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Sample records for adaptive developmental delay

  1. The Adaptive Project of Parenting: South Asian Families with Children with Developmental Delays.

    Raghavan, Chemba; Weisner, Thomas S.; Patel, Devindra

    1999-01-01

    This study compared patterns of family adaptation to children with developmental delays of South Asian families living in California with similar Euro-American families. Analysis of parent interviews found differences in family support, spousal relations, gender roles, cultural identity, and spirituality. Similarities were found in hope for…

  2. Delaying Developmental Mathematics: The Characteristics and Costs

    Johnson, Marianne; Kuennen, Eric

    2004-01-01

    This paper investigates which students delay taking a required developmental mathematics course and the impact of delay on student performance in introductory microeconomics. Analysis of a sample of 1462 students at a large Midwestern university revealed that, although developmental-level mathematics students did not reach the same level of…

  3. Trichothiodystrophy with sideroblastic anaemia and developmental delay.

    Lynch, S A; de Berker, D; Lehmann, A R; Pollitt, R. J.; Reid, M. M.; Lamb, W.H.

    1995-01-01

    A patient with sideroblastic anaemia, development delay, and trichothiodystrophy is presented. Trichothiodystrophy is a feature of several autosomal recessive diseases. Photosensitivity, failure to thrive, and developmental delay are commonly observed in affected cases. X linked inheritance accounts for the bulk of cases with sideroblastic anaemia. This case highlights the importance of routine hair microscopy in cases of atypical ectodermal dysplasia.

  4. Risk factors of ophthalmic disorders in children with developmental delay

    Sandfeld, L.N.; Jensen, H.; Skov, L.

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: To identify diagnoses that increase the risk of ophthalmic disorders in developmentally delayed children. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 1126 Danish children with developmental delay (IQ Udgivelsesdato: 2008/12......PURPOSE: To identify diagnoses that increase the risk of ophthalmic disorders in developmentally delayed children. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 1126 Danish children with developmental delay (IQ Udgivelsesdato: 2008/12...

  5. Developmental trends in adaptive memory.

    Otgaar, Henry; Howe, Mark L; Smeets, Tom; Garner, Sarah R

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed that memory is enhanced when information is processed for fitness-related purposes. The main objective of the current experiments was to test developmental trends in the evolutionary foundation of memory using different types of stimuli and paradigms. In Experiment 1, 11-year-olds and adults were presented with neutral, negative, and survival-related DRM word lists. We found a memory benefit for the survival-related words and showed that false memories were more likely to be elicited for the survival-related word lists than for the other lists. Experiment 2 examined developmental trends in the survival processing paradigm using neutral, negative, and survival-related pictures. A survival processing advantage was found for survival-related pictures in adults, for negative pictures in 11/12-year-olds, and for neutral pictures in 7/8-year-olds. In Experiment 3, 11/12-year-olds and adults had to imagine the standard survival scenario or an adapted survival condition (or pleasantness condition) that was designed to reduce the possibilities for elaborative processing. We found superior memory retention for both survival scenarios in children and adults. Collectively, our results evidently show that the survival processing advantage is developmentally invariant and that certain proximate mechanisms (elaboration and distinctiveness) underlie these developmental trends. PMID:23521432

  6. Emplotting children's lives: developmental delay vs. disability.

    Landsman, Gail

    2003-05-01

    While it is increasingly possible to envision "perfect" babies, it is not always the case that reproduction actually proceeds according to individual will; for example, there has been no recent reduction in rates of childhood disability. Nevertheless, in most studies of new reproductive technologies, the birth of those children whom few would actively choose-"defective" or disabled infants-is presented only in hypothetical terms. This paper argues for expanding the domain of reproduction to include research on the parenting of children with disabilities. Based on a qualitative research project carried out at a hospital-based newborn follow-up program that serves as an evaluation site determining eligibility for early intervention services for infants and young children with disabilities, this paper focuses on a particular part of women's experience of acquiring new knowledge about personhood and disability, that is, on the period of time when a woman has recently had confirmed that reproduction has, in her case, gone awry. Disability in many cultures, including the United States, diminishes personhood. I suggest that American mothers' narratives, by utilizing the concept of developmental delay, can assert personhood, or rather, the potential for its future attainment; in doing so, they justify ongoing nurturance of a disabled child in spite of negative attitudes about disability. A particular case of one mother's emplotment of her child's life within a story of developmental delay, in competition with the physician's story of disability, is analyzed. The paper concludes with reflections on how stories of developmental delay told by mothers just encountering a diagnosis of disability may differ from the stories told by those who have experienced mothering a disabled child over time, and on the implications of these differences for the cultural construction of personhood in the United States. PMID:12650731

  7. Approach to Mental Retardation and Global Developmental Delay

    Mahmoud Reza ASHRAFI

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveMental Retardation (MR or Intellectual Disability is one of three chronic and disabling neurological disorders of children and adolescents. Its prevalence is estimated 1-3% of the population. MR is defined as significant sub-average intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior that become detectable before the age of 18. MR may come into view before 5 years as delay in at least two developmental domains which is called Global Developmental Delay (GDD.The causes of mental retardation can be considered under the titles of prenatal, perinatal and postnatal factors. Prenatal causes account for approximately 60 -80 % of the etiological factors. All patients with GDD / MR should undergo a stepwise diagnostic approach, because a specific diagnosis leads to opportunity for treatment, future planning and genetic counseling. History, physical examination and neurodevelopmental examinations are the most important parts of the approach. Recent advances in cytogenetic investigations and neuroimaging studies have led to recognition of new disorders and improvement of the diagnostic yield.Keywords: Mental retardation ; global developmental delay; diagnostic yield.

  8. Visual Abilities in Children with Developmental Delay

    Welinder, Lotte G; Baggesen, Kirsten L

    Purpose:  To investigate the visual abilities of students with severe developmental delay (DD) age 6-8 starting in special needs education. Methods:  Between 1 January 2000 and 31 December 2008, we screened all students with severe DD starting in special needs schools in Northern Jutland, Denmark......:  Visual impairment is a common condition in students with severe DD. Despite increased awareness of VI in the school and health care system, we continued to find a considerable number of students with hitherto undiagnosed decreased vision.......Purpose:  To investigate the visual abilities of students with severe developmental delay (DD) age 6-8 starting in special needs education. Methods:  Between 1 January 2000 and 31 December 2008, we screened all students with severe DD starting in special needs schools in Northern Jutland, Denmark...... for vision. All students with visual acuities ≤6/12 were refractioned and examined by an ophthalmologist. Results:  Of 502 students, 56 (11%) had visual impairment (VI) [visual acuity (VA) ≤ 6/18], of which 21 had been previously undiagnosed. Legal blindness was found in 15 students (3%), of whom...

  9. Clinical profile of children with developmental delay and microcephaly

    Anju Aggarwal; Hema Mittal; Rahul Patil; Sanjib Debnath; Anuradha Rai

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To study the profile of children with developmental delay and microcephaly. Materials and Methods: Children attending child development clinic with developmental delay were evaluated as per protocol. Z scores of head circumference were calculated using WHO charts. Clinical, radiological and etiological profile of those with microcephaly and those without was compared. Results: Of the 414 children with developmental delay 231 had microcephaly (z score ≤ -3). Mean age of children with micr...

  10. Genetic Insights May Help Kids Battling Developmental Delays

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_159026.html Genetic Insights May Help Kids Battling Developmental Delays DNA ... delays, with a new study showing that extensive genetic analysis may help determine the cause of their ...

  11. Toddler Developmental Delays After Extensive Hospitalization: Primary Care Practitioner Guidelines.

    Lehner, Dana C; Sadler, Lois S

    2015-01-01

    This review investigated developmental delays toddlers may encounter after a lengthy pediatric hospitalization (30 days or greater). Physical, motor, cognitive, and psychosocial development of children aged 1 to 3 years was reviewed to raise awareness of factors associated with developmental delay after extensive hospitalization. Findings from the literature suggest that neonatal and pediatric intensive care unit (NICU/PICU) graduates are most at risk for developmental delays, but even non-critical hospital stays interrupt development to some extent. Primary care practitioners (PCPs) may be able to minimize risk for delays through the use of formal developmental screening tests and parent report surveys. References and resources are described for developmental assessment to help clinicians recognize delays and to educate families about optimal toddler development interventions. Pediatric PCPs play a leading role in coordinating health and developmental services for the young child following an extensive hospital stay. PMID:26665423

  12. Social Skills and Their Correlates: Preschoolers with Developmental Delays.

    Kopp, Claire B.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Fifteen preschool children with mild mental retardation (developmental delays) were observed during play with nondisabled peers. Children with delays showed less social play, more disruptive entry, more regressive behaviors, and less positive affect; their level of social play related to developmental age and communication ability but not to…

  13. Neuropsychomotor developmental delay: conceptual map, term definitions, uses and limitations

    Lílian de Fátima Dornelas; Neuza Maria de Castro Duarte; Lívia de Castro Magalhães

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To retrieve the origin of the term neuropsychomotor developmental delay" (NPMD), its conceptual evolution over time, and to build a conceptual map based on literature review. DATA SOURCE: A literature search was performed in the SciELO Brazil, Web of Science, Science Direct, OneFile (GALE), Pubmed (Medline), Whiley Online, and Springer databases, from January of 1940 to January of 2013, using the following keywords: NPMD delay, NPMD retardation, developmental delay, and global deve...

  14. Neuropsychomotor developmental delay: conceptual map, term definitions, uses and limitations

    Lílian de Fátima Dornelas

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To retrieve the origin of the term neuropsychomotor developmental delay" (NPMD, its conceptual evolution over time, and to build a conceptual map based on literature review. DATA SOURCE: A literature search was performed in the SciELO Brazil, Web of Science, Science Direct, OneFile (GALE, Pubmed (Medline, Whiley Online, and Springer databases, from January of 1940 to January of 2013, using the following keywords: NPMD delay, NPMD retardation, developmental delay, and global developmental delay. A total of 71 articles were selected, which were used to build the conceptual map of the term. DATA SYNTHESIS: Of the 71 references, 55 were international and 16 national. The terms developmental delay and global developmental delay were the most frequently used in the international literature and, in Brazil, delayed NPMD was the most often used. The term developmental delay emerged in the mid 1940s, gaining momentum in the 1990s. In Brazil, the term delayed NPMD started to be used in the 1980s, and has been frequently cited and published in the literature. Delayed development was a characteristic of 13 morbidities described in 23 references. Regarding the type of use, 19 references were found, with seven forms of use. Among the references, 34 had definitions of the term, and 16 different concepts were identified. CONCLUSIONS: Developmental delay is addressed in the international and national literature under different names, various applications, and heterogeneous concepts. Internationally, ways to improve communication between professionals have been indicated, with standardized definition of the term and use in very specific situations up to the fifth year of life, which was not found in Brazilian publications.

  15. Cytogenetic Studies in Children with Developmental Delay

    Hassan S.A. El-Dawi, *El-Sayed G. Khedr, *Tarek A. Atia, **Hassan Ali

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Developmental delay (DD could be syndromic or non-syndromic, and collectively it affects 10% of all children. There are numerous causes of DD that could be genetical, hormonal and/or neurological. The frequency of defected chromosomal anomalies in patients with DD is variable and estimates between 9% and 36%. However, the accurate diagnosis needs further tests based on the information gather from parents and the findings on physical examination. Objective: We aim to evaluate the pattern of chromosomal abnormalities in children with non-syndromic DD, in order to detect the treatable cases, and offering an appropriate genetic counseling. Methodology: 50 children suffering from DD with or without mental retardation(MR and/or congenital anomalies were subjected to the present study. Additionally, another 50 normally developed children were considered as control group. Peripheral blood samples were collected, cultured, harvested, metaphase spread and then chromosomes were stained for G-banding using Trypsin-Giemsa technique. Chromosomes were analyzed, metaphase spreads were captured, and karyotyping has been done. Result: Seven cases (14% out of the 50 affected children carried structural chromosomal rearrangements. Six (85.7% out of the seven structural chromosomal abnormalities were detected in autosomal chromosomes and one (14.3% in sex chromosome. Surprisingly, we have found a case (2% carrying pericentric inversion of chromosome 3 within the normal control group. Conclusions: Chromosomal studies are valuable in detecting such cases with DD. Prenatal genetic diagnosis is of clinical importance to prevent and offer genetic counseling. Additionally, small proportion of apparently normal population could carry some types of structural chromosomal anomalies

  16. Severe developmental delay and multiple strawberry naevi: a new syndrome?

    Upton, C J; Young, I D

    1993-01-01

    An 18 month old girl with dysmorphic features, severe developmental delay, multiple strawberry naevi, and capillary naevi is described. No previous report of a similar association of features has been identified.

  17. A Developmental Study on Delay of Gratification

    小林, 小夜子; 光富, 隆

    2009-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to investigate development of delay of gratification. In Study 1, the personal delay of gratification test, social delay of gratification inventory and personality inventory were administered to kindergarteners aged 3 to 6 years. The personal delay of gratification test included three reward pairs and subjects were instructed to choose between a less valuable reward which was immediately available and a more valuable reward which was available tomorrow. In the perso...

  18. Baclofen Withdrawal Presenting as Irritability in a Developmentally Delayed Child

    C. Anthoney Lim

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Irritability in children has a broad differential diagnosis, ranging from benign processes to lifethreatening emergencies. In children with comorbid conditions and developmental delay, the diagnostic process becomes more challenging. This case report describes a developmentally delayed 14-year-old boy who presented with pain and crying caused by a malfunction of a surgically implanted baclofen pump. We describe recommendations concerning the diagnostic evaluation, medical management, and surgical repair.

  19. Developmental trends in adaptive memory

    Otgaar, H.; Howe, M. L.; Smeets, T; Garner, S. R.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed that memory is enhanced when information is processed for fitness-related purposes. The main objective of the current experiments was to test developmental trends in the evolutionary foundation of memory using different types of stimuli and paradigms. In Experiment 1, 11-year-olds and adults were presented with neutral, negative, and survival-related DRM word lists. We found a memory benefit for the survival-related words and showed that false memories were more l...

  20. Developmentally Delayed Musical Savant's Sensitivity to Tonal Structure.

    Miller, Leon K.

    1987-01-01

    A five-year-old developmentally delayed, musically gifted child with no formal musical training was asked to repeat passages on the piano. Analysis of responses to melodies in each of the 24 major and minor keys indicated sensitivity to aspects of diatonic structure exhibited by mature listeners. (Author)

  1. Effects of Child Age and Level of Developmental Delay on Family Practice Physicians' Diagnostic Impressions.

    Epps, Susan; Kroeker, Rose

    1995-01-01

    This study of the effects of child age (20 and 40 months) and level of developmental delay (mild and severe) on identification of developmental disorders by 155 family practice physicians provided evidence that identification of developmental delay was generally high across conditions, with mild delay being less likely to be detected. (Author/JDD)

  2. Parenting Children with Developmental Delays: The Role of Positive Beliefs.

    Paczkowski, Emilie; Baker, Bruce L

    2008-07-01

    Parents of children with developmental delays consistently report higher levels of child behavior problems and also parenting stress than parents of typically developing children. This study examined how mothers' positive beliefs influence the relation between children's behavior problems and mothers' parenting stress among families of children who are developmentally delayed (DD: n = 72) or typically developing (TD: n = 95) and assessed at ages 3, 5, and 7 years. Positive beliefs had a main effect on parenting stress at all ages, which was mediated by child behavior problems for mothers in the DD group at every age and across time. In the TD group, mediation was found at age 3 years. Additionally, support was found for a moderation effect of positive beliefs on the relation between child behavior problems and parenting stress, but only in the DD group at age 3. These findings have implications for interventions drawing on Seligman's (1991) work on learned optimism, the positive counterpart of learned helplessness. PMID:20107620

  3. Autosomal recessive hypoparathyroidism with renal insufficiency and developmental delay.

    Shaw, N J; Haigh, D; Lealmann, G T; Karbani, G.; Brocklebank, J. T.; Dillon, M J

    1991-01-01

    Four children (two boys and two girls) with hypoparathyroidism, renal insufficiency, and developmental delay are described. They were the products of consanguineous marriages in three related Asian families presenting over a six year period. All the children died within the first 15 months of life despite treatment. Postmortem examination on one child showed absent parathyroid glands. We believe these children represent a previously undescribed syndrome that appears to be inherited in an auto...

  4. Brain MR imaging in children with psychomotor developmental delay

    Hirai, Toshinori; Korogi, Yukunori; Sakamoto, Yuji; Furusawa, Mitsuhiro; Hamatake, Satoshi; Takahashi, Mutsumasa (Kumamoto Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1994-06-01

    Fifty-two patients with developmental delay of unknown cause underwent MR imaging of the brain. Their ages ranged from 5 months to 22 years, with a mean of 2.2 years. Thirty-seven (71%) had positive MR findings, including nine with congenital malformation, nine with atrophy, six with white matter lesion, five with delayed myelination, five with atrophy and delayed myelination, two with acquired injury of corpus callosum, and one with ulegyria. Congenital malformations obtained included holoprosencephaly, polymicrogyria, dysgenesis of corpus callosum, hypoplasia of cerebellum, and tuberous sclerosis. Abnormal MR findings were frequently observed both in the children with neurologic physical findings and in generally retarded children, while in the children with suspected autism, MR imaging did not demonstrate any abnormalities. Of 24 patients with epilepsy, abnormal MR findings were obtained in 17 patients (71%). The frequency of white matter lesion and atrophy was slightly higher in the patients with epilepsy. However, no significant correlations were found between MR findings and the presence of epilepsy. Also, no significant correlations were obtained between MR findings and the degree of developmental quotient (DQ). Severely injured cases did not necessarily show abnormal findings on MRI. (author).

  5. Brain MR imaging in children with psychomotor developmental delay

    Fifty-two patients with developmental delay of unknown cause underwent MR imaging of the brain. Their ages ranged from 5 months to 22 years, with a mean of 2.2 years. Thirty-seven (71%) had positive MR findings, including nine with congenital malformation, nine with atrophy, six with white matter lesion, five with delayed myelination, five with atrophy and delayed myelination, two with acquired injury of corpus callosum, and one with ulegyria. Congenital malformations obtained included holoprosencephaly, polymicrogyria, dysgenesis of corpus callosum, hypoplasia of cerebellum, and tuberous sclerosis. Abnormal MR findings were frequently observed both in the children with neurologic physical findings and in generally retarded children, while in the children with suspected autism, MR imaging did not demonstrate any abnormalities. Of 24 patients with epilepsy, abnormal MR findings were obtained in 17 patients (71%). The frequency of white matter lesion and atrophy was slightly higher in the patients with epilepsy. However, no significant correlations were found between MR findings and the presence of epilepsy. Also, no significant correlations were obtained between MR findings and the degree of developmental quotient (DQ). Severely injured cases did not necessarily show abnormal findings on MRI. (author)

  6. Visual abilities in students with severe developmental delay

    Welinder, Lotte G; Baggesen, Kirsten L

    Purpose:  To investigate the visual abilities of students with severe developmental delay (DD) age 6-8 starting in special needs education. Methods:  Between 1 January 2000 and 31 December 2008, we screened all students with severe DD starting in special needs schools in Northern Jutland, Denmark......:  Visual impairment is a common condition in students with severe DD. Despite increased awareness of VI in the school and health care system, we continued to find a considerable number of students with hitherto undiagnosed decreased vision.......Purpose:  To investigate the visual abilities of students with severe developmental delay (DD) age 6-8 starting in special needs education. Methods:  Between 1 January 2000 and 31 December 2008, we screened all students with severe DD starting in special needs schools in Northern Jutland, Denmark...... for vision. All students with visual acuities ≤6/12 were refractioned and examined by an ophthalmologist. Results:  Of 502 students, 56 (11%) had visual impairment (VI) [visual acuity (VA) ≤ 6/18], of which 21 had been previously undiagnosed. Legal blindness was found in 15 students (3%), of whom...

  7. CNS Structural Anomalies in Iranian Children with Global Developmental Delay

    Gholam Reza ZAMANI

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite This Article: Zamani GH, Shervin Badv R, Niksirat A, Alizadeh H. CNS Structural Anomalies in Iranian Children with Global Developmental Delay. Iran J Child Neurol. 2013 Winter; 7 (1:25-28. ObjectiveCentral Nervous system (CNS malformations are one of the most important causes of global developmental delay (GDD in Children. About one percent of infants with GDD have an inherited metabolic disorder and 3-10 percent have a chromosomal disorder. This study aimed to survey the frequency of brain structural anomalies and their subtypes among the variety of etiologic factors in children with GDD in our patients.Materials & MethodsThis study used the results of neuroimaging studies [unenhanced brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI] of all children who had been referred for evaluation of GDD to outpatient Clinic of Pediatric neurology at Children’s Medical Center affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Science between September 2009 and September 2010.ResultsIn this study, unenhanced brain MRI was performed on 405 children, of which80 cases (20 percent had brain structural anomalies. In 8.7 percent of the cases, previous history of brain structural disorders existed in other children of the family and 20 percent of mothers had inadequate consumption of folate during pregnancy.ConclusionBased on the results of this study, unenhanced cranial MRI seems to be a fundamental part of evaluation in all children with GDD. Adequate folate consumption as prophylaxis as well as genetic counseling can be worthy for high-risk mothers who have previous history of CNS anomaly or miscarriage to avoid repeated CNS anomalies in their next pregnancies. References1. Fenichel M. Clinical Pediatric Neurology: A Signs and Symptoms Approach. 6th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders; 2009. p. 119-52.2. A guide to investigation of children with developmental delay in East Anglia 2005Available from:http://www. phgfoundation.org/file/2366.3. Williams J. Global developmental

  8. Estimation of communication-delays through adaptive synchronization of chaos

    Sorrentino, Francesco; De Lellis, Pietro

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with adaptive synchronization of chaos in the presence of time-varying communication-delays. We consider two bidirectionally coupled systems that seek to synchronize through a signal that each system sends to the other one and is transmitted with an unknown time-varying delay. We show that an appropriate adaptive strategy can be devised that is successful in dynamically identifying the time-varying delay and in synchronizing the two systems. The performance of our strategy wi...

  9. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in relation to autism and developmental delay: a case-control study

    Pessah Isaac

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs are flame retardants used widely and in increasing amounts in the U.S. over the last few decades. PBDEs and their metabolites cross the placenta and studies in rodents demonstrate neurodevelopmental toxicity from prenatal exposures. PBDE exposures occur both via breastfeeding and hand-to-mouth activities in small children. Methods Participants were 100 children from the CHARGE (CHildhood Autism Risk from Genetics and the Environment Study, a case-control epidemiologic investigation of children with autism/autism spectrum disorder, with developmental delay and from the general population. Diagnoses of autism were confirmed by the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule and Autism Diagnostic Inventory-Revised, and of developmental delay using the Mullen's Scales of Early Learning and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales. Typically developing controls were those with no evidence of delay, autism, or autism spectrum disorder. Eleven PBDE congeners were measured by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry from serum specimens collected after children were assessed. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between plasma PBDEs and autism. Results Children with autism/autism spectrum disorder and developmental delay were similar to typically developing controls for all PBDE congeners, but levels were high for all three groups. Conclusions Plasma samples collected post-diagnosis in this study may not represent early life exposures due to changes in diet and introduction of new household products containing PBDEs. Studies with direct measurements of prenatal or infant exposures are needed to assess the possible causal role for these compounds in autism spectrum disorders.

  10. Unraveling the "new morbidity": adolescent parenting and developmental delays.

    Borkowski, J G; Whitman, T L; Passino, A W; Rellinger, E A; Sommer, K; Keogh, D

    1992-01-01

    Baumeister's concept of the "new morbidity" pertains to the linkages between poverty, adolescent mothers, and a series of developmental delays in their children. Outlined are three possible causes of the mild mental retardation and learning disabilities that are found disproportionately among the offspring of adolescents. First, there may be a direct genetic transmission of mild mental retardation. Second, adolescent mothers are likely to have a lack of support from a social network, be unprepared cognitively and emotionally to assume responsibility for child rearing, and to look to an infant to meet their own needs. Third, the interaction of genetic and environmental deficits leads to a parenting style that deprives the child of stimulation that could potentially overcome these deficits. A secure mother-infant attachment relationship provides the foundation for the development of social, emotional, attentional, and self-regulatory processes. When this attachment relationship is insecure, as a result of the mother's unreadiness to parent, the child cannot proceed to exploration of the environment--a critical component of cognitive development. If the infant has a difficult temperament, the risk of physical and emotional abuse increases, further compromising the child's future development. By 3 years of age, many of these children are showing declines in mental functioning, delays in receptive language skills, and poor motor and social skills. Research is urged to identify events in this chain that can be targeted for early intervention. PMID:12319317

  11. A novel online adaptive time delay identification technique

    Bayrak, Alper; Tatlicioglu, Enver

    2016-05-01

    Time delay is a phenomenon which is common in signal processing, communication, control applications, etc. The special feature of time delay that makes it attractive is that it is a commonly faced problem in many systems. A literature search on time-delay identification highlights the fact that most studies focused on numerical solutions. In this study, a novel online adaptive time-delay identification technique is proposed. This technique is based on an adaptive update law through a minimum-maximum strategy which is firstly applied to time-delay identification. In the design of the adaptive identification law, Lyapunov-based stability analysis techniques are utilised. Several numerical simulations were conducted with Matlab/Simulink to evaluate the performance of the proposed technique. It is numerically demonstrated that the proposed technique works efficiently in identifying both constant and disturbed time delays, and is also robust to measurement noise.

  12. Sleep Problems and Early Developmental Delay: Implications for Early Intervention Programs

    Bonuck, Karen; Grant, Roy

    2012-01-01

    Sleep disorders negatively impact behavior, cognition, and growth--the same areas targeted by early intervention. Conversely, developmental delays and disabilities may themselves precipitate sleep disorders. Young children with developmental delays experience sleep disorders at a higher rate than do typically developing children; the most common…

  13. MOTOR DEVELOPMENTAL DELAY IN 7500 IRANIAN INFANTS:PREVALENCE AND RISK FACTORS

    F. Sajedi MD

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveThe purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and the most common risk factors of motor developmental delay in infants.Materials & MethodsFollowing ethical approval, a study was carried out on the prevalence and risk factors of infants with motor developmental delay. The first stage was conducted through a cross-sectional study to determine the prevalence of motor developmental delay on 7500 infants and the second stage was an analytic case - control survey to identify the most common risk factors on 140 infants, aged one month to three years with motor developmental delay. Data was collected using a demographic questionnaire, the Parents Evaluation of Developmental Status questionnaire, the Denver Developmental Screening Test II, a neurological assessment form, and the movement and tone assessment form.ResultsThe prevalence of motor developmental delay in 7500 infants was 18.7/1000. The most common risk factors in infants with motor developmental delay were prematurity (25.6%, low birth weight (19.2%, neonatal seizures (7.5%, hyaline membrane disease (6.7%, systemic infections of mothers during pregnancy (5.9%, severe neonatal hyperbilirubinemia (5% in sequence. Motor developmental delay was significantly correlated with consanguinity of parents (p=0.001, prematurity (p=0.046, abnormal head circumference at birth (p=0.038, and low birth weight (p=0.026.ConclusionThe prevalence of motor developmental delay appears to be high and further studies should focus on different preventive strategies, controlling the most common risk factors and emphasizing on early detection and treatment of high risk infants.Keywords: Motor developmental delay, Prevalence, Risk factors, Prematurity

  14. Pre-school children with and without developmental delay: behaviour problems and parenting stress over time

    Baker, B.L.; McIntyre, L L; Blacher, J; Crnic, K; Edelbrock, C; C. Low

    2003-01-01

    Background Children with intellectual disability are at heightened risk for behaviour problems and diagnosed mental disorder. Methods The present authors studied the early manifestation and continuity of problem behaviours in 205 pre-school children with and without developmental delays. Results Behaviour problems were quite stable over the year from age 36-48 months. Children with developmental delays were rated higher on behaviour problems than their non-delayed peers, and were three times ...

  15. Delayed radiation effect on animals: adaptive reply

    The adaptive response by micronuclei test was studied in mole-voles (Ellobius talpinus) from two populations differing in degree of radioactive contamination. It was found the significant adaptive response in animals living the left coast of the Techa River, as compared to the reference one. Some convincing evidences of the adaptive rearrangements and higher radioresistance of animals inhabiting the radiocontaminated zone during a long period and in the course of changing generations was obtained at the example of radiosensitive specie. (authors)

  16. CNS Structural Anomalies in Iranian Children with Global Developmental Delay

    Houman ALIZADEH

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveCentral Nervous system (CNS malformations are one of the most important causes of global developmental delay (GDD in Children. About one percent of infants with GDD have an inherited metabolic disorder and 3-10 percent have a chromosomal disorder. This study aimed to survey the frequency of brain structural anomalies and their subtypes among the variety of etiologic factors in children with GDD in our patients.Materials & MethodsThis study used the results of neuroimaging studies [unenhanced brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI] of all children who had been referred for evaluation of GDD to outpatient Clinic of Pediatric neurology at Children’s Medical Center affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Science between September 2009 and September 2010.ResultsIn this study, unenhanced brain MRI was performed on 405 children, of which80 cases (20 percent had brain structural anomalies. In 8.7 percent of the cases, previous history of brain structural disorders existed in other children of the family and 20 percent of mothers had inadequate consumption of folate during pregnancy.ConclusionBased on the results of this study, unenhanced cranial MRI seems to be a fundamental part of evaluation in all children with GDD. Adequate folate consumption as prophylaxis as well as genetic counseling can be worthy for high-risk mothers who have previous history of CNS anomaly or miscarriage to avoid repeated CNS anomalies in their next pregnancies.

  17. Mutations in TRNT1 cause congenital sideroblastic anemia with immunodeficiency, fevers, and developmental delay (SIFD)

    Chakraborty, Pranesh K.; Schmitz-Abe, Klaus; Kennedy, Erin K.; Mamady, Hapsatou; Naas, Turaya; Durie, Danielle; Dean R. Campagna; Lau, Ashley; Sendamarai, Anoop K.; Wiseman, Daniel H.; May, Alison; Jolles, Stephen; Connor, Philip; Powell, Colin; Heeney, Matthew M.

    2014-01-01

    SIFD is a syndromic form of congenital sideroblastic anemia associated with immunodeficiency, periodic fevers, and developmental delay.SIFD is due to partial loss-of-function mutations in the CCA-adding enzyme TRNT1.

  18. Preschool Children with and without Developmental Delay: Risk, Parenting, and Child Demandingess

    Brown, Mallory A.; McIntyre, Laura Lee; Crnic, Keith A.; Baker, Bruce L.; Blacher, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Although past literature has established relations between early child risk factors, negative parenting, and problematic child behavior, the nature of these interrelations and pathways of influence over time remains largely unknown, especially in children with developmental delays or disabilities. In the current study data were drawn from the longitudinal Collaborative Family Study and included a sample of 260 families with preschool children with and without developmental delays. Child-relat...

  19. The Economic Impact of Early Life Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure: Early Intervention for Developmental Delay

    Miller, Thaddeus; Rauh, Virginia A.; Glied, Sherry A.M.; Hattis, Dale; Rundle, Andrew; Andrews, Howard; Perera, Frederica

    2006-01-01

    Background and Objectives Early-life exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) can result in developmental delay as well as childhood asthma and increased risk of cancer. The high cost of childhood asthma related to ETS exposure has been widely recognized; however, the economic impact of ETS-related developmental delay has been less well understood. Methods and Results The Columbia Center for Children’s Environmental Health (CCCEH) has reported adverse effects of prenatal ETS exposure on ...

  20. Approximate Entropy Used to Assess Sitting Postural Sway of Infants with Developmental Delay

    Deffeyes, Joan E; Harbourne, Regina T; STUBERG, WAYNE A.; Stergiou, Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    Infant sitting postural sway provides a window into motor development at an early age. The approximate entropy, a measure of randomness, in the postural sway was used to assess developmental delay, as occurs in cerebral palsy. Parameters used for the calculation of approximate entropy were investigated, and approximate entropy of postural sway in early sitting was found to be lower for infants with developmental delay in the anterior-posterior axis, but not in the medial-lateral axis. Spectra...

  1. An adaptive robust controller for time delay maglev transportation systems

    Milani, Reza Hamidi; Zarabadipour, Hassan; Shahnazi, Reza

    2012-12-01

    For engineering systems, uncertainties and time delays are two important issues that must be considered in control design. Uncertainties are often encountered in various dynamical systems due to modeling errors, measurement noises, linearization and approximations. Time delays have always been among the most difficult problems encountered in process control. In practical applications of feedback control, time delay arises frequently and can severely degrade closed-loop system performance and in some cases, drives the system to instability. Therefore, stability analysis and controller synthesis for uncertain nonlinear time-delay systems are important both in theory and in practice and many analytical techniques have been developed using delay-dependent Lyapunov function. In the past decade the magnetic and levitation (maglev) transportation system as a new system with high functionality has been the focus of numerous studies. However, maglev transportation systems are highly nonlinear and thus designing controller for those are challenging. The main topic of this paper is to design an adaptive robust controller for maglev transportation systems with time-delay, parametric uncertainties and external disturbances. In this paper, an adaptive robust control (ARC) is designed for this purpose. It should be noted that the adaptive gain is derived from Lyapunov-Krasovskii synthesis method, therefore asymptotic stability is guaranteed.

  2. Dynamical singularities in adaptive delayed-feedback control.

    Saito, Asaki; Konishi, Keiji

    2011-09-01

    We demonstrate the dynamical characteristics of adaptive delayed-feedback control systems, exploiting a discrete-time adaptive control method derived for carrying out detailed analysis. In particular, the systems exhibit singularities such as power-law decay of the distribution of transient times and almost zero finite-time Lyapunov exponents. We can explain these results by characterizing such systems as having (1) a Jacobian matrix with unity eigenvalue in the whole phase space, and (2) parameters approaching a stability boundary proven to be identical with that of (nonadaptive) delayed-feedback control. PMID:22060398

  3. Developmental adaptations to gravity in animals

    Hargens, Alan R.

    1991-01-01

    Terrestrial animals have adapted to a constant gravitational stress over millions of years. Tissues of the cardiovascular system and lumbar spine in tall species of animals such as the giraffe are particularly well adapted to high and variable vectors of gravitational force. Swelling of the leg tissues in the giraffe is prevented by a variety of physiological mechanisms including (1) a natural 'antigravity suit', (2) impermeable capillaries, (3) arterial-wall hypertrophy, (4) variable blood pressures during normal activity, and (5) a large-capacity lymphatic system. These adaptations, as well as a natural hypertension, maintain blood perfusion to the giraffe's brain. The intervertebral disk is another tissue that is uniquely adapted to gravitational stress. Tall and large terrestrial animals have higher swelling pressures than their smaller or aquatic counterparts. Finally, the meniscus of the rabbit knee provides information on the effects of aging and load-bearing on cartilaginous tissues. Such tissues within the joints of animals are important for load-bearing on Earth; these connective tissues may degenerate during long-duration space flight.

  4. Discrimination Acquisition in Children with Developmental Disabilities under Immediate and Delayed Reinforcement

    Sy, Jolene R.; Vollmer, Timothy R.

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the discrimination acquisition of individuals with developmental disabilities under immediate and delayed reinforcement. In Experiment 1, discrimination between two alternatives was examined when reinforcement was immediate or delayed by 20 s, 30 s, or 40 s. In Experiment 2, discrimination between 2 alternatives was compared across an…

  5. Robust adaptive control for interval time-delay systems

    Yizhong WANG; Huaguang ZHANG; Jun YANG

    2006-01-01

    This paper focuses on the robust adaptive control problems for a class of interval time-delay systems and a class of large-scale interconnected systems. The nonlinear uncertainties of the systems under study are bounded by high-order polynomial functions with unknown gains. Firstly, the adaptive feedback controller which can guarantee the stability of the closed-loop system in the sense of uniform ultimate boundedness is proposed. Then the proposed adaptive idea is extended to robust stabilizing designing method for a class of large-scale interconnected systems. Here, another problem we address is to design a decentralized feedback adaptive controller such that the closed-loop system is stable in the sense of uniform ultimate boundedness for all admissible uncertainties and time-delay. Finally, an illustrative example is given to show the validity of the proposed approach.

  6. When Do Adaptive Developmental Mechanisms Yield Maladaptive Outcomes?

    Frankenhuis, Willem E.; Del Giudice, Marco

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses 3 ways in which adaptive developmental mechanisms may produce maladaptive outcomes. First, natural selection may favor risky strategies that enhance fitness on average but which have detrimental consequences for a subset of individuals. Second, mismatch may result when organisms experience environmental change during…

  7. Correlation between high-risk pregnancy and developmental delay in children aged 4–60 months

    Saba Amiri

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The future development of children is considered more than ever now due to the advances in medical knowledge and thus the increase in survival rates of high-risk infants. This study investigated the correlation between high-risk pregnancy and developmental delay in children aged 4–60 months. Methods: This descriptive study was conducted on 401 mothers and their children (4–60 months who visited health service centers affiliated to Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Iran, in 2011. Sampling was carried out in several stages, and the Ages and Stage Questionnaire was completed by the participants. Data were analyzed with SPSS 18 software and independent t-test; Mann-Whitney and logistic-regression tests were used. Results: The average age of children in the low-risk pregnancy group was 22±16 months, and that in the high-risk pregnancy group was 18.9±14.8 months. The majority of children were female (53.1%. The prevalence of high-risk pregnancies was 80.5%, and the prevalence of developmental delay was 18.7%. Multiple pregnancies, low birth weight, habitual abortions, maternal medical disorders in pregnancy, and gestational diabetes had significant correlations with developmental delay in children (P<0.04. In the logistic model, male gender, low birth weight, family marriage, and maternal medical disorders during pregnancy showed significant correlations with developmental delay in children (P<0.05. Additionally, abnormal body mass index (BMI and social and economic status showed probability values close to the significance level (P = 0.05, whereas other high-risk pregnancy variables had no correlation with developmental delay in children. A correlation between high-risk pregnancy and developmental delay (P = 0.002 and fine motor delay was observed (P = 0.02, but no correlation was observed between high-risk pregnancy and other developmental domains. Conclusion: This study showed that some high-risk pregnancy variables had a

  8. Adaptation to visual feedback delay in a redundant motor task.

    Farshchiansadegh, Ali; Ranganathan, Rajiv; Casadio, Maura; Mussa-Ivaldi, Ferdinando A

    2015-01-15

    The goal of this study was to examine the reorganization of hand movements during adaptation to delayed visual feedback in a novel and redundant environment. In most natural behaviors, the brain must learn to invert a many-to-one map from high-dimensional joint movements and muscle forces to a low-dimensional goal. This spatial "inverse map" is learned by associating motor commands to their low-dimensional consequences. How is this map affected by the presence of temporal delays? A delay presents the brain with a new set of kinematic data, and, because of redundancy, the brain may use these data to form a new inverse map. We consider two possible responses to a novel visuomotor delay. In one case, the brain updates the previously learned spatial map, building a new association between motor commands and visual feedback of their effects. In the alternative case, the brain preserves the original map and learns to compensate the delay by a temporal shift of the motor commands. To test these alternative possibilities, we developed a virtual reality game in which subjects controlled the two-dimensional coordinates of a cursor by continuous hand gestures. Two groups of subjects tracked a target along predictable paths by wearing an instrumented data glove that recorded finger motions. The 19-dimensional glove signals controlled a cursor on a 2-dimensional computer display. The experiment was performed on 2 consecutive days. On the 1st day, subjects practiced tracking movements without delay. On the 2nd day, the test group performed the same task with a delay of 300 ms between the glove signals and the cursor display, whereas the control group continued practicing the nondelayed trials. We found evidence that to compensate for the delay, the test group relied on the coordination patterns established during the baseline, e.g., their hand-to-cursor inverse map was robust to the delay perturbation, which was counteracted by an anticipation of the motor command. PMID:25339704

  9. Delay Estimator and Improved Proportionate Multi-Delay Adaptive Filtering Algorithm

    E. Verteletskaya

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper pertains to speech and acoustic signal processing, and particularly to a determination of echo path delay and operation of echo cancellers. To cancel long echoes, the number of weights in a conventional adaptive filter must be large. The length of the adaptive filter will directly affect both the degree of accuracy and the convergence speed of the adaptation process. We present a new adaptive structure which is capable to deal with multiple dispersive echo paths. An adaptive filter according to the present invention includes means for storing an impulse response in a memory, the impulse response being indicative of the characteristics of a transmission line. It also includes a delay estimator for detecting ranges of samples within the impulse response having relatively large distribution of echo energy. These ranges of samples are being indicative of echoes on the transmission line. An adaptive filter has a plurality of weighted taps, each of the weighted taps having an associated tap weight value. A tap allocation/control circuit establishes the tap weight values in response to said detecting means so that only taps within the regions of relatively large distributions of echo energy are turned on. Thus, the convergence speed and the degree of estimation in the adaptation process can be improved.

  10. Parent Training for Children With or at Risk for Developmental Delay: The Role of Parental Homework Completion

    Ros, Rosmary; Hernandez, Jennifer; Graziano, Paulo A.; Bagner, Daniel M.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the extent to which parental homework completion during behavioral parent training (BPT) for children with or at risk for developmental delay contributed to parenting and child outcomes. Parents of 48 children (Mage = 44.17 months, SD = 14.29; 73% male; 72% White) with developmental delay (IQ < 75) or at risk for developmental delay (due to premature birth) with co-occurring clinically elevated externalizing behavior problems received Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (...

  11. Adaptive cluster synchronization of directed complex networks with time delays.

    Heng Liu

    Full Text Available This paper studied the cluster synchronization of directed complex networks with time delays. It is different from undirected networks, the coupling configuration matrix of directed networks cannot be assumed as symmetric or irreducible. In order to achieve cluster synchronization, this paper uses an adaptive controller on each node and an adaptive feedback strategy on the nodes which in-degree is zero. Numerical example is provided to show the effectiveness of main theory. This method is also effective when the number of clusters is unknown. Thus, it can be used in the community recognizing of directed complex networks.

  12. Adaptive control of uncertain time-delay chaotic systems

    Zhuhong ZHANG

    2005-01-01

    This work investigates adaptive control of a large class of uncertain me-delay chaotic systems (UTCSs) with unknown general perturbation terms bounded by a polynomial ( unknown gains). Associated with the different cases of known and unknown system matrices, two corresponding adaptive controllers are proposed to stabilize unstable fixed points of the systems by means of Lyapunov stability theory and linear matrix inequalities (LMI) which can be solved easily by convex optimization algorithms. Two examples are used for examining the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

  13. Adaptive Stabilization for Nonholonomic Systems with Unknown Time Delays

    Yuanyuan Wu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an adaptive control strategy for a class of nonholonomic systems in chained form with virtual control coefficients, nonlinear uncertainties, and unknown time delays. State scaling technique and backstepping recursive approach are applied to design a nonlinear state feedback controller, which can guarantee the stabilization of the closed-loop systems. The simulation results are provided to show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  14. Trajectories of Developmental Functioning Among Children of Adolescent Mothers: Factors Associated With Risk for Delay.

    Jahromi, Laudan B; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Zeiders, Katharine H

    2016-07-01

    Children of adolescent mothers are at risk for developmental delays. Less is known about the heterogeneity in these children's developmental trajectories, and factors associated with different patterns of development. This longitudinal study used latent class growth analysis (LCGA) to identify distinct trajectories in children of Mexican-origin adolescent mothers (N = 204). Three distinct groups emerged: (a) a Delayed/Decreasing Functioning group, (b) an At-Risk/Recovering Functioning group, and (c) a Normative/Stable Functioning group. Children with Delayed/Decreasing Functioning were more likely than those with Normative/Stable Functioning to have families with lower income, fewer learning materials at home, and adolescent mothers with more depressive symptoms and greater coparental conflict with adolescents' mother figures. The results contribute to knowledge about factors associated with risk of delay. PMID:27351701

  15. Developmental delay at 12 months in children born extremely preterm

    Lando, Ane; Klamer, Anja; Jonsbo, Finn;

    2005-01-01

    for comparison. The interview was conducted by NICU staff. To validate the R-PDQ, parents of 22 children in the preterm group and parents of 19 children in the reference group conducted an Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) when their children had reached the age of 3-3(1/2) y. RESULTS: The R-PDQ was......AIM: To evaluate the feasibility and validity of a structured telephone interview to assess the development of children born extremely preterm. METHODS: The parents of 88 children born with a gestational age below 28 wk admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) at Rigshospitalet......, Copenhagen, were interviewed by telephone when their child was 1 y of age, corrected for preterm birth. A fully structured questionnaire on psychomotor function was used (Revised Prescreening Developmental Questionnaire (R-PDQ)). The parents of 30 children born at term without complications were interviewed...

  16. Ring chromosome 9 in a girl with developmental delay and dysmorphic features

    la Cour Sibbesen, Else; Jespersgaard, Cathrine; Alosi, Daniela; Bisgaard, Anne-Marie; Tümer, Zeynep

    2013-01-01

    In this report, we describe a female child with dysmorphic features and developmental delay. Chromosome microarray analysis followed by conventional karyotyping revealed a ring chromosome 9 with a 12 Mb deletion at 9pter-p23 and a 540 kb deletion at 9q34.3-qter. Four percent of the analyzed cells...

  17. Maternal Immune-Mediated Conditions, Autism Spectrum Disorders, and Developmental Delay

    Lyall, Kristen; Ashwood, Paul; Van de Water, Judy; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

    2014-01-01

    The maternal immune system may play a role in offspring neurodevelopment. We examined whether maternal autoimmune disease, asthma, and allergy were associated with child autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and developmental delay without autism (DD) using 560 ASD cases, 391 typically developing controls, and 168 DD cases from the CHildhood Autism Risk…

  18. Marital Satisfaction, Parental Stress, and Child Behavior Problems among Parents of Young Children with Developmental Delays

    Robinson, Merideth; Neece, Cameron L.

    2015-01-01

    Studies have found that low marital satisfaction, parenting stress, and child behavior problems are linked in families of children with developmental delays (DD). However, previous investigations examining the relationships between parenting stress, child behavior problems, and marital satisfaction rarely examine the interrelationships of these…

  19. Effects of Vestibular Stimulation on Motor Development and Stereotyped Behavior of Developmentally Delayed Children.

    MacLean, William E., Jr.; Baumeister, Alfred A.

    1982-01-01

    Four developmentally delayed babies were given semicircular canal stimulation in an effort to facilitate their motor and reflex development. All of the children showed motor and/or reflex changes that were attributable to the vestibular stimulation. In addition, some evidence was obtained linking changes in stereotypic responding to the vestibular…

  20. Motor Skill Interventions to Improve Fundamental Movement Skills of Preschoolers with Developmental Delay

    Kirk, Megan A.; Rhodes, Ryan E.

    2011-01-01

    Preschoolers with developmental delay (DD) are at risk for poor fundamental movement skills (FMS), but a paucity of early FMS interventions exist. The purpose of this review was to critically appraise the existing interventions to establish direction for future trials targeting preschoolers with DD. A total of 11 studies met the inclusion…

  1. Maternal Sensitivity and Behaviour Problems in Young Children with Developmental Delay

    Niccols, Alison; Feldman, Maurice

    2006-01-01

    Children with developmental delay are at increased risk for behaviour problems, but little is known about risk and resilience factors. Previous research has established links between maternal sensitivity and behaviour problems in typically developing children, but no studies have examined maternal sensitivity in the development of behaviour…

  2. Graduated Guidance Delivered by Parents to Teach Yoga to Children with Developmental Delays

    Gruber, Deborah J.; Poulson, Claire L.

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of a parent-implemented intervention to teach yoga poses to 3 children with developmental delays. Graduated guidance, provided by the participants' mothers, was introduced in a multiple baseline design across the participants. With the introduction of intervention, imitation of the response chains increased over baseline…

  3. Subtypes of Nonsocial Play: Comparisons between Young Children with and without Developmental Delays.

    Guralnick, Michael J.; Hammond, Mary A.; Connor, Robert T.

    2003-01-01

    Subtypes of nonsocial play were examined for matched groups of young typically developing children and children with mild developmental (cognitive) delays. Findings indicated that the nonsocial play of these children can be characterized as multidimensional in a manner similar to that of typically developing children. However, context did not…

  4. Mothers' Social Communicative Adjustments to Young Children with Mild Developmental Delays

    Guralnick, Michael J.; Neville, Brian; Hammond, Mary A.; Connor, Robert T.

    2008-01-01

    The social communication and compliance patterns of 63 mothers interacting with their young children who had mild developmental delays in social play and instructional tasks were examined in a longitudinal study. Results were consistent with the hypothesis that mothers appropriately adjust their social communications in accordance with children's…

  5. Microarray as a First Genetic Test in Global Developmental Delay: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis

    Trakadis, Yannis; Shevell, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Aim: Microarray technology has a significantly higher clinical yield than karyotyping in individuals with global developmental delay (GDD). Despite this, it has not yet been routinely implemented as a screening test owing to the perception that this approach is more expensive. We aimed to evaluate the effect that replacing karyotype with…

  6. Barriers to Success in Parent Training for Young Children with Developmental Delay: The Role of Cumulative Risk

    Bagner, Daniel M.; Graziano, Paulo A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of cumulative risk on dropout and treatment outcome in parent training. Participants were 44 families of young children (mean age of 49.59 months) who presented with elevated externalizing behavior problems and developmental delay or borderline developmental delay. All families were offered to…

  7. DNA Damage Analysis in Children with Non-syndromic Developmental Delay by Comet Assay

    Chand, Parkash; Ballambattu, Vishnu Bhat; Hanumanthappa, Nandeesha; Veeramani, Raveendranath

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Majority of the developmental delays in children are non-syndromic and they are believed to have an underlying DNA damage, though not well substantiated. Hence the present study was carried out to find out if there is any increased DNA damage in children with non-syndromic developmental delay by using the comet assay. Aim The present case-control study was undertaken to assess the level of DNA damage in children with non syndromic developmental delay and compare the same with that of age and sex matched controls using submarine gel electrophoresis (Comet Assay). Materials and Methods The blood from clinically diagnosed children with non syndromic developmental delay and controls were subjected for alkaline version of comet assay – Single cell gel electrophoresis using lymphocytes isolated from the peripheral blood. The comets were observed under a bright field microscope; photocaptured and scored using the Image J image quantification software. Comet parameters were compared between the cases and controls and statistical analysis and interpretation of results was done using the statistical software SPSS version 20. Results The mean comet tail length in cases and control was 20.77+7.659μm and 08.97+4.398μm respectively which was statistically significant (p<0.001). Other comet parameters like total comet length and % DNA in tail also showed a statistically significant difference (p < 0.001) between cases and controls. Conclusion The current investigation unraveled increased levels of DNA damage in children with non syndromic developmental delay when compared to the controls.

  8. Functional Outcome of School Children With History of Global Developmental Delay.

    Dornelas, Lílian F; Duarte, Neuza M C; Morales, Nívea M O; Pinto, Rogério M C; Araújo, Renata R H; Pereira, Sílvia A; Magalhães, Lívia C

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to investigate the functional and developmental outcomes in school age children diagnosed with global developmental delay before 2 years old and to verify the association between their final diagnosis and environmental and biological factors. Forty-five Brazilian children (26 boys), mean age 95.84 (7.72) months, who attended regular school and were diagnosed with global developmental delay before they were 2 years old had their functions evaluated. Children with global developmental delay were diagnosed with several conditions at school age. Students with greater chances of receiving a diagnosis were those whose mothers were younger at the time their children were born (OR = 1.47, CI = 1.04-2.09, P = .03), who had impaired motor performance, specially balance (OR = 1.33, CI = 1.01-1.75, P = .04), and who needed help during cognitive and behavioral tasks at school (OR = 1.08, CI = 1.00-1.17, P = .048). Interdisciplinary evaluation contributed to defining the specific diagnosis and to identifying the necessity of specialized support. PMID:26936059

  9. Developmental evidence for obstetric adaptation of the human female pelvis

    Huseynov, Alik; Zollikofer, Christoph P. E.; Coudyzer, Walter; Gascho, Dominic; Kellenberger, Christian; Hinzpeter, Ricarda; Ponce de León, Marcia S.

    2016-01-01

    The bony pelvis of adult humans exhibits marked sexual dimorphism, which is traditionally interpreted in the framework of the “obstetrical dilemma” hypothesis: Giving birth to large-brained/large-bodied babies requires a wide pelvis, whereas efficient bipedal locomotion requires a narrow pelvis. This hypothesis has been challenged recently on biomechanical, metabolic, and biocultural grounds, so that it remains unclear which factors are responsible for sex-specific differences in adult pelvic morphology. Here we address this issue from a developmental perspective. We use methods of biomedical imaging and geometric morphometrics to analyze changes in pelvic morphology from late fetal stages to adulthood in a known-age/known-sex forensic/clinical sample. Results show that, until puberty, female and male pelves exhibit only moderate sexual dimorphism and follow largely similar developmental trajectories. With the onset of puberty, however, the female trajectory diverges substantially from the common course, resulting in rapid expansion of obstetrically relevant pelvic dimensions up to the age of 25–30 y. From 40 y onward females resume a mode of pelvic development similar to males, resulting in significant reduction of obstetric dimensions. This complex developmental trajectory is likely linked to the pubertal rise and premenopausal fall of estradiol levels and results in the obstetrically most adequate pelvic morphology during the time of maximum female fertility. The evidence that hormones mediate female pelvic development and morphology supports the view that solutions of the obstetrical dilemma depend not only on selection and adaptation but also on developmental plasticity as a response to ecological/nutritional factors during a female’s lifetime. PMID:27114515

  10. A social skills training program for preschoolers with developmental delays. Generalization and social validity.

    Leblanc, L A; Matson, J L

    1995-04-01

    This investigation was designed to assess a social skills training program with 32 developmentally delayed preschoolers. Subjects were evaluated in an unstructured play session, matched for levels of appropriate and inappropriate social behaviors, and assigned to either a treatment or control condition. The treatment group (N = 16) was presented with a 6-week protocol involving positive reinforcement, modeling, rehearsal, feedback, and time out. Controls (N = 16) received no instruction beyond regular classroom activities during the 6 weeks. The two groups were reevaluated in a posttest session and again in a generalization setting where two peers with developmental delays (not included in either experimental condition) were included. Prosocial behaviors were successfully taught and maintained in generalization settings. Efforts to reduce inappropriate behaviors were less successful. A test of social validity via teachers' ratings of videotapes of pretest and posttest assessments was also conducted. Implications for generalization and social validity research are discussed. PMID:7726819

  11. An analysis of a developmentally delayed young girl. Coordinating analytic and developmental processes.

    Olesker, Wendy

    2003-01-01

    Clinical material is presented from a multi-year treatment of a five-year-old girl with a variety of developmental interferences, making it necessary to consider whether standard technique would suffice. History includes the fact that she was adopted five days after birth and told as early as possible about her adoption; she was placed in a restrictive brace from four months to twenty months because of congenital hip displasia. Sandy's ability to let in the outside world was limited by her intense denial, not looking, not taking in, and by her detachment. Her passivity--whether a defense (modeled on her experience of physical restraint) or an arrest--was a formidable obstacle to the development of active transference moments. I use this case as an opportunity to look at the role of developmental sequences in the context of the analytic process. While I consciously did not do anything different than I would with any child analytic patient, I intuitively stressed certain kinds of interventions. PMID:14982015

  12. Correlation between high-risk pregnancy and developmental delay in children aged 4–60 months

    Torabi, Fatemeh; Amir Ali Akbari, Sedigheh; Amiri, Saba; Soleimani, Farin; Alavi Majd, Hamid

    2012-01-01

    Background: The future development of children is considered more than ever now due to the advances in medical knowledge and thus the increase in survival rates of high-risk infants. This study investigated the correlation between high-risk pregnancy and developmental delay in children aged 4-60 months.Methods: This descriptive study was conducted on 401 mothers and their children (4-60 months) who visited health service centers affiliated to Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Iran, in 2...

  13. Mental Disorders in Five Year Old Children With or Without Developmental Delay: Focus on ADHD

    Baker, Bruce L.; Neece, Cameron L.; Fenning, Rachel M.; Crnic, Keith A.; Blacher, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiological studies of children and adolescents with intellectual disability have found 30–50% exhibiting clinically significant behavior problems. Few studies, however, have assessed young children, included a cognitively typical comparison group, assessed for specific disorders, and/or studied family correlates of diagnosis. We assessed 236 5-year old children, 95 with developmental delay (DD) and 141 with typical development (TD), for clinical diagnoses using a structured interview. Ev...

  14. Subtelomeric FISH analysis in 76 patients with syndromic developmental delay/intellectual disability

    Faravelli Francesca; Pierluigi Mauro; Messa Jole; Molinatto Cristina; Biamino Elisa; Belligni Elga F; Zuffardi Orsetta; Ferrero Giovanni B; Silengo Margherita

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Intellectual disability affects approximately 1 to 3% of the general population. The etiology is still poorly understood and it is estimated that one-half of the cases are due to genetic factors. Cryptic subtelomeric aberrations have been found in roughly 5 to 7% of all cases. Methods We performed a subtelomeric FISH analysis on 76 unrelated children with normal standard karyotype ascertained by developmental delay or intellectual disability, associated with congenital mal...

  15. Environmental Enrichment Decreases Asphyxia-Induced Neurobehavioral Developmental Delay in Neonatal Rats

    Peter Kiss; Gyongyver Vadasz; Blanka Kiss-Illes; Gabor Horvath; Andrea Tamas; Dora Reglodi; Miklos Koppan

    2013-01-01

    Perinatal asphyxia during delivery produces long-term disability and represents a major problem in neonatal and pediatric care. Numerous neuroprotective approaches have been described to decrease the effects of perinatal asphyxia. Enriched environment is a popular strategy to counteract nervous system injuries. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether enriched environment is able to decrease the asphyxia-induced neurobehavioral developmental delay in neonatal rats. Asphyxia was...

  16. Early Language Patterns of Toddlers on the Autism Spectrum Compared to Toddlers with Developmental Delay

    Weismer, Susan Ellis; Lord, Catherine; Esler, Amy

    2010-01-01

    This study characterized early language abilities in toddlers with autism spectrum disorders (n = 257) using multiple measures of language development, compared to toddlers with non-spectrum developmental delay (DD, n = 69). Findings indicated moderate to high degrees of agreement among three assessment measures (one parent report and two direct assessment measures). Performance on two of the three measures revealed a significant difference in the profile of receptive–expressive language abil...

  17. Emotion Discourse, Social Cognition, and Social Skills in Children with and without Developmental Delays

    Fenning, RM; Baker, BL; Juvonen, J

    2011-01-01

    This study examined parent-child emotion discourse, children’s independent social information processing, and social skills outcomes in 146 families of 8-year-olds with and without developmental delays. Children’s emergent social-cognitive understanding (internal state understanding, perspective taking, and causal reasoning/problem solving) was coded in the context of parent-child conversations about emotion, and children were interviewed separately to assess social problem solving. Mothers, ...

  18. Are clusters of mental retardation correlated with clusters of developmental delay?

    Huiling Zhen; Suzanne McDermott; Lawson, Andrew B.; C. Marjorie Aelion

    2009-01-01

    Mental retardation (MR) is a subset of developmental delay (DD), a broader classification of childhood disability. The purpose of this study was to determine if clusters of these two conditions were statistically significantly correlated. The residential addresses of 81,935 Medicaid insured pregnant women during each month of pregnancy were used to identify clusters of MR and DD in their children. Correlations between MR and DD were computed based on the sets of P-value surface from selected ...

  19. Submicroscopic subtelomeric aberrations in Chinese patients with unexplained developmental delay/mental retardation

    Wang Liwen; Cai Bin; Yang Yanling; Gao Zhijie; Li Jie; Wang Huifang; Xiao Jing; Wang Jingmin; Ji Taoyun; Wu Ye; Zhou Zhongshu; Tian Lili; Wang Xiaozhu; Zhong Nan; Qin Jiong

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Subtelomeric imbalance is widely accepted as related to developmental delay/mental retardation (DD/MR). Fine mapping of aberrations in gene-enriched subtelomeric regions provides essential clues for localizing critical regions, and provides a strategy for identifying new candidate genes. To date, no large-scale study has been conducted on subtelomeric aberrations in DD/MR patients in mainland China. Methods This study included 451 Chinese children with moderate to severe c...

  20. Father’s Role in Parent Training for Children with Developmental Delay

    Bagner, Daniel M.

    2013-01-01

    The current pilot study was a quasi-experimental examination of the impact of father involvement in parent training among 44 families with a young child who presented with elevated externalizing behavior problems and developmental delay. All families were offered to receive Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT), an evidence-based parent-training intervention, at a hospital-based outpatient clinic. Single-mother families were significantly more likely to drop out of treatment than two-parent...

  1. Consultation in paediatric rehabilitation for behaviour problems in young children with cerebral palsy and/or developmental delay.

    McDermott, Suzanne; Nagle, Richard; Wright, Harry H; Swann, Suzanne; Leonhardt, Tami; Wuori, Donald

    2002-01-01

    To measure the effectiveness of consultation for behaviour problems in a paediatric rehabilitation setting, this paper used longitudinal assessment of children who received the intervention through their regularly scheduled appointments with their Occupational Therapist (OT), Physical Therapist (PT) or Speech and Language Pathologist (SLP) at three paediatric rehabilitation clinics in Columbia, South Carolina. The participants were 86 children with cerebral palsy (CP), developmental delay (DD) and medical conditions, ages 1-6 years, and their families. The intervention consisted of monthly meetings between rehabilitation therapists and a team consisting of a Child Psychiatrist, Developmental Pediatrician, Psychologists and a Preventive Medicine specialist. There were statistically significant improvements in the sub-scales of the Vineland adaptive skills assessment and the measures of family stress associated with the parent's attitude toward the child with a disability. The magnitude of the improvement was greatest for children with Mental Development Indices (MDI) less than 50. This assessment of young children with disabilities demonstrates the effectiveness of a consultation model in improving adaptive behaviour and parent attitude about their child. PMID:12490053

  2. Neural and fuzzy computation techniques for playout delay adaptation in VoIP networks.

    Ranganathan, Mohan Krishna; Kilmartin, Liam

    2005-09-01

    Playout delay adaptation algorithms are often used in real time voice communication over packet-switched networks to counteract the effects of network jitter at the receiver. Whilst the conventional algorithms developed for silence-suppressed speech transmission focused on preserving the relative temporal structure of speech frames/packets within a talkspurt (intertalkspurt adaptation), more recently developed algorithms strive to achieve better quality by allowing for playout delay adaptation within a talkspurt (intratalkspurt adaptation). The adaptation algorithms, both intertalkspurt and intratalkspurt based, rely on short term estimations of the characteristics of network delay that would be experienced by up-coming voice packets. The use of novel neural networks and fuzzy systems as estimators of network delay characteristics are presented in this paper. Their performance is analyzed in comparison with a number of traditional techniques for both inter and intratalkspurt adaptation paradigms. The design of a novel fuzzy trend analyzer system (FTAS) for network delay trend analysis and its usage in intratalkspurt playout delay adaptation are presented in greater detail. The performance of the proposed mechanism is analyzed based on measured Internet delays. Index Terms-Fuzzy delay trend analysis, intertalkspurt, intratalkspurt, multilayer perceptrons (MLPs), network delay estimation, playout buffering, playout delay adaptation, time delay neural networks (TDNNs), voice over Internet protocol (VoIP). PMID:16252825

  3. Pericentric inversion of chromosome 11 (p14.3q21) associated with developmental delays, hypopigmented skin lesions and abnormal brain MRI findings - a new case report

    Zachor, D.A.; Lofton, M. [Univ. of Alabama, Birmingham (United States)

    1994-09-01

    We report 3 year old male, referred for evaluation of developmental delays. Pregnancy was complicated by oligohydramnios, proteinuria and prematurity. Medical history revealed: bilateral inguinal hernia, small scrotal sac, undescended testes, developmental delays and behavioral problems. The child had: microcephaly, facial dysmorphic features, single palmar creases, hypopigmented skin lesions of variable size, intermittent exotropia and small retracted testes. Neurological examination was normal. Cognitive level was at the average range with mild delay in his adaptive behavior. Expressive language delays and severe articulation disorder were noted, as well as clumsiness, poor control and precision of gross and fine motor skills. Chromosomal analysis of peripheral leukocytes indicated that one of the number 11 chromosomes had undergone a pericentric inversion with breakpoints on the short (p) arm at band p14.3 and the long (q) arm at band q21. An MRI of the brain showed mild delay in myelinization pattern of white matter. Chromosome 11 inversion in other sites was associated with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome and several malignancies. To our knowledge this is the first description of inv(11)(p14.3q21) that is associated with microcephaly, dysmorphic features, hypopigmented skin lesions and speech delay. This inversion may disrupt the expression of the involved genes. However, additional cases with the same cytogenetic anomaly are needed to explore the phenotypic significance of this disorder.

  4. The Impact of Short-Term Video Games on Performance among Children with Developmental Delays: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Ru-Lan Hsieh; Wen-Chung Lee; Jui-Hsiang Lin

    2016-01-01

    This prospective, randomized controlled study investigated the effects of short-term interactive video game playing among children with developmental delays participating in traditional rehabilitation treatment at a rehabilitation clinic. One hundred and one boys and 46 girls with a mean age of 5.8 years (range: 3 to 12 years) were enrolled in this study. All patients were confirmed to suffer from developmental delays, and were participating in traditional rehabilitation treatment. Children p...

  5. Barriers to Success in Parent Training for Young Children With Developmental Delay: The Role of Cumulative Risk

    Bagner, Daniel M.; Graziano, Paulo A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of cumulative risk on dropout and treatment outcome in parent training. Participants were 44 families of young children (mean age of 49.59 months) who presented with elevated externalizing behavior problems and developmental delay or borderline developmental delay. All families were offered to receive Parent–Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT), an evidence-based, behavioral parent-training intervention, at a hospital-based outpatient clinic. Cu...

  6. TCP-ADaLR: TCP with adaptive delay and loss response for broadband GEO satellite networks

    Omueti, Modupe Omogbohun

    2007-01-01

    Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) performance degrades in broadband geostationary satellite networks due to long propagation delays and high bit error rates. In this thesis, we propose TCP with algorithm modifications for adaptive delay and loss response (TCP-ADaLR) to improve TCP performance. TCP-ADaLR incorporates delayed acknowledgement mechanism recommended for Internet hosts. We evaluate and compare the performance of TCP-ADaLR, TCP SACK, and TCP NewReno, with and without delayed ackno...

  7. Diagnostic outcome following routine genetics clinic referral for the assessment of global developmental delay.

    Shahdadpuri, R

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to ascertain the diagnostic yield following a routine genetics clinic referral for the assessment of global developmental delay. Detailed retrospective review of 119 complete consecutive case notes of patients referred to one single clinical geneticist over a 14 month time period was undertaken (n = 119; 54 males, 65 females). The age at initial review ranged from 2 months to 37 years 3 months (mean 8 y 3 mo [SD 7 y 10 mo]). We made a diagnosis in 36\\/119 (30%); 21\\/36 were new diagnoses and 15\\/36 were confirmations of diagnoses. We removed a wrong diagnostic label in 8\\/119 (7%). In 3\\/8 we were able to achieve a diagnosis but in 5\\/8 no alternative diagnosis was reached. We had a better diagnostic rate where the patients were dysmorphic (odds ratio [OR] 1.825; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.065 to 3.128, p = 0.044). In the majority, the diagnosis was made by clinical examination only. Molecular diagnosis was reached in seven cases. Five cases were confirmed by cytogenetic analysis. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a diagnosis in three cases. This study confirms the importance of a clinical genetics assessment in the investigation of global developmental delay.

  8. Refining analyses of copy number variation identifies specific genes associated with developmental delay.

    Coe, Bradley P; Witherspoon, Kali; Rosenfeld, Jill A; van Bon, Bregje W M; Vulto-van Silfhout, Anneke T; Bosco, Paolo; Friend, Kathryn L; Baker, Carl; Buono, Serafino; Vissers, Lisenka E L M; Schuurs-Hoeijmakers, Janneke H; Hoischen, Alex; Pfundt, Rolph; Krumm, Nik; Carvill, Gemma L; Li, Deana; Amaral, David; Brown, Natasha; Lockhart, Paul J; Scheffer, Ingrid E; Alberti, Antonino; Shaw, Marie; Pettinato, Rosa; Tervo, Raymond; de Leeuw, Nicole; Reijnders, Margot R F; Torchia, Beth S; Peeters, Hilde; O'Roak, Brian J; Fichera, Marco; Hehir-Kwa, Jayne Y; Shendure, Jay; Mefford, Heather C; Haan, Eric; Gécz, Jozef; de Vries, Bert B A; Romano, Corrado; Eichler, Evan E

    2014-10-01

    Copy number variants (CNVs) are associated with many neurocognitive disorders; however, these events are typically large, and the underlying causative genes are unclear. We created an expanded CNV morbidity map from 29,085 children with developmental delay in comparison to 19,584 healthy controls, identifying 70 significant CNVs. We resequenced 26 candidate genes in 4,716 additional cases with developmental delay or autism and 2,193 controls. An integrated analysis of CNV and single-nucleotide variant (SNV) data pinpointed 10 genes enriched for putative loss of function. Follow-up of a subset of affected individuals identified new clinical subtypes of pediatric disease and the genes responsible for disease-associated CNVs. These genetic changes include haploinsufficiency of SETBP1 associated with intellectual disability and loss of expressive language and truncations of ZMYND11 in individuals with autism, aggression and complex neuropsychiatric features. This combined CNV and SNV approach facilitates the rapid discovery of new syndromes and genes involved in neuropsychiatric disease despite extensive genetic heterogeneity. PMID:25217958

  9. Does it Pay to Delay? Flesh Flies Show Adaptive Plasticity in Reproductive Timing

    Wessels, Frank J.; Kristal, Ross; Netter, Fleta; Hatle, John D.; Hahn, Daniel A.

    2010-01-01

    Life-history plasticity is widespread among organisms. However, an important question is whether this plasticity is adaptive, enhancing the organism’s fitness. Most models for plasticity in life-history timing predict that once they have reached the minimal nutritional threshold animals under poor conditions will accelerate timing to development or reproduction. Adaptive delays in reproductive timing are not common, especially in short-lived species. Examples of adaptive reproductive delays e...

  10. Bounded Linear Stability Analysis - A Time Delay Margin Estimation Approach for Adaptive Control

    Nguyen, Nhan T.; Ishihara, Abraham K.; Krishnakumar, Kalmanje Srinlvas; Bakhtiari-Nejad, Maryam

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a method for estimating time delay margin for model-reference adaptive control of systems with almost linear structured uncertainty. The bounded linear stability analysis method seeks to represent the conventional model-reference adaptive law by a locally bounded linear approximation within a small time window using the comparison lemma. The locally bounded linear approximation of the combined adaptive system is cast in a form of an input-time-delay differential equation over a small time window. The time delay margin of this system represents a local stability measure and is computed analytically by a matrix measure method, which provides a simple analytical technique for estimating an upper bound of time delay margin. Based on simulation results for a scalar model-reference adaptive control system, both the bounded linear stability method and the matrix measure method are seen to provide a reasonably accurate and yet not too conservative time delay margin estimation.

  11. Does it pay to delay? Flesh flies show adaptive plasticity in reproductive timing.

    Wessels, Frank J; Kristal, Ross; Netter, Fleta; Hatle, John D; Hahn, Daniel A

    2011-02-01

    Life-history plasticity is widespread among organisms. However, an important question is whether it is adaptive. Most models for plasticity in life-history timing predict that animals, once they have reached the minimal nutritional threshold under poor conditions, will accelerate development or time to reproduction. Adaptive delays in reproduction are not common, especially in short-lived species. Examples of adaptive reproductive delays exist in mammalian populations experiencing strong interspecific (e.g., predation) and intraspecific (e.g., infanticide) competition. But are there other environmental factors that may trigger an adaptive delay in reproductive timing? We show that the short-lived flesh fly Sarcophaga crassipalpis will delay reproduction under nutrient-poor conditions, even though it has already met the minimal nutritional threshold for reproduction. We test whether this delay strategy is an adaptive response allowing the scavenger time to locate more resources by experimentally providing supplemental protein pulses (early, mid and late) throughout the reproductive delay period. Flies receiving additional protein produced more and larger eggs, demonstrating a benefit of the delay. In addition, by tracking the allocation of carbon from the pulses using stable isotopes, we show that flies receiving earlier pulses incorporated more carbon into eggs and somatic tissue than those given a later pulse. These results indicate that the reproductive delay in S. crassipalpis is consistent with adaptive post-threshold plasticity, a nutritionally linked reproductive strategy that has not been reported previously in an invertebrate species. PMID:20953961

  12. Cross-Cultural Adaptation of a Developmental Assessment for Arabic-Speaking Children with Visual Impairment

    Macrine, Sheila L.; Heji, Hayat; Sabri, Amel; Dalton, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Developmental screening has become an established component of child health programs in many developed countries. The research objective of this project was to translate and adapt a developmental assessment (Oregon Project Skills Inventory) for use with young children with visual impairments who speak Arabic. The study was prompted by the lack of…

  13. Unique pattern of dietary adaptation in the dentition of Carnivora: its advantage and developmental origin

    Asahara, Masakazu; Saito, Kazuyuki; Kishida, Takushi; Takahashi, Katsu; Bessho, Kazuhisa

    2016-01-01

    Carnivora is a successful taxon in terms of dietary diversity. We investigated the dietary adaptations of carnivoran dentition and the developmental background of their dental diversity, which may have contributed to the success of the lineage. A developmental model was tested and extended to explain the unique variability and exceptional phenotypes observed in carnivoran dentition. Carnivorous mammalian orders exhibited two distinct patterns of dietary adaptation in molars and only Carnivora...

  14. Developmentally Delayed Male with Mincer Blade Obstructing the Oesophagus for a Period of Time Suspected to Be 6 Months

    Christian Grønhøj Larsen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Sharp, retained foreign bodies in the oesophagus are associated with severe complications. Developmentally delayed patients are especially subject to foreign objects. We describe a 37-year-old, developmentally delayed male with a mincer blade obstructing the oesophagus. Six months prior to surgical intervention, the patient was hospitalized in a condition of sepsis and pneumonia where the thoracic X-ray reveals a foreign body in the proximal oesophagus. When rehospitalized 6 months later, a mincer blade of the type used in immersion blenders was surgically removed. During these 6 months the patient’s main symptoms were dysphagia, weight loss, and diarrhoea. When developmentally delayed patients present with dysphagia, we strongly encourage the awareness of the possible presence of foreign bodies. To our knowledge this is the first reported case of a mincer blade in the oesophagus.

  15. Adaptive neural network tracking control for a class of unknown nonlinear time-delay systems

    Chen Weisheng; Li Junmin

    2006-01-01

    For a class of unknown nonlinear time-delay systems, an adaptive neural network (NN) control design approach is proposed. Backstepping, domination and adaptive bounding design technique are combined to construct a robust memoryless adaptive NN tracking controller. Unknown time-delay functions are approximated by NNs, such that the requirement on the nonlinear time-delay functions is relaxed. Based on Lyapunov-Krasoviskii functional, the sem-global uniformly ultimately boundedness (UUB) of all the signals in the closed-loop system is proved. The arbitrary output tracking accuracy is achieved by tuning the design parameters. The feasibility is investigated by an illustrative simulation example.

  16. Adaptive pinning synchronization in fractional-order uncertain complex dynamical networks with delay

    Liang, Song; Wu, Ranchao; Chen, Liping

    2016-02-01

    Based on the stability theory of fractional-order systems, synchronization of general fractional-order uncertain complex networks with delay is investigated in this paper. By the inequality of the fractional derivative and the comparison principle of the linear fractional equation with delay, synchronization of complex networks with delay is realized under adaptive control. Some sufficient criteria ensuring local asymptotical synchronization under adaptive control and global asymptotical synchronization under adaptive pinning control are derived, respectively. Finally, numerical simulations are presented to demonstrate the validity and feasibility of the proposed synchronization criteria.

  17. Correlation between anthropometric indices at birth and developmental delay in children aged 4–60 months in Isfahan, Iran

    Akbari, S Amir Ali; S Montazeri; F. Torabi; Amiri, S.; F Soleimani; Majd, H Alavi

    2012-01-01

    Background Advances in medical knowledge and treatment modalities have resulted in an increased survival rate for high-risk infants. This increased number of survivors enables study of the future development of these children. Other than infection and trauma, developmental and behavioral problems are the most common medical problems among such children. This study sought correlations between anthropometric indices at birth and developmental delay in children aged 4–60 months who visited healt...

  18. Adaptive Delay Aware Error Control for Internet Telephony

    Boutremans, Catherine; Le Boudec, Jean-Yves

    2001-01-01

    Real-time audio over Best-Effort networks often suffers from varying packet loss rates, delays and available bandwidth. Forward Error Correction (FEC) is an efficient way to cope with packet losses. But the use of FEC has one main drawback: it increases the end-to-end delay (the more redundant information is sent, the longer the destination has to wait to receive it). Yet, it is recognized that above a certain threshold (around 150ms), the end-to-end delay becomes noticeable and may have a n...

  19. Evaluation of Developmental Delay in Infants Who Came in for 6th Month Vaccination in Isfahan City Health Centers

    Omid YAGHINI; Farzaneh DANESH; Touran MAHMOUDIAN; Babak BEIGI; Shiva EBRAHIMIAN

    2012-01-01

    How to Cite this Article: Yaghini O, Danesh F, Mahmoudian T, Beigi B. Evaluation of Developmental Delay in Infants Who Came in for 6th Month Vaccination in Isfahan City Health Centers. Iran J Child Neurol 2012;6(2): 29-32. Objective Developmental delay is one of the most common causes of conferring the pediatric neurologist. The main part of neurological growth and development occur in the first two years especially in the first 6 months of life. Metabolic or skeletal diseases are important c...

  20. Robust adaptive synchronization of general dynamical networks with multiple delays and uncertainties

    LU YIMING; HE PING; MA SHU-HUA; LI GUO-ZHI; MOBAYBEN SALEH

    2016-06-01

    In this article, a general complex dynamical network which contains multiple delays and uncertainties is introduced, which contains time-varying coupling delays, time-varying node delay, and uncertainties of both the inner- and outer-coupling matrices. A robust adaptive synchronization scheme for these general complex networks with multiple delays and uncertainties is established and raised by employing the robust adaptive control principle and the Lyapunov stability theory. We choose some suitable adaptive synchronization controllers to ensure the robust synchronization of this dynamical network. The numerical simulations of the time-delay Lorenz chaotic system as local dynamical node are provided to observe and verify the viability and productivity of the theoretical research in this paper. Compared to the achievement of previous research, theresearch in this paper seems quite comprehensive and universal.

  1. Mutations in TRNT1 cause congenital sideroblastic anemia with immunodeficiency, fevers, and developmental delay (SIFD).

    Chakraborty, Pranesh K; Schmitz-Abe, Klaus; Kennedy, Erin K; Mamady, Hapsatou; Naas, Turaya; Durie, Danielle; Campagna, Dean R; Lau, Ashley; Sendamarai, Anoop K; Wiseman, Daniel H; May, Alison; Jolles, Stephen; Connor, Philip; Powell, Colin; Heeney, Matthew M; Giardina, Patricia-Jane; Klaassen, Robert J; Kannengiesser, Caroline; Thuret, Isabelle; Thompson, Alexis A; Marques, Laura; Hughes, Stephen; Bonney, Denise K; Bottomley, Sylvia S; Wynn, Robert F; Laxer, Ronald M; Minniti, Caterina P; Moppett, John; Bordon, Victoria; Geraghty, Michael; Joyce, Paul B M; Markianos, Kyriacos; Rudner, Adam D; Holcik, Martin; Fleming, Mark D

    2014-10-30

    Mutations in genes encoding proteins that are involved in mitochondrial heme synthesis, iron-sulfur cluster biogenesis, and mitochondrial protein synthesis have previously been implicated in the pathogenesis of the congenital sideroblastic anemias (CSAs). We recently described a syndromic form of CSA associated with B-cell immunodeficiency, periodic fevers, and developmental delay (SIFD). Here we demonstrate that SIFD is caused by biallelic mutations in TRNT1, the gene encoding the CCA-adding enzyme essential for maturation of both nuclear and mitochondrial transfer RNAs. Using budding yeast lacking the TRNT1 homolog, CCA1, we confirm that the patient-associated TRNT1 mutations result in partial loss of function of TRNT1 and lead to metabolic defects in both the mitochondria and cytosol, which can account for the phenotypic pleiotropy. PMID:25193871

  2. Increasing pre-kindergarten early literacy skills in children with developmental disabilities and delays.

    Pears, Katherine C; Kim, Hyoun K; Fisher, Philip A; Yoerger, Karen

    2016-08-01

    Two hundred and nine children receiving early childhood special education services for developmental disabilities or delays who also had behavioral, social, or attentional difficulties were included in a study of an intervention to increase school readiness, including early literacy skills. Results showed that the intervention had a significant positive effect on children's literacy skills from baseline to the end of summer before the start of kindergarten (d=.14). The intervention also had significant indirect effects on teacher ratings of children's literacy skills during the fall of their kindergarten year (β=.09). Additionally, when scores were compared to standard benchmarks, a greater percentage of the children who received the intervention moved from being at risk for reading difficulties to having low risk. Overall, this study demonstrates that a school readiness intervention delivered prior to the start of kindergarten may help increase children's early literacy skills. PMID:27425563

  3. Binge consumption of ethanol during pregnancy leads to significant developmental delay of mouse embryonic brain

    Sudheendran, Narendran; Bake, Shameena; Miranda, Rajesh C.; Larin, Kirill V.

    2014-03-01

    Consumption of alcohol during pregnancy can be severely detrimental to the development of the brain in fetuses. This study explores the usage of optical coherence tomography (OCT) to the study the effects of maternal consumption of ethanol on brain development in mouse fetuses. On gestational day 14.5, fetuses were collected and fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde. A swept-source OCT (SSOCT) system was used to acquire 3D images of the brain of ethanol-exposed and control fetuses. The volume of right and left brain ventricles were measured and used to compare between ethanol-exposed and control fetuses. A total of 5 fetuses were used for each of the two groups. The average volumes of the right and left ventricles were measured to be 0.35 and 0.15 mm3 for ethanol-exposed and control fetuses, respectively. The results demonstrated that there is an alcohol-induced developmental delay in mouse fetal brains.

  4. Adaptive Stabilization for a Class of Dynamical Systems with Nonlinear Delayed State Perturbations

    2006-01-01

    The problem of adaptive stabilization for a class of systems with nonlinear delayed state perturbations is considered. The bound of the perturbations is assumed to be unknown, by using the adaptive control method, an adaptive controller is designed. Based on the Lyapunov- Karasovskii functional, it is shown that the dynamical system can be stabilized by the adaptive controller. The effectiveness of the proposed controller is demonstrated by some simulations.

  5. Improved adaptive fuzzy control for MIMO nonlinear time-delay systems

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an improved observer-based indirect adaptive fuzzy control scheme for multiinput-multioutput (MIMO) nonlinear time-delay systems.The control scheme synthesizes adaptive fuzzy control with adaptive fuzzy identification.An observer is designed to observe the system state,and an identifier is developed to identify the unknown parts of the system.The update laws for parameters utilize two types of errors in the adaptive time-delay fuzzy logic systems,the observation error and the identificat...

  6. Adaptive tuning of feedback gain in time-delayed feedback control

    Lehnert, J.; Hövel, P.; Flunkert, V.; Guzenko, P. Yu.; Fradkov, A. L.; Schöll, E.

    2011-12-01

    We demonstrate that time-delayed feedback control can be improved by adaptively tuning the feedback gain. This adaptive controller is applied to the stabilization of an unstable fixed point and an unstable periodic orbit embedded in a chaotic attractor. The adaptation algorithm is constructed using the speed-gradient method of control theory. Our computer simulations show that the adaptation algorithm can find an appropriate value of the feedback gain for single and multiple delays. Furthermore, we show that our method is robust to noise and different initial conditions.

  7. Robust adaptive synchronization of uncertain and delayed dynamical complex networks with faulty network

    This paper presents a new robust adaptive synchronization method for a class of uncertain dynamical complex networks with network failures and coupling time-varying delays. Adaptive schemes are proposed to adjust controller parameters for the faulty network compensations, as well as to estimate the upper and lower bounds of delayed state errors and perturbations to compensate the effects of delay and perturbation on-line without assuming symmetry or irreducibility of networks. It is shown that, through Lyapunov stability theory, distributed adaptive controllers constructed by the adaptive schemes are successful in ensuring the achievement of asymptotic synchronization of networks in the present of faulty and delayed networks, and perturbation inputs. A Chua's circuit network example is finally given to show the effectiveness of the proposed synchronization criteria. (general)

  8. Adaptive Synchronization of Fractional Neural Networks with Unknown Parameters and Time Delays

    Weiyuan Ma

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the parameters identification and synchronization problem of fractional-order neural networks with time delays are investigated. Based on some analytical techniques and an adaptive control method, a simple adaptive synchronization controller and parameter update laws are designed to synchronize two uncertain complex networks with time delays. Besides, the system parameters in the uncertain network can be identified in the process of synchronization. To demonstrate the validity of the proposed method, several illustrative examples are presented.

  9. Delay-induced diversity of firing behavior and ordered chaotic firing in adaptive neuronal networks

    In this paper, we study the effect of time delay on the firing behavior and temporal coherence and synchronization in Newman–Watts thermosensitive neuron networks with adaptive coupling. At beginning, the firing exhibit disordered spiking in absence of time delay. As time delay is increased, the neurons exhibit diversity of firing behaviors including bursting with multiple spikes in a burst, spiking, bursting with four, three and two spikes, firing death, and bursting with increasing amplitude. The spiking is the most ordered, exhibiting coherence resonance (CR)-like behavior, and the firing synchronization becomes enhanced with the increase of time delay. As growth rate of coupling strength or network randomness increases, CR-like behavior shifts to smaller time delay and the synchronization of firing increases. These results show that time delay can induce diversity of firing behaviors in adaptive neuronal networks, and can order the chaotic firing by enhancing and optimizing the temporal coherence and enhancing the synchronization of firing. However, the phenomenon of firing death shows that time delay may inhibit the firing of adaptive neuronal networks. These findings provide new insight into the role of time delay in the firing activity of adaptive neuronal networks, and can help to better understand the complex firing phenomena in neural networks.

  10. The role of time delay in adaptive cellular negative feedback systems.

    Lapytsko, Anastasiya; Schaber, Jörg

    2016-06-01

    Adaptation in cellular systems is often mediated by negative feedbacks, which usually come with certain time delays causing several characteristic response patterns including an overdamped response, damped or sustained oscillations. Here, we analyse generic two-dimensional delay differential equations with delayed negative feedback describing the dynamics of biochemical adaptive signal-response networks. We derive explicit thresholds and boundaries showing how time delay determines characteristic response patterns of these networks. Applying our theoretical analyses to concrete data we show that adaptation to osmotic stress in yeast is optimal in the sense of minimizing adaptation time without causing oscillatory behaviour, i.e., a critically damped response. In addition, our framework demonstrates that a slight increase of time delay in the NF-κB system might induce a switch from damped to sustained oscillatory behaviour. Thus, we demonstrate how delay differential equations can be used to explicitly study the delay in biochemical negative feedback systems. Our analysis also provides insight into how time delay may tune biological signal-response patterns and control the systems behaviour. PMID:26995333

  11. Virtual unit delay for digital frequency adaptive T/4 delay phase-locked loop system

    Yang, Yongheng; Zhou, Keliang; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    Digital micro-controllers/processors enable the cost-effective control of grid-connected power converter systems in terms of system monitoring, signal processing (e.g., grid synchronization), control (e.g., grid current and voltage control), etc. Normally, the control is implemented in a micro......-controller/processor with a fixed sampling rate considering the cost and complexity, where the number of unit delays that have been adopted should be an integer. For instance, in conventional digital control systems, a single-phase T/4 Delay Phase-Locked Loop (PLL) system takes 50 unit delays (i.e., in a 50-Hz system with...... a sampling frequency of 10-kHz) to create a 90 ◦-lagging voltage in order to achieve the grid synchronization with the orthogonal voltage system. However, in practice, the grid frequency is a time-variant parameter due to various eventualities, and thus rounding the number of the unit delays for the...

  12. Global Developmental Delay in a Mexican Patient With Megalencephalic Leukoencephalopathy With Subcortical Cysts

    Cesar Misael Cerecedo Zapata

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts (MLC is a neurologic disorder characterized by macrocephaly within the first year of life and the delayed onset of motor function deterioration with ataxia and spasticity. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain is diagnostic and shows diffusely abnormal, mildly swollen cerebral white matter and subcortical cysts. MLC exhibits an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. Two genes have been associated with MLC. The first and most important gene is MLC1, The other gene involved is HEPACAM. Case Presentation: We studied a Mexican patient with a compatible diagnosis of MLC. The patient exhibited the c.353C > T, p.Thr118Met mutation, and both parents were carriers for the same mutation. To the best of our knowledge, no other cases of MLC have been reported in Mexican patient. This patient exhibited rapid deterioration of motor function. Conclusions: A diagnosis of MLC, which can be facilitated by imaging studies, should be considered in all patients who exhibit global developmental delay.

  13. Analysis of an Adaptive P-Persistent MAC Scheme for WLAN Providing Delay Fairness

    Yen, Chih-Ming; Chang, Chung-Ju; Chen, Yih-Shen; Huang, Ching Yao

    The paper proposes and analyzes an adaptive p-persistent-based (APP) medium access control (MAC) scheme for IEEE 802.11 WLAN. The APP MAC scheme intends to support delay fairness for every station in each access, denoting small delay variance. It differentiates permission probabilities of transmission for stations which are incurred with various packet delays. This permission probability is designed as a function of the numbers of retransmissions and re-backoffs so that stations with larger packet delay are endowed with higher permission probability. Also, the scheme is analyzed by a Markov-chain analysis, where the collision probability, the system throughput, and the average delay are successfully obtained. Numerical results show that the proposed APP MAC scheme can attain lower mean delay and higher mean throughput. In the mean time, simulation results are given to justify the validity of the analysis, and also show that the APP MAC scheme can achieve more delay fairness than conventional algorithms.

  14. De novo interstitial deletion of 9q32-34.1 with mental retardation, developmental delay, epilepsy, and cortical dysplasia

    Tos, T; Alp, M Y; Karacan, C D;

    2014-01-01

    In this report we describe a 10 year-old female patient with interstitial deletion of 9q32-q34.1 associated with mental retardation, developmental delay, short stature, mild facial dysmorphism, epilepsy, abnormal EEG and brain MRI findings consistent with focal cortical dysplasia. Interstitial......). Combination of epilepsy, abnormal EEG and brain MRI findings are not reported before....

  15. OJKO-project: Longitudinal study on the development of young children with a serious cognitive and motor developmental delay

    Colla, Stephy; Van Keer, Ines; Schalen, Gertruud Henrike; van der Putten, Annette; Visser, Linda; Maes, Bea; Vlaskamp, Carla; van der Meulen, Bieuwe

    2015-01-01

    Recently, a longitudinal project on the development of children with a serious cognitive and motor developmental delay has started in Belgium and the Netherlands. The aims of this study are to evaluate the cognitive, motor, communicative and social-emotional abilities of young children with a severe

  16. Effectiveness of Contrasting Approaches to Response-Contingent Learning among Children with Significant Developmental Delays and Disabilities

    Raab, Melinda; Dunst, Carl J.; Hamby, Deborah W.

    2016-01-01

    Findings from a randomized controlled design study of an ability-based versus needs-based approach to response-contingent learning among children with significant developmental delays and disabilities who did not use instrumental behavior to produce reinforcing consequences are reported. The ability-based intervention and needs-based intervention…

  17. Will adaptation delay the transition to clean energy systems?

    Bahn, O.; Bruin, Kelly; Fertel, C

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is one of the greatest environmental challenges facing our planet in the foreseeable future, yet, despite international environmental agreements, global GHG emissions are still increasing. In this context, adaptation measures are an alternative to mitigation efforts. These measures involve adjustments to economic or social structures to limit the impact of climate change without limiting climate change itself. To assess the interplay of adaptation and mitigation, we propose AD-...

  18. Temporal recalibration in vocalization induced by adaptation of delayed auditory feedback.

    Kosuke Yamamoto

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We ordinarily perceive our voice sound as occurring simultaneously with vocal production, but the sense of simultaneity in vocalization can be easily interrupted by delayed auditory feedback (DAF. DAF causes normal people to have difficulty speaking fluently but helps people with stuttering to improve speech fluency. However, the underlying temporal mechanism for integrating the motor production of voice and the auditory perception of vocal sound remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the temporal tuning mechanism integrating vocal sensory and voice sounds under DAF with an adaptation technique. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Participants produced a single voice sound repeatedly with specific delay times of DAF (0, 66, 133 ms during three minutes to induce 'Lag Adaptation'. They then judged the simultaneity between motor sensation and vocal sound given feedback. We found that lag adaptation induced a shift in simultaneity responses toward the adapted auditory delays. This indicates that the temporal tuning mechanism in vocalization can be temporally recalibrated after prolonged exposure to delayed vocal sounds. Furthermore, we found that the temporal recalibration in vocalization can be affected by averaging delay times in the adaptation phase. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest vocalization is finely tuned by the temporal recalibration mechanism, which acutely monitors the integration of temporal delays between motor sensation and vocal sound.

  19. Stability of adaptive cruise control systems taking account of vehicle response time and delay

    The region of string stability of a platoon of adaptive cruise control vehicles, taking into account the delay and response of the vehicle powertrain, is found. An upper bound on the explicit delay time as a function the first-order powertrain response time constant is determined. The system is characterized by a headway time constant, a sensitivity parameter, relative (to the vehicle immediately in front) velocity control, and delayed-velocity feedback or acceleration feedback. -- Highlights: ► I find the region of stability for a realistic adaptive cruise control system. ► Vehicle response time and explicit delay are included in the analysis. ► Delayed-feedback enlarges the parameter space that gives string stability.

  20. Delayed feedback during sensorimotor learning selectively disrupts adaptation but not strategy use.

    Brudner, Samuel N; Kethidi, Nikhit; Graeupner, Damaris; Ivry, Richard B; Taylor, Jordan A

    2016-03-01

    In sensorimotor adaptation tasks, feedback delays can cause significant reductions in the rate of learning. This constraint is puzzling given that many skilled behaviors have inherently long delays (e.g., hitting a golf ball). One difference in these task domains is that adaptation is primarily driven by error-based feedback, whereas skilled performance may also rely to a large extent on outcome-based feedback. This difference suggests that error- and outcome-based feedback may engage different learning processes, and these processes may be associated with different temporal constraints. We tested this hypothesis in a visuomotor adaptation task. Error feedback was indicated by the terminal position of a cursor, while outcome feedback was indicated by points. In separate groups of participants, the two feedback signals were presented immediately at the end of the movement, after a delay, or with just the error feedback delayed. Participants learned to counter the rotation in a similar manner regardless of feedback delay. However, the aftereffect, an indicator of implicit motor adaptation, was attenuated with delayed error feedback, consistent with the hypothesis that a different learning process supports performance under delay. We tested this by employing a task that dissociates the contribution of explicit strategies and implicit adaptation. We find that explicit aiming strategies contribute to the majority of the learning curve, regardless of delay; however, implicit learning, measured over the course of learning and by aftereffects, was significantly attenuated with delayed error-based feedback. These experiments offer new insight into the temporal constraints associated with different motor learning processes. PMID:26792878

  1. Adaptive estimation for affine stochastic delay differential equations

    Reiß, Markus

    2005-01-01

    Stochastic delay differential equations (SDDEs for short) appear naturally in the description of many processes, e.g. in population dynamics with a time lag due to an age-dependent birth rate (Scheutzow 1981), in economics where a certain "time to build" is needed (Kydland and Prescott 1982) or in laser technology (Garcia-Ojalvo and Roy 1996), in finance (Hobson and Rogers 1998) and in many engineering applications, see Kohmanovskii and Myshkis (1992) for an overview. They are also obtained a...

  2. Adaptive modified function projective synchronization of multiple time-delayed chaotic Rossler system

    In this Letter we consider modified function projective synchronization of unidirectionally coupled multiple time-delayed Rossler chaotic systems using adaptive controls. Recently, delay differential equations have attracted much attention in the field of nonlinear dynamics. The high complexity of the multiple time-delayed systems can provide a new architecture for enhancing message security in chaos based encryption systems. Adaptive control can be used for synchronization when the parameters of the system are unknown. Based on Lyapunov stability theory, the adaptive control law and the parameter update law are derived to make the state of two chaotic systems are function projective synchronized. Numerical simulations are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed adaptive controllers.

  3. Adaptive Neural Control Design For a Class of Nonlinear Time-delay Systems

    FENG Ling-ling; ZHANG Wei

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes an indirect adaptive neural control scheme for a class of nonlinear systems with time delays. Based on the backstepping technique and Lyapunov–Krasovskii functional method are combined to construct the indirect adaptive neural controller. The proposed indirect adaptive neural controller guarantees that the state variables converge to a small neighborhood of the origin and all the signals of the closed-loop system are bounded. Finally, an example is used to show the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy.

  4. Adaptive Asymptotical Synchronization for Stochastic Complex Networks with Time-Delay and Markovian Switching

    Xueling Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of adaptive asymptotical synchronization is discussed for the stochastic complex dynamical networks with time-delay and Markovian switching. By applying the stochastic analysis approach and the M-matrix method for stochastic complex networks, several sufficient conditions to ensure adaptive asymptotical synchronization for stochastic complex networks are derived. Through the adaptive feedback control techniques, some suitable parameters update laws are obtained. Simulation result is provided to substantiate the effectiveness and characteristics of the proposed approach.

  5. Waterborne exposure to triadimefon causes thyroid endocrine disruption and developmental delay in Xenopus laevis tadpoles.

    Li, Meng; Li, Shuying; Yao, Tingting; Zhao, Renjie; Wang, Qiangwei; Zhu, Guonian

    2016-08-01

    Triadimefon (TDF) is a triazole-derivative fungicide that is detectable in the environment and target agricultural products, prompting concern over its risk to wildlife and human health. In our study, Nieuwkoop & Faber stage 51 Xenopus laevis tadpoles were exposed to different nominal concentrations TDF (0, 0.112, and 1.12mg/L) for 21 days while the tadpoles were undergoing pre-morphological development. Developmental condition, bioaccumulation and thyroid hormone levels, and mRNA expression of genes involved in the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis were examined. Exposure to TDF caused a reduction in developmental rates on pre-metamorphosis of X. laevis. TDF exposure significantly decreased thyroid hormone (T4 and T3) concentrations, indicating thyroid endocrine disruption. The downregulation of thyroglobulin and upregulation of genes related to thyroid hormone metabolism (ugt1ab) might be responsible for the decreased thyroid hormone concentrations. Treatment with TDF also significantly increased mRNA expression of genes involved in thyroid-stimulating hormone as a compensatory mechanism response to decreased thyroid hormone concentrations. Gene expression and in silico ligand docking studies were combined to study the interaction between TDF and thyroid hormone receptor. Results showed that TDF could consequently affect the HPT axis signaling pathway. In addition, bioconcentration of TDF was observed in tadpoles, indicating the bioactivity of this compound. Taken together, the results suggest that TDF alters the HPT axis-related genes and changes thyroid hormone contents in X. laevis tadpoles, thus causing thyroid endocrine disruption and consequently delaying thyroid hormones-dependent metamorphic development. PMID:27289584

  6. An Adaptive Loss-Aware Flow Control Scheme for Delay-Sensitive Applications in OBS Networks

    Jeong, Hongkyu; Choi, Jungyul; Mo, Jeonghoon; Kang, Minho

    Optical Burst Switching (OBS) is one of the most promising switching technologies for next generation optical networks. As delay-sensitive applications such as Voice-over-IP (VoIP) have recently become popular, OBS networks should guarantee stringent Quality of Service (QoS) requirements for such applications. Thus, this paper proposes an Adaptive Loss-aware Flow Control (ALFC) scheme, which adaptively decides on the burst offset time based on loss-rate information delivered from core nodes for assigning a high priority to delay-sensitive application traffic. The proposed ALFC scheme also controls the upper-bounds of the factors inducing delay and jitter for guaranteeing the delay and jitter requirements of delay-sensitive application traffic. Moreover, a piggybacking method used in the proposed scheme accelerates the guarantee of the loss, delay, and jitter requirements because the response time for flow control can be extremely reduced up to a quarter of the Round Trip Time (RTT) on average while minimizing the signaling overhead. Simulation results show that our mechanism can guarantee a 10-3 loss-rate under any traffic load while offering satisfactory levels of delay and jitter for delay-sensitive applications.

  7. Detection of chromosomal breakpoints in patients with developmental delay and speech disorders.

    Kagistia H Utami

    Full Text Available Delineating candidate genes at the chromosomal breakpoint regions in the apparently balanced chromosome rearrangements (ABCR has been shown to be more effective with the emergence of next-generation sequencing (NGS technologies. We employed a large-insert (7-11 kb paired-end tag sequencing technology (DNA-PET to systematically analyze genome of four patients harbouring cytogenetically defined ABCR with neurodevelopmental symptoms, including developmental delay (DD and speech disorders. We characterized structural variants (SVs specific to each individual, including those matching the chromosomal breakpoints. Refinement of these regions by Sanger sequencing resulted in the identification of five disrupted genes in three individuals: guanine nucleotide binding protein, q polypeptide (GNAQ, RNA-binding protein, fox-1 homolog (RBFOX3, unc-5 homolog D (C.elegans (UNC5D, transmembrane protein 47 (TMEM47, and X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP. Among them, XIAP is the causative gene for the immunodeficiency phenotype seen in the patient. The remaining genes displayed specific expression in the fetal brain and have known biologically relevant functions in brain development, suggesting putative candidate genes for neurodevelopmental phenotypes. This study demonstrates the application of NGS technologies in mapping individual gene disruptions in ABCR as a resource for deciphering candidate genes in human neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs.

  8. MDMA (ecstasy) delays pubertal development and alters sperm quality after developmental exposure in the rat.

    Barenys, M; Gomez-Catalan, J; Camps, L; Teixido, E; de Lapuente, J; Gonzalez-Linares, J; Serret, J; Borras, M; Rodamilans, M; Llobet, J M

    2010-08-16

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine, MDMA or "ecstasy" is consumed mainly by young population at childbearing age. Therefore, there may be a risk of exposure of some pregnant women. The effects of the developmental exposure to MDMA on the sexual development and long-term sexual behaviour/fertility were assessed in Sprague-Dawley rats. MDMA was administered subcutaneously at 0 (control), 0.5, 5 and 10 mg/kg to female rats once a day, three consecutive days a week during 10 weeks, including gestation and lactation. The male offspring was evaluated for sexual maturation and mated with untreated sexually receptive females to evaluate the mating and pregnancy rates. Hormonal, haematological, biochemical, histological, genotoxicological and testicular and sperm parameters were also evaluated. A significant higher incidence of DNA damage in sperm and interstitial oedema in testes was found. There was also a significant and dose-related decrease in sperm count and a significant decrease in sperm motility at all doses. A significant delay in preputial separation onset in all treated groups was observed. This study reports by the first time an alteration of spermatogenesis after in utero and lactation MDMA exposure in the rat. PMID:20546852

  9. Regional variations in early intervention utilization for children with developmental delay.

    Grant, Roy; Isakson, Elizabeth A

    2013-09-01

    We tested whether state-level variations in early intervention program (EI) participation were consistent with rates of key risk factors for early developmental delay. Based on the results of prior studies, we focused on child poverty and low birth weight as risk factors, included state threshold for EI eligibility by category (classified as broad/moderate or narrow), and aggregated the states into regions. Bivariate analyses were done in SPSS 15.0. All data were for 2009. Results were tested against data for prior years to ascertain whether findings for 2009 were anomalous. Nationally, 2.67 % of the age-eligible population was served in EI (range among states, 1.24-6.51 %). Variation in EI participation was significant at the regional level. Early intervention participation was lowest in the south and highest in the northeast (p child poverty (p < 0.01) were also significant. Both were highest in the south. While EI participation varied significantly by state eligibility standards, this factor did not entirely explain variance in utilization. Results for 2009 were representative of multi-year trend data. National EI utilization rates consistently lagged behind need as identified in epidemiologic studies from multiple sources. The results strongly suggest that there is a significant population of infants and toddlers who need but do not receive EI services, especially in the south. PMID:22918713

  10. Paternal versus maternal coping styles with child diagnosis of developmental delay.

    Barak-Levy, Yael; Atzaba-Poria, Na'ama

    2013-06-01

    Parents of children with disabilities vary in their reaction to their children's diagnosis. The current study focused on fathers in addition to mothers and examined their resolution and coping styles when having children diagnosed with developmental delay (DD). Sixty-five fathers and 71 mothers were interviewed using the reaction to the diagnosis interview (RDI; Pianta & Marvin, 1992a). Results indicated that the majority of parents were unresolved with their child's diagnosis, with no differences found between fathers' and mothers' rates of resolution. Furthermore, both parents of children that were diagnosed at a later age and parents that were less educated tended to be unresolved, as did fathers of a lower socioeconomic status. Older age of both children and mothers was related to maternal lack of resolution. Finally, an in-depth examination revealed significant differences in the manner in which fathers and mothers cope with their children's diagnosis: whereas mothers were more prone to using an emotional coping style, fathers tended to use a cognitive coping style. The clinical implications of paternal versus maternal coping styles are discussed. PMID:23584184

  11. Design of artificial genetic regulatory networks with multiple delayed adaptive responses

    Kaluza, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Genetic regulatory networks with adaptive responses are widely studied in biology. Usually, models consisting only of a few nodes have been considered. They present one input receptor for activation and one output node where the adaptive response is computed. In this work, we design genetic regulatory networks with many receptors and many output nodes able to produce delayed adaptive responses. This design is performed by using an evolutionary algorithm of mutations and selections that minimizes an error function defined by the adaptive response in signal shapes. We present several examples of network constructions with a predefined required set of adaptive delayed responses. We show that an output node can have different kinds of responses as a function of the activated receptor. Additionally, complex network structures are presented since processing nodes can be involved in several input-output pathways.

  12. Robust Adaptive Exponential Synchronization of Stochastic Perturbed Chaotic Delayed Neural Networks with Parametric Uncertainties

    Yang Fang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the robust adaptive exponential synchronization in mean square of stochastic perturbed chaotic delayed neural networks with nonidentical parametric uncertainties. A robust adaptive feedback controller is proposed based on Gronwally’s inequality, drive-response concept, and adaptive feedback control technique with the update laws of nonidentical parametric uncertainties as well as linear matrix inequality (LMI approach. The sufficient conditions for robust adaptive exponential synchronization in mean square of uncoupled uncertain stochastic chaotic delayed neural networks are derived in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs. The effect of nonidentical uncertain parameter uncertainties is suppressed by the designed robust adaptive feedback controller rapidly. A numerical example is provided to validate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  13. Delay-Optimal Buffer-Aware Probabilistic Scheduling with Adaptive Transmission

    Chen, Xiang; Chen, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Cross-layer scheduling is a promising way to improve Quality of Service (QoS) given a power constraint. In this paper, we investigate the system with random data arrival and adaptive transmission. Probabilistic scheduling strategies aware of the buffer state are applied to generalize conventional deterministic scheduling. Based on this, the average delay and power consumption are analysed by Markov reward process. The optimal delay-power tradeoff curve is the Pareto frontier of the feasible d...

  14. Understanding developmental and adaptive cues in pine through metabolite profiling and co-expression network analysis

    Cañas, Rafael A.; Canales, Javier; Muñoz-Hernández, Carmen; Granados, Jose M.; Ávila, Concepción; García-Martín, María L.; Cánovas, Francisco M.

    2015-01-01

    Conifers include long-lived evergreen trees of great economic and ecological importance, including pines and spruces. During their long lives conifers must respond to seasonal environmental changes, adapt to unpredictable environmental stresses, and co-ordinate their adaptive adjustments with internal developmental programmes. To gain insights into these responses, we examined metabolite and transcriptomic profiles of needles from naturally growing 25-year-old maritime pine (Pinus pinaster L....

  15. Adaptive control of bifurcation and chaos in a time-delayed system

    Li Ning; Yuan Hui-Qun; Sun Hai-Yi; Zhang Qing-Ling

    2013-01-01

    In this paper,the stabilization of a continuous time-delayed system is considered.To control the bifurcation and chaos in a time-delayed system,a parameter perturbation control and a hybrid control are proposed.Then,to ensure the asymptotic stability of the system in the presence of unexpected system parameter changes,the adaptive control idea is introduced,i.e.,the perturbation control parameter and the hybrid control parameter are automatically tuned according to the adaptation laws,respectively.The adaptation algorithms are constructed based on the Lyapunov-Krasovskii stability theorem.The adaptive parameter perturbation control and the adaptive hybrid control methods improve the corresponding constant control methods.They have the advantages of increased stability,adaptability to the changes of the system parameters,control cost saving,and simplicity.Numerical simulations for a well-known chaotic time-delayed system are performed to demonstrate the feasibility and superiority of the proposed control methods.A comparison of the two adaptive control methods is also made in an experimental study.

  16. Adaptive control of bifurcation and chaos in a time-delayed system

    In this paper, the stabilization of a continuous time-delayed system is considered. To control the bifurcation and chaos in a time-delayed system, a parameter perturbation control and a hybrid control are proposed. Then, to ensure the asymptotic stability of the system in the presence of unexpected system parameter changes, the adaptive control idea is introduced, i.e., the perturbation control parameter and the hybrid control parameter are automatically tuned according to the adaptation laws, respectively. The adaptation algorithms are constructed based on the Lyapunov-Krasovskii stability theorem. The adaptive parameter perturbation control and the adaptive hybrid control methods improve the corresponding constant control methods. They have the advantages of increased stability, adaptability to the changes of the system parameters, control cost saving, and simplicity. Numerical simulations for a well-known chaotic time-delayed system are performed to demonstrate the feasibility and superiority of the proposed control methods. A comparison of the two adaptive control methods is also made in an experimental study

  17. Throughput Enhancement Using Adaptive Delay Barrier Function over HSDPA System in Mixed Traffic Scenarios

    Kim, Yong-Seok

    In this paper, we consider a method to enhance the throughput of HSDPA systems in the mixed traffic scenario. A channel-dependent adaptive delay barrier (DB) function is proposed to maximize throughput of best-effort (BE) traffic while satisfying the delay latency of voice over internet protocol (VoIP) service. Simulations show that the proposed channel-adaptive DB function raises the throughput of BE traffic service by 30% compared to the conventional scheme, without degrading the capacity of VoIP service over HSDPA system.

  18. Cytogenetic Studies of Rwandan Pediatric Patients Presenting with Global Developmental Delay, Intellectual Disability and/or Multiple Congenital Anomalies.

    Uwineza, Annette; Hitayezu, Janvier; Jamar, Mauricette; Caberg, Jean-Hubert; Murorunkwere, Seraphine; Janvier, Ndinkabandi; Bours, Vincent; Mutesa, Leon

    2016-02-01

    Global developmental delay (GDD) is defined as a significant delay in two or more developmental domains: gross or fine motor, speech/language, cognitive, social/personal and activities of daily living. Many of these children will go on to be diagnosed with intellectual disability (ID), which is most commonly defined as having an IQ Karyotype analysis was performed in all patients and revealed 260 chromosomal abnormalities. The most frequent chromosomal abnormality was Down syndrome and then Edward syndrome and Patau syndrome. Other identified chromosomal abnormalities included 47,XX,+del(9)(q11), 46,XY,del(13)(q34) and 46,XX,der(22)t(10;22)(p10;p10)mat. In conclusion, our results highlight the high frequency of cytogenetically detectable abnormalities in this series, with implications for the burden on the healthcare. This study demonstrates the importance of cytogenetic analysis in patients with GDD/ID and MCA. PMID:26507407

  19. Mothers’ perceived physical health during early and middle childhood: Relations with child developmental delay and behavior problems

    Eisenhower, Abbey; Blacher, Jan; Baker, Bruce L.

    2013-01-01

    The self-perceived physical health of mothers raising children with developmental delay (DD; n = 116) or typical development (TD; n = 129) was examined across child ages 3–9 years, revealing three main findings. First, mothers of children with DD experienced poorer self-rated physical health than mothers of children with TD at each age. Latent growth curve analyses indicated that mothers in the DD group experienced poorer health from age 3 but that the two groups showed similar growth across ...

  20. The Impact of Short-Term Video Games on Performance among Children with Developmental Delays: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Hsieh, Ru-Lan; Lee, Wen-Chung; Lin, Jui-Hsiang

    2016-01-01

    This prospective, randomized controlled study investigated the effects of short-term interactive video game playing among children with developmental delays participating in traditional rehabilitation treatment at a rehabilitation clinic. One hundred and one boys and 46 girls with a mean age of 5.8 years (range: 3 to 12 years) were enrolled in this study. All patients were confirmed to suffer from developmental delays, and were participating in traditional rehabilitation treatment. Children participated in two periods of 4 weeks each, group A being offered intervention of eight 30-minute sessions of interactive video games in the first period, and group B in the second, in addition to the traditional rehabilitation treatment. The physical, psychosocial, and total health of the children was periodically assessed using the parent-reported Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory-Generic Core Scales (PedsQL); and the children’s upper extremity and physical function, transfer and basic mobility, sports and physical functioning, and global functioning were assessed using the Pediatric Outcomes Data Collection Instrument. Parental impact was evaluated using the PedsQL-Family Impact Module for family function, PedsQL-Health Satisfaction questionnaire for parents’ satisfaction with their children’s care and World Health Organization-Quality of Life-Brief Version for quality of life. Compared with the baseline, significant improvements of physical function were observed in both groups (5.6 ± 19.5, p = 0.013; 4.7 ± 13.8, p = 0.009) during the intervention periods. No significant improvement of psychosocial health, functional performance, or family impact was observed in children with developmental delays. Short-term interactive video game play in conjunction with traditional rehabilitation treatment improved the physical health of children with developmental delays. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02184715 PMID:26983099

  1. The Impact of Short-Term Video Games on Performance among Children with Developmental Delays: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Ru-Lan Hsieh

    Full Text Available This prospective, randomized controlled study investigated the effects of short-term interactive video game playing among children with developmental delays participating in traditional rehabilitation treatment at a rehabilitation clinic. One hundred and one boys and 46 girls with a mean age of 5.8 years (range: 3 to 12 years were enrolled in this study. All patients were confirmed to suffer from developmental delays, and were participating in traditional rehabilitation treatment. Children participated in two periods of 4 weeks each, group A being offered intervention of eight 30-minute sessions of interactive video games in the first period, and group B in the second, in addition to the traditional rehabilitation treatment. The physical, psychosocial, and total health of the children was periodically assessed using the parent-reported Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory-Generic Core Scales (PedsQL; and the children's upper extremity and physical function, transfer and basic mobility, sports and physical functioning, and global functioning were assessed using the Pediatric Outcomes Data Collection Instrument. Parental impact was evaluated using the PedsQL-Family Impact Module for family function, PedsQL-Health Satisfaction questionnaire for parents' satisfaction with their children's care and World Health Organization-Quality of Life-Brief Version for quality of life. Compared with the baseline, significant improvements of physical function were observed in both groups (5.6 ± 19.5, p = 0.013; 4.7 ± 13.8, p = 0.009 during the intervention periods. No significant improvement of psychosocial health, functional performance, or family impact was observed in children with developmental delays. Short-term interactive video game play in conjunction with traditional rehabilitation treatment improved the physical health of children with developmental delays.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02184715.

  2. American College of Medical Genetics guideline on the cytogenetic evaluation of the individual with developmental delay or mental retardation

    Shaffer, Lisa G

    2005-01-01

    The following are the recommendations of the American College of Medical Genetics (ACMG) Professional Practice and Guidelines Committee, which was convened to assist health care professionals in making decisions regarding cytogenetic diagnostic testing and counseling for mental retardation (MR) and developmental delay (DD). This document reviews available evidence concerning the value of conventional and molecular cytogenetic testing for the identification of chromosomal anomalies that play a...

  3. Adapting Western developmental measures for use in resource poor settings: methodological issues.

    Abubakar, Amina; Alcock, Katie J.; Holding, Penny

    2008-01-01

    We applaud the efforts of Gladstone et al[1] in their adaptation of developmental assessment tools for use in sub-Saharan Africa. We would like however to offer some advice for those attempting to follow in their footsteps with no background in cross-cultural psychology or psychometrics.

  4. Robust chaos synchronization based on adaptive fuzzy delayed feedback $\\mathcal{H}_{∞}$ control

    Choon Ki Ahn

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a new adaptive $\\mathcal_{∞}$ synchronization strategy, called an adaptive fuzzy delayed feedback $\\mathcal_{∞}$ synchronization (AFDFHS) strategy, for chaotic systems with uncertain parameters and external disturbances. Based on Lyapunov–Krasovskii theory, Takagi–Sugeno (T–S) fuzzy model and adaptive delayed feedback $\\mathcal_{∞}$ control scheme, the AFDFHS controller is presented such that the synchronization error system is asymptotically stable with a guaranteed $\\mathcal_{∞}$ performance. It is shown that the design of the AFDFHS controller with adaptive law can be achieved by solving a linear matrix inequality (LMI), which can be easily facilitated by using some standard numerical packages. An illustrative example is given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed AFDFHS approach.

  5. Microstructural callosal abnormalities in normal-appearing brain of children with developmental delay detected with diffusion tensor imaging

    Callosal fibres play an important role in psychomotor and cognitive functions. The purpose of this study was to investigate possible microstructural abnormalities of the corpus callosum in children with developmental delay, who have normal conventional brain MR imaging results. Seventeen pediatric patients (aged 1-9 years) with developmental delay were studied. Quantitative T2 and fractional anisotropy (FA) values were measured at the genu and splenium of the corpus callosum (CC). Fibre tracking, volumetric determination, as well as fibre density calculations of the CC were also carried out. The results were compared with those of the age-matched healthy subjects. A general elevation of T2 relaxation times (105 ms in patients vs. 95 ms in controls) and reduction of the FA values (0.66 in patients vs. 0.74 in controls) at the genu of the CC were found in patients. Reductions of the fibre numbers (5,464 in patients vs. 8,886 in controls) and volumes (3,415 ml in patients vs. 5,235 ml in controls) of the CC were found only in patients older than 5 years. The study indicates that despite their inconspicuous findings in conventional MRI microstructural brain abnormalities are evident in these pediatric patients suffering from developmental delay. (orig.)

  6. Microstructural callosal abnormalities in normal-appearing brain of children with developmental delay detected with diffusion tensor imaging

    Ding, Xiao-Qi [Hannover Medical School, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Hannover (Germany); University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Neuroradiology, Hamburg (Germany); Sun, Yimeng; Illies, Till; Zeumer, Hermann; Fiehler, Jens [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Neuroradiology, Hamburg (Germany); Kruse, Bernd [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Pediatrics, Hamburg (Germany); Lanfermann, Heinrich [Hannover Medical School, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Hannover (Germany)

    2009-06-15

    Callosal fibres play an important role in psychomotor and cognitive functions. The purpose of this study was to investigate possible microstructural abnormalities of the corpus callosum in children with developmental delay, who have normal conventional brain MR imaging results. Seventeen pediatric patients (aged 1-9 years) with developmental delay were studied. Quantitative T2 and fractional anisotropy (FA) values were measured at the genu and splenium of the corpus callosum (CC). Fibre tracking, volumetric determination, as well as fibre density calculations of the CC were also carried out. The results were compared with those of the age-matched healthy subjects. A general elevation of T2 relaxation times (105 ms in patients vs. 95 ms in controls) and reduction of the FA values (0.66 in patients vs. 0.74 in controls) at the genu of the CC were found in patients. Reductions of the fibre numbers (5,464 in patients vs. 8,886 in controls) and volumes (3,415 ml in patients vs. 5,235 ml in controls) of the CC were found only in patients older than 5 years. The study indicates that despite their inconspicuous findings in conventional MRI microstructural brain abnormalities are evident in these pediatric patients suffering from developmental delay. (orig.)

  7. Are clusters of mental retardation correlated with clusters of developmental delay?

    Huiling Zhen

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Mental retardation (MR is a subset of developmental delay (DD, a broader classification of childhood disability. The purpose of this study was to determine if clusters of these two conditions were statistically significantly correlated. The residential addresses of 81,935 Medicaid insured pregnant women during each month of pregnancy were used to identify clusters of MR and DD in their children. Correlations between MR and DD were computed based on the sets of P-value surface from selected centroid points, where the P-value for cumulative relative risk of MR and DD was known. The correlations are quite small for all the 10 gestational months for which maternal addresses were available, but they are all statistically significant. This indicates MR and DD are correlated, but they are not linear. When MR was used as the centroid point to identify a cluster the only correlations that were statistically significant were for gestational month 5 and 6 with correlation 0.14 (P = 0.007 for both months. When the centroid points were selected based on the significance of risk of DD, the correlations between MR and DD are not statistically significant for any month. Correlation between MR and DD based on the sets of P-value surfaces from 4 MR clusters are significant in gestational month 5, 6 and 7 with correlation 0.17 (P = 0.047, 0.16 (P = 0.060 and 0.17 (P = 0.044, respectively. Our finding suggests that locations of high risk for the more severe condition, MR, also identify a spatial area where less severe cases of DD might be present, however the reverse is not the case.

  8. Functional performance of school children diagnosed with developmental delay up to two years of age

    Dornelas, Lílian de Fátima; Magalhães, Lívia de Castro

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To compare the functional performance of students diagnosed with developmental delay (DD) up to two years of age with peers exhibiting typical development. Methods: Cross-sectional study with functional performance assessment of children diagnosed with DD up to two years of age compared to those with typical development at seven to eight years of age. Each group consisted of 45 children, selected by non-random sampling, evaluated for motor skills, quality of home environment, school participation and performance. ANOVA and the Binomial test for two proportions were used to assess differences between groups. Results: The group with DD had lower motor skills when compared to the typical group. While 66.7% of children in the typical group showed adequate school participation, receiving aid in cognitive and behavioral tasks similar to that offered to other children at the same level, only 22.2% of children with DD showed the same performance. Although 53.3% of the children with DD achieved an academic performance expected for the school level, there were limitations in some activities. Only two indicators of family environment, diversity and activities with parents at home, showed statistically significant difference between the groups, with advantage being shown for the typical group. Conclusions: Children with DD have persistent difficulties at school age, with motor deficit, restrictions in school activity performance and low participation in the school context, as well as significantly lower functional performance when compared to children without DD. A systematic monitoring of this population is recommended to identify needs and minimize future problems. PMID:26553573

  9. Indexing Effects of Copy Number Variation on Genes Involved in Developmental Delay.

    Uddin, Mohammed; Pellecchia, Giovanna; Thiruvahindrapuram, Bhooma; D'Abate, Lia; Merico, Daniele; Chan, Ada; Zarrei, Mehdi; Tammimies, Kristiina; Walker, Susan; Gazzellone, Matthew J; Nalpathamkalam, Thomas; Yuen, Ryan K C; Devriendt, Koenraad; Mathonnet, Géraldine; Lemyre, Emmanuelle; Nizard, Sonia; Shago, Mary; Joseph-George, Ann M; Noor, Abdul; Carter, Melissa T; Yoon, Grace; Kannu, Peter; Tihy, Frédérique; Thorland, Erik C; Marshall, Christian R; Buchanan, Janet A; Speevak, Marsha; Stavropoulos, Dimitri J; Scherer, Stephen W

    2016-01-01

    A challenge in clinical genomics is to predict whether copy number variation (CNV) affecting a gene or multiple genes will manifest as disease. Increasing recognition of gene dosage effects in neurodevelopmental disorders prompted us to develop a computational approach based on critical-exon (highly expressed in brain, highly conserved) examination for potential etiologic effects. Using a large CNV dataset, our updated analyses revealed significant (P < 1.64 × 10(-15)) enrichment of critical-exons within rare CNVs in cases compared to controls. Separately, we used a weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) to construct an unbiased protein module from prenatal and adult tissues and found it significantly enriched for critical exons in prenatal (P < 1.15 × 10(-50), OR = 2.11) and adult (P < 6.03 × 10(-18), OR = 1.55) tissues. WGCNA yielded 1,206 proteins for which we prioritized the corresponding genes as likely to have a role in neurodevelopmental disorders. We compared the gene lists obtained from critical-exon and WGCNA analysis and found 438 candidate genes associated with CNVs annotated as pathogenic, or as variants of uncertain significance (VOUS), from among 10,619 developmental delay cases. We identified genes containing CNVs previously considered to be VOUS to be new candidate genes for neurodevelopmental disorders (GIT1, MVB12B and PPP1R9A) demonstrating the utility of this strategy to index the clinical effects of CNVs. PMID:27363808

  10. Functional performance of school children diagnosed with developmental delay up to two years of age

    Lílian de Fátima Dornelas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To compare the functional performance of students diagnosed with developmental delay (DD up to two years of age with peers exhibiting typical development. Methods: Cross-sectional study with functional performance assessment of children diagnosed with DD up to two years of age compared to those with typical development at seven to eight years of age. Each group consisted of 45 children, selected by non-random sampling, evaluated for motor skills, quality of home environment, school participation and performance. ANOVA and the Binomial test for two proportions were used to assess differences between groups. Results: The group with DD had lower motor skills when compared to the typical group. While 66.7% of children in the typical group showed adequate school participation, receiving aid in cognitive and behavioral tasks similar to that offered to other children at the same level, only 22.2% of children with DD showed the same performance. Although 53.3% of the children with DD achieved an academic performance expected for the school level, there were limitations in some activities. Only two indicators of family environment, diversity and activities with parents at home, showed statistically significant difference between the groups, with advantage being shown for the typical group. Conclusions: Children with DD have persistent difficulties at school age, with motor deficit, restrictions in school activity performance and low participation in the school context, as well as significantly lower functional performance when compared to children without DD. A systematic monitoring of this population is recommended to identify needs and minimize future problems.

  11. Are clusters of mental retardation correlated with clusters of developmental delay?

    Zhen, Huiling; McDermott, Suzanne; Lawson, Andrew B; Aelion, Marjorie

    2009-11-01

    Mental retardation (MR) is a subset of developmental delay (DD), a broader classification of childhood disability. The purpose of this study was to determine if clusters of these two conditions were statistically significantly correlated. The residential addresses of 81,935 Medicaid insured pregnant women during each month of pregnancy were used to identify clusters of MR and DD in their children. Correlations between MR and DD were computed based on the sets of P-value surface from selected centroid points, where the P-value for cumulative relative risk of MR and DD was known. The correlations are quite small for all the 10 gestational months for which maternal addresses were available, but they are all statistically significant. This indicates MR and DD are correlated, but they are not linear. When MR was used as the centroid point to identify a cluster the only correlations that were statistically significant were for gestational month 5 and 6 with correlation 0.14 (P = 0.007) for both months. When the centroid points were selected based on the significance of risk of DD, the correlations between MR and DD are not statistically significant for any month. Correlation between MR and DD based on the sets of P-value surfaces from 4 MR clusters are significant in gestational month 5, 6 and 7 with correlation 0.17 (P = 0.047), 0.16 (P = 0.060) and 0.17 (P = 0.044), respectively. Our finding suggests that locations of high risk for the more severe condition, MR, also identify a spatial area where less severe cases of DD might be present, however the reverse is not the case. PMID:19908187

  12. The use of MR imaging and spectroscopy of the brain in children investigated for developmental delay: What is the most appropriate imaging strategy?

    Griffiths, Paul D. [University of Sheffield, Academic Unit of Radiology, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Academic Unit of Radiology, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Batty, Ruth; Raghavan, Ashok; Connolly, Daniel J.A. [Sheffield Children' s Hospital Trust, Department of Radiology, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Warren, Daniel; Hart, Anthony [University of Sheffield, Academic Unit of Radiology, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Sharrard, Mark [Sheffield Children' s Hospital Trust, Department of Paediatrics, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Mordekar, Santosh R. [Sheffield Children' s Hospital Trust, Department of Paediatric Neurology, Sheffield (United Kingdom)

    2011-09-15

    Developmental delay is a common problem in paediatric practice and many children with developmental delay are referred for MR imaging. Our study was performed as part of a continuing audit process to optimise our MR protocol and case selection. We performed MR imaging and spectroscopy protocol on 157 children with developmental delay. We analysed the effect of these interventions by looking at the overall detection rate of relevant pathology and in particular subgroups of the children. 71% of the children had normal MR imaging, 10% had non-specific findings and 19% had specific abnormalities on MR imaging. The overall risk of having a specific structural abnormality with isolated developmental was 7.5% but if other neurological symptoms/signs were present the risk was 28%. Two children had abnormal spectroscopic findings, one with tuberous sclerosis and the other with absent brain creatine. Case selection for MR imaging is important in children with developmental delay. The best strategies for selecting children for MR are either; not performing MR with developmental delay in one domain only or performing MR with developmental delay in three or four domains or if there are other neurological features. (orig.)

  13. The use of MR imaging and spectroscopy of the brain in children investigated for developmental delay: What is the most appropriate imaging strategy?

    Developmental delay is a common problem in paediatric practice and many children with developmental delay are referred for MR imaging. Our study was performed as part of a continuing audit process to optimise our MR protocol and case selection. We performed MR imaging and spectroscopy protocol on 157 children with developmental delay. We analysed the effect of these interventions by looking at the overall detection rate of relevant pathology and in particular subgroups of the children. 71% of the children had normal MR imaging, 10% had non-specific findings and 19% had specific abnormalities on MR imaging. The overall risk of having a specific structural abnormality with isolated developmental was 7.5% but if other neurological symptoms/signs were present the risk was 28%. Two children had abnormal spectroscopic findings, one with tuberous sclerosis and the other with absent brain creatine. Case selection for MR imaging is important in children with developmental delay. The best strategies for selecting children for MR are either; not performing MR with developmental delay in one domain only or performing MR with developmental delay in three or four domains or if there are other neurological features. (orig.)

  14. Evaluation of Developmental Delay in Infants Who Came in for 6th Month Vaccination in Isfahan City Health Centers

    Omid YAGHINI

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite this Article: Yaghini O, Danesh F, Mahmoudian T, Beigi B. Evaluation of Developmental Delay in Infants Who Came in for 6th Month Vaccination in Isfahan City Health Centers. Iran J Child Neurol 2012;6(2: 29-32. Objective Developmental delay is one of the most common causes of conferring the pediatric neurologist. The main part of neurological growth and development occur in the first two years especially in the first 6 months of life. Metabolic or skeletal diseases are important causes of developmental delay. Early diagnosis of deviance from the normal diagram of development in lower ages is important. Materials & Methods Specific ages and stages questionnaires (ASQ for 6 months was completed in the health centers for 800 infants conferring for their vaccination in Isfahan and the retest was performed at 24 months of age by ASQ and then these two questionnaires were compared. Results 10.5% of the infants were delayed in at least one domain. At 24 months, 38.4% of them remained delayed; 21.1% in one domain, 9.6% in two domains, 3.8% in four domains and 3.8% in five domains. Of the children who had problem in communication, 20%; in gross motor, 25%; in fine motor, 20%; and in problem solving, 30% remained delayed. In the personal social domain, none of the delayed children at 6 months remained delayed at 24 months. Conclusion ASQ is feasible, inexpensive, easy to use and was appreciated by the parents. It can be used as a screening test for detection of developmental delay in lower ages, but its results must be followed by other standard tests or diagnostic tools.References Lewis R, Palfreg GS. The infant or young child with developmental delay. The New England J Med 1994;330:478-83.Cleary MA, Green A. Developmental Delay: when to suspect and how to investigate for an inborn error of metabolism. Arch Dis Child2005;90(11:1128-32.Schendel DE, Stockbauer JW, Hoffman HJ, Herman AA, Berg CJ, Schrann WF. Relation between very low birth

  15. The Effects of Direct Instruction Flashcard System and Model, Lead, and Test on Numeral Identification for a Nonverbal Preschool Girl with Developmental Delays

    Lindsay DeLong

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of the Direct Instruction (DI flashcard system combined with model, lead, and test on the mastery of numerical identification for a nonverbal preschool girl with developmental delay. The research was carried out in a self-contained preschool classroom. The classroom enrolled children with delays in the skill areas of preacademic, expressive communication, receptive communication, gross motor, fine motor, or adaptive. Our participant was a 4-year-old girl scheduled to be placed into an integrated preschool containing a combination of children with delays in one or more area and their typically developing peers the following year. She was behind her typically developing peers in the area of numeral identification. A single-subject, multiple baseline design across three sets of target numerals was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the DI flashcard procedure. A functional relationship was shown between numeral recognition and the implementation of our intervention. Suggestions for future research were made.

  16. Solving delay differential equations in S-ADAPT by method of steps.

    Bauer, Robert J; Mo, Gary; Krzyzanski, Wojciech

    2013-09-01

    S-ADAPT is a version of the ADAPT program that contains additional simulation and optimization abilities such as parametric population analysis. S-ADAPT utilizes LSODA to solve ordinary differential equations (ODEs), an algorithm designed for large dimension non-stiff and stiff problems. However, S-ADAPT does not have a solver for delay differential equations (DDEs). Our objective was to implement in S-ADAPT a DDE solver using the methods of steps. The method of steps allows one to solve virtually any DDE system by transforming it to an ODE system. The solver was validated for scalar linear DDEs with one delay and bolus and infusion inputs for which explicit analytic solutions were derived. Solutions of nonlinear DDE problems coded in S-ADAPT were validated by comparing them with ones obtained by the MATLAB DDE solver dde23. The estimation of parameters was tested on the MATLB simulated population pharmacodynamics data. The comparison of S-ADAPT generated solutions for DDE problems with the explicit solutions as well as MATLAB produced solutions which agreed to at least 7 significant digits. The population parameter estimates from using importance sampling expectation-maximization in S-ADAPT agreed with ones used to generate the data. PMID:23810514

  17. Delayed Hepatic Adaptation to Weaning in ACBP(-/-) Mice Is Caused by Disruption of the Epidermal Barrier

    Neess, Ditte; Bek, Signe; Bloksgaard, Maria; Marcher, Ann-Britt; Færgeman, Nils J; Mandrup, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    skin rather than in the liver. Similarly to ACBP(-/-) mice, K14-ACBP(-/-) mice exhibit an increased transepidermal water loss, and we show that the hepatic phenotype is caused specifically by the epidermal barrier defect, which leads to increased lipolysis in white adipose tissue. Our data demonstrate......We previously reported that mice deficient in acyl-CoA-binding protein (ACBP) display a delayed metabolic adaptation to weaning. This includes a delayed activation of the hepatic lipogenic gene program, which may result from hepatic accumulation of triacylglycerol and/or cholesteryl esters in the...... late suckling period. To further investigate the basis for this phenotype, we generated mice deficient in ACBP in hepatocytes (Alb-ACBP(-/-)) and keratinocytes (K14-ACBP(-/-)). Surprisingly, the delayed adaptation to weaning, including hepatic lipid accumulation, is caused by ACBP deficiency in the...

  18. Increased risk of schizophrenia from additive interaction between infant motor developmental delay and obstetric complications: evidence from a population-based longitudinal study.

    Clarke, Mary C

    2011-12-01

    Obstetric complications and developmental delay are well-established risk factors for schizophrenia. The authors investigated whether these risk factors interact in an additive manner to further increase risk for schizophrenia.

  19. Genome fluctuations in cyanobacteria reflect evolutionary, developmental and adaptive traits

    Nylander Johan AA

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cyanobacteria belong to an ancient group of photosynthetic prokaryotes with pronounced variations in their cellular differentiation strategies, physiological capacities and choice of habitat. Sequencing efforts have shown that genomes within this phylum are equally diverse in terms of size and protein-coding capacity. To increase our understanding of genomic changes in the lineage, the genomes of 58 contemporary cyanobacteria were analysed for shared and unique orthologs. Results A total of 404 protein families, present in all cyanobacterial genomes, were identified. Two of these are unique to the phylum, corresponding to an AbrB family transcriptional regulator and a gene that escapes functional annotation although its genomic neighbourhood is conserved among the organisms examined. The evolution of cyanobacterial genome sizes involves a mix of gains and losses in the clade encompassing complex cyanobacteria, while a single event of reduction is evident in a clade dominated by unicellular cyanobacteria. Genome sizes and gene family copy numbers evolve at a higher rate in the former clade, and multi-copy genes were predominant in large genomes. Orthologs unique to cyanobacteria exhibiting specific characteristics, such as filament formation, heterocyst differentiation, diazotrophy and symbiotic competence, were also identified. An ancestral character reconstruction suggests that the most recent common ancestor of cyanobacteria had a genome size of approx. 4.5 Mbp and 1678 to 3291 protein-coding genes, 4%-6% of which are unique to cyanobacteria today. Conclusions The different rates of genome-size evolution and multi-copy gene abundance suggest two routes of genome development in the history of cyanobacteria. The expansion strategy is driven by gene-family enlargment and generates a broad adaptive potential; while the genome streamlining strategy imposes adaptations to highly specific niches, also reflected in their different

  20. Multivariable output feedback robust adaptive tracking control design for a class of delayed systems

    Mirkin, Boris; Gutman, Per-Olof

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, we develop a model reference adaptive control scheme for a class of multi-input multi-output nonlinearly perturbed dynamic systems with unknown time-varying state delays which is also robust with respect to an external disturbance with unknown bounds. The output feedback adaptive control scheme uses feedback actions only, and thus does not require a direct measurement of the command or disturbance signals. A suitable Lyapunov-Krasovskii type functional is introduced to design the adaptation algorithms and to prove stability.

  1. Adaptive lag synchronization of uncertain dynamical systems with time delays via simple transmission lag feedback

    Gu Wei-Dong; Sun Zhi-Yong; Wu Xiao-Ming; Yu Chang-Bin

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present an adaptive scheme to achieve lag synchronization for uncertain dynamical systems with time delays and unknown parameters.In contrast to the nonlinear feedback scheme reported in the previous literature,the proposed controller is a linear one which only involves simple feedback information from the drive system with signal propagation lags.Besides,the unknown parameters can also be identified via the proposed updating laws in spite of the existence of model delays and transmission lags,as long as the linear independence condition between the related function elements is satisfied.Two examples,i.e.,the Mackey-Glass model with single delay and the Lorenz system with multiple delays,are employed to show the effectiveness of this approach.Some robustness issues are also discussed,which shows that the proposed scheme is quite robust in switching and noisy environment.

  2. WDR45 mutations in Rett (-like) syndrome and developmental delay: Case report and an appraisal of the literature.

    Hoffjan, Sabine; Ibisler, Aysegül; Tschentscher, Anne; Dekomien, Gabriele; Bidinost, Carla; Rosa, Alberto L

    2016-02-01

    Mutations in the WDR45 gene have been identified as causative for the only X-linked type of neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA), clinically characterized by global developmental delay in childhood, followed by a secondary neurological decline with parkinsonism and/or dementia in adolescence or early adulthood. Recent reports suggest that WDR45 mutations are associated with a broader phenotypic spectrum. We identified a novel splice site mutation (c.440-2 A > G) in a 5-year-old Argentinian patient with Rett-like syndrome, exhibiting developmental delay, microcephaly, seizures and stereotypic hand movements, and discuss this finding, together with a review of the literature. Additional patients with a clinical diagnosis of Rett (-like) syndrome were also found to carry WDR45 mutations before (or without) clinical decline or signs of iron accumulation by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This information indicates that WDR45 mutations should be added to the growing list of genetic alterations linked to Rett-like syndrome. Further, clinical symptoms associated with WDR45 mutations ranged from early-onset epileptic encephalopathy in a male patient with a deletion of WDR45 to only mild cognitive delay in a female patient, suggesting that analysis of this gene should be considered more often in patients with developmental delay, regardless of severity. The increasing use of next generation sequencing technologies as well as longitudinal follow-up of patients with an early diagnosis will help to gain additional insight into the phenotypic spectrum associated with WDR45 mutations. PMID:26790960

  3. Adaptive Fuzzy Control of Strict-Feedback Nonlinear Time-Delay Systems With Unmodeled Dynamics.

    Yin, Shen; Shi, Peng; Yang, Hongyan

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, an approximated-based adaptive fuzzy control approach with only one adaptive parameter is presented for a class of single input single output strict-feedback nonlinear systems in order to deal with phenomena like nonlinear uncertainties, unmodeled dynamics, dynamic disturbances, and unknown time delays. Lyapunov-Krasovskii function approach is employed to compensate the unknown time delays in the design procedure. By combining the advances of the hyperbolic tangent function with adaptive fuzzy backstepping technique, the proposed controller guarantees the semi-globally uniformly ultimately boundedness of all the signals in the closed-loop system from the mean square point of view. Two simulation examples are finally provided to show the superior effectiveness of the proposed scheme. PMID:26302525

  4. Successive cambia: a developmental oddity or an adaptive structure?

    Elisabeth M R Robert

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Secondary growth by successive cambia is a rare phenomenon in woody plant species. Only few plant species, within different phylogenetic clades, have secondary growth by more than one vascular cambium. Often, these successive cambia are organised concentrically. In the mangrove genus Avicennia however, the successive cambia seem to have a more complex organisation. This study aimed (i at understanding the development of successive cambia by giving a three-dimensional description of the hydraulic architecture of Avicennia and (ii at unveiling the possible adaptive nature of growth by successive cambia through a study of the ecological distribution of plant species with concentric internal phloem. RESULTS: Avicennia had a complex network of non-cylindrical wood patches, the complexity of which increased with more stressful ecological conditions. As internal phloem has been suggested to play a role in water storage and embolism repair, the spatial organisation of Avicennia wood could provide advantages in the ecologically stressful conditions species of this mangrove genus are growing in. Furthermore, we could observe that 84.9% of the woody shrub and tree species with concentric internal phloem occurred in either dry or saline environments strengthening the hypothesis that successive cambia provide the necessary advantages for survival in harsh environmental conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Successive cambia are an ecologically important characteristic, which seems strongly related with water-limited environments.

  5. An adaptive decentralized synchronization of master-slave large-scale systems with unknown signal propagation delays

    This paper addresses a practical issue in the adaptive decentralized synchronization of master-slave large-scale time-varying delayed systems with unknown signal propagation delays. Based on the Lyapunov stability theorem, an adaptive controller, which is both memoryless and decentralized, is proposed to synchronize the master-slave large-scale time delayed systems without the knowledge of upper bounds of perturbation and propagation delay. The main difficulty for handling the effects of interconnected terms is also well solved by a new proposed adaptation mechanism. Finally, a numerical example is given to demonstrate the validity of the derived controller

  6. Habituation to feedback delay restores degraded visuomotor adaptation by altering both sensory prediction error and the sensitivity of the adaptation to the error

    DaichiNozaki

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Sensory prediction error, which is the difference between actual and predicted sensory consequences, is a driving force of motor learning. Thus, appropriate temporal associations between the actual sensory feedback signals and motor commands for predicting sensory consequences are crucial for the brain to calculate the sensory prediction error accurately. Indeed, it has been shown that artificially introduced delays in visual feedback degrade motor learning. However, our previous study has showed that degraded adaptation is alleviated by prior habituation to the delay. Here, we investigate how the motor learning system accomplishes this alleviation. After the subjects habituated reaching movements in either 0-ms or 200-ms-delayed cursor, visual rotation of 10° was imposed to the cursor with varying delay (0, 100, 200, or 300 ms with each delay imposed in at least 1 out of 5-6 trials. Then, the aftereffect in the next trial was quantified to evaluate the adaptation response. After habituation to the 0-ms delayed cursor, the adaptation response was maximal when the visual feedback of the perturbation was provided with 0-ms delay and gradually decreased as the delay increased. On the other hand, habituation to the 200-ms delayed cursor alleviated the degraded adaptation response to the visual perturbation imposed during the 200-ms and longer delay (300-ms. However, habituation did not affect the adaptation response to the visual perturbation imposed during delays (0- and 100-ms delay shorter than the habituated delay (200-ms. These results may be explained by assuming that habituation to the delayed feedback not only shifts the position of the hand predicted by motor command toward the delayed cursor positions, but also increases the degree to which the brain uses a certain amount of sensory prediction error to correct a motor command.

  7. Case report of 5 siblings: malnutrition? Rickets? DiGeorge syndrome? Developmental delay?

    Harris William

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parents of six children are facing a trial on charges of aggravated manslaughter in the care a 5 1/2 month old infant who died suddenly and neglect of their four older children for causing them to be malnourished by feeding them all an exclusively raw foods vegan diet. Both parents declined plea bargains and plan to defend themselves in court. Case presentation The fifth child born to a married couple was breast-fed until 2 1/2 months. Subsequently, the parents fed the baby an exclusively raw foods diet prepared in a blender at home. The four older children, ages 18 months – 6 1/2 years also ate an exclusively raw foods vegan diet. None of the four older children had significant previous injuries or serious illnesses. At autopsy, the infant weighed 3180 mg (6.99 pounds and appeared emaciated. The thymus gland was absent and parathyroid glands were not located. The lungs were "congested." DiGeorge anomaly cannot be ruled out from these findings. Although, the coroner ruled that "malnutrition" was the sole cause of death, malnutrition, according to the World Health Organization definition, cannot be diagnosed in this infant. Compared with standard growth charts, the older children fell 2.1–4.1 standard deviations below the mean for North American children in height and weight. Labs were normal except for a low cholesterol level in all and a low prealbumin in one of three children tested. Therefore, malnutrition cannot be diagnosed in these children. The pediatrician diagnosed rickets in the four-year-old. However, chest x-rays were normal in all and long bone x-rays showed minimal changes in one child – no sign of rickets. The clinical diagnosis of rickets was not confirmed by the Center for Disease Control's criteria. A psychologist diagnosed the 18-month-old as developmentally delayed to the level of a 15-month-old, but this diagnosis is questionable. Conclusion The raw foods vegan diet and possibly inherited small

  8. Submicroscopic subtelomeric aberrations in Chinese patients with unexplained developmental delay/mental retardation

    Wang Liwen

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Subtelomeric imbalance is widely accepted as related to developmental delay/mental retardation (DD/MR. Fine mapping of aberrations in gene-enriched subtelomeric regions provides essential clues for localizing critical regions, and provides a strategy for identifying new candidate genes. To date, no large-scale study has been conducted on subtelomeric aberrations in DD/MR patients in mainland China. Methods This study included 451 Chinese children with moderate to severe clinically unexplained DD/MR. The subtelomere-MLPA (multiplex ligation dependent probe amplification and Affymetrix human SNP array 6.0 were used to determine the subtelomeric copy number variations. The exact size and the breakpoint of each identified aberration were well defined. Results The submicroscopic subtelomeric aberrations were identified in 23 patients, with a detection rate of 5.1%. 16 patients had simple deletions, 2 had simple duplications and 5 with both deletions and duplications. The deletions involved 14 different subtelomeric regions (1p, 2p, 4p, 6p, 7p, 7q, 8p, 9p, 10p, 11q, 14q, 15q, 16p and 22q, and duplications involved 7 subtelomeric regions (3q, 4p, 6q, 7p, 8p, 12p and 22q. Of all the subtelomeric aberrations found in Chinese subjects, the most common was 4p16.3 deletion. The sizes of the deletions varied from 0.6 Mb to 12 Mb, with 5-143 genes inside. Duplicated regions were 0.26 Mb to 11 Mb, with 6-202 genes inside. In this study, four deleted subtelomeric regions and one duplicated region were smaller than any other previously reported, specifically the deletions in 11q25, 8p23.3, 7q36.3, 14q32.33, and the duplication in 22q13. Candidate genes inside each region were proposed. Conclusions Submicroscopic subtelomeric aberrations were detected in 5.1% of Chinese children with clinically unexplained DD/MR. Four deleted subtelomeric regions and one duplicated region found in this study were smaller than any previously reported, which

  9. Adaptive exponential synchronization of delayed neural networks with reaction-diffusion terms

    Sheng Li [School of Communication and Control Engineering, Jiangnan University, 1800 Lihu Road, Wuxi, Jiangsu 214122 (China); Yang Huizhong [School of Communication and Control Engineering, Jiangnan University, 1800 Lihu Road, Wuxi, Jiangsu 214122 (China)], E-mail: victory8209@yahoo.com.cn; Lou Xuyang [School of Communication and Control Engineering, Jiangnan University, 1800 Lihu Road, Wuxi, Jiangsu 214122 (China)

    2009-04-30

    This paper presents an exponential synchronization scheme for a class of neural networks with time-varying and distributed delays and reaction-diffusion terms. An adaptive synchronization controller is derived to achieve the exponential synchronization of the drive-response structure of neural networks by using the Lyapunov stability theory. At the same time, the update laws of parameters are proposed to guarantee the synchronization of delayed neural networks with all parameters unknown. It is shown that the approaches developed here extend and improve the ideas presented in recent literatures.

  10. Becoming a Coach in Developmental Adaptive Sailing: A Lifelong Learning Perspective

    Duarte, Tiago; Culver, Diane M.

    2014-01-01

    Life-story methodology and innovative methods were used to explore the process of becoming a developmental adaptive sailing coach. Jarvis's (2009) lifelong learning theory framed the thematic analysis. The findings revealed that the coach, Jenny, was exposed from a young age to collaborative environments. Social interactions with others such as mentors, colleagues, and athletes made major contributions to her coaching knowledge. As Jenny was exposed to a mixture of challenges and learning sit...

  11. Quantitative analysis of the corpus callosum in children with cerebral palsy and developmental delay: correlation with cerebral white matter volume

    Panigrahy, Ashok [Childrens Hospital Los Angeles, Department of Radiology, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Barnes, Patrick D. [Stanford University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Lucile Salter Packard Children' s Hospital, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Robertson, Robert L. [Children' s Hospital Boston, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Sleeper, Lynn A. [New England Research Institute, Watertown, MA (United States); Sayre, James W. [UCLA Medical Center, Departments of Radiology and Biostatistics, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2005-12-01

    This study was conducted to quantitatively correlate the thickness of the corpus callosum with the volume of cerebral white matter in children with cerebral palsy and developmental delay. Material and methods: A clinical database of 70 children with cerebral palsy and developmental delay was established with children between the ages of 1 and 5 years. These children also demonstrated abnormal periventricular T2 hyperintensities associated with and without ventriculomegaly. Mid-sagittal T1-weighted images were used to measure the thickness (genu, mid-body, and splenium) and length of the corpus callosum. Volumes of interest were digitized based on gray-scale densities to define the hemispheric cerebral white matter on axial T2-weighted and FLAIR images. The thickness of the mid-body of the corpus callosum was correlated with cerebral white matter volume. Subgroup analysis was also performed to examine the relationship of this correlation with both gestational age and neuromotor outcome. Statistical analysis was performed using analysis of variance and Pearson correlation coefficients. There was a positive correlation between the thickness of the mid-body of the corpus callosum and the volume of cerebral white matter across all children studied (R=0.665, P=0.0001). This correlation was not dependent on gestational age. The thickness of the mid-body of the corpus callosum was decreased in the spastic diplegia group compared to the two other groups (hypotonia and developmental delay only; P<0.0001). Within each neuromotor subgroup, there was a positive correlation between thickness of the mid-body of the corpus callosum and volume of the cerebral white matter. (orig.)

  12. Quantitative analysis of the corpus callosum in children with cerebral palsy and developmental delay: correlation with cerebral white matter volume

    This study was conducted to quantitatively correlate the thickness of the corpus callosum with the volume of cerebral white matter in children with cerebral palsy and developmental delay. Material and methods: A clinical database of 70 children with cerebral palsy and developmental delay was established with children between the ages of 1 and 5 years. These children also demonstrated abnormal periventricular T2 hyperintensities associated with and without ventriculomegaly. Mid-sagittal T1-weighted images were used to measure the thickness (genu, mid-body, and splenium) and length of the corpus callosum. Volumes of interest were digitized based on gray-scale densities to define the hemispheric cerebral white matter on axial T2-weighted and FLAIR images. The thickness of the mid-body of the corpus callosum was correlated with cerebral white matter volume. Subgroup analysis was also performed to examine the relationship of this correlation with both gestational age and neuromotor outcome. Statistical analysis was performed using analysis of variance and Pearson correlation coefficients. There was a positive correlation between the thickness of the mid-body of the corpus callosum and the volume of cerebral white matter across all children studied (R=0.665, P=0.0001). This correlation was not dependent on gestational age. The thickness of the mid-body of the corpus callosum was decreased in the spastic diplegia group compared to the two other groups (hypotonia and developmental delay only; P<0.0001). Within each neuromotor subgroup, there was a positive correlation between thickness of the mid-body of the corpus callosum and volume of the cerebral white matter. (orig.)

  13. The Diagnostic Yield of Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization Is High Regardless of Severity of Intellectual Disability/Developmental Delay in Children.

    D'Arrigo, Stefano; Gavazzi, Francesco; Alfei, Enrico; Zuffardi, Orsetta; Montomoli, Cristina; Corso, Barbara; Buzzi, Erika; Sciacca, Francesca L; Bulgheroni, Sara; Riva, Daria; Pantaleoni, Chiara

    2016-05-01

    Microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization is a method of molecular analysis that identifies chromosomal anomalies (or copy number variants) that correlate with clinical phenotypes. The aim of the present study was to apply a clinical score previously designated by de Vries to 329 patients with intellectual disability/developmental disorder (intellectual disability/developmental delay) referred to our tertiary center and to see whether the clinical factors are associated with a positive outcome of aCGH analyses. Another goal was to test the association between a positive microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization result and the severity of intellectual disability/developmental delay. Microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization identified structural chromosomal alterations responsible for the intellectual disability/developmental delay phenotype in 16% of our sample. Our study showed that causative copy number variants are frequently found even in cases of mild intellectual disability (30.77%). We want to emphasize the need to conduct microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization on all individuals with intellectual disability/developmental delay, regardless of the severity, because the degree of intellectual disability/developmental delay does not predict the diagnostic yield of microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization. PMID:26511719

  14. Deletion of 8q24 in an Adult with Mild Dysmorphic Features, Developmental Delay, and Ketotic Hypoglycemia

    Solomon, Benjamin D.; Lange, Eileen; Shubrook, Jay; Service, F John; Herman, Gail; Karne, Rajaram J.; Gorden, Phillip; Muenke, Maximilian; Stratakis, Constantine A.

    2010-01-01

    We present a 56-year-old female with a history of carbohydrate intolerance and ketotic hypoglycemia, dysmorphic features, mild developmental delay, lymphedema, altered pain sensation, and frequent fractures, who was found to have a heterozygous 8.09 Mb deletion of chromosome 8q24.11q24.13 containing more than 39 genes, as well as a duplication of 20q11.23 containing one gene. The deleted region overlaps that of two previously reported patients, who share a subset of clinical characteristics w...

  15. Adaptive neural control for a class of strict-feedback nonlinear systems with state time delays.

    Yoo, Sung Jin; Park, Jin Bae; Choi, Yoon Ho

    2009-07-01

    This brief proposes a simple control approach for a class of uncertain nonlinear systems with unknown time delays in strict-feedback form. That is, the dynamic surface control technique, which can solve the "explosion of complexity" problem in the backstepping design procedure, is extended to nonlinear systems with unknown time delays. The unknown time-delay effects are removed by using appropriate Lyapunov-Krasovskii functionals, and the uncertain nonlinear terms generated by this procedure as well as model uncertainties are approximated by the function approximation technique using neural networks. In addition, the bounds of external disturbances are estimated by the adaptive technique. From the Lyapunov stability theorem, we prove that all signals in the closed-loop system are semiglobally uniformly bounded. Finally, we present simulation results to validate the effectiveness of the proposed approach. PMID:19447725

  16. Design of artificial genetic regulatory networks with multiple delayed adaptive responses*

    Kaluza, Pablo; Inoue, Masayo

    2016-06-01

    Genetic regulatory networks with adaptive responses are widely studied in biology. Usually, models consisting only of a few nodes have been considered. They present one input receptor for activation and one output node where the adaptive response is computed. In this work, we design genetic regulatory networks with many receptors and many output nodes able to produce delayed adaptive responses. This design is performed by using an evolutionary algorithm of mutations and selections that minimizes an error function defined by the adaptive response in signal shapes. We present several examples of network constructions with a predefined required set of adaptive delayed responses. We show that an output node can have different kinds of responses as a function of the activated receptor. Additionally, complex network structures are presented since processing nodes can be involved in several input-output pathways. Supplementary material in the form of one nets file available from the Journal web page at http://dx.doi.org/10.1140/epjb/e2016-70172-9

  17. Actuator fault diagnosis of time-delay systems based on adaptive observer

    2005-01-01

    A novel approach for the actuator fault diagnosis of time-delay systems is presented by using an adaptive observer technique. Systems without model uncertainty are initially considered, followed by a discussion of a general situation where the system is subjected to either model uncertainty or external disturbance. An adaptive diagnostic algorithm is developed to diagnose the fault, and a modified version is proposed for general system to improve robustness. The selection of the threshold for fault detection is also discussed. Finally, a numerical example is given to illustrate the efficiency of the proposed method.

  18. Adaptive Synchronization of Memristor-Based Neural Networks with Time-Varying Delays.

    Wang, Leimin; Shen, Yi; Yin, Quan; Zhang, Guodong

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, adaptive synchronization of memristor-based neural networks (MNNs) with time-varying delays is investigated. The dynamical analysis here employs results from the theory of differential equations with discontinuous right-hand sides as introduced by Filippov. Sufficient conditions for the global synchronization of MNNs are established with a general adaptive controller. The update gain of the controller can be adjusted to control the synchronization speed. The obtained results complement and improve the previously known results. Finally, numerical simulations are carried out to demonstrate the effectiveness of the obtained results. PMID:25389244

  19. Fuzzy model-based adaptive synchronization of time-delayed chaotic systems

    In this paper, fuzzy model-based synchronization of a class of first order chaotic systems described by delayed-differential equations is addressed. To design the fuzzy controller, the chaotic system is modeled by Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy system considering the properties of the nonlinear part of the system. Assuming that the parameters of the chaotic system are unknown, an adaptive law is derived to estimate these unknown parameters, and the stability of error dynamics is guaranteed by Lyapunov theory. Numerical examples are given to demonstrate the validity of the proposed adaptive synchronization approach.

  20. Adaptive Synchronization between Two Different Complex Networks with Time-Varying Delay Coupling

    A new general network model for two complex networks with time-varying delay coupling is presented. Then we investigate its synchronization phenomena. The two complex networks of the model differ in dynamic nodes, the number of nodes and the coupling connections. By using adaptive controllers, a synchronization criterion is derived. Numerical examples are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the obtained synchronization criterion. This study may widen the application range of synchronization, such as in chaotic secure communication. (general)

  1. Adaptive Neural Control for a Class of Outputs Time-Delay Nonlinear Systems

    Ruliang Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers an adaptive neural control for a class of outputs time-delay nonlinear systems with perturbed or no. Based on RBF neural networks, the radius basis function (RBF neural networks is employed to estimate the unknown continuous functions. The proposed control guarantees that all closed-loop signals remain bounded. The simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme.

  2. Missile Acceleration Controller Design using PI and Time-Delay Adaptive Feedback Linearization Methodology

    Lee, Chang-Hun; Seo, Min-Guk; Tahk, Min-Jea; Lee, Jin-Ik; Jun, Byung-Eul

    2012-01-01

    A straight forward application of feedback linearization to the missile autopilot design for acceleration control may be limited due to the nonminimum characteristics and the model uncertainties. As a remedy, this paper presents a cascade structure of an acceleration controller based on approximate feedback linearization methodology with a time-delay adaptation scheme. The inner loop controller is constructed by applying feedback linearization to the approximate system which is a minimum phas...

  3. The use of array-CGH in a cohort of Greek children with developmental delay

    Eleftheriades Makarios

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genetic diagnosis of mental retardation (MR is difficult to establish and at present many cases remain undiagnosed and unexplained. Standard karyotyping has been used as one of the routine techniques for the last decades. The implementation of Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization (array-CGH has enabled the analysis of copy number variants (CNVs with high resolution. Major cohort studies attribute 11% of patients with unexplained mental retardation to clinically significant CNVs. Here we report the use of array-CGH for the first time in a Greek cohort. A total of 82 children of Greek origin with mean age 4.9 years were analysed in the present study. Patients with visible cytogenetic abnormalities ascertained by standard karyotyping as well as those with subtelomeric abnormalities determined by Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA or subtelomeric FISH had been excluded. Results Fourteen CNVs were detected in the studied patients. In nine patients (11% the chromosomal aberrations were inherited from one of the parents. One patients showed two duplications, a 550 kb duplication in 3p14.1 inherited from the father and a ~1.1 Mb duplication in (22(q13.1q13.2 inherited from the mother. Although both parents were phenotypically normal, it cannot be excluded that the dual duplication is causative for the patient's clinical profile including dysmorphic features and severe developmental delay. Furthermore, three de novo clinically significant CNVs were detected (3.7%. There was a ~6 Mb triplication of 18q21.1 in a girl 5 years of age with moderate MR and mild dysmorphic features and a ~4.8 Mb duplication at (10(q11.1q11.21 in a 2 years old boy with severe MR, multiple congenital anomalies, severe central hypotonia, and ataxia. Finally, in a 3 year-old girl with microcephaly and severe hypotonia a deletion in (2(q31.2q31.3 of about ~3.9 Mb was discovered. All CNVs were confirmed by Fluorescence in situ

  4. Novel Adaptive Learning Control of Linear Systems with Completely Unknown Time Delays

    Wei-Sheng Chen

    2009-01-01

    A novel output-feedback adaptive learning control approach is developed for a class of linear time-delay systems. Three kinds of uncertainties: time delays, number of time delays, and system parameters are all assumed to be completely unknown, which is different from the previous work. The design procedure includes two steps. First, according to the given periodic desired reference output and the allowed bound of tracking error, a suitable finite Fourier series expansion (FSE) is chosen as a practical reference output to he tracked. Second, by expressing the delayed practical reference output as a known time-varying vector multiplied by an unknown constant vector, we combine three kinds of uncertainties into an unknown constant vector and then estimate the vector by designing an adaptive law. By constructing a Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional, it is proved that the system output can asymptotically track the practical reference signal An example is provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the control scheme developed in this paper.

  5. Adaptive Wide-Area Damping Control Scheme for Smart Grids with Consideration of Signal Time Delay

    Deyou Yang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available As an important part of the smart grid, a wide-area measurement system (WAMS provides the key technical support for power system monitoring, protection and control. But 20 uncertainties in system parameters and signal transmission time delay could worsen the damping effect and deteriorate the system stability. In the presented study, the subspace system identification technique (SIT is used to firstly derive a low-order linear model of a power system from the measurements. Then, a novel adaptive wide-area damping control scheme for online tuning of the wide-area damping controller (WADC parameters using the residue method is proposed. In order to eliminate the effects of the time delay to the signal transmission, a simple and practical time delay compensation algorithm is proposed to compensate the time delay in each wide-area control signal. Detailed examples, inspired by the IEEE test system under various disturbance scenarios, have been used to verify the effectiveness of the proposed adaptive wide-area damping control scheme.

  6. Parent Training for Children With or at Risk for Developmental Delay: The Role of Parental Homework Completion.

    Ros, Rosmary; Hernandez, Jennifer; Graziano, Paulo A; Bagner, Daniel M

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the extent to which parental homework completion during behavioral parent training (BPT) for children with or at risk for developmental delay contributed to parenting and child outcomes. Parents of 48 children (Mage=44.17 months, SD=14.29; 73% male; 72% White) with developmental delay (IQhomework completion was measured using parental report of home practice of treatment skills collected weekly by therapists. Parents also reported on child externalizing behavior problems and levels of parenting stress, while parenting skills were observed during a 5-min child directed play and child compliance was observed during a 5-min cleanup situation. Results indicated that higher rates of parental homework completion predicted parenting outcomes (i.e., increased positive parenting skills and decreased levels of parenting stress) and child outcomes (i.e., lower levels of externalizing behavior problems). Additionally, although limited by temporal precedence, there was an indirect effect of reductions in parenting stress on the negative association between parental homework completion and child externalizing behavior problems. These findings highlight the importance of parents practicing skills learned during BPT for optimizing treatment outcome. Parenting stress was also identified as a potential mechanism by which high levels of parental homework completion contributed to reductions in child externalizing behavior problems. PMID:26763493

  7. Risk of developmental delay of children aged between two and 24 months and its association with the quality of family stimulus

    Guimarães, Alessandro Fernandes; de Carvalho, Davi Vilela; Machado, Nathália Ádila A.; Baptista, Regiane Aparecida N.; Lemos, Stela Maris A.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the association between neurodevelopment and the family environment resources of children from the coverage area of a Basic Health Unit (BHU) of Belo Horizonte, Brazil, using a tool based on the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) strategy. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with a non-probabilistic sample involving 298 children aged between 2-24 months old, who attended a BHU in 2010. The assessment of child development and family resources made at the BHU lasted, in average, 45 minutes and included two tests - an adaptation of the Handbook for Monitoring Child Development in the Context of IMCI and an adapted version of the Family Environment Resource (FER) inventary. The nonparametric tests of Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney were used for the statistical analysis. RESULTS: The sample included 291 assessments, with 18.2% of children between 18 and 24 months old, 53.6% male gender, and 91.4% who did not attend day care centers. According to IMCI, 31.7% of the children were in the risk group for developmental delay. The total average score in FER was 38.0 points. Although it has been found an association between the IMCI outcome and the total FER score, all groups had low scores in the family environment assessment. CONCLUSIONS: The data indicate the need for childhood development screening in the primary health care and for early intervention programs aimed at this age group. PMID:24473949

  8. Doxapram and developmental delay at 12 months in children born extremely preterm

    Lando, Ane; Klamer, Anja; Jonsbo, Finn;

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To examine the relation of doxapram to a developmental score achieved by a structured telephone interview in a group of extremely-preterm-born children. METHODS: Parents of 88 children born extremely preterm were contacted by telephone and interviewed by a structured questionnaire (R-PDQ) wh...

  9. Families' Resources and Accommodations: Toddlers with Down Syndrome, Cerebral Palsy, and Developmental Delay

    Diamond, Karen E.; Kontos, Susan

    2004-01-01

    Constructing and maintaining a supportable daily routine is an important task for families with young children, particularly when the child has a disability. In this study, we examined relationships between children's developmental needs, disability diagnosis, and families' resources and accommodations. Participants included families with infants…

  10. Rapamycin treatment causes developmental delay, pigmentation defects, and gastrointestinal malformation on Xenopus embryogenesis

    Research highlights: → Does famous anti-aging drug rapamycin work from the beginning of life? The answer is yes. → This study shows that developmental speed of frog embryo was dose-dependently decreased by rapamycin treatment. → In additions, morphogenetic effects such as less pigmentations and gut malformation are occurred by rapamycin. -- Abstract: Rapamycin is a drug working as an inhibitor of the TOR (target of rapamycin) signaling pathway and influences various life phenomena such as cell growth, proliferation, and life span extension in eukaryote. However, the extent to which rapamycin controls early developmental events of amphibians remains to be understood. Here we report an examination of rapamycin effects during Xenopus early development, followed by a confirmation of suppression of TOR downstream kinase S6K by rapamycin treatment. First, we found that developmental speed was declined in dose-dependent manner of rapamycin. Second, black pigment spots located at dorsal and lateral skin in tadpoles were reduced by rapamycin treatment. Moreover, in tadpole stages severe gastrointestinal malformations were observed in rapamycin-treated embryos. Taken together with these results, we conclude that treatment of the drug rapamycin causes enormous influences on early developmental period.

  11. Adaptive filter design based on the LMS algorithm for delay elimination in TCR/FC compensators.

    Hooshmand, Rahmat Allah; Torabian Esfahani, Mahdi

    2011-04-01

    Thyristor controlled reactor with fixed capacitor (TCR/FC) compensators have the capability of compensating reactive power and improving power quality phenomena. Delay in the response of such compensators degrades their performance. In this paper, a new method based on adaptive filters (AF) is proposed in order to eliminate delay and increase the response of the TCR compensator. The algorithm designed for the adaptive filters is performed based on the least mean square (LMS) algorithm. In this design, instead of fixed capacitors, band-pass LC filters are used. To evaluate the filter, a TCR/FC compensator was used for nonlinear and time varying loads of electric arc furnaces (EAFs). These loads caused occurrence of power quality phenomena in the supplying system, such as voltage fluctuation and flicker, odd and even harmonics and unbalancing in voltage and current. The above design was implemented in a realistic system model of a steel complex. The simulation results show that applying the proposed control in the TCR/FC compensator efficiently eliminated delay in the response and improved the performance of the compensator in the power system. PMID:21193194

  12. Unique pattern of dietary adaptation in the dentition of Carnivora: its advantage and developmental origin

    Saito, Kazuyuki; Kishida, Takushi; Takahashi, Katsu; Bessho, Kazuhisa

    2016-01-01

    Carnivora is a successful taxon in terms of dietary diversity. We investigated the dietary adaptations of carnivoran dentition and the developmental background of their dental diversity, which may have contributed to the success of the lineage. A developmental model was tested and extended to explain the unique variability and exceptional phenotypes observed in carnivoran dentition. Carnivorous mammalian orders exhibited two distinct patterns of dietary adaptation in molars and only Carnivora evolved novel variability, exhibiting a high correlation between relative molar size and the shape of the first molar. Studies of Bmp7-hetero-deficient mice, which may exhibit lower Bmp7 expression, suggested that Bmp7 has pleiotropic effects on these two dental traits. Its effects are consistent with the pattern of dietary adaptation observed in Carnivora, but not that observed in other carnivorous mammals. A molecular evolutionary analysis revealed that Bmp7 sequence evolved by natural selection during ursid evolution, suggesting that it plays an evolutionary role in the variation of carnivoran dentition. Using mouse experiments and a molecular evolutionary analysis, we extrapolated the causal mechanism of the hitherto enigmatic ursid dentition (larger M2 than M1 and M3). Our results demonstrate how carnivorans acquired novel dental variability that benefits their dietary divergence.

  13. Triplication of 16p12.1p12.3 associated with developmental and growth delay and distinctive facial features.

    Nimmo, Graeme A M; Guerin, Andrea; Badilla-Porras, Ramses; Stavropoulos, Dimitri J; Yoon, Grace; Carter, Melissa T

    2016-03-01

    The 16p12 region is particularly prone to genomic disorders due to the large number of low copy repeats [Martin et al., 2004; Nature 432:988-994]. We report two unrelated patients with de novo triplication of 16p12.1p12.3 who had developmental delay and similar facial features. Patient 1 is a 4-year-old male with a congenital heart anomaly, bilateral cryptorchidism, chronic constipation, and developmental delay. Patient 2 is a 12-year-old female with prenatally diagnosed hydronephrosis, hepatobiliary disease, failure to thrive, and developmental delay. Distinctive facial features common to both patients include short palpebral fissures, bulbous nose, thin upper vermillion border, apparently lowset ears, and large ear lobes. We compare the clinical manifestations of our patients with a previously reported patient with triplication of 16p12.2. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26647099

  14. Deletions in chromosome 6p22.3-p24.3, including ATXN1, are associated with developmental delay and autism spectrum disorders

    Celestino-Soper Patrícia BS

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Interstitial deletions of the short arm of chromosome 6 are rare and have been associated with developmental delay, hypotonia, congenital anomalies, and dysmorphic features. We used array comparative genomic hybridization in a South Carolina Autism Project (SCAP cohort of 97 subjects with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs and identified an ~ 5.4 Mb deletion on chromosome 6p22.3-p23 in a 15-year-old patient with intellectual disability and ASDs. Subsequent database queries revealed five additional individuals with overlapping submicroscopic deletions and presenting with developmental and speech delay, seizures, behavioral abnormalities, heart defects, and dysmorphic features. The deletion found in the SCAP patient harbors ATXN1, DTNBP1, JARID2, and NHLRC1 that we propose may be responsible for ASDs and developmental delay.

  15. Adaptive ant-based routing in wireless sensor networks using Energy Delay metrics

    Yao-feng WEN; Yu-quan CHEN; Min PAN

    2008-01-01

    To find the optimal routing is always an important topic in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Considering a WSN where the nodes have limited energy, we propose a novel Energy*Delay model based on ant algorithms ("E&D ANTS" for short)to minimize the time delay in transferring a fixed number of data packets in an energy-constrained manner in one round. Our goal is not only to maximize the lifetime of the network but also to provide real-time data transmission services. However, because of the tradeoff of energy and delay in wireless network systems, the reinforcement learning (RL) algorithm is introduced to train the model. In this survey, the paradigm of E&D ANTS is explicated and compared to other ant-based routing algorithms like AntNet and AntChain about the issues of routing information, routing overhead and adaptation. Simulation results show that our method performs about seven times better than AntNet and also outperforms AntChain by more than 150% in terms of energy cost and delay per round.

  16. Adaptive observers-based synchronization of a class of Lur'e systems with delayed outputs for chaotic communications

    Dimassi, Habib; Loria, Antonio; Belghith, Safya

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an adaptive observer-based synchronization approach for a class of chaotic Lur'e systems with slope restricted nonlinearities and delayed outputs. The delay is assumed bounded and time varying and the information to be transmitted is assumed piece-wise constant. Based on the Lyapunov-Krasovskii approach, we show that for sufficiently small values of the time-delay upper bound, both synchronization and information reconstruction objectives are ensured under a conditio...

  17. Toward an Understanding of ADHD: A Developmental Delay in Self-Control.

    Durall, John K.

    1999-01-01

    Explains characteristics of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): delay in self-regulation; living in the moment; difficulty remaining focused; lag in social development; and the positive characteristics of intuition, spontaneity, energy, creativity, and artistic skills. Sidebars discuss a neurobiological understanding of ADHD and tips…

  18. Observer-based Adaptive Iterative Learning Control for Nonlinear Systems with Time-varying Delays

    Wei-Sheng Chen; Rui-Hong Li; Jing Li

    2010-01-01

    An observer-based adaptive iterative learning control (AILC) scheme is developed for a class of nonlinear systems with unknown time-varying parameters and unknown time-varying delays. The linear matrix inequality (LMI) method is employed to design the nonlinear observer. The designed controller contains a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) feedback term in time domain. The learning law of unknown constant parameter is differential-difference-type, and the learning law of unknown time-varying parameter is difference-type. It is assumed that the unknown delay-dependent uncertainty is nonlinearly parameterized. By constructing a Lyapunov-Krasovskii-like composite energy function (CEF), we prove the boundedness of all closed-loop signals and the convergence of tracking error. A simulation example is provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the control algorithm proposed in this paper.

  19. De novo interstitial deletion of 9q32-34.1 with mental retardation, developmental delay, epilepsy, and cortical dysplasia: a case report.

    Tos, T; Alp, M Y; Karacan, C D; Andiran, N; Colakoglu, E Y

    2014-01-01

    In this report we describe a 10 year-old female patient with interstitial deletion of 9q32-q34.1 associated with mental retardation, developmental delay, short stature, mild facial dysmorphism, epilepsy, abnormal EEG and brain MRI findings consistent with focal cortical dysplasia. Interstitial deletion of 9q associated with q32-q34 is found extremely rare. Common features of seven previously reported cases are mental retardation, developmental delay, short stature, a distinct cranial and facial phenotype (brachycephaly, low midface, low and prominent forehead, and low set malformed ears). Combination of epilepsy, abnormal EEG and brain MRI findings are not reported before. PMID:25059019

  20. Adaptive Synchronization between Two Different Complex Networks with Time-Varying Delay Coupling

    CHEN Jian-Rui; JIAO Li-Cheng; WU Jian-She; WANG Xiao-Hua

    2009-01-01

    A new general network model for two complex networks with time-varying delay coupling is presented.Then we investigate its synchronization phenomena.The two complex networks of the model differ in dynamic nodes,the number of nodes and the coupling connections.By using adaptive controllers,a synchronization criterion is derived.Numerical examples are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the obtained synchronization criterion.This study may widen the application range of synchronization,such as in chaotic secure communication.

  1. Deletion of 8q24 in an adult with mild dysmorphic features, developmental delay, and ketotic hypoglycemia.

    Solomon, Benjamin D; Lange, Eileen; Shubrook, Jay; Service, F John; Herman, Gail; Karne, Rajaram J; Gorden, Phillip; Muenke, Maximilian; Stratakis, Constantine A

    2010-06-01

    We present a 56-year-old female with a history of carbohydrate intolerance and ketotic hypoglycemia, dysmorphic features, mild developmental delay, lymphedema, altered pain sensation, and frequent fractures, who was found to have a heterozygous 8.09 Mb deletion of chromosome 8q24.11q24.13 containing more than 39 genes, as well as a duplication of 20q11.23 containing one gene. The deleted region overlaps that of two previously reported patients, who share a subset of clinical characteristics with the patient described here. Some of this patient's clinical features are consistent with the loss of genes in the deleted region. The diagnostic work-up of this patient clearly demonstrates the evolution of genetic testing techniques. PMID:20503333

  2. Novel 14q11.2 microduplication including the CHD8 and SUPT16H genes associated with developmental delay.

    Smyk, Marta; Poluha, Anna; Jaszczuk, Ilona; Bartnik, Magdalena; Bernaciak, Joanna; Nowakowska, Beata

    2016-05-01

    Neurodevelopmental disorders have long been associated with chromosomal abnormalities, including microdeletions and microduplications. Submicroscopic 14q11.2 deletions involving the CHD8 and SUPT16H genes have been reported in patients with developmental delay (DD)/intellectual disability (ID) or autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and/or macrocephaly. Recently, disruptive CHD8 mutations were described in patients with similar phenotypes further showing pivotal role of CHD8 gene in the pathogenesis of DD/ID or ASDs. We report here the first case of ∼445 kb de novo microduplication, encompassing the minimal critical 14q11.2 deletion region, in 8-year-old boy showing DD, cognitive impairment and facial dysmorphism. Our results suggest that gain of the chromosomal region 14q11.2 is causative for clinical findings present in the patient. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26834018

  3. A de novo missense mutation in ZMYND11 is associated with global developmental delay, seizures, and hypotonia

    Moskowitz, Abby M.; Belnap, Newell; Siniard, Ashley L.; Szelinger, Szabolcs; Claasen, Ana M.; Richholt, Ryan F.; De Both, Matt; Corneveaux, Jason J.; Balak, Chris; Piras, Ignazio S.; Russell, Megan; Courtright, Amanda L.; Rangasamy, Sampath; Ramsey, Keri; Craig, David W.; Narayanan, Vinodh; Huentelman, Matt J.; Schrauwen, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Recently, mutations in the zinc finger MYND-type containing 11 (ZMYND11) gene were identified in patients with autism spectrum disorders, intellectual disability, aggression, and complex neuropsychiatric features, supporting that this gene is implicated in 10p15.3 microdeletion syndrome. We report a novel de novo variant in the ZMYND11 gene (p.Ser421Asn) in a patient with a complex neurodevelopmental phenotype. The patient is a 24-yr-old Caucasian/Filipino female with seizures, global developmental delay, sensorineural hearing loss, hypotonia, dysmorphic features, and other features including a happy disposition and ataxic gait similar to Angelman syndrome. In addition, this patient had uncommon features including eosinophilic esophagitis and multiple, severe allergies not described in similar ZMYND11 cases. This new case further supports the association of ZMYND11 with autistic-like phenotypes and suggests that ZMYND11 should be included in the list of potentially causative candidate genes in cases with complex neurodevelopmental phenotypes.

  4. Conditional deletion of Dicer in vascular smooth muscle cells leads to the developmental delay and embryonic mortality

    Pan, Yaoqian [Department of Physiology, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN 38163 (United States); Center for Cancer Research, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN 38163 (United States); Balazs, Louisa [Department of Pathology, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN 38163 (United States); Tigyi, Gabor [Department of Physiology, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN 38163 (United States); Yue, Junming, E-mail: yue@uthsc.edu [Department of Physiology, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN 38163 (United States); Center for Cancer Research, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN 38163 (United States)

    2011-05-13

    Highlights: {yields} Deletion of Dicer in vascular smooth muscle cells(VSMCs) leads to embryonic mortality. {yields} Loss of Dicer in VSMCs leads to developmental delay. {yields} Loss of Dicer in VSMCs leads to hemorrhage in various organs including brain, skin and liver. {yields} Loss of Dicer in VSMCs leads to vascular wall remodeling. {yields} Loss of Dicer in VSMCs dysregulates the expression of miRNA and VSMC marker genes. -- Abstract: Dicer is a RNAase III enzyme that cleaves double stranded RNA and generates small interfering RNA (siRNA) and microRNA (miRNA). The goal of this study is to examine the role of Dicer and miRNAs in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). We deleted Dicer in VSMCs of mice, which caused a developmental delay that manifested as early as embryonic day E12.5, leading to embryonic death between E14.5 and E15.5 due to extensive hemorrhage in the liver, brain, and skin. Dicer KO embryos showed dilated blood vessels and a disarray of vascular architecture between E14.5 and E15.5. VSMC proliferation was significantly inhibited in Dicer KOs. The expression of VSMC marker genes were significantly downregulated in Dicer cKO embryos. The vascular structure of the yolk sac and embryo in Dicer KOs was lost to an extent that no blood vessels could be identified after E15.5. Expression of most miRNAs examined was compromised in VSMCs of Dicer KO. Our results indicate that Dicer is required for vascular development and regulates vascular remodeling by modulating VSMC proliferation and differentiation.

  5. Conditional deletion of Dicer in vascular smooth muscle cells leads to the developmental delay and embryonic mortality

    Highlights: → Deletion of Dicer in vascular smooth muscle cells(VSMCs) leads to embryonic mortality. → Loss of Dicer in VSMCs leads to developmental delay. → Loss of Dicer in VSMCs leads to hemorrhage in various organs including brain, skin and liver. → Loss of Dicer in VSMCs leads to vascular wall remodeling. → Loss of Dicer in VSMCs dysregulates the expression of miRNA and VSMC marker genes. -- Abstract: Dicer is a RNAase III enzyme that cleaves double stranded RNA and generates small interfering RNA (siRNA) and microRNA (miRNA). The goal of this study is to examine the role of Dicer and miRNAs in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). We deleted Dicer in VSMCs of mice, which caused a developmental delay that manifested as early as embryonic day E12.5, leading to embryonic death between E14.5 and E15.5 due to extensive hemorrhage in the liver, brain, and skin. Dicer KO embryos showed dilated blood vessels and a disarray of vascular architecture between E14.5 and E15.5. VSMC proliferation was significantly inhibited in Dicer KOs. The expression of VSMC marker genes were significantly downregulated in Dicer cKO embryos. The vascular structure of the yolk sac and embryo in Dicer KOs was lost to an extent that no blood vessels could be identified after E15.5. Expression of most miRNAs examined was compromised in VSMCs of Dicer KO. Our results indicate that Dicer is required for vascular development and regulates vascular remodeling by modulating VSMC proliferation and differentiation.

  6. Delayed adaptive immunity is related to higher MMR vaccine-induced antibody titers in children.

    Strömbeck, Anna; Lundell, Anna-Carin; Nordström, Inger; Andersson, Kerstin; Adlerberth, Ingegerd; Wold, Agnes E; Rudin, Anna

    2016-04-01

    There are notable inter-individual variations in vaccine-specific antibody responses in vaccinated children. The aim of our study was to investigate whether early-life environmental factors and adaptive immune maturation prior and close to measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) immunization relate to magnitudes of vaccine-specific antibody titers. In the FARMFLORA birth cohort, including both farming and non-farming families, children were immunized with the MMR vaccine at 18 months of age. MMR vaccine-induced antibody titers were measured in plasma samples obtained at 36 months of age. Infants' blood samples obtained at birth, 3-5 days and at 4 and 18 months of age were analyzed for T- and B-cell numbers, proportions of naive and memory T and B cells, and fractions of putative regulatory T cells. Multivariate factor analyses show that higher anti-MMR antibody titers were associated with a lower degree of adaptive immune maturation, that is, lower proportions of memory T cells and a lower capacity of mononuclear cells to produce cytokines, but with higher proportions of putative regulatory T cells. Further, children born by cesarean section (CS) had significantly higher anti-measles titers than vaginally-born children; and CS was found to be associated with delayed adaptive immunity. Also, girls presented with significantly higher anti-mumps and anti-rubella antibody levels than boys at 36 months of age. These results indicate that delayed adaptive immune maturation before and in close proximity to immunization seems to be advantageous for the ability of children to respond with higher anti-MMR antibody levels after vaccination. PMID:27195118

  7. Cilostazol Improves Developmental Competence of Pig Oocytes by Increasing Intraoocyte Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate Level and Delaying Meiotic Resumption.

    Elahi, F; Lee, H; Lee, Y; Park, B; Lee, J; Hyun, S-H; Lee, E

    2016-04-01

    Cilostazol (CLZ) is a cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) modulator that influences the steady state of the meiotic stage. This study was conducted to determine the effects of CLZ treatment during in vitro maturation (IVM) on developmental competence of pig oocytes. Immature oocytes were exposed to 0 (control), 0.5, 2 and 4 μm CLZ during the first 22 h of IVM. Nuclear maturation, intraoocyte glutathione content and embryo cleavage after parthenogenesis (PA) and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) were not influenced by CLZ at any concentrations. However, 4 μm CLZ significantly (p formation after PA (52.1% vs 38.7-46.0%) and SCNT relative to other concentrations (40.8% vs 25.0-30.7%). The mean cell numbers of SCNT blastocysts were significantly increased by 4 μm CLZ compared to the control (42.6 cells vs 35.3 cells/blastocyst). CLZ treatment significantly increased the intraoocyte cAMP level and effectively arrested oocytes at the germinal vesicle (GV) and GV break down stages compared to the control (74.5% vs 45.4%). Our results demonstrated that improved developmental competence of PA and SCNT pig embryos occurred via better synchronization of nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation induced by increased cAMP and delayed meiotic resumption after CLZ treatment. PMID:26834044

  8. Effects of Adapted Dialogic Reading on Oral Language and Vocabulary Knowledge of Latino Preschoolers at Risk for English Language Delays

    Correa, Vivian I.; Lo, Ya-Yu; Godfrey-Hurrell, Kristi; Swart, Katie; Baker, Doris Luft

    2015-01-01

    In this single-case design study, we examined the effects of an adapted dialogic reading intervention on the oral language and vocabulary skills of four Latino preschool children who were at risk for English language delays. We used adapted dialogic reading strategies in English and two literacy games that included a rapid naming activity and…

  9. Adaptive controller design for lag-synchronization of two non-identical time-delayed chaotic systems with unknown parameters

    In this Letter, two adaptive controllers are proposed for the lag-synchronization of two non-identical time-delayed chaotic systems with fully unknown parameters. Based on Lyapunov-stability theorem and adaptive techniques, sufficient conditions for the lag-synchronization of these two systems are discussed. Finally, illustrative examples are given to verify the validity of the developed controllers.

  10. Effect of spike-timing-dependent plasticity on coherence resonance and synchronization transitions by time delay in adaptive neuronal networks

    Xie, Huijuan; Gong, Yubing; Wang, Qi

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we numerically study how time delay induces multiple coherence resonance (MCR) and synchronization transitions (ST) in adaptive Hodgkin-Huxley neuronal networks with spike-timing dependent plasticity (STDP). It is found that MCR induced by time delay STDP can be either enhanced or suppressed as the adjusting rate Ap of STDP changes, and ST by time delay varies with the increase of Ap, and there is optimal Ap by which the ST becomes strongest. It is also found that there are optimal network randomness and network size by which ST by time delay becomes strongest, and when Ap increases, the optimal network randomness and optimal network size increase and related ST is enhanced. These results show that STDP can either enhance or suppress MCR and optimal STDP can enhance ST induced by time delay in the adaptive neuronal networks. These findings provide a new insight into STDP's role for the information processing and transmission in neural systems.

  11. SHARP - III: First Use Of Adaptive Optics Imaging To Constrain Cosmology With Gravitational Lens Time Delays

    Chen, Geoff C F; Wong, Kenneth C; Fassnacht, Christopher D; Chiueh, Tzihong; Halkola, Aleksi; Hu, I Shing; Auger, Matthew W; Koopmans, Leon V E; Lagattuta, David J; McKean, John P; Vegetti, Simona

    2016-01-01

    Accurate and precise measurements of the Hubble constant are critical for testing our current standard cosmological model and revealing possibly new physics. With Hubble Space Telescope (HST) imaging, each strong gravitational lens system with measured time delays can allow one to determine the Hubble constant with an uncertainty of $\\sim 7\\%$. Since HST will not last forever, we explore adaptive-optics (AO) imaging as an alternative that can provide higher angular resolution than HST imaging but has a less stable point spread function (PSF) due to atmospheric distortion. To make AO imaging useful for time-delay-lens cosmography, we develop a method to extract the unknown PSF directly from the imaging of strongly lensed quasars. In a blind test with two mock data sets created with different PSFs, we are able to recover the important cosmological parameters (time-delay distance, external shear, lens mass profile slope, and total Einstein radius). Our analysis of the Keck AO image of the strong lens system RXJ1...

  12. Delay Prediction for Real-Time Video Adaptive Transmisson over TCP

    Yonghua Xiong

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Real-time multimedia streaming applications are increasingly using TCP instead of UCP as underlying transport protocol, however the great end-to-end delays are the major factor to influence the quality of streaming across the Internet using TCP. In this paper, we point the requirement for transmitting real-time video with acceptable playing performance via TCP and present a stochastic prediction model which can predict the sending-delays of video frames.  Based on the prediction model, we propose a real-time video adaptive transmission scheme which can dynamically adjust video frame rate and playout buffer size according to available network bandwidth. The scheme does not require any modifications to the network infrastructure or TCP protocol stack and only wants to measure some parameters including video frame size, loss ratio, congestion windows size, RTT and RTO time before video frames are sent. The performance of proposed prediction model and adaptive scheme are evaluated through extensive simulations using the NS-2 simulator.

  13. Adaptive Control for Autonomous Navigation of Mobile Robots Considering Time Delay and Uncertainty

    Armah, Stephen Kofi

    Autonomous control of mobile robots has attracted considerable attention of researchers in the areas of robotics and autonomous systems during the past decades. One of the goals in the field of mobile robotics is development of platforms that robustly operate in given, partially unknown, or unpredictable environments and offer desired services to humans. Autonomous mobile robots need to be equipped with effective, robust and/or adaptive, navigation control systems. In spite of enormous reported work on autonomous navigation control systems for mobile robots, achieving the goal above is still an open problem. Robustness and reliability of the controlled system can always be improved. The fundamental issues affecting the stability of the control systems include the undesired nonlinear effects introduced by actuator saturation, time delay in the controlled system, and uncertainty in the model. This research work develops robustly stabilizing control systems by investigating and addressing such nonlinear effects through analytical, simulations, and experiments. The control systems are designed to meet specified transient and steady-state specifications. The systems used for this research are ground (Dr Robot X80SV) and aerial (Parrot AR.Drone 2.0) mobile robots. Firstly, an effective autonomous navigation control system is developed for X80SV using logic control by combining 'go-to-goal', 'avoid-obstacle', and 'follow-wall' controllers. A MATLAB robot simulator is developed to implement this control algorithm and experiments are conducted in a typical office environment. The next stage of the research develops an autonomous position (x, y, and z) and attitude (roll, pitch, and yaw) controllers for a quadrotor, and PD-feedback control is used to achieve stabilization. The quadrotor's nonlinear dynamics and kinematics are implemented using MATLAB S-function to generate the state output. Secondly, the white-box and black-box approaches are used to obtain a linearized

  14. Salivary Alpha Amylase and Cortisol Levels in Children with Global Developmental Delay and Their Relation with the Expectation of Dental Care and Behavior during the Intervention

    dos Santos, Marcio Jose Possari; Bernabe, Daniel Galera; Nakamune, Ana Claudia de Melo Stevanato; Perri, Silvia Helena Venturoli; de Aguiar, Sandra Maria Herondina Coelho Avila; de Oliveira, Sandra Helena Penha

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the alpha-amylase (sAA) and cortisol levels in children with Global developmental delay (GDD) before and after dental treatment and its association with the children's behavior during treatment. The morning salivary cortisol levels and activity of sAA of 33 children with GDD were evaluated before and after…

  15. Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction for Parents of Young Children with Developmental Delays: Implications for Parental Mental Health and Child Behavior Problems

    Neece, Cameron L.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Parents of children with developmental delays (DD) typically report elevated levels of parental stress compared with parents of typically developing children. Children with DD are also at high risk for exhibiting significant behaviour problems. Parental stress has been shown to impact the development of these behaviour problems;…

  16. Effectiveness of Direct Instruction for Teaching Statement Inference, Use of Facts, and Analogies to Students with Developmental Disabilities and Reading Delays

    Flores, Margaret Munro; Ganz, Jennifer B.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of a Direct Instruction (DI) reading comprehension program implemented with students who had developmental disabilities, including autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and reading delays. There is little research in the area of reading comprehension for students with ASD and no research as to the effectiveness of…

  17. Assessing the Effects of the "McGraw Hill Phonemic Awareness" Program with Preschool Children with Developmental Delays: A Case Study

    Isakson, Lisa; Marchand-Martella, Nancy; Martella, Ronald C.

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of "McGraw Hill Phonemic Awareness" on the phonemic awareness skills of 5 preschool children with developmental delays. The children received 60 of the 110 lessons included in this program over 5 months. They were pre- and posttested using the kindergarten level Initial Sound Fluency and Phoneme Segmentation Fluency…

  18. Is Maternal Influenza or Fever During Pregnancy Associated with Autism or Developmental Delays? Results from the CHARGE (CHildhood Autism Risks from Genetics and Environment) Study

    Zerbo, Ousseny; Iosif, Ana-Maria; Walker, Cheryl; Ozonoff, Sally; Hansen, Robin L.; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

    2013-01-01

    We analyzed data from case groups of 538 children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and 163 with developmental delays (DD), and from 421 typically developing controls to assess associations with maternal influenza or fever during pregnancy. Exposure information was obtained by telephone interviews, and outcomes were clinically confirmed. Though…

  19. Developmental hypothyroxinaemia induced by maternal mild iodine deficiency delays hippocampal axonal growth in the rat offspring.

    Wei, W; Wang, Y; Wang, Y; Dong, J; Min, H; Song, B; Teng, W; Xi, Q; Chen, J

    2013-09-01

    Iodine is essential for the biosynthesis of thyroid hormones, including triiodothyronine and thyroxine. Thyroid hormones are important for central nervous system development. Mild maternal iodine deficiency (ID)-induced hypothyroxinaemia causes neurological deficits and mental retardation of the foetus. However, the detailed mechanism underlying these deficits is still largely unknown. Given that the growth-associated protein of 43 kDa (GAP-43), semaphorin 3A (Sema3A) and the glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β)/collapsin response mediator protein 2 (CRMP2) pathway are essential for axonal development, we hypothesise that hippocampal axonal growth-related proteins may be impaired, which may contribute to hippocampal axonal growth delay in rat offspring exposed to maternal hypothyroxinaemia. To test this hypothesis, maternal hypothyroxinaemia models were established in Wistar rats using a mild ID diet. Besides a negative control group, two maternal hypothyroidism models were created with either a severe ID diet or methimazole in the water. Our results showed that maternal hypothyroxinaemia exposure delayed offspring axonal growth on gestational day 19, postnatal day (PN) 7, PN14 and PN21. Consistent with this, the mean intensity of hippocampal CRMP2 and Tau1 immunofluorescence axonal protein was reduced in the mild ID group. Moreover, maternal hypothyroxinaemia disrupted expressions of GAP-43 and Sema3A. Furthermore, the phosphorylation of GSK3β and CRMP2 was also affected in the treated offspring, implying a potential mechanism by which hypothyroxinaemia-exposure affects neurodevelopment. Taken together, our data support the hypothesis that maternal hypothyroxinaemia may impair axonal growth of the offspring. PMID:23763342

  20. Delayed diagnosis of developmental dysplasia of the hip in Northern Ireland: can we do better?

    Donnelly, K J; Chan, K W; Cosgrove, A P

    2015-11-01

    Developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) should be diagnosed as early as possible to optimise treatment. The current United Kingdom recommendations for the selective screening of DDH include a clinical examination at birth and at six weeks. In Northern Ireland babies continue to have an assessment by a health visitor at four months of age. As we continue to see late presentations of DDH, beyond one year of age, we hypothesised that a proportion had missed an opportunity for earlier diagnosis. We expect those who presented to our service with Tonnis grade III or IV hips and decreased abduction would have had clinical signs at their earlier assessments. We performed a retrospective review of all patients born in Northern Ireland between 2008 and 2010 who were diagnosed with DDH after their first birthday. There were 75 856 live births during the study period of whom 645 children were treated for DDH (8.5 per 1000). The minimum follow-up of our cohort from birth, to detect late presentation, was four years and six months. Of these, 32 children (33 hips) were diagnosed after their first birthday (0.42 per 1000). With optimum application of our selective screening programme 21 (65.6%) of these children had the potential for an earlier diagnosis, which would have reduced the incidence of late diagnosis to 0.14 per 1000. As we saw a peak in diagnosis between three and five months our findings support the continuation of the four month health visitor check. Our study adds further information to the debate regarding selective versus universal screening. PMID:26530663

  1. Adaptive Neural Control of MIMO Nonstrict-Feedback Nonlinear Systems With Time Delay.

    Zhao, Xudong; Yang, Haijiao; Karimi, Hamid Reza; Zhu, Yanzheng

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, an adaptive neural output-feedback tracking controller is designed for a class of multiple-input and multiple-output nonstrict-feedback nonlinear systems with time delay. The system coefficient and uncertain functions of our considered systems are both unknown. By employing neural networks to approximate the unknown function entries, and constructing a new input-driven filter, a backstepping design method of tracking controller is developed for the systems under consideration. The proposed controller can guarantee that all the signals in the closed-loop systems are ultimately bounded, and the time-varying target signal can be tracked within a small error as well. The main contributions of this paper lie in that the systems under consideration are more general, and an effective design procedure of output-feedback controller is developed for the considered systems, which is more applicable in practice. Simulation results demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed algorithm. PMID:26099151

  2. Adaptive feedback synchronisation of complex dynamical network with discrete-time communications and delayed nodes

    Wang, Tong; Ding, Yongsheng; Zhang, Lei; Hao, Kuangrong

    2016-08-01

    This paper considered the synchronisation of continuous complex dynamical networks with discrete-time communications and delayed nodes. The nodes in the dynamical networks act in the continuous manner, while the communications between nodes are discrete-time; that is, they communicate with others only at discrete time instants. The communication intervals in communication period can be uncertain and variable. By using a piecewise Lyapunov-Krasovskii function to govern the characteristics of the discrete communication instants, we investigate the adaptive feedback synchronisation and a criterion is derived to guarantee the existence of the desired controllers. The globally exponential synchronisation can be achieved by the controllers under the updating laws. Finally, two numerical examples including globally coupled network and nearest-neighbour coupled networks are presented to demonstrate the validity and effectiveness of the proposed control scheme.

  3. Time Delay Estimation algorithms adapted to dispersive media - Application to the NDT&E of civil engineering materials

    CHAHINE, Khaled

    2010-01-01

    Time delays are generally estimated for NDT&E purposes, under the assumption of dispersion free media. As opposed to the latter, this work intends to adapt the subspace and MPM family algorithms to the dispersive nature of civil engineering materials (hydraulic concrete, soils) for which the dispersion obeys to the Q-constant model (Jonscher). Two solutions are proposed to jointly estimate the time delay, T, and the Q factor attached to each layer. The performance of algorithms is assessed ag...

  4. Italy: Delayed adaptation of social institutions to changes in family behaviour

    Anna Laura Zanatta

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Considering its very low fertility and high age at childbearing, Italy stands alone in the European context and can hardly be compared with other countries, even those in the Southern region. The fertility decline occurred without any radical change in family formation. Individuals still choose (religious marriage for leaving their parental home and rates of marital dissolution and subsequent step-family formation are low. Marriage is being postponed and fewer people marry. The behaviours of young people are particularly alarming. There is a delay in all life cycle stages: end of education, entry into the labour market, exit from the parental family, entry into union, and managing an independent household. Changes in family formation and childbearing are constrained and slowed down by a substantial delay (or even failure with which the institutional and cultural framework has adapted to changes in economic and social conditions, in particular to the growth of the service sector, the increase in female employment and the female level of education. In a Catholic country that has been led for almost half a century by a political party with a Catholic ideology, the paucity of attention to childhood and youth seems incomprehensible. Social policies focus on marriage-based families already formed and on the phases of life related to pregnancy, delivery, and the first months of a newborn's life, while forming a family and childbearing choices are considered private affairs and neglected.

  5. Cross-cultural adaptation of the Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire (DCDQ’07 for the population of Polish children

    Nowak Agata

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Study aim: The purpose of this article is to present the cultural adaptation of the DCDQ’07 (Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire as one of the popular and most frequently-used diagnostic instruments for diagnosing DCD in school-age children.

  6. The developmental inter-relationships between activity, novelty preferences, and delay discounting in male and female rats.

    Lukkes, Jodi L; Thompson, Britta S; Freund, Nadja; Andersen, Susan L

    2016-03-01

    Increased locomotion, novelty-seeking, and impulsivity are risk factors associated with substance use. In this study, the inter-relationships between activity, novelty preferences, and delay discounting, a measure of impulsivity, were examined across three stages: juvenile/early adolescence (postnatal Day [P] 15, 19, and 42 for activity, novelty, and impulsivity, respectively), adolescent/late adolescent (P28, 32, 73), and adult (P90, 94, 137) in male and female rats. Our estimates of impulsive choice, where animals were trained to criterion, revealed an age × sex interaction where early adolescent females had the lowest levels of impulsivity. The relationships of activity and novelty to impulsivity significantly changed across age within each sex. Early adolescent males with high activity, but low novelty preferences, were more impulsive; however, low activity and high novelty preferences were related to high impulsivity in adult males. Female activity gradually increased across age, but did not show a strong relationship with impulsivity. Novelty preferences are moderately related to impulsivity into adulthood in females. These data show that males and females have different developmental trajectories for these behaviors. Males show greater sensation-seeking (e.g., activity) and risky behavior (e.g., novelty preferences) earlier in life, whereas these behaviors emerge during adolescence in females. PMID:26419783

  7. Diagnosis and fine mapping of a deletion in distal 11q in two Chinese patients with developmental delay.

    Ji, Taoyun; Wu, Ye; Wang, Huifang; Wang, Jingmin; Jiang, Yuwu

    2010-08-01

    Jacobsen syndrome (JBS) is a haploinsufficiency syndrome caused by partial deletion of the long arm of chromosome 11. It is characterized by developmental delay (DD)/mental retardation (MR), physical growth retardation, facial dysmorphism, visceral malformations and thrombocytopenia. We report two JBS patients from China out of a total of 451 patients with unexplained DD/MR. The genotypes of these patients were compared with earlier reported patients in North America and Europe. Both patients presented with severe DD, microcephaly and facial dysmorphism; one patient had a low birth weight, congenital heart disease and structural brain abnormalities. Neither patient was thrombocytopenic at the time of diagnosis. The two deletions were 4.1 and 12.8 Mb. The 4.1 Mb deletion is the smallest of all pathogenic regions earlier reported in JBS. Therefore, the critical region underlying DD/MR might be located in the distal portion of the chromosomal segment within 4.1 Mb of the telomere. Candidate genes for DD/MR in this region include SNX19, THYN1, OPCML, NCAPD3 and NTM. One of the critical regions for craniofacial abnormalities may be within 130.3-134.4 Mb in chromosome 11q. Further analysis of Chinese JBS patients would elucidate the relation of phenotype to genotype further. PMID:20520618

  8. Ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia-cleft syndrome (EEC syndrome) with a developmental delay caused by R304W mutation in the tp63 gene.

    Gawrych, Elzbieta; Bińczak-Kuleta, Agnieszka; Janiszewska-Olszowska, Joanna; Ciechanowicz, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    Ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia-cleft syndrome (EEC) results from a simultaneous developmental abnor-caused by mutations of the tp63 gene. Five mutations: 204, 227, 279, 280, and 304 account for most cases of this syndrome. A case with R304W mutation, characterized by the presence of all major (ectrodactyly, ectodermal dysplasia, cleft lip and palate) and two minor (lacrimal duct obstruction, developmental delay) clinical symptoms of the syndrome is presented. This severe case improves the existing knowledge concerning the genotype-phenotype correlations in EEC syndrome. PMID:24734328

  9. Memory State-Feedback Stabilization for a Class of Time-Delay Systems with a Type of Adaptive Strategy

    Shumin Fei; Lin Chai

    2013-01-01

    Stabilization of a class of systems with time delay is studied using adaptive control. With the help of the “error to error” technique and the separated “descriptor form” technique, the memory state-feedback controller is designed. The adaptive controller designed can guarantee asymptotical stability of the closed-loop system via a suitable Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional. Some sufficient conditions are derived for the stabilization together with the linear matrix inequality (LMI) design appro...

  10. Developmental adaptation of central nervous system to extremely high acetylcholine levels.

    Vladimir Farar

    Full Text Available Acetylcholinesterase (AChE is a key enzyme in termination of fast cholinergic transmission. In brain, acetylcholine (ACh is produced by cholinergic neurons and released in extracellular space where it is cleaved by AChE anchored by protein PRiMA. Recently, we showed that the lack of AChE in brain of PRiMA knock-out (KO mouse increased ACh levels 200-300 times. The PRiMA KO mice adapt nearly completely by the reduction of muscarinic receptor (MR density. Here we investigated changes in MR density, AChE, butyrylcholinesterase (BChE activity in brain in order to determine developmental period responsible for such adaptation. Brains were studied at embryonal day 18.5 and postnatal days (pd 0, 9, 30, 120, and 425. We found that the AChE activity in PRiMA KO mice remained very low at all studied ages while in wild type (WT mice it gradually increased till pd120. BChE activity in WT mice gradually decreased until pd9 and then increased by pd120, it continually decreased in KO mice till pd30 and remained unchanged thereafter. MR number increased in WT mice till pd120 and then became stable. Similarly, MR increased in PRiMA KO mice till pd30 and then remained stable, but the maximal level reached is approximately 50% of WT mice. Therefore, we provide the evidence that adaptive changes in MR happen up to pd30. This is new phenomenon that could contribute to the explanation of survival and nearly unchanged phenotype of PRiMA KO mice.

  11. Approximation-based adaptive tracking control of pure-feedback nonlinear systems with multiple unknown time-varying delays.

    Wang, Min; Ge, Shuzhi Sam; Hong, Keum-Shik

    2010-11-01

    This paper presents adaptive neural tracking control for a class of non-affine pure-feedback systems with multiple unknown state time-varying delays. To overcome the design difficulty from non-affine structure of pure-feedback system, mean value theorem is exploited to deduce affine appearance of state variables x(i) as virtual controls α(i), and of the actual control u. The separation technique is introduced to decompose unknown functions of all time-varying delayed states into a series of continuous functions of each delayed state. The novel Lyapunov-Krasovskii functionals are employed to compensate for the unknown functions of current delayed state, which is effectively free from any restriction on unknown time-delay functions and overcomes the circular construction of controller caused by the neural approximation of a function of u and [Formula: see text] . Novel continuous functions are introduced to overcome the design difficulty deduced from the use of one adaptive parameter. To achieve uniformly ultimate boundedness of all the signals in the closed-loop system and tracking performance, control gains are effectively modified as a dynamic form with a class of even function, which makes stability analysis be carried out at the present of multiple time-varying delays. Simulation studies are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme. PMID:20858576

  12. Interstitial deletion of 6q25.2–q25.3: a novel microdeletion syndrome associated with microcephaly, developmental delay, dysmorphic features and hearing loss

    Nagamani, Sandesh Chakravarthy Sreenath; Erez, Ayelet; Eng, Christine; Ou, Zhishuo; Chinault, Craig; Workman, Laura; Coldwell, James; Stankiewicz, Pawel; Patel, Ankita; Lupski, James R; Cheung, Sau Wai

    2008-01-01

    Interstitial deletions of 6q are rare. We report a detailed clinical and molecular characterization of four patients with interstitial deletion involving 6q25. All of our patients presented with microcephaly, developmental delay, dysmorphic features and hearing loss, whereas two of them had agenesis of the corpus callosum. We determined the size, extent and genomic content of the deletions using high-density array-comparative genomic hybridization (a-CGH), and found that a common segment span...

  13. Phthalate concentrations in house dust in relation to autism spectrum disorder and developmental delay in the CHildhood Autism Risks from Genetics and the Environment (CHARGE) study

    Philippat, Claire; Bennett, Deborah H.; Krakowiak, Paula; Rose, Melissa; Hwang, Hyun-Min; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

    2015-01-01

    Background Phthalates are endocrine-disrupting chemicals that influence thyroid hormones and sex steroids, both critical for brain development. Aim We studied phthalate concentrations in house dust in relation to the risks of developing autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or developmental delay (DD). Methods Participants were a subset of children from the CHARGE (CHildhood Autism Risks from Genetics and the Environment) case–control study. ASD and DD cases were identified through the California De...

  14. Programming generalization of in-class transition skills: teaching preschoolers with developmental delays to self-assess and recruit contingent teacher praise.

    Connell, M. C.; Carta, J J; Baer, D M

    1993-01-01

    We investigated a self-management intervention package that taught preschoolers with developmental delays to self-assess performance of targeted skills and to recruit teacher praise. Self-assessment alone resulted in increases in active engagement across all participants during the training sessions, but generalization to classrooms was sporadic and short-lived. When recruitment of contingent praise was added to the training package, treatment effects generalized to the participants' classroo...

  15. Interstitial deletion of 14q24.3-q32.2 in a male patient with plagiocephaly, BPES features, developmental delay, and congenital heart defects

    Cingöz, Sultan; Bache, Iben; Bjerglund, Lise;

    2011-01-01

    with developmental delay, language impairment, plagiocephaly, BPES features (blepharophimosis, ptosis, epicanthus), and congenital heart defect. The deletion breakpoints were fine mapped using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and the size of the deletion is estimated to be approximately 23¿Mb....... Based on genotype-phenotype comparisons of the 10 previously published patients and the present case, we suggest that the shortest regions for deletion overlap may include candidate genes for speech impairment, mental retardation, and hypotonia....

  16. Adaptive Control of Active Balancing System for a Fast Speed-varying Jeffcott Rotor with Actuator Time Delay

    HU Bing; FANG Zhi-chu

    2008-01-01

    Due to actuator time delay existing in an adaptive control of the active balancing system for a fastspeed-varying Jeffcott rotor, if an unsynchronized control force (correction imbalance) is applied to the system,it may lead to degradation in control efficiency and instability of the control system. In order to avoid theseshortcomings, a simple adaptive controller was designed for a strictly positive real rotor system with actuatortime delay, then a Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional was constructed after an appropriate transform of this sys-tem model, the stability conditions of this adaptive control system with actuator time delay were derived. Afteradding a filter function, the active balancing system for the fast speed-varying Jeffcott rotor with actuator timedelay can easily be converted to a strictly positive real system, and thus it can use the above adaptive controllersatisfying the stability conditions. Finally, numerical simulations show that the adaptive controller proposedworks very well to perform the active balancing for the fast speed-varying Jeffcott rotor with actuator timedelay.

  17. Vision screening in children with developmental delay can be improved: analysis of a screening programme outside the ophthalmic clinic.

    Nielsen, Lisbeth Sandfeld; Skov, Liselotte; Jensen, Hanne

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a new vision-screening programme in detecting ophthalmic disorders in children with developmental delay (DD; IQIQ. A group of 467 children with an IQIQ>80 (85 males, 38 females; age range 3-16y; mean age 10y 5mo [SD 3y 2mo]) had an examination that included new vision-screening items: distance and near visual acuity and stereopsis for near objects (Lang stereo test II). A full ophthalmological examination was also conducted to determine the effectiveness of the new screening items. The previous screening programme consisted of only monocular visual acuity at distance. Sensitivity, specificity, the positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of the tests were calculated with regard to the following ophthalmic disorders: hyperopia, myopia, astigmatism, anistometropia, amblyopia, low vision, and strabismus. Overall, the prevalence of ophthalmic disorders was 33.4% in children with DD and 11.4% in typically developing children. With the use of the new programme, the effectiveness of vision screening in both groups of children was improved. In children with DD, sensitivity increased from 49.4 to 80.1%, specificity decreased from 98.1 to 83.3%, PPV decreased from 92.8 to 70.6%, and NPV increased from 79.4 to 89.3%. In typically developing children, sensitivity improved from 50.0 to 85.7%, specificity declined from 98.2 to 87.2%, PPV decreased from 77.8 to 46.2%, and NPV increased from 93.9 to 97.9%. We conclude that the currently used vision-screening programme can be significantly improved. The speed and simplicity of the proposed screening programme makes it suitable for use by school nurses. The improvements were most prominent in children with DD. PMID:17593122

  18. Control of Halo-Chaos in Beam Transport Network via Neural Network Adaptation with Time-Delayed Feedback

    FANG Jin-Qing; LUO Xiao-Shu; HUANG Guo-Xian

    2006-01-01

    Subject of the halo-chaos control in beam transport networks (channels) has become a key concerned issue for many important applications of high-current proton beam since 1990'. In this paper, the magnetic field adaptive control based on the neuralnetwork with time-delayed feedback is proposed for suppressing beam halo-chaos in the beam transport network with periodic focusing channels. The envelope radius of high-current proton beam is controlled to reach the matched beam radius by suitably selecting the control structure and parameter of the neural network, adjusting the delayed-time and control coefficient of the neural network.

  19. Decentralized Adaptive Control of Large-Scale Non-Affine Nonlinear Time-Delay Systems Using Wavelet Neural Networks

    Elaheh Saeedi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a decentralized adaptive controller with using wavelet neural network is used for a class of large-scale nonlinear systems with time- delay unknown nonlinear non- affine subsystems. The entered interruptions in subsystems are considered nonlinear with time delay, this is closer the reality, compared with the case in which the delay is not considered for interruptions. In this paper, the output weights of wavelet neural network and the other parameters of wavelet are adjusted online. The stability of close loop system is guaranteed with using the Lyapanov- Krasovskii method. Moreover the stability of close loop systems, guaranteed tracking error is converging to neighborhood zero and also all of the signals in the close loop system are bounded. Finally, the proposed method, simulated and applied for the control of two inverted pendulums that connected by a spring and the computer results, show that the efficiency of suggested method in this paper.

  20. Research on Adaptive Neural Network Control System Based on Nonlinear U-Model with Time-Varying Delay

    Fengxia Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available U-model can approximate a large class of smooth nonlinear time-varying delay system to any accuracy by using time-varying delay parameters polynomial. This paper proposes a new approach, namely, U-model approach, to solving the problems of analysis and synthesis for nonlinear systems. Based on the idea of discrete-time U-model with time-varying delay, the identification algorithm of adaptive neural network is given for the nonlinear model. Then, the controller is designed by using the Newton-Raphson formula and the stability analysis is given for the closed-loop nonlinear systems. Finally, illustrative examples are given to show the validity and applicability of the obtained results.

  1. Output Feedback Adaptive Dynamic Surface Control of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor with Uncertain Time Delays via RBFNN

    Shaohua Luo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on an adaptive dynamic surface control based on the Radial Basis Function Neural Network for a fourth-order permanent magnet synchronous motor system wherein the unknown parameters, disturbances, chaos, and uncertain time delays are presented. Neural Network systems are used to approximate the nonlinearities and an adaptive law is employed to estimate accurate parameters. Then, a simple and effective controller has been obtained by introducing dynamic surface control technique on the basis of first-order filters. Asymptotically tracking stability in the sense of uniformly ultimate boundedness is achieved in a short time. Finally, the performance of the proposed control has been illustrated through simulation results.

  2. Wavelet Neural Network Observer Based Adaptive Tracking Control for a Class of Uncertain Nonlinear Delayed Systems Using Reinforcement Learning

    Manish Sharma

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the observer designing problem for a class of uncertain delayed nonlinear systems using reinforcement learning. Reinforcement learning is used via two Wavelet Neural networks (WNN, critic WNN and action WNN, which are combined to form an adaptive WNN controller. The “strategic” utility function is approximated by the critic WNN and is minimized by the action WNN. Adaptation laws are developed for the online tuning of wavelets parameters. By Lyapunov approach, the uniformly ultimate boundedness of the closed-loop tracking error is verified. Finally, a simulation example is shown to verify the effectiveness and performance of the proposed method.

  3. Disruption of the acyl-coa binding protein gene delays hepatic adaptation to metabolic changes at weaning

    Neess, Ditte; Bloksgaard, Maria; Sørensen, Signe Bek; Marcher, Ann-Britt; Elle, Ida C; Helledie, Torben; Due, Marianne; Pagmantidis, Vasileios; Finsen, Bente; Wilbertz, Johannes; Kruhoeffer, Mogens; Faergeman, Nils; Mandrup, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    , little is known about the in vivo function in mammalian cells. We have generated mice with targeted disruption of ACBP (ACBP-/-). These mice are viable and fertile and develop normally. However, around weaning the ACBP-/- mice go through a crisis with overall weakness, and a slightly decreased growth...... rate. Using microarray analysis we show that the liver of ACBP-/- mice display a significantly delayed adaptation to weaning with late induction of target genes of the sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP) family. As a result, hepatic de novo cholesterogenesis is decreased at weaning. The...... delayed induction of SREBP target genes around weaning is caused by a compromised processing and decreased expression of SREBP precursors leading to reduced binding of SREBP to target sites in chromatin. In conclusion, lack of ACBP interferes with the normal metabolic adaptation to weaning and leads to...

  4. A new impedance and robust adaptive inverse control approach for a teleoperation system with varying time delay

    Mokhtar; SHA; SADEGHI; Hamid; Reza; MOMENI

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a new robust adaptive inverse control approach for a force-reflecting teleoperation system with varying time delay. First,an impedance control is designed for the master robot. Second,an adaptive inverse control is proposed for the slave robot. Finally,the slave side controller is modified such that the robust stability and performance are achieved. In addition,robust stability analysis has been performed and optimal behavior is ensured by using standard characteristic polynomials. It is shown that despite of presence of randomly-varying time delay,the proposed control algorithm compensates the position drifts efficiently. Demonstrable simulation studies confirm the effectiveness of the proposed control system and its advantages over the existing sliding mode control strategies.

  5. Developmental Assets: Validating a Model of Successful Adaptation for Emerging Adults

    Pashak, Travis J.; Hagen, John W.; Allen, Jennifer M.; Selley, Ryan S.

    2014-01-01

    This brief report assesses the validity of applying the adolescent-based developmental assets model to emerging adults. Developmental assets are specific constructs which predict future success, including positive individual characteristics and environmental resources. The researchers developed a self-report survey based on a subset of the assets…

  6. A de novo 2.9 Mb interstitial deletion at 13q12.11 in a child with developmental delay accompanied by mild dysmorphic characteristics

    Lagou, Magdalini; Papoulidis, Ioannis; Orru, Sandro; Papadopoulos, Vasileios; Daskalakis, George; Kontodiou, Maria; Anastasakis, Eleftherios; Petersen, Michael B.; KITSOS, GEORGE; Thomaidis, Loretta; Manolakos, Emmanouil

    2014-01-01

    Background Proximal deletions in the 13q12.11 region are very rare. Much larger deletions including this region have been described and are associated with complex phenotypes of mental retardation, developmental delay and various others anomalies. Results We report on a 3-year-old girl with a rare 2.9 Mb interstitial deletion at 13q12.11 due to a de novo unbalanced t(13;14) translocation. She had mild mental retardation and relatively mild dysmorphic features such as microcephaly, flat nasal ...

  7. Adaptive variable structure control for large-scale time-delayed systems with unknown nonlinear dead-zone

    Shen Qikun; Zhang Tianping

    2007-01-01

    The problem of adaptive fuzzy control for a class of large-scale, time-delayed systems with unknown nonlinear dead-zone is discussed here. Based on the principle of variable structure control, a design scheme of adaptive, decentralized, variable structure control is proposed. The approach removes the conditions that the dead-zone slopes and boundaries are equal and symmetric, respectively. In addition, it does not require that the assumptions that all parameters of the nonlinear dead-zone model and the lumped uncertainty are known constants. The adaptive compensation terms of the approximation errors are adopted to minimize the influence of modeling errors and parameter estimation errors. By theoretical analysis, the closed-loop control system is proved to be semiglobally uniformly ultimately bounded, with tracking errors converging to zero. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach.

  8. Adaptive Synchronization Control of Multiple Vessels with Switching Communication Topologies and Time Delay

    Fuguang Ding; Yanqin Ma; Yuanwei Zhou; Jiangjun Li

    2015-01-01

    Recently, synchronization movement control of multiple vessels has been studied broadly. In most of the studies, the communication network among vessels is considered to be fixed and the time delay is often ignored. However, the communication network among vessels maybe vary because of switching of different tasks, and the time delay is necessary to be considered when the communication network is unreliable. In this paper, the synchronization movement of multiple vessels with switching connec...

  9. A new mosaic der(18)t(1;18)(q32.1;q21.3) with developmental delay and facial dysmorphism.

    Choi, Young-Jin; Shin, Eunsim; Jo, Tae Sik; Moon, Jin-Hwa; Lee, Se-Min; Kim, Joo-Hwa; Oh, Jae-Won; Kim, Chang-Ryul; Seol, In Joon

    2016-02-01

    We report the case of a 22-month-old boy with a new mosaic partial unbalanced translocation of 1q and 18q. The patient was referred to our Pediatric Department for developmental delay. He showed mild facial dysmorphism, physical growth retardation, a hearing disability, and had a history of patent ductus arteriosus. White matter abnormality on brain magnetic resonance images was also noted. His initial routine chromosomal analysis revealed a normal 46,XY karyotype. In a microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) analysis, subtle copy number changes in 1q32.1-q44 (copy gain) and 18q21.33-18q23 (copy loss) suggested an unbalanced translocation of t(1;18). Repeated chromosomal analysis revealed a low-level mosaic translocation karyotype of 46,XY,der(18)t(1;18)(q32.1;q21.3)[12]/46,XY[152]. Because his parents had normal karyotypes, his translocation was considered to be de novo. The abnormalities observed in aCGH were confirmed by metaphase fluorescent in situ hybridization. We report this patient as a new karyotype presenting developmental delay, facial dysmorphism, cerebral dysmyelination, and other abnormalities. PMID:26958068

  10. The Fate of Early Experience Following Developmental Change: Longitudinal Approaches to Individual Adaptation in Childhood.

    Sroufe, L. Alan; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Examined Bowlby's proposition that early experiences and the adaptations to which they give rise influence later development, even beyond the influence of current circumstances or very recent adaptation. Groups whose adaptation were similar during preschool years but consistently different earlier were defined and compared. Results supported…

  11. Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment for Specific Phobias with a Child Demonstrating Severe Problem Behavior and Developmental Delays

    Davis, Thompson E., III; Kurtz, Patricia F.; Gardner, Andrew W.; Carman, Nicole B.

    2007-01-01

    Cognitive-behavioral treatments (CBTs) are widely used for anxiety disorders in typically developing children; however, there has been no previous attempt to administer CBT for specific phobia (in this case study, one-session treatment) to developmentally or intellectually disabled children. This case study integrates both cognitive-behavioral and…

  12. Reduced Euchromatin histone methyltransferase 1 causes developmental delay, hypotonia, and cranial abnormalities associated with increased bone gene expression in Kleefstra syndrome mice.

    Balemans, Monique C M; Ansar, Muhammad; Oudakker, Astrid R; van Caam, Arjan P M; Bakker, Brenda; Vitters, Elly L; van der Kraan, Peter M; de Bruijn, Diederik R H; Janssen, Sanne M; Kuipers, Arthur J; Huibers, Manon M H; Maliepaard, Eliza M; Walboomers, X Frank; Benevento, Marco; Nadif Kasri, Nael; Kleefstra, Tjitske; Zhou, Huiqing; Van der Zee, Catharina E E M; van Bokhoven, Hans

    2014-02-15

    Haploinsufficiency of Euchromatin histone methyltransferase 1 (EHMT1), a chromatin modifying enzyme, is the cause of Kleefstra syndrome (KS). KS is an intellectual disability (ID) syndrome, with general developmental delay, hypotonia, and craniofacial dysmorphisms as additional core features. Recent studies have been focused on the role of EHMT1 in learning and memory, linked to the ID phenotype of KS patients. In this study we used the Ehmt1(+/-) mouse model, and investigated whether the core features of KS were mimicked in these mice. When comparing Ehmt1(+/-) mice to wildtype littermates we observed delayed postnatal growth, eye opening, ear opening, and upper incisor eruption, indicating a delayed postnatal development. Furthermore, tests for muscular strength and motor coordination showed features of hypotonia in young Ehmt1(+/-) mice. Lastly, we found that Ehmt1(+/-) mice showed brachycephalic crania, a shorter or bent nose, and hypertelorism, reminiscent of the craniofacial dysmorphisms seen in KS. In addition, gene expression analysis revealed a significant upregulation of the mRNA levels of Runx2 and several other bone tissue related genes in P28 Ehmt1(+/-) mice. Runx2 immunostaining also appeared to be increased. The mRNA upregulation was associated with decreased histone H3 lysine 9 dimethylation (H3K9me2) levels, the epigenetic mark deposited by Ehmt1, in the promoter region of these genes. Together, Ehmt1(+/-) mice indeed recapitulate KS core features and can be used as an animal model for Kleefstra syndrome. The increased expression of bone developmental genes in the Ehmt1(+/-) mice likely contributes to their cranial dysmorphisms and might be explained by diminished Ehmt1-induced H3K9 dimethylation. PMID:24362066

  13. Based on interval type-2 adaptive fuzzy H∞ tracking controller for SISO time-delay nonlinear systems

    Lin, Tsung-Chih; Roopaei, Mehdi

    2010-12-01

    In this article, based on the adaptive interval type-2 fuzzy logic, by adjusting weights, centers and widths of proposed fuzzy neural network (FNN), the modeling errors can be eliminated for a class of SISO time-delay nonlinear systems. The proposed scheme has the advantage that can guarantee the H∞ tracking performance to attenuate the lumped uncertainties caused by the unmodelled dynamics, the approximation error and the external disturbances. Moreover, the stability analysis of the proposed control scheme will be guaranteed in the sense that all the states and signals are uniformly bounded and arbitrary small attenuation level. The simulation results are demonstrated to show the effectiveness of the advocated design methodology.

  14. Delay Depending Decentralized Adaptive Attitude Synchronization Tracking Control of Spacecraft Formation

    ZHOU Jiakang; MA Guangfu; HU Qinglei

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of cooperative attitude tracking with time-varying communication delays as well as the delays between inter-synchronization control parts and self-tracking control parts in the spacecraft formation flying.First,we present the attitude synchronization tracking control algorithms and analyze the sufficient delay-dependent stability condition with the choice of a Lyapunov function when the angular velocity can be measured.More specifically,a class of linear filters is developed to derive an output feedback control law without having direct information of the angular velocity,which is significant for practical applications with low-cost configurations of spacecraft.Using a well-chosen Lyapunov-Krasovskii function,it is proven that the presented control law can make the spacecraft formation attitude tracking system synchronous and achieve exponential stability,in the face of model uncertainties,as well as non-uniform time-varying delays in communication links and different control parts.Finally,simulation results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control schemes.

  15. Postural Adaptations to a Suprapostural Memory Task among Children with and without Developmental Coordination Disorder

    Chen, Fu-Chen; Tsai, Chia-Liang; Stoffregen, Thomas A.; Chang, Chihu-Hui; Wade, Michael G.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The present study investigated the effects of varying the cognitive demands of a memory task (a suprapostural task) while recording postural motion on two groups of children, one diagnosed with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and an age-matched group of typically developing children. Method: Two groups, each comprising 38 child…

  16. Aerobic capacity of Peruvian Quechua: a test of the developmental adaptation hypothesis.

    Kiyamu, Melisa; Rivera-Chira, María; Brutsaert, Tom D

    2015-03-01

    High altitude natives are reported to have outstanding work capacity in spite of the challenge of oxygen transport and delivery in hypoxia. To evaluate the developmental effect of lifelong exposure to hypoxia on aerobic capacity, VO2peak was measured on two groups of Peruvian Quechua subjects (18-35 years), who differed in their developmental exposure to altitude. Male and female volunteers were recruited in Lima, Peru (150 m), and were divided in two groups, based on their developmental exposure to hypoxia, those: a) Born at sea-level individuals (BSL), with no developmental exposure to hypoxia (n = 34) and b) Born at high-altitude individuals (BHA) with full developmental exposure to hypoxia (n = 32), but who migrated to sea-level as adults (>16-years-old). Tests were conducted both in normoxia (BP = 750 mm Hg) and normobaric hypoxia at sea-level (BP = 750 mm Hg, FiO2  = 0.12, equivalent to 4,449 m), after a 2-month training period (in order to control for initial differences in physical fitness) at sea-level. BHA had a significantly higher VO2peak at hypoxia (40.31 ± 1.0 ml/min/kg) as compared to BSL (35.78 ± 0.96 ml/min/kg, P = 0.001), adjusting for sex. The decrease of VO2peak at HA relative to SL (ΔVO2peak ) was not different between groups, controlling for baseline levels (VO2peak at sea-level) and sex (BHA = 0.35 ± 0.04 l/min, BSL = 0.44 ± 0.04 l/min; P = 0.12). Forced vital capacity (controlling for height) and the residuals of VO2peak (controlling for weight) had a significant association in the BHA group only (r = 0.155; P = 0.031). In sum, results indicate that developmental exposure to altitude constitutes an important factor to determine superior exercise performance. PMID:25385548

  17. Adaptive Generalized Projective Synchronization of Takagi-Sugeno Fuzzy Drive-response Dynamical Networks with Time Delay

    ZHENG Yong-Ai

    2012-01-01

    Time-delay Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy drive-response dynamical networks (TD-TSFDRDNs) are defined by extending the drive-response dynamical networks. Based on the LaSalle invariant principle, a simple and systematic adaptive control scheme is proposed to synchronize the TD-TSFDRDNs with a desired scalar factor. A sufficient condition for the generalized projective synchronization in TD-TSFDRDNs is derived. Moreover, numerical simulations are provided to verify the correctness and effectiveness of the scheme.%Time-delay Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy drive-response dynamical networks (TD-TSFDRDNs) are defined by extending the drive-response dynamical networks.Based on the LaSalle invariant principle,a simple and systematic adaptive control scheme is proposed to synchronize the TD-TSFDRDNs with a desired scalar factor.A sufficient condition for the generalized projective synchronization in TD-TSFDRDNs is derived.Moreover,numerical simulations are provided to verify the correctness and effectiveness of the scheme.

  18. Adaptation of Delayed Position Feedback to the Reduction of Sway of Container Cranes

    Nayfeh, Nader Ali

    2002-01-01

    Cranes are increasingly used in transportation and construction. increasing demand and faster requirements necessitate better and more efficient controllers to guarantee fast turn-around time and to meet safety requirements. Container cranes are used extensively in ship-to-port and port-to-ship transfer operations. In this work, we will extend the recently developed delayed position feedback controller to container cranes. In contrast with traditional work, which models a crane as a simpl...

  19. Interstitial deletion of 6q25.2–q25.3: a novel microdeletion syndrome associated with microcephaly, developmental delay, dysmorphic features and hearing loss

    Nagamani, Sandesh Chakravarthy Sreenath; Erez, Ayelet; Eng, Christine; Ou, Zhishuo; Chinault, Craig; Workman, Laura; Coldwell, James; Stankiewicz, Pawel; Patel, Ankita; Lupski, James R; Cheung, Sau Wai

    2009-01-01

    Interstitial deletions of 6q are rare. We report a detailed clinical and molecular characterization of four patients with interstitial deletion involving 6q25. All of our patients presented with microcephaly, developmental delay, dysmorphic features and hearing loss, whereas two of them had agenesis of the corpus callosum. We determined the size, extent and genomic content of the deletions using high-density array-comparative genomic hybridization (a-CGH), and found that a common segment spanning 3.52 Mb within the 6q25.2–q25.3 region was deleted in all four cases. We hypothesize that a subset of genes in the commonly deleted region are dosage sensitive and that haploinsufficieny of these genes impairs normal development of the brain and hearing. PMID:19034313

  20. Tcf4 transgenic female mice display delayed adaptation in an auditory latent inhibition paradigm.

    Brzózka, M M; Rossner, M J; de Hoz, L

    2016-09-01

    Schizophrenia (SZ) is a severe mental disorder affecting about 1 % of the human population. Patients show severe deficits in cognitive processing often characterized by an improper filtering of environmental stimuli. Independent genome-wide association studies confirmed a number of risk variants for SZ including several associated with the gene encoding the transcription factor 4 (TCF4). TCF4 is widely expressed in the central nervous system of mice and humans and seems to be important for brain development. Transgenic mice overexpressing murine Tcf4 (Tcf4tg) in the adult brain display cognitive impairments and sensorimotor gating disturbances. To address the question of whether increased Tcf4 gene dosage may affect cognitive flexibility in an auditory associative task, we tested latent inhibition (LI) in female Tcf4tg mice. LI is a widely accepted translational endophenotype of SZ and results from a maladaptive delay in switching a response to a previously unconditioned stimulus when this becomes conditioned. Using an Audiobox, we pre-exposed Tcf4tg mice and their wild-type littermates to either a 3- or a 12-kHz tone before conditioning them to a 12-kHz tone. Tcf4tg animals pre-exposed to a 12-kHz tone showed significantly delayed conditioning when the previously unconditioned tone became associated with an air puff. These results support findings that associate TCF4 dysfunction with cognitive inflexibility and improper filtering of sensory stimuli observed in SZ patients. PMID:26404636

  1. Changes of the delayed fluorescence characteristics in Spirulina, Anabaena and Chlorella in response to chromatic adaptation and irradiance

    Efficiency of the energy transformation for CO2 fixation (E), and kinetics of the initial O-2-mediated electron transport of Spirulina platensis (Gem. ) Geitl, and Chlorella vulgaris Beijerinck cells were measured after adaptation to various growth irradiances (I) by means of the delayed fluorescence (DF) induction curves. Maxima of the membrane potential expenses during induction period were observed at I half saturating oxygen evolution; they were shifted according to growth I remaining higher in Spirulina than in Chlorella. The alterations of absorbance and fluorescence spectra at 25 degrees C after adaptation to I demonstrated changes in composition of pigments of algae, created to compensate for the imbalance in radiation absorption between the two photosystems. For Spirulina cells, the value of E was higher after growing under low I, or under blue radiation absorbed mainly by photosystem (PS) 1 (400-500 nm) with excitation by yellow (570 nm) radiation. For Chlorella cells, it was also higher after growing under low I. Under such conditions the half-rise time for DP-phase of DF induction curve decreased, which reflected an acceleration of kinetics of the initial electron transport between photosystems. An opposite situation was observed with Spirulina cells grown under high I or yellow radiation, and Chlorella cells from high I. Enhancement of effective PS2/PS1 ratio associated with decrease of reaction centre (RC) 2/RC1 stoichiometry may because of the increase of E and high membrane energization under saturating I in algae adapted to low I

  2. Delayed adaptive immunity is related to higher MMR vaccine-induced antibody titers in children

    Strömbeck, Anna; Lundell, Anna-Carin; Nordström, Inger; Andersson, Kerstin; Adlerberth, Ingegerd; Wold, Agnes E.; Rudin, Anna

    2016-01-01

    There are notable inter-individual variations in vaccine-specific antibody responses in vaccinated children. The aim of our study was to investigate whether early-life environmental factors and adaptive immune maturation prior and close to measles–mumps–rubella (MMR) immunization relate to magnitudes of vaccine-specific antibody titers. In the FARMFLORA birth cohort, including both farming and non-farming families, children were immunized with the MMR vaccine at 18 months of age. MMR vaccine-...

  3. Adaptable System Increasing the Transmission Speed and Reliability in Packet Network by Optimizing Delay

    Zbynek Kocur

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a great diversity in the transmission technologies in current data networks. Individual technologies are in most cases incompatible at physical and partially also at the link layer of the reference ISO/OSI model. Network compatibility, as the ability to transmit data, is realizable through the third layer, which is able to guarantee the operation of the different devices across their technological differences. The proposed inverse packet multiplexer addresses increase of the speed and reliability of packet transmission to the third layer, and at the same time it increases the stability of the data communication by the regulation of the delay value during the transmission. This article presents implementation of a communication system and its verification in real conditions. The conclusion compares the strengths and weaknesses of the proposed control system.

  4. Monozygotic twins with a de novo 0.32 Mb 16q24.3 deletion, including TUBB3 presenting with developmental delay and mild facial dysmorphism but without overt brain malformation

    Grønborg, Sabine; Kjaergaard, Susanne; Hove, Hanne;

    2015-01-01

    been associated with missense mutations in this group of genes. Here, we report two patients, monozygotic twins, carrying a de novo 0.32 Mb deletion of chromosome 16q24.3 including the TUBB3 gene. The patients presented with global developmental delay, mild facial dysmorphism, secondary microcephaly...

  5. Children's Conscience during Toddler and Preschool Years, Moral Self, and a Competent, Adaptive Developmental Trajectory

    Kochanska, Grazyna; Koenig, Jamie L.; Barry, Robin A.; Kim, Sanghag; Yoon, Jeung Eun

    2010-01-01

    We investigated whether children's robust conscience, formed during early family socialization, promotes their future adaptive and competent functioning in expanded ecologies. We assessed two dimensions of conscience in young children (N = 100) at 25, 38, and 52 months in scripted laboratory contexts: internalization of their mothers' and fathers'…

  6. The Adaptation of a School-Based Health Promotion Programme for Youth with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities: A Community-Engaged Research Process

    Hubbard, Kristie L.; Bandini, Linda G.; Folta, Sara C.; Wansink, Brian; Must, Aviva

    2014-01-01

    Background: Evidenced-based health promotion programmes for youth with intellectual and developmental disabilities (I/DD) are notably absent. Barriers include a lack of understanding of how to adapt existing evidence-based programmes to their needs, maximize inclusion and support mutual goals of health and autonomy. Methods: We undertook a…

  7. Normal perception of Mooney faces in developmental prosopagnosia: Evidence from the N170 component and rapid neural adaptation.

    Towler, John; Gosling, Angela; Duchaine, Bradley; Eimer, Martin

    2016-03-01

    Individuals with developmental prosopagnosia (DP) have a severe difficulty recognizing the faces of known individuals in the absence of any history of neurological damage. These recognition problems may be linked to selective deficits in the holistic/configural processing of faces. We used two-tone Mooney images to study the processing of faces versus non-face objects in DP when it is based on holistic information (or the facial gestalt) in the absence of obvious local cues about facial features. A rapid adaptation procedure was employed for a group of 16 DPs. Naturalistic photographs of upright faces were preceded by upright or inverted Mooney faces or by Mooney houses. DPs showed face-sensitive N170 components in response to Mooney faces versus houses, and N170 amplitude reductions for inverted as compared to upright Mooney faces. They also showed the typical pattern of N170 adaptation effects, with reduced N170 components when upright naturalistic test faces were preceded by upright Mooney faces, demonstrating that the perception of Mooney and naturalistic faces recruits shared neural populations. Our findings demonstrate that individuals with DP can utilize global information about face configurations for categorical discriminations between faces and non-face objects, and suggest that face processing deficits emerge primarily at more fine-grained higher level stages of face perception. PMID:25237758

  8. Riboflavin transporter-2 (rft-2) of Caenorhabditis elegans: Adaptive and developmental regulation

    Krishnan Gandhimathi; Sellamuthu Karthi; Paramasivam Manimaran; Perumal Varalakshmi; Balasubramaniem Ashokkumar

    2015-06-01

    Riboflavin transporter (rft-1 and rft-2), orthologous to human riboflavin transporter-3 (hR VFT-3), are identified and characterized in Caenorhabditis elegans. However, studies pertaining to functional contribution of rft-2 in maintaining body homeostatic riboflavin levels and its regulation are very limited. In this study, the expression pattern of rft-2 at different life stages of C. elegans was studied through real-time PCR, and found to be consistent from larval to adult stages that demonstrate its involvement in maintaining the body homeostatic riboflavin levels at whole animal level all through its life. A possible regulation of rft-2 expression at mRNA levels at whole animal was studied after adaptation to low and high concentrations of riboflavin. Abundance of rft-2 transcript was upregulated in riboflavin-deficient conditions (10 nM), while it was downregulated with riboflavin-supplemented conditions (2 mM) as compared with control (10 M). Further, the 5′-regulatory region of the rft-2 gene was cloned, and transgenic nematodes expressing transcriptional rft-2 promoter::GFP fusion constructs were generated. The expression of rft-2 was found to be adaptively regulated in vivo when transgenic worms were maintained under different extracellular riboflavin levels, which was also mediated partly via changes in the rft-2 levels that directs towards the possible involvement of transcriptional regulatory events.

  9. Children with Williams syndrome: Developmental trajectories for intellectual abilities, vocabulary abilities, and adaptive behavior.

    Mervis, Carolyn B; Pitts, C Holley

    2015-06-01

    To examine longitudinal trajectories of intellectual abilities, single-word vocabulary abilities, and adaptive behavior for 76 children with Williams syndrome (WS) aged 4-15 years, we compared their standard scores (SSs) at two time points approximately 3 years apart on the same standardized measures. At the group level, mean SS declined significantly for 8 of the 12 measures and showed a slight (nonsignificant) increase or decrease for 4 measures. However, for most measures significant changes in SS were found for only a small proportion of the children, with some children evidencing significant declines and a smaller proportion evidencing significant increases. Significant SS changes were most common for adaptive behavior. For all measures, the mean magnitude of SS change was smaller for older children (>7.5 years at Time 1) than for younger children (<7.5 years at Time 1). Furthermore, correlations between Time 1 and Time 2 SSs were larger for the older cohort than for the younger cohort, indicating that SS stability was greater for older children than for younger children. Although mean SSs declined for most measures, indicating that children with WS as a group were not making the expected amount of progress relative to their general population peers who earned the same SS at Time 1, there was little evidence either of regression (loss of skills) or stagnation (failure to increase raw scores). The relations of these results to those of previous smaller-sample longitudinal studies of children with WS and the implications of the findings are considered. PMID:25989316

  10. A de novo microtriplication at 4q21.21-q21.22 in a patient with a vascular malignant hemangioma, elongated sigmoid colon, developmental delay, and absence of speech.

    Lebedev, Igor N; Nazarenko, Lyudmila P; Skryabin, Nikolay A; Babushkina, Nadezhda P; Kashevarova, Anna A

    2016-08-01

    The widespread application of array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) has provided new insights into the clinical significance of copy number variations (CNVs) in the human genome. Many microdeletion syndromes have recently been linked to corresponding reciprocal microduplication syndromes related to CNVs in the same chromosomal regions. However, the extent of CNVs may not be restricted to only microduplications but may also include microtriplications or even quadruplications. 4q21 microdeletion syndrome is one of these recently described syndromes. The phenotype includes growth restriction, neonatal hypotonia, severe developmental delay, absent or delayed speech, and distinct facial features. The minimal critical deleted region, which is 1.3 Mb in size, contains the PRKG2, RASGEF1B, HNRNPD, HNRPDL, and ENOPH1 genes. Here, we report a 5.4-year-old girl with developmental delay, absence of speech, muscular hypertension, macrocephaly, a broad forehead, frontal bossing, relatively elongated extremities, a vascular malignant hemangioma in anamnesis, and elongated sigmoid colon. aCGH revealed a microtriplication at 4q21.21-q21.22 that was 1.61 Mb in size. This de novo microtriplication included nine genes (BMP3, PRKG2, RASGEF1B, HNRNPD, HNRPDL, ENOPH1, TMEM150C, LINC00575, and SCD5) and overlapped with the minimal critical region for 4q21 microdeletion syndrome. Some clinical features of the patient were similar to those of 4q21 microdeletion (macrocephaly, frontal bossing, developmental delay, absence of speech, and anxiety), whereas others were mirrored (elongated extremities and muscular hypertension). The first identified case of a de novo microtriplication at 4q21.21-q21.22 emphasizes the clinical significance of CNVs at 4q21 for patients with developmental delay and absence of speech. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27288323

  11. [17p13.3 duplication as a cause of psychomotor developmental delay in an infant - a further case of a new syndrome].

    Przybylska-Kruszewska, Amanda; Kutkowska-Kaźmierczak, Anna; Krzywdzińska, Amanda; Smyk, Marta; Nowakowska, Beata; Gryglicka, Halina; Obersztyn, Ewa; Hozyasz, Kamil K

    2016-04-29

    17p13.3 duplication is a rare and heterogeneous genetic syndrome. Microdeletions of this region are responsible for the symptoms of Miller-Dieker syndrome. We present a case of 17p13.3 duplication consisting of about 730kb in a patient with psychomotor developmental delay, concerning eye-hand coordination, posture, locomotion and speech. Among other symptoms, we found excessive physical development in relation to age, hypotonia, dysmorphic facial features (high and prominent forehead, low-set ears, hypertelorism, short nose, small upturned nose, narrow lips and pointed chin) and discrete changes in the CNS - enhanced frontal horns of the lateral ventricles and quite narrow corpus callosum. These symptoms overlap with phenotype of previously described patients with 17p13.3 duplication. The aberration has been identified by array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) and confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). This publication presents a detailed, comparative characteristic of clinical fetures expression in discussed patient with 17p13.3 duplication and patients previously described in medical literature. Further cases with different variants of 17p13.3 duplication may contribute to characterise the specific genotypephenotype correlation. PMID:27137828

  12. Small 6q16.1 Deletions Encompassing POU3F2 Cause Susceptibility to Obesity and Variable Developmental Delay with Intellectual Disability.

    Kasher, Paul R; Schertz, Katherine E; Thomas, Megan; Jackson, Adam; Annunziata, Silvia; Ballesta-Martinez, María J; Campeau, Philippe M; Clayton, Peter E; Eaton, Jennifer L; Granata, Tiziana; Guillén-Navarro, Encarna; Hernando, Cristina; Laverriere, Caroline E; Liedén, Agne; Villa-Marcos, Olaya; McEntagart, Meriel; Nordgren, Ann; Pantaleoni, Chiara; Pebrel-Richard, Céline; Sarret, Catherine; Sciacca, Francesca L; Wright, Ronnie; Kerr, Bronwyn; Glasgow, Eric; Banka, Siddharth

    2016-02-01

    Genetic studies of intellectual disability and identification of monogenic causes of obesity in humans have made immense contribution toward the understanding of the brain and control of body mass. The leptin > melanocortin > SIM1 pathway is dysregulated in multiple monogenic human obesity syndromes but its downstream targets are still unknown. In ten individuals from six families, with overlapping 6q16.1 deletions, we describe a disorder of variable developmental delay, intellectual disability, and susceptibility to obesity and hyperphagia. The 6q16.1 deletions segregated with the phenotype in multiplex families and were shown to be de novo in four families, and there was dramatic phenotypic overlap among affected individuals who were independently ascertained without bias from clinical features. Analysis of the deletions revealed a ∼350 kb critical region on chromosome 6q16.1 that encompasses a gene for proneuronal transcription factor POU3F2, which is important for hypothalamic development and function. Using morpholino and mutant zebrafish models, we show that POU3F2 lies downstream of SIM1 and controls oxytocin expression in the hypothalamic neuroendocrine preoptic area. We show that this finding is consistent with the expression patterns of POU3F2 and related genes in the human brain. Our work helps to further delineate the neuro-endocrine control of energy balance/body mass and demonstrates that this molecular pathway is conserved across multiple species. PMID:26833329

  13. Deletion 18p11.32p11.31 in a Child with Global Developmental Delay and Atypical, Drug-Resistant Absence Seizures.

    Verrotti, Alberto; Palka, Chiara; Prezioso, Giovanni; Alfonsi, Melissa; Calabrese, Giuseppe; Palka, Giandomenico; Chiarelli, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    We report the first case of an 18p11.32 deletion, detected by array CGH, associated with a drug-resistant form of atypical absence epilepsy, global developmental delay and no signs of holoprosencephaly (HPE). In particular, this region encompasses 19 genes, and none of these genes have been strictly associated with epilepsy. Among these, TGIF1 is expressed in the fetal and adult nervous system, and its deletion has been related to central nervous system diseases. TGIF1 deletions have previously been reported in patients with a comparable phenotype as seen in our case and in children whose neurological signs and symptoms were considerable, but not epileptiform. Mutations and deletions involving the TGIF1 gene have been described in patients with HPE in an autosomal dominant model of inheritance. However, TGIF1 mutations have also been reported in normal individuals and in patients with mental retardation or showing a very mild phenotype, suggesting the characteristic of incomplete penetrance and variable expressivity. Therefore, a TGIF1 deletion may not be always related to HPE, and it may have a link to the development of epilepsy. PMID:26278570

  14. A Case of 17q21.31 Microduplication and 7q31.33 Microdeletion, Associated with Developmental Delay, Microcephaly, and Mild Dysmorphic Features

    Adrian Mc Cormack

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Concurrent cryptic microdeletion and microduplication syndromes have recently started to reveal themselves with the advent of microarray technology. Analysis has shown that low-copy repeats (LCRs have allowed chromosome regions throughout the genome to become hotspots for nonallelic homologous recombination to take place. Here, we report a case of a 7.5-year-old girl who manifests microcephaly, developmental delay, and mild dysmorphic features. Microarray analysis identified a microduplication in chromosome 17q21.31, which encompasses the CRHR1, MAPT, and KANSL1 genes, as well as a microdeletion in chromosome 7q31.33 that is localised within the GRM8 gene. To our knowledge this is one of only a few cases of 17q21.31 microduplication. The clinical phenotype of patients with this microduplication is milder than of those carrying the reciprocal microdeletions, and suggests that the lower incidence of the former compared to the latter may be due to underascertainment.

  15. Adaptation to alkalosis induces cell cycle delay and apoptosis in cortical collecting duct cells: role of Aquaporin-2.

    Rivarola, Valeria; Flamenco, Pilar; Melamud, Luciana; Galizia, Luciano; Ford, Paula; Capurro, Claudia

    2010-08-01

    Collecting ducts (CD) not only constitute the final site for regulating urine concentration by increasing apical membrane Aquaporin-2 (AQP2) expression, but are also essential for the control of acid-base status. The aim of this work was to examine, in renal cells, the effects of chronic alkalosis on cell growth/death as well as to define whether AQP2 expression plays any role during this adaptation. Two CD cell lines were used: WT- (not expressing AQPs) and AQP2-RCCD(1) (expressing apical AQP2). Our results showed that AQP2 expression per se accelerates cell proliferation by an increase in cell cycle progression. Chronic alkalosis induced, in both cells lines, a time-dependent reduction in cell growth. Even more, cell cycle movement, assessed by 5-bromodeoxyuridine pulse-chase and propidium iodide analyses, revealed a G2/M phase cell accumulation associated with longer S- and G2/M-transit times. This G2/M arrest is paralleled with changes consistent with apoptosis. All these effects appeared 24 h before and were always more pronounced in cells expressing AQP2. Moreover, in AQP2-expressing cells, part of the observed alkalosis cell growth decrease is explained by AQP2 protein down-regulation. We conclude that in CD cells alkalosis causes a reduction in cell growth by cell cycle delay that triggers apoptosis as an adaptive reaction to this environment stress. Since cell volume changes are prerequisite for the initiation of cell proliferation or apoptosis, we propose that AQP2 expression facilitates cell swelling or shrinkage leading to the activation of channels necessary to the control of these processes. PMID:20432437

  16. Developmental modes and developmental mechanisms can channel brain evolution

    Christine J Charvet

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Anseriform birds (ducks and geese as well as parrots and songbirds have evolved a disproportionately enlarged telencephalon compared with many other birds. However, parrots and songbirds differ from anseriform birds in their mode of development. Whereas ducks and geese are precocial (e.g., hatchlings feed on their own, parrots and songbirds are altricial (e.g., hatchlings are fed by their parents. We here consider how developmental modes may limit and facilitate specific changes in the mechanisms of brain development. We suggest that altriciality facilitates the evolution of telencephalic expansion by delaying telencephalic neurogenesis. We further hypothesize that delays in telencephalic neurogenesis generate delays in telencephalic maturation, which in turn foster neural adaptations that facilitate learning. Specifically, we propose that delaying telencephalic neurogenesis was a prerequisite for the evolution of neural circuits that allow parrots and songbirds to produce learned vocalizations. Overall, we argue that developmental modes have influenced how some lineages of birds increased the size of their telencephalon and that this, in turn, has influenced subsequent changes in brain circuits and behavior.

  17. Identification of a rare 17p13.3 duplication including the BHLHA9 and YWHAE genes in a family with developmental delay and behavioural problems

    Capra Valeria; Mirabelli-Badenier Marisol; Stagnaro Michela; Rossi Andrea; Tassano Elisa; Gimelli Stefania; Gimelli Giorgio

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Deletions and duplications of the PAFAH1B1 and YWHAE genes in 17p13.3 are associated with different clinical phenotypes. In particular, deletion of PAFAH1B1 causes isolated lissencephaly while deletions involving both PAFAH1B1 and YWHAE cause Miller-Dieker syndrome. Isolated duplications of PAFAH1B1 have been associated with mild developmental delay and hypotonia, while isolated duplications of YWHAE have been associated with autism. In particular, different dysmorphic fea...

  18. Application of chromosomal microarrays in the evaluation of intellectual disability/global developmental delay patients - A study from a tertiary care genetic centre in India.

    Sharma, Pankaj; Gupta, Neerja; Chowdhury, Madhumita Roy; Sapra, Savita; Ghosh, Manju; Gulati, Sheffali; Kabra, Madhulika

    2016-09-15

    Intellectual disability (ID)/Global developmental delay (GDD) is a diverse group of disorders in terms of cognitive and non-cognitive functions and can occur with or without associated co-morbidities. It affects 1-3% of individuals globally and in at least 30-50% of cases the etiology remains unexplained. The widespread use of chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) in a clinical setting has allowed the identification of submicroscopic copy number variations (CNVs), throughout the genome, associated with neurodevelopmental phenotypes including ID/GDD. In this study we investigated the utility of CMA in the detection of CNVs in 106 patients with unexplained ID/DD, dysmorphism with or without multiple congenital anomalies (MCA). CMA study was carried out using Agilent 8×60K chips and Illumina Human CytoSNP-12 chips. Pathogenic CNVs were found in 15 (14.2%) patients. In these patients, CNVs on single chromosome were detected in 10 patients while 5 patients showed co-occurrence CNVs on two chromosomes. The size of these CNVs ranged between 322kb to 13Mb. The yield of pathogenic CNVs was similar for both mild and severe ID/GDD cases. One patient described in this paper is considered to harbour a likely pathogenic CNV with deletion in 17q22 region. Only few cases have been described in literature for 17q22 deletion and patient reported here was found to have an atypical deletion in 17q22 region (Case 90). This study re-affirms the view point that CMA is a powerful diagnostic tool in the evaluation of idiopathic ID/GDD patients irrespective of the degree of severity. Identifying pathogenic CNVs helps in counseling and prenatal diagnosis if desired. PMID:27291820

  19. Deletion of exon 20 of the Familial Dysautonomia gene Ikbkap in mice causes developmental delay, cardiovascular defects, and early embryonic lethality.

    Paula Dietrich

    Full Text Available Familial Dysautonomia (FD is an autosomal recessive disorder that affects 1/3,600 live births in the Ashkenazi Jewish population, and leads to death before the age of 40. The disease is characterized by abnormal development and progressive degeneration of the sensory and autonomic nervous system. A single base pair substitution in intron 20 of the Ikbkap gene accounts for 98% of FD cases, and results in the expression of low levels of the full-length mRNA with simultaneous expression of an aberrantly spliced mRNA in which exon 20 is missing. To date, there is no animal model for the disease, and the essential cellular functions of IKAP--the protein encoded by Ikbkap--remain unknown. To better understand the normal function of IKAP and in an effort to generate a mouse model for FD, we have targeted the mouse Ikbkap gene by homologous recombination. We created two distinct alleles that result in either loss of Ikbkap expression, or expression of an mRNA lacking only exon 20. Homozygosity for either mutation leads to developmental delay, cardiovascular and brain malformations, accompanied with early embryonic lethality. Our analyses indicate that IKAP is essential for expression of specific genes involved in cardiac morphogenesis, and that cardiac failure is the likely cause of abnormal vascular development and embryonic lethality. Our results also indicate that deletion of exon 20 abolishes gene function. This implies that the truncated IKAP protein expressed in FD patients does not retain any significant biological function.

  20. De Novo Loss-of-Function Mutations in USP9X Cause a Female-Specific Recognizable Syndrome with Developmental Delay and Congenital Malformations.

    Reijnders, Margot R F; Zachariadis, Vasilios; Latour, Brooke; Jolly, Lachlan; Mancini, Grazia M; Pfundt, Rolph; Wu, Ka Man; van Ravenswaaij-Arts, Conny M A; Veenstra-Knol, Hermine E; Anderlid, Britt-Marie M; Wood, Stephen A; Cheung, Sau Wai; Barnicoat, Angela; Probst, Frank; Magoulas, Pilar; Brooks, Alice S; Malmgren, Helena; Harila-Saari, Arja; Marcelis, Carlo M; Vreeburg, Maaike; Hobson, Emma; Sutton, V Reid; Stark, Zornitza; Vogt, Julie; Cooper, Nicola; Lim, Jiin Ying; Price, Sue; Lai, Angeline Hwei Meeng; Domingo, Deepti; Reversade, Bruno; Gecz, Jozef; Gilissen, Christian; Brunner, Han G; Kini, Usha; Roepman, Ronald; Nordgren, Ann; Kleefstra, Tjitske

    2016-02-01

    Mutations in more than a hundred genes have been reported to cause X-linked recessive intellectual disability (ID) mainly in males. In contrast, the number of identified X-linked genes in which de novo mutations specifically cause ID in females is limited. Here, we report 17 females with de novo loss-of-function mutations in USP9X, encoding a highly conserved deubiquitinating enzyme. The females in our study have a specific phenotype that includes ID/developmental delay (DD), characteristic facial features, short stature, and distinct congenital malformations comprising choanal atresia, anal abnormalities, post-axial polydactyly, heart defects, hypomastia, cleft palate/bifid uvula, progressive scoliosis, and structural brain abnormalities. Four females from our cohort were identified by targeted genetic testing because their phenotype was suggestive for USP9X mutations. In several females, pigment changes along Blaschko lines and body asymmetry were observed, which is probably related to differential (escape from) X-inactivation between tissues. Expression studies on both mRNA and protein level in affected-female-derived fibroblasts showed significant reduction of USP9X level, confirming the loss-of-function effect of the identified mutations. Given that some features of affected females are also reported in known ciliopathy syndromes, we examined the role of USP9X in the primary cilium and found that endogenous USP9X localizes along the length of the ciliary axoneme, indicating that its loss of function could indeed disrupt cilium-regulated processes. Absence of dysregulated ciliary parameters in affected female-derived fibroblasts, however, points toward spatiotemporal specificity of ciliary USP9X (dys-)function. PMID:26833328

  1. Identification of a rare 17p13.3 duplication including the BHLHA9 and YWHAE genes in a family with developmental delay and behavioural problems

    Capra Valeria

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Deletions and duplications of the PAFAH1B1 and YWHAE genes in 17p13.3 are associated with different clinical phenotypes. In particular, deletion of PAFAH1B1 causes isolated lissencephaly while deletions involving both PAFAH1B1 and YWHAE cause Miller-Dieker syndrome. Isolated duplications of PAFAH1B1 have been associated with mild developmental delay and hypotonia, while isolated duplications of YWHAE have been associated with autism. In particular, different dysmorphic features associated with PAFAH1B1 or YWHAE duplication have suggested the need to classify the patient clinical features in two groups according to which gene is involved in the chromosomal duplication. Methods We analyze the proband and his family by classical cytogenetic and array-CGH analyses. The putative rearrangement was confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Results We have identified a family segregating a 17p13.3 duplication extending 329.5 kilobases by FISH and array-CGH involving the YWHAE gene, but not PAFAH1B1, affected by a mild dysmorphic phenotype with associated autism and mental retardation. We propose that BHLHA9, YWHAE, and CRK genes contribute to the phenotype of our patient. The small chromosomal duplication was inherited from his mother who was affected by a bipolar and borderline disorder and was alcohol addicted. Conclusions We report an additional familial case of small 17p13.3 chromosomal duplication including only BHLHA9, YWHAE, and CRK genes. Our observation and further cases with similar microduplications are expected to be diagnosed, and will help better characterise the clinical spectrum of phenotypes associated with 17p13.3 microduplications.

  2. De Novo Mutations in NALCN Cause a Syndrome Characterized by Congenital Contractures of the Limbs and Face, Hypotonia, and Developmental Delay

    Chong, Jessica X.; McMillin, Margaret J.; Shively, Kathryn M.; Beck, Anita E.; Marvin, Colby T.; Armenteros, Jose R.; Buckingham, Kati J.; Nkinsi, Naomi T.; Boyle, Evan A.; Berry, Margaret N.; Bocian, Maureen; Foulds, Nicola; Uzielli, Maria Luisa Giovannucci; Haldeman-Englert, Chad; Hennekam, Raoul C.M.; Kaplan, Paige; Kline, Antonie D.; Mercer, Catherine L.; Nowaczyk, Malgorzata J.M.; Klein Wassink-Ruiter, Jolien S.; McPherson, Elizabeth W.; Moreno, Regina A.; Scheuerle, Angela E.; Shashi, Vandana; Stevens, Cathy A.; Carey, John C.; Monteil, Arnaud; Lory, Philippe; Tabor, Holly K.; Smith, Joshua D.; Shendure, Jay; Nickerson, Deborah A.; Bamshad, Michael J.; Shendure, Jay; Nickerson, Deborah A.; Abecasis, Gonçalo R.; Anderson, Peter; Blue, Elizabeth Marchani; Annable, Marcus; Browning, Brian L.; Buckingham, Kati J.; Chen, Christina; Chin, Jennifer; Chong, Jessica X.; Cooper, Gregory M.; Davis, Colleen P.; Frazar, Christopher; Harrell, Tanya M.; He, Zongxiao; Jain, Preti; Jarvik, Gail P.; Jimenez, Guillaume; Johanson, Eric; Jun, Goo; Kircher, Martin; Kolar, Tom; Krauter, Stephanie A.; Krumm, Niklas; Leal, Suzanne M.; Luksic, Daniel; Marvin, Colby T.; McMillin, Margaret J.; McGee, Sean; O’Reilly, Patrick; Paeper, Bryan; Patterson, Karynne; Perez, Marcos; Phillips, Sam W.; Pijoan, Jessica; Poel, Christa; Reinier, Frederic; Robertson, Peggy D.; Santos-Cortez, Regie; Shaffer, Tristan; Shephard, Cindy; Shively, Kathryn M.; Siegel, Deborah L.; Smith, Joshua D.; Staples, Jeffrey C.; Tabor, Holly K.; Tackett, Monica; Underwood, Jason G.; Wegener, Marc; Wang, Gao; Wheeler, Marsha M.; Yi, Qian; Bamshad, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Freeman-Sheldon syndrome, or distal arthrogryposis type 2A (DA2A), is an autosomal-dominant condition caused by mutations in MYH3 and characterized by multiple congenital contractures of the face and limbs and normal cognitive development. We identified a subset of five individuals who had been putatively diagnosed with “DA2A with severe neurological abnormalities” and for whom congenital contractures of the limbs and face, hypotonia, and global developmental delay had resulted in early death in three cases; this is a unique condition that we now refer to as CLIFAHDD syndrome. Exome sequencing identified missense mutations in the sodium leak channel, non-selective (NALCN) in four families affected by CLIFAHDD syndrome. We used molecular-inversion probes to screen for NALCN in a cohort of 202 distal arthrogryposis (DA)-affected individuals as well as concurrent exome sequencing of six other DA-affected individuals, thus revealing NALCN mutations in ten additional families with “atypical” forms of DA. All 14 mutations were missense variants predicted to alter amino acid residues in or near the S5 and S6 pore-forming segments of NALCN, highlighting the functional importance of these segments. In vitro functional studies demonstrated that NALCN alterations nearly abolished the expression of wild-type NALCN, suggesting that alterations that cause CLIFAHDD syndrome have a dominant-negative effect. In contrast, homozygosity for mutations in other regions of NALCN has been reported in three families affected by an autosomal-recessive condition characterized mainly by hypotonia and severe intellectual disability. Accordingly, mutations in NALCN can cause either a recessive or dominant condition characterized by varied though overlapping phenotypic features, perhaps based on the type of mutation and affected protein domain(s). PMID:25683120

  3. Mutations in the Na(+)/citrate cotransporter NaCT (SLC13A5) in pediatric patients with epilepsy and developmental delay.

    Klotz, Jenna; Porter, Brenda E; Colas, Claire; Schlessinger, Avner; Pajor, Ana M

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in the SLC13A5 gene that codes for the Na(+)/citrate cotransporter, NaCT, are associated with early onset epilepsy, developmental delay and tooth dysplasia in children. In the present study we identify additional SLC13A5 mutations in nine epilepsy patients from six families. To better characterize the syndrome, families with affected children answered questions about the scope of illness and treatment strategies. There are currently no effective treatments, but some anti-epileptic drugs targeting the GABA system reduce seizure frequency. Acetazolamide, a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor and atypical anti-seizure medication decreases seizures in 4 patients. In contrast to previous reports, the ketogenic diet and fasting produce worsening of symptoms. The effects of the mutations on NaCT transport function and protein expression were examined by transient transfections of COS-7 cells. There was no transport activity from any of the mutant transporters, although some of the mutant transporter proteins were present on the plasma membrane. The structural model of NaCT suggests that these mutations can affect helix packing or substrate binding. We tested various treatments, including chemical chaperones and low temperatures, but none improve transport function in the NaCT mutants. Interestingly, coexpression of NaCT and the mutants results in decreased protein expression and activity of the wild-type transporter, indicating functional interaction. In conclusion, our study has identified additional SLC13A5 mutations in patients with chronic epilepsy starting in the neonatal period, with the mutations producing inactive Na(+)/citrate transporters. PMID:27261973

  4. WPSS输入反馈时延的自适应分段补偿设计%An Adaptive Sectional Compensation Design for WPSS Input Feedback Time Delay

    陈刚; 程林; 张放; 孙元章; Anjan BOSE

    2013-01-01

    Wide-area power system stabilizer (WPSS) is one of the most effective methods to damp inter-area low frequency oscillation in power system.Remote synchro-phasor data of phasor measurement unit (PMU) as feed back input of WPSS must be considered time delay of remote signal when applying it to real projects.In the long term,time delay in power network usually presents certain random distribution characteristics in certain range.However,as the remote signals usually take time to be transmit PMU data via the internet through a series of routers to a control center,a key step in wide-area damping controller design is time delay compensation.Especially when WPSS is implemented in a real project,a time delay compensator to deal with time-varying delay should be designed,as in a long term,the delay in power network is time-varying randomly.An adaptive sectional time delay compensator is designed.The time delay is divided into several intervals and time delay compensators are designed for each interval.Then the time delay compensator will adaptively select the appropriate interval compensator to use according to the time delay measured online,so that optimal compensation can be reached.The method for dividing the time delay and the rule of adaptively adjust of time delay compensator are also discussed.And the compensator is illustrated with a 2-area 4-machine power system.The numerical simulation results on different operation modes show the feasibility,effectiveness and robustness of the compensator.The real time digital system (RTDS) test results also show that the proposed method is feasible and effective.This method considers the variation of time delay in a long time,and is applicable in practical engineering.%广域电力系统稳定器(WPSS)是抑制电力系统区间模式振荡最有效的方法之一.WPSS以相量测量单元(PMU)量测的远方同步信号为反馈输入,在将其应用到工程实际时需要着重考虑远方信号的时延问题.从长期来

  5. Decentralized model-reference adaptive control for a class of uncertain large-scale time-varying delayed systems with series nonlinearities

    In this paper, the problem of model-reference adaptive control for large-scale time-varying delayed systems with series nonlinearities is investigated. By applying the theory of variable structure control, we propose an adaptive controller, which is both memoryless and decentralized, to derive the error subsystem between the local model state and plant state to zero. The proposed variable structure control is able to ensure the stability of a sliding manifold of the composite system even though the control input is nonlinear. The main difficulty for handling the effects of interconnected terms is well solved by a new proposed adaptation mechanism. Finally, a numerical example is illustrated to demonstrate the validity of the derived controller

  6. Recessive loss-of-function mutations in AP4S1 cause mild fever-sensitive seizures, developmental delay and spastic paraplegia through loss of AP-4 complex assembly

    Hardies, Katia; May, Patrick; Djémié, Tania;

    2015-01-01

    We report two siblings with infantile onset seizures, severe developmental delay and spastic paraplegia, in whom whole-genome sequencing revealed compound heterozygous mutations in the AP4S1 gene, encoding the σ subunit of the adaptor protein complex 4 (AP-4). The effect of the predicted loss-of-...... reported patients, highlighting that seizures are part of the clinical manifestation of the AP-4 deficiency syndrome. We also hypothesize that endosomal trafficking is a common theme between heritable spastic paraplegia and some inherited epilepsies....

  7. Adaptive Behavior and Development of Infants and Toddlers with Williams Syndrome

    Kirchner, Rebecca M.; Martens, Marilee A.; Andridge, Rebecca R.

    2016-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that causes deficits in adaptive behavior, difficulties eating and sleeping, cognitive delays, and delayed development. Although researchers have conducted characterizations of children and adults with WS, less is known about young children with this disorder. This study characterizes the developmental and adaptive behavior features of 16 infants and toddlers with WS aged 3 months – 5 years. Data for this project was obtained from 2007 t...

  8. Variable Delay With Directly-Modulated R-SOA and Optical Filters for Adaptive Antenna Radio-Fiber Access

    Prince, Kamau; Presi, Marco; Chiuchiarelli, Andrea;

    2009-01-01

    on a directly-modulated reflective emiconductor amplifier (R-SOA) and exploits the interplay between transmission-line dispersion and tunable optical filtering to achieve flexible true time delay, with $2pi$ beam steering at the different antennas. The system was characterized, then successfully...

  9. Adaptive Fuzzy Output-Feedback Method Applied to Fin Control for Time-Delay Ship Roll Stabilization

    Rui Bai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The ship roll stabilization by fin control system is considered in this paper. Assuming that angular velocity in roll cannot be measured, an adaptive fuzzy output-feedback control is investigated. The fuzzy logic system is used to approximate the uncertain term of the controlled system, and a fuzzy state observer is designed to estimate the unmeasured states. By utilizing the fuzzy state observer and combining the adaptive backstepping technique with adaptive fuzzy control design, an observer-based adaptive fuzzy output-feedback control approach is developed. It is proved that the proposed control approach can guarantee that all the signals in the closed-loop system are semiglobally uniformly ultimately bounded (SGUUB, and the control strategy is effective to decrease the roll motion. Simulation results are included to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  10. Computerized adaptive testing for measuring development of young children

    Jacobusse, G.; Buuren, S. van

    2007-01-01

    Developmental indicators that are used for routine measurement in The Netherlands are usually chosen to optimally identify delayed children. Measurements on the majority of children without problems are therefore quite imprecise. This study explores the use of computerized adaptive testing (CAT) to

  11. Developmental trajectories and reciprocal associations between career adaptability and vocational identity : A three-wave longitudinal study with adolescents

    Negru-Subtirica, Oana; Pop, Eleonora Ioana; Crocetti, Elisabetta

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this longitudinal study was two-fold. First, we investigated patterns of stability and change in career adaptability and vocational identity in adolescents. Second, we examined reciprocal associations between career adaptability and vocational identity. In addressing both research aim

  12. Developmental exposure to a complex PAH mixture causes persistent behavioral effects in naive Fundulus heteroclitus (killifish) but not in a population of PAH-adapted killifish.

    Brown, D R; Bailey, J M; Oliveri, A N; Levin, E D; Di Giulio, R T

    2016-01-01

    Acute exposures to some individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and complex PAH mixtures are known to cause cardiac malformations and edema in the developing fish embryo. However, the heart is not the only organ impacted by developmental PAH exposure. The developing brain is also affected, resulting in lasting behavioral dysfunction. While acute exposures to some PAHs are teratogenically lethal in fish, little is known about the later life consequences of early life, lower dose subteratogenic PAH exposures. We sought to determine and characterize the long-term behavioral consequences of subteratogenic developmental PAH mixture exposure in both naive killifish and PAH-adapted killifish using sediment pore water derived from the Atlantic Wood Industries Superfund Site. Killifish offspring were embryonically treated with two low-level PAH mixture dilutions of Elizabeth River sediment extract (ERSE) (TPAH 5.04 μg/L and 50.4 μg/L) at 24h post fertilization. Following exposure, killifish were raised to larval, juvenile, and adult life stages and subjected to a series of behavioral tests including: a locomotor activity test (4 days post-hatch), a sensorimotor response tap/habituation test (3 months post hatch), and a novel tank diving and exploration test (3months post hatch). Killifish were also monitored for survival at 1, 2, and 5 months over 5-month rearing period. Developmental PAH exposure caused short-term as well as persistent behavioral impairments in naive killifish. In contrast, the PAH-adapted killifish did not show behavioral alterations following PAH exposure. PAH mixture exposure caused increased mortality in reference killifish over time; yet, the PAH-adapted killifish, while demonstrating long-term rearing mortality, had no significant changes in mortality associated with ERSE exposure. This study demonstrated that early embryonic exposure to PAH-contaminated sediment pore water caused long-term locomotor and behavioral alterations in

  13. Disruption of the Acyl-CoA binding protein gene delays hepatic adaptation to metabolic changes at weaning

    Neess, Ditte; Marcher, Ann-Britt; Bloksgaard, Maria; Bek, Signe; Elle, Ida Coordt; Færgeman, Nils J.; Mandrup, Susanne

    -CoA esters between different enzymatic systems. However, little is known about the in vivo function in mammalian cells. We have generated mice with targeted disruption of ACBP (ACBP-/-). These mice are viable and fertile and develop normally. However, around weaning the ACBP-/- mice show decreased growth...... rate and increased levels of plasma cholesterol combined with hepatic accumulation of triglycerides and cholesteryl esters. We show by microarray analysis that the liver of ACBP-/- mice displays a significantly delayed induction of target genes of the sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP......) family, around the weaning period. As a result, the hepatic de novo cholesterogenesis is significantly decreased at weaning. The delayed induction of SREBP target genes around weaning is caused by a compromised processing and decreased expression of SREBP precursors leading to reduced binding of SREBP to...

  14. Decentralized Output Feedback Adaptive NN Tracking Control for Time-Delay Stochastic Nonlinear Systems With Prescribed Performance.

    Hua, Changchun; Zhang, Liuliu; Guan, Xinping

    2015-11-01

    This paper studies the dynamic output feedback tracking control problem for stochastic interconnected time-delay systems with the prescribed performance. The subsystems are in the form of triangular structure. First, we design a reduced-order observer independent of time delay to estimate the unmeasured state variables online instead of the traditional full-order observer. Then, a new state transformation is proposed in consideration of the prescribed performance requirement. Using neural network to approximate the composite unknown nonlinear function, the corresponding decentralized output tracking controller is designed. It is strictly proved that the resulting closed-loop system is stable in probability in the sense of uniformly ultimately boundedness and that both transient-state and steady-state performances are preserved. Finally, a simulation example is given, and the result shows the effectiveness of the proposed control design method. PMID:25794398

  15. Adaptive Neural Network Dynamic Surface Control for a Class of Time-Delay Nonlinear Systems With Hysteresis Inputs and Dynamic Uncertainties.

    Zhang, Xiuyu; Su, Chun-Yi; Lin, Yan; Ma, Lianwei; Wang, Jianguo

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, an adaptive neural network (NN) dynamic surface control is proposed for a class of time-delay nonlinear systems with dynamic uncertainties and unknown hysteresis. The main advantages of the developed scheme are: 1) NNs are utilized to approximately describe nonlinearities and unknown dynamics of the nonlinear time-delay systems, making it possible to deal with unknown nonlinear uncertain systems and pursue the L∞ performance of the tracking error; 2) using the finite covering lemma together with the NNs approximators, the Krasovskii function is abandoned, which paves the way for obtaining the L∞ performance of the tracking error; 3) by introducing an initializing technique, the L∞ performance of the tracking error can be achieved; 4) using a generalized Prandtl-Ishlinskii (PI) model, the limitation of the traditional PI hysteresis model is overcome; and 5) by applying the Young's inequalities to deal with the weight vector of the NNs, the updated laws are needed only at the last controller design step with only two parameters being estimated, which reduces the computational burden. It is proved that the proposed scheme can guarantee semiglobal stability of the closed-loop system and achieves the L∞ performance of the tracking error. Simulation results for general second-order time-delay nonlinear systems and the tuning metal cutting system are presented to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed method. PMID:25700473

  16. Models and synchronization of time-delayed complex dynamical networks with multi-links based on adaptive control

    In this Letter, time-delay has been introduced in to split the networks, upon which a model of complex dynamical networks with multi-links has been constructed. Moreover, based on Lyapunov stability theory and some hypotheses, we achieve synchronization between two complex networks with different structures by designing effective controllers. The validity of the results was proved through numerical simulations of this Letter.

  17. Patient-dependent count-rate adaptive normalization for PET detector efficiency with delayed-window coincidence events.

    Niu, Xiaofeng; Ye, Hongwei; Xia, Ting; Asma, Evren; Winkler, Mark; Gagnon, Daniel; Wang, Wenli

    2015-07-01

    Quantitative PET imaging is widely used in clinical diagnosis in oncology and neuroimaging. Accurate normalization correction for the efficiency of each line-of- response is essential for accurate quantitative PET image reconstruction. In this paper, we propose a normalization calibration method by using the delayed-window coincidence events from the scanning phantom or patient. The proposed method could dramatically reduce the 'ring' artifacts caused by mismatched system count-rates between the calibration and phantom/patient datasets. Moreover, a modified algorithm for mean detector efficiency estimation is proposed, which could generate crystal efficiency maps with more uniform variance. Both phantom and real patient datasets are used for evaluation. The results show that the proposed method could lead to better uniformity in reconstructed images by removing ring artifacts, and more uniform axial variance profiles, especially around the axial edge slices of the scanner. The proposed method also has the potential benefit to simplify the normalization calibration procedure, since the calibration can be performed using the on-the-fly acquired delayed-window dataset. PMID:26086713

  18. Patient-dependent count-rate adaptive normalization for PET detector efficiency with delayed-window coincidence events

    Quantitative PET imaging is widely used in clinical diagnosis in oncology and neuroimaging. Accurate normalization correction for the efficiency of each line-of- response is essential for accurate quantitative PET image reconstruction. In this paper, we propose a normalization calibration method by using the delayed-window coincidence events from the scanning phantom or patient. The proposed method could dramatically reduce the ‘ring’ artifacts caused by mismatched system count-rates between the calibration and phantom/patient datasets. Moreover, a modified algorithm for mean detector efficiency estimation is proposed, which could generate crystal efficiency maps with more uniform variance. Both phantom and real patient datasets are used for evaluation. The results show that the proposed method could lead to better uniformity in reconstructed images by removing ring artifacts, and more uniform axial variance profiles, especially around the axial edge slices of the scanner. The proposed method also has the potential benefit to simplify the normalization calibration procedure, since the calibration can be performed using the on-the-fly acquired delayed-window dataset. (paper)

  19. Patient-dependent count-rate adaptive normalization for PET detector efficiency with delayed-window coincidence events

    Niu, Xiaofeng; Ye, Hongwei; Xia, Ting; Asma, Evren; Winkler, Mark; Gagnon, Daniel; Wang, Wenli

    2015-07-01

    Quantitative PET imaging is widely used in clinical diagnosis in oncology and neuroimaging. Accurate normalization correction for the efficiency of each line-of- response is essential for accurate quantitative PET image reconstruction. In this paper, we propose a normalization calibration method by using the delayed-window coincidence events from the scanning phantom or patient. The proposed method could dramatically reduce the ‘ring’ artifacts caused by mismatched system count-rates between the calibration and phantom/patient datasets. Moreover, a modified algorithm for mean detector efficiency estimation is proposed, which could generate crystal efficiency maps with more uniform variance. Both phantom and real patient datasets are used for evaluation. The results show that the proposed method could lead to better uniformity in reconstructed images by removing ring artifacts, and more uniform axial variance profiles, especially around the axial edge slices of the scanner. The proposed method also has the potential benefit to simplify the normalization calibration procedure, since the calibration can be performed using the on-the-fly acquired delayed-window dataset.

  20. The Effects of Model, Lead, and Test with Reward To Teach a Preschool Student with a Developmental and Language Delays to Demonstrate an Understanding of Number Quantity

    Anna Mortensen; McLaughlin, T F; Jennifer Neyman; Barb Girshick

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to teach a 4-year-old preschooler with developmental disabilities number quantity. Demonstrating an understanding in number quantity is a component part in the hierarchy of math in the public schools. A student must obtain this skill before moving on to a general education classroom kindergarten. This study was also carried out to support the math skills and the student’s transition to kindergarten in the following year. The model, lead, and tes...

  1. Developmental plasticity and acclimation both contribute to adaptive responses to alternating seasons of plenty and of stress in Bicyclus butterflies

    Paul M Brakefield; Jeroen Pijpe; Bas J Zwaan

    2007-04-01

    Plasticity is a crucial component of the life cycle of invertebrates that live as active adults throughout wet and dry seasons in the tropics. Such plasticity is seen in the numerous species of Bicyclus butterflies in Africa which exhibit seasonal polyphenism with sequential generations of adults with one or other of two alternative phenotypes. These differ not only in wing pattern but in many other traits. This divergence across a broad complex of traits is associated with survival and reproduction either in a wet season that is favourable in terms of resources, or mainly in a dry season that is more stressful. This phenomenon has led us to examine the bases of the developmental plasticity in a model species, B. anynana, and also the evolution of key adult life history traits, including starvation resistance and longevity. We now understand something about the processes that generate variation in the phenotype, and also about the ecological context of responses to environmental stress. The responses clearly involve a mix of developmental plasticity as cued by different environments in pre-adult development, and the acclimation of life history traits in adults to their prevailing environment.

  2. Adapt

    Bargatze, L. F.

    2015-12-01

    Active Data Archive Product Tracking (ADAPT) is a collection of software routines that permits one to generate XML metadata files to describe and register data products in support of the NASA Heliophysics Virtual Observatory VxO effort. ADAPT is also a philosophy. The ADAPT concept is to use any and all available metadata associated with scientific data to produce XML metadata descriptions in a consistent, uniform, and organized fashion to provide blanket access to the full complement of data stored on a targeted data server. In this poster, we present an application of ADAPT to describe all of the data products that are stored by using the Common Data File (CDF) format served out by the CDAWEB and SPDF data servers hosted at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. These data servers are the primary repositories for NASA Heliophysics data. For this purpose, the ADAPT routines have been used to generate data resource descriptions by using an XML schema named Space Physics Archive, Search, and Extract (SPASE). SPASE is the designated standard for documenting Heliophysics data products, as adopted by the Heliophysics Data and Model Consortium. The set of SPASE XML resource descriptions produced by ADAPT includes high-level descriptions of numerical data products, display data products, or catalogs and also includes low-level "Granule" descriptions. A SPASE Granule is effectively a universal access metadata resource; a Granule associates an individual data file (e.g. a CDF file) with a "parent" high-level data resource description, assigns a resource identifier to the file, and lists the corresponding assess URL(s). The CDAWEB and SPDF file systems were queried to provide the input required by the ADAPT software to create an initial set of SPASE metadata resource descriptions. Then, the CDAWEB and SPDF data repositories were queried subsequently on a nightly basis and the CDF file lists were checked for any changes such as the occurrence of new, modified, or deleted

  3. ASSOCIATION OF EEG ABNORMALITY AND DEVELOPMENTAL DELAY IN PHENYLKETONURIA (PKU: AN ANALYTIC HISTORICAL CASE IN PHENYLKETONURIA (PKU: AN ANALYTIC HISTORICAL CASE-CONTROL

    Mohammad Reza AALAEI

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available AbstractObjectiveElectroencephalogram (EEG is an easy and non invasive evaluation method for diagnosis and early prognosis in children. Our aim was to assess the association between EEG and the patients' Developmental Quotient (DQ level in phenylketonuria.Materials & MethodsIn this study, 94 PKU patients (45 boys, 49 girls; mean age: 8.5 6.2 years who were diagnosed through newborn screening tests or later were followed. PKU was confirmed with a serum phenylalanine concentration above 6 mg/ dl in untreated newborns. The patients were matched in gender, age and phenylalanine level. The ASQ (Age and Stage Questionnaire was used for evaluation of the developmental stage of the case (abnormal EEG and control (normal EEG groups and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale was used to assess cognitive and intellectual abilities. Finally, one way ANOVA and chi square tests were used for analysis and P< 0.05 was considered significant.ResultsThe case group consisted of 63 patients (67% with abnormal EEGs and the control group consisted of 31 patients (33% with normal EEGs. In patients with abnormal EEGs, 34 (53% had mild, nine (14% had moderate and 20 (33% had severe EEG changes. Distribution of high and low DQ levels in these three groups show significant difference (p=0.001. Distribution of DQ level in the abnormal and normal EEG patients showed a significant difference (p=0.001.ConclusionThere was no significant difference between phenylalanine level in case and control groups; therefore, EEG findings may affect patients' developmental scores despite a normal phenylalanine level in PKU patients.

  4. ASSOCIATION OF EEG ABNORMALITY AND DEVELOPMENTAL DELAY IN PHENYLKETONURIA (PKU: AN ANALYTIC HISTORICAL CASE IN PHENYLKETONURIA (PKU: AN ANALYTIC HISTORICAL CASE-CONTROL

    Mohammad Reza AALAEI

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveElectroencephalogram (EEG is an easy and non invasive evaluation method for diagnosis and early prognosis in children. Our aim was to assess the association between EEG and the patients' Developmental Quotient (DQ level in phenylketonuria.Materials & MethodsIn this study, 94 PKU patients (45 boys, 49 girls; mean age: 8.5 6.2 years who were diagnosed through newborn screening tests or later were followed. PKU was confirmed with a serum phenylalanine concentration above 6 mg/ dl in untreated newborns. The patients were matched in gender, age and phenylalanine level. The ASQ (Age and Stage Questionnaire was used for evaluation of the developmental stage of the case (abnormal EEG and control (normal EEG groups and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale was used to assess cognitive and intellectual abilities. Finally, one way ANOVA and chi square tests were used for analysis and PResultsThe case group consisted of 63 patients (67% with abnormal EEGs and the control group consisted of 31 patients (33% with normal EEGs. In patients with abnormal EEGs, 34 (53% had mild, nine (14% had moderate and 20 (33% had severe EEG changes. Distribution of high and low DQ levels in these three groups show significant difference (p=0.001. Distribution of DQ level in the abnormal and normal EEG patients showed a significant difference (p=0.001.ConclusionThere was no significant difference between phenylalanine level in case and control groups; therefore, EEG findings may affect patients' developmental scores despite a normal phenylalanine level in PKU patients.Keywords:ASQ, Wechsler Intelligent Test, DQ, EEG, PKU

  5. ASSOCIATION OF EEG ABNORMALITY AND DEVELOPMENTAL DELAY IN PHENYLKETONURIA (PKU): AN ANALYTIC HISTORICAL CASE IN PHENYLKETONURIA (PKU): AN ANALYTIC HISTORICAL CASE-CONTROL

    AALAEI Mohammad Reza; KARIMZADEH, Parvaneh; Feisal RAHIMPOUR

    2010-01-01

    ObjectiveElectroencephalogram (EEG) is an easy and non invasive evaluation method for diagnosis and early prognosis in children. Our aim was to assess the association between EEG and the patients' Developmental Quotient (DQ) level in phenylketonuria.Materials & MethodsIn this study, 94 PKU patients (45 boys, 49 girls; mean age: 8.5 6.2 years) who were diagnosed through newborn screening tests or later were followed. PKU was confirmed with a serum phenylalanine concentration above 6 mg/ dl in ...

  6. Children’s Conscience During Toddler and Preschool Years, Moral Self, and a Competent, Adaptive Developmental Trajectory

    Kochanska, Grazyna; Koenig, Jamie L.; Barry, Robin A.; Kim, Sanghag; Yoon, Jeung Eun

    2010-01-01

    We investigated whether children’s robust conscience, formed during early family socialization, promotes their future adaptive and competent functioning in expanded ecologies. We assessed two dimensions of conscience in young children (N = 100) at 25, 38, and 52 months in scripted laboratory contexts: internalization of their mothers’ and fathers’ rules, observed when the child was alone, and empathic concern toward each parent, observed in simulated distress paradigms. We also assessed the c...

  7. Cognitive rehabilitation in a child with Joubert Syndrome: Developmental trends and adaptive changes in a single case report.

    Gagliardi, Chiara; Brenna, Viola; Romaniello, Romina; Arrigoni, Filippo; Tavano, Alessandro; Romani, Marta; Valente, Enza Maria; Borgatti, Renato

    2015-12-01

    We report the clinical and rehabilitative follow up of M, a female child carrying a compound heterozygous pathogenic mutations in the TCTN1 gene and affected by Joubert Syndrome (JS). JS is a congenital cerebellar ataxia characterized by "the molar tooth sign" on axial MRI, a pathognomonic neuroradiological malformation involving the cerebellum and brainstem. JS presents with high phenotypic/cognitive variability, and little is known about cognitive rehabilitation programs. We describe the therapeutic settings, intensive rehabilitation targets and outcome indexes in M's cognitive development. Using a single case evidence-based approach, we attempt to distinguish the effectiveness of the intervention from the overall developmental trend. We assume that an adequate amount of focused, goal directed treatment in a relative short period of time can be at least as effective as one provided in longer time, and much less interfering with the child's everyday life. We conclude by discussing specific issues in cognitive development and rehabilitation in JS and, more broadly, in cerebellar malformations. PMID:26489806

  8. The Effects of Model, Lead, and Test with Reward To Teach a Preschool Student with a Developmental and Language Delays to Demonstrate an Understanding of Number Quantity

    Anna Mortensen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to teach a 4-year-old preschooler with developmental disabilities number quantity. Demonstrating an understanding in number quantity is a component part in the hierarchy of math in the public schools. A student must obtain this skill before moving on to a general education classroom kindergarten. This study was also carried out to support the math skills and the student’s transition to kindergarten in the following year. The model, lead, and test error correction strategy from direct instruction was paired with a reward to teach our participant number quality. A multiple baseline design across three groups of number was employed to evaluate our intervention. The overall results indicated increases in student performance during model, lead, and test with a reward.

  9. Multilevel risk factors and developmental assets for internalizing symptoms and self-esteem in disadvantaged adolescents: modeling longitudinal trajectories from the Rural Adaptation Project.

    Smokowski, Paul R; Guo, Shenyang; Rose, Roderick; Evans, Caroline B R; Cotter, Katie L; Bacallao, Martica

    2014-11-01

    The current study filled significant gaps in our knowledge of developmental psychopathology by examining the influence of multilevel risk factors and developmental assets on longitudinal trajectories of internalizing symptoms and self-esteem in an exceptionally culturally diverse sample of rural adolescents. Integrating ecological and social capital theories, we explored if positive microsystem transactions are associated with self-esteem while negative microsystem transactions increase the chances of internalizing problems. Data came from the Rural Adaptation Project, a 5-year longitudinal panel study of more than 4,000 middle school students from 28 public schools in two rural, disadvantaged counties in North Carolina. Three-level hierarchical linear modeling models were estimated to predict internalizing symptoms (e.g., depression, anxiety) and self-esteem. Relative to other students, risk for internalizing problems and low self-esteem was elevated for aggressive adolescents, students who were hassled or bullied at school, and those who were rejected by peers or in conflict with their parents. Internalizing problems were also more common among adolescents from socioeconomically disadvantaged families and neighborhoods, among those in schools with more suspensions, in students who reported being pressured by peers, and in youth who required more teacher support. It is likely that these experiences left adolescents disengaged from developing social capital from ecological microsystems (e.g., family, school, peers). On the positive side, support from parents and friends and optimism about the future were key assets associated with lower internalizing symptoms and higher self-esteem. Self-esteem was also positively related to religious orientation, school satisfaction, and future optimism. These variables show active engagement with ecological microsystems. The implications and limitations were discussed. PMID:25422975

  10. Developmental Dyspraxia

    ... Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Developmental Dyspraxia Information Page Synonym(s): Dyspraxia Table of Contents (click ... being done? Clinical Trials Organizations What is Developmental Dyspraxia? Developmental dyspraxia is a disorder characterized by an ...

  11. Study of 30 patients with unexplained developmental delay and dysmorphic features or congenital abnormalities using conventional cytogenetics and multiplex FISH telomere (M-TEL) integrity assay.

    Popp, Susanne; Schulze, Birgit; Granzow, Martin; Keller, Monika; Holtgreve-Grez, Heidi; Schoell, Brigitte; Brough, Michaela; Hager, Hans-Dieter; Tariverdian, Gholamali; Brown, Jill; Kearney, Lyndal; Jauch, Anna

    2002-07-01

    Cryptic subtelomeric chromosome rearrangements are a major cause of mild to severe mental retardation pointing out the necessity of sensitive screening techniques to detect such aberrations among affected patients. In this prospective study a group of 30 patients with unexplained developmental retardation and dysmorphic features or congenital abnormalities were analysed using the recently published multiplex FISH telomere (M-TEL) integrity assay in combination with conventional G-banding analysis. The patients were selected by one or more of the following criteria defined by de Vries et al.: (a) family history with two or more affected individuals, (b) prenatal onset growth retardation, (c) postnatal growth abnormalities, (d) facial dysmorphic features, (e) non-facial dysmorphism and congenital abnormalities. In addition, we included two patients who met these criteria and revealed questionable chromosome regions requiring further clarification. In four patients (13.3%) cryptic chromosome aberrations were successfully determined by the M-TEL integrity assay and in two patients with abnormal chromosome regions intrachromosomal aberrations were characterized by targetted FISH experiments. Our results accentuate the requirement of strict selection criteria prior to patient testing with the M-TEL integrity assay. Another essential precondition is high-quality banding analysis to identify structural abnormal chromosomes. The detection of familial balanced translocation carriers in 50% of the cases emphasizes the significance of such an integrated approach for genetic counselling and prenatal diagnosis. PMID:12136233

  12. Early Intervention in Children with Developmental Disabilities

    Beena Johnson

    2016-01-01

    Developmental disabilities consist of conditions that delay or impair the physical, cognitive, and/or psychological development of children. If not intervened at the earliest, these disabilities will cause significant negative impact on multiple domains of functioning such as learning, language, self-care and capacity for independent living. Common developmental disabilities include autism spectrum disorders, intellectual disabilities, developmental delay and cerebral palsy. About one fourth...

  13. Does adaptive strategy for delayed seed dispersion affect extinction probability of a desert species? an assessment using the population viability analysis and glass house experiment

    Manish Mathur

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Canopy seed bank is an important adaptive evolutionary trait that provides various types of protection to the seeds. However, costing of such evolutionary trait on plant survival is largely unknown. Present investigation provided a new insight on the serotonious habit of Blepharis sindica associated with its endangerment status. Extinction probabilities of two available population of B. sindica were quantified using two types of census data, i.e., fruiting body number and actual population size. Population Viability Analysis (PVA revealed that delayed seed release tendency (higher fruiting body number was not synchronized with actual ground conditions (lower population size. PVA analysis based on actual population size indicated that both the available populations would vanish within 20 years. The mean time of extinction calculated from both type census data indicated its extinction within 48 years. For assessing the conservation criteria, a glass house experiment was carried out with different soil types and compositions. Pure sand and higher proportions of sand -silt were more suitable compared to clay; further, gravelly surface was the most unsuitable habitat for this species. Collection of the seeds from mature fruits/capsule and their sowing with moderate moisture availability with sandy soil could be recommended.

  14. Translational arrest due to cytoplasmic redox stress delays adaptation to growth on methanol and heterologous protein expression in a typical fed-batch culture of Pichia pastoris.

    Bryn Edwards-Jones

    Full Text Available We have followed a typical fed-batch induction regime for heterologous protein production under the control of the AOX1 promoter using both microarray and metabolomic analysis. The genetic constructs involved 1 and 3 copies of the TRY1 gene, encoding human trypsinogen. In small-scale laboratory cultures, expression of the 3 copy-number construct induced the unfolded protein response (UPR sufficiently that titres of extracellular trypsinogen were lower in the 3-copy construct than with the 1-copy construct. In the fed-batch-culture, a similar pattern was observed, with higher expression from the 1-copy construct, but in this case there was no significant induction of UPR with the 3-copy strain. Analysis of the microarray and metabolomic information indicates that the 3-copy strain was undergoing cytoplasmic redox stress at the point of induction with methanol. In this Crabtree-negative yeast, this redox stress appeared to delay the adaptation to growth on methanol and supressed heterologous protein production, probably due to a block in translation.Although redox imbalance as a result of artificially imposed hypoxia has previously been described, this is the first time that it has been characterised as a result of a transient metabolic imbalance and shown to involve a stress response which can lead to translational arrest. Without detailed analysis of the underlying processes it could easily have been mis-interpreted as secretion stress, transmitted through the UPR.

  15. Adaptive significance of amylase polymorphism in drosophila, XV: Examination of genotype-by-environment interactions on the viability, developmental time and stability of drosophila subobscura homozygous for Amy during exposure to nutritional changes

    Savić Tatjana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the direct interaction between enzyme and substrate, the amylase system can provide valuable information on the relationship between homozygosity and developmental homeostasis under a changing environment in several Drosophila species, The adaptive significance of the relationship between genetic variability and environmental change manifests through the well-known polymorphism of the amylase locus (Amy. We examined the effect of gradual and abrupt changes in starch concentration in the nutritional substrate, on the developmental time, egg-to-adult viability and phenotypic plasticity in the progeny of Drosophila subobscura that was homozygous for “fast” (AmyF/AmyF and “slow” (AmyS/AmyS Amy alleles. Our findings show that gradual and abrupt nutritional changes exert a significant effect on developmental time and viability. A high heterogeneity among genotypes in fluctuating asymmetry (FA and no direct association between FA and fitness components under the two experimental regimes of environmental change were observed.

  16. Adaptive significance of amylase polymorphism in drosophila, XV: Examination of genotype-by-environment interactions on the viability, developmental time and stability of drosophila subobscura homozygous for Amy during exposure to nutritional changes

    Savić Tatjana; Patenković Aleksandra; Stamenković-Radak Marina; Anđelković M.

    2011-01-01

    Due to the direct interaction between enzyme and substrate, the amylase system can provide valuable information on the relationship between homozygosity and developmental homeostasis under a changing environment in several Drosophila species, The adaptive significance of the relationship between genetic variability and environmental change manifests through the well-known polymorphism of the amylase locus (Amy). We examined the effect of gradual and abrupt changes in starch concentratio...

  17. Effect of Early Cognitive and Speech Intervention on Developmental Delay%早期认知语言康复训练对发育迟缓患儿各发育能区的影响

    胡继红; 周平秋; 郭春光; 刘丽君; 陈建树; 张惠佳

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨早期认知语言康复训练对发育迟缓患儿各项发育能区的影响。方法2014年6月~2015年6月住院和门诊治疗的发育迟缓患儿58例,根据诊疗情况分为观察组(n=32)和对照组(n=26)。观察组接受早期认知语言康复训练和常规康复,对照组仅接受常规康复。两组患儿在治疗前和治疗3个月后,分别采用Gesell发育量表进行评定。结果两组治疗后,大运动、精细动作、语言、个人-社交能区发育商均有显著改善(t>2.90, P2.84, P36.52, P2.90, P2.84, P36.52, P<0.01). Conclusion Early cognitive and speech intervention may improve development of many dimensions in children with developmental delay. The earlier the intervention, the better the outcome.

  18. Coarctation of the aorta and mild to moderate developmental delay in a child with a de novo deletion of chromosome 15(q21.1q22.2

    Peters Sarika U

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Deletion of 15q21q22 is a rare chromosomal anomaly. To date, there have been nine reports describing ten individuals with different segmental losses involving 15q21 and 15q22. Many of these individuals have common features of growth retardation, hypotonia and moderate to severe mental retardation. Congenital heart disease has been described in three individuals with interstitial deletion involving this region of chromosome 15. Case presentation We report a child with coarctation of the aorta, partial agenesis of corpus callosum and mild to moderate developmental delay, with a de novo deletion of 15q21.1q22.2, detected by the array Comparative Genomic Hybridization (CGH. We utilized chromosome 15-specific microarray-based CGH to define the chromosomal breakpoints in this patient. Conclusion This is the first description of mapping of an interstitial deletion involving the chromosome 15q21q22 segment using the chromosome 15-specific array-CGH. The report also expands the spectrum of clinical phenotype associated with 15q21q22 deletion.

  19. Early Intervention in Children with Developmental Disabilities

    Beena Johnson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Developmental disabilities consist of conditions that delay or impair the physical, cognitive, and/or psychological development of children. If not intervened at the earliest, these disabilities will cause significant negative impact on multiple domains of functioning such as learning, language, self-care and capacity for independent living. Common developmental disabilities include autism spectrum disorders, intellectual disabilities, developmental delay and cerebral palsy. About one fourth of young children in developing countries are at risk for or have developmental delay or disabilities. Inadequate stimulation has significant negative impact on physical, socioemotional and cognitive development of children. Hence early scientific intervention programs are necessary in the management of children at risk for developmental delay.

  20. 磁共振扩散张量成像在婴幼儿脑瘫诊断中的应用价值%Signiifcance of Applying DTI in the Diagnosis of Cerebral Palsy in Infants with Developmental Delays

    张朋; 刘鹏; 刘杰; 王颖; 高修成; 张见

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the significance of applying DTI (Diffusion Tensor Imaging) in the diagnosis of cerebral palsy in infants with developmental delays. Methods Thirty-three cases of cerebral palsy infants were selected as the cerebral palsy group, while 33 cases of healthy children as the control group. Then, DTI was performed on both the groups so as to observe the changes of the ifber tracts and research DTI features and its relevance with cerebral palsy. Additionally, the statistical method was applied to compare each FA (Fractional Anisotropy) value in the ROIs (Region-of-Interest) between the cerebral palsy group and the control group. Results Of 33 cerebral palsy infants, sparse and interrupted ifber tracts with abnormal orientation were revealed in different extent in 23 cases on different regions;no obvious changes of ifber tracts were revealed in 10 cases. The FA value in the ROIs of the cerebral palsy group was lower than that of the control group. There were significant differences (P<0.05) between the two groups. Conclusion Abnormalities revealed by DTI were correlated with cerebral palsy. As an useful method for diagnosis of cerebral palsy in infants and young children with developmental delays, DTI can provide the basis for clinicians to make reasonable treatment plan.%目的:探讨磁共振张量成像(DTI)在婴幼儿脑瘫诊断中的应用价值。方法选取33例脑瘫婴幼儿作为脑瘫组,33例正常婴幼儿作为对照组,分别对其行DTI检查。观察神经纤维束的改变,研究DTI成像特点及其与脑瘫的相关性,并采用统计学方法比较脑瘫组和对照组感兴趣区的各向异性(FA)值。结果33例脑瘫患儿中,23例伴有不同部位和不同程度的神经纤维束稀疏、中断及走行异常,10例患儿神经纤维束改变不明显;脑瘫组患儿感兴趣区的FA值较低,与对照组相比有显著差异(P<0.05)。结论DTI异常表现与脑性瘫痪具有相关性,DTI

  1. Delayed fission

    Delayed fission is a nuclear process that couples beta decay and fission. In the delayed fission process, a parent nucleus undergoes beta decay or electron capture and thus populates excited states in the daughter nucleus. This review covers experimental methods for detecting and measuring delayed fission. Experimental results (ECDF activities and beta-DF activities) and theory are presented. The future prospects for study of delayed fission are discussed. 50 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs

  2. Developmental Delay and in Utero Phenytoin Exposure

    J Gordon Millichap

    2002-01-01

    Psychomotor development was assessed in preschool children exposed to antiepileptic drugs (AED) in utero as part of a population-based longitudinal follow-up study of children born to women with meticulously treated epilepsy during pregnancy at the Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.

  3. Developmental Delay and in Utero Phenytoin Exposure

    J Gordon Millichap

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Psychomotor development was assessed in preschool children exposed to antiepileptic drugs (AED in utero as part of a population-based longitudinal follow-up study of children born to women with meticulously treated epilepsy during pregnancy at the Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.

  4. Sensory symptoms in children with autism spectrum disorder, other developmental disorders and typical development: A longitudinal study.

    McCormick, Carolyn; Hepburn, Susan; Young, Gregory S; Rogers, Sally J

    2016-07-01

    Sensory symptoms are prevalent in autism spectrum disorder but little is known about the early developmental patterns of these symptoms. This study examined the development of sensory symptoms and the relationship between sensory symptoms and adaptive functioning during early childhood. Three groups of children were followed across three time points from 2 to 8 years of age: autism spectrum disorder, developmental delay, and typical development. At each time point, parents filled out questionnaires regarding their child's sensory symptoms and adaptive functioning. At the initial time point, parents of children with autism spectrum disorder reported more sensory symptoms in their children than parents in the typical development group. Parents in the autism spectrum disorder group reported more sensory symptoms than parents in the developmental delay group within smell, taste, and auditory domains. While the typical development group decreased in reported sensory symptoms across the study period, the clinical groups demonstrated no significant change across assessment points. Sensory symptoms for all groups were not independently predictive of adaptive functioning when verbal mental age was also included in the model. The young age range at the initial assessment and pattern of results suggest that sensory symptoms are present early in the etiology of autism spectrum disorder and other developmental disorders and remain stable over time. PMID:26395236

  5. Developmental reversals in recognition memory in children and adults.

    Gross, Julien; Gardiner, Beatrix; Hayne, Harlene

    2016-01-01

    Older members of a given species typically exhibit superior learning and memory abilities relative to younger members, however, the developmental difference does not always occur in this younger-to-older direction. Developmental reversals are thought to reflect adaptive responses to the unique challenges imposed by the infant's niche. In humans, identification of developmental reversals has largely been precluded because infants, children, and adults are rarely tested using the same experimental procedures. Here, we adapted the visual recognition memory task and tested 3-year-olds and adults using one set of child-oriented stimuli and one set of adult-orientated stimuli. When tested immediately, children and adults exhibited recognition memory for both stimuli. When tested after a 1-week delay, children exhibited recognition memory for the child-oriented stimuli, but not for the adult-oriented stimuli and adults exhibited recognition memory for the adult-oriented stimuli, but not for the child-oriented stimuli. These data have important implications for current theories of memory development. PMID:26248798

  6. Adaptive NN State-Feedback Control for Stochastic High-Order Nonlinear Systems with Time-Varying Control Direction and Delays

    Huifang Min

    2015-01-01

    and dynamic surface control technique, an adaptive NN controller is constructed to render the closed-loop system semiglobally uniformly ultimately bounded (SGUUB. Finally, a simulation example is shown to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme.

  7. The Effectiveness of an Adapted SNAP-Ed (Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program-Education) Curriculum for Adults with Intellectual or Developmental Disabilities

    Panting, Amanda

    2012-01-01

    Rates of overweight and obese adults with intellectual or developmental disabilities in the United States are high and associated with increased risk of chronic diseases. Many of these adults are trying to become more independent in the community and live in group homes where care is managed by a paid employee. Group home managers assist clients with daily living such as shopping and meal preparation and play an important role in their care. Nutrition and healthy behavior choices are importan...

  8. 基于自相似业务流的 AOS 延时累积调度算法%Scheduling algorithm of delay accumulated adaptive polling based on AOS self-similar traffic

    赵运; 冯永新; 刘恒驰; 刘猛

    2015-01-01

    In order to solve performance degradation for advanced orbiting system (AOS)space data system scheduling caused by high burst and heavy tailed nature of self-similar traffic,the existing problems of the AOS virtual channel access (VCA)layer scheduling strategy and the short correlation model of the scheduling algo-rithm are analyzed.A novel scheduling algorithm based on AOS delay accumulated adaptive polling (SDAAP)is proposed.Based on Hurst parameters,urgency,flow rate deviation,and framing time factor,the novel schedu-ling algorithm adaptively change the delay threshold factor to realize multi-service by different operation meth-ods.The SDAAP algorithm optimizes the AOS virtual channel service quality and scheduling performance. With heavy tailed distribution of the ON/OFF traffic model,the experimental results show that,for the AOS self-similar traffic,the SDAAP algorithm executes more well in terms of the overflow rate and average delay than the AOS fixed threshold and the equal time scheduling algorithm.%针对自相似业务流量下的高突发性及重尾性所引起的空间数据系统调度性能下降问题,分析了高级在轨系统(advanced orbiting system,AOS)虚拟信道存取(virtual channel access,VCA)子层调度策略以及现有基于短相关模型调度算法的不足,引入 Hurst 参数、紧迫度、流量离差、成帧时间因子等权值参量,提出一种基于延时累积的自适应轮询调度(scheduling of delay accumulated adaptive polling,SDAAP)算法,通过自适应改变延时阀值因子实现多业务的差异化调度,从而优化 AOS 虚拟信道服务质量及调度性能。采用多信源重尾分布的 ON/OFF 流量分布模型进行仿真验证,实验结果表明,针对自相似业务流,SDAAP 算法在溢出率、平均延迟等方面优于 AOS 固定阀值和等时调度算法。

  9. Developmental Disabilities

    Developmental disabilities are severe, long-term problems. They may be physical, such as blindness. They may affect mental ability, such as learning disorders. Or the problem can be both physical and mental, such as Down ...

  10. Delayed discharge.

    Allen, Daniel

    2016-07-01

    Essential facts Delays in discharging older peo ple from hospital cost the NHS £820 million a year, according to a report from the National Audit Office (NAO). Last year in acute hospitals, 1.15 million bed days were lost to delayed transfers of care, an increase of 31% since 2013. The NAO says rising demand for NHS services is compounded by reduced local authority spending on adult social care - down by 10% since 2009-10. PMID:27380673

  11. Modeling Mechanisms of Persisting and Resolving Delay in Language Development

    Thomas, Michael S. C.; Knowland, V. C. P.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors used neural network modeling to investigate the possible mechanistic basis of developmental language delay and to test the viability of the hypothesis that persisting delay and resolving delay lie on a mechanistic continuum with normal development. Method: The authors used a population modeling approach to study…

  12. Speech and language delay in children.

    McLaughlin, Maura R

    2011-05-15

    Speech and language delay in children is associated with increased difficulty with reading, writing, attention, and socialization. Although physicians should be alert to parental concerns and to whether children are meeting expected developmental milestones, there currently is insufficient evidence to recommend for or against routine use of formal screening instruments in primary care to detect speech and language delay. In children not meeting the expected milestones for speech and language, a comprehensive developmental evaluation is essential, because atypical language development can be a secondary characteristic of other physical and developmental problems that may first manifest as language problems. Types of primary speech and language delay include developmental speech and language delay, expressive language disorder, and receptive language disorder. Secondary speech and language delays are attributable to another condition such as hearing loss, intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorder, physical speech problems, or selective mutism. When speech and language delay is suspected, the primary care physician should discuss this concern with the parents and recommend referral to a speech-language pathologist and an audiologist. There is good evidence that speech-language therapy is helpful, particularly for children with expressive language disorder. PMID:21568252

  13. Simulation Based Verification of the Applicability of a Novel Branch of Computational Cybernetics in the Adaptive Control of Imperfectly Modeled Physical Systems of Asymmetric Delay Time and Strong Non-linearities

    József K. Tar

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the applicability of an adaptive control based on a novel branch ofComputational Cybernetics is illustrated for two different, imperfectly andinaccurately modeled particular physical sytems. One of them is a water tankstirring cold and hot water as input and releasing the mixture through a long pipe.The mass flow rate and the temperature are prescribed at the free end of the exitpipe while the taps at the input side can diretly be controlled. Due to theincompressibility of the fluid the variation of the mass flow rate of the output isimmediately observableat the pipe’s end and is related to the control action at theinput taps, while its effect on the temperature becomes measurable at the free endof the pipe only after a delay time needed for the fluid to flow through the pipe.This results in asymmetric and non-constant delay time. The other paradigm is thethermal decay of the molecular nitrogen during a throttling down process. As iswell known chemical reactions hav very drastic non-linearities and it is not easyto construct their “exact” or satisfacorily avccurate model. The fundamentalprinciples of this new branch of Computational Cybernetics are briefly presentedin the paper. To some extent it is similar to the traditional Soft Computing, but byusing a priori known, uniform, lucid structure of reduced size, it can evade theenormous structures so characteristic to the usual approach. Clumsydeterministic, semi-stochastic or stochastic machine learning is replaced bysimple, short, explicit algebraic procedures especially fit to real time applications.The costs of these advantages may manifest themselves in the expected limitationof the applicabilityof this new approach. However, the simulation resultsexemplify the applicability of the new method in the control of systems of strongnon-linearities and asymmetric delay time.

  14. Developmental Work

    Møller, Niels; Hvid, Helge; Kristensen, Tage Søndergaard;

    2003-01-01

    Human Deveoplment and Working Life - Work for Welfare explores whether the development of human resources at company level can improve individuals' quality of life, companies' possibilities of development, and welfare and democracy in society. Chapter two discuss the concept "developmental work...

  15. Asymptotic Delay Analysis for Cross-Layer Delay-Based Routing in Ad Hoc Networks

    Philippe Jacquet

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the problem of the evaluation of the delay distribution via analytical means in IEEE 802.11 wireless ad hoc networks. We show that the asymptotic delay distribution can be expressed as a power law. Based on the latter result, we present a cross-layer delay estimation protocol and we derive new delay-distribution-based routing algorithms, which are well adapted to the QoS requirements of real-time multimedia applications. In fact, multimedia services are not sensitive to average delays, but rather to the asymptotic delay distributions. Indeed, video streaming applications drop frames when they are received beyond a delay threshold, determined by the buffer size. Although delay-distribution-based routing is an NP-hard problem, we show that it can be solved in polynomial time when the delay threshold is large, because of the asymptotic power law distribution of the link delays.

  16. Delayed privatization

    Bernardo Bortolotti; Paolo Pinotti

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies the timing of privatization in 21 major developed economies in the 1977-2002 period. Duration analysis shows that political fragmentation plays a significant role in explaining government's decision to privatize: privatization is delayed longer in democracies characterized by a larger number of parties and operating under proportional electoral rules, as predicted by war of attrition models of economic reform. Results are robust to various assumptions on the underlying stat...

  17. Adaptive Behavior and Development of Infants and Toddlers with Williams Syndrome

    Kirchner, Rebecca M.; Martens, Marilee A.; Andridge, Rebecca R.

    2016-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that causes deficits in adaptive behavior, difficulties eating and sleeping, cognitive delays, and delayed development. Although researchers have conducted characterizations of children and adults with WS, less is known about young children with this disorder. This study characterizes the developmental and adaptive behavior features of 16 infants and toddlers with WS aged 3 months – 5 years. Data for this project was obtained from 2007 to 2014, and includes parent report data and standardized developmental testing. Thirty-one percent (31.3%) of parents reported that their infant/toddler with WS had sleeping problems and 58.3% reported feeding difficulties. Levels of adaptive behavior were in the Mildly Delayed range as measured by the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System, Second Edition. Self-care skills such as feeding or dressing oneself were significantly weaker than skills needed to function in the community, such as recognizing his/her home or throwing away trash. The difficulty with self-care skills is hypothesized to be related to the reported difficulties with eating and sleeping. Motor skills were significantly lower than both cognitive and language skills on the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition. The current study highlights the need for early intervention in these young children across all areas of development, particularly in self-care skills. PMID:27199832

  18. Adaptive Behavior and Development of Infants and Toddlers with Williams Syndrome.

    Kirchner, Rebecca M; Martens, Marilee A; Andridge, Rebecca R

    2016-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that causes deficits in adaptive behavior, difficulties eating and sleeping, cognitive delays, and delayed development. Although researchers have conducted characterizations of children and adults with WS, less is known about young children with this disorder. This study characterizes the developmental and adaptive behavior features of 16 infants and toddlers with WS aged 3 months - 5 years. Data for this project was obtained from 2007 to 2014, and includes parent report data and standardized developmental testing. Thirty-one percent (31.3%) of parents reported that their infant/toddler with WS had sleeping problems and 58.3% reported feeding difficulties. Levels of adaptive behavior were in the Mildly Delayed range as measured by the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System, Second Edition. Self-care skills such as feeding or dressing oneself were significantly weaker than skills needed to function in the community, such as recognizing his/her home or throwing away trash. The difficulty with self-care skills is hypothesized to be related to the reported difficulties with eating and sleeping. Motor skills were significantly lower than both cognitive and language skills on the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition. The current study highlights the need for early intervention in these young children across all areas of development, particularly in self-care skills. PMID:27199832

  19. Adaptive Behavior and Development of Infants and Toddlers with Williams Syndrome

    Rebecca M. Kirchner

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Williams syndrome (WS is a neurodevelopmental disorder that causes deficits in adaptive behavior, difficulties eating and sleeping, cognitive delays, and delayed development. Although researchers have conducted characterizations of children and adults with WS, less is known about young children with this disorder. This study characterizes the developmental and adaptive behavior features of 16 infants and toddlers with WS aged 3 months - 5 years. Data for this project was obtained from 2007-2014, and includes parent report data and standardized developmental testing. Thirty-one percent (31.3% of parents reported that their infant/toddler with WS had sleeping problems and 58.3% reported feeding difficulties. Levels of adaptive behavior were in the Mildly Delayed range as measured by the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System, Second Edition. Self care skills such as feeding or dressing oneself were significantly weaker than skills needed to function in the community, such as recognizing his/her home or throwing away trash. The difficulty with self-care skills is hypothesized to be related to the reported difficulties with eating and sleeping. Motor skills were significantly lower than both cognitive and language skills on the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition. The current study highlights the need for early intervention in these young children across all areas of development, particularly in self-care skills.

  20. Robust stability and performance of time-delay control systems.

    Keviczky, L; Bányász, Cs

    2007-04-01

    Most of the optimal and adaptive regulators assume an a priori known time delay. The time-delay mismatch can cause unwanted instability. Influence of this uncertainty is investigated in connection with the required performance and robustness. PMID:17362954

  1. Vagal Tone and Children's Delay of Gratification: Differential Sensitivity in Resource-Poor and Resource-Rich Environments.

    Sturge-Apple, Melissa L; Suor, Jennifer H; Davies, Patrick T; Cicchetti, Dante; Skibo, Michael A; Rogosch, Fred A

    2016-06-01

    Children from different socioeconomic backgrounds have differing abilities to delay gratification, and impoverished children have the greatest difficulties in doing so. In the present study, we examined the role of vagal tone in predicting the ability to delay gratification in both resource-rich and resource-poor environments. We derived hypotheses from evolutionary models of children's conditional adaptation to proximal rearing contexts. In Study 1, we tested whether elevated vagal tone was associated with shorter delay of gratification in impoverished children. In Study 2, we compared the relative role of vagal tone across two groups of children, one that had experienced greater impoverishment and one that was relatively middle-class. Results indicated that in resource-rich environments, higher vagal tone was associated with longer delay of gratification. In contrast, high vagal tone in children living in resource-poor environments was associated with reduced delay of gratification. We interpret the results with an eye to evolutionary-developmental models of the function of children's stress-response system and adaptive behavior across varying contexts of economic risk. PMID:27117276

  2. Developmental Scaffolding

    Giorgi, Franco; Bruni, Luis Emilio

    2015-01-01

    The concept of scaffolding has wide resonance in several scientific fields. Here we attempt to adopt it for the study of development. In this perspective, the embryo is conceived as an integral whole, comprised of several hierarchical modules as in a recurrent circularity of emerging patterns...... molecular signalling to the complexity of sign recognition proper of a cellular community. In this semiotic perspective, the apparent goal directness of any developmental strategy should no longer be accounted for by a predetermined genetic program, but by the gradual definition of the relationships...

  3. Prisms Throw Light on Developmental Disorders

    Brookes, Rebecca L.; Nicolson, Roderick I.; Fawcett, Angela J.

    2007-01-01

    Prism adaptation, in which the participant adapts to prismatic glasses that deflect vision laterally, is a specific test of cerebellar function. Fourteen dyslexic children (mean age 13.5 years); 14 children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD): 6 of whom had comorbid dyslexia; and 12 control children matched for age and IQ underwent…

  4. The Daily Dozen: Strategies for Enhancing Social Communication of Infants with Language Delays

    Stockall, Nancy; Dennis, Lindsay R.

    2012-01-01

    Approximately 228,000 children from birth to age 3 are affected by a disability. Developmental challenges may include severe, chronic disabilities that can begin at birth and last a lifetime. Delayed speech and language are the most common types of developmental delays among infants and toddlers. Many of these children are at risk for later…

  5. Examining the Criterion-Related Validity of the Pervasive Developmental Disorder Behavior Inventory

    McMorris, Carly A.; Perry, Adrienne

    2015-01-01

    The Pervasive Developmental Disorder Behavior Inventory is a questionnaire designed to aid in the diagnosis of pervasive developmental disorders or autism spectrum disorders. The Pervasive Developmental Disorder Behavior Inventory assesses adaptive and maladaptive behaviors associated with pervasive developmental disorders and provides an…

  6. Developmental dyslexia.

    Démonet, Jean-François; Taylor, Margot J; Chaix, Yves

    2004-05-01

    Developmental dyslexia, or specific reading disability, is a disorder in which children with normal intelligence and sensory abilities show learning deficits for reading. Substantial evidence has established its biological origin and the preponderance of phonological disorders even though important phenotypic variability and comorbidity have been recorded. Diverse theories have been proposed to account for the cognitive and neurological aspects of dyslexia. Findings of genetic studies show that different loci affect specific reading disability although a direct relation has not been established between symptoms and a given genomic locus. In both children and adults with dyslexia, results of neuroimaging studies suggest defective activity and abnormal connectivity between regions crucial for language functions--eg, the left fusiform gyrus for reading--and changes in brain activity associated with performance improvement after various remedial interventions. PMID:15121410

  7. Developmental dyslexia.

    Peterson, Robin L; Pennington, Bruce F

    2015-01-01

    This review uses a levels-of-analysis framework to summarize the current understanding of developmental dyslexia's etiology, brain bases, neuropsychology, and social context. Dyslexia is caused by multiple genetic and environmental risk factors as well as their interplay. Several candidate genes have been identified in the past decade. At the brain level, dyslexia is associated with aberrant structure and function, particularly in left hemisphere reading/language networks. The neurocognitive influences on dyslexia are also multifactorial and involve phonological processing deficits as well as weaknesses in other oral language skills and processing speed. We address contextual issues such as how dyslexia manifests across languages and social classes as well as what treatments are best supported. Throughout the review, we highlight exciting new research that cuts across levels of analysis. Such work promises eventually to provide a comprehensive explanation of the disorder as well as its prevention and remediation. PMID:25594880

  8. Developmental Risk and Young Children's Regulatory Strategies: Predicting Behavior Problems at Age Five

    Gerstein, Emily D.; Pedersen y Arbona, Anita; Crnic, Keith A.; Ryu, Ehri; Baker, Bruce L.; Blacher, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Children with early developmental delays are at heightened risk for behavior problems and comorbid psychopathology. This study examined the trajectories of regulatory capabilities and their potentially mediating role in the development of behavior problems for children with and without early developmental delays. A sample of 231 children comprised…

  9. Early Symptoms and Recognition of Pervasive Developmental Disorders in Germany

    Noterdaeme, Michele; Hutzelmeyer-Nickels, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Pervasive developmental disorders are characterised by the presence of abnormalities in social interaction and communication as well as repetitive patterns of behaviours. Although early symptoms of the disorder often appear during the first two years of life, its diagnosis is often delayed. The purpose of this study is to analyse the delay between…

  10. Is delayed childbearing changing gene frequencies in Western populations?

    Gloria-Bottini, E; Cosmi, E; Nicotra, M; Cosmi, E V; Bottini, E

    2005-08-01

    Experimental data and clinical observations suggest that delaying childbearing influences the biology of the mother-fetus relationship, with a negative effect on fetal development and predisposition to severe diseases such as type 1 diabetes. We reason that advanced maternal age may influence intrauterine selection, favoring genotypes that are more adapted to the intrauterine environment of less young women. In the present study we have investigated the relationship of maternal age to HP genotype and PGM1-Rh area (chromosome 1) that have been previously found to be associated with fertility and developmental parameters. HP phenotype was determined in 679 consecutive puerperae from the population of central Italy. PGM1 phenotype and Rh C phenotype were determined in 222 puerperae and 200 newborns. The HP 1,1 phenotype decreases and the HP 2,2 phenotype increases with maternal age. The proportion of phenotypes carrying both the Rh C and PGM1*1 alleles is much higher in puerperae older than 36 years than in puerperae of age 22 years. The frequency of the PGM1*1-Rh C haplotype increases and the frequency of the PGM1*2-Rh C haplotype decreases with maternal age. The changes in these genetic systems with advancing maternal age are similar in mothers and newborns. The delay of childbearing age, associated in Western countries with the fertility transition in addition to detrimental effects on intrauterine development and increased susceptibility to severe disorders, could bring about changes in the genetic composition of a population. PMID:16485774

  11. Interstitial deletion of 1p22.2p31.1 and medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency in a patient with global developmental delay

    Maegawa, Gustavo H B; Poplawski, Nicola K; Andresen, Brage Storstein; Olpin, Simon E; Nie, Gloria; Clarke, Joe T R; Teshima, Ikuko

    ,del(1)(p22.2p31.1). Parental karyotypes were normal. The deletion was characterized by array CGH analysis using a 1 Mb BAC/PAC array platform. Clones deleted extended from RP11-88B10 (1p31.1) to RP5-1007M22 (1p22.2), a 15.5 Mb deletion which includes the ACADM locus. Clinical review of 6/7 cases of......We report on a 6-year-old girl who presented at 6 months of age with seizures, delayed psychomotor development and mild facial dysmorphism. A small muscular ventricular septal defect was documented on echocardiogram and brain MRI showed a frontal brain anomaly. Urine organic acid analysis revealed...... dicarboxylic aciduria, and plasma acylcarnitine analysis showed marked elevation of octanoyl (C8) and decanoyl (C10) carnitines with C8:C10 ratio of 9:1. These results were indicative of medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency. ACADM gene sequencing showed an apparent homozygous c.166G > C (Ala31Pro...

  12. Developmental dyspraxia and developmental coordination disorder.

    Miyahara, M; Möbs, I

    1995-12-01

    This article discusses the role developmental dyspraxia plays in developmental coordination disorder (DCD), based upon a review of literature on apraxia, developmental dyspraxia, and DCD. Apraxia and dyspraxia have often been equated with DCD. However, it is argued that apraxia and dyspraxia primarily refer to the problems of motor sequencing and selection, which not all children with DCD exhibit. The author proposes to distinguish developmental dyspraxia from DCD. Other issues discussed include the assessment, etiology, and treatment of developmental dyspraxia and DCD, and the relationship between DCD and learning disabilities. A research agenda is offered regarding future directions to overcome current limitation. PMID:8866511

  13. The Abusive Environment and the Child's Adaptation.

    Martin, Harold P.

    The biologic and developmental problems of abused children are usually thought of etiologically in relation to the physical trauma which has been suffered. Indeed, physical trauma can cause death, brain damage, developmental delays and deviations in personality development. The environment in which the abused child grows and develops is a most…

  14. Internet end-to-end delay dynamics

    Zhu Changhua; Pei Changxing; Li Jiandong; Chen Nan; Yi Yunhui

    2006-01-01

    End-to-end delay is one of the most important characteristics of Internet end-to-end packet dynamics, which can be applied to quality of services (QoS) management, service level agreement (SLA) management, congestion control algorithm development, etc. Nonstationarity and nonlinearity are found by the analysis of various delay series measured from different links. The fact that different types of links have different degree of Self-Similarity is also obtained. By constructing appropriate network architecture and neural functions, functional networks can be used to model the Internet end-to-end nonlinear delay time series. Furthermore, by using adaptive parameter studying algorithm, the nonstationarity can also be well modeled. The numerical results show that the provided functional network architecture and adaptive algorithm can precisely characterize the Internet end-to-end delay dynamics.

  15. Developmental refinement of cortical systems for speech and voice processing.

    Bonte, Milene; Ley, Anke; Scharke, Wolfgang; Formisano, Elia

    2016-03-01

    Development typically leads to optimized and adaptive neural mechanisms for the processing of voice and speech. In this fMRI study we investigated how this adaptive processing reaches its mature efficiency by examining the effects of task, age and phonological skills on cortical responses to voice and speech in children (8-9years), adolescents (14-15years) and adults. Participants listened to vowels (/a/, /i/, /u/) spoken by different speakers (boy, girl, man) and performed delayed-match-to-sample tasks on vowel and speaker identity. Across age groups, similar behavioral accuracy and comparable sound evoked auditory cortical fMRI responses were observed. Analysis of task-related modulations indicated a developmental enhancement of responses in the (right) superior temporal cortex during the processing of speaker information. This effect was most evident through an analysis based on individually determined voice sensitive regions. Analysis of age effects indicated that the recruitment of regions in the temporal-parietal cortex and posterior cingulate/cingulate gyrus decreased with development. Beyond age-related changes, the strength of speech-evoked activity in left posterior and right middle superior temporal regions significantly scaled with individual differences in phonological skills. Together, these findings suggest a prolonged development of the cortical functional network for speech and voice processing. This development includes a progressive refinement of the neural mechanisms for the selection and analysis of auditory information relevant to the ongoing behavioral task. PMID:26777479

  16. Taking action on developmental toxicity: Scientists’ duties to protect children

    Shrader-Frechette Kristin

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Although adaptation and proper biological functioning require developmental programming, pollutant interference can cause developmental toxicity or DT. Objectives This commentary assesses whether it is ethical for citizens/physicians/scientists to allow avoidable DT. Methods Using conceptual, economic, ethical, and logical analysis, the commentary assesses what major ethical theories and objectors would say regarding the defensibility of allowing avoidable DT. Results The ...

  17. Developmental reading disorder

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001406.htm Developmental reading disorder To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Developmental reading disorder is a reading disability that occurs when ...

  18. The Domain of Developmental Psychopathology.

    Sroufe, L. Alan; Rutter, Michael

    1984-01-01

    Describes how developmental psychopathology differs from related disciplines, including abnormal psychology, psychiatry, clinical child psychology, and developmental psychology. Points out propositions underlying a developmental perspective and discusses implications for research in developmental psychopathology. (Author/RH)

  19. Signaling Delays Preclude Defects in Lateral Inhibition Patterning

    Glass, David S.; Jin, Xiaofan; Riedel-Kruse, Ingmar H.

    2016-03-01

    Lateral inhibition represents a well-studied example of biology's ability to self-organize multicellular spatial patterns with single-cell precision. Despite established biochemical mechanisms for lateral inhibition (e.g., Delta-Notch), it remains unclear how cell-cell signaling delays inherent to these mechanisms affect patterning outcomes. We investigate a compact model of lateral inhibition highlighting these delays and find, remarkably, that long delays can ensure defect-free patterning. This effect is underscored by an interplay with synchronous oscillations, cis interactions, and signaling strength. Our results suggest that signaling delays, though previously posited as a source of developmental defects, may in fact be a general regulatory knob for tuning developmental robustness.

  20. Psychosocial developmental milestones in men with classic galactosemia

    Gubbels, C.S.; Maurice-Stam, H.; Berry, G T; Bosch, A. M.; Waisbren, S.; Rubio-Gozalbo, M.E.; Grootenhuis, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Patients with classic galactosemia suffer from several long term effects of their disease. Research in a group of mainly female patients has shown that these patients may also have a developmental delay with regard to their social aptitude. To study if male galactosemia patients achieve psychosocial developmental milestones more slowly than male peers from the general Dutch population, we assessed their development with the Course of Life Questionnaire (CoLQ). A total of 18 male galactosemia ...

  1. What is developmental dyspraxia?

    Dewey, D

    1995-12-01

    The idea of developmental dyspraxia has been discussed in the research literature for almost 100 years. However, there continues to be a lack of consensus regarding both the definition and description of this disorder. This paper presents a neuropsychologically based operational definition of developmental dyspraxia that emphasizes that developmental dyspraxia is a disorder of gesture. Research that has investigated the development of praxis is discussed. Further, different types of gestural disorders displayed by children and different mechanisms that underlie developmental dyspraxia are compared to and contrasted with adult acquired apraxia. The impact of perceptual-motor, language, and cognitive impairments on children's gestural development and the possible associations between these developmental disorders and developmental dyspraxia are also examined. Also, the relationship among limb, orofacial, and verbal dyspraxia is discussed. Finally, problems that exist in the neuropsychological assessment of developmental dyspraxia are discussed and recommendations concerning what should be included in such an assessment are presented. PMID:8838385

  2. Auditory spatial localization: Developmental delay in children with visual impairments.

    Cappagli, Giulia; Gori, Monica

    2016-01-01

    For individuals with visual impairments, auditory spatial localization is one of the most important features to navigate in the environment. Many works suggest that blind adults show similar or even enhanced performance for localization of auditory cues compared to sighted adults (Collignon, Voss, Lassonde, & Lepore, 2009). To date, the investigation of auditory spatial localization in children with visual impairments has provided contrasting results. Here we report, for the first time, that contrary to visually impaired adults, children with low vision or total blindness show a significant impairment in the localization of static sounds. These results suggest that simple auditory spatial tasks are compromised in children, and that this capacity recovers over time. PMID:27002960

  3. Developmental Outcomes of School-Age Children with Duarte Galactosemia: A Pilot Study.

    Lynch, Mary Ellen; Potter, Nancy L; Coles, Claire D; Fridovich-Keil, Judith L

    2015-01-01

    Duarte galactosemia (DG) is a mild allelic variant of classic galactosemia that results from partial impairment of galactose-1P uridylyltransferase (GALT). Although infants with DG are detected by newborn screening in some US states at close to 1/4,000 live births, most are discharged from follow-up very early in life and there is no consensus on whether these children are at increased risk for any of the long-term developmental delays seen in classic galactosemia. There is also no consensus on whether infants with DG benefit from dietary restriction of galactose. Reflecting the current uncertainty, some states choose to identify infants with DG by newborn screening and others do not. As a first step toward characterizing the developmental outcomes of school-age children with DG, we conducted a pilot study, testing 10 children with DG and 5 unaffected siblings from the same group of families. All children tested were between 6 and 11 years old. We used standardized direct assessments and parent-response surveys to collect information regarding cognition, communication, socio-emotional, adaptive behavior, and physical development for each child. Despite the small sample size, our data demonstrated some notable differences between cases and controls in socio-emotional development, in delayed recall, and in auditory processing speed. These results confirm that direct assessment of school-age children with DG can detect subtle but potentially problematic developmental deficits, and underscore the need for a larger study which has sufficient power to evaluate these outcomes while controlling for potentially confounding factors. PMID:25681083

  4. Modeling Directional Selectivity Using Self-Organizing Delay-Aadaptation Maps

    Tversky, Tal; Miikkulainen, Dr. Risto

    2002-01-01

    Using a delay adaptation learning rule, we model the activity-dependent development of directionally selective cells in the primary visual cortex. Based on input stimuli, a learning rule shifts delays to create synchronous arrival of spikes at cortical cells. As a result, delays become tuned creating a smooth cortical map of direction selectivity. This result demonstrates how delay adaption can serve as a powerful abstraction for modeling temporal learning in the brain.

  5. Speech and language delay in children: A review and the role of a pediatric dentist

    Shetty, P

    2012-01-01

    Speech and language development is a useful indicator of a child′s overall development and cognitive ability. Identification of children at a risk for developmental delay or related problems may lead to intervention and assistance at a young age, when the chances for improvement are the best. This rationale supports screening of preschool children for speech and language delay or primary language impairment or disorder, which needs to be integrated into routine developmental surveillance prac...

  6. An Analytical Delay Model

    MIN Yinghua; LI Zhongcheng

    1999-01-01

    Delay consideration has been a majorissue in design and test of high performance digital circuits. Theassumption of input signal change occurring only when all internal nodesare stable restricts the increase of clock frequency. It is no longertrue for wave pipelining circuits. However, previous logical delaymodels are based on the assumption. In addition, the stable time of arobust delay test generally depends on the longest sensitizable pathdelay. Thus, a new delay model is desirable. This paper explores thenecessity first. Then, Boolean process to analytically describe thelogical and timing behavior of a digital circuit is reviewed. Theconcept of sensitization is redefined precisely in this paper. Based onthe new concept of sensitization, an analytical delay model isintroduced. As a result, many untestable delay faults under thelogical delay model can be tested if the output waveforms can be sampledat more time points. The longest sensitizable path length is computedfor circuit design and delay test.

  7. Transcript length mediates developmental timing of gene expression across Drosophila

    Artieri, Carlo G.; Fraser, Hunter B.

    2013-01-01

    The time required to transcribe genes with long primary transcripts may limit their ability to be expressed in cells with short mitotic cycles, a phenomenon termed intron delay. As such short cycles are a hallmark of the earliest stages of insect development, we used Drosophila developmental timecourse expression data to test whether intron delay affects gene expression genome-wide, and to determine its consequences for the evolution of gene structure. We find that long zygotically expressed,...

  8. An investigation into prospective memory in children with developmental dyslexia

    Azizuddin eKhan

    2014-01-01

    Developmental dyslexia hinders reading and writing acquisition of around 5-10 % of the children all over the world. However, little is known about role of prospective memory among dyslexics. Prospective memory is realization of delayed intention. Realization of delayed intention requires self initiated process. The present study explored the role of memory (prospective and retrospective memory), meta-memory and attention among dyslexic’s children. One hundred and fifteen children (51 dyslexic...

  9. An investigation into prospective memory in children with developmental dyslexia

    Khan, Azizuddin

    2014-01-01

    Developmental dyslexia hinders reading and writing acquisition of around 5–10% of the children all over the world. However, little is known about role of prospective memory among dyslexics. Prospective memory is realization of delayed intention. Realization of delayed intention requires self initiated process. The present study explored the role of memory (prospective and retrospective memory), meta-memory and attention among dyslexic's children. One hundred and fifteen children (51 dyslexics...

  10. Developmental hip dysplasia in adolescence

    Vukašinović Zoran

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors define adolescence and developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH. Special attention is paid to pathological findings characteristic of DDH in adolescence (unrecognized and untreated DDH; treated DDH, but non-terminated treatment; DDH diagnosed with delay, inadequately treated, with complications. The authors emphasise that DDH treatment has to be successfully terminated well before the adolescence; possibilities are explained on management modes at the time of adolescence, and possible persons guilty for the persistence of later hip problems are indicated. Based on the authors' experience and having in mind all surgical possibilities for the treatment (pelvic osteotomies, femoral osteotomies, trochanteroplasties, leg length equalization procedures the authors propose treatment protocols. The intention is to provide better treatment results and to prevent secondary hip arthrosis. Furthermore, how to improve the struggle against DDH is suggested.

  11. Number development and developmental dyscalculia.

    von Aster, Michael G; Shalev, Ruth S

    2007-11-01

    There is a growing consensus that the neuropsychological underpinnings of developmental dyscalculia (DD) are a genetically determined disorder of 'number sense', a term denoting the ability to represent and manipulate numerical magnitude nonverbally on an internal number line. However, this spatially-oriented number line develops during elementary school and requires additional cognitive components including working memory and number symbolization (language). Thus, there may be children with familial-genetic DD with deficits limited to number sense and others with DD and comorbidities such as language delay, dyslexia, or attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder. This duality is supported by epidemiological data indicating that two-thirds of children with DD have comorbid conditions while one-third have pure DD. Clinically, they differ according to their profile of arithmetic difficulties. fMRI studies indicate that parietal areas (important for number functions), and frontal regions (dominant for executive working memory and attention functions), are under-activated in children with DD. A four-step developmental model that allows prediction of different pathways for DD is presented. The core-system representation of numerical magnitude (cardinality; step 1) provides the meaning of 'number', a precondition to acquiring linguistic (step 2), and Arabic (step 3) number symbols, while a growing working memory enables neuroplastic development of an expanding mental number line during school years (step 4). Therapeutic and educational interventions can be drawn from this model. PMID:17979867

  12. Using Signs to Facilitate Vocabulary in Children with Language Delays

    Lederer, Susan Hendler; Battaglia, Dana

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore recommended practices in choosing and using key word signs (i.e., simple single-word gestures for communication) to facilitate first spoken words in hearing children with language delays. Developmental, theoretical, and empirical supports for this practice are discussed. Practical recommendations for…

  13. The Child with Delayed Language: Assessment and Management

    Tervo, Raymond C.; Kinney, Cheryl A.

    1981-01-01

    Speech and language disorders are the most common developmental problems among preschool children. Early detection and remediation of delayed language development are important in helping the child establish appropriate social behavior and acquire additional information about the world through the use of language.

  14. Intolerance to Delayed Reward in Girls with Multiple Suicide Attempts

    Mathias, Charles W.; Dougherty, Donald M.; James, Lisa M.; Richard, Dawn M.; Dawes, Michael A.; Acheson, Ashley; Hill-Kapturczak, Nathalie

    2011-01-01

    Impulsivity has been conceptualized as influencing the expression of suicidal behavior. Adolescence is a developmental period characterized both by a relatively high rate of suicide attempts and a high level of impulsivity. The current study examined two behavioral measures (delay reward and disinhibition) and one self-report measure of…

  15. Flood adaptive traits and processes : An overview

    Voesenek, Laurentius A C J; Bailey-Serres, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Unanticipated flooding challenges plant growth and fitness in natural and agricultural ecosystems. Here we describe mechanisms of developmental plasticity and metabolic modulation that underpin adaptive traits and acclimation responses to waterlogging of root systems and submergence of aerial tissue

  16. 孤独症谱系障碍和发育性语言延迟儿童的听觉处理特征研究%Study on central auditory processing characteristics in autism spectrum disorder and developmental language delayed children

    梁纯; 洪琦; 罗小杏; 蒋滔滔; 高延; 姚小芳; 卓秀慧; 卢光进

    2013-01-01

    [目的]探讨孤独症谱系障碍和发育性语言延迟儿童的听觉诱发电位特征,为观察两者听觉诱发电位的差异和制定个体语言干预方案提供依据. [方法]对20例孤独症谱系障碍和20例发育性语言延迟儿童进行听觉诱发电位测试,分析各波潜伏期及波间期,并与正常组比较. [结果]孤独症谱系障碍组和发育性语言延迟组分别与正常组比较,Ⅲ、Ⅴ波潜伏期和Ⅰ-Ⅲ波、Ⅰ-Ⅴ波潜伏期均显著延长(P<0.01),而两病例组间差异无统计学意义(P>0.05). [结论]孤独症谱系障碍和发育性语言延迟儿童可能具有共同的听觉处理缺陷.%[Objective] To investigate and characterize the relationship of brainstem auditory evoked potential changes between the autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and the developmental language delayed (DLD) disorder in young children.[Methods] Absolute latencies of waves Ⅰ,Ⅲ,Ⅴ,and interpeak latencies(IPLs)of Ⅰ to Ⅲ,Ⅰ to Ⅴ,and Ⅲ to Ⅴ in Brainstem Auditory Evoked Potentials(BAEP)in the ASD group and the DLD group were compared.Either group enrolled 20 children.[Results] In comparison with normal children,IPLs of Ⅰ to Ⅲ and Ⅰ to Ⅴ in both ASD group and DLD group were significantly prolonged.However,there were no significant differences between two groups.[Conclusion] These two disorders might share the same pathological mechanism in the auditory disorder.

  17. Mnemonic abilities of primary school children with delayed mental development.

    Murafa S.V.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of research regarding the mnemonic abilities of primary school children with developmental delays. Empirical studies of impaired mental development offer an opportunity to elucidate the psychological mechanisms underlying the process of normal development and enable us to consider at a micro level the formation of mental processes in ontogeny, which would, under normal conditions, be nondescript and not always amenable to psychological analysis. The research addresses an experimental investigation of productivity and qualitative characteristics of mnemonic abilities among primary school students with developmental delays. V.D. Shadrikov’s Theory of Abilities, developed in a systemic approach framework, is the theoretical basis of the research. The method of deploying a memorization activity, as elaborated by V.D. Shadrikov and L.V. Cheremoshkina, was the investigation tool used. The sample included students in grades 1 to 4 between ages 7 to 12 and included a total of 100 children (66 boys and 34 girls. The control group of primary school students with typical development included 105 children (50 boys and 55 girls. The research consisted of several stages: a pilot study, experimental research (the test task was to memorize card #1; the basic task was to memorize cards #2 and #3; to reproduce cards #2 and #3; and to poll the students, mathematical data processing, and a description of the levels of mnemonic ability development among primary students with developmental delays. The following procedures were employed during statistical analysis: Spearman r3, Mann-Whitney U-test, Jonckheere-Terpstra test, and Kruskal-Wallis test. The structure of mnemonic abilities in primary schoolchildren with developmental delays was determined to vary according to the underdevelopment of their operational mechanisms. For example, memory functions are based on the use of inborn mechanisms, and a portion of children differ in the

  18. Developmental Changes in Cognitive and Behavioural Functioning of Adolescents with Fragile-X Syndrome

    Frolli, A.; Piscopo, S.; Conson, M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Individuals with fragile-X syndrome exhibit developmental delay, hyperexcitation and social anxiety; they also show lack of attention and hyperactivity. Few studies have investigated whether levels of functioning change with increasing age. Here, we explored developmental changes across adolescence in the cognitive and behavioural…

  19. Parent Training for Young Children with Developmental Disabilities: Randomized Controlled Trial

    McIntyre, Laura Lee

    2008-01-01

    A randomized controlled trial was used to evaluate a parent training intervention for caregivers with preschool-age children with developmental disabilities. The 21 families in the experimental group received usual care plus the 12-week Incredible Years Parent Training Program with developmental delay modifications. Families in the control group…

  20. Delayed Gambler's Ruin

    Imai, Tomohisa

    2016-01-01

    We present here a new extended model of the gambler's ruin problem by incorporating delays in receiving of rewards and paying of penalties. When there is a difference between two delays, an exact analysis of the ruin probability is difficult. We derive an approximate scheme to find an effective shift in the initial assets of the gambler. Through comparison against computer simulations, this approximation is shown to work for small differences between the two delays.

  1. Autism in Early Childhood: An Unusual Developmental Course—Three Case Reports

    Michal Cohen-Ophir; Tsophia Castel-Deutsh; Emanuel Tirosh

    2012-01-01

    Autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) is typically characterized by either an emerging and gradual course or developmental regression in early childhood. The versatile clinical course is progressively acknowledged in recent years. Children with developmental disorders in general are referred to the Child Development Center for a multidisciplinary assessment, investigation, treatment and followup. We report three infants with an initial diagnosis of developmental delays, recovery of normal developm...

  2. VARIABLE TIME DELAY MEANS

    Clemensen, R.E.

    1959-11-01

    An electrically variable time delay line is described which may be readily controlled simuitaneously with variable impedance matching means coupied thereto such that reflections are prevented. Broadly, the delay line includes a signal winding about a magnetic core whose permeability is electrically variable. Inasmuch as the inductance of the line varies directly with the permeability, the time delay and characteristic impedance of the line both vary as the square root of the permeability. Consequently, impedance matching means may be varied similariy and simultaneously w:th the electrically variable permeability to match the line impedance over the entire range of time delay whereby reflections are prevented.

  3. The Concept of Development in Developmental Psychopathology.

    Sroufe, L Alan

    2009-12-01

    So important is the perspective of development for understanding psychopathology that it spawned a new discipline-"developmental psychopathology"-which has seen remarkable advances since its introduction,, but has yet to completely fulfill its promise. To do this requires maintaining a thoroughgoing developmental perspective. When we take development seriously, there are implications for how we understand psychopathology, describe and conceptualize the origins and course of disorder, and interpret research findings. From this perspective, disorders are complex products of development; for example, we can view neurophysiological associates of disorder not as causes but as markers, the development of which we need to understand. Research on developmental psychopathology requires an examination of the history of problem behavior from early in life, and it unites multiple features of adaptation and maladaptation (contextual, experiential, physiological, and genetic). PMID:20161376

  4. Implications of attachment theory for developmental psychopathology.

    Sroufe, L A; Carlson, E A; Levy, A K; Egeland, B

    1999-01-01

    Bowlby's attachment theory is a theory of psychopathology as well as a theory of normal development. It contains clear and specific propositions regarding the role of early experience in developmental psychopathology, the importance of ongoing context, and the nature of the developmental process underlying pathology. In particular, Bowlby argued that adaptation is always the joint product of developmental history and current circumstances (never either alone). Early experience does not cause later pathology in a linear way; yet, it has special significance due to the complex, systemic, transactional nature of development. Prior history is part of current context, playing a role in selection, engagement, and interpretation of subsequent experience and in the use of available environmental supports. Finally, except in very extreme cases, early anxious attachment is not viewed as psychopathology itself or as a direct cause of psychopathology but as an initiator of pathways probabilistically associated with later pathology. PMID:10208353

  5. Genetics and Developmental Psychology

    Plomin, Robert

    2004-01-01

    One of the major changes in developmental psychology during the past 50 years has been the acceptance of the important role of nature (genetics) as well as nurture (environment). Past research consisting of twin and adoption studies has shown that genetic influence is substantial for most domains of developmental psychology. Present research…

  6. Using Time-Delay to Improve Social Play Skills with Peers for Children with Autism

    Liber, Daniella B.; Frea, William D.; Symon, Jennifer B. G.

    2008-01-01

    Interventions that teach social communication and play skills are crucial for the development of children with autism. The time delay procedure is effective in teaching language acquisition, social use of language, discrete behaviors, and chained activities to individuals with autism and developmental delays. In this study, three boys with autism,…

  7. Psychosocial developmental milestones in men with classic galactosemia

    C.S. Gubbels; H. Maurice-Stam; G.T. Berry; A.M. Bosch; S. Waisbren; M.E. Rubio-Gozalbo; M.A. Grootenhuis

    2011-01-01

    Patients with classic galactosemia suffer from several long term effects of their disease. Research in a group of mainly female patients has shown that these patients may also have a developmental delay with regard to their social aptitude. To study if male galactosemia patients achieve psychosocial

  8. Rapid, generalized adaptation to asynchronous audiovisual speech

    Van der Burg, Erik; Goodbourn, Patrick T.

    2015-01-01

    The brain is adaptive. The speed of propagation through air, and of low-level sensory processing, differs markedly between auditory and visual stimuli; yet the brain can adapt to compensate for the resulting cross-modal delays. Studies investigating temporal recalibration to audiovisual speech have used prolonged adaptation procedures, suggesting that adaptation is sluggish. Here, we show that adaptation to asynchronous audiovisual speech occurs rapidly. Participants viewed a brief clip of an...

  9. Dynamic Network Delay Cartography

    Rajawat, Ketan; Giannakis, Georgios B

    2012-01-01

    Path delays in IP networks are important metrics, required by network operators for assessment, planning, and fault diagnosis. Monitoring delays of all source-destination pairs in a large network is however challenging and wasteful of resources. The present paper advocates a spatio-temporal Kalman filtering approach to construct network-wide delay maps using measurements on only a few paths. The proposed network cartography framework allows efficient tracking and prediction of delays by relying on both topological as well as historical data. Optimal paths for delay measurement are selected in an online fashion by leveraging the notion of submodularity. The resulting predictor is optimal in the class of linear predictors, and outperforms competing alternatives on real-world datasets.

  10. Deterministically delayed pseudofractal networks

    On the basis of pseudofractal networks (PFNs), we propose a family of delayed pseudofractal networks (DPFNs) with a special feature that newly added edges delay producing new nodes, differing from the evolution algorithms of PFNs where all existing edges simultaneously generate new nodes. We obtain analytical formulae for degree distribution, clustering coefficient (C) and average path length (APL). We compare DPFNs and PFNs, and show that the exponent of the degree distribution of DPFNs is smaller than that of PFNs, meaning that the heterogeneity of this kind of delayed network is higher. Compared to PFNs, small-world features of DPFNs are more prominent (larger C and smaller APL). We also find that the delay strengthens the scale-free and small-world characteristics of DPFNs. In addition, we calculate and compare the mean first passage time (MFPT) numerically, revealing that the MFPT of DPFNs is shorter. Our study may help with a deeper understanding of various deterministically growing delayed networks

  11. Recall Memory in Children with Down Syndrome and Typically Developing Peers Matched on Developmental Age

    Milojevich, H.; Lukowski, A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Whereas research has indicated that children with Down syndrome (DS) imitate demonstrated actions over short delays, it is presently unknown whether children with DS recall information over lengthy delays at levels comparable with typically developing (TD) children matched on developmental age. Method: In the present research, 10…

  12. Life Span Developmental Approach

    Ali Eryilmaz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The Life Span Developmental Approach examines development of individuals which occurs from birth to death. Life span developmental approach is a multi-disciplinary approach related with disciplines like psychology, psychiatry, sociology, anthropology and geriatrics that indicates the fact that development is not completed in adulthood, it continues during the life course. Development is a complex process that consists of dying and death. This approach carefully investigates the development of individuals with respect to developmental stages. This developmental approach suggests that scientific disciplines should not explain developmental facts only with age changes. Along with aging, cognitive, biological, and socioemotional development throughout life should also be considered to provide a reasonable and acceptable context, guideposts, and reasonable expectations for the person. There are three important subjects whom life span developmental approach deals with. These are nature vs nurture, continuity vs discontinuity, and change vs stability. Researchers using life span developmental approach gather and produce knowledge on these three most important domains of individual development with their unique scientific methodology.

  13. Evolutionary reduction of developmental plasticity in desert spadefoot toads

    Kulkarni, S.R.; Gómez-Mestre, Iván; Moskalik, C.L.; Storz, B.L.; Buchholz, D.R.

    2011-01-01

    Organisms vary their rates of growth and development in response to environmental inputs. Such developmental plasticity may be adaptive and positively correlate with environmental heterogeneity. However, the evolution of developmental plasticity among closely related taxa is not well understood. To determine the evolutionary pattern of plasticity, we compared plasticity in time to and size at metamorphosis in response to water desiccation in tadpoles among spadefoot species that differ in bre...

  14. Developmental Trajectories for Children With Dyslexia and Low IQ Poor Readers

    2016-01-01

    Reading difficulties are found in children with both high and low IQ and it is now clear that both groups exhibit difficulties in phonological processing. Here, we apply the developmental trajectories approach, a new methodology developed for studying language and cognitive impairments in developmental disorders, to both poor reader groups. The trajectory methodology enables identification of atypical versus delayed development in datasets gathered using group matching designs. Regarding the cognitive predictors of reading, which here are phonological awareness, phonological short-term memory (PSTM) and rapid automatized naming (RAN), the method showed that trajectories for the two groups diverged markedly. Children with dyslexia showed atypical development in phonological awareness, while low IQ poor readers showed developmental delay. Low IQ poor readers showed atypical PSTM and RAN development, but children with dyslexia showed developmental delay. These divergent trajectories may have important ramifications for supporting each type of poor reader, although all poor readers showed weakness in all areas. Regarding auditory processing, the developmental trajectories were very similar for the two poor reader groups. However, children with dyslexia demonstrated developmental delay for auditory discrimination of Duration, while the low IQ children showed atypical development on this measure. The data show that, regardless of IQ, poor readers have developmental trajectories that differ from typically developing children. The trajectories approach enables differences in trajectory classification to be identified across poor reader group, as well as specifying the individual nature of these trajectories. PMID:27110928

  15. Developmental trajectories for children with dyslexia and low IQ poor readers.

    Kuppen, Sarah E A; Goswami, Usha

    2016-05-01

    Reading difficulties are found in children with both high and low IQ and it is now clear that both groups exhibit difficulties in phonological processing. Here, we apply the developmental trajectories approach, a new methodology developed for studying language and cognitive impairments in developmental disorders, to both poor reader groups. The trajectory methodology enables identification of atypical versus delayed development in datasets gathered using group matching designs. Regarding the cognitive predictors of reading, which here are phonological awareness, phonological short-term memory (PSTM) and rapid automatized naming (RAN), the method showed that trajectories for the two groups diverged markedly. Children with dyslexia showed atypical development in phonological awareness, while low IQ poor readers showed developmental delay. Low IQ poor readers showed atypical PSTM and RAN development, but children with dyslexia showed developmental delay. These divergent trajectories may have important ramifications for supporting each type of poor reader, although all poor readers showed weakness in all areas. Regarding auditory processing, the developmental trajectories were very similar for the two poor reader groups. However, children with dyslexia demonstrated developmental delay for auditory discrimination of Duration, while the low IQ children showed atypical development on this measure. The data show that, regardless of IQ, poor readers have developmental trajectories that differ from typically developing children. The trajectories approach enables differences in trajectory classification to be identified across poor reader group, as well as specifying the individual nature of these trajectories. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27110928

  16. Robust Optimal Adaptive Control Method with Large Adaptive Gain

    Nguyen, Nhan T.

    2009-01-01

    In the presence of large uncertainties, a control system needs to be able to adapt rapidly to regain performance. Fast adaptation is referred to the implementation of adaptive control with a large adaptive gain to reduce the tracking error rapidly. However, a large adaptive gain can lead to high-frequency oscillations which can adversely affect robustness of an adaptive control law. A new adaptive control modification is presented that can achieve robust adaptation with a large adaptive gain without incurring high-frequency oscillations as with the standard model-reference adaptive control. The modification is based on the minimization of the Y2 norm of the tracking error, which is formulated as an optimal control problem. The optimality condition is used to derive the modification using the gradient method. The optimal control modification results in a stable adaptation and allows a large adaptive gain to be used for better tracking while providing sufficient stability robustness. Simulations were conducted for a damaged generic transport aircraft with both standard adaptive control and the adaptive optimal control modification technique. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed modification in tracking a reference model while maintaining a sufficient time delay margin.

  17. Delay in Contests

    Bester, Helmut; Konrad, Kai A.

    2003-01-01

    "Why is there delay in contests? In this paper we follow and extend the line of reasoning of Carl von Clausewitz to explain delay. For a given contest technology, delay may occur if there is an asymmetry between defense and attack, if the expected change in relative strengths is moderate, and if the additional cost of investment in future strength is low." (author's abstract) "In Konfliktsituationen findet der 'showdown' häufig mit einer Verzögerung statt. Das ist überraschend, weil sich m...

  18. Adaptive Behavior and Problem Behavior in Young Children with Williams Syndrome

    Hahn, Laura J.; Fidler, Deborah J.; Hepburn, Susan L.

    2014-01-01

    The present study compares the adaptive behavior profile of 18 young children with Williams syndrome (WS) and a developmentally matched group of 19 children with developmental disabilities and examines the relationship between adaptive behavior and problem behaviors in WS. Parents completed the Vineland Adaptive Behavioral Scales--Interview…

  19. Pervasive Developmental Disorders

    ... ultimately cure this and similar disorders. NIH Patient Recruitment for Pervasive Developmental Disorders Clinical Trials At NIH ... 1055 (TTY) National Institute of Child Health and Human Information Resource Center P.O. Box 3006 Rockville, MD 20847 ...

  20. Facts about Developmental Disabilities

    ... do if you’re concerned » Developmental Monitoring and Screening A child’s growth and development are followed through ... to prevent illness. Some health conditions, such as asthma, gastrointestinal symptoms, eczema and skin allergies, and migraine ...

  1. Comparing Active Delay and Procrastination from a Self-Regulated Learning Perspective

    Corkin, Danya M.; Yu, Shirley L.; Lindt, Suzanne F.

    2011-01-01

    Researchers have proposed that the act of postponing academic work may be divided into a traditional definition of procrastination, viewed as maladaptive, and adaptive forms of delay. Adaptive forms of delay may be more consistent with certain facets of self-regulated learning. The current study investigated this issue by examining whether the…

  2. Developmental Effects of Ghrelin

    Steculorum, Sophie M.; Bouret, Sebastien G.

    2011-01-01

    Ghrelin is a pleiotropic hormone that was originally described as promoting feeding and stimulating growth hormone release in adults. A growing body of evidence suggests that ghrelin may also exert developmental and organizational effects during perinatal life. The perinatal actions of ghrelin include the regulation of early developmental events such as blastocyst development and perinatal growth. Moreover, alterations in perinatal ghrelin levels result in structural differences in various pe...

  3. Life Span Developmental Approach

    Eryılmaz, Ali

    2011-01-01

    The Life Span Developmental Approach examines development of individuals which occurs from birth to death. Life span developmental approach is a multi-disciplinary approach related with disciplines like psychology, psychiatry, sociology, anthropology and geriatrics that indicates the fact that development is not completed in adulthood, it continues during the life course. Development is a complex process that consists of dying and death. This approach carefully investigates the development of...

  4. Towards Deep Developmental Learning

    Sigaud, Olivier; Droniou, Alain

    2016-01-01

    International audience Deep learning techniques are having an undeniable impact on general pattern recognition issues. In this paper, from a developmental robotics perspective, we scrutinize deep learning techniques under the light of their capability to construct a hierarchy of meaningful multimodal representations from the raw sensors of robots. These investigations reveal the differences between the methodological constraints of pattern recognition and those of developmental robotics. I...

  5. 重庆地区1743例智力低下/发育迟缓儿童细胞遗传学分析及意义探讨%Cytogenetic analysis and its significance of 1 743 mental retardation /developmental delay children in Chongqing

    李程; 程茜; 张伟

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the distribution of the abnormal karyotype in mental retardation /developmental delay (MR/DD) children of Chongqing to provide the information for diagnosis and genetic counseling. Methods The samples of the peripheral blood lymphocytes from 1743 children were prepared with routine cytogenetic methods,G-banding was employed for karyotype analysis. Results A total of 742 patients(42. 57%) were identified to have abnormalities with 20 kinds of karyotypes. Down s syndrome was the most common in euchromosome malformation, and Klinefelter syndrome in sex chromosome malformation. 80. 69% were found abnormalities in Down s syndrome group, which were coincided with clinical diagnosis and the most of 870 cases were infants;2. 08% were detected in Fragile X syndrome group and major subjects were preschool children;57. 12% in Cri-du-chat syndrome group;4. 95% in MR/DD with non-dysmorphic group,major of 626 cases were 3-5 years old,respectively. Conclusion The most abnormal karyotypes of MR/DD children are Down's,Klinefelter and Fragile X syndrome in Chongqing. It is suggested that more chromosomal information of MR/DD should be acquired,it benefits for early management and intervention of genetic diseases.%目的 了解重庆地区智力低下/发育迟缓儿童染色体异常的主要分布情况,为疾病的病因诊断、遗传咨询提供理论依据.方法 对1743例儿童无菌外周血进行常规接种、培养、制片及G带分析.结果 1743例中检出基因异常共742例,异常检出率42.57%,异常核型共20种,常染色体异常以21-三体综合征为主,性染色体异常以Klinefelter综合征为主.按送检病因分类染色体检出异常相符情况为21-三体综合征80.69%,送检年龄集中在小于1岁组;脆性X综合征2.08%,送检年龄主要是3~5岁儿童;猫叫综合征57.12%(4/7);表型不易识别智力低下/发育迟缓4.95%,送检儿童年龄大部分为3~5岁.结论 重庆地区智力低下/发育迟缓儿童

  6. commensurate point delays

    M. de la Sen

    2005-01-01

    nominal controller is maintained. In the current approach, the finite spectrum assignment is only considered as a particular case of the designer's choice of a (delay-dependent arbitrary spectrum assignment objective.

  7. Vernier Delay Unit

    This module will accept differential ECL pulses from the auxiliary rear panel or NIM level pulses from the front panel. The pulses are produced at the output with a fixed delay that is software programmable in steps of 0.1 ns over the range of 0.1 to 10.5 ns. Multiple outputs are available at the front panel. Minimum delay through the module is 9 ns

  8. Delayed Product Introduction

    Kai-Lung Hui; Qiu-Hong Wang

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the incentives of a monopolistic seller to delay the introduction of a new and improved version of his product. By analyzing a three-period model, we show that the seller may prefer to delay introducing a new product, even though the enabling technologies for the product are already available. The underlying motivation is analogous to that found in the durable goods monopolist literature – the seller suffers from a time inconsistency problem that causes his old and new products...

  9. Quad precision delay generator

    A Quad Precision Delay Generator delays a digital edge by a programmed amount of time, varying from nanoseconds to microseconds. The output of this generator has an amplitude of the order of tens of volts and rise time of the order of nanoseconds. This was specifically designed and developed to meet the stringent requirements of the plasma focus experiments. Plasma focus is a laboratory device for producing and studying nuclear fusion reactions in hot deuterium plasma. 3 figs

  10. Simulation Based Verification of the Applicability of a Novel Branch of Computational Cybernetics in the Adaptive Control of Imperfectly Modeled Physical Systems of Asymmetric Delay Time and Strong Non-linearities

    Tar, József K.; Rudas, Imre J.; Bitó, János F.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper the applicability of an adaptive control based on a novel branch ofComputational Cybernetics is illustrated for two different, imperfectly andinaccurately modeled particular physical sytems. One of them is a water tankstirring cold and hot water as input and releasing the mixture through a long pipe.The mass flow rate and the temperature are prescribed at the free end of the exitpipe while the taps at the input side can diretly be controlled. Due to theincompressibility of the f...

  11. Improving health and education outcomes for children in remote communities: A cross-sector and developmental evaluation approach

    Debra Maria Jones

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Early childhood is one of the most influential developmental life stages. Attainments at this stage will have implications for the quality of life children experience as they transition to adulthood. Children residing in remote Australia are exposed to socioeconomic disadvantage that can contribute to developmental delays and resultant poorer education and health outcomes. Complex contributing factors in far west New South Wales have resulted in children with speech and fine motor skill delays experiencing no to limited access to allied health services for a number of decades. More recently, growing awareness that no single policy, government agency, or program could effectively respond to these complexities or ensure appropriate allied health service access for children in these communities has led to the development of the Allied Health in Outback Schools Program, which has been operational since 2009. The program is underpinned by cross-sector partnerships and a shared aspirational aim to improve the developmental outcomes of children to enhance their later life opportunities. It was identified early that the initiative had the potential to deliver mutually beneficial outcomes for communities and participating partner organisations. Over the last five years the program has been the catalyst for partnership consolidation, expansion and diversification. The developmental evaluation approach to continuous program adaptation and refinement has provided valuable insights that have informed health and education policy and enabled the program to be responsive to changing community needs, emerging policy and funding reforms. This article explores the evolution of the program partnerships, their contribution to program success and longevity, and their capacity to respond to an emergent and dynamic environment. The authors propose that a community-centred and developmental approach to program innovation and implementation in remote locations is

  12. Adaptive lag synchronization and parameters adaptive lag identification of chaotic systems

    Xu Yuhua, E-mail: yuhuaxu2004@163.co [College of Information Science and Technology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China) and Department of Mathematics, Yunyang Teachers' College, Hubei, Shiyan 442000 (China); Zhou Wuneng, E-mail: wnzhou@163.co [College of Information Science and Technology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China) and Key Laboratory of Wireless Sensor Network and Communication, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Fang Jian' an, E-mail: jafang@dhu.edu.c [College of Information Science and Technology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Sun Wen, E-mail: sunwen_2201@163.co [School of Mathematics and Information, Yangtze University, Hubei, Jingzhou 434023 (China)

    2010-07-26

    This Letter investigates the problem of adaptive lag synchronization and parameters adaptive lag identification of chaotic systems. In comparison with those of existing parameters identification schemes, the unknown parameters are identified by adaptive lag laws, and the delay time is also identified in this Letter. Numerical simulations are also given to show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  13. Adaptive lag synchronization and parameters adaptive lag identification of chaotic systems

    This Letter investigates the problem of adaptive lag synchronization and parameters adaptive lag identification of chaotic systems. In comparison with those of existing parameters identification schemes, the unknown parameters are identified by adaptive lag laws, and the delay time is also identified in this Letter. Numerical simulations are also given to show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  14. Evaluation of the child with delayed speech or language.

    Coplan, J

    1985-03-01

    Because of the relative frequency of speech/language delay, all infants and preschool children should undergo routine language screening as part of health care maintenance. Diagnostic evaluation of the child with speech or language delay should answer the following questions: What is the child's descriptive diagnosis (eg, hearing impaired, mentally retarded, DLD, etc.)? What is the child's etiologic diagnosis (eg, congenital viral infection, single gene disorder, birth asphyxia, etc.)? What is the appropriate intervention strategy (amplification, orally based speech therapy, total communication, "infant stimulation" program, etc.)? What is this child's long-term prognosis, to the extent that this is knowable? All children with speech or language delay should undergo formal audiologic testing, regardless of how well the child seems to hear in an office setting, and regardless of whether other disabilities are present which might independently explain the speech/language delay. Evaluation by a psychologist, a speech/language pathologist, or both should follow, with referral to an appropriate intervention program based upon the results of formal developmental testing. Additional medical evaluation (eg, CAT scan, EEG, karyotype), and genetic counseling must be determined on a case-by-case basis. Long-term follow-up should include an awareness that speech or language delay during the preschool years often signifies long-term developmental difficulties, warranting close follow-up of such children as they advance through the school age years. PMID:4000735

  15. Time Delay Cosmography

    Treu, Tommaso

    2016-01-01

    Gravitational time delays, observed in strong lens systems where the variable background source is multiply-imaged by a massive galaxy in the foreground, provide direct measurements of cosmological distance that are very complementary to other cosmographic probes. The success of the technique depends on the availability and size of a suitable sample of lensed quasars or supernovae, precise measurements of the time delays, accurate modeling of the gravitational potential of the main deflector, and our ability to characterize the distribution of mass along the line of sight to the source. We review the progress made during the last 15 years, during which the first competitive cosmological inferences with time delays were made, and look ahead to the potential of significantly larger lens samples in the near future.

  16. Gesture Production in School vs. Clinical Samples of Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) and Typically Developing Children

    Sinani, Charikleia; Sugden, David A.; Hill, Elisabeth L.

    2011-01-01

    Dyspraxia, a difficulty in executing an operationalised act, has been associated with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD). However, issues relating to the area such as comparisons across modalities, comparisons of school vs. clinical populations, and developmental delay vs. pathology have not been addressed in the same, comprehensive study.…

  17. Approximation of distributed delays

    Lu, Hao; Eberard, Damien; Simon, Jean-Pierre

    2010-01-01

    We address in this paper the approximation problem of distributed delays. Such elements are convolution operators with kernel having bounded support, and appear in the control of time-delay systems. From the rich literature on this topic, we propose a general methodology to achieve such an approximation. For this, we enclose the approximation problem in the graph topology, and work with the norm defined over the convolution Banach algebra. The class of rational approximates is described, and a constructive approximation is proposed. Analysis in time and frequency domains is provided. This methodology is illustrated on the stabilization control problem, for which simulations results show the effectiveness of the proposed methodology.

  18. Delayed breast implant reconstruction

    Hvilsom, Gitte B.; Hölmich, Lisbet R.; Steding-Jessen, Marianne;

    2011-01-01

    -stage procedures. From the Danish Registry for Plastic Surgery of the Breast, which has prospectively registered data for women undergoing breast implantations since 1999, we identified 559 women without a history of radiation therapy undergoing 592 delayed breast reconstructions following breast cancer during the......Studies of complications following reconstructive surgery with implants among women with breast cancer are needed. As the, to our knowledge, first prospective long-term study we evaluated the occurrence of complications following delayed breast reconstruction separately for one- and two...

  19. Stochastic parameter estimation in nonlinear time-delayed vibratory systems with distributed delay

    Torkamani, Shahab; Butcher, Eric A.

    2013-07-01

    The stochastic estimation of parameters and states in linear and nonlinear time-delayed vibratory systems with distributed delay is explored. The approach consists of first employing a continuous time approximation to approximate the delayed integro-differential system with a large set of ordinary differential equations having stochastic excitations. Then the problem of state and parameter estimation in the resulting stochastic ordinary differential system is represented as an optimal filtering problem using a state augmentation technique. By adapting the extended Kalman-Bucy filter to the augmented filtering problem, the unknown parameters of the time-delayed system are estimated from noise-corrupted, possibly incomplete measurements of the states. Similarly, the upper bound of the distributed delay can also be estimated by the proposed technique. As an illustrative example to a practical problem in vibrations, the parameter, delay upper bound, and state estimation from noise-corrupted measurements in a distributed force model widely used for modeling machine tool vibrations in the turning operation is investigated.

  20. The Relation of Emotional Maltreatment to Early Adolescent Competence: Developmental Processes in a Prospective Study

    Shaffer, Anne; Yates, Tuppett M.; Egeland, Byron R.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: This investigation examined developmental pathways between childhood emotional maltreatment and adaptational outcomes in early adolescence. This study utilized a developmental psychopathology perspective in adopting a multidimensional approach to the assessment of different forms of emotional maltreatment and later adjustment outcomes.…

  1. Asynchronous Bounded Expected Delay Networks

    Bakhshi, Rena; Endrullis, Jörg; Fokkink, Wan; Pang, Jun

    2010-01-01

    The commonly used asynchronous bounded delay (ABD) network models assume a fixed bound on message delay. We propose a probabilistic network model, called asynchronous bounded expected delay (ABE) model. Instead of a strict bound, the ABE model requires only a bound on the expected message delay. While the conditions of ABD networks restrict the set of possible executions, in ABE networks all asynchronous executions are possible, but executions with extremely long delays are less probable. In ...

  2. Traffic Scheduling in WDM Passive Optical Network with Delay Guarantee

    2005-01-01

    WDM passive optical network becomes more favorable as the required bandwidth increases, but currently few media access control algorithms adapted to WDM access network. This paper presented a new scheduling algorithm for bandwidth sharing in WDM passive optical networks, which provides per-flow delay guarantee and supports variable-length packets scheduling. Through theoretical analysis and simulation, the end-to-end delay bound and throughput fairness of the algorithm was demonstrated.

  3. Delays at signalised intersections with exhaustive traffic control

    Boon, MAA Marko; Adan, IJBF Ivo; Winands, EMM Erik; Down, DG

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we study a traffic intersection with vehicle-actuated traffic signal control. Traffic lights stay green until all lanes within a group are emptied. Assuming general renewal arrival processes, we derive exact limiting distributions of the delays under Heavy Traffic (HT) conditions. Furthermore, we derive the Light Traffic (LT) limit of the mean delays for intersections with Poisson arrivals, and develop a heuristic adaptation of this limit to capture the LT behaviour for other in...

  4. Isolating the delay component of impulsive choice in adolescent rats

    Jesse eMcClure

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Impulsive choice — the preference for small immediate rewards over larger delayed rewards — has been linked to various psychological conditions ranging from behavioral disorders to addiction. These links highlight the critical need to dissect the various components of this multifaceted behavioral trait. Delay discounting tasks allow researchers to study an important factor of this behavior: how the subjective value of a rewards changes over a delay period. However, existing methods of delay discounting include a confound of modifying reward sizes during the procedure. Here we present a new approach of using a single constant reward size to assess delay discounting. A complementary approach could hold delay constant and assess the utility of changing quantities of a reward. Isolating these behavioral components can advance our ability to explore the behavioral complexity of impulsive choice. We present the methods for isolating delay in detail, and further capitalize on this method by pairing it with a standard peak interval task to test whether individual variation in delay discounting can be explained by differences in perception of time in male and female adolescent rats. We find that rats that were more precise in discriminating time intervals were also less impulsive in their choice. Our data suggest that differences in timing and delay discounting are not causally related, but instead are more likely influenced by a common factor. Further, the mean-level change in our measure between postnatal day 28 and 42 suggests this test may be capturing a developmental change in this factor. In summary, this new method of isolating individual components of impulsive choice (delay or quantity can be efficiently applied in either adolescent or adult animal models and may help elucidate the mechanisms underlying impulsivity and its links to psychological disorders.

  5. An Evaluation of Constant Time Delay and Simultaneous Prompting Procedures in Skill Acquisition for Young Children with Autism

    Brandt, Julie A. Ackerlund; Weinkauf, Sara; Zeug, Nicole; Klatt, Kevin P.

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has shown that various prompting procedures are effective in teaching skills to children and adults with developmental disabilities. Simultaneous prompting includes proving a prompt immediately following an instruction; whereas constant time-delay procedures include a set time delay (i.e., 5 s or 10 s) prior to delivering a…

  6. Delayed traumatic diaphragmatic hernia

    Lu, Jing; Wang, Bo; Che, Xiangming; Li, Xuqi; Qiu, Guanglin; He, Shicai; Fan, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Traumatic diaphragmatic hernias (TDHs) are sometimes difficult to identify at an early stage and can consequently result in diagnostic delays with life-threatening outcomes. It is the aim of this case study to highlight the difficulties encountered with the earlier detection of traumatic diaphragmatic hernias. Methods: Clinical data of patients who received treatment for delayed traumatic diaphragmatic hernias in registers of the First Affiliated Hospital of Xi’an Jiaotong University from 1998 to 2014 were analyzed retrospectively. Results: Six patients were included in this study. Left hemidiaphragm was affected in all of them. Most of the patients had a history of traffic accident and 1 a stab-penetrating injury. The interval from injury to developing symptoms ranged from 2 to 11 years (median 5 years). The hernial contents included the stomach, omentum, small intestine, and colon. Diaphragmatic injury was missed in all of them during the initial managements. All patients received operations once the diagnosis of delayed TDH was confirmed, and no postoperative mortality was detected. Conclusions: Delayed TDHs are not common, but can lead to serious consequences once occurred. Early detection of diaphragmatic injuries is crucial. Surgeons should maintain a high suspicion for injuries of the diaphragm in cases with abdominal or lower chest traumas, especially in the initial surgical explorations. We emphasize the need for radiographical follow-up to detect diaphragmatic injuries at an earlier stage. PMID:27512848

  7. Speech and Language Delay

    ... child depends on the cause of the speech delay. Your doctor will tell you the cause of your child's problem and explain any treatments that might fix the problem or make it better. A speech and language pathologist might be helpful in making treatment plans. This ...

  8. Adaptive cancellation techniques

    1983-11-01

    An adaptive signal canceller has been evaluated for the enhancement of pulse signal reception during the transmission of a high power ECM jamming signal. The canceller design is based on the use of DRFM(Digital RF Memory) technology as part of an adaptive multiple tapped delay line. The study includes analysis of relationship of tap spacing and waveform bandwidth, survey of related documents in areas of sidelobe cancellers, transversal equalizers, and adaptive filters, and derivation of control equations and corresponding control processes. The simulation of overall processes included geometric analysis of the multibeam transmitting antenna, multiple reflection sources and the receiving antenna; waveforms, tap spacings and bandwidths; and alternate control algorithms. Conclusions are provided regarding practical system control algorithms, design characteristics and limitations.

  9. Arguments from Developmental Order.

    Stöckle-Schobel, Richard

    2016-01-01

    In this article, I investigate a special type of argument regarding the role of development in theorizing about psychological processes and cognitive capacities. Among the issues that developmental psychologists study, discovering the ontogenetic trajectory of mechanisms or capacities underpinning our cognitive functions ranks highly. The order in which functions are developed or capacities are acquired is a matter of debate between competing psychological theories, and also philosophical conceptions of the mind - getting the role and the significance of the different steps in this order right could be seen as an important virtue of such theories. Thus, a special kind of strategy in arguments between competing philosophical or psychological theories is using developmental order in arguing for or against a given psychological claim. In this article, I will introduce an analysis of arguments from developmental order, which come in two general types: arguments emphasizing the importance of the early cognitive processes and arguments emphasizing the late cognitive processes. I will discuss their role in one of the central tools for evaluating scientific theories, namely in making inferences to the best explanation. I will argue that appeal to developmental order is, by itself, an insufficient criterion for theory choice and has to be part of an argument based on other core explanatory or empirical virtues. I will end by proposing a more concerted study of philosophical issues concerning (cognitive) development, and I will present some topics that also pertain to a full-fledged 'philosophy of development.' PMID:27242648

  10. Arguments from Developmental Order

    Stöckle-Schobel, Richard

    2016-01-01

    In this article1, I investigate a special type of argument regarding the role of development in theorizing about psychological processes and cognitive capacities. Among the issues that developmental psychologists study, discovering the ontogenetic trajectory of mechanisms or capacities underpinning our cognitive functions ranks highly. The order in which functions are developed or capacities are acquired is a matter of debate between competing psychological theories, and also philosophical conceptions of the mind – getting the role and the significance of the different steps in this order right could be seen as an important virtue of such theories. Thus, a special kind of strategy in arguments between competing philosophical or psychological theories is using developmental order in arguing for or against a given psychological claim. In this article, I will introduce an analysis of arguments from developmental order, which come in two general types: arguments emphasizing the importance of the early cognitive processes and arguments emphasizing the late cognitive processes. I will discuss their role in one of the central tools for evaluating scientific theories, namely in making inferences to the best explanation. I will argue that appeal to developmental order is, by itself, an insufficient criterion for theory choice and has to be part of an argument based on other core explanatory or empirical virtues. I will end by proposing a more concerted study of philosophical issues concerning (cognitive) development, and I will present some topics that also pertain to a full-fledged ‘philosophy of development.’ PMID:27242648

  11. The Developmental Work

    Møller, Niels; Hvid, Helge

    2001-01-01

    AbstractIn the nineties, the concept of the developmental work (DW) has become a significant point of orientation for the actors on Danish labour market. The DW has moved the focus of the labour market from wages and working time towards work and production. For employees, the DW promises...

  12. Developmental paediatric anaesthetic pharmacology

    Hansen, Tom Giedsing

    2015-01-01

    Safe and effective drug therapy in neonates, infants and children require detailed knowledge about the ontogeny of drug disposition and action as well how these interact with genetics and co-morbidity of children. Recent advances in developmental pharmacology in children follow the increased...

  13. Mammary Glands: Developmental Changes

    The mammary gland progresses from the accumulation of a few cells in the embryonic ectoderm to a highly arborescent tubulo-alveolar gland capable of secreting a highly nutritious product for consumption. Throughout this progression, various changes occur during each developmental stage: prenatal, pr...

  14. Qualitative methodology in developmental psychology

    Demuth, Carolin; Mey, Günter

    2015-01-01

    Qualitative methodology presently is gaining increasing recognition in developmental psychology. Although the founders of developmental psychology to a large extent already used qualitative procedures, the field was long dominated by a (post) positivistic quantitative paradigm. The increasing...

  15. Interferometric Propagation Delay

    Goldstein, Richard

    1999-01-01

    Radar interferometry based on (near) exact repeat passes has lately been used by many groups of scientists, worldwide, to achieve state of the art measurements of topography, glacier and ice stream motion, earthquake displacements, oil field subsidence, lava flows, crop-induced surface decorrelation, and other effects. Variations of tropospheric and ionospheric propagation delays limit the accuracy of all such measurements. We are investigating the extent of this limitation, using data from the Shuttle radar flight, SIR-C, which is sensitive to the troposphere, and the Earth Resources Satellites, ERS-1/2, which are sensitive to both the troposphere and the ionosphere. We are presently gathering statistics of the delay variations over selected, diverse areas to determine the best accuracy possible for repeat track interferometry. The phases of an interferogram depend on both the topography of the scene and variations in propagation delay. The delay variations can be caused by movement of elements in the scene, by changes in tropospheric water vapor and by changes of the charge concentrations in the ionosphere. We plan to separate these causes by using the data from a third satellite visit (three-pass interferometry). The figure gives the geometry of the three-pass observations. The page of the figure is taken to be perpendicular to the spacecraft orbits. The three observational locations are marked on the figure, giving baselines B-12 and B-13, separated by the angle alpha. These parameters are almost constant over the whole scene. However, each pixel has an individual look angle, theta, which is related to the topography, rho is the slant range. A possible spurious time delay is shown. Additional information is contained in the original.

  16. Career Adapt-Abilities Scale-Belgium Form: Psychometric Characteristics and Construct Validity

    Dries, Nicky; Van Esbroeck, Raoul; van Vianen, Annelies E. M.; De Cooman, Rein; Pepermans, Roland

    2012-01-01

    The Dutch version of the Career Adapt-Abilities Scale-Belgium Form (CAAS-Belgium) consists of four scales, each with six items, which measure concern, control, curiosity, and confidence as psychosocial resources for managing occupational transitions, developmental tasks, and work traumas. A pilot survey was administered to 700 high school,…

  17. Career Adapt-Abilities Scale--Brazilian Form: Psychometric Properties and Relationships to Personality

    Teixeira, Marco Antonio Pereira; Bardagi, Marucia Patta; Lassance, Maria Celia Pacheco; Magalhaes, Mauro de Oliveira; Duarte, Maria Eduarda

    2012-01-01

    The Career Adapt-Abilities Scale--Brazilian Form (CAASBrazil) consists of four scales which measure concern, control, curiosity, and confidence as psychosocial resources for managing occupational transitions, developmental tasks, and work traumas. Internal consistency estimates for the subscale and total scores ranged from good to excellent. The…

  18. Evolutionary Developmental Psychology: Contributions from Comparative Research with Nonhuman Primates

    Maestripieri, Dario; Roney, James R.

    2006-01-01

    Evolutionary developmental psychology is a discipline that has the potential to integrate conceptual approaches to the study of behavioral development derived from psychology and biology as well as empirical data from humans and animals. Comparative research with animals, and especially with nonhuman primates, can provide evidence of adaptation in…

  19. Adaptive Lighting

    Petersen, Kjell Yngve; Søndergaard, Karin; Kongshaug, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive LightingAdaptive lighting is based on a partial automation of the possibilities to adjust the colour tone and brightness levels of light in order to adapt to people’s needs and desires. IT support is key to the technical developments that afford adaptive control systems. The possibilities offered by adaptive lighting control are created by the ways that the system components, the network and data flow can be coordinated through software so that the dynamic variations are controlled i...

  20. Motor Developmental Status of Moderately Low Birth Weight Preterm Infants

    TAVASOLI, Azita; Aliabadi, Faranak; Eftekhari, Rooholah

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Motor development is frequently reported to be impaired in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants, but little is known about the moderately low birth weight (MLBW) infants. The aim of this study was to investigate whether MLBW preterm infants present developmental delay. Methods: In a historical cohort study, 18±2 month-old infants with a history of low birth weight (LBW) were identified. All infants with complications of LBW with negative effects on development were excluded. Health...

  1. Optimum Delayed Retirement Credit

    Sheshinski, Eytan

    2002-01-01

    A central question for pension design is how benefits should vary with the age of retirement beyond early eligibility age. It is often argued that in order to be neutral with respect to individual retirement decisions benefits should be actuarially fair, that is, the present value of additional contributions and benefits (’Delayed Retirement Credit’ - DRC) due to postponed retirement should be equal. We show that in a self-selection, asymmetric information model, because individual decisions ...

  2. Delay reduction: current status.

    Fantino, E; Preston, R. A.; Dunn, R

    1993-01-01

    Delay-reduction theory states that the effectiveness of a stimulus as a conditioned reinforcer may be predicted most accurately by the reduction in time to primary reinforcement correlated with its onset. We review support for the theory and then discuss two new types of experiments that assess it. One compares models of choice in situations wherein the less preferred outcome is made more accessible; the other investigates whether frequency of conditioned reinforcement affects choice beyond t...

  3. Developmental amnesia and its relationship to degree of hippocampal atrophy

    Isaacs, E. B.; Vargha-Khadem, F.; Watkins, K. E.; Lucas, A.; Mishkin, M.; Gadian, D. G.

    2003-01-01

    Two groups of adolescents, one born preterm and one with a diagnosis of developmental amnesia, were compared with age-matched normal controls on measures of hippocampal volume and memory function. Relative to control values, the preterm group values showed a mean bilateral reduction in hippocampal volume of 8–9% (ranging to 23%), whereas the developmental amnesic group values showed a reduction of 40% (ranging from 27% to 56%). Despite equivalent IQ and immediate memory scores in the two study groups, there were marked differences between them on a wide variety of verbal and visual delayed memory tasks. Consistent with their diagnosis, the developmental amnesic group was impaired relative to both other groups on nearly all delayed memory measures. The preterm group, by contrast, was significantly impaired relative to the controls on only a few memory measures, i.e., route following and prospective memory. We suggest that early hippocampal pathology leads to the disabling memory impairments associated with developmental amnesia when the volume of this structure is reduced below normal by ≈20–30% on each side. Whether this is a sufficient condition for the disorder or whether abnormality in other brain regions is also necessary remains to be determined. PMID:14555756

  4. Time-Delay Interferometry

    Massimo Tinto

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Equal-arm detectors of gravitational radiation allow phase measurements many orders of magnitude below the intrinsic phase stability of the laser injecting light into their arms. This is because the noise in the laser light is common to both arms, experiencing exactly the same delay, and thus cancels when it is differenced at the photo detector. In this situation, much lower level secondary noises then set the overall performance. If, however, the two arms have different lengths (as will necessarily be the case with space-borne interferometers, the laser noise experiences different delays in the two arms and will hence not directly cancel at the detector. In order to solve this problem, a technique involving heterodyne interferometry with unequal arm lengths and independent phase-difference readouts has been proposed. It relies on properly time-shifting and linearly combining independent Doppler measurements, and for this reason it has been called time-delay interferometry (TDI. This article provides an overview of the theory, mathematical foundations, and experimental aspects associated with the implementation of TDI. Although emphasis on the application of TDI to the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA mission appears throughout this article, TDI can be incorporated into the design of any future space-based mission aiming to search for gravitational waves via interferometric measurements. We have purposely left out all theoretical aspects that data analysts will need to account for when analyzing the TDI data combinations.

  5. Time-Delay Interferometry

    Dhurandhar, Sanjeev V.; Tinto, Massimo

    2005-07-01

    Equal-arm interferometric detectors of gravitational radiation allow phase measurements many orders of magnitude below the intrinsic phase stability of the laser injecting light into their arms. This is because the noise in the laser light is common to both arms, experiencing exactly the same delay, and thus cancels when it is differenced at the photo detector. In this situation, much lower level secondary noises then set the overall performance. If, however, the two arms have different lengths (as will necessarily be the case with space-borne interferometers), the laser noise experiences different delays in the two arms and will hence not directly cancel at the detector. In order to solve this problem, a technique involving heterodyne interferometry with unequal arm lengths and independent phase-difference readouts has been proposed. It relies on properly time-shifting and linearly combining independent Doppler measurements, and for this reason it has been called Time-Delay Interferometry (TDI). This article provides an overview of the theory and mathematical foundations of TDI as it will be implemented by the forthcoming space-based interferometers such as the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) mission. We have purposely left out from this first version of our "Living Review" article on TDI all the results of more practical and experimental nature, as well as all the aspects of TDI that the data analysts will need to account for when analyzing the LISA TDI data combinations. Our forthcoming "second edition" of this review paper will include these topics.

  6. An Unusual Developmental Profile of Salla Disease in a Patient with the SallaFIN Mutation

    Paavola, Liisa E.; Remes, Anne M.; Sonninen, Pirkko H.; Vesa V. Kiviniemi; Korhonen, Tapio T.; Kari Majamaa

    2012-01-01

    Salla disease (SD) is a disorder caused by defective storage of free sialic acid and results from mutations in the SLC17A5 gene. Early developmental delay of motor functions, and later cognitive skills, is typical. We describe a developmental profile of an unusual homozygous patient, who harboured the SallaFIN (p.R39C) mutation gene. The study involved neurological examination, neuropsychological investigation, and brain imaging. The neurocognitive findings were atypical in comparison with ot...

  7. Juvenile antioxidant treatment prevents adult deficits in a developmental model of schizophrenia

    Cabungcal, Jan Harry; Counotte, Danielle S.; Lewis, Eastman; Tejeda, Hugo A.; Piantadosi, Patrick; Pollock, Cameron; Calhoon, Gwendolyn G.; Sullivan, Elyse; Presgraves, Echo; Kil, Jonathan; Hong, L. Elliot; Cuenod, Michel; Kim Q Do; O'Donnell, Patricio

    2014-01-01

    Abnormal development can lead to deficits in adult brain function, a trajectory likely underlying adolescent-onset psychiatric conditions such as schizophrenia. Developmental manipulations yielding adult deficits in rodents provide an opportunity to explore mechanisms involved in a delayed emergence of anomalies driven by developmental alterations. Here we assessed whether oxidative stress during presymptomatic stages causes adult anomalies in rats with a neonatal ventral hippocampal lesion, ...

  8. Parent Training for Young Children With Developmental Disabilities: Randomized Controlled Trial

    McIntyre, Laura Lee

    2008-01-01

    A randomized controlled trial was used to evaluate a parent training intervention for caregivers with preschool-age children with developmental disabilities. The 21 families in the experimental group received usual care plus the 12-week Incredible Years Parent Training Program with developmental delay modifications. Families in the control group (n = 23) received usual care, including early childhood education and related services. Results suggest that this parent training intervention was su...

  9. The Arabidopsis Floral Repressor BFT DelaysFlowering by Competing with FT for FD Bindingunder High Salinity

    2014-01-01

    Soil salinity is one of the most serious agricultural problems that significantly reduce crop yields in the aridand semi-arid regions. It influences various phases of plant growth and developmental processes, such as seed germina-tion, leaf and stem growth, and reproductive propagation. Salt stress delays the onset of flowering in many plant spe-cies. We have previously reported that the Arabidopsis BROTHER OF FT AND TFL1 (BFT) acts as a floral repressor undersalt stress. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the BFT function in the salt regulation of flowering inductionis unknown. In this work, we found that BFT delays flowering under high salinity by competing with FLOWERING LOCUST (FT) for binding to the FD transcription factor. The flowering time of FD-deficient fd-2 mutant was insensitive to highsalinity. BFT interacts with FD in the nucleus via the C-terminal domain of FD, which is also required for the interactionof FD with FT, and interferes with the FT-FD interaction. These observations indicate that BFT constitutes a distinct saltstress signaling pathway that modulates the function of the FT-FD module and possibly provides an adaptation strategythat fine-tunes photoperiodic flowering under high salinity.

  10. Exosomes in developmental signalling.

    McGough, Ian John; Vincent, Jean-Paul

    2016-07-15

    In order to achieve coordinated growth and patterning during development, cells must communicate with one another, sending and receiving signals that regulate their activities. Such developmental signals can be soluble, bound to the extracellular matrix, or tethered to the surface of adjacent cells. Cells can also signal by releasing exosomes - extracellular vesicles containing bioactive molecules such as RNA, DNA and enzymes. Recent work has suggested that exosomes can also carry signalling proteins, including ligands of the Notch receptor and secreted proteins of the Hedgehog and WNT families. Here, we describe the various types of exosomes and their biogenesis. We then survey the experimental strategies used so far to interfere with exosome formation and critically assess the role of exosomes in developmental signalling. PMID:27436038

  11. Both Maternal and Pup Genotype Influence Ultrasonic Vocalizations and Early Developmental Milestones in Tsc2+/− Mice

    Emily A. Greene-Colozzi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by tumor growth and neuropsychological symptoms such as autistic behavior, developmental delay, and epilepsy. While research has shed light on the biochemical and genetic etiology of TSC, the pathogenesis of the neurologic and behavioral manifestations remains poorly understood. TSC patients have a greatly increased risk of developmental delay and autism spectrum disorder, rendering the relationship between the two sets of symptoms an extremely pertinent issue for clinicians. We have expanded on previous observations of aberrant vocalizations in Tsc2+/− mice by testing vocalization output and developmental milestones systematically during the early postnatal period. In this study, we have demonstrated that Tsc2 haploinsufficiency in either dams or their pups results in a pattern of developmental delay in sensorimotor milestones and ultrasonic vocalizations.

  12. Anomalies and developmental defects

    Amonalies and developmental defects in trachea and bronchi (tracheal bronch us, diverticulum of trachea or bronchus, defects due to atresia of bronchial tre e, tracheobronchomegaly), lung vessels (aneurisms of pulmonary artery, agenesia, aplasia and hypoplasia of pulmonary artery,anomalies of pulmonary veins, varico sis of pulmonary veins), pulmonary tissue (lung sequestration, congenital lobar pulmonary emphysema, essential hemosiderosis), have beendescribed. The problems of the diagnosis of the above-mentioned diseases using roentgenograms are consid ered

  13. Current Vaccine Shortages and Delays

    ... CDC.gov . Vaccines and Immunizations Share Compartir Current Vaccine Shortages & Delays Last Updated December 7, 2015 On ... schedule are included in this update. Chart of Vaccines* in Delay or Shortage Vaccines are listed in ...

  14. Developmental Profiles and Mentality in Preschool Children with Prader-Willi Syndrome: A Preliminary Study

    Chien-Min Chen

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: A majority of the children with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS have globaldevelopmental delay and mental delay. The aim of this study was to investigatethe developmental profiles and mental assessments among preschoolchildren with PWS.Methods: Ten children with PWS between the ages of 15 months to 6 years, and 11children with typical development were enrolled. Developmental profiles interms of their developmental quotient (DQ for the eight domains of theChinese Children Developmental Inventory (CCDI and mental assessmentsin terms of intelligence quotient (IQ and developmental index (DI werecarried out for all children.Results: The DQs of all eight domains, including gross motor, fine motor, expressivelanguage, concept comprehension, situation comprehension, self help, personal-social and general development, in the PWS group were lower than theDQs of the children from the typical development group (p < 0.01. Childrenwith PWS had better DQs in the fine motor domain than in the gross motordomain and in the receptive language domain than in the expressive languagedomain. Furthermore, their verbal IQ were better than their performanceIQ and their mental DI was better than their psychomotor DI.Conclusions: These findings suggest that the children with PWS show an uneven globaldevelopmental delay together with an uneven mental delay. The results ofthis study should allow clinicians to better understand the developmentalfunctioning of children with PWS and this will help with the planning oftreatment strategies.

  15. Inhibitory Deficits, Delay Aversion and Preschool AD/HD: Implications for the Dual Pathway Model

    Lindy Dalen; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J. S.; Martin Hall; Bob Remington

    2004-01-01

    The dual pathway model proposes the existence of separate and neurobiologically distinct cognitive (inhibitory and more general executive dysfunction) and motivational (delay aversion) developmental routes to AD/HD. The study reported in this paper explores the relation between inhibitory deficits and delay aversion and their association with AD/HD in a group of three-year-old children. Children identified as having a pre-school equivalent of AD/HD (N=19) and controls (N=19), matched for gend...

  16. Four patients with speech delay, seizures and variable corpus callosum thickness sharing a 0.440 Mb deletion in region 1q44 containing the HNRPU gene

    Caliebe, Almuth; Kroes, Hester Y.; van der Smagt, Jasper J.; Martin-Subero, Jose I.; Toennies, Holger; van 't Slot, Ruben; Nievelstein, Rutger A. J.; Muhle, Hiltrud; Stephani, Ulrich; Alfke, Karsten; Stefanova, Irina; Hellenbroich, Yorck; Gillessen-Kaesbach, Gabriele; Hochstenbach, Ron; Siebert, Reiner; Poot, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Structural genome aberrations are frequently associated with highly variable congenital phenotypes involving mental retardation and developmental delay. Although some of these aberrations may result in recognizable phenotypes, a high degree of phenotypic variability often complicates a comprehensive

  17. Adaptive skills

    Staša Stropnik; Jana Kodrič

    2013-01-01

    Adaptive skills are defined as a collection of conceptual, social and practical skills that are learned by people in order to function in their everyday lives. They include an individual's ability to adapt to and manage her or his surroundings to effectively function and meet social or community expectations. Good adaptive skills promote individual's independence in different environments, whereas poorly developed adaptive skills are connected to individual's dependency and with g...

  18. Developmental Plasticity in Child Growth and Maturation

    Ze'evHochberg

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The ability of a given genotype to produce different phenotypes in response to different environments is termed "plasticity", and is part of the organism's "adaptability" to environmental cues. The expressions of suites of genes, particularly during development or life-history transitions, probably underlie the fundamental plasticity of an organism. Plasticity in developmental programming has evolved in order to provide the best chances of survival and reproductive success to organisms under changing environments. Environmental conditions that are experienced in early life can profoundly influence human biology, child growth and maturation, and long-term health and longevity. Developmental origins of health and disease and life history transitions are purported to use placental, nutritional, and endocrine cues for setting long-term biological, mental, and behavioral strategies for child growth and maturation in response to local ecological and/or social conditions. The window of developmental plasticity extends from conception to early childhood, and even beyond to the transition from juvenility to adoelscence, and could be transmitted transgenerationally. It involves epigenetic responses to environmental changes, which exert their effects during life history phase-transitions.

  19. Time-Delay Interferometry

    Dhurandhar Sanjeev V.

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Equal-arm interferometric detectors of gravitational radiation allow phase measurements many orders of magnitude below the intrinsic phase stability of the laser injecting light into their arms. This is because the noise in the laser light is common to both arms, experiencing exactly the same delay, and thus cancels when it is differenced at the photo detector. In this situation, much lower level secondary noises then set the overall performance. If, however, the two arms have different lengths (as will necessarily be the case with space-borne interferometers, the laser noise experiences different delays in the two arms and will hence not directly cancel at the detector. In order to solve this problem, a technique involving heterodyne interferometry with unequal arm lengths and independent phase-difference readouts has been proposed. It relies on properly time-shifting and linearly combining independent Doppler measurements, and for this reason it has been called Time-Delay Interferometry (TDI. This article provides an overview of the theory and mathematical foundations of TDI as it will be implemented by the forthcoming space-based interferometers such as the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA mission. We have purposely left out from this first version of our "Living Review" article on TDI all the results of more practical and experimental nature, as well as all the aspects of TDI that the data analysts will need to account for when analyzing the LISA TDI data combinations. Our forthcoming "second edition" of this review paper will include these topics.

  20. Vehicle barrier with access delay

    Swahlan, David J; Wilke, Jason

    2013-09-03

    An access delay vehicle barrier for stopping unauthorized entry into secure areas by a vehicle ramming attack includes access delay features for preventing and/or delaying an adversary from defeating or compromising the barrier. A horizontally deployed barrier member can include an exterior steel casing, an interior steel reinforcing member and access delay members disposed within the casing and between the casing and the interior reinforcing member. Access delay members can include wooden structural lumber, concrete and/or polymeric members that in combination with the exterior casing and interior reinforcing member act cooperatively to impair an adversarial attach by thermal, mechanical and/or explosive tools.

  1. Concurrent Delay in Construction Disputes

    Cavaleri, Sylvie Cécile

    Delay is one of the issues most frequently encountered in today’s construction industry; it causes significant economic damage to all parties involved. Construction contracts, standard and bespoke, almost invariably consider delay from a perspective of single liability. If the event causing the...... period of delay can potentially be attributed to several events falling within both parties' spheres of responsibility, commonly termed concurrent delay, is rarely regulated in construction contracts in spite of its common occurrence. This book analyses both the theoretical foundations and the practical...... solutions to the issue of concurrent delay in a comparative perspective between common and civil law systems, with an emphasis on Danish and English law....

  2. Phenotypic Dichotomy Following Developmental Exposure to Perfluorooctanic Acid (PFOA) Exposure in CD-1 Mice: Low Doses Induce Elevated Serum, Leptin, Insulin, and Overweight in Mid-Life.

    The synthetic surfactant, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is a proven developmental toxicant in mice, causing prenatal pregnancy loss, increased neonatal mortality, delayed eye opening, and abnormal mammary gland growth in animals exposed during fetal life. PFOA is found in the ser...

  3. Adaptive Lighting

    Petersen, Kjell Yngve; Søndergaard, Karin; Kongshaug, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive Lighting Adaptive lighting is based on a partial automation of the possibilities to adjust the colour tone and brightness levels of light in order to adapt to people’s needs and desires. IT support is key to the technical developments that afford adaptive control systems. The possibilities...... offered by adaptive lighting control are created by the ways that the system components, the network and data flow can be coordinated through software so that the dynamic variations are controlled in ways that meaningfully adapt according to people’s situations and design intentions. This book discusses...... distributed differently into an architectural body. We also examine what might occur when light is dynamic and able to change colour, intensity and direction, and when it is adaptive and can be brought into interaction with its surroundings. In short, what happens to an architectural space when artificial...

  4. Adaptation and creativity in cultural context

    Leonora M. Cohen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Adaptation is the fit between the individual and the environment. The dynamic interplay between person, culture, and environment is one of the most important issues in analyzing creativity. Adaptation is defined as the fit or adjustment of the individual to external conditions, but adaptation can also mean moving from one environment to another more suitable, or even forcing the environment to adapt in response to creative efforts. Culture impacts creativity in limiting acceptable boundaries, yet providing the artifacts used in creating. Culture is impacted and changed by creative efforts. Tight conformity to confining environments or cultures can stifle. The creator must be aware of cultural values and not overstep these boundaries for work to be accepted. A developmental continuum of adaptive, creative behaviors suggests a shift from individual adaptation to the environment to adaptation by the world to the individual.

  5. Coping with persistent environmental problems: systemic delays in reducing eutrophication of the Baltic Sea

    Riku Varjopuro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we focus on systemic delays in the Baltic Sea that cause the problem of eutrophication to persist. These problems are demonstrated in our study by addressing three types of delays: (1 decision delay: the time it takes for an idea or perceived need to be launched as a policy; (2 implementation delay: the time from the launch of a policy to the actual implementation; (3 ecosystem delay: the time difference between the implementation and an actual measurable effects. A policy process is one characterized by delays. It may take years from problem identification to a decision to taking action and several years further for actual implementation. Ecosystem responses to measures illustrate that feedback can keep the ecosystem in a certain state and cause a delay in ecosystem response. These delays can operate on decadal scales. Our aim in this paper is to analyze these systemic delays and especially to discuss how the critical delays can be better addressed in marine protection policies by strengthening the adaptive capacity of marine protection. We conclude that the development of monitoring systems and reflexive, participatory analysis of dynamics involved in the implementation are keys to improve understanding of the systemic delays. The improved understanding is necessary for the adaptive management of a persistent environmental problem. In addition to the state of the environment, the monitoring and analysis should be targeted also at the implementation of policies to ensure that the societies are investing in the right measures.

  6. Schizotypy From a Developmental Perspective

    Debbané, Martin; Barrantes-Vidal, Neus

    2014-01-01

    The schizotypy construct focuses attention on the liability to develop schizophrenia-spectrum disorders, yet traditionally, the schizotypy models have put more emphasis on stress-vulnerability interactions rather than developmental dynamics of emerging risk for psychopathology. Indeed, developmental accounts of this emerging personality trait have rarely been explicitly formulated. In this position article, we wish to convey some of the basic developmental tenets of schizotypy, and how they c...

  7. Congestion control algorithm in large-delay uncertain networks

    Fengjie YIN; Yuanwei JING; Yuanjiu GONG

    2007-01-01

    Based on Smith-fuzzy controller,a new active queue management(AQM)algorithm adaptable to the large-delay uncertain networks is presented.It can compensate the negative impact on the queue stability caused by the large delay,and it also maintains strong robustness under the condition of dynamic network fluid.Its stability is proven through Lyapunov method.Simulation results demonstrated that this method enables the queue length to converge at a preset value quickly and keeps the queue oscillation small.the simulation results also show that the scheme is very robust to disturbance under various network conditions and large delay and,in particular,the algorithm proposed outperforms the conventional PI control and fuzzy control when the network parameters and network delay change.

  8. Negative regulation and developmental competence in Aspergillus.

    Lee, Mi-Kyung; Kwon, Nak-Jung; Lee, Im-Soon; Jung, Seunho; Kim, Sun-Chang; Yu, Jae-Hyuk

    2016-01-01

    Asexual development (conidiation) in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans is governed by orchestrated gene expression. The three key negative regulators of conidiation SfgA, VosA, and NsdD act at different control point in the developmental genetic cascade. Here, we have revealed that NsdD is a key repressor affecting the quantity of asexual spores in Aspergillus. Moreover, nullifying both nsdD and vosA results in abundant formation of the development specific structure conidiophores even at 12 h of liquid culture, and near constitutive activation of conidiation, indicating that acquisition of developmental competence involves the removal of negative regulation exerted by both NsdD and VosA. NsdD's role in repressing conidiation is conserved in other aspergilli, as deleting nsdD causes enhanced and precocious activation of conidiation in Aspergillus fumigatus or Aspergillus flavus. In vivo NsdD-DNA interaction analyses identify three NsdD binding regions in the promoter of the essential activator of conidiation brlA, indicating a direct repressive role of NsdD in conidiation. Importantly, loss of flbC or flbD encoding upstream activators of brlA in the absence of nsdD results in delayed activation of brlA, suggesting distinct positive roles of FlbC and FlbD in conidiation. A genetic model depicting regulation of conidiation in A. nidulans is presented. PMID:27364479

  9. Developmental immunotoxicology of lead

    The heavy metal, lead, is a known developmental immunotoxicant that has been shown to produce immune alterations in humans as well as other species. Unlike many compounds that exert adverse immune effects, lead exposure at low to moderate levels does not produce widespread loss of immune cells. In contrast, changes resulting from lead exposure are subtle at the immune cell population level but, nevertheless, can be functionally dramatic. A hallmark of lead-induced immunotoxicity is a pronounced shift in the balance in T helper cell function toward T helper 2 responses at the expense of T helper 1 functions. This bias alters the nature and range of immune responses that can be produced thereby influencing host susceptibility to various diseases. Immunotoxic responses to lead appear to differ across life stages not only quantitatively with regard to dose response, but also qualitatively in terms of the spectrum of immune alterations. Experimental studies in several lab animal species suggest the latter stages of gestation are a period of considerable sensitivity for lead-induced immunotoxicity. This review describes the basic characteristics of lead-induced immunotoxicity emphasizing experimental animal results. It also provides a framework for the consideration of toxicant exposure effects across life stages. The existence of and probable basis for developmental windows of immune hyper-susceptibility are presented. Finally, the potential for lead to serve as a perinatal risk factor for childhood asthma as well as other diseases is considered

  10. Development of a water vapor radiometer to correct for tropospheric range delay in DSN applications

    Batelaan, P. D.; Sato, T.; Slobin, S. D.; Reilly, H.

    1976-01-01

    The rationale for a Water Vapor Radiometer (WVR) as an aid in predicting tropospheric delay correction is presented. Included is a block diagram and a description of the present developmental WVR with the semiautomated operating sequence outlined. A brief summary of field tests at El Monte airport and Pt. Mugu is given.

  11. Family Factors Associated with the Peer Social Competence of Young Children with Mild Delays.

    Guralnick, Michael J.; Neville, Brian; Connor, Robert T.; Hammond, Mary A.

    2003-01-01

    A model addressing family influences on the peer-related social competence of young children with mild developmental (cognitive) delays was developed and tested. Path analytic techniques were used to evaluate the model. Results supported the importance of family influences on the peer-related social competence of young children with mild…

  12. Synchronizing time delay systems using variable delay in coupling

    Highlights: → Delay and anticipation in coupling function varies with system dynamics. → Delay or anticipation of the synchronized state is independent of system delay. → Stability analysis developed is quite general. → We demonstrate enhanced security in communication. → Generalized synchronization possible over a wide range of parameter mismatch. - Abstract: We present a mechanism for synchronizing time delay systems using one way coupling with a variable delay in coupling that is reset at finite intervals. We present the analysis of the error dynamics that helps to isolate regions of stability of the synchronized state in the parameter space of interest for single and multiple delays. We supplement this by numerical simulations in a standard time delay system like Mackey Glass system. This method has the advantage that it can be adjusted to be delay or anticipatory in synchronization with a time which is independent of the system delay. We demonstrate the use of this method in communication using the bi channel scheme. We show that since the synchronizing channel carries information from transmitter only at intervals of reset time, it is not susceptible to an easy reconstruction.

  13. Adaptive Lighting

    Petersen, Kjell Yngve; Søndergaard, Karin; Kongshaug, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive Lighting Adaptive lighting is based on a partial automation of the possibilities to adjust the colour tone and brightness levels of light in order to adapt to people’s needs and desires. IT support is key to the technical developments that afford adaptive control systems. The possibilities...... offered by adaptive lighting control are created by the ways that the system components, the network and data flow can be coordinated through software so that the dynamic variations are controlled in ways that meaningfully adapt according to people’s situations and design intentions. This book discusses...... the investigations of lighting scenarios carried out in two test installations: White Cube and White Box. The test installations are discussed as large-scale experiential instruments. In these test installations we examine what could potentially occur when light using LED technology is integrated and...

  14. pth moment exponential stochastic synchronization of coupled memristor-based neural networks with mixed delays via delayed impulsive control.

    Yang, Xinsong; Cao, Jinde; Qiu, Jianlong

    2015-05-01

    This paper concerns the pth moment synchronization in an array of generally coupled memristor-based neural networks with time-varying discrete delays, unbounded distributed delays, as well as stochastic perturbations. Hybrid controllers are designed to cope with the uncertainties caused by the state-dependent parameters: (a) state feedback controllers combined with delayed impulsive controller; (b) adaptive controller combined with delayed impulsive controller. Based on an impulsive differential inequality, the properties of random variables, the framework of Filippov solution, and Lyapunov functional method, sufficient conditions are derived to guarantee that the considered coupled memristor-based neural networks can be pth moment globally exponentially synchronized onto an isolated node under both of the two classes of hybrid impulsive controllers. Finally, numerical simulations are given to show the effectiveness of the theoretical results. PMID:25703512

  15. Long delayed radio echoes

    This thesis describes an experimental program carried out at Stanford over a five-year period. The experiment involved transmitting a radio signal, and tape-recording the output of a receiver gang-tuned with the transmitter for the following 30 s interval. The tapes were later audited for possible LDE. Although none of the possible LDE received reproduces exactly the transmitted signal, many exhibit features that seem unlikely to have been generated except by an LDE mechanism. A mechanism for producing LDE has been studied which involves signal propagation in an electron plasma wave mode at very low group velocity. Modifications to the simplified theory leading to prediction of longer delays are discussed

  16. Experience in Cambodia with the Use of a Culturally Relevant Developmental Milestone Chart for Children in Low- and Middle-Income Countries

    Scherzer, Alfred L.

    2009-01-01

    The awareness and knowledge of developmental milestones among health practitioners need to be enhanced to better enable early identification and intervention with children who have delays in development, intellectual deficit, and developmental disabilities and are residents in low-and middle-income countries. To meet this end, a simple one-page…

  17. Aging and dark adaptation.

    Jackson, G R; Owsley, C; McGwin, G

    1999-11-01

    Older adults have serious difficulty seeing under low illumination and at night, even in the absence of ocular disease. Optical changes in the aged eye, such as pupillary miosis and increased lens density, cannot account for the severity of this problem, and little is known about its neural basis. Dark adaptation functions were measured on 94 adults ranging in age from the 20s to the 80s to assess the rate of rod-mediated sensitivity recovery after exposure to a 98% bleach. Fundus photography and a grading scale were used to characterize macular health in subjects over age 49 in order to control for macular disease. Thresholds for each subject were corrected for lens density based on individual estimates, and pupil diameter was controlled. Results indicated that during human aging there is a dramatic slowing in rod-mediated dark adaptation that can be attributed to delayed rhodopsin regeneration. During the second component of the rod-mediated phase of dark adaptation, the rate of sensitivity recovery decreased 0.02 log unit/min per decade, and the time constant of rhodopsin regeneration increased 8.4 s/decade. The amount of time to reach within 0.3 log units of baseline scotopic sensitivity increased 2.76 min/decade. These aging-related changes in rod-mediated dark adaptation may contribute to night vision problems commonly experienced by the elderly. PMID:10748929

  18. Adaptive skills

    Staša Stropnik

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive skills are defined as a collection of conceptual, social and practical skills that are learned by people in order to function in their everyday lives. They include an individual's ability to adapt to and manage her or his surroundings to effectively function and meet social or community expectations. Good adaptive skills promote individual's independence in different environments, whereas poorly developed adaptive skills are connected to individual's dependency and with greater need for control and help with everyday tasks. Assessment of adaptive skills is often connected to assessment of intellectual disability, due to the reason that the diagnosis of intellectual disability includes lower levels of achievements on standardized tests of intellectual abilities as well as important deficits in adaptive skills. Assessment of adaptive behavior is a part of standard assessment battery with children and adults with different problems, disorders or disabilities that affect their everyday functioning. This contribution also presents psychometric tools most regularly used for assessment of adaptive skills and characteristics of adaptive skills with individual clinical groups.

  19. ADAPT Dataset

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Diagnostics and Prognostics Testbed (ADAPT) Project Lead: Scott Poll Subject Fault diagnosis in electrical power systems Description The Advanced...

  20. A relational framework for understanding bullying: Developmental antecedents and outcomes.

    Rodkin, Philip C; Espelage, Dorothy L; Hanish, Laura D

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews current research on the relational processes involved in peer bullying, considering developmental antecedents and long-term consequences. The following themes are highlighted: (a) aggression can be both adaptive and maladaptive, and this distinction has implications for bullies' functioning within peer social ecologies; (b) developmental antecedents and long-term consequences of bullying have not been well-distinguished from the extant research on aggressive behavior; (c) bullying is aggression that operates within relationships of power and abuse. Power asymmetry and repetition elements of traditional bullying definitions have been hard to operationalize, but without these specifications and more dyadic measurement approaches there may be little rationale for a distinct literature on bullying--separate from aggression. Applications of a relational approach to bullying are provided using gender as an example. Implications for future research are drawn from the study of relationships and interpersonal theories of developmental psychopathology. PMID:25961312

  1. Location Estimation using Delayed Measurements

    Bak, Martin; Larsen, Thomas Dall; Nørgård, Peter Magnus;

    1998-01-01

    When combining data from various sensors it is vital to acknowledge possible measurement delays. Furthermore, the sensor fusion algorithm, often a Kalman filter, should be modified in order to handle the delay. The paper examines different possibilities for handling delays and applies a new techn...... technique to a sensor fusion system for estimating the location of an autonomous guided vehicle. The system fuses encoder and vision measurements in an extended Kalman filter. Results from experiments in a real environment are reported...

  2. Modeling delay in genetic networks: From delay birth-death processes to delay stochastic differential equations

    Gupta, Chinmaya; López, José Manuel; Azencott, Robert; Ott, William [Department of Mathematics, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77004 (United States); Bennett, Matthew R. [Department of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77204, USA and Institute of Biosciences and Bioengineering, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Josić, Krešimir [Department of Mathematics, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77004 (United States); Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204 (United States)

    2014-05-28

    Delay is an important and ubiquitous aspect of many biochemical processes. For example, delay plays a central role in the dynamics of genetic regulatory networks as it stems from the sequential assembly of first mRNA and then protein. Genetic regulatory networks are therefore frequently modeled as stochastic birth-death processes with delay. Here, we examine the relationship between delay birth-death processes and their appropriate approximating delay chemical Langevin equations. We prove a quantitative bound on the error between the pathwise realizations of these two processes. Our results hold for both fixed delay and distributed delay. Simulations demonstrate that the delay chemical Langevin approximation is accurate even at moderate system sizes. It captures dynamical features such as the oscillatory behavior in negative feedback circuits, cross-correlations between nodes in a network, and spatial and temporal information in two commonly studied motifs of metastability in biochemical systems. Overall, these results provide a foundation for using delay stochastic differential equations to approximate the dynamics of birth-death processes with delay.

  3. A Formal Framework for Modelling the Developmental Course of Competence and Performance in the Distance, Speed, and Time Domain

    Albert, Dietrich; Kickmeier-Rust, Michael D.; Matsuda, Fumiko

    2008-01-01

    The developmental course in the distance-speed-time domain is still a matter of debate. Traditional stage models are contested by theories of continuous development and adaptive thinking. In the present work, we introduce a formal framework for modelling the developmental course in this domain, grounding on Competence-based Knowledge Space Theory.…

  4. Post-CTS Delay Insertion

    Jianchao Lu; Baris Taskin

    2010-01-01

    A post-clock-tree-synthesis (post-CTS) optimization method is proposed that suggests delay insertion at the leaves of the clock tree in order to implement a limited version of clock skew scheduling. Delay insertion is limited on each clock tree branch simultaneous with a global monitoring of the total amount of delay insertion. The delay insertion for nonzero clock skew operation is performed only at the clock sinks in order to preserve the structure and the optimizations implemented in the c...

  5. Developmental Math: What's the Answer?

    Cafarella, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Developmental mathematics has been under the radar within higher education for some time. The reality is that there are many proven best practices in developmental math. Unfortunately, there are many obstacles that prevent student success. Moreover, the high rates of attrition and failure have led state legislators and college administrators to…

  6. The Developmental Outcome of Children Born to Heroin-Dependent Mothers, Raised at Home or Adopted.

    Ornoy, Asher; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Children born to heroin-dependent mothers (n=83) were compared to 76 children born to heroin-dependent fathers and to 3 control groups with and without environmental deprivation and health problems. Results found that developmental delays and behavioral disorders found among heroin-exposed children resulted primarily from severe environmental…

  7. First Steps for Early Success: State Strategies to Support Developmental Screening in Early Childhood Settings

    Johnson-Staub, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Young children's development occurs along a continuum, with milestones reached at ages that vary within an accepted timeframe. Milestones not met within the expected timeframe can raise concerns about developmental delays, health conditions, or other factors contributing negatively to the child's growth and learning. Monitoring children's…

  8. Biomedical Risk, Psychosocial Influences, and Developmental Outcomes: Lessons from the Pediatric HIV Population in Africa

    Serpell, Robert; Marfo, Kofi; Abubakar, Amina

    2014-01-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa is home to millions of HIV-affected children. These children are likely to experience multiple developmental delays. In this chapter, I present data highlighting compromised neurobehavioral, mental health, and scholastic outcomes for children affected by HIV. Furthermore, I discuss biomedical factors (e.g., disease severity and…

  9. Premature reproductive aging in female rats after developmental exposure to mixtures of endocrine disrupters

    Jacobsen, Pernille Rosenskjold; Petersen, Marta Axelstad; Christiansen, Sofie; Boberg, Julie; Hass, Ulla

    2013-01-01

    Long-lasting and delayed reproductive effects of developmental exposure to mixtures of environmental chemicals were investigated in female rats. Wistar rats were dosed during gestation and lactation to mixtures of endocrine disrupters, and effects in offspring were studied. The mixtures consisted...

  10. Simple Steps for Teaching Prepositions to Students with Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities

    Hicks, S. Christy; Rivera, Christopher J.; Patterson, Dawn R.

    2016-01-01

    The acquisition of receptive and expressive language skills by students with autism and developmental disabilities (DD) is often delayed, thus making the process of communicating with others challenging. Some students develop language skills incidentally through conversations with their families and peers, but others require instruction in…

  11. Cellular and molecular aspects of plant adaptation to microgravity

    Kordyum, Elizabeth; Kozeko, Liudmyla

    2016-07-01

    between them. Diversity and modification of the membrane lipid content stipulate its participation in the regulation of many important cell processes. Metabolism intensification, including energetic, lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, an increase in the organelle functional load, and changes in enzyme activity promote the long-term (secondary) adaptation. The dynamics of these processes demonstrated that the adaptation occurs on the principle of self-regulating systems. We consider these available data as manifestations of phenotypic plasticity that provides plant adaptation to the unfavorable influence of microgravity. The concept that system's stability is provided by the ability of its components to lability in certain limits is a paradigm of modern science. In biology, it is phenotypic plasticity, i.e. a genome competence to change its expression and form different phenotypes in response to environmental fluctuations. Phenotypic plasticity is supposed to be performed within the limits of physiological reaction norm on the basis of metabolic and hormonal regulation of gene expression. We also discuss a possible role of epigenetic heredity, different forms of which are widely spread among plants due to their ability to vegetative propagation and peculiarities of developmental biology, in phenotypic plasticity, as its manifestations begin to reveal at the transcription level. Attraction of the ideas about the epigenetic control of gene expression will open the new level in understanding of plant adaptation to microgravity. In consideration of the adaptive responses to microgravity, plants reach the generative phase of ontogenesis in space flight, i.e. they are flowering and fruiting. However, a delay in synthesis of storage nutrients and the lower level of its accumulation in seeds in microgravity, as well as the formation of seeds with anomalous embryos in some cases have been described. These data made it impossible to say about full adaptation of plants to

  12. Backpressure with Adaptive Redundancy (BWAR)

    Alresaini, Majed; Krishnamachari, Bhaskar; Neely, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    Backpressure scheduling and routing, in which packets are preferentially transmitted over links with high queue differentials, offers the promise of throughput-optimal operation for a wide range of communication networks. However, when the traffic load is low, due to the corresponding low queue occupancy, backpressure scheduling/routing experiences long delays. This is particularly of concern in intermittent encounter-based mobile networks which are already delay-limited due to the sparse and highly dynamic network connectivity. While state of the art mechanisms for such networks have proposed the use of redundant transmissions to improve delay, they do not work well when the traffic load is high. We propose in this paper a novel hybrid approach that we refer to as backpressure with adaptive redundancy (BWAR), which provides the best of both worlds. This approach is highly robust and distributed and does not require any prior knowledge of network load conditions. We evaluate BWAR through both mathematical ana...

  13. The management of infant developmental needs by community nurses - Part 1: Description of the responsibilities of community nurses with regard to the management of infant developmental needs

    R. Leech

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This article is one of two that describes the responsibilities of community nurses, according to their legal scope of practice, with regard to the management of developmental needs of infants in primary health care clinics in South Africa. A subsequent article describes the development of guidelines for the support of community nurses to address the developmental needs of infants 0 - 2 years. While evidence confirms that developmental surveillance should be incorporated into the ongoing health care of the infant, such services are not consistently provided in health care settings and, if provided, the delivery thereof suffers from significant inadequacies. A case study strategy was used to investigate the phenomenon and content analysis utilised to analyze the data. The Transactional Model of Development was selected to interpret the data obtained in the study. Findings of the study show that infant developmental care is not included to its fullest potential in the health care delivered to infants and their families, thereby indicating that community nurses do not meet the standards of the profession with regard to the management of infant developmental needs. Health service managers need to review their commitment and type of support to community nurses, if infant developmental care, as part of community nurses’ responsibilities, is to be effective and of high quality. Furthermore, community nurses and other health care professionals must recognize the nature and potential of inter-professional collaboration to ensure positive outcomes for infants with developmental delays and disabilities.

  14. Adapting Metacognitive Therapy to Children with Generalised Anxiety Disorder

    Esbjørn, Barbara Hoff; Normann, Nicoline; Reinholdt-Dunne, Marie Louise

    2015-01-01

    -c) with generalised anxiety disorder (GAD) and create suggestions for an adapted manual. The adaptation was based on the structure and techniques used in MCT for adults with GAD. However, the developmental limitations of children were taken into account. For instance, therapy was aided with worksheets...

  15. Developmental retardation in infants as a concomitant of physical child abuse.

    Appelbaum, A S

    1977-12-01

    The impact of child abuse on the developmental functioning of infants was investigated. Thirty verified cases of physically abused children were compared to a reference group of 30 nonabused children matched for age, sex, race, and socioeconomic status. Abused children scored significantly lower in terms of cognitive and motor development as measured by the Bayley Scales of Infant Development. Development delays on three of the four sectors of the Denver Developmental Screening Test, personal-social, language, and gross motor, were also found in the abused children. There were, however, relatively few item differences between the two groups on the 30 more general behavioral variables constituting the Bayley Infant Behavior Record. Results appear to confirm clinical observation of abused children as developmentally retarded with specific delays in the language and gross motor areas. Although methodologically complex, longitudinal studies are clearly indicated to assess the stability and/or reversibility of the present findings. PMID:75219

  16. Review Of Parameter Estimation Using Adaptive Filtering

    LALITA RANI, SHALOO KIKAN

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a comparative study of different adaptive filter algorithm for channel parameter estimation is described. We presented different parameter estimation approaches of adaptive filtering. An extended Kalman filter is then applied as a near-optimal solution to the adaptive channel parameter estimation problem. Kalman filtering is applied for motion parameters resulting in optimal pose estimation. A parallel Kalman filter is applied for joint estimation of code delay, multipath gains and Doppler shift. In this paper, a complete review of parameter estimation using adaptive filtering is explained.

  17. Delayed unlatching mechanism

    Bzorgi, Fariborz M.

    2015-05-19

    In various embodiments an apparatus is presented for securing a structure such as a door, window, hatch, or gate that moves between an open and a closed position relative to a fixed structure to provide or deny access to a compartment, a room, an outdoor area, or a facility. Various embodiments provide a delay in opening the closure of sufficient duration to frustrate a rapid activation that might be desired by a person who is attempting to pass through the closure for some illicit purpose. Typically, hydraulics are used to activate the apparatus and no electrical energy or electronic signals are employed. In one embodiment, a plurality of actuations of a hand lever operates a hydraulic pump that moves a locking bolt from a first position in which a locking bolt is engaged with a recess in the fixed structure (preventing opening of a gate) to a second position in which the locking bolt is disengaged from the recess to permit opening of the gate.

  18. Delayed breast implant reconstruction

    Hvilsom, Gitte B.; Hölmich, Lisbet R.; Steding-Jessen, Marianne;

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the association between radiation therapy and severe capsular contracture or reoperation after 717 delayed breast implant reconstruction procedures (288 1- and 429 2-stage procedures) identified in the prospective database of the Danish Registry for Plastic Surgery of the Breast during...... the period between 1999 and 2006. A history of radiation therapy was associated with increased risk of severe capsular contracture for 1- and 2-stage procedures, with adjusted hazard ratios (HR) of 3.3 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.9-12.4) and 7.2 (95% CI: 2.4-21.4), respectively. Similarly, a...... history of radiation therapy was associated with a non-significantly increased risk of reoperation after both 1-stage (HR = 1.4; 95% CI: 0.7-2.5) and 2-stage (HR = 1.6; 95% CI: 0.9-3.1) procedures. Reconstruction failure was highest (13.2%) in the 2-stage procedures with a history of radiation therapy...

  19. Delay Adjusted Incidence Infographic

    This Infographic shows the National Cancer Institute SEER Incidence Trends. The graphs show the Average Annual Percent Change (AAPC) 2002-2011. For Men, Thyroid: 5.3*,Liver & IBD: 3.6*, Melanoma: 2.3*, Kidney: 2.0*, Myeloma: 1.9*, Pancreas: 1.2*, Leukemia: 0.9*, Oral Cavity: 0.5, Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: 0.3*, Esophagus: -0.1, Brain & ONS: -0.2*, Bladder: -0.6*, All Sites: -1.1*, Stomach: -1.7*, Larynx: -1.9*, Prostate: -2.1*, Lung & Bronchus: -2.4*, and Colon & Rectum: -3/0*. For Women, Thyroid: 5.8*, Liver & IBD: 2.9*, Myeloma: 1.8*, Kidney: 1.6*, Melanoma: 1.5, Corpus & Uterus: 1.3*, Pancreas: 1.1*, Leukemia: 0.6*, Brain & ONS: 0, Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: -0.1, All Sites: -0.1, Breast: -0.3, Stomach: -0.7*, Oral Cavity: -0.7*, Bladder: -0.9*, Ovary: -0.9*, Lung & Bronchus: -1.0*, Cervix: -2.4*, and Colon & Rectum: -2.7*. * AAPC is significantly different from zero (p<.05). Rates were adjusted for reporting delay in the registry. www.cancer.gov Source: Special section of the Annual Report to the Nation on the Status of Cancer, 1975-2011.

  20. Geometric time delay interferometry

    The space-based gravitational-wave observatory LISA, a NASA-ESA mission to be launched after 2012, will achieve its optimal sensitivity using time delay interferometry (TDI), a LISA-specific technique needed to cancel the otherwise overwhelming laser noise in the interspacecraft phase measurements. The TDI observables of the Michelson and Sagnac types have been interpreted physically as the virtual measurements of a synthesized interferometer. In this paper, I present Geometric TDI, a new and intuitive approach to extend this interpretation to all TDI observables. Unlike the standard algebraic formalism, Geometric TDI provides a combinatorial algorithm to explore exhaustively the space of second-generation TDI observables (i.e., those that cancel laser noise in LISA-like interferometers with time-dependent arm lengths). Using this algorithm, I survey the space of second-generation TDI observables of length (i.e., number of component phase measurements) up to 24, and I identify alternative, improved forms of the standard second-generation TDI observables. The alternative forms have improved high-frequency gravitational-wave sensitivity in realistic noise conditions (because they have fewer nulls in the gravitational-wave and noise response functions), and are less susceptible to instrumental gaps and glitches (because their component phase measurements span shorter time periods)