed drastically by social events such as physical lesions made by a male

  11. Cocaine-induced adaptations in cellular redox balance contributes to enduring behavioral plasticity.

    Uys, Joachim D; Knackstedt, Lori; Hurt, Phelipe; Tew, Kenneth D; Manevich, Yefim; Hutchens, Steven; Townsend, Danyelle M; Kalivas, Peter W

    2011-11-01

    Impaired glutamate homeostasis in the nucleus accumbens has been linked to cocaine relapse in animal models, and results in part from cocaine-induced downregulation of the cystine-glutamate exchanger. In addition to regulating extracellular glutamate, the uptake of cystine by the exchanger is a rate-limiting step in the synthesis of glutathione (GSH). GSH is critical for balancing cellular redox in response to oxidative stress. Cocaine administration induces oxidative stress, and we first determined if downregulated cystine-glutamate exchange alters redox homeostasis in rats withdrawn from daily cocaine injections and then challenged with acute cocaine. Among the daily cocaine-induced changes in redox homeostasis were an increase in protein S-glutathionylation and a decrease in expression of GSH-S-transferase pi (GSTpi). To mimic reduced GSTpi, a genetic mouse model of GSTpi deletion or pharmacological inhibition of GSTpi by administering ketoprofen during daily cocaine administration was used. The capacity of cocaine to induce conditioned place preference or locomotor sensitization was augmented, indicating that reducing GSTpi may contribute to cocaine-induced behavioral neuroplasticity. Conversely, an acute cocaine challenge after withdrawal from daily cocaine elicited a marked increase in accumbens GSTpi, and the expression of behavioral sensitization to a cocaine challenge injection was inhibited by ketoprofen pretreatment; supporting a protective effect by the acute cocaine-induced rise in GSTpi. Together, these data indicate that cocaine-induced oxidative stress induces changes in GSTpi that contribute to cocaine-induced behavioral plasticity. PMID:21796101

  12. Locus coeruleus: From global projection system to adaptive regulation of behavior.

    Aston-Jones, G; Waterhouse, B

    2016-08-15

    The brainstem nucleus locus coeruleus (LC) is a major source of norepinephrine (NE) projections throughout the CNS. This important property was masked in very early studies by the inability to visualize endogenous monoamines. The development of monoamine histofluorescence methods by Swedish scientists led to a plethora of studies, including a paper published in Brain Research by Loizou in 1969. That paper was highly cited (making it a focal point for the 50th anniversary issue of this journal), and helped to spark a large and continuing set of investigations to further refine our understating of the LC-NE system and its contribution to brain function and behavior. This paper very briefly reviews the ensuing advances in anatomical, physiological and behavioral aspects of the LC-NE system. Although its projections are ubiquitously present throughout the CNS, recent studies find surprising specificity within the organizational and operational domains of LC neurons. These and other findings lead us to expect that future work will unmask additional features of the LC-NE system and its roles in normative and pathological brain and behavioral processes. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI:50th Anniversary Issue. PMID:26969408

  13. Adaptation to Coriolis perturbations of voluntary body sway transfers to preprogrammed fall-recovery behavior.

    Bakshi, Avijit; Ventura, Joel; DiZio, Paul; Lackner, James R

    2014-03-01

    In a rotating environment, goal-oriented voluntary movements are initially disrupted in trajectory and endpoint, due to movement-contingent Coriolis forces, but accuracy is regained with additional movements. We studied whether adaptation acquired in a voluntary, goal-oriented postural swaying task performed during constant-velocity counterclockwise rotation (10 RPM) carries over to recovery from falling induced using a hold and release (H&R) paradigm. In H&R, standing subjects actively resist a force applied to their chest, which when suddenly released results in a forward fall and activation of an automatic postural correction. We tested H&R postural recovery in subjects (n = 11) before and after they made voluntary fore-aft swaying movements during 20 trials of 25 s each, in a counterclockwise rotating room. Their voluntary sway about their ankles generated Coriolis forces that initially induced clockwise deviations of the intended body sway paths, but fore-aft sway was gradually restored over successive per-rotation trials, and a counterclockwise aftereffect occurred during postrotation attempts to sway fore-aft. In H&R trials, we examined the initial 10- to 150-ms periods of movement after release from the hold force, when voluntary corrections of movement path are not possible. Prerotation subjects fell directly forward, whereas postrotation their forward motion was deviated significantly counterclockwise. The postrotation deviations were in a direction consistent with an aftereffect reflecting persistence of a compensation acquired per-rotation for voluntary swaying movements. These findings show that control and adaptation mechanisms adjusting voluntary postural sway to the demands of a new force environment also influence the automatic recovery of posture. PMID:24304863

  14. Emergency Navigation without an Infrastructure

    Erol Gelenbe

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Emergency navigation systems for buildings and other built environments, such as sport arenas or shopping centres, typically rely on simple sensor networks to detect emergencies and, then, provide automatic signs to direct the evacuees. The major drawbacks of such static wireless sensor network (WSN-based emergency navigation systems are the very limited computing capacity, which makes adaptivity very difficult, and the restricted battery power, due to the low cost of sensor nodes for unattended operation. If static wireless sensor networks and cloud-computing can be integrated, then intensive computations that are needed to determine optimal evacuation routes in the presence of time-varying hazards can be offloaded to the cloud, but the disadvantages of limited battery life-time at the client side, as well as the high likelihood of system malfunction during an emergency still remain. By making use of the powerful sensing ability of smart phones, which are increasingly ubiquitous, this paper presents a cloud-enabled indoor emergency navigation framework to direct evacuees in a coordinated fashion and to improve the reliability and resilience for both communication and localization. By combining social potential fields (SPF and a cognitive packet network (CPN-based algorithm, evacuees are guided to exits in dynamic loose clusters. Rather than relying on a conventional telecommunications infrastructure, we suggest an ad hoc cognitive packet network (AHCPN-based protocol to adaptively search optimal communication routes between portable devices and the network egress nodes that provide access to cloud servers, in a manner that spares the remaining battery power of smart phones and minimizes the time latency. Experimental results through detailed simulations indicate that smart human motion and smart network management can increase the survival rate of evacuees and reduce the number of drained smart phones in an evacuation process.

  15. Navigation Using Inertial Sensors

    Groves, P. D.

    2015-01-01

    This tutorial provides an introduction to navigation using inertial sensors, explaining the underlying principles. Topics covered include accelerometer and gyro technology and their characteristics, strapdown inertial navigation, attitude determination, integration and alignment, zero updates, motion constraints, pedestrian dead reckoning using step detection, and fault detection.

  16. Sensor fusion for mobile robot navigation

    The authors review techniques for sensor fusion in robot navigation, emphasizing algorithms for self-location. These find use when the sensor suite of a mobile robot comprises several different sensors, some complementary and some redundant. Integrating the sensor readings, the robot seeks to accomplish tasks such as constructing a map of its environment, locating itself in that map, and recognizing objects that should be avoided or sought. The review describes integration techniques in two categories: low-level fusion is used for direct integration of sensory data, resulting in parameter and state estimates; high-level fusion is used for indirect integration of sensory data in hierarchical architectures, through command arbitration and integration of control signals suggested by different modules. The review provides an arsenal of tools for addressing this (rather ill-posed) problem in machine intelligence, including Kalman filtering, rule-based techniques, behavior based algorithms and approaches that borrow from information theory, Dempster-Shafer reasoning, fuzzy logic and neural networks. It points to several further-research needs, including: robustness of decision rules; simultaneous consideration of self-location, motion planning, motion control and vehicle dynamics; the effect of sensor placement and attention focusing on sensor fusion; and adaptation of techniques from biological sensor fusion

  17. Mobile robot navigation modulated by artificial emotions.

    Lee-Johnson, C P; Carnegie, D A

    2010-04-01

    For artificial intelligence research to progress beyond the highly specialized task-dependent implementations achievable today, researchers may need to incorporate aspects of biological behavior that have not traditionally been associated with intelligence. Affective processes such as emotions may be crucial to the generalized intelligence possessed by humans and animals. A number of robots and autonomous agents have been created that can emulate human emotions, but the majority of this research focuses on the social domain. In contrast, we have developed a hybrid reactive/deliberative architecture that incorporates artificial emotions to improve the general adaptive performance of a mobile robot for a navigation task. Emotions are active on multiple architectural levels, modulating the robot's decisions and actions to suit the context of its situation. Reactive emotions interact with the robot's control system, altering its parameters in response to appraisals from short-term sensor data. Deliberative emotions are learned associations that bias path planning in response to eliciting objects or events. Quantitative results are presented that demonstrate situations in which each artificial emotion can be beneficial to performance. PMID:19822475

  18. Intraspecific competition in Zabrotes subfasciatus:Physiological and behavioral adaptations to different amounts of host

    Isabel R.V. Teixeira1,2; Fernando S. Zucoloto1

    2012-01-01

    The effects of competition on populations of the bean weevil Zabrotes subfasciatus were analyzed during 41 generations under different competition levels.Three competition environments were established by maintaining the number of couples (6) and varying the amount of available host seeds:HC,high (limited availability of host:1.35 g);IC,intermediate (intermediate availability of host:6 g); and LC,low competition (abundance of host:36 g).It was found that the distribution of the eggs laid on grains was different among treatments:in LC,for example,although females showed high fecundity (35.4 ± 5.6 eggs/female) the number of eggs laid on each grain was small (1.2 ± 0.4eggs on each seed),thus avoiding larval competition of their offspring; whereas in HC treatment,females showed low fecundity (27.04 ± 4.5 eggs/female) but laid many eggs on each grain (15.03 ± 4.3 eggs).There were no changes in the ability to respond to different amounts of host via oviposition behavior (egg distribution) during 41 generations.However,HC females had more offspring than LC females under HC conditions.This suggests that HC insects evolved toward higher fitness in crowded conditions.In addition,after inverting the competition level,insects behaved independently of the treatment conditions they experienced through generations,thus showing that oviposition behavior is flexible.Taken together,our results show that Z.subfasciatus presents a broad range of behavioral and physiological responses which allows for quick and reversible adjustments to sudden changes in the amount of resources.

  19. Both movement-end and task-end are critical for error feedback in visuomotor adaptation: a behavioral experiment.

    Takumi Ishikawa

    Full Text Available An important issue in motor learning/adaptation research is how the brain accepts the error information necessary for maintaining and improving task performance in a changing environment. The present study focuses on the effect of timing of error feedback. Previous research has demonstrated that adaptation to displacement of the visual field by prisms in a manual reaching task is significantly slowed by delayed visual feedback of the endpoint, suggesting that error feedback is most effective when given at the end of a movement. To further elucidate the brain mechanism by which error information is accepted in visuomotor adaptation, we tested whether error acceptance is linked to the end of a given task or to the end of an executed movement. We conducted a behavioral experiment using a virtual shooting task in which subjects controlled their wrist movements to meet a target with a cursor as accurately as possible. We manipulated the timing of visual feedback of the impact position so that it occurred either ahead of or behind the true time of impact. In another condition, the impact timing was explicitly indicated by an additional cue. The magnitude of the aftereffect significantly varied depending on the timing of feedback (p < 0.05, Friedman's Test. Interestingly, two distinct peaks of aftereffect were observed around movement-end and around task-end, irrespective of the existence of the timing cue. However, the peak around task-end was sharper when the timing cue was given. Our results demonstrate that the brain efficiently accepts error information at both movement-end and task-end, suggesting that two different learning mechanisms may underlie visuomotor transformation.

  20. Adaptive Modelling of the Daily Behavior of the Boundary Layer Ozone in Macau

    K. M. Chao; K. I. Hoi; K. V. Yuen; K. M. Mok

    2012-01-01

    The present study aims to develop an efficient dynamic statistical model to describe the daily behavior of boundary layer ozone in Macau. Four types of Kalman-filter-based models were proposed and applied to model the daily maximum of the 8 hr averaged ozone concentrations within a decade (2000–2009). First, the boundary layer ozone was modelled with the time-varying autoregressive model of order p, TVAR(p), which is a pure time series model hindcasting the ozone concentration by a weighted s...

  1. The changing brain--insights into the mechanisms of neural and behavioral adaptation to the environment

    Bergersen, L H; Bramham, C R; Hugdahl, K;

    2013-01-01

    The Kavli Prize in Neuroscience was awarded for the third time in September 2012, by the Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters in Oslo. The accompanying Kavli Prize Symposium on Neuroscience, held in Bergen and Trondheim, was a showcase of excellence in neuroscience research. The common theme...... by the elaborate burrowing behavior in a rodent species, in which independent genetic regions regulate distinct modules of the burrowing pattern (Hoekstra). Finally, at the other extreme of the nature-nurture scale, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) analysis in children and adults identified a brain...

  2. Adaptive Fault Tolerant Execution of Multi-Robot Missions using Behavior Trees

    Colledanchise, Michele; Marzinotto, Alejandro; Dimarogonas, Dimos V.; Ögren, Petter

    2015-01-01

    Multi-robot teams offer possibilities of improved performance and fault tolerance, compared to single robot solutions. In this paper, we show how to realize those possibilities when starting from a single robot system controlled by a Behavior Tree (BT). By extending the single robot BT to a multi-robot BT, we are able to combine the fault tolerant properties of the BT, in terms of built-in fallbacks, with the fault tolerance inherent in multi-robot approaches, in terms of a faulty robot being...

  3. Maternal stress and behavioral adaptation in methadone- or buprenorphine-exposed toddlers.

    Sarfi, Monica; Sundet, Jon Martin; Waal, Helge

    2013-12-01

    The current study examined the relationship between early interaction, parenting stress, maternal psychological distress symptoms, and behavior problems and health-related quality of life among children born to mothers in opioid maintenance treatment (OMT) in Norway during the period 2005-2007 (N = 36). This group was compared with a normative sample of mothers without substance abuse problems and their children (N = 36). There were significant group differences (p maternal psychological well-being for child development, and underscore the need to address opioid-maintained women's personal maladjustment and the constellation of stress experienced by mothers in recovery. PMID:23999378

  4. Digesta kinetics, energy intake, grazing behavior, and body temperature of grazing beef cattle differing in adaptation to heat.

    Sprinkle, J E; Holloway, J W; Warrington, B G; Ellist, W C; Stuth, J W; Forbes, T D; Greene, L W

    2000-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether digesta kinetics, energy intake (EI, kcal ME intake x kg(-.75) x d(-1)), grazing behavior, or body temperature differed by breed, lactational state, or season of the year among cattle presumed to vary in adaptability to the subtropics. Two-year-old lactating and nonlactating Brahman x Angus (BA; n = 5, n = 5), Tuli x Angus (TA; n = 5, n = 4), and Angus (A; n = 4, n = 4) cows were used. During both early (ES) and late summer (LS), lactating cattle vs nonlactating cattle had greater gastrointestinal tract load (CM2) and EI (P .48). During LS, lactating cattle had decreased early morning rectal temperatures (P .26) late afternoon rectal temperatures compared with BA and TA. With data pooled over both grazing trials, BA cattle had the smallest CM2 (P .28) early morning rectal temperatures compared with BA during ES and LS. During LS, TA spent more time in the sun and less time in the shade than did either A or BA (P .50). During LS, EI for lactating A was greater than for BA and TA (P x Angus cattle appear to be comparable to BA with respect to heat adaptation. It appears that EI demands are greater in a hot environment. PMID:10875645

  5. Sexual Compulsivity Scale, Compulsive Sexual Behavior Inventory, and Hypersexual Disorder Screening Inventory: Translation, Adaptation, and Validation for Use in Brazil.

    Scanavino, Marco de T; Ventuneac, Ana; Rendina, H Jonathon; Abdo, Carmita H N; Tavares, Hermano; Amaral, Maria L S do; Messina, Bruna; Reis, Sirlene C dos; Martins, João P L B; Gordon, Marina C; Vieira, Julie C; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological, behavioral, and clinical data on sexual compulsivity in Brazil are very limited. This study sought to adapt and validate the Sexual Compulsivity Scale (SCS), the 22-item version of the Compulsive Sexual Behavior Inventory (CSBI-22), and the Hypersexual Disorder Screening Inventory (HDSI) for use in Brazil. A total of 153 participants underwent psychiatric assessment and completed self-reported measures. The adaptation process of the instruments from English to Portuguese followed the guidelines of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research. The reliability and validity of the HDSI criteria were evaluated and the construct validity of all measures was examined. For the SCS and HDSI, factor analysis revealed one factor for each measure. For the CSBI-22, four factors were retained although we only calculated the scores of two factors (control and violence). All scores had good internal consistency (alpha >.75), presented high temporal stability (>.76), discriminated between patients and controls, and presented strong (ρ > .81) correlations with the Sexual Addiction Screening Test (except for the violence domain = .40) and moderate correlations with the Impulsive Sensation Seeking domain of the Zuckerman Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire (ρ between .43 and .55). The sensitivity of the HDSI was 71.93 % and the specificity was 100 %. All measures showed very good psychometric properties. The SCS, the HDSI, and the control domain of the CSBI-22 seemed to measure theoretically similar constructs, as they were highly correlated (ρ > .85). The findings support the conceptualization of hypersexuality as a cluster of problematic symptoms that are highly consistent across a variety of measures. PMID:25348356

  6. Use of a local cone model to predict essential CSF light adaptation behavior used in the design of luminance quantization nonlinearities

    Daly, Scott; Golestaneh, S. A.

    2015-03-01

    The human visual system's luminance nonlinearity ranges continuously from square root behavior in the very dark, gamma-like behavior in dim ambient, cube-root in office lighting, and logarithmic for daylight ranges. Early display quantization nonlinearities have been developed based on luminance bipartite JND data. More advanced approaches considered spatial frequency behavior, and used the Barten light-adaptive Contrast Sensitivity Function (CSF) modelled across a range of light adaptation to determine the luminance nonlinearity (e.g., DICOM, referred to as a GSDF {grayscale display function}). A recent approach for a GSDF, also referred to as an electrical-to-optical transfer function (EOTF), using that light-adaptive CSF model improves on this by tracking the CSF for the most sensitive spatial frequency, which changes with adaptation level. We explored the cone photoreceptor's contribution to the behavior of this maximum sensitivity of the CSF as a function of light adaptation, despite the CSF's frequency variations and that the cone's nonlinearity is a point-process. We found that parameters of a local cone model could fit the max sensitivity of the CSF model, across all frequencies, and are within the ranges of parameters commonly accepted for psychophysicallytuned cone models. Thus, a linking of the spatial frequency and luminance dimensions has been made for a key neural component. This provides a better theoretical foundation for the recently designed visual signal format using the aforementioned EOTF.

  7. Extensive Intestinal Resection Triggers Behavioral Adaptation, Intestinal Remodeling and Microbiota Transition in Short Bowel Syndrome

    Camille Mayeur

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Extensive resection of small bowel often leads to short bowel syndrome (SBS. SBS patients develop clinical mal-absorption and dehydration relative to the reduction of absorptive area, acceleration of gastrointestinal transit time and modifications of the gastrointestinal intra-luminal environment. As a consequence of severe mal-absorption, patients require parenteral nutrition (PN. In adults, the overall adaptation following intestinal resection includes spontaneous and complex compensatory processes such as hyperphagia, mucosal remodeling of the remaining part of the intestine and major modifications of the microbiota. SBS patients, with colon in continuity, harbor a specific fecal microbiota that we called “lactobiota” because it is enriched in the Lactobacillus/Leuconostoc group and depleted in anaerobic micro-organisms (especially Clostridium and Bacteroides. In some patients, the lactobiota-driven fermentative activities lead to an accumulation of fecal d/l-lactates and an increased risk of d-encephalopathy. Better knowledge of clinical parameters and lactobiota characteristics has made it possible to stratify patients and define group at risk for d-encephalopathy crises.

  8. A clash of values: Fear-relevant stimuli can enhance or corrupt adaptive behavior through competition between Pavlovian and instrumental valuation systems.

    Lindström, Björn; Golkar, Armita; Olsson, Andreas

    2015-10-01

    Humans and nonhuman primates preferentially learn to fear and avoid archetypical fear-relevant stimuli. Yet how these learning biases influence adaptive behavior, the basic mechanistic underpinnings of these biases, and how they interact with learning experiences during the life span of an individual remain unknown. To study this, we investigated how 4 classes of fear-relevant stimuli (snakes, threatening in-group faces, racial out-group faces, and guns) influenced adaptive behavior. We showed that stimulus-driven biases have a dramatic influence that can either promote or corrupt adaptive behavior depending on how a bias relates to the environment. We quantified and compared the effects of different fear-relevant stimuli on instrumental behavior using a computational reinforcement learning model that formalized the idea that the bias reflects competition between an instrumental and a Pavlovian valuation system. These results were further clarified by 2 independent rating studies showing that perceived danger of the stimuli corresponded well with their influence on adaptive behavior. PMID:25893448

  9. Algorithms for vehicle navigation

    Storandt, Sabine

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, navigation systems are integral parts of most cars. They allow the user to drive to a preselected destination on the shortest or quickest path by giving turn-by-turn directions. To fulfil this task the navigation system must be aware of the current position of the vehicle at any time, and has to compute the optimal route to the destination on that basis. Both of these subproblems have to be solved frequently, because the navigation system must react immediately if the vehicle leaves...

  10. Which adaptive maternal eating behaviors predict child feeding practices? An examination with mothers of 2- to 5-year-old children

    Tylka, Tracy L.; Eneli, Ihuoma U.; Kroon Van Diest, Ashley M.; Lumeng, Julie C.

    2012-01-01

    Researchers have started to explore the detrimental impact of maladaptive maternal eating behaviors on child feeding practices. However, identifying which adaptive maternal eating behaviors contribute to lower use of negative and higher use of positive child feeding practices remains unexamined. The present study explored this link with 180 mothers of 2- to 5-year-old children. Hierarchical regression analyses (controlling for recruitment venue and maternal demographic characteristics, i.e., ...

  11. Restricted Navigation Areas - USACE IENC

    Department of Homeland Security — These inland electronic Navigational charts (IENCs) were developed from available data used in maintenance of Navigation channels. Users of these IENCs should be...

  12. Spatial cognition and navigation

    Aretz, Anthony J.

    1989-01-01

    An experiment that provides data for the development of a cognitive model of pilot flight navigation is described. The experiment characterizes navigational awareness as the mental alignment of two frames of reference: (1) the ego centered reference frame that is established by the forward view out of the cockpit and (2) the world centered reference frame that is established by the aircraft's location on a map. The data support a model involving at least two components: (1) the perceptual encoding of the navigational landmarks and (2) the mental rotation of the map's world reference frame into alignment with the ego centered reference frame. The quantitative relationships of these two factors are provided as possible inputs for a computational model of spatial cognition during flight navigation.

  13. Symmetric Synchronous Collaborative Navigation

    Gerosa, Luca; Giordani, Alessandra; Ronchetti, Marco

    2004-01-01

    Synchronous collaborative navigation is a form of social navigation where users virtually share a web browser. In this paper, we present a symmetric, proxy-based architecture where each user can take the lead and guide others in visiting web sites, without the need for a special browser or other software. We show how we have applied this scheme to a problem-solving-oriented e-learning system.

  14. Substance abuse, coping strategies, adaptive skills and behavioral and emotional problems in clients with mild to borderline intellectual disability admitted to a treatment facility: A pilot study

    Didden, H.C.M.; Embregts, P.J.C.M.; Toorn, M. van der; Laarhoven, N.

    2009-01-01

    Many clients with mild to borderline intellectual disability (ID) who are admitted to a treatment facility show serious problems in alcohol and/or drugs use. In the present case file study, we explored differences in coping strategies, adaptive skills and emotional and behavioral problems between cl

  15. Toolkit for Adapting Cognitive Behavioral Intervention for Trauma in Schools (CBITS) or Supporting Students Exposed to Trauma (SSET) for Implementation with Youth in Foster Care. Technical Report

    Schultz, Dana; Barnes-Proby, Dionne; Chandra, Anita; Jaycox, Lisa H.; Maher, Erin; Pecora, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The Cognitive Behavioral Intervention for Trauma in Schools (CBITS) was developed for use by school-based mental health professionals for any student with symptoms of distress following exposure to trauma. The Supporting Students Exposed to Trauma (SSET) was adapted from CBITS for use by any school personnel with the time and interest to work with…

  16. Substance Abuse, Coping Strategies, Adaptive Skills and Behavioral and Emotional Problems in Clients with Mild to Borderline Intellectual Disability Admitted to a Treatment Facility: A Pilot Study

    Didden, Robert; Embregts, Petri; van der Toorn, Mirjam; Laarhoven, Nina

    2009-01-01

    Many clients with mild to borderline intellectual disability (ID) who are admitted to a treatment facility show serious problems in alcohol and/or drugs use. In the present case file study, we explored differences in coping strategies, adaptive skills and emotional and behavioral problems between clients who showed substance abuse and clients who…

  17. Evolutionary Fuzzy Control and Navigation for Two Wheeled Robots Cooperatively Carrying an Object in Unknown Environments.

    Juang, Chia-Feng; Lai, Min-Ge; Zeng, Wan-Ting

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents a method that allows two wheeled, mobile robots to navigate unknown environments while cooperatively carrying an object. In the navigation method, a leader robot and a follower robot cooperatively perform either obstacle boundary following (OBF) or target seeking (TS) to reach a destination. The two robots are controlled by fuzzy controllers (FC) whose rules are learned through an adaptive fusion of continuous ant colony optimization and particle swarm optimization (AF-CACPSO), which avoids the time-consuming task of manually designing the controllers. The AF-CACPSO-based evolutionary fuzzy control approach is first applied to the control of a single robot to perform OBF. The learning approach is then applied to achieve cooperative OBF with two robots, where an auxiliary FC designed with the AF-CACPSO is used to control the follower robot. For cooperative TS, a rule for coordination of the two robots is developed. To navigate cooperatively, a cooperative behavior supervisor is introduced to select between cooperative OBF and cooperative TS. The performance of the AF-CACPSO is verified through comparisons with various population-based optimization algorithms for the OBF learning problem. Simulations and experiments verify the effectiveness of the approach for cooperative navigation of two robots. PMID:25398185

  18. A review of the multi-level adaptations for maximizing aerobic dive duration in marine mammals: from biochemistry to behavior.

    Davis, Randall W

    2014-01-01

    Marine mammals exhibit multi-level adaptations, from cellular biochemistry to behavior, that maximize aerobic dive duration. A dive response during aerobic dives enables the efficient use of blood and muscle oxygen stores, but it is exercise modulated to maximize the aerobic dive limit at different levels of exertion. Blood volume and concentrations of blood hemoglobin and muscle myoglobin are elevated and serve as a significant oxygen store that increases aerobic dive duration. However, myoglobin is not homogeneously distributed in the locomotory muscles and is highest in areas that produce greater force and consume more oxygen during aerobic swimming. Muscle fibers are primarily fast and slow twitch oxidative with elevated mitochondrial volume densities and enhanced oxidative enzyme activities that are highest in areas that produce more force generation. Most of the muscle mitochondria are interfibriller and homogeneously distributed. This reduces the diffusion distance between mitochondria and helps maintain aerobic metabolism under hypoxic conditions. Mitochondrial volume densities and oxidative enzyme activities are also elevated in certain organs such as liver, kidneys, and stomach. Hepatic and renal function along with digestion and assimilation continue during aerobic dives to maintain physiological homeostasis. Most ATP production comes from aerobic fat metabolism in carnivorous marine mammals. Glucose is derived mostly from gluconeogenesis and is conserved for tissues such as red blood cells and the central nervous system. Marine mammals minimize the energetic cost of swimming and diving through body streamlining, efficient, lift-based propulsive appendages, and cost-efficient modes of locomotion that reduce drag and take advantage of changes in buoyancy with depth. Most dives are within the animal's aerobic dive limit, which maximizes time underwater and minimizes recovery time at the surface. The result of these adaptations is increased breath

  19. Attentive, Affective, and Adaptive Behavior in the Cat: Sensory deprivation of the forebrain by lesions in the brain stem results in striking behavioral abnormalities.

    Sprague, J M; Chambers, W W; Stellar, E

    1961-01-20

    . It is our belief, from these studies, that the symptoms produced by interruption of the lemnisci, characterized by a high degree of somatotopic and modality localization, are due to a loss of patterned sensory input to the forebrain, particularly to the neocortex and to the rostral midbrain. Without a patterned afferent input to the forebrain via the lemnisci, the remaining portions of the central nervous system, which include a virtually intact reticular formation, seem incapable of elaborating a large part of the animal's repertoire of adaptive behavior (45). PMID:17819594

  20. Navigation pédestre à l'intérieur des bâtiments

    Büchel, Daniela; Gilliéron, Pierre-Yves

    2004-01-01

    La navigation pédestre est un domaine prometteur qui s'inscrit dans un contexte global de mobilité, en particulier dans les villes. D'est un grand défi de s'inspirer et d'adapter les concepts de la navigation automobile au contexte de la navigation pédestre. Ce projet s'inscrit dans la problématique de la navigation dans un environnement construit.

  1. Hypothesis: Cryptochromes and brown fat are essential for adaptation and affect mood and mood-related behaviors.

    Timo ePartonen

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Solar radiation and ambient temperature have acted as selective physical forces among populations and thereby guided species distributions in the globe. Circadian clocks are universal and evolve when subjected to selection, and their properties contribute to variations in fitness within specific environments. Concerning humans, as compared to the remaining, the evening owls have a greater deviation from the 24-hour cycle, are under a greater pressure to circadian desynchrony and more prone to a cluster of health hazards with the increased mortality. Because of their position in the hierarchy and repressive actions, cryptochromes are the key components of the feedback loops on which circadian clocks are built. Based on the evidence a new hypothesis is formulated in which brown adipocytes with their cryptochromes are responsive to a broad range of physical stimuli from the habitat and through their activity ensure adaptation of the individual. The over-activated brown adipose tissue with deficient cryptochromes might induce disrupted thermoregulation and circadian desynchrony, and thereby contribute to lowered mood and pronounced depressive behaviors.

  2. Navigation, perception et apprentissage pour la robotique

    Filliat, David

    2011-01-01

    We conducted research mainly in the areas of navigation, perception and learning for mobile robots. These studies, oriented toward a cognitive approach to robotics have the overall goal of allowing robots to adapt to their environment, providing ba- sic primitives such as open space, position, or the presence of objects necessary to choose actions. A large part of this work is inspired by capabilities found in nature, but without trying to reproduce exactly the biological systems inner functi...

  3. Beginnings of Satellite Navigation

    Miljenko Solarić

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The first satellite navigation system called the Navy Navigation Satellite System (NNSS or TRANSIT was planned in the USA in 1958. It consisted of 5-6 artificial Earth satellites, was set in motion for the USA military in 1964, and in 1967 for civilian purposes. The frequency shift of received radio waves emitted from the satellite and caused by the Doppler effect was measured. The TRANSIT satellite speed of approaching or moving away was derived from that; the TRANSIT satellites emmited also their own coordinates. Then the ship's position was determined by an intersection of three hyperboloids, which were determined from differences of distances in three time intervals. Maintenance of this navigation system was stopped in 1996, but it is still being used in the USA Navy for exploring the ionosphere. Furthermore, results of Doppler measurements in international projects at the Hvar Observatory from 1982 and 1983. This was the first time in Croatia and the former country that the coordinates of the Hvar Observatory were determined in the unique world coordinate system WGS'72. The paper ends with a brief representation of the Tsiklon Doppler navigation system produced in the former Soviet Union, and there is a list of some of numerous produced and designed satellite navigation systems.Ključne riječi

  4. An intelligent hybrid behavior coordination system for an autonomous mobile robot

    Luo, Chaomin; Krishnan, Mohan; Paulik, Mark; Fallouh, Samer

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, development of a low-cost PID controller with an intelligent behavior coordination system for an autonomous mobile robot is described that is equipped with IR sensors, ultrasonic sensors, regulator, and RC filters on the robot platform based on HCS12 microcontroller and embedded systems. A novel hybrid PID controller and behavior coordination system is developed for wall-following navigation and obstacle avoidance of an autonomous mobile robot. Adaptive control used in this robot is a hybrid PID algorithm associated with template and behavior coordination models. Software development contains motor control, behavior coordination intelligent system and sensor fusion. In addition, the module-based programming technique is adopted to improve the efficiency of integrating the hybrid PID and template as well as behavior coordination model algorithms. The hybrid model is developed to synthesize PID control algorithms, template and behavior coordination technique for wall-following navigation with obstacle avoidance systems. The motor control, obstacle avoidance, and wall-following navigation algorithms are developed to propel and steer the autonomous mobile robot. Experiments validate how this PID controller and behavior coordination system directs an autonomous mobile robot to perform wall-following navigation with obstacle avoidance. Hardware configuration and module-based technique are described in this paper. Experimental results demonstrate that the robot is successfully capable of being guided by the hybrid PID controller and behavior coordination system for wall-following navigation with obstacle avoidance.

  5. Coordinating sensing and local navigation

    Slack, Marc G.

    1991-07-01

    Based on Navigation Templates (or NaTs), this work presents a new paradigm for local navigation which addresses the noisy and uncertain nature of sensor data. Rather than creating a new navigation plan each time the robot's perception of the world changes, the technique incorporates perceptual changes directly into the existing navigation plan. In this way, the robot's navigation plan is quickly and continuously modified, resulting in actions that remain coordinated with its changing perception of the world.

  6. Multimodal sensory integration and concurrent navigation strategies for spatial cognition in real and artificial organisms.

    Arleo, Angelo; Rondi-Reig, Laure

    2007-09-01

    Flexible spatial behavior requires the ability to orchestrate the interaction of multiple parallel processes. At the sensory level, multimodal inputs must be combined to produce a robust description of the spatiotemporal properties of the environment. At the action-selection level, multiple concurrent navigation policies must be dynamically weighted in order to adopt the strategy that is the most adapted to the complexity of the task. Different neural substrates mediate the processing of spatial information. Elucidating their anatomo-functional interrelations is fundamental to unravel the overall spatial memory function. Here we first address the multisensory integration issue and we review a series of experimental findings (both behavioral and electrophysiological) concerning the neural bases of spatial learning and the way the brain builds unambiguous spatial representations from incoming multisensory streams. Second, we move at the navigation strategy level and present an overview of experimental data that begin to explain the cooperation-competition between the brain areas involved in spatial navigation. Third, we introduce the spatial cognition function from a computational neuroscience and neuro-robotics viewpoint. We provide an example of neuro-computational model that focuses on the importance of combining multisensory percepts to enable a robot to acquire coherent (spatial) memories of its interaction with the environment. PMID:17933016

  7. Mobile Robot Navigation

    Andersen, Jens Christian

    2007-01-01

    . The research is now progressing towards autonomous robots which will be able to assist us in our daily life. One of the enabling technologies is navigation, and navigation is the subject of this thesis. Navigation of an autonomous robot is concerned with the ability of the robot to direct itself from...... validation of the implemented solutions and the ability of the methods to solve real world problems. The amount of software needed by an autonomous robot can be overwhelming. Software reuse and distributed development are therefore important issues. The thesis describes a new component architecture......Abstract Robots will soon take part in everyone’s daily life. In industrial production this has been the case for many years, but up to now the use of mobile robots has been limited to a few and isolated applications like lawn mowing, surveillance, agricultural production and military applications...

  8. Navigating Distributed Services

    Beute, Berco

    2002-01-01

    , to a situation where they are distributedacross the Internet. The second trend is the shift from a virtual environment that solelyconsists of distributed documents to a virtual environment that consists of bothdistributed documents and distributed services. The third and final trend is theincreasing...... diversity of devices used to access information on the Internet.The focal point of the thesis is an initial exploration of the effects of the trends onusers as they navigate the virtual environment of distributed documents and services.To begin the thesis uses scenarios as a heuristic device to identify and...... analyse themain effects of the trends. This is followed by an exploration of theory of navigationInformation Spaces, which is in turn followed by an overview of theories, and the stateof the art in navigating distributed services. These explorations of both theory andpractice resulted in a large number of...

  9. Mariner 9 navigation

    Neil, W. J.; Jordan, J. F.; Zielenbach, J. W.; Wong, S. K.; Mitchell, R. T.; Webb, W. A.; Koskela, P. E.

    1973-01-01

    A final, comprehensive description of the navigation of Mariner 9-the first U.S. spacecraft to orbit another planet is provided. The Mariner 9 navigation function included not only precision flight path control but also pointing of the spacecraft's scientific instruments mounted on a two degree of freedom scan platform. To the extent appropriate, each section describes the perflight analyses on which the operational strategies and performance predictions were based. Inflight results are then discussed and compared with the preflight predictions. Postflight analyses, which were primarily concerned with developing a thorough understanding of unexpected in-flight results, are also presented.

  10. The attack navigator

    Probst, Christian W.; Willemson, Jan; Pieters, Wolter

    2016-01-01

    The need to assess security and take protection decisions is at least as old as our civilisation. However, the complexity and development speed of our interconnected technical systems have surpassed our capacity to imagine and evaluate risk scenarios. This holds in particular for risks that are...... caused by the strategic behaviour of adversaries. Therefore, technology-supported methods are needed to help us identify and manage these risks. In this paper, we describe the attack navigator: a graph-based approach to security risk assessment inspired by navigation systems. Based on maps of a socio...

  11. Ambiguous Adaptation

    Møller Larsen, Marcus; Lyngsie, Jacob

    We investigate why some exchange relationships terminate prematurely. We argue that investments in informal governance structures induce premature termination in relationships already governed by formal contracts. The formalized adaptive behavior of formal governance structures and the flexible and...... reciprocal adaptation of informal governance structure create ambiguity in situations of contingencies, which, subsequently, increases the likelihood of premature relationship termination. Using a large sample of exchange relationships in the global service provider industry, we find support for a hypothesis...

  12. Adaptive skills

    Staša Stropnik

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive skills are defined as a collection of conceptual, social and practical skills that are learned by people in order to function in their everyday lives. They include an individual's ability to adapt to and manage her or his surroundings to effectively function and meet social or community expectations. Good adaptive skills promote individual's independence in different environments, whereas poorly developed adaptive skills are connected to individual's dependency and with greater need for control and help with everyday tasks. Assessment of adaptive skills is often connected to assessment of intellectual disability, due to the reason that the diagnosis of intellectual disability includes lower levels of achievements on standardized tests of intellectual abilities as well as important deficits in adaptive skills. Assessment of adaptive behavior is a part of standard assessment battery with children and adults with different problems, disorders or disabilities that affect their everyday functioning. This contribution also presents psychometric tools most regularly used for assessment of adaptive skills and characteristics of adaptive skills with individual clinical groups.

  13. Adaptively robust filtering with classified adaptive factors

    CUI Xianqiang; YANG Yuanxi

    2006-01-01

    The key problems in applying the adaptively robust filtering to navigation are to establish an equivalent weight matrix for the measurements and a suitable adaptive factor for balancing the contributions of the measurements and the predicted state information to the state parameter estimates. In this paper, an adaptively robust filtering with classified adaptive factors was proposed, based on the principles of the adaptively robust filtering and bi-factor robust estimation for correlated observations. According to the constant velocity model of Kalman filtering, the state parameter vector was divided into two groups, namely position and velocity. The estimator of the adaptively robust filtering with classified adaptive factors was derived, and the calculation expressions of the classified adaptive factors were presented. Test results show that the adaptively robust filtering with classified adaptive factors is not only robust in controlling the measurement outliers and the kinematic state disturbing but also reasonable in balancing the contributions of the predicted position and velocity, respectively, and its filtering accuracy is superior to the adaptively robust filter with single adaptive factor based on the discrepancy of the predicted position or the predicted velocity.

  14. Next Generation GPS Ground Control Segment (OCX) Navigation Design

    Bertiger, Willy; Bar-Sever, Yoaz; Harvey, Nate; Miller, Kevin; Romans, Larry; Weiss, Jan; Doyle, Larry; Solorzano, Tara; Petzinger, John; Stell, Al

    2010-01-01

    In February 2010, a Raytheon-led team was selected by The Air Force to develop, implement, and operate the next generation GPS ground control segment (OCX). To meet and exceed the demanding OCX navigation performance requirements, the Raytheon team partnered with ITT (Navigation lead) and JPL to adapt major elements of JPL's navigation technology, proven in the operations of the Global Differential GPS (GDGPS) System. Key design goals for the navigation subsystem include accurate ephemeris and clock accuracy (user range error), ease of model upgrades, and a smooth and safe transition from the legacy system to OCX.We will describe key elements of the innovative architecture of the OCX navigation subsystem,and demonstrate the anticipated performance of the system through high fidelity simulations withactual GPS measurements.

  15. Intelligent navigation to improve obstetrical sonography.

    Yeo, Lami; Romero, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    'Manual navigation' by the operator is the standard method used to obtain information from two-dimensional and volumetric sonography. Two-dimensional sonography is highly operator dependent and requires extensive training and expertise to assess fetal anatomy properly. Most of the sonographic examination time is devoted to acquisition of images, while 'retrieval' and display of diagnostic planes occurs rapidly (essentially instantaneously). In contrast, volumetric sonography has a rapid acquisition phase, but the retrieval and display of relevant diagnostic planes is often time-consuming, tedious and challenging. We propose the term 'intelligent navigation' to refer to a new method of interrogation of a volume dataset whereby identification and selection of key anatomical landmarks allow the system to: 1) generate a geometrical reconstruction of the organ of interest; and 2) automatically navigate, find, extract and display specific diagnostic planes. This is accomplished using operator-independent algorithms that are both predictable and adaptive. Virtual Intelligent Sonographer Assistance (VIS-Assistance®) is a tool that allows operator-independent sonographic navigation and exploration of the surrounding structures in previously identified diagnostic planes. The advantage of intelligent (over manual) navigation in volumetric sonography is the short time required for both acquisition and retrieval and display of diagnostic planes. Intelligent navigation technology automatically realigns the volume, and reorients and standardizes the anatomical position, so that the fetus and the diagnostic planes are consistently displayed in the same manner each time, regardless of the fetal position or the initial orientation. Automatic labeling of anatomical structures, subject orientation and each of the diagnostic planes is also possible. Intelligent navigation technology can operate on conventional computers, and is not dependent on specific ultrasound platforms or on the

  16. Navigation for the Blind through Audio-Based Virtual Environments

    Sánchez, Jaime; Sáenz, Mauricio; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Merabet, Lotfi

    2010-01-01

    We present the design, development and an initial study changes and adaptations related to navigation that take place in the brain, by incorporating an Audio-Based Environments Simulator (AbES) within a neuroimaging environment. This virtual environment enables a blind user to navigate through a virtual representation of a real space in order to train his/her orientation and mobility skills. Our initial results suggest that this kind of virtual environment could be highly efficient as a testi...

  17. GPS INTEGRATED NAVIGATION SYSTEM

    Swati R. Dhabarde

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In my project I am developing a computer program that willsimulate and explain the need of technology and advance systemfor any person moving or navigating in a car (or any vehicle.Every person in day to day life requires some navigation for theproper working of his work .it is the human nature that ever mantakes some guidance about some or another work without guidancethe job taken by a human being will be completed properly or notis not known. So, for a proper working of your decided scheduleyou should know everything about the place where you live. Youdo know and if you ought to know then you can use “EmergencyNavigation System”.‘Emergency Navigation System’ is specialized softwarewhich is able to track the current position (of any person drivingvehicles and tell the path and other detailed information aboutyour destination. If there are occurrences of multiple paths to thesame destination then it can show the shortest one among them.

  18. Adaptive strategies of overwintering adults: Reproductive diapause and mating behavior in a grasshopper,Stenocatantops splendens (Orthoptera: Catantopidae)

    Dao-Hong Zhu; Shuang-Shuang Cui; Yong-Sheng Fan; Zhiwei Liu

    2013-01-01

    To understand the adaptive strategies of the overwintering adults of Stenocatantops splendens,the mechanism of maintenance and termination of the reproductive diapause,the variation in mortality between overwintering females and males,and the mating strategy of the males were investigated.The results indicated that the adult reproductive diapause in natural conditions was mainly regulated by photoperiod in the fall-long photoperiods promoted reproductive development and short photoperiods maintained reproductive diapause,and the sensitivity of the overwintering adults to photoperiod was over before the end of the winter.When transferred from natural conditions to controlled laboratory conditions on dates from September through February,pre-oviposition became increasingly shorter with increasingly deferred transfer dates regardless of photoperiod conditions.The adults treated with low temperature for 30 days in September through November had significantly shorter pre-oviposition,suggesting that low temperatures in winter had an important role in the termination of reproductive diapause.The female had a significantly lower supercooling point than the male,which was related to their lower mortality after winter.In addition,observations of wild populations of the species indicated that mating behavior prior to winter and the duration of pre-mating period were not affected by photoperiod; mating and sperm transfer were mostly completed by November.Compared with females only mating before winter,females mating in the spring had shorter life span,longer pre-oviposition,lower hatching rate and laid fewer egg pods while showing no significant difference with regard to ovipositional interval,per pod number of eggs and nymph dry weight.

  19. A Study of Social Navigation Support under Different Situational and Personal Factors

    Farzan, Rosta

    2009-01-01

    "Social Navigation" for the Web has been created as a response to the problem of disorientation in information space. It helps by visualizing traces of behavior of other users and adding social affordance to the information space. Despite the popularity of social navigation ideas, very few studies of social navigation systems can be found in the…

  20. Practical indoor mobile robot navigation using hybrid maps

    Özkil, Ali Gürcan; Fan, Zhun; Xiao, Jizhong; Kristensen, Jens Klæstrup; Dawids, Steen; Christensen, Kim Hardam; Aanæs, Henrik

    This paper presents a practical navigation scheme for indoor mobile robots using hybrid maps. The method makes use of metric maps for local navigation and a topological map for global path planning. Metric maps are generated as 2D occupancy grids by a range sensor to represent local information....... The navigation scheme based on the hybrid metric-topological maps is scalable and adaptable since new local maps can be easily added to the global topology, and the method can be deployed with minimum amount of modification if new areas are to be explored. The method is implemented successfully on a...

  1. 3D-navigation for interstitial stereotactic brachytherapy

    The aim of this paper is to describe the adaption of 3D-navigation for interstitial brachytherapy. The new method leads to prospective and therefore improved planning of the therapy (position of the needle and dose distribution) and to the possibility of a virtual simulation (control if vessels or nerves are on the pathway of the needle). The EasyGuide Neuro trademark navigation system (Philips) was adapted in the way, that needles for interstitial bracachytherapy were made connectable to the pointer and correctly displayed on the screen. To determine the positioning accuracy, several attempts were performed to hit defined targets on phantoms. Two methods were used: 'Free navigation', where the needle was under control of the navigation system, and the 'guided navigation' where an aligned template was used additionally to lead the needle to the target. In addition a mask system was tested, whether it met the requirements of stable and reproducible positioning. The potential of applying this method is clinical practice was tested with an anatomical specimen. About 91% of all attempts lied within 5 mm. There were even better results on the more rigid table (94%<4 mm). No difference could be seen between both application methods ('free navigation' and 'navigation with template'), they showed the same accuracy. (orig./MG)

  2. Developmental exposure to a complex PAH mixture causes persistent behavioral effects in naive Fundulus heteroclitus (killifish) but not in a population of PAH-adapted killifish.

    Brown, D R; Bailey, J M; Oliveri, A N; Levin, E D; Di Giulio, R T

    2016-01-01

    Acute exposures to some individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and complex PAH mixtures are known to cause cardiac malformations and edema in the developing fish embryo. However, the heart is not the only organ impacted by developmental PAH exposure. The developing brain is also affected, resulting in lasting behavioral dysfunction. While acute exposures to some PAHs are teratogenically lethal in fish, little is known about the later life consequences of early life, lower dose subteratogenic PAH exposures. We sought to determine and characterize the long-term behavioral consequences of subteratogenic developmental PAH mixture exposure in both naive killifish and PAH-adapted killifish using sediment pore water derived from the Atlantic Wood Industries Superfund Site. Killifish offspring were embryonically treated with two low-level PAH mixture dilutions of Elizabeth River sediment extract (ERSE) (TPAH 5.04 μg/L and 50.4 μg/L) at 24h post fertilization. Following exposure, killifish were raised to larval, juvenile, and adult life stages and subjected to a series of behavioral tests including: a locomotor activity test (4 days post-hatch), a sensorimotor response tap/habituation test (3 months post hatch), and a novel tank diving and exploration test (3months post hatch). Killifish were also monitored for survival at 1, 2, and 5 months over 5-month rearing period. Developmental PAH exposure caused short-term as well as persistent behavioral impairments in naive killifish. In contrast, the PAH-adapted killifish did not show behavioral alterations following PAH exposure. PAH mixture exposure caused increased mortality in reference killifish over time; yet, the PAH-adapted killifish, while demonstrating long-term rearing mortality, had no significant changes in mortality associated with ERSE exposure. This study demonstrated that early embryonic exposure to PAH-contaminated sediment pore water caused long-term locomotor and behavioral alterations in

  3. Behavioural adaptation and acceptance

    Martens, M.H.; Jenssen, G.D.; Eskandarian, A.

    2012-01-01

    One purpose of Intelligent Vehicles is to improve road safety, throughput, and emissions. However, the predicted effects are not always as large as aimed for. Part of this is due to indirect behavioral changes of drivers, also called behavioral adaptation. Behavioral adaptation (BA) refers to uninte

  4. Inland Electronic Navigational Charts (IENC)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — These Inland Electronic Navigational Charts (IENCs) were developed from available data used in maintenance of Navigation channels. Users of these IENCs should be...

  5. Nautical Navigation Aids (NAVAID) Locations

    Department of Homeland Security — Structures intended to assist a navigator to determine position or safe course, or to warn of dangers or obstructions to navigation. This dataset includes lights,...

  6. Navigation in Virtual Environment

    Mikeš, Stanislav; Haindl, Michal; Holub, Radek

    Vienna: Austrian Computer Society, 2008 - (R. Sablatnig and J. Hemsley and P. Krammerer and E. Zolda and J. Stockinger), s. 111-118 ISBN 978-3-85403-238-0. [2nd International Conference EVA. Vienna (AT), 25.08.2008-28.08.2008] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1ET400750407; GA MŠk 1M0572; GA ČR GA102/08/0593 Grant ostatní: GA MŠk(CZ) 2C06019 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Virtual Reality * Navigation Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2008/RO/mikes-haindl-holub-navigation%20in%20virtual%20environment.pdf

  7. Mobile Robot Navigation

    Andersen, Jens Christian; Ravn, Ole; Andersen, Nils Axel

    2007-01-01

    Robotter vil om få år blive en del af vores daglige liv. Inden for produktionsindustrien har det allerede være tilfældet i mange år, men anvendelsen af mobile robotter har hidtil været henvist til isolerede områder som græsslåning, overvågning, landbrugsproduktion og militære funktioner. Fremskridt i forskningen gør, at robotter vil kunne assistere os i mange af vore daglige gøremål i en ikke så fjern fremtid. En af de teknologier, der skal gøre dette muligt, er navigation, og navigation er e...

  8. Self-navigating robot

    Thompson, A. M.

    1978-01-01

    Rangefinding equipment and onboard navigation system determine best route from point to point. Research robot has two TV cameras and laser for scanning and mapping its environment. Path planner finds most direct, unobstructed route that requires minimum expenditure of energy. Distance is used as measure of energy expense, although other measures such as time or power consumption (which would depend on the topography of the path) may be used.

  9. Navigating stories in films

    Salway, Andrew; Xu, Yan

    2005-01-01

    This report describes the transformation of feature films into hypervideo by representing their story structures using plot unties. Plot units represent cause-effect relationships between characters’ affect states and the events in a story. We use plot units to structure hypervideo links between intervals of video data. We have manually analysed two full-length feature films in terms of plot units. A system was developed to store and edit data about plot units and to navigate films by followi...

  10. Invisible Navigation (or Impossible?).

    Özcan, Oğuzhan; O'Neil, Mary Lou

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: This article introduces an experimental artwork on moving mobile interfaces. It aims to answer the question: Is it possible to navigate a part of a large image composition, moving a smaller interface of a mobile device in a certain direction such as left and right, back and forth or up and down? The article then outlines the new concept of “Invisible (or impossible) Navigation” and discusses the output of artistic practices which address the “Labyrinth of Art”.

  11. Navigational Query Languages

    Surinx, Dimitri

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis we introduce navigational query languages on graphs. Path queries in our languages are built over several operators: identity, union, composition, projection, coprojection, converse, transitive closure, diversity, intersection and difference. The smallest language we will consider only contains the first 3 operators, while the largest language contains all operators. For these query languages we will characterize their complete relative expressive power, i.e., we will compare t...

  12. Self-organized architecture for outdoor mobile robot navigation

    ZHANG Huan-cheng; ZHU Miao-liang

    2005-01-01

    This paper proposed a multi-agent based architecture for outdoor mobile robot navigation where event-driven control is used to handle the dynamically changing of the environment. With the support of a distributed communication infrastructure and an event-driven situation evaluation agent, the robot can initiate action adaptive to the dynamical changes in the environment through reorganize its internal architecture. Adaptiveness and feasibility of the proposed architecture is validated through navigation experiments on the robot in a variety of natural outdoor environments.

  13. Autonomous rough terrain navigation - Lessons learned

    Miller, David P.

    1991-01-01

    Because of light-time delays, a planetary rover located on Mars or beyond will probably need to be able to navigate autonomously, in order to do significant exploration. Recent work at JPL has explored several different autonomous navigation strategies. This work includes highly deliberative methods that require large amounts of computation and internal storage but yield very planful behavior to more reactive systems that require less resources but whose behavior is more difficult to model. This paper briefly presents these methods, the results from experiments both in simulation and in the field, and some conclusions on the value of different approaches, and their possible impact on the structure of the robot and the mission architecture.

  14. Multisensor robot navigation system

    Persa, Stelian; Jonker, Pieter P.

    2002-02-01

    Almost all robot navigation systems work indoors. Outdoor robot navigation systems offer the potential for new application areas. The biggest single obstacle to building effective robot navigation systems is the lack of accurate wide-area sensors for trackers that report the locations and orientations of objects in an environment. Active (sensor-emitter) tracking technologies require powered-device installation, limiting their use to prepared areas that are relative free of natural or man-made interference sources. The hybrid tracker combines rate gyros and accelerometers with compass and tilt orientation sensor and DGPS system. Sensor distortions, delays and drift required compensation to achieve good results. The measurements from sensors are fused together to compensate for each other's limitations. Analysis and experimental results demonstrate the system effectiveness. The paper presents a field experiment for a low-cost strapdown-IMU (Inertial Measurement Unit)/DGPS combination, with data processing for the determination of 2-D components of position (trajectory), velocity and heading. In the present approach we have neglected earth rotation and gravity variations, because of the poor gyroscope sensitivities of our low-cost ISA (Inertial Sensor Assembly) and because of the relatively small area of the trajectory. The scope of this experiment was to test the feasibility of an integrated DGPS/IMU system of this type and to develop a field evaluation procedure for such a combination.

  15. Navigation in virtual environments

    Arthur, Erik; Hancock, Peter A.; Telke, Susan

    1996-06-01

    Virtual environments show great promise in the area of training. ALthough such synthetic environments project homeomorphic physical representations of real- world layouts, it is not known how individuals develop models to match such environments. To evaluate this process, the present experiment examined the accuracy of triadic representations of objects having learned them previously under different conditions. The layout consisted of four different colored spheres arranged on a flat plane. These objects could be viewed in either a free navigation virtual environment condition (NAV) or a single body position virtual environment condition. The first condition allowed active exploration of the environment while the latter condition allowed the participant only a passive opportunity to observe form a single viewpoint. These viewing conditions were a between-subject variable with ten participants randomly assigned to each condition. Performance was assessed by the response latency to judge the accuracy of a layout of three objects over different rotations. Results showed linear increases in response latency as the rotation angle increased from the initial perspective in SBP condition. The NAV condition did not show a similar effect of rotation angle. These results suggest that the spatial knowledge acquisition from virtual environments through navigation is similar to actual navigation.

  16. Using adaptive techniques to validate and correct an audience driven design of web sites

    Casteleyn, Sven; Garrigós Fernández, Irene; De Troyer, Olga

    2004-01-01

    An audience driven philosophy for web site design takes the different target audiences as an explicit starting point, and organizes the basic navigation structure accordingly. However, for the designer it is not always easy, or sometimes even impossible, to assess the different requirements of the different target audiences correctly. In this paper, we show how to correct for such possible flaws using adaptive behavior. A mechanism for detecting both missing and superfluous information in a c...

  17. Identifying Nonstationary Clock Noises in Navigation Systems

    Patrizia Tavella; Lorenzo Galleani

    2008-01-01

    The stability of the atomic clocks on board the satellites of a navigation system should remain constant with time. In reality there are numerous physical phenomena that make the behavior of the clocks a function of time, and for this reason we have recently introduced the dynamic Allan variance (DAVAR), a measure of the time-varying stability of an atomic clock. In this paper we discuss the dynamic Allan variance for phase and frequency jumps, two common nonstationarities of atomic clocks. T...

  18. Robot navigation system using intrinsic evolvable hardware

    2001-01-01

    Recently there has been great interest in the idea that evolvable system based on the principle of ar tifcial intelligence can be used to continuously and autonomously adapt the behaviour of physically embedded systems such as autonomous mobile robots and intelligent home devices. Meanwhile, we have seen the introduc tion of evolvable hardware(EHW): new integrated electronic circuits that are able to continuously evolve to a dapt the chages in the environment implemented by evolutionary algorithms such as genetic algorithm(GA)and reinforcement learning. This paper concentrates on developing a robotic navigation system whose basic behav iours are obstacle avoidance and light source navigation. The results demonstrate that the intrinsic evolvable hardware system is able to create the stable robotiiuc behaviours as required in the real world instead of the tra ditional hardware systems.

  19. Multiple Decoupled CPGs with Local Sensory Feedback for Adaptive Locomotion Behaviors of Bio-inspired Walking Robots

    Shaker Barikhan, Subhi; Wörgötter, Florentin; Manoonpong, Poramate

    2014-01-01

    Walking animals show versatile locomotion. They can also adapt their movement according to the changes of their morphology and the environmental conditions. These emergent properties are realized by biomechanics, distributed central pattern generators (CPGs), local sensory feedback, and their...

  20. Farmer Health and Adaptive Capacity in the Face of Climate Change and Variability. Part 2: Contexts, Personal Attributes and Behaviors

    Helen Berry

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This study extends the emerging body of research on farmer adaptation to climate change, by segmenting farmers on the basis of specific attributes (health, values, belief about climate change, sense of responsibility for climate change, desire to change, social, human and financial capitals and farmer demographics and considering such attributes as critical social aspects of the contextualized capacity to adapt. The segmental analysis was based on a nationally representative sample of 3,993 farmers concerned with farmer adaptation of climate risks. The resulting data were subjected to two-step cluster analysis to identify homogenous groups of farmers based on factors related to climate change adaptation. A three-cluster solution was identified wherein farmers were distinguishable on the basis of belief in climate change, desire for financial assistance and advice, social connectedness, information seeking, and adverse farm conditions. The largest group (Cluster 1: 55% was characterized by farmers who recognized being affected by drought and drying and who were actively engaged in adaptive practices, despite the fact that they had little income and poor farm resources. One third of these farmers reported that their health was a barrier to sustained activity in farming. Cluster 2 (26% was characterized by farmers not readily affected by drying, who enjoyed good incomes, good health and better farming conditions. They expressed little desire to adapt. The smallest cluster (Cluster 3: 19% was also characterized by farmers who recognized that they were affected by drying. However, despite a desire to adapt, they had very little means to do so. They reported the poorest natural resources and the poorest health, despite being younger. The findings suggest that it is the intent to adapt, starting from where people are at, which is a more important indicator of the capacity to work towards sustainable practices than assets tests alone.

  1. Farmer Health and Adaptive Capacity in the Face of Climate Change and Variability. Part 2: Contexts, Personal Attributes and Behaviors

    Helen Berry; Adam Bode; Anthony Hogan

    2011-01-01

    This study extends the emerging body of research on farmer adaptation to climate change, by segmenting farmers on the basis of specific attributes (health, values, belief about climate change, sense of responsibility for climate change, desire to change, social, human and financial capitals and farmer demographics) and considering such attributes as critical social aspects of the contextualized capacity to adapt. The segmental analysis was based on a nationally representative sample of 3,993 ...

  2. Artificial Pheromone System Using RFID for Navigation of Autonomous Robots

    Herianto; Toshiki Sakakibara; Daisuke Kurabayashi

    2007-01-01

    Navigation system based on the animal behavior has received a growing attention in the past few years. The navigation systems using artificial pheromone are still few so far. For this reason, this paper presents our research that aim to implement autonomous navigation with artificial pheromone system. By introducing artificial pheromone system composed of data carriers and autonomous robots, the robotic system creates a potential field to navigate their group. We have developed a pheromone density model to realize the function of pheromones with the help of data carriers. We intend to show the effectiveness of the proposed system by performing simulations and realization using modified mobile robot. The pheromone potential field system can be used for navigation of autonomous robots.

  3. An embodied biologically constrained model of foraging: from classical and operant conditioning to adaptive real-world behavior in DAC-X.

    Maffei, Giovanni; Santos-Pata, Diogo; Marcos, Encarni; Sánchez-Fibla, Marti; Verschure, Paul F M J

    2015-12-01

    Animals successfully forage within new environments by learning, simulating and adapting to their surroundings. The functions behind such goal-oriented behavior can be decomposed into 5 top-level objectives: 'how', 'why', 'what', 'where', 'when' (H4W). The paradigms of classical and operant conditioning describe some of the behavioral aspects found in foraging. However, it remains unclear how the organization of their underlying neural principles account for these complex behaviors. We address this problem from the perspective of the Distributed Adaptive Control theory of mind and brain (DAC) that interprets these two paradigms as expressing properties of core functional subsystems of a layered architecture. In particular, we propose DAC-X, a novel cognitive architecture that unifies the theoretical principles of DAC with biologically constrained computational models of several areas of the mammalian brain. DAC-X supports complex foraging strategies through the progressive acquisition, retention and expression of task-dependent information and associated shaping of action, from exploration to goal-oriented deliberation. We benchmark DAC-X using a robot-based hoarding task including the main perceptual and cognitive aspects of animal foraging. We show that efficient goal-oriented behavior results from the interaction of parallel learning mechanisms accounting for motor adaptation, spatial encoding and decision-making. Together, our results suggest that the H4W problem can be solved by DAC-X building on the insights from the study of classical and operant conditioning. Finally, we discuss the advantages and limitations of the proposed biologically constrained and embodied approach towards the study of cognition and the relation of DAC-X to other cognitive architectures. PMID:26585942

  4. Integrated navigation method based on inertial navigation system and Lidar

    Zhang, Xiaoyue; Shi, Haitao; Pan, Jianye; Zhang, Chunxi

    2016-04-01

    An integrated navigation method based on the inertial navigational system (INS) and Lidar was proposed for land navigation. Compared with the traditional integrated navigational method and dead reckoning (DR) method, the influence of the inertial measurement unit (IMU) scale factor and misalignment was considered in the new method. First, the influence of the IMU scale factor and misalignment on navigation accuracy was analyzed. Based on the analysis, the integrated system error model of INS and Lidar was established, in which the IMU scale factor and misalignment error states were included. Then the observability of IMU error states was analyzed. According to the results of the observability analysis, the integrated system was optimized. Finally, numerical simulation and a vehicle test were carried out to validate the availability and utility of the proposed INS/Lidar integrated navigational method. Compared with the test result of a traditional integrated navigation method and DR method, the proposed integrated navigational method could result in a higher navigation precision. Consequently, the IMU scale factor and misalignment error were effectively compensated by the proposed method and the new integrated navigational method is valid.

  5. SLAM algorithm applied to robotics assistance for navigation in unknown environments

    Lobo Pereira Fernando

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The combination of robotic tools with assistance technology determines a slightly explored area of applications and advantages for disability or elder people in their daily tasks. Autonomous motorized wheelchair navigation inside an environment, behaviour based control of orthopaedic arms or user's preference learning from a friendly interface are some examples of this new field. In this paper, a Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM algorithm is implemented to allow the environmental learning by a mobile robot while its navigation is governed by electromyographic signals. The entire system is part autonomous and part user-decision dependent (semi-autonomous. The environmental learning executed by the SLAM algorithm and the low level behaviour-based reactions of the mobile robot are robotic autonomous tasks, whereas the mobile robot navigation inside an environment is commanded by a Muscle-Computer Interface (MCI. Methods In this paper, a sequential Extended Kalman Filter (EKF feature-based SLAM algorithm is implemented. The features correspond to lines and corners -concave and convex- of the environment. From the SLAM architecture, a global metric map of the environment is derived. The electromyographic signals that command the robot's movements can be adapted to the patient's disabilities. For mobile robot navigation purposes, five commands were obtained from the MCI: turn to the left, turn to the right, stop, start and exit. A kinematic controller to control the mobile robot was implemented. A low level behavior strategy was also implemented to avoid robot's collisions with the environment and moving agents. Results The entire system was tested in a population of seven volunteers: three elder, two below-elbow amputees and two young normally limbed patients. The experiments were performed within a closed low dynamic environment. Subjects took an average time of 35 minutes to navigate the environment and to learn how

  6. 33 CFR 401.53 - Obstructing navigation.

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Obstructing navigation. 401.53 Section 401.53 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Seaway Navigation § 401.53...

  7. Control algorithms for autonomous robot navigation

    This paper examines control algorithm requirements for autonomous robot navigation outside laboratory environments. Three aspects of navigation are considered: navigation control in explored terrain, environment interactions with robot sensors, and navigation control in unanticipated situations. Major navigation methods are presented and relevance of traditional human learning theory is discussed. A new navigation technique linking graph theory and incidental learning is introduced

  8. Control algorithms for autonomous robot navigation

    Jorgensen, C.C.

    1985-09-20

    This paper examines control algorithm requirements for autonomous robot navigation outside laboratory environments. Three aspects of navigation are considered: navigation control in explored terrain, environment interactions with robot sensors, and navigation control in unanticipated situations. Major navigation methods are presented and relevance of traditional human learning theory is discussed. A new navigation technique linking graph theory and incidental learning is introduced.

  9. Understanding satellite navigation

    Acharya, Rajat

    2014-01-01

    This book explains the basic principles of satellite navigation technology with the bare minimum of mathematics and without complex equations. It helps you to conceptualize the underlying theory from first principles, building up your knowledge gradually using practical demonstrations and worked examples. A full range of MATLAB simulations is used to visualize concepts and solve problems, allowing you to see what happens to signals and systems with different configurations. Implementation and applications are discussed, along with some special topics such as Kalman Filter and Ionosphere. W

  10. Navigating Hypermasculine Terrains

    Henriksen, Ann-Karina Eske

    2015-01-01

    The study addresses how young women navigate urban terrains that are characterized by high levels of interpersonal aggression and crime. It is argued that young women apply a range of gendered tactics to establish safety and social mastery, and that these are framed by the limits and possibilities...... imposed by a street-based hypermasculine script. The analysis rests on an ethnographic study among 25 young Danish women aged 13 to 23 experienced in engaging in street-based physical violence. The study suggests that explorations of female tactics can provide a useful method of analysis for understanding...

  11. China Satellite Navigation Conference

    Liu, Jingnan; Fan, Shiwei; Wang, Feixue

    2016-01-01

    These Proceedings present selected research papers from CSNC2016, held during 18th-20th May in Changsha, China. The theme of CSNC2016 is Smart Sensing, Smart Perception. These papers discuss the technologies and applications of the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), and the latest progress made in the China BeiDou System (BDS) especially. They are divided into 12 topics to match the corresponding sessions in CSNC2016, which broadly covered key topics in GNSS. Readers can learn about the BDS and keep abreast of the latest advances in GNSS techniques and applications.

  12. Comparative advantage between traditional and smart navigation systems

    Shin, Jeongkyu; Kim, Pan-Jun; Kim, Seunghwan

    2013-03-01

    The smart navigation system that refers to real-time traffic data is believed to be superior to traditional navigation systems. To verify this belief, we created an agent-based traffic model and examined the effect of changing market share of the traditional shortest-travel-time algorithm based navigation and the smart navigation system. We tested our model on the grid and actual metropolitan road network structures. The result reveals that the traditional navigation system have better performance than the smart one as the market share of the smart navigation system exceeds a critical value, which is contrary to conventional expectation. We suggest that the superiority inversion between agent groups is strongly related to the traffic weight function form, and is general. We also found that the relationship of market share, traffic flow density and travel time is determined by the combination of congestion avoidance behavior of the smartly navigated agents and the inefficiency of shortest-travel-time based navigated agents. Our results can be interpreted with the minority game and extended to the diverse topics of opinion dynamics. This work was supported by the Original Technology Research Program for Brain Science through the National Research Foundation of Korea funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology(No. 2010-0018847).

  13. Studies of Thermally Unstable Accretion Disks around Black Holes with Adaptive Pseudo-Spectral Domain Decomposition Method I. Limit-Cycle Behavior in the Case of Moderate Viscosity

    Li, Shuang-Liang; Lu, Ju-Fu

    2007-01-01

    We present a numerical method for spatially 1.5-dimensional and time-dependent studies of accretion disks around black holes, that is originated from a combination of the standard pseudo-spectral method and the adaptive domain decomposition method existing in the literature, but with a number of improvements in both the numerical and physical senses. In particular, we introduce a new treatment for the connection at the interfaces of decomposed subdomains, construct an adaptive function for the mapping between the Chebyshev-Gauss-Lobatto collocation points and the physical collocation points in each subdomain, and modify the over-simplified 1-dimensional basic equations of accretion flows to account for the effects of viscous stresses in both the azimuthal and radial directions. Our method is verified by reproducing the best results obtained previously by Szuszkiewicz & Miller on the limit-cycle behavior of thermally unstable accretion disks with moderate viscosity. A new finding is that, according to our ...

  14. AHyCo: a Web-Based Adaptive Hypermedia Courseware System

    Hoić-Božić, Nataša; Mornar, Vedran

    2005-01-01

    Adaptive hypermedia courseware systems resolve the problem of users’ disorientation in hyperspace through the adaptive navigation and presentation support. We describe the AHyCo (Adaptive Hypermedia Courseware) - an adaptive Web-based educational system for creation and reuse of adaptive courseware with emphasis on adaptive navigation support and lessons sequencing. The proposed model consists of the domain model, the student model, and the adaptive model. The system is composed of two enviro...

  15. A linguistic and navigational knowledge approach to text navigation

    Couto, Javier; Minel, Jean-Luc

    2008-01-01

    We present an approach to text navigation conceived as a cognitive process exploiting linguistic information present in texts. We claim that the navigational knowledge in-volved in this process can be modeled in a declarative way with the Sextant language. Since Sextant refers exhaustively to specific linguistic phenomena, we have defined a customized text representation. These dif-ferent components are implemented in the text navigation system NaviTexte. Two ap-plications of NaviTexte are de...

  16. Adaptive challenges in medical practices.

    Daiker, Barbara L

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative grounded theory study was to describe the theoretical structures of the strategies used by medical practices to navigate adaptive challenges. The process of responding to adaptive challenges in five medical practices was studied using a grounded theory approach, collecting data from interviews with the organizations' leaders and managers. The leadership of these medical practices had successfully navigated adaptive challenges within two years of the study. The analysis revealed a model that describes the key elements in finding solutions to adaptive challenges. The model was named the Adaptation Solution Dynamic, which explains the elements of Rational Tools, Relationship Commitment, and Achievement Drive. The findings from the results of this study provide a theoretical basis for studying how leaders support identifying solutions to adaptive challenges. PMID:23866647

  17. Learning and retrieval of memory elements in a navigation task

    Hoinville, Thierry; Wehner, Rüdiger; CRUSE, Holk

    2012-01-01

    Desert ants when foraging for food, navigate by performing path integration and exploiting landmarks. In an earlier paper, we proposed a decentralized neurocontroller that describes this navigation behavior. As by real ants, landmarks are recognized depending on the context, i.e. only when landmarks belong to the path towards the current goal (food source, home). In this earlier version, neither position nor quality of the food sources can be learnt, the memory is preset. In this article, we ...

  18. Roundup of Graphical Navigation Helpers on the Web

    Chabane Khentout

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the recent research, the Web remains mainly constituted of an ever-growing network of documents. As it becomes easier to publish documents, as the number of users and thus publishers, increases and as the number of documents grows, searching for information is turning into a cumbersome and time-consuming operation. Because of the loose interconnection between documents, people have difficulty remembering where they have been and returning to previously visited pages. Navigation through the web faces problems of locating oneself with respect to space and time. The idea of graphical assistance navigation is to help users to find their paths in hyperspace by adapting the style of link presentation to the goals, knowledge and other characteristics of an individual user. We first introduce the concepts related to web navigation; we then present an overview of different graphical navigation tools and techniques. We conclude by presenting a comparative table of these tools based on some pertinent criteria.

  19. Investigations on GSK-3β/NF-kB signaling in stress and stress adaptive behavior in electric foot shock subjected mice.

    Bali, Anjana; Jaggi, Amteshwar Singh

    2016-04-01

    The present study was designed to explore the role of GSK-3β and NF-kB signaling in electric foot shock-induced stress and stress adaptation. Mice were subjected to foot shocks of 0.5mA intensity and 1s duration of 1h to produce acute stress. Animals were exposed to the same stressor for 5 days to induce stress adaptation. The behavioral alterations were assessed using the actophotometer, hole board, open field and social interaction tests. The serum corticosterone levels were assessed as a marker of the HPA axis. The levels of total GSK-3β, p-GSK-3β-S9 and p-NF-kB were determined in the hippocampus, frontal cortex and amygdala. Acute electric foot shock stress produced behavioral and biochemical changes; decreased the levels of p-GSK-3β-S9, produced no change in total GSK-3β levels and increased p-NF-kB levels in the brain. However, repeated exposure of foot shock stress restored the behavioral and biochemical changes along with normalization of p-GSK-3β-S9 and p-NF-kB levels. Administration of AR-A01, a selective GSK-3β inhibitor, or diethyldithiocarbamic acid (DDTC), a selective NF-kB inhibitor, diminished acute stress-induced behavioral and biochemical changes. Furthermore, AR-A014418 normalized acute stress-induced alterations in p-GSK-3β-S9 and p-NF-kB levels, however, DDTC selectively restored NF-kB levels without any change in p-GSK-3β-S9 levels. It probably suggests that NF-kB is a downstream mediator of the GSK-3 signaling cascade. It may conclude that acute stress associated decrease in p-GSK-3β-S9 and increase in p-NF-kB levels in the brain contribute in the development of behavioral and biochemical alterations and normalization of GSK-3β/NF-kB signaling may contribute in stress adaptive behavior in response to repeated electric foot shock-subjected mice. PMID:26778780

  20. Adaptive Management for a Turbulent Future

    Allen, Craig R.; Fontaine, Joseph J.; Pope, Kevin L.; Garmestani, Ahjond S.

    2011-01-01

    The challenges that face humanity today differ from the past because as the scale of human influence has increased, our biggest challenges have become global in nature, and formerly local problems that could be addressed by shifting populations or switching resources, now aggregate (i.e., "scale up") limiting potential management options. Adaptive management is an approach to natural resource management that emphasizes learning through management based on the philosophy that knowledge is incomplete and much of what we think we know is actually wrong. Adaptive management has explicit structure, including careful elucidation of goals, identification of alternative management objectives and hypotheses of causation, and procedures for the collection of data followed by evaluation and reiteration. It is evident that adaptive management has matured, but it has also reached a crossroads. Practitioners and scientists have developed adaptive management and structured decision making techniques, and mathematicians have developed methods to reduce the uncertainties encountered in resource management, yet there continues to be misapplication of the method and misunderstanding of its purpose. Ironically, the confusion over the term "adaptive management" may stem from the flexibility inherent in the approach, which has resulted in multiple interpretations of "adaptive management" that fall along a continuum of complexity and a priori design. Adaptive management is not a panacea for the navigation of 'wicked problems' as it does not produce easy answers, and is only appropriate in a subset of natural resource management problems where both uncertainty and controllability are high. Nonetheless, the conceptual underpinnings of adaptive management are simple; there will always be inherent uncertainty and unpredictability in the dynamics and behavior of complex social-ecological systems, but management decisions must still be made, and whenever possible, we should incorporate

  1. Working Memory, Attention, Inhibition, and Their Relation to Adaptive Functioning and Behavioral/Emotional Symptoms in School-Aged Children

    Vuontela, Virve; Carlson, Synnove; Troberg, Anna-Maria; Fontell, Tuija; Simola, Petteri; Saarinen, Suvi; Aronen, Eeva T.

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the development of executive functions (EFs) and their associations with performance and behavior at school in 8-12-year-old children. The EFs were measured by computer-based n-back, Continuous Performance and Go/Nogo tasks. School performance was evaluated by Teacher Report Form (TRF) and behavior by TRF and Child…

  2. Learning for Autonomous Navigation

    Angelova, Anelia; Howard, Andrew; Matthies, Larry; Tang, Benyang; Turmon, Michael; Mjolsness, Eric

    2005-01-01

    Robotic ground vehicles for outdoor applications have achieved some remarkable successes, notably in autonomous highway following (Dickmanns, 1987), planetary exploration (1), and off-road navigation on Earth (1). Nevertheless, major challenges remain to enable reliable, high-speed, autonomous navigation in a wide variety of complex, off-road terrain. 3-D perception of terrain geometry with imaging range sensors is the mainstay of off-road driving systems. However, the stopping distance at high speed exceeds the effective lookahead distance of existing range sensors. Prospects for extending the range of 3-D sensors is strongly limited by sensor physics, eye safety of lasers, and related issues. Range sensor limitations also allow vehicles to enter large cul-de-sacs even at low speed, leading to long detours. Moreover, sensing only terrain geometry fails to reveal mechanical properties of terrain that are critical to assessing its traversability, such as potential for slippage, sinkage, and the degree of compliance of potential obstacles. Rovers in the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) mission have got stuck in sand dunes and experienced significant downhill slippage in the vicinity of large rock hazards. Earth-based off-road robots today have very limited ability to discriminate traversable vegetation from non-traversable vegetation or rough ground. It is impossible today to preprogram a system with knowledge of these properties for all types of terrain and weather conditions that might be encountered.

  3. 33 CFR 207.185 - Taylors Bayou, Tex., Beaumont Navigation District Lock; use, administration, and navigation.

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Taylors Bayou, Tex., Beaumont Navigation District Lock; use, administration, and navigation. 207.185 Section 207.185 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION...

  4. Reactive navigational controller for autonomous mobile robots

    Hawkins, Scott

    1993-12-01

    Autonomous mobile robots must respond to external challenges and threats in real time. One way to satisfy this requirement is to use a fast low level intelligence to react to local environment changes. A fast reactive controller has been implemented which performs the task of real time local navigation by integrating primitive elements of perception, planning, and control. Competing achievement and constraint behaviors are used to allow abstract qualitative specification of navigation goals. An interface is provided to allow a higher level deliberative intelligence with a more global perspective to set local goals for the reactive controller. The reactive controller's simplistic strategies may not always succeed, so a means to monitor and redirect the reactive controller is provided.

  5. Adaptive Flocking of Robot Swarms: Algorithms and Properties

    Lee, Geunho; Chong, Nak Young

    This paper presents a distributed approach for adaptive flocking of swarms of mobile robots that enables to navigate autonomously in complex environments populated with obstacles. Based on the observation of the swimming behavior of a school of fish, we propose an integrated algorithm that allows a swarm of robots to navigate in a coordinated manner, split into multiple swarms, or merge with other swarms according to the environment conditions. We prove the convergence of the proposed algorithm using Lyapunov stability theory. We also verify the effectiveness of the algorithm through extensive simulations, where a swarm of robots repeats the process of splitting and merging while passing around multiple stationary and moving obstacles. The simulation results show that the proposed algorithm is scalable, and robust to variations in the sensing capability of individual robots.

  6. 1 048名3~12岁儿童适应行为及相关因素的调查%An Investigation on Adaptive Behaviors and Related Factors in Children

    刘航英; 郑淑芹; 吕维; 吴洪剑; 徐志敏; 王壮业

    2001-01-01

    Objective:To investigate adaptive behaviors and related factors in children. Methods: 1 048 children, aged 3 to 12, were administered the Adaptive Behavioral Scale (ABS) of Children, as well as being observed for significant related factors. Results: Overall mean score on the ABS for all subjects in the sample was within normal range. 17 children(1.62%) were diagnosed as adaptive deficient, and there was significant positive correlation between scores on the ABS and parental education levels. Scores of boys were higher when compared to girls. Conclusion: An incidence of 1.62% was diagnosed as deficient in adaptive behaviors among children in our study. Parental education was identified as an important contributing factor.

  7. Semantic Verbal Fluency Pattern, Dementia Rating Scores and Adaptive Behavior Correlate With Plasma Aβ42 Concentrations in Down Syndrome Young Adults

    Hoyo, Laura Del; Xicota, Laura; Sánchez-Benavides, Gonzalo; Cuenca-Royo, Aida; de Sola, Susana; Langohr, Klaus; Fagundo, Ana B.; Farré, Magí; Dierssen, Mara; de la Torre, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is an intellectual disability (ID) disorder in which language and specifically, verbal fluency are strongly impaired domains; nearly all adults show neuropathology of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), including amyloid deposition by their fifth decade of life. In the general population, verbal fluency deficits are considered a strong AD predictor being the semantic verbal fluency task (SVFT) a useful tool for enhancing early diagnostic. However, there is a lack of information about the association between the semantic verbal fluency pattern (SVFP) and the biological amyloidosis markers in DS. In the current study, we used the SVFT in young adults with DS to characterize their SVFP, assessing total generated words, clustering, and switching. We then explored its association with early indicators of dementia, adaptive behavior and amyloidosis biomarkers, using the Dementia Questionnaire for Persons with Intellectual Disability (DMR), the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-Second Edition (ABAS-II), and plasma levels of Aβ peptides (Aβ40 and Aβ42), as a potent biomarker of AD. In DS, worse performance in SVFT and poorer communication skills were associated with higher plasma Aβ42 concentrations, a higher DMR score and impaired communication skills (ABAS–II). The total word production and switching ability in SVFT were good indicators of plasma Aβ42 concentration. In conclusion, we propose the SVFT as a good screening test for early detection of dementia and amyloidosis in young adults with DS. PMID:26635555

  8. Semantic Verbal Fluency Pattern, Dementia Rating Scores and Adaptive Behavior Correlate With Plasma Aβ42 Concentrations in Down Syndrome Young Adults.

    Hoyo, Laura Del; Xicota, Laura; Sánchez-Benavides, Gonzalo; Cuenca-Royo, Aida; de Sola, Susana; Langohr, Klaus; Fagundo, Ana B; Farré, Magí; Dierssen, Mara; de la Torre, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is an intellectual disability (ID) disorder in which language and specifically, verbal fluency are strongly impaired domains; nearly all adults show neuropathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD), including amyloid deposition by their fifth decade of life. In the general population, verbal fluency deficits are considered a strong AD predictor being the semantic verbal fluency task (SVFT) a useful tool for enhancing early diagnostic. However, there is a lack of information about the association between the semantic verbal fluency pattern (SVFP) and the biological amyloidosis markers in DS. In the current study, we used the SVFT in young adults with DS to characterize their SVFP, assessing total generated words, clustering, and switching. We then explored its association with early indicators of dementia, adaptive behavior and amyloidosis biomarkers, using the Dementia Questionnaire for Persons with Intellectual Disability (DMR), the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-Second Edition (ABAS-II), and plasma levels of Aβ peptides (Aβ40 and Aβ42), as a potent biomarker of AD. In DS, worse performance in SVFT and poorer communication skills were associated with higher plasma Aβ42 concentrations, a higher DMR score and impaired communication skills (ABAS-II). The total word production and switching ability in SVFT were good indicators of plasma Aβ42 concentration. In conclusion, we propose the SVFT as a good screening test for early detection of dementia and amyloidosis in young adults with DS. PMID:26635555

  9. Semantic verbal fluency pattern, dementia rating scores and adaptive behavior correlate with plasma Aβ42 concentrations in Down syndrome young adults

    Laura eDel Hoyo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Down syndrome is an intellectual disability disorder in which language and, specifically, verbal fluency are strongly impaired domains; nearly all adults show neuropathology of Alzheimer’s disease, including amyloid deposition by their fifth decade of life. In the general population, verbal fluency deficits are considered a strong Alzheimer’s disease predictor being the Semantic Verbal Fluency Task (SVFT a useful tool for enhancing early diagnostic. However, there is a lack of information about the association between the semantic verbal fluency pattern (SVFP and the biological amyloidosis markers in Down syndrome. In the current study, we used the SVFT in young adults with Down syndrome to characterize their SVFP, assessing total generated words, clustering, and switching. We then explored its association with early indicators of dementia, adaptive behavior and amyloidosis biomarkers, using the Dementia Questionnaire for Persons with Intellectual Disability (DMR, the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-Second Edition (ABAS-II, and plasma levels of Aβ peptides (Aβ40 and Aβ42, as a potent biomarker of Alzheimer's disease. In Down syndrome, worse performance in SVFT and poorer communication skills were associated with higher plasma Aβ42 concentrations, a higher DMR score and impaired communication skills (ABAS–II. The total word production and switching ability in SVFT were good indicators of plasma Aβ42 concentration. In conclusion, we propose the SVFT as a good screening test for early detection of dementia and amyloidosis in young adults with Down syndrome.

  10. Self-Positioning Robot Navigation Using Ceiling Image Sequences

    Facchinetti Claudio; Tièche, François; Hügli, Heinz

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the analysis of a vision-based homing behavior that provides self-positioning for a mobile robot using ceiling structures as landmarks. This new behavior enters the navigation approach we developed for mobile robots, which basic idea is to represent the robot spatial knowledge in a topological map, where nodes consist of self-positioning sites and edges may be any reactive behavior moving the robot between two nodes.

  11. Introductory Course on Satellite Navigation

    Giger, Kaspar; Knogl, J. Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    Satellite navigation is widely used for personal navigation and more and more in precise and safety-critical applications. Thus, the subject is suited for attracting the interest of young people in science and engineering. The practical applications allow catching the students' attention for the theoretical background. Educational material on the…

  12. The solutions of navigation observation equations for CAPS

    2009-01-01

    Chinese scientists invent the navigation and positioning system based on commercial communications satellites and develop them successfully into China Area Positioning System (CAPS). In principle, this system is different from the GPS broadcasting satellite navigation class, where the propagation epoch of original navigation signals for pseudo-range measurement is from a ground master control station rather than from satellite transponders. This paper addresses the establishment of the three observation equation models for the navigation and positioning system based on communications satellites, and expresses them identically to operator equations and optimized models. Furthermore, both algorithms of the linear solution for the observable characteristic equation and the least-squares solution for the condition number more than 4 are discussed, with several methods for the exact solution, such as improving the behavior of coefficient matrices, right estimation for the weighted right hand side and selection of iteration forms of solutions, and the influence of the condition number on improving navigation and positioning accuracy is also analyzed carefully. Hopefully, all the works would be contributive to further development of the navigation and positioning system based on communications satellites, and be potentially valuable to other satellite navigation and positioning systems.

  13. The solutions of navigation observation equations for CAPS

    SHI HuLi; PEI Jun

    2009-01-01

    Chinese scientists invent the navigation and positioning system based on oommeroial communications satellites and develop them successfully into China Area Positioning System (CAPS).In principle,this system is different from the GPS broadcasting satellite navigation class,where the propagation epoch of original navigation signals for pseudo-range measurement is from a ground master control station rather than from satellite transponders.This paper addresses the establishment of the three observation equation models for the navigation and positioning system based on communications satellites,and expresses them identically to operator equations and optimized models.Furthermore,both algorithms of the linear solution for the observable characteristic equation and the least-squares solution for the oondiUon number more than 4 are discussed,with several methods for the exact solution,such as improving the behavior of coefficient matrices,right estimation for the weighted right hand side and selection of iteration forms of solutions,and the influence of the condition number on improving navigation and positioning accuracy is also analyzed carefully.Hopefully,all the works would be contributive to further development of the navigation and positioning system based on communications satellites,and be potentially valuable to other satellite navigation and positioning systems.

  14. A navigational guidance system in the human brain.

    Spiers, Hugo J; Maguire, Eleanor A

    2007-01-01

    Finding your way in large-scale space requires knowing where you currently are and how to get to your goal destination. While much is understood about the neural basis of one's current position during navigation, surprisingly little is known about how the human brain guides navigation to goals. Computational accounts argue that specific brain regions support navigational guidance by coding the proximity and direction to the goal, but empirical evidence for such mechanisms is lacking. Here, we scanned subjects with functional magnetic resonance imaging as they navigated to goal destinations in a highly accurate virtual simulation of a real city. Brain activity was then analyzed in combination with metric measures of proximity and direction to goal destinations that were derived from each individual subject's coordinates at every second of navigation. We found that activity in the medial prefrontal cortex was positively correlated, and activity in a right subicular/entorhinal region was negatively correlated with goal proximity. By contrast, activity in bilateral posterior parietal cortex was correlated with egocentric direction to goals. Our results provide empirical evidence for a navigational guidance system in the human brain, and define more precisely the contribution of these three brain regions to human navigation. In addition, these findings may also have wider implications for how the brain monitors and integrates different types of information in the service of goal-directed behavior in general. PMID:17492693

  15. Autonomous Spacecraft Navigation With Pulsars

    Becker, Werner; Jessner, Axel

    2013-01-01

    An external reference system suitable for deep space navigation can be defined by fast spinning and strongly magnetized neutron stars, called pulsars. Their beamed periodic signals have timing stabilities comparable to atomic clocks and provide characteristic temporal signatures that can be used as natural navigation beacons, quite similar to the use of GPS satellites for navigation on Earth. By comparing pulse arrival times measured on-board a spacecraft with predicted pulse arrivals at a reference location, the spacecraft position can be determined autonomously and with high accuracy everywhere in the solar system and beyond. The unique properties of pulsars make clear already today that such a navigation system will have its application in future astronautics. In this paper we describe the basic principle of spacecraft navigation using pulsars and report on the current development status of this novel technology.

  16. Intelligent agents: adaptation of autonomous bimodal microsystems

    Smith, Patrice; Terry, Theodore B.

    2014-03-01

    Autonomous bimodal microsystems exhibiting survivability behaviors and characteristics are able to adapt dynamically in any given environment. Equipped with a background blending exoskeleton it will have the capability to stealthily detect and observe a self-chosen viewing area while exercising some measurable form of selfpreservation by either flying or crawling away from a potential adversary. The robotic agent in this capacity activates a walk-fly algorithm, which uses a built in multi-sensor processing and navigation subsystem or algorithm for visual guidance and best walk-fly path trajectory to evade capture or annihilation. The research detailed in this paper describes the theoretical walk-fly algorithm, which broadens the scope of spatial and temporal learning, locomotion, and navigational performances based on optical flow signals necessary for flight dynamics and walking stabilities. By observing a fly's travel and avoidance behaviors; and, understanding the reverse bioengineering research efforts of others, we were able to conceptualize an algorithm, which works in conjunction with decisionmaking functions, sensory processing, and sensorimotor integration. Our findings suggest that this highly complex decentralized algorithm promotes inflight or terrain travel mobile stability which is highly suitable for nonaggressive micro platforms supporting search and rescue (SAR), and chemical and explosive detection (CED) purposes; a necessity in turbulent, non-violent structured or unstructured environments.

  17. Virtual navigation strategies from childhood to senescence: evidence for changes across the life span

    Veronique D Bohbot

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to investigate navigational strategies across the life span, by testing 8-year old children to 80-year old healthy older adults on the 4 on 8 virtual maze (4/8VM. The 4/8VM was previously developed to assess spontaneous navigational strategies, i.e. hippocampal-dependent spatial strategies (navigation by memorizing relationships between landmarks versus caudate nucleus-dependent response strategies (memorizing a series of left and right turns from a given starting position. With the 4/8VM, we previously demonstrated greater fMRI activity and grey matter in the hippocampus of spatial learners relative to response learners. A sample of 599 healthy participants was tested in the current study. Results showed that 84.4% of children, 46.3% of young adults, and 39.3% of older adults spontaneously used spatial strategies (p < 0.0001. Our results suggest that while children predominantly use spatial strategies, the proportion of participants using spatial strategies decreases across the life span, in favor of response strategies. Factors promoting response strategies include repetition, reward and stress. Since response strategies can result from successful repetition of a behavioral pattern, we propose that the increase in response strategies is a biological adaptive mechanism that allows for the automatization of behavior such as walking in order to free up hippocampal-dependent resources. However, the downside of this shift from spatial to response strategies occurs if people stop building novel relationships, which occurs with repetition and routine, and thereby stop stimulating their hippocampus. Reduced fMRI activity and grey matter in the hippocampus were shown to correlate with cognitive deficits in normal aging. Therefore, these results have important implications regarding factors involved in healthy and successful aging.

  18. Adapting Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Depressed Adolescents Exposed to Interpersonal Trauma: A Case Study with Two Teens

    DePrince, Anne P.; Shirk, Stephen R.

    2013-01-01

    A substantial body of evidence indicates that interpersonal trauma increases risk for adolescent and adult depression. Findings from 4 clinical trials for adolescent depression show poorer response to standard cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) among depressed adolescents with a trauma history than youth without such a history. This paper reports…

  19. Cultural Adaptation of a Cognitive Behavior Therapy Guided Self-Help Program for Mexican American Women with Binge Eating Disorders

    Shea, Munyi; Cachelin, Fary; Uribe, Luz; Striegel, Ruth H.; Thompson, Douglas; Wilson, G. Terence

    2012-01-01

    Data on the compatibility of evidence-based treatment in ethnic minority groups are limited. This study utilized focus group interviews to elicit Mexican American women's (N = 12) feedback on a cognitive behavior therapy guided self-help program for binge eating disorders. Findings revealed 6 themes to be considered during the cultural adaptation…

  20. The Role of Knowledge and Skills for Managing Emotions in Adaptation to School: Social Behavior and Misconduct in the Classroom

    Lopes, Paulo N.; Mestre, Jose M.; Guil, Rocio; Kremenitzer, Janet Pickard; Salovey, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Students' ability to evaluate emotionally challenging situations and identify effective strategies for managing emotions in themselves and others was negatively related to poor classroom social behavior across three studies. These studies, involving 463 students from two Spanish high schools and one American university, examined indicators of…

  1. Willingness-to-pay estimation with choice-based conjoint analysis : Addressing extreme response behavior with individually adapted designs

    Gensler, S.; Hinz, O.; Skiera, B.; Theysohn, S.

    2012-01-01

    The increasing consideration of behavioral aspects in operations management models has prompted greater use of choice-based conjoint (CBC) studies in operations research. Such studies can elicit consumers' willingness to pay (WTP), a core input for many optimization models. However, optimization mod

  2. Adapting a Tier 2 Behavioral Intervention, Check-in/Check-out, to Meet Students' Needs

    Swoszowski, Nicole Cain

    2014-01-01

    Check-in/check-out (CICO) is a resource-efficient, mentor-based, Tier 2 intervention. Various problem behaviors of students with and without disabilities across traditional and alternative school settings have been impacted positively by CICO. Not all students respond to the traditional, five-step approach, however. This article provides an…

  3. Learning indoor robot navigation using visual and sensorimotor map information.

    Yan, Wenjie; Weber, Cornelius; Wermter, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    As a fundamental research topic, autonomous indoor robot navigation continues to be a challenge in unconstrained real-world indoor environments. Although many models for map-building and planning exist, it is difficult to integrate them due to the high amount of noise, dynamics, and complexity. Addressing this challenge, this paper describes a neural model for environment mapping and robot navigation based on learning spatial knowledge. Considering that a person typically moves within a room without colliding with objects, this model learns the spatial knowledge by observing the person's movement using a ceiling-mounted camera. A robot can plan and navigate to any given position in the room based on the acquired map, and adapt it based on having identified possible obstacles. In addition, salient visual features are learned and stored in the map during navigation. This anchoring of visual features in the map enables the robot to find and navigate to a target object by showing an image of it. We implement this model on a humanoid robot and tests are conducted in a home-like environment. Results of our experiments show that the learned sensorimotor map masters complex navigation tasks. PMID:24109451

  4. Navigational strategies underlying phototaxis in larval zebrafish

    Xiuye Chen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how the brain transforms sensory input into complex behavior is a fundamental question in systems neuroscience. Using larval zebrafish, we study the temporal component of phototaxis, which is defined as orientation decisions based on comparisons of light intensity at successive moments in time. We developed a novel “Virtual Circle” assay where whole-field illumination is abruptly turned off when the fish swims out of a virtually defined circular border, and turned on again when it returns into the circle. The animal receives no direct spatial cues and experiences only whole-field temporal light changes. Remarkably, the fish spends most of its time within the invisible virtual border. Behavioral analyses of swim bouts in relation to light transitions were used to develop four discrete temporal algorithms that transform the binary visual input (uniform light/uniform darkness into the observed spatial behavior. In these algorithms, the turning angle is dependent on the behavioral history immediately preceding individual turning events. Computer simulations show that the algorithms recapture most of the swim statistics of real fish. We discovered that turning properties in larval zebrafish are distinctly modulated by temporal step functions in light intensity in combination with the specific motor history preceding these turns. Several aspects of the behavior suggest memory usage of up to 10 swim bouts (~10 sec. Thus, we show that a complex behavior like spatial navigation can emerge from a small number of relatively simple behavioral algorithms.

  5. How seabirds adapt to ocean processes

    Powers, K.D.

    A general review is presented of the adaptations made by seabirds to their environments. Included in the discussion are behavioral, morphological and physiological adaptation to the ocean environment.

  6. The Influence of Temperature on Frictional Behavior of Plasma-Sprayed NiAl-Cr2O3 Based Self-Adaptive Nanocomposite Coatings

    Ramazani, M.; Ashrafizadeh, F.; Mozaffarinia, R.

    2013-10-01

    Frictional behavior of nano and hybrid-structured NiAl-Cr2O3-Ag-CNT-WS2 adaptive self-lubricant coatings was evaluated at a range of temperatures, from room temperature to 700 °C. For this purpose, hybrid structured (HS) and nanostructured (NS) composite powders with the same nominal compositions were prepared by spray drying and heat treatment techniques. A series of HS and NS coating samples were deposited on steel substrate by an atmospheric plasma spraying process. The tribological behavior of both coatings was studied from room temperature to 700 °C at 100° intervals using a custom designed high temperature wear test machine. Scanning electron microscopy was employed for the evaluation of the composite coatings and worn surfaces. Experimental results indicated that the hybrid coating had inferior tribological properties when compared to the nanostructured coating, showing the attractive frictional behavior on the basis of low friction and high wear resistance; the NS coating possessed a more stable friction coefficient in the temperature range of 25-700 °C against alumina counterface. Microstructural examinations revealed more uniformity in NS plasma-sprayed coatings.

  7. Predictive Navigation by Understanding Human Motion Patterns

    Shu-Yun Chung

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available To make robots coexist and share the environments with humans, robots should understand the behaviors or the intentions of humans and further predict their motions. In this paper, an A*-based predictive motion planner is represented for navigation tasks. A generalized pedestrian motion model is proposed and trained by the statistical learning method. To deal with the uncertainty, a localization, tracking and prediction framework is also introduced. The corresponding recursive Bayesian formula represented as DBNs (Dynamic Bayesian Networks is derived for real time operation. Finally, the simulations and experiments are shown to validate the idea of this paper.

  8. Lunar Navigation Architecture Design Considerations

    D'Souza, Christopher; Getchius, Joel; Holt, Greg; Moreau, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Constellation Program is aiming to establish a long-term presence on the lunar surface. The Constellation elements (Orion, Altair, Earth Departure Stage, and Ares launch vehicles) will require a lunar navigation architecture for navigation state updates during lunar-class missions. Orion in particular has baselined earth-based ground direct tracking as the primary source for much of its absolute navigation needs. However, due to the uncertainty in the lunar navigation architecture, the Orion program has had to make certain assumptions on the capabilities of such architectures in order to adequately scale the vehicle design trade space. The following paper outlines lunar navigation requirements, the Orion program assumptions, and the impacts of these assumptions to the lunar navigation architecture design. The selection of potential sites was based upon geometric baselines, logistical feasibility, redundancy, and abort support capability. Simulated navigation covariances mapped to entry interface flightpath- angle uncertainties were used to evaluate knowledge errors. A minimum ground station architecture was identified consisting of Goldstone, Madrid, Canberra, Santiago, Hartebeeshoek, Dongora, Hawaii, Guam, and Ascension Island (or the geometric equivalent).

  9. On Cooperative Behavior in Distributed Teams: The Influence of Organizational Design, Media Richness, Social Interaction, and Interaction Adaptation.

    Håkonsson, Dorthe D; Obel, Børge; Eskildsen, Jacob K; Burton, Richard M

    2016-01-01

    Self-interest vs. cooperation is a fundamental dilemma in animal behavior as well as in human and organizational behavior. In organizations, how to get people to cooperate despite or in conjunction with their self-interest is fundamental to the achievement of a common goal. While both organizational designs and social interactions have been found to further cooperation in organizations, some of the literature has received contradictory support, just as very little research, if any, has examined their joint effects in distributed organizations, where communication is usually achieved via different communication media. This paper reviews the extant literature and offers a set of hypotheses to integrate current theories and explanations. Further, it discusses how future research should examine the joint effects of media, incentives, and social interactions. PMID:27242605

  10. On Cooperative Behavior in Distributed Teams: The Influence of Organizational Design, Media Richness, Social Interaction, and Interaction Adaptation

    Håkonsson, Dorthe D.; Obel, Børge; Eskildsen, Jacob K.; Burton, Richard M.

    2016-01-01

    Self-interest vs. cooperation is a fundamental dilemma in animal behavior as well as in human and organizational behavior. In organizations, how to get people to cooperate despite or in conjunction with their self-interest is fundamental to the achievement of a common goal. While both organizational designs and social interactions have been found to further cooperation in organizations, some of the literature has received contradictory support, just as very little research, if any, has examined their joint effects in distributed organizations, where communication is usually achieved via different communication media. This paper reviews the extant literature and offers a set of hypotheses to integrate current theories and explanations. Further, it discusses how future research should examine the joint effects of media, incentives, and social interactions. PMID:27242605

  11. Computer-supported feedback message tailoring: theory-informed adaptation of clinical audit and feedback for learning and behavior change

    Landis-Lewis, Zach; Brehaut, Jamie C; Hochheiser, Harry; Gerald P. Douglas; Jacobson, Rebecca S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Evidence shows that clinical audit and feedback can significantly improve compliance with desired practice, but it is unclear when and how it is effective. Audit and feedback is likely to be more effective when feedback messages can influence barriers to behavior change, but barriers to change differ across individual health-care providers, stemming from differences in providers’ individual characteristics. Discussion The purpose of this article is to invite debate and direct resea...

  12. κ-Opioid System Regulates the Long-Lasting Behavioral Adaptations Induced by Early-Life Exposure to Methylphenidate

    Wiley, Matthew D.; Poveromo, Laura B.; Antapasis, John; Herrera, Carolina M.; Bolaños-Guzmán, Carlos A.

    2008-01-01

    Methylphenidate (MPH) is commonly prescribed in childhood and adolescence for the treatment of attention–deficit/hyperactivity disorders. In rodents, MPH exposure during preadolescence (postnatal days [PD] 20–35) causes decreased sensitivity to drug and natural rewards, while enhancing a negative emotional state characterized by increased sensitivity to aversive situations later in adulthood. It has been proposed that this behavioral profile may be mediated, at least in part, by changes in th...

  13. Navigable networks as Nash equilibria of navigation games

    Gulyás, András; Bíró, József J.; Kőrösi, Attila; Rétvári, Gábor; Krioukov, Dmitri

    2015-07-01

    Common sense suggests that networks are not random mazes of purposeless connections, but that these connections are organized so that networks can perform their functions well. One function common to many networks is targeted transport or navigation. Here, using game theory, we show that minimalistic networks designed to maximize the navigation efficiency at minimal cost share basic structural properties with real networks. These idealistic networks are Nash equilibria of a network construction game whose purpose is to find an optimal trade-off between the network cost and navigability. We show that these skeletons are present in the Internet, metabolic, English word, US airport, Hungarian road networks, and in a structural network of the human brain. The knowledge of these skeletons allows one to identify the minimal number of edges, by altering which one can efficiently improve or paralyse navigation in the network.

  14. A greedy-navigator approach to navigable city plans

    Lee, Sang Hoon

    2012-01-01

    We use a set of four theoretical navigability indices for street maps to investigate the shape of the resulting street networks, if they are grown by optimizing these indices. The indices compare the performance of simulated navigators (having a partial information about the surroundings, like humans in many real situations) to the performance of optimally navigating individuals. We show that our simple greedy shortcut construction strategy generates the emerging structures that are different from real road network, but not inconceivable. The resulting city plans, for all navigation indices, share common qualitative properties such as the tendency for triangular blocks to appear, while the more quantitative features, such as degree distributions and clustering, are characteristically different depending on the type of metrics and routing strategies. We show that it is the type of metrics used which determines the overall shapes characterized by structural heterogeneity, but the routing schemes contribute to m...

  15. Navigation/Prop Software Suite

    Bruchmiller, Tomas; Tran, Sanh; Lee, Mathew; Bucker, Scott; Bupane, Catherine; Bennett, Charles; Cantu, Sergio; Kwong, Ping; Propst, Carolyn

    2012-01-01

    Navigation (Nav)/Prop software is used to support shuttle mission analysis, production, and some operations tasks. The Nav/Prop suite containing configuration items (CIs) resides on IPS/Linux workstations. It features lifecycle documents, and data files used for shuttle navigation and propellant analysis for all flight segments. This suite also includes trajectory server, archive server, and RAT software residing on MCC/Linux workstations. Navigation/Prop represents tool versions established during or after IPS Equipment Rehost-3 or after the MCC Rehost.

  16. Cross-cultural adaptation of an adolescent HIV prevention program: social validation of social contexts and behavior among Botswana adolescents.

    St Lawrence, Janet S; Seloilwe, Esther; Magowe, Mabel; Dithole, Kefalotse; Kgosikwena, Billy; Kokoro, Elija; Lesaane, Dipuo

    2013-08-01

    An evidence-based HIV prevention intervention was adapted for Botswana youth with qualitative interviews, input from an adolescent panel, and social validation. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 40 boys and girls ages 13-19. An adolescent panel then drafted scenarios reflecting social situations described in the interviews that posed risk for HIV. A social validation sample (N = 65) then indicated the prevalence and difficulty of each situation. Youth described informational needs, pressures to use alcohol and drugs, peer pressure for unprotected sex, and intergenerational sex initiations as risk-priming situations. From 17% to 57% of the social validation sample had personally experienced the situations drafted by the adolescent panel. There were no differences in the ratings of boys versus girls, but youth over age 16 more often reported that they had experienced these risky situations. The results were embedded into the intervention. Major changes to the intervention resulted from this three-phase process. PMID:23837806

  17. Navigating "Assisted Dying".

    Schipper, Harvey

    2016-02-01

    Carter is a bellwether decision, an adjudication on a narrow point of law whose implications are vast across society, and whose impact may not be realized for years. Coupled with Quebec's Act Respecting End-of-life Care it has sharply changed the legal landscape with respect to actively ending a person's life. "Medically assisted dying" will be permitted under circumstances, and through processes, which have yet to be operationally defined. This decision carries with it moral assumptions, which mean that it will be difficult to reach a unifying consensus. For some, the decision and Act reflect a modern acknowledgement of individual autonomy. For others, allowing such acts is morally unspeakable. Having opened the Pandora's Box, the question becomes one of navigating a tolerable societal path. I believe it is possible to achieve a workable solution based on the core principle that "medically assisted dying" should be a very rarely employed last option, subject to transparent ongoing review, specifically as to why it was deemed necessary. My analysis is based on 1. The societal conditions in which have fostered demand for "assisted dying", 2. Actions in other jurisdictions, 3. Carter and Quebec Bill 52, 4. Political considerations, 5. Current medical practice. Leading to a series of recommendations regarding. 1. Legislation and regulation, 2. The role of professional regulatory agencies, 3. Medical professions education and practice, 4. Public education, 5. Health care delivery and palliative care. Given the burden of public opinion, and the legal steps already taken, a process for assisted-dying is required. However, those legal and regulatory steps should only be considered a necessary and defensive first step in a two stage process. The larger goal, the second step, is to drive the improvement of care, and thus minimize assisted-dying. PMID:27169205

  18. Context-Aware Personal Navigation Using Embedded Sensor Fusion in Smartphones

    Sara Saeedi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Context-awareness is an interesting topic in mobile navigation scenarios where the context of the application is highly dynamic. Using context-aware computing, navigation services consider the situation of user, not only in the design process, but in real time while the device is in use. The basic idea is that mobile navigation services can provide different services based on different contexts—where contexts are related to the user’s activity and the device placement. Context-aware systems are concerned with the following challenges which are addressed in this paper: context acquisition, context understanding, and context-aware application adaptation. The proposed approach in this paper is using low-cost sensors in a multi-level fusion scheme to improve the accuracy and robustness of context-aware navigation system. The experimental results demonstrate the capabilities of the context-aware Personal Navigation Systems (PNS for outdoor personal navigation using a smartphone.

  19. Context-aware personal navigation using embedded sensor fusion in smartphones.

    Saeedi, Sara; Moussa, Adel; El-Sheimy, Naser

    2014-01-01

    Context-awareness is an interesting topic in mobile navigation scenarios where the context of the application is highly dynamic. Using context-aware computing, navigation services consider the situation of user, not only in the design process, but in real time while the device is in use. The basic idea is that mobile navigation services can provide different services based on different contexts-where contexts are related to the user's activity and the device placement. Context-aware systems are concerned with the following challenges which are addressed in this paper: context acquisition, context understanding, and context-aware application adaptation. The proposed approach in this paper is using low-cost sensors in a multi-level fusion scheme to improve the accuracy and robustness of context-aware navigation system. The experimental results demonstrate the capabilities of the context-aware Personal Navigation Systems (PNS) for outdoor personal navigation using a smartphone. PMID:24670715

  20. Needle and catheter navigation using electromagnetic tracking for computer-assisted C-arm CT interventions

    Nagel, Markus; Hoheisel, Martin; Petzold, Ralf; Kalender, Willi A.; Krause, Ulrich H. W.

    2007-03-01

    Integrated solutions for navigation systems with CT, MR or US systems become more and more popular for medical products. Such solutions improve the medical workflow, reduce hardware, space and costs requirements. The purpose of our project was to develop a new electromagnetic navigation system for interventional radiology which is integrated into C-arm CT systems. The application is focused on minimally invasive percutaneous interventions performed under local anaesthesia. Together with a vacuum-based patient immobilization device and newly developed navigation tools (needles, panels) we developed a safe and fully automatic navigation system. The radiologist can directly start with navigated interventions after loading images without any prior user interaction. The complete system is adapted to the requirements of the radiologist and to the clinical workflow. For evaluation of the navigation system we performed different phantom studies and achieved an average accuracy of better than 2.0 mm.

  1. Mobile Robot Navigation with Obstacle Avoidance in Unknown Indoor Environment using MATLAB

    Hedjar Ramdane; Mohammed Faisal; Mohammed Algabri; Khalid Al-Mutib

    2013-01-01

    One of the most recent research areas over the lasttwo decades is the navigation of mobile robots in unknownenvironments. In this paper, real time navigation for WheeledMobile Robot (WMR) using fuzzy logic technique, wirelesscommunication and MATLAB is investigated. Two fuzzylogic controllers (FLCs) with two inputs and two outputs areused to navigate WMR in obstacle ridden environment. Ourwork combines the behaviors of reaching the target andobstacle avoidance. Goal Seeking Fuzzy Logic Contro...

  2. Navigation System of Marks Areas - USACE IENC

    Department of Homeland Security — These inland electronic Navigational charts (IENCs) were developed from available data used in maintenance of Navigation channels. Users of these IENCs should be...

  3. Radio Navigation Waveform Experiment Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA is installing the Communications, Navigation, and Networking reConfigurable Testbed (CoNNeCT) onto the truss of the International Space Station to demonstrate...

  4. NOAA Electronic Navigational Charts (ENC)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Office of Coast Survey (OCS) has been involved in the development of a NOAA Electronic Navigational Chart (NOAA ENC) suite to support the marine transportation...

  5. FLASH LIDAR Based Relative Navigation

    Brazzel, Jack; Clark, Fred; Milenkovic, Zoran

    2014-01-01

    Relative navigation remains the most challenging part of spacecraft rendezvous and docking. In recent years, flash LIDARs, have been increasingly selected as the go-to sensors for proximity operations and docking. Flash LIDARS are generally lighter and require less power that scanning Lidars. Flash LIDARs do not have moving parts, and they are capable of tracking multiple targets as well as generating a 3D map of a given target. However, there are some significant drawbacks of Flash Lidars that must be resolved if their use is to be of long-term significance. Overcoming the challenges of Flash LIDARs for navigation-namely, low technology readiness level, lack of historical performance data, target identification, existence of false positives, and performance of vision processing algorithms as intermediaries between the raw sensor data and the Kalman filter-requires a world-class testing facility, such as the Lockheed Martin Space Operations Simulation Center (SOSC). Ground-based testing is a critical step for maturing the next-generation flash LIDAR-based spacecraft relative navigation. This paper will focus on the tests of an integrated relative navigation system conducted at the SOSC in January 2014. The intent of the tests was to characterize and then improve the performance of relative navigation, while addressing many of the flash LIDAR challenges mentioned above. A section on navigation performance and future recommendation completes the discussion.

  6. Social Adaptation and Behavior Problems of The Psychomotor Epilep sy Children%精神运动性癫痫儿童社会适应能力及行为问题的研究

    何任; 何伋

    2002-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate social adaptation abi lity and behavior proble ms of the psychomotor epilepsy children. Methods:63 child ren with psychomotor e pilepsy and 63 normal control subjects were examined. Results: Social adaptation ability of the psychomotor epilepsy children was lower than that of the normal children(P<0.01~0.05). There was no significant difference in the total scor es on behavior problems between the two groups. Conclusions :For the benefits o f the psychomotor epilepsy children, it is essential to consider both physical a nd psychological interventions.

  7. Acquisition of Information Online: Knowledge, Navigation and Learning Outcomes

    Lawless, Kimberly A.; Schrader, P. G.; Mayall, Hayley J.

    2007-01-01

    Research suggests that the World Wide Web (WWW) represents the intersection of at least two domains: content and technology. This investigation was designed to examine the relationship between prior knowledge and WWW browsing outcomes (i.e., navigation behavior and knowledge gain) within the context of a genetics Web site. Students randomly…

  8. Individual Differences, Hypermedia Navigation, and Learning: An Empirical Study.

    Ford, Nigel; Chen, Sherry Y.

    2000-01-01

    Describes a study conducted at the University of Sheffield (United Kingdom) that measured the learning behavior and performance of 65 postgraduate students using a hypermedia-based tutorial. Considers cognitive style, levels of prior experience, motivation, age, gender, and navigation patterns. (Author/LRW)

  9. Exploring User Navigation during Online Health Information Seeking

    Graham, Laurel; Tse, Tony; Keselman, Alla

    2006-01-01

    Understanding online user behavior is essential for designing user-friendly consumer health Web sites. Transaction log analysis (TLA) provides a way to extract aggregate data about online behavior. This paper describes prevalent user navigation trends using TLA methods at ClinicalTrials.gov. Preliminary results suggest that users typically access low-level pages directly from Web-based search engines and consumer health sites/portals. A pilot user study is presented to illustrate a complement...

  10. Neuromodulatory adaptive combination of correlation-based learning in cerebellum and reward-based learning in basal ganglia for goal-directed behavior control.

    Dasgupta, Sakyasingha; Wörgötter, Florentin; Manoonpong, Poramate

    2014-01-01

    Goal-directed decision making in biological systems is broadly based on associations between conditional and unconditional stimuli. This can be further classified as classical conditioning (correlation-based learning) and operant conditioning (reward-based learning). A number of computational and experimental studies have well established the role of the basal ganglia in reward-based learning, where as the cerebellum plays an important role in developing specific conditioned responses. Although viewed as distinct learning systems, recent animal experiments point toward their complementary role in behavioral learning, and also show the existence of substantial two-way communication between these two brain structures. Based on this notion of co-operative learning, in this paper we hypothesize that the basal ganglia and cerebellar learning systems work in parallel and interact with each other. We envision that such an interaction is influenced by reward modulated heterosynaptic plasticity (RMHP) rule at the thalamus, guiding the overall goal directed behavior. Using a recurrent neural network actor-critic model of the basal ganglia and a feed-forward correlation-based learning model of the cerebellum, we demonstrate that the RMHP rule can effectively balance the outcomes of the two learning systems. This is tested using simulated environments of increasing complexity with a four-wheeled robot in a foraging task in both static and dynamic configurations. Although modeled with a simplified level of biological abstraction, we clearly demonstrate that such a RMHP induced combinatorial learning mechanism, leads to stabler and faster learning of goal-directed behaviors, in comparison to the individual systems. Thus, in this paper we provide a computational model for adaptive combination of the basal ganglia and cerebellum learning systems by way of neuromodulated plasticity for goal-directed decision making in biological and bio-mimetic organisms. PMID:25389391

  11. Neuromodulatory Adaptive Combination of Correlation-based Learning in Cerebellum and Reward-based Learning in Basal Ganglia for Goal-directed Behavior Control

    Sakyasingha eDasgupta

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Goal-directed decision making in biological systems is broadly based on associations between conditional and unconditional stimuli. This can be further classified as classical conditioning (correlation-based learning and operant conditioning (reward-based learning. A number of computational and experimental studies have well established the role of the basal ganglia in reward-based learning, where as the cerebellum plays an important role in developing specific conditioned responses. Although viewed as distinct learning systems, recent animal experiments point towards their complementary role in behavioral learning, and also show the existence of substantial two-way communication between these two brain structures. Based on this notion of co-operative learning, in this paper we hypothesize that the basal ganglia and cerebellar learning systems work in parallel and interact with each other. We envision that such an interaction is influenced by reward modulated heterosynaptic plasticity (RMHP rule at the thalamus, guiding the overall goal directed behavior. Using a recurrent neural network actor-critic model of the basal ganglia and a feed-forward correlation-based learning model of the cerebellum, we demonstrate that the RMHP rule can effectively balance the outcomes of the two learning systems. This is tested using simulated environments of increasing complexity with a four-wheeled robot in a foraging task in both static and dynamic configurations. Although modeled with a simplified level of biological abstraction, we clearly demonstrate that such a RMHP induced combinatorial learning mechanism, leads to stabler and faster learning of goal-directed behaviors, in comparison to the individual systems. Thus in this paper we provide a computational model for adaptive combination of the basal ganglia and cerebellum learning systems by way of neuromodulated plasticity for goal-directed decision making in biological and bio-mimetic organisms.

  12. 33 CFR 66.10-15 - Aids to navigation.

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aids to navigation. 66.10-15 Section 66.10-15 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Uniform State Waterway Marking System § 66.10-15 Aids to navigation....

  13. Modelling group navigation: transitive social structures improve navigational performance.

    Flack, Andrea; Biro, Dora; Guilford, Tim; Freeman, Robin

    2015-07-01

    Collective navigation demands that group members reach consensus on which path to follow, a task that might become more challenging when the group's members have different social connections. Group decision-making mechanisms have been studied successfully in the past using individual-based modelling, although many of these studies have neglected the role of social connections between the group's interacting members. Nevertheless, empirical studies have demonstrated that individual recognition, previous shared experiences and inter-individual familiarity can influence the cohesion and the dynamics of the group as well as the relative spatial positions of specific individuals within it. Here, we use models of collective motion to study the impact of social relationships on group navigation by introducing social network structures into a model of collective motion. Our results show that groups consisting of equally informed individuals achieve the highest level of accuracy when they are hierarchically organized with the minimum number of preferred connections per individual. We also observe that the navigational accuracy of a group will depend strongly on detailed aspects of its social organization. More specifically, group navigation does not only depend on the underlying social relationships, but also on how much weight leading individuals put on following others. Also, we show that groups with certain social structures can compensate better for an increased level of navigational error. The results have broader implications for studies on collective navigation and motion because they show that only by considering a group's social system can we fully elucidate the dynamics and advantages of joint movements. PMID:26063820

  14. Autonomous navigation of a robot with computer vision

    Magallón Hernández, Ignacio

    2011-01-01

    This TCC (Undergraduate Course Final Project) aims to develop a solution for intelligent autonomous navigation with mobile robots using computer vision. Using C language and OpenCV, an image processing library, the generated code applies different filters and convolutions in the input image obtained by webcam in order to reduce input noise, homogenize regions and detect borders. The program, which can be adapted to different environments by regulating four parameters, allows th...

  15. Exploring requirements for indoor navigation systems

    Ni, Chunxiao

    2013-01-01

    Indoor navigation has been a subject in ubiquitous computing domain in the past decade. Recently many studies focus on exploring user requirements for indoor navigation systems and make effort in developing effective interactive systems to support indoor navigation. This study aims to find which kind of spatial representation and what orientation cues common users prefer to use for indoor navigation. An experiment was performed to examine the navigation effectiveness and user satisfaction wit...

  16. Risk of Performance and Behavioral Health Decrements Due to Inadequate Cooperation, Coordination, Communication, and Psychosocial Adaptation within a Team

    Landon, Lauren Blackwell; Vessey, William B.; Barrett, Jamie D.

    2015-01-01

    A team is defined as: "two or more individuals who interact socially and adaptively, have shared or common goals, and hold meaningful task interdependences; it is hierarchically structured and has a limited life span; in it expertise and roles are distributed; and it is embedded within an organization/environmental context that influences and is influenced by ongoing processes and performance outcomes" (Salas, Stagl, Burke, & Goodwin, 2007, p. 189). From the NASA perspective, a team is commonly understood to be a collection of individuals that is assigned to support and achieve a particular mission. Thus, depending on context, this definition can encompass both the spaceflight crew and the individuals and teams in the larger multi-team system who are assigned to support that crew during a mission. The Team Risk outcomes of interest are predominantly performance related, with a secondary emphasis on long-term health; this is somewhat unique in the NASA HRP in that most Risk areas are medically related and primarily focused on long-term health consequences. In many operational environments (e.g., aviation), performance is assessed as the avoidance of errors. However, the research on performance errors is ambiguous. It implies that actions may be dichotomized into "correct" or "incorrect" responses, where incorrect responses or errors are always undesirable. Researchers have argued that this dichotomy is a harmful oversimplification, and it would be more productive to focus on the variability of human performance and how organizations can manage that variability (Hollnagel, Woods, & Leveson, 2006) (Category III1). Two problems occur when focusing on performance errors: 1) the errors are infrequent and, therefore, difficult to observe and record; and 2) the errors do not directly correspond to failure. Research reveals that humans are fairly adept at correcting or compensating for performance errors before such errors result in recognizable or recordable failures

  17. OBSTACLE-AVOIDANCE NAVIGATION OF MULTIPLE MOBILE ROBOTS

    罗青; 李智军; 吕恬生

    2002-01-01

    In the context of robot soccer, the robots have to select actions to achieve individual and team goals in the dynamic environment. It is important for a robot to acquire navigation behaviors for avoiding other robots and obstacles in the real-time environment. This paper suggested an efficient approach to collision-avoidance in multirobot system. This approach is based on velocity information of moving objects and the distance between robot and obstacle in three specified directions. The main contribution of this paper is that it provides a method for robots with decreased-computational cost and makes the robot navigate without collision with each other in a complicated environment.

  18. The Relationship of Life Planning and Social Adaptive Behavior of College Students%大学生人生规划与社会适应行为的关系

    王雄伟

    2012-01-01

    1920 students were investigated about their social adaptive behavior and life planning. Results Life planning and social adaptive behavior of college students were at the upper-middle level in general, and there was a significant difference in gender. College students' life planning was positive correlated with the social adaptive behaviors (r = 0. 404). Conclusions College students' life planning was a predictor of social adaptive behavior.%目的 探索大学生一般人生规划与社会适应行为之间的关系.方法 对兰州市1 920名大学生进行问卷调查研究.结果 大学生社会适应行为与人生规划总体较好,平均分(社会适应行为19.02;人生规划9.81)在中等水平以上,人生规划性别主效应显著;大学生人生规划与社会适应行为存在显著正相关(r=0.404);人生规划可以解释社会适应行为各维度5.9%~21.3%的变异.结论 大学生人生规划对社会适应行为有一定预测效果.

  19. Søgning og navigation

    Grauballe, Henning; Strunck, Kirsten Marie

    6 udvalgte testposter undersøges i 97 danske folkebibliotekers webkataloger med henblik på at afdække, hvordan disse testposters kontrollerede data udnyttes som hyperlinks til navigation og til videresøgning på ”Noget der ligner”. Undersøgelsen viser, at webkatalogerne især fokuserer på at udnytte...... opstillingsdata og udvalgte emnedata til navigation. Dermed udnyttes det samlede potentiale i de kontrollerede data ikke til at imødekomme brugernes forventninger til navigation ved hjælp af hyperlinks på Web’en. Undersøgelsen indikerer desuden, at der er en tæt sammenhæng mellem det konkrete bibliotekssystem...

  20. GPS Navigation and Tracking Device

    Yahya Salameh Khraisat

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Since the introduction of GPS Navigation systems in the marketplace, consumers and businesses have been coming up with innovative ways to use the technology in their everyday life. GPS Navigation and Tracking systems keep us from getting lost when we are in strange locations, they monitor children when they are away from home, keep track of business vehicles and can even let us know where a philandering partner is at all times. Because of this we attend to build a GPS tracking device to solve the mentioned problems. Our work consists of the GPS module that collects data from satellites and calculates the position information before transmitting them to the user’s PC (of Navigation system or observers (of Tracking System using wireless technology (GSM.

  1. Adaptive bio-inspired navigation for planetary exploration Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Exploration of planetary environments with current robotic technologies relies on human control and power-hungry active sensors to perform even the most elementary...

  2. Adaptive integrated navigation filtering based on accelerometer calibration

    Qifan Zhou; Hai Zhang; Yanran Wang

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a novel GPS (Global Positioning System) and DR (Dead Reckoning) system which was based on the accelerometer and gyroscope integrated system was designed and implemented. In this system, the odometer used in traditional DR system was replaced by a MEMS tri-axis accelerometer in order to decrease the cost and the volume of the system. The system was integrated by the Kalman filter and a new mathematical model was introduced. In order to reasonably use the GPS information, an adap...

  3. Adaptive bio-inspired navigation for planetary exploration Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Surface exploration of planetary environments with current robotic technologies relies heavily on human control and power-hungry active sensors to perform even the...

  4. 供应商适应行为影响因素实证研究%The Empirical Study on the Influence Factors of Supplier Adaptive Behavior

    张延涛; 李随成; 李勃

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the influence factors of supplier adaptive behavior based on transactional and relational per-spectives. The whole structural model was carried out fitting analysis and hypothesis testing using structural equation model. The results show that the influence factors consist of four levels,namely supplier,manufacturer,relational and environmen-tal. The influence factors of supplier level contain supplier capabilities and top management support. The influence factors of manufacturer level contain manufacturer demand uncertainty and long-term orientation. The influence factor of relational lev-el covers the relationship between personnel of suppliers and manufacturers. The influence factors of environmental level in-clude competitive intensity and technology uncertainty. The seven influence factors all have positive effects on supplier adap-tive behavior.%以交易观和关系观为理论基础,研究供应商适应行为影响因素问题。运用结构方程模型对整体结构模型进行拟合分析和假设检验。结果表明:供应商适应行为的影响因素涵盖供应商、制造商、关系及环境等4个层面;供应商层面因素包括供应商能力和供应商高层管理者的支持,制造商层面因素包括制造商需求不确定性和制造商长期导向,关系层面因素包括双方人员间关系,环境层面因素包括竞争强度和技术不确定性;这些因素均对供应商适应行为具有正向影响。

  5. Surgical navigation in oral implantology.

    Miller, Robert J; Bier, Jurgen

    2006-03-01

    The ability to generate 3-dimensional volumetric images of the maxillofacial area has allowed surgeons to evaluate anatomy before surgery and plan for the placement of implants in ideal positions. However, the ability to transfer that information to surgical reality has been the most challenging part of implant dentistry. With the advent of computer-assisted surgery, the surgeon may now navigate through the entire implant procedure with extremely high accuracy. A new portable laptop navigated system for oral implantology is discussed as an adjunct for complex implant cases. PMID:16569960

  6. Observability of Inertial Navigation System

    2005-01-01

    To improve the observability of strapdown inertial navigation system and the effectiveness of Kalman filter in the navigation system, the method of estimating the observability is analyzed based on eigenvalues and eigenvectors which are proved to be availabe, on this basis two-position alignment technigue is applied. The simulation shows that two-position alignment really makes the system's observability change from being incomplete to being complete, and the test method based on eigenvalues and eigenvectors is available to determine the observability of every state vector.

  7. Navigation with a visual memory

    Remazeilles, Anthony

    2004-01-01

    This work deals with autonomous robotic navigation. A robotic system that moves on its own must be able to localise itself in the environment, so as to define a path to follow, and also to control its motion in order to reach a desired position. A vision based-approach is chosen, by onsidering robotic systems with an on-board camera. The navigation space is represented in a topological way by an image database acquired during a learning step. Thus, the robot localisation is directly related t...

  8. Cellular Nonlinear Networks for the emergence of perceptual states: application to robot navigation control.

    Arena, Paolo; De Fiore, Sebastiano; Patané, Luca

    2009-01-01

    In this paper a new general purpose perceptual control architecture, based on nonlinear neural lattices, is presented and applied to solve robot navigation tasks. Insects show the ability to react to certain stimuli with simple reflexes, using direct sensory-motor pathways, which can be considered as basic behaviors, inherited and pre-wired. Relevant brain centres, known as Mushroom Bodies (MB) and Central Complex (CX) were recently identified in insects: though their functional details are not yet fully understood, it is known that they provide secondary pathways allowing the emergence of cognitive behaviors. These are gained through the coordination of the basic abilities to satisfy the insect's needs. Taking inspiration from this evidence, our architecture modulates, through a reinforcement learning, a set of competitive and concurrent basic behaviors in order to accomplish the task assigned through a reward function. The core of the architecture is constituted by the so-called Representation layer, used to create a concise picture of the current environment situation, fusing together different stimuli for the emergence of perceptual states. These perceptual states are steady state solutions of lattices of Reaction-Diffusion Cellular Nonlinear Networks (RD-CNN), designed to show Turing patterns. The exploitation of the dynamics of the multiple equilibria of the network is emphasized through the adaptive shaping of the basins of attraction for each emerged pattern. New experimental campaigns on standard robotic platforms are reported to demonstrate the potentiality and the effectiveness of the approach. PMID:19596552

  9. Navigation strategies for multiple autonomous mobile robots moving in formation

    Wang, P. K. C.

    1991-01-01

    The problem of deriving navigation strategies for a fleet of autonomous mobile robots moving in formation is considered. Here, each robot is represented by a particle with a spherical effective spatial domain and a specified cone of visibility. The global motion of each robot in the world space is described by the equations of motion of the robot's center of mass. First, methods for formation generation are discussed. Then, simple navigation strategies for robots moving in formation are derived. A sufficient condition for the stability of a desired formation pattern for a fleet of robots each equipped with the navigation strategy based on nearest neighbor tracking is developed. The dynamic behavior of robot fleets consisting of three or more robots moving in formation in a plane is studied by means of computer simulation.

  10. Adaptive neuro-fuzzy interface system for gap acceptance behavior of right-turning vehicles at partially controlled T-intersections

    Jayant P. Sangole; Gopal R. Patil

    2014-01-01

    Gap acceptance theory is broadly used for evaluating unsignalized intersections in developed coun-tries. Intersections with no specific priority to any move-ment, known as uncontrolled intersections, are common in India. Limited priority is observed at a few intersections, where priorities are perceived by drivers based on geom-etry, traffic volume, and speed on the approaches of intersection. Analyzing such intersections is complex because the overall traffic behavior is the result of drivers, vehicles, and traffic flow characteristics. Fuzzy theory has been widely used to analyze similar situations. This paper describes the application of adaptive neuro-fuzzy interface system (ANFIS) to the modeling of gap acceptance behavior of right-turning vehicles at limited priority T-intersections (in India, vehicles are driven on the left side of a road). Field data are collected using video cameras at four T-intersections having limited priority. The data extracted include gap/lag, subject vehicle type, conflicting vehicle type, and driver’s decision (accepted/rejected). ANFIS models are developed by using 80% of the extracted data (total data observations for major road right-turning vehicles are 722 and 1,066 for minor road right-turning vehicles) and remaining are used for model vali-dation. Four different combinations of input variables are considered for major and minor road right turnings sepa-rately. Correct prediction by ANFIS models ranges from 75.17% to 82.16% for major road right turning and 87.20% to 88.62% for minor road right turning. The models developed in this paper can be used in the dynamic estimation of gap acceptance in traffic simulation models.

  11. The constructional conception of the effectiveness of navigational service rising for navigation on inland water routes

    I. V. Tykhonov

    2010-01-01

    Constructional conception of rising of the effectiveness of navigational service on inland water routes is described. The article demonstrates that using of this conception and informational recourses permit to raise the effectiveness of navigational service of safety of navigation

  12. Celestial navigation in a nutshell

    Schlereth, Hewitt

    2000-01-01

    Celestial Navigation in a Nutshell demonstrates how to take sights by the sun, moon, stars, and planets, discussing the advantages and disadvantages of each method. The reader is taken carefully through several examples and situational illustrations, making this a most effective self-teaching guide. Common errors are reviewed and several tips on how to improve accuracy are given.

  13. Conceptual Grounds of Navigation Safety

    Vladimir Torskiy

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The most important global problem being solved by the whole world community nowadays is to provide sustainable mankind development. Recent research in the field of sustainable development states that civilization safety is impossible without transfer sustainable development. At the same time, sustainable development (i.e. preservation of human culture and biosphere is impossible as a system that serves to meet economical, cultural, scientific, recreational and other human needs without safety. Safety plays an important role in sustainable development goals achievement. An essential condition of effective navigation functioning is to provide its safety. The “prescriptive” approach to the navigation safety, which is currently used in the world maritime field, is based on long-term experience and ship accidents investigation results. Thus this approach acted as an the great fact in reduction of number of accidents at sea. Having adopted the International Safety Management Code all the activities connected with navigation safety problems solution were transferred to the higher qualitative level. Search and development of new approaches and methods of ship accidents prevention during their operation have obtained greater importance. However, the maritime safety concept (i.e. the different points on ways, means and methods that should be used to achieve this goal hasn't been formed and described yet. The article contains a brief review of the main provisions of Navigation Safety Conceptions, which contribute to the number of accidents and incidents at sea reduction.

  14. Asimovian Adaptive Agents

    Gordon, D F

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this research is to develop agents that are adaptive and predictable and timely. At first blush, these three requirements seem contradictory. For example, adaptation risks introducing undesirable side effects, thereby making agents' behavior less predictable. Furthermore, although formal verification can assist in ensuring behavioral predictability, it is known to be time-consuming. Our solution to the challenge of satisfying all three requirements is the following. Agents have finite-state automaton plans, which are adapted online via evolutionary learning (perturbation) operators. To ensure that critical behavioral constraints are always satisfied, agents' plans are first formally verified. They are then reverified after every adaptation. If reverification concludes that constraints are violated, the plans are repaired. The main objective of this paper is to improve the efficiency of reverification after learning, so that agents have a sufficiently rapid response time. We present two solutions: ...

  15. Odor supported place cell model and goal navigation in rodents

    Kulvicius, Tomas; Tamosiunaite, Minija; Ainge, James; Dudchenko, Paul; Wörgötter, Florentin

    2008-01-01

    Experiments with rodents demonstrate that visual cues play an important role in the control of hippocampal place cells and spatial navigation. Nevertheless, rats may also rely on auditory, olfactory and somatosensory stimuli for orientation. It is also known that rats can track odors or self-gene......-generated olfactory cues, together with a mixed navigation strategy, improves goal directed navigation.......-generated scent marks to find a food source. Here we model odor supported place cells by using a simple feed-forward network and analyze the impact of olfactory cues on place cell formation and spatial navigation. The obtained place cells are used to solve a goal navigation task by a novel mechanism based on self......-marking by odor patches combined with a Q-learning algorithm. We also analyze the impact of place cell remapping on goal directed behavior when switching between two environments. We emphasize the importance of olfactory cues in place cell formation and show that the utility of environmental and self...

  16. Automatic Training of Rat Cyborgs for Navigation

    Yu, Yipeng; Wu, Zhaohui; Xu, Kedi; Gong, Yongyue; Zheng, Nenggan; Zheng, Xiaoxiang; Pan, Gang

    2016-01-01

    A rat cyborg system refers to a biological rat implanted with microelectrodes in its brain, via which the outer electrical stimuli can be delivered into the brain in vivo to control its behaviors. Rat cyborgs have various applications in emergency, such as search and rescue in disasters. Prior to a rat cyborg becoming controllable, a lot of effort is required to train it to adapt to the electrical stimuli. In this paper, we build a vision-based automatic training system for rat cyborgs to replace the time-consuming manual training procedure. A hierarchical framework is proposed to facilitate the colearning between rats and machines. In the framework, the behavioral states of a rat cyborg are visually sensed by a camera, a parameterized state machine is employed to model the training action transitions triggered by rat's behavioral states, and an adaptive adjustment policy is developed to adaptively adjust the stimulation intensity. The experimental results of three rat cyborgs prove the effectiveness of our system. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to tackle automatic training of animal cyborgs.

  17. Navigation system for interstitial brachytherapy

    The purpose of the stud was to develop a computed tomography (CT) based electromagnetic navigation system for interstitial brachytherapy. This is especially designed for situations when needles have to be positioned adjacent to or within critical anatomical structures. In such instances interactive 3D visualisation of the needle positions is essential. The material consisted of a Polhemus electromagnetic 3D digitizer, a Pentium 200 MHz laptop and a voice recognition for continuous speech. In addition, we developed an external reference system constructed of Perspex which could be positioned above the tumour region and attached to the patient using a non-invasive fixation method. A specially designed needle holder and patient bed were also developed. Measurements were made on a series of phantoms in order to study the efficacy and accuracy of the navigation system. The mean navigation accuracy of positioning the 20.0 cm length metallic needles within the phantoms was in the range 2.0-4.1 mm with a maximum of 5.4 mm. This is an improvement on the accuracy of a CT-guided technique which was in the range 6.1-11.3 mm with a maximum of 19.4 mm. The mean reconstruction accuracy of the implant geometry was 3.2 mm within a non-ferromagnetic environment. We found that although the needles were metallic this did not have a significant influence. We also found for our experimental setups that the CT table and operation table non-ferromagnetic parts had no significant influence on the navigation accuracy. This navigation system will be a very useful clinical tool for interstitial brachytherapy applications, particularly when critical structures have to be avoided. It also should provide a significant improvement on our existing technique

  18. Empirical evaluation of a practical indoor mobile robot navigation method using hybrid maps

    Özkil, Ali Gürcan; Fan, Zhun; Xiao, Jizhong;

    2010-01-01

    This video presents a practical navigation scheme for indoor mobile robots using hybrid maps. The method makes use of metric maps for local navigation and a topological map for global path planning. Metric maps are generated as occupancy grids by a laser range finder to represent local information....... The navigation scheme based on the hybrid metric-topologica maps saves memory space and is also scalable and adaptable since new local maps can be easily added to the global topology, and the method can be deployed with minimum amount of modification if new areas are to be explored. The video...

  19. A review on biological adaptation: with applications in engineering science

    LiMin Luo; WenJun Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Biological adaptation refers to that organisms change themselves at morphological, physiological, behavioral and molecular level to better survive in a changing environment. It includes phenotype adaptation and molecular adaptation. Biological adaptation is a driving force of evolution. Biological adaptation was described from Darwinian theory of evolution to the theory of molecular evolution in present paper. Adaptive control and adaptive filtering were briefly described also.

  20. 33 CFR 401.54 - Interference with navigation aids.

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interference with navigation aids. 401.54 Section 401.54 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION... with navigation aids. (a) Aids to navigation shall not be interfered with or used as moorings. (b)...

  1. 33 CFR 67.35-10 - Private aids to navigation.

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Private aids to navigation. 67.35-10 Section 67.35-10 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED STRUCTURES Applications §...

  2. 33 CFR 100.45 - Establishment of aids to navigation.

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Establishment of aids to navigation. 100.45 Section 100.45 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... navigation. The District Commander will establish and maintain only those aids to navigation necessary...

  3. Assessing Psychological Functioning in Metabolic Disorders: Validation of the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System, Second Edition (ABAS-II), and the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) for Identification of Individuals at Risk.

    Waisbren, Susan E; He, Jianping; McCarter, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Long-term follow-up of neuropsychological functioning in metabolic disorders remains difficult due to limited opportunities for comprehensive neuropsychological evaluations. This study examined the validity of using the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System, Second Edition (ABAS-II), and the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) for assessing developmental status in metabolic disorders and for identifying individuals at risk for cognitive deficits. Results from individuals with urea cycle disorders, phenylketonuria, galactosemia, and fatty acid oxidation disorders were obtained on the ABAS-II and BRIEF and were compared to results obtained from neuropsychological testing performed on the same day. Correlations between scores on the ABAS-II and developmental or IQ tests for individuals with urea cycle disorders ranged from 0.48 to 0.72 and concordance rates for scores greater than a standard deviation below the normative mean ranged from 69 to 89%. Correlations ranged from 0.20 to 0.68 with concordance ranging from 73 to 90% in the other metabolic disorders. For the BRIEF, correlations with other tests of executive functioning were significant for urea cycle disorders, with concordance ranging from 52 to 80%. For the other metabolic disorders, correlations ranged from -0.09 to -0.55. Concordance rates for at-risk status on the BRIEF and executive functioning tests ranged from 55% in adults to 80% in children with other metabolic disorders. These results indicate that the ABAS-II and BRIEF together can confidently be used as an adjunct or supplementary method for clinical follow-up and for research on functional status involving infants, children, and adults with metabolic disorders. PMID:25712381

  4. Adaptive vehicle motion estimation and prediction

    Zhao, Liang; Thorpe, Chuck E.

    1999-01-01

    Accurate motion estimation and reliable maneuver prediction enable an automated car to react quickly and correctly to the rapid maneuvers of the other vehicles, and so allow safe and efficient navigation. In this paper, we present a car tracking system which provides motion estimation, maneuver prediction and detection of the tracked car. The three strategies employed - adaptive motion modeling, adaptive data sampling, and adaptive model switching probabilities - result in an adaptive interacting multiple model algorithm (AIMM). The experimental results on simulated and real data demonstrate that our tracking system is reliable, flexible, and robust. The adaptive tracking makes the system intelligent and useful in various autonomous driving tasks.

  5. Diffusion Adaptation over Networks

    Sayed, Ali H

    2012-01-01

    Adaptive networks are well-suited to perform decentralized information processing and optimization tasks and to model various types of self organized and complex behavior encountered in nature. Adaptive networks consist of a collection of agents with processing and learning abilities. The agents are linked together through a connection topology, and they cooperate with each other through local interactions to solve distributed inference problems in real-time. The continuous diffusion of information across the network enables agents to adapt their performance in relation to changing data and network conditions; it also results in improved adaptation and learning performance relative to non-cooperative networks. This article provides an overview of diffusion strategies for adaptation and learning over networks. The article is divided into several sections: 1. Motivation; 2. Mean-Square-Error Estimation; 3. Distributed Optimization via Diffusion Strategies; 4. Adaptive Diffusion Strategies; 5. Performance of Ste...

  6. Navigation in Cross-cultural business relationships

    Andersen, Poul Houman

    2001-01-01

    Cross-cultural business navigation concerns the process of handling the complexity of several interacting cultural spheres of influence......Cross-cultural business navigation concerns the process of handling the complexity of several interacting cultural spheres of influence...

  7. Ontology Based Navigation Pattern Mining For Efficient Web Usage

    Jothi Venkateswaran C.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Users of the web have their own areas of interest. Given the tremendous growth of the web, it is very difficult to redirect the users to their page of interest. Web usage mining techniques can be applied to study the users navigational behaviours based on their previous visit data. These user navigational patterns can be extracted and used for web personalization or web site reorganization recommendations. Web usage mining techniques do not use the semantic knowledge of the web site for such navigational pattern discovery. But, if ontology is applied along with web usage techniques, it can improve the quality of the detected patterns. This research work aims to design a framework that integrates semantic knowledge with web usage mining process that generates the refined website ontology that recommends personalization of web. As the web pages are seen as ontology individuals, the user navigational behaviours over a certain period are considered as the user expected ontology refinement. The user profiles and the web site ontology are compared and the variation between the two is proposed as the new refined web site ontology. The web site ontology has been semi-automatically built and evolves through the adaptation procedure. The result of implementation of this recommendation system indicates that integrating semantic information and page access patterns yield more accurate recommendations.

  8. A Behaviour-Based Architecture for Mapless Navigation Using Vision

    Mehmet Serdar Guzel

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous robots operating in an unknown and uncertain environment must be able to cope with dynamic changes to that environment. For a mobile robot in a cluttered environment to navigate successfully to a goal while avoiding obstacles is a challenging problem. This paper presents a new behaviour based architecture design for mapless navigation. The architecture is composed of several modules and each module generates behaviours. A novel method, inspired from a visual homing strategy, is adapted to a monocular vision‐based system to overcome goal‐based navigation problems. A neural network‐based obstacle avoidance strategy is designed using a 2‐D scanning laser. To evaluate the performance of the proposed architecture, the system has been tested using Microsoft Robotics Studio (MRS, which is a very powerful 3D simulation environment. In addition, real experiments to guide a Pioneer 3‐DX mobile robot, equipped with a pan‐tilt‐zoom camera in a cluttered environment are presented. The analysis of the results allows us to validate the proposed behaviour‐ based navigation strategy.

  9. An embedded omnidirectional vision navigator for automatic guided vehicles

    Feng, Weijia; Zhang, Baofeng; Röning, Juha; Cao, Zuoliang; Zong, Xiaoning

    2011-01-01

    Omnidirectional vision appears the definite significance since its advantage of acquiring full 360° horizontal field of vision information simultaneously. In this paper, an embedded original omnidirectional vision navigator (EOVN) based on fish-eye lens and embedded technology has been researched. Fish-eye lens is one of the special ways to establish omnidirectional vision. However, it appears with an unavoidable inherent and enormous distortion. A unique integrated navigation method which is conducted on the basis of targets tracking has been proposed. It is composed of multi-target recognition and tracking, distortion rectification, spatial location and navigation control. It is called RTRLN. In order to adapt to the different indoor and outdoor navigation environments, we implant mean-shift and dynamic threshold adjustment into the Particle Filter algorithm to improve the efficiency and robustness of tracking capability. RTRLN has been implanted in an independent development embedded platform. EOVN likes a smart crammer based on COMS+FPGA+DSP. It can guide various vehicles in outdoor environments by tracking the diverse marks hanging in the air. The experiments prove that the EOVN is particularly suitable for the guidance applications which need high requirements on precision and repeatability. The research achievements have a good actual applied inspection.

  10. Indirect assessment of web navigation success

    Gwizdka, Jacek; Spence, Ian

    2005-01-01

    Despite much research on hypertext and web navigation, relatively little is known about the relationship between web navigation strategies and success. We present two exploratory studies designed to explore the relationships between several web navigation metrics that are based on similarity to an optimal path to predict task success. The data suggest that the relationships between these measures depend on the particular web navigation task.

  11. Novel Environmental Features for Robust Multisensor Navigation

    Walter, D. J.; Groves, P. D.; Mason, R J; Harrison, J.; J. Woodward; Wright, P

    2013-01-01

    Many navigation techniques have now become so reliant on GNSS that there is no back up when there is limited or no signal reception. If there is interference, intentional or otherwise, with the signal, navigation could be lost or become misleading [1]. Other navigation techniques harness different technologies such as Wi-Fi [2], eLoran and inertial navigation. However, each of these techniques has its own limitations, such as coverage, degradation in urban areas or solution drift [3]. Therefo...

  12. Navigation based on symbolic space models

    Baras, Karolina; Moreira, Adriano; Meneses, Filipe

    2010-01-01

    Existing navigation systems are very appropriate for car navigation, but lack support for convenient pedestrian navigation and cannot be used indoors due to GPS limitations. In addition, the creation and the maintenance of the required models are costly and time consuming, and are usually based on proprietary data structures. In this paper we describe a navigation system based on a human inspired symbolic space model. We argue that symbolic space models are much easier...

  13. Intelligent Navigation for a Solar Powered Unmanned Underwater Vehicle

    Francisco García-Córdova

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an intelligent navigation system for an unmanned underwater vehicle powered by renewable energy and designed for shadow water inspection in missions of a long duration is proposed. The system is composed of an underwater vehicle, which tows a surface vehicle. The surface vehicle is a small boat with photovoltaic panels, a methanol fuel cell and communication equipment, which provides energy and communication to the underwater vehicle. The underwater vehicle has sensors to monitor the underwater environment such as sidescan sonar and a video camera in a flexible configuration and sensors to measure the physical and chemical parameters of water quality on predefined paths for long distances. The underwater vehicle implements a biologically inspired neural architecture for autonomous intelligent navigation. Navigation is carried out by integrating a kinematic adaptive neuro‐controller for trajectory tracking and an obstacle avoidance adaptive neuro‐controller. The autonomous underwater vehicle is capable of operating during long periods of observation and monitoring. This autonomous vehicle is a good tool for observing large areas of sea, since it operates for long periods of time due to the contribution of renewable energy. It correlates all sensor data for time and geodetic position. This vehicle has been used for monitoring the Mar Menor lagoon.

  14. Observability during planetary approach navigation

    Bishop, Robert H.; Burkhart, P. Daniel; Thurman, Sam W.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of the research is to develop an analytic technique to predict the relative navigation capability of different Earth-based radio navigation measurements. In particular, the problem is to determine the relative ability of geocentric range and Doppler measurements to detect the effects of the target planet gravitational attraction on the spacecraft during the planetary approach and near-encounter mission phases. A complete solution to the two-dimensional problem has been developed. Relatively simple analytic formulas are obtained for range and Doppler measurements which describe the observability content of the measurement data along the approach trajectories. An observability measure is defined which is based on the observability matrix for nonlinear systems. The results show good agreement between the analytic observability analysis and the computational batch processing method.

  15. Developing Culture-Adaptive Competency Through Experiences with Expressive Avatars

    Silverglate, Daniel S.; Sims, Edward M.; Glover, Gerald; Friedman, Harris

    2012-01-01

    Modern Warfighters often find themselves in a variety of non-combat roles such as negotiator, peacekeeper, reconstruction, and disaster relief. They are expected to perform these roles within a culture alien to their own. Each individual they encounter brings their own set of values to the interaction that must be understood and reconciled. To navigate the human terrain of these complex interactions, the Warfighter must not only consider the specifics of the target culture, but also identify the stakeholders, recognize the influencing cultural dimensions, and adapt to the situation to achieve the best possible outcome. Vcom3D is using game-based scenarios to develop culturally adaptive competency. The avatars that represent the stakeholders must be able to portray culturally accurate behavior, display complex emotion, and communicate through verbal and non-verbal cues. This paper will discuss the use of emerging game technologies to better simulate human behavior in cross-cultural dilemmas. Nomenclature: culture, adaptive, values, cultural values dimensions, dilemmas, virtual humans, non-verbal communications

  16. 06421 Abstracts Collection -- Robot Navigation

    Fekete, Sándor; Fleischer, Rudolf; Klein, Rolf; Lopez-Ortiz, Alejandro

    2007-01-01

    From 15.10.06 to 20.10.06, the Dagstuhl Seminar 06421 ``Robot Navigation''generate automatically was held in the International Conference and Research Center (IBFI), Schloss Dagstuhl. During the seminar, several participants presented their current research, and ongoing work and open problems were discussed. Abstracts of the presentations given during the seminar as well as abstracts of seminar results and ideas are put together in this paper. The first section describes the...

  17. Interplanetary spacecraft navigation using pulsars

    Deng, X. P.; Hobbs, G.; You, X. P.; M. T. Li; Keith, M. J.; Shannon, R. M.; Coles, W.; Manchester, R. N.; J.H. Zheng; Yu, X. Z.; Gao, D.; Wu, X; Chen, D.

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate how observations of pulsars can be used to help navigate a spacecraft travelling in the solar system. We make use of archival observations of millisecond pulsars from the Parkes radio telescope in order to demonstrate the effectiveness of the method and highlight issues, such as pulsar spin irregularities, which need to be accounted for. We show that observations of four millisecond pulsars every seven days using a realistic X-ray telescope on the spacecraft throughout a journe...

  18. Safety effects of navigation systems.

    2009-01-01

    Increasing numbers of drivers are using navigation systems in their cars. The advantages to the user are obvious: you can get to your destination via the fastest and shortest route. This reduces stress and exposure to other traffic. However, there are also some (unintended) negative effects. For example, using the system while driving can distract your attention from other traffic. The system sometimes directs traffic through small centres of habitation or along unsuitable roads. Moreover, ti...

  19. Robotic perception for autonomous navigation

    Furlan,

    2014-01-01

    This thesis presents the research work the author carried on during his PhD on the topic of robotic perception for autonomous navigation. In particular, the efforts focus on the Self-Localization, Scene Understanding and Object Detection and Tracking problems, proposing for each of these three topics one or more approaches that present an improvement over the state-of-the-art. In some cases the proposed approaches mutually exploit the generated information to improve the quality of the final ...

  20. 06421 Executive Summary -- Robot Navigation

    Fekete, Sándor; Fleischer, Rudolf; Klein, Rolf; Lopez-Ortiz, Alejandro

    2007-01-01

    For quite a number of years, researchers from various fields have studied problems motivated by Robot Navigation. People in Online Algorithms have developed strategies that can deal with the inherent lack of information an autonomous robot encounters, as it sets out to perform a task in an unknown environment. Computational Geometers have obtained many results on the efficient planning of collision-free motions, and on visibility problems. Scientists and engineers in Robotics have perfected r...

  1. Orientation and navigation in birds

    Bouwman, H.

    1998-01-01

    How birds orientate and navigate over long distances, remains one of the subjects of ornithology eliciting much interest. Birds use combinations of different sources of information to find direction and position. Some of these are the geomagnetic field, celestial bodies, mosaic and gradient maps, sound, smell, idiotetic information and others. Different species use different combinations of sources. This ability is partially inherent and partially learned.

  2. Orientation and navigation in birds

    H. Bouwman

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available How birds orientate and navigate over long distances, remains one of the subjects of ornithology eliciting much interest. Birds use combinations of different sources of information to find direction and position. Some of these are the geomagnetic field, celestial bodies, mosaic and gradient maps, sound, smell, idiotetic information and others. Different species use different combinations of sources. This ability is partially inherent and partially learned.

  3. Navigation in diagnosis and therapy

    Image-guided navigation for surgery and other therapeutic interventions has grown in importance in recent years. During image-guided navigation a target is detected, localized and characterized for diagnosis and therapy. Thus, images are used to select, plan, guide and evaluate therapy, thereby reducing invasiveness and improving outcomes. A shift from traditional open surgery to less-invasive image-guided surgery will continue to impact the surgical marketplace. Increases in the speed and capacity of computers and computer networks have enabled image-guided interventions. Key elements in image navigation systems are pre-operative 3D imaging (or real-time image acquisition), a graphical display and interactive input devices, such as surgical instruments with light emitting diodes (LEDs). CT and MRI, 3D imaging devices, are commonplace today and 3D images are useful in complex interventions such as radiation oncology and surgery. For example, integrated surgical imaging workstations can be used for frameless stereotaxy during neurosurgical interventions. In addition, imaging systems are being expanded to include decision aids in diagnosis and treatment. Electronic atlases, such as Voxel Man or others derived from the Visible Human Project, combine a set of image data with non-image knowledge such as anatomic labels. Robot assistants and magnetic guidance technology are being developed for minimally invasive surgery and other therapeutic interventions. Major progress is expected at the interface between the disciplines of radiology and surgery where imaging, intervention and informatics converge

  4. Agents, bookmarks and clicks: A topical model of Web navigation

    Mark Meiss; Bruno Gonçalves; José Ramasco; Alessandro Flammini; Filippo Menczer

    2010-01-01

    Analysis of aggregate and individual Web traffic has shown that PageRank is a poor model of how people navigate the Web. Using the empirical traffic patterns generated by a thousand users, we characterize several properties of Web traffic that cannot be reproduced by Markovian models. We examine both aggregate statistics capturing collective behavior, such as page and link traffic, and individual statistics, such as entropy and session size. No model currently explains all of these empirical ...

  5. Navigation.

    Wellman, Bruce; Lipton, Laura

    2000-01-01

    Teachers' quests for more data-based planning, problem solving, and decision making often stumble against limited capacities for engaging in thoughtful interactions, with groups typically lacking process tools, collaborative communication skills, and reflective habits. This article presents a three-phase model for guiding data-driven dialogue in…

  6. The Vector Matching Method in Geomagnetic Aiding Navigation.

    Song, Zhongguo; Zhang, Jinsheng; Zhu, Wenqi; Xi, Xiaoli

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a geomagnetic matching navigation method that utilizes the geomagnetic vector is developed, which can greatly improve the matching probability and positioning precision, even when the geomagnetic entropy information in the matching region is small or the geomagnetic contour line's variety is obscure. The vector iterative closest contour point (VICCP) algorithm that is proposed here has better adaptability with the positioning error characteristics of the inertial navigation system (INS), where the rigid transformation in ordinary ICCP is replaced with affine transformation. In a subsequent step, a geomagnetic vector information fusion algorithm based on Bayesian statistical analysis is introduced into VICCP to improve matching performance further. Simulations based on the actual geomagnetic reference map have been performed for the validation of the proposed algorithm. PMID:27447645

  7. Adaptive Data Filtering of Inertial Sensors with Variable Bandwidth

    Mushfiqul Alam

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available MEMS (micro-electro-mechanical system-based inertial sensors, i.e., accelerometers and angular rate sensors, are commonly used as a cost-effective solution for the purposes of navigation in a broad spectrum of terrestrial and aerospace applications. These tri-axial inertial sensors form an inertial measurement unit (IMU, which is a core unit of navigation systems. Even if MEMS sensors have an advantage in their size, cost, weight and power consumption, they suffer from bias instability, noisy output and insufficient resolution. Furthermore, the sensor’s behavior can be significantly affected by strong vibration when it operates in harsh environments. All of these constitute conditions require treatment through data processing. As long as the navigation solution is primarily based on using only inertial data, this paper proposes a novel concept in adaptive data pre-processing by using a variable bandwidth filtering. This approach utilizes sinusoidal estimation to continuously adapt the filtering bandwidth of the accelerometer’s data in order to reduce the effects of vibration and sensor noise before attitude estimation is processed. Low frequency vibration generally limits the conditions under which the accelerometers can be used to aid the attitude estimation process, which is primarily based on angular rate data and, thus, decreases its accuracy. In contrast, the proposed pre-processing technique enables using accelerometers as an aiding source by effective data smoothing, even when they are affected by low frequency vibration. Verification of the proposed concept is performed on simulation and real-flight data obtained on an ultra-light aircraft. The results of both types of experiments confirm the suitability of the concept for inertial data pre-processing.

  8. Adaptive data filtering of inertial sensors with variable bandwidth.

    Alam, Mushfiqul; Rohac, Jan

    2015-01-01

    MEMS (micro-electro-mechanical system)-based inertial sensors, i.e., accelerometers and angular rate sensors, are commonly used as a cost-effective solution for the purposes of navigation in a broad spectrum of terrestrial and aerospace applications. These tri-axial inertial sensors form an inertial measurement unit (IMU), which is a core unit of navigation systems. Even if MEMS sensors have an advantage in their size, cost, weight and power consumption, they suffer from bias instability, noisy output and insufficient resolution. Furthermore, the sensor's behavior can be significantly affected by strong vibration when it operates in harsh environments. All of these constitute conditions require treatment through data processing. As long as the navigation solution is primarily based on using only inertial data, this paper proposes a novel concept in adaptive data pre-processing by using a variable bandwidth filtering. This approach utilizes sinusoidal estimation to continuously adapt the filtering bandwidth of the accelerometer's data in order to reduce the effects of vibration and sensor noise before attitude estimation is processed. Low frequency vibration generally limits the conditions under which the accelerometers can be used to aid the attitude estimation process, which is primarily based on angular rate data and, thus, decreases its accuracy. In contrast, the proposed pre-processing technique enables using accelerometers as an aiding source by effective data smoothing, even when they are affected by low frequency vibration. Verification of the proposed concept is performed on simulation and real-flight data obtained on an ultra-light aircraft. The results of both types of experiments confirm the suitability of the concept for inertial data pre-processing. PMID:25648711

  9. Cooperative navigation and localization for multiple UUVs

    Zhang, Li-Chuan; Xu, De-Min; Liu, Ming-Yong; Yan, Wei-Sheng

    2009-09-01

    The authors proposed a moving long baseline algorithm based on the extended Kalman filter (EKF) for cooperative navigation and localization of multi-unmanned underwater vehicles (UUVs). Research on cooperative navigation and localization for multi-UUVs is important to solve navigation problems that restrict long and deep excursions. The authors investigated improvements in navigation accuracy. In the moving long base line (MLBL) structure, the master UUV is equipped with a high precision navigation system as a node of the moving long baseline, and the slave UUV is equipped with a low precision navigation system. They are both equipped with acoustic devices to measure relative location. Using traditional triangulation methods to calculate the position of the slave UUV may cause a faulty solution. An EKF was designed to solve this, combining the proprioceptive and exteroceptive sensors. Research results proved that the navigational accuracy is improved significantly with the MLBL method based on EKF.

  10. Reverse-correlation analysis of navigation dynamics in Drosophila larva using optogenetics.

    Hernandez-Nunez, Luis; Belina, Jonas; Klein, Mason; Si, Guangwei; Claus, Lindsey; Carlson, John R; Samuel, Aravinthan Dt

    2015-01-01

    Neural circuits for behavior transform sensory inputs into motor outputs in patterns with strategic value. Determining how neurons along a sensorimotor circuit contribute to this transformation is central to understanding behavior. To do this, a quantitative framework to describe behavioral dynamics is needed. In this study, we built a high-throughput optogenetic system for Drosophila larva to quantify the sensorimotor transformations underlying navigational behavior. We express CsChrimson, a red-shifted variant of channelrhodopsin, in specific chemosensory neurons and expose large numbers of freely moving animals to random optogenetic activation patterns. We quantify their behavioral responses and use reverse-correlation analysis to uncover the linear and static nonlinear components of navigation dynamics as functions of optogenetic activation patterns of specific sensory neurons. We find that linear-nonlinear models accurately predict navigational decision-making for different optogenetic activation waveforms. We use our method to establish the valence and dynamics of navigation driven by optogenetic activation of different combinations of bitter-sensing gustatory neurons. Our method captures the dynamics of optogenetically induced behavior in compact, quantitative transformations that can be used to characterize circuits for sensorimotor processing and their contribution to navigational decision making. PMID:25942453

  11. A Model for Pre-Service Teachers' Climate Change Awareness and Willingness to Act for Pro-Climate Change Friendly Behavior: Adaptation of Awareness to Climate Change Questionnaire

    Dal, Burçkin; Alper, Umut; Özdem-Yilmaz, Yasemin; Öztürk, Nilay; Sönmez, Duygu

    2015-01-01

    Public awareness of the negative effects of climate change is vital since it leads to collective action for prevention and adaptation. However, investigations on to what extent people are aware of the climate change issue are rare in the literature. The present study reported the adaptation process of awareness to climate change questionnaire into…

  12. Adaptive Lighting

    Petersen, Kjell Yngve; Søndergaard, Karin; Kongshaug, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive LightingAdaptive lighting is based on a partial automation of the possibilities to adjust the colour tone and brightness levels of light in order to adapt to people’s needs and desires. IT support is key to the technical developments that afford adaptive control systems. The possibilities offered by adaptive lighting control are created by the ways that the system components, the network and data flow can be coordinated through software so that the dynamic variations are controlled i...

  13. Spatial navigation in young versus older adults

    Ivana Gazova

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Older age is associated with changes in the brain, including the medial temporal lobe, which may result in mild spatial navigation deficits, especially in allocentric navigation. The aim of the study was to characterize the profile of real-space allocentric (world-centered, hippocampus dependent and egocentric (body-centered, parietal lobe dependent navigation and learning in young vs. older adults, and to assess a possible influence of gender. We recruited healthy participants without cognitive deficits on standard neuropsychological testing, white matter lesions or pronounced hippocampal atrophy: 24 young participants (18-26 years old and 44 older participants stratified as participants 60-70 years old (n=24 and participants 71-84 years old (n=20. All underwent spatial navigation testing in the real-space human analog of the Morris Water Maze, which has the advantage of assessing separately allocentric and egocentric navigation and learning. Of the 8 consecutive trials, trials 2-8 were used to reduce bias by a rebound effect (more dramatic changes in performance between trials 1 and 2 relative to subsequent trials. The participants who were 71-84 years old (p< .001, but not those 60-70 years old, showed deficit in allocentric navigation compared to the young participants. There were no differences in egocentric navigation. All three groups showed spatial learning effect (p´s ≤.01. There were no gender differences in spatial navigation and learning. The linear regression limited to older participants showed linear (β=0.30, p=.045 and quadratic (β=0.30, p=.046 effect of age on allocentric navigation. There was no effect of age on egocentric navigation. These results demonstrate that navigation deficits in older age may be limited to allocentric navigation, whereas egocentric navigation and learning may remain preserved. This specific pattern of spatial navigation impairment may help differentiate normal aging from prodromal Alzheimer

  14. Adaptive strategies of the visualization of electronic map

    Wang, Hong; Ai, Tinghua

    2006-10-01

    The visualization of electronic map should be dynamic not only in the way of representation but also in the content creation in real time. In on-demand mapping, the user's favorites to map content are the key factor. It means that the design of electronic map has to consider providing several candidate visualizations according to the user's context. To settle on-demand question, the adaptive visualization has been an active topic in the field of map design in recent years. Based on practical experiments, this paper tries to present some adaptive strategies on the visualization of electronic map. Firstly, a conceptual framework of adaptive visualization is proposed, what includes the parts of the context interface, the map behaviors triggering factors, the adaptive mechanism, hierarchy control, output of result map, and the evaluation methods. We consider three main factors associated with the adaptive visualization: (1). the user's interactive map behaviors, (2). the context of the surroundings where the electronic map system stays, (3). the user category under their knowledge and experiences. The map behaviors include the ZOOM OUT, ZOOM IN, PAN, QUERY, ROTATION, and etc, which will result in changes for the contents and structures of map. These changes relate to the aspects about Map Extent, Scale, Location, Quantity, Quality, Direction, Density, and etc. The surroundings of map reading include the screen size, color display or B/W display, brightness, weather, special light scenery, speed of data loading, display sets, sound, time, event, culture, language, and etc. The map design has to provide different strategies to satisfy the periphery environment changes. According to some egocentric conditions, i.e., Location, Moving Orientation, Speed of Motion, and Self Properties, this paper gives some practical illustrations and descriptive maps. The classification of map users considers their knowledge, experience and specialty. We divide users into different levels

  15. Autonomous Navigation by a Mobile Robot

    Huntsberger, Terrance; Aghazarian, Hrand

    2005-01-01

    ROAMAN is a computer program for autonomous navigation of a mobile robot on a long (as much as hundreds of meters) traversal of terrain. Developed for use aboard a robotic vehicle (rover) exploring the surface of a remote planet, ROAMAN could also be adapted to similar use on terrestrial mobile robots. ROAMAN implements a combination of algorithms for (1) long-range path planning based on images acquired by mast-mounted, wide-baseline stereoscopic cameras, and (2) local path planning based on images acquired by body-mounted, narrow-baseline stereoscopic cameras. The long-range path-planning algorithm autonomously generates a series of waypoints that are passed to the local path-planning algorithm, which plans obstacle-avoiding legs between the waypoints. Both the long- and short-range algorithms use an occupancy-grid representation in computations to detect obstacles and plan paths. Maps that are maintained by the long- and short-range portions of the software are not shared because substantial localization errors can accumulate during any long traverse. ROAMAN is not guaranteed to generate an optimal shortest path, but does maintain the safety of the rover.

  16. Appraising Adaptive Management

    Kai N. Lee

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive management is appraised as a policy implementation approach by examining its conceptual, technical, equity, and practical strengths and limitations. Three conclusions are drawn: (1 Adaptive management has been more influential, so far, as an idea than as a practical means of gaining insight into the behavior of ecosystems utilized and inhabited by humans. (2 Adaptive management should be used only after disputing parties have agreed to an agenda of questions to be answered using the adaptive approach; this is not how the approach has been used. (3 Efficient, effective social learning, of the kind facilitated by adaptive management, is likely to be of strategic importance in governing ecosystems as humanity searches for a sustainable economy.

  17. Adaptive Missile Guidance Using GPS

    Pallavi Sharad Rupnar; Prof. A. B. Diggikar

    2013-01-01

    The name adaptive means we can guide any missile using GPS in any critical conditions. GPS guided missiles, using the exceptional navigational and surveying abilities of GPS, after being launched, could deliver a warhead to any part of the globe via the interface of the onboard computer in the missile with the GPS satellite system.GPS allows accurate targeting of various military weapons including ICBMs, cruise missiles and precision-guided munitions. Artillery projectiles with embedded GPS r...

  18. 33 CFR 162.240 - Tongass Narrows, Alaska; navigation.

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tongass Narrows, Alaska; navigation. 162.240 Section 162.240 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY INLAND WATERWAYS NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.240...

  19. 33 CFR 401.97 - Closing procedures and ice navigation.

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Closing procedures and ice navigation. 401.97 Section 401.97 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Navigation...

  20. Youth Mobilisation as Social Navigation

    Vigh, Henrik Erdman

    2010-01-01

    This article sheds light on the mobilisation of young people into conflict. It argues that warfare constitutes a terrain of possibility for urban youth in Guinea‑Bissau, and shows how they navigate war as an event by tactically manoeuvring within the social ties and options that arise in such sit...

  1. Automatic Training of Rat Cyborgs for Navigation

    Yu, Yipeng; Wu, Zhaohui; Xu, Kedi; Gong, Yongyue; Zheng, Nenggan; Zheng, Xiaoxiang; Pan, Gang

    2016-01-01

    A rat cyborg system refers to a biological rat implanted with microelectrodes in its brain, via which the outer electrical stimuli can be delivered into the brain in vivo to control its behaviors. Rat cyborgs have various applications in emergency, such as search and rescue in disasters. Prior to a rat cyborg becoming controllable, a lot of effort is required to train it to adapt to the electrical stimuli. In this paper, we build a vision-based automatic training system for rat cyborgs to rep...

  2. Amblypygids: Model Organisms for the Study of Arthropod Navigation Mechanisms in Complex Environments?

    Wiegmann, Daniel D; Hebets, Eileen A; Gronenberg, Wulfila; Graving, Jacob M; Bingman, Verner P

    2016-01-01

    Navigation is an ideal behavioral model for the study of sensory system integration and the neural substrates associated with complex behavior. For this broader purpose, however, it may be profitable to develop new model systems that are both tractable and sufficiently complex to ensure that information derived from a single sensory modality and path integration are inadequate to locate a goal. Here, we discuss some recent discoveries related to navigation by amblypygids, nocturnal arachnids that inhabit the tropics and sub-tropics. Nocturnal displacement experiments under the cover of a tropical rainforest reveal that these animals possess navigational abilities that are reminiscent, albeit on a smaller spatial scale, of true-navigating vertebrates. Specialized legs, called antenniform legs, which possess hundreds of olfactory and tactile sensory hairs, and vision appear to be involved. These animals also have enormous mushroom bodies, higher-order brain regions that, in insects, integrate contextual cues and may be involved in spatial memory. In amblypygids, the complexity of a nocturnal rainforest may impose navigational challenges that favor the integration of information derived from multimodal cues. Moreover, the movement of these animals is easily studied in the laboratory and putative neural integration sites of sensory information can be manipulated. Thus, amblypygids could serve as model organisms for the discovery of neural substrates associated with a unique and potentially sophisticated navigational capability. The diversity of habitats in which amblypygids are found also offers an opportunity for comparative studies of sensory integration and ecological selection pressures on navigation mechanisms. PMID:27014008

  3. Amblypygids: Model Organisms for the Study of Arthropod Navigation Mechanisms in Complex Environments?

    Daniel D Wiegmann

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Navigation is an ideal behavioral model for the study of sensory system integration and the neural substrates associated with complex behavior. For this broader purpose, however, it may be profitable to develop new model systems that are both tractable and sufficiently complex to ensure that information derived from a single sensory modality and path integration are inadequate to locate a goal. Here, we discuss some recent discoveries related to navigation by amblypygids, nocturnal arachnids that inhabit the tropics and sub-tropics. Nocturnal displacement experiments under the cover of a tropical rainforest reveal that these animals possess navigational abilities that are reminiscent, albeit on a smaller spatial scale, of true-navigating vertebrates. Specialized legs, called antenniform legs, which possess hundreds of olfactory and tactile sensory hairs, and vision appear to be involved. These animals also have enormous mushroom bodies, higher-order brain regions that, in insects, integrate contextual cues and may be involved in spatial memory. In amblypygids, the complexity of a nocturnal rainforest may impose navigational challenges that favor the integration of information derived from multimodal cues. Moreover, the movement of these animals is easily studied in the laboratory and putative neural integration sites of sensory information can be manipulated. Thus, amblypygids could serve as a model system for the discovery of neural substrates associated with a unique and potentially sophisticated navigational capability. The diversity of habitats in which amblypygids are found also offers an opportunity for comparative studies of sensory integration and ecological selection pressures on navigation mechanisms.

  4. Apnea-Induced Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Disruption Impairs Human Spatial Navigational Memory

    Varga, Andrew W.; Kishi, Akifumi; Mantua, Janna; Lim, Jason; Koushyk, Viachaslau; Leibert, David P.; Osorio, Ricardo S.; Rapoport, David M.; Ayappa, Indu

    2014-01-01

    Hippocampal electrophysiology and behavioral evidence support a role for sleep in spatial navigational memory, but the role of particular sleep stages is less clear. Although rodent models suggest the importance of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep in spatial navigational memory, a similar role for REM sleep has never been examined in humans. We recruited subjects with severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) who were well treated and adherent with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). Restric...

  5. A Global Navigation Management Architecture Applied to Autonomous Robots in Urban Environments

    Kenmogne, Ide-Flore; Alves De Lima, Danilo; Corrêa Victorino, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a global behavioral architecture used as a coordinator for the global navigation of an autonomous vehicle in an urban context including traffic laws and other features. As an extension to our previous work, the approach presented here focuses on how this manager uses perceived information (from low cost cameras and laser scanners) combined with digital road-map data to take decisions. This decision consists in retrieving the car's state regarding the global navigation goal...

  6. Information Potential Fields Navigation in Wireless Ad-Hoc Sensor Networks

    Yong Qi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available As wireless sensor networks (WSNs are increasingly being deployed in some important applications, it becomes imperative that we consider application requirements in in-network processes. We intend to use a WSN to aid information querying and navigation within a dynamic and real-time environment. We propose a novel method that relies on the heat diffusion equation to finish the navigation process conveniently and easily. From the perspective of theoretical analysis, our proposed work holds the lower constraint condition. We use multiple scales to reach the goal of accurate navigation. We present a multi-scale gradient descent method to satisfy users’ requirements in WSNs. Formula derivations and simulations show that the method is accurately and efficiently able to solve typical sensor network configuration information navigation problems. Simultaneously, the structure of heat diffusion equation allows more flexibility and adaptability in searching algorithm designs.

  7. Navigators for motion detection during real-time MRI-guided radiotherapy

    An MRI-linac system provides direct MRI feedback and with that the possibility of adapting radiation treatments to the actual tumour position. This paper addresses the use of fast 1D MRI, pencil-beam navigators, for this feedback. The accuracy of using navigators was determined on a moving phantom. The possibility of organ tracking and breath-hold monitoring based on navigator guidance was shown for the kidney. Navigators are accurate within 0.5 mm and the analysis has a minimal time lag smaller than 30 ms as shown for the phantom measurements. The correlation of 2D kidney images and navigators shows the possibility of complete organ tracking. Furthermore the breath-hold monitoring of the kidney is accurate within 1.5 mm, allowing gated radiotherapy based on navigator feedback. Navigators are a fast and precise method for monitoring and real-time tracking of anatomical landmarks. As such, they provide direct MRI feedback on anatomical changes for more precise radiation delivery. (paper)

  8. Providers' Views on a Community-Wide Patient Navigation Program: Implications for Dissemination and Future Implementation.

    de la Riva, Erika E; Hajjar, Nadia; Tom, Laura S; Phillips, Sara; Dong, XinQi; Simon, Melissa A

    2016-05-01

    The DuPage Patient Navigation Collaborative (DPNC) adapted and scaled the Patient Navigation Research Program's intervention model to navigate uninsured suburban DuPage County women with an abnormal breast or cervical cancer screening result. Recent findings reveal the effectiveness of the DPNC in addressing patient risk factors for delayed follow-up, but gaps remain as patient measures may not adequately capture navigator impact. Using semistructured interviews with 19 DPNC providers (representing the county health department, clinics, advocacy organizations, and academic partners), this study explores the critical roles of the DPNC in strengthening community partnerships and enhancing clinical services. Findings from these provider interviews revealed that a wide range of resources existed within DuPage but were often underused. Providers indicated that the DPNC was instrumental in fostering community partnerships and that navigators enhanced the referral processes, communications, and service delivery among clinical teams. Providers also recommended expanding navigation to mental health, women's health, and for a variety of chronic conditions. Considering that many in the United States have recently gained access to the health care system, clinical teams might benefit by incorporating navigators who serve a dual working purpose embedded in the community and clinics to enhance the service delivery for vulnerable populations. PMID:27009130

  9. Dilution-of-Precision-Based Lunar Surface Navigation System Analysis Utilizing Earth-Based Assets

    Welch, Bryan W.; Connolly, Joseph W.; Sands, Obed S.

    2007-01-01

    The NASA Vision for Space Exploration is focused on the return of astronauts to the Moon. Although navigation systems have already been proven in the Apollo missions to the Moon, the current exploration campaign will involve more extensive and extended missions requiring new concepts for lunar navigation. In contrast to Apollo missions, which were limited to the near-side equatorial region of the Moon, those under the Exploration Systems Initiative will require navigation on the Moon's limb and far side. These regions are known to have poor Earth visibility, but unknown is the extent to which a navigation system comprised solely of Earth-based tracking stations will provide adequate navigation solutions in these areas. This report presents a dilution-of-precision (DoP)-based analysis of the performance of a network of Earth-based assets. This analysis extends a previous analysis of a lunar network (LN) of navigation satellites by providing an assessment of the capability associated with a variety of assumptions. These assumptions pertain to the minimum provider elevation angle, nadir and zenith beam widths, and a total single failure in one of the Earth-based assets. The assessment is accomplished by making appropriately formed estimates of DoP. Different adaptations of DoP, such as geometrical DoP and positional DoP (GDoP and PDoP), are associated with a different set of assumptions regarding augmentations to the navigation receiver or transceiver.

  10. 33 CFR 207.169 - Oklawaha River, navigation lock and dam at Moss Bluff, Fla.; use, administration, and navigation.

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oklawaha River, navigation lock and dam at Moss Bluff, Fla.; use, administration, and navigation. 207.169 Section 207.169 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE...

  11. Intelligent navigation and multivehicle coordination

    McKay, Mark D.; Anderson, Matthew O.; Kinoshita, Robert A.; Flann, Nicholas S.

    1999-07-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and Utah State University's Center for Self-Organizing and Intelligent Systems have developed a team of autonomous robotic vehicles. This paper discusses the development of a strategy that uses a sophisticated, highly intelligent sensor platform to allow centralized coordination between smaller and inexpensive robots. The three components of the multi-agent cooperative scheme are small-scale robots, large-scale robots, and the central control station running a mission and path- planning software. The smaller robots are used for activities where the probability of loss increases, such as Unexploded Ordnance (UXO) or mine detonation. The research is aimed at building simple, inexpensive multi-agent vehicles and an intelligent navigation and multi-vehicle coordination system suitable for UXO, environmental remediation or mine detection. These simplified robots are capable of conducting hunting missions using low-cost positioning sensors and intelligent algorithms. Additionally, a larger sensor-rich intelligent system capable of transporting smaller units to outlying remote sites has been developed. The larger system interfaces to the central control station and provides navigation assistance to multiple low-cost vehicles. Finally, mission and path-planning software serves as the operator control unit, allowing central data collection, map creation and tracking, and an interface to the larger system as well as each smaller unit. The power of this scheme is the ability to scale to the appropriate level for the complexity of the mission.

  12. Optic flow and autonomous navigation.

    Campani, M; Giachetti, A; Torre, V

    1995-01-01

    Many animals, especially insects, compute and use optic flow to control their motion direction and to avoid obstacles. Recent advances in computer vision have shown that an adequate optic flow can be computed from image sequences. Therefore studying whether artificial systems, such as robots, can use optic flow for similar purposes is of particular interest. Experiments are reviewed that suggest the possible use of optic flow for the navigation of a robot moving in indoor and outdoor environments. The optic flow is used to detect and localise obstacles in indoor scenes, such as corridors, offices, and laboratories. These routines are based on the computation of a reduced optic flow. The robot is usually able to avoid large obstacles such as a chair or a person. The avoidance performances of the proposed algorithm critically depend on the optomotor reaction of the robot. The optic flow can be used to understand the ego-motion in outdoor scenes, that is, to obtain information on the absolute velocity of the moving vehicle and to detect the presence of other moving objects. A critical step is the correction of the optic flow for shocks and vibrations present during image acquisition. The results obtained suggest that optic flow can be successfully used by biological and artificial systems to control their navigation. Moreover, both systems require fast and accurate optomotor reactions and need to compensate for the instability of the viewed world. PMID:7617428

  13. Spatial Database Modeling for Indoor Navigation Systems

    Gotlib, Dariusz; Gnat, Miłosz

    2013-12-01

    For many years, cartographers are involved in designing GIS and navigation systems. Most GIS applications use the outdoor data. Increasingly, similar applications are used inside buildings. Therefore it is important to find the proper model of indoor spatial database. The development of indoor navigation systems should utilize advanced teleinformation, geoinformatics, geodetic and cartographical knowledge. The authors present the fundamental requirements for the indoor data model for navigation purposes. Presenting some of the solutions adopted in the world they emphasize that navigation applications require specific data to present the navigation routes in the right way. There is presented original solution for indoor data model created by authors on the basis of BISDM model. Its purpose is to expand the opportunities for use in indoor navigation.

  14. Autonomous Robot Navigation based on Visual Landmarks

    Livatino, Salvatore

    2005-01-01

    autonomous navigation and self-localization using automatically selected landmarks. The thesis investigates autonomous robot navigation and proposes a new method which benefits from the potential of the visual sensor to provide accuracy and reliability to the navigation process while relying on naturally...... update of the estimated robot position while the robot is moving. In order to make the system autonomous, both acquisition and observation of landmarks have to be carried out automatically. The thesis consequently proposes a method for learning and navigation of a working environment and it explores......The use of landmarks for robot navigation is a popular alternative to having a geometrical model of the environment through which to navigate and monitor self-localization. If the landmarks are defined as special visual structures already in the environment then we have the possibility of fully...

  15. INS/CNS/GNSS integrated navigation technology

    Quan, Wei; Gong, Xiaolin; Fang, Jiancheng

    2015-01-01

    This book not only introduces the principles of INS, CNS and GNSS, the related filters and semi-physical simulation, but also systematically discusses the key technologies needed for integrated navigations of INS/GNSS, INS/CNS, and INS/CNS/GNSS, respectively. INS/CNS/GNSS integrated navigation technology has established itself as an effective tool for precise positioning navigation, which can make full use of the complementary characteristics of different navigation sub-systems and greatly improve the accuracy and reliability of the integrated navigation system. The book offers a valuable reference guide for graduate students, engineers and researchers in the fields of navigation and its control. Dr. Wei Quan, Dr. Jianli Li, Dr. Xiaolin Gong and Dr. Jiancheng Fang are all researchers at the Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics.

  16. Indoor inertial waypoint navigation for the blind.

    Riehle, Timothy H; Anderson, Shane M; Lichter, Patrick A; Whalen, William E; Giudice, Nicholas A

    2013-01-01

    Indoor navigation technology is needed to support seamless mobility for the visually impaired. This paper describes the construction and evaluation of an inertial dead reckoning navigation system that provides real-time auditory guidance along mapped routes. Inertial dead reckoning is a navigation technique coupling step counting together with heading estimation to compute changes in position at each step. The research described here outlines the development and evaluation of a novel navigation system that utilizes information from the mapped route to limit the problematic error accumulation inherent in traditional dead reckoning approaches. The prototype system consists of a wireless inertial sensor unit, placed at the users' hip, which streams readings to a smartphone processing a navigation algorithm. Pilot human trials were conducted assessing system efficacy by studying route-following performance with blind and sighted subjects using the navigation system with real-time guidance, versus offline verbal directions. PMID:24110904

  17. Analysis of Learners' Navigational Behaviour and Their Learning Styles in an Online Course

    Graf, S.; Liu, T.-C.; Kinshuk,

    2010-01-01

    Providing adaptive features and personalized support by considering students' learning styles in computer-assisted learning systems has high potential in making learning easier for students in terms of reducing their efforts or increasing their performance. In this study, the navigational behaviour of students in an online course within a learning…

  18. Limitations of science and adaptive management

    Narasimhan, T. N.

    2001-01-01

    Adaptive management consists in patterning human sustenance within the constraints of Earth and biological systems whose behavior is inherently uncertain and difficult to control. For successful adaptive management, a mind-set recognizing the limitations of science is needed.

  19. [Laser navigation guided cleft lip repair].

    Bing, Shi

    2016-06-01

    A new method using the ideal mid-facial line as the navigating reference was introduced to improve the outcome of cleft lip repair. Using the verticle coordinate crossing the middle point of the intercanthus line, surgeons could observe and correct the distortion of the fine structures in labial-nasal area. This laser projecting mid-facial-line navigation was repeatable, while not interfere the operating. In conclusion, generalizing laser navigation is a valuable supplementary for cleft lip repair. PMID:27526442

  20. Konzeption und Implementierung eines Quellcode-Navigators

    Lu, Leiqin

    2004-01-01

    The Bauhaus project supports program understanding on both architectural level and source code level, which requires a graphical user interface tool for source code navigation. In this thesis a source code navigator is designed and implemented as part of the Bauhaus toolkit. The source code navigator cooperates with other tools in the Bauhaus toolkit. In particular, it is fully integrated with Gravis, the tool for architectural view, to provide an integrated environment for program unders...