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Sample records for adaptive compact fluidic

  1. Characterization of a tunable astigmatic fluidic lens with adaptive optics correction for compact phoropter application

    Fuh, Yiin-Kuen; Huang, Chieh-Tse

    2014-07-01

    Fluidically controlled lenses which adaptively correct prescribed refractive error without mechanically moving parts are extensively applied in the ophthalmic applications. Capable of variable-focusing properties, however, the associated aberrations due to curvature change and refractive index mismatch can inherently degrade image quality severely. Here we present the experimental study of the aberrations in tunable astigmatic lens and use of adaptive optics to compensate for the wavefront errors. Characterization of the optical properties of the individual lenses is carried out by Shack-Hartmann measurements. An adaptive optics (AO) based scheme is demonstrated for three injected fluidic volumes, resulting in a substantial reduction of the wavefront errors from -0.12, -0.25, -0.32 to 0.01, -0.01, -0.20 μm, respectively, corresponding to the optical power tenability of 0.83 to 1.84 D. Furthermore, an integrated optical phoroptor consisting of adjustable astigmatic lenses and AO correction is demonstrated such that an induced refraction error of -1 D cylinder at 180° of a model eye vision is experimentally corrected.

  2. Compact Fluidic Actuator Arrays For Flow Control Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall objective of the proposed research is to design, develop and demonstrate fluidic actuator arrays for aerodynamic separation control and drag reduction....

  3. Compact Fluidic Actuator Arrays for Flow Control Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall objective of the proposed research is to design, develop and demonstrate fluidic actuator arrays for aerodynamic separation control and drag reduction....

  4. A low-cost compact metric adaptive optics system

    Mansell, Justin D.; Henderson, Brian; Wiesner, Brennen; Praus, Robert; Coy, Steve

    2007-09-01

    The application of adaptive optics has been hindered by the cost, size, and complexity of the systems. We describe here progress we have made toward creating low-cost compact turn-key adaptive optics systems. We describe our new low-cost deformable mirror technology developed using polymer membranes, the associated USB interface drive electronics, and different ways that this technology can be configured into a low-cost compact adaptive optics system. We also present results of a parametric study of the stochastic parallel gradient descent (SPGD) control algorithm.

  5. Holographic opto-fluidic microscopy

    Bishara, Waheb; Zhu, Hongying; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2010-01-01

    Over the last decade microfluidics has created a versatile platform that has significantly advanced the ways in which micro-scale organisms and objects are controlled, processed and investigated, by improving the cost, compactness and throughput aspects of analysis. Microfluidics has also expanded into optics to create reconfigurable and flexible optical devices such as reconfigurable lenses, lasers, waveguides, switches, and on-chip microscopes. Here we present a new opto-fluidic microscopy ...

  6. Adaptive Feature Based Control of Compact Disk Players

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Stoustrup, Jakob; Vidal, Enrique Sanchez

    Many have experienced the problem that their Compact Disc players have difficulties playing Compact Discs with surface faults like scratches and fingerprints. The cause of this is due to the two servo control loops used to keep the Optical Pick-up Unit focused and radially on the information track...

  7. Biparametric Adaptive Filter: detection of compact sources in complex microwave backgrounds

    López-Caniego, M.; Vielva, P.

    2012-01-01

    In this article we consider the detection of compact sources in maps of the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation (CMB) following the philosophy behind the Mexican Hat Wavelet Family (MHWn) of linear filters. We present a new analytical filter, the Biparametric Adaptive Filter (BAF), that is able to adapt itself to the statistical properties of the background as well as to the profile of the compact sources, maximizing the amplification and improving the detection process. We have tested the ...

  8. Study on the Fluidic Component of the Complete Fluidic Sprinkler

    Hong Li; Chao Wang; Chao Chen; Zhenhua Shen

    2013-01-01

    The PXH fluidic sprinkler controlled by the outlet clearance is a new type sprinkler which is driven and controlled by the Coanda effect. This paper analyzes the offset jet with control stream in the simplified model. Based on the special design of the fluidic component of the fluidic sprinkler, a control stream coefficient was proposed and the air entrance hole distance was considered as one of the key factors that, influence the offset flow field. Based on the numerical simulations and the ...

  9. Strangely behaving fluidic oscillator

    Tesař, Václav; Peszyński, K.

    Liberec : Technical University of Liberec, 2013 - (Dančová, P.; Novotný, P.) ISBN 978-80-7372-912-7. ISSN 2100-014X. - (EPJ Web of Conferences. 45). [Experimental Fluid Mechanics 2012 /7./. Hradec Králové (CZ), 20.11.2012-23.11.2012] R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA02020795; GA ČR(CZ) GCP101/11/J019 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : fluidics * oscillators * strouhal number Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/epjconf/20134501074

  10. Compact MEMS-based Adaptive Optics Optical Coherence Tomography for Clinical Use

    Chen, D; Olivier, S; Jones, S; Zawadzki, R; Evans, J; Choi, S; Werner, J

    2008-02-04

    We describe a compact MEMS-based adaptive optics (AO) optical coherence tomography system with improved AO performance and ease of clinical use. A typical AO system consists of a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor and a deformable mirror that measures and corrects the ocular and system aberrations. Because of the limitation on the current deformable mirror technologies, the amount of real-time ocular-aberration compensation is restricted and small in the previous AO-OCT instruments. In this instrument, we proposed to add an optical apparatus to correct the spectacle aberrations of the patients such as myopia, hyperopia and astigmatism. This eliminated the tedious process of the trial lenses in clinical imaging. Different amount of spectacle aberration compensation was achieved by motorized stages and automated with the AO computer for ease of clinical use. In addition, the compact AO-OCT was optimized to have minimum system aberrations to reduce AO registration errors and improve AO performance.

  11. MEMS fluidic actuator

    Kholwadwala, Deepesh K.; Johnston, Gabriel A.; Rohrer, Brandon R.; Galambos, Paul C.; Okandan, Murat

    2007-07-24

    The present invention comprises a novel, lightweight, massively parallel device comprising microelectromechanical (MEMS) fluidic actuators, to reconfigure the profile, of a surface. Each microfluidic actuator comprises an independent bladder that can act as both a sensor and an actuator. A MEMS sensor, and a MEMS valve within each microfluidic actuator, operate cooperatively to monitor the fluid within each bladder, and regulate the flow of the fluid entering and exiting each bladder. When adjacently spaced in a array, microfluidic actuators can create arbitrary surface profiles in response to a change in the operating environment of the surface. In an embodiment of the invention, the profile of an airfoil is controlled by independent extension and contraction of a plurality of actuators, that operate to displace a compliant cover.

  12. Fluidic angular velocity sensor

    Berdahl, C. M. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A fluidic sensor providing a differential pressure signal proportional to the angular velocity of a rotary input is described. In one embodiment the sensor includes a fluid pump having an impeller coupled to a rotary input. A housing forming a constricting fluid flow chamber is connected to the fluid input of the pump. The housing is provided with a fluid flow restrictive input to the flow chamber and a port communicating with the interior of the flow chamber. The differential pressure signal measured across the flow restrictive input is relatively noise free and proportional to the square of the angular velocity of the impeller. In an alternative embodiment, the flow chamber has a generally cylindrical configuration and plates having flow restrictive apertures are disposed within the chamber downstream from the housing port. In this embodiment, the differential pressure signal is found to be approximately linear with the angular velocity of the impeller.

  13. Adaptive non-uniform B-spline dictionaries on a compact interval

    Rebollo-Neira, Laura

    2009-01-01

    Non-uniform B-spline dictionaries on a compact interval are discussed. For each given partition, dictionaries of B-spline functions for the corresponding spline space are constructed. It is asserted that, by dividing the given partition into subpartitions and joining together the bases for the concomitant subspaces, slightly redundant dictionaries of B-splines functions are obtained. Such dictionaries are proved to span the spline space associated to the given partition. The proposed construction is shown to be potentially useful for the purpose of sparse signal representation. With that goal in mind, spline spaces specially adapted to produce a sparse representation of a given signal are considered.

  14. Integral fluidic generator of microbubbles

    Tesař, Václav; Jílek, Miroslav

    Praha : Ústav termomechaniky AV ČR, v. v. i., 2013 - (Jonáš, P.; Uruba, V.), s. 33-34 ISBN 978-80-87012-48-2. [Colloquium FLUID DYNAMICS 2013. Praha (CZ), 23.10.2013-25.10.2013] R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA02020795; GA ČR GA13-23046S Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : fluidics * microbubbles * fluidic oscillators Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics

  15. The UC Softhand: Light Weight Adaptive Bionic Hand with a Compact Twisted String Actuation System

    Mahmoud Tavakoli

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present the design and development of the UC-Softhand. The UC Softhand is a low cost, Bionic and adaptive hand that takes advantage of compliant joints. By optimization of the actuation strategy as well as the actuation mechanism, we could develop an anthropomorphic hand that embeds three actuators, transmission mechanisms, controllers and drivers in the palm of the hand, and weighs only 280 g, making it one of the lightest bionic hands that has been created so far. The key aspect of the UC Softhand is utilization of a novel compact twisted string actuation mechanism, that allows a considerable weight and cost reduction compared to its predecessor.

  16. Fluidic Oscillator with Vortical Feedback

    Tesař, Václav

    Tokyo : Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2013, s. 53-61. [International Symposium on Fluid Control, Measurement and Visualization : FLUCOME 2013 /12./. Nara (JP), 18.11.2013-23.11.2013] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-23046S Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : fluidics * microbubbles * bubbe conjunctions Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics

  17. Sampling by Fluidics and Microfluidics

    V. Tesař

    2002-01-01

    Selecting one from several available fluid samples is a procedure often performed especially in chemical engineering. It is usually done by an array of valves sequentially opened and closed. Not generally known is an advantageous alternative: fluidic sampling units without moving parts. In the absence of complete pipe closure, cross-contamination between samples cannot be ruled out. This is eliminated by arranging for small protective flows that clear the cavities and remove any contaminated ...

  18. Manipulating fluids: Advances in micro-fluidics, opto-fluidics and fluidic self assembly

    Vyawahare, Saurabh

    This dissertation describes work in three inter-related areas---micro-fluidics, opto-fluidics and fluidic self-assembly. Micro-fluidics has gotten a boost in recent years with the development of multilayered elastomeric devices made of poly (dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), allowing active elements like valves and pumps. However, while PDMS has many advantages, it is not resistant to organic solvents. New materials and/or new designs are needed for solvent resistance. I describe how novel fluorinated elastomers can replace PDMS when combined with the three dimensional (3-D) solid printing. I also show how another 3-D fabrication method, multilayer photo-lithography, allows for fabrication of devices integrating filters. In general, 3-D fabrications allow new kinds of micro-fluidic devices to be made that would be impossible to emulate with two dimensional chips. In opto-fluidics, I describe a number of experiments with quantum dots both inside and outside chips. Inside chips, I manipulate quantum dots using hydrodynamic focusing to pattern fine lines, like a barcode. Outside chips, I describe our attempts to create quantum dot composites with micro-spheres. I also show how evaporated gold films and chemical passivation can then be used to enhance the emission of quantum dots. Finally, within fluids, self assembly is an attractive way to manipulate materials, and I provide two examples: first, a DNA-based energy transfer molecule that relies on quantum mechanics and self-assembles inside fluids. This kind of molecular photonics mimics parts of the photosynthetic apparatus of plants and bacteria. The second example of self-assembly in fluids describes a new phenomena---the surface tension mediated self assembly of particles like quantum dots and micro-spheres into fine lines. This self assembly by capillary flows can be combined with photo-lithography, and is expected to find use in future nano- and micro-fabrication schemes. In conclusion, advances in fludics, integrating

  19. FLUIDICS DEVICE FOR ASSAY

    2007-01-01

    The present invention relates to a device for use in performing assays on standard laboratory solid supports whereon chemical entities are attached. The invention furthermore relates to the use of such a device and a kit comprising such a device. The device according to the present invention is...... adapted to receive one or more replaceable solid support(s) (40) onto which chemical entities (41) are attached, said device comprising a base (1, 60, 80, 300, 400, 10, 70, 140, 20, 90, 120, 150, 30, 100), one or more inlet(s) (5), one or more outlet(s) (6). The base and the solid support (40) defines......, when operatively connected, one or more chambers (21) comprising the chemical entities (41), the inlet(s) (5) and outlet(s) (6) and chambers (21) being in fluid connection. The device further comprise means for providing differing chemical conditions in each chamber (21)....

  20. Dielectric Elastomers for Fluidic and Biomedical Applications

    McCoul, David James

    other smaller particulate debris into the system. After a channel blockage was confirmed, three actuation attempts successfully cleared the blockage. Further tests indicated that the device were biocompatible with HeLa cells at 3 kV. To our knowledge this is the first pairing of dielectric elastomers with microfluidics in a non-electroosmotic context. Applications may include adaptive microfilters, micro-peristaltic pumps, and reduced-complexity lab-on-a-chip devices. Dielectric elastomers can also be adapted to manipulate fluidic systems on a larger scale. The second part of the dissertation research reports a novel low-profile, biomimetic dielectric elastomer tubular actuator capable of actively controlling hydraulic flow. The tubular actuator has been established as a reliable tunable valve, pinching a secondary silicone tube completely shut in the absence of a fluidic pressure bias or voltage, offering a high degree of resistance against fluidic flow, and able to open and completely remove this resistance to flow with an applied low power actuation voltage. The system demonstrates a rise in pressure of ~3.0 kPa when the dielectric elastomer valve is in the passive, unactuated state, and there is a quadratic fall in this pressure with increasing actuation voltage, until ~0 kPa is reached at 2.4 kV. The device is reliable for at least 2,000 actuation cycles for voltages at or below 2.2 kV. Furthermore, modeling of the actuator and fluidic system yields results consistent with the observed experimental dependence of intrasystem pressure on input flow rate, actuator prestretch, and actuation voltage. To our knowledge, this is the first actuator of its type that can control fluid flow by directly actuating the walls of a tube. Potential applications may include an implantable artificial sphincter, part of a peristaltic pump, or a computerized valve for fluidic or pneumatic control. The final part of the dissertation presents a novel dielectric elastomer band with

  1. Stimuli-responsive materials: developing integrated opto-molecular systems as sensors and actuators in micro-fluidic devices

    Florea, Larisa

    2013-01-01

    Micro-fluidic platforms have been conferred with inherent optical sensing capabilities by coating the walls of micro-fluidic channels or micro-capillaries with stimuli-responsive materials. These adaptive materials respond optically to environmental stimuli, such as changes in pH, solvent polarity, the presence of certain metal ions and light. This approach confers sensing capabilities along the entire length of the coated micro-channel or micro-capillary. Adaptive coatings based on two types...

  2. High-frequency fluidic oscillator

    Tesař, Václav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 234, October (2015), s. 158-167. ISSN 0924-4247 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-23046S Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : pulsating flow * jet * fluidics Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 1.903, year: 2014 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0924424715301114/pdfft?md5=42ec4f6f3180151913ceade1e4625d74&pid=1-s2.0-S0924424715301114-main.pdf

  3. Opto-mechano-fluidic viscometer

    Han, Kewen, E-mail: khan56@illinois.edu; Zhu, Kaiyuan; Bahl, Gaurav, E-mail: bahl@illinois.edu [Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1206 W. Green St., Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

    2014-07-07

    The recent development of opto-mechano-fluidic resonators has provided—by harnessing photon radiation pressure—a microfluidics platform for the optical sensing of fluid density and bulk modulus. Here, we show that fluid viscosity can also be determined through optomechanical measurement of the vibrational noise spectrum of the resonator mechanical modes. A linear relationship between the spectral linewidth and root-viscosity is predicted and experimentally verified in the low viscosity regime. Our result is a step towards multi-frequency measurement of viscoelasticity of arbitrary fluids, without sample contamination, using highly sensitive optomechanics techniques.

  4. Prediction of mechanical properties of a warm compacted molybdenum prealloy using artificial neural network and adaptive neuro-fuzzy models

    Highlights: ► ANNs and ANFIS fairly predicted UTS and YS of warm compacted molybdenum prealloy. ► Effects of composition, temperature, compaction pressure on output were studied. ► ANFIS model was in better agreement with experimental data from published article. ► Sintering temperature had the most significant effect on UTS and YS. -- Abstract: Predictive models using artificial neural network (ANN) and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) were successfully developed to predict yield strength and ultimate tensile strength of warm compacted 0.85 wt.% molybdenum prealloy samples. To construct these models, 48 different experimental data were gathered from the literature. A portion of the data set was randomly chosen to train both ANN with back propagation (BP) learning algorithm and ANFIS model with Gaussian membership function and the rest was implemented to verify the performance of the trained network against the unseen data. The generalization capability of the networks was also evaluated by applying new input data within the domain covered by the training pattern. To compare the obtained results, coefficient of determination (R2), root mean squared error (RMSE) and average absolute error (AAE) indexes were chosen and calculated for both of the models. The results showed that artificial neural network and adaptive neuro-fuzzy system were both potentially strong for prediction of the mechanical properties of warm compacted 0.85 wt.% molybdenum prealloy; however, the proposed ANFIS showed better performance than the ANN model. Also, the ANFIS model was subjected to a sensitivity analysis to find the significant inputs affecting mechanical properties of the samples.

  5. Adapting a compact Mott spin polarimeter to a large commercial electron energy analyzer for spin-polarized electron spectroscopy

    Huang, Di-Jing; Lee, Jae-Yong; Suen, Jih-Shih; Mulhollan, G. A.; Andrews, A. B.; Erskine, J. L.

    1993-12-01

    A modified Rice University-type compact Mott spin polarimeter operating at 20 kV is adapted to a large commerical hemispherical electron energy analyzer. Normal energy analyzer functions are preserved via a retractable channeltron in the polarimeter acceleration column. In the spin-detection mode, the polarimeter permits analysis of two orthogonal transverse spin-polarization components. Electron trajectory analysis is used to optimize polarimeter lens column voltages in both normal and spin-detection modes. Performance levels are established by experiments and significantly improved spin-detection efficiency is shown to be accessible by changes in the polarimeter collection solid angle.

  6. Fluidics platform and method for sample preparation

    Benner, Henry W.; Dzenitis, John M.

    2016-06-21

    Provided herein are fluidics platforms and related methods for performing integrated sample collection and solid-phase extraction of a target component of the sample all in one tube. The fluidics platform comprises a pump, particles for solid-phase extraction and a particle-holding means. The method comprises contacting the sample with one or more reagents in a pump, coupling a particle-holding means to the pump and expelling the waste out of the pump while the particle-holding means retains the particles inside the pump. The fluidics platform and methods herein described allow solid-phase extraction without pipetting and centrifugation.

  7. A Coupled Cavity Micro Fluidic Dye Ring Laser

    Gersborg-Hansen, M.; Balslev, S.; Mortensen, N. A.; Kristensen, A.

    2004-01-01

    We present a laterally emitting, coupled cavity micro fluidic dye ring laser, suitable for integration into lab-on-a-chip micro systems. The micro-fluidic laser has been successfully designed, fabricated, characterized and modelled. The resonator is formed by a micro-fluidic channel bounded by two isosceles triangle mirrors. The micro-fluidic laser structure is defined using photo lithography in 10 microns thick SU-8 polymer on a glass substrate. The micro fluidic channel is sealed by a glass...

  8. Prediction of Compressive Strength of Self compacting Concrete with Flyash and Rice Husk Ash using Adaptive Neuro-fuzzy Inference System

    S. S, Pathak

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Self-compacting concrete is an innovative concrete that does not require vibration for placing and compaction. It is able to flow under its own weight, completely filling formwork and achieving full compaction even in congested reinforcement without segregation and bleeding. In the present study self compacting concrete mixes were developed using blend of fly ash and rice husk ash. Fresh properties of theses mixes were tested by using standards recommended by EFNARC (European Federation for Specialist Construction Chemicals and Concrete system. Compressive strength at 28 days was obtained for these mixes. This paper presents development of Adaptive Neuro-fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS model for predicting compressive strength of self compacting concrete using fly ash and rice husk ash. The input parameters used for model are cement, fly ash, rice husk ash and water content. Output parameter is compressive strength at 28 days. The results show that the implemented model is good at predicting compressive strength.

  9. Topological in-plane polarized piezo actuation for compact adaptive lenses with aspherical correction

    Lemke, Florian; Wallrabe, Ulrike; Wapler, Matthias C

    2016-01-01

    In this contribution, we investigate the effects of using in-plane polarized piezo actuators with topological buckling displacement to drive glass-piezo composite membranes for adaptive lenses with aspherical control. We find that the effects on the focal power and aspherical tuning range are relatively small, whereas the tuning speed is improved significantly with a first resonance of 1 kHz for a 13 mm aperture lens.

  10. The UC Softhand: Light Weight Adaptive Bionic Hand with a Compact Twisted String Actuation System

    Mahmoud Tavakoli; Rafael Batista; Lucio Sgrigna

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present the design and development of the UC-Softhand. The UC Softhand is a low cost, Bionic and adaptive hand that takes advantage of compliant joints. By optimization of the actuation strategy as well as the actuation mechanism, we could develop an anthropomorphic hand that embeds three actuators, transmission mechanisms, controllers and drivers in the palm of the hand, and weighs only 280 g, making it one of the lightest bionic hands that has been created so far. The key ...

  11. A compact, large-aperture tunable lens with adaptive spherical correction

    Wapler, Matthias C; Wallrabe, Ulrike

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present the proof of concept of a very fast adaptive glass membrane lens with a large aperture/diameter ratio, spherical aberration correction and integrated actuation. The membrane is directly deformed using two piezo actuators that can tune the focal length and the conical parameter. This operating principle allows for a usable aperture of the whole membrane diameter. Together with the efficient actuation mechanism, the aperture is around 2/3 of the total system diameter - at a thickness of less than 2mm. The response time is a few milliseconds at 12mm aperture, which is fast compared to similar systems.

  12. Water oxygenation by fluidic microbubble generator

    Tesař V

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Oxygenation of water by standard means in waste water processing, in particular to improve the conditions for the micro-organisms that decompose organic wastes is rather ineffective. The classical approach to improvements – decreasing the size of the aerator exits - have already reached their limits. A recent new idea is to decrease the size of the generated air bubbles by oscillating the supplied air flow using fluidic oscillators. Authors made extensive performance measurements with an unusual high-frequency fluidic oscillator, designed to operate within the submersed aerator body. The performance was evaluated by the dynamic method of recording the oxygen concentration increase to saturation in the aerated water. Experiments proved the fluidic generator can demonstrably increase the aeration efficiency 4.22-times compared with the aeration from a plain end of a submerged air supply tube. Despite this significant improvement, the behaviour of the generator still provides an opportunity for further improvements.

  13. Tuning fluidic resistance via liquid crystal microfluidics.

    Sengupta, Anupam

    2013-01-01

    Flow of molecularly ordered fluids, like liquid crystals, is inherently coupled with the average local orientation of the molecules, or the director. The anisotropic coupling-typically absent in isotropic fluids-bestows unique functionalities to the flowing matrix. In this work, we harness this anisotropy to pattern different pathways to tunable fluidic resistance within microfluidic devices. We use a nematic liquid crystalline material flowing in microchannels to demonstrate passive and active modulation of the flow resistance. While appropriate surface anchoring conditions-which imprint distinct fluidic resistances within microchannels under similar hydrodynamic parameters-act as passive cues, an external field, e.g., temperature, is used to actively modulate the flow resistance in the microfluidic device. We apply this simple concept to fabricate basic fluidic circuits, which can be hierarchically extended to create complex resistance networks, without any additional design or morphological patterning of the microchannels. PMID:24256819

  14. "Master and Slave" fluidic amplifier cascade

    Tesař Václav

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available No-moving-part fluidics recently found interesting application in generation of gas microbubbles by oscillating the inlet flow of the gas into the aerator. The oscillation frequency has to be high and this calls for small size of the oscillator. On the other hand, most microbubble applications require a large total gas flow. This calls for large fluidic device – a les expensive alternative than “numbering up” (several oscillators in parallel. The contradiction of the large and small scale is solved by the “MASTER & SLAVE” fluidic circuit: large output device controlled by a small oscillator. Paper discusses basic problems encountered in designing the circuit which requires matching the characteristics of the two devices.

  15. Fluidic Elements based on Coanda Effect

    Constantin OLIVOTTO

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper contains first some definitions and classifications regarding the fluidic elements. Thegeneral current status is presented, nominating the main specific elements based on the Coanda effect developedspecially in Romania. In particularly the development of an original bistable element using industrial compressedair at industrial pressure supply is presented. The function of this element is based on the controlled attachmentof the main jet at a curved wall through the Coanda effect. The methods used for particular calculation andexperiments are nominated. The main application of these elements was to develop a specific execution element:a fluidic step–by-step motor based on the Coanda effect.

  16. Seniority number in spin-adapted spaces and compactness of configuration interaction wave functions.

    Alcoba, Diego R; Torre, Alicia; Lain, Luis; Massaccesi, Gustavo E; Oña, Ofelia B

    2013-08-28

    This work extends the concept of seniority number, which has been widely used for classifying N-electron Slater determinants, to wave functions of N electrons and spin S, as well as to N-electron spin-adapted Hilbert spaces. We propose a spin-free formulation of the seniority number operator and perform a study on the behavior of the expectation values of this operator under transformations of the molecular basis sets. This study leads to propose a quantitative evaluation for the convergence of the expansions of the wave functions in terms of Slater determinants. The non-invariant character of the seniority number operator expectation value of a wave function with respect to a unitary transformation of the molecular orbital basis set, allows us to search for a change of basis which minimizes that expectation value. The results found in the description of wave functions of selected atoms and molecules show that the expansions expressed in these bases exhibit a more rapid convergence than those formulated in the canonical molecular orbital bases and even in the natural orbital ones. PMID:24006970

  17. Fluidic interconnections for microfluidic systems: A new integrated fluidic interconnection allowing plug 'n' play functionality

    Perozziello, Gerardo; Bundgaard, Frederik; Geschke, Oliver

    2008-01-01

    A crucial challenge in packaging of microsystems is microfluidic interconnections. These have to seal the ports of the system, and have to provide the appropriate interface to other devices or the external environment. Integrated fluidic interconnections appear to be a good solution for interconn......A crucial challenge in packaging of microsystems is microfluidic interconnections. These have to seal the ports of the system, and have to provide the appropriate interface to other devices or the external environment. Integrated fluidic interconnections appear to be a good solution for...... interconnecting polymer microsystems in terms of cost, space and performance. Following this path we propose a new reversible, integrated fluidic interconnection composed of custom-made cylindrical rings integrated in a polymer house next to the fluidic network. This allows plug 'n' play functionality between...

  18. Atomiser with excitation by a fluidic oscillator

    Tesař, Václav; Hykl, Jiří

    Brno: Brno University of Technology , 2014 - (Fuis, V.), s. 656-659 ISBN 978-80-214-4871-1. ISSN 1805-8248. [Engineering Mechanics 2014 /20./. Svratka (CZ), 12.05.2014-15.05.2014] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-23046S Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : droplets * atomizer * fluidic oscillator Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics

  19. Fluidic electrodynamics: Approach to electromagnetic propulsion

    We report on a new methodological approach to electrodynamics based on a fluidic viewpoint. We develop a systematic approach establishing analogies between physical magnitudes and isomorphism (structure-preserving mappings) between systems of equations. This methodological approach allows us to give a general expression for the hydromotive force, thus re-obtaining the Navier-Stokes equation departing from the appropriate electromotive force. From this ground we offer a fluidic approach to different kinds of issues with interest in propulsion, e.g., the force exerted by a charged particle on a body carrying current; the magnetic force between two parallel currents; the Magnus's force. It is shown how the intermingle between the fluid vector fields and electromagnetic fields leads to new insights on their dynamics. The new concepts introduced in this work suggest possible applications to electromagnetic (EM) propulsion devices and the mastery of the principles of producing electric fields of required configuration in plasma medium.

  20. Superquadratic fluidic restrictors and their applications

    Tesař, Václav

    Southampton : WIT Press, 2012 - (Rahman, M.; Brebbia, C.), s. 507-519 ISBN 978-1-84564-600-4. ISSN 1746-4471. [Advances in Fluid Mechanics /9./. Split (HR), 26.06.2012-28.06.2012] R&D Projects: GA TA ČR(CZ) TA02020795; GA ČR(CZ) GCP101/11/J019 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : fluidics * flow restrictors * vortex devices Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics

  1. Micro-fluidic chip for cell sorting

    Šerý, Mojmír; Pilát, Zdeněk; Ježek, Jan; Kaňka, Jan; Zemánek, Pavel

    Munich : EOS, 2015. ISBN 978-952-93-5069-8. [EOS Conferences at the World of Photonics Congress 2015. Munich (DE), 22.06.2015-25.06.2015] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD14069; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212; GA TA ČR TA03010642; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : Micro-fluidic chip * cell sorting Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers

  2. LITTLE KNOWN PRINCIPLES OF FLUIDIC PUMPING

    Tesař, Václav

    Vol. 1. Liberec : Technical University of Liberec, 2010 - (Vít, T.; Dančová, P.), s. 716-731 ISBN 978-80-7372-670-6. [International Conference Experimental Fluid Mechanics 2010. Liberec (CZ), 24.11.2010-26.11.2010] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/07/1499; GA AV ČR IAA200760705 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : pumps * fluidics * hazardous liquids Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics

  3. Fluidic Relaxation Oscillators for Microbubble Generation

    Tesař, Václav

    Praha: Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics ASCR, v. v. i, 2015 - (Náprstek, J.; Fischer, C.). s. 324-325 ISBN 978-80-86246-42-0. ISSN 1805-8248 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-23046S; GA ČR GA14-08888S Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : fluidics * oscillators * relaxation Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics

  4. Plasma-discharge control in fluidics

    Tesař, Václav; Šonský, Jiří

    Praha: Ústav termomechaniky AV ČR, v. v. i., 2015 - (Šimurda, D.; Bodnár, T.), s. 221-236 ISBN 978-80-87012-55-0. ISSN 2336-5781. [Topical Problems of Fluid Mechanics 2015. Praha (CZ), 11.02.2015-13.02.2015] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-23046S Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : fluidics * plasma dicharge * dielectric barrier Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics

  5. Fluidic Elements based on Coanda Effect

    Constantin OLIVOTTO

    2010-01-01

    This paper contains first some definitions and classifications regarding the fluidic elements. Thegeneral current status is presented, nominating the main specific elements based on the Coanda effect developedspecially in Romania. In particularly the development of an original bistable element using industrial compressedair at industrial pressure supply is presented. The function of this element is based on the controlled attachmentof the main jet at a curved wall through the Coanda effect. T...

  6. Water oxygenation by fluidic microbubble generator

    Tesař, Václav; Peszyński, K.

    Liberec : Technical University of Liberec, 2013 - (Vít, T.; Dančová, P.; Novotný, P.), s. 544-549 ISBN 978-80-260-5375-0. [Experimental Fluid Mechanics 2013. Kutná hora (CZ), 19.11.2013-22.11.2013] R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA02020795; GA ČR GA13-23046S Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : fluidics * microbubble generator * oxygenation Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics

  7. Micro-Cavity Fluidic Dye Laser

    Helbo, Bjarne; Kristensen, Anders; Menon, Aric Kumaran

    2003-01-01

    We have successfully designed, fabricated and characterized a micro-cavity fluidic dye laser with metallic mirrors, which can be integrated with polymer based lab-on-a-chip microsystems without further processing steps. A simple rate-equation model is used to predict the average pumping power...... threshold for lasing as function of cavity-mirror reflectance, laser dye concentration and cavity length. The laser device is characterized using the laser dye Rhodamine 6G dissolved in ethanol. Lasing is observed, and the influence of dye concentration is investigated....

  8. Fluidic hydrogen detector production prototype development

    Roe, G. W.; Wright, R. E.

    1976-01-01

    A hydrogen gas sensor that can replace catalytic combustion sensors used to detect leaks in the liquid hydrogen transfer systems at Kennedy Space Center was developed. A fluidic sensor concept, based on the principle that the frequency of a fluidic oscillator is proportional to the square root of the molecular weight of its operating fluid, was utilized. To minimize sensitivity to pressure and temperature fluctuations, and to make the sensor specific for hydrogen, two oscillators are used. One oscillator operates on sample gas containing hydrogen, while the other operates on sample gas with the hydrogen converted to steam. The conversion is accomplished with a small catalytic converter. The frequency difference is taken, and the hydrogen concentration computed with a simple digital processing circuit. The output from the sensor is an analog signal proportional to hydrogen content. The sensor is shown to be accurate and insensitive to severe environmental disturbances. It is also specific for hydrogen, even with large helium concentrations in the sample gas.

  9. DNA Assembly in 3D Printed Fluidics.

    William G Patrick

    Full Text Available The process of connecting genetic parts-DNA assembly-is a foundational technology for synthetic biology. Microfluidics present an attractive solution for minimizing use of costly reagents, enabling multiplexed reactions, and automating protocols by integrating multiple protocol steps. However, microfluidics fabrication and operation can be expensive and requires expertise, limiting access to the technology. With advances in commodity digital fabrication tools, it is now possible to directly print fluidic devices and supporting hardware. 3D printed micro- and millifluidic devices are inexpensive, easy to make and quick to produce. We demonstrate Golden Gate DNA assembly in 3D-printed fluidics with reaction volumes as small as 490 nL, channel widths as fine as 220 microns, and per unit part costs ranging from $0.61 to $5.71. A 3D-printed syringe pump with an accompanying programmable software interface was designed and fabricated to operate the devices. Quick turnaround and inexpensive materials allowed for rapid exploration of device parameters, demonstrating a manufacturing paradigm for designing and fabricating hardware for synthetic biology.

  10. Automation of column-based radiochemical separations. A comparison of fluidic, robotic, and hybrid architectures

    Two automated systems have been developed to perform column-based radiochemical separation procedures. These new systems are compared with past fluidic column separation architectures, with emphasis on using disposable components so that no sample contacts any surface that any other sample has contacted, and setting up samples and columns in parallel for subsequent automated processing. In the first new approach, a general purpose liquid handling robot has been modified and programmed to perform anion exchange separations using 2 mL bed columns in 6 mL plastic disposable column bodies. In the second new approach, a fluidic system has been developed to deliver clean reagents through disposable manual valves to six disposable columns, with a mechanized fraction collector that positions one of four rows of six vials below the columns. The samples are delivered to each column via a manual 3-port disposable valve from disposable syringes. This second approach, a hybrid of fluidic and mechanized components, is a simpler more efficient approach for performing anion exchange procedures for the recovery and purification of plutonium from samples. The automation architectures described can also be adapted to column-based extraction chromatography separations. (orig.)

  11. Stability of flowing open fluidic channels

    Jue Nee Tan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Open fluidic systems have a distinct advantage over enclosed channels in that the fluids exposed nature makes for easy external interaction, this finds uses in introduction of samples by adding liquid droplets or from the surrounding gaseous medium. This work investigates flowing open channels and films, which can potentially make use of the open section of the system as an external interface, before bringing the sample into an enclosed channel. Clearly, in this scenario a key factor is the stability of the flowing open fluid. The open channels investigated include a straight open channel defined by a narrow strip of solid surface, the edges of which allow large contact angle hysteresis, and a wider structure allowing for multiple inputs and outputs. A model is developed for fluid flow, and the findings used to describe the process of failure in both cases.

  12. Fluidic Oscillator Having Decoupled Frequency and Amplitude Control

    Koklu, Mehti (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A fluidic oscillator having independent frequency and amplitude control includes a fluidic-oscillator main flow channel having a main flow inlet, a main flow outlet, and first and second control ports disposed at opposing sides thereof. A fluidic-oscillator controller has an inlet and outlet. A volume defined by the main flow channel is greater than the volume defined by the controller. A flow diverter coupled to the outlet of the controller defines a first fluid flow path from the controller's outlet to the first control port and defines a second fluid flow path from the controller's outlet to the second control port.

  13. The Fluidic Obstacle Technique: An Approach for Enhancing Deflagration-to-Detonation Transition in Pulsed Detonation Engines

    Knox, Benjamin W.

    The current research explored the fluidic obstacle technique and obtained relative performance estimates of this new approach for enhancement of de agration-to-detonation transition. Optimization of conventional physical obstacles has comprised the majority of de agration-to-detonation enhancement research but these devices ultimately degrade the performance of a pulsed detonation engine. Therefore, a new approach has been investigated that demonstrates a fluidic obstacle has the potential to maximize turbulence production and enhance the flame acceleration process, leading to successful DDT. A fluidic obstacle is also able to reduce total pressure losses, "heat soaking", and ignition times. A reduction in these variables serves to maximize available thrust. In addition, the fluidic obstacle technique is an active combustion control method capable of adapting to off-design conditions. Steady non-reacting and unsteady reacting flow have been utilized in two facilities, namely the UB Combustion Laboratory and AFRL Detonation Engine Research facility, to provide experimental measurements and observations into the feasibility of this new approach.

  14. Passive fluidic diode for simple fluids using nested nanochannel structures

    Mo, Jingwen; Li, Long; Wang, Jun; Li, Zhigang

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a moving part-free fluidic diode for simple fluids using nested nanochannels, which contain inner and outer channels of different lengths. Molecular dynamics simulations show that the fluidic diode accepts water flows in the forward direction and blocks flows in the backward direction in a wide range of pressure drops. The anisotropic flow rates are generated by the distinct activation pressures in different directions. In the forward direction, the activation pressure is low, which is determined by the infiltration pressure of the inner channel. In the backward direction, the activation pressure is quite high due to the capillary effects when flows are released from the inner to the outer channel. The pressure drop range for the fluidic diode can be varied by changing the channel size or surface wettability. The fluidic diode offers an alternative way for flow control in integrated micro- and nanofluidic devices.

  15. Fluidic Electrodynamics: a new approach to EM Propulsion

    Martins, Alexandre A.; Pinheiro, Mario J.

    2008-01-01

    We report on a new methodological approach to electrodynamics based on a fluidic viewpoint. We develop a systematic approach establishing analogies between physical magnitudes and isomorphism (structure-preserving mappings) between systems of equations. This methodological approach allows us to give a general expression for the hydromotive force, thus re-obtaining the Navier-Stokes equation departing from the an appropriate electromotive force. From this ground we offer a fluidic approach to ...

  16. Fluidic control of reactor flow—Pressure drop matching

    Tesař, Václav

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 87, č. 6A (2009), s. 817-832. ISSN 0263-8762 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA200760705; GA ČR GA101/07/1499 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : fluidics * matching of fluidic devices * dissipance Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 1.223, year: 2009 http://www. science direct.com/ science

  17. Microbubble generator excited by fluidic oscillator's third harmonic frequency

    Tesař, Václav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 92, č. 9 (2014), s. 1603-1615. ISSN 0263-8762 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-23046S Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : fluidic oscillator * microbubble generation * fluidic feedback loop Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 2.348, year: 2014 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cherd.2013.12.004

  18. A Coupled Cavity Micro Fluidic Dye Ring Laser

    Gersborg-Hansen, M; Mortensen, N A; Kristensen, A

    2004-01-01

    We present a laterally emitting, coupled cavity micro fluidic dye ring laser, suitable for integration into lab-on-a-chip micro systems. The micro-fluidic laser has been successfully designed, fabricated, characterized and modelled. The resonator is formed by a micro-fluidic channel bounded by two isosceles triangle mirrors. The micro-fluidic laser structure is defined using photo lithography in 10 microns thick SU-8 polymer on a glass substrate. The micro fluidic channel is sealed by a glass lid, using PMMA adhesive bonding. The laser is characterized using the laser dye Rhodamine 6G dissolved in ethanol or ethylene glycol as the active gain medium, which is pumped through the micro-fluidic channel and laser resonator. The dye laser is optically pumped normal to the chip plane at 532 nm by a pulsed, frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser and lasing is observed with a threshold pump pulse energy flux of around 55 micro-Joule/square-milimeter. The lasing is multi-mode, and the laser has switchable output coupling into...

  19. Tubular astigmatism-tunable fluidic lens.

    Kopp, Daniel; Zappe, Hans

    2016-06-15

    We demonstrate a new means to fabricate three-dimensional liquid lenses which may be tuned in focal length and astigmatism. Using actuation by electrowetting-on-dielectrics, astigmatism in arbitrary directions may be tuned independently, with almost no cross talk between orthogonal orientations. The lens is based on electrodes structured on planar polyimide foils and subsequently rolled, enabling high-resolution patterning of complex electrodes along the azimuthal and radial directions of the lens. Based on a design established through fluidic and optical simulations, the astigmatism tuning is experimentally verified by a change of the corresponding Zernike coefficients measured using a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor. It was seen that the back focal length can be tuned by 5 mm and 0° and 45° astigmatism by 3 μm through application of voltages in the range of 50  Vrms. It was observed that the cross talk with other aberrations is very low, suggesting a novel means for astigmatism control in imaging systems. PMID:27304276

  20. Electroactive nanowells for spectrographic fluidic memory

    Cordovez, Bernardo; Psaltis, Demetri; Erickson, David

    2007-09-01

    Current optical storage devices such as DVDs have their read/write capabilities fundamentally restricted by the diffraction limit of light. We present an optofluidic architecture for storing cocktails of colloidal quantum dots in electroactive nanowell structures. One application of these devices is the development of a fluidic memory approach which could enable the generation, reading and erasing of multiple bit information packages on single light diffraction limited data marks by spectral and intensity multiplexing of quantum dot cocktails. Here we focus on the development of the electroactive nanowell trapping architecture. Briefly, we have shown that by applying an electric potential between a top and bottom Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) electrodes, particles ranging from 5μm polystyrene spheres to 5nm quantum dots suspended in solution can be attracted, stored and rejected from a targeted well structure by electrokinetic actuation. Nanowells 100 nm in diameter and 1 μm deep were fabricated by depositing silicon and a small oxide thin film on top of an ITO cover slip, patterning the wells on electron beam resist followed by a series of dry etching steps that leave the ITO substrate exposed in the well sites. When the quantum dots are electrokinetically transported to their sensing sites, they are then excited by a UV-blue light, and their discrete fluorescent signal is captured by a fiber spectrometer. Data erasure can be selectively performed by reversing the polarity of the field and ejecting the quantum dots from the nanowell data marks.

  1. Fluidic energy harvesting beams in grid turbulence

    Danesh-Yazdi, A. H.; Goushcha, O.; Elvin, N.; Andreopoulos, Y.

    2015-08-01

    Much of the recent research involving fluidic energy harvesters based on piezoelectricity has focused on excitation through vortex-induced vibration while turbulence-induced excitation has attracted very little attention, and virtually no previous work exists on excitation due to grid-generated turbulence. The present experiments involve placing several piezoelectric cantilever beams of various dimensions and properties in flows where turbulence is generated by passive, active, or semi-passive grids, the latter having a novel design that significantly improves turbulence generation compared to the passive grid and is much less complex than the active grid. We experimentally show for the first time that the average power harvested by a piezoelectric cantilever beam placed in decaying isotropic, homogeneous turbulence depends on mean velocity, velocity and length scales of turbulence as well as the electromechanical properties of the beam. The output power can be modeled as a power law with respect to the distance of the beam from the grid. Furthermore, we show that the rate of decay of this power law closely follows the rate of decay of the turbulent kinetic energy. We also introduce a forcing function used to model approximately the turbulent eddies moving over the cantilever beam and observe that the feedback from the beam motion onto the flow is virtually negligible for most of the cases considered, indicating an effectively one-way interaction for small-velocity fluctuations.

  2. A Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Sensor Integrated with Battery-Controlled Fluidic Device for Capture and Detection of Trace Small Molecules

    Qitao Zhou; Guowen Meng; Peng Zheng; Scott Cushing; Nianqiang Wu; Qing Huang; Chuhong Zhu; Zhuo Zhang; Zhiwei Wang

    2015-01-01

    For surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) sensors, one of the important issues is the development of substrates not only with high SERS-activity but also with strong ability to capture analytes. However, it is difficult to achieve the two goals simultaneously especially when detecting small molecules. Herein a compact battery-controlled nanostructure-assembled SERS system has been demonstrated for capture and detection of trace small molecule pollutants in water. In this SERS fluidic syste...

  3. Generation of arbitrary monotonic concentration profiles by a serial dilution microfluidic network composed of microchannels with a high fluidic-resistance ratio.

    Hattori, Koji; Sugiura, Shinji; Kanamori, Toshiyuki

    2009-06-21

    This paper reports a serial dilution microfluidic network composed of microchannels with a high fluidic-resistance ratio for generating linear concentration profiles as well as logarithmic concentration profiles spanning 3 and 6 orders of magnitude. The microfluidic networks were composed of thin fluidic-resistance microchannels with 160 to 730 microm(2) cross-sectional areas and thick diffusion-mixing microchannels with 3,600 to 17,000 microm(2) cross-sectional areas, and were fabricated from polydimethylsiloxane by multilayer photolithography and replica molding. We proposed a design algorithm of the microfluidic network for an arbitrary monotonic concentration profile by means of a hydrodynamic calculation. Because of the high fluidic-resistance ratio of the fluidic-resistance microchannels to the diffusion-mixing microchannels, appropriate geometry and dimensions of the fluidic-resistance microchannels allowed us to obtain desired concentration profiles. The fabricated microfluidic network was compact, occupying a 8 x 18 to 21.0 x 13.5 mm(2) area on the microchip. Both the linear and the logarithmic concentration profiles were successfully generated with the error less than 15% for the linear concentration profile, 22% and 35% for the logarithmic concentration profiles of 3 and 6 orders of magnitude, respectively. The generated linear concentration profiles of the small molecule, calcein, were independent of the flow rate within the range of 0.009 to 0.23 microL/min. The concentration profiles of the large molecules, dextrans, depended on the flow rate and molecular weight. The required residence time of large molecules in the diffusion-mixing microchannel was correlated with dimensionless diffusion time, Fick number, and was discussed based on the scaling law. These compact, stable serial dilution microfluidic networks are expected to be applied to various integrated on-chip analyses. PMID:19495461

  4. Experimental and analytical investigation of a fluidic power generator

    Sarohia, V.; Bernal, L.; Beauchamp, R. B.

    1981-01-01

    A combined experimental and analytical investigation was performed to understand the various fluid processes associated with the conversion of flow energy into electric power in a fluidic generator. Experiments were performed under flight-simulated laboratory conditions and results were compared with those obtained in the free-flight conditions. It is concluded that the mean mass flow critically controlled the output of the fluidic generator. Cross-correlation of the outputs of transducer data indicate the presence of a standing wave in the tube; the mechanism of oscillation is an acoustic resonance tube phenomenon. A linearized model was constructed coupling the flow behavior of the jet, the jet-layer, the tube, the cavity, and the holes of the fluidic generator. The analytical results also show that the mode of the fluidic power generator is an acoustical resonance phenomenon with the frequency of operation given by f approx = a/4L, where f is the frequency of jet swallowing, a is the average speed of sound in the tube, and L is the length of the tube. Analytical results further indicated that oscillations in the fluidic generator are always damped and consequently there is a forcing of the system in operation.

  5. Research of Dielectric Breakdown Micro fluidic Sampling Chip

    Micro fluidic chip is mainly driven electrically by external electrode and array electrode, but there are certain disadvantages in both of ways, which affect the promotion and application of micro fluidic technology. This paper discusses a scheme that uses the conductive solution in a microchannel made by PDMS, replacing electrodes and the way of dielectric breakdown to achieve microfluidic chip driver. It could reduce the driving voltage and simplify the chip production process. To prove the feasibility of this method, we produced a micro fluidic chip used in PDMS material with the lithography technology and experimented it. The results showed that using the dielectric breakdown to achieve microfluidic chip driver is feasible, and it has certain application prospect.

  6. Fluidics platform and method for sample preparation and analysis

    Benner, W. Henry; Dzenitis, John M.; Bennet, William J.; Baker, Brian R.

    2014-08-19

    Herein provided are fluidics platform and method for sample preparation and analysis. The fluidics platform is capable of analyzing DNA from blood samples using amplification assays such as polymerase-chain-reaction assays and loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification assays. The fluidics platform can also be used for other types of assays and analyzes. In some embodiments, a sample in a sealed tube can be inserted directly. The following isolation, detection, and analyzes can be performed without a user's intervention. The disclosed platform may also comprises a sample preparation system with a magnetic actuator, a heater, and an air-drying mechanism, and fluid manipulation processes for extraction, washing, elution, assay assembly, assay detection, and cleaning after reactions and between samples.

  7. Numerical Studies of a Fluidic Diverter for Flow Control

    Gokoglu, Suleyman A.; Kuczmarski, Maria A.; Culley, Dennis E.; Raghu, Surya

    2009-01-01

    The internal flow structure in a specific fluidic diverter is studied over a range from low subsonic to sonic inlet conditions by a time-dependent numerical analysis. The understanding will aid in the development of fluidic diverters with minimum pressure losses and advanced designs of flow control actuators. The velocity, temperature and pressure fields are calculated for subsonic conditions and the self-induced oscillatory behavior of the flow is successfully predicted. The results of our numerical studies have excellent agreement with our experimental measurements of oscillation frequencies. The acoustic speed in the gaseous medium is determined to be a key factor for up to sonic conditions in governing the mechanism of initiating the oscillations as well as determining its frequency. The feasibility of employing plasma actuation with a minimal perturbation level is demonstrated in steady-state calculations to also produce oscillation frequencies of our own choosing instead of being dependent on the fixed-geometry fluidic device.

  8. Prediction of Compressive Strength of Self compacting Concrete with Flyash and Rice Husk Ash using Adaptive Neuro-fuzzy Inference System

    S. S, Pathak; Dr. Sanjay Sharma; Dr. Hemant Sood; 4: Dr. R. K. Khitoliya

    2012-01-01

    Self-compacting concrete is an innovative concrete that does not require vibration for placing and compaction. It is able to flow under its own weight, completely filling formwork and achieving full compaction even in congested reinforcement without segregation and bleeding. In the present study self compacting concrete mixes were developed using blend of fly ash and rice husk ash. Fresh properties of theses mixes were tested by using standards recommended by EFNARC (European Federation for S...

  9. Study on a compact and adaptable Thomson Spectrometer for laser-initiated 11B(p,α)8Be reactions and low-medium energy particle detection

    Consoli, F.; De Angelis, R.; Bonasera, A.; Sura, J.; Andreoli, P.; Cristofari, G.; Cipriani, M.; Di Giorgio, G.; Ingenito, F.; Barbarino, M.; Labaune, C.; Baccou, C.; Depierreux, S.; Goyon, C.; Yahia, V.

    2016-05-01

    Thomson Spectrometers are of primary importance in the discrimination of particles produced by laser-plasma interaction, according to their energy and charge-mass ratio. We describe here a detailed study on a set of Thomson Spectrometers, adaptable to different experimental situations, with the aim of being placed directly within the experimental chamber, rather than in additional extensions, in order to increase the solid angle of observation. These instruments are suitable for detection of low-medium energy particles and can be effectively employed in laser-plasma experiments of 11B(p,α)8Be fusion. They are provided with permanent magnets, have small dimensions and compact design. In these small configurations electric and magnetic fringing fields play a primary role for particle deflection, and their accurate characterization is required. It was accomplished by means of COMSOL electromagnetic solver coupled to an effective analytical model, very suitable for practical use of the spectrometers. Data from experimental measurements of the magnetic fields have been also used. We describe the application of the spectrometers to an experiment of laser-plasma interaction, coupled to Imaging Plate detectors. Data analysis for spectrum and yield of the detected radiation is discussed in detail.

  10. Micro-fluidic module for blood cell separation for gene expression radiobiological assays

    Advances in molecular techniques have improved discovery of biomarkers associated with radiation exposure. Gene expression techniques have been demonstrated as effective tools for biodosimetry, and different assay platforms with different chemistries are now available. One of the main challenges is to integrate the sample preparation processing of these assays into micro-fluidic platforms to be fully automated for point-of-care medical countermeasures in the case of a radiological event. Most of these assays follow the same workflow processing that comprises first the collection of blood samples followed by cellular and molecular sample preparation. The sample preparation is based on the specific reagents of the assay system and depends also on the different subsets of cells population and the type of biomarkers of interest. In this article, the authors present a module for isolation of white blood cells from peripheral blood as a prerequisite for automation of gene expression assays on a micro-fluidic cartridge. For each sample condition, the gene expression platform can be adapted to suit the requirements of the selected assay chemistry (authors)

  11. Adapt

    Bargatze, L. F.

    2015-12-01

    Active Data Archive Product Tracking (ADAPT) is a collection of software routines that permits one to generate XML metadata files to describe and register data products in support of the NASA Heliophysics Virtual Observatory VxO effort. ADAPT is also a philosophy. The ADAPT concept is to use any and all available metadata associated with scientific data to produce XML metadata descriptions in a consistent, uniform, and organized fashion to provide blanket access to the full complement of data stored on a targeted data server. In this poster, we present an application of ADAPT to describe all of the data products that are stored by using the Common Data File (CDF) format served out by the CDAWEB and SPDF data servers hosted at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. These data servers are the primary repositories for NASA Heliophysics data. For this purpose, the ADAPT routines have been used to generate data resource descriptions by using an XML schema named Space Physics Archive, Search, and Extract (SPASE). SPASE is the designated standard for documenting Heliophysics data products, as adopted by the Heliophysics Data and Model Consortium. The set of SPASE XML resource descriptions produced by ADAPT includes high-level descriptions of numerical data products, display data products, or catalogs and also includes low-level "Granule" descriptions. A SPASE Granule is effectively a universal access metadata resource; a Granule associates an individual data file (e.g. a CDF file) with a "parent" high-level data resource description, assigns a resource identifier to the file, and lists the corresponding assess URL(s). The CDAWEB and SPDF file systems were queried to provide the input required by the ADAPT software to create an initial set of SPASE metadata resource descriptions. Then, the CDAWEB and SPDF data repositories were queried subsequently on a nightly basis and the CDF file lists were checked for any changes such as the occurrence of new, modified, or deleted

  12. Fluidic valves for variable-configuration gas treatment

    Tesař, Václav

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 83, A9 (2005), s. 1111-1121. ISSN 0263-8762 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : fluidics valves * vehicle emissions * variable configuration Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 0.792, year: 2005

  13. Topology optimization of flexible micro-fluidic devices

    Kreissl, Sebastian; Pingen, Georg; Evgrafov, Anton;

    2010-01-01

    A multi-objective topology optimization formulation for the design of dynamically tunable fluidic devices is presented. The flow is manipulated via external and internal mechanical actuation, leading to elastic deformations of flow channels. The design objectives characterize the performance in t...

  14. COMPACT OPERATORS

    Charles Swartz

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available We give a characterization in terms of the transpose operator for a continuous linear operator between locally convex spaces to map bounded sets into relatively weakly compact [relatively compact, precompact] sets. Our results give a known characterization for compact operators between Banach spaces.

  15. Silicon micro-fluidic cooling for NA62 GTK pixel detectors

    Romagnoli, G; Brunel, B; Catinaccio, A; Degrange, J; Mapelli, A; Morel, M; Noel, J; Petagna, P

    2015-01-01

    Silicon micro-channel cooling is being studied for efficient thermal management in application fields such as high power computing and 3D electronic integration. This concept has been introduced in 2010 for the thermal management of silicon pixel detectors in high energy physics experiments. Combining the versatility of standard micro-fabrication processes with the high thermal efficiency typical of micro-fluidics, it is possible to produce effective thermal management devices that are well adapted to different detector configurations. The production of very thin cooling devices in silicon enables a minimization of material of the tracking sensors and eliminates mechanical stresses due to the mismatch of the coefficient of thermal expansion between detectors and cooling systems. The NA62 experiment at CERN will be the first high particle physics experiment that will install a micro-cooling system to perform the thermal management of the three detection planes of its Gigatracker pixel detector.

  16. Autonomous undulatory serpentine locomotion utilizing body dynamics of a fluidic soft robot

    Soft robotics offers the unique promise of creating inherently safe and adaptive systems. These systems bring man-made machines closer to the natural capabilities of biological systems. An important requirement to enable self-contained soft mobile robots is an on-board power source. In this paper, we present an approach to create a bio-inspired soft robotic snake that can undulate in a similar way to its biological counterpart using pressure for actuation power, without human intervention. With this approach, we develop an autonomous soft snake robot with on-board actuation, power, computation and control capabilities. The robot consists of four bidirectional fluidic elastomer actuators in series to create a traveling curvature wave from head to tail along its body. Passive wheels between segments generate the necessary frictional anisotropy for forward locomotion. It takes 14 h to build the soft robotic snake, which can attain an average locomotion speed of 19 mm s−1. (paper)

  17. Fluidic Electrodynamics: a new approach to EM Propulsion

    Martins, Alexandre A

    2008-01-01

    We report on a new methodological approach to electrodynamics based on a fluidic viewpoint. We develop a systematic approach establishing analogies between physical magnitudes and isomorphism (structure-preserving mappings) between systems of equations. This methodological approach allows us to give a general expression for the hydromotive force, thus re-obtaining the Navier-Stokes equation departing from the an appropriate electromotive force. From this ground we offer a fluidic approach to different kind of issues with interest in propulsion, e.g., the force exerted by a charged particle on a body carrying current; the magnetic force between two parallel currents; the Magnus's force. It is shown how the intermingle between the fluid vectors fields and electromagnetic fields lead to new insights on their dynamics. The new concepts introduced in this work suggest possible applications to electromagnetic (EM) propulsion devices and the mastery of the principles of producing electric fields of required configur...

  18. Development of a continuous-flow fluidic pump

    A study was made of a fluidic pump which utilizes gas pistons, a venturi-like reverse-flow-diverter, and a planar Y-type flow junction to produce a continuous flow of liquid from a system containing no moving parts. The study included an evaluation of the system performance and of methods for controlling the stability of the fluidic system. A mathematical model of the system was developed for steady-state operation using accepted theories of fluid mechanics. Although more elaborate models are needed for detailed design and optimization of specific systems, the model determined some of the main factors controlling the system performance and will be used in the development of more accurate models. 49 refs., 39 figs., 9 tabs

  19. pH-Sensitive Hydrogel for Micro-Fluidic Valve

    Zhengzhi Yang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The deformation behavior of a pH-sensitive hydrogel micro-fluidic valve system is investigated using inhomogeneous gel deformation theory, in which the fluid-structure interaction (FSI of the gel solid and fluid flow in the pipe is considered. We use a finite element method with a well adopted hydrogel constitutive equation, which is coded in commercial software, ABAQUS, to simulate the hydrogel valve swelling deformation, while FLUENT is adopted to model the fluid flow in the pipe of the hydrogel valve system. The study demonstrates that FSI significantly affects the gel swelling deformed shapes, fluid flow pressure and velocity patterns. FSI has to be considered in the study on fluid flow regulated by hydrogel microfluidic valve. The study provides a more accurate and adoptable model for future design of new pH-sensitive hydrogel valves, and also gives a useful guideline for further studies on hydrogel fluidic applications.

  20. Fabrication of resonant micro cantilevers with integrated transparent fluidic channel

    Khan, Faheem; Schmid, Silvan; Davis, Zachary James;

    2011-01-01

    of fluids or detect particles suspended in a fluid by sensing the change in total mass of the structure. The 4 × 4 μm2 integrated microfluidic channel makes it possible to flow a fluid through the channel while the cantilevers are resonating. The movement of any particles (present in the fluid) can......Microfabricated cantilevers are proving their potential as excellent tools for analysis applications. In this paper, we describe the design, fabrication and testing of resonant micro cantilevers with integrated transparent fluidic channels. The cantilevers have been devised to measure the density...... be visually observed through the transparent fluidic channel. The resonant frequency of the cantilever is changed by the fluid inside the channel, due to the change in mass. The shift in the resonant frequency can be translated into a density of the fluid or into the presence of macro/micro molecules...

  1. Fluidic Oscillator Array for Synchronized Oscillating Jet Generation

    Koklu, Mehti (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A fluidic oscillator array includes a plurality of fluidic-oscillator main flow channels. Each main flow channel has an inlet and an outlet. Each main flow channel has first and second control ports disposed at opposing sides thereof, and has a first and a second feedback ports disposed at opposing sides thereof. The feedback ports are located downstream of the control ports with respect to a direction of a fluid flow through the main flow channel. The system also includes a first fluid accumulator in fluid communication with each first control port and each first feedback port, and a second fluid accumulator in fluid communication with each second control port and each second feedback port.

  2. Fluidic Analysis in an Annular Centrifugal Contactor for Fuel Reprocessing

    An annular centrifugal contactor (ACC) is a promising device for fuel reprocessing process, because it offers several advantages—a smaller size, a smaller holdup volume, and a higher separation performance—over conventional contactors such as a mixer-settler and a pulse column. Fluid dynamics and dispersion in an ACC, which has a combined mixer/centrifuge structure, are closely related to its separation performance and capacity, and this information is useful in improving equipment design. In this paper, experimental and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) studies were conducted to analyze fluidic and dispersion behavior in ACCs. Multiphase mixing (water/TBP-dodecane/air) in the annular zone was observed by Particle Imaging Velocimetry, and the change in the fluidic and dispersion behavior was ascertained under several operational conditions. The results of the CFD studies, which considered multiphase turbulent flow in the annular and rotor interior zones, were in a good agreement with the experimental data. (author)

  3. Microfluidic hubs, systems, and methods for interface fluidic modules

    Bartsch, Michael S; Claudnic, Mark R; Kim, Hanyoup; Patel, Kamlesh D; Renzi, Ronald F; Van De Vreugde, James L

    2015-01-27

    Embodiments of microfluidic hubs and systems are described that may be used to connect fluidic modules. A space between surfaces may be set by fixtures described herein. In some examples a fixture may set substrate-to-substrate spacing based on a distance between registration surfaces on which the respective substrates rest. Fluidic interfaces are described, including examples where fluid conduits (e.g. capillaries) extend into the fixture to the space between surfaces. Droplets of fluid may be introduced to and/or removed from microfluidic hubs described herein, and fluid actuators may be used to move droplets within the space between surfaces. Continuous flow modules may be integrated with the hubs in some examples.

  4. Assembly of microsystems for optical and fluidic applications

    Haasl, Sjoerd

    2005-01-01

    This thesis addresses assembly issues encountered in optical and fluidic microsystem applications. In optics, the first subject concerns the active alignment of components in optical fibersystems. A solution for reducing the cost of optical component assembly while retaining submicron accuracy is to integrate the alignment mechanism onto the optical substrate. A polymer V-shaped actuator is presented that can carry the weight of the large components - on a micromechanical scale - and that can...

  5. Stochastic regimes in very-low-frequency fluidic oscillator

    Tesař, Václav

    Liberec : Polypress s.r.o, 2015 - (Dančová, P.; Veselý, M.), s. 809-816 [Experimental Fluid Mechanics 2015. Praha (CZ), 17.11.2015-20.11.2015] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-23046S Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : fluidic oscillator * ant-parallel operation * stochastic regimes Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics

  6. Fluidic Oscillators with Active Devices Operating in Anti-Parallel

    Tesař, Václav

    Praha : Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics ASCR, v. v. i, 2015 - (Náprstek, J.; Fischer, C.). s. 326-327 ISBN 978-80-86246-42-0. ISSN 1805-8248 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-23046S; GA ČR GA14-08888S Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : fluidics * oscillators * anti-parallel operation Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics

  7. Micro-fluidic flow cells for studies of electrochemical reactions

    Ingdal, Mats

    2014-01-01

    Micro fluidic flow cells (MFFCs) are a relatively new technique for characterization of electrochemical reactions. This work includes both techniques for manufacturing the cells and electrochemical characterization of them.Improvements to a previously established procedure for the manufacturing MFFCs included change of template for PDMS-masters from glass slides to silicon wafers and the change from electrodes consisting of titanium gold and platinum to only titanium and platinum. The changes...

  8. Mechanisms of fluidic microbubble generation Part II: Suppressing the conjunctions

    Tesař, Václav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 116, č. 6 (2014), s. 849-856. ISSN 0009-2509 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-23046S Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : bubble coalescence * bubble conjunction * fluidic oscillator Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 2.337, year: 2014 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ces.2014.06.006

  9. Miniaturized unified imaging system using bio-inspired fluidic lens

    Tsai, Frank S.; Cho, Sung Hwan; Qiao, Wen; Kim, Nam-Hyong; Lo, Yu-Hwa

    2008-08-01

    Miniaturized imaging systems have become ubiquitous as they are found in an ever-increasing number of devices, such as cellular phones, personal digital assistants, and web cameras. Until now, the design and fabrication methodology of such systems have not been significantly different from conventional cameras. The only established method to achieve focusing is by varying the lens distance. On the other hand, the variable-shape crystalline lens found in animal eyes offers inspiration for a more natural way of achieving an optical system with high functionality. Learning from the working concepts of the optics in the animal kingdom, we developed bio-inspired fluidic lenses for a miniature universal imager with auto-focusing, macro, and super-macro capabilities. Because of the enormous dynamic range of fluidic lenses, the miniature camera can even function as a microscope. To compensate for the image quality difference between the central vision and peripheral vision and the shape difference between a solid-state image sensor and a curved retina, we adopted a hybrid design consisting of fluidic lenses for tunability and fixed lenses for aberration and color dispersion correction. A design of the world's smallest surgical camera with 3X optical zoom capabilities is also demonstrated using the approach of hybrid lenses.

  10. Performance verification test for APR1400 fluidic device

    Using the full scale test facility called 'VAPER', five sets of repeatability tests have been carried out to verify the performance of the Fluidic Device which is adopted in the standard design of APR1400. Quality assurance program for the APR1400 Fluidic Device verification test has been developed and applied to each set of repeatability test procedure, and precise calibration for major measuring instruments has been performed. Thus, the highest reliability and integrity of the test results was ensured. Throughout the present tests, the repeatability of the major parameter related with APR1400 Fluidic Device performance has been sufficiently confirmed. Total K factor in the actual plant system would be about 16 at high flow condition and about 105 at low flow condition, which is similar to the design goal (about 17 at high flow condition and about 100 at low flow condition) The results of the present research contributes to the smooth construction of Sin-Kori units 3 and 4, and to the promotion of domestic analytic capability for the LOCA of advanced LWR

  11. FLUIDICS: THE ANSWER TO PROBLEMS OF HANDLING HAZARDOUS FLUIDS – A SURVEY

    Tesař, Václav

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 2 (2012), s. 167-183. ISSN 2041-9031 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GCP101/11/J019; GA TA ČR TA02020795 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : fluidic pumps * fluidics * fluidic valves Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics http://journals.witpress.com/journals.asp?iID=78#papers

  12. Fluidic vortices generated from optical vortices in a microdroplet cavity

    Bar-David, Daniel; Martin, Leoplodo L; Carmon, Tal

    2016-01-01

    We harness the momentum of light resonating inside a micro-droplet cavity, to experimentally generate micro-flows within the envelope of the drop. We 3D map these optically induced flows by using fluorescent nanoparticles; which reveals circular micro-streams. The flows are parametrically studied and, as expected, exhibit an increase of rotation speed with optical power. The flow is non-circular only when we intentionally break the axial symmetry of the droplet. Besides the fundamental interest in light-flow interactions including in opto-fluidic cavities, the optically controlled flows can serve in bringing analytes into the maximum-power region of the microcavity.

  13. Fluidics: the answer to problems of handling hazardous fluids

    Tesař, Václav

    Southampton : WIT Press, 2011 - (Brebbia, C.; Guarascio, M.; Reniers, G.), s. 465-477 ISBN 978-1-84564-522-9. ISSN 1746-4498. [ International Conference on Safety and Security Engineering /4./. Antverpy (BE), 04.07.2011-06.07.2011] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GCP101/11/J019 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : fluidics * hazardous liquids * coanda effect Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics http://www.witpress.com/978-1-84564-522-9.html

  14. pH-Sensitive Hydrogel for Micro-Fluidic Valve

    Zhengzhi Yang; Haiyan Miao; Zhiwei Ding; Somsak Swaddiwudhipong; Yan Zhang; Zishun Liu

    2012-01-01

    The deformation behavior of a pH-sensitive hydrogel micro-fluidic valve system is investigated using inhomogeneous gel deformation theory, in which the fluid-structure interaction (FSI) of the gel solid and fluid flow in the pipe is considered. We use a finite element method with a well adopted hydrogel constitutive equation, which is coded in commercial software, ABAQUS, to simulate the hydrogel valve swelling deformation, while FLUENT is adopted to model the fluid flow in the pipe of the hy...

  15. Variable recruitment fluidic artificial muscles: modeling and experiments

    We investigate taking advantage of the lightweight, compliant nature of fluidic artificial muscles to create variable recruitment actuators in the form of artificial muscle bundles. Several actuator elements at different diameter scales are packaged to act as a single actuator device. The actuator elements of the bundle can be connected to the fluidic control circuit so that different groups of actuator elements, much like individual muscle fibers, can be activated independently depending on the required force output and motion. This novel actuation concept allows us to save energy by effectively impedance matching the active size of the actuators on the fly based on the instantaneous required load. This design also allows a single bundled actuator to operate in substantially different force regimes, which could be valuable for robots that need to perform a wide variety of tasks and interact safely with humans. This paper proposes, models and analyzes the actuation efficiency of this actuator concept. The analysis shows that variable recruitment operation can create an actuator that reduces throttling valve losses to operate more efficiently over a broader range of its force–strain operating space. We also present preliminary results of the design, fabrication and experimental characterization of three such bioinspired variable recruitment actuator prototypes. (paper)

  16. Fluidic Force Discrimination Assays: A New Technology for Tetrodotoxin Detection

    Cy R. Tamanaha

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Tetrodotoxin (TTX is a low molecular weight (~319 Da neurotoxin found in a number of animal species, including pufferfish. Protection from toxin tainted food stuffs requires rapid, sensitive, and specific diagnostic tests. An emerging technique for the detection of both proteins and nucleic acids is Fluidic Force Discrimination (FFD assays. This simple and rapid method typically uses a sandwich immunoassay format labeled with micrometer-diameter beads and has the novel capability of removing nonspecifically attached beads under controlled, fluidic conditions. This technique allows for near real-time, multiplexed analysis at levels of detection that exceed many of the conventional transduction methods (e.g., ELISAs. In addition, the large linear dynamic range afforded by FFD should decrease the need to perform multiple sample dilutions, a common challenge for food testing. By applying FFD assays to an inhibition immunoassay platform specific for TTX and transduction via low magnification microscopy, levels of detection of ~15 ng/mL and linear dynamic ranges of 4 to 5 orders of magnitude were achieved. The results from these studies on the first small molecule FFD assay, along with the impact to detection of seafood toxins, will be discussed in this manuscript.

  17. Compact Lumps

    Bazeia, D; Menezes, R

    2015-01-01

    We study the presence of lumplike solutions in models described by a single real scalar field with standard kinematics in two-dimensional spacetime. The results show several distinct models that support the presence of bell-shaped, lumplike structures which may live in a compact space.

  18. Stochastic regimes in very-low-frequency fluidic oscillator

    Tesař, Václav

    2016-03-01

    Paper discusses interesting unexpected stochastic regimes discovered in a fluidic oscillator designed for operation at very low oscillation frequencies - without the inconvenience of the long feedback loops needed in standard low-frequency oscillator designs. The new oscillator contains a pair of bistable turn-down active valves operating in anti-parallel — essentially analogous to Abraham & Bloch electric "multibrateur" invented in 1919. Three different self-excited oscillation regimes were found. In the order of increasing supplied flow rate, these regimes are characterised by: (A) generation of stochastic-duration multi-pulse packs, (B) generation of individual pulses with a degree of periodicity, and (C) regime with randomly appearing flow pulses separated by intervals of the order of seconds.

  19. Experimental study of fluidic mixing in a cylindrical reactor

    Orfaniotis, A.; Fonade, C.; Lalane, M.; Doubrovine, N. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 31 - Toulouse (France)

    1996-04-01

    Fluidic mixing in a cylindrical reactor was studied in an effort to determine the effect of jet disposition and the viscosity of the liquid. The tests were carried out in a a tank using conductimetric probes to measure the mixing time. Results indicated that relative jet positions leading to an impinging flow structure were less efficient than shear flow configurations. When these results were compared with results of earlier work by Simon and Fonade (1993) it was found that they were consistent with the exponent 2/3 obtained by them in experiments with turbulent jets. It was pointed out that these mixing times apply only to mixing in cylindrical reactors. With different geometries, such as basins and lagoons with small liquid depths, a new choice of the reference length included in the expression of the reference time will be needed. 10 refs., 3 tabs., 16 figs.

  20. Magnetohydrodynamic actuation of droplets for millimetric planar fluidic systems

    Ahmadi, A., E-mail: ali.ahmadi@ubc.ca; McDermid, C. M.; Markley, L. [School of Engineering, University of British Columbia, Kelowna, British Columbia V1V 1V7 (Canada)

    2016-01-04

    In this work, a magnetohydrodynamic method is proposed for the actuation of droplets in small-scale planar fluidic systems, providing an alternative to commonly used methods such as electrowetting-on-dielectric. Elementary droplet-based operations, including transport, merging, and mixing, are demonstrated. The forces acting on millimetric droplets are carefully investigated, with a primary focus on the magnetic actuation force and on the unbalanced capillary forces that arise due to hysteresis. A super-hydrophobic channel is 3D printed to guide the droplets, with thin wires installed as contact electrodes and permanent magnets providing a static magnetic field. It is shown that droplet motion is enhanced by increasing the droplet size and minimizing the electrode contact surface. The effects of channel geometry on threshold voltage and minimum moveable droplet volume are characterized. Finally, the presence of electrolysis is investigated and mitigating strategies are discussed.

  1. Development of fluidic device in sit for KNGR design

    The fluidic device (FD) has been introduced in the Safety Injection Tank (SIT) as one of the passive safety features in KNGR design. With the introduction of FD, the flowrate from the SIT is controlled without any moving part. The relatively large initial flowrate is reduced by about 80% during core reflooding stage following LOCA. As a consequence, this device enhances the effective use of borated water by limiting unnecessary water supply during core reflooding stage. Scaled-down model test will be performed to obtain required flow characteristics during flow transition, cavitation, and ingestion of nitrogen gas will be examined through the tests. This paper describes the general layout of the test program and briefly discusses the technical features of FD

  2. Quantum dot conjugates in a sub-micrometer fluidic channel

    Stavis, Samuel M.; Edel, Joshua B.; Samiee, Kevan T.; Craighead, Harold G.

    2010-04-13

    A nanofluidic channel fabricated in fused silica with an approximately 500 nm square cross section was used to isolate, detect and identify individual quantum dot conjugates. The channel enables the rapid detection of every fluorescent entity in solution. A laser of selected wavelength was used to excite multiple species of quantum dots and organic molecules, and the emission spectra were resolved without significant signal rejection. Quantum dots were then conjugated with organic molecules and detected to demonstrate efficient multicolor detection. PCH was used to analyze coincident detection and to characterize the degree of binding. The use of a small fluidic channel to detect quantum dots as fluorescent labels was shown to be an efficient technique for multiplexed single molecule studies. Detection of single molecule binding events has a variety of applications including high throughput immunoassays.

  3. Magnetohydrodynamic actuation of droplets for millimetric planar fluidic systems

    Ahmadi, A.; McDermid, C. M.; Markley, L.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, a magnetohydrodynamic method is proposed for the actuation of droplets in small-scale planar fluidic systems, providing an alternative to commonly used methods such as electrowetting-on-dielectric. Elementary droplet-based operations, including transport, merging, and mixing, are demonstrated. The forces acting on millimetric droplets are carefully investigated, with a primary focus on the magnetic actuation force and on the unbalanced capillary forces that arise due to hysteresis. A super-hydrophobic channel is 3D printed to guide the droplets, with thin wires installed as contact electrodes and permanent magnets providing a static magnetic field. It is shown that droplet motion is enhanced by increasing the droplet size and minimizing the electrode contact surface. The effects of channel geometry on threshold voltage and minimum moveable droplet volume are characterized. Finally, the presence of electrolysis is investigated and mitigating strategies are discussed.

  4. Opto-fluidic flow analysis for monitoring of immunity levels

    Mohan, A.; Bharadwaj, A.,; Marshkole, N.; Saiyed, T.; Prabhakar, A.

    2015-06-01

    We describes the design, development and testing of a cost effective and miniaturized version of a flow analyzer. It is designed to detect fluorescence labeled immunocytes in human blood sample. Availing of advancements in micro fluidics and nanolithographic technique, we fabricated a PDMS based device with integrated micro channels for accommodating the optical fibers. The lensed fibers serves as the waveguides for illumination and collection of laser and scattered signals respectively. As a cell crosses the interrogation point the forward scatter, side scatter and fluorescence are detected. Photomultiplier tubes used in conventional flow cytometers have been replaced here with APDs (avalanche photo detectors) and supplemented with digital signal processing. The prototype was tested with different sized polymer beads as well as the live cells.

  5. Fluidic Control of Aerodynamic Forces on an Axisymmetric Body

    Abramson, Philip; Vukasinovic, Bojan; Glezer, Ari

    2007-11-01

    The aerodynamic forces and moments on a wind tunnel model of an axisymmetric bluff body are modified by induced local vectoring of the separated base flow. Control is effected by an array of four integrated aft-facing synthetic jets that emanate from narrow, azimuthally-segmented slots, equally distributed around the perimeter of the circular tail end within a small backward facing step that extends into a Coanda surface. The model is suspended in the wind tunnel by eight thin wires for minimal support interference with the wake. Fluidic actuation results in a localized, segmented vectoring of the separated base flow along the rear Coanda surface and induces asymmetric aerodynamic forces and moments to effect maneuvering during flight. The aerodynamic effects associated with quasi-steady and transitory differential, asymmetric activation of the Coanda effect are characterized using direct force and PIV measurements.

  6. Thin-walled compliant plastic structures for mesoscale fluidic systems

    Miles, Robin R.; Schumann, Daniel L.

    1999-06-01

    Thin-walled, compliant plastic structures for meso-scale fluidic systems were fabricated, tested and used to demonstrate valving, pumping, metering and mixing. These structures permit the isolation of actuators and sensors form the working fluid, thereby reducing chemical compatibility issues. The thin-walled, compliant plastic structures can be used in either a permanent, reusable system or as an inexpensive disposable for single-use assay systems. The implementation of valving, pumping, mixing and metering operations involve only an elastic change in the mechanical shape of various portions of the structure. Advantages provided by the thin-walled plastic structures include reduced dead volume and rapid mixing. Five different methods for fabricating the thin-walled plastic structures discussed including laser welding, molding, vacuum forming, thermal heat staking and photolithographic patterning techniques.

  7. Compact NMR

    Bluemich, Bernhard; Haber-Pohlmeier, Sabina; Zia, Wasif [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Technische und Makromolekulare Chemie (ITMC)

    2014-06-01

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is the most popular method for chemists to analyze molecular structures, while Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive diagnostic tool for medical doctors that provides high-contrast images of biological tissue. In both applications, the sample (or patient) is positioned inside a large, superconducting magnet to magnetize the atomic nuclei. Interrogating radio-frequency pulses result in frequency spectra that provide the chemist with molecular information, the medical doctor with anatomic images, and materials scientist with NMR relaxation parameters. Recent advances in magnet technology have led to a variety of small permanent magnets to allow compact and low-cost instruments. The goal of this book is to provide an introduction to the practical use of compact NMR at a level nearly as basic as the operation of a smart phone.

  8. Compact NMR

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is the most popular method for chemists to analyze molecular structures, while Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive diagnostic tool for medical doctors that provides high-contrast images of biological tissue. In both applications, the sample (or patient) is positioned inside a large, superconducting magnet to magnetize the atomic nuclei. Interrogating radio-frequency pulses result in frequency spectra that provide the chemist with molecular information, the medical doctor with anatomic images, and materials scientist with NMR relaxation parameters. Recent advances in magnet technology have led to a variety of small permanent magnets to allow compact and low-cost instruments. The goal of this book is to provide an introduction to the practical use of compact NMR at a level nearly as basic as the operation of a smart phone.

  9. Computation of transient flow rates in passive pumping micro-fluidic systems

    Chen, I-Jane; Eckstein, Eugene C.; Lindner, Ernő

    2008-01-01

    Motion in micro-channels of passive flow micro-fluidic systems can be controlled by proper design and estimated by careful modeling. We report on methods to describe the flow rate as function of time in a passive pump driven micro-fluidic systems. The model considers the surface energy present in small droplets, which prompts their shrinkage and induces flow. The droplet geometries are controlled by the micro-fluidic system geometry and hydrophilicity of the droplet channel contact area so th...

  10. A Programmable MicroFluidic Processor: Integrated and Hybrid Solutions

    Rose, K A

    2002-05-10

    The Programmable Fluidic Processor (PFP), a device conceived of by researchers at MD Anderson Cancer Center, is a reconfigurable and programmable bio-chemical analysis system designed for handheld operation in a variety of applications. Unlike most microfluidic systems which utilize channels to control fluids, the PFP device is a droplet-based system. The device is based on dielectrophoresis; a fluid transport phenomenon that utilizes mismatched polarizability between a droplet and its medium to induce droplet mobility. In the device, sample carrying droplets are polarized by an array of electrodes, individually addressable by subsurface microelectronics. My research focused on the development of a polymer-based microfluidic injection system for injecting these droplets onto the electrode array. The first of two device generations fabricated at LLNL was designed using extensive research and modeling performed by MD Anderson and Coventor. Fabricating the first generation required several iterations and design changes in order to generate an acceptable device for testing. Difficulties in planar fabrication of the fluidic system and a narrow channel design necessitated these changes. The second generation device incorporated modifications of the previous generation and improved on deficiencies discovered during experimentation with the initial device. Extensive modeling of the injection channels and fluid storage chamber also aided in redesigning the device's microfluidic system. A micromolding technique with interlocking features enabled precise alignments and dimensional control, critical requirements for device optimization. Fabrication of a final device will be fully integrated with the polymer-based microfluidics bonded directly to the silicon-based microelectronics. The optimized design and process flow developed in the trial generations will readily transfer to this approach.

  11. Autonomous undulatory serpentine locomotion utilizing body dynamics of a fluidic soft robot.

    Onal, Cagdas D; Rus, Daniela

    2013-06-01

    Soft robotics offers the unique promise of creating inherently safe and adaptive systems. These systems bring man-made machines closer to the natural capabilities of biological systems. An important requirement to enable self-contained soft mobile robots is an on-board power source. In this paper, we present an approach to create a bio-inspired soft robotic snake that can undulate in a similar way to its biological counterpart using pressure for actuation power, without human intervention. With this approach, we develop an autonomous soft snake robot with on-board actuation, power, computation and control capabilities. The robot consists of four bidirectional fluidic elastomer actuators in series to create a traveling curvature wave from head to tail along its body. Passive wheels between segments generate the necessary frictional anisotropy for forward locomotion. It takes 14 h to build the soft robotic snake, which can attain an average locomotion speed of 19 mm s(-1). PMID:23524383

  12. A novel simple preparation method of a hydrogel mold for PDMS micro-fluidic device fabrication

    A novel method to prepare a very thick master mold for poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) casting was investigated by using a hydrogel ultraviolet (UV) curing process through a film mask. A simple process of dispensing of hydrogel, UV curing through a photomask and rinsing enabled the construction of micro-hydrogel structures in a fast manner. These hydrogel structures can be used as a mold for PDMS casting for PDMS fluidic chip fabrication. This method allows the fast construction of very thick micro-structures more than 1 mm. The characterizations about vertical sidewall and adhesion enhancement between the substrate and micro-structures were studied. The application of a PDMS fluidic chip, which was prepared from the hydrogel mold by PDMS casting, to some fluidic flow rate tests was demonstrated. This method is fast and simple to prepare a PDMS casting mold at low cost and can be applied in micro-fabrication of biochemical chips and micro-fluidic devices. (paper)

  13. Portable integrated micro-fluidic platform for the monitoring and detection of nitrite

    Czugala, Monika; Fay, Cormac; O'Connor, Noel E.; Corcoran, Brian; Benito-Lopez, Fernando; Diamond, Dermot

    2013-01-01

    A wireless, portable integrated micro-fluidic platform is proposed and applied for the determination of nitrite anions in water. The colourimetric analysis of nitrite is based on the Griess reagent, and the colour intensity of nitrite Griess reagent complex is detected using a low cost Paired Emitter Detector Diode technique. The micro-fluidic device employed a photoswitchable micro-valve, controlled by white light and generated using a light emitting diode. This low-cost and low-power detect...

  14. Interaction of turbulence with flexible beams in fluidic energy harvesting

    Danesh Yazdi, Amir Hossein

    Advances in the development and fabrication of microelectronics have enhanced the energy efficiency of these devices to such an extent that they can now operate at very low power levels, typically on the order of a few microwatts or less. Batteries are primarily thought of as the most convenient source of power for electronic devices, but in instances where a device needs to be deployed in a difficult-to-access location such as under water, the added weight and especially maintenance of such a power source becomes costly. A solution that avoids this problem and is particularly attractive in a "deploy & forget" setting involves designing a device that continuously harvests energy from the surrounding environment. Piezoelectric energy harvesters, which employ the direct piezoelectric effect to convert mechanical strain into electrical energy, have garnered a great deal of attention in the literature. This work presents an overview of the experimental and analytical results related to fluidic energy extraction from vortex and turbulent flow using piezoelectric cantilever beams. In particular, the development of the FTGF (Fourier Transform-Green's Function) solution approach to the coupled, continuous electromechanical equations governing piezoelectric cantilever beams and the associated TFB (Train of Frozen Boxcars) method, which models the flow of vortices and turbulent eddies over the beams, is discussed. In addition, the behavior of fluidic energy harvesters in decaying isotropic, homogeneous grid turbulence generated by passive, semi-passive and active grids is examined and a novel grid-turbulence forcing model is introduced. An expression for the expected power output of the piezoelectric beam is obtained by utilizing this forcing function model in the single degree-of-freedom electromechanical equations. Furthermore, approximate, closed-form solutions to the theoretical expected power are derived from deterministic turbulence forcing models and are compared with

  15. Liquid crystal thermometry for micro-fluidic applications

    Pottebaum, Tait

    2009-11-01

    Liquid crystal thermometry has been implemented in a micro-channel and the performance of the technique quantified. Implementation of the technique is subject to constraints on imaging and illumination configurations similar to the constraints on micro-PIV. In addition, the proximity of the measurements to interfaces and surfaces from which light scatters leads to high noise levels that cannot be reduced by wavelength filtering (such as with fluorescent particles) because the temperature information is contained in the color of the particles. Therefore, circular polarization filtering is used, exploiting the circular dichroism of the thermochromic liquid crystal (TLC). Encapsulated TLC particles were flowed through the micro-channel and subjected to a series of uniform temperatures for calibration. To validate the technique, a temperature gradient was imposed with no flow. Finally, the technique was applied to micro-channel flow with an imposed wall temperature gradient in the flow direction. Liquid crystal thermometry can now be applied to a wide range of micro-fluidic applications.

  16. Performance Verification for Safety Injection Tank with Fluidic Device

    In LBLOCA, the SITs of a conventional nuclear power plant deliver excessive cooling water to the reactor vessel causing the water to flow into the containment atmosphere. In an effort to make it more efficient, Fluidic Device (FD) is installed inside a SIT of Advanced Power Reactor 1400 (APR 1400). FD, a complete passive controller which doesn't require actuating power, controls injection flow rates which are susceptible to a change in the flow resistance inside a vortex chamber of FD. When SIT Emergency Core Cooling (ECC) water level is above the top of the stand pipe, the water enters the vortex chamber through both the top of the stand pipe and the control ports resulting in injection of the water at a large flow rate. When the water level drops below the top of the stand pipe, the water only enters the vortex chamber through the control ports resulting in vortex formation in the vortex chamber and a relatively small flow injection. Performance verification of SIT shall be carried out because SITs play an integral role to mitigate accidents. In this paper, the performance verification method of SIT with FD is presented. In this paper, the equations for calculation of flow resistance coefficient (K) are induced to evaluate on-site performance of APR 1400 SIT with FD. Then, the equations are applied to the performance verification of SIT with FD and good results are obtained

  17. Experimental Observation of Bohr’s Nonlinear Fluidic Surface Oscillation

    Moon, Songky; Shin, Younghoon; Kwak, Hojeong; Yang, Juhee; Lee, Sang-Bum; Kim, Soyun; An, Kyungwon

    2016-01-01

    Niels Bohr in the early stage of his career developed a nonlinear theory of fluidic surface oscillation in order to study surface tension of liquids. His theory includes the nonlinear interaction between multipolar surface oscillation modes, surpassing the linear theory of Rayleigh and Lamb. It predicts a specific normalized magnitude of 0.416η2 for an octapolar component, nonlinearly induced by a quadrupolar one with a magnitude of η much less than unity. No experimental confirmation on this prediction has been reported. Nonetheless, accurate determination of multipolar components is important as in optical fiber spinning, film blowing and recently in optofluidic microcavities for ray and wave chaos studies and photonics applications. Here, we report experimental verification of his theory. By using optical forward diffraction, we measured the cross-sectional boundary profiles at extreme positions of a surface-oscillating liquid column ejected from a deformed microscopic orifice. We obtained a coefficient of 0.42 ± 0.08 consistently under various experimental conditions. We also measured the resonance mode spectrum of a two-dimensional cavity formed by the cross-sectional segment of the liquid jet. The observed spectra agree well with wave calculations assuming a coefficient of 0.414 ± 0.011. Our measurements establish the first experimental observation of Bohr’s hydrodynamic theory.

  18. Performance Verification for Safety Injection Tank with Fluidic Device

    Yune, Seok Jeong; Kim, Da Yong [KEPCO Engineering and Construction Company, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    In LBLOCA, the SITs of a conventional nuclear power plant deliver excessive cooling water to the reactor vessel causing the water to flow into the containment atmosphere. In an effort to make it more efficient, Fluidic Device (FD) is installed inside a SIT of Advanced Power Reactor 1400 (APR 1400). FD, a complete passive controller which doesn't require actuating power, controls injection flow rates which are susceptible to a change in the flow resistance inside a vortex chamber of FD. When SIT Emergency Core Cooling (ECC) water level is above the top of the stand pipe, the water enters the vortex chamber through both the top of the stand pipe and the control ports resulting in injection of the water at a large flow rate. When the water level drops below the top of the stand pipe, the water only enters the vortex chamber through the control ports resulting in vortex formation in the vortex chamber and a relatively small flow injection. Performance verification of SIT shall be carried out because SITs play an integral role to mitigate accidents. In this paper, the performance verification method of SIT with FD is presented. In this paper, the equations for calculation of flow resistance coefficient (K) are induced to evaluate on-site performance of APR 1400 SIT with FD. Then, the equations are applied to the performance verification of SIT with FD and good results are obtained.

  19. Compactly supported multi-wavelets

    Wojciech Banaś

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we show some construction of compactly supported multi-wavelets in \\(L^2(\\mathbb{R}^d\\, \\(d \\geq 2\\ which is based on the one-dimensional case, when \\(d=1\\. We also demonstrate that some methods, which are useful in the construction of wavelets with a compact support at \\(d=1\\, can be adapted to higher-dimensional cases if \\(A \\in M_{d \\times d}(\\mathbb{Z}\\ is an expansive matrix of a special form.

  20. Bacterial adhesion force quantification by fluidic force microscopy

    Potthoff, Eva; Ossola, Dario; Zambelli, Tomaso; Vorholt, Julia A.

    2015-02-01

    Quantification of detachment forces between bacteria and substrates facilitates the understanding of the bacterial adhesion process that affects cell physiology and survival. Here, we present a method that allows for serial, single bacterial cell force spectroscopy by combining the force control of atomic force microscopy with microfluidics. Reversible bacterial cell immobilization under physiological conditions on the pyramidal tip of a microchanneled cantilever is achieved by underpressure. Using the fluidic force microscopy technology (FluidFM), we achieve immobilization forces greater than those of state-of-the-art cell-cantilever binding as demonstrated by the detachment of Escherichia coli from polydopamine with recorded forces between 4 and 8 nN for many cells. The contact time and setpoint dependence of the adhesion forces of E. coli and Streptococcus pyogenes, as well as the sequential detachment of bacteria out of a chain, are shown, revealing distinct force patterns in the detachment curves. This study demonstrates the potential of the FluidFM technology for quantitative bacterial adhesion measurements of cell-substrate and cell-cell interactions that are relevant in biofilms and infection biology.Quantification of detachment forces between bacteria and substrates facilitates the understanding of the bacterial adhesion process that affects cell physiology and survival. Here, we present a method that allows for serial, single bacterial cell force spectroscopy by combining the force control of atomic force microscopy with microfluidics. Reversible bacterial cell immobilization under physiological conditions on the pyramidal tip of a microchanneled cantilever is achieved by underpressure. Using the fluidic force microscopy technology (FluidFM), we achieve immobilization forces greater than those of state-of-the-art cell-cantilever binding as demonstrated by the detachment of Escherichia coli from polydopamine with recorded forces between 4 and 8 nN for many

  1. Manufacture of micro fluidic devices by laser welding using thermal transfer printing techniques

    Klein, R.; Klein, K. F.; Tobisch, T.; Thoelken, D.; Belz, M.

    2016-03-01

    Micro-fluidic devices are widely used today in the areas of medical diagnostics and drug research, as well as for applications within the process, electronics and chemical industry. Microliters of fluids or single cell to cell interactions can be conveniently analyzed with such devices using fluorescence imaging, phase contrast microscopy or spectroscopic techniques. Typical micro-fluidic devices consist of a thermoplastic base component with chambers and channels covered by a hermetic fluid and gas tight sealed lid component. Both components are usually from the same or similar thermoplastic material. Different mechanical, adhesive or thermal joining processes can be used to assemble base component and lid. Today, laser beam welding shows the potential to become a novel manufacturing opportunity for midsize and large scale production of micro-fluidic devices resulting in excellent processing quality by localized heat input and low thermal stress to the device during processing. For laser welding, optical absorption of the resin and laser wavelength has to be matched for proper joining. This paper will focus on a new approach to prepare micro-fluidic channels in such devices using a thermal transfer printing process, where an optical absorbing layer absorbs the laser energy. Advantages of this process will be discussed in combination with laser welding of optical transparent micro-fluidic devices.

  2. A micro-fluidic study of whole blood behaviour on PMMA topographical nanostructures

    Tsud Nataliya

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polymers are attractive materials for both biomedical engineering and cardiovascular applications. Although nano-topography has been found to influence cell behaviour, no established method exists to understand and evaluate the effects of nano-topography on polymer-blood interaction. Results We optimized a micro-fluidic set-up to study the interaction of whole blood with nano-structured polymer surfaces under flow conditions. Micro-fluidic chips were coated with polymethylmethacrylate films and structured by polymer demixing. Surface feature size varied from 40 nm to 400 nm and feature height from 5 nm to 50 nm. Whole blood flow rate through the micro-fluidic channels, platelet adhesion and von Willebrand factor and fibrinogen adsorption onto the structured polymer films were investigated. Whole blood flow rate through the micro-fluidic channels was found to decrease with increasing average surface feature size. Adhesion and spreading of platelets from whole blood and von Willebrand factor adsorption from platelet poor plasma were enhanced on the structured surfaces with larger feature, while fibrinogen adsorption followed the opposite trend. Conclusion We investigated whole blood behaviour and plasma protein adsorption on nano-structured polymer materials under flow conditions using a micro-fluidic set-up. We speculate that surface nano-topography of polymer films influences primarily plasma protein adsorption, which results in the control of platelet adhesion and thrombus formation.

  3. Gravitational waves from compact bodies

    Thorne, K S

    1995-01-01

    A review is given of recent research on gravitational waves from compact bodies and its relevance to the LIGO/VIRGO international network of high-frequency (10 to 10,000 Hz) gravitational-wave detectors, and to the proposed LISA system of low-frequency (0.1 to 0.0001 Hz) detectors. The sources that are reviewed are ordinary binary star systems, binaries made from compact bodies (black holes and neutron stars), the final inspiral and coalescence of compact-body binaries, the inspiral of stars and small black holes into massive black holes, the stellar core collapse that triggers supernovae, and the spin of neutron stars. This paper is adapted from a longer review article entitled ``Gravitational Waves'' (GRP-411) that the author has written for the Proceedings of the Snowmass '94 Summer Study on Particle and Nuclear Astrophysics and Cosmology.

  4. Compact Reactor

    Weyl's Gauge Principle of 1929 has been used to establish Weyl's Quantum Principle (WQP) that requires that the Weyl scale factor should be unity. It has been shown that the WQP requires the following: quantum mechanics must be used to determine system states; the electrostatic potential must be non-singular and quantified; interactions between particles with different electric charges (i.e. electron and proton) do not obey Newton's Third Law at sub-nuclear separations, and nuclear particles may be much different than expected using the standard model. The above WQP requirements lead to a potential fusion reactor wherein deuterium nuclei are preferentially fused into helium nuclei. Because the deuterium nuclei are preferentially fused into helium nuclei at temperatures and energies lower than specified by the standard model there is no harmful radiation as a byproduct of this fusion process. Therefore, a reactor using this reaction does not need any shielding to contain such radiation. The energy released from each reaction and the absence of shielding makes the deuterium-plus-deuterium-to-helium (DDH) reactor very compact when compared to other reactors, both fission and fusion types. Moreover, the potential energy output per reactor weight and the absence of harmful radiation makes the DDH reactor an ideal candidate for space power. The logic is summarized by which the WQP requires the above conditions that make the prediction of DDH possible. The details of the DDH reaction will be presented along with the specifics of why the DDH reactor may be made to cause two deuterium nuclei to preferentially fuse to a helium nucleus. The presentation will also indicate the calculations needed to predict the reactor temperature as a function of fuel loading, reactor size, and desired output and will include the progress achieved to date

  5. Experimental investigation of the noise reduction of supersonic exhaust jets with fluidic inserts

    Powers, Russell William Walter

    The noise produced by the supersonic, high temperature jets that exhaust from military aircraft is becoming a hazard to naval personnel and a disturbance to communities near military bases. Methods to reduce the noise produced from these jets in a practical full-scale environment are difficult. The development and analysis of distributed nozzle blowing for the reduction of radiated noise from supersonic jets is described. Model scale experiments of jets that simulate the exhaust jets from typical low-bypass ratio military jet aircraft engines during takeoff are performed. Fluidic inserts are created that use distributed blowing in the divergent section of the nozzle to simulate mechanical, hardwall corrugations, while having the advantage of being an active control method. This research focuses on model scale experiments to better understand the fluidic insert noise reduction method. Distributed blowing within the divergent section of the military-style convergent divergent nozzle alters the shock structure of the jet in addition to creating streamwise vorticity for the reduction of mixing noise. Enhancements to the fluidic insert design have been performed along with experiments over a large number of injection parameters and core jet conditions. Primarily military-style round nozzles have been used, with preliminary measurements of hardwall corrugations and fluidic inserts in rectangular nozzle geometries also performed. It has been shown that the noise reduction of the fluidic inserts is most heavily dependent upon the momentum flux ratio between the injector and core jet. Maximum reductions of approximately 5.5 dB OASPL have been observed with practical mass flow rates and injection pressures. The first measurements with fluidic inserts in the presence of a forward flight stream have been performed. Optimal noise reduction occurs at similar injector parameters in the presence of forward flight. Fluidic inserts in the presence of a forward flight stream were

  6. Determining DfT Hardware by VHDL-AMS Fault Simulation for Biological Micro-Electronic Fluidic Arrays

    Kerkhoff, H.G.; Zhang, X.; Liu, H.; Richardson, A.; Nouet, P.; Azais, F.

    2005-01-01

    The interest of microelectronic fluidic arrays for biomedical applications, like DNA determination, is rapidly increasing. In order to evaluate these systems in terms of required Design-for-Test structures, fault simulations in both fluidic and electronic domains are necessary. VHDL-AMS can be used

  7. Fabrication of Microbeads with a Controllable Hollow Interior and Porous Wall Using a Capillary Fluidic Device

    Choi, Sung-Wook; Zhang, Yu; Xia, Younan

    2009-01-01

    Poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microbeads with a hollow interior and porous wall are prepared using a simple fluidic device fabricated with PVC tubes, glass capillaries, and a needle. Using the fluidic device with three flow channels, uniform water-in-oil-in-water (W-O-W) emulsions with a single inner water droplet can be achieved with controllable dimensions by varying the flow rate of each phase. The resultant W-O-W emulsions evolve into PLGA microbeads with a hollow interior and por...

  8. Investigation of combustion control in a dump combustor using the feedback free fluidic oscillator

    Meier, Eric J.

    The feedback free fluidic oscillator uses the unsteady nature of two colliding jets to create a single oscillating outlet jet with a wide sweep angle. These devices have the potential to provide additional combustion control, boundary layer control, thrust vectoring, and industrial flow deflection. Two-dimensional computational fluid dynamics, CFD, was used to analyze the jet oscillation frequency over a range of operating conditions and to determine the effect that geometric changes in the oscillator design have on the frequency. Results presented illustrate the changes in jet oscillation frequency with gas type, gas temperature, operating pressure, pressure ratio across the oscillator, aspect ratio of the oscillator, and the frequency trends with various changes to the oscillator geometry. A fluidic oscillator was designed and integrated into single element rocket combustor with the goal of suppressing longitudinal combustion instabilities. An array of nine fluidic oscillators was tested to mimic modulated secondary oxidizer injection into the dump plane using 15% of the oxidizer flow. The combustor has a coaxial injector that uses gaseous methane and decomposed hydrogen peroxide at an O/F of 11.66. A sonic choke plate on an actuator arm allows for continuous adjustment of the oxidizer post acoustics for studying a variety of instability magnitudes. The fluidic oscillator unsteady outlet jet performance is compared with equivalent steady jet injection and a baseline design with no secondary oxidizer injection. At the most unstable operating conditions, the unsteady outlet jet saw a 60% reduction in the instability pressure oscillation magnitude when compared to the steady jet and baseline data. The results indicate open loop propellant modulation for combustion control can be achieved through fluidic devices that require no moving parts or electrical power to operate. Three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics, 3-D CFD, was conducted to determine the

  9. Centrifugal micro-fluidic platform for radiochemistry: Potentialities for the chemical analysis of nuclear spent fuels

    The use of a centrifugal micro-fluidic platform is for the first time reported as an alternative to classical chromatographic procedures for radiochemistry. The original design of the micro-fluidic platform has been thought to fasten and simplify the prototyping process with the use of a circular platform integrating four rectangular microchips made of thermoplastic. The microchips, dedicated to anion-exchange chromatographic separations, integrate a localized monolithic stationary phase as well as injection and collection reservoirs. The results presented here were obtained with a simplified simulated nuclear spent fuel sample composed of non-radioactive isotopes of Europium and Uranium, in proportion usually found for uranium oxide nuclear spent fuel. While keeping the analytical results consistent with the conventional procedure (extraction yield for Europium of ∼97%), the use of the centrifugal micro-fluidic platform allowed to reduce the volume of liquid needed by a factor of ∼250. Thanks to their unique 'easy-to-use' features, centrifugal micro-fluidic platforms are potential successful candidates for the down-scaling of chromatographic separation of radioactive samples (automation, multiplexing, easy integration in glove-boxes environment and low cost of maintenance). (authors)

  10. Picosecond Laser Machining of Metallic and Polymer Substrates for Fluidic Driven Self-Alignment

    Römer, G.R.B.E.; Arnaldo del Cerro, D.; Pohl, R.; Chang, B.; Liimatainen, V.; Zhou, Q.; Huis in 't Veld, A.J.

    2012-01-01

    Fluidic self-alignment of micro-components relies on creating a receptor site that is able to confine a liquid droplet. When a micro-component is brought in contact with the droplet, capillary forces move the component to its final position. A method to stop the advancing of a liquid from a receptor

  11. No-moving-part electro/fluidic transducer based on plasma discharge effect

    Tesař, Václav; Šonský, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 232, August (2015), s. 20-29. ISSN 0924-4247 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-23046S Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : transducer * fluidic * plasma discharge Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 1.903, year: 2014 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S092442471500206X

  12. Customizable 3D Printed 'Plug and Play' Millifluidic Devices for Programmable Fluidics.

    Soichiro Tsuda

    Full Text Available Three dimensional (3D printing is actively sought after in recent years as a promising novel technology to construct complex objects, which scope spans from nano- to over millimeter scale. Previously we utilized Fused deposition modeling (FDM-based 3D printer to construct complex 3D chemical fluidic systems, and here we demonstrate the construction of 3D milli-fluidic structures for programmable liquid handling and control of biological samples. Basic fluidic operation devices, such as water-in-oil (W/O droplet generators for producing compartmentalized mono-disperse droplets, sensor-integrated chamber for online monitoring of cellular growth, are presented. In addition, chemical surface treatment techniques are used to construct valve-based flow selector for liquid flow control and inter-connectable modular devices for networking fluidic parts. As such this work paves the way for complex operations, such as mixing, flow control, and monitoring of reaction / cell culture progress can be carried out by constructing both passive and active components in 3D printed structures, which designs can be shared online so that anyone with 3D printers can reproduce them by themselves.

  13. A capability study of micro moulding for nano fluidic system manufacture

    Calaon, Matteo; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Tosello, Guido;

    2013-01-01

    With the present paper the authors analysed process capability of ultra-precision moulding used for producing nano crosses with the same critical channels dimensions of a nano fluidic system for optical mapping of genomic length DNA. The process variation focused on product tolerances is quantified...

  14. Fluidic system for long-term in vitro culturing and monitoring of organotypic brain slices

    Bakmand, Tanya; Troels-Smith, Ane R.; Dimaki, Maria;

    2015-01-01

    Brain slice preparations cultured in vitro have long been used as a simplified model for studying brain development, electrophysiology, neurodegeneration and neuroprotection. In this paper an open fluidic system developed for improved long term culturing of organotypic brain slices is presented...... their structure better than the control slices cultured using the standard interface method....

  15. Fluidic generator of microbubbles – oscillator with gas flow reversal for a part of period

    Tesař, Václav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 4 (2015), s. 195-203. ISSN 1898-4088 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-23046S Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : fluidics * oscillators * microbubbles Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics

  16. Combination of Micro-fluidic Chip with Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy for Single Molecule Detection

    2006-01-01

    A single molecule detection technique was developed by the combination of a single channel poly (dimethylsiloxane)/glass micro-fluidic chip and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS). This method was successfully used to determine the proportion of two model components in the mixture containing fluorescein and the rhodamine-green succinimidyl ester.

  17. Micro Machining of Injection Mold Inserts for Fluidic Channel of Polymeric Biochips

    Myeong-Woo Cho

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the polymeric micro-fluidic biochip, often called LOC (lab-on-a-chip, has been focused as a cheap, rapid and simplified method to replace the existing biochemical laboratory works. It becomes possible to form miniaturized lab functionalities on a chip with the development of MEMS technologies. The micro-fluidic chips contain many micro-channels for the flow of sample and reagents, mixing, and detection tasks. Typical substrate materials for the chip are glass and polymers. Typical techniques for micro-fluidic chip fabrication are utilizing various micro pattern forming methods, such as wet-etching, micro-contact printing, and hot-embossing, micro injection molding, LIGA, and micro powder blasting processes, etc. In this study, to establish the basis of the micro pattern fabrication and mass production of polymeric micro-fluidic chips using injection molding process, micro machining method was applied to form micro-channels on the LOC molds. In the research, a series of machining experiments using micro end-mills were performed to determine optimum machining conditions to improve surface roughness and shape accuracy of designed simplified micro-channels. Obtained conditions were used to machine required mold inserts for micro-channels using micro end-mills. Test injection processes using machined molds and COC polymer were performed, and then the results were investigated.

  18. Rapid prototyping tools and methods for all-Topas (R) cyclic olefin copolymer fluidic microsystems

    Bundgaard, Frederik; Perozziello, Gerardo; Geschke, Oliver

    2006-01-01

    , good machinability, and good optical properties. A number of different processes for rapid and low-cost prototyping of all-Topas microfluidic systems, made with desktop machinery, are presented. Among the processes are micromilling of fluidic structures with a width down to 25 p,m and sealing of...

  19. Development of a Photo-Fluidic Control Valve without Mechanical Moving Parts

    Akagi, Tetsuya; Dohta, Shujiro

    An optical servo system is a new control system which can be used in hazardous environments; such as those with electromagnetic influence, radiation and so on. The purpose of our study is to develop such an optical control system. In our previous study, an optical servo valve in which the output differential pressure was proportional to input optical power had been developed. However, the dynamics of the valve depended on the time required to move the flapper membrane of a fluid booster amplifier using the lower flow rate from the photo-fluidic interface. In addition, the lifetime of the valve depends on that of the fluid booster amplifier that has mechanical moving parts. As a next step, we need to improve the dynamics and to get longer lifetime of the optical servo valve and try to develop another type of optical servo valve whose elements have no mechanical moving parts. In this paper, a photo-fluidic control valve which consists of the photo-fluidic interface and fluid amplifier only using fluidics is proposed. As a result, we found that the tested valve generated output differential pressure of + 80 kPa or -80 kPa according to applied optical power. By driving a pneumatic cylinder whose inner diameter is 16 mm with a stroke of 100 mm using the tested valve, we also confirmed that the tested valve has enough output fluid power to drive a small-sized pneumatic cylinder on the market.

  20. Formation of a vertical MOSFET for charge sensing in a Si micro-fluidic channel

    We have formed a fluidic channel that can be used in micro-fluidic systems and fabricated a 3-dimensional vertical metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (vertical MOSFET) in the convex corner of a Si micro-fluidic channel by using an anisotropic tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide (TMAH) etching solution. A Au/Cr layer was used for the gate metal and might be useful for detecting charged biomolecules. The electrical characteristics of the vertical MOSFET and its operation as a chemical sensor were investigated. At VDS = -5 V and VGS = -5 V the drain current of the device was -22.5 μA and the threshold voltage was about -1.4 V. A non-planar, non-rectangular vertical MOSFET with a trapezoidal gate was transformed into an equivalent rectangularly based one by using a Schwartz-Christoffel transformation. The LEVEL1 device parameters of the vertical MOSFET were extracted from the measured electrical device characteristics and were used in the SPICE simulation for the vertical MOSFET. The measured and the simulated results for the vertical PMOSFET showed relatively good agreement. When the vertical MOSFET was dipped into a thiol DNA solution, the drain current decreased due to charged biomolecules probably being adsorbed on the gate, which indicates that a vertical MOSFET in a Si micro-fluidic channel might be useful for sensing charged biomolecules.

  1. Development of fluidic device in SIT for Korean Next Generation Reactor I

    The KNGR is to install a Fluidic Device at the bottom of the inner space of the SIT (Safety Injection Tank) to control the flow rate of safety injection coolant from SIT during LBLOCA. During the past two years, a scale model test to obtain the required flow characteristics of the device under the KNGR specific conditions has been performed using the experience and existing facility of AEA Technology (UK) with appropriate modifications. The performance verification test is to be performed this year to obtain optimum characteristics and design data of full size fluidic device. The purpose of the model test was to check the feasibility of developing the device and to produce a generic flow characteristic data. The test was performed in approximately 1/7 scale in terms of flow rate with full height and pressure. This report presents the details of system performance requirements for the device, design procedure for the fluidic device to be used, test facility and test method. The time dependent flow, pressure and Euler number are presented as characteristics curves and the most stable and the most effective flow control characteristic parameters were recommended through the evaluation. A method to predict the size of the fluidic device is presented. And a sizing algorithm, which can be used to conveniently determine the major geometric data of the device for various operating conditions, and a FORTRAN program to produce the prediction of performance curves have been developed. (author). 32 refs., 15 tabs., 47 figs

  2. Optimal Control of Airfoil Flow Separation using Fluidic Excitation

    Shahrabi, Arireza F.

    This thesis deals with the control of flow separation around a symmetric airfoils with the aid of multiple synthetic jet actuators (SJAs). CFD simulation methods have been implemented to uncover the flow separation regimes and associated properties such as frequencies and momentum ratio. In the first part of the study, the SJA was studied thoroughly. Large Eddy Simulations (LES) were performed for one individual cavity; the time history of SJA of the outlet velocity profile and the net momentum imparted to the flow were analyzed. The studied SJA is asymmetrical and operates with the aid of a piezoelectric (PZT) ceramic circular plate actuator. A three-dimensional mesh for the computational domain of the SJA and the surrounding volume was developed and was used to evaluate the details of the airflow conditions inside the SJA as well as at the outlet. The vibration of the PZT ceramic actuator was used as a boundary condition in the computational model to drive the SJA. Particular attention was given to developing a predictive model of the SJA outlet velocity. Results showed that the SJA velocity output is correlated to the PZT ceramic plate vibration, especially for the first frequency mode. SJAs are a particular class of zero net mass flux (ZNMF) fluidic devices with net imparted momentum to the flow. The net momentum imparted to the flow in the separated region is such that positive enhancement during AFC operations is achieved. Flows around the NACA 0015 airfoil were simulated for a range of operating conditions. Attention was given to the active open and closed loop control solutions for an airfoil with SJA at different angles of attack and flap angles. A large number of simulations using RANS & LES models were performed to study the effects of the momentum ratio (Cμ) in the range of 0 to 11% and of the non-dimensional frequency, F+, in the range of 0 to 2 for the control of flow separation at a practical angle of attack and flap angle. The optimum value of C

  3. Compact balanced tries

    Nicodeme, Pierre

    1991-01-01

    We show how it is possible to split Compact Tries described as bit-lists in a segmented and flexible structure of B-tree type, keeping the compactness advantages of the Compact Tries and recovering all the important properties of B-trees.

  4. Evaluation of a X-ray imaging method in micro-fluidics: the case of T-shaped micro-channels filling up

    X-rays methods assessment in micro-fluidics: case of 'T' shaped microchannels filling. Fluid flows within 'T' or 'Y' shaped microchannels are deeply studied in order to develop adapted modeling approaches and experimental techniques. Our technological choice lies on the attenuation measurement of X-ray in matter. The main advantage of this non-intrusive technique is to be implemented on media opaque to visible light. Moreover, X-rays methods may achieve better spatial resolutions as compared to optical methods because of their much lower wavelength. In order to validate this X-ray method, measurements obtained by this technique are compared with direct measurements carried out on similar microchannels. Finally, experimental results are compared with a theoretical model. (author)

  5. Maintenance Free Fluidic Transfer and Mixing Devices for Highly Radioactive Applications - Design, Development, Deployment and Operational Experience

    Power Fluidics is the generic name for a range of maintenance-free fluid transfer and mixing devices, capable of handling a wide range of highly radioactive fluids, jointly developed by British Nuclear Group, its US-based subsidiary BNG America, and AEA Technology. Power Fluidic devices include Reverse Flow Diverters (RFDs), Vacuum Operated Slug Lifts (VOSLs), and Air Lifts, all of which have an excellent proven record for pumping radioactive liquids and sludges. Variants of the RFD, termed Pulse Jet Mixers (PJMs) are used to agitate and mix tank contents, where maintenance-free equipment is desirable, and where a high degree of homogenization is necessary. The equipment is designed around the common principle of using compressed air to provide the motive force to transfer liquids and sludges. These devices have no moving parts in contact with the radioactive medium and therefore require no maintenance in radioactive areas of processing plants. Once commissioned, Power Fluidic equipment has been demonstrated to operate for the life of the facility. Over 800 fluidic devices continue to operate safely and reliably in British Nuclear Group's nuclear facilities at the Sellafield site in the United Kingdom, and some of these have done so for almost 40 years. More than 400 devices are being supplied by AEA Technology and BNG America for the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State, USA. This paper discusses: - Principles of operation of fluidic pumps and mixers. - Selection criteria and design of fluidic pumps and mixers. - Operational experience of fluidic pumps and mixers in the United Kingdom. - Applications of fluidic pumps and mixers at the U.S. Department of Energy nuclear sites. (authors)

  6. Micro-Fluidic Dye Ring Laser - Experimental Tuning of the Wavelength and Numerical Simulation of the Cavity Modes

    Gersborg-Hansen, Morten; Balslev, Søren; Mortensen, Niels Asger;

    2006-01-01

    We demonstrate wavelength tuning of a micro-fluidic dye ring laser. Wavelength tunability is obtained by controlling the liquid dye concentration. The device performance is modelled by FEM simulations supporting a ray-tracing view.......We demonstrate wavelength tuning of a micro-fluidic dye ring laser. Wavelength tunability is obtained by controlling the liquid dye concentration. The device performance is modelled by FEM simulations supporting a ray-tracing view....

  7. Micro-patterning and actuation of phosphonium-based photo-responsive ionogels for micro-fluidic applications

    Blin, Candice; Byrne, Robert; Diamond, Dermot; Benito-Lopez, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    The concept of “Micro-total-analysis-Systems” or “Lab-on-chip” has emerged over the past 20-years but, despite of the fact their incredible potential to revolutionise analytical science few outputs have reached the market so far[1]. Moreover, important issues like durability, disposability and cost of manufacture slow down the process of the integration of micro-fluidics into commercially relevant analytical products[2]. We believe that the next breakthroughs on micro-fluidic technology will ...

  8. Review on recent and advanced applications of monoliths and related porous polymer gels in micro-fluidic devices

    Vazquez, Mercedes, E-mail: mercedes.vazquez@dcu.ie [Irish Separation Science Cluster, National Centre for Sensor Research, Dublin City University, Glasnevin, Dublin 9, Dublin (Ireland); Paull, Brett, E-mail: brett.paull@dcu.ie [Irish Separation Science Cluster, National Centre for Sensor Research, Dublin City University, Glasnevin, Dublin 9, Dublin (Ireland)

    2010-06-04

    This review critically summarises recent novel and advanced achievements in the application of monolithic materials and related porous polymer gels in micro-fluidic devices appearing within the literature over the period of the last 5 years (2005-2010). The range of monolithic materials has developed rapidly over the past decade, with a diverse and highly versatile class of materials now available, with each exhibiting distinct porosities, pore sizes, and a wide variety of surface functionalities. A major advantage of these materials is their ease of preparation in micro-fluidic channels by in situ polymerisation, leading to monolithic materials being increasingly utilised for a larger variety of purposes in micro-fluidic platforms. Applications of porous polymer monoliths, silica-based monoliths and related homogeneous porous polymer gels in the preparation of separation columns, ion-permeable membranes, preconcentrators, extractors, electrospray emitters, micro-valves, electrokinetic pumps, micro-reactors and micro-mixers in micro-fluidic devices are discussed herein. Procedures used in the preparation of monolithic materials in micro-channels, as well as some practical aspects of the micro-fluidic chip fabrication are addressed. Recent analytical/bioanalytical and catalytic applications of the final micro-fluidic devices incorporating monolithic materials are also reviewed.

  9. Review on recent and advanced applications of monoliths and related porous polymer gels in micro-fluidic devices

    This review critically summarises recent novel and advanced achievements in the application of monolithic materials and related porous polymer gels in micro-fluidic devices appearing within the literature over the period of the last 5 years (2005-2010). The range of monolithic materials has developed rapidly over the past decade, with a diverse and highly versatile class of materials now available, with each exhibiting distinct porosities, pore sizes, and a wide variety of surface functionalities. A major advantage of these materials is their ease of preparation in micro-fluidic channels by in situ polymerisation, leading to monolithic materials being increasingly utilised for a larger variety of purposes in micro-fluidic platforms. Applications of porous polymer monoliths, silica-based monoliths and related homogeneous porous polymer gels in the preparation of separation columns, ion-permeable membranes, preconcentrators, extractors, electrospray emitters, micro-valves, electrokinetic pumps, micro-reactors and micro-mixers in micro-fluidic devices are discussed herein. Procedures used in the preparation of monolithic materials in micro-channels, as well as some practical aspects of the micro-fluidic chip fabrication are addressed. Recent analytical/bioanalytical and catalytic applications of the final micro-fluidic devices incorporating monolithic materials are also reviewed.

  10. Compact mass flow meter based on a micro Coriolis flow sensor

    Sparreboom, W.; Katerberg, M.R.; Lammerink, T.S.J.; Postma, F.M.; Haneveld, J.; Groenesteijn, J.; Wiegerink, R.J.; Lötters, J.C.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present a compact ready-to-use micro Coriolis mass flow meter. The full scale flow is 2 g/h (for water at a pressure drop of 2 bar). It has a zero stability of 2 mg/h and an accuracy of 0.5% reading. The temperature drift between 10 and 50 ºC is below 1 mg/h/ºC. The meter is robust, has standard fluidic connections and can be read out by a PC or laptop via USB. Its performance was tested for several common gases (helium, nitrogen, argon and air) and liquids (water and IPA).

  11. Compact mass flow meter based on a micro coriolis flow sensor

    Remco Wiegerink; Theo Lammerink; Jarno Groenesteijn; Jeroen Haneveld; Ferry Postma; Marcel Katerberg; Wouter Sparreboom; Jan van de Geest; Joost Lötters

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we demonstrate a compact ready-to-use micro Coriolis mass flow meter. The full scale flow is 1 g/h (for water at a pressure drop < 1 bar). It has a zero stability of 2 mg/h and an accuracy of 0.5% reading for both liquids and gases. The temperature drift between 10 and 50 °C is below 1 mg/h/°C. The meter is robust, has standard fluidic connections and can be read out by means of a PC or laptop via USB. Its performance was tested for several common gases (hydrogen, helium, nitrog...

  12. Fluidic Generator Of Microbubbles – Oscillator With Gas Flow Reversal For A Part Of Period

    Tesař Václav

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Paper presents a fluidic device developed for generation of small (less than 1 mm in diameter microbubbles in a liquid from gas passing gas through small passages. Until now the bubbles are larger than the size of aerator passage exits so that making the passages smaller did not result in obtaining the desirable microbubbles. Analysis of high-speed camera images (obtained with a special lens of large working distance have shown show that the large bubble size is caused by slow ascent motion of very small bubbles so that they get into mutual contact and grow by conjunction. The solution is to pulsate the supplied gas flow by a no-moving-part fluidic oscillator. The generated small bubble is moved back into the aerator passage where it is for a part of oscillation period protected from the conjunction with other, previously generated microbubbles.

  13. Numerical Studies of a Supersonic Fluidic Diverter Actuator for Flow Control

    Gokoglu, Suleyman A.; Kuczmarski, Maria A.; Culley, Dennis e.; Raghu, Surya

    2010-01-01

    The analysis of the internal flow structure and performance of a specific fluidic diverter actuator, previously studied by time-dependent numerical computations for subsonic flow, is extended to include operation with supersonic actuator exit velocities. The understanding will aid in the development of fluidic diverters with minimum pressure losses and advanced designs of flow control actuators. The self-induced oscillatory behavior of the flow is successfully predicted and the calculated oscillation frequencies with respect to flow rate have excellent agreement with our experimental measurements. The oscillation frequency increases with Mach number, but its dependence on flow rate changes from subsonic to transonic to supersonic regimes. The delay time for the initiation of oscillations depends on the flow rate and the acoustic speed in the gaseous medium for subsonic flow, but is unaffected by the flow rate for supersonic conditions

  14. Induced fluid rotation and bistable fluidic turn-down valves (a survey

    Tesař Václav

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Paper surveys engineering applications of an unusual fluidic principle — momentum transfer through a relatively small communicating window into a vortex chamber, where the initially stationary fluid is put into rotation. The transfer is often by shear stress acting in the window plane, but may be enhanced and perhaps even dominated by fluid flow crossing the boundary. The case of zero-time-mean fluid transport through the window has found use in experimental fluid mechanics: non-invasive measurement of wall shear stress on objects by evaluating the induced rotation in the vortex chamber. The case with the non-zero flow through the interface became the starting point in development of fluidic valves combining two otherwise mutually incompatible properties: bistability and flow turning down.

  15. 3D-printed fluidic networks as vasculature for engineered tissue.

    Kinstlinger, Ian S; Miller, Jordan S

    2016-05-24

    Fabrication of vascular networks within engineered tissue remains one of the greatest challenges facing the fields of biomaterials and tissue engineering. Historically, the structural complexity of vascular networks has limited their fabrication in tissues engineered in vitro. Recently, however, key advances have been made in constructing fluidic networks within biomaterials, suggesting a strategy for fabricating the architecture of the vasculature. These techniques build on emerging technologies within the microfluidics community as well as on 3D printing. The freeform fabrication capabilities of 3D printing are allowing investigators to fabricate fluidic networks with complex architecture inside biomaterial matrices. In this review, we examine the most exciting 3D printing-based techniques in this area. We also discuss opportunities for using these techniques to address open questions in vascular biology and biophysics, as well as for engineering therapeutic tissue substitutes in vitro. PMID:27173478

  16. Wind tunnel tests of the dynamic characteristics of the fluidic rudder

    Belsterling, C. A.

    1976-01-01

    The fourth phase is given of a continuing program to develop the means to stabilize and control aircraft without moving parts or a separate source of power. Previous phases have demonstrated the feasibility of (1) generating adequate control forces on a standard airfoil, (2) controlling those forces with a fluidic amplifier and (3) cascading non-vented fluidic amplifiers operating on ram air supply pressure. The foremost objectives of the fourth phase covered under Part I of this report were to demonstrate a complete force-control system in a wind tunnel environment and to measure its static and dynamic control characteristics. Secondary objectives, covered under Part II, were to evaluate alternate configurations for lift control. The results demonstrate an overall response time of 150 msec, confirming this technology as a viable means for implementing low-cost reliable flight control systems.

  17. Evaluation of the threshold trimming method for micro inertial fluidic switch based on electrowetting technology

    Tingting Liu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The switch based on electrowetting technology has the advantages of no moving part, low contact resistance, long life and adjustable acceleration threshold. The acceleration threshold of switch can be fine-tuned by adjusting the applied voltage. This paper is focused on the electrowetting properties of switch and the influence of microchannel structural parameters, applied voltage and droplet volume on acceleration threshold. In the presence of process errors of micro inertial fluidic switch and measuring errors of droplet volume, there is a deviation between test acceleration threshold and target acceleration threshold. Considering the process errors and measuring errors, worst-case analysis is used to analyze the influence of parameter tolerance on the acceleration threshold. Under worst-case condition the total acceleration threshold tolerance caused by various errors is 9.95%. The target acceleration threshold can be achieved by fine-tuning the applied voltage. The acceleration threshold trimming method of micro inertial fluidic switch is verified.

  18. Numerical Simulation of a High-Lift Configuration with Embedded Fluidic Actuators

    Vatsa, Veer N.; Casalino, Damiano; Lin, John C.; Appelbaum, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Numerical simulations have been performed for a vertical tail configuration with deflected rudder. The suction surface of the main element of this configuration is embedded with an array of 32 fluidic actuators that produce oscillating sweeping jets. Such oscillating jets have been found to be very effective for flow control applications in the past. In the current paper, a high-fidelity computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code known as the PowerFLOW(Registered TradeMark) code is used to simulate the entire flow field associated with this configuration, including the flow inside the actuators. The computed results for the surface pressure and integrated forces compare favorably with measured data. In addition, numerical solutions predict the correct trends in forces with active flow control compared to the no control case. Effect of varying yaw and rudder deflection angles are also presented. In addition, computations have been performed at a higher Reynolds number to assess the performance of fluidic actuators at flight conditions.

  19. Use of fluidic oscillator to measure fuel-air ratios of combustion gases

    Riddlebaugh, S. M.

    1974-01-01

    A fluidic oscillator was investigated for use in measuring fuel-air ratios in hydrocarbon combustion processes. The oscillator was operated with dry exhaust gas from an experimental combustor burning ASTM A-1 fuel. Tests were conducted with fuel-air ratios between 0.015 and 0.031. Fuel-air ratios determined by oscillator frequency were within 0.001 of the values computed from separate flow measurements of the air and fuel.

  20. On the design and simulation of an airlift loop bioreactorwith microbubble generation by fluidic oscillation

    Zimmerman, W. B.; Tesař, Václav; Hewakandamby, B.N.; Bandulasena, H.C.H.; Omotowa, O.A.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 87, C3 (2009), s. 215-227. ISSN 0960-3085 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : microbubbles * fluidic oscillators * transport phenomena Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 0.952, year: 2009 http://apps.isiknowledge.com/full_record.do?product=UA&search_mode=GeneralSearch&qid=1&SID=V2FDdpCMohHOjGaLDMi&page=1&doc=3&colname=WOS

  1. The laboratory stand for didactic and research of a Fluidic Muscle

    P. Zub

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this work was to design and build a laboratory stand dedicated for didactic and research purposes connected with a Fluidic Muscle. The stand is placed at the Electropneumatic and PLC controllers Laboratory [10,11,12] of the Institute of Engineering Processes Automation and Integrated Manufacturing Systems of the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering of the Silesian University of Technology, Gliwice, Poland.Design/methodology/approach: The stand was designed and visualised by utilisation of professional CAD software – CATIA and a fluidic muscle was chosen according to a MuscleSIM programme of FESTO company.Findings: The device integrates the elements which are indispensable determinant of contemporary industry and the main aim of its construction was to bring closer conceptions and ideas connected with the construction and the outworking of the fluidic muscle, problems of proportional pressure control, visualisation and control of the industrial processes as well as making possible of carrying out the investigations and experiments on these elements.Research limitations/implications: The module structure of the research stand gives possibility to make its further development by adding extra modules that can be easily mounted on plates, which will make possible the implementation of series of individual positions controlled by one PLC. Thanks to the applied system of visualisation, switching among synoptic screens is possible. The visualisation represents every separate module of the stand and so, with the help of one operator position, gives possibility to control every chosen module of the whole device.Originality/value: The mechatronic didactic and research device introduced in the paper represents the new approach to the problem of visualisation and control of the fluidic muscle and constitutes the perfect tool of the aided didactic process in the Institute’s laboratory

  2. Fluidic low-frequency oscillator with vortex spin-up time delay

    Tesař, Václav; Smyk, E.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 90, April (2015), s. 6-15. ISSN 0255-2701 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-23046S; GA ČR GA14-08888S Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : fluidics * oscillator * vortex chamber Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 2.071, year: 2014 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0255270115000252

  3. Finite-element simulation of cavity modes in a micro-fluidic dye ring laser

    Gersborg-Hansen, M; Mortensen, N A; 10.1088/1464-4258/8/1/003

    2006-01-01

    We consider a recently reported micro-fluidic dye ring laser and study the full wave nature of TE modes in the cavity by means of finite-element simulations. The resonance wave-patterns of the cavity modes support a ray-tracing view and we are also able to explain the spectrum in terms of standing waves with a mode spacing dk = 2pi/L_eff where L_eff is the effective optical path length in the cavity.

  4. Fabrication of Biochips with Micro Fluidic Channels by Micro End-milling and Powder Blasting

    Dong Sam Park; Tae Il Seo; Dae Jin Yun

    2008-01-01

    For microfabrications of biochips with micro fluidic channels, a large number of microfabrication techniques based on silicon or glass-based Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) technologies were proposed in the last decade. In recent years, for low cost and mass production, polymer-based microfabrication techniques by microinjection molding and micro hot embossing have been proposed. These techniques, which require a proper photoresist, mask, UV light exposure, developing, and electroplati...

  5. Research of Confocal Laser Induced Fluorescence Detection System for Micro-fluidic Chip

    FENG Jin-yuan; WANG Xiu-hua; ZHANG Hua-feng

    2007-01-01

    The characteristics such as signal noise ratio(SNR)[1-2] and sensitivity of the fluorescence detection system for micro-fluidic chip influence the performance of the whole system extremely.The confocal laser induced fluorescence detection system is presented.Based on the debugging of optical and circuit modules, the results of detecting the samples are given and analyzed theoretically,and the improved project is put forward.

  6. Fabrication of inorganic-organic hybrid polymer micro and nanostructures for fluidic applications

    Aura, Susanna

    2011-01-01

    Microfluidics is a rapidly developing branch of microtechnology with applications in chemistry, biology, medicine and other sciences. One major trend in fluidics has been the miniaturization of analytical devices. Miniaturization improves performance, mainly speed and sensitivity, and also reduces the required sample volumes. Initially microfluidic devices were fabricated from silicon and glass using microfabrication methods borrowed from the integrated circuits industry. But polymers are gai...

  7. Characterization of printable cellular micro-fluidic channels for tissue engineering

    Tissue engineering has been a promising field of research, offering hope of bridging the gap between organ shortage and transplantation needs. However, building three-dimensional (3D) vascularized organs remains the main technological barrier to be overcome. One of the major challenges is the inclusion of a vascular network to support cell viability in terms of nutrients and oxygen perfusion. This paper introduces a new approach to the fabrication of vessel-like microfluidic channels that has the potential to be used in thick tissue or organ fabrication in the future. In this research, we investigate the manufacturability of printable micro-fluidic channels, where micro-fluidic channels support mechanical integrity as well as enable fluid transport in 3D. A pressure-assisted solid freeform fabrication platform is developed with a coaxial needle dispenser unit to print hollow hydrogel filaments. The dispensing rheology is studied, and effects of material properties on structural formation of hollow filaments are analyzed. Sample structures are printed through the developed computer-controlled system. In addition, cell viability and gene expression studies are presented in this paper. Cell viability shows that cartilage progenitor cells (CPCs) maintained their viability right after bioprinting and during prolonged in vitro culture. Real-time PCR analysis yielded a relatively higher expression of cartilage-specific genes in alginate hollow filament encapsulating CPCs, compared with monolayer cultured CPCs, which revealed that printable semi-permeable micro-fluidic channels provided an ideal environment for cell growth and function. (paper)

  8. Characterization of printable cellular micro-fluidic channels for tissue engineering.

    Zhang, Yahui; Yu, Yin; Chen, Howard; Ozbolat, Ibrahim T

    2013-06-01

    Tissue engineering has been a promising field of research, offering hope of bridging the gap between organ shortage and transplantation needs. However, building three-dimensional (3D) vascularized organs remains the main technological barrier to be overcome. One of the major challenges is the inclusion of a vascular network to support cell viability in terms of nutrients and oxygen perfusion. This paper introduces a new approach to the fabrication of vessel-like microfluidic channels that has the potential to be used in thick tissue or organ fabrication in the future. In this research, we investigate the manufacturability of printable micro-fluidic channels, where micro-fluidic channels support mechanical integrity as well as enable fluid transport in 3D. A pressure-assisted solid freeform fabrication platform is developed with a coaxial needle dispenser unit to print hollow hydrogel filaments. The dispensing rheology is studied, and effects of material properties on structural formation of hollow filaments are analyzed. Sample structures are printed through the developed computer-controlled system. In addition, cell viability and gene expression studies are presented in this paper. Cell viability shows that cartilage progenitor cells (CPCs) maintained their viability right after bioprinting and during prolonged in vitro culture. Real-time PCR analysis yielded a relatively higher expression of cartilage-specific genes in alginate hollow filament encapsulating CPCs, compared with monolayer cultured CPCs, which revealed that printable semi-permeable micro-fluidic channels provided an ideal environment for cell growth and function. PMID:23458889

  9. Improving acoustic streaming effects in fluidic systems by matching SU-8 and polydimethylsiloxane layers.

    Catarino, S O; Minas, G; Miranda, J M

    2016-07-01

    This paper reports the use of acoustic waves for promoting and improving streaming in tridimensional polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) cuvettes of 15mm width×14mm height×2.5mm thickness. The acoustic waves are generated by a 28μm thick poly(vinylidene fluoride) - PVDF - piezoelectric transducer in its β phase, actuated at its resonance frequency: 40MHz. The acoustic transmission properties of two materials - SU-8 and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) - were numerically compared. It was concluded that PDMS inhibits, while SU-8 allows, the transmission of the acoustic waves to the propagation medium. Therefore, by simulating the acoustic transmission properties of different materials, it is possible to preview the acoustic behavior in the fluidic system, which allows the optimization of the best layout design, saving costs and time. This work also presents a comparison between numerical and experimental results of acoustic streaming obtained with that β-PVDF transducer in the movement and in the formation of fluid recirculation in tridimensional closed domains. Differences between the numerical and experimental results are credited to the high sensitivity of acoustic streaming to the experimental conditions and to limitations of the numerical method. The reported study contributes for the improvement of simulation models that can be extremely useful for predicting the acoustic effects of new materials in fluidic devices, as well as for optimizing the transducers and matching layers positioning in a fluidic structure. PMID:27044029

  10. Self-Compacting Concrete

    Okamura, Hajime; OUCHI, Masahiro

    2003-01-01

    Self-compacting concrete was first developed in 1988 to achieve durable concrete structures. Since then, various investigations have been carried out and this type of concrete has been used in practical structures in Japan, mainly by large construction companies. Investigations for establishing a rational mix-design method and self-compactability testing methods have been carried out from the viewpoint of making self-compacting concrete a standard concrete.

  11. Compact instrument for fluorescence image-guided surgery

    Wang, Xinghua; Bhaumik, Srabani; Li, Qing; Staudinger, V. Paul; Yazdanfar, Siavash

    2010-03-01

    Fluorescence image-guided surgery (FIGS) is an emerging technique in oncology, neurology, and cardiology. To adapt intraoperative imaging for various surgical applications, increasingly flexible and compact FIGS instruments are necessary. We present a compact, portable FIGS system and demonstrate its use in cardiovascular mapping in a preclinical model of myocardial ischemia. Our system uses fiber optic delivery of laser diode excitation, custom optics with high collection efficiency, and compact consumer-grade cameras as a low-cost and compact alternative to open surgical FIGS systems. Dramatic size and weight reduction increases flexibility and access, and allows for handheld use or unobtrusive positioning over the surgical field.

  12. Uniaxial backfill block compaction

    The main parts of the project were: to make a literature survey of the previous uniaxial compaction experiments; do uniaxial compaction tests in laboratory scale; and do industrial scale production tests. Object of the project was to sort out the different factors affecting the quality assurance chain of the backfill block uniaxial production and solve a material sticking to mould problem which appeared during manufacturing the blocks of bentonite and cruched rock mixture. The effect of mineralogical and chemical composition on the long term functionality of the backfill was excluded from the project. However, the used smectite-rich clays have been tested for mineralogical consistency. These tests were done in B and Tech OY according their SOPs. The objective of the Laboratory scale tests was to find right material- and compaction parameters for the industrial scale tests. Direct comparison between the laboratory scale tests and industrial scale tests is not possible because the mould geometry and compaction speed has a big influence for the compaction process. For this reason the selected material parameters were also affected by the previous compaction experiments. The industrial scale tests were done in summer of 2010 in southern Sweden. Blocks were done with uniaxial compaction. A 40 tons of the mixture of bentonite and crushed rock blocks and almost 50 tons of Friedland-clay blocks were compacted. (orig.)

  13. Compact boson stars

    Hartmann, Betti [School of Engineering and Science, Jacobs University, Postfach 750 561, D-28725 Bremen (Germany); Kleihaus, Burkhard; Kunz, Jutta [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Oldenburg, Postfach 2503, D-26111 Oldenburg (Germany); Schaffer, Isabell, E-mail: i.schaffer@jacobs-university.de [School of Engineering and Science, Jacobs University, Postfach 750 561, D-28725 Bremen (Germany)

    2012-07-24

    We consider compact boson stars that arise for a V-shaped scalar field potential. They represent a one parameter family of solutions of the scaled Einstein-Gordon equations. We analyze the physical properties of these solutions and determine their domain of existence. Along their physically relevant branch emerging from the compact Q-ball solution, their mass increases with increasing radius. Employing arguments from catastrophe theory we argue that this branch is stable, until the maximal value of the mass is reached. There the mass and size are on the order of magnitude of the Schwarzschild limit, and thus the spiraling respectively oscillating behaviour, well known for compact stars, sets in.

  14. Picosecond Laser Machining of Metallic and Polymer Substrates for Fluidic Driven Self-Alignment

    Römer, G. R. B. E.; Cerro, D. Arnaldo Del; Pohl, R.; Chang, B.; Liimatainen, V.; Zhou, Q.; Veld, A. J. Huis In `t.

    Fluidic self-alignment of micro-components relies on creating a receptor site that is able to confine a liquid droplet. When a micro-component is brought in contact with the droplet, capillary forces move the component to its final position. A method to stop the advancing of a liquid from a receptor site, consists of creating geometrical features, such as edges around the site. A picosecond pulsed laser source was used to create suitable edges in a metallic and a polyimide substrate. Subsequently, the self-alignment capabilities of these sites were tested. The receptor sites in polyimide showed the highest success rate.

  15. Flow behaviour and drag reduction of fluidic ash-water slurries

    Vlasák, Pavel; Chára, Zdeněk

    Johannesburg : The S.A. Institute of Mining and Metallurgy and BHR Group, 2007, s. 39-55. ISBN 978-1-85598-084-6. - (Symposium Series. S 46). [HYDROTRANSPORT: International Conference on the Hydraulic Transport of Solids /17./. Cape Town (ZA), 08.05.2007-10.05.2007] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA200600503 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : fluidic ash slurry * laminar flow * turbulent flow * laminar/turbulent transition * drag reduction Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics

  16. Picosecond Laser Machining of Metallic and Polymer Substrates for Fluidic Driven Self-Alignment

    Römer, G.R.B.E.; Cerro, D. Arnaldo Del; Pohl, R.; Chang, B.; Liimatainen, V.; Q. Zhou; Veld, A.J. Huis In ‘t

    2012-01-01

    Fluidic self-alignment of micro-components relies on creating a receptor site that is able to confine a liquid droplet. When a micro-component is brought in contact with the droplet, capillary forces move the component to its final position. A method to stop the advancing of a liquid from a receptor site, consists of creating geometrical features, such as edges around the site. A picosecond pulsed laser source was used to create suitable edges in a metallic and a polyimide substrate. Subseque...

  17. A first implementation of an automated reel-to-reel fluidic self-assembly machine.

    Park, Se-Chul; Fang, Jun; Biswas, Shantonu; Mozafari, Mahsa; Stauden, Thomas; Jacobs, Heiko O

    2014-09-10

    A first automated reel-to-reel fluidic selfassembly process for macroelectronic applications is reported. This system enables high-speed assembly of semiconductor dies (15 000 chips per hour using a 2.5 cm-wide web) over large-area substrates. The optimization of the system (>99% assembly yield) is based on identification, calculation, and optimization of the relevant forces. As an application, the production of a solid-state lighting panel is discussed, involving a novel approach to apply a conductive layer through lamination. PMID:24975472

  18. Fluidic harvesters in free stream turbulence undergoing flow-induced vibrations or flutter

    Gomez, Joan; Azadeh Ranjbar, Vahid; Goushcha, Oleg; Andreopoulos, Yiannis; Elvin, Niell

    2015-11-01

    In the present experimental work we investigated the performance of fluidic harvesters consisting of cylindrical body mounted of the tip of a flexible beam in the presence of nearly homogeneous and isotropic turbulence. Circular, semi-circular and square shapes have been tested. It was found that turbulence interferes with resonance conditions between the flow and the structure in the case of vortex induced vibrations and has absolutely no effect in flutter dominated case. As a result, turbulence increases the power output of non-linear harvesters subjected to vortex induces vibration and it has no effect in harvester under flutter conditions. Supported by NSF Grant: CBET #1033117.

  19. Roller compaction of theophylline

    Hadzovic, Ervina

    2008-01-01

    1. Summary Direct compaction requires a very good flowability and compressibility of the materials. Those parameters become even more critical if the formulation contains large amount of active substance. To overcome these problems, several alternatives have been used. Roller compaction is a very attractive technology in the pharmaceutical industry. It is a fast and efficient way of producing granules, especially suitable for moisture sensitive materials. The intention of this work was to ...

  20. Design and simulation of bio fluidic sensor based on photonic crystal

    Rajini Gaddam Kesava Reddy

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Photonic crystals are materials patterned with a periodicity in dielectric constant in one, two and three dimensions and associated with Bragg scattering which can create range of forbidden frequencies called Photonic Band Gap (PBG. By optimizing various parameters and creating defects, we will review the design and characterization of waveguides, optical cavities and multi-fluidic channel devices. We have used such waveguides and laser nanocavities as Biosensor, in which field intensity is strongly dependent on the type of biofliud and its refractive index. This design and simulation technique leads to development of a nanophotonic sensor for detection of biofluids.  In this paper, we have simulated sensing of biofliud in various photonic defect structures with the help of a numerical algorithm called Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD method. The simulation result shows the high sensitivity for the change in the bio-molecular structure. For developing the complete sensor system, we have to use the MEMS technologies to integrate on-chip fluidic transport components with sensing systems. The resulting biofluidic system will have the capability to continuously monitor the concentration of a large number of relevant biological molecules continuously from ambulatory patients.   Keywords: FDTD, Photonic Crystals, Bio fluid Sensor, Optical Cavity.

  1. Proton beam writing of long, arbitrary structures for micro/nano photonics and fluidics applications

    Udalagama, Chammika; Teo, E. J.; Chan, S. F.; Kumar, V. S.; Bettiol, A. A.; Watt, F.

    2011-10-01

    The last decade has seen proton beam writing maturing into a versatile lithographic technique able to produce sub-100 nm, high aspect ratio structures with smooth side walls. However, many applications in the fields of photonics and fluidics require the fabrication of structures with high spatial resolution that extends over several centimetres. This cannot be achieved by purely magnetic or electrostatic beam scanning due to the large off-axis beam aberrations in high demagnification systems. As a result, this has limited us to producing long straight structures using a combination of beam and stage scanning. In this work we have: (1) developed an algorithm to include any arbitrary pattern into the writing process by using a more versatile combination of beam and stage scanning while (2) incorporating the use of the ubiquitous AutoCAD DXF (drawing exchange format) into the design process. We demonstrate the capability of this approach in fabricating structures such as Y-splitters, Mach-Zehnder modulators and microfluidic channels that are over several centimetres in length, in polymer. We also present optimisation of such parameters as scanning speed and scanning loops to improve on the surface roughness of the structures. This work opens up new possibilities of using CAD software in PBW for microphotonics and fluidics device fabrication.

  2. Proton beam writing of long, arbitrary structures for micro/nano photonics and fluidics applications

    Udalagama, Chammika, E-mail: chammika@nus.edu.sg [Centre for Ion Beam Applications (CIBA), Department of Physics, National University of Singapore (NUS), 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Teo, E.J. [Centre for Ion Beam Applications (CIBA), Department of Physics, National University of Singapore (NUS), 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Chan, S.F. [Centre for Ion Beam Applications (CIBA), Department of Physics, National University of Singapore (NUS), 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); NUS Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Initiative, 2 Science Drive 3, 117542 (Singapore); Department of Chemistry, NUS, 3 Science Drive 3, 117543 (Singapore); Kumar, V.S.; Bettiol, A.A.; Watt, F. [Centre for Ion Beam Applications (CIBA), Department of Physics, National University of Singapore (NUS), 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117542 (Singapore)

    2011-10-15

    The last decade has seen proton beam writing maturing into a versatile lithographic technique able to produce sub-100 nm, high aspect ratio structures with smooth side walls. However, many applications in the fields of photonics and fluidics require the fabrication of structures with high spatial resolution that extends over several centimetres. This cannot be achieved by purely magnetic or electrostatic beam scanning due to the large off-axis beam aberrations in high demagnification systems. As a result, this has limited us to producing long straight structures using a combination of beam and stage scanning. In this work we have: (1) developed an algorithm to include any arbitrary pattern into the writing process by using a more versatile combination of beam and stage scanning while (2) incorporating the use of the ubiquitous AutoCAD DXF (drawing exchange format) into the design process. We demonstrate the capability of this approach in fabricating structures such as Y-splitters, Mach-Zehnder modulators and microfluidic channels that are over several centimetres in length, in polymer. We also present optimisation of such parameters as scanning speed and scanning loops to improve on the surface roughness of the structures. This work opens up new possibilities of using CAD software in PBW for microphotonics and fluidics device fabrication.

  3. Fabrication of Biochips with Micro Fluidic Channels by Micro End-milling and Powder Blasting

    Dong Sam Park

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available For microfabrications of biochips with micro fluidic channels, a large number of microfabrication techniques based on silicon or glass-based Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS technologies were proposed in the last decade. In recent years, for low cost and mass production, polymer-based microfabrication techniques by microinjection molding and micro hot embossing have been proposed. These techniques, which require a proper photoresist, mask, UV light exposure, developing, and electroplating as a preprocess, are considered to have some problems. In this study, we propose a new microfabrication technology which consists of micro end-milling and powder blasting. This technique could be directly applied to fabricate the metal mold without any preprocesses. The metal mold with micro-channels is machined by micro end-milling, and then, burrs generated in the end-milling process are removed by powder blasting. From the experimental results, micro end-milling combined with powder blasting could be applied effectively for fabrication of the injection mold of biochips with micro fluidic channels.

  4. Thermo-fluidic devices and materials inspired from mass and energy transport phenomena in biological system

    Jian XIAO; Jing LIU

    2009-01-01

    Mass and energy transport consists of one of the most significant physiological processes in nature, which guarantees many amazing biological phenomena and activ-ities. Borrowing such idea, many state-of-the-art thermo-fluidic devices and materials such as artificial kidneys, carrier erythrocyte, blood substitutes and so on have been successfully invented. Besides, new emerging technologies are still being developed. This paper is dedicated to present-ing a relatively complete review of the typical devices and materials in clinical use inspired by biological mass and energy transport mechanisms. Particularly, these artificial thermo-fluidic devices and materials will be categorized into organ transplantation, drug delivery, nutrient transport, micro operation, and power supply. Potential approaches for innovating conventional technologies were discussed, corresponding biological phenomena and physical mechan-isms were interpreted, future promising mass-and-energy-transport-based bionic devices were suggested, and prospects along this direction were pointed out. It is expected that many artificial devices based on biological mass and energy transport principle will appear to better improve vari-ous fields related to human life in the near future.

  5. A microscope automated fluidic system to study bacterial processes in real time.

    Adrien Ducret

    Full Text Available Most time lapse microscopy experiments studying bacterial processes ie growth, progression through the cell cycle and motility have been performed on thin nutrient agar pads. An important limitation of this approach is that dynamic perturbations of the experimental conditions cannot be easily performed. In eukaryotic cell biology, fluidic approaches have been largely used to study the impact of rapid environmental perturbations on live cells and in real time. However, all these approaches are not easily applicable to bacterial cells because the substrata are in all cases specific and also because microfluidics nanotechnology requires a complex lithography for the study of micrometer sized bacterial cells. In fact, in many cases agar is the experimental solid substratum on which bacteria can move or even grow. For these reasons, we designed a novel hybrid micro fluidic device that combines a thin agar pad and a custom flow chamber. By studying several examples, we show that this system allows real time analysis of a broad array of biological processes such as growth, development and motility. Thus, the flow chamber system will be an essential tool to study any process that take place on an agar surface at the single cell level.

  6. Assessment of fluid flow characteristics for fluidic device in APR 1400

    New evolutionary light water reactors (LWRs) are being developed all over the world today. Some of those LWRs employ so-called passive safety components that use natural phenomena as the driving force such as expansion of pressurised gas, natural circulation, and so forth. These passive safety components and their systems are applied to improve the safety of nuclear power plants, further achieving not only to simplify the safety system, but also to improve its reliability and to provide a sufficient time margin to enable the operators to cope with accidents. The APR 1400 (Advanced Pressurised Water Reactor), which is a Korean Next Generation Reactor, adopted fluidic device as one of its passive pieces of safety equipment. The fluidic device is installed at the bottom of the inner space of the Safety Injection Tank (SIT) to control the flow rate of emergency cooling water during a large break loss of coolant accident (LBLOCA). During the past two years, a scale model test to obtain the required flow characteristics of the device under the APR 1400 specific conditions has been performed in Korea. The performance verification test was conducted to obtain the optimum characteristics and design data of full fluidic device (FD). In this study, the thermal-hydraulic characteristics for the fluidic device are analysed using SIMPLE algorithm with an aim to develop the assessment and verification guidelines for the APR 1400. To assess the flow characteristics for fluidic device, a three dimensional numerical model is developed and its results are compared with those of experiments. The fluid flow characteristics of the FD, which is passive flow control device in the SIT of APR-1400 are assessed using SIMPLE algorithm using FLUENT code and are compared with the experimental results. In this study, the fluid flow rate and pressure in the FD are predicted on the basis of the boundary condition at the entrance of supply port, control port, and discharge port respectively, so as

  7. Fluidic oscillator-mediated microbubble generation to provide cost effective mass transfer and mixing efficiency to the wastewater treatment plants.

    Rehman, Fahad; Medley, Gareth J D; Bandulasena, Hemaka; Zimmerman, William B J

    2015-02-01

    Aeration is one of the most energy intensive processes in the waste water treatment plants and any improvement in it is likely to enhance the overall efficiency of the overall process. In the current study, a fluidic oscillator has been used to produce microbubbles in the order of 100 μm in diameter by oscillating the inlet gas stream to a pair of membrane diffusers. Volumetric mass transfer coefficient was measured for steady state flow and oscillatory flow in the range of 40-100l/min. The highest improvement of 55% was observed at the flow rates of 60, 90 and 100l/min respectively. Standard oxygen transfer rate and efficiency were also calculated. Both standard oxygen transfer rate and efficiency were found to be considerably higher under oscillatory air flow conditions compared to steady state airflow. The bubble size distributions and bubble densities were measured using an acoustic bubble spectrometer and confirmed production of monodisperse bubbles with approximately 100 μm diameters with fluidic oscillation. The higher number density of microbubbles under oscillatory flow indicated the effect of the fluidic oscillation in microbubble production. Visual observations and dissolved oxygen measurements suggested that the bubble cloud generated by the fluidic oscillator was sufficient enough to provide good mixing and to maintain uniform aerobic conditions. Overall, improved mass transfer coefficients, mixing efficiency and energy efficiency of the novel microbubble generation method could offer significant savings to the water treatment plants as well as reduction in the carbon footprint. PMID:25483415

  8. Development of a millimetrically scaled biodiesel transesterification device that relies on droplet-based co-axial fluidics

    Yeh, S. I.; Huang, Y. C.; Cheng, C. H.; Cheng, C. M.; Yang, J. T.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated a fluidic system that adheres to new concepts of energy production. To improve efficiency, cost, and ease of manufacture, a millimetrically scaled device that employs a droplet-based co-axial fluidic system was devised to complete alkali-catalyzed transesterification for biodiesel production. The large surface-to-volume ratio of the droplet-based system, and the internal circulation induced inside the moving droplets, significantly enhanced the reaction rate of immiscible liquids used here – soybean oil and methanol. This device also decreased the molar ratio between methanol and oil to near the stoichiometric coefficients of a balanced chemical equation, which enhanced the total biodiesel volume produced, and decreased the costs of purification and recovery of excess methanol. In this work, the droplet-based co-axial fluidic system performed better than other methods of continuous-flow production. We achieved an efficiency that is much greater than that of reported systems. This study demonstrated the high potential of droplet-based fluidic chips for energy production. The small energy consumption and low cost of the highly purified biodiesel transesterification system described conforms to the requirements of distributed energy (inexpensive production on a moderate scale) in the world. PMID:27426677

  9. Development of a millimetrically scaled biodiesel transesterification device that relies on droplet-based co-axial fluidics.

    Yeh, S I; Huang, Y C; Cheng, C H; Cheng, C M; Yang, J T

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated a fluidic system that adheres to new concepts of energy production. To improve efficiency, cost, and ease of manufacture, a millimetrically scaled device that employs a droplet-based co-axial fluidic system was devised to complete alkali-catalyzed transesterification for biodiesel production. The large surface-to-volume ratio of the droplet-based system, and the internal circulation induced inside the moving droplets, significantly enhanced the reaction rate of immiscible liquids used here - soybean oil and methanol. This device also decreased the molar ratio between methanol and oil to near the stoichiometric coefficients of a balanced chemical equation, which enhanced the total biodiesel volume produced, and decreased the costs of purification and recovery of excess methanol. In this work, the droplet-based co-axial fluidic system performed better than other methods of continuous-flow production. We achieved an efficiency that is much greater than that of reported systems. This study demonstrated the high potential of droplet-based fluidic chips for energy production. The small energy consumption and low cost of the highly purified biodiesel transesterification system described conforms to the requirements of distributed energy (inexpensive production on a moderate scale) in the world. PMID:27426677

  10. Compact Dynamical Foliations

    Carrasco, Pablo D

    2011-01-01

    According to the work of Dennis Sullivan, there exists a smooth flow on the 5-sphere all of whose orbits are periodic although there is no uniform bound on their periods. The question addressed in this article is whether such an example can occur in the partially hyperbolic context. That is, does there exist a partially hyperbolic diffeomorphism of a compact manifold such that all the leaves of its center foliation are compact although there is no uniform bound for their volumes. We will show that the previous question has negative answer under very natural hypothesis as one-dimensional center foliation, transitivity or in the volume preserving case. Moreover we study the dynamical properties of partially hyperbolic maps preserving a compact center foliation. We prove in particular that if the number of center leaves with non-trivial holonomy is finite then the map is plaque expansive.

  11. Development of Two Color Fluorescent Imager and Integrated Fluidic System for Nanosatellite Biology Applications

    Wu, Diana Terri; Ricco, Antonio Joseph; Lera, Matthew P.; Timucin, Linda R.; Parra, Macarena P.

    2012-01-01

    Nanosatellites offer frequent, low-cost space access as secondary payloads on launches of larger conventional satellites. We summarize the payload science and technology of the Microsatellite in-situ Space Technologies (MisST) nanosatellite for conducting automated biological experiments. The payload (two fused 10-cm cubes) includes 1) an integrated fluidics system that maintains organism viability and supports growth and 2) a fixed-focus imager with fluorescence and scattered-light imaging capabilities. The payload monitors temperature, pressure and relative humidity, and actively controls temperature. C. elegans (nematode, 50 m diameter x 1 mm long) was selected as a model organism due to previous space science experience, its completely sequenced genome, size, hardiness, and the variety of strains available. Three strains were chosen: two green GFP-tagged strains and one red tdTomato-tagged strain that label intestinal, nerve, and pharyngeal cells, respectively. The integrated fluidics system includes bioanalytical and reservoir modules. The former consists of four 150 L culture wells and a 4x5 mm imaging zone the latter includes two 8 mL fluid reservoirs for reagent and waste storage. The fluidic system is fabricated using multilayer polymer rapid prototyping: laser cutting, precision machining, die cutting, and pressure-sensitive adhesives it also includes eight solenoid-operated valves and one mini peristaltic pump. Young larval-state (L2) nematodes are loaded in C. elegans Maintenance Media (CeMM) in the bioanalytical module during pre-launch assembly. By the time orbit is established, the worms have grown to sufficient density to be imaged and are fed fresh CeMM. The strains are pumped sequentially into the imaging area, imaged, then pumped into waste. Reagent storage utilizes polymer bags under slight pressure to prevent bubble formation in wells or channels. The optical system images green and red fluorescence bands by excitation with blue (473 nm peak

  12. Fabrication of fluidic devices with 30 nm nanochannels by direct imprinting

    Cuesta, Irene Fernandez; Palmarelli, Anna Laura; Liang, Xiaogan;

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we propose an innovative approach to the fabrication of a complete micro/nano fluidic system, based on direct nanoimprint lithography. The fabricated device consists of nanochannels connected to U-shaped microchannels by triangular tapered inlets, and has four large reservoirs for...... liquid input. A master silicon stamp with the multilevel structures is fabricated first, and then a negative replica is made, to be used as a stamp for ultraviolet nanoimprint lithography (UV-NIL). Afterwards, just one single UV-NIL step is necessary for patterning all the the micro and nanostructures....... Furthermore, the devices are made of all-transparent materials, and the method allows flexibility for the type of substrates used. The active material (an inorganic-organic hybrid polymer) used for the fabrication of the device has been carefully chosen, so it has adequate surface properties (inert and...

  13. Micro-fluidic tools for the liquid-liquid extraction of radionuclides in analytical procedures

    The analyses of radionuclides are in great demand and a cost effective technique for the separation of analytes is required. A micro-scale reactor composed of microchannels fabricated in a microchip was chosen to investigate liquid-liquid extraction reactions driven by three different families of metal extractants: neutral, acidic and ion-pair extractants. The extraction conditions in the micro-fluidic device were considered. These investigations demonstrated that the conventional methodology used for solvent extraction in macro-scale reactors is not directly transposable to micro liquid-liquid extraction systems. However, it is expected that the understanding of the chemical and physical phenomena involved in a reference extraction systems studied in a given selected lab-on-chip will lead us to develop and validate a methodology suitable to miniaturized reactors. (authors)

  14. High frequency fluidic and microfluidic sensors for contactless dielectric and in vitro cell culture measurement applications

    There is a widespread need for highly-sensitive robust sensors that operate without direct contact to the fluid for analysis of fluids in bioprocess technology. Measuring the variation of dielectric properties (conductivity and permittivity) in the microwave frequency band can be used as an approach to investigate biological and chemical matter and processes such as, cell growth, cell metabolism and the concentration of large aqueous based molecules. In comparison to measurement at lower frequencies, DC conductivity (σ) effects on material properties (permittivity ε) can be neglected with increasing of the frequency. This presentation describes a high frequency sensor, which combines detection in macro- or microfluidic networks with quick and precise analysis. It is composed of a fluidic channel placed contactless between a micro-strip line waveguide combined with resonant properties.

  15. Accelerating a hybrid continuum-atomistic fluidic model with on-the-fly machine learning

    Stephenson, David; Lockerby, Duncan A

    2016-01-01

    We present a hybrid continuum-atomistic scheme which combines molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with on-the-fly machine learning techniques for the accurate and efficient prediction of multiscale fluidic systems. By using a Gaussian process as a surrogate model for the computationally expensive MD simulations, we use Bayesian inference to predict the system behaviour at the atomistic scale, purely by consideration of the macroscopic inputs and outputs. Whenever the uncertainty of this prediction is greater than a predetermined acceptable threshold, a new MD simulation is performed to continually augment the database, which is never required to be complete. This provides a substantial enhancement to the current generation of hybrid methods, which often require many similar atomistic simulations to be performed, discarding information after it is used once. We apply our hybrid scheme to nano-confined unsteady flow through a high-aspect-ratio converging-diverging channel, and make comparisons between the new s...

  16. Design and testing of micro fluidic chemical analysis chip integrated with micro valveless pump

    FU; Xin; XIE; Haibo; YANG; Huayong; JIA; Zhijian; FANG; Qun

    2005-01-01

    A new structure and working principle of the chip integrated with micro valveless pump for capillary electrophoresis was proposed in this paper. The micro valveless pump with plane structure has advantages of simple structure, and the process technology is compatible with existing micro chips for capillary electrophoresis. Based upon the mathematical model, simulation study of micro pump was carried out to investigate the influence of structural parameters on flow characteristics, and the performance of the integrated micro pump was also tested with different control parameters. The simulation results agree with the experimental results. Three samples, which are amino acid, fluorescein and buffer solution, have been examined with this chip. The results of the primary experiments showed that the micro valveless pump was promising in the integration and automatization of miniature integrated fluidic systems.

  17. Acousto-fluidic system assisting in-liquid self-assembly of microcomponents

    In this paper, we present the theoretical background, design, fabrication and characterization of a micromachined chamber assisting the fluidic self-assembly of micro-electro-mechanical systems in a bulk liquid. Exploiting bubble-induced acoustic microstreaming, several structurally-robust driving modes are excited inside the chamber. The modes promote the controlled aggregation and disaggregation of microcomponents relying on strong and reproducible fluid mixing effects achieved even at low Reynolds numbers. The functionality of the microfluidic chamber is demonstrated through the fast and repeatable geometrical pairing and subsequent unpairing of polymeric microcylinders. Relying only on drag and radiation forces and on the natural hydrophobicity of SU-8 in aqueous solutions, assembly yields of approximately 50% are achieved in no longer than ten seconds of agitation. The system can stochastically control the assembly process and significantly reduce the time-to-assembly of building blocks. (paper)

  18. Fluidic Self-Assembly Using Molten Ga Bumps and Its Application to Resonant Tunneling Diodes

    Nakano, Jun; Shibata, Tomoaki; Morita, Hiroki; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Mori, Masayuki; Maezawa, Koichi

    2013-11-01

    Fluidic self-assembly (FSA) using molten metal bumps is one of the most promising heterogeneous integration (HI) technologies, which enable us to integrate devices made of various materials on various substrates. We can fabricate the metal bumps using Ga having diameters of 24, 18, 12, and 8 µm with good yield. Using Ga has significant advantages; especially, it includes no toxic metals. These bumps were used for the FSA process of the metal dummy blocks having a diameter of 18 µm, and a good yield of 84% was obtained all over the substrate of about 1×1 cm2. Finally, we applied this method to the resonant tunneling diode (RTD) to verify good electrical, mechanical, and thermal contacts. The RTD device blocks having a diameter of 24 µm have been successfully assembled using the molten Ga bumps. This method is promising for high-performance RTD integration.

  19. A Fluidic Cell Embedded Electromagnetic Wave Sensor for Online Indication of Neurological Impairment during Surgical Procedures

    Lactate is known to be an indicator of neurological impairment during aortic aneurysm surgery. It is suggested that cerebrospinal fluid removed during such surgery could provide useful information in this regard. Medical professionals find the prospect of online detection of such analytes exciting, as current practice is time consuming and leads to multiple invasive procedures. Advancing from the current laboratory based analysis techniques to online methods could provide the basis for improved treatment regimes, better quality of care, and enhanced resource efficiency within hospitals. Accordingly, this article considers the use of a low power fluidic system with embedded electromagnetic wave sensor to detect varying lactate concentrations. Results are promising over the physiological range of 0 − 20 mmol/L with a calibration curve demonstrating an R2 value > 0.98.

  20. Compact fusion reactors

    Compact, high-power-density approaches to fusion power are proposed to improve economic viability through the use of less-advanced technology in systems of considerably reduced scale. The rationale for and the means by which these systems can be achieved are discussed, as are unique technological problems

  1. Limestone compaction: an enigma

    Shinn, Eugene A.; Halley, Robert B.; Hudson, J. Harold; Lidz, Barbara H.

    1977-01-01

    Compression of an undisturbed carbonate sediment core under a pressure of 556 kg/cm2 produced a “rock” with sedimentary structures similar to typical ancient fine-grained limestones. Surprisingly, shells, foraminifera, and other fossils were not noticeably crushed, which indicates that absence of crushed fossils in ancient limestones can no longer be considered evidence that limestones do not compact.

  2. Tachyons in Compact Spaces

    Suyama, T

    2005-01-01

    We discuss condensations of closed string tachyons localized in compact spaces. Time evolution of an on-shell condensation is naturally related to the worldsheet RG flow. Some explicit tachyonic compactifications of Type II string theory is considered, and some of them are shown to decay into supersymmetric theories known as the little string theories.

  3. A membrane-based serpentine-shape pneumatic micropump with pumping performance modulated by fluidic resistance

    This paper reports a new membrane-based pneumatic micropump with new serpentine-shape (S-shape) pneumatic channels intended for achieving high-throughput pumping in a microfluidic system at a relatively low pumping rate and a board flow rate range. The key feature of this design is the ability to modulate the pumping rates by fine-tuning the fluidic resistance of injected compressed air in the designed pneumatic microchannels and the chambers of the micropump. In the study, several S-shape pneumatic micropumps with various layouts were designed and fabricated based on thick-film photoresist lithography and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) replication processes. To investigate designs with a suitable pumping performance, S-shape pneumatic micropumps with varied lengths (1000, 5000 and 10 000 µm), varied widths (20, 40 and 200 µm) of the pneumatic microchannel bridging two rectangular pneumatic chambers, and different numbers of pneumatic channel bends (two and four U-shape bends) were designed and evaluated experimentally by using high-speed CCD-coupled microscopic observation of the movement of PDMS membrane pulsation and pumping rate measurements. The results revealed that under the experimental conditions studied, the layout of the S-shape pneumatic micropump with three rectangular pneumatic chambers, 5000 µm long and 40 µm wide pneumatic microchannel and four U-shape bends in the pneumatic microchannel was found to be capable of providing a broader pumping rate range from 0 to 539 µl h−1 compared to the other designs. As a whole, the experimental results demonstrate the use of fluidic resistance of injected air in a pneumatic micropump with S-shape layout to control its pumping performance, which largely expands the flexibility of its pumping application in a microfluidic system

  4. New Drop Fluidics Enabled by Magnetic-Field-Mediated Elastocapillary Transduction.

    Biswas, Saheli; Pomeau, Yves; Chaudhury, Manoj K

    2016-07-12

    This research introduces a new drop fluidics that uses a deformable and stretchable elastomeric film as the platform instead of the commonly used rigid supports. Such a soft film impregnated with magnetic particles can be modulated with an external electromagnetic field that produces a vast array of topographical landscapes with varying surface curvature, which, in conjunction with capillarity, can direct and control the motion of water droplets efficiently and accurately. When a thin layer of oil is present on this film that is deformed locally, a centrosymmetric wedge is formed. A water droplet placed on this oil-laden film becomes asymmetrically deformed, thus producing a gradient of Laplace pressure within the droplet and setting it in motion. A simple theory is presented that accounts for the droplet speed in terms of such geometric variables as the volume of the droplet and the thickness of the oil film covering the soft elastomeric film as well as material variables such as the viscosity of the oil and the interfacial tension of the oil-water interfaces. Following the verification of the theoretical result using well-controlled model systems, we demonstrate how the electromagnetically controlled elastocapillary force can be used to manipulate the motion of single and/or multiple droplets on the surface of the elastomeric film and how elementary operations such as drop fusion and thermally addressed chemical transformation can be carried out in aqueous droplets. It is expected that the resulting drop fluidics would be suitable for the digital control of drop motion by simply switching on and off the electromagnetic fields applied at different positions underneath the elastomeric film in a Boolean sequence. We anticipate that this method of directing and manipulating water droplets is poised for application in various biochemical reaction engineering situations, an example of which is the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). PMID:27300489

  5. In Vivo Imaging of Intraocular Fluidics in Vitrectomized Swine Eyes Using a Digital Fluoroscopy System

    Tandogan, Tamer; Khoramnia, Ramin; Auffarth, Gerd Uwe; Koss, Michael Janusz; Choi, Chul Young

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To describe the characteristics of intraocular fluidics during cataract surgery in swine eyes with prior vitrectomy. Methods. We prepared three groups of enucleated swine eyes (nonvitrectomized, core, and totally vitrectomized). Irrigation and aspiration were performed (2.7 mm conventional sleeved phacosystem) using a balanced saline solution mixed with a water-soluble radiopaque contrast medium at 1 : 1 ratio. We imaged the eyes using a digital fluoroscopy system (DFS) during phacoemulsification and compared the characteristics of the intraocular fluid dynamics between the groups. Results. The anterior chamber depth (ACD) after the commencement of irrigation differed between groups (2.25 ± 0.06 mm; 2.33 ± 0.06 mm; 3.17 ± 0.11 mm), as well as the height of the fluid flowing from the anterior chamber into the posterior cavity that was identified by lifting up the iris to correct the infusion deviation syndrome (0.00 ± 0.00 mm; 0.41 ± 0.04 mm; 2.19 ± 0.35 mm). Conclusions. DFS demonstrated differences in fluid dynamics during phacoemulsification in swine eyes with or without prior vitrectomy. In completely vitrectomized eyes, the large ACD, which developed during phacoemulsification, could be reduced by lifting the iris and allowing the fluid to shift to the posterior cavity. Recognizing the differences in fluidics of vitrectomized eyes as compared to those of the nonvitrectomized eyes may reduce the frequency of intraoperative complications. PMID:27127645

  6. The United Nations Global Compact

    Rasche, Andreas; Waddock, Sandra; McIntosh, Malcolm

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews the interdisciplinary literature on the UN Global Compact. The review identifies three research perspectives, which scholars have used to study the UN Global Compact so far: a historical perspective discussing the Global Compact in the context of UN-business relations, an ope...

  7. Compact Spreader Schemes

    Placidi, M.; Jung, J. -Y.; Ratti, A.; Sun, C.

    2014-07-25

    This paper describes beam distribution schemes adopting a novel implementation based on low amplitude vertical deflections combined with horizontal ones generated by Lambertson-type septum magnets. This scheme offers substantial compactness in the longitudinal layouts of the beam lines and increased flexibility for beam delivery of multiple beam lines on a shot-to-shot basis. Fast kickers (FK) or transverse electric field RF Deflectors (RFD) provide the low amplitude deflections. Initially proposed at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) as tools for beam diagnostics and more recently adopted for multiline beam pattern schemes, RFDs offer repetition capabilities and a likely better amplitude reproducibility when compared to FKs, which, in turn, offer more modest financial involvements both in construction and operation. Both solutions represent an ideal approach for the design of compact beam distribution systems resulting in space and cost savings while preserving flexibility and beam quality.

  8. Compact fusion reactors

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    Fusion research is currently to a large extent focused on tokamak (ITER) and inertial confinement (NIF) research. In addition to these large international or national efforts there are private companies performing fusion research using much smaller devices than ITER or NIF. The attempt to achieve fusion energy production through relatively small and compact devices compared to tokamaks decreases the costs and building time of the reactors and this has allowed some private companies to enter the field, like EMC2, General Fusion, Helion Energy, Lawrenceville Plasma Physics and Lockheed Martin. Some of these companies are trying to demonstrate net energy production within the next few years. If they are successful their next step is to attempt to commercialize their technology. In this presentation an overview of compact fusion reactor concepts is given.

  9. Compact torsatron reactors

    Low-aspect-ratio torsatron configurations could lead to compact stellarator reactors with R0 = 8--11m, roughly one-half to one-third the size of more conventional stellarator reactor designs. Minimum-size torsatron reactors are found using various assumptions. Their size is relatively insensitive to the choice of the conductor parameters and depends mostly on geometrical constraints. The smallest size is obtained by eliminating the tritium breeding blanket under the helical winding on the inboard side and by reducing the radial depth of the superconducting coil. Engineering design issues and reactor performance are examined for three examples to illustrate the feasibility of this approach for compact reactors and for a medium-size (R0 ≅ 4 m,/bar a/ /approx lt/ 1 m) copper-coil ignition experiment. 26 refs., 11 figs., 7 tabs

  10. Compact Quantum Groupoids

    Landsman, N.P.

    1999-01-01

    Quantum groupoids are a joint generalization of groupoids and quantum groups. We propose a definition of a compact quantum groupoid that is based on the theory of C*-algebras and Hilbert bimodules. The essential point is that whenever one has a tensor product over the complex numbers in the theory of quantum groups, one now uses a certain tensor product over the base algebra of the quantum groupoid.

  11. Compactly Generated Domain Theory

    Battenfeld, Ingo; Schröder, Matthias; Simpson, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    We propose compactly generated monotone convergence spaces as a well-behaved topological generalisation of directed-complete partial orders (dcpos). The category of such spaces enjoys the usual properties of categories of 'predomains' in denotational semantics. Moreover, such properties are retained if one restricts to spaces with a countable pseudobase in the sense of E. Michael, a fact that permits connections to be made with computability theory, realizability semantics and recent work on ...

  12. Compact Torsatron configurations

    Low-aspect-ratio stellarator configurations can be realized by using torsatron winding. Plasmas with aspect ratios in the range of 3.5 to 5 can be confined by these Compact Torsatron configurations. Stable operation at high Β should be possible in these devices, if a vertical field coil system is adequately designed to avoid breaking of the magnetic surfaces at finite Β. 17 refs., 21 figs., 1 tab

  13. Energy report compact 2015

    The Energy Report compact 2015 from the Ministry of the Environment, Climate Protection and the Energy Sector and the State Office for Statistics Baden-Wuerttemberg provides an overview on the energy sector developments in Baden-Wuerttemberg in 2013. It contains numerous information on the energy consumption in Baden-Wuerttemberg, the energy productivity, the share of renewable energy sources, power generation and the energy-related CO2 emissions.

  14. An Oxidase-Based Electrochemical Fluidic Sensor with High-Sensitivity and Low-Interference by On-Chip Oxygen Manipulation

    Chang-Soo Kim; Jongwon Park; Nitin Radhakrishnan

    2012-01-01

    Utilizing a simple fluidic structure, we demonstrate the improved performance of oxidase-based enzymatic biosensors. Electrolysis of water is utilized to generate bubbles to manipulate the oxygen microenvironment close to the biosensor in a fluidic channel. For the proper enzyme reactions to occur, a simple mechanical procedure of manipulating bubbles was developed to maximize the oxygen level while minimizing the pH change after electrolysis. The sensors show improved sensitivities based on ...

  15. Fluidic low-frequency oscillator consisting of load-switched diverter and a pair of vortex chambers

    Tesař, Václav; Peszyński, K.; Smyk, E.

    Liberec: Polypress s.r.o, 2015 - (Dančová, P.; Veselý, M.), s. 792-799 [Experimental Fluid Mechanics 2015. Praha (CZ), 17.11.2015-20.11.2015] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-23046S Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : fluidic oscillator * vortex chamber * load-switched diverter Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics

  16. Fluidics: what it is, where it is heading - and how it will change the world we line in

    Tesař, Václav

    Prague: Institute of Thermomechanics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v. v. i., 2013 - (Zolotarev, I.), s. 3-12 ISBN 978-80-87012-47-5. ISSN 1805-8256. [ENGINEERING MECHANICS 2013 /19./. Svratka (CZ), 13.05.2013-16.05.2013] R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA02020795; GA ČR GA13-23046S Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : fluidics * microfluidics * bioengineering Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics

  17. Development of Compact Lenses for Micro Four-Thirds System

    Koiwai, Tamotsu; Akita, Hidenori

    In 2010, "The micro SLR Olympus PEN" of Micro Four Thirds standard won double titles of CAMERA GRAND PRIX .The characteristics of Olympus PEN series are high-quality, compact, lightweight, no feeling of burden/stress and easy to take both still images and movies by SLR quality. Especially, the consciousness of compact and lightweight is taken into the series’ entire system including the body and interchangeable lenses. We have developed the interchangeable lenses by aiming ultimate miniaturization for optical and lens-barrel design along with making the miniaturizing compliance of Micro Four Thirds standard useful. In order to create compact and lightweight interchangeable lenses, a number of technical difficulties, such as realization of thinner design by adapting lens-barrel retraction system, lens-barrel with a high degree of accuracy, quick and silent AF, adaptation of special lenses, thorough trimming of weight, had to be overcome in the developmental process. Here we refer to these miniaturization technologies.

  18. Compactly generating all satisfying truth assignments of a Horn formula

    2010-01-01

    As instance of an overarching principle of exclusion an algorithm is presented that compactly (thus not one by one) generates all models of a Horn formula. The principle of exclusion can be adapted to generate only the models of weight $k$. We compare and contrast it with constraint programming, $0,1$ integer programming, and binary decision diagrams.

  19. Compact Mass Flow Meter Based on a Micro Coriolis Flow Sensor

    Remco Wiegerink

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we demonstrate a compact ready-to-use micro Coriolis mass flow meter. The full scale flow is 1 g/h (for water at a pressure drop < 1 bar. It has a zero stability of 2 mg/h and an accuracy of 0.5% reading for both liquids and gases. The temperature drift between 10 and 50 °C is below 1 mg/h/°C. The meter is robust, has standard fluidic connections and can be read out by means of a PC or laptop via USB. Its performance was tested for several common gases (hydrogen, helium, nitrogen, argon and air and liquids (water and isopropanol. As in all Coriolis mass flow meters, the meter is also able to measure the actual density of the medium flowing through the tube. The sensitivity of the measured density is ~1 Hz.m3/kg.

  20. Simulation of the fluidic features for diffuser/nozzle involved in a PZT-based valveless micropump

    HouWensheng; Zheng Xiaolin; Biswajit Das; Jiang Yingtao; Qian Shizhi; Wu Xiaoying; Zheng Zhigao

    2008-01-01

    PZT-based valveless micropump is a microactuator that can be used for controlling and delivering tiny amounts of fluids, and diffuser/nozzle plays an important role when this type of micropump drives the fluid flowing along a specific direction. In this paper, a numerical model of micropump has been proposed, and the fluidic properties of diffuser/nozzle have been simulated with ANSYS. With the method of finite-element analysis, the increased pressure drop between inlet and outlet of diffuser/nozzle induces the increment of flow rate in both diffuser and nozzle simultaneously, but the increasing rate of diffuser is faster than that of nozzle. The L/R, ratio of L (length of cone pipe) and R (radius of minimal cross section of cone pipe) plays an important role in fluidic performance of diffuser and nozzle as well, and the mean flow rate will decrease with increment of L/R. The mean flow rate reaches its peak value when L/R with the value of 10 regardless the divergence angle of diffuser or nozzle. The simulation results indicate that the fluidic properties of diffuser/nozzle can be defined by its geometric structure, and accordingly determine the efficiency of micropump.

  1. Compact synchrotron radiation source

    A compact 800 MeV synchrotron radiation source is discussed. The storage ring has a circumference of 30.3 m, two 90 degree and four 45 degree bending magnet sections, two long straight sections and four short straight sections. The radius of the bending magnet is 2.224m. The critical wave length is 24A. The injector is a 15 Mev Microtron Electrons are accelerated from 15 Mev to 800 Mev by ramping the field of the ring. The expected stored current will be around 100 ma

  2. Atacama Compact Array Antennas

    Saito, Masao; Inatani, Junji; Nakanishi, Kouichiro; Naoi, Takahiro; Yamada, Masumi; Saito, Hiro; Ikenoue, Bungo; Kato, Yoshihiro; Morita, Kou-ichiro; Mizuno, Norikazu; Iguchi, Satoru

    2011-01-01

    We report major performance test results of the Atacama Compact Array (ACA) 7-m and 12-m antennas of ALMA (Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array). The four major performances of the ACA antennas are all-sky pointing (to be not more than 2.0 arcsec), offset pointing (to be < 0.6 arcsec) surface accuracy (< 25(20) micrometer for 12(7)m-antenna), stability of path-length (15 micrometer over 3 min), and high servo capability (6 degrees/s for Azimuth and 3 degrees/s for Elevation). The high...

  3. Compact Q-balls

    Bazeia, D; Marques, M A; Menezes, R; da Rocha, R

    2016-01-01

    In this work we deal with non-topological solutions of the Q-ball type in two space-time dimensions, in models described by a single complex scalar field that engenders global symmetry. The main novelty is the presence of stable Q-balls solutions that live in a compact interval of the real line and appear from a family of models controlled by two distinct parameters. We find analytical solutions and study their charge and energy, and show how to control the parameters to make the Q-balls classically and quantum mechanically stable.

  4. Transient dynamics of the flow around a NACA 0015 airfoil using fluidic vortex generators

    The unsteady activation or deactivation of fluidic vortex generators on a NACA 0015 airfoil is studied to understand the transient dynamics of flow separation control. The Reynolds number is high enough and the boundary layer is tripped, so the boundary layer is fully turbulent prior to separation. Conditional PIV of the airfoil wake is obtained phase-locked to the actuator trigger signal, allowing reconstruction of the transient processes. When the actuators are impulsively turned on, the velocity field in the near wake exhibit a complex transient behavior associated with the formation and shedding of a starting vortex. When actuation is stopped, a more gradual process of the separation dynamics is found. These results are in agreement with those found in the literature in comparable configurations. Proper Orthogonal Decomposition of phase-locked velocity fields reveals low-dimensional transient dynamics for the attachment and separation processes, with 98% of the fluctuation energy captured by the first four modes. The behavior is quantitatively well captured by a four-dimensional dynamical system with the corresponding mode amplitudes. Analysis of the first temporal POD modes accurately determines typical time scales for attachment and separation processes to be respectively t+=10 and 20 in conventional non-dimensional values. This study adds to experimental investigations of this scale with essential insight for the targeted closed-loop control.

  5. Compound-fluidic electrospray:An efficient method for the fabrication of microcapsules with multicompartment structure

    CHEN HongYan; ZHAO Yong; JIANG Lei

    2009-01-01

    Microcapsules with multiple compartments are of significant importance in many applications such as smart drug delivery,microreactor,complicated sensor,end so on. Here we report a novel compound-fluidic electrospray method that could fabricate multicompartment microcapsules in a single step. The as-prepared microcapsules have multiple compartments inside. The compartments are separated from each other by inner walls made from shell materials,and different content can be independently loaded in each of them without any contact. We assemble a hierarchical compound nozzle by inserting certain numbers of metallic inner capillaries separately into a blunt metal needle. The particular configuration of the compound nozzle induces a completely and independently envelope of core fluids by shell fluid,as a result of which mulicomponent microcapsules with multicompartment structure can be obtained. And also,the number of inner compartments and the corresponding encapsulated components can be controlled by rationally designing the configuration of the compound nozzle.This general method can be readily extended to many other functional materials,especially for the effective encapsulation of active ingredients,such as sensitive and reactive materials.

  6. Nanobiomimetic Active Shape Control - Fluidic and Swarm-Intelligence Embodiments for Planetary Exploration

    Santoli, S.

    The concepts of Active Shape Control ( ASC ) and of Generalized Quantum Holography ( GQH ), respectively embodying a closer approach to biomimicry than the current macrophysics-based attempts at bioinspired robotic systems, and realizing a non-connectionistic, life-like kind of information processing that allows increasingly depths of mimicking of the biological structure-function solidarity, which have been formulated in physical terms in previous papers, are here further investigated for application to bioinspired flying or swimming robots for planetary exploration. It is shown that nano-to-micro integration would give the deepest level of biomimicry, and that both low and very low Reynolds number ( Re ) fluidics would involve GQH and Fiber Bundle Topology ( FBT ) for processing information at the various levels of ASC bioinspired robotics. While very low Re flows lend themselves to geometrization of microrobot dynamics and to FBT design, the general design problem is geometrized through GQH , i.e. made independent of dynamic considerations, thus allowing possible problems of semantic dyscrasias in highly complex hierarchical dynamical chains of sensing information processing actuating to be overcome. A roadmap to near- and medium-term nanostructured and nano-to-micro integration realizations is suggested.

  7. An angular fluidic channel for prism-free surface-plasmon-assisted fluorescence capturing

    Nomura, Ken-Ichi; Gopinath, Subash C. B.; Lakshmipriya, Thangavel; Fukuda, Nobuko; Wang, Xiaomin; Fujimaki, Makoto

    2013-12-01

    Surface plasmon excitation provides stronger enhancement of the fluorescence intensity and better sensitivity than other sensing approaches but requires optimal positioning of a prism to ensure optimum output of the incident light. Here we describe a simple, highly sensitive optical sensing system combining surface plasmon excitation and fluorescence to address this limitation. V-shaped fluidic channels are employed to mimic the functions of a prism, sensing plate, and flow channel in a single setup. Superior performance is demonstrated for different biomolecular recognition reactions on a self-assembled monolayer, and the sensitivity reaches 100 fM for biotin-streptavidin interactions. Using an antibody as a probe, we demonstrate the detection of intact influenza viruses at 0.2 HA units ml-1 levels. The convenient sensing system developed here has the advantages of being prism-free and requiring less sample (1-2 μl), making this platform suitable for use in situations requiring low sample volumes.

  8. Transient dynamics of the flow around a NACA 0015 airfoil using fluidic vortex generators

    Siauw, W.L. [Institut Pprime, CNRS - Universite de Poitiers - ENSMA, UPR 3346, Departement Fluides, Thermique, Combustion, ENSMA - Teleport 2, 1 Avenue Clement Ader, BP 40109, F-86961 Futuroscope Chasseneuil Cedex (France); Bonnet, J.-P., E-mail: Jean-Paul.Bonnet@univ-poitiers.f [Institut Pprime, CNRS - Universite de Poitiers - ENSMA, UPR 3346, Departement Fluides, Thermique, Combustion, CEAT, 43 rue de l' Aerodrome, F-86036 Poitiers Cedex (France); Tensi, J., E-mail: Jean.Tensi@lea.univ-poitiers.f [Institut Pprime, CNRS - Universite de Poitiers - ENSMA, UPR 3346, Departement Fluides, Thermique, Combustion, ENSMA - Teleport 2, 1 Avenue Clement Ader, BP 40109, F-86961 Futuroscope Chasseneuil Cedex (France); Cordier, L., E-mail: Laurent.Cordier@univ-poitiers.f [Institut Pprime, CNRS - Universite de Poitiers - ENSMA, UPR 3346, Departement Fluides, Thermique, Combustion, CEAT, 43 rue de l' Aerodrome, F-86036 Poitiers Cedex (France); Noack, B.R., E-mail: Bernd.Noack@univ-poitiers.f [Institut Pprime, CNRS - Universite de Poitiers - ENSMA, UPR 3346, Departement Fluides, Thermique, Combustion, CEAT, 43 rue de l' Aerodrome, F-86036 Poitiers Cedex (France); Cattafesta, L., E-mail: cattafes@ufl.ed [Florida Center for Advanced Aero-Propulsion (FCAAP), Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Florida, 231 MAE-A, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

    2010-06-15

    The unsteady activation or deactivation of fluidic vortex generators on a NACA 0015 airfoil is studied to understand the transient dynamics of flow separation control. The Reynolds number is high enough and the boundary layer is tripped, so the boundary layer is fully turbulent prior to separation. Conditional PIV of the airfoil wake is obtained phase-locked to the actuator trigger signal, allowing reconstruction of the transient processes. When the actuators are impulsively turned on, the velocity field in the near wake exhibit a complex transient behavior associated with the formation and shedding of a starting vortex. When actuation is stopped, a more gradual process of the separation dynamics is found. These results are in agreement with those found in the literature in comparable configurations. Proper Orthogonal Decomposition of phase-locked velocity fields reveals low-dimensional transient dynamics for the attachment and separation processes, with 98% of the fluctuation energy captured by the first four modes. The behavior is quantitatively well captured by a four-dimensional dynamical system with the corresponding mode amplitudes. Analysis of the first temporal POD modes accurately determines typical time scales for attachment and separation processes to be respectively t{sup +}=10 and 20 in conventional non-dimensional values. This study adds to experimental investigations of this scale with essential insight for the targeted closed-loop control.

  9. Numerical study of fluidic device in APR1400 using free surface model

    A fluidic device (FD) has been adopted in the safety injection tanks (SITs) of APR1400. A flow control mechanism of the FD was used to vary the flow regime in the vortex chamber corresponding to the SITs water level. The flow regime in the vortex chamber has a different pressure loss from low to high in accordance with the SITs water level. Nitrogen at the top of the SIT could be released owing to inertia of discharge flow when changing from a high flow rate to a low flow rate. This phenomenon is important to design improvement perspective because it can affect the performance of the FD. This paper shows a result of a preliminary numerical study to obtain the transient data related to air release in the flow turn down period using a two fluid free surface model provided from ANSYS CFX 13.0. In conclusion, there is no significant effect on the performance of the FD, though a small quantity of air is released during the flow turn down period

  10. A New Drop Fluidics Enabled by Magnetic Field Mediated Elasto-Capillary Transduction

    Biswas, Saheli; Chaudhury, Manoj K

    2016-01-01

    This research introduces a new drop fluidics, which uses a deformable and stretchable elastomeric film as the platform, instead of the commonly used rigid supports. Such a soft film impregnated with magnetic particles can be modulated with an external electromagnetic field that produces a vast array of topographical landscapes with varying surface curvature, which, in conjunction with capillarity, can direct and control motion of water droplets efficiently and accurately. When a thin layer of oil is present on this film that is deformed locally, a centrosymmetric wedge is formed. A water droplet placed on this oil laden film becomes asymmetrically deformed thus producing a gradient of Laplace pressure within the droplet setting it to motion. A simple theory is presented that accounts for the droplet speed in terms of such geometric variables as the volume of the droplet and the thickness of the oil film covering the soft elastomeric film, as well as such material variables as the viscosity of the oil and inte...

  11. Alternative approach in 3D MEMS-IC integration using fluidic self-assembly techniques

    Nowadays, industries are investigating new, original and appropriate solutions to address challenges in 3D MEMS-IC large-scale integration. Self-assembly techniques are among those. We report on an alternative approach inspired from fluidic self-assembly and using the flip-chip method. Here, solder bumps are directly formed onto a MEMS chip using liquid solder solution in a bath. The self-alignment process is operated after surface treatment by plasma deposition to form high and low wettability selective patterns. Finally, MEMS and electronic chips are permanently bonded after low thermal heating without any pressure. Electrical contact is established and electromechanisms of the microsystems are proven. Compared to classic MEMS-IC flip-chip methods, this strategy presents many advantages: it is a low-cost and fast fabrication process requiring no specific equipment for deposition of solder bumps. Furthermore, it can be applied on different substrates and it does not require a specific pressure method during the bonding process. This strategy is also an appropriate fabrication method for large-scale MEMS integration where electronic connection density is high

  12. Nested, fixed-depth fluidic sampler supplementary testing - AEAT doc 2926-2-002

    REICH, F.R.

    1999-03-11

    This report summarizes the results of cold testing, completed by AEAT, as part of the proof-of-principle testing for a proposed nested, fixed-depth fluidic sampling system. This sampling system will provide waste samples from the PHMC feed tank to support the privatization contract with BNFL. Proof-of-principle tests were completed with 2 wt% and 10 wt% sand/water and 25 wt% kaolin clay/water simulants with a test setup that spanned the 24 ft to 57 ft height required in the feed tank. The tests demonstrated that the system could pump and sample waste materials with low and with high solids content. In addition, the tests demonstrated a need for some design upgrades to the sampling system, as there was material loss when the sample bottle was removed from the sampling needle. These were complementary tests, completed as part of an EM-50 Tank Focus Area (TFA) to develop a sampling system for validating LAW and HLW waste batches for the Privatization Contract.

  13. LES-based characterization of a suction and oscillatory blowing fluidic actuator

    Kim, Jeonglae; Moin, Parviz

    2015-11-01

    Recently, a novel fluidic actuator using steady suction and oscillatory blowing was developed for control of turbulent flows. The suction and oscillatory blowing (SaOB) actuator combines steady suction and pulsed oscillatory blowing into a single device. The actuation is based upon a self-sustained mechanism of confined jets and does not require any moving parts. The control output is determined by a pressure source and the geometric details, and no additional input is needed. While its basic mechanisms have been investigated to some extent, detailed characteristics of internal turbulent flows are not well understood. In this study, internal flows of the SaOB actuator are simulated using large-eddy simulation (LES). Flow characteristics within the actuator are described in detail for a better understanding of the physical mechanisms and improving the actuator design. LES predicts the self-sustained oscillations of the turbulent jet. Switching frequency, maximum velocity at the actuator outlets, and wall pressure distribution are in good agreement with the experimental measurements. The computational results are used to develop simplified boundary conditions for numerical experiments of active flow control. Supported by the Boeing company.

  14. Nested, fixed-depth fluidic sampler supplementary testing - AEAT doc 2926-2-002

    This report summarizes the results of cold testing, completed by AEAT, as part of the proof-of-principle testing for a proposed nested, fixed-depth fluidic sampling system. This sampling system will provide waste samples from the PHMC feed tank to support the privatization contract with BNFL. Proof-of-principle tests were completed with 2 wt% and 10 wt% sand/water and 25 wt% kaolin clay/water simulants with a test setup that spanned the 24 ft to 57 ft height required in the feed tank. The tests demonstrated that the system could pump and sample waste materials with low and with high solids content. In addition, the tests demonstrated a need for some design upgrades to the sampling system, as there was material loss when the sample bottle was removed from the sampling needle. These were complementary tests, completed as part of an EM-50 Tank Focus Area (TFA) to develop a sampling system for validating LAW and HLW waste batches for the Privatization Contract

  15. Shear wave attenuation and micro-fluidics in water-saturated sand and glass beads.

    Chotiros, Nicholas P; Isakson, Marcia J

    2014-06-01

    An improvement in the modeling of shear wave attenuation and speed in water-saturated sand and glass beads is introduced. Some dry and water-saturated materials are known to follow a constant-Q model in which the attenuation, expressed as Q(-1), is independent of frequency. The associated loss mechanism is thought to lie within the solid frame. A second loss mechanism in fluid-saturated porous materials is the viscous loss due to relative motion between pore fluid and solid frame predicted by the Biot-Stoll model. It contains a relaxation process that makes the Q(-1) change with frequency, reaching a peak at a characteristic frequency. Examination of the published measurements above 1 kHz, particularly those of Brunson (Ph.D. thesis, Oregon State University, Corvalis, 1983), shows another peak, which is explained in terms of a relaxation process associated with the squirt flow process at the grain-grain contact. In the process of deriving a model for this phenomenon, it is necessary to consider the micro-fluidic effects associated with the flow within a thin film of water confined in the gap at the grain-grain contact and the resulting increase in the effective viscosity of water. The result is an extended Biot model that is applicable over a broad band of frequencies. PMID:24907791

  16. Evaluation of fluidic thrust vectoring nozzle via thrust pitching angle and thrust pitching moment

    Li, L.; Hirota, M.; Ouchi, K.; Saito, T.

    2016-03-01

    Shock vector control (SVC) in a converging-diverging nozzle with a rectangular cross-section is discussed as a fluidic thrust vectoring (FTV) method. The interaction between the primary nozzle flow and the secondary jet is examined using experiments and numerical simulations. The relationships between FTV parameters [nozzle pressure ratio (NPR) and secondary jet pressure ratio (SPR)] and FTV performance (thrust pitching angle and thrust pitching moment) are investigated. The experiments are conducted with an NPR of up to 10 and an SPR of up to 2.7. Numerical simulations of the nozzle flow are performed using a Navier-Stokes solver with input parameters set to match the experimental conditions. The thrust pitching angle and moment computed from the force-moment balance are used to evaluate FTV performance. The experiment and numerical results indicate that the FTV parameters (NPR and SPR) directly affect FTV performance. Conventionally, FTV performance evaluated by the common method using thrust pitching angle is highly dependent on the location of evaluation. Hence, in this study, we show that the thrust pitching moment, a parameter which is independent of the location, is the appropriate figure of merit to evaluate the performance of FTV systems.

  17. A universal label-free biosensing platform based on opto-fluidic ring resonators

    Zhu, Hongying; White, Ian M.; Suter, Jonathan D.; Gohring, John; Fan, Xudong

    2009-02-01

    Rapid and accurate detection of biomolecules is important for medical diagnosis, pharmaceuticals, homeland security, food quality control, and environmental protection. A simple, low cost and highly sensitive label-free optical biosensor based on opto-fluidic ring resonator (OFRR) has been developed that naturally integrates microfluidics with ring resonators. The OFRR employs a piece of fused silica capillary with a diameter around 100 micrometers. The circular cross section of the capillary forms the ring resonator and light repeatedly travels along the resonator circumference in the form of whispering gallery modes (WGMs) through total internal reflection. When the capillary wall is as thin as a couple of micrometers (interacts with the sample when it flows through the OFRR. In order to detect the target molecules with high specificity, the OFRR inner surface is functionalized with receptors, such as antibodies, peptide-displayed bacteriophage or oligonucleotide DNA probes. The WGM spectral position shifts when biomolecules bind to the OFRR inner surface and change the local refractive index, which provides quantitative and kinetic information about the biomolecule interaction near the OFRR inner surface. The OFRR has been successfully demonstrated for detection of various types of biomoelcuels. Here, we will first introduce the basic operation principle of the OFRR as a sensor and then application examples of the OFRR in the detection of proteins, disease biomarkers, virus, DNA molecules, and cells with high sensitivities will be presented.

  18. Bioengineering bacteriophages to enhance the sensitivity of phage amplification-based paper fluidic detection of bacteria.

    Alcaine, S D; Law, K; Ho, S; Kinchla, A J; Sela, D A; Nugen, S R

    2016-08-15

    Bacteriophage (phage) amplification is an attractive method for the detection of bacteria due to a narrow phage-host specificity, short amplification times, and the phages' ability to differentiate between viable and non-viable bacterial cells. The next step in phage-based bacteria detection is leveraging bioengineered phages to create low-cost, rapid, and easy-to-use detection platforms such as lateral flow assays. Our work establishes the proof-of-concept for the use of bioengineered T7 phage strains to increase the sensitivity of phage amplification-based lateral flow assays. We have demonstrated a greater than 10-fold increase in sensitivity using a phage-based protein reporter, maltose-binding protein, over the detection of replicated T7 phage viron itself, and a greater then 100-fold increase in sensitivity using a phage-based enzymatic reporter, alkaline phosphatase. This increase in sensitivity enabled us to detect 10(3)CFU/mL of Escherichia coli in broth after 7h, and by adding a filter concentration step, the ability to detect a regulatory relevant E. coli concentration of 100CFU/100mL in inoculated river water after 9h, where the current standard requires days for results. The combination of the paper fluidic format with phage-based detection provides a platform for the development of novel diagnostics that are sensitive, rapid, and easy to use. PMID:27031186

  19. Compaction properties of agricultural soils

    TANG, Anh Minh; CUI, Yu Jun; Eslami, Javad; DEFOSSEZ BERTHOUD, Pauline

    2007-01-01

    The compaction of field soils due to repeated rolling of agricultural vehicles is one of the main reasons for the agricultural soil degradation. A good understanding of the compaction properties of these soils is essential for an optimum organisation of agricultural activities, and therefore for environmental protection in terms of nitrate migrations. In the present work, the compaction properties of agricultural soils from four sites in France are studied after experimental data ...

  20. Soil compaction in forest soils

    TURGUT, Bülent

    2012-01-01

    Soil compaction is a widespread degradation process in forest sites. Soil degradation occurring on the structural formation of a natural soil system by rainfall or mechanical outer forces generally results in soil particles to be rearranged tighter than its previous status. In this case, soil compaction -defined as the increase in bulk density of soil- develops with negative effects on soil-plant-water relations. With the compaction, the density of soil increases while the porosity rate decre...

  1. Advances in compact torus research

    A compact torus is a low aspect ratio, axisymmetric, closed magnetic field line configuration with no vessel wall or magnetic field coils linking the hole in the plasma toroid. This concept offers reactor advantages such as simplicity, high β, and the possibility of translation. Several methods have been used to generate compact toroids, including plasma guns, high energy particle rings, and field-reversed theta pinches. This document summarizes the results of recent work on compact toroids, presented at the first IAEA Technical Committee Meeting on Compact Torus Research held in Sydney, Australia from 4 to 7 March 1985

  2. Compact acoustic refrigerator

    Bennett, Gloria A.

    1992-01-01

    A compact acoustic refrigeration system actively cools components, e.g., electrical circuits (22), in a borehole environment. An acoustic engine (12, 14) includes first thermodynamic elements (12) for generating a standing acoustic wave in a selected medium. An acoustic refrigerator (16, 26, 28) includes second thermodynamic elements (16) located in the standing wave for generating a relatively cold temperature at a first end of the second thermodynamic elements (16) and a relatively hot temperature at a second end of the second thermodynamic elements (16). A resonator volume (18) cooperates with the first and second thermodynamic elements (12, 16) to support the standing wave. To accommodate the high heat fluxes required for heat transfer to/from the first and second thermodynamic elements (12, 16), first heat pipes (24, 26) transfer heat from the heat load (22) to the second thermodynamic elements (16) and second heat pipes (28, 32) transfer heat from first and second thermodynamic elements (12, 16) to the borehole environment.

  3. Compact SPS - Power delivery

    Pospisil, M.; Pospisilova, L.

    1982-09-01

    The power deliverable by a compact solar Space Power Station (SPS) is a function of its outer surface shape. Methods of fitting the power delivery curve of such a system to different patterns of daily power demand are considered that involve the appropriate choice of the number of satellites, their maximal power, height to width ratio and the shift of longitude with respect to the receiving station. Changes in the daily delivery curve can be made by altering the longitudes and orientations of the satellites. Certain limitations to the choice of parameters exist, such as: the height to width ratio should be near 1.2, and the sum of longitude and orientation changes will probably not be greater than 50 deg. The optimization of the peak to average power ratio is also discussed.

  4. Atacama Compact Array Antennas

    Saito, Masao; Nakanishi, Kouichiro; Naoi, Takahiro; Yamada, Masumi; Saito, Hiro; Ikenoue, Bungo; Kato, Yoshihiro; Morita, Kou-ichiro; Mizuno, Norikazu; Iguchi, Satoru

    2011-01-01

    We report major performance test results of the Atacama Compact Array (ACA) 7-m and 12-m antennas of ALMA (Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array). The four major performances of the ACA antennas are all-sky pointing (to be not more than 2.0 arcsec), offset pointing (to be < 0.6 arcsec) surface accuracy (< 25(20) micrometer for 12(7)m-antenna), stability of path-length (15 micrometer over 3 min), and high servo capability (6 degrees/s for Azimuth and 3 degrees/s for Elevation). The high performance of the ACA antenna has been extensively evaluated at the Site Erection Facility area at an altitude of about 2900 meters. Test results of pointing performance, surface performance, and fast motion capability are demonstrated.

  5. Compact pentaquark structures

    Santopinto, Elena

    2016-01-01

    We study the possibility that at least one of the two pentaquark structures recently reported by LHCb can be described as a compact pentaquark state, and we give predictions for new channels that can be studied by the experimentalists if this hypothesis is correct. We use very general arguments dictated by symmetry considerations, in order to describe the pentaquark states within a group theory approach. A complete classification of all possible states and quantum numbers, that can be useful both to the experimentalists, for new finding, or to theoretical model builders, are given, without the introduction of any particular dynamical model. Some prediction are finally given using a Guersey-Radicati inspired mass formula. We reproduce the mass and the quantum numbers of the lightest pentaquark state reported by LHCb ( 3/2^-), with a parameter free mass formula, fixed on the well established baryons. We predict others pentaquark resonances (giving their masses, and suggesting possible decay channels) which belo...

  6. Compact cryocooler heat exchangers

    Compact heat exchangers are subject to different constraints as a room temperature gas is cooled down by a cold stream returning from a JT valve (or a similar cryoprocess component). In particular, the optimization of exchangers for liquid helium systems has to cover a wide range in temperature and density of the fluid. In the present work we address the following thermodynamic questions: 1. The optimization of intermediate temperatures which optimize stage operation (a stage is assumed to have a constant cross section); 2. The optimum temperature difference available for best overall economic performance values. The results are viewed in the context of porous media concepts applied to rather low speeds of fluid flow in narrow passages. In this paper examples of fluid/solid constraints imposed in this non-classical low temperature area are presented

  7. Compact semiconductor lasers

    Yu, Siyuan; Lourtioz, Jean-Michel

    2014-01-01

    This book brings together in a single volume a unique contribution by the top experts around the world in the field of compact semiconductor lasers to provide a comprehensive description and analysis of the current status as well as future directions in the field of micro- and nano-scale semiconductor lasers. It is organized according to the various forms of micro- or nano-laser cavity configurations with each chapter discussing key technical issues, including semiconductor carrier recombination processes and optical gain dynamics, photonic confinement behavior and output coupling mechanisms, carrier transport considerations relevant to the injection process, and emission mode control. Required reading for those working in and researching the area of semiconductors lasers and micro-electronics.

  8. Compact cosmic objects

    The data are discussed obtained using the method of superfar radiointerferometry. High angular resolution of radiointerferometers with superlong bases has made compact radiosources placed inside and beyond the Galaxy accessable for investigations. Outer galactic objects with extraordinarily active nuclei have been found. Seyfert galaxies 3C84(NGC 1275) in the Perseus constellation and 3C 345 quasar in the Hercules constellation are objects with active nuclei. In the nuclei of separate quasars extraordinarily active processes take place which are accompanied by outflow of clouds of relativistic particles. The velocity of these particles exceeds the light velocity. Measurements with high angular resolution performed in the shortest wave of the centimeter range (1.35 cm) have permitted to find the double nucleus in the Seyfert galaxy NGC 1275. The superfar radiointerferometry has made interesting discoveries when studying gas-dust galactic nebular. Laser sources that emit bright and narrow lines of hydroxyl and water vapour are found in them

  9. An Active Black Hole in a Compact Dwarf

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-05-01

    A new type of galaxy has just been added to the galaxy zoo: a small, compact, and old elliptical galaxy that shows signs of a monster black hole actively accreting material in its center. What can this unusual discovery tell us about how compact elliptical galaxies form?A New Galactic BeastCompact elliptical galaxies are an extremely rare early-type dwarf galaxy. Consistent with their name, compact ellipticals are small, very compact collections of ancient stars; these galaxies exhibit a high surface brightness and arent actively forming stars.Optical view of the ancient compact elliptical galaxy SDSS J085431.18+173730.5 (center of image) in an SDSS color composite image. [Adapted from Paudel et al. 2016]Most compact ellipticals are found in dense environments, particularly around massive galaxies. This has led astronomers to believe that compact ellipticals might form via the tidal stripping of a once-large galaxy in interactions with another, massive galaxy. In this model, once the original galaxys outer layers are stripped away, the compact inner bulge component would be left behind as a compact elliptical galaxy. Recent discoveries of a few isolated compact ellipticals, however, have strained this model.Now a new galaxy has been found to confuse our classification schemes: the first-ever compact elliptical to also display signs of an active galactic nucleus. Led by Sanjaya Paudel (Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute), a team of scientists discovered SDSS J085431.18+173730.5 serendipitously in Sloan Digital Sky Survey data. The team used SDSS images and spectroscopy in combination with data from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope to learn more about this unique galaxy.Puzzling CharacteristicsSDSS J085431.18+173730.5 presents an interesting conundrum. Ancient compact ellipticals are supposed to be devoid of gas, with no fuel left to trigger nuclear activity. Yet SDSS J085431.18+173730.5 clearly shows the emission lines that indicate active accretion onto

  10. The Finslerian compact star model

    Rahaman, Farook; Paul, Nupur [Jadavpur University, Department of Mathematics, Kolkata, West Bengal (India); De, S.S. [University of Calcutta, Department of Applied Mathematics, Kolkata (India); Ray, Saibal [Government College of Engineering and Ceramic Technology, Department of Physics, Kolkata, West Bengal (India); Jafry, M.A.K. [Shibpur Dinobundhoo Institution, Department of Physics, Howrah, West Bengal (India)

    2015-11-15

    We construct a toy model for compact stars based on the Finslerian structure of spacetime. By assuming a particular mass function, we find an exact solution of the Finsler-Einstein field equations with an anisotropic matter distribution. The solutions are revealed to be physically interesting and pertinent for the explanation of compact stars. (orig.)

  11. A pedagogical history of compactness

    Raman-Sundström, Manya

    2010-01-01

    Compactness is a central notion in advanced mathematics, but we often teach the concept without much historical motivation.  This paper fills in many of the gaps left by the standard textbook treatment, including what motivated the definition, how did the definition evolve, and how can compactness be expressed in terms of nets and filters.

  12. The Meaning of a Compact

    Wasescha, Anna

    2016-01-01

    To mark the 30th anniversary of "Campus Compact," leaders from across the network came together in the summer of 2015 to reaffirm a shared commitment to the public purposes of higher education. Campus Compact's 30th Anniversary Action Statement of Presidents and Chancellors is the product of that collective endeavor. In signing the…

  13. Psychicones: Visual Traces of the Soul in Late Nineteenth-Century Fluidic Photography

    Pethes, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    The article discusses attempts to visualise the soul on photographic plates at the end of the nineteenth century, as conducted by the French physician Hippolyte Baraduc in Paris. Although Baraduc refers to earlier experiments on fluidic photography in his book on The Human Soul (1896) and is usually mentioned as a precursor to parapsychological thought photography of the twentieth century, his work is presented as a genuine attempt at photographic soul-catching. Rather than producing mimetic representations of thoughts and imaginations, Baraduc claims to present the vital radiation of the psyche itself and therefore calls the images he produces psychicones. The article first discusses the difference between this method of soul photography and other kinds of occult media technologies of the time, emphasising the significance of its non-mimetic, abstract character: since the soul itself was considered an abstract entity, abstract traces seemed all the more convincing to the contemporary audience. Secondly, the article shows how the technological agency of photography allowed Baraduc’s psychicones to be tied into related discourses in medicine and psychology. Insofar as the photographic plates displayed actual visual traces, Baraduc and his followers no longer considered hallucinations illusionary and pathological but emphasised the physical reality and normality of imagination. Yet, the greatest influence of soul photography was not on science but on art. As the third part of the paper argues, the abstract shapes on Baraduc’s plates provided inspiration for contemporary avant-garde aesthetics, for example, Kandinsky’s abstract paintings and the random streams of consciousness in surrealistic literature. PMID:27292323

  14. Surface Tension Directed Fluidic Self-Assembly of Semiconductor Chips across Length Scales and Material Boundaries

    Shantonu Biswas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This publication provides an overview and discusses some challenges of surface tension directed fluidic self-assembly of semiconductor chips which are transported in a liquid medium. The discussion is limited to surface tension directed self-assembly where the capture, alignment, and electrical connection process is driven by the surface free energy of molten solder bumps where the authors have made a contribution. The general context is to develop a massively parallel and scalable assembly process to overcome some of the limitations of current robotic pick and place and serial wire bonding concepts. The following parts will be discussed: (2 Single-step assembly of LED arrays containing a repetition of a single component type; (3 Multi-step assembly of more than one component type adding a sequence and geometrical shape confinement to the basic concept to build more complex structures; demonstrators contain (3.1 self-packaging surface mount devices, and (3.2 multi-chip assemblies with unique angular orientation. Subsequently, measures are discussed (4 to enable the assembly of microscopic chips (10 μm–1 mm; a different transport method is introduced; demonstrators include the assembly of photovoltaic modules containing microscopic silicon tiles. Finally, (5 the extension to enable large area assembly is presented; a first reel-to-reel assembly machine is realized; the machine is applied to the field of solid state lighting and the emerging field of stretchable electronics which requires the assembly and electrical connection of semiconductor devices over exceedingly large area substrates.

  15. Psychicones: Visual Traces of the Soul in Late Nineteenth-Century Fluidic Photography.

    Pethes, Nicolas

    2016-07-01

    The article discusses attempts to visualise the soul on photographic plates at the end of the nineteenth century, as conducted by the French physician Hippolyte Baraduc in Paris. Although Baraduc refers to earlier experiments on fluidic photography in his book on The Human Soul (1896) and is usually mentioned as a precursor to parapsychological thought photography of the twentieth century, his work is presented as a genuine attempt at photographic soul-catching. Rather than producing mimetic representations of thoughts and imaginations, Baraduc claims to present the vital radiation of the psyche itself and therefore calls the images he produces psychicones. The article first discusses the difference between this method of soul photography and other kinds of occult media technologies of the time, emphasising the significance of its non-mimetic, abstract character: since the soul itself was considered an abstract entity, abstract traces seemed all the more convincing to the contemporary audience. Secondly, the article shows how the technological agency of photography allowed Baraduc's psychicones to be tied into related discourses in medicine and psychology. Insofar as the photographic plates displayed actual visual traces, Baraduc and his followers no longer considered hallucinations illusionary and pathological but emphasised the physical reality and normality of imagination. Yet, the greatest influence of soul photography was not on science but on art. As the third part of the paper argues, the abstract shapes on Baraduc's plates provided inspiration for contemporary avant-garde aesthetics, for example, Kandinsky's abstract paintings and the random streams of consciousness in surrealistic literature. PMID:27292323

  16. Nano-textured fluidic biochip as biological filter for selective survival of neuronal cells.

    Han, Hsieh-Cheng; Lo, Hung-Chun; Wu, Chia-Yu; Chen, Kuei-Hsien; Chen, Li-Chyong; Ou, Keng-Liang; Hosseinkhani, Hossein

    2015-06-01

    This is an innovative study to engineer biological filter to evaluate the effect of template surface structure and physiochemical properties that can be used for wide variety of applications in biological, health care as well as environmental protection. Specifically, planar silicon (Si) wafer and arrayed Si nano-tips (SiNT) templates were fabricated and coated with gold for various lengths of time to study the effect of surface charge, surface roughness, and hydrophilicity on biological activity of rat pheochromocytoma cell lines PC12. The initial growth and proliferation of PC12 cells on Si and SiNT templates showed an antipathy for the ultra-sharp SiNTs templates. In contrast, the same cells demonstrated a preferable adherence to and proliferation on planar Si templates, resulting in higher cell densities by three orders of magnitude than those on SiNT templates. It is hypothesized that SiNTs array does generate nano-fluidic effect such that the effective contact region for aqueous solution on SiNTs is lower than that on planar Si templates, thus decreasing adsorbable area for cell viability and survival. Moreover, the effect of the gold coating on cell number density was analyzed in terms of the surface roughness, zeta potential and wetting properties of the templates. It was determined that surface charge, as measured by the zeta potential, strongly correlated with the trend observed in the surface cell density, whereas no such correlation was observed for surface roughness or wetting properties in the ranges of our experiment conditions. PMID:25256631

  17. Warm compacting behavior of stainless steel powders

    肖志瑜; 柯美元; 陈维平; 召明; 李元元

    2004-01-01

    The warm compacting behaviors of four different kinds of stainless steel powders, 304L, 316L, 410L and 430L, were studied. The results show that warm compaction can be applied to stainless steel powders. The green densities and strengths of compacts obtained through warm compaction are generally higher than those obtained through cold compaction. The compacting behaviors in warm compaction and cold compaction are similar.Under the compacting pressure of 700 MPa, the warm compacted densities are 0. 10 - 0.22 g/cm3 higher than the cold compacted ones, and the green strengths are 11.5 %-50 % higher. The optimal warm compacting temperature is 100 - 110 ℃. In the die wall lubricated warm compaction, the optimum internal lubricant content is 0.2%.

  18. A Compact Ring Design with Tunable Momentum Compaction

    Sun, Y.; /SLAC

    2012-05-17

    A storage ring with tunable momentum compaction has the advantage in achieving different RMS bunch length with similar RF capacity, which is potentially useful for many applications, such as linear collider damping ring and predamping ring where injected beam has a large energy spread and a large transverse emittance. A tunable bunch length also makes the commissioning and fine tuning easier in manipulating the single bunch instabilities. In this paper, a compact ring design based on a supercell is presented, which achieves a tunable momentum compaction while maintaining a large dynamic aperture.

  19. Engineering task plan for development, fabrication, and deployment of nested, fixed depth fluidic sampling and at-tank analysis systems

    REICH, F.R.

    1999-05-18

    An engineering task plan was developed that presents the resources, responsibilities, and schedules for the development, test, and deployment of the nested, fixed-depth fluidic sampling and at-tank analysis system. The sampling system, deployed in the privatization contract double-shell tank feed tank, will provide waste samples for assuring the readiness of the tank for shipment to the privatization contractor for vitrification. The at-tank analysis system will provide ''real-time'' assessments of the sampled wastes' chemical and physical properties. These systems support the Hanford Phase 1B Privatization Contract.

  20. Engineering task plan for development, fabrication, and deployment of nested, fixed depth fluidic sampling and at-tank analysis systems

    An engineering task plan was developed that presents the resources, responsibilities, and schedules for the development, test, and deployment of the nested, fixed-depth fluidic sampling and at-tank analysis system. The sampling system, deployed in the privatization contract double-shell tank feed tank, will provide waste samples for assuring the readiness of the tank for shipment to the privatization contractor for vitrification. The at-tank analysis system will provide ''real-time'' assessments of the sampled wastes' chemical and physical properties. These systems support the Hanford Phase 1B Privatization Contract

  1. Size-dependent trajectories of DNA macromolecules due to insulative dielectrophoresis in submicrometer-deep fluidic channels

    Parikesit, Gea O. F.; Markesteijn, Anton P.; Piciu, Oana M.; Bossche, Andre; Westerweel, Jerry; Young, Ian T; Garini, Yuval

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate for the first time that insulative dielectrophoresis can induce size-dependent trajectories of DNA macromolecules. We experimentally use λ (48.5 kbp) and T4GT7 (165.6 kbp) DNA molecules flowing continuously around a sharp corner inside fluidic channels with a depth of 0.4 μm. Numerical simulation of the electrokinetic force distribution inside the channels is in qualitative agreement with our experimentally observed trajectories. We discuss a possible physical me...

  2. Disposable micro-fluidic biosensor array for online parallelized cell adhesion kinetics analysis on quartz crystal resonators

    Cama, G.; Jacobs, T.; Dimaki, Maria;

    2010-01-01

    In this contribution we present a new disposable micro-fluidic biosensor array for the online analysis of adherent Madin Darby canine kidney (MDCK-II) cells on quartz crystal resonators (QCRs). The device was conceived for the parallel cultivation of cells providing the same experimental conditions...... with focus on the comparison of the resulting sensor signals influenced by different cell distributions on the sensor surface. To prove the assumption of equal flow circulation within the symmetric micro-channel network and support the hypothesis of identical cultivation conditions for the cells living...

  3. Compact stellarator coils

    Experimental devices to study the physics of high-beta (β>∼4%), low aspect ratio (A<∼4.5) stellarator plasmas require coils that will produce plasmas satisfying a set of physics goals, provide experimental flexibility, and be practical to construct. In the course of designing a flexible coil set for the National Compact Stellarator Experiment, we have made several innovations that may be useful in future stellarator design efforts. These include: the use of Singular Value Decomposition methods for obtaining families of smooth current potentials on distant coil winding surfaces from which low current density solutions may be identified; the use of a Control Matrix Method for identifying which few of the many detailed elements of the stellarator boundary must be targeted if a coil set is to provide fields to control the essential physics of the plasma; the use of Genetic Algorithms for choosing an optimal set of discrete coils from a continuum of potential contours; the evaluation of alternate coil topologies for balancing the tradeoff between physics objective and engineering constraints; the development of a new coil optimization code for designing modular coils, and the identification of a 'natural' basis for describing current sheet distributions. (author)

  4. Compact toroid formation experiments

    We present the design and experimental performance of a compact toroid (CT) formation experiment. The device has co-axial electrode diameters of 0.9 m (inner) and 1.25 m (outer), and an electrode length of ∼ 1.2 m, including an expansion/drift section. The CT is formed by a 0.1--0.2 Tesla initial radial magnetic field embedded co-axial puff gas discharge. The gas puff is injected with an array of 60 pulsed solenoid driven fast valves. The formation discharge is driven by a 108 microfarad, 40 to 100 KV, 86 to 540 kilojoule 2 to 5 megamp capacitor discharge with ∼ 20 nanohenry initial total discharge inductance. The hardware includes transmission line connections for a Shiva Star (1300 microfarad, up to 120 KV, 0.4 megajoule) capacitor bank driven acceleration discharge. Experimental measurements include current, voltage; azimuthal, radial and axial magnetic field at numerous location; fast photography, optical spectroscopy; microwave, CO2 laser, and He-Ne laser interferometry. Auxiliary experiments include Penning ionization gauge, pressure probe, and breakdown gas trigger diagnostics of gas injection, and Hall probe measurements of magnetic field injection

  5. Compactable reactor waste characterization

    Compactable reactor wastes were characterized in respect of physical composition. β/γ activity levels, radionuclide inventory, and tritium and carbon-14 content. 1072 bags of waste representing 18 bales with a volume of 9 m3 were examined. This waste is extremely heterogeneous and can contain any item or material used at nuclear generating stations. The β/γ activity level of the waste is low; at the time of manufacture the 18 bales ranged between 1.0 and 6.94 mCi most of which was attributable to radionuclides with a half-life of one year or less. After ten years' decay the activity of any bale will have decreased to a maximum of 1.5 mCi and the only β/γ radionuclides of significance will be 60Co and 137Cs. Tritium and carbon-14 were found in most of the waste bags and it is estimated that a cubic metre of waste could contain 8.4 to 11.3 Ci of tritium and 0.8 to 5.4 μCi carbon-14. It is considered there is no need for further conditioning of this waste for disposal

  6. An Oxidase-Based Electrochemical Fluidic Sensor with High-Sensitivity and Low-Interference by On-Chip Oxygen Manipulation

    Chang-Soo Kim

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Utilizing a simple fluidic structure, we demonstrate the improved performance of oxidase-based enzymatic biosensors. Electrolysis of water is utilized to generate bubbles to manipulate the oxygen microenvironment close to the biosensor in a fluidic channel. For the proper enzyme reactions to occur, a simple mechanical procedure of manipulating bubbles was developed to maximize the oxygen level while minimizing the pH change after electrolysis. The sensors show improved sensitivities based on the oxygen dependency of enzyme reaction. In addition, this oxygen-rich operation minimizes the ratio of electrochemical interference signal by ascorbic acid during sensor operation (i.e., amperometric detection of hydrogen peroxide. Although creatinine sensors have been used as the model system in this study, this method is applicable to many other biosensors that can use oxidase enzymes (e.g., glucose, alcohol, phenol, etc. to implement a viable component for in-line fluidic sensor systems.

  7. An oxidase-based electrochemical fluidic sensor with high-sensitivity and low-interference by on-chip oxygen manipulation.

    Radhakrishnan, Nitin; Park, Jongwon; Kim, Chang-Soo

    2012-01-01

    Utilizing a simple fluidic structure, we demonstrate the improved performance of oxidase-based enzymatic biosensors. Electrolysis of water is utilized to generate bubbles to manipulate the oxygen microenvironment close to the biosensor in a fluidic channel. For the proper enzyme reactions to occur, a simple mechanical procedure of manipulating bubbles was developed to maximize the oxygen level while minimizing the pH change after electrolysis. The sensors show improved sensitivities based on the oxygen dependency of enzyme reaction. In addition, this oxygen-rich operation minimizes the ratio of electrochemical interference signal by ascorbic acid during sensor operation (i.e., amperometric detection of hydrogen peroxide). Although creatinine sensors have been used as the model system in this study, this method is applicable to many other biosensors that can use oxidase enzymes (e.g., glucose, alcohol, phenol, etc.) to implement a viable component for in-line fluidic sensor systems. PMID:23012527

  8. Adaptive Lighting

    Petersen, Kjell Yngve; Søndergaard, Karin; Kongshaug, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive LightingAdaptive lighting is based on a partial automation of the possibilities to adjust the colour tone and brightness levels of light in order to adapt to people’s needs and desires. IT support is key to the technical developments that afford adaptive control systems. The possibilities offered by adaptive lighting control are created by the ways that the system components, the network and data flow can be coordinated through software so that the dynamic variations are controlled i...

  9. Compact instantaneous water heater

    Azevedo, Jorge G.W.; Machado, Antonio R.; Ferraz, Andre D.; Rocha, Ivan C.C. da; Konishi, Ricardo [Companhia de Gas de Santa Catarina (SCGAS), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Lehmkuhl, Willian A.; Francisco Jr, Roberto W.; Hatanaka, Ricardo L.; Pereira, Fernando M.; Oliveira, Amir A.M. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents an experimental study of combustion in an inert porous medium in a liquid heating device application. This project aims to increase efficiency in the application of natural gas in residential and commercial sectors with the use of advanced combustion and heat transfer. The goal is to facilitate the development of a high performance compact water heater allowing hot water supply for up to two simultaneous showers. The experiment consists in a cylindrical porous burner with an integrated annular water heat exchanger. The reactants were injected radially into the burner and the flame stabilizes within the porous matrix. The water circulates in a coiled pipe positioned at the center of the burner. This configuration allows for heat transfer by conduction and radiation from the solid matrix to the heat exchanger. This article presented preliminary experimental results of a new water heater based on an annular porous burner. The range of equivalence ratios tested varied from 0.65 to 0.8. The power range was varied from 3 to 5 kW. Increasing the equivalence ratio or decreasing the total power input of the burner resulted in increased thermal efficiencies of the water heater. Thermal efficiencies varying from 60 to 92% were obtained. The condition for the goal of a comfortable bath was 20 deg C for 8-12 L/min. This preliminary prototype has achieved water temperature of 11deg C for 5 L/min. Further optimizations will be necessary in order to achieve intense heating with high thermal efficiency. (author)

  10. Compact Grism Spectrometer

    Teare, S. W.

    2003-05-01

    Many observatories and instrument builders are retrofitting visible and near-infrared spectrometers into their existing imaging cameras. Camera designs that reimage the focal plane and have the optical filters located in a pseudo collimated beam are ideal candidates for the addition of a spectrometer. One device commonly used as the dispersing element for such spectrometers is a grism. The traditional grism is constructed from a prism that has had a diffraction grating applied on one surface. The objective of such a design is to use the prism wedge angle to select the desired "in-line" or "zero-deviation" wavelength that passes through on axis. The grating on the surface of the prism provides much of the dispersion for the spectrometer. A grism can also be used in a "constant-dispersion" design which provides an almost linear spatial scale across the spectrum. In this paper we provide an overview of the development of a grism spectrometer for use in a near infrared camera and demonstrate that a compact grism spectrometer can be developed on a very modest budget that can be afforded at almost any facility. The grism design was prototyped using visible light and then a final device was constructed which provides partial coverage in the near infrared I, J, H and K astronomical bands using the appropriate band pass filter for order sorting. The near infrared grism presented here provides a spectral resolution of about 650 and velocity resolution of about 450 km/s. The design of this grism relied on a computer code called Xspect, developed by the author, to determine the various critical parameters of the grism. This work was supported by a small equipment grant from NASA and administered by the AAS.

  11. Compact Holographic Data Storage

    Chao, T. H.; Reyes, G. F.; Zhou, H.

    2001-01-01

    NASA's future missions would require massive high-speed onboard data storage capability to Space Science missions. For Space Science, such as the Europa Lander mission, the onboard data storage requirements would be focused on maximizing the spacecraft's ability to survive fault conditions (i.e., no loss in stored science data when spacecraft enters the 'safe mode') and autonomously recover from them during NASA's long-life and deep space missions. This would require the development of non-volatile memory. In order to survive in the stringent environment during space exploration missions, onboard memory requirements would also include: (1) survive a high radiation environment (1 Mrad), (2) operate effectively and efficiently for a very long time (10 years), and (3) sustain at least a billion write cycles. Therefore, memory technologies requirements of NASA's Earth Science and Space Science missions are large capacity, non-volatility, high-transfer rate, high radiation resistance, high storage density, and high power efficiency. JPL, under current sponsorship from NASA Space Science and Earth Science Programs, is developing a high-density, nonvolatile and rad-hard Compact Holographic Data Storage (CHDS) system to enable large-capacity, high-speed, low power consumption, and read/write of data in a space environment. The entire read/write operation will be controlled with electrooptic mechanism without any moving parts. This CHDS will consist of laser diodes, photorefractive crystal, spatial light modulator, photodetector array, and I/O electronic interface. In operation, pages of information would be recorded and retrieved with random access and high-speed. The nonvolatile, rad-hard characteristics of the holographic memory will provide a revolutionary memory technology meeting the high radiation challenge facing the Europa Lander mission. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  12. Advanced fluidic handling and use of two-phase flow for high throughput structural investigation of proteins on a microfluidic sample preparation platform

    Lafleur, Josiane P.; Snakenborg, Detlef; Møller, M.;

    2010-01-01

    Research on the structure of proteins can bring forth a wealth of information about biological function and can be used to better understand the processes in living cells. This paper reports a new microfluidic sample preparation system for the structural investigation of proteins by Small Angle X......-ray Scattering (SAXS). The system includes hardware and software features for precise fluidic control, synchrotron beamline control, UV absorbance measurements and automated data analysis. The precise fluidic handling capabilities are used to transport and precisely position samples as small as 500 nL into the...

  13. Compact adaptive optic-optical coherence tomography system

    Olivier, Scot S.; Chen, Diana C.; Jones, Steven M.; McNary, Sean M.

    2011-05-17

    Badal Optometer and rotating cylinders are inserted in the AO-OCT to correct large spectacle aberrations such as myopia, hyperopic and astigmatism for ease of clinical use and reduction. Spherical mirrors in the sets of the telescope are rotated orthogonally to reduce aberrations and beam displacement caused by the scanners. This produces greatly reduced AO registration errors and improved AO performance to enable high order aberration correction in a patient eyes.

  14. Compact adaptive optic-optical coherence tomography system

    Olivier, Scot S. (Livermore, CA); Chen, Diana C. (Fremont, CA); Jones, Steven M. (Danville, CA); McNary, Sean M. (Stockton, CA)

    2012-02-28

    Badal Optometer and rotating cylinders are inserted in the AO-OCT to correct large spectacle aberrations such as myopia, hyperopic and astigmatism for ease of clinical use and reduction. Spherical mirrors in the sets of the telescope are rotated orthogonally to reduce aberrations and beam displacement caused by the scanners. This produces greatly reduced AO registration errors and improved AO performance to enable high order aberration correction in a patient eyes.

  15. Compact, Ultrasensitive Formaldehyde Monitor Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Small Business Innovative Research Phase II proposal seeks to develop a compact UV laser ?based sensor for Earth science and planetary atmosphere exploration....

  16. Compact, Airborne Multispecies Sensor Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Small Business Innovative Research Phase I proposal seeks to develop a compact mid-infrared laser spectrometer to benefit Earth science research activities. To...

  17. Mesoscale Simulations of Powder Compaction

    Lomov, Ilya.; Fujino, Don; Antoun, Tarabay; Liu, Benjamin

    2009-12-01

    Mesoscale 3D simulations of shock compaction of metal and ceramic powders have been performed with an Eulerian hydrocode GEODYN. The approach was validated by simulating a well-characterized shock compaction experiment of a porous ductile metal. Simulation results using the Steinberg material model and handbook values for solid 2024 aluminum showed good agreement with experimental compaction curves and wave profiles. Brittle ceramic materials are not as well studied as metals, so a simple material model for solid ceramic (tungsten carbide) has been calibrated to match experimental compaction curves. Direct simulations of gas gun experiments with ceramic powders have been performed and showed good agreement with experimental data. The numerical shock wave profile has same character and thickness as that measured experimentally using VISAR. The numerical results show reshock states above the single-shock Hugoniot line as observed in experiments. We found that for good quantitative agreement with experiments 3D simulations are essential.

  18. MESOSCALE SIMULATIONS OF POWDER COMPACTION

    Mesoscale 3D simulations of shock compaction of metal and ceramic powders have been performed with an Eulerian hydrocode GEODYN. The approach was validated by simulating a well-characterized shock compaction experiment of a porous ductile metal. Simulation results using the Steinberg material model and handbook values for solid 2024 aluminum showed good agreement with experimental compaction curves and wave profiles. Brittle ceramic materials are not as well studied as metals, so a simple material model for solid ceramic (tungsten carbide) has been calibrated to match experimental compaction curves. Direct simulations of gas gun experiments with ceramic powders have been performed and showed good agreement with experimental data. The numerical shock wave profile has same character and thickness as that measured experimentally using VISAR. The numerical results show reshock states above the single-shock Hugoniot line as observed in experiments. We found that for good quantitative agreement with experiments 3D simulations are essential.

  19. A compact rotary vane attenuator

    Nixon, D. L.; Otosh, T. Y.; Stelzried, C. T.

    1969-01-01

    Rotary vane attenuator, when used as a front end attenuator, introduces an insertion loss that is proportional to the angle of rotation. New technique allows the construction of a shortened compact unit suitable for most installations.

  20. What Is Business's Social Compact?

    Avishai, Bernard

    1994-01-01

    Under the "new" social compact, businesses must focus on continuous learning and thus have both an obligation to support teaching and an opportunity to profit from it. Learning organizations must also be teaching organizations. (SK)

  1. Compact energy conversion module Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This STTR project delivers a compact vibration-based Energy Conversion Module (ECM) that powers sensors for purposes like structural health monitoring (SHM). NASA...

  2. Label-free tracking of single extracellular vesicles in a nano-fluidic optical fiber (Conference Presentation)

    van der Pol, Edwin; Weidlich, Stefan; Lahini, Yoav; Coumans, Frank A. W.; Sturk, Auguste; Nieuwland, Rienk; Schmidt, Markus A.; Faez, Sanli; van Leeuwen, Ton G.

    2016-03-01

    Background: Extracellular vesicles, such as exosomes, are abundantly present in human body fluids. Since the size, concentration and composition of these vesicles change during disease, vesicles have promising clinical applications, including cancer diagnosis. However, since ~70% of the vesicles have a diameter light-guiding silica fiber containing a 600 nm nano-fluidic channel. Light from a diode laser (660 nm wavelength) was coupled to the fiber, resulting in a strongly confined optical mode in the nano-fluidic channel, which continuously illuminated the freely diffusing vesicles inside the channel. The elastic light scattering from the vesicles, in the direction orthogonal to the fiber axis, was collected using a microscope objective (NA=0.95) and imaged with a home-built microscope. Results: We have tracked single urinary vesicles as small as 35 nm by elastic light scattering. Please note that vesicles are low-refractive index (nparticles, which we confirmed by combining data on thermal diffusion and light scattering cross section. Conclusions: For the first time, we have studied vesicles diffusing in suspension. The ease-of-use and performance of this technique support its potential for vesicle-based clinical applications.

  3. Compact Massive Object in Galaxies

    Melo, I Tosta e

    2016-01-01

    The central regions of galaxies show the presence of super massive black holes and/or very dense stellar clusters. Both objects seem to follow similar host-galaxy correlations, suggesting that they are members of the same family of Compact Massive Objects. We investigate here a huge data collection of Compact Massive Objects properties to correlate them with absolute magnitude, velocity dispersion and mass of their host galaxies.

  4. A COMPACT CIRCULARLY POLARIZED SLOTTED MICROSTRIP ANTENNA

    V. Jebaraj

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Slot antennas are often used at UHF and microwave frequencies. In slot antenna for RFID reader applications the frequency ranges from 902-923MHz to achieve circular polarization. The shapes and size of the slot, as well as the driving frequency, determine the radiation distribution pattern. The proposed compact size circularly polarized slotted microstrip antenna are summarized with design rules. The circularly polarized radiation in square patch antenna can be obtained by perturbation technique with different shapes of slot in the orthogonal direction. A single feed configuration based symmetric slotted microstrip antenna is adapted to realize the compact circularly polarized microstrip antennas. Based on the perimeter, the size of the slot on microstrip slot antenna are studied and compared. The Operating frequency of the antenna is 912MHz that can be tuned by varying the perimeter of the slot while the keeping the circularly polarized radiation unchanged. The schematic and layout are configured by using Advanced Design System (ADS. Return loss, Resonant Frequency, Axial Ratio (AR, and Gain were determined for the proposed system using ADS. A measured 3dB Axial Ratio (AR bandwidth around 6MHz with 16MHz impedance bandwidth has been achieved for the antenna on a RO3004C substrate with dielectric constant 3.38.

  5. Compact wavefunctions from compressed imaginary time evolution

    McClean, Jarrod R

    2014-01-01

    Simulation of quantum systems promises to deliver physical and chemical predictions for the frontiers of technology. Unfortunately, the exact representation of these systems is plagued by the exponential growth of dimension with the number of particles, or colloquially, the curse of dimensionality. The success of approximation methods has hinged on the relative simplicity of physical systems with respect to the exponentially complex worst case. Exploiting this relative simplicity has required detailed knowledge of the physical system under study. In this work, we introduce a general and efficient black box method for many-body quantum systems that utilizes technology from compressed sensing to find the most compact wavefunction possible without detailed knowledge of the system. It is a Multicomponent Adaptive Greedy Iterative Compression (MAGIC) scheme. No knowledge is assumed in the structure of the problem other than correct particle statistics. This method can be applied to many quantum systems such as spi...

  6. Control system for a compact synchrotron

    The control system for a compact superconducting synchrotron (HELIOS) is described. The machine is intended to be used as a prototype production tool for X-ray lithography, so emphasis has been placed on engineering the control system for this purpose. The system has been designed to be flexible for commissioning, but easy to use for an operator at a lithography facility. With this in mind the following facilities have been included: keys to limit control functions, a HELP facility for operators, colour touch-panels and displays, limits and other software protection. The conservative hardware design is based on well established CAMAC interfaces. Similarly, the software runs on a MicroVAX with VMS, is written in FORTRAN 77, and is adapted from a well developed SLAC control system. Design features include the use of local intelligence for some subsystems, modular hardware and software, interlocks and a central database. (orig.)

  7. Compacting biomass waste materials for use as fuel

    Zhang, Ou

    conducted in a stoke boiler. A separate burning test was also carried out by burning biomass logs alone in an outdoor hot-water furnace for heating a building. Based on a previous coal compaction study, the process of biomass compaction was studied numerically by use of a non-linear finite element code. A constitutive model with sufficient generality was adapted for biomass material to deal with pore contraction during compaction. A contact node algorithm was applied to implement the effect of mold wall friction into the finite element program. Numerical analyses were made to investigate the pressure distribution in a die normal to the axis of compaction, and to investigate the density distribution in a biomass log after compaction. The results of the analyses gave generally good agreement with theoretical analysis of coal log compaction, although assumptions had to be made about the variation in the elastic modulus of the material and the Poisson's ratio during the compaction cycle.

  8. Adaptive skills

    Staša Stropnik; Jana Kodrič

    2013-01-01

    Adaptive skills are defined as a collection of conceptual, social and practical skills that are learned by people in order to function in their everyday lives. They include an individual's ability to adapt to and manage her or his surroundings to effectively function and meet social or community expectations. Good adaptive skills promote individual's independence in different environments, whereas poorly developed adaptive skills are connected to individual's dependency and with g...

  9. Large-scale submicron horizontally aligned single-walled carbon nanotube surface arrays on various substrates produced by a fluidic assembly method

    Single-walled carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays have been assembled on various substrates over mm-scale surface areas by combining fluidic alignment with soft lithography (micropatterning in capillaries) techniques. The feature size of the nanotube patterns reaches down to submicrometre scale. To this end, tailored substrate surface modification and pre-alignment of chopped CNTs in suspension are highly critical

  10. Large-scale submicron horizontally aligned single-walled carbon nanotube surface arrays on various substrates produced by a fluidic assembly method.

    Yan, Y H; Li, S; Chen, L Q; Chan-Park, M B; Zhang, Qing

    2006-11-28

    Single-walled carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays have been assembled on various substrates over mm-scale surface areas by combining fluidic alignment with soft lithography (micropatterning in capillaries) techniques. The feature size of the nanotube patterns reaches down to submicrometre scale. To this end, tailored substrate surface modification and pre-alignment of chopped CNTs in suspension are highly critical. PMID:21727344

  11. Compact boson stars in K field theories

    Adam, C.; Grandi, N.; Klimas, P.; Sánchez-Guillén, J.; Wereszczyński, A.

    2010-11-01

    We study a scalar field theory with a non-standard kinetic term minimally coupled to gravity. We establish the existence of compact boson stars, that is, static solutions with compact support of the full system with self-gravitation taken into account. Concretely, there exist two types of solutions, namely compact balls on the one hand, and compact shells on the other hand. The compact balls have a naked singularity at the center. The inner boundary of the compact shells is singular, as well, but it is, at the same time, a Killing horizon. These singular, compact shells therefore resemble black holes.

  12. Compact boson stars in K field theories

    Adam, C; Klimas, P; Sánchez-Guillén, J; Wereszczynski, A

    2009-01-01

    We study a scalar field theory with a non-standard kinetic term minimally coupled to gravity. We establish the existence of compact boson stars, that is, static solutions with compact support of the full system with self-gravitation taken into account. Concretely, there exist two types of solutions, namely compact balls on the one hand, and compact shells on the other hand. The compact balls have a naked singularity at the center. The inner boundary of the compact shells is singular, as well, but it is, at the same time, a Killing horizon. These singular, compact shells therefore resemble black holes.

  13. Co-compact Gabor Systems on Locally Compact Abelian Groups

    Jakobsen, Mads Sielemann; Lemvig, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    characterization results via the Zak transform. From these results we derive non-existence results for critically sampled continuous Gabor frames. We obtain general characterizations in time and in frequency domain of when two Gabor generators yield dual frames. Moreover, we prove the Walnut and Janssen......-compact subgroups. Our results only rely on the assumption that either one of the translation and modulation group (in some cases both) are co-compact subgroups of the time and frequency domain. This presentation offers a unified approach to the study of continuous and the discrete Gabor frames....

  14. Adaptive Lighting

    Petersen, Kjell Yngve; Søndergaard, Karin; Kongshaug, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive Lighting Adaptive lighting is based on a partial automation of the possibilities to adjust the colour tone and brightness levels of light in order to adapt to people’s needs and desires. IT support is key to the technical developments that afford adaptive control systems. The possibilities...... offered by adaptive lighting control are created by the ways that the system components, the network and data flow can be coordinated through software so that the dynamic variations are controlled in ways that meaningfully adapt according to people’s situations and design intentions. This book discusses...... distributed differently into an architectural body. We also examine what might occur when light is dynamic and able to change colour, intensity and direction, and when it is adaptive and can be brought into interaction with its surroundings. In short, what happens to an architectural space when artificial...

  15. Professional Windows Embedded Compact 7

    Phung, Samuel; Joubert, Thierry; Hall, Mike

    2011-01-01

    Learn to program an array of customized devices and solutions As a compact, highly efficient, scalable operating system, Windows Embedded Compact 7 (WEC7) is one of the best options for developing a new generation of network-enabled, media-rich, and service-oriented devices. This in-depth resource takes you through the benefits and capabilities of WEC7 so that you can start using this performance development platform today. Divided into several major sections, the book begins with an introduction and then moves on to coverage of OS design, application development, advanced application developm

  16. Modeling of compact loop antennas

    Baity, F. W.

    1987-09-01

    A general compact loop antenna model which treats all elements of the antenna as lossy transmission lines has been developed. In addition to capacitively tuned resonant double loop (RDL) antennas, the model treats sub-tuned RDL antennas. Calculations using the model have been compared with measurements on full-scale mock-ups of RDL antennas for ATF and TFTR in order to refine the transmission line parameters. Results from the model are presented for RDL antenna designs for ATF, TFTR, Tore Supra, and the Compact Ignition Tokamak (CIT).

  17. Modeling of compact loop antennas

    A general compact loop antenna model which treats all elements of the antenna as lossy transmission lines has been developed. In addition to capacitively-tuned resonant double loop (RDL) antennas the model treats stub-tuned resonant double loop antennas. Calculations using the model have been compared with measurements on full-scale mockups of resonant double loop antennas for ATF and TFTR in order to refine the transmission line parameters. Results from the model are presented for RDL antenna designs for ATF, TFTR, Tore Supra, and for the Compact Ignition Tokamak

  18. Modeling of compact loop antennas

    A general compact loop antenna model which treats all elements of the antenna as lossy transmission lines has been developed. In addition to capacitively tuned resonant double loop (RDL) antennas, the model treats sub-tuned RDL antennas. Calculations using the model have been compared with measurements on full-scale mock-ups of RDL antennas for ATF and TFTR in order to refine the transmission line parameters. Results from the model are presented for RDL antenna designs for ATF, TFTR, Tore Supra, and the Compact Ignition Tokamak

  19. The Planck Compact Source Catalogues

    Lopez-Caniego, Marcos

    2015-01-01

    The Second Planck Catalogue of Compact Sources is a catalogue of sources observed over the entire sky at nine different frequencies between 30 and 857 GHz. It consists of Galactic and extragalactic objects detected in the Planck single-frequency full mission total intensity maps. Compact sources detected in the lower frequency channels are assigned to the PCCS2, while at higher frequencies they are assigned to one of two sub·catalogues, the PCCS2 or PCCS2E, depending on their location ...

  20. Fast, label-free tracking of single viruses and weakly scattering nanoparticles in a nano-fluidic optical fiber

    Faez, Sanli; Weidlich, Stefan; Garmann, Rees F; Wondraczek, Katrin; Zeisberger, Matthias; Schmidt, Markus A; Orrit, Michel; Manoharan, Vinothan N

    2015-01-01

    High-speed tracking of single particles is a gateway to understanding physical, chemical, and biological processes at the nanoscale. It is also a major experimental challenge, particularly for small, nanometer-scale particles. Although methods such as confocal or fluorescence microscopy offer both high spatial resolution and high signal-to-background ratios, the fluorescence emission lifetime limits the measurement speed, while photobleaching and thermal diffusion limit the duration of measurements. Here we present a tracking method based on elastic light scattering that enables long-duration measurements of nanoparticle dynamics at rates of thousands of frames per second. We contain the particles within a single-mode silica fiber containing a sub-wavelength, nano-fluidic channel and illuminate them using the fiber's strongly confined optical mode. The diffusing particles in this cylinderical geometry are continuously illuminated inside the collection focal plane. We show that the method can track unlabeled d...

  1. Lab-on-a-brain: Implantable micro-optical fluidic devices for neural cell analysis in vivo

    Takehara, Hiroaki; Nagaoka, Akira; Noguchi, Jun; Akagi, Takanori; Kasai, Haruo; Ichiki, Takanori

    2014-10-01

    The high-resolution imaging of neural cells in vivo has brought about great progress in neuroscience research. Here, we report a novel experimental platform, where the intact brain of a living mouse can be studied with the aid of a surgically implanted micro-optical fluidic device; acting as an interface between neurons and the outer world. The newly developed device provides the functions required for the long-term and high-resolution observation of the fine structures of neurons by two-photon laser scanning microscopy and the microfluidic delivery of chemicals or drugs directly into the brain. A proof-of-concept experiment of single-synapse stimulation by two-photon uncaging of caged glutamate and observation of dendritic spine shrinkage over subsequent days demonstrated a promising use for the present technology.

  2. What governs the fluidic behavior of water near single DNA molecules at the micro/nano scale

    Zhang, Y; Lei, X; Lv, J; Ai, X; Jun, H; Zhang, Yi; Li, Huabing; Lei, Xiaoling; Lv, Junhong; Ai, Xiaobai; Jun, Hu

    2006-01-01

    The fluidic behavior of water at the micro/nano scale is studied by using of single DNA molecules as a model system. Stable curved DNA patterns with spans about one micron were generated by using of water flows, and observed by Atomic Force Microscopy. By rigorously comparing the numerical simulation results with these patterns, it is suggested that the form of the macroscopic hydrodynamic equation still works quantitatively well on the fluid flows at the nanoscale. The molecular effects, however, are still apparent that the effective viscosity of the adjacent water is considerably larger than its bulk value. Our observation is also helpful to understand of the dynamics of biomolecules in solutions from nanoscale to microscale.

  3. Characteristics and fluidic properties of porous monoliths prepared by radiation-induced polymerization for Lab-on-a-Chip applications

    Porous polymer monoliths were prepared by UV- or EB-induced polymerization of hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and ethylene dimethacrylate (EDMA) as network precursors dissolved in porogenic solvent mixtures composed of methanol and n-hexane. The fluidic properties and the pressure resistance of porous monoliths synthesized into 1 mm i.d. capillaries and in 100 μm-wide microchannels were investigated. The influence of photopolymerization time (or electron beam dose) and monomer content on flow properties is discussed on the basis of morphological features. The two types of radiation can be used to achieve the in situ fabrication of monolith inside microsystems. The permeability of the porous monoliths can be adjusted by tuning compositional and processing parameters

  4. Label-free tracking of single extracellular vesicles in a nano-fluidic optical fiber (Conference Presentation)

    van der Pol, Edwin; Weidlich, Stefan; Lahini, Yoav; Coumans, Frank A. W.; Sturk, Auguste; Nieuwland, Rienk; Schmidt, Markus A.; Faez, Sanli; van Leeuwen, Ton G.

    2016-03-01

    Background: Extracellular vesicles, such as exosomes, are abundantly present in human body fluids. Since the size, concentration and composition of these vesicles change during disease, vesicles have promising clinical applications, including cancer diagnosis. However, since ~70% of the vesicles have a diameter <70 nm, detection of single vesicles remains challenging. Thus far, vesicles <70 nm have only be studied by techniques that require the vesicles to be adhered to a surface. Consequently, the majority of vesicles have never been studied in their physiological environment. We present a novel label-free optical technique to track single vesicles <70 nm in suspension. Method: Urinary vesicles were contained within a single-mode light-guiding silica fiber containing a 600 nm nano-fluidic channel. Light from a diode laser (660 nm wavelength) was coupled to the fiber, resulting in a strongly confined optical mode in the nano-fluidic channel, which continuously illuminated the freely diffusing vesicles inside the channel. The elastic light scattering from the vesicles, in the direction orthogonal to the fiber axis, was collected using a microscope objective (NA=0.95) and imaged with a home-built microscope. Results: We have tracked single urinary vesicles as small as 35 nm by elastic light scattering. Please note that vesicles are low-refractive index (n<1.4) particles, which we confirmed by combining data on thermal diffusion and light scattering cross section. Conclusions: For the first time, we have studied vesicles <70 nm freely diffusing in suspension. The ease-of-use and performance of this technique support its potential for vesicle-based clinical applications.

  5. Adaptive Lighting

    Petersen, Kjell Yngve; Søndergaard, Karin; Kongshaug, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive Lighting Adaptive lighting is based on a partial automation of the possibilities to adjust the colour tone and brightness levels of light in order to adapt to people’s needs and desires. IT support is key to the technical developments that afford adaptive control systems. The possibilities...... offered by adaptive lighting control are created by the ways that the system components, the network and data flow can be coordinated through software so that the dynamic variations are controlled in ways that meaningfully adapt according to people’s situations and design intentions. This book discusses...... the investigations of lighting scenarios carried out in two test installations: White Cube and White Box. The test installations are discussed as large-scale experiential instruments. In these test installations we examine what could potentially occur when light using LED technology is integrated and...

  6. Adaptive passive equivalence of uncertain Lü system

    Qi Dong-Lian

    2006-01-01

    An adaptive passive strategy for controlling uncertain Lü system is proposed. Since the uncertain Lü system is minimum phase and the uncertain parameters are from a bounded compact set, the essential conditions are studied by which uncertain Lü system could be equivalent to a passive system, and the adaptive control law is given. Using passive theory, the uncertain Lü system could be globally asymptotically stabilized at different equilibria by the smooth state feedback.

  7. Mesoscale Simulations of Power Compaction

    Lomov, I; Fujino, D; Antoun, T; Liu, B

    2009-08-06

    Mesoscale 3D simulations of metal and ceramic powder compaction in shock waves have been performed with an Eulerian hydrocode GEODYN. The approach was validated by simulating shock compaction of porous well-characterized ductile metal using Steinberg material model. Results of the simulations with handbook values for parameters of solid 2024 aluminum have good agreement with experimental compaction curves and wave profiles. Brittle ceramic materials are not so well studied as metals, so material model for ceramic (tungsten carbide) has been fitted to shock compression experiments of non-porous samples and further calibrated to match experimental compaction curves. Direct simulations of gas gun experiments with ceramic powder have been performed and showed good agreement with experimental data. Numerical shock wave profile has same character and thickness as measured with VISAR. Numerical results show reshock states above the single-shock Hugoniot line also observed in experiments. They found that to receive good quantitative agreement with experiment it is essential to perform 3D simulations.

  8. JACKSON'S THEOREM FOR COMPACT GROUPS

    H. Vaezi; S. F. Rzaev

    2002-01-01

    In this article we consider the generalized shift operator defined by(Sh.f)(g) = ∫Gf (tut-1g)dton compact group G and by help of this operator we define "Spherical" modulus of continuity. So we proveStechkin and Jackson type theorems.

  9. Adaptive skills

    Staša Stropnik

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive skills are defined as a collection of conceptual, social and practical skills that are learned by people in order to function in their everyday lives. They include an individual's ability to adapt to and manage her or his surroundings to effectively function and meet social or community expectations. Good adaptive skills promote individual's independence in different environments, whereas poorly developed adaptive skills are connected to individual's dependency and with greater need for control and help with everyday tasks. Assessment of adaptive skills is often connected to assessment of intellectual disability, due to the reason that the diagnosis of intellectual disability includes lower levels of achievements on standardized tests of intellectual abilities as well as important deficits in adaptive skills. Assessment of adaptive behavior is a part of standard assessment battery with children and adults with different problems, disorders or disabilities that affect their everyday functioning. This contribution also presents psychometric tools most regularly used for assessment of adaptive skills and characteristics of adaptive skills with individual clinical groups.

  10. ADAPT Dataset

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Diagnostics and Prognostics Testbed (ADAPT) Project Lead: Scott Poll Subject Fault diagnosis in electrical power systems Description The Advanced...

  11. Properties of dynamically compacted WIPP salt

    Dynamic compaction of mine-run salt is being investigated for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), where compacted salt is being considered for repository sealing applications. One large-scale and two intermediate-scale dynamic compaction demonstrations were conducted. Initial fractional densities of the compacted salt range form 0.85 to 0.90, and permeabilities vary. Dynamically-compacted specimens were further consolidated in the laboratory by application of hydrostatic pressure. Permeability as a function of density was determined, and consolidation microprocesses were studied. Experimental results, in conjunction with modeling results, indicate that the compacted salt will function as a viable seal material

  12. Interpolation of compact non-linear operators

    Bento AJG

    2000-01-01

    Let and be two Banach couples and let be a continuous map such that is a Lipschitz compact operator and is a Lipschitz operator. We prove that if is also compact or is continuously embedded in or is continuously embedded in , then is also a compact operator when and . We also investigate the behaviour of the measure of non-compactness under real interpolation and obtain best possible compactness results of Lions–Peetre type for non-linear operators. A two-sided compactness r...

  13. Compaction and relaxation of biofilms

    Valladares Linares, R.

    2015-06-18

    Operation of membrane systems for water treatment can be seriously hampered by biofouling. A better characterization of biofilms in membrane systems and their impact on membrane performance may help to develop effective biofouling control strategies. The objective of this study was to determine the occurrence, extent and timescale of biofilm compaction and relaxation (decompaction), caused by permeate flux variations. The impact of permeate flux changes on biofilm thickness, structure and stiffness was investigated in situ and non-destructively with optical coherence tomography using membrane fouling monitors operated at a constant crossflow velocity of 0.1 m s−1 with permeate production. The permeate flux was varied sequentially from 20 to 60 and back to 20 L m−2 h−1. The study showed that the average biofilm thickness on the membrane decreased after elevating the permeate flux from 20 to 60 L m−2 h−1 while the biofilm thickness increased again after restoring the original flux of 20 L m−2 h−1, indicating the occurrence of biofilm compaction and relaxation. Within a few seconds after the flux change, the biofilm thickness was changed and stabilized, biofilm compaction occurred faster than the relaxation after restoring the original permeate flux. The initial biofilm parameters were not fully reinstated: the biofilm thickness was reduced by 21%, biofilm stiffness had increased and the hydraulic biofilm resistance was elevated by 16%. Biofilm thickness was related to the hydraulic biofilm resistance. Membrane performance losses are related to the biofilm thickness, density and morphology, which are influenced by (variations in) hydraulic conditions. A (temporarily) permeate flux increase caused biofilm compaction, together with membrane performance losses. The impact of biofilms on membrane performance can be influenced (increased and reduced) by operational parameters. The article shows that a (temporary) pressure increase leads to more

  14. Adaptive Dynamic Bayesian Networks

    Ng, B M

    2007-10-26

    A discrete-time Markov process can be compactly modeled as a dynamic Bayesian network (DBN)--a graphical model with nodes representing random variables and directed edges indicating causality between variables. Each node has a probability distribution, conditional on the variables represented by the parent nodes. A DBN's graphical structure encodes fixed conditional dependencies between variables. But in real-world systems, conditional dependencies between variables may be unknown a priori or may vary over time. Model errors can result if the DBN fails to capture all possible interactions between variables. Thus, we explore the representational framework of adaptive DBNs, whose structure and parameters can change from one time step to the next: a distribution's parameters and its set of conditional variables are dynamic. This work builds on recent work in nonparametric Bayesian modeling, such as hierarchical Dirichlet processes, infinite-state hidden Markov networks and structured priors for Bayes net learning. In this paper, we will explain the motivation for our interest in adaptive DBNs, show how popular nonparametric methods are combined to formulate the foundations for adaptive DBNs, and present preliminary results.

  15. Sequential normal compactness versur topological normal compactness in variational analysis

    Fabian, Marián; Mordukhovich, B. S.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 6 (2003), s. 1057-1067. ISSN 0362-546X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/01/1198 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1019905; CEZ:AV0Z1019905 Keywords : variational analysis * sequential and topological normal compactness * Banach spaces Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.354, year: 2003

  16. Tank farms compacted low-level waste

    This report describes the process of Low-Level Waste (LLW) volume reduction by compaction. Also included is the data used for characterization of LLW destined for compaction. Scaling factors (ratios) are formed based on data contained in this report

  17. Warm compaction powder metallurgy of Cu

    NGAI Tungwai Leo; WANG Shang-lin; LI Yuan-yuan; ZHOU Zho-yao; CHEN Wei-ping

    2005-01-01

    A series of experiments were carried out using different admixed lubricant contents,different compaction pressures and temperatures in order to study the warm compaction of copper powder.Results show that too much admixed lubricant will lead to the squeeze out of the lubricant from the compact during the warm compaction processing of Cu powder.Results also show that blisters can be found in sintered samples that contain lubricant less than 0.15% (mass fraction).Optimal warm compaction parameters for producing high density powder metallurgy copper material are obtained.Compacts with green density of 8.6 g/cm3 and a sintered density of 8.83 g/cm3 can be produced by warm compacting the Cu powder,which contains 0.2% admixed lubricant,and is compacted at 145 ℃ with a pressure of 700 Mpa.

  18. Powder compaction in systems of bimodal distribution

    Chattopadhyay, A. K.; Whittemore, O. J., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    The compaction of mixtures involving different particle sizes is discussed. The various stages of the compaction process include the rearrangement of particles, the filling of the interstices of the large particles by the smaller ones, and the change in particle size and shape upon further densification through the application of pressure. Experimental approaches and equipment used for compacting material are discussed together with the theoretical relations of the compacting process.

  19. UV written compact broadband optical couplers

    Olivero, Massimo; Svalgaard, Mikael

    In this paper the first demonstration of compact asymmetric directional couplers made by UV writing is presented. The combined performance in terms bandwidth, loss and compactness exceeds that reported using other, more elaborate fabrication techniques.......In this paper the first demonstration of compact asymmetric directional couplers made by UV writing is presented. The combined performance in terms bandwidth, loss and compactness exceeds that reported using other, more elaborate fabrication techniques....

  20. Ultra-compact In-Line Scattering Polarimetry

    Müller, J P Balthasar; Capasso, Federico

    2015-01-01

    The need for complex optical systems and special materials have so far prevented polarization measurements from realizing their full scientific potential and achieving widespread use in technology. We demonstrate here a nanotechnology-based method for non-destructive polarization measurements using a single ultra-compact optical element and simultaneous co-planar intensity measurements. The method is based on a highly polarization-dependent scattered field, which is here implemented using a nano-antenna array. Our device provides a polarization state measurement accurately matching that of a state-of-the art commercial rotating waveplate polarimeter across the full Poincar\\'e sphere, while offering far superior speed, stability and compactness. Our concept opens up the possibility of high-performance monolithically integrated polarization sensors adaptable to most of the electromagnetic spectrum.

  1. Equationally Compact Acts : Coproducts / Peeter Normak

    Normak, Peeter

    1998-01-01

    In this article equational compactness of acts and its generalizations are discussed. As equational compactness does not carry over to coproducts a slight generalization of c-equational campactness is introduced. It is proved that a coproduct of acts is c-equationally compact if and only if all components are c-equationally campact

  2. Technology of compact fusion-reactor concepts

    An identification of future engineering needs of compact, high-power-density approaches to fusion power is presented. After describing a rationale for the compact approach and a number of compact fusion reactors, key technology needs are assessed relative to the similar needs of the conventional tokamak in order to emphasize differences in required technology with respect to the well-documented mainline approaches

  3. Remnants of compact binary mergers

    Domainko, W

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the long-term evolution and observability of remnants originating from the merger of compact binary systems and discuss the differences to supernova remnants. Compact binary mergers expel much smaller amounts of mass at much higher velocities, as compared to supernovae, which will affect the dynamical evolution of their remnants. The ejecta of mergers consist of very neutron rich nuclei. Some of these neutron rich nuclei will produce observational signatures in form of gamma ray lines during their decay. The composition of the ejecta might even give interesting constraints about the internal structure of the neutron star. We further discuss the possibility that merger remnants appear as recently discovered 'dark accelerators' which are extended TeV sources which lack emission in other bands.

  4. Compact torus studies: Final report

    The compact torus (CT) device has been proposed for use in some applications which are of interest in Laboratory programs in the areas of pulsed power and inertial confinement fusion. These applications involve compression and acceleration of CT plasmas. The RACE (Ring Accelerator Experiment) experimental program at Livermore has been initiated to study these applications. The work reported here involves studies of plasma physics and other aspects of these compact torus applications. The studies conducted identify specific problem areas associated with the CT device and examine these areas in some detail. This report contains studies of three particular problem areas of the CT applications. These three areas are: the general nonlinear properties of the CT as a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equilibrium, particle simulation of the compression of the CT, with a focus on the non-MHD effects, and nonlinear RF interaction problems in the CT

  5. Compact heat exchangers modeling: Condensation

    Garcia-Cascales, J.R.; Vera-Garcia, F. [Technical University of Cartagena, Thermal and Fluid Engineering Department, C/Dr. Fleming, s/n 30202 Cartagena, Murcia (Spain); Gonzalvez-Macia, J.; Corberan-Salvador, J.M. [Technical University of Valencia, Applied Thermodynamic Department, Valencia (Spain); Johnson, M.W.; Kohler, G.T. [Modine Manufacturing Company, Commercial Products Group, Racine, WI (United States)

    2010-01-15

    A model for the analysis of compact heat exchangers working as either evaporators or condensers is presented. This paper will focus exclusively on condensation modeling. The model is based on cell discretization of the heat exchanger in such a way that cells are analyzed following the path imposed by the refrigerant flowing through the tubes. It has been implemented in a robust code developed for assisting with the design of compact heat exchangers and refrigeration systems. These heat exchangers consist of serpentine fins that are brazed to multi-port tubes with internal microchannels. This paper also investigates a number of correlations used for the calculation of the refrigerant side heat transfer coefficient. They are evaluated comparing the predicted data with the experimental data. The working fluids used in the experiments are R134a and R410A, and the secondary fluid is air. The experimental facility is briefly described and some conclusions are finally drawn. (author)

  6. Witten's perturbation on strata with general adapted metrics

    López, Jesús A. Álvarez; Calaza, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Let $M$ be a stratum of a compact stratified space $A$. It is equipped with a general adapted metric $g$, which is slightly more general than the adapted metrics of Nagase and Brasselet-Hector-Saralegi. In particular, $g$ has a general type, which is an extension of the type of an adapted metric. A restriction on this general type is assumed, and then $g$ is called good. We consider the maximum/minimun ideal boundary condition, $d_{\\text{max/min}}$, of the compactly supported de~Rham complex ...

  7. Multipole structure of compact objects

    Quevedo, Hernando

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the applications of general relativity in relativistic astrophysics in order to solve the problem of describing the geometric and physical properties of the interior and exterior gravitational and electromagnetic fields of compact objects. We focus on the interpretation of exact solutions of Einstein's equations in terms of their multipole moments structure. In view of the lack of physical interior solutions, we propose an alternative approach in which higher multipoles should be taken into account.

  8. Flexible Profile Compact Thermal Models

    Sabry, M.-N.

    2005-01-01

    Submitted on behalf of EDA Publishing Association (http://irevues.inist.fr/handle/2042/5920) International audience Recent advances in Compact Thermal Models (CTM) have led to the emergence of a new concept allowing models to be created at any desired order of accuracy. In this paper, the concept will first be generalized to 3D parallelepiped boxes with both surface and/or volumetric heating. The second achievement is an adequate handling of heat transfer through side walls based on an ...

  9. Compact Color Schlieren Optical System

    Buchele, Donald R.; Griffin, Devon W.

    1996-01-01

    Compact, rugged optical system developed for use in rainbow schlieren deflectometry. Features unobscured telescope with focal-length/aperture-width ratio of 30. Made of carefully selected but relatively inexpensive parts. All of lenses stock items. By-product of design is optical system with loose tolerances on interlens spacing. One of resulting advantages, insensitivity to errors in fabrication of optomechanical mounts. Another advantage is ability to compensate for some of unit-to-unit variations inherent in stock lenses.

  10. Learning Compact Recurrent Neural Networks

    Lu, Zhiyun; Sindhwani, Vikas; Sainath, Tara N.

    2016-01-01

    Recurrent neural networks (RNNs), including long short-term memory (LSTM) RNNs, have produced state-of-the-art results on a variety of speech recognition tasks. However, these models are often too large in size for deployment on mobile devices with memory and latency constraints. In this work, we study mechanisms for learning compact RNNs and LSTMs via low-rank factorizations and parameter sharing schemes. Our goal is to investigate redundancies in recurrent architectures where compression ca...

  11. Compact planar microwave blocking filters

    U-Yen, Kongpop (Inventor); Wollack, Edward J. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A compact planar microwave blocking filter includes a dielectric substrate and a plurality of filter unit elements disposed on the substrate. The filter unit elements are interconnected in a symmetrical series cascade with filter unit elements being organized in the series based on physical size. In the filter, a first filter unit element of the plurality of filter unit elements includes a low impedance open-ended line configured to reduce the shunt capacitance of the filter.

  12. Strings in compact cosmological spaces

    Craps, Ben; Konechny, Anatoly

    2013-01-01

    We confront the problem of giving a fundamental definition to perturbative string theory in spacetimes with totally compact space (taken to be a torus for simplicity, though the nature of the problem is very general) and non-compact time. Due to backreaction induced by the presence of even a single string quantum, the usual formulation of perturbative string theory in a fixed classical background is infrared-divergent at all subleading orders in the string coupling, and needs to be amended. The problem can be seen as a closed string analogue of D0-brane recoil under an impact by closed strings (a situation displaying extremely similar infrared divergences). Inspired by the collective coordinate treatment of the D0-brane recoil, whereby the translational modes of the D0-brane are introduced as explicit dynamical variables in the path integral, we construct a similar formalism for the case of string-induced gravitational backreaction, in which the spatially uniform modes of the background fields on the compact ...

  13. Thixoforming of Stellite Powder Compacts

    Hogg, S. C.; Atkinson, H. V.; Kapranos, P.

    2007-04-01

    Thixoforming involves processing metallic alloys in the semi-solid state. The process requires the microstructure to be spheroidal when part-solid and part-liquid i.e. to consist of solid spheroids surrounded by liquid. The aim of this work was to investigate whether powder compacts can be used as feedstock for thixoforming and whether the consolidating pressure in the thixoformer can be used to remove porosity from the compact. The powder compacts were made from stellite 6 and stellite 21 alloys, cobalt-based alloys widely used for e.g. manufacturing prostheses. Isothermal heat treatments of small samples in the consolidated state showed the optimum thixoforming temperature to be in the range 1340°C-1350°C for both materials. The alloys were thixoformed into graphite dies and flowed easily to fill the die. Porosity in the thixoformed components was lower than in the starting material. Hardness values at various positions along the radius of the thixoformed demonstrator component were above the specification for both alloys.

  14. Compact accelerator for clinical use

    The first clinical trial with carbon beams generated from the HIMAC was conducted in June 1994. The total number of patients treated as of October 2006 is in excess of 3,000. In view of the significant growth in the number of protocols, the Japanese government gave its approval for carbon-ion therapy at NIRS as an advanced medical technology in 2003. The impressive advances of carbon-ion therapy using HIMAC have been supported by high-reliability operation and by advanced developments of beam-delivery and accelerator technologies. Based on our ten years of experience with HIMAC, we recently proposed a compact carbon-ion therapy facility for widespread use in Japan. The key technologies of the accelerator and irradiation systems for this compact facility have been under development since April 2004, with the main thrust being focused on downsizing the facility for cost reduction. On the basis of the design and R and D studies for the compact carbon-ion facility, its construction was begun at Gunma University in April 2006. In addition, our future plans for HIMAC also include the design of a new treatment facility. The design work has already been initiated and will lead to the further development of therapy using HIMAC. The following descriptions give a summary account of the carbon-ion treatment facility and of the HIMAC facility. (author)

  15. Compaction Waves in Granular HMX

    E. Kober; R. Menikoff

    1999-01-01

    Piston driven compaction waves in granular HMX are simulated with a two-dimensional continuum mechanics code in which individual grains are resolved. The constitutive properties of the grains are modeled with a hydrostatic pressure and a simple elastic-plastic model for the shear stress. Parameters are chosen to correspond to inert HMX. For a tightly packed random grain distribution (with initial porosity of 19%) we varied the piston velocity to obtain weak partly compacted waves and stronger fully compacted waves. The average stress and wave speed are compatible with the porous Hugoniot locus for uni- axial strain. However, the heterogeneities give rise to stress concentrations, which lead to localized plastic flow. For weak waves, plastic deformation is the dominant dissipative mechanism and leads to dispersed waves that spread out in time. In addition to dispersion, the granular heterogeneities give rise to subgrain spatial variation in the thermodynamic variables. The peaks in the temperature fluctuations, known as hot spots, are in the range such that they are the critical factor for initiation sensitivity.

  16. Label transfer by measuring compactness.

    Varga, Robert; Nedevschi, Sergiu

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents a new automatic image annotation algorithm. First, we introduce a new similarity measure between images: compactness. This uses low level visual descriptors for determining the similarity between two images. Compactness shows how close test image features lie to training image feature cluster centers. The measure provides the core for a k-nearest neighbor type image annotation method. Afterward, a formalism for defining different transfer techniques is devised and several label transfer techniques are provided. The method as whole is evaluated on four image annotation benchmarks. The results on these sets validate the accuracy of the approach, which outperforms many state-of-the-art annotation methods. The method presented here requires a simple training process, efficiently combines different feature types and performs better than complex learning algorithms, even in this incipient form. The main contributions of this paper are the usage of compactness as a similarity measure that enables efficient low level feature comparison and an annotation algorithm based on label transfer. PMID:23955754

  17. Compact Stellarator Path to DEMO

    Lyon, J. F.

    2007-11-01

    Issues for a DEMO reactor are sustaining an ignited/high-Q plasma in steady state, avoiding disruptions and large variations in power flux to the wall, adequate confinement of thermal plasma and alpha-particles, control of a burning plasma, particle and power handling, etc. Compact stellarators have key advantages -- steady-state high-plasma-density operation without external current drive or disruptions, stability without a close conducting wall or active feedback systems, and low recirculating power -- in addition to moderate plasma aspect ratio, good confinement, and high-beta potential. The ARIES-CS study established that compact stellarators can be competitive with tokamaks as reactors. Many of the issues for a compact stellarator DEMO can be answered using results from large tokamaks, ITER D-T experiments and fusion materials, technology and component development programs, in addition to stellarators in operation, under construction or in development. However, a large next-generation stellarator will be needed to address some physics issues: size scaling and confinement at higher parameters, burning plasma issues, and operation with a strongly radiative divertor. Technology issues include simpler coils, structure, and divertor fabrication, and better cost information.

  18. 76 FR 66326 - Meeting of the Compact Council for the National Crime Prevention and Privacy Compact

    2011-10-26

    ... Federal Bureau of Investigation Meeting of the Compact Council for the National Crime Prevention and... this notice is to announce a meeting of the National Crime Prevention and Privacy Compact Council (Council) created by the National Crime Prevention and Privacy Compact Act of 1998 (Compact). Thus far,...

  19. 78 FR 61384 - Meeting of the Compact Council for the National Crime Prevention and Privacy Compact

    2013-10-03

    ... Federal Bureau of Investigation Meeting of the Compact Council for the National Crime Prevention and... of this notice is to announce a meeting of the National Crime Prevention and Privacy Compact Council (Council) created by the National Crime Prevention and Privacy Compact Act of 1998 (Compact). Thus far,...

  20. 78 FR 20355 - Meeting of the Compact Council for the National Crime Prevention and Privacy Compact

    2013-04-04

    ... Federal Bureau of Investigation Meeting of the Compact Council for the National Crime Prevention and... this notice is to announce a meeting of the National Crime Prevention and Privacy Compact Council (Council) created by the National Crime Prevention and Privacy Compact Act of 1998 (Compact). Thus far,...

  1. 75 FR 62568 - Meeting of the Compact Council for the National Crime Prevention and Privacy Compact

    2010-10-12

    ... Federal Bureau of Investigation Meeting of the Compact Council for the National Crime Prevention and... this notice is to announce a meeting of the National Crime Prevention and Privacy Compact Council (Council) created by the National Crime Prevention and Privacy Compact Act of 1998 (Compact). Thus far,...

  2. 76 FR 20044 - Meeting of the Compact Council for the National Crime Prevention and Privacy Compact

    2011-04-11

    ... Federal Bureau of Investigation Meeting of the Compact Council for the National Crime Prevention and... this notice is to announce a meeting of the National Crime Prevention and Privacy Compact Council (Council) created by the National Crime Prevention and Privacy Compact Act of 1998 (Compact). Thus far,...

  3. 75 FR 17161 - Meeting of the Compact Council for the National Crime Prevention and Privacy Compact

    2010-04-05

    ... Federal Bureau of Investigation Meeting of the Compact Council for the National Crime Prevention and... purpose of this notice is to announce a meeting of the National Crime Prevention and Privacy Compact Council (Council) created by the National Crime Prevention and Privacy Compact Act of 1998 (Compact)....

  4. 77 FR 60475 - Meeting of the Compact Council for the National Crime Prevention and Privacy Compact

    2012-10-03

    ... Federal Bureau of Investigation Meeting of the Compact Council for the National Crime Prevention and... of this notice is to announce a meeting of the National Crime Prevention and Privacy Compact Council (Council) created by the National Crime Prevention and Privacy Compact Act of 1998 (Compact). Thus far,...

  5. 77 FR 20051 - Meeting of the Compact Council for the National Crime Prevention and Privacy Compact

    2012-04-03

    ... Federal Bureau of Investigation Meeting of the Compact Council for the National Crime Prevention and... this notice is to announce a meeting of the National Crime Prevention and Privacy Compact Council (Council) created by the National Crime Prevention and Privacy Compact Act of 1998 (Compact). Thus far,...

  6. An all-glass 12 μm ultra-thin and flexible micro-fluidic chip fabricated by femtosecond laser processing.

    Yalikun, Yaxiaer; Hosokawa, Yoichiroh; Iino, Takanori; Tanaka, Yo

    2016-07-01

    This study investigated and established a method, using femtosecond laser processing, to fabricate a 100%-glass-based 12 μm ultra-thin and flexible micro-fluidic chip. First we investigated the suitable pulse energy of the laser to fabricate ultra-thin glass sheets and then we fabricated a prototype glass micro-fluidic chip. Two 1 mm-in-diameter orifices for facilitating alignment in the bonding step and one channel with a width of 20 μm and a length of 25 mm were fabricated in a 4 μm thickness ultra-thin glass sheet using the femtosecond laser; this forms layer 2 in the completed device. Next, the glass sheet with the channel was sandwiched between another glass sheet having an inlet hole and an outlet hole (layer 1) and a base glass sheet (layer 3); the three sheets were bonded to each other, resulting in a flexible, 100%-glass micro-fluidic chip with a thickness of approximately 12 μm and a weight of 3.6 mg. The basic function of the glass micro-fluidic chip was confirmed by flowing 1 and 2 μm in-diameter bead particles through the channel. The fabrication method clearly scales down the thickness limitation of flexible glass devices and offers a possible element technology for fabricating ultra-thin glass devices that can be applied to convection-enhanced delivery, implantable medical devices, wearable devices, and high-resolution imaging of small biological objects such as bacteria and proteins in the channel. PMID:27225521

  7. Design of an optical and micro-fluidic sensor for concentration measurement by photo-thermal effect

    This work has been done in the context of fuel reprocessing in the nuclear industry. In fact, the handling of nuclear waste is one of the major issues in the nuclear industry. Its implications reach from economical to political to ecological dimensions. Since used nuclear fuel consists of 97% of recyclable substances, many countries have chosen to reprocess used fuel, not only for economical reasons but also to limit the quantity of nuclear waste. The most widely employed extraction technique is the PUREX process where the used fuel is diluted in nitric acid. The recyclable compounds can then be extracted by solvent techniques. Such processes need to be monitored crucially. However, nowadays, the process supervision is carried out by manually sampling the radioactive effluents and analyzing them in external laboratories. Not only prone to potential risks, this approach is little responsive and produces radio-toxic samples that cannot be reintroduced in the nuclear fuel cycle. In this study, we therefore present the developpement of a micro-fluidic glass sensor, based on the detection of a photothermal effect induced in the sample fluid. Micro-fluidic allows fluid handling on a microliter-scale and can therefore significantly reduce the sample volume and thereby the radio-toxicity of the analyzed fluids. Photothermal spectrometry is well suited for small-scale sample analysis since its sensitivity does not rely on the length of optical interaction with the analyte. The photothermal effect is a local refractive index variation due to the absorption of photons by the analyte species which are contained in the sample. On the sensor chip, the index refraction change is being sensed by an integrated Young interferometer made by ion-exchange in glass. The probed volume in the channel was (33.5± 3.5) pl. The interferometric system can sense refractive index changes as low as Δn(min)=7.5*10-6, allowing to detect a minimum concentration of cobalt(II) in ethanol c

  8. Accommodation of repetitive sensor faults - applied to surface faults on compact discs

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Stoustrup, Jakob; Andersen, Palle; Vidal, Enrique Sanchez

    2008-01-01

    Surface defects such as scratches and fingerprints on compact discs (CDs) can cause CD players to lose focus and tracking on the discs. A scheme for handling these defects has previously been proposed. In this brief, adaptive and predictive versions of this scheme are developed. The adaptive scheme...... of the accommodation scheme is discussed. Both proposed methods show their potentials through simulations with a CD player playing a CD with a surface  defect (scratch).  ...

  9. Collapse of the mean curvature flow for isoparametric submanifolds in non-compact symmetric spaces

    KOIKE, Naoyuki

    2014-01-01

    It is known that principal orbits of Hermann actions on a symmetric space of non-compact type are curvature-adapted isoparametric submanifolds having no focal point of non-Euclidean type on the ideal boundary of the ambient symmetric space. In this paper, we investigate the mean curvature flows for such a curvature-adapted isoparametric submanifold and its focal submanifold. Concretely the investigation is performed by investigating the mean curvature flows for the lift of the submanifold to ...

  10. Recent results of the investigation of a micro-fluidic sampling chip and sampling system for hot cell aqueous processing streams

    A Fuel Cycle Research and Development project has investigated an innovative sampling method that could evolve into the next generation sampling and analysis system for metallic elements present in aqueous processing streams. Initially sampling technologies were evaluated and micro-fluidic sampling chip technology was selected and tested. A conceptual design for a fully automated microcapillary-based system was completed and a robotic automated sampling system was fabricated. The mechanical and sampling operation of the completed sampling system was investigated. Different sampling volumes have been tested. It appears that the 10 μl volume has produced data that had much smaller relative standard deviations than the 2 μl volume. In addition, the production of a less expensive, mass produced sampling chip was investigated to avoid chip reuse thus increasing sampling reproducibility/accuracy. The micro-fluidic-based robotic sampling system's mechanical elements were tested to ensure analytical reproducibility and the optimum robotic handling of micro-fluidic sampling chips. (authors)

  11. A micro fluidic system to study the cytotoxic effect of drugs: the combined effect of celecoxib and 5-fluorouracil on normal and cancer cells

    We have investigated the response of normal and cancer cells to exposure a combination of celecoxib (Celbx) and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) using a lab-on-a-chip micro fluidic device. Specifically, we have tested the cytotoxic effect of Celbx on normal mouse embryo cells (Balb/c 3T3) and human lung carcinoma cells (A549). The single drugs or their combinations were adjusted to five different concentrations using a concentration gradient generator (CGG) in a single step. The results suggest that Celbx can enhanced the anticancer activity of 5-FU by stronger inhibition of cancer cell growth. We also show that the A549 cancer cells are more sensitive to Celbx than the Balb/c 3T3 normal cells. The results obtained with the micro fluidic system were compared to those obtained with a macro scale in vitro cell culture method. In our opinion, the micro fluidic system represents a unique approach for an evaluation of cellular response to multidrug exposure that also is more simple than respective micro well plate assays. (author)

  12. Measurement of Solution Impedance with Micro-Fluidic Chip%基于微流控芯片的液体电导测量

    胥飞; Md Shehadul Islam

    2012-01-01

    A conductance micro-fluidic chip was fabricated by electrochemistry corrosion. Based on the traditional fabrication method of micro-fluidic chip, thin brass wire is etched and broken into two elec- trodes for impedance measurement. Conductance of polystyrene beads solutions with densities of 21.0 %, 28. 1%, 37.50% and 50% are measured with the micro-fluidic chip. The measured results conform to the theory, showing effectiveness of the chip in liquid conductance measurement.%在传统微流控芯片制作方法的基础上,利用电化学腐蚀来制作电导式微流控芯片。对浓度分别为21.0%、28.1%、37.5%、50%的聚苯乙烯溶于去离子水的微粒混悬液进行实验测量,实验表明,该芯片测量与理论基本符合,芯片适用于液体溶液的阻抗测量。

  13. Ambiguous Adaptation

    Møller Larsen, Marcus; Lyngsie, Jacob

    We investigate why some exchange relationships terminate prematurely. We argue that investments in informal governance structures induce premature termination in relationships already governed by formal contracts. The formalized adaptive behavior of formal governance structures and the flexible and...... reciprocal adaptation of informal governance structure create ambiguity in situations of contingencies, which, subsequently, increases the likelihood of premature relationship termination. Using a large sample of exchange relationships in the global service provider industry, we find support for a hypothesis...

  14. Strategic Adaptation

    Andersen, Torben Juul

    2015-01-01

    This article provides an overview of theoretical contributions that have influenced the discourse around strategic adaptation including contingency perspectives, strategic fit reasoning, decision structure, information processing, corporate entrepreneurship, and strategy process. The related...... concepts of strategic renewal, dynamic managerial capabilities, dynamic capabilities, and strategic response capabilities are discussed and contextualized against strategic responsiveness. The insights derived from this article are used to outline the contours of a dynamic process of strategic adaptation...

  15. Motion Analysis of Fiber Band in Compact Field of Compact Spinning

    2006-01-01

    The technological process of compact spinning and the compact procedure of fiber band in compact field are briefly illustrated. The motions of fiber band in compact field are discussed theoretically from which tilting angle of suction slot in profile tube, additional twists created by fiber band's rotating around its own axis and ultimate twists in compact yarn are deduced accordingly. The existence of additional twists is also verified through experiments.

  16. Is adaptation. Truly an adaptation? Is adaptation. Truly an adaptation?

    Thais Flores Nogueira Diniz

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The article begins by historicizing film adaptation from the arrival of cinema, pointing out the many theoretical approaches under which the process has been seen: from the concept of “the same story told in a different medium” to a comprehensible definition such as “the process through which works can be transformed, forming an intersection of textual surfaces, quotations, conflations and inversions of other texts”. To illustrate this new concept, the article discusses Spike Jonze’s film Adaptation. according to James Naremore’s proposal which considers the study of adaptation as part of a general theory of repetition, joined with the study of recycling, remaking, and every form of retelling. The film deals with the attempt by the scriptwriter Charles Kaufman, cast by Nicholas Cage, to adapt/translate a non-fictional book to the cinema, but ends up with a kind of film which is by no means what it intended to be: a film of action in the model of Hollywood productions. During the process of creation, Charles and his twin brother, Donald, undergo a series of adventures involving some real persons from the world of film, the author and the protagonist of the book, all of them turning into fictional characters in the film. In the film, adaptation then signifies something different from itstraditional meaning. The article begins by historicizing film adaptation from the arrival of cinema, pointing out the many theoretical approaches under which the process has been seen: from the concept of “the same story told in a different medium” to a comprehensible definition such as “the process through which works can be transformed, forming an intersection of textual surfaces, quotations, conflations and inversions of other texts”. To illustrate this new concept, the article discusses Spike Jonze’s film Adaptation. according to James Naremore’s proposal which considers the study of adaptation as part of a general theory of repetition

  17. Entropy and Its Variational Principle for Locally Compact Metrizable Systems

    Caldas, André; Patrão, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    For a given topological dynamical system $(X,T)$ over a compact set $X$ with a metric $d$, the "variational principle" states that \\begin{equation*} \\sup_{\\mu}h_\\mu(T) = h(T) = h_d(T), \\end{equation*} where $h_\\mu(T)$ is the Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy, with the supremum taken over every $T$-invariant probability measure, $h_d(T)$ is the Bowen entropy, and $h(T)$ is the topological entropy as defined by Adler, Konheim and McAndrew. In [9], the concept of topological entropy was adapted for the c...

  18. Detection of mitochondrial DNA with the compact bead array sensor system (cBASS)

    Mulvaney, Shawn P.; Ibe, Carol N.; Caldwell, Jane M.; Levine, Jay F.; Whitman, Lloyd J.; Tamanaha, Cy R.

    2009-02-01

    Enteric pathogens are a significant contaminant in surface waters used for recreation, fish and shellfish harvesting, crop irrigation, and human consumption. The need for water monitoring becomes more pronounced when industrial, agricultural, and residential lands are found in close proximity. Fecal contamination is particularly problematic and identification of the pollution source essential to remediation efforts. Standard monitoring for fecal contamination relies on indicator organisms, but the technique is too broad to identify the source of contamination. Instead, real-time PCR of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is an emerging method for identification of the contamination source. Presented herein, we evaluate an alternative technology, the compact Bead Array Sensor System (cBASS®) and its assay approach Fluidic Force Discrimination (FFD), for the detection of mtDNA. Previously, we achieved multiplexed, attomolar detection of toxins and femtomolar detection of nucleic acids in minutes with FFD assays. More importantly, FFD assays are compatible with a variety of complex matrices and therefore potentially applicable for samples where the matrix would interfere with PCR amplification. We have designed a triplex assay for the NADH gene found in human, swine, and bovine mtDNA and demonstrated the specific detection of human mtDNA spiked into a waste water sample.

  19. Compact Higher Order Mode Filter for Crab Cavities in the Large Hadron Collider

    Xiao, B P; Ben-Zvi, I; Calaga, R; Skaritka, J; Verdú-Andrés, S; Wu, Q

    2013-01-01

    A double quarter wave crab cavity was designed for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) luminosity upgrade. Starting from the analytical calculation of simplified RLC circuit, a compact Higher Order Mode (HOM) filter is developed for this cavity. Finite element simulation results are presented. The design concept is generic and can easily be adapted to other cavities.

  20. All-organic electrostrictive polymer composites with low driving electrical voltages for micro-fluidic pump applications

    Le, Minh Quyen; Capsal, Jean-Fabien; Galineau, Jérémy; Ganet, Florent; Yin, Xunqian; Yang, Mingchia (Dawn); Chateaux, Jean-François; Renaud, Louis; Malhaire, Christophe; Cottinet, Pierre-Jean; Liang, Richard

    2015-07-01

    This paper focuses on the improvement of a relaxor ferroelectric terpolymer, i.e., poly (vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene-chlorofluoroethylene) [P(VDF-TrFE-CFE)], filled with a bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP). The developed material gave rise to a significantly increased longitudinal electrostrictive strain, as well as an increased mechanical energy density under a relatively low electric field. These features were attributed to the considerably enhanced dielectric permittivity and a decreased Young modulus as a result of the introduction of only small DEHP plasticizer molecules. In addition, the plasticizer-filled terpolymer only exhibited a slight decrease of the dielectric breakdown strength, which was a great advantage with respect to the traditional polymer-based electrostrictive composites. More importantly, the approach proposed herein is promising for the future development and scale-up of new high-performance electrostrictive dielectrics under low applied electrical fields through modification simply by blending with a low-cost plasticizer. An experimental demonstration based on a flexible micro-fluidic application is described at the end of this paper, confirming the attractive characteristics of the proposed materials as well as the feasibility of integrating them as micro-actuators in small-scale devices.

  1. A comparative study of SU-8 and wax based paper-fluidic device with respect to channel geometry

    Lee, Jinkee; Jafry, Ali Turab; Lim, Hosub

    2015-11-01

    Although many fabrication techniques of paper fluidic devices have evolved as a result of its broad application spectrum and ease of use, the technology has still barely scratched the surface of its potential in terms of its underlying fundamental principle i.e. fluid flow analysis. In this paper we have studied the comparison of flow profile attained by using two of the most promising techniques of photolithography and wax printing from a hydrodynamic point of view. A modified protocol for synthesizing an SU-8 based channel and wax based channel is created by optimizing few process parameters to our equipment. Water and oil (oleic acid) are chosen as hydrophilic and hydrophobic fluids respectively and their flow is analyzed in straight channels within paper device. A new approach to vary flow velocity is described in detail involving dots as resistance inside the paper channel. Observing the length-time curve for the two fluids, it becomes evident that both follow the Lucas-Washburn equation if the width of channel is large enough. Various configurations of dots reveal different longitudinal flow velocity implying its application in simultaneous addition of chemicals without the need to change channel width or length

  2. Modeling the Peano fluidic muscle and the effects of its material properties on its static and dynamic behavior

    Veale, Allan Joshua; Xie, Sheng Quan; Anderson, Iain Alexander

    2016-06-01

    The promise of wearable assistive robotics cannot be realized without the development of actuators that mimic the behavior and form of biological muscles. Planar fluidic muscles known as Peano muscles or pouch motors have the potential to provide the high force and compliance of McKibben pneumatic artificial muscles with the low threshold pressure of pleated pneumatic artificial muscles. Yet they do so in a soft and slim form that can be discreetly distributed over the human body. This work is an investigation into the empirical modeling of the Peano muscle, the effect of its material on its performance, and its capabilities and limitations. We discovered that the Peano muscle could provide responsive and discreet actuation of soft and rigid bodies requiring strains between 15% and 30%. Ideally, they are made of non-viscoelastic materials with high tensile and low bending stiffnesses. While Sarosi et al’s empirical model accurately captures its static behavior with an root mean square error of 10.2 N, their dynamic model overestimates oscillation frequency and damping. We propose that the Peano muscle be modeled by a parallel ideal contractile unit and viscoelastic element, both in series with another viscoelastic element.

  3. Effect of fluidics on corneal endothelial cell density, central corneal thickness, and central macular thickness after phacoemulsification with torsional ultrasound

    Sudeep Das

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the relative effects of high and low fluidic parameters on endothelial cell density (ECD, central corneal thickness (CCT, and central macular thickness (CMT after phacoemulsification with torsional ultrasound. Settings and Design: Prospective, randomized clinical trial based on a tertiary eye hospital. Subjects and Methods: The study included 65 patients in each group. Patients were randomized to either the high or the low flow group using a computerized random number table. The study was patient and examiner masked. All patients underwent phacoemulsification with torsional ultrasound. Visual acuity, ECD, CCT, and CMT were measured for all patients preoperatively at 2 weeks and 6 weeks postoperatively. Statistical Analysis Used: The Shapiro–Wilks test was used to assess the normality of the data. Mann–Whitney U-test with the P value set at 0.05 was used to compare the two groups. Results: Cumulative dissipated energy was significantly higher in the low flow group (16.44 ± 9.07 vs. 11.74 ± 6.68; P = 0.002. No statistically significant difference was noted between the two groups in the ECD, CCT, CMT, or corrected distance visual acuity at the end of 6 weeks. Conclusions: No significant difference was noted in the postoperative outcome between high and low flow groups. Parameters can be modified to suit the surgeon's preference, as both high and low flow parameters were found to have comparable postoperative outcomes.

  4. Automated derivatization and fluorimetric determination of biogenic amines in milk by zone fluidics coupled to liquid chromatography.

    Notou, Maria; Zotou, Anastasia; Tzanavaras, Paraskevas D; Themelis, Demetrius G

    2014-08-22

    A novel zone-fluidics/high pressure liquid chromatographic (ZF-HPLC) method is described for the simultaneous determination of six biogenic monoamines, in the presence of hexylamine as internal standard. Automated on-line derivatization of the analytes with naphthalene-2,3-dicarboxaldehyde/cyanide ions was performed using the ZF concept and the derivatives were injected on the HPLC column for separation/detection. The influence of the ZF operation conditions on the derivatization reaction was investigated. The isoindoles formed were separated on a Kromasil C18 column (250 mm × 4 mm i.d., 5 μm), using an isocratic mobile phase of methanol/water (80:20, v/v) at a flow rate of 1.0 mL min(-1). Monitoring and quantification was carried out by fluorescence detection at 424/494 nm. The limits of detection were at the pg level with a sample volume of 20 μL. The whole procedure was evaluated and fully validated for the determination of biogenic amines in milk samples. PMID:24986070

  5. Steady cone-jet mode in compound-fluidic electro-flow focusing for fabricating multicompartment microcapsules

    Si, Ting; Yin, Chuansheng; Gao, Peng; Li, Guangbin; Ding, Hang; He, Xiaoming; Xie, Bin; Xu, Ronald X.

    2016-01-01

    A compound-fluidic electro-flow focusing (CEFF) process is proposed to produce multicompartment microcapsules. The central device mainly consists of a needle assembly of two parallel inner needles and one outer needle mounted in a gas chamber with their tips facing a small orifice at the bottom of the chamber. As the outer and the inner fluids flow through the needle assembly, a high-speed gas stream elongates the liquid menisci in the vicinity of the orifice entrance. An electric field is further integrated into capillary flow focusing to promote the formation of steady cone-jet mode in a wide range of operation parameters. The multiphase liquid jet is broken up into droplets due to perturbation propagation along the jet surface. To estimate the diameter of the multiphase liquid jet as a function of process parameters, a modified scaling law is derived and experimentally validated. Microcapsules of around 100 μm with an alginate shell and multiple cores at a production rate of 103-105 per second are produced. Technical feasibility of stimulation triggered coalescence and drug release is demonstrated by benchtop experiments. The proposed CEFF process can be potentially used to encapsulate therapeutic agents and biological cargos for controlled micro-reaction and drug delivery.

  6. Renewable Surface Fluorescence Sandwich Immunoassay Biosensor for Rapid Sensitive Botulinum Toxin Detection in an Automated Fluidic Format

    Grate, Jay W.; Warner, Marvin G.; Ozanich, Richard M.; Miller, Keith D.; Colburn, Heather A.; Dockendorff, Brian P.; Antolick, Kathryn C.; Anheier, Norman C.; Lind, Michael A.; Lou, Jianlong; Marks, James D.; Bruckner-Lea, Cindy J.

    2009-03-05

    A renewable surface biosensor for rapid detection of botulinum toxin is described based on fluidic automation of a fluorescence sandwich immunoassay, using a recombinant fragment of the toxin heavy chain as a structurally valid simulant. Monoclonal antibodies AR4 and RAZ1 bind to separate epitopes of both this fragment and the holotoxin. The AR4 antibody was covalently bound to Sepharose beads and used as the capture antibody. A rotating rod flow cell was used to capture these beads delivered as a suspension by the sequential injection flow system, creating a 3.6 microliter column. After perfusing the bead column with sample and washing away the matrix, the column was perfused with Alexa 647 dye-labeled RAZ1 antibody as the reporter. Optical fibers coupled to the rotating rod flow cell at a 90 degree angle to one another delivered excitation light from a HeNe laser and collected fluorescent emission light for detection. After each measurement, the used sepharose beads are released and replaced with fresh beads. In a rapid screening approach to sample analysis, the toxin simulant was detected to concentrations of 10 pM in less than 20 minutes.

  7. Static investigation of two fluidic thrust-vectoring concepts on a two-dimensional convergent-divergent nozzle

    Wing, David J.

    1994-01-01

    A static investigation was conducted in the static test facility of the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel of two thrust-vectoring concepts which utilize fluidic mechanisms for deflecting the jet of a two-dimensional convergent-divergent nozzle. One concept involved using the Coanda effect to turn a sheet of injected secondary air along a curved sidewall flap and, through entrainment, draw the primary jet in the same direction to produce yaw thrust vectoring. The other concept involved deflecting the primary jet to produce pitch thrust vectoring by injecting secondary air through a transverse slot in the divergent flap, creating an oblique shock in the divergent channel. Utilizing the Coanda effect to produce yaw thrust vectoring was largely unsuccessful. Small vector angles were produced at low primary nozzle pressure ratios, probably because the momentum of the primary jet was low. Significant pitch thrust vector angles were produced by injecting secondary flow through a slot in the divergent flap. Thrust vector angle decreased with increasing nozzle pressure ratio but moderate levels were maintained at the highest nozzle pressure ratio tested. Thrust performance generally increased at low nozzle pressure ratios and decreased near the design pressure ratio with the addition of secondary flow.

  8. The Cooling of Compact Stars

    Page, D; Weber, F; Page, Dany; Geppert, Ulrich; Weber, Fridolin

    2005-01-01

    The cooling of a compact star depends very sensitively on the state of dense matter at supranuclear densities, which essentially controls the neutrino emission, as well as on the structure of the stellar outer layers which control the photon emission. Open issues concern the hyperon population, the presence of meson condensates, superfluidity and superconductivity, and the transition of confined hadronic matter to quark matter. This paper describes these issues and presents cooling calculations based on a broad collection of equations of state for neutron star matter and strange matter. These results are tested against the body of observed cooling data.

  9. Compact Radiometers Expand Climate Knowledge

    2010-01-01

    To gain a better understanding of Earth's water, energy, and carbon cycles, NASA plans to embark on the Soil Moisture Active and Passive mission in 2015. To prepare, Goddard Space Flight Center provided Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) funding to ProSensing Inc., of Amherst, Massachusetts, to develop a compact ultrastable radiometer for sea surface salinity and soil moisture mapping. ProSensing incorporated small, low-cost, high-performance elements into just a few circuit boards and now offers two lightweight radiometers commercially. Government research agencies, university research groups, and large corporations around the world are using the devices for mapping soil moisture, ocean salinity, and wind speed.

  10. New charged anisotropic compact models

    Kileba Matondo, D.; Maharaj, S. D.

    2016-07-01

    We find new exact solutions to the Einstein-Maxwell field equations which are relevant in the description of highly compact stellar objects. The relativistic star is charged and anisotropic with a quark equation of state. Exact solutions of the field equations are found in terms of elementary functions. It is interesting to note that we regain earlier quark models with uncharged and charged matter distributions. A physical analysis indicates that the matter distributions are well behaved and regular throughout the stellar structure. A range of stellar masses are generated for particular parameter values in the electric field. In particular the observed mass for a binary pulsar is regained.

  11. Porewater chemistry in compacted bentonite

    In this study, the porewater chemistry in compacted bentonite, considered as an engineered barrier in the repository of spent fuel, has been studied in interaction experiments. Many parameters, like the composition and density of bentonite, composition of the solution, bentonite-to-water ratio (B/W), surrounding conditions and experimental time have been varied in the experiments. At the end of the interaction the equilibrating solution, the porewaters squeezed out of the bentonite samples, and bentonites themselves were analyzed to give information for the interpretation and modelling of the interaction. Equilibrium modelling was performed with the HYDRAQL/CE computer code

  12. Compact objects in Horndeski gravity

    Silva, Hector O; Minamitsuji, Masato; Berti, Emanuele

    2016-01-01

    Horndeski gravity holds a special position as the most general extension of Einstein's theory of general relativity with a single scalar degree of freedom and second-order field equations. Because of these features, Horndeski gravity is an attractive phenomenological playground to investigate the consequences of modifications of general relativity in cosmology and astrophysics. We present a review of the progress made so far in the study of compact objects (black holes and neutron stars) within Horndeski gravity. In particular, we review our recent work on slowly rotating black holes and present some new results on slowly rotating neutron stars.

  13. Compact objects in Horndeski gravity

    Silva, Hector O.; Maselli, Andrea; Minamitsuji, Masato; Berti, Emanuele

    2016-04-01

    Horndeski gravity holds a special position as the most general extension of Einstein’s theory of general relativity (GR) with a single scalar degree of freedom and second-order field equations. Because of these features, Horndeski gravity is an attractive phenomenological playground to investigate the consequences of modifications of GR in cosmology and astrophysics. We present a review of the progress made so far in the study of compact objects (black holes (BHs) and neutron stars (NSs)) within Horndeski gravity. In particular, we review our recent work on slowly rotating BHs and present some new results on slowly rotating NSs.

  14. Self-compacting concrete (SCC)

    Geiker, Mette Rica

    2008-01-01

    In many aspects Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC, “Self-Consolidating Concrete” in North America) can be considered the concrete of the future. SCC is a family of tailored concretes with special engineered properties in the fresh state. SCC flows into the formwork and around even complicated...... reinforcement arrangements under its own weight. Thus, SCC is not vibrated like conventional concrete. This drastically improves the working environment during construction, the productivity, and potentially improves the homogeneity and quality of the concrete. In addition SCC provides larger architectural...

  15. Compact inertial confinement multireactor concepts

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) commercial-applications plant-optimum driver pulse repetition rates may exceed reactor pulse-repetition-rate capabilities. Thus, more than one reactor may be required for low-cost production of electric power, process heat, fissionable fuels, etc., in ICF plants. Substantial savings in expensive reactor containment cells and blankets can be realized by placing more than one reactor in a cell and by surrounding more than one reactor cavity with a single blanket system. There are also some potential disadvantages associated with close coupling in compact multicavity blankets and multireactor cells. Tradeoffs associated with several scenarios have been studied

  16. Flux stabilization in compact groups

    We consider the Born-Infeld action for symmetry-preserving, orientable D-branes in compact group manifolds. We find classical solutions that obey the flux quantization condition. They correspond to conformally invariant boundary conditions on the world sheet. We compute the spectrum of quadratic fluctuations and find agreement with the predictions of conformal field theory, up to a missing level-dependent truncation. Our results extend to D-branes with the geometry of twined conjugacy classes; they illustrate the mechanism of flux stabilization of D-branes. (author)

  17. Flux stabilization in compact groups

    Bordalo, P; Schweigert, C; Bordalo, Pedro; Ribault, Sylvain; Schweigert, Christoph

    2001-01-01

    We consider the Born-Infeld action for symmetry-preserving, orientable D-branes in compact group manifolds. We find classical solutions that obey the flux quantization condition. They correspond to conformally invariant boundary conditions on the world sheet. We compute the spectrum of quadratic fluctuations and find agreement with the predictions of conformal field theory, up to a missing level-dependent truncation. Our results extend to D-branes with the geometry of twined conjugacy classes; they illustrate the mechanism of flux stabilization of D-branes.

  18. Adaptive test

    Kjeldsen, Lars Peter; Eriksen, Mette Rose

    2010-01-01

    Artikelen er en evaluering af de adaptive tests, som blev indført i folkeskolen. Artiklen sætter særligt fokus på evaluering i folkeskolen, herunder bidrager den med vejledning til evaluering, evalueringsværktøjer og fagspecifkt evalueringsmateriale.......Artikelen er en evaluering af de adaptive tests, som blev indført i folkeskolen. Artiklen sætter særligt fokus på evaluering i folkeskolen, herunder bidrager den med vejledning til evaluering, evalueringsværktøjer og fagspecifkt evalueringsmateriale....

  19. Compact Visualisation of Video Summaries

    Ćalić Janko

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a system for compact and intuitive video summarisation aimed at both high-end professional production environments and small-screen portable devices. To represent large amounts of information in the form of a video key-frame summary, this paper studies the narrative grammar of comics, and using its universal and intuitive rules, lays out visual summaries in an efficient and user-centered way. In addition, the system exploits visual attention modelling and rapid serial visual presentation to generate highly compact summaries on mobile devices. A robust real-time algorithm for key-frame extraction is presented. The system ranks importance of key-frame sizes in the final layout by balancing the dominant visual representability and discovery of unanticipated content utilising a specific cost function and an unsupervised robust spectral clustering technique. A final layout is created using an optimisation algorithm based on dynamic programming. Algorithm efficiency and robustness are demonstrated by comparing the results with a manually labelled ground truth and with optimal panelling solutions.

  20. A compact THz imaging system

    Sešek, Aleksander; Å vigelj, Andrej; Trontelj, Janez

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this paper is the development of a compact low cost imaging THz system, usable for observation of the objects near to the system and also for stand-off detection. The performance of the system remains at the high standard of more expensive and bulkiest system on the market. It is easy to operate as it is not dependent on any fine mechanical adjustments. As it is compact and it consumes low power, also a portable system was developed for stand-off detection of concealed objects under textile or inside packages. These requirements rule out all optical systems like Time Domain Spectroscopy systems which need fine optical component positioning and requires a large amount of time to perform a scan and the image capture pixel-by-pixel. They are also almost not suitable for stand-off detection due to low output power. In the paper the antenna - bolometer sensor microstructure is presented and the THz system described. Analysis and design guidelines for the bolometer itself are discussed. The measurement results for both near and stand-off THz imaging are also presented.

  1. Molecular Gas in Compact Galaxies

    Israel, F P

    2005-01-01

    New observations of 11 compact galaxies in the 12CO J=2-1 and J=3-2 transitions and literature data have been used to construct accurate line ratios in matched beams allowing LVG modelling of physical parameters. Fitting a single gas component to observed line ratios tends to produce physically unrealistic results, and is often not possible at all. Much better results are obtained by modelling two distinct gas components. The molecular gas is usually warm (T(kin)=50-150 K) and at least partially dense (n(H2)>3000 cm3). Most of the gas-phase carbon in these galaxies is in atomic form; only a small fraction (5%) is in carbon monoxide. Beam-averaged CO column densities are low, typically 10(16) cm2 but molecular hydrogen column densities are high, of the order of 10(22) cm2 and confirm large CO-to-H2 conversion factors, typically X = 10(21)-10(22) cm2(K kms-1) found in low-metallicity environments by other methods. From CO spectroscopy, three different types of molecular environment are distinguished in compact ...

  2. The Planck Compact Source Catalogues

    Lopez-Caniego, Marcos

    2015-12-01

    The Second Planck Catalogue of Compact Sources is a catalogue of sources observed over the entire sky at nine different frequencies between 30 and 857 GHz. It consists of Galactic and extragalactic objects detected in the Planck single-frequency full mission total intensity maps. Compact sources detected in the lower frequency channels are assigned to the PCCS2, while at higher frequencies they are assigned to one of two sub·catalogues, the PCCS2 or PCCS2E, depending on their location on the sky. The PCCS2 covers most of the sky and can be used to produce subsamples at higher reliabilities than the target 80% integral reliability of the catalogue. The PCCS2E contains sources located in certain regions where the complex background makes it difficult to quantify the reliability of the detections. Both the PCCS2 and PCCS2E include polarization measurements, in the form of polarized flux densities, or upper limits, and orientation angles for all seven polarization-sensitive Planck channels.

  3. Dense and Homogeneous Compaction of Fine Ceramic and Metallic Powders: High-Speed Centrifugal Compaction Process

    High-Speed Centrifugal Compaction Process (HCP) is a variation of colloidal compacting method, in which the powders sediment under huge centrifugal force. Compacting mechanism of HCP differs from conventional colloidal process such as slip casting. The unique compacting mechanism of HCP leads to a number of characteristics such as a higher compacting speed, wide applicability for net shape formation, flawless microstructure of the green compacts, etc. However, HCP also has several deteriorative characteristics that must be overcome to fully realize this process' full potential

  4. Brittle and compaction creep in porous sandstone

    Heap, Michael; Brantut, Nicolas; Baud, Patrick; Meredith, Philip

    2015-04-01

    Strain localisation in the Earth's crust occurs at all scales, from the fracture of grains at the microscale to crustal-scale faulting. Over the last fifty years, laboratory rock deformation studies have exposed the variety of deformation mechanisms and failure modes of rock. Broadly speaking, rock failure can be described as either dilatant (brittle) or compactive. While dilatant failure in porous sandstones is manifest as shear fracturing, their failure in the compactant regime can be characterised by either distributed cataclastic flow or the formation of localised compaction bands. To better understand the time-dependency of strain localisation (shear fracturing and compaction band growth), we performed triaxial deformation experiments on water-saturated Bleurswiller sandstone (porosity = 24%) under a constant stress (creep) in the dilatant and compactive regimes, with particular focus on time-dependent compaction band formation in the compactive regime. Our experiments show that inelastic strain accumulates at a constant stress in the brittle and compactive regimes leading to the development of shear fractures and compaction bands, respectively. While creep in the dilatant regime is characterised by an increase in porosity and, ultimately, an acceleration in axial strain to shear failure (as observed in previous studies), compaction creep is characterised by a reduction in porosity and a gradual deceleration in axial strain. The overall deceleration in axial strain, AE activity, and porosity change during creep compaction is punctuated by excursions interpreted as the formation of compaction bands. The growth rate of compaction bands formed during creep is lower as the applied differential stress, and hence background creep strain rate, is decreased, although the inelastic strain required for a compaction band remains constant over strain rates spanning several orders of magnitude. We find that, despite the large differences in strain rate and growth rate

  5. The Future Concrete: Self-Compacting Concrete

    Liana Iureş; Corneliu Bob

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents the characteristics of the self-compacting concretes, their advantages and disadvantages when they are used in buildings. Due to its properties and composition, the self-compacting concrete is described here as being one of the future friendly enviromental material for buildings. Tests concerning to obtaining a self-compacting concrete, together with the specific fresh concrete properties tests, are described.

  6. Compact approach to fusion power reactors

    The potential of the Reversed-Field Pinch (RFP) for development into an efficient, compact, copper-coil fusion reactor has been quantified by comprehensive parametric tradeoff studies. These compact systems promise to be competitive in size, power density, and cost to alternative energy sources. Conceptual engineering designs that largely substantiate these promising results have since been completed. This 1000-MWe(net) design is described along with a detailed rationale and physics/technology assessment for the compact approach to fusion

  7. Positron Annihilation Lifetimes in Compacted Iron Powder

    The positron annihilation lifetime (PAL) spectroscopy has been performed on iron powder as a function of compacted powder load. The ortho-positronium lifetime increases from 1.45 to 2.55 ns with compaction load increment from 30 to 50 tons. By increasing the compaction load, the ultimate stress and hardness increases and the ductlity decreases. The result shows that there is a direct correlation between the void size and the load decrement. These results will be presented and discussed

  8. Self Compacting Concrete And Its Properties

    Mahesh, S.

    2014-01-01

    Self-compacting concrete (SCC), which flows under its own weight and doesn’t require any external vibration for compaction, has revolutionized concrete placement. Such concrete should have relatively low yield value to ensure high flow ability, a moderate viscosity to resists segregation and bleeding and must maintain its homogeneity during transportation, placing and curing to ensure adequate structural performance and long term durability. Self-compacting concrete (SCC) ca...

  9. A Computer Verified Theory of Compact Sets

    O'Connor, Russell

    2008-01-01

    Compact sets in constructive mathematics capture our intuition of what computable subsets of the plane (or any other complete metric space) ought to be. A good representation of compact sets provides an efficient means of creating and displaying images with a computer. In this paper, I build upon existing work about complete metric spaces to define compact sets as the completion of the space of finite sets under the Hausdorff metric. This definition allowed me to quickly develop a computer ve...

  10. Nonlinear Viscoelastic Compaction in Sedimentary Basins

    Yang, Xin-She

    2010-01-01

    In the mathematical modelling of sediment compaction and porous media flow, the rheological behaviour of sediments is typically modelled in terms of a nonlinear relationship between effective pressure $p_e$ and porosity $\\phi$, that is $p_e=p_e(\\phi)$. The compaction law is essentially a poroelastic one. However, viscous compaction due to pressure solution becomes important at larger depths and causes this relationship to become more akin to a viscous rheology. A generalised viscoelastic compaction model of Maxwell type is formulated, and different styles of nonlinear behaviour are asymptotically analysed and compared in this paper.

  11. Soil compaction and growth of woody plants

    Although soil compaction in the field may benefit or inhibit the growth of plants, the harmful effects are much more common. This paper emphasizes the deleterious effects of predominantly high levels of soil compaction on plant growth and yield. High levels of soil compaction are common in heavily used recreation areas, construction sites, urban areas, timber harvesting sites, fruit orchards, agroforestry systems and tree nurseries. Compaction can occur naturally by settling or slumping of soil or may be induced by tillage tools, heavy machinery, pedestrian traffic, trampling by animals and fire. Compaction typically alters soil structure and hydrology by increasing soil bulk density; breaking down soil aggregates; decreasing soil porosity, aeration and infiltration capacity; and by increasing soil strength, water runoff and soil erosion. Appreciable compaction of soil leads to physiological dysfunctions in plants. Often, but not always, reduced water absorption and leaf water deficits develop. Soil compaction also induces changes in the amounts and balances of growth hormones in plants, especially increases in abscisic acid and ethylene. Absorption of the major mineral nutrients is reduced by compaction of both surface soils and subsoils. The rate of photosynthesis of plants growing in very compacted soil is decreased by both stomatal and non-stomatal inhibition. Total photosynthesis is reduced as a result of smaller leaf areas. As soils become increasingly compacted respiration of roots shifts toward an anaerobic state. Severe soil compaction adversely influences regeneration of forest stands by inhibiting seed germination and growth of seedlings, and by inducing seedling mortality. Growth of woody plants beyond the seedling stage and yields of harvestable plant products also are greatly decreased by soil compaction because of the combined effects of high soil strength, decreased infiltration of water and poor soil aeration, all of which lead to a decreased

  12. Speeded-up and Compact Visual Codebook for Object Recognition

    B. Mayurathan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The well known framework in the object recognition literature uses local information extracted at several patches in images which are then clustered by a suitable clustering technique. A visual codebook maps the patch-based descriptors into a fixed-length vector in histogram space to which standard classifiers can be directly applied. Thus, the construction of a codebook is an important step which is usually done by cluster analysis. However, it is still difficult to construct a compact codebook with reduced computational cost. This paper evaluates the effectiveness and generalisation performance of the Resource-Allocating Codebook (RAC approach that overcomes the problem of constructing fixed size codebooks that can be used at any time in the learning process and the learning patterns do not have to be repeated. It either allocates a new codeword based on the novelty of a newly seen pattern, or adapts the codebook to fit that observation. Furthermore, we improve RAC to yield codebooks that are more compact. We compare and contrast the recognition performance of RAC evaluated with two distinctive feature descriptors: SIFT and SURF and two clustering techniques: K-means and Fast Reciprocal Nearest Neighbours (fast-RNN algorithms. SVM is used in classifying the image signatures. The entire visual object recognition pipeline has been tested on three benchmark datasets: PASCAL visual object classes challenge 2007, UIUC texture, and MPEG-7 Part-B silhouette image datasets. Experimental results show that RAC is suitable for constructing codebooks due to its wider span of the feature space. Moreover, RAC takes only one-pass through the entire data that slightly outperforms traditional approaches at drastically reduced computing times. The modified RAC performs slightly better than RAC and gives more compact codebook. Future research should focus on designing more discriminative and compact codebooks such as RAC rather than focusing on methods tuned to

  13. Fluidic switching in nanochannels for the control of Inchworm: a synthetic biomolecular motor with a power stroke

    Niman, Cassandra S.; Zuckermann, Martin J.; Balaz, Martina; Tegenfeldt, Jonas O.; Curmi, Paul M. G.; Forde, Nancy R.; Linke, Heiner

    2014-11-01

    Synthetic molecular motors typically take nanometer-scale steps through rectification of thermal motion. Here we propose Inchworm, a DNA-based motor that employs a pronounced power stroke to take micrometer-scale steps on a time scale of seconds, and we design, fabricate, and analyze the nanofluidic device needed to operate the motor. Inchworm is a kbp-long, double-stranded DNA confined inside a nanochannel in a stretched configuration. Motor stepping is achieved through externally controlled changes in salt concentration (changing the DNA's extension), coordinated with ligand-gated binding of the DNA's ends to the functionalized nanochannel surface. Brownian dynamics simulations predict that Inchworm's stall force is determined by its entropic spring constant and is ~0.1 pN. Operation of the motor requires periodic cycling of four different buffers surrounding the DNA inside a nanochannel, while keeping constant the hydrodynamic load force on the DNA. We present a two-layer fluidic device incorporating 100 nm-radius nanochannels that are connected through a few-nm-wide slit to a microfluidic system used for in situ buffer exchanges, either diffusionally (zero flow) or with controlled hydrodynamic flow. Combining experiment with finite-element modeling, we demonstrate the device's key performance features and experimentally establish achievable Inchworm stepping times of the order of seconds or faster.Synthetic molecular motors typically take nanometer-scale steps through rectification of thermal motion. Here we propose Inchworm, a DNA-based motor that employs a pronounced power stroke to take micrometer-scale steps on a time scale of seconds, and we design, fabricate, and analyze the nanofluidic device needed to operate the motor. Inchworm is a kbp-long, double-stranded DNA confined inside a nanochannel in a stretched configuration. Motor stepping is achieved through externally controlled changes in salt concentration (changing the DNA's extension), coordinated

  14. Compact toroid fueling for ITER

    Experimental and theoretical work indicates that deep fueling of ITER may be possible by Compact Toroid (CT) injection. CT velocities sufficient for center fueling of a reactor have been demonstrated in the RACE device. CT injections into the TdeV tokamak have achieved central penetration at 1.4 T, and have increased the particle inventory by more than 30% without disruption. Tests on the MARAUDER device have achieved CT mass-densities suitable for injection into 5 T tokamaks. Techniques for producing multiple-shot CT's with passive electric switching are being tested on CTIX. The advantages of deep fueling by CT injection include profile peaking to reach ignition, profile control, low tritium inventory and others. In this paper, the CT experimental results are summarized, a conceptual design of a CT fueler for ITER is presented, and the implications on ITER operation and fuel cycle are discussed. 16 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  15. Compact anti-radon facility

    Fajt, L.; Kouba, P.; Mamedov, F.; Smolek, K.; Štekl, I., E-mail: ivan.stekl@utef.cvut.cz [Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, Czech Technical University in Prague, Horská 3a/22, 128 00 Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Fojtík, P.; Hýža, M.; Hůlka, J.; Jílek, K. [SÚRO (NRPI) National Radiation Protection Institute, Bartoškova 1450/28, 140 00 Prague 4 (Czech Republic); Stoček, P.; Veselý, J. [ATEKO a.s., Resslova 956/13, 501 01Hradec Králové, Czech Republic. (Czech Republic); Busto, J. [CPPM, Universite de Marseille, CNRS/IN2P3, F-13288 Marseille (France)

    2015-08-17

    Suppression of radon background is one of main tasks in ultra-low background experiments. The most promising technique for suppression of radon is its adsorption on charcoal. Within the frame of the NEMO-3 experiment, radon trapping facility (RTF) was installed in Modane underground laboratory in 2004. Based on long-term experience with this facility a new compact transportable anti-radon facility was constructed in cooperation among IEAP CTU, SÚRO and ATEKO company. The device provides 20m{sup 3}/h of purified air (air radon activity at the output ∼10mBq/m{sup 3}). The basic features and preliminary results of anti-radon device testing are presented.

  16. Compact Quantum Cascade Laser Transmitter

    Anheier, Norman C.; Hatchell, Brian K.; Gervais, Kevin L.; Wojcik, Michael D.; Krishnaswami, Kannan; Bernacki, Bruce E.

    2009-04-01

    ): In this paper we present design considerations, thermal and optical modeling results, and device performance for a ruggedized, compact laser transmitter that utilizes a room temperature quantum cascade (QC) laser source. The QC laser transmitter is intended for portable mid-infrared (3-12 µm) spectroscopy applications, where the atmospheric transmission window is relatively free of water vapor interference and where the molecular rotational vibration absorption features can be used to detect and uniquely identify chemical compounds of interest. Initial QC laser-based sensor development efforts were constrained by the complications of cryogenic operation. However, improvements in both QC laser designs and fabrication processes have provided room-temperature devices that now enable significant miniaturization and integration potential for national security, environmental monitoring, atmospheric science, and industrial safety applications.

  17. A Compact Wakefield Measurement Facility

    Power, J. G.; Gai, W.

    2015-10-01

    The conceptual design of a compact, photoinjector-based, facility for high precision measurements of wakefields is presented. This work is motivated by the need for a thorough understanding of beam induced wakefield effects for any future linear collider. We propose to use a high brightness photoinjector to generate (approximately) a 2 nC, 2 mm-mrad drive beam at 20 MeV to excite wakefields and a second photoinjector to generate a 5 MeV, variably delayed, trailing witness beam to probe both the longitudinal and transverse wakefields in the structure under test. Initial estimates show that we can detect a minimum measurable dipole transverse wake function of 0.1 V/pC/m/mm and a minimum measurable monopole longitudinal wake function of 2.5 V/pC/m. Simulations results for the high brightness photoinjector, calculations of the facility's wakefield measurement resolution, and the facility layout are presented.

  18. Compact K-edge densitometer

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has designed, built, and is currently testing a compact K-edge densitometer for use by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspectors. The unit, which can easily be moved from one location to another within a facility, is positioned outside a glovebox with the body of the instrument inserted into the glove. A fixture inside the glovebox fits around the body and positions a sample holder. A hand-held high-purity germanium detector powered by a battery pack and a Davidson portable multichannel analyzer (MCA) is used to measure the transmission through plutonium nitrate solutions at E/sub Y/ = 121.1 and 122.2 keV. The Davidson MCA is programmed to lead the user through the measurement procedure and perform all the data analyses. The instrument is currently installed at the Safeguards Analytical Laboratory, where IAEA personnel are evaluating its accuracy, ease of operation, and safety. 5 references, 5 figures, 5 tables

  19. Compact Microwave Fourier Spectrum Analyzer

    Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Matsko, Andrey; Strekalov, Dmitry

    2009-01-01

    A compact photonic microwave Fourier spectrum analyzer [a Fourier-transform microwave spectrometer, (FTMWS)] with no moving parts has been proposed for use in remote sensing of weak, natural microwave emissions from the surfaces and atmospheres of planets to enable remote analysis and determination of chemical composition and abundances of critical molecular constituents in space. The instrument is based on a Bessel beam (light modes with non-zero angular momenta) fiber-optic elements. It features low power consumption, low mass, and high resolution, without a need for any cryogenics, beyond what is achievable by the current state-of-the-art in space instruments. The instrument can also be used in a wide-band scatterometer mode in active radar systems.

  20. Studies of accelerated compact toruses

    In an earlier publication we considered acceleration of plasma rings (Compact Torus). Several possible accelerator configurations were suggested and the possibility of focusing the accelerated rings was discussed. In this paper we consider one scheme, acceleration of a ring between coaxial electrodes by a B/sub theta/ field as in a coaxial rail-gun. If the electrodes are conical, a ring accelerated towards the apex of the cone undergoes self-similar compression (focusing) during acceleration. Because the allowable acceleration force, F/sub a/ = kappaU/sub m//R where (kappa -2, the accelerating distance for conical electrodes is considerably shortened over that required for coaxial electrodes. In either case, however, since the accelerating flux can expand as the ring moves, most of the accelerating field energy can be converted into kinetic energy of the ring leading to high efficiency

  1. Gravitational waves from compact objects

    José Antonio de Freitas Pacheco

    2010-01-01

    Large ground-based laser beam interferometers are presently in operation both in the USA (LIGO) and in Europe (VIRGO) and potential sources that might be detected by these instruments are revisited. The present generation of detectors does not have a sensitivity high enough to probe a significant volume of the universe and,consequently, predicted event rates are very low. The planned advanced generation of interferometers will probably be able to detect, for the first time, a gravitational signal. Advanced LIGO and EGO instruments are expected to detect few (some): binary coalescences consisting of either two neutron stars, two black holes or a neutron star and a black hole. In space, the sensitivity of the planned LISA spacecraft constellation will allow the detection of the gravitational signals, even within a "pessimistic" range of possible signals, produced during the capture of compact objects by supermassive black holes, at a rate of a few tens per year.

  2. Compact torus experiments and theory

    Two types of compact toroids have been studied: spheromaks and field-reversed configurations (FRC). Spheromaks, which contain both toroidal and poloidal fields, have been formed with a magnetized coaxial injector and trapped in both prolate and oblate flux conservers. As expected from theory, the prolate configuration always tilts, but the oblate configuration can be made stable even in the presence of a guide field. Observations include 150μs lifetimes, approx. 1014 cm-3, and a decrease of field fluctuations by a factor of 100 at the time of complete reconnection. Theoretical studies of the FRC (no toroidal field) have been compared with the results of two field-reversed theta-pinches, FRX-A and FRX-B

  3. A Compact UWB Diversity Antenna

    Hui Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A compact printed ultrawideband (UWB diversity antenna with a size of 30 mm × 36 mm operating at a frequency range of 3.1–10.6 GHz is proposed. The antenna is composed of two semielliptical monopoles fed by two microstrip lines. Two semicircular slots, two rectangular slots, and one stub are introduced in the ground plane to adjust the impedance bandwidth of the antenna and improve the isolation between two feeding ports. The simulated and measured results show that impedance bandwidth of the proposed antenna can cover the whole UWB band with a good isolation of < −15 dB. The radiation patterns, peak antenna gain, and envelope correlation coefficient are also measured and discussed. The measured results show that the proposed antenna can be a good candidate for some portable MIMO/diversity UWB applications.

  4. Compact Digital High Voltage Charger

    Li, Ge

    2005-01-01

    The operation of classical resonant circuit developed for the pulse energizing is investigated. The HV pulse or generator is very compact by a soft switching circuit made up of IGBT working at over 30 kHZ. The frequencies of macro pulses andμpulses can be arbitrarily tuned below resonant frequency to digitalize the HV pulse power. Theμpulses can also be connected by filter circuit to get the HVDC power. The circuit topology is given and its novel control logic is analyzed by flowchart. The circuit is part of a system consisting of a AC or DC LV power supply, a pulse transformer, the pulse generator implemented by LV capacitor and leakage inductance of the transformer, a HV DC or pulse power supply and the charged HV capacitor of the modulators.

  5. Effect of conductivity variations within the electric double layer on the streaming potential estimation in narrow fluidic confinements.

    Das, Siddhartha; Chakraborty, Suman

    2010-07-01

    In this article, we investigate the implications of ionic conductivity variations within the electrical double layer (EDL) on the streaming potential estimation in pressure-driven fluidic transport through narrow confinements. Unlike the traditional considerations, we do not affix the ionic conductivities apriori by employing preset values of dimensionless parameters (such as the Dukhin number) to estimate the streaming potential. Rather, utilizing the Gouy-Chapman-Grahame model for estimating the electric potential and charge density distribution within the Stern layer, we first quantify the Stern layer electrical conductivity as a function of the zeta potential and other pertinent parameters quantifying the interaction of the ionic species with the charged surface. Next, by invoking the Boltzmann model for cationic and anionic distribution within the diffuse layer, we obtain the diffuse layer electrical conductivity. On the basis of these two different conductivities pertaining to the two different portions of the EDL as well as the bulk conductivity, we define two separate Dukhin numbers that turn out to be functions of the dimensionless zeta potential and the channel height to Debye length ratio. We derive analytical expressions for the streaming potential as a function of the fundamental governing parameters, considering the above. The results reveal interesting and significant deviations between the streaming potential predictions from the present considerations against the corresponding predictions from the classical considerations in which electrochemically consistent estimates of variable EDL conductivity are not traditionally accounted for. In particular, it is revealed that the variations of streaming potential with zeta potential are primarily determined by the competing effects of EDL electromigration and ionic advection. Over low and high zeta potential regimes, the Stern layer and diffuse layer conductivities predominantly dictate the streaming

  6. Design and Application of a New Automated Fluidic Visceral Stimulation Device for Human fMRI Studies of Interoception

    Gassert, Roger; Wanek, Johann; Michels, Lars; Mehnert, Ulrich; Kollias, Spyros S.

    2016-01-01

    Mapping the brain centers that mediate the sensory-perceptual processing of visceral afferent signals arising from the body (i.e., interoception) is useful both for characterizing normal brain activity and for understanding clinical disorders related to abnormal processing of visceral sensation. Here, we report a novel closed-system, electrohydrostatically driven master–slave device that was designed and constructed for delivering controlled fluidic stimulations of visceral organs and inner cavities of the human body within the confines of a 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner. The design concept and performance of the device in the MRI environment are described. In addition, the device was applied during a functional MRI (fMRI) investigation of visceral stimulation related to detrusor distention in two representative subjects to verify its feasibility in humans. System evaluation tests demonstrate that the device is MR-compatible with negligible impact on imaging quality [static signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) loss <2.5% and temporal SNR loss <3.5%], and has an accuracy of 99.68% for flow rate and 99.27% for volume delivery. A precise synchronization of the stimulus delivery with fMRI slice acquisition was achieved by programming the proposed device to detect the 5 V transistor–transistor logic (TTL) trigger signals generated by the MRI scanner. The fMRI data analysis using the general linear model analysis with the standard hemodynamic response function showed increased activations in the network of brain regions that included the insula, anterior and mid-cingulate and lateral prefrontal cortices, and thalamus in response to increased distension pressure on viscera. The translation from manually operated devices to an MR-compatible and MR-synchronized device under automatic control represents a useful innovation for clinical neuroimaging studies of human interoception. PMID:27551646

  7. Adaptation Laboratory

    Huq, Saleemul

    2011-11-15

    Efforts to help the world's poor will face crises in coming decades as climate change radically alters conditions. Action Research for Community Adapation in Bangladesh (ARCAB) is an action-research programme on responding to climate change impacts through community-based adaptation. Set in Bangladesh at 20 sites that are vulnerable to floods, droughts, cyclones and sea level rise, ARCAB will follow impacts and adaptation as they evolve over half a century or more. National and international 'research partners', collaborating with ten NGO 'action partners' with global reach, seek knowledge and solutions applicable worldwide. After a year setting up ARCAB, we share lessons on the programme's design and move into our first research cycle.

  8. Hedonic "adaptation"

    Paul Rozin

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available People live in a world in which they are surrounded by potential disgust elicitors such as ``used'' chairs, air, silverware, and money as well as excretory activities. People function in this world by ignoring most of these, by active avoidance, reframing, or adaptation. The issue is particularly striking for professions, such as morticians, surgeons, or sanitation workers, in which there is frequent contact with major disgust elicitors. In this study, we study the ``adaptation'' process to dead bodies as disgust elicitors, by measuring specific types of disgust sensitivity in medical students before and after they have spent a few months dissecting a cadaver. Using the Disgust Scale, we find a significant reduction in disgust responses to death and body envelope violation elicitors, but no significant change in any other specific type of disgust. There is a clear reduction in discomfort at touching a cold dead body, but not in touching a human body which is still warm after death.

  9. Adaptive ethnography

    Berth, Mette

    2005-01-01

    This paper focuses on the use of an adaptive ethnography when studying such phenomena as young people's use of mobile media in a learning perspective. Mobile media such as PDAs and mobile phones have a number of affordances which make them potential tools for learning. However, before we begin to...... design and develop educational materials for mobile media platforms we must first understand everyday use and behaviour with a medium such as a mobile phone. The paper outlines the research design for a PhD project on mobile learning which focuses on mobile phones as a way to bridge the gap between...... formal and informal learning contexts. The paper also proposes several adaptive methodological techniques for studying young people's interaction with mobiles....

  10. Adaptable positioner

    This paper describes the circuits and programs in assembly language, developed to control the two DC motors that give mobility to a mechanical arm with two degrees of freedom. As a whole, the system is based in a adaptable regulator designed around a 8 bit microprocessor that, starting from a mode of regulation based in the successive approximation method, evolve to another mode through which, only one approximation is sufficient to get the right position of each motor. (Author) 22 fig. 6 ref

  11. Adaptive positioner

    This paper describes the circuits and programs in assembly language, developed to control the two DC motors that give mobility to a mechanical arm with two degrees of freedom. As a whole, the system is based in a adaptable regulator designed around a 8 bit microprocessor that, starting from a mode of regulation based in the successive approximation method, evolve to another mode through which, only one approximation is sufficient to get the right position of each motor. (Author) 6 refs

  12. Adaptive noise

    Viney, Mark; Reece, Sarah E.

    2013-01-01

    In biology, noise implies error and disorder and is therefore something which organisms may seek to minimize and mitigate against. We argue that such noise can be adaptive. Recent studies have shown that gene expression can be noisy, noise can be genetically controlled, genes and gene networks vary in how noisy they are and noise generates phenotypic differences among genetically identical cells. Such phenotypic differences can have fitness benefits, suggesting that evolution can shape noise ...

  13. Levels of induced pressure and compaction as caused by forest harvesting operations

    Paula Cristina Caruana Martins

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine levels of pressure and compaction induced by forest harvesting operations in a Red Latosol (LV under planted eucalyptus. Undisturbed soil samples were collected from layers 0-3 and 15-18 cm and then used in a uniaxial compression test. Sampling was done before and after harvesting operations. Equipment being evaluated included: harvester, feller buncher, forwarder, self-loading adapted tractor, standard truck, wide-tire truck and grapple saw. Average pressures induced by the grapple saw were 320 kPa and 272 kPa, causing compaction in 80% and 20% of samples respectively from layers 0-3 cm and 15-18 cm, which indicates substantial degradation of soil structure in areas where timber is processed. In layer 0-3 cm, average pressures induced by the harvester and by the feller buncher were 240 kPa and 263 kPa respectively, while in layer 15-18 cm pressures were 234 kPa and 239 kPa respectively. The feller buncher caused higher soil compaction than the harvester in layer 0-3 cm, yet in layer 15-18 cm they had similar behavior. All timber forwarding equipment led to soil compaction. The wide-tire truck was the forwarding implement promoting the highest rate of compaction, in both residue conditions. Traffic intensity 7 promoted the highest rate of soil compaction.

  14. On compact multipliers of topological algebras

    It is shown that if the maximal ideal space Δ(A) of a semisimple commutative complete metrizable locally convex algebra contains no isolated points, then every compact multiplier is trivial. Particularly, compact multipliers on semisimple commutative Frechet algebras whose maximal ideal space has no isolated points are identically zero. (author). 5 refs

  15. Quantification of the compactibility of pharmaceutical powders

    Sonnergaard, Jørn

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate and to quantify the compactibility of pharmaceutical powders by a simple linear relationship between the diametral compressive strength of tablets and the applied compaction pressure. The mechanical strength of the tablets is characterized as the crushing...

  16. Physics of compact ignition tokamak designs

    Models for predicting plasma performance in compact ignition experiments are constructed on the basis of theoretical and empirical constraints and data from tokamak experiments. Emphasis is placed on finding transport and confinement models which reproduce results of both ohmically and auxiliary heated tokamak data. Illustrations of the application of the models to compact ignition designs are given

  17. Strength of field compacted clayey embankments

    Liang, Y.; Lovell, C. W.

    1982-02-01

    The shearing behavior of a plastic Indiana clay (St. Croix) was studied for both laboratory and field compaction. This interim report deals with the field compacted phase. The strength tests were performed by unconsolidated undrained (UU) and saturated consolidated undrained (CIU) triaxials. These were run at various confining pressures to approximate the end of construction and long term conditions at several embankment depths.

  18. Interpolation of bilinear operators and compactness

    da Silva, Eduardo Brandani

    2012-01-01

    The behavior of bilinear operators acting on interpolation of Banach spaces for the $\\rho$ method in relation to the compactness is analyzed. Similar results of Lions-Peetre, Hayakawa and Person's compactness theorems are obtained for the bilinear case and the $\\rho$ method.

  19. A compact lightweight aerosol spectrometer probe (CLASP)

    Hill, M.K.; Brooks, B.J.; Norris, S.J.; Smith, M.H.; Brooks, I.M.; Leeuw, G. de

    2008-01-01

    The Compact Lightweight Aerosol Spectrometer Probe (CLASP) is an optical particle spectrometer capable of measuring size-resolved particle concentrations in 16 user-defined size bins spanning diameters in the range 0.24 < D < 18.5 μm at a rate of 10 Hz. The combination of its compact nature and ligh

  20. Induced corepresentations of locally compact quantum groups

    Kustermans, Johan

    2000-01-01

    We introduce the construction of induced corepresentations in the setting of locally compact quantum groups and prove that the resulting induced corepresentations are unitary under some mild integrability condition. We also establish a quantum analogue of the classical bijective correspondence between quasi-invariant measures and certain measures on the larger locally compact group.

  1. Compact Process Development at Babcock and Wilcox

    Multiple process approaches have been used historically to manufacture cylindrical nuclear fuel compacts. Scale-up of fuel compacting was required for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) project to achieve an economically viable automated production process capable of providing a minimum of 10 compacts/minute with high production yields. In addition, the scale-up effort was required to achieve matrix density equivalent to baseline historical production processes, and allow compacting at fuel packing fractions up to 46% by volume. The scale-up approach of jet milling, fluid-bed overcoating, and hot-press compacting adopted in the U.S. Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development Program involves significant paradigm shifts to capitalize on distinct advantages in simplicity, yield, and elimination of mixed waste. A series of compaction trials have been completed to optimize compaction conditions of time, temperature, and forming pressure using natural uranium oxycarbide (NUCO) fuel at packing fractions exceeding 46% by volume. Results from these trials are included. The scale-up effort is nearing completion with the process installed and operable using nuclear fuel materials. Final process testing is in progress to certify the process for manufacture of qualification test fuel compacts in 2012.

  2. Rate type isotach compaction of consolidated sandstone

    Waal, J.A. de; Thienen-Visser, K. van; Pruiksma, J.P.

    2015-01-01

    Laboratory experiments on samples from a consolidated sandstone reservoir are presented that demonstrate rate type compaction behaviour similar to that observed on unconsolidated sands and soils. Such rate type behaviour can have large consequences for reservoir compaction, surface subsidence and in

  3. The coeffective cohomology for compact symplectic nilmanifolds

    The coeffective cohomology of symplectic manifolds was recently introduced by Bouche in [3]. He has proved that the coeffective cohomology and the truncated de Rham cohomology groups of a 2n-dimensional compact Kahler manifold are siomorphic, for degree p>- n+1. In this paper we show that the results does not hold for arbitrary compact symplectic nor indefinite Kahler manifolds. 16 refs

  4. Computing Decoupled Residuals for Compact Disc Players

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Stoustrup, Jakob; Andersen, Palle;

    2006-01-01

    pair of residuals generated by Compact Disc Player. However, these residuals depend on the performance of position servos in the Compact Disc Player. In other publications of the same authors a pair of decoupled residuals is derived. However, the computation of these alternative residuals has been...

  5. DYNAMIC COMPACTION OF PURE COPPER POWDER USING PULSED MAGNETIC FORCE

    2007-01-01

    The compaction of pure Cu powder was carried out through a series of experiments using dynamic magnetic pulse compaction, and the effects of process parameters, such as discharge energy and compacting direction, on the homogeneity and the compaction density of compacted specimens were presented and discussed. The results indicated that the compaction density of specimens increased with the augment of discharge voltage and time. During unidirectional compaction, there was a density gradient along the loading direction in the compacted specimen, and the minimum compaction density was localized to the center of the bottom of the specimen. The larger the aspect ratio of a powder body, the higher the compaction density of the compacted specimen. And high conductivity drivers were beneficial to the increase of the compaction density. The iterative and the double direction compaction were efficient means to manufacture the homogeneous and high-density powder parts.

  6. Relative Near PS-Compact L-subsets

    HE Wei-min

    2010-01-01

    In this paper the new concept of relative near PS-compactness in L-fuzzy topological spaces is introduced. The relative near PS-compactness is described with a-net , r-ps-cover, r-finite intersection property. The relationship between relative near PS-compactness and near PS-compactness is in vestigated. It is found that near PS-compactness implies relative near PS-compactness and every LF-set of near PS-compact space is relative near PS-compact. The relative near PS-compactness possess the f...

  7. Compactly accessible categories and quantum key distribution

    Heunen, Chris

    2008-01-01

    Compact categories have lately seen renewed interest via applications to quantum physics. Being essentially finite-dimensional, they cannot accomodate (co)limit-based constructions. For example, they cannot capture protocols such as quantum key distribution, that rely on the law of large numbers. To overcome this limitation, we introduce the notion of a compactly accessible category, relying on the extra structure of a factorisation system. This notion allows for infinite dimension while retaining key properties of compact categories: the main technical result is that the choice-of-duals functor on the compact part extends canonically to the whole compactly accessible category. As an example, we model a quantum key distribution protocol and prove its correctness categorically.

  8. Secondary structures in long compact polymers.

    Oberdorf, Richard; Ferguson, Allison; Jacobsen, Jesper L; Kondev, Jané

    2006-11-01

    Compact polymers are self-avoiding random walks that visit every site on a lattice. This polymer model is used widely for studying statistical problems inspired by protein folding. One difficulty with using compact polymers to perform numerical calculations is generating a sufficiently large number of randomly sampled configurations. We present a Monte Carlo algorithm that uniformly samples compact polymer configurations in an efficient manner, allowing investigations of chains much longer than previously studied. Chain configurations generated by the algorithm are used to compute statistics of secondary structures in compact polymers. We determine the fraction of monomers participating in secondary structures, and show that it is self-averaging in the long-chain limit and strictly less than 1. Comparison with results for lattice models of open polymer chains shows that compact chains are significantly more likely to form secondary structure. PMID:17279930

  9. Neural Network Adaptations to Hardware Implementations

    Moerland, Perry,; Fiesler,Emile

    1997-01-01

    In order to take advantage of the massive parallelism offered by artificial neural networks, hardware implementations are essential.However, most standard neural network models are not very suitable for implementation in hardware and adaptations are needed. In this section an overview is given of the various issues that are encountered when mapping an ideal neural network model onto a compact and reliable neural network hardware implementation, like quantization, handling nonuniformities and ...

  10. Neural Network Adaptations to Hardware Implementations

    Moerland, Perry,; Fiesler,Emile; Beale, R

    1997-01-01

    In order to take advantage of the massive parallelism offered by artificial neural networks, hardware implementations are essential. However, most standard neural network models are not very suitable for implementation in hardware and adaptations are needed. In this section an overview is given of the various issues that are encountered when mapping an ideal neural network model onto a compact and reliable neural network hardware implementation, like quantization, handling nonuniformities and...

  11. Investigation of compressibility and compactibility parameters of roller compacted Theophylline and its binary mixtures.

    Hadžović, Ervina; Betz, Gabriele; Hadžidedić, Seherzada; El-Arini, Silvia Kocova; Leuenberger, Hans

    2011-09-15

    Roller compaction is a dry granulation method which results in tablets with inferior tensile strength comparing to direct compaction. The effect of roller compaction on compressibility and compactibility of tablets prepared from Theophylline anhydrate powder, Theophylline anhydrate fine powder and Theophylline monohydrate was investigated by measuring tensile strength of tablets as well as calculating compressibility and compactibility parameters by Leuenberger equation. The tablets under the same conditions were prepared by direct compaction and roller compaction. The binary mixtures of Theophylline anhydrate powder, Theophylline anhydrate fine powder, Theophylline monohydrate and microcrystalline cellulose were prepared in order to determine the optimal ratio of active material and excipients which delivers a sufficient mechanical strength of tablets. Tensile strength of MCC tablets and compactibility parameters calculated by Leuenberger equation after roller compaction was significantly decreased, while THAP, THAFP and THMO tablets showed only a minor reduction in compactibility and compressibility. Adding MCC to a mixture with Theophylline showed that the right choice and ratio of excipients can enable a sufficient mechanical strength of the tablets after roller compaction. PMID:21704142

  12. Compact, harmonic multiplying gyrotron amplifiers

    Guo, H.Z.; Granatstein, V.L.; Antonsen, T.M. Jr.; Levush, B.; Tate, J.; Chen, S.H. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States). Inst. for Plasma Research

    1995-12-31

    A compact, harmonic multiplying gyrotron traveling wave amplifier is being developed. The device is a three-stage tube with the output section running as a fourth harmonic gyro-TWT, the input section running as a fundamental gyro-TWT, and the middle operating at the second harmonic of the cyclotron frequency. Radiation is suppressed by servers between the sections. The operating beam of the tube is produced by a magnetron injection gun (MIG). A TE{sub 0n} mode selective interaction circuit consisting of mode converters and a filter waveguide is employed for both input and output sections to solve the mode competition problem, which is pervasive in gyro-TWT operation. The input section has an input coupler designed as a TE{sub 0n} mode launcher. It excites a signal at the fundamental cyclotron frequency (17.5 GHz), which is amplified in the first TWT interaction region. So far the device is similar to a two-stage harmonic gyro-TWT. The distinction is that in the three-stage device the second section will be optimized not for output power but for fourth harmonic bunching of the beam. A gyroklystron amplifier has also been designed. The configuration is similar to the gyro-TWT but with the traveling wave interaction structures replaced by mode selective special complex cavities. Cold test results of the wideband input coupler and the TE{sub 0n} mode selective interaction circuit have been obtained.

  13. Compact Nanowire Sensors Probe Microdroplets.

    Schütt, Julian; Ibarlucea, Bergoi; Illing, Rico; Zörgiebel, Felix; Pregl, Sebastian; Nozaki, Daijiro; Weber, Walter M; Mikolajick, Thomas; Baraban, Larysa; Cuniberti, Gianaurelio

    2016-08-10

    The conjunction of miniature nanosensors and droplet-based microfluidic systems conceptually opens a new route toward sensitive, optics-less analysis of biochemical processes with high throughput, where a single device can be employed for probing of thousands of independent reactors. Here we combine droplet microfluidics with the compact silicon nanowire based field effect transistor (SiNW FET) for in-flow electrical detection of aqueous droplets one by one. We chemically probe the content of numerous (∼10(4)) droplets as independent events and resolve the pH values and ionic strengths of the encapsulated solution, resulting in a change of the source-drain current ISD through the nanowires. Further, we discuss the specificities of emulsion sensing using ion sensitive FETs and study the effect of droplet sizes with respect to the sensor area, as well as its role on the ability to sense the interior of the aqueous reservoir. Finally, we demonstrate the capability of the novel droplets based nanowire platform for bioassay applications and carry out a glucose oxidase (GOx) enzymatic test for glucose detection, providing also the reference readout with an integrated parallel optical detector. PMID:27417510

  14. General Relativity and Compact Objects

    Gupta, Patrick Das

    2015-01-01

    Starting with the conceptual foundation of general relativity (GR) - equivalence principle, space-time geometry and special relativity, I train cross hairs on two characteristic predictions of GR - black holes and gravitational waves. These two consequences of GR have played a significant role in relativistic astrophysics, e.g. compact X-ray sources, quasars, blazars, coalescing binary pulsars, etc. With quantum theory wedded to GR, particle production from vacuum becomes a generic feature whenever event horizons are present. In this paper, I shall briefly discuss the fate of a `black hole atom' when Hawking radiation is taken into account. In the context of gravitational waves, I shall focus on the possible consequences of gravitational and electromagnetic radiation from highly magnetized and rapidly spinning white dwarfs. The discovery of RX J0648.0-4418 system - a WD in a binary with mass slightly over 1.2 $ M_{\\odot}$, and rotating with spin period as short as 13.2 s, provides an impetus to revisit the pr...

  15. Spherically symmetric charged compact stars

    Maurya, S.K. [University of Nizwa, Department of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, College of Arts and Science, Nizwa (Oman); Gupta, Y.K. [Jaypee Institute of Information Technology University, Department of Mathematics, Noida, Uttar Pradesh (India); Ray, Saibal [Government College of Engineering and Ceramic Technology, Department of Physics, Kolkata, West Bengal (India); Chowdhury, Sourav Roy [Seth Anandaram Jaipuria College, Department of Physics, Kolkata, West Bengal (India)

    2015-08-15

    In this article we consider the static spherically symmetric metric of embedding class 1. When solving the Einstein-Maxwell field equations we take into account the presence of ordinary baryonic matter together with the electric charge. Specific new charged stellar models are obtained where the solutions are entirely dependent on the electromagnetic field, such that the physical parameters, like density, pressure etc. do vanish for the vanishing charge. We systematically analyze altogether the three sets of Solutions I, II, and III of the stellar models for a suitable functional relation of ν(r). However, it is observed that only the Solution I provides a physically valid and well-behaved situation, whereas the Solutions II and III are not well behaved and hence not included in the study. Thereafter it is exclusively shown that the Solution I can pass through several standard physical tests performed by us. To validate the solution set presented here a comparison has also been made with that of the compact stars, like RX J 1856 - 37, Her X - 1, PSR 1937+21, PSRJ 1614-2230, and PSRJ 0348+0432, and we have shown the feasibility of the models. (orig.)

  16. Ion diffusion in compacted bentonite

    In the study, a two-dimensional molecular-level diffusion model, based on a modified form of the Gouy-Chapman (GC) theory of the electrical double layers, for hydrated ionic species in compacted bentonite was developed. The modifications to the GC theory, which forms the very kernel of the diffusion model, stem from various non-conventional features: ionic hydration, dielectric saturation, finite ion-sizes and specific adsorption. The principal objectives of the study were met. With the aid of the consistent diffusion model, it is a relatively simple matter to explain the experimentally observed macroscopic exclusion for anions as well as the postulated, but greatly controversial, surface diffusion for cations. From purely theoretical grounds, it was possible to show that the apparent diffusivities of cations, anions and neutral molecules (i) do not exhibit order-or-magnitude differences, and (ii) are practically independent of the solution ionic strength used and, consequently, of the distribution coefficient, Kd, unless they experience specific binding onto the substrate surface. It was also of interest to investigate the equilibrium anionic concentration distribution in the pore geometry of the GMM model as a function of the solution ionic strength, and to briefly speculate its consequences to diffusion. An explicit account of the filter-plate effect was taken by developing a computerised macroscopic diffusion model, which is based upon the very robust and efficient Laplace Transform Finite-Difference technique. Finally, the inherent limitations as well as the potential fields of applications of the models were addressed. (orig.)

  17. Explosive compaction of CuCr alloys

    李金平; 罗守靖; 龚朝晖; 牛玮; 纪松

    2002-01-01

    The production of CuCr alloys utilizing explosive compaction was studied. Mixture powders of CuCr alloys placed in tubes with a dimension of d14.0mm×21.4mm can be compacted using explosive pads of 16.5mm or 22.5mm. Thicker pads of explosive make the compacts more porous. The effects of the ratio of me/mp, ratio of me/(mp+mt) and impact energy on the density of compacts were similar, they were chosen to control explosive compaction, respectively. When adequate value of the parameters me/mp, me/(mt+mp) and impact energy of unit area of tube was chosen, high density(7.858g/cm3), high hardness(HB189) and low conductance (13.6MS/m) of CuCr alloys could be made by explosive compaction. The general properties of CuCr alloys by explosive compaction are similar to those of CuCr alloys by traditional process.

  18. Soil compaction and fertilization in soybean productivity

    Beutler Amauri Nelson

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil compaction and fertilization affect soybean development. This study evaluated the effects of soil compaction and fertilization on soybean (Glycine max cv. Embrapa 48 productivity in a Typic Haplustox under field conditions in Jaboticabal, SP, Brazil. A completely randomized design with a 5 x 2 factorial layout (compaction vs. fertilization, with four replications in each treatment, was employed. Each experimental unit (replicate consisted of a 3.6 m² useful area. After the soil was prepared by cultivation, an 11 Mg tractor passed over it a variable number of times to create five levels of compaction. Treatments were: T0= no compaction, T1= one tractor pass, T2= two, T4= four, and T6= six passes, and no fertilizer and fertilizer to give soybean yields of 2.5 to 2.9 Mg ha-1. Soil was sampled at depths of 0.02-0.05, 0.07-0.10, and 0.15-0.18 m to determine macro and microporosity, penetration resistance (PR, and bulk density (Db. After 120 days growing under these conditions, the plants were analyzed in terms of development (plant height, number of pods, shoot dry matter per plant and weight of 100 seeds and seed productivity per hectare. Soil compaction decreased soybean development and productivity, but this effect was decreased by soil fertilization, showing that such fertilization increased soybean tolerance to soil compaction.

  19. Subsoil Compaction as a Climate Damage Indicator

    Márta Birkás

    2009-06-01

    Soil compaction has become a soil management problem during the last decade as a result of the occurrence of periods of water-logging as well as droughts. This study contains an evaluation of factors relating to subsoil compaction, as indicator of climate effects on arable fields. This paper is based on soil condition monitoring and measuring that was started 32 years ago and on short and long-term experiments modeling and checking the extension of compaction in the soil. The survey comprised 1526 monitoring places and 38 experimental plots. The following five points were chosen for monitoring: 1 root zone state (to a depth of 0-60 cm; 2 occurrence of compacted layer (indicating likelihood of risk; 3 extension of the compacted layer (indicating the degree of damage; 4 long term effects of tillage (soil state deterioration or improvement, and 5 tillage-induced water-logging and drought damage impacts on yield loss. The main objectives of the experiments were: 1 occurrence and the extent of tillage-pan damage in soils of different susceptibility to compaction; 2 consequences on water management in each of the years covered by the experiments; 3 soil quality consequences, and 4 alleviation of pan-compaction by mechanical and biological methods. Long-term field monitoring and experimental work have both convincingly proven a correlation between subsoil compaction and the degree of climatic damage. In view of the findings, trends in soil tillage can be grouped into the following two categories: climate damage mitigating and climate-stress increasing ones. The formation and location of compacted layers provided information concerning the depth, the method and the type of tillage applied, along with the expected risk for crop production under extreme climate conditions.

  20. Self Compacting Concrete And Its Properties

    S. Mahesh

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Self-compacting concrete (SCC, which flows under its own weight and doesn’t require any external vibration for compaction, has revolutionized concrete placement. Such concrete should have relatively low yield value to ensure high flow ability, a moderate viscosity to resists segregation and bleeding and must maintain its homogeneity during transportation, placing and curing to ensure adequate structural performance and long term durability. Self-compacting concrete (SCC can be defined as a fresh concrete which possesses superior flow ability under maintained stability (i.e. no segregation thus allowing self-compaction that is, material consolidation without addition of energy. Self-compacting concrete is a fluid mixture suitable for placing in structures with Congested reinforcement without vibration and it helps in achieving higher quality of surface finishes. However utilization of high reactive Metakaolin and Flyash asan admixtures as an effective pozzolan which causes great improvement in the porestructure. The relative proportions of key components are considered by volumerather than by mass. self compacting concrete (SCC mix design with 29% of coarse aggregate, replacement of cement with Metakaolin and class F flyash, combinations of both and controlled SCC mix with 0.36 water/cementitious ratio(by weight and388 litre/m3 of cement paste volume. Crushed granite stones of size 16mm and12.5mm are used with a blending 60:40 by percentage weight of total coarse aggregate. Self-compacting concrete compactibility is affected by the characteristics of materials and the mix proportions; it becomes necessary to evolve a procedure formix design of SCC. The properties of different constituent materials used in this investigation and its standard tests procedures for acceptance characteristics of self compacting concrete such as slump flow, V-funnel and L-Box are presented.

  1. Compaction of North-sea chalk

    Keszthelyi, Dániel; Dysthe, Dag Kristian; Jamtveit, Bjørn

    2014-05-01

    The Ekofisk field is the largest petroleum field in the Norwegian North Sea territory where oil is produced from chalk formations. Early stage of oil production caused considerable changes in pore fluid pressure which led to a reservoir compaction. Pore collapse mechanism caused by the dramatic increase of effective stress, which in turn was caused by the pressure reduction by hydrocarbon depletion, was early identified as a principal reason for the reservoir compaction (Sulak et al. 1991). There have been several attempts to model this compaction. They performed with variable success on predicting the Ekofisk subsidence. However, the most of these models are based on empirical relations and do not investigate in detail the phenomena involved in the compaction. In sake of predicting the Ekofisk subsidence while using only independently measurable variables we used a chalk compaction model valid on geological time-scales (Japsen et al. 2011) assuming plastic pore-collapse mechanism at a threshold effective stress level. We identified the phenomena involved in the pore collapse. By putting them in a sequential order we created a simple statistical analytical model. We also investigated the time-dependence of the phenomena involved and by assuming that one of the phenomena is rate-limiting we could make estimations of the compaction rate at smaller length-scales. By carefully investigating the nature of pressure propagation we could upscale our model to reservoir scale. We found that the predicted compaction rates are close enough to the measured rates. We believe that we could further increase accuracy by refining our model. Sulak, R. M., Thomas, L. K., Boade R. R. (1991) 3D reservoir simulation of Ekofisk compaction drive. Journal of Petroleum Technology, 43(10):1272-1278, 1991. Japsen, P., Dysthe, D. K., Hartz, E. H., Stipp, S. L. S., Yarushina, V. M., Jamtveit. (2011) A compaction front in North Sea chalk. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth (1978

  2. A technique to design complex 3D lab on a chip involving multilayered fluidics, embedded thick electrodes and hard packaging—application to dielectrophoresis and electroporation of cells

    Nowadays, lab on chips (LOCs) require the development of new technologies in order to integrate complex fluidics, sensors, actuators, etc. Such integration requires overcoming both technological bottlenecks and an increase in production cost. We propose a technique to manufacture reusable and complex LOCs made up of SU-8 resist for the fluidic structure and of glass for the hard packaging, and are compatible with the integration of thick electrodes. The method is based on the combination of two bonding technologies, both based on a wafer bonder. The first one consists of the bonding of a thin photosensitive SU-8 dry film, which is similar to lamination. The second one is the standard bonding technique which uses a hard substrate covered by an SU-8 layer. The LOCs that can be obtained by combining these two methods are transparent, and include 3D microfluidic structures and thick electrodes. Moreover, these LOCs are reusable, packaged and ready to use. In order to validate the concept, we designed an LOC devoted to cell arraying, using dielectrophoresis, as well as to cell electroporation. (technical note)

  3. 3D-Printed Fluidic Devices for Nanoparticle Preparation and Flow-Injection Amperometry Using Integrated Prussian Blue Nanoparticle-Modified Electrodes.

    Bishop, Gregory W; Satterwhite, Jennifer E; Bhakta, Snehasis; Kadimisetty, Karteek; Gillette, Kelsey M; Chen, Eric; Rusling, James F

    2015-01-01

    A consumer-grade fused filament fabrication (FFF) 3D printer was used to construct fluidic devices for nanoparticle preparation and electrochemical sensing. Devices were printed using poly(ethylene terephthalate) and featured threaded ports to connect polyetheretherketone (PEEK) tubing via printed fittings prepared from acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS). These devices included channels designed to have 800 μm × 800 μm square cross sections and were semitransparent to allow visualization of the solution-filled channels. A 3D-printed device with a Y-shaped mixing channel was used to prepare Prussian blue nanoparticles (PBNPs) under flow rates of 100 to 2000 μL min(-1). PBNPs were then attached to gold electrodes for hydrogen peroxide sensing. 3D-printed devices used for electrochemical measurements featured threaded access ports into which a fitting equipped with reference, counter, and PBNP-modified working electrodes could be inserted. PBNP-modified electrodes enabled amperometric detection of H2O2 in the 3D-printed channel by flow-injection analysis, exhibiting a detection limit of 100 nM and linear response up to 20 μM. These experiments show that a consumer-grade FFF printer can be used to fabricate low-cost fluidic devices for applications similar to those that have been reported with more expensive 3D-printing methods. PMID:25901660

  4. Proposal for an electro/fluidic no-moving-part transducer based on wall-jet separation from a heated curved surface

    Tesař Václav

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Transducers for varying output flow from a fluidic device in dependence on electric input signal are increasing in importance – and yet no their design has been so far fully satisfactory. Except those that handle very extraordinary liquids (e.g. electro-rheologic, the transducers operate in two stages. The first stage is conversion into a motion or deformation of a mechanical component. In the second stage this mechanical effect acts on the output fluid flow. This signal conversion involving mechanical movements is a weak link between no-moving-parts electronics as well as no-moving-parts fluidics. Mechanical components complicate manufacturing, have tendency to get stuck or become worn – or, if deformed, may break (e.g. due to material fatigue. Their inertia limits the frequency range. Author here proposes a new transducer idea. The electric input heats the wall to which is attached a fluid jet, causing separation of the jet from the surface. Preliminary experiments show that relatively small heating suffices to change the flowfield substantially — and the reduction of the attachment wall to a thin metal foil can make the frequency range quite acceptable.

  5. Strategy Guideline. Compact Air Distribution Systems

    Burdick, Arlan [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2013-06-01

    This guideline discusses the benefits and challenges of using a compact air distribution system to handle the reduced loads and reduced air volume needed to condition the space within an energy efficient home. The decision criteria for a compact air distribution system must be determined early in the whole-house design process, considering both supply and return air design. However, careful installation of a compact air distribution system can result in lower material costs from smaller equipment, shorter duct runs, and fewer outlets; increased installation efficiencies, including ease of fitting the system into conditioned space; lower loads on a better balanced HVAC system, and overall improved energy efficiency of the home.

  6. Model Building with Non-Compact Cosets

    Croon, Djuna

    2016-01-01

    We explore Goldstone boson potentials in non-compact cosets of the form SO(n,1)/SO(n). We employ a geometric approach to find the scalar potential, and focus on the conditions under which it is compact in the large field limit. We show that such a potential is found for a specific misalignment of the vacuum. This result has applications in different contexts, such as in Composite Higgs scenarios and theories for the Early Universe. We work out an example of inflation based on a non-compact coset which makes predictions which are consistent with the current observational data.

  7. The formation of compact groups of galaxies

    马駬; 俞允强

    1999-01-01

    In the compact group of galaxies the galaxies can merge into a few massive ones in a very short time, so they must be formed very recently. On the other hand, according to the theory of structure formation, the denser system should form earlier. By analyzing the apparent paradox, we suggest that the merging process of CDM halo plays an important role in the formation of the compact groups of galaxies: it delays the formation of compact groups of galaxies, and makes the groups of galaxies much denser.

  8. Subsoil Compaction as a Climate Damage Indicator

    Márta Birkás

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Some forms of soil compaction occur on arable lands both in Hungary (1.82 million ha and in Croatia (0.97 million ha having negative impacts on agricultural production. Tillage-induced subsoil compaction has oft en occurred in the Pannonian region in relation to traffic-induced compaction.Soil compaction has become a soil management problem during the last decade as a result of the occurrence of periods of water-logging as well as droughts. This study contains an evaluation of factors relating to subsoil compaction, as indicator of climate effects on arable fields. This paper is based on soil condition monitoring and measuring that was started 32 years ago and on short and long-term experiments modeling and checking the extension of compaction in the soil. The survey comprised 1526 monitoring places and 38 experimental plots. The following five points were chosen for monitoring: 1 root zone state (to a depth of 0-60 cm; 2 occurrence of compacted layer (indicating likelihood of risk; 3 extension of the compacted layer (indicating the degree of damage; 4 long term effects of tillage (soil state deterioration or improvement, and 5 tillage-induced water-logging and drought damage impacts on yield loss. The main objectives of the experiments were: 1 occurrence and the extent of tillage-pan damage in soils of different susceptibility to compaction; 2 consequences on water management in each of the years covered by the experiments; 3 soil quality consequences, and 4 alleviation of pan-compaction by mechanical and biological methods. Long-term field monitoring and experimental work have both convincingly proven a correlation between subsoil compaction and the degree of climatic damage. In view of the findings, trends in soil tillage can be grouped into the following two categories: climate damage mitigating and climate-stress increasing ones. The formation and location of compacted layers provided information concerning the depth, the method and the

  9. L^2-homology for compact quantum groups

    Kyed, David

    2006-01-01

    A notion of L^2-homology for compact quantum groups is introduced, generalizing the classical notion for countable, discrete groups. If the compact quantum group in question has tracial Haar state, it is possible to define its L^2-Betti numbers and Novikov-Shubin invariants/capacities. It is proved that these L^2-Betti numbers vanish for the Gelfand dual of a compact Lie group and that the zeroth Novikov-Shubin invariant equals the dimension of the underlying Lie group. Finally, we relate our...

  10. PICOBIT: A Compact Scheme System for Microcontrollers

    St-Amour, Vincent; Feeley, Marc

    Due to their tight memory constraints, small microcontroller based embedded systems have traditionally been implemented using low-level languages. This paper shows that the Scheme programming language can also be used for such applications, with less than 7 kB of total memory. We present PICOBIT, a very compact implementation of Scheme suitable for memory constrained embedded systems. To achieve a compact system we have tackled the space issue in three ways: the design of a Scheme compiler generating compact bytecode, a small virtual machine, and an optimizing C compiler suited to the compilation of the virtual machine.

  11. Generalized model for anisotropic compact stars

    Maurya, S K; Ray, Saibal; Deb, Debabrata

    2016-01-01

    In the present investigation an exact generalized model for anisotropic compact stars of embedding class one is sought for under general relativistic background. The generic solutions are verified by exploring different physical aspects, viz. energy conditions, mass-radius relation, stability of the models, in connection to their validity. It is observed that the model present here for compact stars is compatible with all these physical tests and thus physically acceptable as far as the compact star candidates $RXJ~1856-37$, $SAX~J~1808.4-3658~(SS1)$ and $SAX~J~1808.4-3658~(SS2)$ are concerned.

  12. Compact vs. Exponential-Size LP Relaxations

    Carr, R.D.; Lancia, G.

    2000-09-01

    In this paper we introduce by means of examples a new technique for formulating compact (i.e. polynomial-size) LP relaxations in place of exponential-size models requiring separation algorithms. In the same vein as a celebrated theorem by Groetschel, Lovasz and Schrijver, we state the equivalence of compact separation and compact optimization. Among the examples used to illustrate our technique, we introduce a new formulation for the Traveling Salesman Problem, whose relaxation we show equivalent to the subtour elimination relaxation.

  13. Relativistic Solutions of Anisotropic Compact Objects

    Paul, Bikash Chandra

    2016-01-01

    We present a class of new relativistic solutions with anisotropic fluid for compact stars in hydrostatic equilibrium. The interior space-time geometry considered here for compact objects are described by parameters namely, $\\lambda$, $k$, $A$, $R$ and $n$. The values of the geometrical parameters are determined here for obtaining a class of physically viable stellar models. The energy-density, radial pressure and tangential pressure are finite and positive inside the anisotropic stars. Considering some stars of known mass we present stellar models which describe compact astrophysical objects with nuclear density.

  14. Compacting Plastic-Bonded Explosive Molding Powders to Dense Solids

    B. Olinger

    2005-04-15

    Dense solid high explosives are made by compacting plastic-bonded explosive molding powders with high pressures and temperatures for extended periods of time. The density is influenced by manufacturing processes of the powders, compaction temperature, the magnitude of compaction pressure, pressure duration, and number of repeated applications of pressure. The internal density variation of compacted explosives depends on method of compaction and the material being compacted.

  15. Ion diffusion in compacted bentonite

    Lehikoinen, J. [VTT Chemical Technology, Espoo (Finland)

    1999-03-01

    In the study, a two-dimensional molecular-level diffusion model, based on a modified form of the Gouy-Chapman (GC) theory of the electrical double layers, for hydrated ionic species in compacted bentonite was developed. The modifications to the GC theory, which forms the very kernel of the diffusion model, stem from various non-conventional features: ionic hydration, dielectric saturation, finite ion-sizes and specific adsorption. The principal objectives of the study were met. With the aid of the consistent diffusion model, it is a relatively simple matter to explain the experimentally observed macroscopic exclusion for anions as well as the postulated, but greatly controversial, surface diffusion for cations. From purely theoretical grounds, it was possible to show that the apparent diffusivities of cations, anions and neutral molecules (i) do not exhibit order-or-magnitude differences, and (ii) are practically independent of the solution ionic strength used and, consequently, of the distribution coefficient, K{sub d}, unless they experience specific binding onto the substrate surface. It was also of interest to investigate the equilibrium anionic concentration distribution in the pore geometry of the GMM model as a function of the solution ionic strength, and to briefly speculate its consequences to diffusion. An explicit account of the filter-plate effect was taken by developing a computerised macroscopic diffusion model, which is based upon the very robust and efficient Laplace Transform Finite-Difference technique. Finally, the inherent limitations as well as the potential fields of applications of the models were addressed. (orig.) 45 refs.

  16. A compact tritium AMS system

    Chiarappa, M L; Dingley, K H; Hamm, R W; Love, A H; Roberts, M L

    1999-09-23

    Tritium ({sup 3}H) is a radioisotope that is extensively utilized in biological and environmental research. For biological research, {sup 3}H is generally quantified by liquid scintillation counting requiring gram-sized samples and counting times of several hours. For environmental research, {sup 3}H is usually quantified by {sup 3}He in-growth which requires gram-sized samples and in-growth times of several months. In contrast, provisional studies at LLNL's Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry have demonstrated that Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) can be used to quantify {sup 3}H in milligram-sized biological samples with a 100 to 1000-fold improvement in detection limits when compared to scintillation counting. This increased sensitivity is expected to have great impact in the biological and environmental research community. However in order to make the {sup 3}H AMS technique more broadly accessible, smaller, simpler, and less expensive AMS instrumentation must be developed. To meet this need, a compact, relatively low cost prototype {sup 3}H AMS system has been designed and built based on a LLNL ion source/sample changer and an AccSys Technology, Inc. Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) linac. With the prototype system, {sup 3}/{sup 1}H ratios ranging from 1 x 10{sup -10} to 1 x 10{sup -13} have to be measured from milligram sized samples. With improvements in system operation and sample preparation methodology, the sensitivity limit of the system is expected to increase to approximately 1 x 10{sup -15}.

  17. On the Compactly Locally Uniformly Rotund Points of Orlicz Spaces

    Lili Chen; Yunan Cui

    2007-11-01

    In this paper, locally uniformly rotund points and compactly locally uniformly rotund points are introduced. Moreover, criteria for compactly locally uniformly rotund points in Orlicz spaces are given.

  18. Adaptive management

    Rist, Lucy; Campbell, Bruce Morgan; Frost, Peter

    2013-01-01

    in scientific articles, policy documents and management plans, but both understanding and application of the concept is mixed. This paper reviews recent literature from conservation and natural resource management journals to assess diversity in how the term is used, highlight ambiguities and consider how......Adaptive management (AM) emerged in the literature in the mid-1970s in response both to a realization of the extent of uncertainty involved in management, and a frustration with attempts to use modelling to integrate knowledge and make predictions. The term has since become increasingly widely used...... the concept might be further assessed. AM is currently being used to describe many different management contexts, scales and locations. Few authors define the term explicitly or describe how it offers a means to improve management outcomes in their specific management context. Many do not adhere to the idea...

  19. GR-AMRVAC code applications: accretion onto compact objects, boson stars versus black holes

    Meliani, Z.; Grandclément, P.; Casse, F.; Vincent, F. H.; Straub, O.; Dauvergne, F.

    2016-08-01

    In the close vicinity of a compact object strong gravity imprints its signature onto matter. Systems that contain at least one compact object are observed to exhibit extreme physical properties and typically emit highly energetic radiation. The nature of the compact objects that produce the strongest gravitational fields is to date not settled. General relativistic numerical simulations of fluid dynamics around black holes, neutron stars, and other compact objects such as boson stars (BSs) may give invaluable insights into this fundamental question. In order to study the behavior of fluid in the strong gravity regime of an arbitrary compact object we develop a new general relativistic hydrodynamics code. To this end we extend the existing versatile adaptive mesh refinement code MPI-AMRVAC into a general relativistic hydrodynamics framework and adapt it for the use of numerically given spacetime metrics. In the present article we study accretion flows in the vicinity of various types of BSs whose numerical metrics are calculated by the KADATH spectral solver library. We design specific tests to check the reliability of any code intending to study BSs and compare the solutions with those obtained in the context of Schwarzschild black holes. We perform the first ever general relativistic hydrodynamical simulations of gas accretion by a BS. The behavior of matter at small distances from the center of a BS differs notably from the black hole case. In particular we demonstrate that in the context of Bondi spherical accretion the mass accretion rate onto non-rotating BSs remains constant whereas it increases for Schwarzschild black holes. We also address the scenario of non-spherical accretion onto BSs and show that this may trigger mass ejection from the interior of the BS. This striking feature opens the door to forthcoming investigations regarding accretion-ejection flows around such types of compact objects.

  20. Compact 2 Micron Seed Laser Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal is for the development of new compact, high power and extremely reliable 2 micron seed laser using newly developed Tm3+ doped germanate glass fibers,...

  1. Deep Compaction Control of Sandy Soils

    Bałachowski Lech

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Vibroflotation, vibratory compaction, micro-blasting or heavy tamping are typical improvement methods for the cohesionless deposits of high thickness. The complex mechanism of deep soil compaction is related to void ratio decrease with grain rearrangements, lateral stress increase, prestressing effect of certain number of load cycles, water pressure dissipation, aging and other effects. Calibration chamber based interpretation of CPTU/DMT can be used to take into account vertical and horizontal stress and void ratio effects. Some examples of interpretation of soundings in pre-treated and compacted sands are given. Some acceptance criteria for compaction control are discussed. The improvement factors are analysed including the normalised approach based on the soil behaviour type index.

  2. Compact MCP assemblies for mass spectrometers

    We have developed compact microchannel plate (MCP) assemblies which have a high gain, good pulse height resolution and a fast response for MS applications. In this paper, these new assemblies are described referring to their structures, functions and characteristics. (orig.)

  3. Compact Fiber Lasers for Coherent LIDAR Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is a proposal to investigate the feasibility of developing a low cost, compact, lightweight, high power (>500m W) and narrow linewidth 1.5 and 1.06 micron...

  4. A survey of Low Luminosity Compact sources

    Kunert-Bajraszewska, Magdalena

    2009-01-01

    Based on the FIRST and SDSS catalogues a flux density limited sample of weak Compact Steep Spectrum (CSS) sources with radio luminosity below 10^26 [W/Hz] at 1.4 GHz has been constructed. Our previous multifrequency observations of CSS sources have shown that low luminosity small-scale objects can be strong candidates for compact faders. This finding supports the idea that some small-size radio sources are short-lived phenomena because of a lack of significant fuelling. They never 'grow up' to become FRI or FRII objects. This new sample marks the start of a systematical study of the radio properties and morphologies of the population of low luminosity compact (LLC) objects. An investigation of this new sample should also lead to a better understanding of compact faders. In this paper, the results of the first stage of the new project - the L-band MERLIN observations of 44 low luminosity CSS sources are presented.

  5. Effect of Subsoil Compaction on Hydraulic Parameters

    Iversen, Bo Vangsø; Berisso, Feto Esimo; Schjønning, Per;

    effects of subsoil compaction on soil ecological services and functions) put forward the hypothesis that due to a decrease in the hydraulic conductivity in the soil matrix, compaction increases the frequency of preferential flow events in macropores and therefore increases the leaching of otherwise....... In the field the near-saturated hydraulic conductivity was measured with a tension infiltrometer in the same treatments at a depth of 30 cm. In the laboratory saturated and near-saturated hydraulic conductivity and the bulk density were measured as well. Also, macropores in the large soil cores were made...... that for the upper soil depth, a significant increase in bulk density was measured for the compacted treatment. For the lower depth differences were less pronounced. For the saturated hydraulic conductivity, the results indicated a decrease of the hydraulic conductivity for the compacted treatment for the upper...

  6. Compact Manifolds Covered by a Torus

    Demailly, Jean-Pierre; Hwang, Jun-Muk; Peternell, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Let $X$ be a connected compact complex manifold admitting a finite surjective map $A \\to X$ from a complex torus $A.$ We prove that up to finite \\'etale cover, $X$ is a product of projective spaces and a torus.

  7. Diagnostics for the National Compact Stellarator Experiment

    The status of planning of the National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) diagnostics is presented, with the emphasis on resolution of diagnostics access issues and on diagnostics required for the early phases of operation

  8. Controlled Compact High Voltage Power Lines

    Postolati V.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays modern overhead transmission lines (OHL constructions having several significant differences from conventional ones are being used in power grids more and more widely. Implementation of compact overhead lines equipped with FACTS devices, including phase angle regulator settings (compact controlled OHL, appears to be one of the most effective ways of power grid development. Compact controlled AC HV OHL represent a new generation of power transmission lines embodying recent advanced achievements in design solutions, including towers and insulation, together with interconnection schemes and control systems. Results of comprehensive research and development in relation to 110–500kV compact controlled power transmission lines together with theoretical basis, substantiation, and methodological approaches to their practical application are presented in the present paper.

  9. Compact 2 Micron Seed Laser Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal is for the development of innovative compact, high power and extremely reliable 2 micron seed laser using newly developed Tm3+ doped germanate glass...

  10. Compaction of amorphous iron–boron powder

    Hendriksen, Peter Vang; Mørup, Steen; Koch, Christian;

    1993-01-01

    Large scale practical use of bulk amorphous alloys requires the capability of molding the material to a desired design, for instance by compaction of an amorphous powder. This is a difficult task because the sintering temperature is limited by the crystallization temperature of the alloy.1 Here we......, should facilitate a compaction. The passivation layer, however, impedes a compaction. Isostatic pressing at 540 K at a pressure of 200 MPa clearly illustrated this; pellets pressed from passivated powder were much more brittle than pellets pressed from unpassivated powder. The density of the pellets...... was very low ([approximately-equal-to]25% of the density of bulk FeB). We have designed a die for uniaxial pressing in which the compaction can be performed without exposing the powder to air and have obtained densities larger than 60% of that of bulk FeB. We have reported studies of the dependence...

  11. Selected problems in astrophysics of compact objects

    Sedrakian, Armen

    2012-01-01

    I review three problems in astrophysics of compacts stars: (i) the phase diagram of warm pair-correlated nuclear matter a sub-saturation densities at finite isospin asymmtery; (ii) the Standard Model neutrino emission from superfluid phases in neutron stars within the Landau theory of Fermi (superfluid) liquids; (iii) the beyond Standard Model physics of axionic cooling of compact stars by the Cooper pair-breaking processes.

  12. Compact Weighted Composition Operators on Function Algebras

    TAKAGI, Hiroyuki

    1988-01-01

    A weighted endomorphism of an algebra is an endomorphism followed by a multiplier. In [6] and [4], H. Kamowitz characterized compact weighted endomorphisms of $C(X)$ and the disc algebra. In this note we define a weighted composition operator on a function algebra as a generalization of a weighted endomorphism, and characterize compact weighted composition operators on a function algebra satisfying a certain condition [Theorem 2]. This theorem not only includes Kamowitz's results as ...

  13. Parahoric bundles on a compact Riemann surface

    Balaji, V

    2010-01-01

    Let $X$ be a compact Riemann surface of genus $g \\geq 2$. The aim of this paper is to study homomorphisms of certain discrete subgroups of $PSL(2, {\\mathbb R})$ into maximal compact subgroups of semisimple simply connected algebraic groups and relate them to torsors under a Bruhat-Tits group scheme. We also construct the moduli spaces of semistable parahoric bundles. These results generalize the theorem of Mehta and Seshadri on parabolic vector bundles.

  14. Cc (X) Spaces with X Locally Compact

    J. C. FERRANDO; S. MOLL

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we show, among other results, that if X is a [separable] locally compact space X [satisfying the first countability axiom] then the space Cc (X) has countable tightness [if and only if it has bounding tightness] if and only if it is Fréchet-Urysohn, if and only if Cc (X) contains a dense (LM) subspace and if and only if X is σ-compact.

  15. Compact Modelling Of Double-Gate MOSFET

    2009-01-01

    The requirements for high precision and high speed of compact models demand new approaches to old challenges while raising new ones. In this paper I investigate the following: DG MOS Transistor modelling for integrated circuit design; Applications of conformal mapping to compact modelling; How this technique can be applied to model DG MOS Transistor; Prerequisites for a valid SPICE-like model of this device.

  16. Technology Selections for Cylindrical Compact Fabrication

    Jeffrey A. Phillips

    2010-10-01

    A variety of process approaches are available and have been used historically for manufacture of cylindrical fuel compacts. The jet milling, fluid bed overcoating, and hot press compacting approach being adopted in the U.S. AGR Fuel Development Program for scale-up of the compacting process involves significant paradigm shifts from historical approaches. New methods are being pursued because of distinct advantages in simplicity, yield, and elimination of process mixed waste. Recent advances in jet milling technology allow simplified dry matrix powder preparation. The matrix preparation method is well matched with patented fluid bed powder overcoating technology recently developed for the pharmaceutical industry and directly usable for high density fuel particle matrix overcoating. High density overcoating places fuel particles as close as possible to their final position in the compact and is matched with hot press compacting which fully fluidizes matrix resin to achieve die fill at low compacting pressures and without matrix end caps. Overall the revised methodology provides a simpler process that should provide very high yields, improve homogeneity, further reduce defect fractions, eliminate intermediate grading and QC steps, and allow further increases in fuel packing fractions.

  17. Technology Selections for Cylindrical Compact Fabrication

    A variety of process approaches are available and have been used historically for manufacture of cylindrical fuel compacts. The jet milling, fluid bed overcoating, and hot press compacting approach being adopted in the U.S. AGR Fuel Development Program for scale-up of the compacting process involves significant paradigm shifts from historical approaches. New methods are being pursued because of distinct advantages in simplicity, yield, and elimination of process mixed waste. Recent advances in jet milling technology allow simplified dry matrix powder preparation. The matrix preparation method is well matched with patented fluid bed powder overcoating technology recently developed for the pharmaceutical industry and directly usable for high density fuel particle matrix overcoating. High density overcoating places fuel particles as close as possible to their final position in the compact and is matched with hot press compacting which fully fluidizes matrix resin to achieve die fill at low compacting pressures and without matrix end caps. Overall the revised methodology provides a simpler process that should provide very high yields, improve homogeneity, further reduce defect fractions, eliminate intermediate grading and QC steps, and allow further increases in fuel packing fractions.

  18. Dynamic compaction of tungsten carbide powder.

    Gluth, Jeffrey Weston; Hall, Clint Allen; Vogler, Tracy John; Grady, Dennis Edward

    2005-04-01

    The shock compaction behavior of a tungsten carbide powder was investigated using a new experimental design for gas-gun experiments. This design allows the Hugoniot properties to be measured with reasonably good accuracy despite the inherent difficulties involved with distended powders. The experiments also provide the first reshock state for the compacted powder. Experiments were conducted at impact velocities of 245, 500, and 711 m/s. A steady shock wave was observed for some of the sample thicknesses, but the remainder were attenuated due to release from the back of the impactor or the edge of the sample. The shock velocity for the powder was found to be quite low, and the propagating shock waves were seen to be very dispersive. The Hugoniot density for the 711 m/s experiment was close to ambient crystal density for tungsten carbide, indicating nearly complete compaction. When compared with quasi-static compaction results for the same material, the dynamic compaction data is seen to be significantly stiffer for the regime over which they overlap. Based on these initial results, recommendations are made for improving the experimental technique and for future work to improve our understanding of powder compaction.

  19. Acoustic Characterization of Compact Jet Engine Simulator Units

    Doty, Michael J.; Haskin, Henry H.

    2013-01-01

    Two dual-stream, heated jet, Compact Jet Engine Simulator (CJES) units are designed for wind tunnel acoustic experiments involving a Hybrid Wing Body (HWB) vehicle. The newly fabricated CJES units are characterized with a series of acoustic and flowfield investigations to ensure successful operation with minimal rig noise. To limit simulator size, consistent with a 5.8% HWB model, the CJES units adapt Ultra Compact Combustor (UCC) technology developed at the Air Force Research Laboratory. Stable and controllable operation of the combustor is demonstrated using passive swirl air injection and backpressuring of the combustion chamber. Combustion instability tones are eliminated using nonuniform flow conditioners in conjunction with upstream screens. Through proper flow conditioning, rig noise is reduced by more than 20 dB over a broad spectral range, but it is not completely eliminated at high frequencies. The low-noise chevron nozzle concept designed for the HWB test shows expected acoustic benefits when installed on the CJES unit, and consistency between CJES units is shown to be within 0.5 dB OASPL.

  20. Development of compact mutants in apple and sour cherry

    During the period 1973 - 79 studies were conducted with the aim of developing compact mutants in apple and cherry cultivars and in apple vegetative rootstocks. During the investigations the effect of the dose of gamma rays on frequency of the mutants was studied. Attempts were also made to evolve a micropropagation technique adapted to propagate P 2 and P 22 apple rootstocks, as an aid in mutation breeding. Several mutants were produced in all the material studied, but none of them have yet reached a sufficient developmental stage to enable their complete assessment. On the basis of the results obtained so far the following conclusions can be drawn: higher doses of irradiation resulted in higher frequency of mutants in most apple cultivars and apple rootstocks; in sour cherries the effect of dose depended on the cultivars. Among V1 shoots developed from sleeping buds on irradiated scion wood, compact mutants were found; their frequency, however, was about 60% lower than among V1 shoots developed directly from irradiated dormant buds. In apple rootstocks A 2 and M 26 several dwarfed mutants were found; some of these produced thorny plants and some had lower rooting ability; both these characteristics are inferior from the practical point of view. Multiplication and rooting media for in vitro propagation of apple rootstocks, worked out for M 26, were found unsuitable for the rootstocks P 2 and P 22; modifications made in the growth substance composition of the above media enabled satisfactory propagation to be obtained. (author)

  1. Ultra-compact switchable SLO/OCT handheld probe design

    LaRocca, Francesco; Nankivil, Derek; DuBose, Theodore; Farsiu, Sina; Izatt, Joseph A.

    2015-03-01

    Handheld scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) systems facilitate imaging of young children and subjects that have difficulty fixating. More compact and lightweight probes allow for better portability and increased comfort for the operator of the handheld probe. We describe a very compact, novel SLO and OCT handheld probe design. A single 2D microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) scanner and a custom optical design using a converging beam prior to the scanner permitted significant reduction in the system size. Our design utilized a combination of commercial and custom optics that were optimized in Zemax to achieve near diffraction-limited resolution of 8 μm over a 7° field of view. The handheld probe has a form factor of 7 x 6 x 2.5 cm and a weight of only 94 g, which is over an order of magnitude lighter than prior SLO-OCT handheld probes. Images were acquired from a normal subject with an incident power on the eye under the ANSI limit. With this device, which is the world's lightest and smallest SLO-OCT system, we were able to visualize parafoveal cone photoreceptors and nerve fiber bundles without the use of adaptive optics.

  2. Control of noise - systems for compact HVAC units

    Pedersen, Steffen; Møller, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses noise control systems for implementation in compact HVAC units. The control of low-frequency noise presents different problems than at higher frequencies. This is mainly related to the long wavelength, which means that passive solutions require a significant volume of space...... systems affect the performance of implementations. The source pressure and the impedance of a centrifugal fan were measured, and a number of configurations for noise control were investigated. The performance of a simple analogue feedback control was tested in a physical prototype. An adaptive digital...... controller (feedback and feedforward using FXLMS with cancellation of feedback to reference) was simulated and implemented on a low-cost TI C55XX DSP platform....

  3. Improved Moving Puncture Gauge Conditions for Compact Binary Evolutions

    Etienne, Zachariah B; Paschalidis, Vasileios; Kelly, Bernard J; Shapiro, Stuart L

    2014-01-01

    Robust gauge conditions are critically important to the stability and accuracy of numerical relativity (NR) simulations involving compact objects. Most of the NR community use the highly robust---though decade-old---moving-puncture (MP) gauge conditions for such simulations. It has been argued that in binary black hole (BBH) evolutions adopting this gauge, noise generated near adaptive-mesh-refinement (AMR) boundaries does not converge away cleanly with increasing resolution, severely limiting gravitational waveform accuracy at computationally feasible resolutions. We link this noise to a sharp, initial outgoing gauge wave crossing into progressively lower resolution AMR grids, and present improvements to the standard MP gauge conditions that focus on stretching, smoothing, and more rapidly settling this outgoing wave. Our best gauge choice greatly reduces gravitational waveform noise, yielding more cleanly convergent waveforms and $\\sim 40%$ lower waveform phase and amplitude errors during inspiral at typica...

  4. National compacts to reduce deforestation

    Santilli, M. [Instituto Socioambiental ISA., Brasilia DF (Brazil); Moutinho, P.; Nepstad, D. [Instituto de Pesquisa Ambiental da Amazonia IPAM, Belem (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    countries in emissions reductions efforts, in exchange for palpable economic benefit. However, tropical deforestation results from diverse economic, political and social factors - and actors - which vary according to specific regional and national scenarios. It thus makes no sense to imagine general rules and procedures to orient action to reduce deforestation. Countries interested in international compensation for reducing deforestation should be willing, and be supported and encouraged, to define their own strategies, according to the specific conditions in which deforestation occurs in each region. This article, then, intends to imagine the possible outlines of a potential national compact for reducing tropical deforestation, taking Brazil, the world's largest emitter in this area, as an example. Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon, which makes up the majority of these emissions ({approx}3% of global emissions) forms the basis of this analysis. The National Institute for Space Research has collected and analyzed historical series of satellite data for the region.

  5. Compact fission counter for DANCE

    operation under extreme radioactivity and the ability to separate fission fragments from α's. In the following sections, the description is given for the design and performance of this new compact PPAC, for studying the neutron-induced reactions on actinides using DANCE at LANL.

  6. Compact fission counter for DANCE

    Wu, C Y; Chyzh, A; Kwan, E; Henderson, R; Gostic, J; Carter, D; Bredeweg, T; Couture, A; Jandel, M; Ullmann, J

    2010-11-06

    counter and still be able to maintain a stable operation under extreme radioactivity and the ability to separate fission fragments from {alpha}'s. In the following sections, the description is given for the design and performance of this new compact PPAC, for studying the neutron-induced reactions on actinides using DANCE at LANL.

  7. Sobolev Spaces on Locally Compact Abelian Groups: Compact Embeddings and Local Spaces

    Przemysław Górka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We continue our research on Sobolev spaces on locally compact abelian (LCA groups motivated by our work on equations with infinitely many derivatives of interest for string theory and cosmology. In this paper, we focus on compact embedding results and we prove an analog for LCA groups of the classical Rellich lemma and of the Rellich-Kondrachov compactness theorem. Furthermore, we introduce Sobolev spaces on subsets of LCA groups and study its main properties, including the existence of compact embeddings into Lp-spaces.

  8. Identification of the fragmentation of brittle particles during compaction process by the acoustic emission technique.

    Favretto-Cristini, Nathalie; Hégron, Lise; Sornay, Philippe

    2016-04-01

    Some nuclear fuels are currently manufactured by a powder metallurgy process that consists of three main steps, namely preparation of the powders, powder compaction, and sintering of the compact. An optimum between size, shape and cohesion of the particles of the nuclear fuels must be sought in order to obtain a compact with a sufficient mechanical strength, and to facilitate the release of helium and fission gases during irradiation through pores connected to the outside of the pellet after sintering. Being simple to adapt to nuclear-oriented purposes, the Acoustic Emission (AE) technique is used to control the microstructure of the compact by monitoring the compaction of brittle Uranium Dioxide (UO2) particles of a few hundred micrometers. The objective is to identify in situ the mechanisms that occur during the UO2 compaction, and more specifically the particle fragmentation that is linked to the open porosity of the nuclear matter. Three zones of acoustic activity, strongly related to the applied stress, can be clearly defined from analysis of the continuous signals recorded during the compaction process. They correspond to particle rearrangement and/or fragmentation. The end of the noteworthy fragmentation process is clearly defined as the end of the significant process that increases the compactness of the material. Despite the fact that the wave propagation strongly evolves during the compaction process, the acoustic signature of the fragmentation of a single UO2 particle and a bed of UO2 particles under compaction is well identified. The waveform, with a short rise time and an exponential-like decay of the signal envelope, is the most reliable descriptor. The impact of the particle size and cohesion on the AE activity, and then on the fragmentation domain, is analyzed through the discrete AE signals. The maximum amplitude of the burst signals, as well as the mean stress corresponding to the end of the recorded AE, increase with increasing mean diameter of

  9. CMS - The Compact Muon Solenoid

    Frischauf, N; Bergauer, T; Waltenberger, W; Kratschmer, I; Treberer-treberspurg, W; Rahbaran, B; Andreeva, I; Innocente, V; Camporesi, T; Malgeri, L; Marchioro, A; Moneta, L; Weingarten, W; Rovere, M; Morovic, S; Castello, R; Lange, C G; Dorney, B L; Gundacker, S; Reis, T; Favre-felix, R J R; Zagozdzinska, A A; Cucciati, G; Novotny, P; Stakia, A; Caminada, L M; Hinzmann, A D; Pinna, D; Rauco, G; Zhang, S; Hu, T; Zhang, H; Wu, M; Li, C; Reithler, H K V; Philipps, B; Merschmeyer, M K; Heidemann, C A; Brodski, M; Mukherjee, S; Geenen, H; Kuessel, Y; Weingarten, S; Nehrkorn, A; Gallo, E; Schwanenberger, C; Kalogeropoulos, A; Walsh bastos rangel, R; Beernaert, K S; Connor, P; Lelek, A A; Wichmann, K H; Kovalchuk, N; Dreyer, T; Scharf, C; Quast, G; Dierlamm, A H; Barth, C; Mol, X; Kudella, S; Koehler, G M; Matorras, F; Calderon tazon, A; Garcia ferrero, J; Bercher, M J; Sirois, Y; Jo, M; Antropov, I; Callier, S; Depasse, P; Laktineh, I B; Grenier, G; Boudoul, G; Heath, G P; Brooke, J J; Hartley, D A; Beck, L M G; Quinton, S; Tomalin, I R; Harder, K; Francis, V B; Thea, A; Zhang, Z; Geralis, T; Loukas, D; Topsis giotis, I; Hernath, S T; Colaleo, A; Maggi, G P; Maggi, M; Loddo, F; Campanini, R; Cuffiani, M; D'antone, I; Grandi, C; Guiducci, L; Tosi, N; Gulmini, M; Longo, E; Meridiani, P; Gelli, S; Schizzi, A; Song, S; Rhee, J; Kim, Y; Cho, S; Ha, S; Kim, D H; Kim, G N; Md halid, M F B; Yusli, M N B; Dominik, W M; Bunkowski, K; Olszewski, M; Byszuk, A P; Rasteiro da silva, J C; Varela, J; Leong, Q; Sulimov, V; Vorobyev, A; Denisov, A; Murzin, V; Egorov, A; Ivanov, A; Lukyanenko, S; Mesyats, G; Postoev, V; Pashenkov, A; Solovey, A; Rubakov, V; Troitsky, S; Kirpichnikov, D; Lychkovskaya, N; Safronov, G; Fedotov, A; Toms, M; Barniakov, M; Olimov, K; Fazilov, M; Umaraliev, A; Dumanoglu, I; Bakirci, N M; Dozen, C; Demiroglu, Z S; Oglakci, M; Zeyrek, M; Yalvac, M; Ozkorucuklu, S; Chang, Y; Biery, K A; Dolgopolov, A; Gottschalk, E E; Maeshima, K; Heavey, A E; Kramer, T; Kwan, S W L; Taylor, L; Tkaczyk, S M; Mokhov, N; Marraffino, J M; Mrenna, S; Yarba, V; Banerjee, B; Elvira, V D; Gray, L A; Holzman, B; Dagenhart, W; Canepa, A; Dumitrescu, C L; Ryu, S C; Strobbe, N C; Adelman-mc carthy, J K; Contescu, A C; Andre, J O; Wu, J; Bucinskaite, I; Zhang, J; Karchin, P E; Thapa, P; Zaleski, S G; Dishaw, A L; Gran, J L; Wang, S; Patterson, A S; Zilizi, G; Raics, P P; Bhardwaj, A; Naimuddin, M; Smiljkovic, N; Stojanovic, M; Brandao malbouisson, H; De oliveira martins, C P; Tonelli manganote, E J; Medina jaime, M; Thiel, M; Narjanen, M T; Laurila, S H; Wu, X; Graehling, P; Buttignol, M A; Blekman, F; De bruyn, I H J; Lenzi, T; Zhang, F; Postiau, N J S; Leroux, P J; Van remortel, N; Janssen, X J; Di croce, D; Aleksandrov, A; Shopova, M F; Dogra, S M; Shinoda, A A; Sashala naik, A; Arce, P; Daniel, M; Navarrete marin, J J; Redondo fernandez, I; Guirao elias, A; Cela ruiz, J M; Lottin, J; Gras, P; Kircher, F; Levesy, B; Payn, A; Guilloux, F; Negro, G; Leloup, C; Pasztor, G; Bhatnagar, V; Maity, M; Bruzzi, M; Sciortino, S; Starodubtsev, O; Sciacca, C; Meola, S; Berruti, G M; Saccomanno, A; Esposito, M; Azzi, P; Conti, E; Lacaprara, S; Margoni, M; Rossin, R; Torre, P; Re, V; Zucca, S; Fano', L; Lucaroni, A; Bagliesi, G; Bellazzini, R; Giassi, A; Boccali, T; Arezzini, S; Rizzi, A; Minuti, M; Biino, C; Dattola, D; Rotondo, F; Ballestrero, A; Obertino, M M; Gomez ambrosio, R; Degano, A; Kiani, M B; Paterno, A; Magana villalba, R; Ramirez garcia, M; Reyes almanza, R; Gorski, M; Wrochna, G; Bluj, M J; Zarubin, A; Nozdrin, M; Ladygin, V; Malakhov, A; Golunov, A; Skrypnik, A; Sotnikov, A; Evdokimov, N; Lokhtin, I; Ershov, A; Shamardin, L; Platonova, M; Tyurin, N; Slabospitskii, S; Talov, V; Belikov, N; Ryazanov, A; Chao, Y; Tsai, J; Richardson, C A; Foord, A; Wood, D R; Orimoto, T J; Luckey, P D; Gomez ceballos retuerto, G; Jaditz, S H; Stephans, G S; Darlea, G L; Di matteo, L; Maier, B; Tatar, K; Trovato, M; Bhattacharya, S; Roberts, J B; Padley, P B; Adair, A H; Tu, Z; Northup, M E; Rorie, J T; Clarida, W J; Tiras, E; Khristenko, V; Cerizza, G; Pieri, M; Sharma, V A; Krutelyov, V; Saiz santos, M D; Klein, D S; Derdzinski, M; Murray, M J; Gray, J A; Minafra, N; Forthomme, L; Castle, J R; Bowen, J L S; Buterbaugh, K; Morrow, S I; Bunn, J; Newman, H; Spiropulu, M; Balcas, J; Lawhorn, J M; Thomas, S D; Panwalkar, S M; Kyriacou, S; Xie, Z; Laird, E M; Wimpenny, S J; Lacroix, F S; Yates, B R; Ackert, A K; Schiber, C C; Mesic, B; Kolosova, M; Wang, M; Snow, G R; Lundstedt, C; Johnston, D; Zvada, M; Weitzel, D J; Damgov, J V; Giammanco, A; David, P N Y; Cabrera jamoulle, J B; Beliy, N; Missiroli, M; Nash, J A; Evans, L; Nikitenko, A; Ryan, M J; Huffman, M A J; Styliaris, E; Evangelou, I; Sharan, M K; Roy, A; Rout, P K; Yu, G B; Oh, S; Kim, J; Sen, S; Boz evinay, M; Xiao, M; Jensen, F O; Mulholland, T D; Kumar, A; Jones, M; Roozbahani, B H; Neu, C C; Thacker, H B; Wolfe, E M; Jabeen, S; Gilmore, J; Winer, B L; Rush, C J; Luo, W; Alimena, J M; Ko, W; Lander, R; Shalhout, S Z; Broadley, W H; Shi, M; Shchutska, L; Low, J F; Mei, H; Alexander, J P; Chaves, J E; Zientek, M E; Conway, J V; Padilla fuentes, Y L; Florent, A H; Bravo, C B; Crotty, I M; Cook, J R; Wenman, D L; Ghabrous larrea, C; Gomber, B; Smith, N C; Long, K D; Roberts, J M; Hildreth, M D; Jessop, C P; Karmgard, D J; Ferbel, T; Zielinski, M; Cooper, S I; Jung, A; Fagot, A; Valchkova-georgieva, F K; Dimitrov, D S; Roumenin, T S; Zykunov, V; Podrasky, V; Branson, A B; Odeh, M; Soomro, K; Romaniuk, R; Teodorescu, L; Krofcheck, D; Anderson, N G; Bell, S T; Salazar ibarguen, H A; Kudinov, V; Onishchenko, S; Naujikas, R; Damarackas, M; Gimbutas, A; Lyubynskiy, V; Sobolev, O; Khan, M S; Adeel-ur-rehman, A; Hassan, Q U; Ali, I; Gulzar, M M; Kreuzer, P K; Robson, A J; Gadrat, S G; Ivanov, A; Mendis, D; Goh, J; Howard, A S; Da silva di calafiori, D R; Kasieczka, G; Zeinali, M; Behnamian, H; Fiorini, E; Moroni, L; Malvezzi, S; Park, I; Elkhateeb, E A A; Elmetenawee, W; Mohammed, Y; Aboamer, O; Tayel, E S A; Magradze, E; Oikashvili, B; Shingade, P; Shukla, R A; Banerjee, S; Kumar, S; Jashal, B K; Adam, W; Ero, J; Fabjan, C; Jeitler, M; Rad, N K; Konig, A; Auffray hillemanns, E; Charkiewicz, A; Fartoukh, S; Garcia de enterria adan, D; Girone, M; Glege, F; Lasseur, C; Loos, R; Mannelli, M; Meijers, F; Sciaba, A; Tsesmelis, E; Meschi, E; Ricci, D; Petrucciani, G; Daguin, J; Du pree, T A; Tosi, M; Kortelainen, M J; Karavakis, E; Lucchini, M T; Chaze, O; Ceresa, D; Van besien, B T L; Kilminster, B J; Ke, Z; Meng, X; Zhang, Y; Tao, J; Romeo, F; Spiezia, A; Cheng, L; Zhukov, V; Feld, L W; Gueth, A; Fischer, R; Kress, T H; Cherepanov, V; Hansen, K; Schoerner-sadenius, T M; Marfin, I; Keaveney, J M; Diez pardos, C; Roland, B; Muhl, C W; Asawatangtrakuldee, C; Vargas trevino, A D R; Poehlsen, J A; Vanelderen, L; Stober, F M H; Vormwald, B R; Lenz, T; Kripas, V; Gonzalez vazquez, D; Kurz, S T; Niemeyer, C; Rieger, J O; Shvetsov, I; Sieber, G; Haitz, D W; Fischer, M; Caspart, R; Sander, O; Ardila perez, L E; Ruiz jimeno, A; Fernandez garcia, M; Scodellaro, L; Gonzalez sanchez, J F; Curras rivera, E; Semeniouk, I; Cornat, R J N; Ochando, C; Regnard, S J; Bedjidian, M; Giraud, N A; Mathez, H; Zoccarato, Y D; Ianigro, J; Sabes, D; Galbit, G C; Flacher, H U; Petyt, D A; French, M J; Jones, L L; Belyaev, A; Ilic, J; Calligaris, L; Markou, A; Bencze, G L; Mishra, D K; Netrakanti, P K; Jha, V; Chudasama, R; Katta, S; Altieri, P R; Venditti, R; Braibant-giacomelli, S; Dallavalle, G; Fabbri, F; Codispoti, G; Caponero, M A; Berti, L; Dafinei, I; Organtini, G; Pettinacci, V; Preiato, F; Park, S K; Lee, K S; Kang, M; Park, H K; Lee, S; Pak, S I; Zolkapli, Z B; Czyrkowski, H; Konecki, M A; Walczak, M B; Brona, G K; Bargassa, P; Viegas guerreiro leonardo, N T; Vadruccio, D; Levchenko, P; Orishchin, E; Suvorov, V; Uvarov, L; Gruzinskii, N; Pristavka, A; Kozlov, V; Radovskaia, A; Solovey, A; Kolosov, V; Vlassov, E; Parygin, P; Rogozina, E; Roinishvili, V; Tumasyan, A; Topakli, H; Akin, I V; Oz, C; Gulmez, E; 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Korjenevski, S K; Moolekamp, F E; Fallon, C T; Acosta castillo, J G; Gutay, L; Barker, A W; Gough, E; Benucci, L; Schoefbeck, R; Poyraz, D; Van driessche, W G M; Beniozef, I S; Krasteva, R L; Winn, D R; Munir, K; Shamdasani, J; Rao, A M; Fenyvesi, A C; Makovec, A; Munro, C G; Bernardino rodrigues, N A; Lokhovitskiy, A; Uribe estrada, C; Rebane, L; Racioppi, A; Kim, H; Kim, T; Puljak, I; Boyaryntsev, A; Saeed, M; Tanwir, S; Butt, U; Hussain, A; Nawaz, A; Khurshid, T; Khan, W A; Imran, M; Sultan, A; Saleem, R; Naeem, M; Kaadze, K; Saini, L K; Taylor, R D; Zhang, A; Roeser, U H; Starodumov, A; Baeni, L; Berger, P; Hashemi, M; Rezaei hosseinabadi, F; Mehrabpour, H; Paganoni, M; Farina, F M; Fiorendi, S; Joshi, Y R; Avila bernal, C A; Cabrera mora, A L; Gonzalez hernandez, C F; Stupak, J; Asavapibhop, B; U-ruekolan, S; Kim, G; Choi, M; Oropeza barrera, C; Aly, S; Sawy, F H; Elkomous mekhail, A E; El sawy, M; Tavkhelidze, D; Hegde, V; Bylinkin, A; Aziz, T; Sur, N; Sutar, B J; Sarkar, T; Ghete, V M; Dragicevic, M G; Matsushita, T; Brandstetter, J; Marques moraes, A; Molina insfran, J A; De brito cavalcanti, L; Aspell, P; Baillon, P; Barney, D; Delikaris, D; Honma, A; Pape, L; Sakulin, H; Macpherson, A L; Bangert, N; Guida, R; Petrova, P; De gruttola, M; Steggemann, J; Verweij, M; Da silva gomes, D; Guthoff, M; Ben mimoun bel hadj, F; Bonnaud, J Y R; Canelli, F M; Bai, J; Qiu, J; Bian, J; Cheng, Y; Wang, C; Kukulies, C; Erdmann, M; Hebbeker, T; Zantis, F; Scheuch, F; Fluegge, G; Erdogan, Y; Campbell, A J; Kasemann, M; Lange, W; Raspiareza, A; Melzer-pellmann, I; Aldaya martin, M; Lewendel, B; Schmidt, R S; Dooling, S K; Lipka, E; Grados luyando, J M; Shevchenko, R; Steinbrueck, G; Peiffer, T; Lapsien, T; Vanhoefer, A; Stover, M; Niedziela, M A; Simonis, H J; Katkov, I; Colombo, F; Amstutz, C; Marco de lucas, R J; Lopez virto, A M; Jaramillo echeverria, R W; Hennion, P; Chiron, A; Romanteau, T; Beaudette, F; Yilmaz, Y; Valiyavalappil kizhakkepura, A A; Grasseau, G J; Pigard, P; Cadamuro, L; Pierre-emile, T B; El mamouni, H; Gouzevitch, M; Goldstein, J; Cussans, D G; Seif el nasr, S A; Aggleton, R C; Smith, D; Ford, P J W; Olaiya, E O; Salisbury, J G; Paspalaki, G; Hidas, P; Kiss, T N; Zalan, P; Bartok, M; Shukla, P; Abbrescia, M; De filippis, N; Donvito, G; Radogna, R; Cristella, L; Miniello, G; Capiluppi, P; Marcellini, S; Odorici, F; Bonacorsi, D; Genta, C; Ferri, G; Saviano, G; Ferrini, M; Minutoli, S; Fabbricatore, P; Tosi, S; Diemoz, M; Baccaro, S; Bartoloni, A; Margaroli, F; Talamo, I G; Cipriani, M; Kim, J Y; Oh, G; Lim, J H; Lee, J; Md ali, M A B; Gani, A B; Cwiok, M; Doroba, K; Pyskir, A D; Martins galinhas, B E; Kim, V; Krivshich, A; Vorobyev, A; Ivanov, Y; Tarakanov, V; Lobodenko, A; Obikhod, T; Isayev, O; Kurov, O; Leonidov, A; Lvova, N; Kirsanov, M; Suvorova, O; Karneyeu, A; Demidov, S; Konoplyannikov, A; Popov, V; Pakhlov, P; Blinov, V; Skovpen, I; Chatrchyan, S; Grigorian, N; Kayis topaksu, A; Sunar cerci, D; Hos, I; Girgis chyla, S; Guler, Y; Kiminsu, U; Serin, M; Turan, I; Eryol, F; Pozdnyakov, A; Liu, Z; Doan, T H; Hanlon, J E; Mcbride, P L; Pal, I; Verzocchi, M; Garren, L; Oleynik, G; Harris, R M; Bolla, G; Kowalkowski, J B; Evans, D E; Vaandering, E W; Patrick, J F; Rechenmacher, R; Prosser, A G; Messer, T A; Tiradani, A R; Rivera, R A; Jayatilaka, B A; Todri, A; Ballesteros villamizar, D A; Tillman, J L; Harr, R F; Richman, J D; Bhandari, R; Priyanka, P; Dordevic, M; Cirkovic, P; Mora herrera, C; Rosa lopes zachi, A; De paula carvalho, W; Kinnunen, R L A; Lehti, S T; Maeenpaeae, T H; Bloch, D; Chabert, E C; Rudolf, N G; Devroede, O; Skovpen, K; Deroover, K; Moreels, L; Lontkovskyi, D; De wolf, E A; Van mechelen, P; Van spilbeeck, A B E; Georgiev, L S; Novaes, S F; Vaz da silva filho, M; Horisberger, R P; De la cruz, B; Willmott, C; Perez-calero yzquierdo, A M; Escalante del valle, A; Dejardin, M M; Bansal, S; Mehta, A; Barbagli, G; Focardi, E; Lista, L; Passeggio, G; Thyssen, F D M; Breglio, G; Bacchetta, N; Gasparini, U; Pantano, D; Sgaravatto, M; Ventura, S; Zotto, P; Candelori, A; Pozzobon, N; Boletti, A; Benato, L; Manghisoni, M; Ionica, M; Servoli, L; Postolache, V; Rossi, A; Ciangottini, D; Alunni solestizi, L; Castaldi, R; Verdini, P G; Fedi, G; Coscetti, S; Poulios, S; Maselli, S; Migliore, E; Amapane, N C; Lopez fernandez, R; Sanchez hernandez, A; Heredia de la cruz, I; Matveev, V; Kracikova, T; Shmatov, S; Vasilev, S; Kurenkov, A; Oleynik, D; Vasil'ev, T; Verkheev, A; Voytishin, N; Proskuryakov, A; Bogdanova, G; Latyshev, G; Bagaturia, I; Tsamalaidze, Z; Fiori, F; Zhao, Z; Arcaro, D J; Barberis, E; Teixeira de lima, R; Ralph, D K; Velasco, M M; Anastassov, A I; Odell, N J; Sevova, S; Li, W; Merlo, J; Onel, Y; Mermerkaya, H; Moeller, A R; Haytmyradov, M; Bugg, W M; Ragghianti, G C; Delannoy sotomayor, A G; Thapa, K; Yagil, A; Gerosa, R A; Kapustinsky, J S; Greene, S V; Zhang, L; Vlimant, J V; Mughal, A; Cury siqueira, S; Duarte, J M; Gershtein, Y; Arora, S R R; Lin, W X; Stickland, D P; Mc donald, K T; Pivarski, J M C; Medvedeva, T; Hebda, P; Rosenfield, M; Long, O R; Alvarez jr, G; Johnson, K F; Adams, T; Susa, T; Rykaczewski, H; Ge, Y; Liu, S; Li, J; Bloom, K A; Monroy montanez, J A; Kunori, S; Wang, Z; Favart, D; Maltoni, F; Quertenmont, L; Vidal marono, M; Francois, B A L; Delcourt, M; Markov, S I; Lyons, L; Seez, C; Vazquez acosta, M L; Richards, A J; Ferguson, W; Winterbottom, D; Saoulidou, N; Chatziangelou, M; Karathanasis, G; Jones, J A; Strologas, J; Katsoulis, P; Dutt, S; Roy chowdhury, S; Bhardwaj, R; Purohit, A; Behera, P K; Groote, J F; Untuc, B; Oztirpan, F O; Pak, N K; Osherson, M A; Luiggi lopez, E E; Krohn, M D; Tonjes, M B; Hadley, N J; Shin, Y H; Safonov, A; Eusebi, R; Rose, A K; Erbacher, R D; Pilot, J R; Klimenko, S; Matchev, K; Wang, J; Bortignon, P; Curry, D A; Carver, M R; Wilcox, S M; Sun, W M; Soffi, L; Lantz, S R; Wright, D; Cline, D; Cousins jr, R D; Yang, X; Schnaible, C J; Dasgupta, A; Bradley, D C; Duric, S; Monzat, D; Dodd, L M; Tikalsky, J L; Kapusta, J; Gilbert, W J; Lesko, Z J; Marinelli, N; Wayne, M R; Heering, A H; Galanti, M; Han, J Y; Duh, Y; Roy, A; Arabgol, M; Hacker, T J; Salva, S; Sigamani, M; Petrov, V; Barychevski, V; Drobychev, G; Lobko, A; Conte, E R E; Gattaz, O; Kasprowicz, G H; Kyberd, P; Cole, J E; Reid, I D; Berry, N; Lopez, J M; Benzon, A M; Pelagio, L; Walsh, M F; Carpinteyro bernardino, S; Postnov, A; Lelas, D; Vaitkus, J V; Jurciukonis, D; Bacevieius, G; Sulmanas, B; Ahmad, A; Ahmed, W; Jalil, S H; Saleem, R; Kahl, W E; Taylor, D R; Choi, Y I; Roy, T; Martinez ruiz del arbol, P; Hoss, J H; Schoenenberger, M A; Khateri, P; Safarzadeh samani, B; Etesami, S M; Kokabi, A; Pullia, A; Magni, S; Manzoni, R A; Brianza, L; Sanabria arenas, J C; Florez bustos, C A; Holguin coral, A; Mendez, H; Srimanobhas, N; Jaikar, A H; Arteche gonzalez, F J; Call, K R; Calderon monroy, M A; Bakhet, N; Aly mohamed mahmoud mohamed, R; Elkafrawy, T; Hammad, A H A; Abdelmaguid, A; Mal, P K; Yuan, L; Al kindi, A; Lomidze, I; Prangishvili, I; Adamov, G; Dube, S S; Dugad, S; Mohanty, G B; Bhowmik, S

    CMS is a general purpose proton-proton detector designed to run at the highest luminosity at the LHC. It is also well adapted for studies at the initially lower luminosities. The CMS Collaboration consists of over 1800 scientists and engineers from 151 institutes in 31 countries. The main design goals of CMS are: \\begin{enumerate} \\item a highly performant muon system, \\item the best possible electromagnetic calorimeter \\item high quality central tracking \\item hermetic calorimetry \\item a detector costing less than 475 MCHF. \\end{enumerate} All detector sub-systems have started construction. Engineering Design Reviews of parts of these sub-systems have been successfully carried-out. These are held prior to granting authorization for purchase. The schedule for the LHC machine and the experiments has been revised and CMS will be ready for first collisions now expected in April 2006. \\\\\\\\ ~~~~$\\bullet$ Magnet \\\\ The detector (see Figure) will be built around a long (13~m) and large bore ($\\phi$=5.9~m) high...

  10. Density-Driven Compactional Flow in Porous Media

    Yang, Xin-She

    2010-01-01

    In the mathematical modelling of compactional flow in porous media, the constitutive relation is typically modelled in terms of a nonlinear relationship between effective pressure and porosity, and compaction is essentially poroelastic. However, at depths deeper than 1 km where pressure is high, compaction becomes more akin to a viscous one. Two mathematical models of compaction in porous media are formulated and the noninear equations are then solved numerically. The essential features of numerical profiles of poroelastic and viscous compaction are thus compared with asymptotic solutions. Two distinguished styles of density-driven compaction in fast and slow compacting sediments are analysed and shown in this paper.

  11. Mixing and compaction temperatures for Superpave mixes

    Yildirim, Yetkin

    According to Superpave mixture design, gyratory specimens are mixed and compacted at equiviscous binder temperatures corresponding to viscosities of 0.17 and 0.28 Pa.s. respectively. These were the values previously used in the Marshal mix design method to determine optimal mixing and compaction temperatures. In order to estimate the appropriate mixing and compaction temperatures for Superpave mixture design, a temperature-viscosity relationship for the binder needs to be developed (ASTM D 2493, Calculation of Mixing and Compaction Temperatures). The current approach is simple and provides reasonable temperatures for unmodified binders. However, some modified binders have exhibited unreasonably high temperatures for mixing and compaction using this technique. These high temperatures can result in construction problems, damage of asphalt, and production of fumes. Heating asphalt binder to very high temperatures during construction oxidizes the binder and separates the polymer from asphalt binder. It is known that polymer modified asphalt binders have many benefits to the roads, such as; increasing rutting resistance, enhancing low temperature cracking resistance, improving traction, better adhesion and cohesion, elevating tensile strength which are directly related to the service life of the pavement. Therefore, oxidation and separation of the polymer from the asphalt binder results in reduction of the service life. ASTM D 2493 was established for unmodified asphalt binders which are Newtonian fluids at high temperatures. For these materials, viscosity does not depend on shear rate. However, most of the modified asphalt binders exhibit a phenomenon known as pseudoplasticity, where viscosity does depend on shear rate. Thus, at the high shear rates occurring during mixing and compaction, it is not necessary to go to very high temperatures. This research was undertaken to determine the shear rate during compaction such that the effect of this parameter could be

  12. Design and development of compact readout electronics with silicon photomultiplier array for a compact imaging detector

    This work aims at developing compact readout electronics for a compact imaging detector module with silicon photomultiplier (SPM) array. The detector module consists of a LYSO crystal array coupling with a SensL's 4 × 4 SPM array. A compact multiplexed readout based on a discretized positioning circuit (DPC) was developed to reduce the readout channels from 16 to 4 outputs. Different LYSO crystal arrays of 4 × 4, 8 × 8 and 12 × 12 with pixel sizes of 3.2, 1.6 and 1.0 mm respectively, have been tested with the compact readout board using a 137Cs source. The initial results show that the compact imaging detector module with the compact multiplexed readout could clearly resolve 1 mm × 1 mm × 10 mm LYSO scintillation crystal array except those at the edges. The detector's intrinsic spatial resolution up to 1 mm can be achieved with the 3 mm × 3 mm size SPMArray4 through light sharing and compact multiplexed readout. Our results indicate that this detector module is feasible for the development of high-resolution compact PET. (authors)

  13. Aligning laboratory and field compaction practices for asphalt - the influence of compaction temperature on mechanical properties

    Bijleveld, F.R.; Miller, S.R.; Bondt, de A.H.; Doree, A.G.

    2015-01-01

    The approach used to identify a compaction temperature in the laboratory, based on binder viscosity, provides a single compaction temperature whereas, on-site, a roller operates within a temperature window. The effect on the density and mechanical properties of rolling during a temperature window re

  14. Isometric Coactions of Compact Quantum Groups on Compact Quantum Metric Spaces

    Johan Quaegebeur; Marie Sabbe

    2012-08-01

    We propose a notion of isometric coaction of a compact quantum group on a compact quantum metric space in the framework of Rieffel, where the metric structure is given by a Lipnorm. Within this setting we study the problem of the existence of a quantum isometry group.

  15. Strategy Guideline: Compact Air Distribution Systems

    Burdick, A.

    2013-06-01

    This Strategy Guideline discusses the benefits and challenges of using a compact air distribution system to handle the reduced loads and reduced air volume needed to condition the space within an energy efficient home. Traditional systems sized by 'rule of thumb' (i.e., 1 ton of cooling per 400 ft2 of floor space) that 'wash' the exterior walls with conditioned air from floor registers cannot provide appropriate air mixing and moisture removal in low-load homes. A compact air distribution system locates the HVAC equipment centrally with shorter ducts run to interior walls, and ceiling supply outlets throw the air toward the exterior walls along the ceiling plane; alternatively, high sidewall supply outlets throw the air toward the exterior walls. Potential drawbacks include resistance from installing contractors or code officials who are unfamiliar with compact air distribution systems, as well as a lack of availability of low-cost high sidewall or ceiling supply outlets to meet the low air volumes with good throw characteristics. The decision criteria for a compact air distribution system must be determined early in the whole-house design process, considering both supply and return air design. However, careful installation of a compact air distribution system can result in lower material costs from smaller equipment, shorter duct runs, and fewer outlets; increased installation efficiencies, including ease of fitting the system into conditioned space; lower loads on a better balanced HVAC system, and overall improved energy efficiency of the home.

  16. DNA compaction by azobenzene-containing surfactant

    We report on the interaction of cationic azobenzene-containing surfactant with DNA investigated by absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, and atomic force microscopy. The properties of the surfactant can be controlled with light by reversible switching of the azobenzene unit, incorporated into the surfactant tail, between a hydrophobic trans (visible irradiation) and a hydrophilic cis (UV irradiation) configuration. The influence of the trans-cis isomerization of the azobenzene on the compaction process of DNA molecules and the role of both isomers in the formation and colloidal stability of DNA-surfactant complexes is discussed. It is shown that the trans isomer plays a major role in the DNA compaction process. The influence of the cis isomer on the DNA coil configuration is rather small. The construction of a phase diagram of the DNA concentration versus surfactant/DNA charge ratio allows distancing between three major phases: colloidally stable and unstable compacted globules, and extended coil conformation. There is a critical concentration of DNA above which the compacted globules can be hindered from aggregation and precipitation by adding an appropriate amount of the surfactant in the trans configuration. This is because of the compensation of hydrophobicity of the globules with an increasing amount of the surfactant. Below the critical DNA concentration, the compacted globules are colloidally stable and can be reversibly transferred with light to an extended coil state.

  17. DNA compaction by azobenzene-containing surfactant

    Zakrevskyy, Yuriy; Kopyshev, Alexey; Lomadze, Nino; Morozova, Elena; Lysyakova, Ludmila; Kasyanenko, Nina; Santer, Svetlana

    2011-08-01

    We report on the interaction of cationic azobenzene-containing surfactant with DNA investigated by absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, and atomic force microscopy. The properties of the surfactant can be controlled with light by reversible switching of the azobenzene unit, incorporated into the surfactant tail, between a hydrophobic trans (visible irradiation) and a hydrophilic cis (UV irradiation) configuration. The influence of the trans-cis isomerization of the azobenzene on the compaction process of DNA molecules and the role of both isomers in the formation and colloidal stability of DNA-surfactant complexes is discussed. It is shown that the trans isomer plays a major role in the DNA compaction process. The influence of the cis isomer on the DNA coil configuration is rather small. The construction of a phase diagram of the DNA concentration versus surfactant/DNA charge ratio allows distancing between three major phases: colloidally stable and unstable compacted globules, and extended coil conformation. There is a critical concentration of DNA above which the compacted globules can be hindered from aggregation and precipitation by adding an appropriate amount of the surfactant in the trans configuration. This is because of the compensation of hydrophobicity of the globules with an increasing amount of the surfactant. Below the critical DNA concentration, the compacted globules are colloidally stable and can be reversibly transferred with light to an extended coil state.

  18. Electrical properties of the potassium polytitanate compacts

    Highlights: • Quasi-static permittivity of potassium polytitanates compacts achieves 104–105. • Observed Maxwell–Wagner polarization attributes to layered structure of polytitanates. • The conductivity varies from 5 × 10−2 to 10−6–10−7 Sm/m in a wide range of temperatures. - Abstract: Titanates of alkali metals are widely applied materials as they are relatively low in cost and might be easily synthesized. They are utilized as adsorbents, catalysts, solid state electrolytes, superconductors. Here we report our results on electrical properties of the compacted amorphous potassium polytitanates powders. The electrical properties of the compacts were studied by means of complex impedance spectroscopy in a wide range of frequencies at different temperatures using two-electrode configuration. The frequency dependences of conductivity for the investigated potassium polytitanates compacts varies in the range from 5 × 10−2 Sm/m (high frequencies, ion conductivity) up to 10−6–10−7 Sm/m (low frequencies, electron conductivity) for a wide range of temperatures (19–150 °C). According to the results, at low frequencies quasi-static permittivity of the stabilized PPT compacts achieves high values of 104–105. This might be explained by Maxwell–Wagner polarization attributed to the layered structure of the potassium polytitanates particles containing potassium and hydronium ions together with crystallization water in the interlayer and is very promising for solid state electrolyte applications for moderate temperatures

  19. Physics design of a compact medical cyclotron

    Background: A compact cyclotron with energy of 11 MeV and current of 50 μA is under construction in Institute of Fluid Physics of China Academy of Engineering Physics. The compact cyclotron is developed for medical isotope production. Purpose: To minimize the cost and to shorten the time of the development of the compact cyclotron, a lot of efforts were dedicated to the physics design of the compact cyclotron. Methods: Physics design of the main magnet was performed using TOSCA software, and start-to-end beam dynamics design was performed using home-made software CYCDYN. Results: Physics design of the compact cyclotron was given in details. Design methods and results of the main subsystems (including ion source, radial sector focusing magnet, RF cavity, central region and extraction system) were also given in this paper. Conclusion: Now commissioning of this cyclotron has been finished, and the goal for extracting proton beams of 11 MeV and 50 μA on average has been achieved. Physics design of the cyclotron has been validated by the commissioning results. (authors)

  20. Enzyme-amplified protein micorarray and a fluidic renewable surface fluorescence immunoassay for botulinum neurotoxin detection using high-affinity recombinant antibodies

    Varnum, Susan M.; Warner, Marvin G.; Dockendorff, Brian P.; Anheier, Norman C.; Lou, Jianlong; Marks, James D.; Smith, Leonard A.; Feldhaus, Michael J.; Grate, Jay W.; Bruckner-Lea, Cindy J.

    2006-06-16

    With the use of high-affinity recombinant monoclonal antibodies against the receptor binding domain of botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT/A), two separate immunoassay platforms were developed for either the sensitive or the rapid detection of BoNT/A. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) microarray was developed for the specific and sensitive detection of BoNT in buffer and clinical fluids. This assay has the sensitivity to detect BoNT in diverse samples down to 14 fM (1.4 pg/mL). Using the recombinant monoclonal antibodies, a renewable surface microcolumn sensor was developed for the rapid detection of BoNT/A in an automated fluidic system. While the ELISA microarray assay, because of its sensitivity, offers an alternative to the mouse bioassay, the renewable surface assay has potential as a rapid screening assay for the analysis of complex environmental samples.