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Sample records for adaptive modelling scheme

  1. Attitude determination using an adaptive multiple model filtering Scheme

    Lam, Quang; Ray, Surendra N.

    1995-05-01

    Attitude determination has been considered as a permanent topic of active research and perhaps remaining as a forever-lasting interest for spacecraft system designers. Its role is to provide a reference for controls such as pointing the directional antennas or solar panels, stabilizing the spacecraft or maneuvering the spacecraft to a new orbit. Least Square Estimation (LSE) technique was utilized to provide attitude determination for the Nimbus 6 and G. Despite its poor performance (estimation accuracy consideration), LSE was considered as an effective and practical approach to meet the urgent need and requirement back in the 70's. One reason for this poor performance associated with the LSE scheme is the lack of dynamic filtering or 'compensation'. In other words, the scheme is based totally on the measurements and no attempts were made to model the dynamic equations of motion of the spacecraft. We propose an adaptive filtering approach which employs a bank of Kalman filters to perform robust attitude estimation. The proposed approach, whose architecture is depicted, is essentially based on the latest proof on the interactive multiple model design framework to handle the unknown of the system noise characteristics or statistics. The concept fundamentally employs a bank of Kalman filter or submodel, instead of using fixed values for the system noise statistics for each submodel (per operating condition) as the traditional multiple model approach does, we use an on-line dynamic system noise identifier to 'identify' the system noise level (statistics) and update the filter noise statistics using 'live' information from the sensor model. The advanced noise identifier, whose architecture is also shown, is implemented using an advanced system identifier. To insure the robust performance for the proposed advanced system identifier, it is also further reinforced by a learning system which is implemented (in the outer loop) using neural networks to identify other unknown

  2. Scheme of adaptive polarization filtering based on Kalman model

    Song Lizhong; Qi Haiming; Qiao Xiaolin; Meng Xiande

    2006-01-01

    A new kind of adaptive polarization filtering algorithm in order to suppress the angle cheating interference for the active guidance radar is presented. The polarization characteristic of the interference is dynamically tracked by using Kalman estimator under variable environments with time. The polarization filter parameters are designed according to the polarization characteristic of the interference, and the polarization filtering is finished in the target cell. The system scheme of adaptive polarization filter is studied and the tracking performance of polarization filter and improvement of angle measurement precision are simulated. The research results demonstrate this technology can effectively suppress the angle cheating interference in guidance radar and is feasible in engineering.

  3. Unbiased Adaptive Expectation Schemes

    Antonio Palestrini; Mauro Gallegati

    2015-01-01

    There are situations in which the old-fashioned adaptive expectation process seems to provide a good description of agents' behavior (Chow, 2011). Unfortunately, this expectation scheme may not satisfy the necessary rationality condition (unconditional mean-zero error). This paper shows how to simply fix the problem introducing a bias correction term.

  4. Robust DTC-SVM Method for Matrix Converter Drives with Model Reference Adaptive Control Scheme

    Lee, Kyo Beum; Huh, Sunghoi; Sim, Kyung-Hun;

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a new robust DTC-SVM control system for high performance induction motor drives fed by a matrix converter with variable structure - model reference adaptive control scheme (VS-MRAC). It is possible to combine the advantages of matrix converters with the advantages of the DTC...

  5. Acceleration of the chemistry solver for modeling DI engine combustion using dynamic adaptive chemistry (DAC) schemes

    Shi, Yu; Liang, Long; Ge, Hai-Wen; Reitz, Rolf D.

    2010-03-01

    Acceleration of the chemistry solver for engine combustion is of much interest due to the fact that in practical engine simulations extensive computational time is spent solving the fuel oxidation and emission formation chemistry. A dynamic adaptive chemistry (DAC) scheme based on a directed relation graph error propagation (DRGEP) method has been applied to study homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine combustion with detailed chemistry (over 500 species) previously using an R-value-based breadth-first search (RBFS) algorithm, which significantly reduced computational times (by as much as 30-fold). The present paper extends the use of this on-the-fly kinetic mechanism reduction scheme to model combustion in direct-injection (DI) engines. It was found that the DAC scheme becomes less efficient when applied to DI engine simulations using a kinetic mechanism of relatively small size and the accuracy of the original DAC scheme decreases for conventional non-premixed combustion engine. The present study also focuses on determination of search-initiating species, involvement of the NOx chemistry, selection of a proper error tolerance, as well as treatment of the interaction of chemical heat release and the fuel spray. Both the DAC schemes were integrated into the ERC KIVA-3v2 code, and simulations were conducted to compare the two schemes. In general, the present DAC scheme has better efficiency and similar accuracy compared to the previous DAC scheme. The efficiency depends on the size of the chemical kinetics mechanism used and the engine operating conditions. For cases using a small n-heptane kinetic mechanism of 34 species, 30% of the computational time is saved, and 50% for a larger n-heptane kinetic mechanism of 61 species. The paper also demonstrates that by combining the present DAC scheme with an adaptive multi-grid chemistry (AMC) solver, it is feasible to simulate a direct-injection engine using a detailed n-heptane mechanism with 543 species

  6. Modelling Detailed-Chemistry Effects on Turbulent Diffusion Flames using a Parallel Solution-Adaptive Scheme

    Jha, Pradeep Kumar

    Capturing the effects of detailed-chemistry on turbulent combustion processes is a central challenge faced by the numerical combustion community. However, the inherent complexity and non-linear nature of both turbulence and chemistry require that combustion models rely heavily on engineering approximations to remain computationally tractable. This thesis proposes a computationally efficient algorithm for modelling detailed-chemistry effects in turbulent diffusion flames and numerically predicting the associated flame properties. The cornerstone of this combustion modelling tool is the use of parallel Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) scheme with the recently proposed Flame Prolongation of Intrinsic low-dimensional manifold (FPI) tabulated-chemistry approach for modelling complex chemistry. The effect of turbulence on the mean chemistry is incorporated using a Presumed Conditional Moment (PCM) approach based on a beta-probability density function (PDF). The two-equation k-w turbulence model is used for modelling the effects of the unresolved turbulence on the mean flow field. The finite-rate of methane-air combustion is represented here by using the GRI-Mech 3.0 scheme. This detailed mechanism is used to build the FPI tables. A state of the art numerical scheme based on a parallel block-based solution-adaptive algorithm has been developed to solve the Favre-averaged Navier-Stokes (FANS) and other governing partial-differential equations using a second-order accurate, fully-coupled finite-volume formulation on body-fitted, multi-block, quadrilateral/hexahedral mesh for two-dimensional and three-dimensional flow geometries, respectively. A standard fourth-order Runge-Kutta time-marching scheme is used for time-accurate temporal discretizations. Numerical predictions of three different diffusion flames configurations are considered in the present work: a laminar counter-flow flame; a laminar co-flow diffusion flame; and a Sydney bluff-body turbulent reacting flow

  7. Efficient, adaptive energy stable schemes for the incompressible Cahn-Hilliard Navier-Stokes phase-field models

    Chen, Ying; Shen, Jie

    2016-03-01

    In this paper we develop a fully adaptive energy stable scheme for Cahn-Hilliard Navier-Stokes system, which is a phase-field model for two-phase incompressible flows, consisting a Cahn-Hilliard-type diffusion equation and a Navier-Stokes equation. This scheme, which is decoupled and unconditionally energy stable based on stabilization, involves adaptive mesh, adaptive time and a nonlinear multigrid finite difference method. Numerical experiments are carried out to validate the scheme for problems with matched density and non-matched density, and also demonstrate that CPU time can be significantly reduced with our adaptive approach.

  8. An adaptive hybrid EnKF-OI scheme for efficient state-parameter estimation of reactive contaminant transport models

    El Gharamti, Mohamad

    2014-09-01

    Reactive contaminant transport models are used by hydrologists to simulate and study the migration and fate of industrial waste in subsurface aquifers. Accurate transport modeling of such waste requires clear understanding of the system\\'s parameters, such as sorption and biodegradation. In this study, we present an efficient sequential data assimilation scheme that computes accurate estimates of aquifer contamination and spatially variable sorption coefficients. This assimilation scheme is based on a hybrid formulation of the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) and optimal interpolation (OI) in which solute concentration measurements are assimilated via a recursive dual estimation of sorption coefficients and contaminant state variables. This hybrid EnKF-OI scheme is used to mitigate background covariance limitations due to ensemble under-sampling and neglected model errors. Numerical experiments are conducted with a two-dimensional synthetic aquifer in which cobalt-60, a radioactive contaminant, is leached in a saturated heterogeneous clayey sandstone zone. Assimilation experiments are investigated under different settings and sources of model and observational errors. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed hybrid EnKF-OI scheme successfully recovers both the contaminant and the sorption rate and reduces their uncertainties. Sensitivity analyses also suggest that the adaptive hybrid scheme remains effective with small ensembles, allowing to reduce the ensemble size by up to 80% with respect to the standard EnKF scheme. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Novel Link Adaptation Schemes for OFDM System

    LEI Ming; CAI Peng; XU Yue-shan; ZHANG Ping

    2003-01-01

    Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) is the most promising technique supporting the high data rate transmission. The combination of the link adaptation and OFDM can further increase the spectral efficiency. In this paper, we put forward two link adaptation schemes for OFDM system which have the advantages of both flexibility and practicability. Both of the two novel link adaptation schemes are based on the iterative mechanism to allocate the bit and power to subcarriers according to their channel gains and noisy levels which are assumed to be already known at the transmitter. The candidate modulation modes are determined freely before the link adaptation schemes are performed. The distinction between the two novel link adaptation schemes is that in the novel scheme A, the modulation mode is upgraded to the neighboring higher-order mode, while in the novel scheme B the modulation is upgraded to the genuine optimal mode. Therefore, the novel scheme A has the advantage of lower complexity and the novel scheme B has the advantage of higher spectral efficiency.

  10. Application of stable adaptive schemes to nuclear reactor systems, (1)

    Parameter identification and adaptive control schemes are presented for a point reactor with internal feedbacks which lead to the nonlinearity of the overall system. Both are shown stable with new representation of the system, which corresponds to the nonminimal system representation, in the vein of the Model Reference Adaptive System (MRAS) via the Lyapunov's method. For the sake of the parameter identification, model parameters can be adjusted adaptively as soon as measurements start, while plant parameters can also adaptively be compensated through control input to reduce the output error between the model and the plant for the case of the adaptive control. In the case of the adaptive control, control schemes are presented for two cases, the case of the unknown decay constant of the delayed neutron and the case of the known constant. The adaptive control scheme for the latter case is shown extremely simpler than that for the former. Furthermore, when plant parameters vary slowly with time, computer simulations show that the proposed adaptive control scheme works satisfactorily enough to stabilize an unstable reactor and that it does even in the noise with small variance. (auth.)

  11. Robust adaptive fuzzy control scheme for nonlinear system with uncertainty

    Mingjun ZHANG; Huaguang ZHANG

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, a robust adaptive fuzzy control scheme for a class of nonlinear system with uncertainty is proposed. First, using prior knowledge about the plant we obtain a fuzzy model, which is called the generalized fuzzy hyperbolic model (GFHM). Secondly, for the case that the states of the system are not available an observer is designed and a robust adaptive fuzzy output feedback control scheme is developed. The overall control system guarantees that the tracking error converges to a small neighborhood of origin and that all signals involved are uniformly bounded. The main advantages of the proposed control scheme are that the human knowledge about the plant under control can be used to design the controller and only one parameter in the adaptive mechanism needs to be on-line adjusted.

  12. A new adaptive scheme for the adaptive linearizing control of bioprocesses

    Ferreira, E. C.; Azevedo, S. Feyo de

    1996-01-01

    This work deals with the development of model-based adaptive control algorithms for bioprocess operation. Non-linear adaptive control laws are proposed for single input single output regulation. Parameters are continuously adapted following a new adaptive scheme which ensures second-order dynamics of the parameter error system. A computational study is presented of the application of this theory to baker’s yeast fermentation. Results put in evidence the efficient performance both of ...

  13. A systematic approach for the accurate non-invasive estimation of blood glucose utilizing a novel light-tissue interaction adaptive modelling scheme

    Diabetes is one of the biggest health challenges of the 21st century. The obesity epidemic, sedentary lifestyles and an ageing population mean prevalence of the condition is currently doubling every generation. Diabetes is associated with serious chronic ill health, disability and premature mortality. Long-term complications including heart disease, stroke, blindness, kidney disease and amputations, make the greatest contribution to the costs of diabetes care. Many of these long-term effects could be avoided with earlier, more effective monitoring and treatment. Currently, blood glucose can only be monitored through the use of invasive techniques. To date there is no widely accepted and readily available non-invasive monitoring technique to measure blood glucose despite the many attempts. This paper challenges one of the most difficult non-invasive monitoring techniques, that of blood glucose, and proposes a new novel approach that will enable the accurate, and calibration free estimation of glucose concentration in blood. This approach is based on spectroscopic techniques and a new adaptive modelling scheme. The theoretical implementation and the effectiveness of the adaptive modelling scheme for this application has been described and a detailed mathematical evaluation has been employed to prove that such a scheme has the capability of extracting accurately the concentration of glucose from a complex biological media

  14. Application of stable adaptive schemes to nuclear reactor systems, (3)

    Stable parameter identification and adaptive control schemes are considered for a reactor model embodying two temperature feedbacks-slow and fast. This reactor model is liable to see its feedback coefficients change sign in the course of long periods of operation, resulting in nonlinear oscillations of neutron flux, which cannot be described by a linearized model. This nonlinear system is expressed in terms of memoryless nonlinear elements in the feedback loop of a linear system, with the aid of linear and nonlinear transformations, and the nonlinear elements are here treated without being linearized. A new system representation is introduced, using which, stable parameter identification and adaptive control schemes are developed in the pattern of the Model Reference Adaptive System (MRAS) with use made of the Lyapunov method. Both schemes are shown to be stable, and furthermore globally stable if the input has frequencies sufficiently varied to permit all the excited modes to be considered linearly independent. It is thus shown that the estimated parameters converge to the true values for the parameter identification, and that, for the adaptive control, the output error between the plant and the model tends toward zero. (author)

  15. Application of stable adaptive schemes to nuclear reactor systems, (4)

    In undertaking parameter identification and adaptive control of a thermo-hydraulic system representing the core channels of nuclear reactor plants, if the flow velocity in a channel can be assumed to be the input and the outlet temperature the output, the system considered can be classed as bilinear on account of the multiplication terms for the temperature and flow velocity contained in the equations representing the same system. A new representation for this bilinear system is proposed, and the adaptive schemes for both parameter identification and control are developed in the pattern of the Model Reference Adaptive System with use made of the Lyapunov method. Both schemes are shown to be stable, and to further be globally stable if the inputs possess frequencies sufficiently varied. Some successful parameter identification experiments based on the proposed method are covered, which were performed on a test section representing a simplified channel in which the input-flow rate is varied in binary pattern. (author)

  16. A cross-layer adaptive transmission scheme over correlated fading channels

    XIAO Junfeng; QIU Jing; CHENG Shiduan

    2007-01-01

    Conventional adaptive transmission schemes perform poorly in wireless correlated slow-fading channels.A cross-layer adaptive transmission scheme combined with selective repeat automatic repeat request(SR-ARQ)is proposed.We apply a multi-state Markov system model for analyzing the performance of systems and optimizing the selection of modulation levels and packet sizes in correlated fading channels,which is also described by a finite-state Markov chain.A general closed-form expression of the average throughput for our suggested scheme is presented.Numerical results show that our adaptive scheme combined with SR-ARQ can obtain good performance in correlated fading channels.

  17. Effect of spatial configuration of an extended nonlinear Kierstead-Slobodkin reaction-transport model with adaptive numerical scheme.

    Owolabi, Kolade M; Patidar, Kailash C

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the numerical simulations of an extended nonlinear form of Kierstead-Slobodkin reaction-transport system in one and two dimensions. We employ the popular fourth-order exponential time differencing Runge-Kutta (ETDRK4) schemes proposed by Cox and Matthew (J Comput Phys 176:430-455, 2002), that was modified by Kassam and Trefethen (SIAM J Sci Comput 26:1214-1233, 2005), for the time integration of spatially discretized partial differential equations. We demonstrate the supremacy of ETDRK4 over the existing exponential time differencing integrators that are of standard approaches and provide timings and error comparison. Numerical results obtained in this paper have granted further insight to the question 'What is the minimal size of the spatial domain so that the population persists?' posed by Kierstead and Slobodkin (J Mar Res 12:141-147, 1953), with a conclusive remark that the population size increases with the size of the domain. In attempt to examine the biological wave phenomena of the solutions, we present the numerical results in both one- and two-dimensional space, which have interesting ecological implications. Initial data and parameter values were chosen to mimic some existing patterns. PMID:27064984

  18. Synchronization of general complex networks via adaptive control schemes

    Ping He; Chun-Guo Jing; Chang-Zhong Chen; Tao Fan; Hassan Saberi Nik

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, the synchronization problem of general complex networks is investigated by using adaptive control schemes. Time-delay coupling, derivative coupling, nonlinear coupling etc. exist universally in real-world complex networks. The adaptive synchronization scheme is designed for the complex network with multiple class of coupling terms. A criterion guaranteeing synchronization of such complex networks is established by employing the Lyapunov stability theorem and adaptive control schemes. Finally, an illustrative example with numerical simulation is given to show the feasibility and efficiency of theoretical results.

  19. Adaptive SPC monitoring scheme for DOE-based APC

    Ye Liang; Pan Ershun; Xi Lifeng

    2008-01-01

    Automatic process control (APC) based on design of experiment (DOE) is a cost-efficient approach for variation reduction. The process changes both in mean and variance owing to online parameter adjustment make it hard to apply traditional SPC charts in such DOE-based APC applied process. An adaptive SPC scheme is developed, which can better track the process transitions and achieve the possible SPC run cost reduction when the process is stable. The control law of SPC parameters is designed by fully utilizing the estimation properties of the process model instead of traditionally using the data collected from the production line. An example is provided to illustrate the proposed adaptive SPC design approach.

  20. Adaptive Multi-Resolution Scheme for Efficient Image Compression

    Babel, Marie; Déforges, Olivier; Ronsin, Joseph

    2003-01-01

    The LAR (Locally Adaptive Resolution) method is a multi-layers still image coding scheme, efficient from very low to high bit rates. The first stage is devoted to the representation and compression of the global information (low resolution image), and relies on an adaptive resolution in the image. This paper presents some improvements on the first layer through an original quad-tree like decomposition based on a predictive scheme, and the integration of a powerful interpolation post-processin...

  1. Adaptive Image Transmission Scheme over Wavelet-Based OFDM System

    GAOXinying; YUANDongfeng; ZHANGHaixia

    2005-01-01

    In this paper an adaptive image transmission scheme is proposed over Wavelet-based OFDM (WOFDM) system with Unequal error protection (UEP) by the design of non-uniform signal constellation in MLC. Two different data division schemes: byte-based and bitbased, are analyzed and compared. Different bits are protected unequally according to their different contribution to the image quality in bit-based data division scheme, which causes UEP combined with this scheme more powerful than that with byte-based scheme. Simulation results demonstrate that image transmission by UEP with bit-based data division scheme presents much higher PSNR values and surprisingly better image quality. Furthermore, by considering the tradeoff of complexity and BER performance, Haar wavelet with the shortest compactly supported filter length is the most suitable one among orthogonal Daubechies wavelet series in our proposed system.

  2. Adaptable Iterative and Recursive Kalman Filter Schemes

    Zanetti, Renato

    2014-01-01

    Nonlinear filters are often very computationally expensive and usually not suitable for real-time applications. Real-time navigation algorithms are typically based on linear estimators, such as the extended Kalman filter (EKF) and, to a much lesser extent, the unscented Kalman filter. The Iterated Kalman filter (IKF) and the Recursive Update Filter (RUF) are two algorithms that reduce the consequences of the linearization assumption of the EKF by performing N updates for each new measurement, where N is the number of recursions, a tuning parameter. This paper introduces an adaptable RUF algorithm to calculate N on the go, a similar technique can be used for the IKF as well.

  3. An adaptive chaotic secure communication scheme with channel noises

    In this Letter, an adaptive secure communication scheme with channel noises is proposed. Based on the idea of chaotic masking-modulation, the message is encrypted by a chaotic signal. By using adaptive feedback control techniques, the transmitter and the receiver are synchronized, so the masked signal can be perfectly recovered by the receiver in the presence of channel noises. In light of the Lyapunov stability theory for stochastic differential equations, several theoretical results are rigorously established. Finally, the famous Chua's circuits is used to illustrate the possible applications of the obtained theoretical results, and the computer simulations show that the proposed scheme is feasible and efficient

  4. Adaptive transmission schemes for MISO spectrum sharing systems

    Bouida, Zied

    2013-06-01

    We propose three adaptive transmission techniques aiming to maximize the capacity of a multiple-input-single-output (MISO) secondary system under the scenario of an underlay cognitive radio network. In the first scheme, namely the best antenna selection (BAS) scheme, the antenna maximizing the capacity of the secondary link is used for transmission. We then propose an orthogonal space time bloc code (OSTBC) transmission scheme using the Alamouti scheme with transmit antenna selection (TAS), namely the TAS/STBC scheme. The performance improvement offered by this scheme comes at the expense of an increased complexity and delay when compared to the BAS scheme. As a compromise between these schemes, we propose a hybrid scheme using BAS when only one antenna verifies the interference condition and TAS/STBC when two or more antennas are illegible for communication. We first derive closed-form expressions of the statistics of the received signal-to-interference-and-noise ratio (SINR) at the secondary receiver (SR). These results are then used to analyze the performance of the proposed techniques in terms of the average spectral efficiency, the average number of transmit antennas, and the average bit error rate (BER). This performance is then illustrated via selected numerical examples. © 2013 IEEE.

  5. Semantic HyperMultimedia Adaptation Schemes and Applications

    Bieliková, Mária; Mylonas, Phivos; Tsapatsoulis, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, more and more users are witnessing the impact of Hypermedia/Multimedia as well as the penetration of social applications in their life. Parallel to the evolution of the Internet and Web, several Hypermedia/Multimedia schemes and technologies bring semantic-based intelligent, personalized and adaptive services to the end users. More and more techniques are applied in media systems in order to be user/group-centric, adapting to different content and context features of a single or a community user. In respect to all the above, researchers need to explore and study the plethora of challenges that emergent personalisation and adaptation technologies bring to the new era. This edited volume aims to increase the awareness of researchers in this area. All contributions provide an in-depth investigation on research and deployment issues, regarding already introduced schemes and applications in Semantic Hyper/Multimedia and Social Media Adaptation. Moreover, the authors provide survey-based articles, so as p...

  6. Adaptive Mesh Redistibution Method Based on Godunov's Scheme

    Azarenok, Boris N.; Ivanenko, Sergey A.; Tang, Tao

    2003-01-01

    In this work, a detailed description for an efficent adaptive mesh redistribution algorithm based on the Godunov's scheme is presented. After each mesh iteration a second-order finite-volume flow solver is used to update the flow parameters at the new time level directly without using interpolation. Numerical experiments are perfomed to demonstrate the efficency and robustness of the proposed adaptive mesh algorithm in one and two dimensions.

  7. Low color distortion adaptive dimming scheme for power efficient LCDs

    Nam, Hyoungsik; Song, Eun-Ji

    2013-06-01

    This paper demonstrates the color compensation algorithm to reduce the color distortion caused by mismatches between the reference gamma value of a dimming algorithm and the display gamma values of an LCD panel in a low power adaptive dimming scheme. In 2010, we presented the YrYgYb algorithm, which used the display gamma values extracted from the luminance data of red, green, and blue sub-pixels, Yr, Yg, and Yb, with the simulation results. It was based on the ideal panel model where the color coordinates were maintained at the fixed values over the gray levels. Whereas, this work introduces an XrYgZb color compensation algorithm which obtains the display gamma values of red, green, and blue from the different tri-stimulus data of Xr, Yg, and Zb, to obtain further reduction on the color distortion. Both simulation and measurement results ensure that a XrYgZb algorithm outperforms a previous YrYgYb algorithm. In simulation which has been conducted at the practical model derived from the measured data, the XrYgZb scheme achieves lower maximum and average color difference values of 3.7743 and 0.6230 over 24 test picture images, compared to 4.864 and 0.7156 in the YrYgYb one. In measurement of a 19-inch LCD panel, the XrYgZb method also accomplishes smaller color difference values of 1.444072 and 5.588195 over 49 combinations of red, green, and blue data, compared to 1.50578 and 6.00403 of the YrYgYb at the backlight dimming ratios of 0.85 and 0.4.

  8. A Novel Adaptive Channel Allocation Scheme To Handle Handoffs(

    Alagu S

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Wireless networking is becoming an increasingly important and popular way of providing global information access to users on the move. One of the main challenges for seamless mobility is the availability of simple and robust handoff algorithms, which allow a mobile node to roam among heterogeneous wireless networks. In this paper, the authors devise a scheme, A Novel Adaptive Channel Allocation Scheme (ACAS where the number of guard channel(s is adjusted automatically based on the average handoff blocking rate measured in the past certain period of time. The handoff blocking rate is controlled under the designated threshold and the new call blocking rate is minimized. The performance evaluation of the ACAS is done through simulation of nodes. The result shows that the ACAS scheme outperforms the Static Channel Allocation Scheme by controlling a hard constraint on the handoff rejection probability. The proposed scheme achieves the optimal performance by maximizing the resource utilization and adapts itself to changing traffic conditions automatically.

  9. An Adaptive Ship Detection Scheme for Spaceborne SAR Imagery.

    Leng, Xiangguang; Ji, Kefeng; Zhou, Shilin; Xing, Xiangwei; Zou, Huanxin

    2016-01-01

    With the rapid development of spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and the increasing need of ship detection, research on adaptive ship detection in spaceborne SAR imagery is of great importance. Focusing on practical problems of ship detection, this paper presents a highly adaptive ship detection scheme for spaceborne SAR imagery. It is able to process a wide range of sensors, imaging modes and resolutions. Two main stages are identified in this paper, namely: ship candidate detection and ship discrimination. Firstly, this paper proposes an adaptive land masking method using ship size and pixel size. Secondly, taking into account the imaging mode, incidence angle, and polarization channel of SAR imagery, it implements adaptive ship candidate detection in spaceborne SAR imagery by applying different strategies to different resolution SAR images. Finally, aiming at different types of typical false alarms, this paper proposes a comprehensive ship discrimination method in spaceborne SAR imagery based on confidence level and complexity analysis. Experimental results based on RADARSAT-1, RADARSAT-2, TerraSAR-X, RS-1, and RS-3 images demonstrate that the adaptive scheme proposed in this paper is able to detect ship targets in a fast, efficient and robust way. PMID:27563902

  10. Power adaptation for joint switched diversity and adaptive modulation schemes in spectrum sharing systems

    Bouida, Zied

    2012-09-01

    Under the scenario of an underlay cognitive radio network, we propose in this paper an adaptive scheme using transmit power adaptation, switched transmit diversity, and adaptive modulation in order to improve the performance of existing switching efficient schemes (SES) and bandwidth efficient schemes (BES). Taking advantage of the channel reciprocity principle, we assume that the channel state information (CSI) of the interference link is available to the secondary transmitter. This information is then used by the secondary transmitter to adapt its transmit power, modulation constellation size, and used transmit branch. The goal of this joint adaptation is to minimize the average number of switched branches and the average system delay given the fading channel conditions, the required error rate performance, and a peak interference constraint to the primary receiver. We analyze the proposed scheme in terms of the average number of branch switching, average delay, and we provide a closed-form expression of the average bit error rate (BER). We demonstrate through numerical examples that the proposed scheme provides a compromise between the SES and the BES schemes. © 2012 IEEE.

  11. On Optimization Control Parameters in an Adaptive Error-Control Scheme in Satellite Networks

    Ranko Vojinović

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method for optimization of control parameters of an adaptive GBN scheme in error-prone satellite channel. Method is based on the channel model with three state, where channel have the variable noise level.

  12. Towards Adaptive High-Resolution Images Retrieval Schemes

    Kourgli, A.; Sebai, H.; Bouteldja, S.; Oukil, Y.

    2016-06-01

    Nowadays, content-based image-retrieval techniques constitute powerful tools for archiving and mining of large remote sensing image databases. High spatial resolution images are complex and differ widely in their content, even in the same category. All images are more or less textured and structured. During the last decade, different approaches for the retrieval of this type of images have been proposed. They differ mainly in the type of features extracted. As these features are supposed to efficiently represent the query image, they should be adapted to all kind of images contained in the database. However, if the image to recognize is somewhat or very structured, a shape feature will be somewhat or very effective. While if the image is composed of a single texture, a parameter reflecting the texture of the image will reveal more efficient. This yields to use adaptive schemes. For this purpose, we propose to investigate this idea to adapt the retrieval scheme to image nature. This is achieved by making some preliminary analysis so that indexing stage becomes supervised. First results obtained show that by this way, simple methods can give equal performances to those obtained using complex methods such as the ones based on the creation of bag of visual word using SIFT (Scale Invariant Feature Transform) descriptors and those based on multi scale features extraction using wavelets and steerable pyramids.

  13. Quick Local Repair Scheme using Adaptive Promiscuous Mode in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Joo-Sang Youn

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available In mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs, there is frequently disconnected a route consisting of multi- hop from a source to a destination because of the dynamic nature such as the topology change caused by nodes’ mobility. To overcome this situation, existing routing protocols for MANETs have performed route repair scheme to repair the disconnected route. However, existing reactive routing protocols have the problem which is that a source node unnecessarily performs re-discovers the whole path when just one node moves, even if the rest of path needs not to be re-arranged. Therefore, the time for re-discovery of the whole path may often take too long. To solve the problem, we propose a new local repair scheme using promiscuous mode. Our scheme is mainly composed of two parts: adaptive promiscuous mode and quick local repair scheme. Adaptive promiscuous mode is to repeat the switching processes between promiscuous mode and nonpromiscuous mode to overcome energy limit caused by using promiscuous mode in overall time and quick local repair scheme is to fast perform the local re-route discovery process with the information of the active connection in the local area acquired by promiscuous mode. With simulation in the various number of connection, We demonstrate the better network performances achieved with the proposed schemes as compared with AODV as reference model that do not provide local repair scheme.

  14. Residual Distribution Schemes for Conservation Laws Via Adaptive Quadrature

    Barth, Timothy; Abgrall, Remi; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This paper considers a family of nonconservative numerical discretizations for conservation laws which retains the correct weak solution behavior in the limit of mesh refinement whenever sufficient order numerical quadrature is used. Our analysis of 2-D discretizations in nonconservative form follows the 1-D analysis of Hou and Le Floch. For a specific family of nonconservative discretizations, it is shown under mild assumptions that the error arising from non-conservation is strictly smaller than the discretization error in the scheme. In the limit of mesh refinement under the same assumptions, solutions are shown to satisfy an entropy inequality. Using results from this analysis, a variant of the "N" (Narrow) residual distribution scheme of van der Weide and Deconinck is developed for first-order systems of conservation laws. The modified form of the N-scheme supplants the usual exact single-state mean-value linearization of flux divergence, typically used for the Euler equations of gasdynamics, by an equivalent integral form on simplex interiors. This integral form is then numerically approximated using an adaptive quadrature procedure. This renders the scheme nonconservative in the sense described earlier so that correct weak solutions are still obtained in the limit of mesh refinement. Consequently, we then show that the modified form of the N-scheme can be easily applied to general (non-simplicial) element shapes and general systems of first-order conservation laws equipped with an entropy inequality where exact mean-value linearization of the flux divergence is not readily obtained, e.g. magnetohydrodynamics, the Euler equations with certain forms of chemistry, etc. Numerical examples of subsonic, transonic and supersonic flows containing discontinuities together with multi-level mesh refinement are provided to verify the analysis.

  15. An Adaptive Motion Estimation Scheme for Video Coding

    Pengyu Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The unsymmetrical-cross multihexagon-grid search (UMHexagonS is one of the best fast Motion Estimation (ME algorithms in video encoding software. It achieves an excellent coding performance by using hybrid block matching search pattern and multiple initial search point predictors at the cost of the computational complexity of ME increased. Reducing time consuming of ME is one of the key factors to improve video coding efficiency. In this paper, we propose an adaptive motion estimation scheme to further reduce the calculation redundancy of UMHexagonS. Firstly, new motion estimation search patterns have been designed according to the statistical results of motion vector (MV distribution information. Then, design a MV distribution prediction method, including prediction of the size of MV and the direction of MV. At last, according to the MV distribution prediction results, achieve self-adaptive subregional searching by the new estimation search patterns. Experimental results show that more than 50% of total search points are dramatically reduced compared to the UMHexagonS algorithm in JM 18.4 of H.264/AVC. As a result, the proposed algorithm scheme can save the ME time up to 20.86% while the rate-distortion performance is not compromised.

  16. An adaptive interpolation scheme for molecular potential energy surfaces.

    Kowalewski, Markus; Larsson, Elisabeth; Heryudono, Alfa

    2016-08-28

    The calculation of potential energy surfaces for quantum dynamics can be a time consuming task-especially when a high level of theory for the electronic structure calculation is required. We propose an adaptive interpolation algorithm based on polyharmonic splines combined with a partition of unity approach. The adaptive node refinement allows to greatly reduce the number of sample points by employing a local error estimate. The algorithm and its scaling behavior are evaluated for a model function in 2, 3, and 4 dimensions. The developed algorithm allows for a more rapid and reliable interpolation of a potential energy surface within a given accuracy compared to the non-adaptive version. PMID:27586901

  17. An adaptive interpolation scheme for molecular potential energy surfaces

    Kowalewski, Markus; Heryudono, Alfa

    2016-01-01

    The calculation of potential energy surfaces for quantum dynamics can be a time consuming task -- especially when a high level of theory for the electronic structure calculation is required. We propose an adaptive interpolation algorithm based on polyharmonic splines combined with a partition of unity approach. The adaptive node refinement allows to greatly reduce the number of sample points by employing a local error estimate. The algorithm and its scaling behavior is evaluated for a model function in 2, 3 and 4 dimensions. The developed algorithm allows for a more rapid and reliable interpolation of a potential energy surface within a given accuracy compared to the non-adaptive version.

  18. Efficient and stable model reduction scheme for the numerical simulation of broadband acoustic metamaterials

    Hyun, Jaeyub; Kook, Junghwan; Wang, Semyung

    2015-01-01

    This study proposes an efficient and stable model reduction scheme for the numerical simulation of broadband, inhomogeneous, and anisotropic acoustic systems. Unlike a conventional model reduction scheme, the proposed model reduction scheme uses the adaptive quasi-static Ritz vector (AQSRV) as a ...

  19. A Self-Adaptive Behavior-Aware Recruitment Scheme for Participatory Sensing

    Yuanyuan Zeng

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Participatory sensing services utilizing the abundant social participants with sensor-enabled handheld smart device resources are gaining high interest nowadays. One of the challenges faced is the recruitment of participants by fully utilizing their daily activity behavior with self-adaptiveness toward the realistic application scenarios. In the paper, we propose a self-adaptive behavior-aware recruitment scheme for participatory sensing. People are assumed to join the sensing tasks along with their daily activity without pre-defined ground truth or any instructions. The scheme is proposed to model the tempo-spatial behavior and data quality rating to select participants for participatory sensing campaign. Based on this, the recruitment is formulated as a linear programming problem by considering tempo-spatial coverage, data quality, and budget. The scheme enables one to check and adjust the recruitment strategy adaptively according to application scenarios. The evaluations show that our scheme provides efficient sensing performance as stability, low-cost, tempo-spatial correlation and self-adaptiveness.

  20. A Self-Adaptive Behavior-Aware Recruitment Scheme for Participatory Sensing.

    Zeng, Yuanyuan; Li, Deshi

    2015-01-01

    Participatory sensing services utilizing the abundant social participants with sensor-enabled handheld smart device resources are gaining high interest nowadays. One of the challenges faced is the recruitment of participants by fully utilizing their daily activity behavior with self-adaptiveness toward the realistic application scenarios. In the paper, we propose a self-adaptive behavior-aware recruitment scheme for participatory sensing. People are assumed to join the sensing tasks along with their daily activity without pre-defined ground truth or any instructions. The scheme is proposed to model the tempo-spatial behavior and data quality rating to select participants for participatory sensing campaign. Based on this, the recruitment is formulated as a linear programming problem by considering tempo-spatial coverage, data quality, and budget. The scheme enables one to check and adjust the recruitment strategy adaptively according to application scenarios. The evaluations show that our scheme provides efficient sensing performance as stability, low-cost, tempo-spatial correlation and self-adaptiveness. PMID:26389910

  1. Adaptive Decision-Making Scheme for Cognitive Radio Networks

    Alqerm, Ismail

    2014-05-01

    Radio resource management becomes an important aspect of the current wireless networks because of spectrum scarcity and applications heterogeneity. Cognitive radio is a potential candidate for resource management because of its capability to satisfy the growing wireless demand and improve network efficiency. Decision-making is the main function of the radio resources management process as it determines the radio parameters that control the use of these resources. In this paper, we propose an adaptive decision-making scheme (ADMS) for radio resources management of different types of network applications including: power consuming, emergency, multimedia, and spectrum sharing. ADMS exploits genetic algorithm (GA) as an optimization tool for decision-making. It consists of the several objective functions for the decision-making process such as minimizing power consumption, packet error rate (PER), delay, and interference. On the other hand, maximizing throughput and spectral efficiency. Simulation results and test bed evaluation demonstrate ADMS functionality and efficiency.

  2. An adaptive additive inflation scheme for Ensemble Kalman Filters

    Sommer, Matthias; Janjic, Tijana

    2016-04-01

    Data assimilation for atmospheric dynamics requires an accurate estimate for the uncertainty of the forecast in order to obtain an optimal combination with available observations. This uncertainty has two components, firstly the uncertainty which originates in the the initial condition of that forecast itself and secondly the error of the numerical model used. While the former can be approximated quite successfully with an ensemble of forecasts (an additional sampling error will occur), little is known about the latter. For ensemble data assimilation, ad-hoc methods to address model error include multiplicative and additive inflation schemes, possibly also flow-dependent. The additive schemes rely on samples for the model error e.g. from short-term forecast tendencies or differences of forecasts with varying resolutions. However since these methods work in ensemble space (i.e. act directly on the ensemble perturbations) the sampling error is fixed and can be expected to affect the skill substiantially. In this contribution we show how inflation can be generalized to take into account more degrees of freedom and what improvements for future operational ensemble data assimilation can be expected from this, also in comparison with other inflation schemes.

  3. A well-balanced numerical scheme for shallow water simulation on adaptive grids

    The efficiency of solving two-dimensional shallow-water equations (SWEs) is vital for simulation of large-scale flood inundation. For flood flows over real topography, local high-resolution method, which uses adaptable grids, is required in order to prevent the loss of accuracy of the flow pattern while saving computational cost. This paper introduces an adaptive grid model, which uses an adaptive criterion calculated on the basis of the water lever. The grid adaption is performed by manipulating subdivision levels of the computation grids. As the flow feature varies during the shallow wave propagation, the local grid density changes adaptively and the stored information of neighbor relationship updates correspondingly, achieving a balance between the model accuracy and running efficiency. In this work, a well-balanced (WB) scheme for solving SWEs is introduced. In reconstructions of Riemann state, the definition of the unique bottom elevation on grid interfaces is modified, and the numerical scheme is pre-balanced automatically. By the validation against two idealist test cases, the proposed model is applied to simulate flood inundation due to a dam-break of Zhanghe Reservoir, Hubei province, China. The results show that the presented model is robust and well-balanced, has nice computational efficiency and numerical stability, and thus has bright application prospects.

  4. Kinematic dynamos using constrained transport with high order Godunov schemes and adaptive mesh refinement

    Teyssier, Romain; Fromang, Sébastien; Dormy, Emmanuel

    2006-10-01

    We propose to extend the well-known MUSCL-Hancock scheme for Euler equations to the induction equation modeling the magnetic field evolution in kinematic dynamo problems. The scheme is based on an integral form of the underlying conservation law which, in our formulation, results in a “finite-surface” scheme for the induction equation. This naturally leads to the well-known “constrained transport” method, with additional continuity requirement on the magnetic field representation. The second ingredient in the MUSCL scheme is the predictor step that ensures second order accuracy both in space and time. We explore specific constraints that the mathematical properties of the induction equations place on this predictor step, showing that three possible variants can be considered. We show that the most aggressive formulations (referred to as C-MUSCL and U-MUSCL) reach the same level of accuracy as the other one (referred to as Runge Kutta), at a lower computational cost. More interestingly, these two schemes are compatible with the adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) framework. It has been implemented in the AMR code RAMSES. It offers a novel and efficient implementation of a second order scheme for the induction equation. We have tested it by solving two kinematic dynamo problems in the low diffusion limit. The construction of this scheme for the induction equation constitutes a step towards solving the full MHD set of equations using an extension of our current methodology.

  5. ADAPTIVE LIFTING BASED IMAGE COMPRESSION SCHEME WITH PARTICLE SWARM OPTIMIZATION TECHNIQUE

    Nishat kanvel; Dr.S.Letitia,; Dr.Elwin Chandra Monie

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an adaptive lifting scheme with Particle Swarm Optimization technique for image compression. Particle swarm Optimization technique is used to improve the accuracy of the predictionfunction used in the lifting scheme. This scheme is applied in Image compression and parameters such as PSNR, Compression Ratio and the visual quality of the image is calculated .The proposed scheme iscompared with the existing methods.

  6. An adaptive blind watermarking scheme utilizing neural network for synchronization

    WU Jian-zhen; XIE Jian-ying; YANG Yu-pu

    2007-01-01

    An important problem constraining the practical implementation of robust watermarking technology is the low robustness of existing algorithms against geometrical distortions. An adaptive blind watermarking scheme utilizing neural network for synchronization is proposed in this paper,which allows to recover watermark even if the image has been subjected to generalized geometrical transforms. Through classification of image's brightness, texture and contrast sensitivity utilizing fuzzy clustering theory and human visual system, more robust watermark is adaptively embedded in DWT domain. In order to register rotation, scaling and translation parameters, feedforward neural network is utilized to learn image geometric pattern represented by six combined low order image moments. The distortion can be inverted after determining the affine distortion applied to the image and watermark can be extracted in a standard way without original image. It only needs a trained neural network. Experimental results demonstrate its advantages over previous method in terms of computational effectiveness and parameter estimation accuracy. It can embed more robust watermark under certain visual distance, and effectively resist JPEG compression, noise and geometric attacks.

  7. Adaptive QoS Class Allocation Schemes in Multi-Domain Path-Based Networks

    Ogino, Nagao; Nakamura, Hajime

    MPLS-based path technology shows promise as a means of realizing reliable IP networks. Real-time services such as VoIP and video-conference supplied through a multi-domain MPLS network must be able to guarantee end-to-end QoS of the inter-domain paths. Thus, it is important to allocate an appropriate QoS class to the inter-domain paths in each domain traversed by the inter-domain paths. Because each domain has its own policy for QoS class allocation, it is necessary to adaptively allocate the optimum QoS class based on estimation of the QoS class allocation policies in other domains. This paper proposes two kinds of adaptive QoS class allocation schemes, assuming that the arriving inter-domain path requests include the number of downstream domains traversed by the inter-domain paths and the remaining QoS value toward the destination nodes. First, a measurement-based scheme, based on measurement of the loss rates of inter-domain paths in the downstream domains, is proposed. This scheme estimates the QoS class allocation policies in the downstream domains, using the measured loss rates of path requests. Second, a state-dependent type scheme, based on measurement of the arrival rates of path requests in addition to the loss rates of paths in the downstream domains, is also proposed. This scheme allows an appropriate QoS class to be allocated according to the domain state. This paper proposes an application of the Markov decision theory to the modeling of state-dependent type scheme. The performances of the proposed schemes are evaluated and compared with those of the other less complicated non-adaptive schemes using a computer simulation. The results of the comparison reveal that the proposed schemes can adaptively increase the number of inter-domain paths accommodated in the considered domain, even when the QoS class allocation policies change in the other domains and the arrival pattern of path requests varies in the considered domain.

  8. New Adaptive Data Transmission Scheme Over HF Radio

    Adil H. Ahmad

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Acceptable Bit Error rate can be maintained by adapting some of the design parameters such as modulation, symbol rate, constellation size, and transmit power according to the channel state.An estimate of HF propagation effects can be used to design an adaptive data transmission system over HF link. The proposed system combines the well known Automatic Link Establishment (ALE together with variable rate transmission system. The standard ALE is modified to suite the required goal of selecting the best carrier frequency (channel for a given transmission. This is based on measuring SINAD (Signal plus Noise plus Distortion to Noise plus Distortion, RSL (Received Signal Level, multipath phase distortion and BER (Bit Error Rate for each channel in the frequency list. Channel condition evaluation is done by two arrangements. In the first an FFT analysis is used where a pilot signal is transmitted over the channel, while the data itself is used in the second arrangement. Passive channel assessment is used to avoid bad channels hence limiting the frequency pool size to be used in the point to point communication and the time required for scanning and linking. An exchange of channel information between the transmitting and receiving stations is considered to select the modulation scheme for transmission. Mainly MPSK and MFSK are considered with different levels giving different data rate according to the channel condition. The results of the computer simulation have shown that when transmitting at a fixed channel symbol rate of 1200 symbol/sec, the information rate ranges from 2400 bps using 4FSK up to 3600 bps using 8PSK for SNR ranges from 11dB up to 26dB.

  9. An adaptive nonlinear solution scheme for reservoir simulation

    Lett, G.S. [Scientific Software - Intercomp, Inc., Denver, CO (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Numerical reservoir simulation involves solving large, nonlinear systems of PDE with strongly discontinuous coefficients. Because of the large demands on computer memory and CPU, most users must perform simulations on very coarse grids. The average properties of the fluids and rocks must be estimated on these grids. These coarse grid {open_quotes}effective{close_quotes} properties are costly to determine, and risky to use, since their optimal values depend on the fluid flow being simulated. Thus, they must be found by trial-and-error techniques, and the more coarse the grid, the poorer the results. This paper describes a numerical reservoir simulator which accepts fine scale properties and automatically generates multiple levels of coarse grid rock and fluid properties. The fine grid properties and the coarse grid simulation results are used to estimate discretization errors with multilevel error expansions. These expansions are local, and identify areas requiring local grid refinement. These refinements are added adoptively by the simulator, and the resulting composite grid equations are solved by a nonlinear Fast Adaptive Composite (FAC) Grid method, with a damped Newton algorithm being used on each local grid. The nonsymmetric linear system of equations resulting from Newton`s method are in turn solved by a preconditioned Conjugate Gradients-like algorithm. The scheme is demonstrated by performing fine and coarse grid simulations of several multiphase reservoirs from around the world.

  10. On-line Adaptive and Intelligent Distance Relaying Scheme for Power Network

    Dubey, Rahul; Samantaray, S. R.; Panigrahi, B. K.; Venkoparao, G. V.

    2015-10-01

    The paper presents an on-line sequential extreme learning machine (OS-ELM) based fast and accurate adaptive distance relaying scheme (ADRS) for transmission line protection. The proposed method develops an adaptive relay characteristics suitable to the changes in the physical conditions of the power systems. This can efficiently update the trained model on-line by partial training on the new data to reduce the model updating time whenever a new special case occurs. The effectiveness of the proposed method is validated on simulation platform for test system with two terminal parallel transmission lines with complex mutual coupling. The test results, considering wide variations in operating conditions of the faulted power network, indicate that the proposed adaptive relay setting provides significant improvement in the relay performance.

  11. Adaptive Covariance Inflation in a Multi-Resolution Assimilation Scheme

    Hickmann, K. S.; Godinez, H. C.

    2015-12-01

    When forecasts are performed using modern data assimilation methods observation and model error can be scaledependent. During data assimilation the blending of error across scales can result in model divergence since largeerrors at one scale can be propagated across scales during the analysis step. Wavelet based multi-resolution analysiscan be used to separate scales in model and observations during the application of an ensemble Kalman filter. However,this separation is done at the cost of implementing an ensemble Kalman filter at each scale. This presents problemswhen tuning the covariance inflation parameter at each scale. We present a method to adaptively tune a scale dependentcovariance inflation vector based on balancing the covariance of the innovation and the covariance of observations ofthe ensemble. Our methods are demonstrated on a one dimensional Kuramoto-Sivashinsky (K-S) model known todemonstrate non-linear interactions between scales.

  12. Adaptive multi-objective Optimization scheme for cognitive radio resource management

    Alqerm, Ismail

    2014-12-01

    Cognitive Radio is an intelligent Software Defined Radio that is capable to alter its transmission parameters according to predefined objectives and wireless environment conditions. Cognitive engine is the actuator that performs radio parameters configuration by exploiting optimization and machine learning techniques. In this paper, we propose an Adaptive Multi-objective Optimization Scheme (AMOS) for cognitive radio resource management to improve spectrum operation and network performance. The optimization relies on adapting radio transmission parameters to environment conditions using constrained optimization modeling called fitness functions in an iterative manner. These functions include minimizing power consumption, Bit Error Rate, delay and interference. On the other hand, maximizing throughput and spectral efficiency. Cross-layer optimization is exploited to access environmental parameters from all TCP/IP stack layers. AMOS uses adaptive Genetic Algorithm in terms of its parameters and objective weights as the vehicle of optimization. The proposed scheme has demonstrated quick response and efficiency in three different scenarios compared to other schemes. In addition, it shows its capability to optimize the performance of TCP/IP layers as whole not only the physical layer.

  13. ATPM: An Energy Efficient MAC Protocol with Adaptive Transmit Power Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Qian Hu

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The MAC protocol for wireless sensor networks is different from traditional wireless MACs such as IEEE 802.11. Energy conservation is one of the most important goals, while per-node fairness and latency are less important. This paper proposes an energy efficient MAC protocol with adaptive transmit power scheme based on SMAC/AL named ATPM (Adaptive Transmit Power MAC. In SMAC/AL, all the nodes transmit data with a fixed power level, no matter how close the involved nodes are. The proposed ATPM can calculate the distance between the sender and the receiver by measuring the received power, and then adaptively decide the appropriate transmit power level according to the propagation model and distance. Simulations have been done to evaluate the performance of the proposed new protocol, by which we can find out that ATPM can really reduce energy consumption compared with SMAC/AL.

  14. Automated adaptive sliding mode control scheme for a class of real complicated systems

    M Shahi; A H Mazinan

    2015-02-01

    A class of real complicated systems, including chemical reactions, biological systems, information processing, laser systems, electrical circuits, information exchange, brain activities modelling, secure communication and other related ones can be presented through nonlinear and non-identical hyper-chaotic systems. The main goal of the present investigation is to synchronize two non-identical hyperchaotic master/slave systems, which are given as the models of the complicated systems, based on the realization of an efficient automated adaptive sliding mode control scheme. In the research presented here, the mentioned systems need to be dealt with through the proposed control scheme, since two non-identical systems are completely synchronized. In one such case, the whole of the chosen states of the master and slave systems should be coincided after a few time steps, as long as the effect of the external disturbance, uncertainty and unknown parameters could truly be ignored. Due to the fact that the investigated hyper-chaotic systems have taken into consideration as the representation of a number of complicated processes under mentioned external disturbance, uncertainty and unknown parameters, the traditional control approaches cannot actually be realized, in satisfactory manners.With this purpose, the proposed control scheme has been designed to cope with synchronization error, in a reasonable amount of time, in order to drive applicable hyper-chaotic systems. Consequently, the performance of the proposed control scheme is considered and verified through the numerical simulations.

  15. ADAPTATIVE IMAGE WATERMARKING SCHEME BASED ON NEURAL NETWORK

    BASSEL SOLAIMANE

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Digital image watermarking has been proposed as a method to enhance medical data security, confidentiality and integrity. Medical image watermarking requires extreme care when embedding additional data, given their importance to clinical diagnosis, treatment, and research. In this paper, a novel image watermarking approach based on the human visual system (HVS model and neural network technique is proposed. The watermark was inserted into the middle frequency coefficients of the cover image’s blocked DCT based transform domain. In order to make the watermark stronger and less susceptible to different types of attacks, it is essential to find the maximum amount of interested watermark before the watermark becomes visible. In this paper, neural networks are used to implement an automated system of creating maximum-strength watermarks. The experimental results show that such method can survive of common image processing operations and has good adaptability for automated watermark embedding.

  16. A novel adaptive classification scheme for digital modulations in satellite communication

    Wu Dan; Gu Xuemai; Guo Qing

    2007-01-01

    To make the modulation classification system more suitable for signals in a wide range of signal to noise ratios (SNRs) , a novel adaptive modulation classification scheme is presented in this paper. Different from traditional schemes, the proposed scheme employs a new SNR estimation algorithm for small samples before modulation classification, which makes the modulation classifier work adaptively according to estimated SNRs. Furthermore, it uses three efficient features and support vector machines (SVM) in modulation classification. Computer simulation shows that the scheme can adaptively classify ten digital modulation types (i.e. 2ASK, 4ASK, 2FSK, 4FSK, 2PSK, 4PSK, 16QAM, TFM, π/4QPSK and OQPSK) at SNRS ranging from OdB to 25 dB and success rates are over 95% when SNR is not lower than 3dB. Accuracy, efficiency and simplicity of the proposed scheme are obviously improved, which make it more adaptive to engineering applications.

  17. A High Fuel Consumption Efficiency Management Scheme for PHEVs Using an Adaptive Genetic Algorithm

    Wah Ching Lee; Kim Fung Tsang; Hao Ran Chi; Faan Hei Hung; Chung Kit Wu; Kwok Tai Chui; Wing Hong Lau; Yat Wah Leung

    2015-01-01

    A high fuel efficiency management scheme for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) has been developed. In order to achieve fuel consumption reduction, an adaptive genetic algorithm scheme has been designed to adaptively manage the energy resource usage. The objective function of the genetic algorithm is implemented by designing a fuzzy logic controller which closely monitors and resembles the driving conditions and environment of PHEVs, thus trading off between petrol versus electricity fo...

  18. Subset Optimization of Adaptive Coding and Modulation Schemes for Broadband Satellite Systems

    Boussemart, Vincent; Brandt, Hartmut; Berioli, Matteo

    2010-01-01

    The number of Coding and Modulation Schemes suggested for the two standards DVB-S2 and DVB-RCS (in its "advanced" version) is clearly overdimensioned; a subset of schemes can be used by reducing the overall system performance negligibly. This paper presents the investigations performed on this rain fading mitigation technique, called Adaptive Coding and Modulation (ACM), supported by the DVB-S2 standard and shows how the sets of modulation and coding schemes, considered in the forward- and in...

  19. The new Exponential Directional Iterative (EDI) 3-D Sn scheme for parallel adaptive differencing

    The new Exponential Directional Iterative (EDI) discrete ordinates (Sn) scheme for 3-D Cartesian Coordinates is presented. The EDI scheme is a logical extension of the positive, efficient Exponential Directional Weighted (EDW) Sn scheme currently used as the third level of the adaptive spatial differencing algorithm in the PENTRAN parallel discrete ordinates solver. Here, the derivation and advantages of the EDI scheme are presented; EDI uses EDW-rendered exponential coefficients as initial starting values to begin a fixed point iteration of the exponential coefficients. One issue that required evaluation was an iterative cutoff criterion to prevent the application of an unstable fixed point iteration; although this was needed in some cases, it was readily treated with a default to EDW. Iterative refinement of the exponential coefficients in EDI typically converged in fewer than four fixed point iterations. Moreover, EDI yielded more accurate angular fluxes compared to the other schemes tested, particularly in streaming conditions. Overall, it was found that the EDI scheme was up to an order of magnitude more accurate than the EDW scheme on a given mesh interval in streaming cases, and is potentially a good candidate as a fourth-level differencing scheme in the PENTRAN adaptive differencing sequence. The 3-D Cartesian computational cost of EDI was only about 20% more than the EDW scheme, and about 40% more than Diamond Zero (DZ). More evaluation and testing are required to determine suitable upgrade metrics for EDI to be fully integrated into the current adaptive spatial differencing sequence in PENTRAN. (author)

  20. Performance analysis of joint diversity combining, adaptive modulation, and power control schemes

    Qaraqe, Khalid A.

    2011-01-01

    Adaptive modulation and diversity combining represent very important adaptive solutions for future generations of wireless communication systems. Indeed, in order to improve the performance and the efficiency of these systems, these two techniques have been recently used jointly in new schemes named joint adaptive modulation and diversity combining (JAMDC) schemes. Considering the problem of finding low hardware complexity, bandwidth-efficient, and processing-power efficient transmission schemes for a downlink scenario and capitalizing on some of these recently proposed JAMDC schemes, we propose and analyze in this paper three joint adaptive modulation, diversity combining, and power control (JAMDCPC) schemes where a constant-power variable-rate adaptive modulation technique is used with an adaptive diversity combining scheme and a common power control process. More specifically, the modulation constellation size, the number of combined diversity paths, and the needed power level are jointly determined to achieve the highest spectral efficiency with the lowest possible processing power consumption quantified in terms of the average number of combined paths, given the fading channel conditions and the required bit error rate (BER) performance. In this paper, the performance of these three JAMDCPC schemes is analyzed in terms of their spectral efficiency, processing power consumption, and error-rate performance. Selected numerical examples show that these schemes considerably increase the spectral efficiency of the existing JAMDC schemes with a slight increase in the average number of combined paths for the low signal-to-noise ratio range while maintaining compliance with the BER performance and a low radiated power which yields to a substantial decrease in interference to co-existing users and systems. © 2011 IEEE.

  1. A stable adaptive synchronization scheme for uncertain chaotic systems via observer

    Ayati, Moosa [Department of Electrical Engineering, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: ayati@dena.kntu.ac.ir; Khaloozadeh, Hamid [Department of Electrical Engineering, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2009-11-30

    A novel observer-based adaptive synchronization scheme is presented which is used in a chaos communication system. Also, a new nonlinear stochastic adaptive sliding mode observer is extended to reconstruct the states of the stochastic chaotic transmitter at the receiver. The observer is able to overcome the effect of model and parameters uncertainties as well as transmitter, channel and measurement noises. Moreover, a theorem is presented to prove the stability in probability of the proposed observer using stochastic Lyapunov stability criterion. The time-varying adaptation gains of the observer resulted from the proposed theorem ensure fast convergence of the estimated states. Adaptation gains are bounded and do not have any singularity problem especially when the mean value of the observer states' error. In this paper, the parameters of the transmitter are unknown or are changed intermittently to increase the security of the message transmission. Performance of the message reconstruction in the receiver is enhanced using the scalar transmitted signal to estimate the parameters of the transmitter.

  2. A stable adaptive synchronization scheme for uncertain chaotic systems via observer

    A novel observer-based adaptive synchronization scheme is presented which is used in a chaos communication system. Also, a new nonlinear stochastic adaptive sliding mode observer is extended to reconstruct the states of the stochastic chaotic transmitter at the receiver. The observer is able to overcome the effect of model and parameters uncertainties as well as transmitter, channel and measurement noises. Moreover, a theorem is presented to prove the stability in probability of the proposed observer using stochastic Lyapunov stability criterion. The time-varying adaptation gains of the observer resulted from the proposed theorem ensure fast convergence of the estimated states. Adaptation gains are bounded and do not have any singularity problem especially when the mean value of the observer states' error. In this paper, the parameters of the transmitter are unknown or are changed intermittently to increase the security of the message transmission. Performance of the message reconstruction in the receiver is enhanced using the scalar transmitted signal to estimate the parameters of the transmitter.

  3. Adaptive nonseparable vector lifting scheme for digital holographic data compression.

    Xing, Yafei; Kaaniche, Mounir; Pesquet-Popescu, Béatrice; Dufaux, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    Holographic data play a crucial role in recent three-dimensional imaging as well as microscopic applications. As a result, huge amounts of storage capacity will be involved for this kind of data. Therefore, it becomes necessary to develop efficient hologram compression schemes for storage and transmission purposes. In this paper, we focus on the shifted distance information, obtained by the phase-shifting algorithm, where two sets of difference data need to be encoded. More precisely, a nonseparable vector lifting scheme is investigated in order to exploit the two-dimensional characteristics of the holographic contents. Simulations performed on different digital holograms have shown the effectiveness of the proposed method in terms of bitrate saving and quality of object reconstruction. PMID:25967029

  4. A spectrally efficient detect-and-forward scheme with two-tier adaptive cooperation

    Benjillali, Mustapha

    2011-09-01

    We propose a simple relay-based adaptive cooperation scheme to improve the spectral efficiency of "Detect-and-Forward" (DetF) half-duplex relaying in fading channels. In a new common framework, we show that the proposed scheme offers considerable gainsin terms of the achievable information ratescompared to conventional DetF relaying schemes for both orthogonal and non-orthogonal source/relay transmissions. The analysis leads on to a general adaptive cooperation strategy based on the maximization of information rates at the destination which needs to observe only the average signal-to-noise ratios of the links. © 2006 IEEE.

  5. An adaptive sampling scheme for deep-penetration calculation

    As we know, the deep-penetration problem has been one of the important and difficult problems in shielding calculation with Monte Carlo Method for several decades. In this paper, an adaptive Monte Carlo method under the emission point as a sampling station for shielding calculation is investigated. The numerical results show that the adaptive method may improve the efficiency of the calculation of shielding and might overcome the under-estimation problem easy to happen in deep-penetration calculation in some degree

  6. Adaptive Wide-Area Damping Control Scheme for Smart Grids with Consideration of Signal Time Delay

    Deyou Yang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available As an important part of the smart grid, a wide-area measurement system (WAMS provides the key technical support for power system monitoring, protection and control. But 20 uncertainties in system parameters and signal transmission time delay could worsen the damping effect and deteriorate the system stability. In the presented study, the subspace system identification technique (SIT is used to firstly derive a low-order linear model of a power system from the measurements. Then, a novel adaptive wide-area damping control scheme for online tuning of the wide-area damping controller (WADC parameters using the residue method is proposed. In order to eliminate the effects of the time delay to the signal transmission, a simple and practical time delay compensation algorithm is proposed to compensate the time delay in each wide-area control signal. Detailed examples, inspired by the IEEE test system under various disturbance scenarios, have been used to verify the effectiveness of the proposed adaptive wide-area damping control scheme.

  7. Multiwavelet construction via an adaptive symmetric lifting scheme and its applications for rotating machinery fault diagnosis

    Multiwavelets and the lifting scheme are two important developments of wavelet theory. Multiwavelets outperform scalar wavelets in many applications due to their better properties. The lifting scheme is a method to construct a new wavelet with prescribed properties. In this paper, multiwavelets are integrated with the lifting scheme, synthesizing their advantages. Due to multiple wavelet bases, the lifting scheme of multiwavelets is more flexible than that of scalar wavelets. With supplement of a symmetric condition, a novel adaptive symmetric lifting scheme of multiwavelets is presented. Kurtosis is chosen to be the performance measurement of lifting coefficients, and the genetic algorithm is used to optimize the free parameters in the lifting scheme. The proposed method, constructing a new multiwavelet via an adaptive lifting scheme, is applied to analyze the simulation of a rolling bearing and gearbox vibration signals. The results demonstrate that the adaptive symmetric lifting of multiwavelets is more effective in extracting fault features of rotating machinery than conventional diagnosis techniques with scalar wavelets and non-adaptive multiwavelets

  8. On the feedback error compensation for adaptive modulation and coding scheme

    Choi, Seyeong

    2011-11-25

    In this paper, we consider the effect of feedback error on the performance of the joint adaptive modulation and diversity combining (AMDC) scheme which was previously studied with an assumption of perfect feedback channels. We quantify the performance of two joint AMDC schemes in the presence of feedback error, in terms of the average spectral efficiency, the average number of combined paths, and the average bit error rate. The benefit of feedback error compensation with adaptive combining is also quantified. Selected numerical examples are presented and discussed to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed feedback error compensation strategy with adaptive combining. Copyright (c) 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Performance Analysis and Optimization of an Adaptive Admission Control Scheme in Cognitive Radio Networks

    Shunfu Jin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In cognitive radio networks, if all the secondary user (SU packets join the system without any restrictions, the average latency of the SU packets will be greater, especially when the traffic load of the system is higher. For this, we propose an adaptive admission control scheme with a system access probability for the SU packets in this paper. We suppose the system access probability is inversely proportional to the total number of packets in the system and introduce an Adaptive Factor to adjust the system access probability. Accordingly, we build a discrete-time preemptive queueing model with adjustable joining rate. In order to obtain the steady-state distribution of the queueing model exactly, we construct a two-dimensional Markov chain. Moreover, we derive the formulas for the blocking rate, the throughput, and the average latency of the SU packets. Afterwards, we provide numerical results to investigate the influence of the Adaptive Factor on different performance measures. We also give the individually optimal strategy and the socially optimal strategy from the standpoints of the SU packets. Finally, we provide a pricing mechanism to coordinate the two optimal strategies.

  10. Design of an Adaptive Scheme to Enable Green Localization

    Estelrich Moreno, Rafel

    2011-01-01

    [ANGLÈS] The use of localization attached to any kind of devices is a common feature nowadays. In the case of sensors, the combination of sampling, connectivity and localization bring a world of possibilities. However, those small devices lack of enough energy resources due its size. To resolve the problem, a protocol named High Configurable Protocol was implemented in order to adapt the operation to the user needs, while focusing on energy savings. The problem comes from, once configured, th...

  11. Welding Adaptive Functions Performed Through Infrared (IR) Simplified Vision Schemes

    Begin, Ghlslain; Boillot, Jean-Paul

    1984-02-01

    An ideal integrated robotic welding system should incorporate off-line programmation with the possibility of real time modifications of a given welding programme. Off-line programmation makes possible the optimization of the various sequences of a programme by simulation and therefore promotes increased welding station duty cycle. Real time modifications of a given programme, generated either by an off-line programmation scheme or by a learn mode on a first piece of a series, are essential because on many occasions, the cumulative dimensional tolerances and the distorsions associated with the process, build up a misfit beetween the programmed welding path and the real joint to be welded, to the extent that welding defects occur.

  12. Hybrid adaptive control of a dragonfly model

    Couceiro, Micael S.; Ferreira, Nuno M. F.; Machado, J. A. Tenreiro

    2012-02-01

    Dragonflies show unique and superior flight performances than most of other insect species and birds. They are equipped with two pairs of independently controlled wings granting an unmatchable flying performance and robustness. In this paper, it is presented an adaptive scheme controlling a nonlinear model inspired in a dragonfly-like robot. It is proposed a hybrid adaptive ( HA) law for adjusting the parameters analyzing the tracking error. At the current stage of the project it is considered essential the development of computational simulation models based in the dynamics to test whether strategies or algorithms of control, parts of the system (such as different wing configurations, tail) as well as the complete system. The performance analysis proves the superiority of the HA law over the direct adaptive ( DA) method in terms of faster and improved tracking and parameter convergence.

  13. A multilevel adaptive mesh generation scheme using Kd-trees

    Alfonso Limon

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a mesh refinement strategy for PDE based simulations that benefits from a multilevel decomposition. Using Harten's MRA in terms of Schroder-Pander linear multiresolution analysis [20], we are able to bound discontinuities in $mathbb{R}$. This MRA is extended to $mathbb{R}^n$ in terms of n-orthogonal linear transforms and utilized to identify cells that contain a codimension-one discontinuity. These refinement cells become leaf nodes in a balanced Kd-tree such that a local dyadic MRA is produced in $mathbb{R}^n$, while maintaining a minimal computational footprint. The nodes in the tree form an adaptive mesh whose density increases in the vicinity of a discontinuity.

  14. Efficient Pseudorecursive Evaluation Schemes for Non-adaptive Sparse Grids

    Buse, Gerrit

    2014-01-01

    In this work we propose novel algorithms for storing and evaluating sparse grid functions, operating on regular (not spatially adaptive), yet potentially dimensionally adaptive grid types. Besides regular sparse grids our approach includes truncated grids, both with and without boundary grid points. Similar to the implicit data structures proposed in Feuersänger (Dünngitterverfahren für hochdimensionale elliptische partielle Differntialgleichungen. Diploma Thesis, Institut für Numerische Simulation, Universität Bonn, 2005) and Murarasu et al. (Proceedings of the 16th ACM Symposium on Principles and Practice of Parallel Programming. Cambridge University Press, New York, 2011, pp. 25–34) we also define a bijective mapping from the multi-dimensional space of grid points to a contiguous index, such that the grid data can be stored in a simple array without overhead. Our approach is especially well-suited to exploit all levels of current commodity hardware, including cache-levels and vector extensions. Furthermore, this kind of data structure is extremely attractive for today’s real-time applications, as it gives direct access to the hierarchical structure of the grids, while outperforming other common sparse grid structures (hash maps, etc.) which do not match with modern compute platforms that well. For dimensionality d ≤ 10 we achieve good speedups on a 12 core Intel Westmere-EP NUMA platform compared to the results presented in Murarasu et al. (Proceedings of the International Conference on Computational Science—ICCS 2012. Procedia Computer Science, 2012). As we show, this also holds for the results obtained on Nvidia Fermi GPUs, for which we observe speedups over our own CPU implementation of up to 4.5 when dealing with moderate dimensionality. In high-dimensional settings, in the order of tens to hundreds of dimensions, our sparse grid evaluation kernels on the CPU outperform any other known implementation.

  15. A high fuel consumption efficiency management scheme for PHEVs using an adaptive genetic algorithm.

    Lee, Wah Ching; Tsang, Kim Fung; Chi, Hao Ran; Hung, Faan Hei; Wu, Chung Kit; Chui, Kwok Tai; Lau, Wing Hong; Leung, Yat Wah

    2015-01-01

    A high fuel efficiency management scheme for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) has been developed. In order to achieve fuel consumption reduction, an adaptive genetic algorithm scheme has been designed to adaptively manage the energy resource usage. The objective function of the genetic algorithm is implemented by designing a fuzzy logic controller which closely monitors and resembles the driving conditions and environment of PHEVs, thus trading off between petrol versus electricity for optimal driving efficiency. Comparison between calculated results and publicized data shows that the achieved efficiency of the fuzzified genetic algorithm is better by 10% than existing schemes. The developed scheme, if fully adopted, would help reduce over 600 tons of CO2 emissions worldwide every day. PMID:25587974

  16. A High Fuel Consumption Efficiency Management Scheme for PHEVs Using an Adaptive Genetic Algorithm

    Wah Ching Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A high fuel efficiency management scheme for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs has been developed. In order to achieve fuel consumption reduction, an adaptive genetic algorithm scheme has been designed to adaptively manage the energy resource usage. The objective function of the genetic algorithm is implemented by designing a fuzzy logic controller which closely monitors and resembles the driving conditions and environment of PHEVs, thus trading off between petrol versus electricity for optimal driving efficiency. Comparison between calculated results and publicized data shows that the achieved efficiency of the fuzzified genetic algorithm is better by 10% than existing schemes. The developed scheme, if fully adopted, would help reduce over 600 tons of CO2 emissions worldwide every day.

  17. Adaptive numerical algorithms in space weather modeling

    Tóth, Gábor; van der Holst, Bart; Sokolov, Igor V.; De Zeeuw, Darren L.; Gombosi, Tamas I.; Fang, Fang; Manchester, Ward B.; Meng, Xing; Najib, Dalal; Powell, Kenneth G.; Stout, Quentin F.; Glocer, Alex; Ma, Ying-Juan; Opher, Merav

    2012-02-01

    Space weather describes the various processes in the Sun-Earth system that present danger to human health and technology. The goal of space weather forecasting is to provide an opportunity to mitigate these negative effects. Physics-based space weather modeling is characterized by disparate temporal and spatial scales as well as by different relevant physics in different domains. A multi-physics system can be modeled by a software framework comprising several components. Each component corresponds to a physics domain, and each component is represented by one or more numerical models. The publicly available Space Weather Modeling Framework (SWMF) can execute and couple together several components distributed over a parallel machine in a flexible and efficient manner. The framework also allows resolving disparate spatial and temporal scales with independent spatial and temporal discretizations in the various models. Several of the computationally most expensive domains of the framework are modeled by the Block-Adaptive Tree Solarwind Roe-type Upwind Scheme (BATS-R-US) code that can solve various forms of the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations, including Hall, semi-relativistic, multi-species and multi-fluid MHD, anisotropic pressure, radiative transport and heat conduction. Modeling disparate scales within BATS-R-US is achieved by a block-adaptive mesh both in Cartesian and generalized coordinates. Most recently we have created a new core for BATS-R-US: the Block-Adaptive Tree Library (BATL) that provides a general toolkit for creating, load balancing and message passing in a 1, 2 or 3 dimensional block-adaptive grid. We describe the algorithms of BATL and demonstrate its efficiency and scaling properties for various problems. BATS-R-US uses several time-integration schemes to address multiple time-scales: explicit time stepping with fixed or local time steps, partially steady-state evolution, point-implicit, semi-implicit, explicit/implicit, and fully implicit

  18. Adaptive numerical algorithms in space weather modeling

    Space weather describes the various processes in the Sun–Earth system that present danger to human health and technology. The goal of space weather forecasting is to provide an opportunity to mitigate these negative effects. Physics-based space weather modeling is characterized by disparate temporal and spatial scales as well as by different relevant physics in different domains. A multi-physics system can be modeled by a software framework comprising several components. Each component corresponds to a physics domain, and each component is represented by one or more numerical models. The publicly available Space Weather Modeling Framework (SWMF) can execute and couple together several components distributed over a parallel machine in a flexible and efficient manner. The framework also allows resolving disparate spatial and temporal scales with independent spatial and temporal discretizations in the various models. Several of the computationally most expensive domains of the framework are modeled by the Block-Adaptive Tree Solarwind Roe-type Upwind Scheme (BATS-R-US) code that can solve various forms of the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations, including Hall, semi-relativistic, multi-species and multi-fluid MHD, anisotropic pressure, radiative transport and heat conduction. Modeling disparate scales within BATS-R-US is achieved by a block-adaptive mesh both in Cartesian and generalized coordinates. Most recently we have created a new core for BATS-R-US: the Block-Adaptive Tree Library (BATL) that provides a general toolkit for creating, load balancing and message passing in a 1, 2 or 3 dimensional block-adaptive grid. We describe the algorithms of BATL and demonstrate its efficiency and scaling properties for various problems. BATS-R-US uses several time-integration schemes to address multiple time-scales: explicit time stepping with fixed or local time steps, partially steady-state evolution, point-implicit, semi-implicit, explicit/implicit, and fully implicit

  19. A High Order Godunov Scheme with Constrained Transport and Adaptive Mesh Refinement for Astrophysical MHD

    Fromang, S.; Hennebelle, P.; Teyssier, R.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new method to perform numerical simulations of astrophysical MHD flows using the Adaptive Mesh Refinement framework and Constrained Transport. The algorithm is based on a previous work in which the MUSCL--Hancock scheme was used to evolve the induction equation. In this paper, we detail the extension of this scheme to the full MHD equations and discuss its properties. Through a series of test problems, we illustrate the performances of this new code using two diffe...

  20. An Adaptive Soft Handover Scheme Using Fuzzy Load Balancing for WCDMA Systems

    Yang, Kemeng; Qiu, Bin; Dooley, Laurence S.

    2006-01-01

    In cellular systems, user distribution variations can cause load imbalance between cells. Embedding a load balancing strategy within the handover scheme means that ensuing traffic congestion can be alleviated by dynamically reallocating load between neighbouring cells. An adaptive soft handover scheme for multimedia cellular communication systems is proposed in this paper, that considers both the cell load factors as well as the pilot channel signal-to-interference-and-noise-ratio (SINR) for ...

  1. A low order adaptive control scheme for hydraulic servo systems

    Andersen, Torben Ole; Pedersen, Henrik Clemmensen; Bech, Michael Møller;

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with high-performance position control of hydraulics servo systems in general. The hydraulic servo system used is a two link robotic manipulator actuated by two hydraulic servo cylinders. A non-linear model of the hydraulic system and a Newton-Euler based model of the mechanical...

  2. Hierarchical adaptation scheme for multiagent data fusion and resource management in situation analysis

    Benaskeur, Abder R.; Roy, Jean

    2001-08-01

    Sensor Management (SM) has to do with how to best manage, coordinate and organize the use of sensing resources in a manner that synergistically improves the process of data fusion. Based on the contextual information, SM develops options for collecting further information, allocates and directs the sensors towards the achievement of the mission goals and/or tunes the parameters for the realtime improvement of the effectiveness of the sensing process. Conscious of the important role that SM has to play in modern data fusion systems, we are currently studying advanced SM Concepts that would help increase the survivability of the current Halifax and Iroquois Class ships, as well as their possible future upgrades. For this purpose, a hierarchical scheme has been proposed for data fusion and resource management adaptation, based on the control theory and within the process refinement paradigm of the JDL data fusion model, and taking into account the multi-agent model put forward by the SASS Group for the situation analysis process. The novelty of this work lies in the unified framework that has been defined for tackling the adaptation of both the fusion process and the sensor/weapon management.

  3. An Energy Efficient Semi-static Power Control and Link Adaptation Scheme in UMTS HSDPA

    Huang, Yi; Qiu, Ling

    2012-01-01

    High speed downlink packet access (HSDPA) has been successfully applied in commercial systems and improves user experience significantly. However, it incurs substantial energy consumption. In this paper, we address this issue by proposing a novel energy efficient semi-static power control and link adaptation scheme in HSDPA. Through estimating the EE under different modulation and coding schemes (MCSs) and corresponding transmit power, the proposed scheme can determine the most energy efficient MCS level and transmit power at the Node B. And then the Node B configure the optimal MCS level and transmit power. In order to decrease the signaling overhead caused by the configuration, a dual trigger mechanism is employed. After that, we extend the proposed scheme to the multiple input multiple output (MIMO) scenarios. Simulation results confirm the significant EE improvement of our proposed scheme. Finally, we give a discussion on the potential EE gain and challenge of the energy efficient mode switching between s...

  4. Analysis of an Adaptive P-Persistent MAC Scheme for WLAN Providing Delay Fairness

    Yen, Chih-Ming; Chang, Chung-Ju; Chen, Yih-Shen; Huang, Ching Yao

    The paper proposes and analyzes an adaptive p-persistent-based (APP) medium access control (MAC) scheme for IEEE 802.11 WLAN. The APP MAC scheme intends to support delay fairness for every station in each access, denoting small delay variance. It differentiates permission probabilities of transmission for stations which are incurred with various packet delays. This permission probability is designed as a function of the numbers of retransmissions and re-backoffs so that stations with larger packet delay are endowed with higher permission probability. Also, the scheme is analyzed by a Markov-chain analysis, where the collision probability, the system throughput, and the average delay are successfully obtained. Numerical results show that the proposed APP MAC scheme can attain lower mean delay and higher mean throughput. In the mean time, simulation results are given to justify the validity of the analysis, and also show that the APP MAC scheme can achieve more delay fairness than conventional algorithms.

  5. Joint multiuser switched diversity and adaptive modulation schemes for spectrum sharing systems

    Qaraqe, Marwa

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, we develop multiuser access schemes for spectrum sharing systems whereby secondary users are allowed to share the spectrum with primary users under the condition that the interference observed at the primary receiver is below a predetermined threshold. In particular, we devise two schemes for selecting a user among those that satisfy the interference constraint and achieve an acceptable signal-to-noise ratio level. The first scheme selects the user that reports the best channel quality. In order to alleviate the high feedback load associated with the first scheme, we develop a second scheme based on the concept of switched diversity where the base station scans the users in a sequential manner until an acceptable user is found. In addition to these two selection schemes, we consider two power adaptive settings at the secondary users based on the amount of interference available at the secondary transmitter. In the On/Off power setting, users are allowed to transmit based on whether the interference constraint is met or not, while in the full power adaptive setting, the users are allowed to vary their transmission power to satisfy the interference constraint. Finally, we present numerical results for our proposed algorithms where we show the trade-off between the average spectral efficiency and average feedback load for both schemes. © 2012 IEEE.

  6. An Adaptive Data Gathering Scheme for Multi-Hop Wireless Sensor Networks Based on Compressed Sensing and Network Coding.

    Yin, Jun; Yang, Yuwang; Wang, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Joint design of compressed sensing (CS) and network coding (NC) has been demonstrated to provide a new data gathering paradigm for multi-hop wireless sensor networks (WSNs). By exploiting the correlation of the network sensed data, a variety of data gathering schemes based on NC and CS (Compressed Data Gathering-CDG) have been proposed. However, these schemes assume that the sparsity of the network sensed data is constant and the value of the sparsity is known before starting each data gathering epoch, thus they ignore the variation of the data observed by the WSNs which are deployed in practical circumstances. In this paper, we present a complete design of the feedback CDG scheme where the sink node adaptively queries those interested nodes to acquire an appropriate number of measurements. The adaptive measurement-formation procedure and its termination rules are proposed and analyzed in detail. Moreover, in order to minimize the number of overall transmissions in the formation procedure of each measurement, we have developed a NP-complete model (Maximum Leaf Nodes Minimum Steiner Nodes-MLMS) and realized a scalable greedy algorithm to solve the problem. Experimental results show that the proposed measurement-formation method outperforms previous schemes, and experiments on both datasets from ocean temperature and practical network deployment also prove the effectiveness of our proposed feedback CDG scheme. PMID:27043574

  7. A Self-Adaptive Behavior-Aware Recruitment Scheme for Participatory Sensing

    Yuanyuan Zeng; Deshi Li

    2015-01-01

    Participatory sensing services utilizing the abundant social participants with sensor-enabled handheld smart device resources are gaining high interest nowadays. One of the challenges faced is the recruitment of participants by fully utilizing their daily activity behavior with self-adaptiveness toward the realistic application scenarios. In the paper, we propose a self-adaptive behavior-aware recruitment scheme for participatory sensing. People are assumed to join the sensing tasks along wi...

  8. An Adaptive WLAN Interference Mitigation Scheme for ZigBee Sensor Networks

    Jo Woon Chong; Chae Ho Cho; Ho Young Hwang; Dan Keun Sung

    2015-01-01

    We propose an adaptive interference avoidance scheme that enhances the performance of ZigBee networks by adapting ZigBees' transmissions to measured wireless local area network (WLAN) interference. Our proposed algorithm is based on a stochastic analysis of ZigBee operation that is interfered with by WLAN transmission, given ZigBee and WLAN channels are overlaid in the industrial, scientific, and medical (ISM) band. We assume that WLAN devices have higher transmission power than ZigBee device...

  9. ADAPTATIVE IMAGE WATERMARKING SCHEME BASED ON NEURAL NETWORK

    BASSEL SOLAIMANE; ADNENE CHERIF; SAMEH OUESLATI,

    2011-01-01

    Digital image watermarking has been proposed as a method to enhance medical data security, confidentiality and integrity. Medical image watermarking requires extreme care when embedding additional data, given their importance to clinical diagnosis, treatment, and research. In this paper, a novel image watermarking approach based on the human visual system (HVS) model and neural network technique is proposed. The watermark was inserted into the middle frequency coefficients of the cover image’...

  10. A Formal Model for the Security of Proxy Signature Schemes

    GU Chun-xiang; ZHU Yue-fei; ZHANG Ya-juan

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides theoretical foundations for the secure proxy signature primitive. We present a formal model for the security of proxy signature schemes, which defines the capabilities of the adversary and the security goals to capture which mean for a proxy signature scheme to be secure. Then, we present an example of proxy signature scheme that can be proven secure in the standard model.

  11. Kinematic Dynamos using Constrained Transport with High Order Godunov Schemes and Adaptive Mesh Refinement

    Teyssier, R.; Fromang, S.; Dormy, E.

    2006-01-01

    We propose to extend the well-known MUSCL-Hancock scheme for Euler equations to the induction equation modeling the magnetic field evolution in kinematic dynamo problems. The scheme is based on an integral form of the underlying conservation law which, in our formulation, results in a ``finite-surface'' scheme for the induction equation. This naturally leads to the well-known ``constrained transport'' method, with additional continuity requirement on the magnetic field representation. The sec...

  12. Multi-dimensional upwind fluctuation splitting scheme with mesh adaption for hypersonic viscous flow

    Wood, William Alfred, III

    production is shown relative to DMFDSFV. Remarkably the fluctuation splitting scheme shows grid converged skin friction coefficients with only five points in the boundary layer for this case. A viscous Mach 17.6 (perfect gas) cylinder case demonstrates solution monotonicity and heat transfer capability with the fluctuation splitting scheme. While fluctuation splitting is recommended over DMFDSFV, the difference in performance between the schemes is not so great as to obsolete DMFDSFV. The second half of the dissertation develops a local, compact, anisotropic unstructured mesh adaption scheme in conjunction with the multi-dimensional upwind solver, exhibiting a characteristic alignment behavior for scalar problems. This alignment behavior stands in contrast to the curvature clustering nature of the local, anisotropic unstructured adaption strategy based upon a posteriori error estimation that is used for comparison. The characteristic alignment is most pronounced for linear advection, with reduced improvement seen for the more complex non-linear advection and advection-diffusion cases. The adaption strategy is extended to the two-dimensional and axisymmetric Navier-Stokes equations of motion through the concept of fluctuation minimization. The system test case for the adaption strategy is a sting mounted capsule at Mach-10 wind tunnel conditions, considered in both two-dimensional and axisymmetric configurations. For this complex flowfield the adaption results are disappointing since feature alignment does not emerge from the local operations. Aggressive adaption is shown to result in a loss of robustness for the solver, particularly in the bow shock/stagnation point interaction region. Reducing the adaption strength maintains solution robustness but fails to produce significant improvement in the surface heat transfer predictions.

  13. An Adaptive Handover Prediction Scheme for Seamless Mobility Based Wireless Networks

    Ali Safa Sadiq

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose an adaptive handover prediction (AHP scheme for seamless mobility based wireless networks. That is, the AHP scheme incorporates fuzzy logic with AP prediction process in order to lend cognitive capability to handover decision making. Selection metrics, including received signal strength, mobile node relative direction towards the access points in the vicinity, and access point load, are collected and considered inputs of the fuzzy decision making system in order to select the best preferable AP around WLANs. The obtained handover decision which is based on the calculated quality cost using fuzzy inference system is also based on adaptable coefficients instead of fixed coefficients. In other words, the mean and the standard deviation of the normalized network prediction metrics of fuzzy inference system, which are collected from available WLANs are obtained adaptively. Accordingly, they are applied as statistical information to adjust or adapt the coefficients of membership functions. In addition, we propose an adjustable weight vector concept for input metrics in order to cope with the continuous, unpredictable variation in their membership degrees. Furthermore, handover decisions are performed in each MN independently after knowing RSS, direction toward APs, and AP load. Finally, performance evaluation of the proposed scheme shows its superiority compared with representatives of the prediction approaches.

  14. An adaptive short-term prediction scheme for wind energy storage management

    Research highlights: → We develop a real time algorithm for grid-connected wind energy storage management. → The method aims to guarantee, with ±5% error margin, the power sent to the grid. → Dynamic scheduling of energy storage is based on short-term energy prediction. → Accurate predictions reduce the need in storage capacity. -- Abstract: Efficient forecasting scheme that includes some information on the likelihood of the forecast and based on a better knowledge of the wind variations characteristics along with their influence on power output variation is of key importance for the optimal integration of wind energy in island's power system. In the Guadeloupean archipelago (French West-Indies), with a total wind power capacity of 25 MW; wind energy can represent up to 5% of the instantaneous electricity production. At this level, wind energy contribution can be equivalent to the current network primary control reserve, which causes balancing difficult. The share of wind energy is due to grow even further since the objective is set to reach 118 MW by 2020. It is an absolute evidence for the network operator that due to security concerns of the electrical grid, the share of wind generation should not increase unless solutions are found to solve the prediction problem. The University of French West-Indies and Guyana has developed a short-term wind energy prediction scheme that uses artificial neural networks and adaptive learning procedures based on Bayesian approach and Gaussian approximation. This paper reports the results of the evaluation of the proposed approach; the improvement with respect to the simple persistent prediction model was globally good. A discussion on how such a tool combined with energy storage capacity could help to smooth the wind power variation and improve the wind energy penetration rate into island utility network is also proposed.

  15. Adapted nested force-gradient integrators for the Schwinger model

    Shcherbakov, Dmitry; Günther, Michael; Finkenrath, Jacob; Knechtli, Francesco; Peardon, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We study a novel class of numerical integrators, the adapted nested force-gradient schemes, used within the molecular dynamics step of the Hybrid Monte Carlo (HMC) algorithm. We test these methods in the Schwinger model on the lattice, a well known benchmark problem. We derive the analytical basis of nested force-gradient type methods and demonstrate the advantage of the proposed approach, namely reduced computational costs compared with other numerical integration schemes in HMC.

  16. LPTA: Location Predictive and Time Adaptive Data Gathering Scheme with Mobile Sink for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Chuan Zhu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper exploits sink mobility to prolong the lifetime of sensor networks while maintaining the data transmission delay relatively low. A location predictive and time adaptive data gathering scheme is proposed. In this paper, we introduce a sink location prediction principle based on loose time synchronization and deduce the time-location formulas of the mobile sink. According to local clocks and the time-location formulas of the mobile sink, nodes in the network are able to calculate the current location of the mobile sink accurately and route data packets timely toward the mobile sink by multihop relay. Considering that data packets generating from different areas may be different greatly, an adaptive dwelling time adjustment method is also proposed to balance energy consumption among nodes in the network. Simulation results show that our data gathering scheme enables data routing with less data transmission time delay and balance energy consumption among nodes.

  17. A Novel Adaptive Observer-Based Control Scheme for Synchronization and Suppression of a Class of Uncertain Chaotic Systems

    WANG Jing; TAN Zhen-Yu; MA Xi-Kui; GAO Jin-Feng

    2009-01-01

    A novel adaptive observer-based control scheme is presented for synchronization and suppression of a class of uncertain chaotic system. First, an adaptive observer based on an orthogonal neural network is designed. Subsequently, the sliding mode controllers via the proposed adaptive observer are proposed for synchronization and suppression of the uncertain chaotic systems. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulation show the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.

  18. A new secured transmission scheme based on chaotic synchronization via smooth adaptive unknown-input observers

    Dimassi, Habib; Loría, Antonio; Belghith, Safya

    2012-09-01

    We present a new scheme for the secured transmission of information based on master-slave synchronization of chaotic systems, using unknown-input observers. Our approach improves upon state-of-the-art schemes by being compatible with information of relatively large amplitude while improving security against intruders through an intricate encryption system. In addition, our approach is robust to channel noise. The main idea is to separate the encryption and synchronization operations by using two cascaded chaotic systems in the transmitter. Technically, the scheme is based on smooth adaptive unknown-input observers; these have the advantage to estimate the (master) states and to reconstruct the unknown inputs simultaneously. The performance of the communication system is illustrated in numerical simulation.

  19. Stability preservation and power management in autonomous microgrids using adaptive nonlinear droop scheme

    NOUROLLAH, SARA; PIRAYESH, ABOLFAZL; DIVSHALI, PORIA HASANPOR

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes sharing active and reactive power in autonomous voltage source inverter (VSI)-based microgrids with no physical communication links. In decentralized VSI-based microgrids, when the demand or generation changes, the output voltage of distributed generation units and the frequency of the system will also change. This study presents a novel adaptive nonlinear droop (ANLD) scheme for preserving network stability, improving the system's dynamics, and controlling power shar...

  20. Adapting Parcellation Schemes to Study Fetal Brain Connectivity in Serial Imaging Studies

    Cheng, Xi; Wilm, Jakob; Seshamani, Sharmishtaa;

    2013-01-01

    developing fetal brain such functional and associated structural markers are not consistently present over time. In this study we adapt two non-atlas based parcellation schemes to study the development of connectivity networks of a fetal monkey brain using Diffusion Weighted Imaging techniques. Results...... demonstrate that the fetal brain network exhibits small-world characteristics and a pattern of increased cluster coefficients and decreased global efficiency. These findings may provide a route to creating a new biomarker for healthy fetal brain development....

  1. Electronic scheme simulator usage for pmt model creation

    Бочаров, Олег Александрович

    2011-01-01

    This article grounds necessity of photomultiplier tube (PMT) model creation by means of computer circuit simulator, basic departure data for model creation are given, model scheme and results of it testing by means of computer circuit simulator are present

  2. Vector perturbation based adaptive distributed precoding scheme with limited feedback for CoMP systems

    Cuthbert Laurie

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A downlink adaptive distributed precoding scheme is proposed for coordinated multi-point (CoMP transmission systems. The serving base station (BS obtains the optimal precoding vector via user feedback. Meanwhile, the precoding vector of each coordinated BS is determined by adaptive gradient iteration according to the perturbation vector and the adjustment factor based on the vector perturbation method. In each transmission frame, the CoMP user feeds the precoding matrix index back to the serving BS, and feeds back the adjustment factor index to the coordinated BSs, which can reduce the uplink feedback overhead. The selected adjustment factor for each coordinated BS is obtained via the precoding vector of the coordinated BS used in the previous frame and the preferred precoding vector of the serving BS in this frame. The proposed scheme takes advantage of the spatial non-correlation and temporal correlation of the distributed MIMO channel. The design of the adjustment factor set is given and the channel feedback delay is considered. The system performance of the proposed scheme is verified with and without feedback delay respectively and the system feedback overhead is analyzed. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme has a good trade-off between system performance and the system control information overhead on feedback.

  3. Iterative Schemes for Bump Solutions in a Neural Field Model

    Oleynik, Anna; Ponosov, Arcady; Wyller, John

    2013-01-01

    We develop two iteration schemes for construction of localized stationary solutions (bumps) of a one-population Wilson-Cowan model with a smoothed Heaviside firing rate function. The first scheme is based on the fixed point formulation of the stationary Wilson-Cowan model. The second one is formulated in terms of the excitation width of a bump. Using the theory of monotone operators in ordered Banach spaces we justify convergence of both iteration schemes.

  4. Multiple Regressive Model Adaptive Control

    Garipov, Emil; Stoilkov, Teodor; Kalaykov, Ivan

    2008-01-01

    The essence of the ideas applied to this text consists in the development of the strategy for control of the arbitrary in complexity continuous plant by means of a set of discrete timeinvariant linear controllers. Their number and tuned parameters correspond to the number and parameters of the linear time-invariant regressive models in the model bank, which approximate the complex plant dynamics in different operating points. Described strategy is known as Multiple Regressive Model Adaptive C...

  5. Hybrid threshold adaptable quantum secret sharing scheme with reverse Huffman-Fibonacci-tree coding

    Lai, Hong; Zhang, Jun; Luo, Ming-Xing; Pan, Lei; Pieprzyk, Josef; Xiao, Fuyuan; Orgun, Mehmet A.

    2016-01-01

    With prevalent attacks in communication, sharing a secret between communicating parties is an ongoing challenge. Moreover, it is important to integrate quantum solutions with classical secret sharing schemes with low computational cost for the real world use. This paper proposes a novel hybrid threshold adaptable quantum secret sharing scheme, using an m-bonacci orbital angular momentum (OAM) pump, Lagrange interpolation polynomials, and reverse Huffman-Fibonacci-tree coding. To be exact, we employ entangled states prepared by m-bonacci sequences to detect eavesdropping. Meanwhile, we encode m-bonacci sequences in Lagrange interpolation polynomials to generate the shares of a secret with reverse Huffman-Fibonacci-tree coding. The advantages of the proposed scheme is that it can detect eavesdropping without joint quantum operations, and permits secret sharing for an arbitrary but no less than threshold-value number of classical participants with much lower bandwidth. Also, in comparison with existing quantum secret sharing schemes, it still works when there are dynamic changes, such as the unavailability of some quantum channel, the arrival of new participants and the departure of participants. Finally, we provide security analysis of the new hybrid quantum secret sharing scheme and discuss its useful features for modern applications. PMID:27515908

  6. Hybrid threshold adaptable quantum secret sharing scheme with reverse Huffman-Fibonacci-tree coding.

    Lai, Hong; Zhang, Jun; Luo, Ming-Xing; Pan, Lei; Pieprzyk, Josef; Xiao, Fuyuan; Orgun, Mehmet A

    2016-01-01

    With prevalent attacks in communication, sharing a secret between communicating parties is an ongoing challenge. Moreover, it is important to integrate quantum solutions with classical secret sharing schemes with low computational cost for the real world use. This paper proposes a novel hybrid threshold adaptable quantum secret sharing scheme, using an m-bonacci orbital angular momentum (OAM) pump, Lagrange interpolation polynomials, and reverse Huffman-Fibonacci-tree coding. To be exact, we employ entangled states prepared by m-bonacci sequences to detect eavesdropping. Meanwhile, we encode m-bonacci sequences in Lagrange interpolation polynomials to generate the shares of a secret with reverse Huffman-Fibonacci-tree coding. The advantages of the proposed scheme is that it can detect eavesdropping without joint quantum operations, and permits secret sharing for an arbitrary but no less than threshold-value number of classical participants with much lower bandwidth. Also, in comparison with existing quantum secret sharing schemes, it still works when there are dynamic changes, such as the unavailability of some quantum channel, the arrival of new participants and the departure of participants. Finally, we provide security analysis of the new hybrid quantum secret sharing scheme and discuss its useful features for modern applications. PMID:27515908

  7. A novel power swing blocking scheme using adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system

    Zadeh, Hassan Khorashadi; Li, Zuyi [Illinois Institute of Technology, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, 3301 S. Dearborn Street, Chicago, IL 60616 (United States)

    2008-07-15

    A power swing may be caused by any sudden change in the configuration or the loading of an electrical network. During a power swing, the impedance locus moves along an impedance circle with possible encroachment into the distance relay zone, which may cause an unnecessary tripping. In order to prevent the distance relay from tripping under such condition, a novel power swing blocking (PSB) scheme is proposed in this paper. The proposed scheme uses an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference systems (ANFIS) for preventing distance relay from tripping during power swings. The input signals to ANFIS, include the change of positive sequence impedance, positive and negative sequence currents, and power swing center voltage. Extensive tests show that the proposed PSB has two distinct features that are advantageous over existing schemes. The first is that the proposed scheme is able to detect various kinds of power swings thus block distance relays during power swings, even if the power swings are fast or the power swings occur during single pole open conditions. The second distinct feature is that the proposed scheme is able to clear the blocking if faults occur within the relay trip zone during power swings, even if the faults are high resistance faults, or the faults occur at the power swing center, or the faults occur when the power angle is close to 180 . (author)

  8. A massively parallel adaptive scheme for melt migration in geodynamics computations

    Dannberg, Juliane; Heister, Timo; Grove, Ryan

    2016-04-01

    Melt generation and migration are important processes for the evolution of the Earth's interior and impact the global convection of the mantle. While they have been the subject of numerous investigations, the typical time and length-scales of melt transport are vastly different from global mantle convection, which determines where melt is generated. This makes it difficult to study mantle convection and melt migration in a unified framework. In addition, modelling magma dynamics poses the challenge of highly non-linear and spatially variable material properties, in particular the viscosity. We describe our extension of the community mantle convection code ASPECT that adds equations describing the behaviour of silicate melt percolating through and interacting with a viscously deforming host rock. We use the original compressible formulation of the McKenzie equations, augmented by an equation for the conservation of energy. This approach includes both melt migration and melt generation with the accompanying latent heat effects, and it incorporates the individual compressibilities of the solid and the fluid phase. For this, we derive an accurate and stable Finite Element scheme that can be combined with adaptive mesh refinement. This is particularly advantageous for this type of problem, as the resolution can be increased in mesh cells where melt is present and viscosity gradients are high, whereas a lower resolution is sufficient in regions without melt. Together with a high-performance, massively parallel implementation, this allows for high resolution, 3d, compressible, global mantle convection simulations coupled with melt migration. Furthermore, scalable iterative linear solvers are required to solve the large linear systems arising from the discretized system. Finally, we present benchmarks and scaling tests of our solver up to tens of thousands of cores, show the effectiveness of adaptive mesh refinement when applied to melt migration and compare the

  9. Practical splitting methods for the adaptive integration of nonlinear evolution equations. Part I: Construction of optimized schemes and pairs of schemes

    Auzinger, Winfried

    2016-07-28

    We present a number of new contributions to the topic of constructing efficient higher-order splitting methods for the numerical integration of evolution equations. Particular schemes are constructed via setup and solution of polynomial systems for the splitting coefficients. To this end we use and modify a recent approach for generating these systems for a large class of splittings. In particular, various types of pairs of schemes intended for use in adaptive integrators are constructed.

  10. A Trust-Based Adaptive Probability Marking and Storage Traceback Scheme for WSNs.

    Liu, Anfeng; Liu, Xiao; Long, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Security is a pivotal issue for wireless sensor networks (WSNs), which are emerging as a promising platform that enables a wide range of military, scientific, industrial and commercial applications. Traceback, a key cyber-forensics technology, can play an important role in tracing and locating a malicious source to guarantee cybersecurity. In this work a trust-based adaptive probability marking and storage (TAPMS) traceback scheme is proposed to enhance security for WSNs. In a TAPMS scheme, the marking probability is adaptively adjusted according to the security requirements of the network and can substantially reduce the number of marking tuples and improve network lifetime. More importantly, a high trust node is selected to store marking tuples, which can avoid the problem of marking information being lost. Experimental results show that the total number of marking tuples can be reduced in a TAPMS scheme, thus improving network lifetime. At the same time, since the marking tuples are stored in high trust nodes, storage reliability can be guaranteed, and the traceback time can be reduced by more than 80%. PMID:27043566

  11. An Adaptive Loss-Aware Flow Control Scheme for Delay-Sensitive Applications in OBS Networks

    Jeong, Hongkyu; Choi, Jungyul; Mo, Jeonghoon; Kang, Minho

    Optical Burst Switching (OBS) is one of the most promising switching technologies for next generation optical networks. As delay-sensitive applications such as Voice-over-IP (VoIP) have recently become popular, OBS networks should guarantee stringent Quality of Service (QoS) requirements for such applications. Thus, this paper proposes an Adaptive Loss-aware Flow Control (ALFC) scheme, which adaptively decides on the burst offset time based on loss-rate information delivered from core nodes for assigning a high priority to delay-sensitive application traffic. The proposed ALFC scheme also controls the upper-bounds of the factors inducing delay and jitter for guaranteeing the delay and jitter requirements of delay-sensitive application traffic. Moreover, a piggybacking method used in the proposed scheme accelerates the guarantee of the loss, delay, and jitter requirements because the response time for flow control can be extremely reduced up to a quarter of the Round Trip Time (RTT) on average while minimizing the signaling overhead. Simulation results show that our mechanism can guarantee a 10-3 loss-rate under any traffic load while offering satisfactory levels of delay and jitter for delay-sensitive applications.

  12. Adaptive two-stage Karhunen-Loeve-transform scheme for spectral decorrelation in hyperspectral bandwidth compression

    Saghri, John A.

    2010-05-01

    A computationally efficient adaptive two-stage Karhunen-Loeve transform (KLT) scheme for spectral decorrelation in hyperspectral lossy bandwidth compression is presented. The component decorrelation of the JPEG 2000 (extension 2) is replaced with an adaptive two-stage KLT scheme. The data are partitioned into small subsets. The spectral correlation within each partition is removed via a first-stage KLT. The interpartition spectral correlation is removed using a second-stage KLT applied to the resulting top few sets of equilevel principal component (PC) images. Since only a fraction of each equilevel first-stage PC images are used in the second stage, the KLT transformation matrices will have smaller sizes, leading to further improvement in computational complexity and coding efficiency. The computation of the proposed approach is parametrically quantified. It is shown that reconstructed image quality, as measured via statistical and/or machine-based exploitation measures, is improved by using a smaller partition size in the first-stage KLT. A criterion based on the components of the eigenvectors of the cross-covariance matrix is established to select first-stage PC images, which are used in the second-stage KLT. The proposed scheme also reduces the overhead bits required to transmit the covariance information to the receiver in conjunction with the coding bitstream.

  13. Adaptive transmission schemes for MISO spectrum sharing systems: Tradeoffs and performance analysis

    Bouida, Zied

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, we propose a number of adaptive transmission techniques in order to improve the performance of the secondary link in a spectrum sharing system. We first introduce the concept of minimum-selection maximum ratio transmission (MS-MRT) as an adaptive variation of the existing MRT (MRT) technique. While in MRT all available antennas are used for transmission, MS-MRT uses the minimum subset of antennas verifying both the interference constraint (IC) to the primary user and the bit error rate (BER) requirements. Similar to MRT, MS-MRT assumes that perfect channel state information (CSI) is available at the secondary transmitter (ST), which makes this scheme challenging from a practical point of view. To overcome this challenge, we propose another transmission technique based on orthogonal space-time block codes with transmit antenna selection (TAS). This technique uses the full-rate full-diversity Alamouti scheme in order to maximize the secondary\\'s transmission rate. The performance of these techniques is analyzed in terms of the average spectral efficiency (ASE), average number of transmit antennas, average delay, average BER, and outage performance. In order to give the motivation behind these analytical results, the tradeoffs offered by the proposed schemes are summarized and then demonstrated through several numerical examples.

  14. A High Order Godunov Scheme with Constrained Transport and Adaptive Mesh Refinement for Astrophysical MHD

    Fromang, S; Teyssier, R

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new method to perform numerical simulations of astrophysical MHD flows using the Adaptive Mesh Refinement framework and Constrained Transport. The algorithm is based on a previous work in which the MUSCL--Hancock scheme was used to evolve the induction equation. In this paper, we detail the extension of this scheme to the full MHD equations and discuss its properties. Through a series of test problems, we illustrate the performances of this new code using two different MHD Riemann solvers (Lax-Friedrich and Roe) and the need of the Adaptive Mesh Refinement capabilities in some cases. Finally, we show its versatility by applying it to two completely different astrophysical situations well studied in the past years: the growth of the magnetorotational instability in the shearing box and the collapse of magnetized cloud cores. We have implemented this new Godunov scheme to solve the ideal MHD equations in the AMR code RAMSES. It results in a powerful tool that can be applied to a grea...

  15. A high order Godunov scheme with constrained transport and adaptive mesh refinement for astrophysical magnetohydrodynamics

    Fromang, S.; Hennebelle, P.; Teyssier, R.

    2006-10-01

    Aims. In this paper, we present a new method to perform numerical simulations of astrophysical MHD flows using the Adaptive Mesh Refinement framework and Constrained Transport. Methods: . The algorithm is based on a previous work in which the MUSCL-Hancock scheme was used to evolve the induction equation. In this paper, we detail the extension of this scheme to the full MHD equations and discuss its properties. Results: . Through a series of test problems, we illustrate the performances of this new code using two different MHD Riemann solvers (Lax-Friedrich and Roe) and the need of the Adaptive Mesh Refinement capabilities in some cases. Finally, we show its versatility by applying it to two completely different astrophysical situations well studied in the past years: the growth of the magnetorotational instability in the shearing box and the collapse of magnetized cloud cores. Conclusions: . We have implemented a new Godunov scheme to solve the ideal MHD equations in the AMR code RAMSES. We have shown that it results in a powerful tool that can be applied to a great variety of astrophysical problems, ranging from galaxies formation in the early universe to high resolution studies of molecular cloud collapse in our galaxy.

  16. SIMULATION MODELS OF CALL ADMISSION CONTROL SCHEMES USING GPSS

    Vassilya ABDULOVA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In cellular wireless networks, a variety of channel allocation schemes have been developed for achieving high capacity with minimal interference. The choice of channel allocation scheme impacts the performance of the system, particularly as how calls are managed when a mobile user is handed off from one cell to another. Call Admission Control schemes take into account the effect of handoffs in the performance of the system, particularly call blocking probability and call dropping probability. In this study, we present simulation models and programs of some popular Call Admission Control schemes using GPSS simulation tool.

  17. Fast Adaptive S-ALOHA Scheme for Event-driven Machine-to-Machine Communications

    Wu, Huasen; La, Richard J; Liu, Xin; Zhang, Youguang

    2012-01-01

    Machine-to-Machine (M2M) communication is now playing a market-changing role in a wide range of business world. However, in event-driven M2M communications, a large number of devices activate within a short period of time, which in turn causes high radio congestions and severe access delay. To solve this problem, we propose a Fast Adaptive S-ALOHA (FASA) scheme for M2M communication systems with bursty traffic. The statistics of consecutive idle and collision slots are used in FASA to accelerate the tracking process of network status, instead of observing in a single slot. Furthermore, the fast convergence property of FASA is guaranteed by using drift analysis. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed FASA scheme achieves near-optimal performance in reducing access delay, which outperforms that of traditional additive schemes such as PB-ALOHA. Moreover, compared to multiplicative schemes, FASA shows its robust performance even under heavy traffic load in addition to better delay performance.

  18. SMR-Based Adaptive Mobility Management Scheme in Hierarchical SIP Networks

    KwangHee Choi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In hierarchical SIP networks, paging is performed to reduce location update signaling cost for mobility management. However, the cost efficiency largely depends on each mobile node’s session-to-mobility-ratio (SMR, which is defined as a ratio of the session arrival rate to the movement rate. In this paper, we propose the adaptive mobility management scheme that can determine the policy regarding to each mobile node’s SMR. Each mobile node determines whether the paging is applied or not after comparing its SMR with the threshold. In other words, the paging is applied to a mobile node when a mobile node’s SMR is less than the threshold. Therefore, the proposed scheme provides a way to minimize signaling costs according to each mobile node’s SMR. We find out the optimal threshold through performance analysis, and show that the proposed scheme can reduce signaling cost than the existing SIP and paging schemes in hierarchical SIP networks.

  19. A general hybrid radiation transport scheme for star formation simulations on an adaptive grid

    Klassen, Mikhail; Pudritz, Ralph E; Peters, Thomas; Banerjee, Robi; Buntemeyer, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Radiation feedback plays a crucial role in the process of star formation. In order to simulate the thermodynamic evolution of disks, filaments, and the molecular gas surrounding clusters of young stars, we require an efficient and accurate method for solving the radiation transfer problem. We describe the implementation of a hybrid radiation transport scheme in the adaptive grid-based FLASH general magnetohydrodynamics code. The hybrid scheme splits the radiative transport problem into a raytracing step and a diffusion step. The raytracer captures the first absorption event, as stars irradiate their environments, while the evolution of the diffuse component of the radiation field is handled by a flux-limited diffusion (FLD) solver. We demonstrate the accuracy of our method through a variety of benchmark tests including the irradiation of a static disk, subcritical and supercritical radiative shocks, and thermal energy equilibration. We also demonstrate the capability of our method for casting shadows and calc...

  20. A RSS Based Adaptive Hand-Off Management Scheme In Heterogeneous Networks

    Debabrata Sarddar

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Mobility management, integration and interworking of existing wireless systems are important factors to obtain seamless roaming and services continuity in Next Generation Wireless Systems (NGWS.So it is important to have a handoff scheme that takes into account the heterogeneity of the network. In this work we propose a handoff scheme which takes handoff decision adaptively based on the type of network it presently resides and the one it is attempting handoff with through some predefined rules. It also relies on the speed of the mobile terminal to make a decision of the handoff initiation received signal strength (RSS threshold value. Finally simulations have been done to show the importance of taking these factors into account for handoff decisions rather than having a fixed threshold value of handoff for different scenarios.

  1. Astrophysical hydrodynamics with a high-order discontinuous Galerkin scheme and adaptive mesh refinement

    Schaal, Kevin; Chandrashekar, Praveen; Pakmor, Rüdiger; Klingenberg, Christian; Springel, Volker

    2015-01-01

    Solving the Euler equations of ideal hydrodynamics as accurately and efficiently as possible is a key requirement in many astrophysical simulations. It is therefore important to continuously advance the numerical methods implemented in current astrophysical codes, especially also in light of evolving computer technology, which favours certain computational approaches over others. Here we introduce the new adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) code TENET, which employs a high-order Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) scheme for hydrodynamics. The Euler equations in this method are solved in a weak formulation with a polynomial basis by means of explicit Runge-Kutta time integration and Gauss-Legendre quadrature. This approach offers significant advantages over commonly employed finite volume (FV) solvers. In particular, the higher order capability renders it computationally more efficient, in the sense that the same precision can be obtained at significantly less computational cost. Also, the DG scheme inherently conserves a...

  2. Decentralized & Adaptive Load-Frequency Control Scheme of Variable Speed Wind Turbines

    Hoseinzadeh, Bakhtyar; Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da; Bak, Claus Leth

    2014-01-01

    In power systems with high penetration of Wind Power (WP), transferring a part of Load Frequency Control (LFC) burden to variable speed Wind Turbines (WTs) is inevitable. The conventional LFC schemes merely rely on frequency information and since frequency is a common variable throughout...... and therefore determining the contribution factor of each individual WT to gain an adaptive LFC approach. The Electrical Distance (ED) concept confirms that the locally measured voltage decay is a proper criterion of closeness to the disturbance place. Numerical simulations carried out in DigSilent Power...

  3. SMR-Based Adaptive Mobility Management Scheme in Hierarchical SIP Networks

    KwangHee Choi; Joon-Min Gil

    2014-01-01

    In hierarchical SIP networks, paging is performed to reduce location update signaling cost for mobility management. However, the cost efficiency largely depends on each mobile node’s session-to-mobility-ratio (SMR), which is defined as a ratio of the session arrival rate to the movement rate. In this paper, we propose the adaptive mobility management scheme that can determine the policy regarding to each mobile node’s SMR. Each mobile node determines whether the paging is applied or not after...

  4. The Nonlinear Sigma Model With Distributed Adaptive Mesh Refinement

    Liebling, Steven L.

    2004-01-01

    An adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) scheme is implemented in a distributed environment using Message Passing Interface (MPI) to find solutions to the nonlinear sigma model. Previous work studied behavior similar to black hole critical phenomena at the threshold for singularity formation in this flat space model. This work is a follow-up describing extensions to distribute the grid hierarchy and presenting tests showing the correctness of the model.

  5. An Adaptive Fault-Tolerant Communication Scheme for Body Sensor Networks

    Zichuan Xu

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A high degree of reliability for critical data transmission is required in body sensor networks (BSNs. However, BSNs are usually vulnerable to channel impairments due to body fading effect and RF interference, which may potentially cause data transmission to be unreliable. In this paper, an adaptive and flexible fault-tolerant communication scheme for BSNs, namely AFTCS, is proposed. AFTCS adopts a channel bandwidth reservation strategy to provide reliable data transmission when channel impairments occur. In order to fulfill the reliability requirements of critical sensors, fault-tolerant priority and queue are employed to adaptively adjust the channel bandwidth allocation. Simulation results show that AFTCS can alleviate the effect of channel impairments, while yielding lower packet loss rate and latency for critical sensors at runtime.

  6. Parallel Adaptive Simulation of Detonation Waves Using a Weighted Essentially Non-Oscillatory Scheme

    McMahon, Sean

    The purpose of this thesis was to develop a code that could be used to develop a better understanding of the physics of detonation waves. First, a detonation was simulated in one dimension using ZND theory. Then, using the 1D solution as an initial condition, a detonation was simulated in two dimensions using a weighted essentially non-oscillatory scheme on an adaptive mesh with the smallest lengthscales being equal to 2-3 flamelet lengths. The code development in linking Chemkin for chemical kinetics to the adaptive mesh refinement flow solver was completed. The detonation evolved in a way that, qualitatively, matched the experimental observations, however, the simulation was unable to progress past the formation of the triple point.

  7. Hybrid flux-splitting schemes for a common two-fluid model

    The aim of this paper is to construct hybrid flux vector splitting (FVS) and flux difference splitting (FDS) schemes for a commonly used two-fluid model consisting of two separate momentum equations. This is done by refining ideas previously applied to develop hybrid FVS/FDS schemes for a simpler two-phase model consisting of a mixture momentum equation [J. Comput. Phys. 175 (2002) 674]. More specifically, we seek to construct upwind type of schemes which are not based on calculations of the full eigenstructure of Jacobi matrices as needed by approximate Riemann solvers like the Roe scheme. Based on a crude approximation of the eigenstructure of the model, we derive schemes of the van Leer and FVS type. We demonstrate that these schemes possess desirable stability properties, but are excessively diffusive. By adapting ideas originally suggested by Wada and Liou [SIAM J. Sci. Comput. 18 (1997) 633] for the Euler equations, we suggest a mechanism for removing numerical dissipation. We present numerical simulations where we compare the performance of the resulting schemes with that of the Roe scheme, and by that shed light on the issues of accuracy, efficiency, and robustness of the proposed schemes. Particularly, we consider the classical water faucet problem as well as a stiff separation problem which locally involves transition from two-phase to single-phase flow. Results from these test cases show that we are able to construct hybrid FVS/FDS schemes which properly combine the accuracy of FDS in the resolution of sharp mass fronts and the robustness of FVS which ensures stability under stiff conditions

  8. Conceptual Model of User Adaptive Enterprise Application

    Inese Šūpulniece

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The user adaptive enterprise application is a software system, which adapts its behavior to an individual user on the basis of nontrivial inferences from information about the user. The objective of this paper is to elaborate a conceptual model of the user adaptive enterprise applications. In order to conceptualize the user adaptive enterprise applications, their main characteristics are analyzed, the meta-model defining the key concepts relevant to these applications is developed, and the user adaptive enterprise application and its components are defined in terms of the meta-model. Modeling of the user adaptive enterprise application incorporates aspects of enterprise modeling, application modeling, and design of adaptive characteristics of the application. The end-user and her expectations are identified as two concepts of major importance not sufficiently explored in the existing research. Understanding these roles improves the adaptation result in the user adaptive applications.

  9. Multiple Adaptations and Content-Adaptive FEC Using Parameterized RD Model for Embedded Wavelet Video

    Yu, Ya-Huei; Ho, Chien-Peng; Tsai, Chun-Jen

    2007-12-01

    Scalable video coding (SVC) has been an active research topic for the past decade. In the past, most SVC technologies were based on a coarse-granularity scalable model which puts many scalability constraints on the encoded bitstreams. As a result, the application scenario of adapting a preencoded bitstream multiple times along the distribution chain has not been seriously investigated before. In this paper, a model-based multiple-adaptation framework based on a wavelet video codec, MC-EZBC, is proposed. The proposed technology allows multiple adaptations on both the video data and the content-adaptive FEC protection codes. For multiple adaptations of video data, rate-distortion information must be embedded within the video bitstream in order to allow rate-distortion optimized operations for each adaptation. Experimental results show that the proposed method reduces the amount of side information by more than 50% on average when compared to the existing technique. It also reduces the number of iterations required to perform the tier-2 entropy coding by more than 64% on average. In addition, due to the nondiscrete nature of the rate-distortion model, the proposed framework also enables multiple adaptations of content-adaptive FEC protection scheme for more flexible error-resilient transmission of bitstreams.

  10. A fault detection and isolation scheme for industrial systems based on multiple operating models

    Rodrigues, Mickael; THEILLIOL, DIDIER; Adam Medina, Manuel; Sauter, Dominique

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a fault diagnosis method is developed for systems described by multi- models. The main contribution consists in the design of a new Fault Detection and Isolation scheme (FDI) through an adaptive filter for such systems. Based on the assumption that dynamic behavior of the process is described by a multi-model approach around different operating points, a set of residual is established in order to generate weighting functions robust to faults. These robust weighting functions ar...

  11. Peano—A Traversal and Storage Scheme for Octree-Like Adaptive Cartesian Multiscale Grids

    Weinzierl, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    Almost all approaches to solving partial differential equations (PDEs) are based upon a spatial discretization of the computational domain-a grid. This paper presents an algorithm to generate, store, and traverse a hierarchy of d-dimensional Cartesian grids represented by a (k = 3)- spacetree, a generalization of the well-known octree concept, and it also shows the correctness of the approach. These grids may change their adaptive structure throughout the traversal. The algorithm uses 2d + 4 stacks as data structures for both cells and vertices, and the storage requirements for the pure grid reduce to one bit per vertex for both the complete grid connectivity structure and the multilevel grid relations. Since the traversal algorithm uses only stacks, the algorithm\\'s cache hit rate is continually higher than 99.9 percent, and the runtime per vertex remains almost constant; i.e., it does not depend on the overall number of vertices or the adaptivity pattern. We use the algorithmic approach as the fundamental concept for a mesh management for d-dimensional PDEs and for a matrix-free PDE solver represented by a compact discrete 3 d-point operator. In the latter case, one can implement a Jacobi smoother, a Krylov solver, or a geometric multigrid scheme within the presented traversal scheme which inherits the low memory requirements and the good memory access characteristics directly. © 2011 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  12. Q-phonon scheme in the collective nuclear model

    The Q-phonon scheme developed in the framework of the algebraic collective nuclear model is discussed. It is shown that in the framework of this scheme the low-lying collective states of the even-even nuclei can be presented with an accuracy better than 90% of the norm using one or maximum two components of the Q-phonon basis constructed by an action of the fixed number of the quadrupole operators Q on the exact ground state of the system. Different applications of this approximate scheme are discussed. It is shown that using this scheme the relations between several E2-transition probabilities or between the energies of the collective states can be derived. It is shown also that the Q-phonon scheme can be used to extract an information about the equilibrium shapes of nuclei and their fluctuations from the data on the E2-transition probabilities

  13. An adaptive high-order hybrid scheme for compressive, viscous flows with detailed chemistry

    Ziegler, Jack L.; Deiterding, Ralf; Shepherd, Joseph E.; Pullin, D. I.

    2011-08-01

    A hybrid weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO)/centered-difference numerical method, with low numerical dissipation, high-order shock-capturing, and structured adaptive mesh refinement (SAMR), has been developed for the direct numerical simulation of the multicomponent, compressible, reactive Navier-Stokes equations. The method enables accurate resolution of diffusive processes within reaction zones. The approach combines time-split reactive source terms with a high-order, shock-capturing scheme specifically designed for diffusive flows. A description of the order-optimized, symmetric, finite difference, flux-based, hybrid WENO/centered-difference scheme is given, along with its implementation in a high-order SAMR framework. The implementation of new techniques for discontinuity flagging, scheme-switching, and high-order prolongation and restriction is described. In particular, the refined methodology does not require upwinded WENO at grid refinement interfaces for stability, allowing high-order prolongation and thereby eliminating a significant source of numerical diffusion within the overall code performance. A series of one-and two-dimensional test problems is used to verify the implementation, specifically the high-order accuracy of the diffusion terms. One-dimensional benchmarks include a viscous shock wave and a laminar flame. In two-space dimensions, a Lamb-Oseen vortex and an unstable diffusive detonation are considered, for which quantitative convergence is demonstrated. Further, a two-dimensional high-resolution simulation of a reactive Mach reflection phenomenon with diffusive multi-species mixing is presented.

  14. Kinematic Dynamos using Constrained Transport with High Order Godunov Schemes and Adaptive Mesh Refinement

    Teyssier, R; Fromang, S

    2006-01-01

    We propose to extend the well-known MUSCL-Hancock scheme for Euler equations to the induction equation modeling the magnetic field evolution in kinematic dynamo problems. The scheme is based on an integral form of the underlying conservation law which, in our formulation, results in a ``finite-surface'' scheme for the induction equation. This naturally leads to the well-known ``constrained transport'' method, with additional continuity requirement on the magnetic field representation. The second ingredient in the MUSCL scheme is the predictor step that ensures second order accuracy both in space and time. We explore specific constraints that the mathematical properties of the induction equations place on this predictor step, showing that three possible variants can be considered. We show that the most aggressive formulations (referred to as C-MUSCL and U-MUSCL) reach the same level of accuracy as the other one (referred to as Runge-Kutta), at a lower computational cost. More interestingly, these two schemes a...

  15. Decentralized Adaptive Control of Systems with Uncertain Interconnections, Plant-Model Mismatch and Actuator Failures

    Patre, Parag; Joshi, Suresh M.

    2011-01-01

    Decentralized adaptive control is considered for systems consisting of multiple interconnected subsystems. It is assumed that each subsystem s parameters are uncertain and the interconnection parameters are not known. In addition, mismatch can exist between each subsystem and its reference model. A strictly decentralized adaptive control scheme is developed, wherein each subsystem has access only to its own state but has the knowledge of all reference model states. The mismatch is estimated online for each subsystem and the mismatch estimates are used to adaptively modify the corresponding reference models. The adaptive control scheme is extended to the case with actuator failures in addition to mismatch.

  16. A Novel Scheme Adaptive Hybrid Dislocated Synchronization for Two Identical and Different Memristor Chaotic Oscillator Systems with Uncertain Parameters

    Jie Chen; Junwei Sun; Ming Chi; Xin-Ming Cheng

    2014-01-01

    The drive system can synchronize with the response system by the scaling factor in the traditional projective synchronization. This paper proposes a novel adaptive hybrid dislocated synchronization with uncertain parameters scheme for chaos synchronization using the Lyapunov stability theory. The drive system is synchronized by the sum of hybrid dislocated state variables for the response system. By designing effective hybrid dislocated adaptive controller and hybrid dislocated adaptive law o...

  17. Adaptive resolution simulation of polarizable supramolecular coarse-grained water models

    Zavadlav, Julija; Melo, Manuel N.; Marrink, Siewert J.; Praprotnik, Matej

    2015-01-01

    Multiscale simulations methods, such as adaptive resolution scheme, are becoming increasingly popular due to their significant computational advantages with respect to conventional atomistic simulations. For these kind of simulations, it is essential to develop accurate multiscale water models that

  18. Ancient numerical daemons of conceptual hydrological modeling: 1. Fidelity and efficiency of time stepping schemes

    Clark, Martyn P.; Kavetski, Dmitri

    2010-10-01

    A major neglected weakness of many current hydrological models is the numerical method used to solve the governing model equations. This paper thoroughly evaluates several classes of time stepping schemes in terms of numerical reliability and computational efficiency in the context of conceptual hydrological modeling. Numerical experiments are carried out using 8 distinct time stepping algorithms and 6 different conceptual rainfall-runoff models, applied in a densely gauged experimental catchment, as well as in 12 basins with diverse physical and hydroclimatic characteristics. Results show that, over vast regions of the parameter space, the numerical errors of fixed-step explicit schemes commonly used in hydrology routinely dwarf the structural errors of the model conceptualization. This substantially degrades model predictions, but also, disturbingly, generates fortuitously adequate performance for parameter sets where numerical errors compensate for model structural errors. Simply running fixed-step explicit schemes with shorter time steps provides a poor balance between accuracy and efficiency: in some cases daily-step adaptive explicit schemes with moderate error tolerances achieved comparable or higher accuracy than 15 min fixed-step explicit approximations but were nearly 10 times more efficient. From the range of simple time stepping schemes investigated in this work, the fixed-step implicit Euler method and the adaptive explicit Heun method emerge as good practical choices for the majority of simulation scenarios. In combination with the companion paper, where impacts on model analysis, interpretation, and prediction are assessed, this two-part study vividly highlights the impact of numerical errors on critical performance aspects of conceptual hydrological models and provides practical guidelines for robust numerical implementation.

  19. Iteration schemes for parallelizing models of superconductivity

    Gray, P.A. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The time dependent Lawrence-Doniach model, valid for high fields and high values of the Ginzburg-Landau parameter, is often used for studying vortex dynamics in layered high-T{sub c} superconductors. When solving these equations numerically, the added degrees of complexity due to the coupling and nonlinearity of the model often warrant the use of high-performance computers for their solution. However, the interdependence between the layers can be manipulated so as to allow parallelization of the computations at an individual layer level. The reduced parallel tasks may then be solved independently using a heterogeneous cluster of networked workstations connected together with Parallel Virtual Machine (PVM) software. Here, this parallelization of the model is discussed and several computational implementations of varying degrees of parallelism are presented. Computational results are also given which contrast properties of convergence speed, stability, and consistency of these implementations. Included in these results are models involving the motion of vortices due to an applied current and pinning effects due to various material properties.

  20. Adaptive control schemes for improving dynamic performance of efficiency-optimized induction motor drives.

    Kumar, Navneet; Raj Chelliah, Thanga; Srivastava, S P

    2015-07-01

    Model Based Control (MBC) is one of the energy optimal controllers used in vector-controlled Induction Motor (IM) for controlling the excitation of motor in accordance with torque and speed. MBC offers energy conservation especially at part-load operation, but it creates ripples in torque and speed during load transition, leading to poor dynamic performance of the drive. This study investigates the opportunity for improving dynamic performance of a three-phase IM operating with MBC and proposes three control schemes: (i) MBC with a low pass filter (ii) torque producing current (iqs) injection in the output of speed controller (iii) Variable Structure Speed Controller (VSSC). The pre and post operation of MBC during load transition is also analyzed. The dynamic performance of a 1-hp, three-phase squirrel-cage IM with mine-hoist load diagram is tested. Test results are provided for the conventional field-oriented (constant flux) control and MBC (adjustable excitation) with proposed schemes. The effectiveness of proposed schemes is also illustrated for parametric variations. The test results and subsequent analysis confer that the motor dynamics improves significantly with all three proposed schemes in terms of overshoot/undershoot peak amplitude of torque and DC link power in addition to energy saving during load transitions. PMID:25820090

  1. Adaptive Gaussian sum squared-root cubature Kalman filter with split-merge scheme for state estimation

    Liu Yu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with state estimation problem of nonlinear non-Gaussian discrete dynamic systems for improvement of accuracy and consistency. An efficient new algorithm called the adaptive Gaussian-sum square-root cubature Kalman filter (AGSSCKF with a split-merge scheme is proposed. It is developed based on the squared-root extension of newly introduced cubature Kalman filter (SCKF and is built within a Gaussian-sum framework. Based on the condition that the probability density functions of process noises and initial state are denoted by a Gaussian sum using optimization method, a bank of SCKF are used as the sub-filters to estimate state of system with the corresponding weights respectively, which is adaptively updated. The new algorithm consists of an adaptive splitting and merging procedure according to a proposed split-decision model based on the nonlinearity degree of measurement. The results of two simulation scenarios (one-dimensional state estimation and bearings-only tracking show that the proposed filter demonstrates comparable performance to the particle filter with significantly reduced computational cost.

  2. Adaptive Gaussian sum squared-root cubature Kalman filter with split-merge scheme for state estimation

    Liu Yu; Dong Kai; Wang Haipeng; Liu Jun; He You; Pan Lina

    2014-01-01

    The paper deals with state estimation problem of nonlinear non-Gaussian discrete dynamic systems for improvement of accuracy and consistency. An efficient new algorithm called the adaptive Gaussian-sum square-root cubature Kalman filter (AGSSCKF) with a split-merge scheme is proposed. It is developed based on the squared-root extension of newly introduced cuba-ture Kalman filter (SCKF) and is built within a Gaussian-sum framework. Based on the condition that the probability density functions of process noises and initial state are denoted by a Gaussian sum using optimization method, a bank of SCKF are used as the sub-filters to estimate state of sys-tem with the corresponding weights respectively, which is adaptively updated. The new algorithm consists of an adaptive splitting and merging procedure according to a proposed split-decision model based on the nonlinearity degree of measurement. The results of two simulation scenarios (one-dimensional state estimation and bearings-only tracking) show that the proposed filter demon-strates comparable performance to the particle filter with significantly reduced computational cost.

  3. Astrophysical hydrodynamics with a high-order discontinuous Galerkin scheme and adaptive mesh refinement

    Schaal, Kevin; Bauer, Andreas; Chandrashekar, Praveen; Pakmor, Rüdiger; Klingenberg, Christian; Springel, Volker

    2015-11-01

    Solving the Euler equations of ideal hydrodynamics as accurately and efficiently as possible is a key requirement in many astrophysical simulations. It is therefore important to continuously advance the numerical methods implemented in current astrophysical codes, especially also in light of evolving computer technology, which favours certain computational approaches over others. Here we introduce the new adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) code TENET, which employs a high-order discontinuous Galerkin (DG) scheme for hydrodynamics. The Euler equations in this method are solved in a weak formulation with a polynomial basis by means of explicit Runge-Kutta time integration and Gauss-Legendre quadrature. This approach offers significant advantages over commonly employed second-order finite-volume (FV) solvers. In particular, the higher order capability renders it computationally more efficient, in the sense that the same precision can be obtained at significantly less computational cost. Also, the DG scheme inherently conserves angular momentum in regions where no limiting takes place, and it typically produces much smaller numerical diffusion and advection errors than an FV approach. A further advantage lies in a more natural handling of AMR refinement boundaries, where a fall-back to first order can be avoided. Finally, DG requires no wide stencils at high order, and offers an improved data locality and a focus on local computations, which is favourable for current and upcoming highly parallel supercomputers. We describe the formulation and implementation details of our new code, and demonstrate its performance and accuracy with a set of two- and three-dimensional test problems. The results confirm that DG schemes have a high potential for astrophysical applications.

  4. A General Hybrid Radiation Transport Scheme for Star Formation Simulations on an Adaptive Grid

    Klassen, Mikhail; Kuiper, Rolf; Pudritz, Ralph E.; Peters, Thomas; Banerjee, Robi; Buntemeyer, Lars

    2014-12-01

    Radiation feedback plays a crucial role in the process of star formation. In order to simulate the thermodynamic evolution of disks, filaments, and the molecular gas surrounding clusters of young stars, we require an efficient and accurate method for solving the radiation transfer problem. We describe the implementation of a hybrid radiation transport scheme in the adaptive grid-based FLASH general magnetohydrodyanmics code. The hybrid scheme splits the radiative transport problem into a raytracing step and a diffusion step. The raytracer captures the first absorption event, as stars irradiate their environments, while the evolution of the diffuse component of the radiation field is handled by a flux-limited diffusion solver. We demonstrate the accuracy of our method through a variety of benchmark tests including the irradiation of a static disk, subcritical and supercritical radiative shocks, and thermal energy equilibration. We also demonstrate the capability of our method for casting shadows and calculating gas and dust temperatures in the presence of multiple stellar sources. Our method enables radiation-hydrodynamic studies of young stellar objects, protostellar disks, and clustered star formation in magnetized, filamentary environments.

  5. An Adaptive Multimedia-Oriented Handoff Scheme for IEEE 802.11 WLANs

    Rebai, Ahmed Riadh; 10.5121/ijwmn.2011.3114

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the actual handoff schemes employed in the IEEE 802.11 Wireless LANs (WLANs) do not meet the strict delay constraints placed by many multimedia applications like Voice over IP. Both the active and the passive supported scan modes in the standard handoff procedure have important delay that affects the Quality of Service (QoS) required by the real-time communications over 802.11 networks. In addition, the problem is further compounded by the fact that limited coverage areas of Access Points (APs) occupied in 802.11 infrastructure WLANs create frequent handoffs. We propose a new optimized and fast handoff scheme that decrease both handoff latency and occurrence by performing a seamless prevent scan process and an effective next-AP selection. Through simulations and performance evaluation, we show the effectiveness of the new adaptive handoff that reduces the process latency and adds new context-based parameters. The Results illustrate a QoS delay-respect required by applications ...

  6. A general hybrid radiation transport scheme for star formation simulations on an adaptive grid

    Klassen, Mikhail; Pudritz, Ralph E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University 1280 Main Street W, Hamilton, ON L8S 4M1 (Canada); Kuiper, Rolf [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Peters, Thomas [Institut für Computergestützte Wissenschaften, Universität Zürich Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-8057 Zürich (Switzerland); Banerjee, Robi; Buntemeyer, Lars, E-mail: klassm@mcmaster.ca [Hamburger Sternwarte, Universität Hamburg Gojenbergsweg 112, D-21029 Hamburg (Germany)

    2014-12-10

    Radiation feedback plays a crucial role in the process of star formation. In order to simulate the thermodynamic evolution of disks, filaments, and the molecular gas surrounding clusters of young stars, we require an efficient and accurate method for solving the radiation transfer problem. We describe the implementation of a hybrid radiation transport scheme in the adaptive grid-based FLASH general magnetohydrodyanmics code. The hybrid scheme splits the radiative transport problem into a raytracing step and a diffusion step. The raytracer captures the first absorption event, as stars irradiate their environments, while the evolution of the diffuse component of the radiation field is handled by a flux-limited diffusion solver. We demonstrate the accuracy of our method through a variety of benchmark tests including the irradiation of a static disk, subcritical and supercritical radiative shocks, and thermal energy equilibration. We also demonstrate the capability of our method for casting shadows and calculating gas and dust temperatures in the presence of multiple stellar sources. Our method enables radiation-hydrodynamic studies of young stellar objects, protostellar disks, and clustered star formation in magnetized, filamentary environments.

  7. A general hybrid radiation transport scheme for star formation simulations on an adaptive grid

    Radiation feedback plays a crucial role in the process of star formation. In order to simulate the thermodynamic evolution of disks, filaments, and the molecular gas surrounding clusters of young stars, we require an efficient and accurate method for solving the radiation transfer problem. We describe the implementation of a hybrid radiation transport scheme in the adaptive grid-based FLASH general magnetohydrodyanmics code. The hybrid scheme splits the radiative transport problem into a raytracing step and a diffusion step. The raytracer captures the first absorption event, as stars irradiate their environments, while the evolution of the diffuse component of the radiation field is handled by a flux-limited diffusion solver. We demonstrate the accuracy of our method through a variety of benchmark tests including the irradiation of a static disk, subcritical and supercritical radiative shocks, and thermal energy equilibration. We also demonstrate the capability of our method for casting shadows and calculating gas and dust temperatures in the presence of multiple stellar sources. Our method enables radiation-hydrodynamic studies of young stellar objects, protostellar disks, and clustered star formation in magnetized, filamentary environments.

  8. From Classical to Quantum and Back: A Hamiltonian Scheme for Adaptive Multiresolution Classical/Path-Integral Simulations.

    Kreis, Karsten; Tuckerman, Mark E; Donadio, Davide; Kremer, Kurt; Potestio, Raffaello

    2016-07-12

    Quantum delocalization of atomic nuclei affects the physical properties of many hydrogen-rich liquids and biological systems even at room temperature. In computer simulations, quantum nuclei can be modeled via the path-integral formulation of quantum statistical mechanics, which implies a substantial increase in computational overhead. By restricting the quantum description to a small spatial region, this cost can be significantly reduced. Herein, we derive a bottom-up, rigorous, Hamiltonian-based scheme that allows molecules to change from quantum to classical and vice versa on the fly as they diffuse through the system, both reducing overhead and making quantum grand-canonical simulations possible. The method is validated via simulations of low-temperature parahydrogen. Our adaptive resolution approach paves the way to efficient quantum simulations of biomolecules, membranes, and interfaces. PMID:27214610

  9. Diffusion coefficient adaptive correction in Lagrangian puff model

    Lagrangian puff model is widely used in the decision support system for nuclear emergency management. The diffusion coefficient is one of the key parameters impacting puff model. An adaptive method was proposed in this paper, which could correct the diffusion coefficient in Lagrangian puff model, and it aimed to improve the accuracy of calculating the nuclide concentration distribution. This method used detected concentration data, meteorological data and source release data to estimate the actual diffusion coefficient with least square method. The diffusion coefficient adaptive correction method was evaluated by Kincaid data in MVK, and was compared with traditional Pasquill-Gifford (P-G) diffusion scheme method. The results indicate that this diffusion coefficient adaptive correction method can improve the accuracy of Lagrangian puff model. (authors)

  10. Inflationary gravitational waves in collapse scheme models

    Mauro Mariani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The inflationary paradigm is an important cornerstone of the concordance cosmological model. However, standard inflation cannot fully address the transition from an early homogeneous and isotropic stage, to another one lacking such symmetries corresponding to our present universe. In previous works, a self-induced collapse of the wave function has been suggested as the missing ingredient of inflation. Most of the analysis regarding the collapse hypothesis has been solely focused on the characteristics of the spectrum associated to scalar perturbations, and within a semiclassical gravity framework. In this Letter, working in terms of a joint metric-matter quantization for inflation, we calculate, for the first time, the tensor power spectrum and the tensor-to-scalar ratio corresponding to the amplitude of primordial gravitational waves resulting from considering a generic self-induced collapse.

  11. Models of the group schemes of roots of unity

    Mézard, Ariane; Tossici, Dajano

    2011-01-01

    Let O_K be a discrete valuation ring of mixed characteristics (0,p), with residue field k. Using work of Sekiguchi and Suwa, we construct some finite flat O_K-models of the group scheme \\mu_{p^n,K} of p^n-th roots of unity, which we call Kummer group schemes. We set carefully the general framework and algebraic properties of this construction. When k is perfect and O_K is a complete totally ramified extension of the ring of Witt vectors W(k), we provide a parallel study of the Breuil-Kisin modules of finite flat models of \\mu_{p^n,K}, in such a way that the construction of Kummer groups and Breuil-Kisin modules can be compared. We compute these objects for n < 4. This leads us to conjecture that all finite flat models of \\mu_{p^n,K} are Kummer group schemes.

  12. Complex Modelling Scheme Of An Additive Manufacturing Centre

    Popescu, Liliana Georgeta

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents a modelling scheme sustaining the development of an additive manufacturing research centre model and its processes. This modelling is performed using IDEF0, the resulting model process representing the basic processes required in developing such a centre in any university. While the activities presented in this study are those recommended in general, changes may occur in specific existing situations in a research centre.

  13. Subjective quality assessment of an adaptive video streaming model

    Tavakoli, Samira; Brunnström, Kjell; Wang, Kun; Andrén, Börje; Shahid, Muhammad; Garcia, Narciso

    2014-01-01

    With the recent increased popularity and high usage of HTTP Adaptive Streaming (HAS) techniques, various studies have been carried out in this area which generally focused on the technical enhancement of HAS technology and applications. However, a lack of common HAS standard led to multiple proprietary approaches which have been developed by major Internet companies. In the emerging MPEG-DASH standard the packagings of the video content and HTTP syntax have been standardized; but all the details of the adaptation behavior are left to the client implementation. Nevertheless, to design an adaptation algorithm which optimizes the viewing experience of the enduser, the multimedia service providers need to know about the Quality of Experience (QoE) of different adaptation schemes. Taking this into account, the objective of this experiment was to study the QoE of a HAS-based video broadcast model. The experiment has been carried out through a subjective study of the end user response to various possible clients' behavior for changing the video quality taking different QoE-influence factors into account. The experimental conclusions have made a good insight into the QoE of different adaptation schemes which can be exploited by HAS clients for designing the adaptation algorithms.

  14. A High-Capacity Image Data Hiding Scheme Using Adaptive LSB Substitution

    H. Yang

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Many existing steganographic methods hide more secret data into edged areas than smooth areas in the host image, which does not differentiate textures from edges and causes serious degradation in actual edge areas. To avoid abrupt changes in image edge areas, as well as to achieve better quality of the stego-image, a novel image data hiding technique by adaptive Least Significant Bits (LSBs substitution is proposed in this paper. The scheme exploits the brightness, edges, and texture masking of the host image to estimate the number k of LSBs for data hiding. Pixels in the noise non-sensitive regions are embedded by a k-bit LSB substitution with a lager value of k than that of the pixels in noise sensitive regions. Moreover, an optimal pixel adjustment process is used to enhance stego-image visual quality obtained by simple LSB substitution method. To ensure that the adaptive number k of LSBs remains unchanged after pixel modification, the LSBs number is computed by the high-order bits rather than all the bits of the image pixel value. The theoretical analyses and experiment results show that the proposed method achieves higher embedding capacity and better stegoimage quality compared with some existing LSB methods.

  15. A general scheme for training and optimization of the Grenander deformable template model

    Fisker, Rune; Schultz, Nette; Duta, N.; Carstensen, Jens Michael

    2000-01-01

    parameters, a very fast general initialization algorithm and an adaptive likelihood model based on local means. The model parameters are trained by a combination of a 2D shape learning algorithm and a maximum likelihood based criteria. The fast initialization algorithm is based on a search approach using a...... applying the general deformable template model proposed by (Grenander et al., 1991) to a new problem with minimal manual interaction, beside supplying a training set, which can be done by a non-expert user. The main contributions compared to previous work are a supervised learning scheme for the model...

  16. A tightly bound soil-water scheme within an atmosphere-land-surface model

    White, Rachel; Toumi, Ralf

    2012-07-01

    SummaryThe concept of tightly bound water, in which a reservoir of soil water is bound tightly within small soil pores but is still available for evapotranspiration, is parameterised for the first time within the land surface scheme of a fully-coupled regional-scale atmosphere-land surface model. The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) regional climate model and the NOAH land surface scheme are selected and a case study is performed on the Olifants River Basin in the Limpopo region of South Africa. Accurate knowledge of water availability in this water-stressed region is of great importance for adaptation and future water policy. Results of a simulation forced by ERA40 re-analysis show that the standard land surface scheme is unable to reproduce the observed runoff despite rainfall and atmospheric conditions similar to observed. This version of the model over-estimates mean annual runoff by 120%. The tightly bound water scheme shows a significant improvement, reducing the bias to 22%. The inclusion of the tightly bound water scheme has little effect on the basin average annual rainfall despite increasing annual evapotranspiration. The tightly bound water physics dampens the response of runoff to precipitation and provides additional de-coupling between precipitation and runoff, increasing the variability in this relationship. Simulations with the WRF model forced with both 1980s and 2040s CCSM3 data show that the tightly bound water scheme significantly reduces runoff in different climates and projects a greater relative future decrease in runoff, from 4% to 10% for the same precipitation decrease of 2.5%. The scheme also affects the projected changes in spatially averaged 100-year return precipitation and runoff with significance at the 0.9 confidence level.

  17. Score level fusion scheme based on adaptive local Gabor features for face-iris-fingerprint multimodal biometric

    He, Fei; Liu, Yuanning; Zhu, Xiaodong; Huang, Chun; Han, Ye; Chen, Ying

    2014-05-01

    A multimodal biometric system has been considered a promising technique to overcome the defects of unimodal biometric systems. We have introduced a fusion scheme to gain a better understanding and fusion method for a face-iris-fingerprint multimodal biometric system. In our case, we use particle swarm optimization to train a set of adaptive Gabor filters in order to achieve the proper Gabor basic functions for each modality. For a closer analysis of texture information, two different local Gabor features for each modality are produced by the corresponding Gabor coefficients. Next, all matching scores of the two Gabor features for each modality are projected to a single-scalar score via a trained, supported, vector regression model for a final decision. A large-scale dataset is formed to validate the proposed scheme using the Facial Recognition Technology database-fafb and CASIA-V3-Interval together with FVC2004-DB2a datasets. The experimental results demonstrate that as well as achieving further powerful local Gabor features of multimodalities and obtaining better recognition performance by their fusion strategy, our architecture also outperforms some state-of-the-art individual methods and other fusion approaches for face-iris-fingerprint multimodal biometric systems.

  18. Plant adaptive behaviour in hydrological models (Invited)

    van der Ploeg, M. J.; Teuling, R.

    2013-12-01

    Models that will be able to cope with future precipitation and evaporation regimes need a solid base that describes the essence of the processes involved [1]. Micro-behaviour in the soil-vegetation-atmosphere system may have a large impact on patterns emerging at larger scales. A complicating factor in the micro-behaviour is the constant interaction between vegetation and geology in which water plays a key role. The resilience of the coupled vegetation-soil system critically depends on its sensitivity to environmental changes. As a result of environmental changes vegetation may wither and die, but such environmental changes may also trigger gene adaptation. Constant exposure to environmental stresses, biotic or abiotic, influences plant physiology, gene adaptations, and flexibility in gene adaptation [2-6]. Gene expression as a result of different environmental conditions may profoundly impact drought responses across the same plant species. Differences in response to an environmental stress, has consequences for the way species are currently being treated in models (single plant to global scale). In particular, model parameters that control root water uptake and plant transpiration are generally assumed to be a property of the plant functional type. Assigning plant functional types does not allow for local plant adaptation to be reflected in the model parameters, nor does it allow for correlations that might exist between root parameters and soil type. Models potentially provide a means to link root water uptake and transport to large scale processes (e.g. Rosnay and Polcher 1998, Feddes et al. 2001, Jung 2010), especially when powered with an integrated hydrological, ecological and physiological base. We explore the experimental evidence from natural vegetation to formulate possible alternative modeling concepts. [1] Seibert, J. 2000. Multi-criteria calibration of a conceptual runoff model using a genetic algorithm. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 4(2): 215

  19. Adaptive block-wise alphabet reduction scheme for lossless compression of images with sparse and locally sparse histograms

    Masmoudi, Atef; Zouari, Sonia; Ghribi, Abdelaziz

    2015-11-01

    We propose a new adaptive block-wise lossless image compression algorithm, which is based on the so-called alphabet reduction scheme combined with an adaptive arithmetic coding (AC). This new encoding algorithm is particularly efficient for lossless compression of images with sparse and locally sparse histograms. AC is a very efficient technique for lossless data compression and produces a rate that is close to the entropy; however, a compression performance loss occurs when encoding images or blocks with a limited number of active symbols by comparison with the number of symbols in the nominal alphabet, which consists in the amplification of the zero frequency problem. Generally, most methods add one to the frequency count of each symbol from the nominal alphabet, which leads to a statistical model distortion, and therefore reduces the efficiency of the AC. The aim of this work is to overcome this drawback by assigning to each image block the smallest possible set including all the existing symbols called active symbols. This is an alternative of using the nominal alphabet when applying the conventional arithmetic encoders. We show experimentally that the proposed method outperforms several lossless image compression encoders and standards including the conventional arithmetic encoders, JPEG2000, and JPEG-LS.

  20. Performance analysis of joint multi-branch switched diversity and adaptive modulation schemes for spectrum sharing systems

    Bouida, Zied

    2012-12-01

    Under the scenario of an underlay cognitive radio network, we propose in this paper two adaptive schemes using switched transmit diversity and adaptive modulation in order to increase the spectral efficiency of the secondary link and maintain a desired performance for the primary link. The proposed switching efficient scheme (SES) and bandwidth efficient scheme (BES) use the scan and wait combining technique (SWC) where a transmission occurs only when a branch with an acceptable performance is found, otherwise data is buffered. In these schemes, the modulation constellation size and the used transmit branch are determined to minimize the average number of switched branches and to achieve the highest spectral efficiency given the fading channel conditions, the required error rate performance, and a peak interference constraint to the primary receiver (PR). For delay-sensitive applications, we also propose two variations of the SES and BES schemes using power control (SES-PC and BES-PC) where the secondary transmitter (ST) starts sending data using a nominal power level which is selected in order to minimize the average delay introduced by the SWC technique. We demonstrate through numerical examples that the BES scheme increases the capacity of the secondary link when compared to the SES scheme. This spectral efficiency improvement comes at the expense of an increased average number of switched branches and thus an increased average delay. We also show that the SES-PC and the BES-PC schemes minimize the average delay while satisfying the same spectral efficiency as the SES and BES schemes, respectively. © 2012 IEEE.

  1. An Adaptive Systematic Lossy Error Protection Scheme for Broadcast Applications Based on Frequency Filtering and Unequal Picture Protection

    Marie Ramon

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Systematic lossy error protection (SLEP is a robust error resilient mechanism based on principles of Wyner-Ziv (WZ coding for video transmission over error-prone networks. In an SLEP scheme, the video bitstream is separated into two parts: a systematic part consisting of a video sequence transmitted without channel coding, and additional information consisting of a WZ supplementary stream. This paper presents an adaptive SLEP scheme in which the WZ stream is obtained by frequency filtering in the transform domain. Additionally, error resilience varies adaptively depending on the characteristics of compressed video. We show that the proposed SLEP architecture achieves graceful degradation of reconstructed video quality in the presence of increasing transmission errors. Moreover, it provides good performances in terms of error protection as well as reconstructed video quality if compared to solutions based on coarser quantization, while offering an interesting embedded scheme to apply digital video format conversion.

  2. A Novel Scheme Adaptive Hybrid Dislocated Synchronization for Two Identical and Different Memristor Chaotic Oscillator Systems with Uncertain Parameters

    Jie Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The drive system can synchronize with the response system by the scaling factor in the traditional projective synchronization. This paper proposes a novel adaptive hybrid dislocated synchronization with uncertain parameters scheme for chaos synchronization using the Lyapunov stability theory. The drive system is synchronized by the sum of hybrid dislocated state variables for the response system. By designing effective hybrid dislocated adaptive controller and hybrid dislocated adaptive law of the parameters estimation, we investigate the synchronization of two identical memristor chaotic oscillator systems and two different memristor chaotic oscillator systems with uncertain parameters. Finally, the numerical simulation examples are provided to show the effectiveness of our method.

  3. An Adaptive Control Scheme for Nonholonomic Mobile Robot with Parametric Uncertainty

    F. Touati

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the problem of stabilizing the dynamic model of a nonholonomic mobile robot. A discontinuous adaptive state feedback controller is derived to achieve global stability and convergence of the trajectories of the of the closed loop system in the presence of parameter modeling uncertainty. This task is achieved by a non smooth transformation in the original system followed by the derivation of a smooth time invariant control in the new coordinates. The stability and convergence analysis is built on Lyapunov stability theory.

  4. Completing and adapting models of biological processes

    Margaria, Tiziana; Hinchey, Michael G.; Raffelt, Harald; Rash, James L.; Rouff, Christopher A.; Steffen, Bernhard

    2006-01-01

    We present a learning-based method for model completion and adaptation, which is based on the combination of two approaches: 1) R2D2C, a technique for mechanically transforming system requirements via provably equivalent models to running code, and 2) automata learning-based model extrapolation. The intended impact of this new combination is to make model completion and adaptation accessible to experts of the field, like biologists or engineers. The principle is briefly illustrated by gene...

  5. A dual adaptive watermarking scheme in contourlet domain for DICOM images

    Rabbani Hossein

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nowadays, medical imaging equipments produce digital form of medical images. In a modern health care environment, new systems such as PACS (picture archiving and communication systems, use the digital form of medical image too. The digital form of medical images has lots of advantages over its analog form such as ease in storage and transmission. Medical images in digital form must be stored in a secured environment to preserve patient privacy. It is also important to detect modifications on the image. These objectives are obtained by watermarking in medical image. Methods In this paper, we present a dual and oblivious (blind watermarking scheme in the contourlet domain. Because of importance of ROI (region of interest in interpretation by medical doctors rather than RONI (region of non-interest, we propose an adaptive dual watermarking scheme with different embedding strength in ROI and RONI. We embed watermark bits in singular value vectors of the embedded blocks within lowpass subband in contourlet domain. Results The values of PSNR (peak signal-to-noise ratio and SSIM (structural similarity measure index of ROI for proposed DICOM (digital imaging and communications in medicine images in this paper are respectively larger than 64 and 0.997. These values confirm that our algorithm has good transparency. Because of different embedding strength, BER (bit error rate values of signature watermark are less than BER values of caption watermark. Our results show that watermarked images in contourlet domain have greater robustness against attacks than wavelet domain. In addition, the qualitative analysis of our method shows it has good invisibility. Conclusions The proposed contourlet-based watermarking algorithm in this paper uses an automatically selection for ROI and embeds the watermark in the singular values of contourlet subbands that makes the algorithm more efficient, and robust against noise attacks than other transform

  6. An Empirical Cumulus Parameterization Scheme for a Global Spectral Model

    Rajendran, K.; Krishnamurti, T. N.; Misra, V.; Tao, W.-K.

    2004-01-01

    Realistic vertical heating and drying profiles in a cumulus scheme is important for obtaining accurate weather forecasts. A new empirical cumulus parameterization scheme based on a procedure to improve the vertical distribution of heating and moistening over the tropics is developed. The empirical cumulus parameterization scheme (ECPS) utilizes profiles of Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) based heating and moistening derived from the European Centre for Medium- Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) analysis. A dimension reduction technique through rotated principal component analysis (RPCA) is performed on the vertical profiles of heating (Q1) and drying (Q2) over the convective regions of the tropics, to obtain the dominant modes of variability. Analysis suggests that most of the variance associated with the observed profiles can be explained by retaining the first three modes. The ECPS then applies a statistical approach in which Q1 and Q2 are expressed as a linear combination of the first three dominant principal components which distinctly explain variance in the troposphere as a function of the prevalent large-scale dynamics. The principal component (PC) score which quantifies the contribution of each PC to the corresponding loading profile is estimated through a multiple screening regression method which yields the PC score as a function of the large-scale variables. The profiles of Q1 and Q2 thus obtained are found to match well with the observed profiles. The impact of the ECPS is investigated in a series of short range (1-3 day) prediction experiments using the Florida State University global spectral model (FSUGSM, T126L14). Comparisons between short range ECPS forecasts and those with the modified Kuo scheme show a very marked improvement in the skill in ECPS forecasts. This improvement in the forecast skill with ECPS emphasizes the importance of incorporating realistic vertical distributions of heating and drying in the model cumulus scheme. This

  7. OMEGA: The operational multiscale environment model with grid adaptivity

    Bacon, D.P.

    1995-07-01

    This review talk describes the OMEGA code, used for weather simulation and the modeling of aerosol transport through the atmosphere. Omega employs a 3D mesh of wedge shaped elements (triangles when viewed from above) that adapt with time. Because wedges are laid out in layers of triangular elements, the scheme can utilize structured storage and differencing techniques along the elevation coordinate, and is thus a hybrid of structured and unstructured methods. The utility of adaptive gridding in this moded, near geographic features such as coastlines, where material properties change discontinuously, is illustrated. Temporal adaptivity was used additionally to track moving internal fronts, such as clouds of aerosol contaminants. The author also discusses limitations specific to this problem, including manipulation of huge data bases and fixed turn-around times. In practice, the latter requires a carefully tuned optimization between accuracy and computation speed.

  8. Secure communication scheme based on asymptotic model of deterministic randomness

    In this Letter, we introduce a new cryptosystem by integrating the asymptotic model of deterministic randomness with the one-way coupled map lattice (OCML) system. The key space, the encryption efficiency, and the security under various attacks are investigated. With the properties of deterministic randomness and spatiotemporal dynamics, the new scheme can improve the security to the order of computational precision, even when the lattice size is three only. Meanwhile, all the lattices can be fully utilized to increase the encryption speed

  9. Asymptotic-Preserving Schemes for Fluid Models of Plasmas

    Degond, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    These notes summarize a series of works related to the numerical approximation of plasma fluid problems. We construct so-called 'Asymptotic-Preserving' schemes which are valid for a large range of values (from very small to order unity) of the dimensionless parameters that appear in plasma fluid models. Specifically, we are interested in two parameters, the scaled Debye length which quantifies how close to quasi-neutrality the plasma is, and the scaled cyclotron period, which is inversely pro...

  10. An Industrial Model Based Disturbance Feedback Control Scheme

    Kawai, Fukiko; Nakazawa, Chikashi; Vinther, Kasper;

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a model based disturbance feedback control scheme. Industrial process systems have been traditionally controlled by using relay and PID controller. However these controllers are affected by disturbances and model errors and these effects degrade control performance. The authors...... propose a new control method that can decrease the negative impact of disturbance and model errors. The control method is motivated by industrial practice by Fuji Electric. Simulation tests are examined with a conventional PID controller and the disturbance feedback control. The simulation results...

  11. Stateless Transitive Signature Schemes

    MA Chun-guang; CAI Man-chun; YANG Yi-xian

    2004-01-01

    A new practical method is introduced to transform the stateful transitive signature scheme to stateless one without the loss of security. According to the approach, two concrete stateless transitive signature schemes based on Factoring and RSA are presented respectively. Under the assumption of the hardness of factoring and one-more- RSA-inversion problem, both two schemes are secure under the adaptive chosen-message attacks in random oracle model.

  12. Unobtrusive user modeling for adaptive hypermedia

    H.J. Holz; K. Hofmann; C. Reed

    2008-01-01

    We propose a technique for user modeling in Adaptive Hypermedia (AH) that is unobtrusive at both the level of observable behavior and that of cognition. Unobtrusive user modeling is complementary to transparent user modeling. Unobtrusive user modeling induces user models appropriate for Educational

  13. Application of Genetic Control with Adaptive Scaling Scheme to Signal Acquisition in Global Navigation Satellite System Receiver

    Ho-Nien Shou

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a genetic-based control scheme that not only utilizes evolutionary characteristics to find the signal acquisition parameters, but also employs an adaptive scheme to control the search space and avoid the genetic control converging to local optimal value so as to acquire the desired signal precisely and rapidly. Simulations and experiment results show that the proposed method can improve the precision of signal parameters and take less signal acquisition time than traditional serial search methods for global navigation satellite system (GNSS signals.

  14. Adaptive MIMO-OFDM Scheme with Reduced Computational Complexity and Improved Capacity

    L. C. Siddanna Gowd

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The general multidimensional linear channel model adequately represents a plethora of communication system models which utilize multidimensional transmit-receive signals for attaining increased rates and reliability in the presence of fading. The logarithmic dependence of the spectral efficiency of the transmitted power makes it extremely expensive to increase the capacity solely by radiating more power. Also, increasing the transmitted power in a mobile terminal is not advisable due to possible violation of regulatory power masks and possible electromagnetic radiation effects. Alternately, MIMO schemes if properly exploited can exhibit a linearly increasing capacity, due to the presence of a rich scattering environment that provides independent transmission paths from each transmit to each receive antenna. An Idealized practical communication system assumes perfect channel state information (CSI and uses a linear transmitter to maximize the reliability of the wireless multi-antenna link. However, in actual practice the CSI is incomplete. As a result of this, there is a necessity to deal with ergodic and compound capacity formulations and these factors are strongly dependent on the model utilized to characterize the channel. Practical system models include quasi-static multiple-input multipleoutput (MIMO, MIMO-OFDM, ISI, amplify-andforward (AF, decode-and-forward (DF, and MIMO automatic repeat request (ARQ models. Each of the above models introduces its own structure, its own error performance limits, and its own requirements on coding and decoding schemes. Finding general purpose transceiver structures with (provably good performance in these scenarios, and with a reasonable computational complexity, is challenging. Existing MIMO systems are able to provide either high spectral efficiency (spatial multiplexing or low error rate (high diversity via exploiting multiple degrees of freedom available in the channel, but not both simultaneously as

  15. Uncertainty Propagation and Quantification using Constrained Coupled Adaptive Forward-Inverse Schemes: Theory and Applications

    Ryerson, F. J.; Ezzedine, S. M.; Antoun, T.

    2013-12-01

    equation for the distribution of k is solved, provided that Cauchy data are appropriately assigned. In the next stage, only a limited number of passive measurements are provided. In this case, the forward and inverse PDEs are solved simultaneously. This is accomplished by adding regularization terms and filtering the pressure gradients in the inverse problem. Both the forward and the inverse problem are either simultaneously or sequentially coupled and solved using implicit schemes, adaptive mesh refinement, Galerkin finite elements. The final case arises when P, k, and Q data only exist at producing wells. This exceedingly ill posed problem calls for additional constraints on the forward-inverse coupling to insure that the production rates are satisfied at the desired locations. Results from all three cases are presented demonstrating stability and accuracy of the proposed approach and, more importantly, providing some insights into the consequences of data under sampling, uncertainty propagation and quantification. We illustrate the advantages of this novel approach over the common UQ forward drivers on several subsurface energy problems in either porous or fractured or/and faulted reservoirs. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  16. Adaptive finite difference for seismic wavefield modelling in acoustic media.

    Yao, Gang; Wu, Di; Debens, Henry Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Efficient numerical seismic wavefield modelling is a key component of modern seismic imaging techniques, such as reverse-time migration and full-waveform inversion. Finite difference methods are perhaps the most widely used numerical approach for forward modelling, and here we introduce a novel scheme for implementing finite difference by introducing a time-to-space wavelet mapping. Finite difference coefficients are then computed by minimising the difference between the spatial derivatives of the mapped wavelet and the finite difference operator over all propagation angles. Since the coefficients vary adaptively with different velocities and source wavelet bandwidths, the method is capable to maximise the accuracy of the finite difference operator. Numerical examples demonstrate that this method is superior to standard finite difference methods, while comparable to Zhang's optimised finite difference scheme. PMID:27491333

  17. Multiple models adaptive feedforward decoupling controller

    Wang Xin; Li Shaoyuan; Wang Zhongjie

    2005-01-01

    When the parameters of the system change abruptly, a new multivariable adaptive feedforward decoupling controller using multiple models is presented to improve the transient response. The system models are composed of multiple fixed models, one free-running adaptive model and one re-initialized adaptive model. The fixed models are used to provide initial control to the process. The re-initialized adaptive model can be reinitialized as the selected model to improve the adaptation speed. The free-running adaptive controller is added to guarantee the overall system stability. At each instant, the best system model is selected according to the switching index and the corresponding controller is designed. During the controller design, the interaction is viewed as the measurable disturbance and eliminated by the choice of the weighting polynomial matrix. It not only eliminates the steady-state error but also decouples the system dynamically. The global convergence is obtained and several simulation examples are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed controller.

  18. Effects of small irrigation schemes in farm resource production and climate change adaptation practices in Nepal

    Kabi Prasad Pokhrel

    2013-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to evaluate the socio-economic as well as environmental impacts of small irrigation schemes in different parts of Nepal so as to help in formulating future policies on small irrigation schemes and subsidy programs. The paper has clearly pointed out the operation and management structure in each of the selected schemes have been playing significant role to increase the farm resource productivity, reduce poverty level, improve farmer participation and to manage availabl...

  19. Multi-dimensional Upwind Fluctuation Splitting Scheme with Mesh Adaption for Hypersonic Viscous Flow

    Wood, William Alfred

    2001-01-01

    A multi-dimensional upwind fluctuation splitting scheme is developed and implemented for two-dimensional and axisymmetric formulations of the Navier-Stokes equations on unstructured meshes. Key features of the scheme are the compact stencil, full upwinding, and non-linear discretization which allow for second-order accuracy with enforced positivity. Throughout, the fluctuation splitting scheme is compared to a current state-of-the-art finite volume approach, a second-orde...

  20. Adaptive Gaussian sum squared-root cubature Kalman filter with split-merge scheme for state estimation

    Liu Yu; Dong Kai; Wang Haipeng; Liu Jun; He You; Pan Lina

    2014-01-01

    The paper deals with state estimation problem of nonlinear non-Gaussian discrete dynamic systems for improvement of accuracy and consistency. An efficient new algorithm called the adaptive Gaussian-sum square-root cubature Kalman filter (AGSSCKF) with a split-merge scheme is proposed. It is developed based on the squared-root extension of newly introduced cubature Kalman filter (SCKF) and is built within a Gaussian-sum framework. Based on the condition that the probability density functions o...

  1. A New Mobile Learning Adaptation Model

    Mohamd Hassan Hassan; Jehad Al-Sadi

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces a new model for m- Learning context adaptation due to the need of utilizing mobile technology in education. Mobile learning; m-Learning for short; in considered to be one of the hottest topics in the educational community, many researches had been done to conceptualize this new form of learning. We are presenting a promising design for a model to adapt the learning content in mobile learning applications in order to match the learner context, preferences and the educatio...

  2. Image segmentation based on adaptive mixture model

    As an important research field, image segmentation has attracted considerable attention. The classical geodesic active contour (GAC) model tends to produce fake edges in smooth regions, while the Chan–Vese (CV) model cannot effectively detect images with holes and obtain the precise boundary. To address the above issues, this paper proposes an adaptive mixture model synthesizing the GAC model and the CV model by a weight function. According to image characteristics, the proposed model can adaptively adjust the weight function. In this way, the model exploits the advantages of the GAC model in regions with rich textures or edges, while exploiting the advantages of the CV model in smooth local regions. Moreover, the proposed model is extended to vector-valued images. Through experiments, it is verified that the proposed model obtains better results than the traditional models. (paper)

  3. Modelling of transient dynamic bundle deformation using time integration scheme

    The BOW code has been examined whether its modeling capability can be extended to the simulation of interactions (i.e., fretting) between neighbouring fuel elements in a fuel bundle and between the fuel bundle and the pressure tube in a fuel channel. The current BOW code is specialized in simulating the static problems, such as the deflection of each element and interactions between neighbouring elements in a fuel bundle, and interactions between neighbouring bundles and between a bundle and the pressure tube in a fuel channel. The Wilson θ time integration scheme has been implemented in the BOW code, for the extension of its capability to modelling dynamic contact problems. As part of verification to ensure that the modification in the code functions exactly as designed, the dynamic-modelling capability of the BOW code has been applied to simple support beam cases subjected to a uniform step load at the middle of the beam. The calculation results confirmed that the modified BOW code, where the contact algorithm is implemented in the step-by-step integration manner using the Wilson θ time integration scheme, can solve the dynamic problem with unconditional convergence. This paper describes the theory and models for the new capabilities of the BOW code. (author)

  4. A UPFC damping control scheme using Lead-Lag and ANN based Adaptive controllers

    D. Ramesh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Low Frequency Oscillations (LFO occur inpower systems because of lack of the damping torque inorder to dominance to power system disturbances aschange in mechanical input power. In the recent pastPower System Stabilizer (PSS was used to damp LFO.FACTs devices, such as Unified Power Flow Controller(UPFC, can control power flow and increase transientstability. So UPFC may be used to damp LFO instead ofPSS. UPFC damps LFO through direct control of voltageand power. In this research the linearized model ofsynchronous machine (Heffron-Philips connected toinfinite bus (Single Machine-Infinite Bus: SMIB withUPFC is used and also in order to damp LFO, adaptiveANN damping controller for UPFC is designed andsimulated. Simulation is performed for various types ofloads and for different disturbances. Simulation resultsdemonstrate that the developed ANN damping controllerwould be more effective in damping electromechanicaloscillations in comparison with the conventional lead-lagcontroller.

  5. An integration scheme for stiff solid-gas reactor models

    Bjarne A. Foss

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Many dynamic models encounter numerical integration problems because of a large span in the dynamic modes. In this paper we develop a numerical integration scheme for systems that include a gas phase, and solid and liquid phases, such as a gas-solid reactor. The method is based on neglecting fast dynamic modes and exploiting the structure of the algebraic equations. The integration method is suitable for a large class of industrially relevant systems. The methodology has proven remarkably efficient. It has in practice performed excellent and been a key factor for the success of the industrial simulator for electrochemical furnaces for ferro-alloy production.

  6. Asymptotic-Preserving Schemes for Fluid Models of Plasmas

    Degond, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    These notes summarize a series of works related to the numerical approximation of plasma fluid problems. We construct so-called 'Asymptotic-Preserving' schemes which are valid for a large range of values (from very small to order unity) of the dimensionless parameters that appear in plasma fluid models. Specifically, we are interested in two parameters, the scaled Debye length which quantifies how close to quasi-neutrality the plasma is, and the scaled cyclotron period, which is inversely proportional to the magnetic field strength. We will largely focus on the ideas, in order to enable the reader to apply these concepts to other situations.

  7. A mesh adaptivity scheme on the Landau-de Gennes functional minimization case in 3D, and its driving efficiency

    Bajc, Iztok; Hecht, Frédéric; Žumer, Slobodan

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents a 3D mesh adaptivity strategy on unstructured tetrahedral meshes by a posteriori error estimates based on metrics derived from the Hessian of a solution. The study is made on the case of a nonlinear finite element minimization scheme for the Landau-de Gennes free energy functional of nematic liquid crystals. Newton's iteration for tensor fields is employed with steepest descent method possibly stepping in. Aspects relating the driving of mesh adaptivity within the nonlinear scheme are considered. The algorithmic performance is found to depend on at least two factors: when to trigger each single mesh adaptation, and the precision of the correlated remeshing. Each factor is represented by a parameter, with its values possibly varying for every new mesh adaptation. We empirically show that the time of the overall algorithm convergence can vary considerably when different sequences of parameters are used, thus posing a question about optimality. The extensive testings and debugging done within this work on the simulation of systems of nematic colloids substantially contributed to the upgrade of an open source finite element-oriented programming language to its 3D meshing possibilities, as also to an outer 3D remeshing module.

  8. Lyapunov exponents and adaptive mesh refinement for high-speed flows using a discontinuous Galerkin scheme

    Moura, R. C.; Silva, A. F. C.; Bigarella, E. D. V.; Fazenda, A. L.; Ortega, M. A.

    2016-08-01

    This paper proposes two important improvements to shock-capturing strategies using a discontinuous Galerkin scheme, namely, accurate shock identification via finite-time Lyapunov exponent (FTLE) operators and efficient shock treatment through a point-implicit discretization of a PDE-based artificial viscosity technique. The advocated approach is based on the FTLE operator, originally developed in the context of dynamical systems theory to identify certain types of coherent structures in a flow. We propose the application of FTLEs in the detection of shock waves and demonstrate the operator's ability to identify strong and weak shocks equally well. The detection algorithm is coupled with a mesh refinement procedure and applied to transonic and supersonic flows. While the proposed strategy can be used potentially with any numerical method, a high-order discontinuous Galerkin solver is used in this study. In this context, two artificial viscosity approaches are employed to regularize the solution near shocks: an element-wise constant viscosity technique and a PDE-based smooth viscosity model. As the latter approach is more sophisticated and preferable for complex problems, a point-implicit discretization in time is proposed to reduce the extra stiffness introduced by the PDE-based technique, making it more competitive in terms of computational cost.

  9. Adaptations in a Community-Based Family Intervention: Replication of Two Coding Schemes.

    Cooper, Brittany Rhoades; Shrestha, Gitanjali; Hyman, Leah; Hill, Laura

    2016-02-01

    Although program adaptation is a reality in community-based implementations of evidence-based programs, much of the discussion about adaptation remains theoretical. The primary aim of this study was to replicate two coding systems to examine adaptations in large-scale, community-based disseminations of the Strengthening Families Program for Parents and Youth 10-14, a family-based substance use prevention program. Our second aim was to explore intersections between various dimensions of facilitator-reported adaptations from these two coding systems. Our results indicate that only a few types of adaptations and a few reasons accounted for a majority (over 70 %) of all reported adaptations. We also found that most adaptations were logistical, reactive, and not aligned with program's goals. In many ways, our findings replicate those of the original studies, suggesting the two coding systems are robust even when applied to self-reported data collected from community-based implementations. Our findings on the associations between adaptation dimensions can inform future studies assessing the relationship between adaptations and program outcomes. Studies of local adaptations, like the present one, should help researchers, program developers, and policymakers better understand the issues faced by implementers and guide efforts related to program development, transferability, and sustainability. PMID:26661413

  10. Effects of small irrigation schemes in farm resource production and climate change adaptation practices in Nepal

    Kabi Prasad Pokhrel

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an attempt to evaluate the socio-economic as well as environmental impacts of small irrigation schemes in different parts of Nepal so as to help in formulating future policies on small irrigation schemes and subsidy programs. The paper has clearly pointed out the operation and management structure in each of the selected schemes have been playing significant role to increase the farm resource productivity, reduce poverty level, improve farmer participation and to manage available environmental resources in sustainable way. Furthermore, the functions and effectiveness of the Irrigation Management Committees (IMCs and Water Users Groups (WUGs, farmers groups (FG and cooperatives have been actively participated in the overall activities of small scale irrigation schemes to implement effectively.

  11. An adaptive model-free fuzzy controller

    In this paper, we present an adaptive, stable fuzzy controller whose parameters are optimized via a genetic algorithm. The controller model is capable of building itself on the basis of measured plant data and then of adapting to new dynamics. The stability of the overall system, made up of the plant and the controller, is guaranteed by Lyapunov's theory. As a case study, the stable adaptive fuzzy controller is employed to drive the narrow water level of a simulated Steam Generator (SG) to a desired reference trajectory. The numerical results confirm that the controller bears good performances in terms of small oscillations and fast settling time even in presence of external disturbances. (authors)

  12. Contaminated groundwater transport using an adaptive 3-D finite element model

    A three-dimensional, h-adapting finite element model has been developed to calculate subsurface transport and dispersion of contaminant. The model is based on a hybrid finite element scheme previously developed for two-dimensional groundwater and species transport

  13. Particle systems for adaptive, isotropic meshing of CAD models.

    Bronson, Jonathan R; Levine, Joshua A; Whitaker, Ross T

    2012-10-01

    We present a particle-based approach for generating adaptive triangular surface and tetrahedral volume meshes from computer-aided design models. Input shapes are treated as a collection of smooth, parametric surface patches that can meet non-smoothly on boundaries. Our approach uses a hierarchical sampling scheme that places particles on features in order of increasing dimensionality. These particles reach a good distribution by minimizing an energy computed in 3D world space, with movements occurring in the parametric space of each surface patch. Rather than using a pre-computed measure of feature size, our system automatically adapts to both curvature as well as a notion of topological separation. It also enforces a measure of smoothness on these constraints to construct a sizing field that acts as a proxy to piecewise-smooth feature size. We evaluate our technique with comparisons against other popular triangular meshing techniques for this domain. PMID:23162181

  14. Numerical schemes for one-point closure turbulence models

    First-order Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) turbulence models are studied in this thesis. These latter consist of the Navier-Stokes equations, supplemented with a system of balance equations describing the evolution of characteristic scalar quantities called 'turbulent scales'. In so doing, the contribution of the turbulent agitation to the momentum can be determined by adding a diffusive coefficient (called 'turbulent viscosity') in the Navier-Stokes equations, such that it is defined as a function of the turbulent scales. The numerical analysis problems, which are studied in this dissertation, are treated in the frame of a fractional step algorithm, consisting of an approximation on regular meshes of the Navier-Stokes equations by the nonconforming Crouzeix-Raviart finite elements, and a set of scalar convection-diffusion balance equations discretized by the standard finite volume method. A monotone numerical scheme based on the standard finite volume method is proposed so as to ensure that the turbulent scales, like the turbulent kinetic energy (k) and its dissipation rate (ε), remain positive in the case of the standard k - ε model, as well as the k - ε RNG and the extended k - ε - ν2 models. The convergence of the proposed numerical scheme is then studied on a system composed of the incompressible Stokes equations and a steady convection-diffusion equation, which are both coupled by the viscosities and the turbulent production term. This reduced model allows to deal with the main difficulty encountered in the analysis of such problems: the definition of the turbulent production term leads to consider a class of convection-diffusion problems with an irregular right-hand side belonging to L1. Finally, to step towards the unsteady problem, the convergence of the finite volume scheme for a model convection-diffusion equation with L1 data is proved. The a priori estimates on the solution and on its time derivative are obtained in discrete norms, for

  15. Adaptive Q-V Scheme for the Voltage Control of a DFIG-Based Wind Power Plant

    Kim, Jinho; Seok, Jul-Ki; Muljadi, Eduard; Kang, Yong Cheol

    2016-05-01

    Wind generators within a wind power plant (WPP) will produce different amounts of active power because of the wake effect, and therefore, they have different reactive power capabilities. This paper proposes an adaptive reactive power to the voltage (Q-V) scheme for the voltage control of a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG)-based WPP. In the proposed scheme, the WPP controller uses a voltage control mode and sends a voltage error signal to each DFIG. The DFIG controller also employs a voltage control mode utilizing the adaptive Q-V characteristics depending on the reactive power capability such that a DFIG with a larger reactive power capability will inject more reactive power to ensure fast voltage recovery. Test results indicate that the proposed scheme can recover the voltage within a short time, even for a grid fault with a small short-circuit ratio, by making use of the available reactive power of a WPP and differentiating the reactive power injection in proportion to the reactive power capability. This will, therefore, help to reduce the additional reactive power and ensure fast voltage recovery.

  16. Modeling and Analysis of Source Management Routing Scheme for BGP

    Shu Wang

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Source management routing scheme called SMR is a new approach that provides a backup routing path for BGP on AS-level. In SMR, each AS in the virtual ring just is defined by a node which owns a unique identifier. It is a novel way to integrate some physical topology into virtual topology to shorten the routes greatly. And then, we present a theoretical model of virtual ring SMR to describe the routing mechanism and the impacts on the routing performance. We evaluate the performance of SMR by simulations on a real BGP topology. In the case of each AS only maintaining a route to one virtual neighbor, virtual ring SMR still provides a path to destination with low overhead. Furthermore, our theoretical model fit the process of SMR well, and provides the insight for us to improve the virtual ring SMR.

  17. An adaptive stochastic model for financial markets

    An adaptive stochastic model is introduced to simulate the behavior of real asset markets. The model adapts itself by changing its parameters automatically on the basis of the recent historical data. The basic idea underlying the model is that a random variable uniformly distributed within an interval with variable extremes can replicate the histograms of asset returns. These extremes are calculated according to the arrival of new market information. This adaptive model is applied to the daily returns of three well-known indices: Ibex35, Dow Jones and Nikkei, for three complete years. The model reproduces the histograms of the studied indices as well as their autocorrelation structures. It produces the same fat tails and the same power laws, with exactly the same exponents, as in the real indices. In addition, the model shows a great adaptation capability, anticipating the volatility evolution and showing the same volatility clusters observed in the assets. This approach provides a novel way to model asset markets with internal dynamics which changes quickly with time, making it impossible to define a fixed model to fit the empirical observations.

  18. Performance analysis of switch-based multiuser scheduling schemes with adaptive modulation in spectrum sharing systems

    Qaraqe, Marwa

    2014-04-01

    This paper focuses on the development of multiuser access schemes for spectrum sharing systems whereby secondary users are allowed to share the spectrum with primary users under the condition that the interference observed at the primary receiver is below a predetermined threshold. In particular, two scheduling schemes are proposed for selecting a user among those that satisfy the interference constraint and achieve an acceptable signal-to-noise ratio level. The first scheme focuses on optimizing the average spectral efficiency by selecting the user that reports the best channel quality. In order to alleviate the relatively high feedback required by the first scheme, a second scheme based on the concept of switched diversity is proposed, where the base station (BS) scans the secondary users in a sequential manner until a user whose channel quality is above an acceptable predetermined threshold is found. We develop expressions for the statistics of the signal-to-interference and noise ratio as well as the average spectral efficiency, average feedback load, and the delay at the secondary BS. We then present numerical results for the effect of the number of users and the interference constraint on the optimal switching threshold and the system performance and show that our analysis results are in perfect agreement with the numerical results. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Adaptive Partially Hidden Markov Models

    Forchhammer, Søren Otto; Rasmussen, Tage

    1996-01-01

    Partially Hidden Markov Models (PHMM) have recently been introduced. The transition and emission probabilities are conditioned on the past. In this report, the PHMM is extended with a multiple token version. The different versions of the PHMM are applied to bi-level image coding.......Partially Hidden Markov Models (PHMM) have recently been introduced. The transition and emission probabilities are conditioned on the past. In this report, the PHMM is extended with a multiple token version. The different versions of the PHMM are applied to bi-level image coding....

  20. A shock-adaptive Godunov scheme based on the generalised Lagrangian formulation

    Lepage, C.Y. [Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada); Hui, W.H. [Hong Kong Univ. of Science & Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    1995-12-01

    Application of the Godunov scheme to the Euler equations of gas dynamics based on the Eulerian formulation of flow smears discontinuities, sliplines especially, over several computational cells, while the accuracy in the smooth flow region is of the order 0 (h),where h is the cell width. Based on the generalised Lagrangian formulation (GLF) of Hui et al., the Godunov scheme yields superior accuracy. By the use of coordinate streamlines in the GLF, the slip-line - itself a streamline - is resolved crisply. Infinite shock resolution is achieved through the splitting of shock-cells. An improved entropy-conservation formulation of the governing equations is also proposed for computations in smooth flow regions. Finally, the use of the GLF substantially simplifies the programming logic resulting in a very robust, accurate, and efficient scheme. 15 refs., 6 figs.

  1. A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON ADAPTIVE LIFTING BASED SCHEME AND INTERACTIVE ARTIFICIAL BEE COLONY ALGORITHM FOR IMAGE COMPRESSION

    G.G Rajput

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive update lifting scheme based Interactive artificial bee colony algorithm is proposed in this paper. Wavelet transform based compression technique is used for images and multimedia files. Approximation and detail coefficients are extracted from the signal by filtering in wavelet transform. To increase frequency resolution both approximation and detail coefficients are re-decomposed up to some level. Artificial bee colony algorithm by local search finds different update coefficients to get quality of compressed image by choosing optimally best update coefficient. In IABC, the affection between employed bees and the onlooker bees is found by considering the concept of universal gravitation. By passing on control parameter different values, the universal gravitation involved in the IABC has a single onlooker bee & variety of quantities of employed bees. As a result, IABC compared with existing image compression schemes such as wavelet transform and Artificial Bee colony Algorithm, the proposed work gives better PSNR.

  2. New synchronization criteria for memristor-based networks: adaptive control and feedback control schemes.

    Li, Ning; Cao, Jinde

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate synchronization for memristor-based neural networks with time-varying delay via an adaptive and feedback controller. Under the framework of Filippov's solution and differential inclusion theory, and by using the adaptive control technique and structuring a novel Lyapunov functional, an adaptive updated law was designed, and two synchronization criteria were derived for memristor-based neural networks with time-varying delay. By removing some of the basic literature assumptions, the derived synchronization criteria were found to be more general than those in existing literature. Finally, two simulation examples are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the theoretical results. PMID:25299765

  3. Performance gain in computer-assisted detection schemes by averaging scores generated from artificial neural networks with adaptive filtering

    The authors investigated a new method to optimize artificial neural networks (ANNs) with adaptive filtering used in computer-assisted detection schemes in digitized mammograms and to assess performance changes when averaging classification scores from three sets of optimized schemes. Two independent training and testing image databases involving 978 and 830 digitized mammograms, respectively, were used in this study. In the training data set, initial filtering and subtraction resulted in the identification of 592 mass regions and 3790 suspicious, but actually negative regions. These regions (including both true-positive and negative regions) were segmented into three subsets three times based on the calculation of the values of three features as segmentation indices. The indices were 'mass' size multiplied by their digital value contrast, conspicuity, and circularity. Nine ANN-based classifiers were separately optimized using a genetic algorithm for each subset of regions. Each region was assigned three classification scores after applying the three adaptive ANNs. The performance gain of the CAD scheme after averaging the three scores for each suspicious region was tested using an independent data set and a ROC methodology. The experimental results showed that the areas under ROC curves (Az) for the testing database using three sets of optimized ANNs individually were 0.84±0.01, 0.83±0.01, and 0.84±0.01, respectively. The between-index correlations of three Az values were 0.013, -0.007, and 0.086. Similar to averaging diagnostic ratings from independent observers, by averaging three ANN-generated scores for each testing region, the performance of the CAD scheme was significantly improved (pz value of 0.95±0.01

  4. Intelligent CAD Methodology Research of Adaptive Modeling

    ZHANG Weibo; LI Jun; YAN Jianrong

    2006-01-01

    The key to carry out ICAD technology is to establish the knowledge-based and wide rang of domains-covered product model. This paper put out a knowledge-based methodology of adaptive modeling. It is under the Ontology mind, using the Object-Oriented technology and being a knowledge-based model framework. It involves the diverse domains in product design and realizes the multi-domain modeling, embedding the relative information including standards, regulars and expert experience. To test the feasibility of the methodology, the research bonds of the automotive diaphragm spring clutch design and an adaptive clutch design model is established, using the knowledge-based modeling language-AML.

  5. Provisioning of adaptability to variable topologies for routing schemes in MANETs

    Jiang, Shengming; Liu, Yaoda; Jiang, Yuming;

    2004-01-01

    .g., low, medium, and high mobility) have been proposed in the,literature. However, since a mobile node should not be limited to operate in a particular MANET assumed by-a routing scheme, an important issue is how to enable, a mobile node to achieve routing performance as high as possible when it roams...

  6. A Conservative Scheme for Vlasov Poisson Landau modeling collisional plasmas

    Zhang, Chenglong

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a deterministic conservative solver for the inhomogeneous Fokker-Planck-Landau equation coupled with Poisson equation, which is a rather realistic and primary model for collisional plasmas. Two subproblems, i.e Vlasov-Poisson problem and homogeneous Landau problem, are obtained through time-splitting methods, and treated separately by Runge-Kutta Dis- continuous Galerkin method and conservative spectral method, respectively. To ensure conservation when projecting between the two different computing grids, a special conservation routine is designed to link the two solutions to these two subproblems. The entire numerical scheme is implemented with parallelization with hybrid MPI and OpenMP. Numerical experiments are provided to study linear and nonlinear Landau Damping problems and two- stream flow problem as well.

  7. Reference model decomposition in direct adaptive control

    Butler, H.; Honderd, G.; Amerongen, van, W.E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper introduces the method of reference model decomposition as a way to improve the robustness of model reference adaptive control systems (MRACs) with respect to unmodelled dynamics with a known structure. Such unmodelled dynamics occur when some of the nominal plant dynamics are purposely neglected in the controller design with the aim of keeping the controller order low. One of the effects of such undermodelling of the controller is a violation of the perfect model-matching condition...

  8. Modeling Marine Stratocumulus with a Detailed Microphysical Scheme

    ZHAO Chunsheng(赵春生); Yutaka ISHIZAKA

    2004-01-01

    A one-dimensional 3rd-order turbulence closure model with size-resolved microphysics and radiative transfer has been developed for investigating aerosol and cloud interactions of the stratocumulus-topped marine boundary layer.A new method is presented for coupling between the dynamical model and the microphysical model.This scheme allows the liquid water related correlations to be directly calculated rather than parameterized.On 21 April 2001,a marine stratocumulus was observed by the Caesar aircraft over the west Pacific Rim south of Japan during the 2001 APEX/ACE-Asia field measurements.This cloud is simulated by the model we present here.The model results show that the general features of the stratocumulus-topped marine boundary layer predicted by the model are in agreement with the measurements.A new onboard cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) counter provides not only total CC Nnumber concentration (as the traditional CCN counters do at a certain supersaturation) but also the CCN size distribution information.Using these CCN data,model responses to different CCN initial concentrations are examined.The model results are consistent with both observations and expectations.The numerical results show that the cloud microphysical properties are changed fundamentally by differentinitial CCN concentrations but the cloud liquid water content does not differ significantly.Different initial CCN loadings have large impacts on the evolution of cloud microstructure and radiation transfer while they have a modest effect on thermodynamics.Increased CCN concentration leads to significant decrease of cloud effective radius.

  9. Adaptive System Modeling for Spacecraft Simulation

    Thomas, Justin

    2011-01-01

    This invention introduces a methodology and associated software tools for automatically learning spacecraft system models without any assumptions regarding system behavior. Data stream mining techniques were used to learn models for critical portions of the International Space Station (ISS) Electrical Power System (EPS). Evaluation on historical ISS telemetry data shows that adaptive system modeling reduces simulation error anywhere from 50 to 90 percent over existing approaches. The purpose of the methodology is to outline how someone can create accurate system models from sensor (telemetry) data. The purpose of the software is to support the methodology. The software provides analysis tools to design the adaptive models. The software also provides the algorithms to initially build system models and continuously update them from the latest streaming sensor data. The main strengths are as follows: Creates accurate spacecraft system models without in-depth system knowledge or any assumptions about system behavior. Automatically updates/calibrates system models using the latest streaming sensor data. Creates device specific models that capture the exact behavior of devices of the same type. Adapts to evolving systems. Can reduce computational complexity (faster simulations).

  10. Uncertainty of establishment scheme in the Community Land Model-Dynamic Global Vegetation Model

    Song, X.; Zeng, X.

    2010-12-01

    Dynamic global vegetation models are very important tools to simulate and predict the relationship between terrestrial ecosystem processes and climate change. They usually consist of several main sub-models, such as establishment, growth, mortality due to stress, competition, reproductive and so forth. In this study, we focus on the establishment sub-model. Establishment sub-model describes the processes of germination of tree seeds and establishment of seedlings. However, due to the complexity of the ecological process and the lack of observation data, current DGVMs use different parameterization schemes of establishment, and the uncertainties of these establishment scheme as well as their impacts on vegetation distribution remain largely unknown. Our work is to introduce several new different establishment schemes, each based on different physical and ecological considerations, into a modified Community Land Model - Dynamic Global Vegetation Model (CLM-DGVM). The sensitivities of the vegetation distribution to different establishment schemes and some essential parameters in the schemes are investigated in different vegetation zones. Our research indicates that establishment scheme has remarkable effects not only on the percent of coverage and population density of different plant functional types (PFTs) but also the community structure such as coexistence of PFTs and even the dominant vegetation. Such changes will alter the ecosystem functioning, and hence have further impacts on climate through the vegetation-atmosphere feedback.

  11. Modelling and (adaptive) control of greenhouse climates

    Udink ten Cate, A.J.

    1983-01-01

    The material presented in this thesis can be grouped around four themes, system concepts, modeling, control and adaptive control. In this summary these themes will be treated separately.System conceptsIn Chapters 1 and 2 an overview of the problem formulation is presented. It is suggested that there

  12. Traffic Prediction Scheme based on Chaotic Models in Wireless Networks

    Xiangrong Feng

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Based on the local support vector algorithm of chaotic time series analysis, the Hannan-Quinn information criterion and SAX symbolization are introduced. Then a novel prediction algorithm is proposed, which is successfully applied to the prediction of wireless network traffic. For the correct prediction problems of short-term flow with smaller data set size, the weakness of the algorithms during model construction is analyzed by study and comparison to LDK prediction algorithm. It is verified the Hannan-Quinn information principle can be used to calculate the number of neighbor points to replace pervious empirical method, which uses the number of neighbor points to acquire more accurate prediction model. Finally, actual flow data is applied to confirm the accuracy rate of the proposed algorithm LSDHQ. It is testified by our experiments that it also has higher performance in adaptability than that of LSDHQ algorithm.

  13. Regenerative and Adaptive schemes Based on Network Coding for Wireless Relay Network

    Ahmed Hassan M. Hassan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent technological advances in wireless communications offer new opportunities and challenges for relay network. To enhance system performance, Demodulate-Network Coding (Dm-NC scheme has been examined at relay node; it works directly to De-map the received signals and after that forward the mixture to the destination. Simulation analysis has been proven that the performance of Dm-NC has superiority over analog-NC. In addition, the Quantize-Decode-NC scheme (QDF-NC has been introduced. The presented simulation results clearly provide that the QDF-NC perform better than analog-NC. The toggle between analogNC and QDF-NC is simulated in order to investigate delay and power consumption reduction at relay node.

  14. Semantic models for adaptive interactive systems

    Hussein, Tim; Lukosch, Stephan; Ziegler, Jürgen; Calvary, Gaëlle

    2013-01-01

    Providing insights into methodologies for designing adaptive systems based on semantic data, and introducing semantic models that can be used for building interactive systems, this book showcases many of the applications made possible by the use of semantic models.Ontologies may enhance the functional coverage of an interactive system as well as its visualization and interaction capabilities in various ways. Semantic models can also contribute to bridging gaps; for example, between user models, context-aware interfaces, and model-driven UI generation. There is considerable potential for using

  15. An Adaptive Scheme for Robot Localization and Mapping with Dynamically Configurable Inter-Beacon Range Measurements

    Arturo Torres-González; Jose Ramiro Martinez-de Dios; Anibal Ollero

    2014-01-01

    This work is motivated by robot-sensor network cooperation techniques where sensor nodes (beacons) are used as landmarks for range-only (RO) simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM). This paper presents a RO-SLAM scheme that actuates over the measurement gathering process using mechanisms that dynamically modify the rate and variety of measurements that are integrated in the SLAM filter. It includes a measurement gathering module that can be configured to collect direct robot-beacon and i...

  16. Adaptive Backbone and Link Correlation based Data Transmission Schemes for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Weerasinghe, Thilina Nuwan

    2015-01-01

    One of the main challenges faced by modern wireless sensor networks (WSN) is rapid energy depletion of individual sensor nodes. In many applications, sensor nodes are deployed in outdoor environments and it is difficult to replace or recharge node batteries. Depending on network topology and the transmission schemes implemented, certain nodes could have higher energy consumption compared with other nodes. In highly unbalanced load distributions this could lead to early total energ...

  17. An emergency-adaptive routing scheme for wireless sensor networks for building fire hazard monitoring.

    Zeng, Yuanyuan; Sreenan, Cormac J; Sitanayah, Lanny; Xiong, Naixue; Park, Jong Hyuk; Zheng, Guilin

    2011-01-01

    Fire hazard monitoring and evacuation for building environments is a novel application area for the deployment of wireless sensor networks. In this context, adaptive routing is essential in order to ensure safe and timely data delivery in building evacuation and fire fighting resource applications. Existing routing mechanisms for wireless sensor networks are not well suited for building fires, especially as they do not consider critical and dynamic network scenarios. In this paper, an emergency-adaptive, real-time and robust routing protocol is presented for emergency situations such as building fire hazard applications. The protocol adapts to handle dynamic emergency scenarios and works well with the routing hole problem. Theoretical analysis and simulation results indicate that our protocol provides a real-time routing mechanism that is well suited for dynamic emergency scenarios in building fires when compared with other related work. PMID:22163774

  18. An Emergency-Adaptive Routing Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks for Building Fire Hazard Monitoring

    Guilin Zheng

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Fire hazard monitoring and evacuation for building environments is a novel application area for the deployment of wireless sensor networks. In this context, adaptive routing is essential in order to ensure safe and timely data delivery in building evacuation and fire fighting resource applications. Existing routing mechanisms for wireless sensor networks are not well suited for building fires, especially as they do not consider critical and dynamic network scenarios. In this paper, an emergency-adaptive, real-time and robust routing protocol is presented for emergency situations such as building fire hazard applications. The protocol adapts to handle dynamic emergency scenarios and works well with the routing hole problem. Theoretical analysis and simulation results indicate that our protocol provides a real-time routing mechanism that is well suited for dynamic emergency scenarios in building fires when compared with other related work.

  19. An Emergency-Adaptive Routing Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks for Building Fire Hazard Monitoring

    Yuanyuan Zeng

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Fire hazard monitoring and evacuation for building environments is a novel application area for the deployment of wireless sensor networks. In this context, adaptive routing is essential in order to ensure safe and timely data delivery in building evacuation and fire fighting resource applications. Existing routing mechanisms for wireless sensor networks are not well suited for building fires, especially as they do not consider critical and dynamic network scenarios. In this paper, an emergency-adaptive, real-time and robust routing protocol is presented for emergency situations such as building fire hazard applications. The protocol adapts to handle dynamic emergency scenarios and works well with the routing hole problem. Theoretical analysis and simulation results indicate that our protocol provides a real-time routing mechanism that is well suited for dynamic emergency scenarios in building fires when compared with other related work.

  20. Adaptive Modeling for Security Infrastructure Fault Response

    CUI Zhong-jie; YAO Shu-ping; HU Chang-zhen

    2008-01-01

    Based on the analysis of inherent limitations in existing security response decision-making systems, a dynamic adaptive model of fault response is presented. Several security fault levels were founded, which comprise the basic level, equipment level and mechanism level. Fault damage cost is calculated using the analytic hierarchy process. Meanwhile, the model evaluates the impact of different responses upon fault repair and normal operation. Response operation cost and response negative cost are introduced through quantitative calculation. This model adopts a comprehensive response decision of security fault in three principles-the maximum and minimum principle, timeliness principle, acquiescence principle, which assure optimal response countermeasure is selected for different situations. Experimental results show that the proposed model has good self-adaptation ability, timeliness and cost-sensitiveness.

  1. Automated adaptive inference of phenomenological dynamical models

    Daniels, Bryan C.; Nemenman, Ilya

    2015-08-01

    Dynamics of complex systems is often driven by large and intricate networks of microscopic interactions, whose sheer size obfuscates understanding. With limited experimental data, many parameters of such dynamics are unknown, and thus detailed, mechanistic models risk overfitting and making faulty predictions. At the other extreme, simple ad hoc models often miss defining features of the underlying systems. Here we develop an approach that instead constructs phenomenological, coarse-grained models of network dynamics that automatically adapt their complexity to the available data. Such adaptive models produce accurate predictions even when microscopic details are unknown. The approach is computationally tractable, even for a relatively large number of dynamical variables. Using simulated data, it correctly infers the phase space structure for planetary motion, avoids overfitting in a biological signalling system and produces accurate predictions for yeast glycolysis with tens of data points and over half of the interacting species unobserved.

  2. Adaptive Cruise Control and Driver Modeling

    Bengtsson, Johan

    2001-01-01

    Many vehicle manufacturers have lately introduced advance driver support in some of their automobiles. One of those new features is Adaptive Cruise Control DACCE, which extends the conventional cruise control system to control of relative speed and distance to other vehicles. In order to design an ACC controller it is suitable to have a model of driver behavior. The approach in the thesis is to use system identification methodology to obtain dynamic models of driver behavior useful for ACC ap...

  3. Parallel adaptive mesh refinement method based on WENO finite difference scheme for the simulation of multi-dimensional detonation

    Wang, Cheng; Dong, XinZhuang; Shu, Chi-Wang

    2015-10-01

    For numerical simulation of detonation, computational cost using uniform meshes is large due to the vast separation in both time and space scales. Adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) is advantageous for problems with vastly different scales. This paper aims to propose an AMR method with high order accuracy for numerical investigation of multi-dimensional detonation. A well-designed AMR method based on finite difference weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) scheme, named as AMR&WENO is proposed. A new cell-based data structure is used to organize the adaptive meshes. The new data structure makes it possible for cells to communicate with each other quickly and easily. In order to develop an AMR method with high order accuracy, high order prolongations in both space and time are utilized in the data prolongation procedure. Based on the message passing interface (MPI) platform, we have developed a workload balancing parallel AMR&WENO code using the Hilbert space-filling curve algorithm. Our numerical experiments with detonation simulations indicate that the AMR&WENO is accurate and has a high resolution. Moreover, we evaluate and compare the performance of the uniform mesh WENO scheme and the parallel AMR&WENO method. The comparison results provide us further insight into the high performance of the parallel AMR&WENO method.

  4. New Digital Signature Scheme Attaining Immunity to Adaptive Chosen Message Attack

    ZHU Huafei

    2001-01-01

    A new signature provably secureagainst adaptive chosen message attack is developedin this report. It is state-free and the proof of secu-rity is based on "strong RSA (Rivest-shamir-adleman)assumption, collision free hash algorithm as well as in-tractability of" discrete logarithm problem.

  5. A Distributed Taxation Based Rank Adaptation Scheme for 5G Small Cells

    Catania, Davide; Cattoni, Andrea Fabio; Mahmood, Nurul Huda;

    2015-01-01

    The further densification of small cells impose high and undesirable levels of inter-cell interference. Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) systems along with advanced receiver techniques provide us with extra degrees of freedom to combat such a problem. With such tools, rank adaptation algorit...

  6. Robust Adaptive Output Feedback Control Scheme for Chaos Synchronization with Input Nonlinearity

    Xiaomeng Li; Zhanshan Zhao; Jing Zhang; Meixia Zhu

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a robust adaptive output feedback control strategy which can automatically regulate control gain for chaos synchronization. Chaotic systems with input nonlinearities, delayed nonlinear coupling, and external disturbance can achieve synchronization by applying this strategy. Utilizing Lyapunov method and LMI technique, the conditions ensuring chaos synchronization are obtained. Finally, simulations are given to show the effectiveness of our control strategy.

  7. Adaptive-network models of swarm dynamics

    Huepe, Cristian [614 N Paulina Street, Chicago, IL 60622-6062 (United States); Zschaler, Gerd; Do, Anne-Ly; Gross, Thilo, E-mail: cristian@northwestern.edu [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik komplexer Systeme, Noethnitzer Strasse 38, 01187 Dresden (Germany)

    2011-07-15

    We propose a simple adaptive-network model describing recent swarming experiments. Exploiting an analogy with human decision making, we capture the dynamics of the model using a low-dimensional system of equations permitting analytical investigation. We find that the model reproduces several characteristic features of swarms, including spontaneous symmetry breaking, noise- and density-driven order-disorder transitions that can be of first or second order, and intermittency. Reproducing these experimental observations using a non-spatial model suggests that spatial geometry may have less of an impact on collective motion than previously thought.

  8. Adaptive-network models of swarm dynamics

    We propose a simple adaptive-network model describing recent swarming experiments. Exploiting an analogy with human decision making, we capture the dynamics of the model using a low-dimensional system of equations permitting analytical investigation. We find that the model reproduces several characteristic features of swarms, including spontaneous symmetry breaking, noise- and density-driven order-disorder transitions that can be of first or second order, and intermittency. Reproducing these experimental observations using a non-spatial model suggests that spatial geometry may have less of an impact on collective motion than previously thought.

  9. Adaptive Behaviour Assessment System: Indigenous Australian Adaptation Model (ABAS: IAAM)

    du Plessis, Santie

    2015-01-01

    The study objectives were to develop, trial and evaluate a cross-cultural adaptation of the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-Second Edition Teacher Form (ABAS-II TF) ages 5-21 for use with Indigenous Australian students ages 5-14. This study introduced a multiphase mixed-method design with semi-structured and informal interviews, school…

  10. A video coding scheme based on joint spatiotemporal and adaptive prediction.

    Jiang, Wenfei; Latecki, Longin Jan; Liu, Wenyu; Liang, Hui; Gorman, Ken

    2009-05-01

    We propose a video coding scheme that departs from traditional Motion Estimation/DCT frameworks and instead uses Karhunen-Loeve Transform (KLT)/Joint Spatiotemporal Prediction framework. In particular, a novel approach that performs joint spatial and temporal prediction simultaneously is introduced. It bypasses the complex H.26x interframe techniques and it is less computationally intensive. Because of the advantage of the effective joint prediction and the image-dependent color space transformation (KLT), the proposed approach is demonstrated experimentally to consistently lead to improved video quality, and in many cases to better compression rates and improved computational speed. PMID:19342337

  11. CIELAB-driven adaptive quantization scheme for DCT-based compression of CMYK images

    De Neve, Peter; Denecker, Koen N.; Lemahieu, Ignace L.

    1999-05-01

    In todays digital prepress workflow images are most often sorted in the CMYK color representation. In the lossy compression of CMYK color imags, most techniques do not take the tonal correlation between the color channels into account or they are not able to perform a proper color decorrelation in four dimensions. In a first stage a compression method has been developed that takes this type of redundancy into account. The basic idea is to divide the image into blocks. The color information in those blocks is then transformed from the original CMYK color space into a decorrelated color space. In this new color space not all components are of the same magnitude so here the gain for compression purposes becomes clear. After the color transformation step any regular compression scheme meant to reduce the spatial redundancy can be applied. In this paper a more advanced approach for the utilization procedure in the compression algorithm is presented. The proposed scheme tries to control the quantization parameters differently for all blocks and color components. Therefore the influence on the CIELab (Delta) E measure is investigated when making a small shift in the four main directions of the decorrelated color space.

  12. Incompressible Turbulent Flow Simulation Using the κ-ɛ Model and Upwind Schemes

    V. G. Ferreira

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the computation of turbulent flows via turbulence modeling, the treatment of the convective terms is a key issue. In the present work, we present a numerical technique for simulating two-dimensional incompressible turbulent flows. In particular, the performance of the high Reynolds κ-ɛ model and a new high-order upwind scheme (adaptative QUICKEST by Kaibara et al. (2005 is assessed for 2D confined and free-surface incompressible turbulent flows. The model equations are solved with the fractional-step projection method in primitive variables. Solutions are obtained by using an adaptation of the front tracking GENSMAC (Tomé and McKee (1994 methodology for calculating fluid flows at high Reynolds numbers. The calculations are performed by using the 2D version of the Freeflow simulation system (Castello et al. (2000. A specific way of implementing wall functions is also tested and assessed. The numerical procedure is tested by solving three fluid flow problems, namely, turbulent flow over a backward-facing step, turbulent boundary layer over a flat plate under zero-pressure gradients, and a turbulent free jet impinging onto a flat surface. The numerical method is then applied to solve the flow of a horizontal jet penetrating a quiescent fluid from an entry port beneath the free surface.

  13. DOAS: device-oriented adaptive multimedia scheme for 3GPP LTE systems

    Zou, Longhao; Trestian, Ramona; Muntean, Gabriel-Miro

    2013-01-01

    peer-reviewed The growing popularity of the high-end mobile computing devices ??? smartphones, tablets, notebooks and more ??? equipped with high-speed network access, enables the mobile user to watch multimedia content from any source on any screen, at any time, while on the move or stationary. In this context, the network operators must ensure smooth video streaming with the lowest service delay, jitter, and packet loss. This paper proposes a resource efficient Device-Oriented Adaptive M...

  14. A modified symplectic scheme for seismic wave modeling

    Liu, Shaolin; Li, Xiaofan; Wang, Wenshuai; Xu, Ling; Li, Bingfei

    2015-05-01

    Symplectic integrators are well known for their excellent performance in solving partial differential equation of dynamical systems because they are capable of preserving some conservative properties of dynamic equations. However, there are not enough high-order, for example third-order symplectic schemes, which are suitable for seismic wave equations. Here, we propose a strategy to construct a symplectic scheme that is based on a so-called high-order operator modification method. We first employ a conventional two-stage Runge-Kutta-Nyström (RKN) method to solve the ordinary differential equations, which are derived from the spatial discretization of the seismic wave equations. We then add a high-order term to the RKN method. Finally, we obtain a new third-order symplectic scheme with all positive symplectic coefficients, and it is defined based on the order condition, the symplectic condition, the stability condition and the dispersion relation. It is worth noting that the new scheme is independent of the spatial discretization type used, and we simply apply some finite difference operators to approximate the spatial derivatives of the isotropic elastic equations for a straightforward discussion. For the theoretical analysis, we obtain the semi-analytic stability conditions of our scheme with various orders of spatial approximation. The stability and dispersion properties of our scheme are also compared with conventional schemes to illustrate the favorable numerical behaviors of our scheme in terms of precision, stability and dispersion characteristics. Finally, three numerical experiments are employed to further demonstrate the validity of our method. The modified strategy that is proposed in this paper can be used to construct other explicit symplectic schemes.

  15. High-performance adaptive intelligent Direct Torque Control schemes for induction motor drives

    Vasudevan M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a detailed comparison between viable adaptive intelligent torque control strategies of induction motor, emphasizing advantages and disadvantages. The scope of this paper is to choose an adaptive intelligent controller for induction motor drive proposed for high performance applications. Induction motors are characterized by complex, highly non-linear, time varying dynamics, inaccessibility of some states and output for measurements and hence can be considered as a challenging engineering problem. The advent of torque and flux control techniques have partially solved induction motor control problems, because they are sensitive to drive parameter variations and performance may deteriorate if conventional controllers are used. Intelligent controllers are considered as potential candidates for such an application. In this paper, the performance of the various sensor less intelligent Direct Torque Control (DTC techniques of Induction motor such as neural network, fuzzy and genetic algorithm based torque controllers are evaluated. Adaptive intelligent techniques are applied to achieve high performance decoupled flux and torque control. This paper contributes: i Development of Neural network algorithm for state selection in DTC; ii Development of new algorithm for state selection using Genetic algorithm principle; and iii Development of Fuzzy based DTC. Simulations have been performed using the trained state selector neural network instead of conventional DTC and Fuzzy controller instead of conventional DTC controller. The results show agreement with those of the conventional DTC.

  16. A numerical scheme for coastal morphodynamic modelling on unstructured grids

    Guerin, Thomas; Bertin, Xavier; Dodet, Guillaume

    2016-08-01

    Over the last decade, modelling systems based on unstructured grids have been appearing increasingly attractive to investigate the dynamics of coastal zones. However, the resolution of the sediment continuity equation to simulate bed evolution is a complex problem which often leads to the development of numerical oscillations. To overcome this problem, addition of artificial diffusion or bathymetric filters are commonly employed methods, although these techniques can potentially over-smooth the bathymetry. This study aims to present a numerical scheme based on the Weighted Essentially Non-Oscillatory (WENO) formalism to solve the bed continuity equation on unstructured grids in a finite volume formulation. The new solution is compared against a classical method, which combines a basic node-centered finite volume method with artificial diffusion, for three idealized test cases. This comparison reveals that a higher accuracy is obtained with our new method while the addition of diffusion appears inappropriate mainly due to the arbitrary choice of the diffusion coefficient. Moreover, the increased computation time associated with the WENO-based method to solve the bed continuity equation is negligible when considering a fully-coupled simulation with tides and waves. Finally, the application of the new method to the pluri-monthly evolution of an idealized inlet subjected to tides and waves shows the development of realistic bed features (e.g. secondary flood channels, ebb-delta sandbars, or oblique sandbars at the adjacent beaches), that are smoothed or nonexistent when using additional diffusion.

  17. Reinforcement Learning Using Local Adaptive Models

    Borga, Magnus

    1995-01-01

    In this thesis, the theory of reinforcement learning is described and its relation to learning in biological systems is discussed. Some basic issues in reinforcement learning, the credit assignment problem and perceptual aliasing, are considered. The methods of temporal difference are described. Three important design issues are discussed: information representation and system architecture, rules for improving the behaviour and rules for the reward mechanisms. The use of local adaptive models...

  18. Adaptive Learning Models of Consumer Behavior

    Hopkins, Ed

    2007-01-01

    In a model of dynamic duopoly, optimal price policies are characterized assuming consumers learn adaptively about the relative quality of the two products. A contrast is made between belief-based and reinforcement learning. Under reinforcement learning, consumers can become locked into the habit of purchasing inferior goods. Such lock-in permits the existence of multiple history-dependent asymmetric steady states in which one firm dominates. In contrast, belief-based learning rules must lead ...

  19. Bayesian Network Models for Adaptive Testing

    Plajner, Martin; Vomlel, Jiří

    Achen: Sun SITE Central Europe, 2016 - (Agosta, J.; Carvalho, R.), s. 24-33. (CEUR Workshop Proceedings. Vol 1565). ISSN 1613-0073. [The Twelfth UAI Bayesian Modeling Applications Workshop (BMAW 2015). Amsterdam (NL), 16.07.2015] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-20012S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Bayesian networks * Computerized adaptive testing Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2016/MTR/plajner-0458062.pdf

  20. Adaptive human behavior in epidemiological models.

    Fenichel, Eli P; Castillo-Chavez, Carlos; Ceddia, M G; Chowell, Gerardo; Parra, Paula A Gonzalez; Hickling, Graham J; Holloway, Garth; Horan, Richard; Morin, Benjamin; Perrings, Charles; Springborn, Michael; Velazquez, Leticia; Villalobos, Cristina

    2011-04-12

    The science and management of infectious disease are entering a new stage. Increasingly public policy to manage epidemics focuses on motivating people, through social distancing policies, to alter their behavior to reduce contacts and reduce public disease risk. Person-to-person contacts drive human disease dynamics. People value such contacts and are willing to accept some disease risk to gain contact-related benefits. The cost-benefit trade-offs that shape contact behavior, and hence the course of epidemics, are often only implicitly incorporated in epidemiological models. This approach creates difficulty in parsing out the effects of adaptive behavior. We use an epidemiological-economic model of disease dynamics to explicitly model the trade-offs that drive person-to-person contact decisions. Results indicate that including adaptive human behavior significantly changes the predicted course of epidemics and that this inclusion has implications for parameter estimation and interpretation and for the development of social distancing policies. Acknowledging adaptive behavior requires a shift in thinking about epidemiological processes and parameters. PMID:21444809

  1. Direct model reference adaptive control of a flexible robotic manipulator

    Meldrum, D. R.

    1985-01-01

    Quick, precise control of a flexible manipulator in a space environment is essential for future Space Station repair and satellite servicing. Numerous control algorithms have proven successful in controlling rigid manipulators wih colocated sensors and actuators; however, few have been tested on a flexible manipulator with noncolocated sensors and actuators. In this thesis, a model reference adaptive control (MRAC) scheme based on command generator tracker theory is designed for a flexible manipulator. Quicker, more precise tracking results are expected over nonadaptive control laws for this MRAC approach. Equations of motion in modal coordinates are derived for a single-link, flexible manipulator with an actuator at the pinned-end and a sensor at the free end. An MRAC is designed with the objective of controlling the torquing actuator so that the tip position follows a trajectory that is prescribed by the reference model. An appealing feature of this direct MRAC law is that it allows the reference model to have fewer states than the plant itself. Direct adaptive control also adjusts the controller parameters directly with knowledge of only the plant output and input signals.

  2. Direct model reference adaptive control using Kp =LDU factorization for multivariable discrete-time plants

    Junling LI; Xuejun XIE; Wei CHEN

    2008-01-01

    For a large class of discrete-time multivariable plants with arbitrary relative degrees.the design and analysis of the direct model reference adaptive control scheme are investigated under less restrictive assumptions.The algorithm is based on a new parametrization dedved from the high frequency gain matrix factorization Kp=LDU under the condition that the signs of the leading principal minors of Kp are known.By reproving the discrete-time Lp and L2δ norm relationship between inputs and outputs,establishing the properties of discrete-time adaptive law,defining the normalizing signal.and relating the signal with all signals in the closed-loop system.the stability and convergence of the discrete-time multivariable model reference adaptive control scheme are analyzed rigorously in a systematic fashion as in the continuous-time case.

  3. Automated detection scheme of architectural distortion in mammograms using adaptive Gabor filter

    Yoshikawa, Ruriha; Teramoto, Atsushi; Matsubara, Tomoko; Fujita, Hiroshi

    2013-03-01

    Breast cancer is a serious health concern for all women. Computer-aided detection for mammography has been used for detecting mass and micro-calcification. However, there are challenges regarding the automated detection of the architectural distortion about the sensitivity. In this study, we propose a novel automated method for detecting architectural distortion. Our method consists of the analysis of the mammary gland structure, detection of the distorted region, and reduction of false positive results. We developed the adaptive Gabor filter for analyzing the mammary gland structure that decides filter parameters depending on the thickness of the gland structure. As for post-processing, healthy mammary glands that run from the nipple to the chest wall are eliminated by angle analysis. Moreover, background mammary glands are removed based on the intensity output image obtained from adaptive Gabor filter. The distorted region of the mammary gland is then detected as an initial candidate using a concentration index followed by binarization and labeling. False positives in the initial candidate are eliminated using 23 types of characteristic features and a support vector machine. In the experiments, we compared the automated detection results with interpretations by a radiologist using 50 cases (200 images) from the Digital Database of Screening Mammography (DDSM). As a result, true positive rate was 82.72%, and the number of false positive per image was 1.39. There results indicate that the proposed method may be useful for detecting architectural distortion in mammograms.

  4. Using field theory to construct hybrid particle–continuum simulation schemes with adaptive resolution for soft matter systems

    We develop a multiscale hybrid scheme for simulations of soft condensed matter systems, which allows one to treat the system at the particle level in selected regions of space, and at the continuum level elsewhere. It is derived systematically from an underlying particle-based model by field theoretic methods. Particles in different representation regions can switch representations on the fly, controlled by a spatially varying tuning function. As a test case, the hybrid scheme is applied to simulate colloid–polymer composites with high resolution regions close to the colloids. The hybrid simulations are significantly faster than reference simulations of a pure particle-based model, and the results are in good agreement. (paper)

  5. Integrated optimal allocation model for complex adaptive system of water resources management (I): Methodologies

    Zhou, Yanlai; Guo, Shenglian; Xu, Chong-Yu; Liu, Dedi; Chen, Lu; Ye, Yushi

    2015-12-01

    Due to the adaption, dynamic and multi-objective characteristics of complex water resources system, it is a considerable challenge to manage water resources in an efficient, equitable and sustainable way. An integrated optimal allocation model is proposed for complex adaptive system of water resources management. The model consists of three modules: (1) an agent-based module for revealing evolution mechanism of complex adaptive system using agent-based, system dynamic and non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II methods, (2) an optimal module for deriving decision set of water resources allocation using multi-objective genetic algorithm, and (3) a multi-objective evaluation module for evaluating the efficiency of the optimal module and selecting the optimal water resources allocation scheme using project pursuit method. This study has provided a theoretical framework for adaptive allocation, dynamic allocation and multi-objective optimization for a complex adaptive system of water resources management.

  6. Linear Models Based on Noisy Data and the Frisch Scheme*

    Ning, Lipeng; Georgiou, Tryphon T.; Tannenbaum, Allen; Boyd, Stephen P.

    2016-01-01

    We address the problem of identifying linear relations among variables based on noisy measurements. This is a central question in the search for structure in large data sets. Often a key assumption is that measurement errors in each variable are independent. This basic formulation has its roots in the work of Charles Spearman in 1904 and of Ragnar Frisch in the 1930s. Various topics such as errors-in-variables, factor analysis, and instrumental variables all refer to alternative viewpoints on this problem and on ways to account for the anticipated way that noise enters the data. In the present paper we begin by describing certain fundamental contributions by the founders of the field and provide alternative modern proofs to certain key results. We then go on to consider a modern viewpoint and novel numerical techniques to the problem. The central theme is expressed by the Frisch–Kalman dictum, which calls for identifying a noise contribution that allows a maximal number of simultaneous linear relations among the noise-free variables—a rank minimization problem. In the years since Frisch’s original formulation, there have been several insights, including trace minimization as a convenient heuristic to replace rank minimization. We discuss convex relaxations and theoretical bounds on the rank that, when met, provide guarantees for global optimality. A complementary point of view to this minimum-rank dictum is presented in which models are sought leading to a uniformly optimal quadratic estimation error for the error-free variables. Points of contact between these formalisms are discussed, and alternative regularization schemes are presented. PMID:27168672

  7. An adaptive undersampling scheme of wavelet-encoded parallel MR imaging for more efficient MR data acquisition

    Xie, Hua; Bosshard, John C.; Hill, Jason E.; Wright, Steven M.; Mitra, Sunanda

    2016-03-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) offers noninvasive high resolution, high contrast cross-sectional anatomic images through the body. The data of the conventional MRI is collected in spatial frequency (Fourier) domain, also known as kspace. Because there is still a great need to improve temporal resolution of MRI, Compressed Sensing (CS) in MR imaging is proposed to exploit the sparsity of MR images showing great potential to reduce the scan time significantly, however, it poses its own unique problems. This paper revisits wavelet-encoded MR imaging which replaces phase encoding in conventional MRI data acquisition with wavelet encoding by applying wavelet-shaped spatially selective radiofrequency (RF) excitation, and keeps the readout direction as frequency encoding. The practicality of wavelet encoded MRI by itself is limited due to the SNR penalties and poor time resolution compared to conventional Fourier-based MRI. To compensate for those disadvantages, this paper first introduces an undersampling scheme named significance map for sparse wavelet-encoded k-space to speed up data acquisition as well as allowing for various adaptive imaging strategies. The proposed adaptive wavelet-encoded undersampling scheme does not require prior knowledge of the subject to be scanned. Multiband (MB) parallel imaging is also incorporated with wavelet-encoded MRI by exciting multiple regions simultaneously for further reduction in scan time desirable for medical applications. The simulation and experimental results are presented showing the feasibility of the proposed approach in further reduction of the redundancy of the wavelet k-space data while maintaining relatively high quality.

  8. Young's experiment scheme modification for a possible observation of "soliton" interference model

    Ekomasov, E. G.; Salimov, R. K.

    2015-01-01

    We consider the "soliton" interference model that complements the usual wave and corpuscular models of two-slit interference. The scheme of the experiment to verify such "soliton" interference model has been suggested.

  9. CLUSTERING BASED ADAPTIVE IMAGE COMPRESSION SCHEME USING PARTICLE SWARM OPTIMIZATION TECHNIQUE

    M.Mohamed Ismail,

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an image compression scheme with particle swarm optimization technique for clustering. The PSO technique is a powerful general purpose optimization technique that uses the concept of fitness.It provides a mechanism such that individuals in the swarm communicate and exchange information which is similar to the social behaviour of insects & human beings. Because of the mimicking the social sharing of information ,PSO directs particle to search the solution more efficiently.PSO is like a GA in that the population isinitialized with random potential solutions.The adjustment towards the best individual experience (PBEST and the best social experience (GBEST.Is conceptually similar to the cross over operaton of the GA.However it is unlike a GA in that each potential solution , called a particle is flying through the solution space with a velocity.Moreover the particles and the swarm have memory,which does not exist in the populatiom of GA.This optimization technique is used in Image compression and better results have obtained in terms of PSNR, CR and the visual quality of the image when compared to other existing methods.

  10. The dependence of the magnitude of induced adaptive responseon on the dose of pre-irradiation of cultured human lymphocytes under the optimum irradiation time scheme

    Human lymphocytes exposed to low doses of X-rays, become less susceptible to the induction of chromosome aberrations by subsequent exposure to high doses of X-rays. This has been termed the radioadaptive response. One of the most important questions in the adaptive response studies was that of the possible existence of an optimum adapting dose. Early experiments indicated that this response could be induced by low doses of X-rays from 1 cGy to 20 cGy. Recently, it has been interestingly shown that the time scheme of exposure to adapting and challenge doses plays an important role in determination of the magnitude of the induced adaptive response. In this study, using the optimum irradiation time scheme (24-48), we have monitored the cytogenetic endpoint of chromosome aberrations to assess the magnitude of adaptation to ionizing radiation in the cultured human lymphocytes. Lymphocytes were pre-exposed to an adapting dose of 1-20 cGy at 24 hours, before an acute challenge dose of 1 or 2 Gy at 48 hours. Cells were fixed at 54 hours. Lymphocytes, which were pretreated with 5 as well as 10 cGy adapting doses, had significantly fewer chromosome aberrations. In spite of the fact that lymphocytes of some of our blood donors which were pre-treated with 1 or 20 cGy adapting doses, showed an adaptive response, the pooled data (all donors) indicated that such an induction of adaptive response can not be observed in these lymphocytes. The overall pattern of the induced adaptive response, indicated that in human lymphocyte (at least under the above mentioned irradiation scheme), 5 cGy and 10 cGy adapting doses are the optimum doses. (author)