Fast Scramblers, Democratic Walks and Information Fields
Magan, Javier M
2015-01-01
We study a family of weighted random walks on complete graphs. These `democratic walks' turn out to be explicitly solvable, and we find the hierarchy window for which the characteristic time scale saturates the so-called fast scrambling conjecture. We show that these democratic walks describe well the properties of information spreading in systems in which every degree of freedom interacts with every other degree of freedom, such as Matrix or infinite range models. The argument is based on the analysis of suitably defined `Information fields' ($\\mathcal{I}$), which are shown to evolve stochastically towards stationarity due to unitarity of the microscopic model. The model implies that in democratic systems, stabilization of one subsystem is equivalent to global scrambling. We use these results to study scrambling of infalling perturbations in black hole backgrounds, and argue that the near horizon running coupling constants are connected to entanglement evolution of single particle perturbations in democratic...
Adaptive Nonlinear Tracking for Robotic Walking
Dolinský, Kamil; Čelikovský, Sergej
2012-01-01
Roč. 1, č. 1 (2012), s. 28-35. ISSN 2223-7038 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Adaptive control * Kalman filter * walking robot s Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory http://lib.physcon.ru/doc?id=9e51935aa5bc
Adaptive walks on correlated fitness landscapes with heterogeneous connectivities
We propose a model for studying the statistical properties of adaptive walks on correlated fitness landscapes which are established in genotype spaces of complex structure. The fitness distribution on the genotype space follows either the bivariate Gaussian distribution or the bivariate exponential distribution. In both cases the degree of correlation of the fitness landscape can be tuned by using a single parameter. To perform the adaptive walks two distinct rules are applied: the random adaptation walk (RAW) and the gradient adaptation walk (GAW). While for the RAW the mean walk length, L-bar, is a monotonic increasing function of the connectivity of the genotype space, for the GAW L-bar is a one-humped function. The RAW produces longer adaptive walks compared to the GAW, though its performance is slightly poorer and thereby the local maxima reached by the GAW algorithm are usually closer to the global optimum of the fitness landscape
Unique characteristics of motor adaptation during walking in young children
Musselman, Kristin E.; Susan K Patrick; Vasudevan, Erin V. L.; Bastian, Amy J.; Yang, Jaynie F.
2011-01-01
Children show precocious ability in the learning of languages; is this the case with motor learning? We used split-belt walking to probe motor adaptation (a form of motor learning) in children. Data from 27 children (ages 8–36 mo) were compared with those from 10 adults. Children walked with the treadmill belts at the same speed (tied belt), followed by walking with the belts moving at different speeds (split belt) for 8–10 min, followed again by tied-belt walking (postsplit). Initial asymmet...
Clisby, Nathan
2010-02-01
We introduce a fast implementation of the pivot algorithm for self-avoiding walks, which we use to obtain large samples of walks on the cubic lattice of up to 33x10{6} steps. Consequently the critical exponent nu for three-dimensional self-avoiding walks is determined to great accuracy; the final estimate is nu=0.587 597(7). The method can be adapted to other models of polymers with short-range interactions, on the lattice or in the continuum. PMID:20366773
Adaptive importance sampling of random walks on continuous state spaces
The authors consider adaptive importance sampling for a random walk with scoring in a general state space. Conditions under which exponential convergence occurs to the zero-variance solution are reviewed. These results generalize previous work for finite, discrete state spaces in Kollman (1993) and in Kollman, Baggerly, Cox, and Picard (1996). This paper is intended for nonstatisticians and includes considerable explanatory material
Self-Avoiding Walks Over Adaptive Triangular Grids
Heber, Gerd; Biswas, Rupak; Gao, Guang R.; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)
1999-01-01
Space-filling curves is a popular approach based on a geometric embedding for linearizing computational meshes. We present a new O(n log n) combinatorial algorithm for constructing a self avoiding walk through a two dimensional mesh containing n triangles. We show that for hierarchical adaptive meshes, the algorithm can be locally adapted and easily parallelized by taking advantage of the regularity of the refinement rules. The proposed approach should be very useful in the runtime partitioning and load balancing of adaptive unstructured grids.
Kang An
2013-10-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a passive dynamic walking model based on knee-bend behaviour, which is inspired by the way human beings walk. The length and mass parameters of human beings are used in the walking model. The knee-bend mechanism of the stance leg is designed in the phase between knee-strike and heel- strike. q* which is the angular difference of the stance leg between the two events, knee-strike and knee-bend, is adjusted in order to find a stable walking motion. The results show that the stable periodic walking motion on a slope of r <0.4 can be found by adjusting q*. Furthermore, with a particular q* in the range of 0.12walk down more steps before falling down on an arbitrary slope. The walking motion is more stable and adaptable than the conventional walking motion, especially for steep slopes.
Linearly Bounded Liars, Adaptive Covering Codes, and Deterministic Random Walks
Cooper, Joshua N
2009-01-01
We analyze a deterministic form of the random walk on the integer line called the {\\em liar machine}, similar to the rotor-router model, finding asymptotically tight pointwise and interval discrepancy bounds versus random walk. This provides an improvement in the best-known winning strategies in the binary symmetric pathological liar game with a linear fraction of responses allowed to be lies. Equivalently, this proves the existence of adaptive binary block covering codes with block length $n$, covering radius $\\leq fn$ for $f\\in(0,1/2)$, and cardinality $O(\\sqrt{\\log \\log n}/(1-2f))$ times the sphere bound $2^n/\\binom{n}{\\leq \\lfloor fn\\rfloor}$.
Walking on an Oscillating Treadmill: Two Paths to Functional Adaptation
Brady, Rachel A.; Peters, Brian T.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.
2010-01-01
We mounted a treadmill on top of a six degree-of-freedom motion base platform to investigate and characterize locomotor responses produced by healthy adults when introduced to a novel walking condition. Subjects were classified into two groups according to how their stride times were affected by the perturbation. Our data suggest that a person's choice of adaptation strategy is influenced by the relationship between his unique, natural stride frequency and the external frequency imposed by the motion base. Our data suggest that a person's stride time response while walking on a laterally oscillating treadmill is influenced by the relationship between his unique, natural stride frequency and the imposed external frequency of the motion base. This relationship may be useful for checking the efficacy of gait training and rehabilitation programs. Preselecting and manipulating a person's EST could be one way to draw him out of his preferred "entrainment well" during therapy or training.
Physiological adaptation of a mature adult walking the Alps.
Ardigò, Luca P; Lippi, Giuseppe; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Schena, Federico
2011-09-01
Research on endurance locomotion has mainly focused on elite athletes rather than common middle-aged subjects. Our report describes the physiological and hematological adaptation of a healthy, active 62-year-old man who trekked alone along a 1300 km/3 month course of Alpine paths (Via Alpina). The following procedures were conducted: pre- and post-trekking and fortnightly field anthropometry (total and lean body mass), functional tests (isometric maximal voluntary force, spontaneous walking speed, relative metabolic cost, and peak oxygen consumption) and clinical chemistry/hematological measurements with laboratory instruments; daily self-administered effort measurements using portable devices along the route (walked distance, ascent, descent, time, metabolic consumption, and cost). Despite the tough trekking route, the subject completed the trek without any worsening of his performance, or any significant health or functional problems. In addition, his peak oxygen consumption increased by 13.2%. His successful adaptation may be attributed to his constant, repeated middle-intensity and extensive exercise and lengthy exposure to high altitude. The clinical chemistry/hematological measurements documented his physiological adaptation. In conclusion, we show how an active, middle-aged man can successfully face endurance trekking, not only without any harm to his health or functions but also with an increase in his capacity to support specific effort. PMID:21962049
An Adaptive Guidance System for Robotic Walking Aids
Graf, Birgit
2009-01-01
In the last years, several robotic walking aids to assist elderly users with mobility constraints and thus to react to the growing number of elderly persons in our society have been developed. In order to ensure good support for the user, the robotic walker should adapt to the motion of the user while at the same time not losing the target out of sight. Even though some of the existing active robotic walkers are able to guide their user to a target, during guidance, the input of the user is n...
COMBINED EFFECTS OF FAST TREADMILL WALKING AND FUNCTIONAL ELECTRICAL STIMULATION ON POST-STROKE GAIT
Kesar, Trisha M.; Reisman, Darcy S.; Perumal, Ramu; Jancosko, Angela M.; Higginson, Jill S.; Rudolph, Katherine S.; Binder-Macleod, Stuart A
2010-01-01
Gait dysfunctions are highly prevalent in individuals post-stroke and affect multiple lower extremity joints. Recent evidence suggests that treadmill walking at faster than self-selected speeds can help improve post-stroke gait impairments. Also, the combination of functional electrical stimulation (FES) and treadmill training has emerged as a promising post-stroke gait rehabilitation intervention. However, the differential effects of combining FES with treadmill walking at the fast versus a ...
An Approach to Stable Walking over Uneven Terrain Using a Reflex-Based Adaptive Gait
Umar Asif
2011-01-01
Full Text Available This paper describes the implementation of an adaptive gait in a six-legged walking robot that is capable of generating reactive stepping actions with the same underlying control methodology as an insect for stable walking over uneven terrains. The proposed method of gait generation uses feedback data from onboard sensors to generate an adaptive gait in order to surmount obstacles, gaps and perform stable walking. The paper addresses its implementation through simulations in a visual dynamic simulation environment. Finally the paper draws conclusions about the significance and performance of the proposed gait in terms of tracking errors while navigating in difficult terrains.
Motion Tracking with Fast Adaptive Background Subtraction
Xiao De-gui; Yu Sheng-sheng; Zhou Jing-li
2003-01-01
To extract and track moving objects is usually one of the most important tasks of intelligent video surveillance systems. This paper presents a fast and adaptive background subtraction algorithm and the motion tracking process using this algorithm. The algorithm uses only luminance components of sampled image sequence pixels and models every pixel in a statistical model. The algorithm is characterized by its ability of real time detecting sudden lighting changes, and extracting and tracking motion objects faster. It is shown that our algorithm can be realized with lower time and space complexity and adjustable object detection error rate with comparison to other background subtraction algorithms. Making use of the algorithm, an indoor monitoring system is also worked out and the motion tracking process is presented in this paper. Experimental results testify the algorithm's good performances when used in an indoor monitoring system.
Matsubara, Takamitsu; Uchikata, Akimasa; Morimoto, Jun
2015-12-01
In this paper, we propose a framework for generating coordinated periodic movements of robotic systems with multiple external inputs. We developed an adaptive pattern generator model that is composed of a two-factor observation model with a style parameter and phase dynamics with a phase variable. The style parameter controls the spatial patterns of the generated trajectories, and the phase variable manages its temporal profiles. By exploiting the style-phase separation in the pattern generation, we can independently design adaptation schemes for the spatial and temporal profiles of the pattern generator to multiple external inputs. To validate the effectiveness of our proposed method, we applied it to a user-exoskeleton model to achieve user-adaptive walking assistance for which the exoskeleton robot's movements need to be coordinated with the user walking patterns and environment. As a result, the exoskeleton robot successfully performed stable biped walking behaviors for walking assistance even when the style of the observed walking pattern and the period were suddenly changed. PMID:26459123
Grapham: Graphical Models with Adaptive Random Walk Metropolis Algorithms
Vihola, Matti
2008-01-01
Recently developed adaptive Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods have been applied successfully to many problems in Bayesian statistics. Grapham is a new open source implementation covering several such methods, with emphasis on graphical models for directed acyclic graphs. The implemented algorithms include the seminal Adaptive Metropolis algorithm adjusting the proposal covariance according to the history of the chain and a Metropolis algorithm adjusting the proposal scale based on the o...
Extended Evolutionary Fast Learn-to-Walk Approach for Four-Legged Robots
Muh.Anshar; Mary-Anne Williams
2007-01-01
Robot locomotion is an active research area. In this paper we focus on the locomotion of quadruped robots. An effective walking gait of quadruped robots is mainly concerned with two key aspects, namely speed and stability. The large search space of potential parameter settings for leg joints means that hand tuning is not feasible in general. As a result walking parameters are typically determined using machine learning techniques. A major shortcoming of using machine learning techniques is the significant wear and tear of robots since many parameter combinations need to be evaluated before an optimal solution is found.This paper proposes a direct walking gait learning approach, which is specifically designed to reduce wear and tear of robot motors, joints and other hardware. In essence we provide an effective learning mechanism that leads to a solution in a faster convergence time than previous algorithms. The results demonstrate that the new learning algorithm obtains a faster convergence to the best solutions in a short run. This approach is significant in obtaining faster walking gaits which will be useful for a wide range of applications where speed and stability are important. Future work will extend our methods so that the faster convergence algorithm can be applied to a two legged humanoid and lead to less wear and tear whilst still developing a fast and stable gait.
Eduard Grinke
2015-10-01
Full Text Available Walking animals, like insects, with little neural computing can effectively perform complex behaviors. They can walk around their environment, escape from corners/deadlocks, and avoid or climb over obstacles. While performing all these behaviors, they can also adapt their movements to deal with an unknown situation. As a consequence, they successfully navigate through their complex environment. The versatile and adaptive abilities are the result of an integration of several ingredients embedded in their sensorimotor loop. Biological studies reveal that the ingredients include neural dynamics, plasticity, sensory feedback, and biomechanics. Generating such versatile and adaptive behaviors for a walking robot is a challenging task. In this study, we present a bio-inspired approach to solve this task. Specifically, the approach combines neural mechanisms with plasticity, sensory feedback, and biomechanics. The neural mechanisms consist of adaptive neural sensory processing and modular neural locomotion control. The sensory processing is based on a small recurrent network consisting of two fully connected neurons. Online correlation-based learning with synaptic scaling is applied to adequately change the connections of the network. By doing so, we can effectively exploit neural dynamics (i.e., hysteresis effects and single attractors in the network to generate different turning angles with short-term memory for a biomechanical walking robot. The turning information is transmitted as descending steering signals to the locomotion control which translates the signals into motor actions. As a result, the robot can walk around and adapt its turning angle for avoiding obstacles in different situations as well as escaping from sharp corners or deadlocks. Using backbone joint control embedded in the locomotion control allows the robot to climb over small obstacles. Consequently, it can successfully explore and navigate in complex environments.
Psychotherapy: Adaptation or Walking Together? (A Roadside Conversation)
Nina Bychkova; Yana Larionova
2011-01-01
The article concerns psychotherapeutic work in the perspective of existential approach. Two trends are discerned in modern psychotherapy regardless of the known division into different schools – the adaptation therapy, and the one viewing a person in the context of his Personal being in the world. Therapy here is understood as the Way of mutual personal growth of both the therapist and the client. Distinction is singled out as one of the central points in forming the meanings, essential for b...
Psychotherapy: Adaptation or Walking Together? (A Roadside Conversation
Nina Bychkova
2011-02-01
Full Text Available The article concerns psychotherapeutic work in the perspective of existential approach. Two trends are discerned in modern psychotherapy regardless of the known division into different schools – the adaptation therapy, and the one viewing a person in the context of his Personal being in the world. Therapy here is understood as the Way of mutual personal growth of both the therapist and the client. Distinction is singled out as one of the central points in forming the meanings, essential for both the normal development of a child and in psychotherapy, and remaining significant for spiritual growth in adults.
What can we learn from slow self-avoiding adaptive walks by an infinite radius search algorithm?
Khor, Susan
2011-01-01
Slow self-avoiding adaptive walks by an infinite radius search algorithm (Limax) are analyzed as themselves, and as the network they form. The study is conducted on several NK problems and two HIFF problems. We find that examination of such "slacker" walks and networks can indicate relative search difficulty within a family of problems, help identify potential local optima, and detect presence of structure in fitness landscapes. Hierarchical walks are used to differentiate rugged landscapes w...
δ-exceedance records and random adaptive walks
Park, Su-Chan; Krug, Joachim
2016-08-01
We study a modified record process where the kth record in a series of independent and identically distributed random variables is defined recursively through the condition {Y}k\\gt {Y}k-1-{δ }k-1 with a deterministic sequence {δ }k\\gt 0 called the handicap. For constant {δ }k\\equiv δ and exponentially distributed random variables it has been shown in previous work that the process displays a phase transition as a function of δ between a normal phase where the mean record value increases indefinitely and a stationary phase where the mean record value remains bounded and a finite fraction of all entries are records (Park et al 2015 Phys. Rev. E 91 042707). Here we explore the behavior for general probability distributions and decreasing and increasing sequences {δ }k, focusing in particular on the case when {δ }k matches the typical spacing between subsequent records in the underlying simple record process without handicap. We find that a continuous phase transition occurs only in the exponential case, but a novel kind of first order transition emerges when {δ }k is increasing. The problem is partly motivated by the dynamics of evolutionary adaptation in biological fitness landscapes, where {δ }k corresponds to the change of the deterministic fitness component after k mutational steps. The results for the record process are used to compute the mean number of steps that a population performs in such a landscape before being trapped at a local fitness maximum.
Locomotor stability and adaptation during perturbed walking across the adult female lifespan.
McCrum, Christopher; Epro, Gaspar; Meijer, Kenneth; Zijlstra, Wiebren; Brüggemann, Gert-Peter; Karamanidis, Kiros
2016-05-01
The aim of this work was to examine locomotor stability and adaptation across the adult female lifespan during perturbed walking on the treadmill. 11 young, 11 middle and 14 older-aged female adults (mean and SD: 25.5(2.1), 50.6(6.4) and 69.0(4.7) years old respectively) walked on a treadmill. We applied a sustained perturbation to the swing phase of the right leg for 18 consecutive gait cycles, followed by a step with the resistance unexpectedly removed, via an ankle strap connected to a break-and-release system. The margin of stability (MoS) at foot touchdown was calculated as the difference between the anterior boundary of the base of support (BoS) and extrapolated center of mass. Older participants showed lower MoS adaptation magnitude in the early adaptation phase (steps 1-3) compared to the young and middle-aged groups. However, in the late adaptation phase (steps 16-18) there were no significant differences in adaptation magnitude between the three age groups. After removing the resistance, all three age groups showed similar aftereffects (i.e. increased BoS). The current results suggest that in old age, the ability to recalibrate locomotion to control stability is preserved, but the rate of adaptive improvement in locomotor stability is diminished. PMID:26970886
Adaptive walks in a gene network model of morphogenesis: insights into the Cambrian explosion
Sole, Ricard V.; Fernandez, Pau; Kauffman, Stuart A.
2003-01-01
The emergence of complex patterns of organization close to the Cambrian boundary is known to have happened over a (geologically) short period of time. It involved the rapid diversification of body plans and stands as one of the major transitions in evolution. How it took place is a controversial issue. Here we explore this problem by considering a simple model of pattern formation in multicellular organisms. By modeling gene network-based morphogenesis and its evolution through adaptive walks...
The adaptive dynamic community detection algorithm based on the non-homogeneous random walking
Xin, Yu; Xie, Zhi-Qiang; Yang, Jing
2016-05-01
With the changing of the habit and custom, people's social activity tends to be changeable. It is required to have a community evolution analyzing method to mine the dynamic information in social network. For that, we design the random walking possibility function and the topology gain function to calculate the global influence matrix of the nodes. By the analysis of the global influence matrix, the clustering directions of the nodes can be obtained, thus the NRW (Non-Homogeneous Random Walk) method for detecting the static overlapping communities can be established. We design the ANRW (Adaptive Non-Homogeneous Random Walk) method via adapting the nodes impacted by the dynamic events based on the NRW. The ANRW combines the local community detection with dynamic adaptive adjustment to decrease the computational cost for ANRW. Furthermore, the ANRW treats the node as the calculating unity, thus the running manner of the ANRW is suitable to the parallel computing, which could meet the requirement of large dataset mining. Finally, by the experiment analysis, the efficiency of ANRW on dynamic community detection is verified.
Poramate Manoonpong
2013-02-01
Full Text Available Living creatures, like walking animals, have found fascinating solutions for the problem of locomotion control. Their movements show the impression of elegance including versatile, energy-efficient, and adaptable locomotion. During the last few decades, roboticists have tried to imitate such natural properties with artificial legged locomotion systems by using different approaches including machine learning algorithms, classical engineering control techniques, and biologically-inspired control mechanisms. However, their levels of performance are still far from the natural ones. By contrast, animal locomotion mechanisms seem to largely depend not only on central mechanisms (central pattern generators, CPGs and sensory feedback (afferent-based control but also on internal forward models (efference copies. They are used to a different degree in different animals. Generally, CPGs organize basic rhythmic motions which are shaped by sensory feedback while internal models are used for sensory prediction and state estimations. According to this concept, we present here adaptive neural locomotion control consisting of a CPG mechanism with neuromodulation and local leg control mechanisms based on sensory feedback and adaptive neural forward models with efference copies. This neural closed-loop controller enables a walking machine to perform a multitude of different walking patterns including insect-like leg movements and gaits as well as energy-efficient locomotion. In addition, the forward models allow the machine to autonomously adapt its locomotion to deal with a change of terrain, losing of ground contact during stance phase, stepping on or hitting an obstacle during swing phase, leg damage, and even to promote cockroach-like climbing behavior. Thus, the results presented here show that the employed embodied neural closed-loop system can be a powerful way for developing robust and adaptable machines.
Shaker Barikhan, Subhi; Wörgötter, Florentin; Manoonpong, Poramate
2014-01-01
Walking animals show versatile locomotion. They can also adapt their movement according to the changes of their morphology and the environmental conditions. These emergent properties are realized by biomechanics, distributed central pattern generators (CPGs), local sensory feedback, and their...
Tian, Qu; Ferrucci, Luigi; Resnick, Susan M; Simonsick, Eleanor M; Shardell, Michelle D; Landman, Bennett A; Venkatraman, Vijay K; Gonzalez, Christopher E; Studenski, Stephanie A
2016-09-01
Macrostructural white matter damage (WMD) is associated with less uniform and slower walking in older adults. The effect of age and subclinical microstructural WM degeneration (a potentially earlier phase of WM ischemic damage) on walking patterns and speed is less clear. This study examines the effect of age on the associations of regional microstructural WM integrity with walking variability and speed, independent of macrostructural WMD. This study involved 493 participants (n = 51 young; n = 209 young-old; n = 233 old-old) from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. All completed a 400-meter walk test and underwent a concurrent brain MRI with diffusion tensor imaging. Microstructural WM integrity was measured as fractional anisotropy (FA). Walking variability was measured as trend-adjusted variation in time over ten 40-meter laps (lap time variation, LTV). Fast-paced walking speed was assessed as mean lap time (MLT). Multiple linear regression models of FA predicting LTV and MLT were adjusted for age, sex, height, weight, and WM hyperintensities. Independent of WM hyperintensities, lower FA in the body of the corpus callosum was associated with higher LTV and longer MLT only in the young-old. Lower FA in superior longitudinal, inferior fronto-occipital, and uncinate fasciculi, the anterior limb of the internal capsule, and the anterior corona radiate was associated with longer MLT only in the young-old. While macrostructural WMD is known to predict more variable and slower walking in older adults, microstructural WM disruption is independently associated with more variable and slower fast-paced walking only in the young-old. Disrupted regional WM integrity may be a subclinical contributor to abnormal walking at an earlier phase of aging. PMID:26399234
Fore-aft ground force adaptations to induced forelimb lameness in walking and trotting dogs.
Abdelhadi, Jalal; Wefstaedt, Patrick; Nolte, Ingo; Schilling, Nadja
2012-01-01
Animals alter their locomotor mechanics to adapt to a loss of limb function. To better understand their compensatory mechanisms, this study evaluated the changes in the fore-aft ground forces to forelimb lameness and tested the hypothesis that dogs unload the affected limb by producing a nose-up pitching moment via the exertion of a net-propulsive force when the lame limb is on the ground. Seven healthy Beagles walked and trotted at steady speed on an instrumented treadmill while horizontal force data were collected before and after a moderate lameness was induced. Peak, mean and summed braking and propulsive forces as well as the duration each force was exerted and the time to reach maximum force were evaluated for both the sound and the lame condition. Compared with the sound condition, a net-propulsive force was produced by the lame diagonal limbs due to a reduced braking force in the affected forelimb and an increased propulsive force in the contralateral hindlimb when the dogs walked and trotted. To regain pitch stability and ensure steady speed for a given locomotor cycle, the dogs produced a net-braking force when the sound diagonal limbs were on the ground by exerting greater braking forces in both limbs during walking and additionally reducing the propulsive force in the hindlimb during trotting. Consistent with the proposed mechanism, dogs maximize their double support phases when walking. Likely associated with the fore-aft force adaptations to lameness are changes in muscle recruitment that potentially result in short- and long-term effects on the limb and trunk muscles. PMID:23300614
Fast-start adaptation funding: keeping promises from Copenhagen
Ciplet, David; Roberts, J. Timmons [Brown University (United States); Chandani, Achala; Huq, Saleemul
2010-11-15
The most concrete commitment to come out of the international climate negotiations in Copenhagen was US$30 billion dollars in 'fast-start climate finance' to developing countries, with balanced support for both mitigation and adaptation. Fast-start adaptation finance, in particular, is crusial for poor countries facing rapid climate change. But so far, pledges for adaptation from developed countries have been inadequate and unclear. This briefing outlines ways for the Cancun negotiations to address five crucial issues for adaptation finance: (1) the amount and type of funding being offered, (2) the definition of adaptation, (3) global oversight and accounting, (4) a clear baseline and transparent spending and (5) the channel for delivering funds.
Sox17 regulates liver lipid metabolism and adaptation to fasting.
Rommelaere, Samuel; Millet, Virginie; Vu Manh, Thien-Phong; Gensollen, Thomas; Andreoletti, Pierre; Cherkaoui-Malki, Mustapha; Bourges, Christophe; Escalière, Bertrand; Du, Xin; Xia, Yu; Imbert, Jean; Beutler, Bruce; Kanai, Yoshiakira; Malissen, Bernard; Malissen, Marie; Tailleux, Anne; Staels, Bart; Galland, Franck; Naquet, Philippe
2014-01-01
Liver is a major regulator of lipid metabolism and adaptation to fasting, a process involving PPARalpha activation. We recently showed that the Vnn1 gene is a PPARalpha target gene in liver and that release of the Vanin-1 pantetheinase in serum is a biomarker of PPARalpha activation. Here we set up a screen to identify new regulators of adaptation to fasting using the serum Vanin-1 as a marker of PPARalpha activation. Mutagenized mice were screened for low serum Vanin-1 expression. Functional interactions with PPARalpha were investigated by combining transcriptomic, biochemical and metabolic approaches. We characterized a new mutant mouse in which hepatic and serum expression of Vanin-1 is depressed. This mouse carries a mutation in the HMG domain of the Sox17 transcription factor. Mutant mice display a metabolic phenotype featuring lipid abnormalities and inefficient adaptation to fasting. Upon fasting, a fraction of the PPARα-driven transcriptional program is no longer induced and associated with impaired fatty acid oxidation. The transcriptional phenotype is partially observed in heterozygous Sox17+/- mice. In mutant mice, the fasting phenotype but not all transcriptomic signature is rescued by the administration of the PPARalpha agonist fenofibrate. These results identify a novel role for Sox17 in adult liver as a modulator of the metabolic adaptation to fasting. PMID:25141153
Fast Histograms using Adaptive CUDA Streams
Koppaka, Sisir; Narasimhan, Srihari; Narayanan, Babu
2010-01-01
Histograms are widely used in medical imaging, network intrusion detection, packet analysis and other stream-based high throughput applications. However, while porting such software stacks to the GPU, the computation of the histogram is a typical bottleneck primarily due to the large impact on kernel speed by atomic operations. In this work, we propose a stream-based model implemented in CUDA, using a new adaptive kernel that can be optimized based on latency hidden CPU compute. We also explore the tradeoffs of using the new kernel vis-\\`a-vis the stock NVIDIA SDK kernel, and discuss an intelligent kernel switching method for the stream based on a degeneracy criterion that is adaptively computed from the input stream.
Fore-Aft Ground Force Adaptations to Induced Forelimb Lameness in Walking and Trotting Dogs
Abdelhadi, Jalal; Wefstaedt, Patrick; Nolte, Ingo; Schilling, Nadja
2012-01-01
Animals alter their locomotor mechanics to adapt to a loss of limb function. To better understand their compensatory mechanisms, this study evaluated the changes in the fore-aft ground forces to forelimb lameness and tested the hypothesis that dogs unload the affected limb by producing a nose-up pitching moment via the exertion of a net-propulsive force when the lame limb is on the ground. Seven healthy Beagles walked and trotted at steady speed on an instrumented treadmill while horizontal f...
Information criterion based fast PCA adaptive algorithm
Li Jiawen; Li Congxin
2007-01-01
The novel information criterion (NIC) algorithm can find the principal subspace quickly, but it is not an actual principal component analysis (PCA) algorithm and hence it cannot find the orthonormal eigen-space which corresponds to the principal component of input vector.This defect limits its application in practice.By weighting the neural network's output of NIC, a modified novel information criterion (MNIC) algorithm is presented.MNIC extractes the principal components and corresponding eigenvectors in a parallel online learning program, and overcomes the NIC's defect.It is proved to have a single global optimum and nonquadratic convergence rate, which is superior to the conventional PCA online algorithms such as Oja and LMSER.The relationship among Oja, LMSER and MNIC is exhibited.Simulations show that MNIC could converge to the optimum fast.The validity of MNIC is proved.
Sox17 Regulates Liver Lipid Metabolism and Adaptation to Fasting
Rommelaere, Samuel; Millet, Virginie; Vu Manh, Thien-Phong; Gensollen, Thomas; Andreoletti, Pierre; Cherkaoui-Malki, Mustapha; Bourges, Christophe; Escalière, Bertrand; Du, Xin; Xia, Yu; Imbert, Jean; Beutler, Bruce; Kanai, Yoshiakira; Malissen, Bernard; Malissen, Marie
2014-01-01
Liver is a major regulator of lipid metabolism and adaptation to fasting, a process involving PPARalpha activation. We recently showed that the Vnn1 gene is a PPARalpha target gene in liver and that release of the Vanin-1 pantetheinase in serum is a biomarker of PPARalpha activation. Here we set up a screen to identify new regulators of adaptation to fasting using the serum Vanin-1 as a marker of PPARalpha activation. Mutagenized mice were screened for low serum Vanin-1 expression. Functional...
An Optimal Control Modification to Model-Reference Adaptive Control for Fast Adaptation
Nguyen, Nhan T.; Krishnakumar, Kalmanje; Boskovic, Jovan
2008-01-01
This paper presents a method that can achieve fast adaptation for a class of model-reference adaptive control. It is well-known that standard model-reference adaptive control exhibits high-gain control behaviors when a large adaptive gain is used to achieve fast adaptation in order to reduce tracking error rapidly. High gain control creates high-frequency oscillations that can excite unmodeled dynamics and can lead to instability. The fast adaptation approach is based on the minimization of the squares of the tracking error, which is formulated as an optimal control problem. The necessary condition of optimality is used to derive an adaptive law using the gradient method. This adaptive law is shown to result in uniform boundedness of the tracking error by means of the Lyapunov s direct method. Furthermore, this adaptive law allows a large adaptive gain to be used without causing undesired high-gain control effects. The method is shown to be more robust than standard model-reference adaptive control. Simulations demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Adaptability of stride-to-stride control of stepping movements in human walking.
Bohnsack-McLagan, Nicole K; Cusumano, Joseph P; Dingwell, Jonathan B
2016-01-25
Humans continually adapt their movements as they walk on different surfaces, avoid obstacles, etc. External (environmental) and internal (physiological) noise-like disturbances, and the responses that correct for them, each contribute to locomotor variability. This variability may sometimes be detrimental (perhaps increasing fall risk), or sometimes beneficial (perhaps reflecting exploration of multiple task solutions). Here, we determined how humans regulated stride-to-stride fluctuations in walking when presented different task goals that allowed them to exploit inherent redundancies in different ways. Fourteen healthy adults walked on a treadmill under each of four conditions: constant speed only (SPD), constant speed and stride length (LEN), constant speed and stride time (TIM), or constant speed, stride length, and stride time (ALL). Multiple analyses tested competing hypotheses that participants might attempt to either equally satisfy all goals simultaneously, or instead adopt systematic intermediate strategies that only partly satisfied each individual goal. Participants exhibited similar average stepping behavior, but significant differences in variability and stride-to-stride serial correlations across conditions. Analyses of the structure of stride-to-stride fluctuation dynamics demonstrated humans resolved the competing goals presented not by minimizing errors equally with respect to all goals, but instead by trying to only partly satisfy each goal. Thus, humans exploit task redundancies even when they are explicitly removed from the task specifications. These findings may help identify when variability is predictive of, or protective against, fall risk. They may also help inform rehabilitation interventions to better exploit the positive contributions of variability, while minimizing the negative. PMID:26725217
Brain source localization based on fast fully adaptive approach.
Ravan, Maryam; Reilly, James P
2012-01-01
In the electroencephalogram (EEG) or magnetoencephalogram (MEG) context, brain source localization (beamforming) methods often fail when the number of observations is small. This is particularly true when measuring evoked potentials, especially when the number of electrodes is large. Due to the nonstationarity of the EEG/MEG, an adaptive capability is desirable. Previous work has addressed these issues by reducing the adaptive degrees of freedom (DoFs). This paper develops and tests a new multistage adaptive processing for brain source localization that has been previously used for radar statistical signal processing application with uniform linear antenna array. This processing, referred to as the fast fully adaptive (FFA) approach, could significantly reduce the required sample support and computational complexity, while still processing all available DoFs. The performance improvement offered by the FFA approach in comparison to the fully adaptive minimum variance beamforming (MVB) with limited data is demonstrated by bootstrapping simulated data to evaluate the variability of the source location. PMID:23367106
What can we learn from slow self-avoiding adaptive walks by an infinite radius search algorithm?
Khor, Susan
2011-01-01
Slow self-avoiding adaptive walks by an infinite radius search algorithm (Limax) are analyzed as themselves, and as the network they form. The study is conducted on several NK problems and two HIFF problems. We find that examination of such "slacker" walks and networks can indicate relative search difficulty within a family of problems, help identify potential local optima, and detect presence of structure in fitness landscapes. Hierarchical walks are used to differentiate rugged landscapes which are hierarchical (e.g. HIFF) from those which are anarchic (e.g. NK). The notion of node viscidity as a measure of local optimum potential is introduced and found quite successful although more work needs to be done to improve its accuracy on problems with larger K.
A Fast Adaptive Receive Antenna Selection Method in MIMO System
Chaowei Wang
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Antenna selection has been regarded as an effective method to acquire the diversity benefits of multiple antennas while potentially reduce hardware costs. This paper focuses on receive antenna selection. According to the proportion between the numbers of total receive antennas and selected antennas and the influence of each antenna on system capacity, we propose a fast adaptive antenna selection algorithm for wireless multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO systems. Mathematical analysis and numerical results show that our algorithm significantly reduces the computational complexity and memory requirement and achieves considerable system capacity gain compared with the optimal selection technique in the same time.
Kinematic Adaptations of Forward and Backward Walking on Land and in Water
Cadenas-Sanchez Cristina
2015-12-01
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare sagittal plane lower limb kinematics during walking on land and submerged to the hip in water. Eight healthy adults (age 22.1 ± 1.1 years, body height 174.8 ± 7.1 cm, body mass 63.4 ± 6.2 kg were asked to cover a distance of 10 m at comfortable speed with controlled step frequency, walking forward or backward. Sagittal plane lower limb kinematics were obtained from three dimensional video analysis to compare spatiotemporal gait parameters and joint angles at selected events using two-way repeated measures ANOVA. Key findings were a reduced walking speed, stride length, step length and a support phase in water, and step length asymmetry was higher compared to the land condition (p<0.05. At initial contact, knees and hips were more flexed during walking forward in water, whilst, ankles were more dorsiflexed during walking backward in water. At final stance, knees and ankles were more flexed during forward walking, whilst the hip was more flexed during backward walking. These results show how walking in water differs from walking on land, and provide valuable insights into the development and prescription of rehabilitation and training programs.
Fast and Adaptive Lossless Onboard Hyperspectral Data Compression System
Aranki, Nazeeh I.; Keymeulen, Didier; Kimesh, Matthew A.
2012-01-01
Modern hyperspectral imaging systems are able to acquire far more data than can be downlinked from a spacecraft. Onboard data compression helps to alleviate this problem, but requires a system capable of power efficiency and high throughput. Software solutions have limited throughput performance and are power-hungry. Dedicated hardware solutions can provide both high throughput and power efficiency, while taking the load off of the main processor. Thus a hardware compression system was developed. The implementation uses a field-programmable gate array (FPGA). The implementation is based on the fast lossless (FL) compression algorithm reported in Fast Lossless Compression of Multispectral-Image Data (NPO-42517), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 30, No. 8 (August 2006), page 26, which achieves excellent compression performance and has low complexity. This algorithm performs predictive compression using an adaptive filtering method, and uses adaptive Golomb coding. The implementation also packetizes the coded data. The FL algorithm is well suited for implementation in hardware. In the FPGA implementation, one sample is compressed every clock cycle, which makes for a fast and practical realtime solution for space applications. Benefits of this implementation are: 1) The underlying algorithm achieves a combination of low complexity and compression effectiveness that exceeds that of techniques currently in use. 2) The algorithm requires no training data or other specific information about the nature of the spectral bands for a fixed instrument dynamic range. 3) Hardware acceleration provides a throughput improvement of 10 to 100 times vs. the software implementation. A prototype of the compressor is available in software, but it runs at a speed that does not meet spacecraft requirements. The hardware implementation targets the Xilinx Virtex IV FPGAs, and makes the use of this compressor practical for Earth satellites as well as beyond-Earth missions with hyperspectral instruments.
Waddling Random Walk: Fast and Accurate Sampling of Motif Statistics in Large Graphs
Han, Guyue; Sethu, Harish
2016-01-01
The relative frequency of small subgraphs within a large graph, such as one representing an online social network, is of high interest to sociologists, computer scientists and marketeers alike. However, the computation of these network motif statistics via naive enumeration is infeasible for either its prohibitive computational costs or access restrictions on the full graph data. Methods to estimate the motif statistics based on random walks by sampling only a small fraction of the subgraphs ...
Young, WR; Olonilua, M; Masters, RSW; Dimitriadis, S.; Williams, AM
2015-01-01
Falls by older adults often result in reduced quality of life and debilitating fear of further falls. Stopping walking when talking (SWWT) is a significant predictor of future falls by older adults and is thought to reflect age-related increases in attentional demands of walking. We examine whether SWWT is associated with use of explicit movement cues during locomotion, and evaluate if conscious control (i.e., movement specific reinvestment) is causally linked to falls-related anxiety during ...
Holographic Adaptive Laser Optics System (HALOS): Fast, Autonomous Aberration Correction
Andersen, G.; MacDonald, K.; Gelsinger-Austin, P.
2013-09-01
We present an adaptive optics system which uses a multiplexed hologram to deconvolve the phase aberrations in an input beam. This wavefront characterization is extremely fast as it is based on simple measurements of the intensity of focal spots and does not require any computations. Furthermore, the system does not require a computer in the loop and is thus much cheaper, less complex and more robust as well. A fully functional, closed-loop prototype incorporating a 32-element MEMS mirror has been constructed. The unit has a footprint no larger than a laptop but runs at a bandwidth of 100kHz over an order of magnitude faster than comparable, conventional systems occupying a significantly larger volume. Additionally, since the sensing is based on parallel, all-optical processing, the speed is independent of actuator number running at the same bandwidth for one actuator as for a million. We are developing the HALOS technology with a view towards next-generation surveillance systems for extreme adaptive optics applications. These include imaging, lidar and free-space optical communications for unmanned aerial vehicles and SSA. The small volume is ideal for UAVs, while the high speed and high resolution will be of great benefit to the ground-based observation of space-based objects.
Fast, multiphase volume adaptation to hyperosmotic shock by Escherichia coli.
Teuta Pilizota
Full Text Available All living cells employ an array of different mechanisms to help them survive changes in extra cellular osmotic pressure. The difference in the concentration of chemicals in a bacterium's cytoplasm and the external environment generates an osmotic pressure that inflates the cell. It is thought that the bacterium Escherichia coli use a number of interconnected systems to adapt to changes in external pressure, allowing them to maintain turgor and live in surroundings that range more than two-hundred-fold in external osmolality. Here, we use fluorescence imaging to make the first measurements of cell volume changes over time during hyperosmotic shock and subsequent adaptation on a single cell level in vivo with a time resolution on the order of seconds. We directly observe two previously unseen phases of the cytoplasmic water efflux upon hyperosmotic shock. Furthermore, we monitor cell volume changes during the post-shock recovery and observe a two-phase response that depends on the shock magnitude. The initial phase of recovery is fast, on the order of 15-20 min and shows little cell-to-cell variation. For large sucrose shocks, a secondary phase that lasts several hours adds to the recovery. We find that cells are able to recover fully from shocks as high as 1 Osmol/kg using existing systems, but that for larger shocks, protein synthesis is required for full recovery.
Sejian, Veerasamy; Maurya, Vijai P.; Naqvi, Syed M. K.
2012-03-01
Sheep in hot semi-arid environments are mostly reared using extensive systems. In addition to thermal stress and feed scarcity, the animals need to walk long distances for grazing in this ecological zone. A study was conducted to assess the effect of long-distance walking on adaptive capability in terms of physiological, biochemical and endocrine responses in Malpura ewes. Fourteen adult Malpura non-pregnant ewes weighing between 33 and 35 kg were used in the study. The ewes were randomly allocated into two groups of seven animals each: GI ( n = 7; Control), and GII ( n = 7; walking stress). The animals were stall-fed with a diet consisting of 70% roughage and 30% concentrate. Both GI and GII ewes had uniform access to feed and water. The walking stress group (GII) ewes were made to walk 14 km in two spans between 0900 and 1500 hours with 1 h 30 min for each span (7 km) of walking. The ewes subjected to walking stress (GII) were prevented from grazing by applying a face mask made of cotton thread. The study was conducted for a period of two estrous cycles (35 days) during the autumn season (October-November). Physiological responses were recorded twice daily at 0800 and 1400 hours at weekly intervals. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein at weekly intervals to study the effects of walking stress on blood biochemical and endocrine parameters. The results indicate that walking stress had significant ( P hormone levels. The significant changes in RR, RT, plasma cortisol, T3 and T4 show that Malpura ewes have the capability to adapt to long-distance walking, and that adrenal and thyroid gland hormones play a significant role in such adaptation.
Kinematic Adaptations of Forward And Backward Walking on Land and in Water.
Cadenas-Sanchez, Cristina; Arellano, Raúl; Vanrenterghem, Jos; López-Contreras, Gracia
2015-12-22
The aim of this study was to compare sagittal plane lower limb kinematics during walking on land and submerged to the hip in water. Eight healthy adults (age 22.1 ± 1.1 years, body height 174.8 ± 7.1 cm, body mass 63.4 ± 6.2 kg) were asked to cover a distance of 10 m at comfortable speed with controlled step frequency, walking forward or backward. Sagittal plane lower limb kinematics were obtained from three dimensional video analysis to compare spatiotemporal gait parameters and joint angles at selected events using two-way repeated measures ANOVA. Key findings were a reduced walking speed, stride length, step length and a support phase in water, and step length asymmetry was higher compared to the land condition (pland, and provide valuable insights into the development and prescription of rehabilitation and training programs. PMID:26839602
Using Efference Copy and a Forward Internal Model for Adaptive Biped Walking
Schröder-Schetelig, Johannes; Manoonpong, Poramate; Wörgötter, Florentin
2010-01-01
application of this for our dynamic walking robot RunBot. We use efference copies of the motor commands with a simple forward internal model to predict the expected self-generated acceleration during walking. The difference to the actually measured acceleration is then used to stabilize the walking on......To behave properly in an unknown environment, animals or robots must distinguish external from self-generated stimuli on their sensors. The biologically inspired concepts of efference copy and internal model have been successfully applied to a number of robot control problems. Here we present an...... track configurations. Furthermore we believe that the experimental studies pursued here will sharpen our understanding of how the efference copies influence dynamic locomotion control to the benefit of modern neural control strategies in robots....
[Adaptation of humans to walking in semi-hard and flexible space suits under terrestrial gravity].
Panfilov, V E
2011-01-01
The spacesuit donning-on procedure can be viewed as the combining of two kinematic circuits into a single human-spacesuit functional system (HSS) for implementation of extravehicular operations. Optimal human-spacesuit interaction hinges on controllability and coordination of HSS mobile components, and also spacesuit slaving to the central nervous system (CNS) mediated through the human locomotion apparatus. Analysis of walking patterns in semi-hard and flexible spacesuits elucidated the direct and feedback relations between the external (spacesuit) and external (locomotion apparatus and CNS) circuits Lack of regularity in the style of spacesuit design creates difficulties for the direct CNS control of locomotion. Consequently, it is necessary to modify the locomotion command program in order to resolve these difficulties and to add flexibility to CNS control The analysis also helped trace algorithm of program modifications with the ultimate result of induced (forced) walk optimization. Learning how to walk in spacesuit Berkut requires no more than 2500 single steps, whereas about 300 steps must be made to master walk skills in spacesuit SKV. PMID:21675190
Fast Adaptive Blind MMSE Equalizer for Multichannel FIR Systems
Abed-Meraim Karim
2006-01-01
Full Text Available We propose a new blind minimum mean square error (MMSE equalization algorithm of noisy multichannel finite impulse response (FIR systems, that relies only on second-order statistics. The proposed algorithm offers two important advantages: a low computational complexity and a relative robustness against channel order overestimation errors. Exploiting the fact that the columns of the equalizer matrix filter belong both to the signal subspace and to the kernel of truncated data covariance matrix, the proposed algorithm achieves blindly a direct estimation of the zero-delay MMSE equalizer parameters. We develop a two-step procedure to further improve the performance gain and control the equalization delay. An efficient fast adaptive implementation of our equalizer, based on the projection approximation and the shift invariance property of temporal data covariance matrix, is proposed for reducing the computational complexity from to , where is the number of emitted signals, the data vector length, and the dimension of the signal subspace. We then derive a statistical performance analysis to compare the equalization performance with that of the optimal MMSE equalizer. Finally, simulation results are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed blind equalization algorithm.
Fast Adaptive Blind MMSE Equalizer for Multichannel FIR Systems
Kacha, Ibrahim; Abed-Meraim, Karim; Belouchrani, Adel
2006-12-01
We propose a new blind minimum mean square error (MMSE) equalization algorithm of noisy multichannel finite impulse response (FIR) systems, that relies only on second-order statistics. The proposed algorithm offers two important advantages: a low computational complexity and a relative robustness against channel order overestimation errors. Exploiting the fact that the columns of the equalizer matrix filter belong both to the signal subspace and to the kernel of truncated data covariance matrix, the proposed algorithm achieves blindly a direct estimation of the zero-delay MMSE equalizer parameters. We develop a two-step procedure to further improve the performance gain and control the equalization delay. An efficient fast adaptive implementation of our equalizer, based on the projection approximation and the shift invariance property of temporal data covariance matrix, is proposed for reducing the computational complexity from[InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] to[InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.], where[InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] is the number of emitted signals,[InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] the data vector length, and[InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] the dimension of the signal subspace. We then derive a statistical performance analysis to compare the equalization performance with that of the optimal MMSE equalizer. Finally, simulation results are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed blind equalization algorithm.
Xiong, Xiaofeng; Wörgötter, Florentin; Manoonpong, Poramate
2016-01-01
force feedback and for online tuning the VAAMs' stiffness parameters. The control and learning mechanisms enable the hexapod robot advanced mobility sensor driven-walking device (AMOS) to achieve variable compliant walking that accommodates different gaits and surfaces. As a consequence, AMOS can......) to generate the proper leg stiffness (i.e., compliance); and 3) to determine joint angles that give rise to particular positions at the endpoints of the legs. To tackle this problem for a robotic application, here we present a neuromechanical controller coupled with sensorimotor learning. The...... controller consists of a modular neural network for coordinating 18 joints and several virtual agonist-antagonist muscle mechanisms (VAAMs) for variable compliant joint motions. In addition, sensorimotor learning, including forward models and dual-rate learning processes, is introduced for predicting foot...
A fast inverse dynamics model of walking for use in optimisation studies.
Salehi, Hadi; Ren, Lei; Howard, David
2016-08-01
Computer simulation of human gait, based on measured motion data, is a well-established technique in biomechanics. However, optimisation studies requiring many iterative gait cycle simulations have not yet found widespread application because of their high computational cost. Therefore, a computationally efficient inverse dynamics model of 3D human gait has been designed and compared with an equivalent model, created using a commercial multi-body dynamics package. The fast inverse dynamics model described in this paper led to an eight fold increase in execution speed. Sufficient detail is provided to allow readers to implement the model themselves. PMID:26745213
Adaptive behaviour of the spinal cord in the transition from quiet stance to walking
Serrao Mariano
2012-07-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Modulation of nociceptive withdrawal reflex (NWR excitability was evaluated during gait initiation in 10 healthy subjects to investigate how load- and movement-related joint inputs activate lower spinal centres in the transition from quiet stance to walking. A motion analysis system integrated with a surface EMG device was used to acquire kinematic, kinetic and EMG variables. Starting from a quiet stance, subjects were asked to walk forward, at their natural speed. The sural nerve was stimulated and EMG responses were recorded from major hip, knee and ankle muscles. Gait initiation was divided into four subphases based on centre of pressure and centre of mass behaviours, while joint displacements were used to categorise joint motion as flexion or extension. The reflex parameters were measured and compared between subphases and in relation to the joint kinematics. Results The NWR was found to be subphase-dependent. NWR excitability was increased in the hip and knee flexor muscles of the starting leg, just prior to the occurrence of any movement, and in the knee flexor muscles of the same leg as soon as it was unloaded. The NWR was hip joint kinematics-dependent in a crossed manner. The excitability of the reflex was enhanced in the extensor muscles of the standing leg during the hip flexion of the starting leg, and in the hip flexors of the standing leg during the hip extension of the starting leg. No notable reflex modulation was observed in the ankle muscles. Conclusions Our findings show that the NWR is modulated during the gait initiation phase. Leg unloading and hip joint motion are the main sources of the observed modulation and work in concert to prepare and assist the starting leg in the first step while supporting the contralateral leg, thereby possibly predisposing the lower limbs to the cyclical pattern of walking.
Sejian, Veerasamy; Maurya, Vijai P.; Naqvi, Syed M. K.
2012-03-01
Sheep in hot semi-arid environments are mostly reared using extensive systems. In addition to thermal stress and feed scarcity, the animals need to walk long distances for grazing in this ecological zone. A study was conducted to assess the effect of long-distance walking on adaptive capability in terms of physiological, biochemical and endocrine responses in Malpura ewes. Fourteen adult Malpura non-pregnant ewes weighing between 33 and 35 kg were used in the study. The ewes were randomly allocated into two groups of seven animals each: GI ( n = 7; Control), and GII ( n = 7; walking stress). The animals were stall-fed with a diet consisting of 70% roughage and 30% concentrate. Both GI and GII ewes had uniform access to feed and water. The walking stress group (GII) ewes were made to walk 14 km in two spans between 0900 and 1500 hours with 1 h 30 min for each span (7 km) of walking. The ewes subjected to walking stress (GII) were prevented from grazing by applying a face mask made of cotton thread. The study was conducted for a period of two estrous cycles (35 days) during the autumn season (October-November). Physiological responses were recorded twice daily at 0800 and 1400 hours at weekly intervals. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein at weekly intervals to study the effects of walking stress on blood biochemical and endocrine parameters. The results indicate that walking stress had significant ( P < 0.05) influence on body weight, average daily gain, respiration rate (RR), rectal temperature (RT), haemoglobin (Hb), packed cell volume (PCV), plasma glucose, calcium, phosphorus, aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT), tri-iodo-thyronine (T3), thyroxin (T4), and cortisol. However, walking stress did not influence the reproductive hormone levels. The significant changes in RR, RT, plasma cortisol, T3 and T4 show that Malpura ewes have the capability to adapt to long-distance walking, and that adrenal and thyroid gland
Hurley, Jane C; Hollingshead, Kevin E; Todd, Michael; Jarrett, Catherine L; Tucker, Wesley J; Angadi, Siddhartha S; Adams, Marc A
2015-01-01
Background Walking is a widely accepted and frequently targeted health promotion approach to increase physical activity (PA). Interventions to increase PA have produced only small improvements. Stronger and more potent behavioral intervention components are needed to increase time spent in PA, improve cardiometabolic risk markers, and optimize health. Objective Our aim is to present the rationale and methods from the WalkIT Trial, a 4-month factorial randomized controlled trial (RCT) in inact...
FFA-CONTEXT AWARE ENERGY EFFICIENT ROUTING USING FAST REACTIVE AND ADAPTIVE ALGORITHM
P. Kavitha Rani; E. Kannan
2014-01-01
A vital issue of routing is how to efficiently strengthen energy consumption of the whole network and to avoid the energy-hole which leads to node failure or node death; this scenario makes the network to work improperly and leads to network death, Here we proves our hypothesis with linearity between routing and linear principles. Our proposed work effectively utilizes the adaption of Optimized particle swarm algorithm (Fast Reactive and fast adaptive algorithm) in order to solve the routing ...
Fujiki, Soichiro; Aoi, Shinya; Funato, Tetsuro; Tomita, Nozomi; Senda, Kei; Tsuchiya, Kazuo
2015-09-01
Human walking behaviour adaptation strategies have previously been examined using split-belt treadmills, which have two parallel independently controlled belts. In such human split-belt treadmill walking, two types of adaptations have been identified: early and late. Early-type adaptations appear as rapid changes in interlimb and intralimb coordination activities when the belt speeds of the treadmill change between tied (same speed for both belts) and split-belt (different speeds for each belt) configurations. By contrast, late-type adaptations occur after the early-type adaptations as a gradual change and only involve interlimb coordination. Furthermore, interlimb coordination shows after-effects that are related to these adaptations. It has been suggested that these adaptations are governed primarily by the spinal cord and cerebellum, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Because various physiological findings suggest that foot contact timing is crucial to adaptive locomotion, this paper reports on the development of a two-layered control model for walking composed of spinal and cerebellar models, and on its use as the focus of our control model. The spinal model generates rhythmic motor commands using an oscillator network based on a central pattern generator and modulates the commands formulated in immediate response to foot contact, while the cerebellar model modifies motor commands through learning based on error information related to differences between the predicted and actual foot contact timings of each leg. We investigated adaptive behaviour and its mechanism by split-belt treadmill walking experiments using both computer simulations and an experimental bipedal robot. Our results showed that the robot exhibited rapid changes in interlimb and intralimb coordination that were similar to the early-type adaptations observed in humans. In addition, despite the lack of direct interlimb coordination control, gradual changes and after-effects in the
Grinke, Eduard; Tetzlaff, Christian; Wörgötter, Florentin;
2015-01-01
mechanisms with plasticity, exteroceptive sensory feedback, and biomechanics. The neural mechanisms consist of adaptive neural sensory processing and modular neural locomotion control. The sensory processing is based on a small recurrent neural network consisting of two fully connected neurons. Online...
Li, Yang; Zhang, Junxia; Si, Ying
2015-12-01
Nowadays, for gait instability phenomenon, many researches have been carried out at home and abroad. However, the relationship between plantar pressure and gait parameters in the process of balance adjustment is still unclear. This study describes the human body adaptive balance reaction during slip events on slippery level walk by plantar pressure and gait analysis. Ten healthy male subjects walked on a level path wearing shoes with two contrastive contaminants (dry, oil). The study collected and analyzed the change rule of spatiotemporal parameters, plantar pressure parameters, vertical ground reaction force (VGRF), etc. The results showed that the human body adaptive balance reaction during slip events on slippery level walk mainly included lighter touch at the heel strikes, tighter grip at the toe offs, a lower velocity, a shorter stride length and longer support time. These changes are used to maintain or recover body balance. These results would be able to explore new ideas and provide reference value for slip injury prevention, walking rehabilitation training design, research and development of walking assistive equipments, etc. PMID:27079090
Larson, Michael J; LeCheminant, James D; Carbine, Kaylie; Hill, Kyle R; Christenson, Edward; Masterson, Travis; LeCheminant, Rick
2015-01-01
An increasing trend in the workplace is for employees to walk on treadmills while working to attain known health benefits; however, the effect of walking on a treadmill during cognitive control and executive function tasks is not well known. We compared the cognitive control processes of conflict adaptation (i.e., congruency sequence effects-improved performance following high-conflict relative to low-conflict trials), post-error slowing (i.e., Rabbitt effect), and response inhibition during treadmill walking (1.5 mph) relative to sitting. Understanding the influence of treadmill desks on these cognitive processes may have implications for worker health and productivity. Sixty-nine individuals were randomized to either a sitting (n = 35) or treadmill-walking condition (n = 34). Groups did not differ in age or body mass index. All participants completed a computerized Eriksen flanker task and a response-inhibition go/no-go task in random order while either walking on a treadmill or seated. Response times (RTs) and accuracy were analyzed separately for each task using mixed model analysis of variance. Separate ANOVAs for RTs and accuracy showed the expected conflict adaptation effects, post-error slowing, and response inhibition effects when collapsed across sitting and treadmill groups (all Fs > 78.77, Ps 0.38), suggesting no decrements or enhancements in conflict-related control and adjustment processes or response inhibition for those walking on a treadmill versus sitting. We conclude that cognitive control performance remains relatively unaffected during slow treadmill walking relative to sitting. PMID:26074861
Bavaresco, Alvimar [EPAGRI, Estacao Experimetal de Canoinhas, SC (Brazil)]. E-mail: bavaresco@epagri.rct-sc.br; Garcia, Mauro S.; Gruetzmacher, Anderson D.; Ringenberg, Rudiney; Foresti, Josemar [Universidade Federal de Pelotas (UFPel), RS (Brazil). Dept. de Fitossanidade
2004-03-15
The biology of Spodoptera cosmioides (Walk.) was studied on three artificial diets with different protein sources (d1 = white bean, yeast extract, soybean flour, powder milk and wheat germ; d2 = 'carioca' bean and yeast extract; d3 = corn flour, wheat germ and yeast extract). The objective of this research was to determine the most suitable diet for mass rearing S. cosmioides in laboratory. The species is highly polyphagous, and for this reason we hypothesized that diets that are suitable for other Lepidoptera can allow its development and fulfill the minimum requirements of biological quality, quantity and economy. Although S. cosmioides has completed the biological cycle on the three diets, the d1 was the most suitable for its rearing and produced the fastest development, higher total survival and pupae weight, as well as higher net reproduction rate (Ro), intrinsic rate of natural increase (rm) and finite rate of natural increase (l). The number of instars varied from six to seven, predominating six in d1 and d3; in d2, half the population presented six instars and half seven. Females presented pupae duration significantly lower that the males in all diets, thus emerging earlier. Adult longevity was not affected by the diets, while total fecundity was higher in d1 and d2. In conclusion, the diet 1 is recommended to mass rearing S. cosmioides in the laboratory. (author)
The biology of Spodoptera cosmioides (Walk.) was studied on three artificial diets with different protein sources (d1 = white bean, yeast extract, soybean flour, powder milk and wheat germ; d2 = 'carioca' bean and yeast extract; d3 = corn flour, wheat germ and yeast extract). The objective of this research was to determine the most suitable diet for mass rearing S. cosmioides in laboratory. The species is highly polyphagous, and for this reason we hypothesized that diets that are suitable for other Lepidoptera can allow its development and fulfill the minimum requirements of biological quality, quantity and economy. Although S. cosmioides has completed the biological cycle on the three diets, the d1 was the most suitable for its rearing and produced the fastest development, higher total survival and pupae weight, as well as higher net reproduction rate (Ro), intrinsic rate of natural increase (rm) and finite rate of natural increase (l). The number of instars varied from six to seven, predominating six in d1 and d3; in d2, half the population presented six instars and half seven. Females presented pupae duration significantly lower that the males in all diets, thus emerging earlier. Adult longevity was not affected by the diets, while total fecundity was higher in d1 and d2. In conclusion, the diet 1 is recommended to mass rearing S. cosmioides in the laboratory. (author)
Manoonpong, Poramate; Parlitz, Ulrich; Wörgötter, Florentin
2013-01-01
natural properties with artificial legged locomotion systems by using different approaches including machine learning algorithms, classical engineering control techniques, and biologically-inspired control mechanisms. However, their levels of performance are still far from the natural ones. By contrast...... forward models allow the machine to autonomously adapt its locomotion to deal with a change of terrain, losing of ground contact during stance phase, stepping on or hitting an obstacle during swing phase, leg damage, and even to promote cockroach-like climbing behavior. Thus, the results presented here...
Fast calibration of high-order adaptive optics systems
Kasper, Markus; Fedrigo, Enrico; Looze, Douglas P.; Bonnet, Henri; Ivanescu, Liviu; Oberti, Sylvain
2004-06-01
We present a new method of calibrating adaptive optics systems that greatly reduces the required calibration time or, equivalently, improves the signal-to-noise ratio. The method uses an optimized actuation scheme with Hadamard patterns and does not scale with the number of actuators for a given noise level in the wave-front sensor channels. It is therefore highly desirable for high-order systems and/or adaptive secondary systems on a telescope without a Gregorian focal plane. In the latter case, the measurement noise is increased by the effects of the turbulent atmosphere when one is calibrating on a natural guide star.
The electronic γ–γ fast timing technique allows for direct nuclear lifetime determination down to the few picoseconds region by measuring the time difference between two coincident γ-ray transitions. Using high resolution ultra-fast LaBr3(Ce) scintillator detectors in combination with the recently developed mirror symmetric centroid difference method, nuclear lifetimes are measured with a time resolving power of around 5 ps. The essence of the method is to calibrate the energy dependent position (centroid) of the prompt response function of the setup which is obtained for simultaneously occurring events. This time-walk of the prompt response function induced by the analog constant fraction discriminator has been determined by systematic measurements using different photomultiplier tubes and timing adjustments of the constant fraction discriminator. We propose a universal calibration function which describes the time-walk or the combined γ–γ time-walk characteristics, respectively, for either a linear or a non-linear amplitude versus energy dependency of the scintillator detector output pulses.
Centralized and Distributed Solutions for Fast Muting Adaptation in LTE-Advanced HetNets
Soret, Beatriz; Pedersen, Klaus I.
2015-01-01
though the eICIC configuration (RE and ABS) ideally should be instantaneously adapted to follow the fluctuations of the traffic and the channel conditions over time, previous studies have focused on slow intercell coordination. In this paper, we investigate fast dynamic eICIC solutions for centralized...... and distributed Radio Resource Management (RRM) architectures. The centralized RRM architecture assumes macro and Remote Radio Heads (RRHs) inter-connected via high-speed fronthaul connections, while the distributed architecture is based on traditional macro and pico cells deployments with X2 backhaul...... interface. Two different fast muting adaptation algorithms are derived, and it is shown how those can be appplied to both the centralized and the distributed architecture. Performance results with bursty traffic show that the fast dynamic adaptation provides significant gains, both in 5%-ile and 50%-ile...
Adaptation of fibers in fast-twitch muscles of rats to spaceflight and hindlimb suspension
Jiang, Bian; Ohira, Yoshi; Roy, Roland R.; Nguyen, Quyet; Il'ina-Kakueva, E. I.; Oganov, V.; Edgerton, V. R.
1992-01-01
The adaptation of single fibers in medial gastrocnemius (MG), a fast-twitch extensor, and in tibialis anterior (TA), a fast-twitch flexor, was studied after 14 days of spaceflight onboard Cosmos 2044 or hindlimb suspension. Quantitative myosin ATPase activities of single fibers were measured in flight and suspended rats. Each of the enzyme and size measurements were directly correlated within each fiber with respect to its qualitative myosin ATPase staining properties and its expression of fast, slow, or both myosin heavy chains (MHC). The percentage of slow- and fast-twitch fibers of the MG and TA were found to be unchanged. Mean fiber size of all fibers was unaffected after flight or suspension. The ATPase activity in the MG was higher in flight than in control or suspended rats. In comparison to Cosmos 1887 spaceflight, the adaptations in the muscle fibers of the MG were more moderate.
Identification of fast-changing signals by means of adaptive chaotic transformations
Berezowski, Marek; Lawnik, Marcin
2016-01-01
The adaptive approach of strongly non-linear fast-changing signals identification is discussed. The approach is devised by adaptive sampling based on chaotic mapping in yourself of a signal. Presented sampling way may be utilized online in the automatic control of chemical reactor (throughout identification of concentrations and temperature oscillations in real-time), in medicine (throughout identification of ECG and EEG signals in real-time), etc. In this paper, we presented it to identify t...
Improving GPU-accelerated Adaptive IDW Interpolation Algorithm Using Fast kNN Search
Mei, Gang; Xu, Nengxiong; Xu, Liangliang
2016-01-01
This paper presents an efficient parallel Adaptive Inverse Distance Weighting (AIDW) interpolation algorithm on modern Graphics Processing Unit (GPU). The presented algorithm is an improvement of our previous GPU-accelerated AIDW algorithm by adopting fast k-Nearest Neighbors (kNN) search. In AIDW, it needs to find several nearest neighboring data points for each interpolated point to adaptively determine the power parameter; and then the desired prediction value of the interpolated point is ...
Adaptive approach to global synchronization of directed networks with fast switching topologies
Global synchronization of directed networks with switching topologies is investigated. It is found that if there exists at least one directed spanning tree in the network with the fixed time-average topology and the time-average topology is achieved sufficiently fast, the network will reach global synchronization for appreciate coupling strength. Furthermore, this appreciate coupling strength may be obtained by local adaptive approach. A sufficient condition about the global synchronization is given. Numerical simulations verify the effectiveness of the adaptive strategy.
Faust, Thomas W.; Assous, Maxime; Shah, Fulva; Tepper, James M.; Koós, Tibor
2015-01-01
Previous work suggests that neostriatal cholinergic interneurons control the activity of several classes of GABAergic interneurons through fast nicotinic receptor mediated synaptic inputs. Although indirect evidence has suggested the existence of several classes of interneurons controlled by this mechanism only one such cell type, the neuropeptide-Y expressing neurogliaform neuron, has been identified to date. Here we tested the hypothesis that in addition to the neurogliaform neurons that el...
Fast Block-match Motion Estimation Based on Multilevel Adaptive Diamond Search
Li, Shan; Yi, Qing-Ming; Shi, Min
In this paper, a novel fast block-match algorithm called MADS based on multilevel adaptive diamond search is proposed. The algorithm adaptively estimates the frame-level motion complexity with the reference frame texture information and the macro-block residual value at first, and then estimates the block-level motion complexity according to the spatial-temporal correlation of the vector field. The threshold is applied to stop the stationary block from searching. The initial search point and different diamond search modes are adaptively selected based on motion type for non-stationary block. Experimental results show that MADS algorithm has better performance than other popular fast algorithms for a wide range of video sequences.
Fast non-local means with size-adaptive search window
Hancheng Yu
2016-03-01
Full Text Available In this study, the authors present a fast non-local means (NLM image denoising algorithm with size-adaptive search window. On the basis of the edge gradient and direction of the noisy image, the proposed fast scheme divides all the pixels into significant edge, moderate edge or non-edge region, and the size of the search window for most pixels which belong to non-edge region can be reduced. The proposed fast scheme also adopts different strategies to pre-select similar patches in the search window for efficient NLM denoising. Experimental results show that compared with the standard NLM method, the proposed fast scheme achieves a substantial reduction in computational cost and improvement in the denoising performance, both in terms of visual quality and numerical results.
Nazarena, Mazzaro; Grey, Michael James; Sinkjær, Thomas;
2005-01-01
The aim of this study was to investigate the contribution of feedback from large-diameter sensory fibers to the adaptation of soleus muscle activity after small ankle trajectory modifications during human walking. Small-amplitude and slow-velocity ankle dorsiflexion enhancements and reductions were...... applied during the stance phase of the gait cycle to mimic the normal variability of the ankle trajectory during walking. Patients with demyelination of large sensory fibers (Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1A and antibodies to myelin-associated glycoprotein neuropathy) and age-matched controls participated in...... this study. The patients had absent light-touch sense in the toes and feet and absent quadriceps and Achilles tendon reflexes, indicating functional loss of large sensory fibers. Moreover, their soleus stretch reflex response consisted of a single electromyographic (EMG) burst with delayed onset and...
How to Explore a Fast-Changing World (Cover Time of a Simple Random Walk on Evolving Graphs)
Avin, Ch.; Koucký, Michal; Lotker, Z.
Berlin: Springer, 2008 - (Aceto, L.; Damgárd, I.; Goldberg, L.; Halldórsson, M.; Ingólfsdóttir, A.; Walukiewicz, I.), s. 121-132. (LNCS. 5125). ISBN 978-3-540-70574-1. [International Colloquium on Automata, Languages and Programming , ICALP 2008/35./. Reykjavik (IS), 07.07.2008-11.07.2008] R&D Projects: GA ČR GP201/07/P276 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : random walks * cover time * evolving graphs Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics
Kokshenev, V B
2004-01-01
The problem of biped locomotion at steady speeds is discussed through the Lagrangian formulation developed for velocity-dependent, body driving forces. Human walking on a level surface is analyzed in terms of the data on the resultant ground-reaction force and the external work. It is shown that the trajectory of the human center of mass is due to a superposition of its rectilinear motion with a given speed V and a backward rotation along a shortened hypocycloid. A stiff-to-compliant crossover between walking gaits is established at mid speeds, which separate slow walking from fast walking, limited by V_{\\max}=3.4 m/s. Key words: locomotion, bipedalism, human, biomechanics, walking.
Fast implementation of length-adaptive privacy amplification in quantum key distribution
Post-processing is indispensable in quantum key distribution (QKD), which is aimed at sharing secret keys between two distant parties. It mainly consists of key reconciliation and privacy amplification, which is used for sharing the same keys and for distilling unconditional secret keys. In this paper, we focus on speeding up the privacy amplification process by choosing a simple multiplicative universal class of hash functions. By constructing an optimal multiplication algorithm based on four basic multiplication algorithms, we give a fast software implementation of length-adaptive privacy amplification. “Length-adaptive” indicates that the implementation of privacy amplification automatically adapts to different lengths of input blocks. When the lengths of the input blocks are 1 Mbit and 10 Mbit, the speed of privacy amplification can be as fast as 14.86 Mbps and 10.88 Mbps, respectively. Thus, it is practical for GHz or even higher repetition frequency QKD systems. (general)
Luithardt, Annette Franziska geb. Schmid
2016-01-01
Purpose To validate the commercially available “EyeSuite” version of the new fast thresholding algorithm GATE (German Adaptive Thresholding Estimation) for automated static perimetry. Methods Thirty patients suffering from visual pathway lesions of various origin (anterior ischemic optic neuropathy [n=3], glaucoma [n=15], (post-) chiasmal visual pathway lesion [n=6], retinitis pigmentosa (RP) [n=6]) were tested on three Octopus 900 perimeters (Haag-Streit AG, Köniz, Switzerland) wi...
Fast Linear Adaptive Skipping Training Algorithm for Training Artificial Neural Network
Manjula Devi, R.; R. C. Suganthe; S. KUPPUSWAMI
2013-01-01
Artificial neural network has been extensively consumed training model for solving pattern recognition tasks. However, training a very huge training data set using complex neural network necessitates excessively high training time. In this correspondence, a new fast Linear Adaptive Skipping Training (LAST) algorithm for training artificial neural network (ANN) is instituted. The core essence of this paper is to ameliorate the training speed of ANN by exhibiting only the input samples that do ...
Gomeñuka, N A; Bona, R L; da Rosa, R G; Peyré-Tartaruga, L A
2014-06-01
It has been observed that the optimal speed (OPT) of human walking is independent of load on level surfaces because of the unaltered trajectory of the center of mass and consequent conservation of the pendular mechanism. However, the role of the inverted pendulum mechanism that combines speed, load, and gradient during walking remains unknown. In the present study, 10 subjects walked on a treadmill, with and without loading (25% of the body mass), at different speeds and slopes (0%, +7%, and +15%). The three-dimensional motion and VO2 were simultaneously registered. The mechanical external and internal work and the cost of transport (C) changed with the speed and gradient, but the load only affected C. OPT decreased with increasing gradient, and the pendular mechanics (R) was modified mainly as a result of changes in speed and gradient. OPT and R were independent of the load in these gradients. Remarkably, R increased with increasing speed and decreased (to 30%) with an increasing gradient; moreover, R was independent of load. Therefore, the energy-saving strategy by the pendular mechanism persists, although at a diminished level, in loaded walking on gradients and partially explains the OPT in this condition. PMID:24102934
Improvement of the Simplified Fast Transversal Filter Type Algorithm for Adaptive Filtering
Madjid Arezki
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Problem statement: In this study, we proposed a new algorithm M-SMFTF for adaptive filtering with fast convergence and low complexity. Approach: It was the result of a simplified FTF type algorithm, where the adaptation gain was obtained only from the forward prediction variables and using a new recursive method to compute the likelihood variable. Results: The computational complexity was reduced from 7L-6L, where L is the finite impulse response filter length. Furthermore, this computational complexity can be significantly reduced to (2L+4P when used with a reduced P-size forward predictor. Conclusion: This algorithm presented a certain interest, for the adaptation of very long filters, like those used in the problems of echo acoustic cancellation, due to its reduced complexity, its numerical stability and its convergence in the presence of the speech signal.
Dorian S Houser
2013-11-01
Full Text Available Insulin resistance in modern society is perceived as a pathological consequence of excess energy consumption and reduced physical activity. Its presence in relation to the development of cardiovascular risk factors has been termed the metabolic syndrome, which produces increased mortality and morbidity and which is rapidly increasing in human populations. Ironically, insulin resistance likely evolved to assist animals during food shortages by increasing the availability of endogenous lipid for catabolism while protecting protein from use in gluconeogenesis and eventual oxidation. Some species that incorporate fasting as a predictable component of their life history demonstrate physiological traits similar to the metabolic syndrome during prolonged fasts. One such species is the northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris, which fasts from food and water for periods of up to three months. During this time, ~90% of the seals metabolic demands are met through fat oxidation and circulating non-esterified fatty acids are high (0.7-3.2 mM. All life history stages of elephant seal studied to date demonstrate insulin resistance and fasting hyperglycemia as well as variations in hormones and adipocytokines that reflect the metabolic syndrome to some degree. Elephant seals demonstrate some intriguing adaptations with the potential for medical advancement; for example, ketosis is negligible despite significant and prolonged fatty acid oxidation and investigation of this feature might provide insight into the treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis. The parallels to the metabolic syndrome are likely reflected to varying degrees in other marine mammals, most of which evolved on diets high in lipid and protein content but essentially devoid of carbohydrate. Utilization of these natural models of insulin resistance may further our understanding of the pathophysiology of the metabolic syndrome in humans and better assist the development of preventative measures
Adaptive Hybrid Visual Servo Regulation of Mobile Robots Based on Fast Homography Decomposition
Chunfu Wu
2015-01-01
Full Text Available For the monocular camera-based mobile robot system, an adaptive hybrid visual servo regulation algorithm which is based on a fast homography decomposition method is proposed to drive the mobile robot to its desired position and orientation, even when object’s imaging depth and camera’s position extrinsic parameters are unknown. Firstly, the homography’s particular properties caused by mobile robot’s 2-DOF motion are taken into account to induce a fast homography decomposition method. Secondly, the homography matrix and the extracted orientation error, incorporated with the desired view’s single feature point, are utilized to form an error vector and its open-loop error function. Finally, Lyapunov-based techniques are exploited to construct an adaptive regulation control law, followed by the experimental verification. The experimental results show that the proposed fast homography decomposition method is not only simple and efficient, but also highly precise. Meanwhile, the designed control law can well enable mobile robot position and orientation regulation despite the lack of depth information and camera’s position extrinsic parameters.
... safety reasons, especially on uneven ground. See a physical therapist for exercise therapy and walking retraining. For a ... the right position for standing and walking. A physical therapist can supply these and provide exercise therapy, if ...
FFA-CONTEXT AWARE ENERGY EFFICIENT ROUTING USING FAST REACTIVE AND ADAPTIVE ALGORITHM
P. Kavitha Rani
2014-01-01
Full Text Available A vital issue of routing is how to efficiently strengthen energy consumption of the whole network and to avoid the energy-hole which leads to node failure or node death; this scenario makes the network to work improperly and leads to network death, Here we proves our hypothesis with linearity between routing and linear principles. Our proposed work effectively utilizes the adaption of Optimized particle swarm algorithm (Fast Reactive and fast adaptive algorithm in order to solve the routing problem in wireless sensor networks to avoid the energy hole. Our approach effectively defines the node leader based on energy level and path optimization for node traversing using particle swarm which effectively utilizes the solution for problem in linearity into routing problem. Our algorithm FFA redefines the particle swarm rules which are reliable in routing strategies and adapts to the working principle. The optimization in our algorithm is to balance energy level and to withstand for its context. This study proves the accuracy using our algorithm respectively by theoretical survey and analysis with simulated results.
The use of the spectral method within the fast adaptive composite grid method
McKay, S.M.
1994-12-31
The use of efficient algorithms for the solution of partial differential equations has been sought for many years. The fast adaptive composite grid (FAC) method combines an efficient algorithm with high accuracy to obtain low cost solutions to partial differential equations. The FAC method achieves fast solution by combining solutions on different grids with varying discretizations and using multigrid like techniques to find fast solution. Recently, the continuous FAC (CFAC) method has been developed which utilizes an analytic solution within a subdomain to iterate to a solution of the problem. This has been shown to achieve excellent results when the analytic solution can be found. The CFAC method will be extended to allow solvers which construct a function for the solution, e.g., spectral and finite element methods. In this discussion, the spectral methods will be used to provide a fast, accurate solution to the partial differential equation. As spectral methods are more accurate than finite difference methods, the ensuing accuracy from this hybrid method outside of the subdomain will be investigated.
Adaptive control of piezoelectric fast steering mirror for high precision tracking application
Wang, Geng; Rao, Changhui
2015-03-01
A piezoelectric fast steering mirror (PFSM) is a complex, strong coupling nonlinear system that integrates optics, mechanics, electrics, and control. Due to the existence of hysteresis nonlinearity, mechanical resonance, and all kinds of disturbances, precise tracking control of a PFSM is a challenging task. This paper presents a comprehensive study of modeling, controller design, and simulation evaluation for a PFSM system. First a general model of a PFSM system integrating mechanical dynamics, electrical dynamics, and hysteresis nonlinearity is proposed, and then a robust adaptive controller is developed under both unknown hysteresis nonlinearities and parameter uncertainties. The parameters needed directly in the formulation of the controller are adaptively estimated. The proposed control law ensures the uniform boundedness of all signals in the closed-loop system. Furthermore, a stability analysis of the control system is performed to guarantee that the output tracking error converges to zero asymptotically. Finally, simulation tests with different motion trajectories are conducted to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Antonella Agodi
2005-03-01
Full Text Available
Background. Food contamination by trichothecene mycotoxins is considered to be an emerging public health problem. The aim of this study was to validate a rapid sonification protocol, previously set up for cereal Fusarium DNA extraction from fast food samples, produced by a centre for research and development in the food industry in Catania, Sicily, and to validate it for a diagnostic PCR assay targeted at tri5, the key gene of trichothecene biosynthesis.
Methods. DNA from reference Fusarium spp. strains and from fast food samples was prepared, setting up an extraction protocol adapted using some modifications based on a method recently described. Validation experiments were performed: serial dilution of DNA extracted from fungal cultures were added to food samples and then DNA was extracted. Specific primer pairs were used to detect F. graminearum and F. culmorum DNA in species-specific assays as well as trichothecene-producing Fusarium spp. in a groupspecific system.
Results. All genomic DNA extracted from trichothecene-producing Fusarium spp. as well as from DNA-spiked fast food samples and from food still in it’s original condition resulted in the correct amplification. The detection limit was 1 x 10-4 μg of DNA. All fungal and food samples tested gave highly consistent results in repeatability assays, thus demonstrating the within-lab and within/between-day precision of the method.
Conclusions. Information on the epidemiology of trichothecene producing Fusarium through the food chain and the identification of the most frequently contaminated components of fast food are essential in order to develop effective public health strategies for minimising consumer exposure to trichothecenes. Key words: Fusarium, fast food, trichothecenes, PCR
Adaptive AFM scan speed control for high aspect ratio fast structure tracking
Ahmad, Ahmad; Schuh, Andreas; Rangelow, Ivo W. [Department of Microelectronic and Nanoelectronic Systems, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology Ilmenau University of Technology, Gustav-Kirchhoffstr. 1, 98684 Ilmenau (Germany)
2014-10-15
Improved imaging rates in Atomic Force Microscopes (AFM) are of high interest for disciplines such as life sciences and failure analysis of semiconductor wafers, where the sample topology shows high aspect ratios. Also, fast imaging is necessary to cover a large surface under investigation in reasonable times. Since AFMs are composed of mechanical components, they are associated with comparably low resonance frequencies that undermine the effort to increase the acquisition rates. In particular, high and steep structures are difficult to follow, which causes the cantilever to temporarily loose contact to or crash into the sample. Here, we report on a novel approach that does not affect the scanner dynamics, but adapts the lateral scanning speed of the scanner. The controller monitors the control error signal and, only when necessary, decreases the scan speed to allow the z-piezo more time to react to changes in the sample's topography. In this case, the overall imaging rate can be significantly increased, because a general scan speed trade-off decision is not needed and smooth areas are scanned fast. In contrast to methods trying to increase the z-piezo bandwidth, our method is a comparably simple approach that can be easily adapted to standard systems.
Fast and Adaptive Lossless On-Board Hyperspectral Data Compression System for Space Applications
Aranki, Nazeeh; Bakhshi, Alireza; Keymeulen, Didier; Klimesh, Matthew
2009-01-01
Efficient on-board lossless hyperspectral data compression reduces the data volume necessary to meet NASA and DoD limited downlink capabilities. The techniques also improves signature extraction, object recognition and feature classification capabilities by providing exact reconstructed data on constrained downlink resources. At JPL a novel, adaptive and predictive technique for lossless compression of hyperspectral data was recently developed. This technique uses an adaptive filtering method and achieves a combination of low complexity and compression effectiveness that far exceeds state-of-the-art techniques currently in use. The JPL-developed 'Fast Lossless' algorithm requires no training data or other specific information about the nature of the spectral bands for a fixed instrument dynamic range. It is of low computational complexity and thus well-suited for implementation in hardware, which makes it practical for flight implementations of pushbroom instruments. A prototype of the compressor (and decompressor) of the algorithm is available in software, but this implementation may not meet speed and real-time requirements of some space applications. Hardware acceleration provides performance improvements of 10x-100x vs. the software implementation (about 1M samples/sec on a Pentium IV machine). This paper describes a hardware implementation of the JPL-developed 'Fast Lossless' compression algorithm on a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). The FPGA implementation targets the current state of the art FPGAs (Xilinx Virtex IV and V families) and compresses one sample every clock cycle to provide a fast and practical real-time solution for Space applications.
Fast Adapting Ensemble: A New Algorithm for Mining Data Streams with Concept Drift
Agustín Ortíz Díaz
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The treatment of large data streams in the presence of concept drifts is one of the main challenges in the field of data mining, particularly when the algorithms have to deal with concepts that disappear and then reappear. This paper presents a new algorithm, called Fast Adapting Ensemble (FAE, which adapts very quickly to both abrupt and gradual concept drifts, and has been specifically designed to deal with recurring concepts. FAE processes the learning examples in blocks of the same size, but it does not have to wait for the batch to be complete in order to adapt its base classification mechanism. FAE incorporates a drift detector to improve the handling of abrupt concept drifts and stores a set of inactive classifiers that represent old concepts, which are activated very quickly when these concepts reappear. We compare our new algorithm with various well-known learning algorithms, taking into account, common benchmark datasets. The experiments show promising results from the proposed algorithm (regarding accuracy and runtime, handling different types of concept drifts.
A numerical adaptation of self-avoiding walk identities from the honeycomb to other 2D lattices
Recently, Duminil-Copin and Smirnov proved a long-standing conjecture of Nienhuis that the connective constant of self-avoiding walks (SAWs) on the honeycomb lattice is √(2+√2). A key identity used in that proof depends on the existence of a parafermionic observable for SAWs on the honeycomb lattice. Despite the absence of a corresponding observable for SAWs on the square and triangular lattices, we show that in the limit of large lattices, some of the consequences observed on the honeycomb lattice persist on other lattices. This permits the accurate estimation, though not an exact evaluation, of certain critical amplitudes, as well as critical points, for these lattices. For the honeycomb lattice, an exact amplitude for loops is proved. (paper)
Haight, Derek J; Lerner, Zachary F; Board, Wayne J; Browning, Raymond C
2014-02-01
We determined if slow, uphill walking (0.75 m/s, 6°) reduced tibiofemoral (TF) loading compared to faster, level walking (1.50 m/s) in obese and nonobese adults. We collected kinematic, kinetic, and electromyographic data as 9 moderately obese and 10 nonobese participants walked on a dual-belt instrumented treadmill. We used OpenSim to scale a musculoskeletal model and calculate joint kinematics, kinetics, muscle forces, and TF forces. Compressive TF forces were greater in the obese adults during both speed/grade combinations. During level walking, obese participants walked with a straighter leg than nonobese participants, resulting in early stance vasti muscle forces that were similar in the obese and nonobese participants. Early stance peak compressive TF forces were reduced by 23% in obese (2,352 to 1,811 N) and 35% in nonobese (1,994 to 1,303 N) individuals during slow, uphill walking compared to brisk level walking. Late stance peak TF forces were similar across speeds/grades, but were greater in obese (∼2,900 N) compared to nonobese (∼1,700 N) individuals. Smaller early stance TF loads and loading rates suggest that slow, uphill walking may be appropriate exercise for obese individuals at risk for musculoskeletal pathology or pain. PMID:24127395
Fast binarized time-reversed adapted-perturbation (b-TRAP) optical focusing inside scattering media
Ma, Cheng; Liu, Yan; Wang, Lihong V
2015-01-01
Light scattering inhibits high-resolution optical imaging, manipulation and therapy deep inside biological tissue by preventing focusing. To form deep foci, wavefront-shaping and time-reversal techniques that break the optical diffusion limit have been developed. For in vivo applications, such focusing must provide high gain, high speed, and a large number of spatial modes. However, none of the previous techniques meet these requirements simultaneously. Here, we overcome this challenge by rapidly measuring the perturbed optical field within a single camera exposure followed by adaptively time-reversing the phase-binarized perturbation. Consequently, a phase-conjugated wavefront is synthesized within a millisecond, two orders of magnitude shorter than the digitally achieved record. We demonstrated real-time focusing in dynamic scattering media, and extended laser speckle contrast imaging to new depths. The unprecedented combination of fast response, high gain, and large mode count makes this work a major strid...
Fast-adaptive fiber-optic sensor for ultra-small vibration and deformation measurement
Adaptive fiber-optic interferometer measuring system based on a dynamic hologram recorded in photorefractive CdTe crystal without applying an external electric field is developed. Vectorial mixing of two waves with different polarizations in the anisotropic diffraction geometry allows for the realization of linear regime of phase demodulation at the diffusion hologram. High sensitivity of the interferometer is achieved due to recording of the hologram in reflection geometry at high spatial frequencies in a crystal with sufficient concentration of photorefractive centers. The sensitivity obtained makes possible a broadband detection of ultra-small vibrations with amplitude of less then 0.1 nm. High cut-off frequency of the interferometer achieved using low-power light sources due to fast response of CdTe crystal allows one to eliminate temperature fluctuations and other industrial noises
Fast simulation of transport and adaptive permeability estimation in porous media
Berre, Inga
2005-07-01
The focus of the thesis is twofold: Both fast simulation of transport in porous media and adaptive estimation of permeability are considered. A short introduction that motivates the work on these topics is given in Chapter 1. In Chapter 2, the governing equations for one- and two-phase flow in porous media are presented. Overall numerical solution strategies for the two-phase flow model are also discussed briefly. The concepts of streamlines and time-of-flight are introduced in Chapter 3. Methods for computing streamlines and time-of-flight are also presented in this chapter. Subsequently, in Chapters 4 and 5, the focus is on simulation of transport in a time-of-flight perspective. In Chapter 4, transport of fluids along streamlines is considered. Chapter 5 introduces a different viewpoint based on the evolution of isocontours of the fluid saturation. While the first chapters focus on the forward problem, which consists in solving a mathematical model given the reservoir parameters, Chapters 6, 7 and 8 are devoted to the inverse problem of permeability estimation. An introduction to the problem of identifying spatial variability in reservoir permeability by inversion of dynamic production data is given in Chapter 6. In Chapter 7, adaptive multiscale strategies for permeability estimation are discussed. Subsequently, Chapter 8 presents a level-set approach for improving piecewise constant permeability representations. Finally, Chapter 9 summarizes the results obtained in the thesis; in addition, the chapter gives some recommendations and suggests directions for future work. Part II In Part II, the following papers are included in the order they were completed: Paper A: A Streamline Front Tracking Method for Two- and Three-Phase Flow Including Capillary Forces. I. Berre, H. K. Dahle, K. H. Karlsen, and H. F. Nordhaug. In Fluid flow and transport in porous media: mathematical and numerical treatment (South Hadley, MA, 2001), volume 295 of Contemp. Math., pages 49
Fast Adaptive S-ALOHA Scheme for Event-driven Machine-to-Machine Communications
Wu, Huasen; La, Richard J; Liu, Xin; Zhang, Youguang
2012-01-01
Machine-to-Machine (M2M) communication is now playing a market-changing role in a wide range of business world. However, in event-driven M2M communications, a large number of devices activate within a short period of time, which in turn causes high radio congestions and severe access delay. To solve this problem, we propose a Fast Adaptive S-ALOHA (FASA) scheme for M2M communication systems with bursty traffic. The statistics of consecutive idle and collision slots are used in FASA to accelerate the tracking process of network status, instead of observing in a single slot. Furthermore, the fast convergence property of FASA is guaranteed by using drift analysis. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed FASA scheme achieves near-optimal performance in reducing access delay, which outperforms that of traditional additive schemes such as PB-ALOHA. Moreover, compared to multiplicative schemes, FASA shows its robust performance even under heavy traffic load in addition to better delay performance.
Fast Model Adaptation for Automated Section Classification in Electronic Medical Records.
Ni, Jian; Delaney, Brian; Florian, Radu
2015-01-01
Medical information extraction is the automatic extraction of structured information from electronic medical records, where such information can be used for improving healthcare processes and medical decision making. In this paper, we study one important medical information extraction task called section classification. The objective of section classification is to automatically identify sections in a medical document and classify them into one of the pre-defined section types. Training section classification models typically requires large amounts of human labeled training data to achieve high accuracy. Annotating institution-specific data, however, can be both expensive and time-consuming; which poses a big hurdle for adapting a section classification model to new medical institutions. In this paper, we apply two advanced machine learning techniques, active learning and distant supervision, to reduce annotation cost and achieve fast model adaptation for automated section classification in electronic medical records. Our experiment results show that active learning reduces the annotation cost and time by more than 50%, and distant supervision can achieve good model accuracy using weakly labeled training data only. PMID:26262005
GPU-based ultra-fast direct aperture optimization for online adaptive radiation therapy
Online adaptive radiation therapy (ART) has great promise to significantly reduce normal tissue toxicity and/or improve tumor control through real-time treatment adaptations based on the current patient anatomy. However, the major technical obstacle for clinical realization of online ART, namely the inability to achieve real-time efficiency in treatment re-planning, has yet to be solved. To overcome this challenge, this paper presents our work on the implementation of an intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) direct aperture optimization (DAO) algorithm on the graphics processing unit (GPU) based on our previous work on the CPU. We formulate the DAO problem as a large-scale convex programming problem, and use an exact method called the column generation approach to deal with its extremely large dimensionality on the GPU. Five 9-field prostate and five 5-field head-and-neck IMRT clinical cases with 5 x 5 mm2 beamlet size and 2.5 x 2.5 x 2.5 mm3 voxel size were tested to evaluate our algorithm on the GPU. It takes only 0.7-3.8 s for our implementation to generate high-quality treatment plans on an NVIDIA Tesla C1060 GPU card. Our work has therefore solved a major problem in developing ultra-fast (re-)planning technologies for online ART.
Ren, Shenghan; Hu, Haihong; Li, Gen; Cao, Xu; Zhu, Shouping; Chen, Xueli; Liang, Jimin
2016-01-01
Bioluminescence tomography (BLT) has been a valuable optical molecular imaging technique to non-invasively depict the cellular and molecular processes in living animals with high sensitivity and specificity. Due to the inherent ill-posedness of BLT, a priori information of anatomical structure is usually incorporated into the reconstruction. The structural information is usually provided by computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In order to obtain better quantitative results, BLT reconstruction with heterogeneous tissues needs to segment the internal organs and discretize them into meshes with the finite element method (FEM). It is time-consuming and difficult to handle the segmentation and discretization problems. In this paper, we present a fast reconstruction method for BLT based on multi-atlas registration and adaptive voxel discretization to relieve the complicated data processing procedure involved in the hybrid BLT/CT system. A multi-atlas registration method is first adopted to estimate the internal organ distribution of the imaged animal. Then, the animal volume is adaptively discretized into hexahedral voxels, which are fed into FEM for the following BLT reconstruction. The proposed method is validated in both numerical simulation and an in vivo study. The results demonstrate that the proposed method can reconstruct the bioluminescence source efficiently with satisfactory accuracy.
Ren, Shenghan; Hu, Haihong; Li, Gen; Cao, Xu; Zhu, Shouping; Chen, Xueli; Liang, Jimin
2016-04-01
Bioluminescence tomography (BLT) has been a valuable optical molecular imaging technique to non-invasively depict the cellular and molecular processes in living animals with high sensitivity and specificity. Due to the inherent ill-posedness of BLT, a priori information of anatomical structure is usually incorporated into the reconstruction. The structural information is usually provided by computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In order to obtain better quantitative results, BLT reconstruction with heterogeneous tissues needs to segment the internal organs and discretize them into meshes with the finite element method (FEM). It is time-consuming and difficult to handle the segmentation and discretization problems. In this paper, we present a fast reconstruction method for BLT based on multi-atlas registration and adaptive voxel discretization to relieve the complicated data processing procedure involved in the hybrid BLT/CT system. A multi-atlas registration method is first adopted to estimate the internal organ distribution of the imaged animal. Then, the animal volume is adaptively discretized into hexahedral voxels, which are fed into FEM for the following BLT reconstruction. The proposed method is validated in both numerical simulation and an in vivo study. The results demonstrate that the proposed method can reconstruct the bioluminescence source efficiently with satisfactory accuracy. PMID:27446674
Park, Eunjeong; Nam, Hyo Suk
2009-11-01
The need for fast treatment of patients in critical conditions motivates the use of mobile devices to provide prompt and consistent communication between hospitals and physicians. We propose a framework that supports ubiquitous access to medical systems using personalized mobile services and integrated medical systems. The proposed service-oriented medical framework provides dynamically composed services that are adapted to contextual variables such as the user's role, the network bandwidth, and resources available at mobile devices while supporting task allocation in distributed servers for massive resource-consuming services. It also manages accurate patient data by integrating local medical systems using medical information standards such as Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine and Health Level 7. We have demonstrated the effectiveness of our framework by building a prototype of context-based adaptation of computerized tomography image retrieval for acute stroke treatments, which allows images to be viewed on mobile devices with WiMax wireless network. The proposed medical framework reduces hospital delays of patients and facilitates treatments in the absence of medical specialists. PMID:19775976
Adaptive control of piezoelectric fast steering mirror for high precision tracking application
A piezoelectric fast steering mirror (PFSM) is a complex, strong coupling nonlinear system that integrates optics, mechanics, electrics, and control. Due to the existence of hysteresis nonlinearity, mechanical resonance, and all kinds of disturbances, precise tracking control of a PFSM is a challenging task. This paper presents a comprehensive study of modeling, controller design, and simulation evaluation for a PFSM system. First a general model of a PFSM system integrating mechanical dynamics, electrical dynamics, and hysteresis nonlinearity is proposed, and then a robust adaptive controller is developed under both unknown hysteresis nonlinearities and parameter uncertainties. The parameters needed directly in the formulation of the controller are adaptively estimated. The proposed control law ensures the uniform boundedness of all signals in the closed-loop system. Furthermore, a stability analysis of the control system is performed to guarantee that the output tracking error converges to zero asymptotically. Finally, simulation tests with different motion trajectories are conducted to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method. (paper)
Régis, J.-M.; Saed-Samii, N.; Rudigier, M.; Ansari, S.; Dannhoff, M.; Esmaylzadeh, A.; Fransen, C.; Gerst, R.-B.; Jolie, J.; Karayonchev, V.; Müller-Gatermann, C.; Stegemann, S.
2016-07-01
The electronic γ-γ fast-timing technique using arrays consisting of many LaBr3(Ce) detectors is a powerful method to determine lifetimes of nuclear excited states with a lower limit of about 5 ps. This method requires the determination of the energy-dependent time walk of the zero time which is represented by the centroid of a prompt γ-γ time distribution. The full-energy peak versus full-energy peak prompt response difference which represents the linearly combined mean γ-γ time walk of a fast-timing array consisting of 8 LaBr3(Ce) detectors was measured using a standard 152Eu γ-ray source for the energy region of 40-1408 keV. The data were acquired using a "multiplexed-start and multiplexed-stop" analogue electronics circuitry and analysed by employing the generalized centroid difference method. Concerning the cylindrical 1.5 in.×1.5 in. LaBr3(Ce) crystals which are coupled to the Hamamatsu R9779 photomultiplier tubes, the best fast-timing array time resolution of 202(3) ps is obtained for the two prompt γ lines of 60Co by using the leading-edge timing principle. When using the zero-crossover timing principle the time resolution is degraded by up to 30%, dependent on the energy and the shaping delay time of the constant fraction discriminator model Ortec 935. The smallest γ-γ time walk to below 50 ps is obtained by using a shaping delay time of about 17 ns and an optimum "time-walk adjustment" needed for detector output pulses with amplitudes smaller than 400 mV.
Serradj, Nadjet; Jamon, Marc
2009-07-19
The kinematics of locomotion was analyzed in two strains of great importance for the creation of mutated mice (C56BL/6 and 129/Sv). Different behavioral situations were used to trigger sequences of movement covering the whole range of velocities in the mice, and the variations of kinematic parameters were analyzed in relation with velocity. Both stride frequency and stride length contributed to the moving speed, but stride frequency was found to be the main contributor to the speed increase. A trot-gallop transition was detected at speed about 70 cm/s, in relation with a sharp shift in limb coordination. The results of this study were consistent with pieces of information previously published concerning the gait analyses of other strains, and provided an integrative view of the basic motor pattern of mice. On the other hand some qualitative differences were found in the movement characteristics of the two strains. The stride frequency showed a higher contribution to speed in 129/Sv than in C57BL/6. In addition, 129/Sv showed a phase shift in the forelimb and hindlimb, and a different position of the foot during the stance time that revealed a different gait and body position during walking. Overall, 129/Sv moved at a slower speed than C57BL/6 in any behavioral situation. This difference was related to a basal lower level of motor activity. The possibility that an alteration in the dopamine circuit was responsible for the different movement pattern in 129/Sv is discussed. PMID:19428617
A Fast Adaptive Artificial Neural Network Controller for Flexible Link Manipulators
Amin Riad Maouche
2016-01-01
Full Text Available This paper describes a hybrid approach to the problem of controlling flexible link manipulators in the dynamic phase of the trajectory. A flexible beam/arm is an appealing option for civil and military applications, such as space-based robot manipulators. However, flexibility brings with it unwanted oscillations and severe chattering which may even lead to an unstable system. To tackle these challenges, a novel control architecture scheme is presented. First, a neural network controller based on the robot’s dynamic equation of motion is elaborated. Its aim is to produce a fast and stable control of the joint position and velocity and damp the vibration of each arm. Then, an adaptive Cerebellar Model Articulation Controller (CMAC is implemented to balance unmodeled dynamics, enhancing the precision of the control. Efficiency of the new controller obtained is tested on a two-link flexible manipulator. Simulation results on a dynamic trajectory with a sinusoidal form show the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy.
Adaptation of fast responding power supply for radial position control in SST-1
A high current, fast responding power supply was installed in 2005 for vertical stabilization of elongated plasmas in SST-1 tokamak. Presently, during initial experiments of SST-1 tokamak the need for radial control during current build-up was envisaged. For this purpose the existing power supply was suitable and the same was re-commissioned and control adaptations were carried as per experimental requirements. This paper highlights the capabilities of the power supply and details the modifications in the control interfaces and test programs for the radial control purpose. Details of the operation of the power supply along with control interfaces with performance measurements are provided. The re-commissioning provided an opportunity in the trouble shooting methods and sequential operation of the system. With the operational use on the actual coil the mutual effects are understood better and appropriate test programs are prepared. The power supply provided satisfactory performance for the intended use. In additional the system is suitable to simulate a plasma current loop to enable the testing and calibration of Rogowski coil used for plasma current measurement. (author)
Zuidmeer-Jongejan, Laurian; Fernandez-Rivas, Montserrat; Poulsen, Lars K.;
2012-01-01
ABSTRACT: The FAST project (Food Allergy Specific Immunotherapy) aims at the development of safe and effective treatment of food allergies, targeting prevalent, persistent and severe allergy to fish and peach. Classical allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT), using subcutaneous injections with...... aqueous food extracts may be effective but has proven to be accompanied by too many anaphylactic side-effects. FAST aims to develop a safe alternative by replacing food extracts with hypoallergenic recombinant major allergens as the active ingredients of SIT. Both severe fish and peach allergy are caused...... lower their threshold for fish or peach intake, thereby decreasing their anxiety and dependence on rescue medication....
Dailey, Rachael E; Fontaine, Christine M; Avery, Julie P
2016-09-01
Most organisms undergo changes in their environment, both predictably and unpredictably, which require them to alter priorities in nutrient allocation with regards to food availability. Species that more predictably encounter extended periods of limited food resources or intake while mitigating the negative effects of starvation are considered to be fasting adapted. Northern elephant seals (NES) are one such species and routinely undergo extended periods of fasting for breeding, molting, as well as a post-weaning fast at 6-8weeks of age. However, during unusual times of nutritional deprivation, animals may enter stage III fasting. While fasting and foraging in this species has been extensively studied, realimentation following fasting beyond normal life history parameters has not been investigated. In this study, changes in ghrelin, growth hormone (GH), and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I were compared across 8weeks of realimentation following emaciation in three age classes: neonates, post-molt pups, and yearlings. Longitudinal changes in hormone profiles indicate that neonate and post-molt pups are slow to recover mass and positive energy balance despite an energy dense diet fed at 10% body mass. In addition, ghrelin and GH concentrations remained elevated in post-molt pups compared to other age classes. Changes in hormone concentrations early in realimentation indicate that yearling animals recover more rapidly from periods of nutritional deprivation than do younger animals. Overall, this suggests that the ability to regulate metabolic homeostasis with regards to nutrient allocation may develop over time, even in a species that is considered to be fasting adapted. PMID:27288636
HU Bing; FANG Zhi-chu
2008-01-01
Due to actuator time delay existing in an adaptive control of the active balancing system for a fastspeed-varying Jeffcott rotor, if an unsynchronized control force (correction imbalance) is applied to the system,it may lead to degradation in control efficiency and instability of the control system. In order to avoid theseshortcomings, a simple adaptive controller was designed for a strictly positive real rotor system with actuatortime delay, then a Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional was constructed after an appropriate transform of this sys-tem model, the stability conditions of this adaptive control system with actuator time delay were derived. Afteradding a filter function, the active balancing system for the fast speed-varying Jeffcott rotor with actuator timedelay can easily be converted to a strictly positive real system, and thus it can use the above adaptive controllersatisfying the stability conditions. Finally, numerical simulations show that the adaptive controller proposedworks very well to perform the active balancing for the fast speed-varying Jeffcott rotor with actuator timedelay.
Comparison of heart rate responses. Water walking versus treadmill walking.
Whitley, J D; Schoene, L L
1987-10-01
The purpose of this study was to compare heart rate responses to water walking versus treadmill walking to determine whether the responses were of sufficient magnitude to elicit cardiorespiratory training effects. The heart rates of 12 healthy, female college students were measured immediately after walking in waist-deep water and on a treadmill at the same distance, durations, and speeds (2.55, 2.77, 3.02, and 3.31 km/hr). A significant increase in heart rate with increased speeds resulted from water walking (p less than .05); from rest to the fastest speed, it was 135% (96 bpm). For treadmill walking, the increase of 19% (13 bpm) was not significant. The heart rates for the water condition were significantly higher (p less than .05) at each speed. These findings indicate that water walking could serve as an effective exercise mode, for example, for cardiorespiratory fitness for individuals who are unable to perform such weight-bearing activities as jogging, fast walking, cycling, and dancing. PMID:3659133
Drumea, Georges,; Frezza-Buet, Hervé
2007-01-01
International audience In this paper, an original method named GNG-T, extended from GNG-U algorithm by Fritzke is presented. The method performs continuously vector quantization over a distribution that changes over time. It deals with both sudden changes and continuous ones, and is thus suited for video tracking framework, where continuous tracking is required as well as fast adaptation to incoming and outgoing people. The central mechanism relies on the management of quantization resolut...
Nosil, P; Crespi, B J
2004-01-01
Population differentiation often reflects a balance between divergent natural selection and the opportunity for homogenizing gene flow to erode the effects of selection. However, during ecological speciation, trait divergence results in reproductive isolation and becomes a cause, rather than a consequence, of reductions in gene flow. To assess both the causes and the reproductive consequences of morphological differentiation, we examined morphological divergence and sexual isolation among 17 populations of Timema cristinae walking-sticks. Individuals from populations adapted to using Adenostoma as a host plant tended to exhibit smaller overall body size, wide heads, and short legs relative to individuals using Ceonothus as a host. However, there was also significant variation in morphology among populations within host-plant species. Mean trait values for each single population could be reliably predicted based upon host-plant used and the potential for homogenizing gene flow, inferred from the size of the neighboring population using the alternate host and mitochondrial DNA estimates of gene flow. Morphology did not influence the probability of copulation in between-population mating trials. Thus, morphological divergence is facilitated by reductions in gene flow, but does not cause reductions in gene flow via the evolution of sexual isolation. Combined with rearing data indicating that size and shape have a partial genetic basis, evidence for parallel origins of the host-associated forms, and inferences from functional morphology, these results indicate that morphological divergence in T. cristinae reflects a balance between the effects of host-specific natural selection and gene flow. Our findings illustrate how data on mating preferences can help determine the causal associations between trait divergence and levels of gene flow. PMID:15058723
A Fast, Locally Adaptive, Interactive Retrieval Algorithm for the Analysis of DIAL Measurements
Samarov, D. V.; Rogers, R.; Hair, J. W.; Douglass, K. O.; Plusquellic, D.
2010-12-01
Differential absorption light detection and ranging (DIAL) is a laser-based tool which is used for remote, range-resolved measurement of particular gases in the atmosphere, such as carbon-dioxide and methane. In many instances it is of interest to study how these gases are distributed over a region such as a landfill, factory, or farm. While a single DIAL measurement only tells us about the distribution of a gas along a single path, a sequence of consecutive measurements provides us with information on how that gas is distributed over a region, making DIAL a natural choice for such studies. DIAL measurements present a number of interesting challenges; first, in order to convert the raw data to concentration it is necessary to estimate the derivative along the path of the measurement. Second, as the distribution of gases across a region can be highly heterogeneous it is important that the spatial nature of the measurements be taken into account. Finally, since it is common for the set of collected measurements to be quite large it is important for the method to be computationally efficient. Existing work based on Local Polynomial Regression (LPR) has been developed which addresses the first two issues, but the issue of computational speed remains an open problem. In addition to the latter, another desirable property is to allow user input into the algorithm. In this talk we present a novel method based on LPR which utilizes a variant of the RODEO algorithm to provide a fast, locally adaptive and interactive approach to the analysis of DIAL measurements. This methodology is motivated by and applied to several simulated examples and a study out of NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) looking at the estimation of aerosol extinction in the atmosphere. A comparison study of our method against several other algorithms is also presented. References Chaudhuri, P., Marron, J.S., Scale-space view of curve estimation, Annals of Statistics 28 (2000) 408-428. Duong, T., Cowling
Revision of FMM-Yukawa: An adaptive fast multipole method for screened Coulomb interactions
Zhang, Bo; Huang, Jingfang; Pitsianis, Nikos P.; Sun, Xiaobai
2010-12-01
FMM-YUKAWA is a mathematical software package primarily for rapid evaluation of the screened Coulomb interactions of N particles in three dimensional space. Since its release, we have revised and re-organized the data structure, software architecture, and user interface, for the purpose of enabling more flexible, broader and easier use of the package. The package and its documentation are available at http://www.fastmultipole.org/, along with a few other closely related mathematical software packages. New version program summaryProgram title: FMM-Yukawa Catalogue identifier: AEEQ_v2_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEEQ_v2_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GNU GPL 2.0 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 78 704 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 854 265 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: FORTRAN 77, FORTRAN 90, and C. Requires gcc and gfortran version 4.4.3 or later Computer: All Operating system: Any Classification: 4.8, 4.12 Catalogue identifier of previous version: AEEQ_v1_0 Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Comm. 180 (2009) 2331 Does the new version supersede the previous version?: Yes Nature of problem: To evaluate the screened Coulomb potential and force field of N charged particles, and to evaluate a convolution type integral where the Green's function is the fundamental solution of the modified Helmholtz equation. Solution method: The new version of fast multipole method (FMM) that diagonalizes the multipole-to-local translation operator is applied with the tree structure adaptive to sample particle locations. Reasons for new version: To handle much larger particle ensembles, to enable the iterative use of the subroutines in a solver, and to remove potential contention in assignments for parallelization. Summary of revisions: The software package FMM-Yukawa has been
A new adaptive fast motion estimation algorithm based on local motion similarity degree (LMSD)
LIU Long; HAN Chongzhao; BAI Yan
2005-01-01
In the motion vector field adaptive search technique (MVFAST) and the predictive motion vector field adaptive search technique (PMVFAST), the size of the largest motion vector from the three adjacent blocks (left, top, top-right) is compared with the threshold to select different search scheme. But a suitable search center and search pattern will not be selected in the adaptive search technique when the adjacent motion vectors are not coherent in local region. This paper presents an efficient adaptive search algorithm. The motion vector variation degree (MVVD) is considered a reasonable factor for adaptive search selection. By the relationship between local motion similarity degree (LMSD) and the variation degree of motion vector (MVVD), the motion vectors are classified as three categories according to corresponding LMSD; then different proposed search schemes are adopted for motion estimation. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm has a significant computational speedup compared with MVFAST and PMVFAST algorithms, and offers a similar, even better performance.
Alsaadi, Fuad E.
2016-03-01
Optical wireless systems are promising candidates for next-generation indoor communication networks. Optical wireless technology offers freedom from spectrum regulations and, compared to current radio-frequency networks, higher data rates and increased security. This paper presents a fast adaptation method for multibeam angle and delay adaptation systems and a new spot-diffusing geometry, and also considers restrictions needed for complying with eye safety regulations. The fast adaptation algorithm reduces the computational load required to reconfigure the transmitter in the case of transmitter and/or receiver mobility. The beam clustering approach enables the transmitter to assign power to spots within the pixel's field of view (FOV) and increases the number of such spots. Thus, if the power per spot is restricted to comply with eye safety standards, the new approach, in which more spots are visible within the FOV of the pixel, leads to enhanced signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Simulation results demonstrate that the techniques proposed in this paper lead to SNR improvements that enable reliable operation at data rates as high as 15 Gbit/s. These results are based on simulation and not on actual measurements or experiments.
肖立民; 许希斌; 姚彦
2001-01-01
Diversity combining technologies are analyzed for fastfrequency-hopping spread spectrum systems during partial-band noise jamming to develop a novel combining receiver called an Adaptive Threshold Clipper Combining Receiver (ATCCR). The optimal clipping level for an ATCCR is analyzed, computed, and compared with several other diversity combining technologies. Since the ATCCR can estimate the power of the jamming and the number of jammed frequency cells to adaptively adjust the clipper's threshold, the system performance using the adaptive threshold clipper combining technique can be greatly improved.
Fast and Flexible Tracking and Mitigating a Jamming Signal with an Adaptive Notch Filter
BORIO DANIELE; O'DRISCOLL CILLIAN; Fortuny Guasch, Joaquim
2014-01-01
GNSS jammers are small portable devices able to broadcast disruptive interference and overpower the much weaker GNSS signals. The authors consider the use of an adaptive notch filter as an effective solution for mitigating jamming effects.
Fast Spectral Velocity Estimation Using Adaptive Techniques: In-Vivo Results
Gran, Fredrik; Jakobsson, Andreas; Udesen, Jesper; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt
Adaptive spectral estimation techniques are known to provide good spectral resolution and contrast even when the observation window(OW) is very sbort. In this paper two adaptive techniques are tested and compared to the averaged perlodogram (Welch) for blood velocity estimation. The Blood Power...... spectral Capon (BPC) method is based on a standard minimum variance technique adapted to account for both averaging over slowtime and depth. The Blood Amplitude and Phase Estimation technique (BAPES) is based on finding a set of matched filters (one for each velocity component of interest) and filtering...... the blood process over slow-time and averaging over depth to find the power spectral density estimate. In this paper, the two adaptive methods are explained, and performance Is assessed in controlled steady How experiments and in-vivo measurements. The three methods were tested on a circulating How...
Role of PGC-1{alpha} in exercise and fasting induced adaptations in mouse liver
Haase, Tobias Nørresø; Jørgensen, Stine Ringholm; Leick, Lotte;
2011-01-01
The transcriptional coactivator peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)-¿ coactivator (PGC)-1a plays a role in regulation of several metabolic pathways. By use of whole body PGC-1a knockout (KO) mice we investigated the role of PGC-1a in fasting, acute exercise and exercise training...... induced regulation of key proteins in gluconeogenesis and metabolism in the liver. In both wild type (WT) and PGC-1a KO mice liver, the mRNA content of the gluconeogenic proteins glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) was upregulated during fasting. Pyruvate...... carboxylase (PC) remained unchanged after fasting in WT mice, but was upregulated in PGC-1a KO mice. In response to a single exercise bout G6Pase mRNA was upregulated in both genotypes, whereas no significant changes were detected in PEPCK or PC mRNA. While G6Pase and PC protein remained unchanged, liver...
Khosravinia, H
2016-06-01
Four hundred and eighty mixed-sex broiler chicks aged 3 h after hatching were allotted according to a completely random design in a 6 × 2 × 2 factorial schedule into two groups of 12 replications of 20 chicks each. The main experimental factors were fasting for 0, 6, 12, 24, 36 and 48 h after chick placement and calcium gluconate (Ca-glu) injection (0 and 0.6 ml). Live body weight (BW) of chicks decreased linearly (Y = 43.36-0.109BW0 h , r(2) = 0.876) as neonatal fasting extended. Injection of 0.6 ml Ca-glu at 3 h post-hatching did not affect weight loss of chicks. Yolk residuals (YR) utilized linearly (Y = 5.75-0.062YR, r(2) = 0.956) by 0.062 g/h in neonate fasted chicks up to 48 h, showing no effect of Ca-glu injection. Neonatal fasting periods longer than 12 h increased liver weight (p < 0.05). The mean absolute and proportional (% of BW0 h ) breast and leg weight were reduced linearly as neonatal fasting extended (p < 0.05). Serum glucose concentration increased up to 6 h and then reduced linearly to 150 mg/dl after 48-h fasting. The Ca-glu treatment influenced serum glucose level for a short period up to 6 h of fasting. Serum Ca concentration sharply increased up to threefolds in the birds received Ca-glu injection resulting in acute hypercalcemia, then decreased to the initial level after 24-h feed withdrawal (p < 0.05). The mean serum level for creatinine, uric acid, cholesterol, HDL, albumins and total proteins significantly increased during the fasting periods of 6 to 48 h and significantly elevated in the birds receiving 0.6-ml Ca-glu injection compared with the non-treated chicks (p < 0.05). It was concluded that subcutaneous administration of 0.6 ml Ca-glu in the chick's neck did not suitably support the increased metabolic demands for glucose and calcium in feed-deprived neonate chicks. PMID:26344414
Fast Muting Adaptation for LTE-A HetNets with Remote Radio Heads
Soret, Beatriz; Pedersen, Klaus I.; Kolding, Troels Emil; Kroener, Hans; Maniatis, Ioannis
Management in macro-RRH cases is developed. Based on minimal information collection, we propose an algorithm that adjusts the ABS ratio on a fast basis, aiming at balancing the instantaneous load betweeen the macro and the RRH layer. Performance results with bursty traffic and low and high load conditions...
Abdellah, Skoudarli; Mokhtar, Nibouche; Amina, Serir
2015-11-01
The H.264/AVC video coding standard is used in a wide range of applications from video conferencing to high-definition television according to its high compression efficiency. This efficiency is mainly acquired from the newly allowed prediction schemes including variable block modes. However, these schemes require a high complexity to select the optimal mode. Consequently, complexity reduction in the H.264/AVC encoder has recently become a very challenging task in the video compression domain, especially when implementing the encoder in real-time applications. Fast mode decision algorithms play an important role in reducing the overall complexity of the encoder. In this paper, we propose an adaptive fast intermode algorithm based on motion activity, temporal stationarity, and spatial homogeneity. This algorithm predicts the motion activity of the current macroblock from its neighboring blocks and identifies temporal stationary regions and spatially homogeneous regions using adaptive threshold values based on content video features. Extensive experimental work has been done in high profile, and results show that the proposed source-coding algorithm effectively reduces the computational complexity by 53.18% on average compared with the reference software encoder, while maintaining the high-coding efficiency of H.264/AVC by incurring only 0.097 dB in total peak signal-to-noise ratio and 0.228% increment on the total bit rate.
Cordero, Ninoska; Maza, Felipe; Navea-Perez, Helen; Aravena, Andrés; Marquez-Fontt, Bárbara; Navarrete, Paola; Figueroa, Guillermo; González, Mauricio; Latorre, Mauricio; Reyes-Jara, Angélica
2016-01-01
Listeria monocytogenes has become one of the principal foodborne pathogens worldwide. The capacity of this bacterium to grow at low temperatures has opened an interesting field of study in terms of the identification and classification of new strains of L. monocytogenes with different growth capacities at low temperatures. We determined the growth rate at 8°C of 110 strains of L. monocytogenes isolated from different food matrices. We identified a group of slow and fast strains according to their growth rate at 8°C and performed a global transcriptomic assay in strains previously adapted to low temperature. We then identified shared and specific transcriptional mechanisms, metabolic and cellular processes of both groups; bacterial motility was the principal process capable of differentiating the adaptation capacity of L. monocytogenes strains with different ranges of tolerance to low temperatures. Strains belonging to the fast group were less motile, which may allow these strains to achieve a greater rate of proliferation at low temperature. PMID:26973610
Roth, John R.
2010-01-01
Experiments of Pränting and Andersson demonstrate how bacteria adapt to the growth limitation caused by antibiotic resistance mutations. The process of adaptation relies on gene copy number changes that arise at high rates, including duplications (10−4/cell/generation), amplifications (10−2/cell/generation) and mutant copy loss (10−2/cell/division). Reversible increases in copy number improve growth by small steps and provide more targets for rare sequence alterations (10−9/cell/division) tha...
Fast heating and cooling in nanoimprint using a spring-loaded adapter in a preheated press
Schift, Helmut; Bellini, Sandro; Gobrecht, Jens;
2007-01-01
By using a spring-loaded adapter, instant heating and cooling of wafer-type substrates was implemented in standard hot embossing equipment. This was possible by using the well-known concept of a clamped stack of stamp and substrate, pre-assembled in an alignment fixture. A number of thermoplastic...
Fast automated protein NMR data collection and assignment by ADAPT-NMR on Bruker spectrometers
Lee, Woonghee; Hu, Kaifeng; Tonelli, Marco; Bahrami, Arash; Neuhardt, Elizabeth; Glass, Karen C.; Markley, John L.
2013-11-01
ADAPT-NMR (Assignment-directed Data collection Algorithm utilizing a Probabilistic Toolkit in NMR) supports automated NMR data collection and backbone and side chain assignment for [U-13C, U-15N]-labeled proteins. Given the sequence of the protein and data for the orthogonal 2D 1H-15N and 1H-13C planes, the algorithm automatically directs the collection of tilted plane data from a variety of triple-resonance experiments so as to follow an efficient pathway toward the probabilistic assignment of 1H, 13C, and 15N signals to specific atoms in the covalent structure of the protein. Data collection and assignment calculations continue until the addition of new data no longer improves the assignment score. ADAPT-NMR was first implemented on Varian (Agilent) spectrometers [A. Bahrami, M. Tonelli, S.C. Sahu, K.K. Singarapu, H.R. Eghbalnia, J.L. Markley, PLoS One 7 (2012) e33173]. Because of broader interest in the approach, we present here a version of ADAPT-NMR for Bruker spectrometers. We have developed two AU console programs (ADAPT_ORTHO_run and ADAPT_NMR_run) that run under TOPSPIN Versions 3.0 and higher. To illustrate the performance of the algorithm on a Bruker spectrometer, we tested one protein, chlorella ubiquitin (76 amino acid residues), that had been used with the Varian version: the Bruker and Varian versions achieved the same level of assignment completeness (98% in 20 h). As a more rigorous evaluation of the Bruker version, we tested a larger protein, BRPF1 bromodomain (114 amino acid residues), which yielded an automated assignment completeness of 86% in 55 h. Both experiments were carried out on a 500 MHz Bruker AVANCE III spectrometer equipped with a z-gradient 5 mm TCI probe. ADAPT-NMR is available at http://pine.nmrfam.wisc.edu/ADAPT-NMR in the form of pulse programs, the two AU programs, and instructions for installation and use.
Antonella Agodi; Martina Barchitta; Margherita Ferrante; Salvatore Sciacca; Ludwig Niessen
2005-01-01
Background. Food contamination by trichothecene mycotoxins is considered to be an emerging public health problem. The aim of this study was to validate a rapid sonification protocol, previously set up for cereal Fusarium DNA extraction from fast food samples, produced by a centre for research and development in the food industry in Catania, Sicily, and to validate it for a diagnostic PCR assay targeted at tri5, the key gene of trichothecene biosynthesis.&...
Generation of fast neturon spectra using an adaptive Gauss-Kronrod Quadrature algorithm
Triplett, Brian Scott
A lattice physics calculation is often the first step in analyzing a nuclear reactor. This calculation condenses regions of the reactor into average parameters (i.e., group constants) that can be used in coarser full-core, time-dependent calculations. This work presents a high-fidelity deterministic method for calculating the neutron energy spectrum in an infinite medium. The spectrum resulting from this calculation can be used to generate accurate group constants. This method includes a numerical algorithm based on Gauss-Kronrod Quadrature to determine the neutron transfer source to a given energy while controlling numerical error. This algorithm was implemented in a pointwise transport solver program called Pointwise Fast Spectrum Generator (PWFSG). PWFSG was benchmarked against the Monte Carlo program MCNP and another pointwise spectrum generation program, CENTRM, for a set of fast reactor infinite medium example cases. PWFSG showed good agreement with MCNP, yielding coefficients of determination above 98% for all example cases. In addition, PWFSG had 6 to 8 times lower flux estimation error than CENTRM in the cases examined. With run-times comparable to CENTRM, PWFSG represents a robust set of methods for generation of fast neutron spectra with increased accuracy without increased computational cost.
Research on fast real-time adaptive audio mixing in multimedia conference
FAN Xing; GU Wei-kang; YE Xiu-qing
2005-01-01
In multimedia conference, the capability of audio processing is basic and requires more for real-time criteria. In this article, we categorize and analyze the schemes, and provide several multipoint speech audio mixing schemes using weighted algorithm, which meet the demand of practical needs for real-time multipoint speech mixing, for which the ASW and AEW schemes are especially recommended. Applying the adaptive algorithms, the high-performance schemes we provide do not use the saturation operation widely used in multimedia processing. Therefore, no additional noise will be added to the output. The above adaptive algorithms have relatively low computational complexity and good hearing perceptibility. The schemes are designed for parallel processing, and can be easily implemented with hardware, such as DSPs, and widely applied in multimedia conference systems.
Jawerth, Bjoern; Sweldens, Wim
1993-01-01
We present ideas on how to use wavelets in the solution of boundary value ordinary differential equations. Rather than using classical wavelets, we adapt their construction so that they become (bi)orthogonal with respect to the inner product defined by the operator. The stiffness matrix in a Galerkin method then becomes diagonal and can thus be trivially inverted. We show how one can construct an O(N) algorithm for various constant and variable coefficient operators.
Adaptive prediction in digitally controlled buck converter with fast load transient response
Lee, TLA; Chan, PCH
2012-01-01
An adaptive prediction scheme based on linear extrapolation for digitally controlled voltage-mode buck-type switching converter is presented. A major drawback of conventional digitally controlled switching converters is bandwidth limitation due to the additional phase lag in the digital feedback control loop. By predicting the future error voltage, the ADC sampling time delay is compensated in order to achieve a higher bandwidth even with a modest sampling rate. Both simulation and measuremen...
Amplifying effect of a release mechanism for fast adaptation in the hair bundle.
Sul, Bora; Iwasa, Kuni H
2009-07-01
A "release" mechanism, which has been experimentally observed as the fast component in the hair bundle's response to mechanical stimulation, appears similar to common mechanical relaxation with a damping effect. This observation is puzzling because such a response is expected to have an amplifying role in the mechanoelectrical transduction process in hair cells. Here it is shown that a release mechanism can indeed have a role in amplification, if it is associated with negative stiffness due to the gating of the mechonoelectric transducer channel. PMID:19603855
Complementarity and quantum walks
We show that quantum walks interpolate between a coherent 'wave walk' and a random walk depending on how strongly the walker's coin state is measured; i.e., the quantum walk exhibits the quintessentially quantum property of complementarity, which is manifested as a tradeoff between knowledge of which path the walker takes vs the sharpness of the interference pattern. A physical implementation of a quantum walk (the quantum quincunx) should thus have an identifiable walker and the capacity to demonstrate the interpolation between wave walk and random walk depending on the strength of measurement
Fast Fourier and Wavelet Transforms for Wavefront Reconstruction in Adaptive Optics
Dowla, F U; Brase, J M; Olivier, S S
2000-07-28
Wavefront reconstruction techniques using the least-squares estimators are computationally quite expensive. We compare wavelet and Fourier transforms techniques in addressing the computation issues of wavefront reconstruction in adaptive optics. It is shown that because the Fourier approach is not simply a numerical approximation technique unlike the wavelet method, the Fourier approach might have advantages in terms of numerical accuracy. However, strictly from a numerical computations viewpoint, the wavelet approximation method might have advantage in terms of speed. To optimize the wavelet method, a statistical study might be necessary to use the best basis functions or ''approximation tree.''
Yang Zhiwei
2010-01-01
Full Text Available We propose a subspace-tracking-based space-time adaptive processing technique for airborne radar applications. By applying a modified approximated power iteration subspace tracing algorithm, the principal subspace in which the clutter-plus-interference reside is estimated. Therefore, the moving targets are detected by projecting the data on the minor subspace which is orthogonal to the principal subspace. The proposed approach overcomes the shortcomings of the existing methods and has satisfactory performance. Simulation results confirm that the performance improvement is achieved at very small secondary sample support, a feature that is particularly attractive for applications in heterogeneous environments.
Life in the Fast Lane: The Evolution of an Adaptive Vehicle Control System
Jochem, Todd; Pomerleau, Dean
1996-01-01
Giving robots the ability to operate in the real world has been, and continues to be, one of the most difficult tasks in AI research. Since 1987, researchers at Carnegie Mellon University have been investigating one such task. Their research has been focused on using adaptive, vision-based systems to increase the driving performance of the Navlab line of on-road mobile robots. This research has led to the development of a neural network system that can learn to drive on many road types simply...
Collaborative Software Development in Support of Fast Adaptive AeroSpace Tools (FAAST)
Kleb, William L.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Park, Michael A.; Wood, William A.
2003-01-01
A collaborative software development approach is described. The software product is an adaptation of proven computational capabilities combined with new capabilities to form the Agency's next generation aerothermodynamic and aerodynamic analysis and design tools. To efficiently produce a cohesive, robust, and extensible software suite, the approach uses agile software development techniques; specifically, project retrospectives, the Scrum status meeting format, and a subset of Extreme Programming's coding practices are employed. Examples are provided which demonstrate the substantial benefits derived from employing these practices. Also included is a discussion of issues encountered when porting legacy Fortran 77 code to Fortran 95 and a Fortran 95 coding standard.
D. Madurasinghe
2009-01-01
Full Text Available The proposed technique allows the radar receiver to accurately estimate the range of a large number of targets using a transmitter of opportunity as long as the location of the transmitter is known. The technique does not depend on the use of communication satellites or GPS systems, instead it relies on the availability of the direct transmit copy of the signal from the transmitter and the reflected paths off the various targets. An array-based space-fast time adaptive processor is implemented in order to estimate the path difference between the direct signal and the delayed signal, which bounces off the target. This procedure allows us to estimate the target distance as well as bearing.
SIRT1 Gain of Function Does Not Mimic or Enhance the Adaptations to Intermittent Fasting
Marie Boutant
2016-03-01
Full Text Available Caloric restriction (CR has been shown to prevent the onset of insulin resistance and to delay age-related physiological decline in mammalian organisms. SIRT1, a NAD+-dependent deacetylase enzyme, has been suggested to mediate the adaptive responses to CR, leading to the speculation that SIRT1 activation could be therapeutically used as a CR-mimetic strategy. Here, we used a mouse model of moderate SIRT1 overexpression to test whether SIRT1 gain of function could mimic or boost the metabolic benefits induced by every-other-day feeding (EODF. Our results indicate that SIRT1 transgenesis does not affect the ability of EODF to decrease adiposity and improve insulin sensitivity. Transcriptomic analyses revealed that SIRT1 transgenesis and EODF promote very distinct adaptations in individual tissues, some of which can be even be metabolically opposite, as in brown adipose tissue. Therefore, whereas SIRT1 overexpression and CR both improve glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity, the etiologies of these benefits are largely different.
SIRT1 Gain of Function Does Not Mimic or Enhance the Adaptations to Intermittent Fasting.
Boutant, Marie; Kulkarni, Sameer S; Joffraud, Magali; Raymond, Frédéric; Métairon, Sylviane; Descombes, Patrick; Cantó, Carles
2016-03-01
Caloric restriction (CR) has been shown to prevent the onset of insulin resistance and to delay age-related physiological decline in mammalian organisms. SIRT1, a NAD(+)-dependent deacetylase enzyme, has been suggested to mediate the adaptive responses to CR, leading to the speculation that SIRT1 activation could be therapeutically used as a CR-mimetic strategy. Here, we used a mouse model of moderate SIRT1 overexpression to test whether SIRT1 gain of function could mimic or boost the metabolic benefits induced by every-other-day feeding (EODF). Our results indicate that SIRT1 transgenesis does not affect the ability of EODF to decrease adiposity and improve insulin sensitivity. Transcriptomic analyses revealed that SIRT1 transgenesis and EODF promote very distinct adaptations in individual tissues, some of which can be even be metabolically opposite, as in brown adipose tissue. Therefore, whereas SIRT1 overexpression and CR both improve glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity, the etiologies of these benefits are largely different. PMID:26923584
GPU-based ultra-fast direct aperture optimization for online adaptive radiation therapy
Men, Chunhua; Jiang, Steve B
2010-01-01
Online adaptive radiation therapy (ART) has great promise to significantly reduce normal tissue toxicity and/or improve tumor control through real-time treatment adaptations based on the current patient anatomy. However, the major technical obstacle for clinical realization of online ART, namely the inability to achieve real-time efficiency in treatment re-planning, has yet to be solved. To overcome this challenge, this paper presents our work on the implementation of an intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) direct aperture optimization (DAO) algorithm on graphics processing unit (GPU) based on our previous work on CPU. We formulate the DAO problem as a large-scale convex programming problem, and use an exact method called column generation approach to deal with its extremely large dimensionality on GPU. Five 9-field prostate and five 5-field head-and-neck IMRT clinical cases with 5\\times5 mm2 beamlet size and 2.5\\times2.5\\times2.5 mm3 voxel size were used to evaluate our algorithm on GPU. It takes onl...
An implementation of the fast multiple method (FMM) is performed for magnetic systems with long-ranged dipolar interactions. Expansion in spherical harmonics of the original FMM is replaced by expansion of polynomials in Cartesian coordinates, which is considerably simpler. Under open boundary conditions, an expression for multipole moments of point dipoles in a cell is derived. These make the program appropriate for nanomagnetic simulations, including magnetic nanoparticles and ferrofluids. The performance is optimized in terms of cell size and parameter set (expansion order and opening angle) and the trade off between computing time and accuracy is quantitatively studied. A rule of thumb is proposed to decide the appropriate average number of dipoles in the smallest cells, and an optimal choice of parameter set is suggested. Finally, the superiority of Cartesian coordinate FMM is demonstrated by comparison to spherical harmonics FMM and FFT.
Zhang, Wen
2008-01-01
An implementation of the fast multiple method (FMM) is performed for magnetic systems with long-ranged dipolar interactions. Expansion in spherical harmonics of the original FMM is replaced by expansion of polynomials in cartesian coordinates, which is considerably simpler. Under open boundary conditions, an expression for multipole moments of point dipoles in a cell is derived. These make the program appropriate for nanomagnetic simulations, including magnetic nanoparticles and ferrofluids. The performance is optimized in terms of cell size and parameter set (expansion order and opening angle) and trade off between computing time and accuracy is quantitatively studied. A rule of thumb is proposed to decide the average number of dipoles in the smallest cells, and an optimal choice of parameter set is suggested.
Willey, David
2010-01-01
This article gives a brief history of fire-walking and then deals with the physics behind fire-walking. The author has performed approximately 50 fire-walks, took the data for the world's hottest fire-walk and was, at one time, a world record holder for the longest fire-walk (www.dwilley.com/HDATLTW/Record_Making_Firewalks.html). He currently…
Nordic walking and chronic low back pain
Morsø, Lars; Hartvigsen, Jan; Puggaard, Lis;
2006-01-01
Low Back Pain is a major public health problem all over the western world. Active approaches including exercise in the treatment of low back pain results in better outcomes for patients, but it is not known exactly which types of back exercises are most beneficial or whether general physical...... activity provide similar benefits. Nordic Walking is a popular and fast growing type of exercise in Northern Europe. Initial studies have demonstrated that persons performing Nordic Walking are able to exercise longer and harder compared to normal walking thereby increasing their cardiovascular metabolism...
Fast and intuitive programming of adaptive laser cutting of lace enabled by machine vision
Vaamonde, Iago; Souto-López, Álvaro; García-Díaz, Antón
2015-07-01
A machine vision system has been developed, validated, and integrated in a commercial laser robot cell. It permits an offline graphical programming of laser cutting of lace. The user interface allows loading CAD designs and aligning them with images of lace pieces. Different thread widths are discriminated to generate proper cutting program templates. During online operation, the system aligns CAD models of pieces and lace images, pre-checks quality of lace cuts and adapts laser parameters to thread widths. For pieces detected with the required quality, the program template is adjusted by transforming the coordinates of every trajectory point. A low-cost lace feeding system was also developed for demonstration of full process automation.
Xue, Xiaoming; Zhou, Jianzhong; Xu, Yanhe; Zhu, Wenlong; Li, Chaoshun
2015-10-01
Ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) represents a significant improvement over the original empirical mode decomposition (EMD) method for eliminating the mode mixing problem. However, the added white noises generate some tough problems including the high computational cost, the determination of the two critical parameters (the amplitude of the added white noise and the number of ensemble trials), and the contamination of the residue noise in the signal reconstruction. To solve these problems, an adaptively fast EEMD (AFEEMD) method combined with complementary EEMD (CEEMD) is proposed in this paper. In the proposed method, the two critical parameters are respectively fixed as 0.01 times standard deviation of the original signal and two ensemble trials. Instead, the upper frequency limit of the added white noise is the key parameter which needs to be prescribed beforehand. Unlike the original EEMD method, only two high-frequency white noises are added to the signal to be investigated with anti-phase in AFEEMD. Furthermore, an index termed relative root-mean-square error is employed for the adaptive selection of the proper upper frequency limit of the added white noises. Simulation test and vibration signals based fault diagnosis of rolling element bearing under different fault types are utilized to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method. The analysis results indicate that the AFEEMD method represents a sound improvement over the original EEMD method, and has strong practicability.
Randomized random walk on a random walk
This paper discusses generalizations of the model introduced by Kehr and Kunter of the random walk of a particle on a one-dimensional chain which in turn has been constructed by a random walk procedure. The superimposed random walk is randomised in time according to the occurrences of a stochastic point process. The probability of finding the particle in a particular position at a certain instant is obtained explicitly in the transform domain. It is found that the asymptotic behaviour for large time of the mean-square displacement of the particle depends critically on the assumed structure of the basic random walk, giving a diffusion-like term for an asymmetric walk or a square root law if the walk is symmetric. Many results are obtained in closed form for the Poisson process case, and these agree with those given previously by Kehr and Kunter. (author)
A fast, accurate and stable optimization algorithm is very important for inverse planning of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), and for implementing dose-adaptive radiotherapy in the future. Conventional numerical search algorithms with positive beam weight constraints generally require numerous iterations and may produce suboptimal dose results due to trapping in local minima regions of the objective function landscape. A direct solution of the inverse problem using conventional quadratic objective functions without positive beam constraints is more efficient but it will result in unrealistic negative beam weights. We review here a direct solution of the inverse problem that is efficient and does not yield unphysical negative beam weights. In fast inverse dose optimization (FIDO) method the objective function for the optimization of a large number of beamlets is reformulated such that the optimization problem is reducible to a linear set of equations. The optimal set of intensities is then found through a matrix inversion, and negative beamlet intensities are avoided without the need for externally imposed ad hoc conditions. In its original version [S. P. Goldman, J. Z. Chen, and J. J. Battista, in Proceedings of the XIVth International Conference on the Use of Computers in Radiation Therapy, 2004, pp. 112-115; S. P. Goldman, J. Z. Chen, and J. J. Battista, Med. Phys. 32, 3007 (2005)], FIDO was tested on single two-dimensional computed tomography (CT) slices with sharp KERMA beams without scatter, in order to establish a proof of concept which demonstrated that FIDO could be a viable method for the optimization of cancer treatment plans. In this paper we introduce the latest advancements in FIDO that now include not only its application to three-dimensional volumes irradiated by beams with full scatter but include as well a complete implementation of clinical dose-volume constraints including maximum and minimum dose as well as equivalent uniform dose
Park, Susanna B; Davare, Marco; Falla, Marika; Kennedy, William R; Selim, Mona M; Wendelschafer-Crabb, Gwen; Koltzenburg, Martin
2016-06-01
Sensory feedback from cutaneous mechanoreceptors in the fingertips is important in effective object manipulation, allowing appropriate scaling of grip and load forces during precision grip. However, the role of mechanoreceptor subtypes in these tasks remains incompletely understood. To address this issue, psychophysical tasks that may specifically assess function of type I fast-adapting (FAI) and slowly adapting (SAI) mechanoreceptors were used with object manipulation experiments to examine the regulation of grip force control in an experimental model of graded reduction in tactile sensitivity (healthy volunteers wearing 2 layers of latex gloves). With gloves, tactile sensitivity decreased significantly from 1.9 ± 0.4 to 12.3 ± 2.2 μm in the Bumps task assessing function of FAI afferents but not in a grating orientation task assessing SAI afferents (1.6 ± 0.1 to 1.8 ± 0.2 mm). Six axis force/torque sensors measured peak grip (PGF) and load (PLF) forces generated by the fingertips during a grip-lift task. With gloves there was a significant increase of PGF (14 ± 6%), PLF (17 ± 5%), and grip and load force rates (26 ± 8%, 20 ± 8%). A variable-weight series task was used to examine sensorimotor memory. There was a 20% increase in PGF when the lift of a light object was preceded by a heavy relative to a light object. This relationship was not significantly altered when lifting with gloves, suggesting that the addition of gloves did not change sensorimotor memory effects. We conclude that FAI fibers may be important for the online force scaling but not for the buildup of a sensorimotor memory. PMID:27052582
Kendon, Viv
2011-01-01
Quantum versions of random walks have diverse applications that are motivating experimental implementations as well as theoretical studies. However, the main impetus behind this interest is their use in quantum algorithms, which have always employed the quantum walk in the form of a program running on a quantum computer. Recent results showing that quantum walks are "universal for quantum computation" relate entirely to algorithms, and do not imply that a physical quantum walk could provide a...
Intra-limb coordination while walking is affected by cognitive load and walking speed.
Ghanavati, Tabassom; Salavati, Mahyar; Karimi, Noureddin; Negahban, Hossein; Ebrahimi Takamjani, Ismail; Mehravar, Mohammad; Hessam, Masumeh
2014-07-18
Knowledge about intra-limb coordination (ILC) during challenging walking conditions provides insight into the adaptability of central nervous system (CNS) for controlling human gait. We assessed the effects of cognitive load and speed on the pattern and variability of the ILC in young people during walking. Thirty healthy young people (19 female and 11 male) participated in this study. They were asked to perform 9 walking trials on a treadmill, including walking at three paces (preferred, slower and faster) either without a cognitive task (single-task walking) or while subtracting 1׳s or 3׳s from a random three-digit number (simple and complex dual-task walking, respectively). Deviation phase (DP) and mean absolute relative phase (MARP) values-indicators of variability and phase dynamic of ILC, respectively-were calculated using the data collected by a motion capture system. We used a two-way repeated measure analysis of variance for statistical analysis. The results showed that cognitive load had a significant main effect on DP of right shank-foot and thigh-shank, left shank-foot and pelvis-thigh (peffect of walking speed was significant on DP of all segments in each side and MARP of both thigh-shank and pelvis-thigh segments (pcognitive load and walking speed was only significant for MARP values of left shank-foot and right pelvis-thigh (pcognitive load and speed could significantly affect the ILC and variability and phase dynamic during walking. PMID:24861632
Mason, Nick
2007-01-01
A generation ago, it was part of growing up for all kids when they biked or walked to school. But in the last 30 years, heavier traffic, wider roads and more dangerous intersections have made it riskier for students walking or pedaling. Today, fewer than 15 percent of kids bike or walk to school compared with more than 50 percent in 1969. In the…
Kendon, Viv [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leeds, LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)
2014-12-04
Quantum versions of random walks have diverse applications that are motivating experimental implementations as well as theoretical studies. Recent results showing quantum walks are “universal for quantum computation” relate to algorithms, to be run on quantum computers. We consider whether an experimental implementation of a quantum walk could provide useful computation before we have a universal quantum computer.
Bargatze, L. F.
2015-12-01
Active Data Archive Product Tracking (ADAPT) is a collection of software routines that permits one to generate XML metadata files to describe and register data products in support of the NASA Heliophysics Virtual Observatory VxO effort. ADAPT is also a philosophy. The ADAPT concept is to use any and all available metadata associated with scientific data to produce XML metadata descriptions in a consistent, uniform, and organized fashion to provide blanket access to the full complement of data stored on a targeted data server. In this poster, we present an application of ADAPT to describe all of the data products that are stored by using the Common Data File (CDF) format served out by the CDAWEB and SPDF data servers hosted at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. These data servers are the primary repositories for NASA Heliophysics data. For this purpose, the ADAPT routines have been used to generate data resource descriptions by using an XML schema named Space Physics Archive, Search, and Extract (SPASE). SPASE is the designated standard for documenting Heliophysics data products, as adopted by the Heliophysics Data and Model Consortium. The set of SPASE XML resource descriptions produced by ADAPT includes high-level descriptions of numerical data products, display data products, or catalogs and also includes low-level "Granule" descriptions. A SPASE Granule is effectively a universal access metadata resource; a Granule associates an individual data file (e.g. a CDF file) with a "parent" high-level data resource description, assigns a resource identifier to the file, and lists the corresponding assess URL(s). The CDAWEB and SPDF file systems were queried to provide the input required by the ADAPT software to create an initial set of SPASE metadata resource descriptions. Then, the CDAWEB and SPDF data repositories were queried subsequently on a nightly basis and the CDF file lists were checked for any changes such as the occurrence of new, modified, or deleted
HIFI-C: a robust and fast method for determining NMR couplings from adaptive 3D to 2D projections
Cornilescu, Gabriel, E-mail: gabrielc@nmrfam.wisc.edu; Bahrami, Arash; Tonelli, Marco; Markley, John L.; Eghbalnia, Hamid R. [University of Wisconsin-Madison, National Magnetic Resonance Facility at Madison (United States)], E-mail: eghbalni@nmrfam.wisc.edu
2007-08-15
We describe a novel method for the robust, rapid, and reliable determination of J couplings in multi-dimensional NMR coupling data, including small couplings from larger proteins. The method, 'High-resolution Iterative Frequency Identification of Couplings' (HIFI-C) is an extension of the adaptive and intelligent data collection approach introduced earlier in HIFI-NMR. HIFI-C collects one or more optimally tilted two-dimensional (2D) planes of a 3D experiment, identifies peaks, and determines couplings with high resolution and precision. The HIFI-C approach, demonstrated here for the 3D quantitative J method, offers vital features that advance the goal of rapid and robust collection of NMR coupling data. (1) Tilted plane residual dipolar couplings (RDC) data are collected adaptively in order to offer an intelligent trade off between data collection time and accuracy. (2) Data from independent planes can provide a statistical measure of reliability for each measured coupling. (3) Fast data collection enables measurements in cases where sample stability is a limiting factor (for example in the presence of an orienting medium required for residual dipolar coupling measurements). (4) For samples that are stable, or in experiments involving relatively stronger couplings, robust data collection enables more reliable determinations of couplings in shorter time, particularly for larger biomolecules. As a proof of principle, we have applied the HIFI-C approach to the 3D quantitative J experiment to determine N-C' RDC values for three proteins ranging from 56 to 159 residues (including a homodimer with 111 residues in each subunit). A number of factors influence the robustness and speed of data collection. These factors include the size of the protein, the experimental set up, and the coupling being measured, among others. To exhibit a lower bound on robustness and the potential for time saving, the measurement of dipolar couplings for the N-C' vector
HIFI-C: a robust and fast method for determining NMR couplings from adaptive 3D to 2D projections.
Cornilescu, Gabriel; Bahrami, Arash; Tonelli, Marco; Markley, John L; Eghbalnia, Hamid R
2007-08-01
We describe a novel method for the robust, rapid, and reliable determination of J couplings in multi-dimensional NMR coupling data, including small couplings from larger proteins. The method, "High-resolution Iterative Frequency Identification of Couplings" (HIFI-C) is an extension of the adaptive and intelligent data collection approach introduced earlier in HIFI-NMR. HIFI-C collects one or more optimally tilted two-dimensional (2D) planes of a 3D experiment, identifies peaks, and determines couplings with high resolution and precision. The HIFI-C approach, demonstrated here for the 3D quantitative J method, offers vital features that advance the goal of rapid and robust collection of NMR coupling data. (1) Tilted plane residual dipolar couplings (RDC) data are collected adaptively in order to offer an intelligent trade off between data collection time and accuracy. (2) Data from independent planes can provide a statistical measure of reliability for each measured coupling. (3) Fast data collection enables measurements in cases where sample stability is a limiting factor (for example in the presence of an orienting medium required for residual dipolar coupling measurements). (4) For samples that are stable, or in experiments involving relatively stronger couplings, robust data collection enables more reliable determinations of couplings in shorter time, particularly for larger biomolecules. As a proof of principle, we have applied the HIFI-C approach to the 3D quantitative J experiment to determine N-C' RDC values for three proteins ranging from 56 to 159 residues (including a homodimer with 111 residues in each subunit). A number of factors influence the robustness and speed of data collection. These factors include the size of the protein, the experimental set up, and the coupling being measured, among others. To exhibit a lower bound on robustness and the potential for time saving, the measurement of dipolar couplings for the N-C' vector represents a realistic
Purpose: Various studies have demonstrated that online adaptive radiotherapy by real-time re-optimization of the treatment plan can improve organs-at-risk (OARs) sparing in the abdominal region. Its clinical implementation, however, requires fast and accurate auto-segmentation of OARs in CT scans acquired just before each treatment fraction. Autosegmentation is particularly challenging in the abdominal region due to the frequently observed large deformations. We present a clinical validation of a new auto-segmentation method that uses fully automated non-rigid registration for propagating abdominal OAR contours from planning to daily treatment CT scans. Methods: OARs were manually contoured by an expert panel to obtain ground truth contours for repeat CT scans (3 per patient) of 10 patients. For the non-rigid alignment, we used a new non-rigid registration method that estimates the deformation field by optimizing local normalized correlation coefficient with smoothness regularization. This field was used to propagate planning contours to repeat CTs. To quantify the performance of the auto-segmentation, we compared the propagated and ground truth contours using two widely used metrics- Dice coefficient (Dc) and Hausdorff distance (Hd). The proposed method was benchmarked against translation and rigid alignment based auto-segmentation. Results: For all organs, the auto-segmentation performed better than the baseline (translation) with an average processing time of 15 s per fraction CT. The overall improvements ranged from 2% (heart) to 32% (pancreas) in Dc, and 27% (heart) to 62% (spinal cord) in Hd. For liver, kidneys, gall bladder, stomach, spinal cord and heart, Dc above 0.85 was achieved. Duodenum and pancreas were the most challenging organs with both showing relatively larger spreads and medians of 0.79 and 2.1 mm for Dc and Hd, respectively. Conclusion: Based on the achieved accuracy and computational time we conclude that the investigated auto
HIFI-C: a robust and fast method for determining NMR couplings from adaptive 3D to 2D projections
We describe a novel method for the robust, rapid, and reliable determination of J couplings in multi-dimensional NMR coupling data, including small couplings from larger proteins. The method, 'High-resolution Iterative Frequency Identification of Couplings' (HIFI-C) is an extension of the adaptive and intelligent data collection approach introduced earlier in HIFI-NMR. HIFI-C collects one or more optimally tilted two-dimensional (2D) planes of a 3D experiment, identifies peaks, and determines couplings with high resolution and precision. The HIFI-C approach, demonstrated here for the 3D quantitative J method, offers vital features that advance the goal of rapid and robust collection of NMR coupling data. (1) Tilted plane residual dipolar couplings (RDC) data are collected adaptively in order to offer an intelligent trade off between data collection time and accuracy. (2) Data from independent planes can provide a statistical measure of reliability for each measured coupling. (3) Fast data collection enables measurements in cases where sample stability is a limiting factor (for example in the presence of an orienting medium required for residual dipolar coupling measurements). (4) For samples that are stable, or in experiments involving relatively stronger couplings, robust data collection enables more reliable determinations of couplings in shorter time, particularly for larger biomolecules. As a proof of principle, we have applied the HIFI-C approach to the 3D quantitative J experiment to determine N-C' RDC values for three proteins ranging from 56 to 159 residues (including a homodimer with 111 residues in each subunit). A number of factors influence the robustness and speed of data collection. These factors include the size of the protein, the experimental set up, and the coupling being measured, among others. To exhibit a lower bound on robustness and the potential for time saving, the measurement of dipolar couplings for the N-C' vector represents a realistic
Gupta, V; Wang, Y; Romero, A; Heijmen, B; Hoogeman, M [Erasmus MC Cancer Institute, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Myronenko, A; Jordan, P [Accuray Incorporated, Sunnyvale, United States. (United States)
2014-06-01
Purpose: Various studies have demonstrated that online adaptive radiotherapy by real-time re-optimization of the treatment plan can improve organs-at-risk (OARs) sparing in the abdominal region. Its clinical implementation, however, requires fast and accurate auto-segmentation of OARs in CT scans acquired just before each treatment fraction. Autosegmentation is particularly challenging in the abdominal region due to the frequently observed large deformations. We present a clinical validation of a new auto-segmentation method that uses fully automated non-rigid registration for propagating abdominal OAR contours from planning to daily treatment CT scans. Methods: OARs were manually contoured by an expert panel to obtain ground truth contours for repeat CT scans (3 per patient) of 10 patients. For the non-rigid alignment, we used a new non-rigid registration method that estimates the deformation field by optimizing local normalized correlation coefficient with smoothness regularization. This field was used to propagate planning contours to repeat CTs. To quantify the performance of the auto-segmentation, we compared the propagated and ground truth contours using two widely used metrics- Dice coefficient (Dc) and Hausdorff distance (Hd). The proposed method was benchmarked against translation and rigid alignment based auto-segmentation. Results: For all organs, the auto-segmentation performed better than the baseline (translation) with an average processing time of 15 s per fraction CT. The overall improvements ranged from 2% (heart) to 32% (pancreas) in Dc, and 27% (heart) to 62% (spinal cord) in Hd. For liver, kidneys, gall bladder, stomach, spinal cord and heart, Dc above 0.85 was achieved. Duodenum and pancreas were the most challenging organs with both showing relatively larger spreads and medians of 0.79 and 2.1 mm for Dc and Hd, respectively. Conclusion: Based on the achieved accuracy and computational time we conclude that the investigated auto
Talk the Walk: Does Socio-Cognitive Resource Reallocation Facilitate the Development of Walking?
Geva, Ronny; Orr, Edna
2016-01-01
Walking is of interest to psychology, robotics, zoology, neuroscience and medicine. Human's ability to walk on two feet is considered to be one of the defining characteristics of hominoid evolution. Evolutionary science propses that it emerged in response to limited environmental resources; yet the processes supporting its emergence are not fully understood. Developmental psychology research suggests that walking elicits cognitive advancements. We postulate that the relationship between cognitive development and walking is a bi-directional one; and further suggest that the initiation of novel capacities, such as walking, is related to internal socio-cognitive resource reallocation. We shed light on these notions by exploring infants' cognitive and socio-communicative outputs prospectively from 6-18 months of age. Structured bi/tri weekly evaluations of symbolic and verbal development were employed in an urban cohort (N = 9) for 12 months, during the transition from crawling to walking. Results show links between preemptive cognitive changes in socio-communicative output, symbolic-cognitive tool-use processes, and the age of emergence of walking. Plots of use rates of lower symbolic play levels before and after emergence of new skills illustrate reductions in use of previously attained key behaviors prior to emergence of higher symbolic play, language and walking. Further, individual differences in age of walking initiation were strongly related to the degree of reductions in complexity of object-use (r = .832, p skills that serve recruitment of external resources [socio-communication bids before speech (r = -.696, p computational approach yielded an even stronger link, underscoring internal resource reallocation as a facilitator of walking initiation (r = .901, p<0.001). These preliminary data suggest that representational capacities, symbolic object use, language and social developments, form an integrated adaptable composite, which possibly enables proactive
Objective: There is substantial debate regarding the appropriate protocol for ventilatory management in fast-track cardiac anesthesia (FTCA). This study was carried out to assess and compare the risks and benefits of respiratory weaning based on adaptive support ventilation (ASV) and synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation (SIMV) after uncomplicated cardiac surgery. Methodology: In a randomized clinical trial, after receiving approval of the Department Research Committee and informed consent from study subjects, 100 patients undergoing elective coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) were enrolled during a 4-month period at a university-based hospital. After surgery and admission to the intensive care unit (ICU), patients were randomized to ASV and SIMV groups. Arterial blood gas (ABG) and hemodynamic variables, respiratory and ventilator characteristics including lung compliance, rapid shallow breathing index (RSBI), tidal volume (TV), respiratory rate (RR), peak inspiratory pressure (P peak), mean airway pressure (p mean), Pao2/FIo2, duration of mechanical ventilation and tracheal intubation, and length of ICU stay were recorded and compared between the two groups. The data were analyzed in 82 patients after considering the exclusion criteria. Results: There were no differences between ASV and SIMV groups in demographics and preoperative characteristics. The duration of tracheal intubation and the length of ICU stay were similar in both groups. There were no statistically and clinically relevant differences between the two groups in ABG, hemodynamic changes, and respiratory and ventilator characteristics during ICU stay. Conclusion: Although ASV may facilitate postoperative respiratory management in FTCA, both ASV and SIMV provide similarly safe and practicable respiratory weaning in the cardiac ICU. The evaluation of potential advantages in patient outcomes and resource utilization of respiratory weaning based on ASV
Eggenberger, Patrick; Wolf, Martin; Schumann, Martina; de Bruin, Eling D.
2016-01-01
Different types of exercise training have the potential to induce structural and functional brain plasticity in the elderly. Thereby, functional brain adaptations were observed during cognitive tasks in functional magnetic resonance imaging studies that correlated with improved cognitive performance. This study aimed to investigate if exercise training induces functional brain plasticity during challenging treadmill walking and elicits associated changes in cognitive executive functions. Forty-two elderly participants were recruited and randomly assigned to either interactive cognitive-motor video game dancing (DANCE) or balance and stretching training (BALANCE). The 8-week intervention included three sessions of 30 min per week and was completed by 33 participants (mean age 74.9 ± 6.9 years). Prefrontal cortex (PFC) activity during preferred and fast walking speed on a treadmill was assessed applying functional near infrared spectroscopy pre- and post-intervention. Additionally, executive functions comprising shifting, inhibition, and working memory were assessed. The results showed that both interventions significantly reduced left and right hemispheric PFC oxygenation during the acceleration of walking (p attention on other processes while walking, which could be relevant to improve mobility and falls prevention in the elderly. This study provides a deeper understanding of the associations between exercise training, brain function during walking, and cognition in older adults. PMID:27148041
WU An-Cai; XU Xin-Jian; WU Zhi-Xi; WANG Ying-Hai
2007-01-01
We investigate the dynamics of random walks on weighted networks. Assuming that the edge weight and the node strength are used as local information by a random walker. Two kinds of walks, weight-dependent walk and strength-dependent walk, are studied. Exact expressions for stationary distribution and average return time are derived and confirmed by computer simulations. The distribution of average return time and the mean-square that a weight-dependent walker can arrive at a new territory more easily than a strength-dependent one.
Tempo and walking speed with music in the urban context.
Franěk, Marek; van Noorden, Leon; Režný, Lukáš
2014-01-01
The study explored the effect of music on the temporal aspects of walking behavior in a real outdoor urban setting. First, spontaneous synchronization between the beat of the music and step tempo was explored. The effect of motivational and non-motivational music (Karageorghis et al., 1999) on the walking speed was also studied. Finally, we investigated whether music can mask the effects of visual aspects of the walking route environment, which involve fluctuation of walking speed as a response to particular environmental settings. In two experiments, we asked participants to walk around an urban route that was 1.8 km in length through various environments in the downtown area of Hradec Králové. In Experiment 1, the participants listened to a musical track consisting of world pop music with a clear beat. In Experiment 2, participants were walking either with motivational music, which had a fast tempo and a strong rhythm, or with non-motivational music, which was slower, nice music, but with no strong implication to movement. Musical beat, as well as the sonic character of the music listened to while walking, influenced walking speed but did not lead to precise synchronization. It was found that many subjects did not spontaneously synchronize with the beat of the music at all, and some subjects synchronized only part of the time. The fast, energetic music increases the speed of the walking tempo, while slower, relaxing music makes the walking tempo slower. Further, it was found that listening to music with headphones while walking can mask the influence of the surrounding environment to some extent. Both motivational music and non-motivational music had a larger effect than the world pop music from Experiment 1. Individual differences in responses to the music listened to while walking that were linked to extraversion and neuroticism were also observed. The findings described here could be useful in rhythmic stimulation for enhancing or recovering the features of
Tempo and walking speed with music in the urban context
Marek eFranek
2014-12-01
Full Text Available The study explored the effect of music on the temporal aspects of walking behavior in a real outdoor urban setting. First, spontaneous synchronization between the beat of the music and step tempo was explored. The effect of motivational and non-motivational music (Karageorghis et al. 1999 on the walking speed was also studied. Finally, we investigated whether music can mask the effects of visual aspects of the walking route environment, which involve fluctuation of walking speed as a response to particular environmental settings. In two experiments, we asked participants to walk around an urban route through various environments in the downtown area of Hradec Králové. In Experiment 1, the participants listened to a musical track consisting of world pop music with a clear beat. In Experiment 2, participants were walking either with motivational music, which had a fast tempo and a strong rhythm, or with non-motivational music, which was slower, nice music, but with no strong implication to movement. Musical beat, as well as the sonic character of the music listened to while walking, influenced walking speed but did not lead to precise synchronization. It was found that many subjects did not spontaneously synchronize with the beat of the music at all, and some subjects synchronized only part of the time. The fast, energetic music increases the speed of the walking tempo, while slower, relaxing music makes the walking tempo slower. Further, it was found that listening to music with headphones while walking can mask the influence of the surrounding environment to some extent. Both motivational music and non-motivational music had a larger effect than the music from Experiment 1. Individual differences in responses to the music listened to while walking that were linked to extraversion and neuroticism were also observed. The findings described here could be useful in rhythmic stimulation for enhancing or recovering the features of movement
Tempo and walking speed with music in the urban context
Franěk, Marek; van Noorden, Leon; Režný, Lukáš
2014-01-01
The study explored the effect of music on the temporal aspects of walking behavior in a real outdoor urban setting. First, spontaneous synchronization between the beat of the music and step tempo was explored. The effect of motivational and non-motivational music (Karageorghis et al., 1999) on the walking speed was also studied. Finally, we investigated whether music can mask the effects of visual aspects of the walking route environment, which involve fluctuation of walking speed as a response to particular environmental settings. In two experiments, we asked participants to walk around an urban route that was 1.8 km in length through various environments in the downtown area of Hradec Králové. In Experiment 1, the participants listened to a musical track consisting of world pop music with a clear beat. In Experiment 2, participants were walking either with motivational music, which had a fast tempo and a strong rhythm, or with non-motivational music, which was slower, nice music, but with no strong implication to movement. Musical beat, as well as the sonic character of the music listened to while walking, influenced walking speed but did not lead to precise synchronization. It was found that many subjects did not spontaneously synchronize with the beat of the music at all, and some subjects synchronized only part of the time. The fast, energetic music increases the speed of the walking tempo, while slower, relaxing music makes the walking tempo slower. Further, it was found that listening to music with headphones while walking can mask the influence of the surrounding environment to some extent. Both motivational music and non-motivational music had a larger effect than the world pop music from Experiment 1. Individual differences in responses to the music listened to while walking that were linked to extraversion and neuroticism were also observed. The findings described here could be useful in rhythmic stimulation for enhancing or recovering the features of
Kinnunen, Sanni; Mänttäri, Satu; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Nieminen, Petteri; Mustonen, Anne-Mari; Saarela, Seppo
2016-02-01
The raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) is a canid with autumnal fattening and passive wintering strategy. We examined the effects of wintertime fasting and seasonality on AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a regulator of metabolism, and its target, acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) on the species. Twelve farmed raccoon dogs (eleven females/one male) were divided into two groups: half were fasted for ten weeks in December-March (winter fasted) and the others were fed ad libitum (winter fed). A third group (autumn fed, eight females) was fed ad libitum and sampled in December. Total AMPK, ACC and their phosphorylated forms (pAMPK, pACC) were measured from hypothalamus, liver, intra-abdominal (iWAT) and subcutaneous white adipose tissues (sWAT). The fasted animals lost 32% and the fed 20% of their body mass. Hypothalamic AMPK expression was lower and pACC levels higher in the winter groups compared to the autumn fed group. Liver pAMPK was lower in the winter fasted group, with consistently decreased ACC and pACC. AMPK and pAMPK were down-regulated in sWAT and iWAT of both winter groups, with a parallel decline in pACC in sWAT. The responses of AMPK and ACC to fasting were dissimilar to the effects observed previously in non-seasonal mammals and hibernators. Differences between the winter fed and autumn fed groups indicate that the functions of AMPK and ACC could be regulated in a season-dependent manner. Furthermore, the distinctive effects of prolonged fasting and seasonal adaptation on AMPK-ACC pathway could contribute to the wintering strategy of the raccoon dog. PMID:26603554
2012-07-31
This podcast is based on the August 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. While more adults are walking, only half get the recommended amount of physical activity. Listen to learn how communities, employers, and individuals may help increase walking. Created: 7/31/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Date Released: 8/7/2012.
Dertien, Edwin
2006-01-01
This paper describes the design and construction of Dribbel, a passivity-based walking robot. Dribbel has been designed and built at the Control Engineering group of the University of Twente. This paper focuses on the practical side: the design approach, construction, electronics, and software design. After a short introduction of dynamic walking, the design process, starting with simulation, is discussed.
Camilleri, Elizabeth; Rohde, Peter P.; Twamley, Jason
2014-01-01
Quantum walks exhibit many unique characteristics compared to classical random walks. In the classical setting, self-avoiding random walks have been studied as a variation on the usual classical random walk. Classical self-avoiding random walks have found numerous applications, most notably in the modeling of protein folding. We consider the analogous problem in the quantum setting. We complement a quantum walk with a memory register that records where the walker has previously resided. The w...
Cavagna, G. A.; Willems, P. A.; Heglund, N. C.
1998-06-01
Sometime in the near future humans may walk in the reduced gravity of Mars. Gravity plays an essential role in walking. On Earth, the body uses gravity to `fall forwards' at each step and then the forward speed is used to restore the initial height in a pendulum-like mechanism. When gravity is reduced, as on the Moon or Mars, the mechanism of walking must change. Here we investigate the mechanics of walking on Mars onboard an aircraft undergoing gravity-reducing flight profiles. The optimal walking speed on Mars will be 3.4 km h-1 (down from 5.5 km h-1 on Earth) and the work done per unit distance to move the centre of mass will be half that on Earth.
Quantum walks on simplicial complexes
Matsue, Kaname; Ogurisu, Osamu; Segawa, Etsuo
2016-05-01
We construct a new type of quantum walks on simplicial complexes as a natural extension of the well-known Szegedy walk on graphs. One can numerically observe that our proposing quantum walks possess linear spreading and localization as in the case of the Grover walk on lattices. Moreover, our numerical simulation suggests that localization of our quantum walks reflects not only topological but also geometric structures. On the other hand, our proposing quantum walk contains an intrinsic problem concerning exhibition of non-trivial behavior, which is not seen in typical quantum walks such as Grover walks on graphs.
Biomechanical analysis of rollator walking
Alkjaer, T; Larsen, Peter K; Pedersen, Gitte;
2006-01-01
The rollator is a very popular walking aid. However, knowledge about how a rollator affects the walking patterns is limited. Thus, the purpose of the study was to investigate the biomechanical effects of walking with and without a rollator on the walking pattern in healthy subjects.......The rollator is a very popular walking aid. However, knowledge about how a rollator affects the walking patterns is limited. Thus, the purpose of the study was to investigate the biomechanical effects of walking with and without a rollator on the walking pattern in healthy subjects....
Humanoid robot Lola: design and walking control.
Buschmann, Thomas; Lohmeier, Sebastian; Ulbrich, Heinz
2009-01-01
In this paper we present the humanoid robot LOLA, its mechatronic hardware design, simulation and real-time walking control. The goal of the LOLA-project is to build a machine capable of stable, autonomous, fast and human-like walking. LOLA is characterized by a redundant kinematic configuration with 7-DoF legs, an extremely lightweight design, joint actuators with brushless motors and an electronics architecture using decentralized joint control. Special emphasis was put on an improved mass distribution of the legs to achieve good dynamic performance. Trajectory generation and control aim at faster, more flexible and robust walking. Center of mass trajectories are calculated in real-time from footstep locations using quadratic programming and spline collocation methods. Stabilizing control uses hybrid position/force control in task space with an inner joint position control loop. Inertial stabilization is achieved by modifying the contact force trajectories. PMID:19665558
Chow, Brian Y.; Chuong, Amy S.; Klapoetke, Nathan C; Boyden, Edward S.
2011-01-01
The life and operation of cells involve many physiological processes that take place over fast timescales of milliseconds to minutes. Genetically-encoded technologies for driving or suppressing specific fast physiological processes in intact cells, perhaps embedded within intact tissues in living organisms, are critical for the ability to understand how these physiological processes contribute to emergent cellular and organismal functions and behaviors. Such “synthetic physiology” tools are o...
Durhuus, B; Wheater, J; Durhuus, Bergfinnur; Jonsson, Thordur; Wheater, John
2006-01-01
We develop techniques to obtain rigorous bounds on the behaviour of random walks on combs. Using these bounds we calculate exactly the spectral dimension of random combs with infinite teeth at random positions or teeth with random but finite length. We also calculate exactly the spectral dimension of some fixed non-translationally invariant combs. We relate the spectral dimension to the critical exponent of the mass of the two-point function for random walks on random combs, and compute mean displacements as a function of walk duration. We prove that the mean first passage time is generally infinite for combs with anomalous spectral dimension.
Quantum graph walks I: mapping to quantum walks
Higuchi, Yusuke; Konno, Norio; Sato, Iwao; Segawa, Etsuo
2012-01-01
We clarify that coined quantum walk is determined by only the choice of local quantum coins. To do so, we characterize coined quantum walks on graph by disjoint Euler circles with respect to symmetric arcs. In this paper, we introduce a new class of coined quantum walk by a special choice of quantum coins determined by corresponding quantum graph, called quantum graph walk. We show that a stationary state of quantum graph walk describes the eigenfunction of the quantum graph.
Usherwood, James Richard
2005-01-01
Bipedal walking following inverted pendulum mechanics is constrained by two requirements: sufficient kinetic energy for the vault over midstance and sufficient gravity to provide the centripetal acceleration required for the arc of the body about the stance foot. While the acceleration condition identifies a maximum walking speed at a Froude number of 1, empirical observation indicates favoured walk–run transition speeds at a Froude number around 0.5 for birds, humans and humans under manipul...
Eggenberger, Patrick; Wolf, Martin; Schumann, Martina; de Bruin, Eling D
2016-01-01
Different types of exercise training have the potential to induce structural and functional brain plasticity in the elderly. Thereby, functional brain adaptations were observed during cognitive tasks in functional magnetic resonance imaging studies that correlated with improved cognitive performance. This study aimed to investigate if exercise training induces functional brain plasticity during challenging treadmill walking and elicits associated changes in cognitive executive functions. Forty-two elderly participants were recruited and randomly assigned to either interactive cognitive-motor video game dancing (DANCE) or balance and stretching training (BALANCE). The 8-week intervention included three sessions of 30 min per week and was completed by 33 participants (mean age 74.9 ± 6.9 years). Prefrontal cortex (PFC) activity during preferred and fast walking speed on a treadmill was assessed applying functional near infrared spectroscopy pre- and post-intervention. Additionally, executive functions comprising shifting, inhibition, and working memory were assessed. The results showed that both interventions significantly reduced left and right hemispheric PFC oxygenation during the acceleration of walking (p < 0.05 or trend, r = 0.25-0.36), while DANCE showed a larger reduction at the end of the 30-s walking task compared to BALANCE in the left PFC [F (1, 31) = 3.54, p = 0.035, r = 0.32]. These exercise training induced modulations in PFC oxygenation correlated with improved executive functions (p < 0.05 or trend, r = 0.31-0.50). The observed reductions in PFC activity may release cognitive resources to focus attention on other processes while walking, which could be relevant to improve mobility and falls prevention in the elderly. This study provides a deeper understanding of the associations between exercise training, brain function during walking, and cognition in older adults. PMID:27148041
Patrick eEggenberger
2016-04-01
Full Text Available Different types of exercise training have the potential to induce structural and functional brain plasticity in the elderly. Thereby, functional brain adaptations were observed during cognitive tasks in functional magnetic resonance imaging studies that correlated with improved cognitive performance. This study aimed to investigate if exercise training induces functional brain plasticity during challenging treadmill walking and elicits associated changes in cognitive executive functions. Forty-two elderly participants were recruited and randomly assigned to either interactive cognitive-motor video game dancing (DANCE or balance and stretching training (BALANCE. The 8-week intervention included three sessions of 30 minutes per week and was completed by 33 participants (mean age 74.9±6.9 years. Prefrontal cortex (PFC activity during preferred and fast walking speed on a treadmill was assessed applying functional near infrared spectroscopy pre- and post-intervention. Additionally, executive functions comprising shifting, inhibition, and working memory were assessed. The results showed that both interventions significantly reduced left and right hemispheric PFC oxygenation during the acceleration of walking (p < .05 or trend, r = .25 to .36, while DANCE showed a larger reduction at the end of the 30-second walking task compared to BALANCE in the left PFC (F(1, 31 = 3.54, p = .035, r = .32. These exercise training induced modulations in PFC oxygenation correlated with improved executive functions (p < .05 or trend, r = .31 to .50. The observed reductions in PFC activity may release cognitive resources to focus attention on other processes while walking, which could be relevant to improve mobility and falls prevention in the elderly. This study provides a deeper understanding of the associations between exercise training, brain function during walking, and cognition in older adults.
Talk the Walk: Does Socio-Cognitive Resource Reallocation Facilitate the Development of Walking?
Orr, Edna
2016-01-01
preliminary data suggest that representational capacities, symbolic object use, language and social developments, form an integrated adaptable composite, which possibly enables proactive internal resource reallocation, designed to support the emergence of new developmental milestones, such as walking. PMID:27248834
Zoellner Jamie
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Given the documented physical activity disparities that exist among low-income minority communities and the increased focused on socio-ecological approaches to address physical inactivity, efforts aimed at understanding the built environment to support physical activity are needed. This community-based participatory research (CBPR project investigates walking trails perceptions in a high minority southern community and objectively examines walking trails. The primary aim is to explore if perceived and objective audit variables predict meeting recommendations for walking and physical activity, MET/minutes/week of physical activity, and frequency of trail use. Methods A proportional sampling plan was used to survey community residents in this cross-sectional study. Previously validated instruments were pilot tested and appropriately adapted and included the short version of the validated International Physical Activity Questionnaire, trail use, and perceptions of walking trails. Walking trails were assessed using the valid and reliable Path Environmental Audit Tool which assesses four content areas including: design features, amenities, maintenance, and pedestrian safety from traffic. Analyses included Chi-square, one-way ANOVA's, multiple linear regression, and multiple logistic models. Results Numerous (n = 21 high quality walking trails were available. Across trails, there were very few indicators of incivilities and safety features rated relatively high. Among the 372 respondents, trail use significantly predicted meeting recommendations for walking and physical activity, and MET/minutes/week. While controlling for other variables, significant predictors of trail use included proximity to trails, as well as perceptions of walking trail safety, trail amenities, and neighborhood pedestrian safety. Furthermore, while controlling for education, gender, and income; for every one time per week increase in using walking trails
Librado, Pablo; Der Sarkissian, Clio; Ermini, Luca;
2015-01-01
Yakutia, Sakha Republic, in the Siberian Far East, represents one of the coldest places on Earth, with winter record temperatures dropping below −70 °C. Nevertheless, Yakutian horses survive all year round in the open air due to striking phenotypic adaptations, including compact body conformations......, extremely hairy winter coats, and acute seasonal differences in metabolic activities. The evolutionary origins of Yakutian horses and the genetic basis of their adaptations remain, however, contentious. Here, we present the complete genomes of nine present-day Yakutian horses and two ancient specimens...
Stilt walking: how do we learn those first steps?
Akram, Sakineh B; Frank, James S
2009-09-01
This study examined how young healthy adults learn stilt walking. Ten healthy male university students attended two sessions of testing held on two consecutive days. In each session participants performed three blocks of 10 stilt-walking trials. Angular movements of head and trunk and the spatial and temporal gait parameters were recorded. When walking on stilts young adults improved their gait velocity through modifications of step parameters while maintaining trunk movements close to that observed during normal over-ground walking. Participants improved their performance by increasing their step frequency and step length and reducing the double support percentage of the gait cycle. Stilts are often used for drywall installation, painting over-the-head areas and raising workers above the ground without the burden of erecting scaffolding. This research examines the locomotor adaptation as young healthy adults learn the complex motor task of stilt walking; a task that is frequently used in the construction industry. PMID:19606365
Online Joint Trajectory Generation of Human-like Biped Walking
Jong-Wook Kim
2014-02-01
Full Text Available Biped walking has long been studied in the area of gait analysis and robotic locomotion. The goal of this paper is to establish a systematic methodology for human-like natural walking by fusing the measured human joint data and optimal pattern generation techniques based on a full-body humanoid model. To this end, this paper proposes an adaptive two-stage gait pattern by which the step length and walking velocity can be changed with two scaling factors. In addition, to cope with the situations involving passing over a small obstacle, the joint trajectories of the swing foot can be adjusted with a novel concept of differential angle trajectory using a reliable optimization method, viz. particle swarm optimization. The feasibility of the proposed walking scheme is validated by walking experiments with the robot platform DARwIn-OP.
Unitary equivalence of quantum walks
Highlights: • We have found unitary equivalent classes in coined quantum walks. • A single parameter family of coin operators is sufficient to realize all simple one-dimensional quantum walks. • Electric quantum walks are unitarily equivalent to time dependent quantum walks. - Abstract: A simple coined quantum walk in one dimension can be characterized by a SU(2) operator with three parameters which represents the coin toss. However, different such coin toss operators lead to equivalent dynamics of the quantum walker. In this manuscript we present the unitary equivalence classes of quantum walks and show that all the nonequivalent quantum walks can be distinguished by a single parameter. Moreover, we argue that the electric quantum walks are equivalent to quantum walks with time dependent coin toss operator
Mac-Phy Cross-Layer analysis and design of Mimo-Ofdm Wlans based on fast link adaptation
Martorell Lliteras, Gabriel
2013-01-01
The latestWLAN standard, known as IEEE 802.11n, has notably increased the network capacity with respect to its predecessors thanks to the incorporation of the multipleinput multiple-output (MIMO) technology. Nonetheless, the new amendment, as its previous ones, does not specify how crucial configuration mechanisms, most notably the adaptive modulation and coding (AMC) algorithm should be implemented. The AMC process has proved essential to fully exploit the system resources in ...
A fast and efficient algorithm to compute BPX- and overlapping preconditioner for adaptive 3D-FEM
Eibner, Tino
2008-01-01
In this paper we consider the well-known BPX-preconditioner in conjunction with adaptive FEM. We present an algorithm which enables us to compute the preconditioner with optimal complexity by a total of only O(DoF) additional memory. Furthermore, we show how to combine the BPX-preconditioner with an overlapping Additive-Schwarz-preconditioner to obtain a preconditioner for finite element spaces with arbitrary polynomial degree distributions. Numerical examples illustr...
Yuan, Wu-Jie; Zhou, Jian-Fang; Zhou, Changsong
2016-04-01
Microsaccades are very small eye movements during fixation. Experimentally, they have been found to play an important role in visual information processing. However, neural responses induced by microsaccades are not yet well understood and are rarely studied theoretically. Here we propose a network model with a cascading adaptation including both retinal adaptation and short-term depression (STD) at thalamocortical synapses. In the neural network model, we compare the microsaccade-induced neural responses in the presence of STD and those without STD. It is found that the cascading with STD can give rise to faster and sharper responses to microsaccades. Moreover, STD can enhance response effectiveness and sensitivity to microsaccadic spatiotemporal changes, suggesting improved detection of small eye movements (or moving visual objects). We also explore the mechanism of the response properties in the model. Our studies strongly indicate that STD plays an important role in neural responses to microsaccades. Our model considers simultaneously retinal adaptation and STD at thalamocortical synapses in the study of microsaccade-induced neural activity, and may be useful for further investigation of the functional roles of microsaccades in visual information processing.
The lag-phase during diauxic growth is a trade-off between fast adaptation and high growth rate
Chu, Dominique; Barnes, David J.
2016-04-01
Bi-phasic or diauxic growth is often observed when microbes are grown in a chemically defined medium containing two sugars (for example glucose and lactose). Typically, the two growth stages are separated by an often lengthy phase of arrested growth, the so-called lag-phase. Diauxic growth is usually interpreted as an adaptation to maximise population growth in multi-nutrient environments. However, the lag-phase implies a substantial loss of growth during the switch-over. It therefore remains unexplained why the lag-phase is adaptive. Here we show by means of a stochastic simulation model based on the bacterial PTS system that it is not possible to shorten the lag-phase without incurring a permanent growth-penalty. Mechanistically, this is due to the inherent and well established limitations of biological sensors to operate efficiently at a given resource cost. Hence, there is a trade-off between lost growth during the diauxic switch and the long-term growth potential of the cell. Using simulated evolution we predict that the lag-phase will evolve depending on the distribution of conditions experienced during adaptation. In environments where switching is less frequently required, the lag-phase will evolve to be longer whereas, in frequently changing environments, the lag-phase will evolve to be shorter.
Biomechanical conditions of walking
Fan, Y F; Luo, L P; Li, Z Y; Han, S Y; Lv, C S; Zhang, B
2015-01-01
The development of rehabilitation training program for lower limb injury does not usually include gait pattern design. This paper introduced a gait pattern design by using equations (conditions of walking). Following the requirements of reducing force to the injured side to avoid further injury, we developed a lower limb gait pattern to shorten the stride length so as to reduce walking speed, to delay the stance phase of the uninjured side and to reduce step length of the uninjured side. This gait pattern was then verified by the practice of a rehabilitation training of an Achilles tendon rupture patient, whose two-year rehabilitation training (with 24 tests) has proven that this pattern worked as intended. This indicates that rehabilitation training program for lower limb injury can rest on biomechanical conditions of walking based on experimental evidence.
Vestergaard, Maria Quvang Harck; Olesen, Mette; Helmer, Pernille Falborg
2014-01-01
’ of mobility (Jensen 2013:111) such as the urban environment, and the infrastructures. Walking has indeed also a ‘software dimension’ as an embodied performance that trigger the human senses (Jensen 2013) and which is closely related to the habitus and identity of the individual (Halprin 1963). The...... individual perception of ‘walkability’ is based upon a subjective judgement of different physical factors, such as sidewalk width, traffic volumes and building height (Ewing and Handy 2009:67). And iIn order to understand the act of walking it is therefore necessary to create a vocabulary to understand how...... and why the individuals evaluate, interpret and act (Bourdieu 1984), and how this affects their choice to walk. Therefore it could be questioned if whether an assessment of the physical environment is sufficient to identify all the factors that influence the individual perception of ‘walkability’, or...
K. Kadambavanam
2016-07-01
Full Text Available Fast Generalized Fuzzy c-means clustering algorithm (FGFCM and its variants are effective methods for image clustering. Even though the incorporation of local spatial information to the objective function reduces their sensitivity to noise to some extent, they are still lack behind in suppressing the effect of noise and outliers on the edges and tiny areas of input image. This article proposes an algorithm to mitigate the disadvantage of FGFCM and its variants and enhances the performance of clustering. The experiments on the synthetic and real images are presented, to exhibit the improvements in the image clustering due to the proposed algorithm.
Alemayehu, Fikadu Reta; Frenck, Georg; van der Linden, Leon;
2013-01-01
to environmental stress, we conducted a selection experiment over five plant generations (G0–G4) in three scenarios, where atmospheric [CO2] and temperature were increased as single factors and in combination. The treatments represented the expected environmental characteristics in Northern Europe around year 2075...... to environmental change needs to be explored in order to select the most productive genotypes. Presently, it is unknown whether cereal crops like spring barley can adapt to climate stressors over relatively few generations. To evaluate if strong selection pressures could change the performance of barley...
Takashi Uebanso
Full Text Available Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21 has recently emerged as a metabolic hormone involved in regulating glucose and lipid metabolism in mouse, but the regulatory mechanisms and actions of FGF21 in humans remain unclear. Here we have investigated the regulatory mechanisms of the human FGF21 gene at the transcriptional level. A deletion study of the human FGF21 promoter (-1672 to +230 bp revealed two fasting signals, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα and glucagon signals, that independently induced human FGF21 gene transcription in mouse primary hepatocytes. In addition, two feeding signals, glucose and xylitol, also dose-dependently induced human FGF21 gene transcription and mRNA expression in both human HepG2 cells and mouse primary hepatocytes. FGF21 protein expression and secretion were also induced by high glucose stimulation. The human FGF21 promoter (-1672 to +230 bp was found to have a carbohydrate-responsive element at -380 to -366 bp, which is distinct from the PPAR response element (PPRE. Knock-down of the carbohydrate response element binding protein by RNAi diminished glucose-induced human FGF21 transcription. Moreover, we found that a region from -555 to -443 bp of the human FGF21 promoter region exerts an important role in the activation of basic transcription. In conclusion, human FGF21 gene expression is paradoxically and independently regulated by both fasting and feeding signals. These regulatory mechanisms suggest that human FGF21 is increased with nutritional crisis, including starvation and overfeeding.
Clisby, Nathan
2013-01-01
We introduce a self-avoiding walk model for which end-effects are completely eliminated. We enumerate the number of these walks for various lattices in dimensions two and three, and use these enumerations to study the properties of this model. We find that endless self-avoiding walks have the same connective constant as self-avoiding walks, and the same Flory exponent $\
Walking and Sensing Mobile Lives
Bødker, Mads; Meinhardt, Nina Dam
In this position paper, we discuss how mindful walking with people allow us to explore sensory aspects of mobile lives that are typically absent from research. We present an app that aids researchers collect impressions from a walk.......In this position paper, we discuss how mindful walking with people allow us to explore sensory aspects of mobile lives that are typically absent from research. We present an app that aids researchers collect impressions from a walk....
Walking - Sensing - Participation
Bødker, Mads; Meinhardt, Nina Dam; Browning, David
Building on ethnographic research and social theory in the field of ‘mobilities’, this workshop paper suggests that field work based on simply walking with people entails a form of embodied participation that informs technological interventions by creating a space within which to address a wider...
Rasmussen, Mattias Borg
2014-01-01
Steep slopes, white peaks and deep valleys make up the Andes. As phenomenologists of landscape have told us, different people have different landscapes. By moving across the terrain, walking along, we might get a sense of how this has been carved out by the movement of wind and water, tectonics...
Bødker, Mads; Browning, David; Meinhardt, Nina Dam
We suggest that ‘walking’ in ethnographic work sensitizes researchers to a particular means of making sense of place. Following a brief conceptual exposition, we present our research tool iMaCam) that supports capturing and representing activities such as walking....
Frandsen, Mads Toudal
2007-01-01
I report on our construction and analysis of the effective low energy Lagrangian for the Minimal Walking Technicolor (MWT) model. The parameters of the effective Lagrangian are constrained by imposing modified Weinberg sum rules and by imposing a value for the S parameter estimated from the...
Cooper, Colin; Frieze, Alan
The aim of this article is to discuss some of the notions and applications of random walks on finite graphs, especially as they apply to random graphs. In this section we give some basic definitions, in Section 2 we review applications of random walks in computer science, and in Section 3 we focus on walks in random graphs.
Anthony J. Guttmann
2008-09-01
Full Text Available We have produced extended series for prudent self-avoiding walks on the square lattice. These are subsets of self-avoiding walks. We conjecture the exact growth constant and critical exponent for the walks, and show that the (anisotropic generating function is almost certainly not differentiably-finite.
Guttmann, Anthony J.; Dethridge, John C.
2008-01-01
We have produced extended series for prudent self-avoiding walks on the square lattice. These are subsets of self-avoiding walks. We conjecture the exact growth constant and critical exponent for the walks, and show that the (anisotropic) generating function is almost certainly not differentiably-finite.
Ren, Xiang
2012-01-01
Transform Invariant Low-rank Textures (TILT) is a novel and powerful tool that can effectively rectify a rich class of low-rank textures in 3D scenes from 2D images despite significant deformation and corruption. The existing algorithm for solving TILT is based on the alternating direction method (ADM). It suffers from high computational cost and is not theoretically guaranteed to converge to a correct solution. In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm to speed up solving TILT, with guaranteed convergence. Our method is based on the recently proposed linearized alternating direction method with adaptive penalty (LADMAP). To further reduce computation, warm starts are also introduced to initialize the variables better and cut the cost on singular value decomposition. Extensive experimental results on both synthetic and real data demonstrate that this new algorithm works much more efficiently and robustly than the existing algorithm. It could be at least five times faster than the previous method.
基于自适应排列的快速图像加密算法%Fast Image Encryption Algorithm Based on Self-adaptive Permutation
刘梅
2009-01-01
现有自适应图像加密算法可以抵抗已知明文攻击,其单轮加密速度很快,但安全性和整体加密速度较低.基于自适应排列提出一种新的快速图像加密算法,在确保加密操作简单高效的前提下,改变加密前后图像的像素分布.实验结果表明,该算法性能优于其他同类算法.%Existing self-adaptive image encryption algorithm is resistant to known plaintext attacks and with high speed of single round eneryption, but its security and speed of whole round encryption is low. This paper proposes a new fast image encryption algorithm based on self-adaptive permutation. This algorithm insures the simpleness and high efficiency of encryption operation, and changes the pixel distribution of encrypted image compared with that of original image. Experimental results show that this algorithm has better performance than other kindred algorithms.
Highlights: • A novel hybrid method based on decomposition of SCUC into QP and BP problems is proposed. • An adapted binary programming and an enhanced dual neural network model are applied. • The proposed EDNN is exactly convergent to the global optimal solution of QP. • An AC power flow procedure is developed for including contingency/security issues. • It is suited for large-scale systems, providing both accurate and fast solutions. - Abstract: This paper presents a novel hybrid method for solving the security constrained unit commitment (SCUC) problem. The proposed formulation requires much less computation time in comparison with other methods while assuring the accuracy of the results. Furthermore, the framework provided here allows including an accurate description of warmth-dependent startup costs, valve point effects, multiple fuel costs, forbidden zones of operation, and AC load flow bounds. To solve the nonconvex problem, an adapted binary programming method and enhanced dual neural network model are utilized as optimization tools, and a procedure for AC power flow modeling is developed for including contingency/security issues, as new contributions to earlier studies. Unlike classical SCUC methods, the proposed method allows to simultaneously solve the unit commitment problem and comply with the network limits. In addition to conventional test systems, a real-world large-scale power system with 493 units has been used to fully validate the effectiveness of the novel hybrid method proposed
Group velocity of discrete-time quantum walks
We show that certain types of quantum walks can be modeled as waves that propagate in a medium with phase and group velocities that are explicitly calculable. Since the group and phase velocities indicate how fast wave packets can propagate causally, we propose the use of these wave velocities in our definition for the hitting time of quantum walks. Our definition of hitting time has the advantage that it requires neither the specification of a walker's initial condition nor of an arrival probability threshold. We give full details for the case of quantum walks on the Cayley graphs of Abelian groups. This includes the special cases of quantum walks on the line and on hypercubes.
Michel-López, C Y; González-Mendoza, D; Grimaldo-Juarez, O
2013-01-01
The extraction of high-quality genomic DNA from Prosopis spp for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification is complicated, owing to the presence of a high percentage of secondary metabolites that bind to or co-precipitate with nucleic acids. In the present study, we report a modified sodium dodecyl sulfate/phenol protocol that eliminates the use of liquid nitrogen in the maceration process, β-mercaptoethanol in the buffer extraction, and the ethanol precipitation step. The A₂₆₀/A₂₈₀ absorbance ratios of the isolated DNA were approximately 2.0 to 1.9, suggesting that the DNA fraction was pure and can be used for further PCR analysis. The DNA isolated by this protocol is of sufficient quality for molecular applications; this technique could be applied to other organisms that have similar substances that hinder DNA extraction. Finally, this proposal represents an alternative fast, cheap, and effective method for the isolation of genomic DNA from fresh leaves of Prosopis spp, even in low-technology laboratories. PMID:24089098
[Walking abnormalities in children].
Segawa, Masaya
2010-11-01
Walking is a spontaneous movement termed locomotion that is promoted by activation of antigravity muscles by serotonergic (5HT) neurons. Development of antigravity activity follows 3 developmental epochs of the sleep-wake (S-W) cycle and is modulated by particular 5HT neurons in each epoch. Activation of antigravity activities occurs in the first epoch (around the age of 3 to 4 months) as restriction of atonia in rapid eye movement (REM) stage and development of circadian S-W cycle. These activities strengthen in the second epoch, with modulation of day-time sleep and induction of crawling around the age of 8 months and induction of walking by 1 year. Around the age of 1 year 6 months, absence of guarded walking and interlimb cordination is observed along with modulation of day-time sleep to once in the afternoon. Bipedal walking in upright position occurs in the third epoch, with development of a biphasic S-W cycle by the age of 4-5 years. Patients with infantile autism (IA), Rett syndrome (RTT), or Tourette syndrome (TS) show failure in the development of the first, second, or third epoch, respectively. Patients with IA fail to develop interlimb coordination; those with RTT, crawling and walking; and those with TS, walking in upright posture. Basic pathophysiology underlying these condition is failure in restricting atonia in REM stage; this induces dysfunction of the pedunculopontine nucleus and consequently dys- or hypofunction of the dopamine (DA) neurons. DA hypofunction in the developing brain, associated with compensatory upward regulation of the DA receptors causes psychobehavioral disorders in infancy (IA), failure in synaptogenesis in the frontal cortex and functional development of the motor and associate cortexes in late infancy through the basal ganglia (RTT), and failure in functional development of the prefrontal cortex through the basal ganglia (TS). Further, locomotion failure in early childhood causes failure in development of functional
Walking behaviour of healthy elderly: attention should be paid
Schmidt André
2010-10-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have reported an association between executive function (EF and measures of gait, particularly among older adults. This study examined the relationship between specific components of executive functions and the relative dual task costs of gait (DTC in community-dwelling non-demented older adults, aged 65 years and older. Methods Temporal (stride time, stride velocity and spatial (stride length gait characteristics were measured using a GAITRite®-System among 62 healthy community dwelling older adults while walking with and without backward counting (BC at preferred and fast walking speeds. Specific executive functions divided attention, memory and inhibition were assessed using the Test for Attentional Performance (TAP. Other measures included Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE, amount of daily medications taken, educational level and sociodemographic characteristics. Adjusted and unadjusted multivariable linear regression models were developed to assess the relations between variables. Results High relative DTC for stride time, stride velocity and stride length were associated with divided attention at fast walking speed. High relative DTC for stride time was associated with divided attention at preferred walking speed. The association between high DTC of stride length and memory was less robust and only observable at preferred walking speed. None of the gait measures was associated with inhibition. Conclusions Spatial and temporal dual task cost characteristics of gait are especially associated with divided attention in older adults. The results showed that the associated DTC differ by executive function and the nature of the task (preferred versus fast walking. Further research is warranted to determine whether improvement in divided attention translates to better performance on selected complex walking tasks.
Walking Algorithm of Humanoid Robot on Uneven Terrain with Terrain Estimation
Jiang Yi; Qiuguo Zhu; Rong Xiong; Jun Wu
2016-01-01
Humanoid robots are expected to achieve stable walking on uneven terrains. In this paper, a control algorithm for humanoid robots walking on previously unknown terrains with terrain estimation is proposed, which requires only minimum modification to the original walking gait. The swing foot trajectory is redesigned to ensure that the foot lands at the desired horizontal positions under various terrain height. A compliant terrain adaptation method is applied to the landing foot to achieve a fi...
Bionic ankle–foot prosthesis normalizes walking gait for persons with leg amputation
Herr, Hugh M.; Grabowski, Alena M
2011-01-01
Over time, leg prostheses have improved in design, but have been incapable of actively adapting to different walking velocities in a manner comparable to a biological limb. People with a leg amputation using such commercially available passive-elastic prostheses require significantly more metabolic energy to walk at the same velocities, prefer to walk slower and have abnormal biomechanics compared with non-amputees. A bionic prosthesis has been developed that emulates the function of a biolog...
Timm eSchoening
2015-04-01
Full Text Available Marine researchers continue to create large quantities of benthic images e.g. using AUVs (Autonomous Underwater Vehicles. In order to quantify the size of sessile objects in the images, a pixel-to-centimetre ratio is required for each image, often indirectly provided through a geometric laser point (LP pattern, projected onto the seafloor. Manual annotation of these LPs in all images is too time-consuming and thus infeasible for nowadays data volumes. Because of the technical evolution of camera rigs, the LP's geometrical layout and colour features vary for different expeditions and projects. This makes the application of one algorithm, tuned to a strictly defined LP pattern, also ineffective.Here we present the web-tool DELPHI, that efficiently learns the LP layout for one image transect / collection from just a small number of hand labelled LPs and applies this layout model to the rest of the data. The efficiency in adapting to new data allows to compute the LPs and the pixel-to-centimetre ratio fully automatic and with high accuracy. DELPHI is applied to two real-world examples and shows clear improvements regarding reduction of tuning effort for new LP patterns as well as increasing detection performance.
Fractional random walk lattice dynamics
Michelitsch, Thomas; Riascos, Alejandro Perez; Nowakowski, Andrzeij; Nicolleau, Franck
2016-01-01
We analyze time-discrete and continuous `fractional' random walks on undirected regular networks with special focus on cubic periodic lattices in $n=1,2,3,..$ dimensions.The fractional random walk dynamics is governed by a master equation involving {\\it fractional powers of Laplacian matrices $L^{\\frac{\\alpha}{2}}$}where $\\alpha=2$ recovers the normal walk.First we demonstrate thatthe interval $0\\textless{}\\alpha\\leq 2$ is admissible for the fractional random walk. We derive analytical expressions for fractional transition matrix and closely related the average return probabilities. We further obtain thefundamental matrix $Z^{(\\alpha)}$, and the mean relaxation time (Kemeny constant) for the fractional random walk.The representation for the fundamental matrix $Z^{(\\alpha)}$ relates fractional random walks with normal random walks.We show that the fractional transition matrix elements exihibit for large cubic $n$-dimensional lattices a power law decay of an $n$-dimensional infinite spaceRiesz fractional deriva...
Simulation Studies of Bipedal Walking on the Moon and Mars
Yamada, Shin; Ohshima, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Tomofumi; Narukawa, Terumasa; Takahashi, Masaki; Hase, Kimitaka; Liu, Meigen; Mukai, Chiaki
In order to walk upright on the Moon or Mars without falling, a specific walking strategy to account for altered gravitational conditions must be verified. We have therefore been studying changes in the kinematics of walking at different gravitational loads using a body weight suspension system. Our simulation consisted of three gravitational conditions: 1 g (Earth); 1/3 g (Mars); and 1/6 g (the Moon). Surface EMG recordings were taken from the leg muscles of subjects walking on a treadmill. Cadence, stance phase duration, and step length were calculated from the walking velocity and steps. Subsequent experiments revealed that muscle activity and the duration of the double support phase decreased as simulated gravity was reduced. These changes are apparently caused not only by the direct effects of unloading but also by kinematic adaptations to the same. It can be said that humans walk slowly with a shortened stride and elongated stance phase in order to adjust to low gravitational conditions. One major limitation of our study that may have affected walking stability was the fact that the suspension system was fixed to an immovable frame. We have begun further studies using a newer movable body weight suspension system to achieve more realistic simulations.
Böttcher, S
1997-01-01
Aging refers to the property of two-time correlation functions to decay very slowly on (at least) two time scales. This phenomenon has gained recent attention due to experimental observations of the history dependent relaxation behavior in amorphous materials (``Glasses'') which pose a challenge to theorist. Aging signals the breaking of time-translational invariance and the violation of the fluctuation dissipation theorem during the relaxation process. But while the origin of aging in disordered media is profound, and the discussion is clad in the language of a well-developed theory, systems as simple as a random walk near a wall can exhibit aging. Such a simple walk serves well to illustrate the phenomenon and some of the physics behind it.
Fujie, Futaba
2014-01-01
Covering Walks in Graphs is aimed at researchers and graduate students in the graph theory community and provides a comprehensive treatment on measures of two well studied graphical properties, namely Hamiltonicity and traversability in graphs. This text looks into the famous Kӧnigsberg Bridge Problem, the Chinese Postman Problem, the Icosian Game and the Traveling Salesman Problem as well as well-known mathematicians who were involved in these problems. The concepts of different spanning walks with examples and present classical results on Hamiltonian numbers and upper Hamiltonian numbers of graphs are described; in some cases, the authors provide proofs of these results to illustrate the beauty and complexity of this area of research. Two new concepts of traceable numbers of graphs and traceable numbers of vertices of a graph which were inspired by and closely related to Hamiltonian numbers are introduced. Results are illustrated on these two concepts and the relationship between traceable concepts and...
Artificial intelligence is foreseen as the base for new control systems aimed to replace traditional controllers and to assist and eventually advise plant operators. This paper discusses the development of an indirect model reference adaptive control (MRAC) system, using the artificial neural network (ANN) technique, and its implementation to control the outlet steam temperature of a sodium to water evaporator. The ANN technique is applied in the identification and in the control process of the indirect MRAC system. The emphasis is placed on demonstrating the efficacy of the indirect MRAC system in controlling the outlet steam temperature of the evaporator, and on showing the important function covered by the ANN technique. An important characteristic of this control system is that it relays only on some selected input variables and output variables of the evaporator model. These are the variables that can be actually measured or calculated in a real environment. The results obtained applying the indirect MRAC system to control the evaporator model are quite remarkable. The outlet temperature of the steam is almost perfectly kept close to its desired set point, when the evaporator is forced to depart from steady state conditions, either due to the variation of some input variables or due to the alteration of some of its internal parameters. The results also show the importance of the role played by the ANN technique in the overall control action. The connecting weights of the ANN nodes self adjust to follow the modifications which may occur in the characteristic of the evaporator model during a transient. The efficiency and the accuracy of the control action highly depends on the on-line identification process of the ANN, which is responsible for upgrading the connecting weights of the ANN nodes. (J.P.N.)
Neuromechanical Control for Dynamic Bipedal Walking with Reduced Impact Forces
Widenka, Johannes; Xiong, Xiaofeng; Matthias Braun, Jan;
2016-01-01
Human walking emerges from an intricate interaction of nervous and musculoskeletal systems. Inspired by this principle, we integrate neural control and muscle-like mechanisms to achieve neuromechanical control of the biped robot RunBot. As a result, the neuromechanical controller enables RunBot t......Bot to perform more human-like walking and reduce impact force during walking, compared to original neural control. Moreover, it also generates adaptive joint motions of RunBot; thereby allowing it to deal with different terrains......Human walking emerges from an intricate interaction of nervous and musculoskeletal systems. Inspired by this principle, we integrate neural control and muscle-like mechanisms to achieve neuromechanical control of the biped robot RunBot. As a result, the neuromechanical controller enables Run...
Fitness Club
2015-01-01
Four classes of one hour each are held on Tuesdays. RDV barracks parking at Entrance A, 10 minutes before class time. Spring Course 2015: 05.05/12.05/19.05/26.05 Prices 40 CHF per session + 10 CHF club membership 5 CHF/hour pole rental Check out our schedule and enroll at: https://espace.cern.ch/club-fitness/Lists/Nordic%20Walking/NewForm.aspx? Hope to see you among us! fitness.club@cern.ch
Banderier, Cyril; Nicodeme, Pierre
2010-01-01
This article tackles the enumeration and asymptotics of directed lattice paths (that are isomorphic to unidimensional paths) of bounded height (walks below one wall, or between two walls, for \\emphany finite set of jumps). Thus, for any lattice paths, we give the generating functions of bridges (``discrete'' Brownian bridges) and reflected bridges (``discrete'' reflected Brownian bridges) of a given height. It is a new success of the ``kernel method'' that the generating functions of such wal...
李艳玲; 张伟; 张金立; 冯娜; 许浩军
2014-01-01
Objective To evaluate the effects of fast walking exercise on the physical activity in elderly patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in glucose metabolism and physical activity indicators. Methods 80 patients with T2DM were randomly divided into two groups:exercise group and the control group, 40 cases in each group. Exercise group performed on 16 weeks of fast walking, before the movement of glucose metabolism and physical activity indicators were compared. Results The experimental group iftness program VO2max before and after exercise, 30s arm lfexion and extension, 2min standing still, chair-reach, grab the back stretch, 6min walk, six test scores were signiifcantly increased (P0.05). 2h postprandial blood glucose (2hPG) decreased significantly (P0.05). Lower extremity muscle strength tests comparing exercise group had ankle flexion and extension muscle strength growth to varying. Conclusion Fast walking exercise training program will help to improve glucose metabolism and activity in patients with T2DM.%目的：探讨快速健步走运动对老年2型糖尿病（T2DM）患者糖代谢及身体活动能力各项指标的影响。方法将T2DM患者80例随机分为运动组及对照组，每组40例。对运动组患者进行为期16周的快速健步走运动训练，将运动前后糖代谢及身体活动能力各项指标进行对比。结果运动组运动前后体适能项目VO2max 、2 min原地踏步、6 min行走、30 s臂屈伸运动、抓背伸展运动、坐椅体前伸运动等6项测试指标比较差异有统计学意义（P0.05）；运动组患者餐后2 h血糖下降明显（P0.05）。下肢肌力测试比较，运动组患者踝关节屈伸肌力量均有不同程度增长。结论快速健步走运动训练方案有利于改善T2DM患者糖代谢及活动能力。
Random walks of a quantum particle on a circle
When the quantum planar rotor is put on a lattice, its dynamics can be approximated by random walks on a circle. This allows for fast and accurate Monto Carlo simulations to determine the topological charge of different configurations of the system and thereby the Θ-dependency of the lowest energy levels
Sugar, Thomas G.; Hollander, Kevin W.; Hitt, Joseph K.
2011-04-01
Developing bionic ankles poses great challenges due to the large moment, power, and energy that are required at the ankle. Researchers have added springs in series with a motor to reduce the peak power and energy requirements of a robotic ankle. We developed a "robotic tendon" that reduces the peak power by altering the required motor speed. By changing the required speed, the spring acts as a "load variable transmission." If a simple motor/gearbox solution is used, one walking step would require 38.8J and a peak motor power of 257 W. Using an optimized robotic tendon, the energy required is 21.2 J and the peak motor power is reduced to 96.6 W. We show that adding a passive spring in parallel with the robotic tendon reduces peak loads but the power and energy increase. Adding a passive spring in series with the robotic tendon reduces the energy requirements. We have built a prosthetic ankle SPARKy, Spring Ankle with Regenerative Kinetics, that allows a user to walk forwards, backwards, ascend and descend stairs, walk up and down slopes as well as jog.
Deuschel, Jean-Dominique; Kösters, Holger
2008-01-01
We derive a quenched invariance principle for random walks in random environments whose transition probabilities are defined in terms of weighted cycles of bounded length. To this end, we adapt the proof for random walks among random conductances by Sidoravicius and Sznitman (Probab. Theory Related Fields 129 (2004) 219--244) to the non-reversible setting.
Kong, Weiwei; Lei, Yang; Zhao, Huaixun
2014-11-01
The issue of visible light and infrared images fusion has been an active topic in both military and civilian areas, and a great many relevant algorithms and techniques have been developed accordingly. This paper addresses a novel adaptive approach to the above two patterns of images fusion problem, employing multi-scale geometry analysis (MGA) of non-subsampled shearlet transform (NSST) and fast non-negative matrix factorization (FNMF) together. Compared with other existing conventional MGA tools, NSST owns not only better feature-capturing capabilities, but also much lower computational complexities. As a modification version of the classic NMF model, FNMF overcomes the local optimum property inherent in NMF to a large extent. Furthermore, use of the FNMF with a less complex structure and much fewer iteration numbers required leads to the enhancement of the overall computational efficiency, which is undoubtedly meaningful and promising in so many real-time applications especially the military and medical technologies. Experimental results indicate that the proposed method is superior to other current popular ones in both aspects of subjective visual and objective performance.
Extendable self-avoiding walks
Grimmett, Geoffrey R.; Holroyd, Alexander E; Peres, Yuval
2013-01-01
The connective constant mu of a graph is the exponential growth rate of the number of n-step self-avoiding walks starting at a given vertex. A self-avoiding walk is said to be forward (respectively, backward) extendable if it may be extended forwards (respectively, backwards) to a singly infinite self-avoiding walk. It is called doubly extendable if it may be extended in both directions simultaneously to a doubly infinite self-avoiding walk. We prove that the connective constants for forward,...
Physical implementation of quantum walks
Manouchehri, Kia
2013-01-01
Given the extensive application of random walks in virtually every science related discipline, we may be at the threshold of yet another problem solving paradigm with the advent of quantum walks. Over the past decade, quantum walks have been explored for their non-intuitive dynamics, which may hold the key to radically new quantum algorithms. This growing interest has been paralleled by a flurry of research into how one can implement quantum walks in laboratories. This book presents numerous proposals as well as actual experiments for such a physical realization, underpinned by a wide range of
Persistence of random walk records
We study records generated by Brownian particles in one dimension. Specifically, we investigate an ordinary random walk and define the record as the maximal position of the walk. We compare the record of an individual random walk with the mean record, obtained as an average over infinitely many realizations. We term the walk ‘superior’ if the record is always above average, and conversely, the walk is said to be ‘inferior’ if the record is always below average. We find that the fraction of superior walks, S, decays algebraically with time, S ∼ t−β, in the limit t → ∞, and that the persistence exponent is nontrivial, β = 0.382 258…. The fraction of inferior walks, I, also decays as a power law, I ∼ t−α, but the persistence exponent is smaller, α = 0.241 608…. Both exponents are roots of transcendental equations involving the parabolic cylinder function. To obtain these theoretical results, we analyze the joint density of superior walks with a given record and position, while for inferior walks it suffices to study the density as a function of position. (paper)
Walking. Sensing. Participation
Bødker, Mads
2014-01-01
This paper uses three meditations to contemplate walking, sensing and participation as three ways with which we can extend the notion of ‘experiential computing’ proposed by Yoo (2010). By using the form of meditations, loosely associated concepts that are part introspective and part ‘causative’, i...... intended to also inform the design of technologies for the future. By emphasizing the senses and the body and their importance to an extended notion of sensory apprenticeship (Pink, 2009), the paper suggests alternative routes to knowing and representation in IS related fieldwork....
Lawler, Gregory F.; Ferreras, José A. Trujillo
2004-01-01
The Brownian loop soup introduced in Lawler and Werner (2004) is a Poissonian realization from a sigma-finite measure on unrooted loops. This measure satisfies both conformal invariance and a restriction property. In this paper, we define a random walk loop soup and show that it converges to the Brownian loop soup. In fact, we give a strong approximation result making use of the strong approximation result of Koml\\'os, Major, and Tusn\\'ady. To make the paper self-contained, we include a proof...
Romanelli, Alejandro
2011-01-01
A thermodynamic theory is developed to describe the behavior of the entanglement between the coin and position degrees of freedom of the quantum walk on the line. This theory shows that, in spite of the unitary evolution, a steady state is established after a Markovian transient stage. This study suggests that if a quantum dynamics is developed in a composite Hilbert space (i.e. the tensor product of several sub-spaces) then the behavior of an operator that only belongs to one of the sub-spaces may camouflage the unitary character of the global evolution.
Woof, M.
2002-09-01
The article reports on the activity in the dragline sector which has been greater in the past 18 months than in previous years. One notable event is the recent order by BNI Coal in the USA of a large walking dragline, the Marion 8200 model from Bucyrus, for removal of overburden at the Center Mine in North Dakota. The Marison draglines have an oval rigid structure which provides an effective load and boom support. The article reports uses of other Bucyrus draglines in Canada and Australia. 2 figs.
Quantum walk search on Johnson graphs
Wong, Thomas G.
2016-05-01
The Johnson graph J(n,k) is defined by n symbols, where vertices are k-element subsets of the symbols, and vertices are adjacent if they differ in exactly one symbol. In particular, J(n,1) is the complete graph K n , and J(n,2) is the strongly regular triangular graph T n , both of which are known to support fast spatial search by continuous-time quantum walk. In this paper, we prove that J(n,3), which is the n-tetrahedral graph, also supports fast search. In the process, we show that a change of basis is needed for degenerate perturbation theory to accurately describe the dynamics. This method can also be applied to general Johnson graphs J(n,k) with fixed k.
Kotaro Mikawa
2011-12-01
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to develop a standardized and externally paced field test (15-m Incremental Shuttle Walk and Run Test [15mISWRT], incorporating an incremental and progressive structure, to assess aerobic fitness in middle-aged adults. 68 middle-aged men performed three tests in random order between one to two week intervals: 15-m ISWRT, cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPX, and 1500-m fast walk. Variables evaluated were 15-m ISWRT performance (distance completed, VO2max measured by CPX, 1500-m fast walk performance (walking time, and HR response in 15-m ISWRT and 1500-m fast walk. Validity of the 15-m ISWRT was tested by comparing the associations among the 15-m ISWRT performance, VO2max and the 1500-m fast walk performance. Changes in HR response during the 15-m ISWRT and the 1500-m fast walk were also compared. Correlations between each variable were as follows: the correlation between 15- m ISWRT performance and VO2max was very high, r = 0.86 (p < 0.01, the correlation between the 1500-m fast walk and VO2max was r = ?0.51 (p < 0.01. HR response during the 15-m ISWRT gently increased initially, whereas HR response during the 1500-m fast walk rapidly increased from the start. In conclusion, our findings indicate that the 15-m ISWRT is valid and safe for evaluating VO2max in middle-aged adults.
Biped walking robot based on a 2-UPU+2-UU parallel mechanism
Miao, Zhihuai; Yao, Yan'an; Kong, Xianwen
2014-03-01
Existing biped robots mainly fall into two categories: robots with left and right feet and robots with upper and lower feet. The load carrying capability of a biped robot is quite limited since the two feet of a walking robot supports the robot alternatively during walking. To improve the load carrying capability, a novel biped walking robot is proposed based on a 2-UPU+2-UU parallel mechanism. The biped walking robot is composed of two identical platforms(feet) and four limbs, including two UPU(universal-prismatic-universal serial chain) limbs and two UU limbs. To enhance its terrain adaptability like articulated vehicles, the two feet of the biped walking robot are designed as two vehicles in detail. The conditions that the geometric parameters of the feet must satisfy are discussed. The degrees-of-freedom of the mechanism is analyzed by using screw theory. Gait analysis, kinematic analysis and stability analysis of the mechanism are carried out to verify the structural design parameters. The simulation results validate the feasibility of walking on rugged terrain. Experiments with a physical prototype show that the novel biped walking robot can walk stably on smooth terrain. Due to its unique feet design and high stiffness, the biped walking robot may adapt to rugged terrain and is suitable for load-carrying.
The effect of walking speed on muscle function and mechanical energetics
Neptune, Richard R.; Sasaki, Kotaro; Kautz, Steven A.
2007-01-01
Modulating speed over a large range is important in walking, yet understanding how the neuromotor patterns adapt to the changing energetic demands of different speeds is not well understood. The purpose of this study was to identify functional and energetic adaptations in individual muscles in response to walking at faster steady-state speeds using muscle-actuated forward dynamics simulations. The simulation data were invariant with speed as to whether muscles contributed to trunk support, fo...
Clisby, Nathan
2013-06-01
We introduce a self-avoiding walk model for which end-effects are completely eliminated. We enumerate the number of these walks for various lattices in dimensions two and three, and use these enumerations to study the properties of this model. We find that endless self-avoiding walks have the same connective constant as self-avoiding walks, and the same Flory exponent ν. However, there is no power law correction to the exponential number growth for this new model, i.e. the critical exponent γ = 1 exactly in any dimension. In addition, the number growth has no analytic corrections to scaling, and we have convincing numerical evidence to support the conjecture that the amplitude for the number growth is a universal quantity. The technique by which end-effects are eliminated may be generalized to other models of polymers such as interacting self-avoiding walks.
We introduce a self-avoiding walk model for which end-effects are completely eliminated. We enumerate the number of these walks for various lattices in dimensions two and three, and use these enumerations to study the properties of this model. We find that endless self-avoiding walks have the same connective constant as self-avoiding walks, and the same Flory exponent ν. However, there is no power law correction to the exponential number growth for this new model, i.e. the critical exponent γ = 1 exactly in any dimension. In addition, the number growth has no analytic corrections to scaling, and we have convincing numerical evidence to support the conjecture that the amplitude for the number growth is a universal quantity. The technique by which end-effects are eliminated may be generalized to other models of polymers such as interacting self-avoiding walks. (paper)
Quantum walks and search algorithms
Portugal, Renato
2013-01-01
This book addresses an interesting area of quantum computation called quantum walks, which play an important role in building quantum algorithms, in particular search algorithms. Quantum walks are the quantum analogue of classical random walks. It is known that quantum computers have great power for searching unsorted databases. This power extends to many kinds of searches, particularly to the problem of finding a specific location in a spatial layout, which can be modeled by a graph. The goal is to find a specific node knowing that the particle uses the edges to jump from one node to the next. This book is self-contained with main topics that include: Grover's algorithm, describing its geometrical interpretation and evolution by means of the spectral decomposition of the evolution operater Analytical solutions of quantum walks on important graphs like line, cycles, two-dimensional lattices, and hypercubes using Fourier transforms Quantum walks on generic graphs, describing methods to calculate the limiting d...
Elena Grigoryeva
2011-08-01
Full Text Available It is noteworthy that this country develops through two types of events: either through a jubilee or through a catastrophe.It seems that Irkutsk Airport will be built only after the next crash. At least the interest to this problem returns regularly after sad events, and this occurs almost half a century (a jubilee, too! – the Council of Ministers decided to relocate the Airport away from the city as long ago as 1962. The Airport does not relate to the topic of this issue, but an attentive reader understands that it is our Carthage, and that the Airport should be relocated. The Romans coped with it faster and more effectively.Back to Irkutsk’s jubilee, we should say that we will do without blare of trumpets. We will just make an unpretentious walk around the city in its summer 350. Each our route covers new (some of them have been completed by the jubilee and old buildings, some of them real monuments. All these buildings are integrated into public spaces of different quality and age.We will also touch on the problems, for old houses, especially the wooden ones often provoke a greedy developer to demolish or to burn them down. Thus a primitive thrift estimates an output of additional square meters. Not to mention how attractive it is to seize public spaces without demolition or without reallocation of the dwellers. Or, rather, the one who is to preserve, to cherish and to improve such houses for the good of the citizens never speaks about this sensitive issue. So we have to do it.Walking is a no-hurry genre, unlike the preparation for the celebration. Walking around the city you like is a pleasant and cognitive process. It will acquaint the architects with the works of their predecessors and colleagues. We hope that such a walk may be interesting for Irkutsk citizens and visitors, too. Isn’t it interesting to learn “at first hand” the intimate details of the restoration of the Trubetskoys’ estate
2005-01-01
The man who compared himself to a proton ! On 20 May, Gianni Motti went down into the LHC tunnel and walked around the 27 kilometres of the underground ring at an average, unaccelerated pace of 5 kph. This was an artistic rather than an athletic performance, aimed at drawing a parallel between the fantastic speed of the beams produced by the future accelerator and the leisurely stroll of a human. The artist, who hails from Lombardy, was accompanied by cameraman Ivo Zanetti, who filmed the event from start to finish, and physicist Jean-Pierre Merlo. The first part of the film can be seen at the Villa Bernasconi, 8 route du Grand-Lancy, Grand Lancy, until 26 June.
2005-01-01
The man who compared himself to a proton ! On 20 May, Gianni Motti went down into the LHC tunnel and walked around the 27 kilometres of the underground ring at an average, unaccelerated pace of 5 kph. This was an artistic rather than an athletic performance, aimed at drawing a parallel between the fantastic speed of the beams produced by the future accelerator and the leisurely stroll of a human. The artist, who hails from Lombardy, was accompanied by cameraman Ivo Zanetti, who filmed the event from start to finish, and physicist Jean-Pierre Merlo. The first part of the film can be seen at the Villa Bernasconi, 8 route du Grand-Lancy, Grand Lancy, until 26 June.
Choi, Julia Tsok Lam; Bouyer, Laurent J; Nielsen, Jens Bo
2015-01-01
Locomotor patterns are adapted on a trial-and-error basis to account for predictable dynamics. Once a walking pattern is adapted, the new calibration is stored and must be actively de-adapted. Here, we tested the hypothesis that storage of newly acquired ankle adaptation in walking is dependent o...
A bioinspired multi-modal flying and walking robot
With the aim to extend the versatility and adaptability of robots in complex environments, a novel multi-modal flying and walking robot is presented. The robot consists of a flying wing with adaptive morphology that can perform both long distance flight and walking in cluttered environments for local exploration. The robot's design is inspired by the common vampire bat Desmodus rotundus, which can perform aerial and terrestrial locomotion with limited trade-offs. Wings’ adaptive morphology allows the robot to modify the shape of its body in order to increase its efficiency during terrestrial locomotion. Furthermore, aerial and terrestrial capabilities are powered by a single locomotor apparatus, therefore it reduces the total complexity and weight of this multi-modal robot. (paper)
Walking Robot Locomotion System Conception
Ignatova D.
2014-09-01
Full Text Available This work is a brief analysis on the application and perspective of using the walking robots in different areas in practice. The most common characteristics of walking four legs robots are presented here. The specific features of the applied actuators in walking mechanisms are also shown in the article. The experience of Institute of Mechanics - BAS is illustrated in creation of Spiroid and Helicon1 gears and their assembly in actuation of studied robots. Loading on joints reductors of robot legs is modelled, when the geometrical and the walking parameters of the studied robot are preliminary defined. The obtained results are purposed for designing the control of the loading of reductor type Helicon in the legs of the robot, when it is experimentally tested.
Brusa, M.; Perna, M.; Cresci, G.; Schramm, M.; Delvecchio, I.; Lanzuisi, G.; Mainieri, V.; Mignoli, M.; Zamorani, G.; Berta, S.; Bongiorno, A.; Comastri, A.; Fiore, F.; Kakkad, D.; Marconi, A.; Rosario, D.; Contini, T.; Lamareille, F.
2016-04-01
Aims: Outflow winds are invoked in co-evolutionary models to link the growth of SMBH and galaxies through feedback phenomena, and from the analysis of both galaxies and active galactic nuclei (AGN) samples at z ~ 1-3, it is becoming clear that powerful outflows may be very common in AGN hosts. High-resolution and high S/N observations are needed to uncover the physical properties of the wind through kinematics analysis. Methods: We exploited VLT/VIMOS, VLT/SINFONI, and Subaru/IRCS adaptive optics (AO) data to study the kinematics properties on the scale of the host galaxy of XID5395; this galaxy is a luminous, X-ray obscured starburst/quasar (SB-QSO) merging system at z ~ 1.5, detected in the XMM-COSMOS field, associated with an extreme [O II] emitter (with equivalent width, EW, ~200 Å). For the first time, we mapped the kinematics of the [O III] and Hα line complexes and linked them with the [O II] emission at high resolution. The high spatial resolution achieved allowed us to resolve all the components of the SB-QSO system. Results: Our analysis, with a resolution of few kpc, reveals complexities and asymmetries in and around the nucleus of XID5395. The velocity field measured via non-parametric analysis reveals different kinematic components with maximum blueshifted and redshifted velocities up to ≳ 1300 km s-1 that are not spatially coincident with the nuclear core. These extreme values of the observed velocities and spatial location can be explained by the presence of fast moving material. We also spectroscopically confirm the presence of a merging system at the same redshift as the AGN host. Conclusions: We propose that EW as large as >150 Å in X-ray selected AGN may be an efficient criterion to isolate objects associated with the short, transition phase of "feedback" in the AGN-galaxy co-evolutionary path. This co-evolutionary path subsequently evolves into an unobscured QSO, as suggested from the different observational evidence (e.g. merger, compact
Bill Phillips
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Monsters have always enjoyed a significant presence in the human imagination, and religion was instrumental in replacing the physical horror they engendered with that of a moral threat. Zombies, however, are amoral – their motivation purely instinctive and arbitrary, yet they are, perhaps, the most loathed of all contemporary monsters. One explanation for this lies in the theory of the uncanny valley, proposed by robotics engineer Masahiro Mori. According to the theory, we r eserve our greatest fears for those things which seem most human, yet are not – such as dead bodies. Such a reaction is most likely a survival mechanism to protect us from danger and disease – a mechanism even more essential when the dead rise up and walk. From their beginnings zombies have reflected western societies’ greatest fears – be they of revolutionary Haitians, women, or communists. In recent years the rise in the popularity of the zombie in films, books and television series reflects our fears for the planet, the economy, and of death itself.
Bill Phillips
2014-02-01
Full Text Available Monsters have always enjoyed a significant presence in the human imagination, and religion was instrumental in replacing the physical horror they engendered with that of a moral threat. Zombies, however, are amoral – their motivation purely instinctive and arbitrary, yet they are, perhaps, the most loathed of all contemporary monsters. One explanation for this lies in the theory of the uncanny valley, proposed by robotics engineer Masahiro Mori. According to the theory, we reserve our greatest fears for those things which seem most human, yet are not – such as dead bodies. Such a reaction is most likely a survival mechanism to protect us from danger and disease – a mechanism even more essential when the dead rise up and walk. From their beginnings zombies have reflected western societies’ greatest fears – be they of revolutionary Haitians, women, or communists. In recent years the rise in the popularity of the zombie in films, books and television series reflects our fears for the planet, the economy, and of death itself
EMG patterns during assisted walking in the exoskeleton
Francesca Sylos-Labini
2014-06-01
Full Text Available Neuroprosthetic technology and robotic exoskeletons are being developed to facilitate stepping, reduce muscle efforts and promote motor recovery. Nevertheless, the guidance forces of an exoskeleton may influence the sensory inputs, sensorimotor interactions and resulting muscle activity patterns during stepping. The aim of this study was to report the muscle activation patterns in a sample of intact and injured subjects while walking with a robotic exoskeleton and, in particular, to quantify the level of muscle activity during assisted gait. We recorded electromyographic (EMG activity of different leg and arm muscles during overground walking in an exoskeleton in six healthy individuals and four spinal cord injury (SCI participants. In SCI patients, EMG activity of the upper limb muscles was augmented while activation of leg muscles was typically small. Contrary to our expectations, however, in neurologically intact subjects, EMG activity of leg muscles was similar or even larger during exoskeleton-assisted walking compared to normal overground walking. In addition, significant variations in the EMG waveforms were found across different walking conditions. The most variable pattern was observed in the hamstring muscles. Overall, the results are consistent with a non-linear reorganization of the locomotor output when using the robotic stepping devices. The findings may contribute to our understanding of human-machine interactions and adaptation of locomotor activity patterns.
Walking Behavior in Technicolored GUTs
Doff, A.(Universidade Tecnológica Federal do Paraná – UTFPR – DAFIS, Av. Monteiro Lobato Km 04, 84016-210 Ponta Grossa, PR, Brazil)
2009-01-01
There exist two ways to obtain walk behavior: assuming a large number of technifermions in the fundamental representation of the technicolor (TC) gauge group, or a small number of technifermions, assuming that these fermions are in higher-dimensional representations of the TC group. We propose a scheme to obtain the walking behavior based on technicolored GUTs (TGUTs), where elementary scalars with the TC degree of freedom may remain in the theory after the GUT symmetry breaking.
Identifying Emotion from Natural Walking
Cui, Liqing; Li, Shun; Zhang, Wan; Zhang, Zhan; Zhu, Tingshao
2015-01-01
Emotion identification from gait aims to automatically determine persons affective state, it has attracted a great deal of interests and offered immense potential value in action tendency, health care, psychological detection and human-computer(robot) interaction.In this paper, we propose a new method of identifying emotion from natural walking, and analyze the relevance between the traits of walking and affective states. After obtaining the pure acceleration data of wrist and ankle, we set a...
Measuring walking within and outside the neighborhood in Chinese elders: reliability and validity
Cerin Ester
2011-11-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Walking is a preferred, prevalent and recommended activity for aging populations and is influenced by the neighborhood built environment. To study this influence it is necessary to differentiate whether walking occurs within or outside of the neighborhood. The Neighborhood Physical Activity Questionnaire (NPAQ collects information on setting-specific physical activity, including walking, inside and outside one's neighborhood. While the NPAQ has shown to be a reliable measure in adults, its reliability in older adults is unknown. Additionally its validity and the influence of type of neighborhood on reliability and validity have yet to be explored. Methods The NPAQ walking component was adapted for Chinese speaking elders (NWQ-CS. Ninety-six Chinese elders, stratified by social economic status and neighborhood walkability, wore an accelerometer and completed a log of walks for 7 days. Following the collection of valid data the NWQ-CS was interviewer-administered. Fourteen to 20 days (average of 17 days later the NWQ-CS was re-administered. Test-retest reliability and validity of the NWQ-CS were assessed. Results Reliability and validity estimates did not differ with type of neighborhood. NWQ-CS measures of walking showed moderate to excellent reliability. Reliability was generally higher for estimates of weekly frequency than minutes of walking. Total weekly minutes of walking were moderately related to all accelerometry measures. Moderate-to-strong associations were found between the NWQ-CS and log-of-walks variables. The NWQ-CS yielded statistically significantly lower mean values of total walking, weekly minutes of walking for transportation and weekly frequency of walking for transportation outside the neighborhood than the log-of-walks. Conclusions The NWQ-CS showed measurement invariance across types of neighborhoods. It is a valid measure of walking for recreation and frequency of walking for transport. However, it may
Models of Walking Technicolor on the Lattice
Sinclair, D K
2014-01-01
We study QCD with 2 colour-sextet quarks as a walking-Technicolor candidate. As such it provides a description of the Higgs sector of the standard model, in which the Higgs field is replaced by the Goldstone `pions' of this QCD-like theory, and the Higgs itself is the $\\sigma$. Such a theory will need to be extended if it is to also give masses to the quarks and leptons. What we are attempting to determine is whether it is indeed QCD-like and hence walking, or if it has an infrared fixed point making it a conformal field theory. We do this by simulating its lattice version at finite temperature and observing the running of the bare (lattice) coupling at the chiral transition, as the lattice spacing is varied, and comparing this running with that predicted by 2-loop perturbation theory. Our results on lattices with temporal extents ($N_t$) up to 12 indicate that the coupling runs, but not as fast as asymptotic freedom predicts. We discuss our program for studying the zero-temperature phenomenology of this theo...
Decoherence and disorder in quantum walks: From ballistic spread to localization
Schreiber, A; Potoček, V; Gábris, A; Jex, I; Silberhorn, Ch
2011-01-01
We investigate the impact of decoherence and static disorder on the dynamics of quantum particles moving in a periodic lattice. Our experiment relies on the photonic implementation of a one-dimensional quantum walk. The pure quantum evolution is characterized by a ballistic spread of a photon's wave packet along 28 steps. By applying controlled time-dependent operations we simulate three different environmental influences on the system, resulting in a fast ballistic spread, a diffusive classical walk and the first Anderson localization in a discrete quantum walk architecture.
Wilson, Andrew (Inventor); Punnoose, Andrew (Inventor); Strausser, Katherine (Inventor); Parikh, Neil (Inventor)
2011-01-01
A mobile robotic unit features a main body, a plurality of legs for supporting the main body on and moving the main body in forward and reverse directions about a base surface, and a drive assembly. According to an exemplary embodiment each leg includes a respective pivotal hip joint, a pivotal knee joint, and a wheeled foot adapted to roll along the base surface. Also according to an exemplary embodiments the drive assembly includes a motor operatively associated with the hip and knee joints and the wheeled foot for independently driving pivotal movement of the hip joint and the knee joint and rolling motion of the wheeled foot. The hip joint may include a ball-and-socket-type joint interconnecting top portion of the leg to the main body, such that the hip joint is adapted to pivot said leg in a direction transverse to a forward-and-reverse direction.
It's how you get there: Walking down a virtual alley activates premotor and parietal areas
Johanna eWagner
2014-02-01
Full Text Available Voluntary drive is crucial for motor learning, therefore we are interested in the role that motor planning plays in gait movements. In this study we examined the impact of an interactive Virtual Environment (VE feedback task on the EEG patterns during robot assisted walking. We compared walking in the VE modality to two control conditions: walking with a visual attention paradigm, in which visual stimuli were unrelated to the motor task; and walking with mirror feedback, in which participants observed their own movements. Eleven healthy participants were considered. Application of independent component analysis to the EEG revealed three independent component clusters in premotor and parietal areas showing increased activity during walking with the adaptive VE training paradigm compared to the control conditions. During the interactive VE walking task spectral power in frequency ranges 8-12Hz, 15-20Hz and 23-40Hz was significantly (p ≤ 0.05 decreased. This power decrease is interpreted as a correlate of an active cortical area. Furthermore activity in the premotor cortex revealed gait cycle related modulations significantly different (p ≤ 0.05 from baseline in the frequency range 23-40Hz during walking. These modulations were significantly (p ≤ 0.05 reduced depending on gait cycle phases in the interactive VE walking task compared to the control conditions.We demonstrate that premotor and parietal areas show increased activity during walking with the adaptive VE training paradigm, when compared to walking with mirror- and movement unrelated feedback. Previous research has related a premotor-parietal network to motor planning and motor intention. We argue that movement related interactive feedback enhances motor planning and motor intention. We hypothesize that this might improve gait recovery during rehabilitation.
Fukuoka, Y; Kimura, H.
2009-01-01
Numerous quadruped walking and running robots have been developed to date. Each robot walks by means of a crawl, walk, trot or pace gait, or runs by means of a bound and/or gallop gait. However, it is very difficult to design a single robot that can both walk and run because of problems related to mechanisms and control. In response to this, we adapted a biological control method for legged locomotion in order to develop a dog-like quadruped robot we have named ‘Tekken’. Tekken has a control ...
Management system compliance regime equilibrium anthropomorphic walking machine
Ткач, Михайло Мартинович
2014-01-01
The paper provides a solution to the problem of the control system compliance regime equilibrium anthropomorphic walking machine on any solid surface by applying the principle of tracking the movement of the point of the center of mass system and the reaction force supporting surface. Used the concept of a distributed control system with the optimal criterion of balancing and adjusting the current position AKA by solving the inverse kinematics problem using adaptive neuro-fuzzy network foreca...
Exploring Toe Walking in a Bipedal Robot
Smith, James Andrew; Seyfarth, Andre
The design and development of locomotory subsystems such as legs is a key issue in the broader topic of autonomous mobile systems. Simplification of substructures, sensing, actuation and control can aid to better understand the dynamics of legged locomotion and will make the implementation of legs in engineered systems more effective. This paper examines recent results in the development of toe walking on the JenaWalker II robot. The robot is shown, while supported on a treadmill, to be capable of accelerating from 0 to over 0.6 m/s without adjustment of control parameters such as hip actuator sweep frequency or amplitude. The resulting stable motion is due to the adaptability of the passive structures incorporated into the legs. The roles of the individual muscletendon groups are examined and a potential configuration for future heel-toe trials is suggested.
Fast Frontend Electronics for high luminosity particle detectors
Cardinali, M; Bondy, M I Ferretti; Hoek, M; Lauth, W; Rosner, C; Sfienti, C; Thiel, M
2015-01-01
Future experiments of nuclear and particle physics are moving towards the high luminosity regime, in order to access suppressed processes like rare B decays or exotic charmonium resonances. In this scenario, high rate capability is a key requirement for electronics instrumentation, together with excellent timing resolution for precise event reconstruction. The development of dedicated FrontEnd Electronics (FEE) for detectors has become increasingly challenging. A current trend in R&D is towards multipurpose FEE which can be easily adapted to a great variety of detectors, without impairing the required high performance. We report on high-precision timing solutions which utilise high-bandwidth preamplifiers and fast discriminators providing Time-over-Threshold information, which can be used for charge measurements or walk corrections thus improving the obtainable timing resolution. The output signal are LVDS and can be directly fed into a multi-hit TDC readout. The performance of the electronics was investi...
An Improved ZMP-Based CPG Model of Bipedal Robot Walking Searched by SaDE
Yu, H. F.; Fung, E. H. K.; Jing, X. J.
2014-01-01
This paper proposed a method to improve the walking behavior of bipedal robot with adjustable step length. Objectives of this paper are threefold. (1) Genetic Algorithm Optimized Fourier Series Formulation (GAOFSF) is modified to improve its performance. (2) Self-adaptive Differential Evolutionary Algorithm (SaDE) is applied to search feasible walking gait. (3) An efficient method is proposed for adjusting step length based on the modified central pattern generator (CPG) model. The GAOFSF is ...
Simple random walk on the uniform infinite planar quadrangulation: Subdiffusivity via pioneer points
Benjamini, Itai
2012-01-01
We study the pioneer points of the simple random walk on the uniform infinite planar quadrangulation (UIPQ) using an adaptation of the peeling procedure of Angel to the quadrangulation case. Our main result is that, up to polylogarithmic factors, $n^3$ pioneer points have been discovered before the walk exits the ball of radius $n$ in the UIPQ. As a result we verify the KPZ relation in the particular case of the pioneer exponent and prove that the walk is subdiffusive with exponent less than 1/3. Along the way, new geometric controls on the UIPQ are established.
Gray, Morgan; Rodionov, Sergey; Bocquet, Marc; Bertino, Laurent; Ferrari, Marc; Fusco, Thierry
2014-01-01
We propose a new algorithm for an adaptive optics system control law, based on the Linear Quadratic Gaussian approach and a Kalman Filter adaptation with localizations. It allows to handle non-stationary behaviors, to obtain performance close to the optimality defined with the residual phase variance minimization criterion, and to reduce the computational burden with an intrinsically parallel implementation on the Extremely Large Telescopes (ELTs).
Error signals driving locomotor adaptation
Choi, Julia T; Jensen, Peter; Nielsen, Jens Bo; Bouyer, Laurent J
2016-01-01
perturbations. Forces were applied to the ankle joint during the early swing phase using an electrohydraulic ankle-foot orthosis. Repetitive 80 Hz electrical stimulation was applied to disrupt cutaneous feedback from the superficial peroneal nerve (foot dorsum) and medial plantar nerve (foot sole) during...... anaesthesia (n = 5) instead of repetitive nerve stimulation. Foot anaesthesia reduced ankle adaptation to external force perturbations during walking. Our results suggest that cutaneous input plays a role in force perception, and may contribute to the 'error' signal involved in driving walking adaptation when...
Effects of overweight and obesity on walking characteristics in adolescents.
Dufek, Janet S; Currie, Rayland L; Gouws, Philana-Lee; Candela, Lori; Gutierrez, Antonio P; Mercer, John A; Putney, LeAnn G
2012-08-01
Child and adolescent obesity is growing at a staggering rate. Associated potential health risks have been acknowledged in the adult population, and similar concerns have been raised for children and adolescents. However, distinguishing locomotor characteristics related to obesity have yet to be clearly identified for adolescents. The aims of the study were to examine the effects of walking velocity and gender on spatio-temporal characteristics of gait between normal weight (NW) and overweight and obese (OWO) adolescents. In addition, we sought to identify characteristics of gait that are related to body mass index percentile (BMI%). Adolescent students in grades 7-10 (N=111) from a charter school participated in the study. All participants walked at two speeds (preferred, fast) over an instrumented walkway (120 Hz). Spatio-temporal characteristics of gait were extracted from four walkway passes and evaluated. Results identified significant (p<.05) differences in velocity, percent double support, percent swing phase, and stance width between groups. Only stance width was different (p<.05) between genders. Models to predict BMI% from kinematic walking parameters were of moderate strength (averaging 43.5% explained variance) and were generally stronger for females versus males. Percent double support was the primary predictor variable of BMI% across speed and gender. It is suggested that OWO adolescents may be challenged with control of movement of the center of mass during the support phase of walking. PMID:22154217
Minnesota Walk-In Access Sites
Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — The Minnesota Walk-In Access site (WIA) GIS data represents areas of private land that have been made open to the public for the purpose of walk-in (foot travel)...
Dissipative quantum computing with open quantum walks
Sinayskiy, Ilya; Petruccione, Francesco [National Institute for Theoretical Physics and Quantum Research Group, School of Chemistry and Physics, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban (South Africa)
2014-12-04
An open quantum walk approach to the implementation of a dissipative quantum computing scheme is presented. The formalism is demonstrated for the example of an open quantum walk implementation of a 3 qubit quantum circuit consisting of 10 gates.
Efficient quantum walk on a quantum processor
Qiang, Xiaogang; Loke, Thomas; Montanaro, Ashley; Aungskunsiri, Kanin; Zhou, Xiaoqi; O'Brien, Jeremy L.; Wang, Jingbo B.; Jonathan C. F. Matthews
2016-01-01
The random walk formalism is used across a wide range of applications, from modelling share prices to predicting population genetics. Likewise, quantum walks have shown much potential as a framework for developing new quantum algorithms. Here we present explicit efficient quantum circuits for implementing continuous-time quantum walks on the circulant class of graphs. These circuits allow us to sample from the output probability distributions of quantum walks on circulant graphs efficiently. ...
Common muscle synergies for balance and walking
Chvatal, Stacie A.; Ting, Lena H.
2013-01-01
Little is known about the integration of neural mechanisms for balance and locomotion. Muscle synergies have been studied independently in standing balance and walking, but not compared. Here, we hypothesized that reactive balance and walking are mediated by a common set of lower-limb muscle synergies. In humans, we examined muscle activity during multidirectional support-surface perturbations during standing and walking, as well as unperturbed walking at two speeds. We show that most muscle ...
Closed walks for community detection
Yang, Yang; Sun, Peng Gang; Hu, Xia; Li, Zhou Jun
2014-03-01
In this paper, we propose a novel measure that integrates both the concept of closed walks and clustering coefficients to replace the edge betweenness in the well-known divisive hierarchical clustering algorithm, the Girvan and Newman method (GN). The edges with the lowest value are removed iteratively until the network is degenerated into isolated nodes. The experimental results on computer generated networks and real-world networks showed that our method makes a better tradeoff of accuracy and runtime. Based on the analysis of the results, we observe that the nontrivial closed walks of order three and four can be considered as the basic elements in constructing community structures. Meanwhile, we discover that those nontrivial closed walks outperform trivial closed walks in the task of analyzing the structure of networks. The double peak structure problem is mentioned in the last part of the article. We find that our proposed method is a novel way to solve the double peak structure problem. Our work can provide us with a new perspective for understanding community structure in complex networks.
Amaral, M M; Irwin, Klee
2016-01-01
We apply a discrete quantum walk from a quantum particle on a discrete quantum spacetime from loop quantum gravity and show that the related Entanglement Entropy can drive a entropic force. We apply this concepts to propose a model of a walker position topologically encoded on a spin network.
Walking around to grasp interaction
Lykke, Marianne; Jantzen, Christian
2013-01-01
-alongs the research-ers acted as facilitators and partners in the engagement with the sound installa-tions. The study provided good insight into advantages and challenges with the walk-along method, for instance the importance of shared, embodied sensing of space for the understanding of the experience. The common...
Successful Statewide Walking Program Websites
Teran, Bianca Maria; Hongu, Nobuko
2012-01-01
Statewide Extension walking programs are making an effort to increase physical activity levels in America. An investigation of all 20 of these programs revealed that 14 use websites as marketing and educational tools, which could prove useful as the popularity of Internet communities continues to grow. Website usability information and an analysis…
Weir, Phil
1994-01-01
During a walk, an outdoor education teacher reflects on the status of outdoor education in Ottawa (Canada) and importance of maintaining a close relationship with nature. He looks for signs of an old log home site, observes a hawk's flight, discovers remains of a plastic bag in an owl pellet, and realizes that everyone is working on survival. (LP)
Adams, Luise; Weinzierl, Stefan
2016-01-01
A walk on sunset boulevard can teach us about transcendental functions associated to Feynman diagrams. On this guided tour we will see multiple polylogarithms, differential equations and elliptic curves. A highlight of the tour will be the generalisation of the polylogarithms to the elliptic setting and the all-order solution for the sunset integral in the equal mass case.
Numerical studies of planar closed random walks
Lattice numerical simulations for planar closed random walks and their winding sectors are presented. The frontiers of the random walks and of their winding sectors have a Hausdorff dimension dH = 4/3. However, when properly defined by taking into account the inner 0-winding sectors, the frontiers of the random walks have a Hausdorff dimension dH≈1.77
Walking capabilities of Gregor controlled through Walknet
Arena, Paolo; Patané, Luca; Schilling, Malte; Schmitz, Josef
2007-05-01
Locomotion control of legged robots is nowadays a field in continuous evolution. In this work a bio-inspired control architecture based on the stick insect is applied to control the hexapod robot Gregor. The control scheme is an extension of Walknet, a decentralized network inspired by the stick insect, that on the basis of local reflexes generates the control signals needed to coordinate locomotion in hexapod robots. Walknet has been adapted to the specific mechanical structure of Gregor that is characterized by specialized legs and a sprawled posture. In particular an innovative hind leg geometry, inspired by the cockroach, has been considered to improve climbing capabilities. The performances of the new control architecture have been evaluated in dynamic simulation environments. The robot has been endowed with distance and contact sensors for obstacle detection. A heading control is used to avoid large obstacles, and an avoidance reflex, as can be found in stick insects, has been introduced to further improve climbing capabilities of the structure. The reported results, obtained in different environmental configurations, stress the adaptive capabilities of the Walknet approach: Even in unpredictable and cluttered environments the walking behaviour of the simulated robot and the robot prototype, controlled through a FPGA based board, remained stable.
Do functional walk tests reflect cardiorespiratory fitness in sub-acute stroke?
Bayley Mark T
2006-09-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background and purpose The Six-Minute Walk Test (6MWT has been employed as a measure of functional capacity, but its relationship to cardiorespiratory fitness in stroke is not well established. Gait speed measured over short distances is commonly used as an index of walking competency following stroke. We evaluated the relationship between the 6MWT, aerobic fitness (VO2peak and walking competency in sub-acute stroke. Methods Thirty-six individuals (mean age ± SD, 64.6 ± 14.4 years; time post-stroke 16.2 ± 13.3 days were evaluated using the 6MWT (distance, speed, heart rate, a maximal exercise test (VO2peak, heart rate, exercise test duration, and walking competency using a five meter walk (speed, symmetry ratio. Correlation analyses were used to examine the relationships between these outcomes. Results There was a strong correlation between the 6MWT and five meter walk velocity for preferred (r = 0.79 and fast (r = 0.82 speed (p 2peak (r = 0.56, p Conclusion The speed selected during the 6MWT was strongly related to the velocities selected during the five meter walk distance (intermediate to the selected preferred and fast speeds. Although the 6MWT may be challenging to the cardiorespiratory system, it appears to be more strongly influenced by potential limits to walking speed rather than cardiorespiratory capacity. As a result, this test is not, by itself, an adequate measure of aerobic fitness early after stroke.
Neighborhood environment and walking for transport and recreation in Central European older adults
Jana Pelclová
2012-12-01
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Neighborhood environment is an aspect that influences physical activity, mainly walking. Hence, built environment research may help to use environmental and policy strategies to increase physical activity. OBJECTIVE: This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the association between perceived neighborhood environment and meeting the recommendation of at least 30 minutes of walking 5 or more days a week within active transportation and leisure-time domains in Central European older adults. METHODS: Four hundred and fifty six healthy ambulatory older adults filled out the modified and culturally adapted version of the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale (ANEWS for obtaining perceived environment information and the self-administrative long version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ for assessing physical activity levels. RESULTS: Respondents living in high residential density neighborhoods (OR 1.87, living in flats (OR 2.09 and in location with ≤100,000 inhabitants (OR 1.63 were more likely to meet recommendation within walking for transportation. Owning a dog was associated with meeting recommendation within walking for leisure (OR 1.69. CONCLUSIONS: This study supported the specific impact of environment on meeting PA recommendations within transportation and leisure time walking in older adults. Out of all perceived neighborhood environmental attributes received from ANEWS questionnaire, only high residential density was positively associated with meeting recommendation within total walking and walking for transport.
Stepanyan, Ruben; Frolenkov, Gregory I.
2009-01-01
In inner ear hair cells, activation of mechotransduction channels is followed by extremely rapid deactivation that depends on the influx of Ca2+ through these channels. Although the molecular mechanisms of this “fast” adaptation are largely unknown, the predominant models assume Ca2+ sensitivity as an intrinsic property of yet unidentified mechanotransduction channels. Here we examined mechanotransduction in the hair cells of young postnatal shaker 2 mice (Myo15sh2/sh2). These mice have no fu...
Coverage maximization under resource constraints using proliferating random walks
Sudipta Saha; Niloy Ganguly; Abhijit Guria
2015-02-01
Dissemination of information has been one of the prime needs in almost every kind of communication network. The existing algorithms for this service, try to maximize the coverage, i.e., the number of distinct nodes to which a given piece of information could be conveyed under the constraints of time and energy. However, the problem becomes challenging for unstructured and decentralized environments. Due to its simplicity and adaptability, random walk (RW) has been a very useful tool for such environments. Different variants of this technique have been studied. In this paper, we study a history-based non-uniform proliferating random strategy where new walkers are dynamically introduced in the sparse regions of the network. Apart from this, we also study the breadth-first characteristics of the random walk-based algorithms through an appropriately designed metrics.
Strategies of Healthy Adults Walking on a Laterally Oscillating Treadmill
Brady, Rachel A.; Peters, Brian T.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.
2008-01-01
We mounted a treadmill on top of a six degree-of-freedom motion base platform to investigate locomotor responses produced by healthy adults introduced to a dynamic walking surface. The experiment examined self-selected strategies employed by participants when exposed to continuous, sinusoidal lateral motion of the support surface while walking. Torso translation and step width were used to classify responses used to stabilize gait in a novel, dynamic environment. Two response categories emerged. Participants tended to either fix themselves in space (FIS), allowing the treadbelt to move laterally beneath them, or they fixed themselves to the base (FTB), moving laterally as the motion base oscillated. The degree of fixation in both extremes varied across participants. This finding suggests that normal adults have innate and varied preferences for reacquiring gait stability, some depending more heavily on vision (FIS group) and others on proprioception (FTB group). Keywords: Human locomotion, Unstable surface, Treadmill, Adaptation, Stability
Bru, Luis A; Di Molfetta, Giuseppe; Pérez, Armando; Roldán, Eugenio; Silva, Fernando
2016-01-01
We consider the 2D alternate quantum walk on a cylinder. We concentrate on the study of the motion along the open dimension, in the spirit of looking at the closed coordinate as a small or "hidden" extra dimension. If one starts from localized initial conditions on the lattice, the dynamics of the quantum walk that is obtained after tracing out the small dimension shows the contribution of several components, which can be understood from the study of the dispersion relations for this problem. In fact, these components originate from the contribution of the possible values of the quasi-momentum in the closed dimension. In the continuous space-time limit, the different components manifest as a set of Dirac equations, with each quasi-momentum providing the value of the corresponding mass. We briefly discuss the possible link of these ideas to the simulation of high energy physical theories that include extra dimensions.
Stable walking with asymmetric legs
Asymmetric leg function is often an undesired side-effect in artificial legged systems and may reflect functional deficits or variations in the mechanical construction. It can also be found in legged locomotion in humans and animals such as after an accident or in specific gait patterns. So far, it is not clear to what extent differences in the leg function of contralateral limbs can be tolerated during walking or running. Here, we address this issue using a bipedal spring-mass model for simulating walking with compliant legs. With the help of the model, we show that considerable differences between contralateral legs can be tolerated and may even provide advantages to the robustness of the system dynamics. A better understanding of the mechanisms and potential benefits of asymmetric leg operation may help to guide the development of artificial limbs or the design novel therapeutic concepts and rehabilitation strategies.
City Walks and Tactile Experience
Mădălina Diaconu
2011-01-01
Full Text Available This paper is an attempt to develop categories of the pedestrian’s tactile and kinaesthetic experience of the city. The beginning emphasizes the haptic qualities of surfaces and textures, which can be “palpated” visually or experienced by walking. Also the lived city is three-dimensional; its corporeal depth is discussed here in relation to the invisible sewers, protuberant profiles, and the formal diversity of roofscapes. A central role is ascribed in the present analysis to the formal similarities between the representation of the city by walking through it and the representation of the tactile form of objects. Additional aspects of the “tactile” experience of the city in a broad sense concern the feeling of their rhythms and the exposure to weather conditions. Finally, several aspects of contingency converge in the visible age of architectural works, which record traces of individual and collective histories.
Walking Algorithm of Humanoid Robot on Uneven Terrain with Terrain Estimation
Jiang Yi
2016-02-01
Full Text Available Humanoid robots are expected to achieve stable walking on uneven terrains. In this paper, a control algorithm for humanoid robots walking on previously unknown terrains with terrain estimation is proposed, which requires only minimum modification to the original walking gait. The swing foot trajectory is redesigned to ensure that the foot lands at the desired horizontal positions under various terrain height. A compliant terrain adaptation method is applied to the landing foot to achieve a firm contact with the ground. Then a terrain estimation method that takes into account the deformations of the linkages is applied, providing the target for the following correction and adjustment. The algorithm was validated through walking experiments on uneven terrains with the full-size humanoid robot Kong.
Random walk study of electron motion in helium in crossed electromagnetic fields
Englert, G. W.
1972-01-01
Random walk theory, previously adapted to electron motion in the presence of an electric field, is extended to include a transverse magnetic field. In principle, the random walk approach avoids mathematical complexity and concomitant simplifying assumptions and permits determination of energy distributions and transport coefficients within the accuracy of available collisional cross section data. Application is made to a weakly ionized helium gas. Time of relaxation of electron energy distribution, determined by the random walk, is described by simple expressions based on energy exchange between the electron and an effective electric field. The restrictive effect of the magnetic field on electron motion, which increases the required number of collisions per walk to reach a terminal steady state condition, as well as the effect of the magnetic field on electron transport coefficients and mean energy can be quite adequately described by expressions involving only the Hall parameter.
Does walking in nature restore directed attention?
2015-09-01
Full Text Available Aims: Mental fatigue is commonly understood and experienced as mental exhaustion, irritability and foggy thinking. Research indicates mental fatigue is indicative of depleted directed attention resources. Thus, restoration of directed attention is thought to alleviate mental fatigue. This research sought to determine if walking in nature compared to walking on a treadmill provided enhanced performance on tasks of directed attention. Method: Twenty-two participants completed a 30-min walk on a treadmill and a walk in the local Botanic Garden on separate days. Two directed attention tasks (Rapid Visual Information Processing (RVIP and Necker Cube reversal task were conducted both before and after each walk as well as a Perceived Arousal Scale and a Positive and Negative Affect Schedule. Results: Total hits and sensitivity to a target on a RVIP task improved significantly in both locations F(1, 20 = 11.892, p = .003, F(1, 20 = 12.364, p = .002 respectively. However, there was no significant difference between the nature walk and the treadmill walk. Significant order effects were found for sensitivity to targets pre/post walks, F(1, 19 = 10.309, p = .005 and F(1, 19 = 8.578, p = .009 respectively. Necker cube baseline scores indicated a significant reduction in reversals after 30 minutes of walking in both locations. Arousal was higher overall in the nature walk compared to the treadmill walk, F(1, 20 = 11.626, p = .003. Conclusions: No evidence was obtained to suggest that walking in nature leads to improved directed attention compared to walking on a treadmill. Results indicate that improvements were due to significant learning affects. The significantly higher overall score on the arousal scale in the natural environment suggests that participants were more alert in this environment.
Anesa Maolod Omar Al-Najeh
2012-07-01
Full Text Available The packet loss has become an important issue to the research community, which needs to be addressed. In FMIPv6, Packet losses are significantly related to the handover latency and buffer size used for packet buffering. In the case of increased handover latency or decreased buffer size, packet losses will be increased. To solve the problem, we propose an adaptive packet buffering (APT algorithm based on priority of packets and traffic throughput in layer 3 (L3 were the packets are buffered by the predefined rule in the new access point during handover. This algorithm is designed to reduce packet loss in FMIPv6 and high level of throughput and low delay can be achieved through the proposed technique. To achieve a fair comparison with Adaptive Buffer Limit Tuning (ALT algorithm, we have implemented the APT algorithm in Omnet++ along with the FMIPv6 to develop the model and the algorithm. The results of the simulation study show that the proposed algorithm can reduce the packet loss as well as the delay.
Brad Thomas Townsley
2015-05-01
Full Text Available Next Generation Sequencing (NGS is driving rapid advancement in biological understanding and RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq has become an indispensable tool for biology and medicine. There is a growing need for access to these technologies although preparation of NGS libraries remains a bottleneck to wider adoption. Here we report a novel method for the production of strand specific RNA-seq libraries utilizing inherent properties of double-stranded cDNA to capture and incorporate a sequencing adapter. Breath Adapter Directional sequencing (BrAD-seq reduces sample handling and requires far fewer enzymatic steps than most available methods to produce high quality strand-specific RNA-seq libraries. The method we present is optimized for 3-prime Digital Gene Expression (DGE libraries and can easily extend to full transcript coverage shotgun (SHO type strand-specific libraries and is modularized to accommodate a diversity of RNA and DNA input materials. BrAD-seq offers a highly streamlined and inexpensive option for RNA-seq libraries.
Quantum mechanics by walking 1. Foundations
Quantum mechanics by walking introduces to the foundations of non-relativistic quantum mechanics. This book applies to studyings of teaching physics as well as all studyings of physics, who look for an appropriate, easy, fresh, and modern approach to the field. In the present first volume the essential principles of quantum mechanics are worked out. in order to be able to develop their mathematical formulation as fastly and clearly as possible, systematically between wave mechanics and algebraic presentation is changed. Beside themes, which are traditionally in textbooks of quantum mechanics, extensively actual aspects like interaction-free quantum measurement, neutrino oscillations, or quantum cryptography are considered as well as fundamental problems and epistemological questions discussed, as they occur in connection with the measurement process. The list of the postulates of quantum mechanics closes this volume; they form the framework for the extensions and applications, which are discussed in the second volume. The required mathematical aids are introduced step by step. In the appendix the most important mathematical tools are compactly collected, so that supplementing literature can be far reachingly abandoned. Furthermore in the appendix supplementing themes are deepened as for instance the Quantum Zeno effect or delayed-choice experiments.
Factors Influencing Whether Children Walk to School
Su, Jason G.; Jerrett, Michael; McCONNELL, ROB; Berhane, Kiros; Dunton, Genevieve; Shankardass, Ketan; reynolds, Kim; Chang, Roger; Wolch, Jennifer
2013-01-01
Few studies have evaluated multiple levels of influence simultaneously on whether children walk to school. A large cohort of 4,338 subjects from ten communities was used to identify the determinants of walking through (1) a one-level logistic regression model for individual-level variables and (2) a two-level mixed regression model for individual and school-level variables. Walking rates were positively associated with home-to-school proximity, greater age, and living in neighborhoods charact...
Fluctuations of Quantum Random Walks on Circles
Inui, Norio; Konishi, Yoshinao; Konno, Norio; Soshi, Takahiro
2003-01-01
Temporal fluctuations in the Hadamard walk on circles are studied. A temporal standard deviation of probability that a quantum random walker is positive at a given site is introduced to manifest striking differences between quantum and classical random walks. An analytical expression of the temporal standard deviation on a circle with odd sites is shown and its asymptotic behavior is considered for large system size. In contrast with classical random walks, the temporal fluctuation of quantum...
Positive messaging promotes walking in older adults
Notthoff, Nanna; Carstensen, Laura L.
2014-01-01
Walking is among the most cost-effective and accessible means of exercise. Mounting evidence suggests that walking may help to maintain physical and cognitive independence in old age by preventing a variety of health problems. However, older Americans fall far short of meeting the daily recommendations for walking. In two studies, we examined whether considering older adults’ preferential attention to positive information may effectively enhance interventions aimed at promot...
Numerical studies of planar closed random walks
Desbois, Jean; Ouvry, Stephane
2008-01-01
Lattice numerical simulations for planar closed random walks and their winding sectors are presented. The frontiers of the random walks and of their winding sectors have a Hausdorff dimension $d_H=4/3$. However, when properly defined by taking into account the inner 0-winding sectors, the frontiers of the random walks have a Hausdorff dimension $d_H\\approx 1.77$.
Sensitivity Study of Stochastic Walking Load Models
Pedersen, Lars; Frier, Christian
2010-01-01
serviceability limit state is assessed using a walking load model in which the walking parameters are modelled deterministically. However, the walking parameters are stochastic (for instance the weight of the pedestrian is not likely to be the same for every footbridge crossing), and a natural way forward is to...... employ a stochastic load model accounting for mean values and standard deviations for the walking load parameters, and to use this as a basis for estimation of structural response. This, however, requires decisions to be made in terms of statistical istributions and their parameters, and the paper...
Walking in Place Through Virtual Worlds
Nilsson, Niels Chr.; Serafin, Stefania; Nordahl, Rolf
2016-01-01
Immersive virtual reality (IVR) is seemingly on the verge of entering the homes of consumers. Enabling users to walk through virtual worlds in a limited physical space presents a challenge. With an outset in a taxonomy of virtual travel techniques, we argue that Walking-in-Place (WIP) techniques...... constitute a promising approach to virtual walking in relation to consumer IVR. Subsequently we review existing approaches to WIP locomotion and highlight the need for a more explicit focus on the perceived naturalness of WIP techniques; i.e., the degree to which WIP locomotion feels like real walking...
Quantum Walks for Computer Scientists
Venegas-Andraca, Salvador
2008-01-01
Quantum computation, one of the latest joint ventures between physics and the theory of computation, is a scientific field whose main goals include the development of hardware and algorithms based on the quantum mechanical properties of those physical systems used to implement such algorithms. Solving difficult tasks (for example, the Satisfiability Problem and other NP-complete problems) requires the development of sophisticated algorithms, many of which employ stochastic processes as their mathematical basis. Discrete random walks are a popular choice among those stochastic processes. Inspir
Quantum Walks with Encrypted Data
Rohde, Peter P.; Fitzsimons, Joseph F.; Gilchrist, Alexei
2012-10-01
In the setting of networked computation, data security can be a significant concern. Here we consider the problem of allowing a server to remotely manipulate client supplied data, in such a way that both the information obtained by the client about the server’s operation and the information obtained by the server about the client’s data are significantly limited. We present a protocol for achieving such functionality in two closely related models of restricted quantum computation—the boson sampling and quantum walk models. Because of the limited technological requirements of the boson scattering model, small scale implementations of this technique are feasible with present-day technology.
Random Walks Estimate Land Value
Blanchard, Ph
2010-01-01
Expected urban population doubling calls for a compelling theory of the city. Random walks and diffusions defined on spatial city graphs spot hidden areas of geographical isolation in the urban landscape going downhill. First--passage time to a place correlates with assessed value of land in that. The method accounting the average number of random turns at junctions on the way to reach any particular place in the city from various starting points could be used to identify isolated neighborhoods in big cities with a complex web of roads, walkways and public transport systems.
Topology of Minimal Walking Technicolor
We perform a lattice study of the topological susceptibility and instanton size distribution of the SU(2) gauge theory with two adjoint Dirac fermions (also known as Minimal Walking Technicolor), which is known to be in the conformal window. In the theory deformed with a small mass term, by drawing a comparison with the pure gauge theory, we find that topological observables are decoupled from the fermion dynamics. This provides further evidence for the infrared conformality of the theory. A study of the instanton size distribution shows that this quantity can be used to detect the onset of finite size effects. (orig.)
Orbiting pairs of walking droplets
Siefert, Emmanuel; Bush, John W. M.; Oza, Anand
2015-11-01
Droplets may self-propel on the surface of a vibrating fluid bath, pushed forward by their own Faraday pilot-wave field. We present the results of a combined experimental and theoretical investigation of the interaction of pairs of such droplets. Particular attention is given to characterizing the system's dependence on the vibrational forcing of the bath and the impact parameter of the walking droplets. Observed criteria for the capture and stability of orbital pairs are rationalized by accompanying theoretical developments. Thanks to the NSF.
Pointwise upper estimates for transition probability of continuous time random walks on graphs
Chen, Xinxing
2013-01-01
Let $X$ be a continuous time random walk on a weighted graph. Given the on-diagonal upper bounds of transition probabilities at two vertices $x_1$ and $x_2$, we use an adapted metric initiated by Davies, and obtain Gaussian upper estimates for the off-diagonal transition probability $P_{x_1}(X_t=x_2)$.
Roemmich, Ryan T; Hack, Nawaz; Akbar, Umer; Hass, Chris J
2014-07-15
Persons with Parkinson's disease (PD) are characterized by multifactorial gait deficits, though the factors which influence the abilities of persons with PD to adapt and store new gait patterns are unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of dopaminergic therapy on the abilities of persons with PD to adapt and store gait parameters during split-belt treadmill (SBT) walking. Ten participants with idiopathic PD who were being treated with stable doses of orally-administered dopaminergic therapy participated. All participants performed two randomized testing sessions on separate days: once while optimally-medicated (ON meds) and once after 12-h withdrawal from dopaminergic medication (OFF meds). During each session, locomotor adaptation was investigated as the participants walked on a SBT for 10 min while the belts moved at a 2:1 speed ratio. We assessed locomotor adaptive learning by quantifying: (1) aftereffects during de-adaptation (once the belts returned to tied speeds immediately following SBT walking) and (2) savings during re-adaptation (as the participants repeated the same SBT walking task after washout of aftereffects following the initial SBT task). The withholding of dopaminergic medication diminished step length aftereffects significantly during de-adaptation. However, both locomotor adaptation and savings were unaffected by levodopa. These findings suggest that dopaminergic pathways influence aftereffect storage but do not influence locomotor adaptation or savings within a single session of SBT walking. It appears important that persons with PD should be optimally-medicated if walking on the SBT as gait rehabilitation. PMID:24698798
Brusa, M; Cresci, G; Schramm, M; Delvecchio, I; Lanzuisi, G; Mainieri, V; Mignoli, M; Zamorani, G; Berta, S; Bongiorno, A; Comastri, A; Fiore, F; Kakkad, D; Marconi, A; Rosario, D; Contini, T; Lamareille, F
2016-01-01
Outflows are invoked in co-evolutionary models to link the growth of SMBH and galaxies through feedback phenomena, and from the analysis of both galaxies and Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) samples at z$\\sim1-3$, it is becoming clear that powerful winds are quite common in AGN hosts. High-resolution and high S/N observations are needed in order to uncover the physical properties of the wind through kinematics analysis. We exploited VIMOS, SINFONI and Subaru/IRCS Adaptive Optics data to study the kinematics properties on the scale the host galaxy of XID5395, a luminous, X-ray obscured Starburst/Quasar merging system at z$\\sim1.5$ detected in the XMM-COSMOS field, and associated with an extreme [O II] emitter (EW$\\sim200$ \\AA). We mapped, for the first time, at high resolution the kinematics of the [O III] and H$\\alpha$ line complexes and linked them with the [O II] emission. The high spatial resolution achieved allowed us to resolve all the components of the SB-QSO system. Our analysis with a resolution of few kp...
Compensatory load redistribution in walking and trotting dogs with hind limb lameness.
Fischer, S; Anders, A; Nolte, I; Schilling, N
2013-09-01
This study evaluated adaptations in vertical force and temporal gait parameters to hind limb lameness in walking and trotting dogs. Eight clinically normal adult Beagles were allowed to ambulate on an instrumented treadmill at their preferred speed while the ground reaction forces were recorded for all limbs before and after a moderate, reversible, hind limb lameness was induced. At both gaits, vertical force was decreased in the ipsilateral and increased in the contralateral hind limb. While peak force increased in the ipsilateral forelimb, no changes were observed for mean force and impulse when the dogs walked or trotted. In the contralateral forelimb, the peak force was unchanged, but the mean force significantly increased during walking and trotting; vertical impulse increased only during walking. Relative stance duration increased in the ipsilateral hind limb when the dogs trotted. In the contralateral fore and hind limbs, relative stance duration increased during walking and trotting, but decreased in the ipsilateral forelimb during walking. Analysis of load redistribution and temporal gait changes during hind limb lameness showed that compensatory mechanisms were similar regardless of gait. The centre of mass consistently shifted to the contralateral body side and cranio-caudally to the side opposite the affected limb. These biomechanical changes indicate substantial short- and long-term effects of hind limb lameness on the musculoskeletal system. PMID:23683534
On adaptive Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithms
Atchadé, Yves F.; Rosenthal, Jeffrey S.
2005-01-01
We look at adaptive Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithms that generate stochastic processes based on sequences of transition kernels, where each transition kernel is allowed to depend on the history of the process. We show under certain conditions that the stochastic process generated is ergodic, with appropriate stationary distribution. We use this result to analyse an adaptive version of the random walk Metropolis algorithm where the scale parameter σ is sequentially adapted using a Robbins-...
Row Lazzarini, Brandi S; Kataras, Theodore J
2016-05-01
Treadmills are appealing for gait studies, but some gait mechanics are disrupted during treadmill walking. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of speed and treadmill walking on walking smoothness and rhythmicity of 40 men and women between the ages of 70-96 years. Gait smoothness was examined during overground (OG) and treadmill (TM) walking by calculating the harmonic ratio from linear accelerations measured at the level of the lumbar spine. Rhythmicity was quantified as the stride time standard deviation. TM walking was performed at two speeds: a speed matching the natural OG walk speed (TM-OG), and a preferred TM speed (PTM). A dual-task OG condition (OG-DT) was evaluated to determine if TM walking posed a similar cognitive challenge. Statistical analysis included a one-way Analysis of Variance with Bonferroni corrected post hoc comparisons and the Wilcoxon signed rank test for non-normally distributed variables. Average PTM speed was slower than OG. Compared to OG, those who could reach the TM-OG speed (74.3% of sample) exhibited improved ML smoothness and rhythmicity, and the slower PTM caused worsened vertical and AP smoothness, but did not affect rhythmicity. PTM disrupted smoothness and rhythmicity differently than the OG-DT condition, likely due to reduced speed. The use of treadmills for gait smoothness and rhythmicity studies in older adults is problematic; some participants will not achieve OG speed during TM walking, walking at the TM-OG speed artificially improves rhythmicity and ML smoothness, and walking at the slower PTM speed worsens vertical and AP gait smoothness. PMID:27131175
Mikawa, Kotaro; Senjyu, Hideaki
2011-01-01
The purpose of this study was to develop a standardized and externally paced field test (15-m Incremental Shuttle Walk and Run Test [15mISWRT]), incorporating an incremental and progressive structure, to assess aerobic fitness in middle-aged adults. 68 middle-aged men performed three tests in random order between one to two week intervals: 15-m ISWRT, cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPX), and 1500-m fast walk. Variables evaluated were 15-m ISWRT performance (distance completed), VO2max measured by CPX, 1500-m fast walk performance (walking time), and HR response in 15-m ISWRT and 1500-m fast walk. Validity of the 15-m ISWRT was tested by comparing the associations among the 15-m ISWRT performance, VO2max and the 1500-m fast walk performance. Changes in HR response during the 15-m ISWRT and the 1500-m fast walk were also compared. Correlations between each variable were as follows: the correlation between 15- m ISWRT performance and VO2max was very high, r = 0.86 (p middle-aged adults. Key pointsThe 15-m ISWRT is valid and safe for evaluating VO2max in middle-aged adults.In comparison with the 1500-m fast walk, the 15-m ISWRT may be a more favourable field-based assessment of aerobic fitness in the middle-aged adults.The 15-m ISWRT could become a valid means for evaluating aerobic fitness as an alternative to CPX in institutions and situations where CPX is difficult to implement. PMID:24149563
Cellular telephone use during free-living walking significantly reduces average walking speed
Jacob E. Barkley; Lepp, Andrew
2016-01-01
Background Cellular telephone (cell phone) use decreases walking speed in controlled laboratory experiments and there is an inverse relationship between free-living walking speed and heart failure risk. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of cell phone use on walking speed in a free-living environment. Methods Subjects (n = 1142) were randomly observed walking on a 50 m University campus walkway. The time it took each subject to walk 50 m was recorded and subjects were coded i...
Walking on high heels changes muscle activity and the dynamics of human walking significantly
Simonsen, Erik Bruun; Svendsen, Morten B; Nørreslet, Andreas;
2012-01-01
The aim of the study was to investigate the distribution of net joint moments in the lower extremities during walking on high-heeled shoes compared with barefooted walking at identical speed. Fourteen female subjects walked at 4 km/h across three force platforms while they were filmed by five...... joint abductor moment. Several EMG parameters increased significantly when walking on high-heels. The results indicate a large increase in bone-on-bone forces in the knee joint directly caused by the increased knee joint extensor moment during high-heeled walking, which may explain the observed higher...
Luciana Beatriz Abrahan
2011-03-01
Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to analyse the active dispersal of Triatoma infestans and the role of chickens as passive carriers of this insect in peridomestic areas of La Rioja, Argentina. To measure active dispersal, monthly catches were made on six consecutive nights for five months (in the warm season using light traps (for flying insects and sticky dispersal barriers (for walking insects. The nutritional and reproductive states of adults were evaluated. Over the course of the sampling period, a total of eight flying adults, six walking nymphs and 10 walking adults of the species T. infestans were captured, as well as specimens of Triatoma guasayana, Triatoma eratyrusiformis and Triatoma platensis. Our data demonstrate for the first time that females of T. infestans can disperse by walking. This may be an adaptive strategy because it allows them to move with eggs and/or with good blood reserves, which are not possible when flying. All flying and walking individuals of both genders were of an appropriate physiological state that would allow for colonisation of the target habitat. However, manual inspection of 122 chickens suggests that it is unlikely that these animals passively transport T. infestans. Finally, the dispersal activity of T. infestans was compared with other triatomines using a dispersion index.
Transition matrix from a random walk
Schulman, Lawrence S
2016-01-01
Given a random walk a method is presented to produce a matrix of transition probabilities that is consistent with that random walk. The method is tested by using a transition matrix to produce a path and then using that path to create the estimate. The two matrices are then compared.
Rhythmic walking interactions with auditory feedback
Jylhä, Antti; Serafin, Stefania; Erkut, Cumhur
2012-01-01
Walking is a natural rhythmic activity that has become of interest as a means of interacting with software systems such as computer games. Therefore, designing multimodal walking interactions calls for further examination. This exploratory study presents a system capable of different kinds of...
Non-Markovian decoherent quantum walks
Xue Peng; Zhang Yong-Sheng
2013-01-01
Quantum walks act in obviously different ways from their classical counterparts,but decoherence will lessen and close this gap between them.To understand this process,it is necessary to investigate the evolution of quantum walks under different decoherence situations.In this article,we study a non-Markovian decoherent quantum walk on a line.In a short time regime,the behavior of the walk deviates from both ideal quantum walks and classical random walks.The position variance as a measure of the quantum walk collapses and revives for a short time,and tends to have a linear relation with time.That is,the walker's behavior shows a diffusive spread over a long time limit,which is caused by non-Markovian dephasing affecting the quantum correlations between the quantum walker and his coin.We also study both quantum discord and measurement-induced disturbance as measures of the quantum correlations,and observe both collapse and revival in the short time regime,and the tendency to be zero in the long time limit.Therefore,quantum walks with non-Markovian decoherence tend to have diffusive spreading behavior over long time limits,while in the short time regime they oscillate between ballistic and diffusive spreading behavior,and the quantum correlation collapses and revives due to the memory effect.
Walking in circles: a modelling approach.
Maus, Horst-Moritz; Seyfarth, Andre
2014-10-01
Blindfolded or disoriented people have the tendency to walk in circles rather than on a straight line even if they wanted to. Here, we use a minimalistic walking model to examine this phenomenon. The bipedal spring-loaded inverted pendulum exhibits asymptotically stable gaits with centre of mass (CoM) dynamics and ground reaction forces similar to human walking in the sagittal plane. We extend this model into three dimensions, and show that stable walking patterns persist if the leg is aligned with respect to the body (here: CoM velocity) instead of a world reference frame. Further, we demonstrate that asymmetric leg configurations, which are common in humans, will typically lead to walking in circles. The diameter of these circles depends strongly on parameter configuration, but is in line with empirical data from human walkers. Simulation results suggest that walking radius and especially direction of rotation are highly dependent on leg configuration and walking velocity, which explains inconsistent veering behaviour in repeated trials in human data. Finally, we discuss the relation between findings in the model and implications for human walking. PMID:25056215
Exact enumeration of self-avoiding walks
Schram, Raoul D.; Barkema, Gerard T.; Bisseling, Rob H.
2011-01-01
A prototypical problem on which techniques for exact enumeration are tested and compared is the enumeration of self-avoiding walks. Here, we show an advance in the methodology of enumeration, making the process thousands or millions of times faster. This allowed us to enumerate self-avoiding walks on the simple cubic lattice up to a length of 36 steps.
Liberating Lévy walk research from the shackles of optimal foraging
Reynolds, Andy
2015-09-01
There is now compelling evidence that many organisms have movement patterns that can be described as Lévy walks, or Lévy flights. Lévy movement patterns have been identified in cells, microorganisms, molluscs, insects, reptiles, fish, birds and even human hunter-gatherers. Most research into Lévy walks as models of organism movement patterns has been shaped by the 'Lévy flight foraging hypothesis'. This states that, since Lévy walks can optimize search efficiencies, natural selection should lead to adaptations that select for Lévy walk foraging. However, a growing body of research on generative mechanisms suggests that Lévy walks can arise freely as by-products of otherwise innocuous behaviours; consequently their advantageous properties are purely coincidental. This suggests that the Lévy flight foraging hypothesis should be amended, or even replaced, by a simpler and more general hypothesis. This new hypothesis would state that 'Lévy walks emerge spontaneously and naturally from innate behaviours and innocuous responses to the environment but, if advantageous, then there could be selection against losing them'. The new hypothesis has the virtue of making fewer assumptions and being broader than the original hypothesis; it also encompasses the many examples of suboptimal Lévy patterns that challenge the prevailing paradigm. This does not detract from the Lévy flight foraging hypothesis, in fact, it adds to the theory by providing a stronger and more compelling case for the occurrence of Lévy walks. It dispenses with concerns about the theoretical arguments in support of the Lévy flight foraging hypothesis and so may lead to a wider acceptance of Lévy walks as models of movement pattern data. Furthermore, organisms can approximate Lévy walks by adapting intrinsic behaviour in simple ways; this occurs when Lévy movement patterns are advantageous, but come with an associated cost. These new developments represent a major change in perspective and
Eggenberger P
2015-10-01
significant advantage compared to PHYS in DT costs of step time variability at fast walking (P=0.044. Training-specific gait adaptations were found on comparing DANCE and MEMORY: DANCE reduced step time at fast walking (P=0.007 and MEMORY reduced gait variability in DT and DT costs at preferred walking speed (both trend P=0.062. Global linear time effects showed improved gait (P<0.05, functional fitness (P<0.05, and reduced fall frequency (-77%, P<0.001. Only single-task fast walking, gait variability at preferred walking speed, and Short Physical Performance Battery were reduced at follow-up (all P<0.05 or trend.Conclusion: Long-term multicomponent cognitive–physical and exclusive physical training programs demonstrated similar potential to counteract age-related decline in physical functioning. Keywords: elderly, dance video game, gait, falls, functional fitness, detraining, sex
Walking on high heels changes muscle activity and the dynamics of human walking significantly
Simonsen, Erik B; Svendsen, Morten Bo Søndergaard; Nørreslet, Andreas;
2012-01-01
The aim of the study was to investigate the distribution of net joint moments in the lower extremities during walking on high-heeled shoes compared with barefooted walking at identical speed. Fourteen female subjects walked at 4 km/h across three force platforms while they were filmed by five...... digital video cameras operating at 50 frames/second. Both barefooted walking and walking on high-heeled shoes (heel height: 9 cm) were recorded. Net joint moments were calculated by 3D inverse dynamics. EMG was recorded from eight leg muscles. The knee extensor moment peak in the first half of the stance...... joint abductor moment. Several EMG parameters increased significantly when walking on high-heels. The results indicate a large increase in bone-on-bone forces in the knee joint directly caused by the increased knee joint extensor moment during high-heeled walking, which may explain the observed higher...
Walk modularity and community structure in networks
Mehrle, David; Harkin, Anthony
2014-01-01
Modularity maximization has been one of the most widely used approaches in the last decade for discovering community structure in networks of practical interest in biology, computing, social science, statistical mechanics, and more. Modularity is a quality function that measures the difference between the number of edges found within clusters minus the number of edges one would statistically expect to find based on random chance. We present a natural generalization of modularity based on the difference between the actual and expected number of walks within clusters, which we call walk-modularity. Walk-modularity can be expressed in matrix form, and community detection can be performed by finding leading eigenvectors of the walk-modularity matrix. We demonstrate community detection on both synthetic and real-world networks and find that walk-modularity maximization returns significantly improved results compared to traditional modularity maximization.
Efficient quantum walk on a quantum processor.
Qiang, Xiaogang; Loke, Thomas; Montanaro, Ashley; Aungskunsiri, Kanin; Zhou, Xiaoqi; O'Brien, Jeremy L; Wang, Jingbo B; Matthews, Jonathan C F
2016-01-01
The random walk formalism is used across a wide range of applications, from modelling share prices to predicting population genetics. Likewise, quantum walks have shown much potential as a framework for developing new quantum algorithms. Here we present explicit efficient quantum circuits for implementing continuous-time quantum walks on the circulant class of graphs. These circuits allow us to sample from the output probability distributions of quantum walks on circulant graphs efficiently. We also show that solving the same sampling problem for arbitrary circulant quantum circuits is intractable for a classical computer, assuming conjectures from computational complexity theory. This is a new link between continuous-time quantum walks and computational complexity theory and it indicates a family of tasks that could ultimately demonstrate quantum supremacy over classical computers. As a proof of principle, we experimentally implement the proposed quantum circuit on an example circulant graph using a two-qubit photonics quantum processor. PMID:27146471
One dimensional quantum walk with unitary noise
Shapira, D; Bracken, A J; Hackett, M; Shapira, Daniel; Biham, Ofer; Hackett, Michelle
2003-01-01
The effect of unitary noise on the discrete one-dimensional quantum walk is studied using computer simulations. For the noiseless quantum walk, starting at the origin (n=0) at time t=0, the position distribution Pt(n) at time t is very different from the Gaussian distribution obtained for the classical random walk. Furthermore, its standard deviation, sigma(t) scales as sigma(t) ~ t, unlike the classical random walk for which sigma(t) ~ sqrt{t}. It is shown that when the quantum walk is exposed to unitary noise, it exhibits a crossover from quantum behavior for short times to classical-like behavior for long times. The crossover time is found to be T ~ alpha^(-2) where alpha is the standard deviation of the noise.
Locomotor sequence learning in visually guided walking
Choi, Julia T; Jensen, Peter; Nielsen, Jens Bo
2016-01-01
Voluntary limb modifications must be integrated with basic walking patterns during visually guided walking. Here we tested whether voluntary gait modifications can become more automatic with practice. We challenged walking control by presenting visual stepping targets that instructed subjects to...... modify step length from one trial to the next. Our sequence learning paradigm is derived from the serial reaction-time (SRT) task that has been used in upper limb studies. Both random and ordered sequences of step lengths were used to measure sequence-specific and sequence non-specific learning during...... walking. In addition, we determined how age (i.e., healthy young adults vs. children) and biomechanical factors (i.e., walking speed) affected the rate and magnitude of locomotor sequence learning. The results showed that healthy young adults (age 24 ± 5 years, N = 20) could learn a specific sequence of...
Efficient quantum walk on a quantum processor
Qiang, Xiaogang; Loke, Thomas; Montanaro, Ashley; Aungskunsiri, Kanin; Zhou, Xiaoqi; O'Brien, Jeremy L.; Wang, Jingbo B.; Matthews, Jonathan C. F.
2016-05-01
The random walk formalism is used across a wide range of applications, from modelling share prices to predicting population genetics. Likewise, quantum walks have shown much potential as a framework for developing new quantum algorithms. Here we present explicit efficient quantum circuits for implementing continuous-time quantum walks on the circulant class of graphs. These circuits allow us to sample from the output probability distributions of quantum walks on circulant graphs efficiently. We also show that solving the same sampling problem for arbitrary circulant quantum circuits is intractable for a classical computer, assuming conjectures from computational complexity theory. This is a new link between continuous-time quantum walks and computational complexity theory and it indicates a family of tasks that could ultimately demonstrate quantum supremacy over classical computers. As a proof of principle, we experimentally implement the proposed quantum circuit on an example circulant graph using a two-qubit photonics quantum processor.
Quantum walking in curved spacetime
Arrighi, Pablo; Facchini, Stefano; Forets, Marcelo
2016-08-01
A discrete-time quantum walk (QW) is essentially a unitary operator driving the evolution of a single particle on the lattice. Some QWs admit a continuum limit, leading to familiar PDEs (e.g., the Dirac equation). In this paper, we study the continuum limit of a wide class of QWs and show that it leads to an entire class of PDEs, encompassing the Hamiltonian form of the massive Dirac equation in (1+1) curved spacetime. Therefore, a certain QW, which we make explicit, provides us with a unitary discrete toy model of a test particle in curved spacetime, in spite of the fixed background lattice. Mathematically, we have introduced two novel ingredients for taking the continuum limit of a QW, but which apply to any quantum cellular automata: encoding and grouping.
Deterministic Walks in Random Media
Deterministic walks over a random set of N points in one and two dimensions (d=1,2 ) are considered. Points ('cities') are randomly scattered in Rd following a uniform distribution. A walker ('tourist'), at each time step, goes to the nearest neighbor city that has not been visited in the past τ steps. Each initial city leads to a different trajectory composed of a transient part and a final p -cycle attractor. Transient times (for d=1,2 ) follow an exponential law with a τ -dependent decay time but the density of p cycles can be approximately described by D(p)∝p-α (τ) . For τmuchgt1 and τ/Nmuchlt1 , the exponent is independent of τ . Some analytical results are given for the d=1 case
Koo, Seungbum; Rylander, Jonathan H.; Andriacchi, Thomas P.
2011-01-01
The regional adaptation of knee cartilage morphology to the kinematics of walking has been suggested as an important factor in the evaluation of the consequences of alteration in normal gait leading to osteoarthritis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of spatial cartilage thickness distributions of the femur and tibia in the knee to the knee kinematics during walking. Gait data and knee MR images were obtained from 17 healthy volunteers (age 33.2±9.8 years). Cartila...
Yoon Jungwon
2012-08-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Virtual reality (VR technology along with treadmill training (TT can effectively provide goal-oriented practice and promote improved motor learning in patients with neurological disorders. Moreover, the VR + TT scheme may enhance cognitive engagement for more effective gait rehabilitation and greater transfer to over ground walking. For this purpose, we developed an individualized treadmill controller with a novel speed estimation scheme using swing foot velocity, which can enable user-driven treadmill walking (UDW to more closely simulate over ground walking (OGW during treadmill training. OGW involves a cyclic acceleration-deceleration profile of pelvic velocity that contrasts with typical treadmill-driven walking (TDW, which constrains a person to walk at a preset constant speed. In this study, we investigated the effects of the proposed speed adaptation controller by analyzing the gait kinematics of UDW and TDW, which were compared to those of OGW at three pre-determined velocities. Methods Ten healthy subjects were asked to walk in each mode (TDW, UDW, and OGW at three pre-determined speeds (0.5 m/s, 1.0 m/s, and 1.5 m/s with real time feedback provided through visual displays. Temporal-spatial gait data and 3D pelvic kinematics were analyzed and comparisons were made between UDW on a treadmill, TDW, and OGW. Results The observed step length, cadence, and walk ratio defined as the ratio of stride length to cadence were not significantly different between UDW and TDW. Additionally, the average magnitude of pelvic acceleration peak values along the anterior-posterior direction for each step and the associated standard deviations (variability were not significantly different between the two modalities. The differences between OGW and UDW and TDW were mainly in swing time and cadence, as have been reported previously. Also, step lengths between OGW and TDW were different for 0.5 m/s and 1.5 m/s gait velocities
Conformal Invariance Predictions for the Three-Dimensional Self-Avoiding Walk
Kennedy, Tom
2015-03-01
If the three dimensional self-avoiding walk (SAW) is conformally invariant, then one can compute the hitting densities for the SAW in a half-space and in a sphere (Kennedy in Phys Rev Lett 111: 165703, 2013). The ensembles of SAW's used to define these hitting densities involve walks of arbitrary lengths, and so these ensembles cannot be directly studied by the pivot Monte Carlo algorithm for the SAW. We show that these mixed length ensembles should have the same scaling limit as certain weighted ensembles that only involve walks with a single length, thus providing a fast method for simulating these ensembles. Preliminary simulations which found good agreement between the predictions and Monte Carlo simulations for the SAW were reported in Kennedy (Phys Rev Lett 111: 165703, 2013). In this paper we present more accurate simulations testing the predictions and find even stronger support for the prediction that the SAW is conformally invariant in three dimensions.
Blindman-Walking Optimization Method
Chunming Li
2010-12-01
Full Text Available Optimization methods are all implemented with the hypothesis of unknowing the mathematic express of objective objection. Using the human analogy innovative method, the one-dimension blind-walking optimal method is proposed in this paper. The theory and the algorithm of this method includes halving, doubling, reversing probing step and verifying the applicability condition. Double-step is available to make current point moving to the extremum point. Half-step is available to accelerate convergence. In order to improve the optimization, the applicability condition decides whether update current point or not. The operation process, algorithmic flow chart and characteristic analysis of the method were given. Two optimization problems with unimodal or multimodal objective function were solved by the proposed method respectively. The simulation result shows that the proposed method is better than the ordinary method. The proposed method has the merit of rapid convergence, little calculation capacity, wide applicable range, etc. Taking the method as innovative kernel, the random research method, feasible direction method and complex shape method were improved. Taking the innovative content of this paper as innovative kernel, a monograph was published. The other innovations of the monograph are listed, such as applied algorithm of Karush-Kuhn-Tucker (KKT qualifications on judging the restriction extremum point, the design step of computing software, the complementarity and derivation of Powell criterion, the method of keeping the complex shape not to deduce dimension and the analysis of gradual optimization characteristic, the reinforced wall of inner point punish function method, the analysis of problem with constrained monstrosity extremum point, the improvement of Newton method and the validation of optimization idea of blind walking repeatedly, the explanation of later-day optimization method, the conformity of seeking algorithm needing the
Reis Rodrigo S
2010-09-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was analyze associations between the practice of walking and environmental perception among elderly Brazilians in a region of low socioeconomic level. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 385 elderly people aged 60 years and over. To evaluate walking, the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ, long version (leisure and transport modules was used. The environment was evaluated by means of the Neighborhood Environmental Walkability Scale (NEWS (adapted Brazilian version. For the statistical analysis, multiple logistic regression models were created separately for men and women. The practice of at least 150 minutes a week of walking was the dependent variable, and the variables of environmental perception were the independent variables. All the models were controlled for schooling level and age. Results The proportion of elderly people active in walking was 56.9% for the men and 26.4% for the women. The perception of the presence of soccer fields (OR = 4.12 and their proximity, within ten minutes' walk from home (OR = 3.43, were associated with the practice of walking among the men. The perception of the presence of public squares (OR = 4.70 and the proximity of primary healthcare units, within ten minutes' walk from home (OR = 3.71, were associated with the practice of walking among the women. An association with adequate perception of vehicle traffic remained at the threshold of significance for the women. Conclusion Accessibility of leisure structures such as football fields and public squares and of health services such as primary healthcare units were important environmental variables associated with the practice of walking among elderly people living in a region of low socioeconomic level in Brazil. These variables need to be taken into consideration when aiming to promote the practice of walking among elderly people living in similar regions.
Supermodernity, distraction, schizophrenia: walking in Tokyo & Hong Kong.
Ian Ho-Yin Fong
2014-12-01
Full Text Available The architecture in a supermodern city has no sense of the place where it is located. This paper discusses how schizophrenia and distraction, through walking, respond to supermodernity by referring to how three dislocated subjects, Fumiya Takemura, Aiichiro Fukuhara and Fai in Tokyo and Hong Kong, are respectively depicted in the novel, Adrift in Tokyo written by Fujita Yoshinaga in 1999, with a film adaptation by Satoshi Miki (2007, and the film To Live and Die in Mongkok directed by Wong Jing in 2009. It suggests that Hong Kong is more supermodern than Tokyo. After his release from prison, Fai in To Live and Die in Mongkok finds that Mongkok is a completely different place from the one in which he used to live. The living conditions are no better than those in the prison. He hallucinates about the past. Adrift in Tokyo can be read as a story about walking. Fukuhara, a debt collector, killed his wife; before surrendering to the police, he orders his debtor, Takemura, to walk with him in Tokyo in order to re-experience the walks he enjoyed with his wife. If Takemura agrees, the debt can be paid off. This paper discusses how the repressed heterogeneous time and place can be approached by walking in a way that the rhythm of life can be (re-experienced; in other words, when the body moves forward physically, the past appears as specter haunting the walker. This paper discusses how Adrift in Tokyo and To Live and Die in Mongkok read cities in distractive and schizophrenic ways. In the film version of Adrift in Tokyo, Takemura’s failed relationship with his father may unconsciously drive him to walk with Fukuhara. The novel may imply that the lost relationship with his mother drives him to walk. The film and the novel both address a kind of locality which should be inseparable from the birth parents. To Live and Die in Mongkok suggests that supermodernity kills mother and father. The Father-son relationship disappears at the very beginning of the
Nejc Sarabon
2010-12-01
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to define the most appropriate gait measurement protocols to be used in our future studies in the Mobility in Ageing project. A group of young healthy volunteers took part in the study. Each subject carried out a 10-metre walking test at five different speeds (preferred, very slow, very fast, slow, and fast. Each walking speed was repeated three times, making a total of 15 trials which were carried out in a random order. Each trial was simultaneously analysed by three observers using three different technical approaches: a stop watch, photo cells and electronic kinematic dress. In analysing the repeatability of the trials, the results showed that of the five self-selected walking speeds, three of them (preferred, very fast, and very slow had a significantly higher repeatability of the average walking velocity, step length and cadence than the other two speeds. Additionally, the data showed that one of the three technical methods for gait assessment has better metric characteristics than the other two. In conclusion, based on repeatability, technical and organizational simplification, this study helped us to successfully define a simple and reliable walking test to be used in the main study of the project.
Kenneth Joh
2015-07-01
Full Text Available Promoting walking travel is considered important for reducing automobile use and improving public health. Recent U.S. transportation policy has incentivized investments in alternative, more sustainable transportation modes such as walking, bicycling and transit in auto-oriented cities such as Los Angeles. Although many past studies have analyzed changes in walking travel across the U.S., there is little clarity on the drivers of change. We address this gap by conducting a longitudinal analysis of walking travel in the greater Los Angeles area from 2001 to 2009. We use travel diary and household data from regional and national surveys to analyze changes in walking trip shares and rates across our study area. Results show that walking has significantly increased across most of Los Angeles, and that increases in walking trips generally correspond with increases in population, employment, and transit service densities. Estimates from fixed-effects regression analysis generally suggest a positive association between population density and walking, and that higher increases in transit stop density are correlated with increased walking trips to and from transit stops. These findings illustrate how regional planning efforts to pursue a coordinated land use-transit planning strategy can help promote walking in auto-oriented or vehicle adopting cities.
Elements of random walk and diffusion processes
Ibe, Oliver C
2013-01-01
Presents an important and unique introduction to random walk theory Random walk is a stochastic process that has proven to be a useful model in understanding discrete-state discrete-time processes across a wide spectrum of scientific disciplines. Elements of Random Walk and Diffusion Processes provides an interdisciplinary approach by including numerous practical examples and exercises with real-world applications in operations research, economics, engineering, and physics. Featuring an introduction to powerful and general techniques that are used in the application of physical and dynamic
Florescu, Laura; Levine, Lionel; Peres, Yuval
2014-01-01
In a \\emph{rotor walk} the exits from each vertex follow a prescribed periodic sequence. On an infinite Eulerian graph embedded periodically in $\\R^d$, we show that any simple rotor walk, regardless of rotor mechanism or initial rotor configuration, visits at least on the order of $t^{d/(d+1)}$ distinct sites in $t$ steps. We prove a shape theorem for the rotor walk on the comb graph with i.i.d.\\ uniform initial rotors, showing that the range is of order $t^{2/3}$ and the asymptotic shape of ...
Scaling of random walk betweenness in networks
Narayan, O
2016-01-01
The betweenness centrality of graphs using random walk paths instead of geodesics is studied. A scaling collapse with no adjustable parameters is obtained as the graph size $N$ is varied; the scaling curve depends on the graph model. A normalized random betweenness, that counts each walk passing through a node only once, is also defined. It is argued to be more useful and seen to have simpler scaling behavior. In particular, the probability for a random walk on a preferential attachment graph to pass through the root node is found to tend to unity as $N\\rightarrow\\infty.$
End patterns of self-avoiding walks
Consider a fixed end pattern (a short self-avoiding walk) that can occur as the first few steps of an arbitrarily long self-avoiding walk on Z/sup d/. It is a difficult open problem to show that as N → ∞, the fraction of N-step self-avoiding walks beginning with this pattern converges. It is shown that as N → ∞, this fraction is bounded away from zero, and that the ratio of the fractions for N and N + 2 converges to one. Similar results are obtained when patterns are specified at both ends, and also when the endpoints are fixed
Families of prudent self-avoiding walks
Bousquet-Mélou, Mireille
2010-01-01
A self-avoiding walk (SAW) on the square lattice is prudent if it never takes a step towards a vertex it has already visited. Prudent walks differ from most classes of SAW that have been counted so far in that they can wind around their starting point. Their enumeration was first addressed by Préa in 1997. He defined 4 classes of prudent walks, of increasing generality, and wrote a system of recurrence relations for each of them . However, these relations involve more and more parameters as t...
Quantum walk public-key cryptographic system
Vlachou, C.; Rodrigues, J.; Mateus, P.; Paunković, N.; Souto, A.
2015-12-01
Quantum Cryptography is a rapidly developing field of research that benefits from the properties of Quantum Mechanics in performing cryptographic tasks. Quantum walks are a powerful model for quantum computation and very promising for quantum information processing. In this paper, we present a quantum public-key cryptographic system based on quantum walks. In particular, in the proposed protocol the public-key is given by a quantum state generated by performing a quantum walk. We show that the protocol is secure and analyze the complexity of public key generation and encryption/decryption procedures.
‘Walking With’: A Rhythmanalysis of London’s East End
Yi Chen
2013-12-01
Full Text Available In this paper, I will be looking at the practice of walking through the lens of rhythmanalysis. The method is brought to attention by Lefebvre’s last book Rhythmanalysis (2004 in which he suggests a way of interrelating space and time; a phenomenological inquiry hinged on the concrete experience of lived life. My interest in the nuance of walking was initially evoked by the structural film Fergus Walking which was made by the film maker William Raban in 1978. I will explore the potential of using structural films in sensitising us to the temporal-spatial relationship of things. The main body of the paper centres around two themes: Firstly I address the primacy of movement as a mode of engaging with the world. It is through ‘muscular consciousness’ (Bachelard 1964: 11 that walking becomes a form of experiential knowing, feeling, connecting and protesting. Secondly, I examine the practices of walking in relation to the radical transformations of the Docklands’ landscape since the beginning of the 1980s. I propose that the contesting interests of different groups can be explored by analysing the rhythmic interactions of their activities. The transition and recomposition of an economy from locally based industrial activities to globalised financial services were manifested in the syncopation of regeneration rhythms to the living rhythms of the Docklands. The fast changing urban landscapes were negotiated through alternative ways of navigating the streets, hence engendering a different set of rhythms.
Dasgupta, Sakyasingha; Goldschmidt, Dennis; Wörgötter, Florentin;
2015-01-01
Walking animals, like stick insects, cockroaches or ants, demonstrate a fascinating range of locomotive abilities and complex behaviors. The locomotive behaviors can consist of a variety of walking patterns along with adaptation that allow the animals to deal with changes in environmental...... conditions, like uneven terrains, gaps, obstacles etc. Biological study has revealed that such complex behaviors are a result of a combination of biomechanics and neural mechanism thus representing the true nature of embodied interactions. While the biomechanics helps maintain flexibility and sustain a...... here, an artificial bio-inspired walking system which effectively combines biomechanics (in terms of the body and leg structures) with the underlying neural mechanisms. The neural mechanisms consist of (1) central pattern generator based control for generating basic rhythmic patterns and coordinated...
How do environmental factors influence walking in groups? A walk-along study.
Kassavou, Aikaterini; French, David P; Chamberlain, Kerry
2015-10-01
Insufficient attention has been given to the influence of context on health-related behaviour change. This article reports on walk-along interviews conducted with 10 leaders of walking groups while leading their groups to investigate the influence of contextual factors on walking behaviours in groups. Data analysis used ideas from thematic analysis and grounded theory, approaching the data inductively. We identified that characteristics of place influenced the type of walking that people do in groups and the processes used by walkers to make sense of their behaviours in the places they walk. This research provides insight into how place influences walking in groups. It also suggests recommendations for co-ordinators and policymakers that could be used to facilitate behaviour change, when designing interventions targeting public health within the community. PMID:24296734
Quantum Ultra-Walks: Walks on a Line with Spatial Disorder
Boettcher, Stefan; Falkner, Stefan
We discuss the model of a heterogeneous discrete-time walk on a line with spatial disorder in the form of a set of ultrametric barriers. Simulations show that such an quantum ultra-walk spreads with a walk exponent dw that ranges from ballistic (dw = 1) to complete confinement (dw = ∞) for increasing separation 1 internal degrees of freedom. For the random walk, this amounts to a 2nd -order Markov process with a stochastic coin, better know as an (anti-)persistent walk. The exact analysis, based on the real-space renormalization group (RG), reproduces the results of the well-known model of ``ultradiffusion,'' dw = 1 -log2 ɛ for 0 < ɛ <= 1 / 2 . However, while the evaluation of the RG fixed-points proceeds virtually identical, for the corresponding quantum walk with a unitary coin it fails to reproduce the numerical results. A new way to analyze the RG is indicated. Supported by NSF-DMR 1207431.
César S Mendes
Full Text Available Walking behavior is context-dependent, resulting from the integration of internal and external influences by specialized motor and pre-motor centers. Neuronal programs must be sufficiently flexible to the locomotive challenges inherent in different environments. Although insect studies have contributed substantially to the identification of the components and rules that determine locomotion, we still lack an understanding of how multi-jointed walking insects respond to changes in walking orientation and direction and strength of the gravitational force. In order to answer these questions we measured with high temporal and spatial resolution the kinematic properties of untethered Drosophila during inverted and vertical walking. In addition, we also examined the kinematic responses to increases in gravitational load. We find that animals are capable of shifting their step, spatial and inter-leg parameters in order to cope with more challenging walking conditions. For example, flies walking in an inverted orientation decreased the duration of their swing phase leading to increased contact with the substrate and, as a result, greater stability. We also find that when flies carry additional weight, thereby increasing their gravitational load, some changes in step parameters vary over time, providing evidence for adaptation. However, above a threshold that is between 1 and 2 times their body weight flies display locomotion parameters that suggest they are no longer capable of walking in a coordinated manner. Finally, we find that functional chordotonal organs are required for flies to cope with additional weight, as animals deficient in these proprioceptors display increased sensitivity to load bearing as well as other locomotive defects.
The Walking Trail-Making Test is an early detection tool for mild cognitive impairment
Perrochon A
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Anaick Perrochon, Gilles Kemoun Laboratoire Mobilité, Vieillissement, Exercice (MOVE, EA 6314, Faculté des Sciences du Sport, Université de Poitiers, 8 Allée Jean Monnet, 86000 Poitiers, France; ISIS, Research Institute on Handicap and Aging, Paris, France Background: Executive function impairment (in particular, mental flexibility in the elderly, and in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI, is strongly correlated with difficulties in performing complex walking tasks. The aim of this study was to determine if the adaptation of a neuropsychological test (the Trail-Making Test, to evaluate executive functions during walking, can be an early detection tool for cognitive impairment. Methods: Fifty subjects (15 young, 20 older, presumably healthy, and 15 MCI were first evaluated for cognitive functions (Mini-Mental State Examination, Frontal Assessment Battery, and Trail-Making Test and motor functions (10-meter walking test. All subjects then performed a spatial navigation, or a complex walking test (the Walking Trail-Making Test: [WTMT], and their spatiotemporal walking variables were analyzed using cluster analysis. Results: Following evaluation of WTMT locomotor performance, cluster analysis revealed three groups that were distinctly different in age and cognitive abilities: a group of young subjects, a group of healthy older subjects, MCI subjects with amnestic impairment, and a group of MCI subjects with executive function impairment. The WTMT enabled early detection, (ie, borderline MCI of dysexecutive impairment, with 78% sensitivity and 90% specificity. Conclusion: The WTMT is of interest in that it can help provide early detection of dysexecutive cognitive impairment. Keywords: spatial navigation, walking, trail making test, detection, mild cognitive impairment
Walking and Eating Behavior of Toddlers at 12 Months Old
Koda, Naoko; Akimoto, Yuko; Hirose, Toshiya; Hinobayashi, Toshihiko; Minami, Tetsuhiro
2004-01-01
Locomotive and eating behavior of 52 toddlers was observed at 12 months old in a nursery school and investigated in relation to the acquisition of independent walking. The toddlers who acquired walking ate more by themselves using the hands than the toddlers who did not start walking. This suggested that acquisition of walking was associated with…
Quantum random walks with decoherent coins
The quantum random walk has been much studied recently, largely due to its highly nonclassical behavior. In this paper, we study one possible route to classical behavior for the discrete quantum walk on the line: the presence of decoherence in the quantum ''coin'' which drives the walk. We find exact analytical expressions for the time dependence of the first two moments of position, and show that in the long-time limit the variance grows linearly with time, unlike the unitary walk. We compare this to the results of direct numerical simulation, and see how the form of the position distribution changes from the unitary to the usual classical result as we increase the strength of the decoherence
Real time visualization of quantum walk
Miyazaki, Akihide; Hamada, Shinji; Sekino, Hideo [Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Toyohashi University of Technology, 1-1 Hibarigaoka Tenpaku-cho, Toyohashi, 441-8580 Aichi (Japan)
2014-02-20
Time evolution of quantum particles like electrons is described by time-dependent Schrödinger equation (TDSE). The TDSE is regarded as the diffusion equation of electrons with imaginary diffusion coefficients. And the TDSE is solved by quantum walk (QW) which is regarded as a quantum version of a classical random walk. The diffusion equation is solved in discretized space/time as in the case of classical random walk with additional unitary transformation of internal degree of freedom typical for quantum particles. We call the QW for solution of the TDSE a Schrödinger walk (SW). For observation of one quantum particle evolution under a given potential in atto-second scale, we attempt a successive computation and visualization of the SW. Using Pure Data programming, we observe the correct behavior of a probability distribution under the given potential in real time for observers of atto-second scale.
Non symmetric random walk on infinite graph
Marcin J. Zygmunt
2011-01-01
We investigate properties of a non symmetric Markov's chain on an infinite graph. We show the connection with matrix valued random walk polynomials which satisfy the orthogonality formula with respect to non a symmetric matrix valued measure.
Energy Expenditure During Walking with Hand Weights.
Makalous, Susan L.; And Others
1988-01-01
A study of 11 obese adults who exercised with hand weights concludes that using the weights increases the energy demands of walking but only slightly. Research and results are presented and analyzed. (JL)
Weakly directed self-avoiding walks
Bacher, Axel
2010-01-01
We define a new family of self-avoiding walks (SAW) on the square lattice, called weakly directed walks. These walks have a simple characterization in terms of the irreducible bridges that compose them. We determine their generating function. This series has a complex singularity structure and in particular, is not D-finite. The growth constant is approximately 2.54 and is thus larger than that of all natural families of SAW enumerated so far (but smaller than that of general SAW, which is about 2.64). We also prove that the end-to-end distance of weakly directed walks grows linearly. Finally, we study a diagonal variant of this model.
Growing partially directed self-avoiding walks
Privman, V.
1985-01-01
A partially directed self-avoiding walk model with the 'kinetic growth' weighting is solved exactly, on the square lattice and for two restricted, strip geometries. Some finite-size effects are examined.
Non symmetric random walk on infinite graph
Marcin J. Zygmunt
2011-01-01
Full Text Available We investigate properties of a non symmetric Markov's chain on an infinite graph. We show the connection with matrix valued random walk polynomials which satisfy the orthogonality formula with respect to non a symmetric matrix valued measure.
Levy random walks on multiplex networks
Guo, Quantong; Zheng, Zhiming; Moreno, Yamir
2016-01-01
Random walks constitute a fundamental mechanism for many dynamics taking place on complex networks. Besides, as a more realistic description of our society, multiplex networks have been receiving a growing interest, as well as the dynamical processes that occur on top of them. Here, inspired by one specific model of random walks that seems to be ubiquitous across many scientific fields, the Levy flight, we study a new navigation strategy on top of multiplex networks. Capitalizing on spectral graph and stochastic matrix theories, we derive analytical expressions for the mean first passage time and the average time to reach a node on these networks. Moreover, we also explore the efficiency of Levy random walks, which we found to be very different as compared to the single layer scenario, accounting for the structure and dynamics inherent to the multiplex network. Finally, by comparing with some other important random walk processes defined on multiplex networks, we find that in some region of the parameters, a ...
Simple expressions for the long walk distance
Chebotarev, Pavel; Balaji, R
2011-01-01
The walk distances in graphs are defined as the result of appropriate transformations of the $\\sum_{k=0}^\\infty(tA)^k$ proximity measures, where $A$ is the weighted adjacency matrix of a connected weighted graph and $t$ is a sufficiently small positive parameter. The walk distances are graph-geodetic, moreover, they converge to the shortest path distance and to the so-called long walk distance as the parameter $t$ approaches its limiting values. In this paper, simple expressions for the long walk distance are obtained. They involve the generalized inverse, minors, and inverses of submatrices of the symmetric irreducible singular M-matrix ${\\cal L}=\\rho I-A,$ where $\\rho$ is the Perron root of $A.$
Walking (Gait), Balance, and Coordination Problems
... and include: poor balance and slowed walking reduced proprioception (the sensation of where your body parts are ... MS Connection Visit MSConnection.org symptoms of ms proprioception" the 6th sense of ms..please learn!! general ...
Database of Standardized Questionnaires About Walking & Bicycling
This database contains questionnaire items and a list of validation studies for standardized items related to walking and biking. The items come from multiple national and international physical activity questionnaires.
Whittaker, William; Dowling, Kevin
1994-03-01
Carnegie Mellon University's Autonomous Planetary Exploration Program (APEX) is currently building the Daedalus robot; a system capable of performing extended autonomous planetary exploration missions. Extended autonomy is an important capability because the continued exploration of the Moon, Mars and other solid bodies within the solar system will probably be carried out by autonomous robotic systems. There are a number of reasons for this - the most important of which are the high cost of placing a man in space, the high risk associated with human exploration and communication delays that make teleoperation infeasible. The Daedalus robot represents an evolutionary approach to robot mechanism design and software system architecture. Daedalus incorporates key features from a number of predecessor systems. Using previously proven technologies, the Apex project endeavors to encompass all of the capabilities necessary for robust planetary exploration. The Ambler, a six-legged walking machine was developed by CMU for demonstration of technologies required for planetary exploration. In its five years of life, the Ambler project brought major breakthroughs in various areas of robotic technology. Significant progress was made in: mechanism and control, by introducing a novel gait pattern (circulating gait) and use of orthogonal legs; perception, by developing sophisticated algorithms for map building; and planning, by developing and implementing the Task Control Architecture to coordinate tasks and control complex system functions. The APEX project is the successor of the Ambler project.
Walking as a social practice: dispersed walking and the organisation of everyday practices.
Harries, Tim; Rettie, Ruth
2016-07-01
This paper uses social practice theory to study the interweaving of walking into everyday practices and considers how greater awareness of everyday walking can influence its position within the organisation and scheduling of everyday life. Walking is of policy interest because of its perceived benefits for health. This paper asserts that increased awareness of everyday walking allows users to become more active without having to reschedule existing activities. Using Schatzki's distinction between dispersed and integrative practices, it argues that increasing awareness of dispersed walking can enlist walking into the teleoaffective organisation of some social practices and prompt the performance of new 'health practices' within everyday domains of life such as shopping and employment. While this analysis offers useful insights for the design of behaviour change strategies, it also points to some unintended consequences of using digital feedback to increase walking awareness. In directing the gaze of participants at one particular element of their daily practices, the paper suggests, digital walking feedback provides a 'partial' view of practices: by highlighting the exercise value of walking at the expense of other values it can prompt feedback recipients to pass moral judgements on themselves based on this partial view. A Virtual Abstract of this paper can be found at: https://youtu.be/WV7DUnKD5Mw. PMID:26853086
Does getting a dog increase recreational walking?
Knuiman Matthew W
2008-03-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background This study examines changes in socio-demographic, environmental and intrapersonal factors associated with dog acquisition in non-dog owners at baseline to 12-months follow-up and the effect of dog acquisition on minutes per week of recreational walking. Methods RESIDE study participants completed self-administered questionnaires (baseline and 12-months follow-up measuring physical activity, dog ownership, dog walking behavior as well as environmental, intrapersonal and socio-demographic factors. Analysis was restricted to 'Continuing non-owners' (i.e., non-owners at both baseline and follow-up; n = 681 and 'New dog owners' (i.e., non-owners who acquired a dog by follow-up; n = 92. Results Overall, 12% of baseline non-owners had acquired a dog at follow-up. Dog acquisition was associated with working and having children at home. Those who changed from single to couple marital status were also more likely to acquire a dog. The increase in minutes of walking for recreation within the neighborhood from baseline to follow-up was 48 minutes/week for new dog owners compared with 12 minutes/week for continuing non-owners (p p p > 0.05 after further adjustment for change in baseline to follow-up variables. Increase in intention to walk was the main factor contributing to attenuation of the effect of dog acquisition on recreational walking. Conclusion This study used a large representative sample of non-owners to examine the relationship between dog acquisition and recreational walking and provides evidence to suggest that dog acquisition leads to an increase in walking. The most likely mechanism through which dog acquisition facilitates increased physical activity is through behavioral intention via the dog's positive effect on owner's cognitive beliefs about walking, and through the provision of motivation and social support for walking. The results suggest that behavioral intention mediates the relationship between dog acquisition
Rhythm Pattern of Sole through Electrification of the Human Body When Walking
Takiguchi, Kiyoaki; Wada, Takayuki; Tohyama, Shigeki
The rhythm of automatic cyclic movements such as walking is known to be generated by a rhythm generator called CPG in the spinal cord. The measurement of rhythm characteristics in walking is considered to be important for analyzing human bipedal walking and adaptive walking on irregular terrain. In particular, the soles that contact the terrain surface perform flexible movements similar to the movement of the fins of a lungfish, which is considered to be the predecessor of land animals. The sole movements are believed to be a basic movement acquired during prehistoric times. The detailed rhythm pattern of sole motion is considered to be important. We developed a method for measuring electrification without installing device on a subject's body and footwear for stabilizing the electrification of the human body. We measured the rhythm pattern of 20 subjects including 4 infants when walking by using this system and the corresponding equipment. Therefore, we confirmed the commonality of the correlative rhythm patterns of 20 subjects. Further, with regard to an individual subject, the reproducibility of a rhythm pattern with strong correlation coefficient > 0.93 ± 0.5 (mean ± SD) concerning rhythms of trials that are differently conducted on adult subjects could be confirmed.
Thompson, Nathan E.; Demes, Brigitte; O'Neill, Matthew C.; Holowka, Nicholas B.; Larson, Susan G.
2015-01-01
Human walking entails coordinated out-of-phase axial rotations of the thorax and pelvis. A long-held assumption is that this ability relies on adaptations for trunk flexibility present in humans, but not in chimpanzees, other great apes, or australopithecines. Here we use three-dimensional kinematic analyses to show that, contrary to current thinking, chimpanzees walking bipedally rotate their lumbar and thoracic regions in a manner similar to humans. This occurs despite differences in the magnitude of trunk motion, and despite morphological differences in truncal ‘rigidity' between species. These results suggest that, like humans and chimpanzees, early hominins walked with upper body rotations that countered pelvic rotation. We demonstrate that even if early hominins walked with pelvic rotations 50% larger than humans, they may have accrued the energetic and mechanical benefits of out-of-phase thoracic rotations. This would have allowed early hominins to reduce work and locomotor cost, improving walking efficiency early in hominin evolution. PMID:26441046
Hattori, Kumiko; Ogo, Noriaki; Otsuka, Takafumi
2015-01-01
We show that the `erasing-larger-loops-first' (ELLF) method, which was first introduced for erasing loops from the simple random walk on the Sierpinski gasket, does work also for non-Markov random walks, in particular, self-repelling walks to construct a new family of self-avoiding walks on the Sierpinski gasket. The one-parameter family constructed in this method continuously connects the loop-erased random walk and a self-avoiding walk which has the same asymptotic behavior as the `standard...
Walking Out of the Family Towards Rights
1999-01-01
WALKING in any city or ruralarea in China today, one will seewomen with confidence andpride, with their own work and lives.There is not much difference between theurban and rural women in dress. Theirfaces portray contentment and happiness.These are significant changes which havebeen brought about by women walking outof the family over the past near 50 years,and getting involved in society, alteringtheir dependence on men and making thempeople of dignity. The government knew clearly that to
Tempered stable laws as random walk limits
Chakrabarty, Arijit; Meerschaert, Mark M.
2010-01-01
Stable laws can be tempered by modifying the L\\'evy measure to cool the probability of large jumps. Tempered stable laws retain their signature power law behavior at infinity, and infinite divisibility. This paper develops random walk models that converge to a tempered stable law under a triangular array scheme. Since tempered stable laws and processes are useful in statistical physics, these random walk models can provide a basic physical model for the underlying physical phenomena.
Balancing of the anthropomorphous robot walking
Devaev, V. M.; Nikitina, D. V.; Fadeev, A. Y.
2016-06-01
Anthropomorphic robots are designed a human environment operates: buildings and structures, cabs and etc. The movement of these robots is carried out by walking which provides high throughput to overcome natural and manmade obstacles. The article presents some algorithm results for dynamic walking on the anthropomorphic robot AR601 example. The work is performed according to the Russian Government Program of Competitive Growth of Kazan Federal University.
Propagation in quantum walks and relativistic diffusions
Debbasch, Fabrice; Di Molfetta, Giuseppe; Espaze, David; Foulonneau, Vincent
2013-01-01
Propagation in quantum walks is revisited by showing that very general 1D discrete-time quantum walks with time- and space-dependent coefficients can be described, at the continuous limit, by Dirac fermions coupled to electromagnetic fields. Short-time propagation is also established for relativistic diffusions by presenting new numerical simulations of the Relativistic Ornstein-Uhlenbeck Process. A geometrical generalization of Fick's law is also obtained for this process. The results sugges...
An Efficient Implementation for WalkSAT
Liu, Sixue
2015-01-01
Stochastic local search (SLS) algorithms have exhibited great effectiveness in finding models of random instances of the Boolean satisfiability problem (SAT). As one of the most widely known and used SLS algorithm, WalkSAT plays a key role in the evolutions of SLS for SAT, and also hold state-of-the-art performance on random instances. This work proposes a novel implementation for WalkSAT which decreases the redundant calculations leading to a dramatically speeding up, thus dominates the late...
Danvy, Olivier; Johannsen, Jacob; Zerny, Ian
To celebrate the 20th anniversary of PEPM, we are inviting you to a walk in the semantic park and to inter-derive reduction-based and reduction-free negational normalization functions.......To celebrate the 20th anniversary of PEPM, we are inviting you to a walk in the semantic park and to inter-derive reduction-based and reduction-free negational normalization functions....
More Adults Are Walking PSA (:60)
2012-07-31
This 60 second PSA is based on the August 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. While more adults are walking, only half get the recommended amount of physical activity. Listen to learn how communities, employers, and individuals may help increase walking. Created: 7/31/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Date Released: 8/7/2012.
Equal Superposition Transformations and Quantum Random Walks
Parashar, Preeti
2007-01-01
The largest ensemble of qubits which satisfy the general transformation of equal superposition is obtained by different methods, namely, linearity, no-superluminal signalling and non-increase of entanglement under LOCC. We also consider the associated quantum random walk and show that all unitary balanced coins give the same asymmetric spatial probability distribution. It is further illustrated that unbalanced coins, upon appropriate superposition, lead to new unbiased walks which have no cla...
The Snail Takes a Walk with Me
王宜鸣; 乐伟国
2008-01-01
@@ 一、故事内容 I'm a snake. Today God gives me a job-I should take a walk with the snail. The snail moves too slowly. I have to scare him. He looks at me, full of shame. I am very angry. I pull him, and even kick.The snail cries, so he stops walking. I feel quite helpless.
Developmental Continuity? Crawling, Cruising, and Walking
Adolph, Karen E.; Berger, Sarah E.; Leo, Andrew J.
2010-01-01
This research examined developmental continuity between “cruising” (moving sideways holding onto furniture for support) and walking. Because cruising and walking involve locomotion in an upright posture, researchers have assumed that cruising is functionally related to walking. Study 1 showed that most infants crawl and cruise concurrently prior to walking, amassing several weeks of experience with both skills. Study 2 showed that cruising infants perceive affordances for locomotion over an adjustable gap in a handrail used for manual support, but despite weeks of cruising experience, cruisers are largely oblivious to the dangers of gaps in the floor beneath their feet. Study 3 replicated the floor-gap findings for infants taking their first independent walking steps, and showed that new walkers also misperceive affordances for locomoting between gaps in a handrail. The findings suggest that weeks of cruising do not teach infants a basic fact about walking: the necessity of a floor to support their body. Moreover, this research demonstrated that developmental milestones that are temporally contiguous and structurally similar might have important functional discontinuities. PMID:21399716
Self-avoiding walks crossing a square
We study a restricted class of self-avoiding walks (SAWs) which start at the origin (0, 0), end at (L, L), and are entirely contained in the square [0, L] x [0, L] on the square lattice Z2. The number of distinct walks is known to grow as λL2+o(L2). We estimate λ = 1.744 550 ± 0.000 005 as well as obtaining strict upper and lower bounds, 1.628 1/3). We also consider the model in which a weight or fugacity x is associated with each step of the walk. This gives rise to a canonical model of a phase transition. For x 1/μ it grows as L2. Here μ is the growth constant of unconstrained SAWs in Z2. For x = 1/μ we provide numerical evidence, but no proof, that the average walk length grows as L4/3. Another problem we study is that of SAWs, as described above, that pass through the central vertex of the square. We estimate the proportion of such walks as a fraction of the total, and find it to be just below 80% of the total number of SAWs. We also consider Hamiltonian walks under the same restriction. They are known to grow as τL2+o(L2) on the same L x L lattice. We give precise estimates for τ as well as upper and lower bounds, and prove that τ < λ
Goals and Social Comparisons Promote Walking Behavior.
Chapman, Gretchen B; Colby, Helen; Convery, Kimberly; Coups, Elliot J
2016-05-01
The effectiveness of a pedometer intervention was affected by manipulating the goals given to participants and by providing social comparison feedback about how participants' performance compared with others. In study 1 (n= 148), university staff members received a low, medium, or high walking goal (10%, 50%, or 100% increase over baseline walking). Participants walked 1358 more steps per day (95% confidence interval [CI], 729, 1985), when receiving a high goal than when receiving a medium goal, but a medium goal did not increase walking relative to a low goal (554 more steps; 95% CI, -71,1179). In study 2 (n= 64), participants received individual feedback only or individual plus social comparison feedback. Participants walked 1120 more steps per day (95% CI, 538, 1703) when receiving social comparison feedback than when receiving only individual feedback. Goals and the performance of others act as reference points and influence the effect that pedometer feedback has on walking behavior, illustrating the applicability of the principles of behavioral economics and social psychology to the design of health behavior interventions. PMID:26139447
Quantum walks with tuneable self-avoidance in one dimension
Elizabeth Camilleri; Rohde, Peter P.; Jason Twamley
2014-01-01
Quantum walks exhibit many unique characteristics compared to classical random walks. In the classical setting, self-avoiding random walks have been studied as a variation on the usual classical random walk. Here the walker has memory of its previous locations and preferentially avoids stepping back to locations where it has previously resided. Classical self-avoiding random walks have found numerous algorithmic applications, most notably in the modelling of protein folding. We consider the a...
Fast Link Adaptation for MIMO-OFDM
Jensen, Tobias Lindstrøm; Kant, Shashi; Wehinger, Joachim;
2010-01-01
novel MI-based LQM and compare the PER-estimation accuracy obtained with this LQM with that resulting from using other LQMs bymeans of Comprehensive Monte Carlo simulations. Search methods for the MCS in the class that is most suitable for a given channel state are presented. An algorithm for obtaining...
Morad eElshehabi; Maier, Katrin S.; Hasmann, Sandra E.; Susanne eNussbaum; Heinz eHerbst; Tanja eHeger; Daniela eBerg; Markus A Hobert; Walter eMaetzler
2016-01-01
Background: In Parkinson’s disease (PD), the effects of dopaminergic medication on straight walking and turning were mainly investigated under single tasking (ST) conditions. However, multitasking situations are considered more daily relevant.Methods: Thirty-nine early to moderate PD patients performed the following standarized ST and dual tasks (DT) as fast as possible for one minute during On- and Off-medication while wearing inertial sensors: straight walking and turning, checking boxes, a...
Elshehabi, Morad; Maier, Katrin S.; Hasmann, Sandra E.; Nussbaum, Susanne; Herbst, Heinz; Heger, Tanja; Berg, Daniela; Markus A Hobert; Maetzler, Walter
2016-01-01
Background In Parkinson’s disease (PD), the effects of dopaminergic medication on straight walking and turning were mainly investigated under single tasking (ST) conditions. However, multitasking situations are considered more daily relevant. Methods Thirty-nine early-to-moderate PD patients performed the following standardized ST and dual tasks as fast as possible for 1 min during On- and Off-medication while wearing inertial sensors: straight walking and turning, checking boxes, ...
Tolley, R.; Lumsdon, L.; Bickerstaff, K. [CAST - The Centre for Alternative and Sustainable Transport, Staffordshire University, Stoke on Trent (United Kingdom)
2001-07-01
There is increasing recognition of the importance of walking to the sustainability of cities, set against a continuing decline in everyday walking. This paper reports on a research project, which predicts trends in walking in Europe by 2010 by seeking opinion of experts who are knowledgeable about non-motorised transport. There is a consensus that there will be more walking for leisure and health, but less everyday walking. This will happen despite walking being seen as more important and there being more facilities, infrastructure, information and funding for walking. (author)
Particle resuspension due to human walking
al. (1971)). Moreover, this technique, taking into account the surface roughness, shows that adhesion forces decrease while particle diameter increase. Finally, the analysis of AFM measurements gives a correlation linking the distribution of adhesion forces to the particle diameter, replacing the one given by Biasi et al. (2001) originally used in the Rock'n'Roll model and thereby adapt the model to particles and flooring studied in our case. Coupling, performed in ANSYS CFX software, between the calculations of friction velocity and model of particle resuspension, gives theoretical resuspension rate during shoe motion. This coupling was initially validated by comparison to the experience for the simple case of a rotating plate in a controlled volume. Secondly, experiments at the scale of a ventilated room of 30 m3 were performed by walking on an epoxy coating initially seeded by calibrated particle size (1.1 μm and 3.3 μm). These experiments highlight the parameters influencing the suspension of particles, such as step frequency and particle size. (author)
Quantum walks with tuneable self-avoidance in one dimension
Camilleri, Elizabeth; Rohde, Peter P.; Twamley, Jason
2014-04-01
Quantum walks exhibit many unique characteristics compared to classical random walks. In the classical setting, self-avoiding random walks have been studied as a variation on the usual classical random walk. Here the walker has memory of its previous locations and preferentially avoids stepping back to locations where it has previously resided. Classical self-avoiding random walks have found numerous algorithmic applications, most notably in the modelling of protein folding. We consider the analogous problem in the quantum setting - a quantum walk in one dimension with tunable levels of self-avoidance. We complement a quantum walk with a memory register that records where the walker has previously resided. The walker is then able to avoid returning back to previously visited sites or apply more general memory conditioned operations to control the walk. We characterise this walk by examining the variance of the walker's distribution against time, the standard metric for quantifying how quantum or classical a walk is. We parameterise the strength of the memory recording and the strength of the memory back-action on the walker, and investigate their effect on the dynamics of the walk. We find that by manipulating these parameters, which dictate the degree of self-avoidance, the walk can be made to reproduce ideal quantum or classical random walk statistics, or a plethora of more elaborate diffusive phenomena. In some parameter regimes we observe a close correspondence between classical self-avoiding random walks and the quantum self-avoiding walk.
Directed percolation and random walk
Grimmett, Geoffrey; Hiemer, Philipp
2001-01-01
Techniques of `dynamic renormalization', developed earlier for undirected percolation and the contact model, are adapted to the setting of directed percolation, thereby obtaining solutions of several problems for directed percolation on $Z^d$ where $d \\ge 2$. The first new result is a type of uniqueness theorem: for every pair $x$ and $y$ of vertices which lie in infinite open paths, there exists almost surely a third vertex $z$ which is joined to infinity and which is attainable from $x$ and...
STS-102 Astronaut Susan Helms Participates in Space Walk
2001-01-01
STS-102 mission astronaut Susan J. Helms translates along the longerons of the Space Shuttle Discovery during the first of two space walks. During this walk, the Pressurized Mating Adapter 3 was prepared for repositioning from the Unity Module's Earth-facing berth to its port-side berth to make room for the Leonardo multipurpose Logistics Module (MPLM), supplied by the Italian Space Agency. The Leonardo MPLM is the first of three such pressurized modules that will serve as the International Space Station's (ISS') moving vans, carrying laboratory racks filled with equipment, experiments, and supplies to and from the Station aboard the Space Shuttle. The cylindrical module is approximately 21-feet long and 15- feet in diameter, weighing almost 4.5 tons. It can carry up to 10 tons of cargo in 16 standard Space Station equipment racks. Of the 16 racks the module can carry, 5 can be furnished with power, data, and fluid to support refrigerators or freezers. In order to function as an attached station module as well as a cargo transport, the logistics module also includes components that provide life support, fire detection and suppression, electrical distribution, and computer functions. NASA's 103rd overall mission and the 8th Space Station Assembly Flight, STS-102 mission also served as a crew rotation flight. It delivered the Expedition Two crew to the Station and returned the Expedition One crew back to Earth.
Michiel P. M. van Nunen, MSc
2013-01-01
Full Text Available It has been suggested that aerobic training should be considered in stroke rehabilitation programs to counteract detrimental health effects and decrease cardiovascular risk caused by inactivity. Robot-assisted treadmill exercise (using a Lokomat device has the potential to increase the duration of walking therapy relative to conventional overground therapy. We investigated whether exercise intensity during Lokomat therapy is adequate to elicit a training effect and how assistance during walking in the Lokomat affects this exercise intensity. Ten patients with stroke (age 54 +/– 9 yr walked in both the Lokomat and in a hallway. Furthermore, 10 nondisabled subjects (age 43 +/– 14 yr walked in the Lokomat at various settings and on a treadmill at various speeds. During walking, oxygen consumption and heart rate were monitored. Results showed that for patients with stroke, exercise intensity did not reach recommended levels (30% heart rate reserve for aerobic training during Lokomat walking. Furthermore, exercise intensity during walking in the Lokomat (9.3 +/– 1.6 mL/min/kg was lower than during overground walking (10.4 +/– 1.3 mL/min/kg. Also, different settings of the Lokomat only had small effects on exercise intensity in nondisabled subjects.
Walking on fractals: diffusion and self-avoiding walks on percolation clusters
We consider random walks (RWs) and self-avoiding walks (SAWs) on disordered lattices directly at the percolation threshold. Applying numerical simulations, we study the scaling behavior of the models on the incipient percolation cluster in space dimensions d = 2, 3, 4. Our analysis yields estimates of universal exponents, governing the scaling laws for configurational properties of RWs and SAWs
Walking on fractals: diffusion and self-avoiding walks on percolation clusters
Blavatska, Viktoria; Janke, Wolfhard
2008-01-01
We consider random walks (RWs) and self-avoiding walks (SAWs) on disordered lattices directly at the percolation threshold. Applying numerical simulations, we study the scaling behavior of the models on the incipient percolation cluster in space dimensions d=2, 3, 4. Our analysis yields estimates of universal exponents, governing the scaling laws for configurational properties of RWs and SAWs.
Walking on fractals: diffusion and self-avoiding walks on percolation clusters
Blavatska, V; Janke, W [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik and Centre for Theoretical Sciences (NTZ), Universitaet Leipzig, Postfach 100 920, D-04009 Leipzig (Germany)], E-mail: Viktoria.Blavatska@itp.uni-leipzig.de, E-mail: viktoria@icmp.lviv.ua, E-mail: Wolfhard.Janke@itp.uni-leipzig.de
2009-01-09
We consider random walks (RWs) and self-avoiding walks (SAWs) on disordered lattices directly at the percolation threshold. Applying numerical simulations, we study the scaling behavior of the models on the incipient percolation cluster in space dimensions d = 2, 3, 4. Our analysis yields estimates of universal exponents, governing the scaling laws for configurational properties of RWs and SAWs.
The associated random walk and martingales in random walks with stationary increments
Grey, D R
2010-01-01
We extend the notion of the associated random walk and the Wald martingale in random walks where the increments are independent and identically distributed to the more general case of stationary ergodic increments. Examples are given where the increments are Markovian or Gaussian, and an application in queueing is considered.
Almeida, Flávia Angélica Martins; Nunes, Renan Felipe Hartmann; Ferreira, Sandro Dos Santos; Krinski, Kleverton; Elsangedy, Hassan Mohamed; Buzzachera, Cosme Franklin; Alves, Ragami Chaves; Gregorio da Silva, Sergio
2015-06-01
[Purpose] This study investigated the effects of musical tempo on physiological, affective, and perceptual responses as well as the performance of self-selected walking pace. [Subjects] The study included 28 adult women between 29 and 51 years old. [Methods] The subjects were divided into three groups: no musical stimulation group (control), and 90 and 140 beats per minute musical tempo groups. Each subject underwent three experimental sessions: involved familiarization with the equipment, an incremental test to exhaustion, and a 30-min walk on a treadmill at a self-selected pace, respectively. During the self-selected walking session, physiological, perceptual, and affective variables were evaluated, and walking performance was evaluated at the end. [Results] There were no significant differences in physiological variables or affective response among groups. However, there were significant differences in perceptual response and walking performance among groups. [Conclusion] Fast music (140 beats per minute) promotes a higher rating of perceived exertion and greater performance in self-selected walking pace without significantly altering physiological variables or affective response. PMID:26180303
Nilsson, Niels Christian; Serafin, Stefania; Nordahl, Rolf
2014-04-01
Walking-In-Place (WIP) techniques make it possible to facilitate relatively natural locomotion within immersive virtual environments that are larger than the physical interaction space. However, in order to facilitate natural walking experiences one needs to know how to map steps in place to virtual motion. This paper describes two within-subjects studies performed with the intention of establishing the range of perceptually natural walking speeds for WIP locomotion. In both studies, subjects performed a series of virtual walks while exposed to visual gains (optic flow multipliers) ranging from 1.0 to 3.0. Thus, the slowest speed was equal to an estimate of the subjects normal walking speed, while the highest speed was three times greater. The perceived naturalness of the visual speed was assessed using self-reports. The first study compared four different types of movement, namely, no leg movement, walking on a treadmill, and two forms of gestural input for WIP locomotion. The results suggest that WIP locomotion is accompanied by a perceptual distortion of the speed of optic flow. The second study was performed using a 4×2 factorial design and compared four different display field-of-views (FOVs) and two types of movement, walking on a treadmill and WIP locomotion. The results revealed significant main effects of both movement type and field of view, but no significant interaction between the two variables. Particularly, they suggest that the size of the display FOV is inversely proportional to the degree of underestimation of the virtual speeds for both treadmill-mediated virtual walking and WIP locomotion. Combined, the results constitute a first attempt at establishing a set of guidelines specifying what virtual walking speeds WIP gestures should produce in order to facilitate a natural walking experience. PMID:24650984
Eggenberger, Patrick; Wolf, Martin; Schumann, Martina; de Bruin, Eling D.
2016-01-01
Different types of exercise training have the potential to induce structural and functional brain plasticity in the elderly. Thereby, functional brain adaptations were observed during cognitive tasks in functional magnetic resonance imaging studies that correlated with improved cognitive performance. This study aimed to investigate if exercise training induces functional brain plasticity during challenging treadmill walking and elicits associated changes in cognitive executive functions. Fort...
The discrete-time quaternionic quantum walk on a graph
Konno, Norio; Mitsuhashi, Hideo; Sato, Iwao
2016-02-01
Recently, the quaternionic quantum walk was formulated by the first author as a generalization of discrete-time quantum walks. We deal with the right eigenvalue problem of quaternionic matrices in order to study spectra of the transition matrix of a quaternionic quantum walk. The way to obtain all the right eigenvalues of a quaternionic matrix is given. From the unitary condition on the transition matrix of a quaternionic quantum walk, we deduce some remarkable properties of it. Our main results determine all the right eigenvalues of the quaternionic quantum walk by using those of the corresponding weighted matrix. In addition, we give some examples of quaternionic quantum walks and their right eigenvalues.
Real-time Walking Pattern Generation for a Biped Robot with Hybrid CPG-ZMP Algorithm
Bin He
2014-10-01
Full Text Available Biped robots have better mobility than conventional wheeled robots. The bio-inspired method based on a central pattern generator (CPG can be used to control biped robot walking in a manner like human beings. However, to achieve stable locomotion, it is difficult to modulate the parameters for the neural networks to coordinate every degree of freedom of the walking robot. The zero moment point (ZMP method is very popular for the stability control of biped robot walking. However, the reference trajectories have low energy efficiency, lack naturalness and need significant offline calculation. This paper presents a new method for biped real-time walking generation using a hybrid CPG-ZMP control algorithm. The method can realize a stable walking pattern by combining the ZMP criterion with rhythmic motion control. The CPG component is designed to generate the desired motion for each robot joint, which is modulated by phase resetting according to foot contact information. By introducing the ZMP location, the activity of the CPG output signal is adjusted to coordinate the limbs’ motion and allow the robot to maintain balance during the process of locomotion. The numerical simulation results show that, compared with the CPG method, the new hybrid CPG-ZMP algorithm can enhance the robustness of the CPG parameters and improve the stability of the robot. In addition, the proposed algorithm is more energy efficient than the ZMP method. The results also demonstrate that the control system can generate an adaptive walking pattern through interactions between the robot, the CPG and the environment.
The variability problem of normal human walking
Simonsen, Erik B; Alkjær, Tine
2012-01-01
Previous investigations have suggested considerable inter-individual variability in the time course pattern of net joint moments during normal human walking, although the limited sample sizes precluded statistical analyses. The purpose of the present study was to obtain joint moment patterns from a...... group of normal subjects and to test whether or not the expected differences would prove to be statistically significant. Fifteen healthy male subjects were recorded on video while they walked across two force platforms. Ten kinematic and kinetic parameters were selected and input to a statistical...... cluster analysis to determine whether or not the 15 subjects could be divided into different 'families' (clusters) of walking strategy. The net joint moments showed a variability corroborating earlier reports. The cluster analysis showed that the 15 subjects could be grouped into two clusters of 5 and 10...
Modeling, simulation and optimization of bipedal walking
Berns, Karsten
2013-01-01
The model-based investigation of motions of anthropomorphic systems is an important interdisciplinary research topic involving specialists from many fields such as Robotics, Biomechanics, Physiology, Orthopedics, Psychology, Neurosciences, Sports, Computer Graphics and Applied Mathematics. This book presents a study of basic locomotion forms such as walking and running is of particular interest due to the high demand on dynamic coordination, actuator efficiency and balance control. Mathematical models and numerical simulation and optimization techniques are explained, in combination with experimental data, which can help to better understand the basic underlying mechanisms of these motions and to improve them. Example topics treated in this book are Modeling techniques for anthropomorphic bipedal walking systems Optimized walking motions for different objective functions Identification of objective functions from measurements Simulation and optimization approaches for humanoid robots Biologically inspired con...
Getting mobile with a walking-help
Krummheuer, Antonia Lina; Raudaskoski, Pirkko Liisa
in Symbolic Interaction 33: 443-457. Latour, B. (2005).Reassembeling the social. An Introduction to Actor-Network-Theory. Oxford University Press. Ryave, A. L. and J. N. Schenkein. (1974). Not es on the Art of Walking. In Turner, R. (ed.) Ethnomethodology. Selected Readings. Middlesex: Penguin, 265......Ethnomethodology has been one of the few fields were mundane experiences and social ordering such as walking have been a focus of interest (e.g. Ryave and Schenkein 1974). In the present paper we want to discuss how this mundane practice sometimes needs to be achieved through the help of technology...... are understood as a Latourian socio-material networks or assemblages that perform an action, rather than depicting the walking help as an object of human actions (Latour 2005). From that constellation a publicly observable ‘mobile with’ (Goffman 1971) can sometimes emerge (when the support is mostly linguistic...
Viewer preferences for adaptive playout
Deshpande, Sachin
2013-03-01
Adaptive media playout techniques are used to avoid buffer underflow in a dynamic streaming environment where the available bandwidth may be fluctuating. In this paper we report human perceptions from audio quality studies that we performed on speech and music samples for adaptive audio playout. Test methods based on ITU-R BS. 1534-1 recommendation were used. Studies were conducted for both slow playout and fast playout. Two scales - a coarse scale and a finer scale was used for the slow and fast audio playout factors. Results from our study can be used to determine acceptable slow and fast playout factors for speech and music content. An adaptive media playout algorithm could use knowledge of these upper and lower bounds on playback speeds to decide its adaptive playback schedule.
Robust Optimal Adaptive Control Method with Large Adaptive Gain
Nguyen, Nhan T.
2009-01-01
In the presence of large uncertainties, a control system needs to be able to adapt rapidly to regain performance. Fast adaptation is referred to the implementation of adaptive control with a large adaptive gain to reduce the tracking error rapidly. However, a large adaptive gain can lead to high-frequency oscillations which can adversely affect robustness of an adaptive control law. A new adaptive control modification is presented that can achieve robust adaptation with a large adaptive gain without incurring high-frequency oscillations as with the standard model-reference adaptive control. The modification is based on the minimization of the Y2 norm of the tracking error, which is formulated as an optimal control problem. The optimality condition is used to derive the modification using the gradient method. The optimal control modification results in a stable adaptation and allows a large adaptive gain to be used for better tracking while providing sufficient stability robustness. Simulations were conducted for a damaged generic transport aircraft with both standard adaptive control and the adaptive optimal control modification technique. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed modification in tracking a reference model while maintaining a sufficient time delay margin.
Asymptotically Stable Walking of a Five-Link Underactuated 3D Bipedal Robot
Chevallereau, Christine; Shih, Ching-Long; 10.1109/TRO.2008.2010366
2010-01-01
This paper presents three feedback controllers that achieve an asymptotically stable, periodic, and fast walking gait for a 3D (spatial) bipedal robot consisting of a torso, two legs, and passive (unactuated) point feet. The contact between the robot and the walking surface is assumed to inhibit yaw rotation. The studied robot has 8 DOF in the single support phase and 6 actuators. The interest of studying robots with point feet is that the robot's natural dynamics must be explicitly taken into account to achieve balance while walking. We use an extension of the method of virtual constraints and hybrid zero dynamics, in order to simultaneously compute a periodic orbit and an autonomous feedback controller that realizes the orbit. This method allows the computations to be carried out on a 2-DOF subsystem of the 8-DOF robot model. The stability of the walking gait under closed-loop control is evaluated with the linearization of the restricted Poincar\\'e map of the hybrid zero dynamics. Three strategies are explo...
Comprehend DeepWalk as Matrix Factorization
Yang, Cheng; Liu, Zhiyuan
2015-01-01
Word2vec, as an efficient tool for learning vector representation of words has shown its effectiveness in many natural language processing tasks. Mikolov et al. issued Skip-Gram and Negative Sampling model for developing this toolbox. Perozzi et al. introduced the Skip-Gram model into the study of social network for the first time, and designed an algorithm named DeepWalk for learning node embedding on a graph. We prove that the DeepWalk algorithm is actually factoring a matrix M where each e...
Lectures on Self-Avoiding Walks
Bauerschmidt, Roland; Duminil-Copin, Hugo; Goodman, Jesse; Slade, Gordon
2012-01-01
These lecture notes provide a rapid introduction to a number of rigorous results on self-avoiding walks, with emphasis on the critical behaviour. Following an introductory overview of the central problems, an account is given of the Hammersley--Welsh bound on the number of self-avoiding walks and its consequences for the growth rates of bridges and self-avoiding polygons. A detailed proof that the connective constant on the hexagonal lattice equals $\\sqrt{2+\\sqrt{2}}$ is then provided. The la...
Self-Avoiding Walks with Writhe
Moroz, J. David; Kamien, Randall D.
1997-01-01
We map self-avoiding random walks with a chemical potential for writhe to the three-dimensional complex O(N) Chern-Simons theory as N -> 0. We argue that at the Wilson-Fisher fixed point which characterizes normal self-avoiding walks (with radius of gyration exponent nu = 0.588) a small chemical potential for writhe is irrelevant and the Chern-Simons field does not modify the monomer- monomer correlation function. For a large chemical potential the polymer collapses.
Self-avoiding walks with writhe
We map self-avoiding random walks with a chemical potential for writhe to the three-dimensional complex O(N) Chern-Simons theory as N→0. We argue that at the Wilson-Fisher fixed point which characterizes normal self-avoiding walks (with radius of gyration exponent ν∼0.588) a small chemical potential for writhe is irrelevant and the Chern-Simons field does not modify the monomer-monomer correlation function. For a large chemical potential the polymer collapses. (orig.)
Topics in random walks in random environment
Over the last twenty-five years random motions in random media have been intensively investigated and some new general methods and paradigms have by now emerged. Random walks in random environment constitute one of the canonical models of the field. However in dimension bigger than one they are still poorly understood and many of the basic issues remain to this day unresolved. The present series of lectures attempt to give an account of the progresses which have been made over the last few years, especially in the study of multi-dimensional random walks in random environment with ballistic behavior. (author)
Van Cauwenberg Jelle
2012-07-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Current knowledge on the relationship between the physical environment and walking for transportation among older adults (≥ 65 years is limited. Qualitative research can provide valuable information and inform further research. However, qualitative studies are scarce and fail to include neighborhood outings necessary to study participants’ experiences and perceptions while interacting with and interpreting the local social and physical environment. The current study sought to uncover the perceived environmental influences on Flemish older adults’ walking for transportation. To get detailed and context-sensitive environmental information, it used walk-along interviews. Methods Purposeful convenience sampling was used to recruit 57 older adults residing in urban or semi-urban areas. Walk-along interviews to and from a destination (e.g. a shop located within a 15 minutes’ walk from the participants’ home were conducted. Content analysis was performed using NVivo 9 software (QSR International. An inductive approach was used to derive categories and subcategories from the data. Results Data were categorized in the following categories and subcategories: access to facilities (shops & services, public transit, connectivity, walking facilities (sidewalk quality, crossings, legibility, benches, traffic safety (busy traffic, behavior of other road users, familiarity, safety from crime (physical factors, other persons, social contacts, aesthetics (buildings, natural elements, noise & smell, openness, decay and weather. Conclusions The findings indicate that to promote walking for transportation a neighborhood should provide good access to shops and services, well-maintained walking facilities, aesthetically appealing places, streets with little traffic and places for social interaction. In addition, the neighborhood environment should evoke feelings of familiarity and safety from crime. Future quantitative studies should
Fast Algorithm for k-nearest Neighbor Serch Based on Adaptive Spatial Sphere%基于自适应空间球的k最近邻域快速搜索算法
杨军; 林岩龙; 王小鹏; 张瑞峰
2014-01-01
To solve the problem of low efficiency and weak stability in searching k-nearest neighbor of large-scale scattered point cloud by using sphere space,a fast algorithm for finding k-nearest neighbor is presented. Point cloud data is divided into different sub-space by using partition strategy without considering k. The radius of the initial dynamic sphere is determined adaptively based on the approximate density of sampling points in a sub-space. The k-nearest candidate points are searched by the circumscribed cube of a dynamic sphere. When the number of k-nearest candidate points does not meet the requirement, or the search fails, the expanding extent is ensured by a circumsphere of the circumscribed cube. Experimental results show that the proposed method obtains not only a better performance and automation than the existing algorithms,but also a quite stability for the anticipated point number of the sub-space and sampling density.%利用空间球搜索大规模点云数据k邻域存在速率慢和稳定性差的问题，为此，提出一种新的k邻域快速搜索算法。利用与k无关的分块策略对点云进行分块，使用候选点所在子块内采样点的近似密度自适应确定候选点的初始动态球半径，应用动态球的外切立方体搜索k邻域候选点。当候选点数目不满足要求或搜索不成功时，采用候选点动态球外切立方体的外接球扩大搜索范围。实验结果表明，与已有算法相比，该算法的k邻域搜索效率明显提高，而且当子块内预设点数变化、采样密度提高时具有较强稳定性，自动化程度较高。
Loop-Erased Walks Intersect Infinitely Often in Four Dimensions
Lawler, Gregory
1998-01-01
In this short note we show that the paths two independent loop-erased random walks in four dimensions intersect infinitely often. We actually prove the stronger result that the cut-points of the two walks intersect infinitely often.
Cardiovascular Responses Associated with Daily Walking in Subacute Stroke
Prajapati, Sanjay K.; Avril Mansfield; Gage, William H; Dina Brooks; McIlroy, William E.
2013-01-01
Despite the importance of regaining independent ambulation after stroke, the amount of daily walking completed during in-patient rehabilitation is low. The purpose of this study is to determine if (1) walking-related heart rate responses reached the minimum intensity necessary for therapeutic aerobic exercise (40%–60% heart rate reserve) or (2) heart rate responses during bouts of walking revealed excessive workload that may limit walking (>80% heart rate reserve). Eight individuals with suba...
Tempo and walking speed with music in the urban context
Marek eFranek; Leon eVan Noorden; Lukas eRezny
2014-01-01
The study explored the effect of music on the temporal aspects of walking behavior in a real outdoor urban setting. First, spontaneous synchronization between the beat of the music and step tempo was explored. The effect of motivational and non-motivational music (Karageorghis et al. 1999) on the walking speed was also studied. Finally, we investigated whether music can mask the effects of visual aspects of the walking route environment, which involve fluctuation of walking speed as a respons...
Tempo and walking speed with music in the urban
Franěk, Marek; Noorden, Leon van, LPAS; Režný, Lukáš
2014-01-01
The study explored the effect of music on the temporal aspects of walking behavior in a real outdoor urban setting. First, spontaneous synchronization between the beat of the music and step tempo was explored. The effect of motivational and non-motivational music (Karageorghis et al., 1999) on the walking speed was also studied. Finally, we investigated whether music can mask the effects of visual aspects of the walking route environment, which involve fluctuation of walking speed as a respon...
Self-Attractive Random Walks: The Case of Critical Drifts
Ioffe, Dmitry; Velenik, Yvan
2012-07-01
Self-attractive random walks (polymers) undergo a phase transition in terms of the applied drift (force): If the drift is strong enough, then the walk is ballistic, whereas in the case of small drifts self-attraction wins and the walk is sub-ballistic. We show that, in any dimension d ≥ 2, this transition is of first order. In fact, we prove that the walk is already ballistic at critical drifts, and establish the corresponding LLN and CLT.
Self-Attractive Random Walks: The Case of Critical Drifts
Ioffe, Dmitry
2011-01-01
Self-attractive random walks undergo a phase transition in terms of the applied drift: If the drift is strong enough, then the walk is ballistic, whereas in the case of small drifts self-attraction wins and the walk is sub-ballistic. We show that, in any dimension at least 2, this transition is of first order. In fact, we prove that the walk is already ballistic at critical drifts, and establish the corresponding LLN and CLT.
DeepWalk: Online Learning of Social Representations
Perozzi, Bryan; Al-Rfou, Rami; Skiena, Steven
2014-01-01
We present DeepWalk, a novel approach for learning latent representations of vertices in a network. These latent representations encode social relations in a continuous vector space, which is easily exploited by statistical models. DeepWalk generalizes recent advancements in language modeling and unsupervised feature learning (or deep learning) from sequences of words to graphs. DeepWalk uses local information obtained from truncated random walks to learn latent representations by treating wa...
Instruction sets for walks and the quantile path transformation
Forman, Noah Mills
2013-01-01
This thesis examines two objects: the stacked-instructions representation of a walk on a general state space, and the novel quantile path transformation for real-valued walks.Instead of representing a walk by a chronological sequence of states visited, we may represent the walk by a collection of lists of instructions located at each state. On successive visits to a state, the walker reads and follows successive instructions from the list. However, there are some collections of finite lists f...
Thinking while walking: Experienced high-heel walkers flexibly adjust their gait
SabineSchaefer
2013-06-01
Full Text Available Theories of motor skill acquisition postulate that attentional demands of motor execution decrease with practice. Hence, motor experts should experience less attentional resource conflict when performing a motor task in their domain of expertise concurrently with a demanding cognitive task. We assessed cognitive and motor performance in high-heel experts and novices who were performing a working memory task while walking in gym shoes or high heels on a treadmill. Surprisingly, neither group showed lower working memory performance when walking than when sitting, irrespective of shoe type. However, high-heel experts adapted walking regularity more flexibly to shoe type and cognitive load than novices, by reducing the variability of time spent in the single-support phase of the gait cycle in high heels when cognitively challenged. We conclude that high-heel expertise is associated with more flexible adjustments of movement patterns. Future research should investigate whether a more demanding walking task (e.g., wearing high heels on uneven surfaces and during gait perturbations results in expertise-related differences in the simultaneous execution of a cognitive task.
Design and Control of a Powered Hip Exoskeleton for Walking Assistance
Qingcong Wu
2015-03-01
Full Text Available The wearable powered exoskeleton is a human-robot cooperation system that integrates the strength of a robot with human intelligence. This paper presents the research results into a powered hip exoskeleton (PH-EXOS designed to provide locomotive assistance to individuals with walking impediments. The Bowden cable actuated exoskeleton has an anthropomorphic structure with six degrees of freedom (DOF in order to match the human hip anatomy and enable natural interaction with the user. The mechanical structure, the actuation system, and the interaction kinematics of PH EXOS are optimized to achieve preferable manoeuvrability and harmony. For the control of the exoskeleton, a real-time control system is established in xPC target environment based on Matlab/RTW. A Cascaded PID controller is developed to perform the trajectories tracking tasks in passive control mode. Besides, based on the pressure information on the thigh, a fuzzy adaptive controller is developed to perform walking assistance tasks in active control mode. Preliminary treadmill walking experiments on a healthy subject were conducted to verify the effectiveness of the proposed device and control approaches in reducing walking effort.
Movement Behavior of High-Heeled Walking
Alkjær, Tine; Raffalt, Peter Christian; Petersen, Nicolas Caesar;
2012-01-01
behavior of high-heeled and barefooted walking in eleven female subjects. The movement variability was quantified by calculation of approximate entropy (ApEn) in the ankle joint angle and the standard deviation (SD) of the stride time intervals. Electromyography (EMG) of the soleus (SO) and tibialis...
Assessment of a Solar System Walk
LoPresto, Michael C.; Murrell, Steven R.; Kirchner, Brian
2010-01-01
The idea of sending students and the general public on a walk through a scale model of the solar system in an attempt to instill an appreciation of the relative scales of the sizes of the objects compared to the immense distances between them is certainly not new. A good number of such models exist, including one on the National Mall in…
Grunbaum, F A
2011-01-01
We exhibit a way to associate a quantum walk (QW) on the non-negative integers to any probability measure on the unit circle. This forces us to consider one step transitions that are not traditionally allowed. We illustrate this in the case of a very interesting measure, originally proposed by F. Riesz for a different purpose.
Myths about the Country Walk Case
Cheit, Ross E.; Mervis, David
2007-01-01
The Country Walk case in Dade County, Florida was long considered a model for how to prosecute a multi-victim child sexual abuse case involving young children. In the past 10 years, however, a contrary view has emerged that the case was tainted by improper interviewing and was likely a false conviction. This is the first scholarly effort to assess…
Localization of M-Particle Quantum Walks
Ampadu, Clement
2011-01-01
We study the motion of M particles performing a quantum walk on the line. Under various conditions on the initial coin states for quantum walkers controlled by the Hadamard operator, we give theoretical criterion to observe the quantum walkers at an initial location with high probability.
A three-dimensional human walking model
Yang, Q. S.; Qin, J. W.; Law, S. S.
2015-11-01
A three-dimensional human bipedal walking model with compliant legs is presented in this paper. The legs are modeled with time-variant dampers, and the model is able to characterize the gait pattern of an individual using a minimal set of parameters. Feedback control, for both the forward and lateral movements, is implemented to regulate the walking performance of the pedestrian. The model provides an improvement over classic invert pendulum models. Numerical studies were undertaken to investigate the effects of leg stiffness and attack angle. Simulation results show that when walking at a given speed, increasing the leg stiffness with a constant attack angle results in a longer step length, a higher step frequency, a faster walking speed and an increase in both the peak vertical and lateral ground reaction forces. Increasing the attack angle with a constant leg stiffness results in a higher step frequency, a decrease in the step length, an increase in the total energy of the system and a decrease in both the peak vertical and lateral ground reaction forces.
Bilocal Dynamics for Self-Avoiding Walks
Caracciolo, Sergio; Ferraro, G; Papinutto, Mauro; Pelissetto, A; Caracciolo, Sergio; Causo, Maria Serena; Ferraro, Giovanni; Papinutto, Mauro; Pelissetto, Andrea
2000-01-01
We introduce several bilocal algorithms for lattice self-avoiding walks that provide reasonable models for the physical kinetics of polymers in the absence of hydrodynamic effects. We discuss their ergodicity in different confined geometries, for instance in strips and in slabs. A short discussion of the dynamical properties in the absence of interactions is given.
Self-avoiding random walk in superspace
The model is presented, where all the critical exponents are calculated exactly. It corresponds to a self-avoiding random walk in superspace of dimension D≤4. For the correlation length the validity of Flory's conjecture (ν=3/(D+2)) is confirmed. (orig.)
Kinetic growth walks on complex networks
Kinetically grown self-avoiding walks on various types of generalized random networks have been studied. Networks with short- and long-tailed degree distributions P(k) were considered (k, degree or connectivity), including scale-free networks with P(k) ∼ k-γ. The long-range behaviour of self-avoiding walks on random networks is found to be determined by finite-size effects. The mean self-intersection length of non-reversal random walks, (l), scales as a power of the system size N: (l) ∼ Nβ, with an exponent β = 0.5 for short-tailed degree distributions and β α, with an exponent α which depends on the lowest degree in the network. Results of approximate probabilistic calculations are supported by those derived from simulations of various kinds of networks. The efficiency of kinetic growth walks to explore networks is largely reduced by inhomogeneity in the degree distribution, as happens for scale-free networks
Bilocal Dynamics for Self-Avoiding Walks
Caracciolo, Sergio; Causo, Maria Serena; Ferraro, Giovanni; Papinutto, Mauro; Pelissetto, Andrea
1999-01-01
We introduce several bilocal algorithms for lattice self-avoiding walks that provide reasonable models for the physical kinetics of polymers in the absence of hydrodynamic effects. We discuss their ergodicity in different confined geometries, for instance in strips and in slabs. A short discussion of the dynamical properties in the absence of interactions is given.
Random walk centrality for temporal networks
Rocha, Luis Enrique Correa
2014-01-01
Nodes can be ranked according to their relative importance within the network. Ranking algorithms based on random walks are particularly useful because they connect topological and diffusive properties of the network. Previous methods based on random walks, as for example the PageRank, have focused on static structures. However, several realistic networks are indeed dynamic, meaning that their structure changes in time. In this paper, we propose a centrality measure for temporal networks based on random walks which we call TempoRank. While in a static network, the stationary density of the random walk is proportional to the degree or the strength of a node, we find that in temporal networks, the stationary density is proportional to the in-strength of the so-called effective network. The stationary density also depends on the sojourn probability q which regulates the tendency of the walker to stay in the node. We apply our method to human interaction networks and show that although it is important for a node ...
Saccadic Body Turns in walking Drosophila
Bart R.H. Geurten
2014-10-01
Full Text Available Drosophila melanogaster structures its optic flow during flight by interspersing translational movements with abrupt body rotations. Whether these ‘body saccades’ are accompanied by steering movements of the head is a matter of debate. By tracking single flies moving freely in an arena, we now discovered that walking Drosophila also perform saccades. Movement analysis revealed that the flies separate rotational from translational movements by quickly turning their bodies by 15 degrees within a tenth of a second. Although walking flies moved their heads by up to 20 degrees about their bodies, their heads moved with the bodies during saccadic turns. This saccadic strategy contrasts with the head saccades reported for e.g. blowflies and honeybees, presumably reflecting optical constraints: modelling revealed that head saccades as described for these latter insects would hardly affect the retinal input in Drosophila because of the lower acuity of its compound eye. The absence of head saccades in Drosophila was associated with the absence of haltere oscillations, which seem to guide head movements in other flies. In addition to adding new twists to Drosophila walking behavior, our analysis shows that Drosophila does not turn its head relative to its body when turning during walking.
Grover search with lackadaisical quantum walks
The lazy random walk, where the walker has some probability of staying put, is a useful tool in classical algorithms. We propose a quantum analogue, the lackadaisical quantum walk, where each vertex is given l self-loops, and we investigate its effects on Grover’s algorithm when formulated as search for a marked vertex on the complete graph of N vertices. For the discrete-time quantum walk using the phase flip coin, adding a self-loop to each vertex boosts the success probability from 1/2 to 1. Additional self-loops, however, decrease the success probability. Using instead the Shenvi, Kempe, and Whaley (2003) coin, adding self-loops simply slows down the search. These coins also differ in that the first is faster than classical when l scales less than N, while the second requires that l scale less than N 2. Finally, continuous-time quantum walks differ from both of these discrete-time examples—the self-loops make no difference at all. These behaviors generalize to multiple marked vertices. (paper)
The Physics of a Walking Robot
Guemez, J.; Fiolhais, M.
2013-01-01
The physics of walking is explored, using a toy as a concrete example and a "toy model" applied to it. Besides using Newton's second law, the problem is also discussed from the thermodynamical perspective. Once the steady state (constant velocity) is achieved, we show that the internal energy of the toy is dissipated as heat in the…
The physics of a walking robot
Güémez, Julio
2014-01-01
The physics of walking is explored, using a toy as a concrete example and a 'toy' model applied to it. Besides the Newton's second law, the problem is also discussed from the thermodynamical perspective. Once the steady state (constant velocity) is achieved, we show that the internal energy of the toy is dissipated as heat in the surroundings.
Go Naked: Diapers Affect Infant Walking
Cole, Whitney G.; Lingeman, Jesse M.; Adolph, Karen E.
2012-01-01
In light of cross-cultural and experimental research highlighting effects of childrearing practices on infant motor skill, we asked whether wearing diapers, a seemingly innocuous childrearing practice, affects infant walking. Diapers introduce bulk between the legs, potentially exacerbating infants' poor balance and wide stance. We show that…
Mesonic spectroscopy of Minimal Walking Technicolor
Del Debbio, Luigi; Lucini, Biagio; Patella, Agostino; Pica, Claudio; Rago, Antonio
2010-01-01
We investigate the structure and the novel emerging features of the mesonic non-singlet spectrum of the Minimal Walking Technicolor (MWT) theory. Precision measurements in the nonsinglet pseudoscalar and vector channels are compared to the expectations for an IR-conformal field theory and a QCD...
Healthy Living Initiative: Running/Walking Club
Stylianou, Michalis; Kulinna, Pamela Hodges; Kloeppel, Tiffany
2014-01-01
This study was grounded in the public health literature and the call for schools to serve as physical activity intervention sites. Its purpose was twofold: (a) to examine the daily distance covered by students in a before-school running/walking club throughout 1 school year and (b) to gain insights on the teachers perspectives of the club.…
Approximation of walking robot stability model
Krejsa, Jiří; Grepl, Robert; Věchet, S.
Praha: Ústav termomechaniky AV ČR, 2004 - (Zolotarev, I.; Poživilova, A.), s. 159-160 ISBN 80-85918-88-9. [Engineering mechanics 2004. Svratka (CZ), 10.05.2004-13.05.2004] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2076919 Keywords : approximation * walking robot * stability Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robot ics
Random walk term weighting for information retrieval
Blanco, R.; Lioma, Christina
2007-01-01
We present a way of estimating term weights for Information Retrieval (IR), using term co-occurrence as a measure of dependency between terms.We use the random walk graph-based ranking algorithm on a graph that encodes terms and co-occurrence dependencies in text, from which we derive term weight...
Underactuated Walking Control via the Kinetic Symmetry
Čelikovský, Sergej
Yakutsk : North-Eastern Federal University named after H.K. Ammosov, Sobolev Institute of Mathematics SB RAS, Lavrentiev Institute of Hydrodinamics SB RAS Novosibirsk State University, 2014. s. 6-7. [International Conference on Mathematical Modeling /7./. 30.06.2014-04.07.2014, Yakutsk] Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Kinetic symmetry * virtual constraint * underactuated walking Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory
Sunspot random walk and 22-year variation
Love, Jeffrey J.; Rigler, E. Joshua
2012-01-01
We examine two stochastic models for consistency with observed long-term secular trends in sunspot number and a faint, but semi-persistent, 22-yr signal: (1) a null hypothesis, a simple one-parameter random-walk model of sunspot-number cycle-to-cycle change, and, (2) an alternative hypothesis, a two-parameter random-walk model with an imposed 22-yr alternating amplitude. The observed secular trend in sunspots, seen from solar cycle 5 to 23, would not be an unlikely result of the accumulation of multiple random-walk steps. Statistical tests show that a 22-yr signal can be resolved in historical sunspot data; that is, the probability is low that it would be realized from random data. On the other hand, the 22-yr signal has a small amplitude compared to random variation, and so it has a relatively small effect on sunspot predictions. Many published predictions for cycle 24 sunspots fall within the dispersion of previous cycle-to-cycle sunspot differences. The probability is low that the Sun will, with the accumulation of random steps over the next few cycles, walk down to a Dalton-like minimum. Our models support published interpretations of sunspot secular variation and 22-yr variation resulting from cycle-to-cycle accumulation of dynamo-generated magnetic energy.
LMI based design for the Acrobot walking
Anderle, Milan; Čelikovský, Sergej; Henrion, D.; Zikmund, Jiří
Gifu: IFAC, 2009, s. 595-600. [SYROCO'09. Gifu (JP), 09.09.2009-12.09.2009] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA102/08/0186; GA MŠk LA09026 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Linear matrix inequalities (LMI) * underactuated mechanical systems * walking robot s Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory
Searching via walking: How to find a marked clique of a complete graph using quantum walks
Hillery, Mark; Reitzner, Daniel; Bužek, Vladimír
2010-06-01
We show how a quantum walk can be used to find a marked edge or a marked complete subgraph of a complete graph. We employ a version of a quantum walk, the scattering walk, which lends itself to experimental implementation. The edges are marked by adding elements to them that impart a specific phase shift to the particle as it enters or leaves the edge. If the complete graph has N vertices and the subgraph has K vertices, the particle becomes localized on the subgraph in O(N/K) steps. This leads to a quantum search that is quadratically faster than a corresponding classical search. We show how to implement the quantum walk using a quantum circuit and a quantum oracle, which allows us to specify the resources needed for a quantitative comparison of the efficiency of classical and quantum searches—the number of oracle calls.
Searching via walking: How to find a marked clique of a complete graph using quantum walks
We show how a quantum walk can be used to find a marked edge or a marked complete subgraph of a complete graph. We employ a version of a quantum walk, the scattering walk, which lends itself to experimental implementation. The edges are marked by adding elements to them that impart a specific phase shift to the particle as it enters or leaves the edge. If the complete graph has N vertices and the subgraph has K vertices, the particle becomes localized on the subgraph in O(N/K) steps. This leads to a quantum search that is quadratically faster than a corresponding classical search. We show how to implement the quantum walk using a quantum circuit and a quantum oracle, which allows us to specify the resources needed for a quantitative comparison of the efficiency of classical and quantum searches--the number of oracle calls.
Narasimhan, S L; Krishna, P S R; Ponmurugan, M; Murthy, K P N
2008-01-01
We have explained in detail why the canonical partition function of interacting self-avoiding walk (ISAW) is exactly equivalent to the configurational average of the weights associated with growth walks, such as the interacting growth walk (IGW), if the average is taken over the entire genealogical tree of the walk. In this context, we have shown that it is not always possible to factor the density of states out of the canonical partition function if the local growth rule is temperature dependent. We have presented Monte Carlo results for IGWs on a diamond lattice in order to demonstrate that the actual set of IGW configurations available for study is temperature dependent even though the weighted averages lead to the expected thermodynamic behavior of ISAW. PMID:18190183
Nilsson, Niels Christian; Serafin, Stefania; Nordahl, Rolf
2014-01-01
virtual motion. This paper describes two within-subjects studies performed with the intention of establishing the range of perceptually natural walking speeds for WIP locomotion. In both studies, subjects performed a series of virtual walks while exposed to visual gains (optic flow multipliers) ranging...... from 1.0 to 3.0. Thus, the slowest speed was equal to an estimate of the subjects normal walking speed, while the highest speed was three times greater. The perceived naturalness of the visual speed was assessed using self-reports. The first study compared four different types of movement, namely, no...... leg movement, walking on a treadmill, and two forms of gestural input for WIP locomotion. The results suggest that WIP locomotion is accompanied by a perceptual distortion of the speed of optic flow. The second study was performed using a 4×2 factorial design and compared four different display field...
Accumulating Brisk Walking for Fitness, Cardiovascular Risk, and Psychological Health.
Murphy, Marie; Nevill, Alan; Neville, Charlotte; Biddle, Stuart; Hardman, Adrianne
2002-01-01
Compared the effects of different patterns of regular brisk walking on fitness, cardiovascular disease risk factors, and psychological well-being in previously sedentary adults. Data on adults who completed either short-bout or long-bout walking programs found that three short bouts of brisk walking accumulated throughout the day were as effective…
Flat Energy histogram version for Interacting Growth Walk
Ponmurugan, M.; Sridhar, V.; Narasimhan, S. L.; Murthy, K. P. N.
2007-01-01
Interacting Growth Walks is a recently proposed stochastic model for studying the coil-globule transition of linear polymers. We propose a flat energy histogram version for Interacting Growth Walk. We demonstrate the algorithm on two dimensional square and triangular lattices by calculating the density of energy states of Interacting Self Avoiding Walks.
The persistence length of two dimensional self avoiding random walks
Eisenberg, E.; Baram, A.
2002-01-01
The decay of directional correlations in self-avoiding random walks on the square lattice is investigated. Analysis of exact enumerations and Monte Carlo data suggest that the correlation between the directions of the first step and the j-th step of the walk decays faster than 1/j, indicating that the persistence length of the walk is finite.
A natural walking monitor for pulmonary patients using mobile phones.
Juen, Joshua; Cheng, Qian; Schatz, Bruce
2015-07-01
Mobile devices have the potential to continuously monitor health by collecting movement data including walking speed during natural walking. Natural walking is walking without artificial speed constraints present in both treadmill and nurse-assisted walking. Fitness trackers have become popular which record steps taken and distance, typically using a fixed stride length. While useful for everyday purposes, medical monitoring requires precise accuracy and testing on real patients with a scientifically valid measure. Walking speed is closely linked to morbidity in patients and widely used for medical assessment via measured walking. The 6-min walk test (6MWT) is a standard assessment for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and congestive heart failure. Current generation smartphone hardware contains similar sensor chips as in medical devices and popular fitness devices. We developed a middleware software, MoveSense, which runs on standalone smartphones while providing comparable readings to medical accelerometers. We evaluate six machine learning methods to obtain gait speed during natural walking training models to predict natural walking speed and distance during a 6MWT with 28 pulmonary patients and ten subjects without pulmonary condition. We also compare our model's accuracy to popular fitness devices. Our universally trained support vector machine models produce 6MWT distance with 3.23% error during a controlled 6MWT and 11.2% during natural free walking. Furthermore, our model attains 7.9% error when tested on five subjects for distance estimation compared to the 50-400% error seen in fitness devices during natural walking. PMID:25935052
The Walking Classroom: Active Learning Is Just Steps Away!
Becker, Kelly Mancini
2016-01-01
Walking is a viable and valuable form of exercise for young children that has both physical and mental health benefits. There is much evidence showing that school-age children are not getting the recommended 60 minutes of daily exercise. A school-wide walking program can be a great way to encourage walking in and out of school, can be aligned with…
The Not-so-Random Drunkard's Walk
Ehrhardt, George
2013-01-01
This dataset contains the results of a quasi-experiment, testing Karl Pearson's "drunkard's walk" analogy for an abstract random walk. Inspired by the alternate hypothesis that drunkards stumble to the side of their dominant hand, it includes data on intoxicated test subjects walking a 10' line. Variables include: the…
Estimates of random walk exit probabilities and application to loop-erased random walk
Kozdron, Michael J.; Lawler, Gregory F.
2005-01-01
We prove an estimate for the probability that a simple random walk in a simply connected subset A of Z^2 starting on the boundary exits A at another specified boundary point. The estimates are uniform over all domains of a given inradius. We apply these estimates to prove a conjecture of S. Fomin in 2001 concerning a relationship between crossing probabilities of loop-erased random walk and Brownian motion.
Gilbert, David H.
2012-01-01
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the notion of designing and developing applied, industry-engaged learning environments that embrace ambiguity and uncertainty in overcoming pedagogical inertia in educating young entrepreneurs and innovators. The research reported on proposes a solution to the dual expectations of producing…
Adaptive filters: stable but divergent
Rupp, Markus
2015-12-01
The pros and cons of a quadratic error measure in the context of various applications have often been discussed. In this tutorial, we argue that it is not only a suboptimal but definitely the wrong choice when describing the stability behavior of adaptive filters. We take a walk through the past and recent history of adaptive filters and present 14 canonical forms of adaptive algorithms and even more variants thereof contrasting their mean-square with their l 2-stability conditions. In particular, in safety critical applications, the convergence in the mean-square sense turns out to provide wrong results, often not leading to stability at all. Only the robustness concept with its l 2-stability conditions ensures the absence of divergence.
Petersen, Kjell Yngve; Søndergaard, Karin; Kongshaug, Jesper
2015-01-01
Adaptive LightingAdaptive lighting is based on a partial automation of the possibilities to adjust the colour tone and brightness levels of light in order to adapt to people’s needs and desires. IT support is key to the technical developments that afford adaptive control systems. The possibilities offered by adaptive lighting control are created by the ways that the system components, the network and data flow can be coordinated through software so that the dynamic variations are controlled i...
Colombani Paolo C
2005-10-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Postprandial lipemia is an independent risk factor for coronary heart disease. Single bouts of moderate exercise may lower this risk, but the minimum duration of moderate intensity exercise that still lowers postprandial lipemia is not known. We, therefore, performed a dose-response study with a normal, daily life setting, to identify the minimum duration of moderate intensity walking that lowers postprandial lipemia in sedentary, healthy young men. Methods Sixteen men performed three activity trials (30, 60, or 90 min of treadmill walking at 50% of their individual VO2max and a control trial with no physical activity in a repeated measures crossover design. The subjects walked immediately before ingestion of the first of two mixed meals, which were served 3 h apart. The meals had a moderate fat content (0.5 g per kg body mass and 33% of total energy per meal and a macronutrient composition corresponding to current recommendations. Each meal provided one third of the subject's estimated daily energy requirement. Venous blood samples were taken in the fasted state, and then hourly for 6 h after the first meal to assess the postprandial phase. Postprandial lipemia (the incremental area under the curve (dAUC of triacylglycerol was compared with a mixed model analysis and Tukey's adjustment. Results Postprandial lipemia (dAUC of triacylglycerol was, compared to the control trial, +2% (P = 1.00, -14% (P = 0.24, and -15% (P = 0.23 in the 30, 60, and 90 min walking trials, respectively. Conclusion Moderate intensity walking of 60 and 90 min duration slightly, but insignificantly, reduced postprandial lipemia after two mixed meals with moderate fat content in sedentary, healthy young men, compared to inactivity. Therefore, it should be reconsidered if the acute exercise-induced reduction in postprandial lipemia usually observed in studies using high fat meals is of importance in a real, daily life setting.
Keinänen, Mia
2016-01-01
Walking has long been associated with thinking. Anecdotal evidence from philosophers, writers, researchers, artists, business leaders and so forth testify to the powers of walking-for-thinking. This study explores walking-for-thinking among nine academics in Norway, four university professors, two research and development professionals, two…
Numerical and experimental study of the virtual quadrupedal walking robot-semiquad
SemiQuad is a prototyped walking robot with a platform and two double-link legs. Thus, it is a five-link mechanism. The front leg models identical motions of two quadruped's front legs, the back leg models identical motions of two quadruped's back legs. The legs have passive (uncontrolled) feet that extend in the frontal plane. Due to this the robot is stable in the frontal plane. This robot can be viewed as a 'virtual' quadruped. Four DC motors drive the mechanism. Its control system comprises a computer, hardware servo-systems and power amplifiers. The locomotion of the prototype is planar curvet gait. In the double support our prototype is statically stable and over actuated. In the single support it is unstable and under actuated system. There is no flight phase. We describe here the scheme of the mechanism, the characteristics of the drives and the control strategy. The dynamic model of the planar walking is recalled for the double, single support phases and for the impact instant. An intuitive control strategy is detailed. The designed control strategy overcomes the difficulties appeared due to unstable and under actuated motion in the single support. Due to the control algorithm the walking regime consists of the alternating different phases. The sequence of these phases is the following. A double support phase begins. A fast bend and unbend of the front leg allows a lift-off of the front leg. During the single support on the back leg the distance between the two leg tips increases. Then an impact occurs and a new double support phase begins. A fast bend and unbend of the back leg allows the lift-off of the back leg. During the single support on the front leg the distance between the two leg tips decreases to form a cyclic walking gait. The experiments give results that are close to those of the simulation
Random walk search in unstructured P2P
Jia Zhaoqing; You Jinyuan; Rao Ruonan; Li Minglu
2006-01-01
Unstructured P2P has power-law link distribution, and the random walk in power-law networks is analyzed. The analysis results show that the probability that a random walker walks through the high degree nodes is high in the power-law network, and the information on the high degree nodes can be easily found through random walk. Random walk spread and random walk search method (RWSS) is proposed based on the analysis result. Simulation results show that RWSS achieves high success rates at low cost and is robust to high degree node failure.
STS-102 Astronaut James Voss Participates in Space Walk
2001-01-01
STS-102 astronaut and mission specialist James S. Voss works outside Destiny, the U.S. Laboratory (shown in lower frame) on the International Space Station (ISS), while anchored to the Remote Manipulator System (RMS) robotic arm on the Space Shuttle Discovery during the first of two space walks. During this space walk, the longest to date in space shuttle history, Voss in tandem with Susan Helms (out of frame), prepared the Pressurized Mating Adapter 3 for repositioning from the Unity Module's Earth-facing berth to its port-side berth to make room for the Leonardo Multipurpose Logistics Module (MPLM) supplied by the Italian Space Agency. The The Leonardo MPLM is the first of three such pressurized modules that will serve as the ISS' moving vans, carrying laboratory racks filled with equipment, experiments, and supplies to and from the Station aboard the Space Shuttle. The cylindrical module is approximately 21-feet long and 15- feet in diameter, weighing almost 4.5 tons. It can carry up to 10 tons of cargo in 16 standard Space Station equipment racks. Of the 16 racks the module can carry, 5 can be furnished with power, data, and fluid to support refrigerators or freezers. In order to function as an attached station module as well as a cargo transport, the logistics module also includes components that provide life support, fire detection and suppression, electrical distribution, and computer functions. Launched on May 8, 2001 for nearly 13 days in space, the STS-102 mission was the 8th spacecraft assembly flight to the ISS and NASA's 103rd overall mission. The mission also served as a crew rotation flight. It delivered the Expedition Two crew to the Station and returned the Expedition One crew back to Earth.
Distracted walking: Examining the extent to pedestrian safety problems
Judith Mwakalonge
2015-10-01
Full Text Available Pedestrians, much like drivers, have always been engaged in multi-tasking like using hand-held devices, listening to music, snacking, or reading while walking. The effects are similar to those experienced by distracted drivers. However, distracted walking has not received similar policies and effective interventions as distracted driving to improve pedestrian safety. This study reviewed the state-of-practice on policies, campaigns, available data, identified research needs, and opportunities pertaining to distracted walking. A comprehensive review of literature revealed that some of the agencies/organizations disseminate useful information about certain distracting activities that pedestrians should avoid while walking to improve their safety. Various walking safety rules/tips have been given, such as not wearing headphones or talking on a cell phone while crossing a street, keeping the volume down, hanging up the phone while walking, being aware of traffic, and avoiding distractions like walking with texting. The majority of the past observational-based and experimental-based studies reviewed in this study on distracted walking is in agreement that there is a positive correlation between distraction and unsafe walking behavior. However, limitations of the existing crash data suggest that distracted walking may not be a severe threat to the public health. Current pedestrian crash data provide insufficient information for researchers to examine the extent to which distracted walking causes and/or contributes to actual pedestrian safety problems.
Pseudo memory effects, majorization and entropy in quantum random walks
Bracken, Anthony J [Centre for Mathematical Physics and Department of Mathematics, University of Queensland, Brisbane 4072 (Australia); Ellinas, Demosthenes [Division of Mathematics, Technical University of Crete, GR-73100 Chania Crete (Greece); Tsohantjis, Ioannis [Division of Physics, Technical University of Crete, GR-73100 Chania Crete (Greece)
2004-02-25
A quantum random walk on the integers exhibits pseudo memory effects, in that its probability distribution after N steps is determined by reshuffling the first N distributions that arise in a classical random walk with the same initial distribution. In a classical walk, entropy increase can be regarded as a consequence of the majorization ordering of successive distributions. The Lorenz curves of successive distributions for a symmetric quantum walk reveal no majorization ordering in general. Nevertheless, entropy can increase, and computer experiments show that it does so on average. Varying the stages at which the quantum coin system is traced out leads to new quantum walks, including a symmetric walk for which majorization ordering is valid but the spreading rate exceeds that of the usual symmetric quantum walk. (letter to the editor)
Generalized atmospheric sampling of self-avoiding walks
In this paper, we introduce a new Monte Carlo method for sampling lattice self-avoiding walks. The method, which we call 'GAS' (generalized atmospheric sampling), samples walks along weighted sequences by implementing elementary moves generated by the positive, negative and neutral atmospheric statistics of the walks. A realized sequence is weighted such that the average weight of states of length n is proportional to the number of self-avoiding walks from the origin cn. In addition, the method also self-tunes to sample from uniform distributions over walks of lengths in an interval [0, nmax]. We show how to implement GAS using both generalized and endpoint atmospheres of walks and analyse our data to obtain estimates of the growth constant and entropic exponent of self-avoiding walks in the square and cubic lattices.
Generalized atmospheric sampling of self-avoiding walks
Van Rensburg, E J Janse [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, York University Toronto, Ontario M3J 1P3 (Canada); Rechnitzer, A [Department of Mathematics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z2 (Canada)], E-mail: rensburg@yorku.ca, E-mail: andrewr@math.ubc.ca
2009-08-21
In this paper, we introduce a new Monte Carlo method for sampling lattice self-avoiding walks. The method, which we call 'GAS' (generalized atmospheric sampling), samples walks along weighted sequences by implementing elementary moves generated by the positive, negative and neutral atmospheric statistics of the walks. A realized sequence is weighted such that the average weight of states of length n is proportional to the number of self-avoiding walks from the origin c{sub n}. In addition, the method also self-tunes to sample from uniform distributions over walks of lengths in an interval [0, n{sub max}]. We show how to implement GAS using both generalized and endpoint atmospheres of walks and analyse our data to obtain estimates of the growth constant and entropic exponent of self-avoiding walks in the square and cubic lattices.
Pseudo Memory Effects, Majorization and Entropy in Quantum Random Walks
Bracken, A J; Tsohantjis, I; Bracken, Anthony J.; Ellinas, Demosthenes; Tsohantjis, Ioannis
2004-01-01
A quantum random walk on the integers exhibits pseudo memory effects, in that its probability distribution after N steps is determined by reshuffling the first N distributions that arise in a classical random walk with the same initial distribution. In a classical walk, entropy increase can be regarded as a consequence of the majorization ordering of successive distributions. The Lorenz curves of successive distributions for a symmetric quantum walk reveal no majorization ordering in general. Nevertheless, entropy can increase, and computer experiments show that it does so on average. Varying the stages at which the quantum coin system is traced out leads to new quantum walks, including a symmetric walk for which majorization ordering is valid but the spreading rate exceeds that of the usual symmetric quantum walk.
A formative evaluation of a family-based walking intervention-Furness Families Walk4Life
Bull Fiona
2011-08-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background The family unit may be an important mechanism for increasing physical activity levels, yet little is known about what types of family-based interventions are effective. This study involved a formative evaluation of a 12 week intervention to encourage walking as a family based activity. The intervention consisted of several key elements including led walks and tailored resources, as well as remote support provided via the telephone. The project aimed to explore factors associated with successful delivery of the programme and to identify areas of improvement for future implementation. Methods A total of nine interviews were undertaken with programme staff who were involved in either the set up or delivery of the intervention. In addition, four interviews and two focus groups were undertaken with participants to explore their experiences of the programme. The analysis involved both deductive and inductive reasoning. Results In total, 114 people participated in the programme, which included 36 adults, 10 adolescents and 68 children (≤ 10 years of age. Adult participants reported several barriers to walking including concerns over their children's behaviour and their ability to maintain 'control' of their children. Walking in a group with other families gave parents confidence to go out walking with their children and provided a valuable opportunity for social interaction for parents and children alike. The most successful walks incorporated specific destinations and an activity to undertake upon reaching the destination. Incorporating other activities along the way also helped to keep the children engaged. Conclusions The results of this study have highlighted the important contribution that formative research can make in informing and refining a programme to increase appropriateness and effectiveness. The study has helped to highlight the key characteristics associated with delivering a successful walking intervention to young
Dynamic Stability of Passive Bipedal Walking on Rough Terrain:A Preliminary Simulation Study
Parsa Nassiri Afshar; Lei Ren
2012-01-01
A simplified 2D passive dynamic model was simulated to walk down on a rough slope surface defined by deterministic profiles to investigate how the walking stability changes with increasing surface roughness.Our results show that the passive walker can walk on rough surfaces subject to surface roughness up to approximately 0.1％ of its leg length.This indicates that bipedal walkers based on passive dynamics may possess some intrinsic stability to adapt to rough terrains although the maximum roughness they can tolerate is small.Orbital stability method was used to quantify the walking stability before the walker started to fall over.It was found that the average maximum Floquet multiplier increases with surface roughness in a non-linear form.Although the passive walker remained orbitally stable for all the simulation cases,the results suggest that the possibility of the bipedal model moving away from its limit cycle increases with the surface roughness if subjected to additional perturbations.The number of consecutive steps before falling was used to measure the walking stability after the passive walker started to fall over.The results show that the number of steps before falling decreases exponentially with the increase in surface roughness.When the roughness magnitude approached to 0.73％ of the walker's leg length,it fell down to the ground as soon as it entered into the uneven terrain.It was also found that shifting the phase angle of the surface profile has apparent affect on the system stability.This is probably because point contact was used to simulate the heel strikes and the resulted variations in system states at heel strikes may have pronounced impact on the passive gaits,which have narrow basins of attraction.These results would provide insight into how the dynamic stability of passive bipedal walkers evolves with increasing surface roughness.
Simulating continuous-time Hamiltonian dynamics by way of a discrete-time quantum walk
Schmitz, A. T.; Schwalm, W. A.
2016-03-01
Much effort has been made to connect the continuous-time and discrete-time quantum walks. We present a method for making that connection for a general graph Hamiltonian on a bigraph. Furthermore, such a scheme may be adapted for simulating discretized quantum models on a quantum computer. A coin operator is found for the discrete-time quantum walk which exhibits the same dynamics as the continuous-time evolution. Given the spectral decomposition of the graph Hamiltonian and certain restrictions, the discrete-time evolution is solved for explicitly and understood at or near important values of the parameters. Finally, this scheme is connected to past results for the 1D chain.
Random Walks on Stochastic Temporal Networks
Hoffmann, Till; Lambiotte, Renaud
2013-01-01
In the study of dynamical processes on networks, there has been intense focus on network structure -- i.e., the arrangement of edges and their associated weights -- but the effects of the temporal patterns of edges remains poorly understood. In this chapter, we develop a mathematical framework for random walks on temporal networks using an approach that provides a compromise between abstract but unrealistic models and data-driven but non-mathematical approaches. To do this, we introduce a stochastic model for temporal networks in which we summarize the temporal and structural organization of a system using a matrix of waiting-time distributions. We show that random walks on stochastic temporal networks can be described exactly by an integro-differential master equation and derive an analytical expression for its asymptotic steady state. We also discuss how our work might be useful to help build centrality measures for temporal networks.
Random walk centrality in interconnected multilayer networks
Solé-Ribalta, Albert; De Domenico, Manlio; Gómez, Sergio; Arenas, Alex
2016-06-01
Real-world complex systems exhibit multiple levels of relationships. In many cases they require to be modeled as interconnected multilayer networks, characterizing interactions of several types simultaneously. It is of crucial importance in many fields, from economics to biology and from urban planning to social sciences, to identify the most (or the less) influent nodes in a network using centrality measures. However, defining the centrality of actors in interconnected complex networks is not trivial. In this paper, we rely on the tensorial formalism recently proposed to characterize and investigate this kind of complex topologies, and extend two well known random walk centrality measures, the random walk betweenness and closeness centrality, to interconnected multilayer networks. For each of the measures we provide analytical expressions that completely agree with numerically results.
The Evolution Of Odetics Walking Machine Technology
Bartholet, Stephen J.
1987-02-01
The development of the Odetics walking machine technology is presented from the original concept aimed at feasibility demonstration through advanced designs with specific mission applications. The high power efficiency and high strength-to-weight ratio features of the original leg designs are presented along with the hierarchical control concepts. The evolutionary development of improved gait control for faster, smoother walking, and the demands imposed by uneven terrain and stair climbing are discussed. Sensor integration for motion control and vision for teleoperation are covered, as is operator control station design. Specific walker design concepts to accomplish nuclear power plant maintenance and a Mars Rover mission are presented. The nuclear power plant design integrates a six-degree of freedom manipulator arm onto an improved design walker with a fiber-optic link to the operator control station. The Mars Rover mission concept is aimed at maximum packaging density, light weight and high mobility on steep and soft terrain while minimizing power consumption.
Random walk centrality in interconnected multilayer networks
Solé-Ribalta, Albert; Gómez, Sergio; Arenas, Alex
2015-01-01
Real-world complex systems exhibit multiple levels of relationships. In many cases they require to be modeled as interconnected multilayer networks, characterizing interactions of several types simultaneously. It is of crucial importance in many fields, from economics to biology and from urban planning to social sciences, to identify the most (or the less) influential nodes in a network using centrality measures. However, defining the centrality of actors in interconnected complex networks is not trivial. In this paper, we rely on the tensorial formalism recently proposed to characterize and investigate this kind of complex topologies, and extend two well known random walk centrality measures, the random walk betweenness and closeness centrality, to interconnected multilayer networks. For each of the measures we provide analytical expressions that completely agree with numerically results.
Walking beam pumping unit system efficiency measurements
The cost of electricity used by walking beam pumping units is a major expense in producing crude oil. However, only very limited information is available on the efficiency of beam pumping systems and less is known about the efficiency of the various components of the pumping units. This paper presents and discusses measurements that have been made on wells at several Shell locations and on a specially designed walking beam pump test stand at Lufkin Industries. These measurements were made in order to determine the overall system efficiency and efficiency of individual components. The results of this work show that the overall beam pumping system efficiency is normally between 48 and 58 percent. This is primarily dependent on the motor size, motor type, gearbox size, system's age, production, pump size, tubing size, and rod sizes
Revising the senior walking environmental assessment tool
Michael, Yvonne L.; Keast, Erin M.; Chaudhury, Habib; Day, Kristen; Mahmood, Atiya; Sarte, Ann F.I.
2016-01-01
Background The Senior Walking Environmental Assessment Tool (SWEAT), an instrument for measuring built environmental features associated with physical activity of older adults, was revised to create an easier-to-use tool for use by practitioners and community members. Methods Inter-rater and intra-rater reliability of the modified instrument (SWEAT-R) was assessed in Portland, Oregon in 2007. Five trained observers audited street segments in 12 neighborhoods, resulting in 361 pairs of audits, including 63 repeated audits. Results Overall, 88% and 75% of items assessed had good or excellent inter-rater and intra-rater reliability, respectively. The revised instrument required less time to complete than the original instrument, while obtaining more information. Conclusion SWEAT-R provides easy to gather, reliable data for use in community-based audits of built environment in relation to walking among older adults. PMID:19136025
Environment-dependent continuous time random walk
Lin Fang; Bao Jing-Dong
2011-01-01
A generalized continuous time random walk model which is dependent on environmental damping is proposed in which the two key parameters of the usual random walk theory:the jumping distance and the waiting time, are replaced by two new ones:the pulse velocity and the flight time. The anomalous diffusion of a free particle which is characterized by the asymptotical mean square displacement ～tα is realized numerically and analysed theoretically, where the value of the power index a is in a region of 0<α<2. Particularly, the damping leads to a sub-diffusion when the impact velocities are drawn from a Gaussian density function and the super-diffusive effect is related to statistical extremes, which are called rare-though-dominant events.
Random Walk on the Prime Numbers
The one-dimensional random walk (RW), where steps up and down are performed according to the occurrence of special primes is defined. Some quantities characterizing RW are investigated. The mean fluctuation function F(l) displays perfect power law dependence F(l) ∼ l1/2 indicating that the defined RW is not correlated. The number of returns of this special RW to the origin is investigated. It turns out, that this single, very special, realization of RW is typical one in the sense, that the usual characteristics used to measure RW, take the values close to the ones averaged over all random walks. The fractal structure on the subset of primes is also found. (author)
Random Walk Picture of Basketball Scoring
Gabel, Alan
2011-01-01
We present evidence, based on play-by-play data from all 6087 games from the 2006/07--2009/10 seasons of the National Basketball Association (NBA), that basketball scoring is well described by a weakly-biased continuous-time random walk. The time between successive scoring events follows an exponential distribution, with little memory between different scoring intervals. Using this random-walk picture that is augmented by features idiosyncratic to basketball, we account for a wide variety of statistical properties of scoring, such as the distribution of the score difference between opponents and the fraction of game time that one team is in the lead. By further including the heterogeneity of team strengths, we build a computational model that accounts for essentially all statistical features of game scoring data and season win/loss records of each team.
Random walks, random fields, and disordered systems
Černý, Jiří; Kotecký, Roman
2015-01-01
Focusing on the mathematics that lies at the intersection of probability theory, statistical physics, combinatorics and computer science, this volume collects together lecture notes on recent developments in the area. The common ground of these subjects is perhaps best described by the three terms in the title: Random Walks, Random Fields and Disordered Systems. The specific topics covered include a study of Branching Brownian Motion from the perspective of disordered (spin-glass) systems, a detailed analysis of weakly self-avoiding random walks in four spatial dimensions via methods of field theory and the renormalization group, a study of phase transitions in disordered discrete structures using a rigorous version of the cavity method, a survey of recent work on interacting polymers in the ballisticity regime and, finally, a treatise on two-dimensional loop-soup models and their connection to conformally invariant systems and the Gaussian Free Field. The notes are aimed at early graduate students with a mod...
Iorizzo, Dana B.; Riley, Meghan E.; Hayhoe, Mary; Huxlin, Krystel R.
2011-01-01
The present experiments aimed to characterize the visual performance of subjects with long-standing, unilateral cortical blindness when walking in a naturalistic, virtual environment. Under static, seated testing conditions, cortically blind subjects are known to exhibit compensatory eye movement strategies. However, they still complain of significant impairment in visual detection during navigation. To assess whether this is due to a change in compensatory eye movement strategy between sitting and walking, we measured eye and head movements in subjects asked to detect peripherally-presented, moving basketballs. When seated, cortically blind subjects detected ~80% of balls, while controls detected almost all balls. Seated blind subjects did not make larger head movements than controls, but they consistently biased their fixation distribution towards their blind hemifield. When walking, head movements were similar in the two groups, but the fixation bias decreased to the point that fixation distribution in cortically blind subjects became similar to that in controls - with one major exception: at the time of basketball appearance, walking controls looked primarily at the far ground, in upper quadrants of the virtual field of view; cortically blind subjects looked significantly more at the near ground, in lower quadrants of the virtual field. Cortically blind subjects detected only 58% of the balls when walking while controls detected ~90%. Thus, the adaptive gaze strategies adopted by cortically blind individuals as a compensation for their visual loss are strongest and most effective when seated and stationary. Walking significantly alters these gaze strategies in a way that seems to favor walking performance, but impairs peripheral target detection. It is possible that this impairment underlies the experienced difficulty of those with cortical blindness when navigating in real life. PMID:21414339
Huffard, Christine L
2006-10-01
Speeds and variation in body form during crawling, bipedal walking, swimming and jetting by the shallow-water octopus Abdopus aculeatus were compared to explore possible interactions between defense behaviors and biomechanics of these multi-limbed organisms. General body postures and patterns were more complex and varied during the slow mode of crawling than during fast escape maneuvers such as swimming and jetting. These results may reflect a trade-off between predator deception and speed, or simply a need to reduce drag during jet-propelled locomotion. Octopuses swam faster when dorsoventrally compressed, a form that may generate lift, than when swimming in the head-raised posture. Bipedal locomotion proceeded as fast as swimming and can be considered a form of fast escape (secondary defense) that also incorporates elements of crypsis and polyphenism (primary defenses). Body postures during walking suggested the use of both static and dynamic stability. Absolute speed was not correlated with body mass in any mode. Based on these findings the implications for defense behaviors such as escape from predation, aggression, and 'flatfish mimicry' performed by A. aculeatus and other octopuses are discussed. PMID:16985187
Quantum walks on Erdos-Renyi networks
Xu, X. -P.; Liu, F
2008-01-01
We study the coherent exciton transport of continuous-time quantum walks (CTQWs) on Erdos-Renyi networks. The Erdos-Renyi network of N nodes is constructed by connecting every pair of nodes with probability $p$. We numerically calculate the ensemble averaged transition probability of quantum transport between two nodes of the networks. For finite networks, we find that the limiting transition probability is reached very quickly. For infinite networks whose spectral density follows the semicir...
Generalized Quantum Random Walk in Momentum Space
Romanelli, A; Siri, R; Abal, G; Donangelo, R
2004-01-01
We introduce a discrete-time quantum walk on a one-dimensional momentum space including both discrete jumps and continuous drift. Its time evolution has two diferent stages. Initially a Markovian diffusion develops during a characteristic time interval, after which dynamical localization sets in, as in the well known Quantum Kicked Rotor system. For some exceptional values of the model's parameter the system exhibits resonant behavior and the system model behaves as the standard discrete time quantum walker on the line.
Polymers as Self-Avoiding Walks
Freed, Karl F.
1981-01-01
A brief overview is presented of the relation of the properties of real polymers to the problem of self-avoiding random walks. The self-consistent field method is discussed wherein the non-Markovian continuous self-avoiding polymer is replaced by a self-consistent Markovian approximation. An outline is presented of the method of solution of the resultant nonlinear integrodifferential equations. A description is also presented of the scaling theories which provide a means for deducing some exp...
Dynamic random walks theory and applications
Guillotin-Plantard, Nadine
2006-01-01
The aim of this book is to report on the progress realized in probability theory in the field of dynamic random walks and to present applications in computer science, mathematical physics and finance. Each chapter contains didactical material as well as more advanced technical sections. Few appendices will help refreshing memories (if necessary!).· New probabilistic model, new results in probability theory· Original applications in computer science· Applications in mathematical physics· Applications in finance
Media Arts Walking Research Group Interactive poster
Robinson, Andrew
2015-01-01
A poster representing the work of the seven members of the Media Arts Walking Research Group who attended the "Where To?" conference at Falmouth University on April 16th 2015. The poster includes QR codes that take the viewer to each individual member's work (web sites, videos, images). The poster was presented and displayed in the conference breakout space for the duration of the event (the address provided below links to my contribution)
All Stars CATch : Walk of life
Houwerzijl, Martijn
2006-01-01
All Stars CATch; Walk of life is een beschrijving van het All Stars CATch traject dat door Stedelijk Jongerenwerk Amsterdam (SJA) is uitgevoerd in opdracht van Click F1 en is geschreven met toestemming van Dienst Maatschappelijke Ontwikkeling Amsterdam. De beschrijving van de CATchmethode (H1) is gebaseerd op fragmenten uit: “Hart voor jongeren”, een publicatie over de unieke CATchmethode en hoe deze in de praktijk werkt. De beschrijving van het specifieke All Stars traject, de rol van SJA en...
Monitoring Butterfly Abundance: Beyond Pollard Walks
Pellet, Jérôme; Bried, Jason T.; Parietti, David; Gander, Antoine; Heer, Patrick O.; Cherix, Daniel; Arlettaz, Raphaël
2012-01-01
Most butterfly monitoring protocols rely on counts along transects (Pollard walks) to generate species abundance indices and track population trends. It is still too often ignored that a population count results from two processes: the biological process (true abundance) and the statistical process (our ability to properly quantify abundance). Because individual detectability tends to vary in space (e.g., among sites) and time (e.g., among years), it remains unclear whether index counts truly...
A Short Walk along the Gravimeters Path
Iginio Marson
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The history of gravity measurements begun in 1604 with Galileo Galilei experiments on the acceleration due to the gravity force of the earth, g, along inclined planes. In his memory, the most used unit to measure g is the gal (10−2 m/s2. The paper takes the interested reader through a walk along some of the most important achievements in gravity measurements and gives some perspectives for future developments in terrestrial gravity.
A Random Walk Picture of Basketball
Gabel, Alan; Redner, Sidney
2012-02-01
We analyze NBA basketball play-by-play data and found that scoring is well described by a weakly-biased, anti-persistent, continuous-time random walk. The time between successive scoring events follows an exponential distribution, with little memory between events. We account for a wide variety of statistical properties of scoring, such as the distribution of the score difference between opponents and the fraction of game time that one team is in the lead.
Random Walks and Sustained Competitive Advantage
Jerker Denrell
2004-01-01
Strategy is concerned with sustained interfirm profitability differences. Observations of such sustained differences are often attributed to unobserved systematic a priori differences in firm characteristics. This paper shows that sustained interfirm profitability differences may be very likely even if there are no a priori differences among firms. As a result of the phenomenon of long leads in random walks, even a random resource accumulation process is likely to produce persistent resource ...
WalkThrough Example Procedures for MAMA
Ruggiero, Christy E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Gaschen, Brian Keith [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bloch, Jeffrey Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2016-07-15
This documentation is a growing set of walk through examples of analyses using the MAMA V2.0 software. It does not cover all the features or possibilities with the MAMA software, but will address using many of the basic analysis tools to quantify particle size and shape in an image. This document will continue to evolve as additional procedures and examples are added. The starting assumption is that the MAMA software has been successfully installed.