Bouffard, Marcel; Spencer-Cavaliere, Nancy
It is commonly accepted that inquiry in adapted physical activity involves the use of different disciplines to address questions. It is often advanced today that complex problems of the kind frequently encountered in adapted physical activity require a combination of disciplines for their solution. At the present time, individual research…
This article provides an introduction to the literature on interdisciplinary research. It then draws lessons from that literature for the field of adapted physical activity. It is argued that adapted physical activity should be a self-consciously interdisciplinary field. It should insist that research be performed according to recognized…
Full Text Available Introduction. Osteoporosis, a disease characterized by the progressive loss of bone tissue, is one of the most common complications of aging. Epidemiology. According to some calculations, there were 25% of women and 4% of men older than 50 years with osteoporosis in the world in 2010. It is assumed that the number of patients with osteoporosis will increase by 30% in every 10 years in the 21st century. There are many reasons for that: the world’s population is growing older, diet is getting poorer in vitamins and minerals and physical activity is decreasing. The Quality and Quantity of Bone Tissue. Developing bones are much more responsive to mechanical loading and physical activity than mature bones. This suggests that training in early childhood may be an important factor in the prevention of osteoporosis in later life. It is important to note that the quality of bone achieved by training at younger age cannot be maintained permanently if it is not supported by physical activity later in life. Adapted physical activity represents physical activity individually tailored according to the psychosomatic capabilities of a person and the goal to be achieved. It can be applied at any age in order to maintain strong bones and reduce the risk of fracture. Adapted physical activity is different for men and women, for different age, as well as for the individuals. Aerobic exercises, which lead to an acceleration of breathing, increased heart rate and mild perspiration, as well as resistance exercises and exercises against resistance done by stretching elastic bands, for hands, legs and torso have been proven to increase bone density and improve bone strength. Coordination and balance exercises are important in an individual workout program. An explanation of the action of adapted physical activity is the basis for the theory of control and modulation of bone loss, muscle strength, coordination and balance. Physical activity is very effective in
Goodwin, Donna; Howe, P. David
Academics and practitioners are often at a loss when it comes to understanding the ethical socio-political and cultural contexts that invade the world of adapted physical activity. Ethical practice is situated in the local and the specific. In this article we highlight the reality that both academics and practitioners need to be ever mindful that…
The purpose of this thesis was to describe adapted physical activities (APA) offered for adults with intellectual disability in rehabilitating work activity and to spread information concerning the topic to colleagues in Finland as well as to those working abroad. The thesis is a part of research and development project of Satakunta University of Applied Sciences. The University works as an associate partner in EUSAPA-project which is a European level attempt to explore and develop adapted ph...
Causgrove Dunn, Janice; Cairney, John; Zimmer, Chantelle
In this article, we reflect on the contributions of the social sciences to the field of adapted physical activity by examining the theories and methods that have been adopted from the social science disciplines. To broaden our perspective on adapted physical activity and provide new avenues for theoretical and empirical exploration, we discuss and…
Full Text Available Examined and summarized problems of adaptation of students to educational activity. 100 students took part in research. Found out a row socially psychological factors which determine efficiency of process of adaptation of students to the scientific process. Practical recommendations are developed on organization of educational process of students. It is recommended widely to utillize a physical culture as mean of reduction of adaptation period and increase of level of physical and mental capacity. It is marked that almost 90% students have rejections in a health. Also over 50% - unsatisfactory physical preparedness. It is set that for the students of the II course the indexes of low situation anxiety prevail as compared to the I course. It is set that the characteristic feature of the psychological state during an examination session is emotionally volitional instability.
Erkan; Eylem; Ekrem Levent
The aim of this research was to determine whether regular application of physical education and sports activities was effective on psychological adaptation levels of children or not. The research group was constituted of 80 students in the range of 10-11 years old who take education in Ankara Keçioren Hacı Sabancı Secondary School. The research was designed as a test-module with pretest-posttest control group. Physical education and sports activities were performed with application group as 2...
Haegele, Justin A; Lee, Jihyun; Porretta, David L
The purpose of this documentary analysis was to examine trends in research published in Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly (APAQ) over a 10-yr span. A total of 181 research articles published from 2004 to 2013 were coded and analyzed using the following categories: first-author country affiliation, theoretical framework, intervention, research methods, disability categories, and topical focus. Results indicate high frequencies of nonintervention and group-design studies, as well as a low frequency of studies that describe a theoretical or conceptual framework. Trends in disability of participants and topical focus reflect current interests of researchers publishing in APAQ. While some scholars have suggested that changes in research on adapted physical activity would occur, the results of this analysis suggest that many of these categories remain largely unchanged for research published in APAQ. This study calls attention to similarities between the results of the current analysis and previous ones. PMID:26113549
Méquinion, Mathieu; Caron, Emilie; Zgheib, Sara; Stievenard, Aliçia; Zizzari, Philippe; Tolle, Virginie; Cortet, Bernard; Lucas, Stéphanie; Prévot, Vincent; Chauveau, Christophe; Viltart, Odile
In restrictive-type anorexia nervosa (AN) patients, physical activity is usually associated with food restriction, but its physiological consequences remain poorly characterized. In female mice, we evaluated the impact of voluntary physical activity with/without chronic food restriction on metabolic and endocrine parameters that might contribute to AN. In this protocol, FRW mice (i.e., food restriction with running wheel) reached a crucial point of body weight loss (especially fat mass) faster than FR mice (i.e., food restriction only). However, in contrast to FR mice, their body weight stabilized, demonstrating a protective effect of a moderate, regular physical activity. Exercise delayed meal initiation and duration. FRW mice displayed food anticipatory activity compared with FR mice, which was strongly diminished with the prolongation of the protocol. The long-term nature of the protocol enabled assessment of bone parameters similar to those observed in AN patients. Both restricted groups adapted their energy metabolism differentially in the short and long term, with less fat oxidation in FRW mice and a preferential use of glucose to compensate for the chronic energy imbalance. Finally, like restrictive AN patients, FRW mice exhibited low leptin levels, high plasma concentrations of corticosterone and ghrelin, and a disruption of the estrous cycle. In conclusion, our model suggests that physical activity has beneficial effects on the adaptation to the severe condition of food restriction despite the absence of any protective effect on lean and bone mass. PMID:25465889
Standal, Øyvind Førland; Jespersen, Ejgil
The purpose of this study was to investigate the learning that takes place when people with disabilities interact in a rehabilitation context. Data were generated through in-depth interviews and close observations in a 2 1/2 week-long rehabilitation program, where the participants learned both wheelchair skills and adapted physical activities. The findings from the qualitative data analysis are discussed in the context of situated learning (Lave & Wenger, 1991; Wenger, 1998). The results indi...
Regulation of pH in skeletal muscle is the sum of mechanisms involved in maintaining intracellular pH within the normal range. Aspects of pH regulation in human skeletal muscle have been studied with various techniques from analysis of membrane proteins, microdialysis, and the nuclear magnetic...... describes the contribution of each transport system in pH regulation at rest and during muscle activity. It is reported that the mechanisms involved in pH regulation can undergo adaptational changes in association with physical activity and that these changes are of functional importance....
Lund, Henrik Hautop; Thorsteinsson, Arnar Tumi
We describe how playware and games may adapt to the interaction of the individual user. We hypothesize that in physical games there are individual differences in user interaction capabilities and styles, and that adaptive playware may adapt to the individual user’s capabilities, so that the...... activity automatically will match the capability of the individual user. With small test groups, we investigate how different age groups and gender groups physically interact with some playware games, and find indications of differences between the groups. Despite the small test set, the results are a...... proof of existence of differences and of the need for adaptation, and therefore we investigate adaptation as an important issue for playware. With simple playware games, we show that the adaptation will speed the physical game up and down to find the appropriate level that matches the reaction speed of...
Perunov, Nikolai; England, Jeremy
All living things exhibit adaptations that enable them to survive and reproduce in the natural environment that they inhabit. From a biological standpoint, it has long been understood that adaptation comes from natural selection, whereby maladapted individuals do not pass their traits effectively to future generations. However, we may also consider the phenomenon of adaptation from the standpoint of physics, and ask whether it is possible to delineate what the difference is in terms of physical properties between something that is well-adapted to its surrounding environment, and something that is not. In this work, we undertake to address this question from a theoretical standpoint. Building on past fundamental results in far-from-equilibrium statistical mechanics, we demonstrate a generalization of the Helmholtz free energy for the finite-time stochastic evolution of driven Newtonian matter. By analyzing this expression term by term, we are able to argue for a general tendency in driven many-particle systems...
Battaglia, Giuseppe; Bellafiore, Marianna; Alesi, Marianna; Paoli, Antonio; Bianco, Antonino; Palma, Antonio
Background Several studies have shown the positive effects of adapted physical activity (APA) on physical and mental health (MH) during the lifetime. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a specific APA intervention program in the improvement of the health-related quality of life (QOL) and functional condition of spine in elderly women. Methods Thirty women were recruited from a senior center and randomly assigned to two groups: control group (CG; age: 69.69±7.94 years, height: 1.57±0.06 m, weight: 68.42±8.18 kg, body mass index [BMI]: 27.88±2.81) and trained group (TG; age: 68.35±6.04 years, height: 1.55±0.05 m, weight: 64.78±10.16 kg, BMI: 26.98±3.07). The APA program was conducted for 8 weeks, with two training sessions/week. CG did not perform any physical activity during the study. Spinal angles were evaluated by SpinalMouse® (Idiag, Volkerswill, Switzerland); health-related QOL was evaluated by SF-36 Health Survey, which assesses physical component summary (PCS-36), mental component summary (MCS-36), and eight subscales: physical functioning, role-physical, bodily pain, general health perception, role-emotional, social functioning, vitality, and MH. All measures were recorded before and after the experimental period. Results In TG, compared to CG, the two-way analysis of variance with repeated measures with Bonferroni post hoc test showed a relevant improvement in lumbar spinal angle (°) and in SF-36 outcomes after the intervention period. We showed a significant increase in physical functioning, bodily pain, and MH subscales and in PCS-36 and MCS-36 scores in TG compared to CG. In particular, from baseline to posttest, we found that in TG, the PCS-36 and MCS-36 scores increased by 13.20% and 11.64%, respectively. Conclusion We believe that an 8-week APA intervention program is able to improve psychophysical heath in elderly people. During the aging process, a dynamic lifestyle, including regular physical activity, is a crucial
Marc A Adams
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Physical activity (PA interventions typically include components or doses that are static across participants. Adaptive interventions are dynamic; components or doses change in response to short-term variations in participant's performance. Emerging theory and technologies make adaptive goal setting and feedback interventions feasible. OBJECTIVE: To test an adaptive intervention for PA based on Operant and Behavior Economic principles and a percentile-based algorithm. The adaptive intervention was hypothesized to result in greater increases in steps per day than the static intervention. METHODS: Participants (N = 20 were randomized to one of two 6-month treatments: 1 static intervention (SI or 2 adaptive intervention (AI. Inactive overweight adults (85% women, M = 36.9 ± 9.2 years, 35% non-white in both groups received a pedometer, email and text message communication, brief health information, and biweekly motivational prompts. The AI group received daily step goals that adjusted up and down based on the percentile-rank algorithm and micro-incentives for goal attainment. This algorithm adjusted goals based on a moving window; an approach that responded to each individual's performance and ensured goals were always challenging but within participants' abilities. The SI group received a static 10,000 steps/day goal with incentives linked to uploading the pedometer's data. RESULTS: A random-effects repeated-measures model accounted for 180 repeated measures and autocorrelation. After adjusting for covariates, the treatment phase showed greater steps/day relative to the baseline phase (p<.001 and a group by study phase interaction was observed (p .017. The SI group increased by 1,598 steps/day on average between baseline and treatment while the AI group increased by 2,728 steps/day on average between baseline and treatment; a significant between-group difference of 1,130 steps/day (Cohen's d = .74. CONCLUSIONS: The adaptive
Bouricha, Rémy; Thöni, Gilles; Raffard, Laurence; Cochet, Laurence; Saucourt, Vincent; Tirode, Véronique
The French therapeutic communities ("Appartements de Coordination Therapeutique (ACT)") are mostly members of the "National Federation of Accommodation for HIV+ and other chronic diseases. They provide accommodation for people living with chronic conditions (HIV hepatitis, cancers...) and in a situation of high psychosocial frailty. As a result of their coordinated multidisciplinary intervention, these structures provide the required support to access health care and facilitate social inclusion. They are designed to provide an appropriate response to people with cumulative medical and social conditions (chronic diseases, precariousness, addictions and other comorbidities). Our innovative local experiment integrates Adapted Physical Activities (APA) into the global medical and social follow-up, in line with the patient's individual health care project. The characteristics of each APA project (nature of the activities proposed, intensity, duration, frequency, individual vs. team activity and accompanying methods) are defined on an individual basis, according to the user's motivations and inputs from the support team (medical, psychological and social coordination). The follow-up ensured by our APA professionals allows the residents to participate in a regular and attractive physical activity and could contribute to their social inclusion. The multidisciplinary approach proposed by ACTs determines the beneficial effects observed in such vulnerable patients. PMID:26168635
Camila Brandão Gonçalves
Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the understanding of the Food Pyramid Adapted to Physically Active Adolescents as an educational tool to improve nutrition knowledge. Adolescents engaged in sport training responded to a nutrition knowledge questionnaire before and after the intervention. The pyramid intervention group received the printed educational material, and the broad intervention group received the printed material followed by a lecture. As a result, mean initial nutrition knowledge was average (59.9 ± 18 points, increasing (p<0.001 after the intervention (69.1 ± 20 points without significant difference between interventions. In conclusion, adolescents' nutrition knowledge improved, even with the use of the Food Pyramid alone, indicating its use to promote nutritional knowledge.
Physical activity -- which includes an active lifestyle and routine exercise -- plus eating well, is the best way to ... shortness of breath when you are active Build physical activity into your regular routine Simple lifestyle changes can ...
Standal, Øyvind F.; Rugseth, Gro
The aim of this article is to show that and how philosophy and philosophical thinking can be of relevance for the preparation of future professionals in adaptive physical activity. To this end we utilize philosophical insights from the human science perspective on two central issues, namely experience and intersubjectivity, which are weaved…
Finelli, Carmine; Gioia, Saverio; La Sala, Nicolina
We review the current concepts about energy expenditure and evaluate the physical activity (PhA) in the context of this knowledge and the available literature. Regular PhA is correlated with low body weight and low body fat mass. The negative fat balance is probably secondary to this negative energy balance. Nonexercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT) and physical activity, that is crucial for weight control, may be important in the physiology of weight change. An intriguing doubt that remains unresolved is whether changes in nutrient intake or body composition secondarily affect the spontaneous physical activity. PMID:24533208
Finelli, Carmine; Gioia, Saverio; La Sala, Nicolina
We review the current concepts about energy expenditure and evaluate the physical activity (PhA) in the context of this knowledge and the available literature. Regular PhA is correlated with low body weight and low body fat mass. The negative fat balance is probably secondary to this negative energy balance. Nonexercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT) and physical activity, that is crucial for weight control, may be important in the physiology of weight change. An intriguing doubt that remains ...
Cisterna, Barbara; Giagnacovo, Marzia; Costanzo, Manuela; Fattoretti, Patrizia; Zancanaro, Carlo; Pellicciari, Carlo; Malatesta, Manuela
During ageing, a progressive loss of skeletal muscle mass and a decrease in muscle strength and endurance take place, in the condition termed sarcopenia. The mechanisms of sarcopenia are complex and still unclear; however, it is known that muscle atrophy is associated with a decline in the number and/or efficiency of satellite cells, the main contributors to muscle regeneration. Physical exercise proved beneficial in sarcopenia; however, knowledge of the effect of adapted physical exercise on the myogenic properties of satellite cells in aged muscles is limited. In this study the amount and activation state of satellite cells as well as their proliferation and differentiation potential were assessed in situ by morphology, morphometry and immunocytochemistry at light and transmission electron microscopy on 28-month-old mice submitted to adapted aerobic physical exercise on a treadmill. Sedentary age-matched mice served as controls, and sedentary adult mice were used as a reference for an unperturbed control at an age when the capability of muscle regeneration is still high. The effect of physical exercise in aged muscles was further analysed by comparing the myogenic potential of satellite cells isolated from old running and old sedentary mice using an in vitro system that allows observation of the differentiation process under controlled experimental conditions. The results of this ex vivo and in vitro study demonstrated that adapted physical exercise increases the number and activation of satellite cells as well as their capability to differentiate into structurally and functionally correct myotubes (even though the age-related impairment in myotube formation is not fully reversed): this evidence further supports adapted physical exercise as a powerful, non-pharmacological approach to counteract sarcopenia and the age-related deterioration of satellite cell capabilities even at very advanced age. PMID:26739770
Andersen, Lars Bo; Anderssen, Sigmund Alfred; Wisløff, Ulrik;
Andersen LB, Anderssen SA, Wisløff U, Hellénius M-L, Fogelholm M, Ekelund U. (Expert Group) Nordic Nutrition Recommendations 2012. Integrating nutrition and physical activity. Chapter: Physical Activity p. 195-217.Nordic Counsil of Ministers.......Andersen LB, Anderssen SA, Wisløff U, Hellénius M-L, Fogelholm M, Ekelund U. (Expert Group) Nordic Nutrition Recommendations 2012. Integrating nutrition and physical activity. Chapter: Physical Activity p. 195-217.Nordic Counsil of Ministers....
Schure, Marc B.; Goins, R. Turner
Introduction Despite the high prevalence of arthritis and physical disability among older American Indians, few evidence-based interventions that improve arthritis self-management via physical activity have been adapted for use in this population. The purpose of this study was to identify beliefs about health, arthritis, and physical activity among older American Indians living in a rural area in Oregon to help select and adapt an arthritis self-management program. Methods In partnership with a tribal health program, we conducted surveys, a focus group, and individual interviews with older American Indians with arthritis. Our sample comprised 6 focus group participants and 18 interviewees. The 24 participants were aged 48 to 82 years, of whom 67% were women. Forms B and C of the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control (MHLC) instrument, modified for arthritis, measured MHLC. Results The concepts of health, arthritis, and physical activity overlapped in that health was a holistic concept informed by cultural teachings that included living a healthy lifestyle, socializing, and being functionally independent. Arthritis inhibited health and healthy behaviors. Participants identified barriers such as unreliable transportation and recruiting challenges that would make existing interventions challenging to implement in this setting. The Doctor subscale had the highest MHLC (mean = 4.4 [standard deviation (SD), 1.0]), followed by the Internal subscale (3.9 [SD, 1.4]) and the Other People subscale (2.8 [SD, 1.1]). Conclusions Existing evidence-based programs for arthritis should be adapted to address implementation factors, such as access to transportation, and incorporate cultural values that emphasize holistic wellness and social interconnectedness. Culturally sensitive programs that build on indigenous values and practices to promote active coping strategies for older American Indians with arthritis are needed. PMID:27337558
Carl Johan SUNDBERG is an Associate Professor in Physiology and Licenced Physician. His research focus is Molecular mechanisms involved in the adaptation of human skeletal muscle to physical activity.
Fisher, R P; Falkner, K L; Trevisan, M; McCauley, M R
The cognitive interview (CI) was modified for use in an epidemiological study in which respondents were asked to recall their daily physical activities from the distant past (35 years ago). In comparison to a traditional epidemiological interview, the CI elicited many more responses and also more precise responses. Several practical costs, however, were incurred by the CI: additional time to train interviewers and to conduct interviews and difficulties in coding the responses. The costs and benefits of conducting the CI are addressed, along with conceptual and methodological challenges. The article ends with an existential question: Is the CI a singular technique if it can be modified so radically for different settings? PMID:10783535
Oyeyemi Adewale L
Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate assessment of physical activity is important in determining the risk for chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, stroke, type 2 diabetes, cancer and obesity. The absence of culturally relevant measures in indigenous languages could pose challenges to epidemiological studies on physical activity in developing countries. The purpose of this study was to translate and cross-culturally adapt the Short International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ-SF to the Hausa language, and to evaluate the validity and reliability of the Hausa version of IPAQ-SF in Nigeria. Methods The English IPAQ-SF was translated into the Hausa language, synthesized, back translated, and subsequently subjected to expert committee review and pre-testing. The final product (Hausa IPAQ-SF was tested in a cross-sectional study for concurrent (correlation with the English version and construct validity, and test-retest reliability in a sample of 102 apparently healthy adults. Results The Hausa IPAQ-SF has good concurrent validity with Spearman correlation coefficients (ρ ranging from 0.78 for vigorous activity (Min Week-1 to 0.92 for total physical activity (Metabolic Equivalent of Task [MET]-Min Week-1, but poor construct validity, with cardiorespiratory fitness (ρ = 0.21, p = 0.01 and body mass index (ρ = 0.22, p = 0.04 significantly correlated with only moderate activity and sitting time (Min Week-1, respectively. Reliability was good for vigorous (ICC = 0.73, 95% C.I = 0.55-0.84 and total physical activity (ICC = 0.61, 95% C.I = 0.47-0.72, but fair for moderate activity (ICC = 0.33, 95% C.I = 0.12-0.51, and few meaningful differences were found in the gender and socioeconomic status specific analyses. Conclusions The Hausa IPAQ-SF has acceptable concurrent validity and test-retest reliability for vigorous-intensity activity, walking, sitting and total physical activity, but demonstrated only fair construct validity for moderate and
As we move into the 21st Century, nuclear technology is on the verge of rejuvenation in advanced Member States and of expansion in developing Member States. The principal responsibilities of the IAEA are transferring technologies, co-ordinating scientific research, managing specialized projects and maintaining analytical quality control. The IAEA physics activities provide assistance with nuclear instrumentation, promote more effective utilization of research reactors and accelerators, and facilitate global co-operation in nuclear fusion research. These activities will help Member States improve their standards of living through the benefits of nuclear technology. This booklet presents a brief profile on the physics activities and involvement in these fields of the Physics Section, IAEA
Perunov, Nikolay; Marsland, Robert A.; England, Jeremy L.
Whether by virtue of being prepared in a slowly relaxing, high-free energy initial condition, or because they are constantly dissipating energy absorbed from a strong external drive, many systems subject to thermal fluctuations are not expected to behave in the way they would at thermal equilibrium. Rather, the probability of finding such a system in a given microscopic arrangement may deviate strongly from the Boltzmann distribution, raising the question of whether thermodynamics still has anything to tell us about which arrangements are the most likely to be observed. In this work, we build on past results governing nonequilibrium thermodynamics and define a generalized Helmholtz free energy that exactly delineates the various factors that quantitatively contribute to the relative probabilities of different outcomes in far-from-equilibrium stochastic dynamics. By applying this expression to the analysis of two examples—namely, a particle hopping in an oscillating energy landscape and a population composed of two types of exponentially growing self-replicators—we illustrate a simple relationship between outcome-likelihood and dissipative history. In closing, we discuss the possible relevance of such a thermodynamic principle for our understanding of self-organization in complex systems, paying particular attention to a possible analogy to the way evolutionary adaptations emerge in living things.
Standal, Oyvind F.; Jespersen, Ejgil
The purpose of this study was to investigate the learning that takes place when people with disabilities interact in a rehabilitation context. Data were generated through in-depth interviews and close observations in a 2 one-half week-long rehabilitation program, where the participants learned both wheelchair skills and adapted physical…
Wang, Chun-Hao; Tsai, Chia-Liang; Tseng, Philip; Yang, Albert C; Lo, Men-Tzung; Peng, Chung-Kang; Wang, Hsin-Yi; Muggleton, Neil G; Juan, Chi-Hung; Liang, Wei-Kuang
Physical activity has been shown to benefit brain and cognition in late adulthood. However, this effect is still unexplored in terms of brain signal complexity, which reflects the level of neural adaptability and efficiency during cognitive processing that cannot be acquired via averaged neuroelectric signals. Here we employed multiscale entropy analysis (MSE) of electroencephalography (EEG), a new approach that conveys important information related to the temporal dynamics of brain signal complexity across multiple time scales, to reveal the association of physical activity with neural adaptability and efficiency in elderly adults. A between-subjects design that included 24 participants (aged 66.63±1.31years; female=12) with high physical activity and 24 age- and gender-matched low physical activity participants (aged 67.29±1.20years) was conducted to examine differences related to physical activity in performance and MSE of EEG signals during a visuo-spatial cognition task. We observed that physically active elderly adults had better accuracy on both visuo-spatial attention and working memory conditions relative to their sedentary counterparts. Additionally, these physically active elderly adults displayed greater MSE values at larger time scales at the Fz electrode in both attention and memory conditions. The results suggest that physical activity may be beneficial for adaptability of brain systems in tasks involving visuo-spatial information. MSE thus might be a promising approach to test the effects of the benefits of exercise on cognition. PMID:25463141
Mary Ann S. Van Duyn, PhD, MPH, RD
Full Text Available IntroductionUsing a social marketing approach, we studied how best to adapt proven, evidence-based strategies to increase physical activity for use with underserved racial or ethnic groups.MethodsWe conducted focus groups with low-income Hispanic women in Texas, Hmong parents and their children in California, low-income African American women and men in the Mississippi Delta, and Native Hawaiian college students in Hawaii. We also interviewed key leaders of these communities. Topics of discussion were participants’ perceptions about 1 the benefits of engaging in physical activity, 2 the proposed evidence-based strategies for increasing each community’s level of physical activity, and 3 the benefits and barriers to following the proposed interventions for increasing physical activity. A total of 292 individuals participated in the study.ResultsAll groups considered that being physically active was part of their culture, and participants found culturally relevant suggestions for physical activities appealing. Overwhelmingly, strategies that aimed to create or improve social support and increase access to physical activity venues received the most positive feedback from all groups. Barriers to physical activity were not culturally specific; they are common to all underserved people (lack of time, transportation, access, neighborhood safety, or economic resources.ConclusionResults indicate that evidence-based strategies to increase physical activity need to be adapted for cultural relevance for each racial or ethnic group. Our research shows that members of four underserved populations are likely to respond to strategies that increase social support for physical activity and improve access to venues where they can be physically active. Further research is needed to test how to implement such strategies in ways that are embraced by community members.
... Our ePublications > Physical activity (exercise) fact sheet ePublications Physical activity (exercise) fact sheet How can physical activity improve ... Have had recent hip surgery More information on physical activity (exercise) For more information about physical activity (exercise), ...
Brian J. Hafner, PhD
Full Text Available Prosthetic knees are a vital component in an artificial limb. Contemporary knees include passive (mechanical, adaptive (computerized, or active (motorized control systems and have the potential to mitigate amputation-related functional impairments and activity limitations. A 14 mo randomized crossover trial was conducted. Participants (n = 12, mean age = 58 yr were tested under three conditions: passive control (existing knee, adaptive control (Ossur Rheo Knee II, and active control (Ossur Power Knee II. Training and acclimation time were provided to participants in the adaptive and active knees. Outcome measures included indoor tests (Timed Up and Go test [TUG], stairs, and ramp, outdoor tests (walking course and perceived exertion, step activity monitor, self-report surveys (mobility, balance confidence, physical function, fatigue, and general health, and fall incidence. Mixed-effects linear regression modeling was used to evaluate data. Compared with passive control, adaptive control significantly improved comfortable TUG time (difference = 0.91 s, p = 0.001 and reported physical function (difference = 1.26 [T-score], p = 0.03. Active control significantly increased comfortable TUG, fast TUG, and ramp times (difference = 3.02, 2.66, and 0.96 s, respectively, all p < 0.03 and increased balance confidence (difference = 3.77, p = 0.003 compared with passive control. Findings suggest that adaptive knee control may enhance function compared with passive control but that active control can restrict mobility in middle-age or older users with transfemoral amputation.
Salaun, Laureline; Reynes, Eric; Berthouze-Aranda, Sophie E.
Background: In adolescents with intellectual disability, the management of obesity is a crucial issue, yet also quite complex because of their particular perception of themselves. This study investigated the relationship between self-perception variables and morphological variables and their changes after a 9-month Adapted Physical Activity (APA)…
Belansky, Elaine S.; Cutforth, Nick; Chavez, Robert; Crane, Lori A.; Waters, Emily; Marshall, Julie A.
Background: School environment and policy changes have increased healthy eating and physical activity; however, there has been modest success in translating research ?ndings to practice. The School Environment Project tested whether an adapted version of Intervention Mapping (AIM) resulted in school change. Methods: Using a pair randomized design,…
Lytle, Rebecca; Lavay, Barry; Rizzo, Terry
This article presents information related to the new position statement on the definition of a "highly qualified adapted physical education teacher" published by the Adapted Physical Activity Council (a council of the American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance). It discusses the legal references for "highly qualified"…
Jacobsen, Julie Sandell; Sørensen, Lotte; Mikkelsen, Lone Ramer;
Background: There is abundant evidence that physical activity has a fundamental role in the prevention and treatment of chronic disease. Questionnaires are simple and inexpensive to apply to measure physical activity. Purpose / Aim of Study: Translate and cross-cultural adapt the short...... questionnaire to assess health-enhancing physical activity (SQUASH) to Danish and to investigate the reliability and discriminative validity of the Danish version. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted according to the COSMIN guidelines. The reliability was evaluated in 50 healthy individuals, mean age...... 47.2 � 12.6 years and mean period 37.1 � 14.9 days between test and retest. The relative reliability was assessed with intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and the absolute reliability with standard error of measurement (SEM) and smallest detectable change (SDC). The discriminative validity was...
... Families ( We Can! ) Health Professional Resources Guide to Physical Activity Physical activity is an important part of your ... to injury. Examples of moderate-intensity amounts of physical activity Common Chores Washing and waxing a car for ...
Current evidence convincingly indicates that physical activity reduces the risk of colon and breast cancer. Physical activity may also reduce risk of prostate cancer. Scientists are also evaluating potential relationships between physical activity and other cancers.
张晓霞; 吴雪萍; 王丹丹; Martin·Kudlacek
Based on literature data and logic analysis, the authors analyzed the establishment impetus, contents and func-tions of European standards for adapted physical activity professional cultivation, and revealed the following findings: European standards for adapted physical activity professional cultivation were established to meet the need of rapid devel-opment of adapted physical activities in Europe by basing their theoretical criteria on internal function, disability and health classification, as driven by European Federation of Adapted Physical Activity (EFAPA). Their contents include such three dimensions as adapted physical education, adapted physical rehabilitation as well as adapted sports and recreation; they play an extensive guiding, long-term planning and practice guiding role in adapted physical activity development in Europe. The authors proposed that China establish a nationwide adapted physical activity association as soon as possible, establish stan-dards for nationwide adapted physical activity professional cultivation, and speed up the comprehensive cultivation of adapted physical activity professionals, so as to meet the need of adapted physical activity development in China.%对欧洲适应体育专业人才培养标准建立的推动力、内容、作用进行了分析。结果表明欧洲适应体育专业人才培养标准是在欧洲适应体育联盟的推动下，以国际功能、残疾与健康分类为理论依据，在满足欧洲适应体育快速发展的需要下制定而成。其包含了适应体育教育、适应体育康复和适应体育运动与休闲3个方向的内容；对欧洲适应体育的发展起着广泛的指导、长远的规划和实践的引领作用。建议我国应尽快成立全国性的适应体育协会、制定全国性的适应体育专业人才培养标准，并加快适应体育专业人才的综合培养，以满足我国适应体育的发展需求。
Grutsyak N.B; Grutsyak V.І.
The problems of adaptation are considered foreign student in the institutes of higher. Directions of decision of problems of social and individual psychological adaptation of student are rotined. The methods of adaptive physical activity are used. The ways of realization of the adaptation health programs are set for a foreign student. It is suggested to enter preparations of student basic methods of adaptive physical culture in practice. It is recommended to enter an adaptive physical culture...
... Food and Beverage Toolkit The AHA's Recommendations for Physical Activity in Children Updated:Jul 21,2016 Click image ... Inactive children are likely to become inactive adults. Physical activity helps with: controlling weight reducing blood pressure raising ...
Irwin, Jennifer D.; He, Meizi; Bouck, L. Michelle Sangster; Tucker, Patricia; Pollett, Graham L.
Objectives To understand parents’ perspectives of their preschoolers’ physical activity behaviours. Methods A maximum variation sample of 71 parents explored their preschoolers’ physical activity behaviours through 10 semi-structured focus group discussions. Results Parents perceived Canada’s Physical Activity Guidelines for Children as inadequate; that their preschoolers get and need more than 30–90 minutes of activity daily; and that physical activity habits must be established during the preschool years. Nine barriers against and facilitators toward adequate physical activity were proposed: child’s age, weather, daycare, siblings, finances, time, society and safety, parents’ impact, and child’s activity preferences. Discussion The need for education and interventions that address current barriers are essential for establishing physical activity as a lifestyle behaviour during early childhood and, consequently, helping to prevent both childhood and adulthood obesity. PMID:16625802
People who engage in three to five times the recommended minimum level of leisure-time physical activity derive the greatest benefit in terms of mortality reduction when compared with people who do not engage in leisure-time physical activity.
Henriksen, P W; Ingholt, L; Rasmussen, M;
The objectives of this study were (a) to examine the association between various kinds of parental social support and adolescents' physical activity (PA) and (b) to examine whether various kinds of social support from mothers and fathers were differently associated with boys' and girls' PA. Data...... understand why some adolescents are physically active and others are not....
Bauman, Adrian E; Reis, Rodrigo S; Sallis, James F;
Physical inactivity is an important contributor to non-communicable diseases in countries of high income, and increasingly so in those of low and middle income. Understanding why people are physically active or inactive contributes to evidence-based planning of public health interventions, because...... that age, sex, health status, self-efficacy, and motivation are associated with physical activity. Ecological models take a broad view of health behaviour causation, with the social and physical environment included as contributors to physical inactivity, particularly those outside the health sector......, such as urban planning, transportation systems, and parks and trails. New areas of determinants research have identified genetic factors contributing to the propensity to be physically active, and evolutionary factors and obesity that might predispose to inactivity, and have explored the longitudinal...
Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim was to assess the construct validity characteristics of an adapted version of the long International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ-L and report seasonal variations in physical activity (PA. Methods In two multiethnic suburbs of Oslo, Norway, all men and women aged 31–67 years (N = 6140 were invited to a survey in 2000, and participants (N = 2950 were re-invited in 2003. Complete IPAQ-L forms were delivered by 2274 baseline participants. We used the first IPAQ-L version, which asks for PA in a usual week with separate answering alternatives for summer and winter. Baseline energy expenditure calculated from IPAQ-L was compared with anthropometrical and biological measurements including maximal aerobic power in a subgroup, and individual changes in PA were compared with changes in these measurements. Results Vigorous PA within all domains, leisure-time PA (LPA, total PA, and in men occupational PA correlated with waist-to-hip ratio (rho around -0.1, p The overall energy expenditure reported was 18% higher in summer than in winter. The amount of total and commuting PA in the two seasons were highly correlated with rho values of 0.9 and 0.7, respectively (p Conclusion Weak, but consistent correlations with baseline biological and anthropometrical measurements were found in both sexes, but for changes in PA such a pattern was seen in men only. The total energy expenditure in summer and winter were highly correlated although the absolute volume was higher in summer than in winter.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The primary aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of three physical activity (PA behavioural intervention strategies in a sample of adults with type 2 diabetes. Method/Design Participants (N = 287 were randomly assigned to one of three groups consisting of the following intervention strategies: (1 standard printed PA educational materials provided by the Canadian Diabetes Association [i.e., Group 1/control group]; (2 standard printed PA educational materials as in Group 1, pedometers, a log book and printed PA information matched to individuals' PA stage of readiness provided every 3 months (i.e., Group 2; and (3 PA telephone counseling protocol matched to PA stage of readiness and tailored to personal characteristics, in addition to the materials provided in Groups 1 and 2 (i.e., Group 3. PA behaviour measured by the Godin Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire and related social-cognitive measures were assessed at baseline, 3, 6, 9, 12 and 18-months (i.e., 6-month follow-up. Clinical (biomarkers and health-related quality of life assessments were conducted at baseline, 12-months, and 18-months. Linear Mixed Model (LMM analyses will be used to examine time-dependent changes from baseline across study time points for Groups 2 and 3 relative to Group 1. Discussion ADAPT will determine whether tailored but low-cost interventions can lead to sustainable increases in PA behaviours. The results may have implications for practitioners in designing and implementing theory-based physical activity promotion programs for this population. Clinical Trials Registration ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00221234
... stroke, type 2 diabetes, depression, and some cancers. Physical activity can also help with weight control, and may improve academic achievement in students. There's more . Inactive adults have a ...
... of insulin and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), improving the immune response ; and assisting with ... studies have started examining the factors related to long-term behavior change and increases in physical activity. ...
Hallal, Pedro C; Andersen, Lars Bo; Bull, Fiona C;
To implement effective non-communicable disease prevention programmes, policy makers need data for physical activity levels and trends. In this report, we describe physical activity levels worldwide with data for adults (15 years or older) from 122 countries and for adolescents (13-15-years......-old) from 105 countries. Worldwide, 31·1% (95% CI 30·9-31·2) of adults are physically inactive, with proportions ranging from 17·0% (16·8-17·2) in southeast Asia to about 43% in the Americas and the eastern Mediterranean. Inactivity rises with age, is higher in women than in men, and is increased in high......-income countries. The proportion of 13-15-year-olds doing fewer than 60 min of physical activity of moderate to vigorous intensity per day is 80·3% (80·1-80·5); boys are more active than are girls. Continued improvement in monitoring of physical activity would help to guide development of policies and programmes...
Full Text Available Depression is a major public health disorder. Clinical depression is the most frequent disability in North America among other countries and by 2020 it is estimated that it will represent the second most common disability worldwide. Physical activity can be used to prevent as well as treat depression. Its characteristics and structure should be individualized to the personality and special needs of the patient as well as to the severity of the disorder. Intensity, duration and the place of performance are of special importance. Research has identified neurobiological and psychological paths that can develop between physical activity and well being. More studies although are needed in order to standardize the use of physical activity as a treatment option, mainly in the groups of children and teenagers.
... Make sure he or she drinks water or juice after exercise. For more information about exercise and physical activity for older adults, visit www.nia.nih.gov/Go4Life . National Institute on Aging National Institutes of Health NIH...Turning Discovery into Health Gentle Exercise Some ...
Kuo, Sen M.; Vijayan, Dipa
Feedforward active noise control (ANC) systems use a reference sensor that senses a reference input to the controller. This signal is assumed to be unaffected by the secondary source and is a good measure of the undesired noise to be cancelled by the system. The reference sensor may be acoustic (e.g., microphone) or non-acoustic (e.g., tachometer, optical transducer). An obvious problem when using acoustic sensors is that the reference signal may be corrupted by the canceling signal generated by the secondary source. This problem is known as acoustic feedback. One way of avoiding this is by using a feedback active noise control (FANC) system which dispenses with the reference sensor. The FANC technique originally proposed by Olson and May employs a high gain negative feedback amplifier. This system suffered from the drawback that the error microphone had to be placed very close to the loudspeaker. The operation of the system was restricted to low frequency range and suffered from instability due to the possibility of positive feedback. Feedback systems employing adaptive filtering techniques for active noise control were developed. This paper presents the FANC system modeled as an adaptive prediction scheme.
Traditional risk factors such as smoking, hypertension and being overweight have received considerable attention in recent years, whereas physical activity as a preventive strategy does not enjoy the same public attention. In recent years the level of physical activity has decreased dramatically in children and adolescents in favor of time spent on the internet and in front of the TV. If this trend is allowed to develop along the same direction, a sharp increase in cardiovascular disease can be anticipated. The protective action of physical activity on the cardiovascular system has been well documented in large numbers of patients, and the basic physiological mechanisms have been elucidated. Metabolic changes comprise loss of weight, reduction in triglyceride and LDL levels, as well as an increase in HDL. Insulin sensitivity is enhanced in all tissues postponing the manifestation of diabetes mellitus. Shear forces created by physical activity induce ecNOS within the endothelial lining of the arteries. This enzyme is responsible for controlling vasomotion through the elaboration of NO which causes vasodilation in the smooth muscle within the vessel wall. Utilization of preformed collateral vessels has been postulated repeatedly; so far, however, it only could be documented in animals, not in humans. Nearly all studies concerned with primary prevention have shown a significant negative correlation between energy expenditure during exercise and cardiovascular mortality, even light and moderate exercise will result in a lower incidence. In order to eliminate a sedentary life style in children and adolescents, adequate programs should be initiated in all schools; they should aim for 60 min of physical activity on a daily basis. PMID:15021990
A brief review of processes of physical activation of molecules on the basis of phenomena of electronic and vibrational excitation, electron polarization is presented. Consideration is given to activation by electron impact, photo-, magneto- and mechanoactivation, as well as to radiation activation, proceeding under the effect of high-power radiations (102-107 eV). The character of disturbance of molecules, participating in chemical reactions, under the effect of different types of ionizing radiation (α-particles, electrons, γ-quanta etc.) is discussed
Full Text Available Aging is a multifactorial irreversible process associated with significant decline in muscle mass and neuromuscular functions. One of the most efficient methods to counteract age-related changes in muscle mass and function is physical exercise. An alternative effective intervention to improve muscle structure and performance is electrical stimulation. In the present work we present the positive effects of physical activity in elderly and a study where the effects of a 8-week period of functional electrical stimulation and strength training with proprioceptive stimulation in elderly are compared.
Tsiantoula E.; Tsiadoula L.; Patsiaouras A.; Kokaridas D.
Depression is a major public health disorder. Clinical depression is the most frequent disability in North America among other countries and by 2020 it is estimated that it will represent the second most common disability worldwide. Physical activity can be used to prevent as well as treat depression. Its characteristics and structure should be individualized to the personality and special needs of the patient as well as to the severity of the disorder. Intensity, duration and the place of pe...
Physical activity regularly leads to a decline in lung function in children and adolescents with asthma. This decline is a consequence of what is known as exercise-induced asthma (EIA), and can be determined and graded with the help of lung function tests before and after submaximal workloads on the ergometer cycle or the treadmill. Typical EIA appears in asthmatic individuals with entirely normal lung function before the effort, but EIA may also become clinically manifest with exercise in patients who have a subclinical degree of obstruction. The grade of EIA is essentially dependent on the duration and intensity of effort but also on the type of exercise. For example, free running causes much greater bronchoconstriction than swimming. The temperature and humidity of the inspired air may partially explain this difference. At the Voksentoppen Allergy Institute we find that about 85% of children develop a fall in lung function of 15% or more after a six minute ergometer cycle test. With typical EIA the fall may be totally or partially abolished by prophylactic medication 10 minutes before the start of the test. Disodium cromoglycate (Intal) and/or beta-adrenergic drugs are regularly used before all physical activity. Training programmes must be based on the interval principle. Swimming, ball games, relay races and dancing are examples of useful activities in the training and rehabilitation of children and adolescents with asthma. Through prophylactic medication and physical training, the aerobic work capacity, muscle strength and lung function in asthmatic children is improved. Training also leads to a significant mobilisation of mental resources and an increase in social integration. PMID:6958045
Full Text Available Introduction. The aim of the study was an adaptation the International Physical Activity Questionnaire for disabled people moving on wheelchairs, and check and objectification of the proposed tool. Material and methods. The research covered 69 disabled people (8 women and 61 men. All group was divided into two subgroups: regularly practicing sportsmen - Group 1 and people who were not practicing any sport - Group 2. Research tool was International Physical Activity Questionnaire (short version adapted for disabled people. Results. Averaged results of physical activity, expressed in MET, showed the differences between groups (Groups 1 average 7418 MET, Group 2 average 2158 MET, p=0.000. The biggest differences (p=0.000 were spotted in intensive physical activity. People regularly practicing sport training also devoting more time on activities related to locomotion. 31 of sportsmen characterized high level of physical activity and 6 - medium. In the second group 9 people were in high level, 11 in medium and 14 in low level of physical activity. Conclusions. 1. Almost half of people who were not practicing any sport was characterized by an insufficient level of physical activity. It means that the persons who not taking sports activities are also less active while performing daily chores and leisure. 2. The modified International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ can be an effective tool for the evaluation of physical activity of disabled people moving on wheelchairs.
Full Text Available Aging is a dynamic process that affects many systems in the body. Cognitive function with aging, including memory, intelligence, personality and behavior are affected at different levels. As time passes, durability of individuals and the amount of physical activity and exercise decrease. Apart from normal aging process, accompanying chronic brain syndrome of dementia will further reduce activities. Physical activity can provide opportunities for individuals with dementia in the path to socialize. Therefore, the role of physical activity and exercise in adapting an active lifestyle to protect the health of individuals with dementia is becoming increasingly important. Physical activity and exercise which would help in improvement of cognitive activity in dementia are briefly reviewed in this article. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2015; 7(3.000: 289-294
... out more! Email * Zipcode Physical Activity and Psoriatic Arthritis Physical activity plays an important role in overall well-being. If you have psoriatic arthritis, moderate exercise may offer specific benefits, including improved ...
Physical activity contributes to health by reducing the heart rate, decreasing the risk for cardiovascular disease, and reducing ... loss that is associated with age and osteoporosis. Physical activity also helps the body use calories more efficiently, ...
... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Physical Activity? Español Physical activity is any body movement that works your muscles ... yoga, and gardening are a few examples of physical activity. According to the Department of Health and Human ...
Van Camp, Carole M.; Hayes, Lynda B.
Increasing physical activity is a crucial component of any comprehensive approach to combat the growing obesity epidemic. This review summarizes recent behavioral research on the measurement of physical activity and interventions aimed at increasing physical activity and provides directions for future research.
Full Text Available Purpose: to study the problems of adaptation of foreign students. Materials and Methods: the study involved 33 students from Israel, 25 students from India. All surveyed foreign students men, studying at the Odessa national medical university. Survey was conducted using a multi-level personality questionnaire "Adaptability" (MLQ-AM, developed by A. G. Maklakov and S. V. Chermyanin, and testing physical fitness. Results: found that majority students from Israel and India had a medium and low level of physical fitness and adaptability. Conclusions: in connection with violations of adaptability and physical preparedness of foreign students, particularly acute issue is the organization of physical culture and sports-mass work, as a means of improving adaptation to conditions of life and learning.
Elkins, Bruce; Czapski, Stephen
The report describes Detroit's Adaptive Physical Education Consortium Project in Michigan. Among the main objectives of the project are to coordinate all physical education and recreation services to the handicapped in the Detroit area; to facilitate the mainstreaming of capable handicapped individuals into existing "regular" physical education…
Physical educators do not have necesseraly good representations about physical activity and sedentariness. During the presentation, participants will be involved in an interactive process aiming to underline the main concepts that they should use in order to become effective agents of physical activity promotion.
Boguszewski Dariusz; Adamczyk Jakub Grzegorz; Kurkowska Beata.
Introduction. The aim of the study was an adaptation the International Physical Activity Questionnaire for disabled people moving on wheelchairs, and check and objectification of the proposed tool. Material and methods. The research covered 69 disabled people (8 women and 61 men). All group was divided into two subgroups: regularly practicing sportsmen - Group 1 and people who were not practicing any sport - Group 2. Research tool was International Physical Activity Questionnaire (short versi...
Wouters, Eveline; Geenen,
Physical exercise education in overweight and obese patients not only requires knowledge of physical exercise programs, but also knowledge of psychological processes such as cognitions that may hamper adherence to the exercise program and knowledge of social processes, e.g., consciousness of the sti
Wouters, Eveline; Geenen, Rinie
Physical exercise education in overweight and obese patients not only requires knowledge of physical exercise programs, but also knowledge of psychological processes such as cognitions that may hamper adherence to the exercise program and knowledge of social processes, e.g., consciousness of the sti
Mendoza-Vasconez, Andrea S; Linke, Sarah; Muñoz, Mario; Pekmezi, Dori; Ainsworth, Cole; Cano, Mayra; Williams, Victoria; Marcus, Bess H; Larsen, Britta A
Underserved populations, including racial/ethnic minorities, individuals with low socioeconomic status, and individuals with physical disabilities, are less likely to engage in sufficient moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and are thus at increased risk of morbidity and mortality. These populations face unique challenges to engaging in MVPA. Learning how to overcome these challenges is a necessary first step in achieving health equity through health promotion research. In this review of the literature, we discuss issues and strategies that have been used to promote MVPA among individuals from underserved populations, focusing on recruitment, intervention delivery, and the use of technology in interventions. Physical activity promotion research among these vulnerable populations is scarce. Nevertheless, there is preliminary evidence of efficacy in the use of certain recruitment and intervention strategies including tailoring, cultural adaptation, incorporation of new technologies, and multilevel and community-based approaches for physical activity promotion among different underserved populations. PMID:27399827
Full Text Available Introduction: The dynamic development of the automotive industry, transport, and the media means that human life has become much easier. At the same time, the comfortable living conditions have decreased physical activity. Biologically conditioned, the need of activity has been minimised by the ever-increasing pace of life. As a result, it may lead to the loss of physical and mental health. Active recreation is not only an excellent source of activity, but also a source of satisfaction. Youths and adults should therefore spend their free time primarily on various forms of physical activity. Aim of the research : To evaluate the physical fitness of students who regularly practice physical exercise, those who occasionally practice, and those not practicing any form of physical activity. Material and methods : In the research we used a questionnaire of the Ruffier test and an orthostatic test. The study involved a group of 15 people aged 20–25 years. Participation in the study was entirely voluntary and anonymous. The study group consisted only of women. Results obtained from the questionnaire survey were fully reflected during exercise tests performed. Results and conclusions: Only regularly practiced physical activity has an effect on our body. Regular exercise increases our body’s physical capacity. Activity is the best means of prevention of lifestyle diseases. Youths and adults should spend their free time mainly doing various forms of physical activity.
Block, Martin E.; Taliaferro, Andrea; Campbell, Amanda Love; Harris, Natasha; Tipton, Jeremy
The purpose of this article is to provide information to general physical education teachers on how to conduct a self-contained adapted physical education (APE) class. The article begins with an example of a traditional model for a self-contained APE class, where all students work on the same goals using basically the same equipment and…
Schilling, Mary Lou, Ed.
Means of adapting some familiar and popular physical activities for multiply impaired persons are described. Games reviewed are dice baseball, one base baseball, in-house bowling, wheelchair bowling, ramp bowling, swing-ball bowling, table tennis, shuffleboard, beanbag bingo and tic-tac-toe, balloon basketball, circle football, and wheelchair…
Leisure-time physical activity is associated with longer life expectancy, even at relatively low levels of activity and regardless of body weight, according to a study by a team of researchers led by the NCI.
Berezovsky, Igor N.; Eugene I Shakhnovich
Analysis of structures and sequences of several hyperthermostable proteins from various sources reveals two major physical mechanisms of their thermostabilization. The first mechanism is “structure-based,” whereby some hyperthermostable proteins are significantly more compact than their mesophilic homologues, while no particular interaction type appears to cause stabilization; rather, a sheer number of interactions is responsible for thermostability. Other hyperthermostable proteins employ an...
This podcast highlights the evidence that supports the link between physical activity and improved academic achievement. It also identifies a few actions to support a comprehensive school physical activity program to improve academic achievement. Created: 12/9/2014 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP). Date Released: 12/9/2014.
Physical educators often struggle with ways to get their students to be active beyond the school day. One strategy to accomplish this is the use of physical activity calendars (PACs). The purpose of this article is to support the use of PACs and give practical advice for creating effective PACs.
Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine; Schipperijn, Jasper;
) with in total 111 children (53 boys) from fourth grade, with a mean age of 10.4 years. The focus groups included an open group discussion, go-along group interviews, and a gender segregated post-it note activity. A content analysis of the post-it notes was used to rank the children's perceived barriers......BACKGROUND: Many children, in particular girls, do not reach the recommended amount of daily physical activity. School recess provides an opportunity for both boys and girls to be physically active, but barriers to recess physical activity are not well understood. This study explores gender...... differences in children's perceptions of barriers to recess physical activity. Based on the socio-ecological model four types of environmental barriers were distinguished: natural, social, physical and organizational environment. METHODS: Data were collected through 17 focus groups (at 17 different schools...
The prevalence of obesity is increasing in most parts of theworld and becoming one of the major global public health problems. Although the components of energy balance have not been adequately estimated over time, available evidence suggests that the increase in obesity is the result of reduced physical activity. Increases in physical activity have been shown to be strongly associated with improving physical fitness and body composition, with probably a positive effect on resting metabolic rate. The Surgeon General's Report on Physical Activity and Health advocates that 30 min of regular, moderate-intensity physical activity is associated with decreases in the risk of chronic diseases and may contribute to quality of life. However, the small changes that contribute 10 min for 3 times a day for aerobic training, or one set instead of three sets of repetitions on resistance training will provide individuals with health benefits. Indeed, nutrition and physical activity should be considered an integral part of fitness and good health, and should be encouraged in all age groups, particularly early in life. The question is no longer centered around the health benefit of increasing physical activity, but rather creating self awareness and behavior changes in individuals. Hence, effective intervention programs are needed that foster long term changes in physical activity. Among various interventions, the Nutrifit program was recently conducted in Thailand and found to improve health related fitness in children. The development of more effective interventions and approaches is a major challenge in this field today.
Sturrock, Peter A.
The aim of the research activity was to increase our understanding of solar activity through data analysis, theoretical analysis, and computer modeling. Because the research subjects were diverse and many researchers were supported by this grant, a select few key areas of research are described in detail. Areas of research include: (1) energy storage and force-free magnetic field; (2) energy release and particle acceleration; (3) radiation by nonthermal electrons; (4) coronal loops; (5) flare classification; (6) longitude distributions of flares; (7) periodicities detected in the solar activity; (8) coronal heating and related problems; and (9) plasma processes.
The aim of this review was to examine the mechanisms by which physical activity and inactivity modify muscle fatigue. It is well known that acute or chronic increases in physical activity result in structural, metabolic, hormonal, neural and molecular adaptations that increase the level of force or power that can be sustained by a muscle. These adaptations depend on the type, intensity and volume of the exercise stimulus, but recent studies have highlighted the role of high intensity, short d...
Bogdanis, Gregory C.
The aim of this review was to examine the mechanisms by which physical activity and inactivity modify muscle fatigue. It is well known that acute or chronic increases in physical activity result in structural, metabolic, hormonal, neural, and molecular adaptations that increase the level of force or power that can be sustained by a muscle. These adaptations depend on the type, intensity, and volume of the exercise stimulus, but recent studies have highlighted the role of high intensity, short...
Casale, Carolyn Frances
Ethiopia is a developing country that has invested extensively in expanding its educational opportunities. In this expansion, there has been a drastic restructuring of its system of preparing teachers and teacher educators. Often, improving teacher quality is dependent on professional development that diversifies pedagogy (active learning). This…
Full Text Available The cells continuously produce free radicals and reactive oxygen species as a part of metabolic processes. Increased aerobic metabolism during exercise is a potential source of oxidative stress. Also, anaerobic physical activity and oxidative stress are interrelated because the intense anaerobic activity leads to damage proteins, lipids and nucleic acids in muscle cells and blood. Complex system of antioxidant defense, which has the enzymatic and non-enzymatic part, has a role in protecting tissues from excessive oxidative damage. Most of the research conducted so far about the impact of various forms of physical activity on levels of oxidative stress is confirmed by changes in biomarkers that indicate lipid peroxidation and proteins modification. Untrained persons, as opposed to trained, are more susceptible to major changes in the body caused by oxidative stress during physical activity. The results of researches have shown that there are no significant differences between the genders in the level of oxidative stress during physical activity and response to antioxidant supplementation possibly applied. It is interesting that, despite of numerous studies, the exact location of oxidative stress origin during physical activity has not been reliably established. In addition, research results provide insufficient evidence on the effectiveness of using antioxidant supplementation to increase the defense against oxidative stress. It is necessary further investigation about the redox status and oxidative stress during physical activity in adolescent athletes.
Guimarães, Guilherme Veiga; Ciolac, Emmanuel Gomes
Sedentary habits or insufficient activities to promote health benefits can influence the occurrence of chronic diseases. The cardiovascular risk factors arise, at least partially, from the individual-environment interaction during life, and worsen with aging and lack of physical exercise. Health promotion and prevention are among the greatest challenges of public health policies. However, physical activity turns out to be rarely recommended and, thus have a very poor adhesion. In spite of con...
Ji Cheng-Ye; Middlestadt Susan E; Zhang Juan
Abstract Background Given the increasing importance of obesity in China, prevention interventions encouraging physical activity by middle school students are needed. The purpose of this study is to illustrate how a rapid elicitation method can be used to identify salient consequences, referents, and circumstances about physical activity as perceived by middle school students and to provide suggestions for interventions and quantitative research. Method A theory-based qualitative study using a...
Rosendal, Lars; Langberg, Henning; Skov-Jensen, Arne;
Strenuous physical activity, such as military training, is known to demand a high degree of physical performance and to cause overuse injuries. However, the exact relation between injury incidence and physical fitness level and the influence of military training on measures of functional performa......Strenuous physical activity, such as military training, is known to demand a high degree of physical performance and to cause overuse injuries. However, the exact relation between injury incidence and physical fitness level and the influence of military training on measures of functional...... performance, such as intermittent endurance capacity and maximal jump performance, are not fully described....
This report reviews the research activity in reactor physics field in Japan during July, 1992 - July, 1993. The review was performed in the following fields : nuclear data evaluation, calculational method development, fast reactor physics, thermal reactor physics, advanced core design, fusion reactor neutronics, nuclear criticality safety, shielding, incineration of radioactive nuclear wastes, noise analysis and control and national programs. The main references were taken from journals and reports published during this period. The research committee of reactor physics is responsible for the review work. (author)
In order to reduce output-voltage ripple of power supply, an active filter is necessary. In this paper, the active filter with DSP is proposed. The waveform from active filter can be flexibly improved by DSP programming. The output-voltage ripple can be enough reduced by mixing frequency components of the input-voltage ripple. The result of adaptive control using LMS algorism is presented. The improvement by using filtered-X method is discussed. (author)
The effect of acute and chronic (22 day round-the-clock) exposure to microenvironmental heat stress (37 deg C DBT) on thyroid activity was studied in Hariana x Holstein Frisian, Hariana x Brown Swiss and Hariana x Jersey non-cycling F1 crossbred heifers. Vis-a-vis their no-heat norms, the percentage uptake of tri-iodothyronine-125I by resin registered a steep fall (about 45 to 60 percent) on acute heat exposures reaching a minimum value in about 2 hrs. The levels started recouping by the 2nd day, plateuing out on the 5th day onwards at slightly subnormal level with up and down fluctuations throughout the three week duration of exposure to heat. There were no significant differences in the pattern or magnitude of response amongst breeds, though in case of Holstein Frisian and Brown Swiss cross-breds the levels of T3 tended, at times, to overshoot the no-stress norm. (author)
This review of solar physics emphasizes several of the more conspicuous scientific puzzles posed by contemporary observational knowledge of the magnetic activity of the Sun. The puzzles emphasize how much classical physics we have yet to learn from the Sun. The physics of solar activity is based on the principles of Newton, Maxwell, Lorentz, Boltzmann, et. al., along with the principles of radiative transfer. In the large, these principles are expressed by magnetohydrodynamics. A brief derivation of the magnetohydrodynamic induction and momentum equations is provided, with a discussion of popular misconceptions.
Faber, Larry; Kulinna, Pamela Hodges; Darst, Paul
The current need for physical activity has extended beyond the limited time given to students in physical education classes. In order for students to receive appropriate levels of physical activity (i.e., at least 60 minutes per day), it is necessary for physical educators to incorporate physical activity opportunities outside the traditional…
The prevalence of obesity is increasing in most parts of the world and becoming one of the major global public health problems.Although the components of energy balance have not been adequately estimated over time,available evidence suggests that the increase in obesity is the result of reduced physical activity.Increases in physical activity have been showen to be strongly associated with improving physical fitness and body composition,with probably a positive effect on resting metabolic rate.The Surgeon General's Report on physical Activity and Health advocates that 30 min of regular,moderate-intensity physical activity is associated with decreases in the risk of chronic diseases and may contribute to quality of life.However,the small changes that contribute 10 min for 3 times a day for 3 times a day for aerobic training,or one set instead of three sets of repetitions on resistance training will provide individuals training,or one set instead of three sets of repetitions on resistance training will provide individuals with health benefits.Indeed,nutrition and physical activity should be considered an integral part of fitness and good health,and should be encouraged in all age groups,particularly early in life,The question is no longer centerd around the health benefit of increasing physical activity,but rather creating self awareness and behavior changes in individuals,Hence,effective intervention programs are needed that foster long term changes in physical activity.Among various interventions,the Nutrifit program was recently conducted in Thailand and found to improve health related fitness in children,The development of more effective interventions and approaches is a major challege in this field today.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Given the increasing importance of obesity in China, prevention interventions encouraging physical activity by middle school students are needed. The purpose of this study is to illustrate how a rapid elicitation method can be used to identify salient consequences, referents, and circumstances about physical activity as perceived by middle school students and to provide suggestions for interventions and quantitative research. Method A theory-based qualitative study using a self-completion elicitation was conducted with 155 students from two middle schools in Beijing, China. Following the Theory of Planned Behavior, six open-ended questions asked students for their perceptions about performing physical activity at least 60 minutes each day: advantages of participating in physical activity; disadvantages of doing so; people who approve of participation; people who disapprove; things that make it easy; and things that make it hard. Content analysis revealed categories of salient consequences, reference groups, and circumstances. Results While the three most frequently mentioned advantages elicited from the students were physical health consequences (e.g., will strengthen my body (58.7%, four of the salient advantages were not (e.g., will improve my grades (12.2%. Parents were the most frequently mentioned social referent (42.6% as approving; 27.7% as disapproving when students were asked who might approve or disapprove of their participation. Circumstances perceived to hinder daily physical activity included having too many assignments and not having enough time. Conclusion While many of the beliefs about physical activity elicited from this study were similar to those found with students from England and the US, several were unique to these students from Beijing. The results of this qualitative research suggest that interventions to encourage physical activity among middle school students should address: perceived consequences
Bruun, Jesper; Voetmann Christiansen, Frederik
One of the major difficulties in learning physics is for students to develop a conceptual understanding of the core concepts of physics. Many authors argue that students’ conceptions of basic physical phenomena are rooted in basic schemas, originating in fundamental kinaesthetic experiences...... of being. We argue that this idea should be utilized in physics instruction, that kinaesthetic activities will provide useful entry point for students’ acquisition of the basic conceptions of physics, and that they can overcome the phenomenological gap between experiential and conceptual understanding. We...... discuss the nature of image schemas and focus particularly on one: effort-resistance-flow. This schema is fundamental not only in our everyday experience, but also in most of school physics. We show how enactment of a particular kinaesthetic model can support student understanding and intuition...
Bruun, Jesper; Voetmann Christiansen, Frederik
One of the major difficulties in learning physics is for students to develop a conceptual understanding of the core concepts of physics. Many authors argue that students’ conceptions of basic physical phenomena are rooted in basic schemas, originating in fundamental kinaesthetic experiences of...... being. We argue that this idea should be utilized in physics instruction, that kinaesthetic activities will provide useful entry point for students’ acquisition of the basic conceptions of physics, and that they can overcome the phenomenological gap between experiential and conceptual understanding. We...... discuss the nature of image schemas and focus particularly on one: effort-resistance-flow. This schema is fundamental not only in our everyday experience, but also in most of school physics. We show how enactment of a particular kinaesthetic model can support student understanding and intuition with...
David Smékal; Joeri Verellen; Martin Kudláček
This article aims to publish the current state and possibilities of instructors of adapted physical activities in the context of rehabilitation. We introduce the goals and benefits of adapted physical activities and define the key activities of the adapted physical activities program to improve the quality of life of patients/clients. Subsequently, we describe several competencies that are necessary to meet such a program. Based on these competencies we will present proposals for the optimiza...
One key intervention to prevent preventable diseases and to make health care more affordable is to increase the percentage of Americans who are physically active. No single intervention will increase activity rates, but a group of interventions working together in synergy may be the stimulus needed to get Americans moving.
Full Text Available Passive vibration control solutions are often limited to working reliably at one design point. Especially applied to lightweight structures, which tend to have unwanted vibration, active vibration control approaches can outperform passive solutions. To generate dynamic forces in a narrow frequency band, passive single-degree-of-freedom oscillators are frequently used as vibration absorbers and neutralizers. In order to respond to changes in system properties and/or the frequency of excitation forces, in this work, adaptive vibration compensation by a tunable piezoelectric vibration absorber is investigated. A special design containing piezoelectric stack actuators is used to cover a large tuning range for the natural frequency of the adaptive vibration absorber, while also the utilization as an active dynamic inertial mass actuator for active control concepts is possible, which can help to implement a broadband vibration control system. An analytical model is set up to derive general design rules for the system. An absorber prototype is set up and validated experimentally for both use cases of an adaptive vibration absorber and inertial mass actuator. Finally, the adaptive vibration control system is installed and tested with a basic truss structure in the laboratory, using both the possibility to adjust the properties of the absorber and active control.
Hormone secretion during physical activity of specific duration and intensity is part of the stress response. In a study to investigate the secretion of ß-endorphin, leucine enkephalin and other recognised stress hormones during physical exercise, blood samples were taken from fourteen (14) healthy, male athletes who competed in a 21 km roadrace. Blood samples were collected before and after completion of the race. This study shows that ß-endorphin/ß-lipotropin, leucine enkephalin, prolact...
Temporelli, Pier Luigi
It is well known that regular moderate physical activity, in the context of a healthy lifestyle, significantly reduces the likelihood of cardiovascular events, both in primary and secondary prevention. In addition, it is scientifically proven that exercise can reduce the incidence of diabetes, osteoporosis, depression, breast cancer and colon cancer. Despite this strong evidence, sedentary lifestyle remains a widespread habit in the western world. Even in Italy the adult population has a poor attitude to regular physical activity. It is therefore necessary, as continuously recommended by the World Health Organization, to motivate people to "move" since the transition from inactivity to regular light to moderate physical activity has a huge impact on health, resulting in significant savings of resources. We do not need to be athletes to exercise - it should be part of all our daily routines. PMID:27029874
Marcus, Bess H.; Forsyth, LeighAnn H.
This book describes proven methods for helping people change from inactive to active living. The behavior change methods are useful for healthy adults as well as individuals with chronic physical and psychological conditions. The book describes intervention programs for individuals and groups and for workplace and community settings. Part 1,…
Full Text Available The experience of the use of factor analysis in the research of specialists in physical education was studied. It is studied interrelation of indexes that characterize indexes of physical state, motive activity, level of disease and adaptation to the conditions of education at school. The experiment, which was attended by 34 girls and 30 boys 6 and 7 years of age, found that the most significant contribution to the factor structure are data on the physical development of school-age children, as well as indicators of physical fitness of patients. It is proved that between the child's adaptation to social changes and physical activity there is a deep connection.
... What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Exercise or Physical Activity Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Data are ... years of age and over who met the Physical Activity Guidelines for aerobic physical activity: 49.2% Percent ...
Roy's Adaptation Model was used to study problems and coping strategies reported by 102 blacks on hemodialysis. Although the most frequently identified problems were fatigue, muscle soreness, and physical limitations, food and fluid restrictions were most bothersome. Participants used multiple strategies to cope with the illness and its treatment. Putting trust in God was the most frequently identified strategy. These findings can be used to enhance the physical and psychosocial assessment of these patients and facilitate the ability of clinicians to intervene effectively in helping clients cope with the problems that are associated with the illness and its treatment. PMID:15154124
Réol, Lise Andersen
activities in school enhance positive emotions and support an inclusive and safe learning environment. Thought it does also point to the fact, that it is indeed not that simple. Teachers’ sport-specific educational competences, their own experience of well-being and fun related to physical activities and......It is a wide held belief among scientist and teachers that physical activities in school creates joyfulness and supports the development of a ‘positive’ learning environment. This belief is solid, but built on scant scientific documentation. In Denmark new governmental policy prescribes 45 minutes...... their ability to align activities to the specific group of children they teach, seems to influence the joy and positive effects on the learning environment in school....
Full Text Available Hormone secretion during physical activity of specific duration and intensity is part of the stress response. In a study to investigate the secretion of ß-endorphin, leucine enkephalin and other recognised stress hormones during physical exercise, blood samples were taken from fourteen (14 healthy, male athletes who competed in a 21 km roadrace. Blood samples were collected before and after completion of the race. This study shows that ß-endorphin/ß-lipotropin, leucine enkephalin, prolactin, and melatonin may be classified as stress hormones in physical activity of duration 80 to 120 minutes and intensity exceeding 75%-V0₂max. Widespread intra-individual variation in serum cortisol concentrations prevent definite conclusion. The unexpected increase in serum testosterone levels warrants further research.
Full Text Available Since the beginning of mankind, man has sought ways to promote and preserve health as well as to prevent disease. Hydration, physical activity and exercise are key factors for enhancing human health. However, either a little dose of them or an excess can be harmful for health maintenance at any age. Water is an essential nutrient for human body and a major key to survival has been to prevent dehydration. However, there is still a general controversy regarding the necessary amount to drink water or other beverages to properly get an adequate level of hydration. In addition, up to now the tools used to measure hydration are controversial. To this end, there are several important groups of variables to take into account such as water balance, hydration biomarkers and total body water. A combination of methods will be the most preferred tool to find out any risk or situation of dehydration at any age range. On the other hand, physical activity and exercise are being demonstrated to promote health, avoiding or reducing health problems, vascular and inflammatory diseases and helping weight management. Therefore, physical activity is also being used as a pill within a therapy to promote health and reduce risk diseases, but as in the case of drugs, dose, intensity, frequency, duration and precautions have to be evaluated and taken into account in order to get the maximum effectiveness and success of a treatment. On the other hand, sedentariness is the opposite concept to physical activity that has been recently recognized as an important factor of lifestyle involved in the obesogenic environment and consequently in the risk of the non-communicable diseases. In view of the literature consulted and taking into account the expertise of the authors, in this review a Decalogue of global recommendations is included to achieve an adequate hydration and physical activity status to avoid overweight/obesity consequences.
Maslow, Andréa L.; Colabianchi, Natalie
Objectives To examine whether utilization of physical activity resources (eg, parks) was associated with daily physical activity measured by accelerometry. Methods 111 adolescents completed a travel diary with concurrent accelerometry. The main exposure was self-reported utilization of a physical activity resource (none/1+ resources). The main outcomes were total minutes spent in daily 1) moderate-vigorous physical activity and 2) vigorous physical activity. Results Utilizing a physical activity resource was significantly associated with total minutes in moderate-vigorous physical activity. African-Americans and males had significantly greater moderate-vigorous physical activity. Conclusions Results from this study support the development and use of physical activity resources. PMID:21204684
Bargatze, L. F.
Active Data Archive Product Tracking (ADAPT) is a collection of software routines that permits one to generate XML metadata files to describe and register data products in support of the NASA Heliophysics Virtual Observatory VxO effort. ADAPT is also a philosophy. The ADAPT concept is to use any and all available metadata associated with scientific data to produce XML metadata descriptions in a consistent, uniform, and organized fashion to provide blanket access to the full complement of data stored on a targeted data server. In this poster, we present an application of ADAPT to describe all of the data products that are stored by using the Common Data File (CDF) format served out by the CDAWEB and SPDF data servers hosted at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. These data servers are the primary repositories for NASA Heliophysics data. For this purpose, the ADAPT routines have been used to generate data resource descriptions by using an XML schema named Space Physics Archive, Search, and Extract (SPASE). SPASE is the designated standard for documenting Heliophysics data products, as adopted by the Heliophysics Data and Model Consortium. The set of SPASE XML resource descriptions produced by ADAPT includes high-level descriptions of numerical data products, display data products, or catalogs and also includes low-level "Granule" descriptions. A SPASE Granule is effectively a universal access metadata resource; a Granule associates an individual data file (e.g. a CDF file) with a "parent" high-level data resource description, assigns a resource identifier to the file, and lists the corresponding assess URL(s). The CDAWEB and SPDF file systems were queried to provide the input required by the ADAPT software to create an initial set of SPASE metadata resource descriptions. Then, the CDAWEB and SPDF data repositories were queried subsequently on a nightly basis and the CDF file lists were checked for any changes such as the occurrence of new, modified, or deleted
Verhagen, E.; Engbers, L.
Clinicians are increasingly confronted with the diseases of physical inactivity. Paradoxically, a promising strategy to motivate sedentary individuals to become more active is the opportunity to encourage physical activity related behavioural change when individuals encounter health professionals. A
Ammons, S Mark; Armstrong, J D; Crossfield, Ian; Do, Tuan; Fitzgerald, Mike; Harrington, David; Hickenbotham, Adam; Hunter, Jennifer; Johnson, Jess; Johnson, Luke; Li, Kaccie; Lu, Jessica; Maness, Holly; Morzinski, Katie; Norton, Andrew; Putnam, Nicole; Roorda, Austin; Rossi, Ethan; Yelda, Sylvana
Adaptive Optics (AO) is a new and rapidly expanding field of instrumentation, yet astronomers, vision scientists, and general AO practitioners are largely unfamiliar with the root technologies crucial to AO systems. The AO Summer School (AOSS), sponsored by the Center for Adaptive Optics, is a week-long course for training graduate students and postdoctoral researchers in the underlying theory, design, and use of AO systems. AOSS participants include astronomers who expect to utilize AO data, vision scientists who will use AO instruments to conduct research, opticians and engineers who design AO systems, and users of high-bandwidth laser communication systems. In this article we describe new AOSS laboratory sessions implemented in 2006-2009 for nearly 250 students. The activity goals include boosting familiarity with AO technologies, reinforcing knowledge of optical alignment techniques and the design of optical systems, and encouraging inquiry into critical scientific questions in vision science using AO sys...
Kuo, JoAnn; Schmitz, Kathryn H.; Evenson, Kelly R.; McKenzie, Thomas L.; Jobe, Jared B.; Rung, Ariane L.; Gittelsohn, Joel; Pate, Russell R.
Background With limited opportunities for physical activity during school hours, it is important to understand the contexts of physical activities done outside of school time. Given the importance of physical and social aspects of environments, the purpose of this study was to describe where and with whom girls participate in physical activities outside of school. Methods Participants were 1925 sixth-grade girls in the Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls (TAAG). At baseline, they completed a 3-day physical activity recall (3DPAR), reporting the main activity performed during 30-minute intervals and the physical and social contexts of physical activities. Results The most frequently reported physical activities done outside of school time were house chores, walking (for transportation or exercise), dance, basketball, playing with younger children, and running or jogging. The most common location for these activities was at home or in the neighborhood. With the exception of household chores, these activities were typically done with at least one other person. Conclusions Interventions that promote physical activities that can be done at or around home or developing supportive social networks for physical activity would be consistent with the current physical activity contexts of adolescent girls. PMID:19420391
KRAJNC JOLDIKJ Suzana
Drama activity presents a great challenge for adolescents with physical disabilities, and at the same time it provides them with much experience for life.Adolescents are educated through theatrical activity; they test numerous new roles, develop their attitude towards the art culture, and most of all they get the insight into different life situations, which have not been known to many of them so far. By experiencing different roles, an adolescent gets personal recognition, undergoes a proc...
Rosa, Josep Lluís de la; Muñoz Moreno, Israel
In this paper we present a novel approach to assigning roles to robots in a team of physical heterogeneous robots. Its members compete for these roles and get rewards for them. The rewards are used to determine each agent’s preferences and which agents are better adapted to the environment. These aspects are included in the decision making process. Agent interactions are modelled using the concept of an ecosystem in which each robot is a species, resulting in emergent behaviour of the whole s...
Full Text Available The aim of the investigation was to assess the parameters of urgent adaptation of the heart and peripheral vasculature to single physical exercises to determine an individually safe value of motor activity. Materials and Methods. The experiments were carried out on 84 mongrel male dogs. Physical exercises were modeled in laboratory environment by treadmill run. Three types of exercises were used in the experiment: mild, optimal and excessive. Exercise duration was controlled individually, for each animal considering cardio-respiratory system state by heart rate. Cardiac work was assessed by echocardiography and electrocardiography, peripheral circulation — by hindleg rheovasogram. Results. Experimental findings indicate significant alterations in cardiac conducting system under single physical exercises. A single mild exercise causes the increase of minute blood output due to heart rate increase. Hind leg muscular blood filling decreases. An optimal exercise results in minute blood output increase due to stroke blood volume growth. Myocardial contractility increases. Muscular blood filling rises. In excessive load increased stroke output is accompanied by left ventricular cavity dilatation. Pulse volume decreases, peripheral vasculature elasticity reduces, and hind leg muscular venous outflow gets worse. Conclusion. Urgent adaptation of the heart and peripheral vasculature in single physical exercises shows as a marked response to a simulated factor. The technique to assess the body adaptation considering cardiovascular system condition enables to calculate individual volume of physical activity and develop recommendations for it to be used efficiently in medicine.
Full Text Available Purpose: on the basis of the analysis of results of poll of students, first, to define structure and the importance of the factors influencing formation of motivation at them to sports and sports activity, secondly, to allocate possible subjects for extension of the maintenance of theoretical and methodical-practical components of sports formation of student's youth. Material and Methods: the study involved students of first and second courses of the Institute for training bodies and the Faculty of Law of the National University №9 Yaroslav the Wise and the students of the Kyiv National University of Culture and Arts and Zhytomyr State University named after Ivan Franko. Results: it is established that during training at national law university interests of students concerning factors which motivate them to sports and sports activity significantly change. The analyses data testify that a key factor which prevents students to be engaged in sports and sports activity, lack of free time is. It is proved that students consider necessary to receive information on the physical state. Conclusions: results of research allowed allocating the most significant factors which motivate students to be engaged in sports and sports activity. It is established subjects of theoretical and methodical and practical components of sports education which interest students of NLU and KNUCA and ZSU. It is shown that for students of Law University of importance topic of theoretical and methodological and practical components of physical education strongly depends on the year of their training.
Holtermann, Andreas; Marott, Jacob Louis; Gyntelberg, Finn;
Men with low physical fitness and high occupational physical activity are recently shown to have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. The association between occupational physical activity with cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality may also depend on leisure...... time physical activity....
Proper nutrition is an essential element of athletic performance, body composition goals, and general health. Although natural variability among persons makes it impossible to create a single diet that can be recommended to all; examining scientific principles makes it easier for athletes and other physically active persons to eat a diet that prepares them for successful training and/or athletic competition. A proper nutritional design incorporates these principles and is tailored to the individual. It is important for the sports nutritionist, coach, and athlete to understand the role that each of the macronutrients plays in an active lifestyle. In addition, keys to success include knowing how to determine how many calories to consume, the macronutrient breakdown of those calories, and proper timing to maximize the benefits needed for the individual's body type and activity schedule.
White, Adam E.; Lewis, Hugh G.
Many parameters influence the evolution of the near-Earth debris population, including launch, solar, explosion and mitigation activities, as well as other future uncertainties such as advances in space technology or changes in social and economic drivers that effect the utilisation of space activities. These factors lead to uncertainty in the long-term debris population. This uncertainty makes it difficult to identify potential remediation strategies, involving active debris removal (ADR), that will perform effectively in all possible future cases. Strategies that cannot perform effectively, because of this uncertainty, risk either not achieving their intended purpose, or becoming a hindrance to the efforts of spacecraft manufactures and operators to address the challenges posed by space debris. One method to tackle this uncertainty is to create a strategy that can adapt and respond to the space debris population. This work explores the concept of an adaptive strategy, in terms of the number of objects required to be removed by ADR, to prevent the low Earth orbit (LEO) debris population from growing in size. This was demonstrated by utilising the University of Southampton’s Debris Analysis and Monitoring Architecture to the Geosynchronous Environment (DAMAGE) tool to investigate ADR rates (number of removals per year) that change over time in response to the current space environment, with the requirement of achieving zero growth of the LEO population. DAMAGE was used to generate multiple Monte Carlo projections of the future LEO debris environment. Within each future projection, the debris removal rate was derived at five-year intervals, by a new statistical debris evolutionary model called the Computational Adaptive Strategy to Control Accurately the Debris Environment (CASCADE) model. CASCADE predicted the long-term evolution of the current DAMAGE population with a variety of different ADR rates in order to identify a removal rate that produced a zero net
Background and Aim: Physical activity is important for management of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In the Physical Activity in RA (PARA) 2010 study physical therapists (PTs) delivered a one-year health-enhancing physical activity (HEPA) intervention in people with RA. The PTs’ guided behavior change by structured use of behavior change techniques (BCTs) and adapted a biopsychosocial approach during biweekly support group sessions. Since this may not be mainstream practice for PTs ...
Overview: A physically active lifestyle has numerous physical and mental health benefits for patients of all ages. Despite these significant benefits, a majority of Americans do not meet current physical activity guidelines. Health care providers, especially nurses, play a vital role in physical activity promotion. Over the past several decades, exercise and physical activity guidelines have evolved from a focus on structured, vigorous exercise to a focus on moderate-intensity “lifestyle” phy...
VISHNU PETHKAR; SHRADDHA NAIK; SANJEEV SONAWANE
This paper is based on the fact, experience and concerns of many physical educators & teachers about the severe decline in levels of physical activity and the ways in which, incorporation & teaching of physical activity is carried out. This paper deals with the theoretical psychological basis of physical activity andinterventions carried out in measurement of this dimension. This paper tries to bring out the relevance of psychological determinants of physical activity and how these need to su...
Effects of an adapted physical activity program on the physical condition of elderly women: an analysis of efficiency Efeitos de um programa de atividade física adaptada na capacidade física e parâmetros de saúde de mulheres idosas: análise de eficiência
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Specific research tools and designs can assist in identifying the efficiency of physical activity in elderly women. OBJECTIVES: To identify the effects of physical activity on the physical condition of older women. METHODS: A one-year-long physical activity program (123 sessions was implemented for women aged 60 years or older. Four physical assessments were conducted, in which weight, height, BMI, blood pressure, heart rate, absences, grip strength, flexibility, VO2max, and static and dynamic balance were assessed. The statistical analyses included a repeated measures analysis, both inferential (analysis of variance - ANOVA and effect size (Cohen's d coefficient, as well as identification of the participants' efficiency (Data Envelopment Analysis - DEA. RESULTS: Despite the observation of differences that depended on the analysis used, the results were successful in the sense that they showed that physical activity adapted to older women can effectively change the decline in physical ability associated with aging, depending on the purpose of the study. The 60-65 yrs group was the most capable of converting physical activity into health benefits in both the short and long term. The >65 yrs group took less advantage of physical activity. CONCLUSION: Adherence to the program and actual time spent on each type of exercise are the factors that determine which population can benefit from physical activity programs. The DEA allows the assessment of the results related to time spent on physical activity in terms of health concerns.CONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: Ferramentas e desenhos específicos de pesquisa podem ajudar na identificação da eficiência da atividade física em mulheres idosas. OBJETIVOS: Identificar os efeitos da atividade física sobre a eficiência da condição física de mulheres idosas. MÉTODOS: Aplicou-se um programa de atividade física de um ano (123 sessões para mulheres com idade de 60 anos ou mais. Foram realizadas
Lochte, Lene; Nielsen, Kim G; Petersen, Poul Erik;
BACKGROUND: Childhood asthma is a global problem affecting the respiratory health of children. Physical activity (PA) plays a role in the relationship between asthma and respiratory health. We hypothesized that a low level of PA would be associated with asthma in children and adolescents. The...... objectives of our study were to (1) summarize the evidence available on associations between PA and asthma prevalence in children and adolescents and (2) assess the role of PA in new-onset or incident asthma among children and adolescents. METHODS: We searched Medline, the Cochrane Library, and Embase and......42014013761; available at: http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO [accessed: 24 March 2016])....
liu, weiwei; Huangfu, Hao; Xiong, Jing;
of the time period of thermal adaption were obtained on the basis of the data from a long-term field survey conducted in two typical naturally ventilated offices located in Changsha, China. The results showed that the occupants need to take 4.25 days to fully adapt to a step-change in outdoor air...... adaption indicated that the psychological adaption mode can speed up the process of thermal adaption to the variation in the outdoor climate condition. This study presented a new insight into the feedback from the thermal adaption modes to occupant thermal comfort.......This study proposed a method to determine time period of thermal adaption for occupants in naturally ventilated building, and analyzed the synergistic and separate feedback effect of the physical and psychological adaption modes on the time period of thermal adaption. Using the method, the values...
This book provides a timely review of our present understanding of plasma phenomena in magnetized terrestrial and solar space plasmas. The author's emphasis is on the fluid and particle modeling and interpretation of observed active processes in space plasmas, i.e. 'the physical background of large plasma eruptions in space'. It is somewhat alarming for a plasma physicist to read that an emphasis on processes in spatially inhomogeneous plasmas means that the work '... excludes a considerable fraction of the available methods in space plasma physics, such as the theory of waves, instabilities and wave particle interactions on a homogeneous background', particularly in light of the fact that much of our knowledge of these plasmas is derived from observations of such waves. However, it is clear on reading the book that such a restriction is not a disadvantage, but allows the author to concentrate on the main theme of the book, namely the use of fluid and particle pictures to model the equilibrium and active states of space plasmas. There are many other books which cover the wave aspects of space plasmas, and would complement this book. The book's coverage is based on the extensive and profound research of the author and his colleagues in the area of fluid and particle modeling of space plasma structures. After an introduction to the physical setting of active plasmas, and a necessarily concise, but effective, discussion of the fluid and particle models to be used, the steady states of the magnetized plasmas of interest are treated, including the magnetosphere, solar plasmas and current sheets. Next the dynamics of unstable states is covered, including MHD and tearing instabilities, and nonlinear aspects, with a detailed discussion of magnetic reconnection. Finally, the models are applied to magnetospheric and solar observations. The book is attractively written and produced, and this reviewer managed to find a minimum number of errors. A particularly attractive
Rowland, Jennifer L; Malone, Laurie A; Fidopiastis, Cali M; Padalabalanarayanan, Sangeetha; Thirumalai, Mohanraj; Rimmer, James H
This perspective article explores the utility of active video gaming as a means of reducing sedentary behavior and increasing physical activity among youth with physical disabilities and limitations in lower extremity function who typically are excluded from mainstream exercise options. Youth with physical disabilities are disproportionately affected by health problems that result from sedentary behavior, lack of physical activity, and low fitness levels. Physical, programmatic, and attitudinal barriers have a synergistic and compounded impact on youths' ability to participate in physical activity. A recent health and wellness task force recommendation from the American Physical Therapy Association's Section on Pediatrics supports analyzing individualized health behaviors and preferences that are designed to improve fitness, physical activity, and participation in pediatric rehabilitation. This recommendation represents an opportunity to explore nontraditional options to maximize effectiveness and sustainability of pediatric rehabilitation techniques for youth with disabilities who could best benefit from customized programming. One new frontier in promoting physical activity and addressing common physical activity barriers for youth with physical disabilities is active video games (AVGs), which have received growing attention as a promising strategy for promoting health and fitness in children with and without disabilities. The purpose of this article is to discuss the potential for AVGs as an accessible option to increase physical activity participation for youth with physical disabilities and limitations in lower extremity function. A conceptual model on the use of AVGs to increase physical activity participation for youth with physical disabilities is introduced, and future research potential is discussed, including a development project for game controller adaptations within the Rehabilitation Engineering Research Center on Interactive Exercise Technologies
Suzana KRAJNC JOLDIKJ
Full Text Available Drama activity presents a great challenge for adolescents with physical disabilities, and at the same time it provides them with much experience for life.Adolescents are educated through theatrical activity; they test numerous new roles, develop their attitude towards the art culture, and most of all they get the insight into different life situations, which have not been known to many of them so far. By experiencing different roles, an adolescent gets personal recognition, undergoes a process of personal changing and thus tests his or her personal perceptions of life.As regards drama activity we follow the presumption saying that being different is also an advantage.The main purpose of the drama activity is gradually realized through the programme: getting to know yourself and the theatre medium in general. Adolescents meet the multilayered communication and public appearance, which helps them in their personal life.
Castelli, Darla M.; Ward, Kimberly
In response to concerns that children are physically inactive, a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention committee developed school-based implementation strategies centered on the components of a Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program (CSPAP), composed of the physical education program, physical activity during the school day, staff…
Christensen, Line Brinch
Physical activity is beneficial in relation to several life style diseases and the association between physical activity and early predictors of life style diseases seem to be present already in preschool age. Since physical activity and other health behaviours are established during childhood and...... track from childhood into adult life, it is relevant to address physical activity already in the preschool age. The research in preschool children’s physical activity is relatively new, and because of methodological inconsistencies, the associations between physical activity and health are less clear in...... this age group. The objective of this thesis was to contribute to the knowledge base regarding physical activity in preschoolers; How active are preschoolers? Are activity levels related to specific settings during a typical week? And are the activity levels related to a range of health outcomes...
... Tools & Resources Stroke More Congenital Heart Defects and Physical Activity Updated:Apr 19,2016 Exercise Is for Everyone ... almost all patients do some form of regular physical activity. There are a few exceptions, so it's good ...
Background: In the Netherlands, inequalities in physical activity behaviour go hand in hand with socioeconomic inequalities in health. To promote physical activity effectively and equitably, participatory community-based physical activity interventions seem promising and are supported by the Dutch government’s policy. Although many strategies have been developed to increase physical activity levels in general and in socially vulnerable groups in particular, most evaluations show o...
The context for this thesis is the concern that people who practice physical activity are more susceptible to air pollution. For the studies presented here, three perspectives of physical activity were considered: in indoor, i) physical activity in fitness centers; in outdoor ii) the use of bicycle
Woods, Catherine B.; Mutrie, Nanette
The purpose of this paper is to outline why physical activity policy is important in terms of promoting population based increases in physical activity. The promotion of physical activity through public policy happens globally and nationally, however to be successful it should also happen at state and local levels. We outline the rationale for the…
Heitzler, Carrie D.; Lytle, Leslie A.; Erickson, Darin J.; Barr-Anderson, Daheia; Sirard, John R.; Story, Mary
Objective: To explore the relationship between social influences, self-efficacy, enjoyment, and barriers and physical activity. Methods: Structural equation modeling examined relationships between parent and peer support, parent physical activity, individual perceptions, and objectively measured physical activity using accelerometers among a…
Background: In the Netherlands, inequalities in physical activity behaviour go hand in hand with socioeconomic inequalities in health. To promote physical activity effectively and equitably, participatory community-based physical activity interventions seem promising and are s
Although many recent studies have shown that the lack of physical activity is one of the major causes of obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease among children and adolescents, few studies have shown the connection between the lack of physical education and the prevalence of a sedentary lifestyle. However, it is clear that physical education…
Full Text Available We report on the adaptation of the small enrollment, lab and discussion based physical science course, Physical Science and Everyday Thinking (PSET, for a large-enrollment, lecture-style setting. Like PSET, the new Learning Physical Science (LEPS curriculum was designed around specific principles based on research on learning to meet the needs of nonscience students, especially prospective and practicing elementary and middle school teachers. We describe the structure of the two curricula and the adaptation process, including a detailed comparison of similar activities from the two curricula and a case study of a LEPS classroom implementation. In LEPS, short instructor-guided lessons replace lengthier small group activities, and movies, rather than hands-on investigations, provide the evidence used to support and test ideas. LEPS promotes student peer interaction as an important part of sense making via “clicker” questions, rather than small group and whole class discussions typical of PSET. Examples of student dialog indicate that this format is capable of generating substantive student discussion and successfully enacting the design principles. Field-test data show similar student content learning gains with the two curricula. Nevertheless, because of classroom constraints, some important practices of science that were an integral part of PSET were not included in LEPS.
Kooiman, Brian J.; Sheehan, Dwayne P.; Wesolek, Michael; Reategui, Eliseo
For many the thought of students taking an online course conjures up images of students sitting at a computer desk. Students taking online physical education (OLPE) at home may lack opportunities for competitive or cooperative physical activity that are available to students in a traditional setting. Active video games (exergames) can be played…
Shephard Roy J.; Trudeau François
Abstract Background The purpose of this paper is to review relationships of academic performance and some of its determinants to participation in school-based physical activities, including physical education (PE), free school physical activity (PA) and school sports. Methods Linkages between academic achievement and involvement in PE, school PA and sport programmes have been examined, based on a systematic review of currently available literature, including a comprehensive search of MEDLINE ...
Jansen, J. F. W.; Scholten, O.
Experimental studies of giant resonances, nuclear structure, light mass systems, and heavy mass systems are summarized. Theoretical studies of nuclear structure, and dynamics are described. Electroweak interactions; atomic and surface physics; applied nuclear physics; and nuclear medicine are discus
This report surveys the activities in fundamental research from July 1, 1981 to June 30, 1982 at the three institutes of the KfK which are concerned with nuclear physics. The research program comprises laser spectroscopy, nuclear reactions with light ions, neutron physics, neutrino physics and physics at medium and higher energies. (orig.)
This report surveys the activities in basic research from July 1, 1986 to June 30, 1987 at the Institute for Nuclear Physics (IK) of the Nuclear Research Center Karlsruhe. The research program of this institute comprises laser spectroscopy, nuclear reactions with light ions, neutron physics, neutrino physics and high energy physics, as well as detector technology. (orig.)
Holtermann, Andreas; Marott, Jacob Louis; Gyntelberg, Finn;
To investigate if persons with high physical activity at work have the same benefits from leisure time physical activity as persons with sedentary work.......To investigate if persons with high physical activity at work have the same benefits from leisure time physical activity as persons with sedentary work....
Hicks, Lisa; Higgins, John
This article discusses exergaming, a groundbreaking type of video game which is creating a revolution in physical education. Exergaming combines physical activity and video gaming to create an enjoyable and appealing way for students to be physically active. An extremely popular choice in this genre is the music video/dance rhythm game (MVDG). One…
Rudella, Jennifer L.; Butz, Jennifer V.
Due to the growing obesity epidemic in the United States, educators must consider new ways to increase physical activity in an effort to address obesity. There are a variety of ways educators can increase physical activity in the classroom, and exergames--video games that require physical movement in order to play--are a modern-day approach to…
Borodulin, Katja; Evenson, Kelly R; Monda, Keri; Wen, Fang; Herring, Amy H.; Dole, Nancy
Sleep disturbances are common among pregnant women and safe treatments to improve sleep are needed. Generally, physical activity improves sleep, but studies are lacking on the associations of physical activity with sleep among pregnant women. Our aim was to investigate the cross-sectional association of various modes of physical activity and activity clusters with sleep quality and duration among 1259 pregnant women. Participants were recruited into the Pregnancy, Infection, and Nutrition Stu...
Schüler, Julia; Brunner, Sibylle
The present studies adopted the theoretical framework of activity- and purpose-related incentives (Rheinberg, 2008) to explain the maintenance of physical activity. We hypothesized that activity-related incentives (e.g., “fun”) increase more than purpose-related incentives (e.g., “health”) between the initiation and maintenance phase of physical activity. Additionally, change in activity-related incentives was hypothesized to be a better predictor of maintenance of physical activity than chan...
The present studies adopted the theoretical framework of activity- and purpose-related incentives (Rheinberg, 2008) to explain the maintenance of physical activity. We hypothesized that activity-related incentives (e.g., “fun”) increase more than purpose-related incentives (e.g., “health”) between the initiation and maintenance phase of physical activity. Additionally, change in activity-related incentives was hypothesized to be a better predictor of maintenance of physical activity than chan...
Title: Physical activity in Greenland - a methodical perspective Inger Dahl-Petersen, National Institute of Public Health, Copenhagen, Denmark Purpose: The present study is the first population-based study in Greenland with information on physical activity using The International Physical...... Participants in a cross-sectional population survey representative of towns and villages in West Greenland completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire about their physical activity. The long version of The International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) was used to measure time spent on physical.......001). Less energy was used in leisure time among women living in a village (P<0.001). A similar tendency (non-significant) was found for men. Conclusion: IPAQ is a detailed method to measure physical activity in leisure time, home, work and transportation and provide information on both time and energy...
Maslow, Andra L.; Colabianchi, Natalie
Objectives: To examine whether use of physical activity resources (e.g., parks) was associated with daily physical activity measured by accelerometry. Methods: One hundred eleven adolescents completed a travel diary with concurrent accelerometry. The main exposure was self-reported use of a physical activity resource (none /1 resources). The main…
Blair, Steven N.; Powell, Kenneth E.
This article includes an historical review of research on physical activity and health, and how the findings have contributed to physical activity participation and promotion today. In the 20th century, research began to accumulate on the effects of exercise on physiological functions, and later on the relation between regular activity and various…
Full Text Available Physical activity levels in children have been steadily decreasing in recent years. Reduced physical activity leads to numerous chronic diseases at an early age, particularly obesity. Lifelong participation in physical activity and maintenance of ideal bodyweight are highly effective in the prevention of chronic diseases such as obesity, cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, Type II diabetes, lung and colon cancers. At the same time physical activity increases self-confidence, self-esteem and academic achievement, and reduces symptoms of depression. Therefore, this study was designed to improve awareness of professional groups and families working with children and adolescents about physical activity benefits on children health, as well as psychosocial benefits and planned to offer suggestions for increasing physical activity levels of children. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2015; 7(2: 125-135
Full Text Available More than 60% of older Americans have sedentary lifestyles1 1 According to DHHS (1996. and are recommended more physical activities for health benefit. Nearby outdoor environments on residential sites may impact older inhabitants׳ physical activities there (defined as walking, gardening, yard work, and other outdoor physical activities on residential sites. This study surveyed 110 assisted-living residents in Houston, Texas, regarding their previous residential sites before moving to a retirement community and physical activities there. Twelve environmental features were studied under four categories (typology, motivators, function, and safety. Based on data availability, a subset of 57 sample sites was analyzed in Geographic Information Systems. Hierarchical linear modeling was applied to estimate physical activities as a function of the environments. Higher levels of physical activity were found to be positively related with four environmental features (transitional-areas, connecting-paths, walk-ability, and less paving.
Amun Qa-t-a; Reeder Anthony I; Murdoch Linda; Richards Rosalina
Abstract Effective health advocacy is a priority for efforts to increase population participation in physical activity. Local councils are an important audience for this advocacy. The aim of the current study was to describe features of advocacy for active transport via submissions to city council annual plans in New Zealand, and the impact of an information sheet to encourage the health sector to be involved in this process. Written submissions to city council's annual consultation process w...
Smith, Nicole J.; Monnat, Shannon M.; Lounsbery, Monica A. F.
Background: The purpose of this study was to compare physical activity (PA) outcomes in a sample of high school (HS) physical education (PE) lessons from schools that adopted "traditional" versus "modified block" schedule formats. Methods: We used the System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time (SOFIT) to conduct observations…
Wadsworth, Danielle D.; Robinson, Leah E.; Beckham, Karen; Webster, Kip
Engaging in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity is essential to lifelong health and wellness. Physical activity behaviors established in early childhood relate to physical activity behaviors in later years. However, research has shown that children are adopting more sedentary behaviors. Incorporating structured and planned physical activity…
Elliot, Eloise; Erwin, Heather; Hall, Tina; Heidorn, Brent
The American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance recommends that all schools implement a comprehensive school physical activity program. Physical activity is important to the overall health and well-being of everyone, including all school age children. The benefits of physical activity are well documented and include the…
Weaver, R. Glenn; Beets, Michael W.; Huberty, Jennifer; Freedman, Darcy; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Ward, Diane
Afterschool programs (ASPs) have potential to provide children moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). The availability and types (e.g., free play or organized activities) of physical activity opportunities, their structure (e.g., presence of lines, elimination games), and staff behaviors (e.g., encouragement, engaged) can influence children’s MVPA. This study explored these factors in 20 ASPs serving over 1,700 elementary-age children. The occurrence, types and structure of physical a...
More than 60% of older Americans have sedentary lifestyles1 1 According to DHHS (1996). and are recommended more physical activities for health benefit. Nearby outdoor environments on residential sites may impact older inhabitants׳ physical activities there (defined as walking, gardening, yard work, and other outdoor physical activities on residential sites). This study surveyed 110 assisted-living residents in Houston, Texas, regarding their previous residential sites before moving to a reti...
Abstract: Aim: To research and create awareness on how physical activities have promoted health in the life of the elderly. Research Questions: 1. What are the benefits of physical Activity for Elderly? 2. What obstacles inhibit elderly from physical activities? Method: The study was a Literature review with deductive content analysis method used for analyzing articles. The search engines used was EBSCO, SAGE and Google Scholar. The results are grouped in categories and sub catego...
11 pages Research-based “best practices” that support proper nutrition and increased physical activity for K-12 students form the basis of a Web-based Governor’s Nutrition and Physical Activity Scorecard. Schools are encouraged to use the Web-based scorecard as a tool for identifying best practices and measuring progress towards meeting the nutrition and physical activity needs of students. The best practices and policies recommended by Virginia Action for Healthy Kids, national and state ...
Ogunleye, Adeyemi A; Holmes, Michelle D.
Physical activity improves quality of life after a breast cancer diagnosis, and a beneficial effect on survival would be particularly welcome. Four observational studies have now reported decreased total mortality among physically active women with breast cancer; the two largest have also reported decreased breast cancer specific mortality. The estrogen pathway and the insulin pathway are two potential mechanisms by which physical activity could affect breast cancer survival. Randomized trial...
Kelly, Cheryl; Wilson, Jeffrey S.; Schootman, Mario; Clennin, Morgan; Baker, Elizabeth A.; Miller, Douglas K.
Background: In order to improve our understanding of the relationship between the built environment and physical activity, it is important to identify associations between specific geographic characteristics and physical activity behaviors. Purpose: Examine relationships between observed physical activity behavior and measures of the built environment collected on 291 street segments in Indianapolis and St. Louis. Methods: Street segments were selected using a stratified geographic samp...
Sallis, James F.
Physical activity is usually done in specific types of places, referred to as physical activity environments. These often include parks, trails, fitness centers, schools, and streets. In recent years, scientific interest has increased notably in measuring physical activity environments. The present paper provides an historical overview of the contributions of the health, planning, and leisure studies fields to the development of contemporary measures. The emphasis is on attributes of the buil...
Jurakić, Danijel; Pedišić, Željko; Andrijašević, Mirna
Aim To determine the physical activity level of the Croatian population in different domains of everyday life. Methods A random stratified sample of 1032 Croatians aged 15 years and older was interviewed using the official Croatian long version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Total physical activity and physical activity in each of the 4 life domains – work, transport, domestic and garden, and leisure-time – were estimated. Physical activit...
Marlen Lopez; Ramon Rubio; Santiago Martın; Ben Croxford; Richard Jackson
In this paper, the authors present research into adaptive architectural envelopes that adapt to environmental changes using active materials, as a result of application of biomimetic principles from plants to architecture. Buildings use large amounts of energy in order to maintain their internal comfort, because conventional buildings are designed to provide a static design solution. Most of the current solutions for facades are not designed for optimum adaptation to contextual issues and nee...
Today’s Western society is undergoing rapid change, and the speed of this process of change seems to be increasing. One of the major social changes is the gradual changeover from daily lives that contained high levels of physical effort to lives that are increasingly sedentary. A sedentary lifestyle is not without its problems. Several common illnesses are related to physical inactivity. Athletics, exercise, outdoor life and trend sports must be regarded as expressions of lifestyle and not as...
Trost, Stewart G.; Pate, Russell R.; Ward, Dianne S.; Saunders, Ruth; Riner, William
Compared determinants of physical activity in active and low-active African-American sixth graders, surveying students and making objective assessments of physical activity over seven days. Results indicated that physical activity self-efficacy, beliefs about physical activity outcomes, involvement in community-based physical activity, perception…
Smit, Madelein; Strydom, Gert Lukas; Wilders, Cilas Jacobus
The purpose of this study was to determine the leisure time physical activity (LTPA) participation and physical fitness (PF) levels of South African women of the various ethnic groups. Individuals between the ages of 30 and 60 years (=41.0; ±=4.6) who were part of a cross-sectional non-randomized availability population who voluntarily participated, were used in this study. The group that formed part of the physical activity survey included 3273 subjects (Asian =262; black=1357; coloured=239;...
Samalot-Rivera, Amaury; Porretta, David L.
The purpose of this study was to determine adapted physical educators' perceptions and practices about teaching social skills to students with disabilities. A questionnaire based on Bandura's social learning theory concept of modeling was developed and mailed to an entire frame of 426 adapted physical education teachers in the state of Ohio. Face…
Rationale and design of the Adapted Physical Activity in advanced Pancreatic Cancer patients (APACaP) GERCOR (Groupe Coopérateur Multidisciplinaire en Oncologie) trial: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial
Neuzillet, Cindy; Vergnault, Mathieu; Bonnetain, Franck; Hammel, Pascal
Background Exercise during chemotherapy is a promising strategy to reduce fatigue and improve health-related quality of life (HRQoL). It has been shown to be feasible and efficient in various cancers, including advanced-stage cancers. Effects of physical activity have never been explored in advanced pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). We aim to evaluate the effects of an exercise intervention in this setting. Methods This randomized, national, multicenter, interventional study will exami...
The purpose of this study was to determine physics teachers' opinions about student-centered activities applicable in physics teaching and learning in context. A case study approach was used in this research. First, semi-structured interviews were carried out with 6 physics teachers. Then, a questionnaire was developed based on the data obtained…
Full Text Available Abstract Effective health advocacy is a priority for efforts to increase population participation in physical activity. Local councils are an important audience for this advocacy. The aim of the current study was to describe features of advocacy for active transport via submissions to city council annual plans in New Zealand, and the impact of an information sheet to encourage the health sector to be involved in this process. Written submissions to city council's annual consultation process were requested for 16 city councils over the period of three years (2007/08, 2008/09, and 2009/10. Submissions were reviewed and categories of responses were created. An advocacy information sheet encouraging health sector participation and summarising some of the evidence-base related to physical activity, active transport and health was released just prior to the 2009/10 submission time. Over the period of the study, city councils received 47,392 submissions, 17% of which were related to active transport. Most submissions came from city residents, with a small proportion (2% from the health sector. The largest category of submissions was in support of pedestrian and cycling infrastructure, design and maintenance of facilities and additional features to support use of these transport modes. Health arguments featured prominently in justifications for active transport initiatives, including concerns about injury risk, obesity, physical inactivity, personal safety and facilities for people with disabilities. There was evidence that the information sheet was utilised by some health sector submitters (12.5%, providing tentative support for initiatives of this nature. In conclusion, the study provides novel information about the current nature of health advocacy for active transport and informs future advocacy efforts about areas for emphasis, such as health benefits of active transport, and potential alliances with other sectors such as environmental
Howie, Erin K.; Brewer, Alisa E.; Dowda, Marsha; McIver, Kerry L.; Saunders, Ruth P.; Pate, Russell R.
Background: Preschool settings vary greatly, and research has shown that interventions are more successful when they can be adapted to individual settings. This is a descriptive case study of how 2 teachers successfully adapted and implemented a preschool physical activity intervention. Methods: The Study of Health and Activity in Preschool…
Baranowski, Tom; Baranowski, Janice; O'Connor, Teresia; Lu, Amy Shirong; Thompson, Debbe
Our research indicated that 10–12-year-old children receiving two active Wii™ (Nintendo®; Nintendo of America, Inc., Redmond, WA) console videogames were no more physically active than children receiving two inactive videogames. Research is needed on how active videogames may increase physical activity.
Background Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) is a method of collecting real-time data based on careful timing, repeated measures, and observations that take place in a participant’s typical environment. Due to methodological advantages and rapid advancement in mobile technologies in recent years, more studies have adopted EMA in addressing topics of nutrition and physical activity in youth. Objective The aim of this systematic review is to describe EMA methodology that has been used in studies addressing nutrition and physical activity in youth and provide a comprehensive checklist for reporting EMA studies. Methods Thirteen studies were reviewed and analyzed for the following 5 areas of EMA methodology: (1) sampling and measures, (2) schedule, (3) technology and administration, (4) prompting strategy, and (5) response and compliance. Results Results of this review showed a wide variability in the design and reporting of EMA studies in nutrition and physical activity among youth. The majority of studies (69%) monitored their participants during one period of time, although the monitoring period ranged from 4 to 14 days, and EMA surveys ranged from 2 to 68 times per day. More than half (54%) of the studies employed some type of electronic technology. Most (85%) of the studies used interval-contingent prompting strategy. For studies that utilized electronic devices with interval-contingent prompting strategy, none reported the actual number of EMA prompts received by participants out of the intended number of prompts. About half (46%) of the studies failed to report information about EMA compliance rates. For those who reported, compliance rates ranged from 44-96%, with an average of 71%. Conclusions Findings from this review suggest that in order to identify best practices for EMA methodology in nutrition and physical activity research among youth, more standardized EMA reporting is needed. Missing the key information about EMA design features and participant
Peplonska, Beata; Lissowska, Jolanta; Hartman, Terryl J.; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Blair, Aaron; Zatonski, Witold; Sherman, Mark E.; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Brinton, Louise A.
BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic studies have shown that breast cancer risk is reduced 30% to 40% in highly physically active compared with inactive women. However, the effects of moderate activities, timing of activities, and intervening effects of other risk factors remain less clear. METHODS: We analyzed data on physical activity patterns in 2176 incident breast cancer cases and 2326 controls in a population-based breast cancer case-control study in Poland conducted in 2000-2003. Using unconditio...
Adaptive management is a framework for resource conservation that promotes iterative learning-based decision making. Yet there remains considerable confusion about what adaptive management entails, and how to actually make resource decisions adaptively. A key but somewhat ambiguous distinction in adaptive management is between active and passive forms of adaptive decision making. The objective of this paper is to illustrate some approaches to active and passive adaptive management with a simple example involving the drawdown of water impoundments on a wildlife refuge. The approaches are illustrated for the drawdown example, and contrasted in terms of objectives, costs, and potential learning rates. Some key challenges to the actual practice of AM are discussed, and tradeoffs between implementation costs and long-term benefits are highlighted. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd.
The aim of this thesis was to describe the effectiveness of a particular worksite physical activity intervention involving individual counseling of workers. First, a summary of the existing literature is given as to the effectiveness of worksite physical activity programs. A strong evidence was foun
Gilliam, Thomas B.
This is a report on research in the field of physical responses of children to strenuous activity. The paper is divided into three subtopics: (1) peak performance measure in children; (2) training effects on children; and (3) importance of physical activity for children. Measurements used are oxygen consumption, ventilation, heart rate, cardiac…
Laursen, Adam Høgsbro; Kristiansen, Ole P; Marott, Jacob Louis;
To explore the relative importance of leisure time physical activity (LTPA), walking and jogging on risk of developing the metabolic syndrome (MS).......To explore the relative importance of leisure time physical activity (LTPA), walking and jogging on risk of developing the metabolic syndrome (MS)....
Vidoni, Carla; Ignico, Arlene
The prevalence of obesity in children and adolescents from low-income families in the USA has become a significant concern over the last 20 years. One of the major contributors to this problem is the lack of physical activity. The purpose of this paper is to describe initiatives designed to: (1) engage young children in physical activity during…
Regular physical activity promotes important health benefits, reduces risk for obesity and is linked with enhanced academic performance among students. The U.S. Surgeon General recommends that children engage in at least 60 minutes of moderate physical activity most days of the week, yet fewer than half of children ages 6 to 11 meet that…
Erwin, Heather E.; Rose, Stephanie A.; Small, Sarah R.; Perman, Jay
Many afterschool physical activity programs and curricula are available, but evaluation of their effectiveness is needed. Well-marketed programs such as the Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health (CATCH) Kids Club have shown limited effectiveness in increasing physical activity for participants in comparison to control groups.…
Beighle, Aaron; Moore, Melanie
This article discusses a variety of before- and after-school programs (BASPs) that can be implemented from preschool through 12th grade. These programs offer physical activity opportunities before and after school for youths of various ages, skill levels, and socioeconomic levels. In addition, strategies for the director of physical activity to…
... nih.gov/Go4Life Staying Safe during Exercise and Physical Activity There’s a way for almost every older adult ... have specific health conditions, discuss your exercise and physical activity plan with your health care provider. Endurance. Listen ...
Heath, Gregory W; Parra, Diana C; Sarmiento, Olga L;
Promotion of physical activity is a priority for health agencies. We searched for reviews of physical activity interventions, published between 2000 and 2011, and identified effective, promising, or emerging interventions from around the world. The informational approaches of community-wide and m...
The research and development activities of the Reactor Physics Division of the Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR), Kalpakkam during 1997 are reported. The activities are arranged under the headings: nuclear data processing and validation, PFBR and KAMINI core physics, FBTR core physics, radioactivity and shielding and safety analysis. A list of publications of the Division and seminars delivered are included at the end of the report
In this Letter, it is shown that a couple of the modified Chua's systems with different parameters and initial conditions can be synchronized using active control when the values of parameters both in drive system and response system are known aforehand. Furthermore, an adaptive active control approach is proposed based on Lyapunov stability theory to make the states of two identical Chua's systems with unknown constant parameters be asymptotically synchronized. In addition, the proposed adaptive active control method guarantees that the designed controller is independent to those uncertain parameters. Simulation results by using both active control and adaptive active control are provided, and the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed adaptive active control are demonstrated
Full Text Available In this paper, the authors present research into adaptive architectural envelopes that adapt to environmental changes using active materials, as a result of application of biomimetic principles from plants to architecture. Buildings use large amounts of energy in order to maintain their internal comfort, because conventional buildings are designed to provide a static design solution. Most of the current solutions for facades are not designed for optimum adaptation to contextual issues and needs, while biological solutions to adaptation are often complex, multi-functional and highly responsive. We focus on plant adaptations to the environment, as, due to their immobility, they have developed special means of protection against weather changing conditions. Furthermore, recent developments in new technologies are allowing the possibility to transfer these plant adaptation strategies to technical implementation. These technologies include: multi-material 3D printing, advances in materials science and new capabilities in simulation software. Unlike traditional mechanical activation used for dynamic systems in kinetic facades, adaptive architectural envelopes require no complex electronics, sensors, or actuators. The paper proposes a research of the relationship that can be developed between active materials and environmental issues in order to propose innovative and low-tech design strategies to achieve living envelopes according to plant adaptation principles.
Antonio Granero-Gallegos, Antonio Baena-Extremera; Manuel Gómez-López, José Antonio Sánchez-Fuentes, J. Arturo Abraldes
The aim of this study was to investigate the factor structure of a Spanish version of the Sport Motivation Scale adapted to physical education. A second aim was to test which one of three hypothesized models (three, five and seven-factor) provided best model fit. 758 Spanish high school students completed the Sport Motivation Scale adapted for Physical Education and also completed the Learning and Performance Orientation in Physical Education Classes Questionnaire. We examined the factor stru...
Among older adults, moderate regular physical activity, even if below the level to show fitness effect, leads to multiple health benefits. However, despite well-documented benefits of physical activity, the majority of adults in developed countries do not exercise. There is a need to investigate what influences attitude toward physical activity among older people to develop suitable health promotion scheme. The purpose of this study was to identify correlates of attitude toward physical activ...
Meyer, N; A.L. Bevan-Dye
The purpose of this study was to determine Generation Y students' level of physical activity and the motivation for participating in physical activity. Despite there being a great deal of published literature that provides evidence of the benefits of engaging in physical activity and its influence on reducing certain dreaded illnesses, physical activity amongst the Generation Y cohort (individuals born between 1986 and 2005) is declining worldwide. In South Africa, the Generation Y cohort con...
Antwan Jones; Paxton, Raheem J.
In view of evidence that African American cancer survivors experience the greatest challenges in maintaining adequate levels of physical activity, this cross-sectional study was designed to determine whether individual and residential environment characteristics are associated with physical activity in this population. A total of 275 breast cancer survivors completed self-report items measuring sociodemographic variables, physical activity, and select barriers to physical activity in Spring o...
Many students enter physics classes filled with misconceptions about physics concepts. Students tend to retain these misconceptions into their adult lives, even after physics instruction. Constructivist researchers have found that students gain understanding through their experiences. Researchers have also found that active learning practices increase conceptual understanding of introductory physics students. This project study sought to examine whether incorporating active learning practices in an advanced placement physics classroom increased conceptual understanding as measured by the force concept inventory (FCI). Physics students at the study site were given the FCI as both a pre- and posttest. Test data were analyzed using two different methods---a repeated-measures t test and the Hake gain method. The results of this research project showed that test score gains were statistically significant, as measured by the t test. The Hake gain results indicated a low (22.5%) gain for the class. The resulting project was a curriculum plan for teaching the mechanics portion of Advanced Placement (AP) physics B as well as several active learning classroom practices supported by the research. This project will allow AP physics teachers an opportunity to improve their curricular practices. Locally, the results of this project study showed that research participants gained understanding of physics concepts. Social change may occur as teachers implement active learning strategies, thus creating improved student understanding of physics concepts.
Zapata, Lauren B.; Bryant, Carol A.; McDermott, Robert J.; Hefelfinger, Jennie A.
Background: Obesity has become a national epidemic among youth. Declining physical activity and poor nutrition contribute to this epidemic. The purpose of this study was to obtain data on middle school students' physical activity and nutrition knowledge and practices. Methods: The Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Survey was developed and…
Eckstrom, Elizabeth; Hickam, David H.; Lessler, Daniel S; Buchner, David M.
We conducted a prospective controlled trial to determine whether an educational intervention could improve resident physician self-efficacy and counseling behaviors for physical activity and increase their patients’ reported activity levels. Forty-eight internal medicine residents who practiced at a Department of Veterans Affairs hospital received either two workshops on physical activity counseling or no intervention. All residents completed questionnaires before and 3 months after the works...
Lee Su Goh
Full Text Available An adaptive amplitude normalized nonlinear gradient descent (AANNGD algorithm for the class of nonlinear finite impulse response (FIR adaptive filters (dynamical perception is introduced. This is achieved by making the amplitude of the nonlinear activation function gradient adaptive. The proposed learning algorithm is suitable for processing of nonlinear and nonstationary signals with a large dynamical range, and removes the unwanted effect of saturation nonlinearities. For rigor, sensitivity analysis is performed and the improved performance of the AANNGD algorithm over the standard LMS, NGD, NNGD, the fully adaptive NNGD (FANNGD and the sign algorithm is verified by simulations on nonlinear and nonstationary inputs with large dynamics.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Accumulating scientific evidence shows physical activity to have profound health benefits amenable to substantial public health gains. Accordingly, recommendations on how much and what kind of physical activity enhances health have been issued. The 1995 recommendation from the U.S. Centres for Disease Control and Prevention and the American College of Sports Medicine has been adapted worldwide, including Europe. Recently an extensive review of new evidence was undertaken and refined recommendations were issued by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. We summarise the development of physical activity recommendations and consider the need and possible ways to update the current European situation. Discussion The new recommendations include several new elements when compared to the 1995 recommendation, the most notable being the greater emphasis on the contribution of vigorous-intensity activities, and the inclusion of activities for muscle strength and bone health. They also include specific recommendations for young people, middle-aged adults, older adults and some special groups. The existing Pan-European and national physical activity recommendations in Europe are mostly based on the 1995 recommendation and primarily target adults and young people. Thus the degree to which they are compatible with the new recommendations varies. In view of the growing public health importance of physical activity, we discuss the need to review the existing physical activity recommendations at the European level and assess their consistency with the new evidence and the new recommendations. Summary We argue that a review of the current physical activity recommendations in Europe should be undertaken in view of the most recent research evidence. We recommend that such a task should be taken on by WHO Europe in parallel with the ongoing work by WHO global Headquarters. Following this, each country should develop communication
Poulin, David; Martinez, David; Aenchbacher, Amy; Aiello, Rocco; Doyle, Mike; Hilgenbrinck, Linda; Busse, Sean; Cappuccio, Jim
In Part III of the feature, physical educators and adapted physical educators offer current best practices as models of implementation for readers. Contributions included are: (1) Answer to the Dear Colleague Letter from the Anchorage School District's Adapted Sport Program (David Poulin); (2) Georgia's Adapted Physical Educators…
National Academies Press, 2013
"Adapting to a Changing World" was commissioned by the National Science Foundation to examine the present status of undergraduate physics education, including the state of physics education research, and, most importantly, to develop a series of recommendations for improving physics education that draws from the knowledge we have about…
Lieberman, Lauren J.; Houston-Wilson, Cathy
Physical education teachers and the profession are very often marginalized and minimized by administrators, parents, and students. Adapted physical education is no exception. There are several reasons for the lack of value given to teaching students with special needs in physical education, including issues with placement, stigmatization of…
Johnson, Robert W
The continuous wavelet transform is adapted to account for signal truncation through renormalization and by modifying the shape of the analyzing window. Comparison is made of the instant and integrated wavelet power with previous algorithms. The edge adapted and renormalized admissible wavelet transforms are used to estimate the level of solar magnetic activity from the sunspot record. The solar activity is compared to Oerlemans' temperature reconstruction and to the Central England Temperatu...
This report contains the summaries of the various activities conducted during the year 1994 by the members of the Reactor Physics Division. These have been organised under the following topics: nuclear data processing and validation and uncertainty analysis; core physics and operation studies; reactor kinetics and safety analysis; radiation transport and shielding studies. A list of publications made by the members of the Division and the reactor physics seminars held during the year 1994 are included at the end of the report
Morgan, William P.; Dishman, Rod K.
Introduces a collection of papers on adherence to exercise programs and physical activity from the 2000 American Academy of Kinesiology and Physical Education conference, which included research on middle school boys and girls, college men and women, and men and women in the later years, as well as on the more traditional subject of middle aged…
Covey, Linda A.; Feltz, Deborah L.
Relationships between self-reported past and present physical activity levels and self-image, sense of mastery, gender role identity, self-perceived physical ability, and self-perceived attractiveness were studied for 149 female high school sophomores, juniors, and seniors. Results are discussed in terms of adolescent emotional health. (SLD)
This report surveys the activities in fundamental research from July 1, 1980 to June 30, 1981 at the three institutes of the KfK which are concerned with nuclear physics. The research program comprises laser spectroscopy, nuclear reactions with light ions and physics at medium and higher energies. (orig.)
This document is a compilation of National activity reports presented at the thirty-third Meeting of the NEA Committee on Reactor Physics, held at OECD Headquarters, Paris, from 15th - 19th October 1990
Hills, Andrew P; Andersen, Lars Bo; Byrne, Nuala M
Globally, obesity is affecting an increasing proportion of children. Physical activity plays an important role in the prevention of becoming overweight and obese in childhood and adolescence, and reducing the risk of obesity in adulthood. Puberty and the following adolescent period are acknowledged...... as particularly vulnerable times for the development of obesity due to sexual maturation and, in many individuals, a concomitant reduction in physical activity. In many Western settings, a large proportion of children and adolescents do not meet recommended physical activity guidelines and, typically, those who...... that children will live less healthy lives than their parents. Owing to the high risk of overweight adolescents becoming obese adults, the engagement of children and adolescents in physical activity and sport is a fundamental goal of obesity prevention....
... Workplace Food and Beverage Toolkit Physical activity improves quality of life Updated:Mar 2,2015 Do you want to ... illnesses and diseases associated with aging and maintains quality of life and independence longer for seniors So why not ...
White, Adam E.; Lewis, Hugh
Many parameters influence the evolution of the near-Earth debris population, including launch, solar, explosion and mitigation activities, as well as other future uncertainties such as advances in space technology or changes in social and economic drivers that effect the utilisation of space activities. These factors lead to uncertainty in the long-term debris population. This uncertainty makes it difficult to identify potential remediation strategies, involving active debris removal (ADR), t...
An article was published in the Lancet in 1935 about the therapy of asthmatic patients, using a special breathing exercise (the authors used a control group, too). Swimming, as a complementary therapy for asthmatic children, was first recommended in 1968, by authors from the United States. In Hungary, regular swimming training for asthmatic children is in use since August, 1981. As the result of this exercise, the physical fitness of asthmatic children (using this method regularly for years) increased dramatically, and it is much better compared to that found in the non asthmatic, non swimming children of the same age group. Their asthma medication requirement decreased, and the severity of their disease moderated considerably. On the other hand, asthma is not a rarity even among elite athletes. It is most frequent in the endurance sports (for example in Northern Europe among cross-country skiers its prevalence is between 14-54%, among long distance runners 15-24%, and among swimmers 13-44%). The possible reason is related to the fact that elite athletes inspirate 200 liter air per minutum (mostly through their mouth). The air pollution and the allergens can penetrate in their lower respiratory tract. The air causes cooling and drying of the mucosa of their airways and, as a consequence, mediators liberate which produce oedema of the mucosa, and bronchoconstriction. Beta-2-receptor agonists inhalation can prevent (or decrease significantly) this phenomenon. These agents are used regularly by elite athletes, too. The non-medical possibilities for prevention include wearing a special mask, frequent ventilation of the swimming pool's air, consumption of omega-3-fatty acid, and inhalation of dry salt (very small, and very clear sodiumchloride particles). PMID:27319382
Full Text Available Background: Professionals working in the area of special education are exposed to the unique situation of occupational stress. Adapted physical education teachers are experiencing several symptoms of the burnout phenomenon. Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify factors causing job dissatisfaction among certified adapted physical education specialists in the USA. Methods: The survey was developed based (a on Herzberg's (1959 theory of job satisfaction, and (b a pilot study, which examined specific factors of job dissatisfaction among adapted physical education (APE teachers in the USA. The survey consisted of three parts: (a demographic information, (b paired comparison of nine general factors which could cause job dissatisfaction, and (c paired comparison of ten APE specific factors which could cause job dissatisfaction. The participants were 113 certified adapted physical education specialists (CAPES (88 females, 25 males, a 38% return rate of all mailed surveys. Results: The results indicated that 39% of CAPES have seriously considered another job outside of APE and 26% of CAPES have actively searched for job outside of APE in the last two years. 113 CAPES indicated the general factors that they found the most dissatisfying in their job (listed accordingly to rank, frequency and percent of times chosen, N for each factor = 1017 were working conditions (644, 71%; policies and administration (619, 68%; interpersonal relationship with supervisors (552, 61%; supervision (484, 54%; salary (404, 45%; interpersonal relationship with subordinates (404, 45%; benefits on job (301, 33%; interpersonal relationship with peers (293, 32%; and job security (245, 27%. 110 CAPES indicated the APE specific factors they found the most dissatisfying on their job (listed accordingly to rank, frequency and percent of times chosen, N for each factor = 990 were paperwork (687, 69%; scheduling (659, 67%; facilities (617, 62%; individualized education
The research and development (R and D) activities of the Reactor Physics Division of Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR), Kalpakkam during 1993 are reported. The activities are arranged under the headings: Nuclear Data Processing and validation, Core Physics and Operation Studies, Reactor Kinetics and Safety analysis, Reactor Noise Analysis and Radiation Transport and Shielding Studies. List of publication is given at the end. (author). refs., figs., tabs
Karlsson, Magnus K; Nordqvist, Anders; Karlsson, Caroline
Study design: A thematic review. Objectives: To evaluate if physical activity enhances muscle strength, improves balance, and reduces the fall frequency and the fracture incidence. Background: One of the major medical problems of today is the increasing incidence of fragility fractures. Muscle strength and fall is one of the major determinants of a fracture. If physical activity could increase muscle strength, improve balance and reduce the fall frequency, then training could be recommended a...
Biological aging is typically associated with a progressive increase in body fat mass and a loss of lean body mass. Owing to the metabolic consequences of reduced muscle mass, it is understood that normal aging and/or decreased physical activity may lead to a higher prevalence of metabolic disorders. Lifestyle modification, specifically changes in diet, physical activity, and exercise, is considered the cornerstone of obesity management. However, for most overweight people it is difficult to ...
Erickson, Kirk I.; Leckie, Regina L; Weinstein, Andrea M.
In this review we explore the association between physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and exercise on gray matter volume in older adults. We conclude that higher cardiorespiratory fitness levels are routinely associated with greater gray matter volume in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus, and less consistently in other regions. We also conclude that physical activity is associated with greater gray matter volume in the same regions that are associated with cardiorespiratory fitn...
Accumulating evidence suggests that hyperinsulinemia, in the context of insulin resistance, is associated with carcinogenesis. Physical activity is involved in the regulation of metabolic and hormonal pathways and is an important factor affecting hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance and body weight. The major modifiable determinants of insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, and diabetes such as obesity, and physical activity, have also been shown to be risk factors for endome...
The research and development (R and D) activities of the Reactor Physics Division of Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR), Kalpakkam during 1995 are reported. The activity are arranged under the headings: Nuclear Data Processing and Validation, Core Physics and Operation Studies, Reactor Kinetics and Safety analysis, Reactor Noise Analysis and Radiation Transport and Shielding Studies. List of publication is given at the end. refs., figs., tabs
Biddle, Stuart J. H.
This paper reviews contemporary literatura on the psychological benefits of regular involvement in physical activity and exercise. Despite methodological problems, the evidence points towards favourable effects for physical activity for reducing anxiety, depression and reactivity to stress, as well as enhancing aspects of self-esteem. However, the mechanisms underpinning such effects are still unresolved and future research is required on the motivational effects of affective changes from exe...
Zaycev V.P.; Manucharyan S.V.; Kramskoy S.I.
Meaningfulness of physical recreation is rotined in education of active personality of students. Research material is literary sources on this issue. Factors which influence on an educate function of personality of students are considered. Application of physical recreation is grounded for education of active personality of students. It is marked that physical recreation in pedagogical process decides educate, educational, health and social tasks. It positively influences on education of acti...
Vesselinov, Velimir V.; Harp, Dylan R.
A new adaptive hybrid optimization strategy, entitled squads, is proposed for complex inverse analysis of computationally intensive physical models. The new strategy is designed to be computationally efficient and robust in identification of the global optimum (e.g. maximum or minimum value of an objective function). It integrates a global Adaptive Particle Swarm Optimization (APSO) strategy with a local Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) optimization strategy using adaptive rules based on runtime perf...
Hinde, Robert J.; Kovac, Jeffrey
We describe two strategies for implementing active learning in physical chemistry. One involves supplementing a traditional lecture course with heavily computer-based active-learning exercises carried out by cooperative groups in a department computer lab. The other uses cooperative learning almost exclusively, supplemented by occasional mini-lectures. Both approaches seemed to result in better student learning and a more positive attitude toward the subject. On the basis of our respective experiences using active learning techniques, we discuss some of the strengths of these techniques and some of the challenges we encountered using the active-learning approach in teaching physical chemistry.
Full Text Available Increasing children's physical activity at school is a national focus in the U.S. to address childhood obesity. While research has demonstrated associations between aspects of school environments and students' physical activity, the literature currently lacks a synthesis of evidence to serve as a practical, spatially-organized resource for school designers and decision-makers, as well as to point to pertinent research opportunities. This paper describes the development of a new practical tool: Physical Activity Design Guidelines for School Architecture. Its aims are to provide architects and designers, as well as school planners, educators, and public health professionals, with strategies for making K-12 school environments conducive to healthy physical activity, and to engage scientists in transdisciplinary perspectives toward improved knowledge of the school environment's impact. We used a qualitative review process to develop evidence-based and theory-driven school design guidelines that promote increased physical activity among students. The design guidelines include specific strategies in 10 school design domains. Implementation of the guidelines is expected to enable students to adopt healthier physical activity behaviors. The tool bridges a translational gap between research and environmental design practice, and may contribute to setting new industry and education standards.
Javadi, Hossein; Forouzbakhsh, Farshid; Daei Kasmaei, Hamed
. Perhaps it is only a part of a bigger picture of the modern physics which includes the deeper and hidden layer of subatomic world that has been dipped into the darkness of the universe. The question is, where is the hidden part of modern physics? Hidden part of modern physics lies beyond the uncertainty......In the recent decades, the amazing changes have occurred in the theoretical physics and the rate of its improvement has been rising very extensively. The neutron and positron were discovered in 1932 which before that only electron, proton and photon were known. Today, the Standard Model of...... principle. Included in the sub quantum scale, where quantum interactions between photons and gravitons done. Hidden and dark side of modern physics is also a place where charged particles absorb and emit energy quanta, without any description of the mechanism of absorption and emission by charged particles...
Gregory C. Bogdanis
Full Text Available The aim of this review was to examine the mechanisms by which physical activity and inactivity modify muscle fatigue. It is well known that acute or chronic increases in physical activity result in structural, metabolic, hormonal, neural and molecular adaptations that increase the level of force or power that can be sustained by a muscle. These adaptations depend on the type, intensity and volume of the exercise stimulus, but recent studies have highlighted the role of high intensity, short duration exercise as a time-efficient method to achieve both anaerobic and aerobic/endurance type adaptations. The factors that determine the fatigue profile of a muscle during intense exercise include muscle fibre composition, neuromuscular characteristics high energy metabolite stores, buffering capacity, ionic regulation, capillarization and mitochondrial density. Muscle fiber type transformation during exercise training is usually towards the intermediate type IIA at the expense of both type I and type IIx myosin heavy chain isoforms. High intensity training results in increases of both glycolyic and oxidative enzymes, muscle capilarization, improved phosphocreatine resynthesis and regulation of K+, H+ and lactate ions. Decreases of the habitual activity level due to injury or sedentary lifestyle result in partial or even compete reversal of the adaptations due to previous training, manifested by reductions in fibre cross-sectional area, decreased oxidative capacity and capillarization. Complete immobilization due to injury results in markedly decreased force output and fatigue resistance. Muscle unloading reduces electromyographic activity and causes muscle atrophy and significant decreases in capillarization and oxidative enzymes activity. The last part of the review discusses the beneficial effects of intermittent high intensity exercise training in patients with different health conditions to demonstrate the powerful effect exercise on health and well
Full Text Available Abstract Purpose Better knowledge on why some individuals succeed in maintaining participation in physical activity throughout adolescence is needed to guide the development of effective interventions to increase and then maintain physical activity levels. Despite allowing an in-depth understanding, qualitative designs have infrequently been used to study physical activity maintenance. We explored factors contributing to the maintenance and the decline of physical activity during adolescence. Methods Questionnaires were administered to 515 grade 10-12 students. The Physical Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents was used to determine physical activity level at the end of adolescence. An adapted version of this questionnaire was used to estimate physical activity in early adolescence. Among both genders, we identified participants who maintained a high level of physical activity since grade 7 and some whose activity level declined. For each category, groups of 10 students were randomly selected to take part in focus group discussions. Results Seven focus groups with 5 to 8 participants in each were held. Both maintainers and decliners associated physical activity with positive health outcomes. Maintenance of physical activity was associated with supportive social environments and heightened feelings of competence and attractiveness. A decline in physical activity was associated with negative social validation, poor social support and barriers related to access. Conclusions Although maintainers and decliners associate physical activity with similar themes, the experiences of both groups differ substantially with regards to those themes. Taking both perspectives in consideration could help improve interventions to increase and maintain physical activity levels of adolescents.
Lakka, T A; Bouchard, C
Sedentary lifestyle and overweight are major public health, clinical, and economical problems in modern societies. The worldwide epidemic of excess weight is due to imbalance between physical activity and dietary energy intake. Sedentary lifestyle, unhealthy diet, and consequent overweight and obesity markedly increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Regular physical activity 45-60 min per day prevents unhealthy weight gain and obesity, whereas sedentary behaviors such as watching television promote them. Regular exercise can markedly reduce body weight and fat mass without dietary caloric restriction in overweight individuals. An increase in total energy expenditure appears to be the most important determinant of successful exercise-induced weight loss. The best long-term results may be achieved when physical activity produces an energy expenditure of at least 2,500 kcal/week. Yet, the optimal approach in weight reduction programs appears to be a combination of regular physical activity and caloric restriction. A minimum of 60 min, but most likely 80-90 min of moderate-intensity physical activity per day may be needed to avoid or limit weight regain in formerly overweight or obese individuals. Regular moderate intensity physical activity, a healthy diet, and avoiding unhealthy weight gain are effective and safe ways to prevent and treat cardiovascular diseases and to reduce premature mortality in all population groups. Although the efforts to promote cardiovascular health concern the whole population, particular attention should be paid to individuals who are physically inactive, have unhealthy diets or are prone to weight gain. They have the highest risk for worsening of the cardiovascular risk factor profile and for cardiovascular disease. To combat the epidemic of overweight and to improve cardiovascular health at a population level, it is important to develop strategies to increase habitual physical activity and to prevent overweight and obesity in
Lucie Ješinová; Miroslava Spurná; Martin Kudláček; Jana Sklenaříková
Background: Professionals working in the area of special education are exposed to the unique situation of occupational stress. Adapted physical education teachers are experiencing several symptoms of the burnout phenomenon. Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify factors causing job dissatisfaction among certified adapted physical education specialists in the USA. Methods: The survey was developed based (a) on Herzberg's (1959) theory of job satisfaction, and (b) a pilot ...
The main activities and results of the ICTP during 1983 are reported, according to the following programme components: Physics and energy (Plasma physics; Non-conventional energy; Nuclear physics); Fundamental physics (Elementary particles and fundamental theory); Physics of the living state (Medical physics; Applications of physics to medicine and biology); Physics and technology (Condensed matter physics and related; Atomic, molecular and laser physics; Physics of communications); Mathematics (Applicable mathematics); Physics of the environment and of natural resources (Soil physics; Geophysics); other fields
Klein, Diane Alix; Mayer, Laurel E S; Schebendach, Janet Ellen; Walsh, B Timothy
Elevated physical activity is commonly observed among patients with Anorexia Nervosa (AN) and can manifest in several forms. While elevated physical activity may play a key role in the pathophysiology of this disorder, much remains unknown about it, including the relationship among its various manifestations, and their underlying mechanism(s). The purposes of the current study were to (1) quantify locomotor activity in inpatients with AN using an accelerometer, (2) determine the association between locomotor activity and exercise history and (3) determine the association between urinary cortisol and physical activity. Thirty-six women hospitalized with AN wore activity armbands for 48 h during the first 2 weeks of hospitalization, collected 24-h urine to measure cortisol, and completed rating forms. Activity counts varied more than four-fold among individuals but were consistent within individuals over the 2 monitoring days (pactivity counts were positively correlated with pre-hospitalization attitude towards exercise as measured by the Commitment to Exercise Scale (CES; p=0.032). Forty-two percent of women reported "high" exercise in the 3 months before hospitalization; compared to non-high-exercising patients, these women demonstrated a higher CES score (pactivity counts (p=0.059). Urinary cortisol was positively associated with activity counts (p=0.044) and CES score (p=0.018). These data suggest that some women with AN have a higher "drive" for physical activity that persists into early hospitalization. HPA axis abnormalities may be associated with this state. PMID:17462830
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Physical inactivity is a growing public health problem, and the fourth leading risk factor for global mortality. Conversely, indigenous populations living traditional lifestyles reportedly engage in vigorous daily activity that is protective against non-communicable diseases. Here we analyze physical activity patterns among the Tsimane, forager-horticulturalists of Amazonian Bolivia with minimal heart disease and diabetes. We assess age patterns of adult activity among men and women, test whether modernization affects activity levels, and examine whether nascent obesity is associated with reduced activity. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A factorial method based on a large sample of behavioral observations was employed to estimate effects of age, sex, body mass index, and modernization variables on physical activity ratio (PAR, the ratio of total energy expenditure to basal metabolic rate. Accelerometry combined with heart rate monitoring was compared to the factorial method and used for nighttime sampling. Tsimane men and women display 24 hr physical activity level (PAL of 2.02-2.15 and 1.73-1.85, respectively. Little time was spent "sedentary", whereas most activity was light to moderate, rather than vigorous. Activity peaks by the late twenties in men, and declines thereafter, but remains constant among women after the early teens. Neither BMI, fat free mass or body fat percentage are associated with PAR. There was no negative effect of modernization on physical activity. CONCLUSIONS: Tsimane display relatively high PALs typical of other subsistence populations, but of moderate intensity, and not outside the range of developed populations. Despite rapidly increasing socioeconomic change, there is little evidence that total activity has yet been affected. Overweight and obesity are more prevalent among women than men, and Spanish fluency is associated with greater obesity in women. The lack of cardiovascular disease among Tsimane is unlikely
Goodrich David E
Full Text Available Abstract Background Engaging in regular physical activity can be challenging, particularly during the winter months. To promote physical activity at the University of Michigan during the winter months, an eight-week Internet-mediated program (Active U was developed providing participants with an online physical activity log, goal setting, motivational emails, and optional team participation and competition. Methods This study is a program evaluation of Active U. Approximately 47,000 faculty, staff, and graduate students were invited to participate in the online Active U intervention in the winter of 2007. Participants were assigned a physical activity goal and were asked to record each physical activity episode into the activity log for eight weeks. Statistics for program reach, effectiveness, adoption, and implementation were calculated using the Re-Aim framework. Multilevel regression analyses were used to assess the decline in rates of data entry and goal attainment during the program, to assess the likelihood of joining a team by demographic characteristics, to test the association between various predictors and the number of weeks an individual met his or her goal, and to analyze server load. Results Overall, 7,483 individuals registered with the Active U website (≈16% of eligible, and 79% participated in the program by logging valid data at least once. Staff members, older participants, and those with a BMI P Conclusion Internet-mediated physical activity interventions that focus on physical activity logging and goal setting while incorporating team competition may help a significant percentage of the target population maintain their physical activity during the winter months.
Emma J Adams
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: No current validated survey instrument allows a comprehensive assessment of both physical activity and travel behaviours for use in interdisciplinary research on walking and cycling. This study reports on the test-retest reliability and validity of physical activity measures in the transport and physical activity questionnaire (TPAQ. METHODS: The TPAQ assesses time spent in different domains of physical activity and using different modes of transport for five journey purposes. Test-retest reliability of eight physical activity summary variables was assessed using intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC and Kappa scores for continuous and categorical variables respectively. In a separate study, the validity of three survey-reported physical activity summary variables was assessed by computing Spearman correlation coefficients using accelerometer-derived reference measures. The Bland-Altman technique was used to determine the absolute validity of survey-reported time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA. RESULTS: In the reliability study, ICC for time spent in different domains of physical activity ranged from fair to substantial for walking for transport (ICC = 0.59, cycling for transport (ICC = 0.61, walking for recreation (ICC = 0.48, cycling for recreation (ICC = 0.35, moderate leisure-time physical activity (ICC = 0.47, vigorous leisure-time physical activity (ICC = 0.63, and total physical activity (ICC = 0.56. The proportion of participants estimated to meet physical activity guidelines showed acceptable reliability (k = 0.60. In the validity study, comparison of survey-reported and accelerometer-derived time spent in physical activity showed strong agreement for vigorous physical activity (r = 0.72, p<0.001, fair but non-significant agreement for moderate physical activity (r = 0.24, p = 0.09 and fair agreement for MVPA (r = 0.27, p = 0.05. Bland
Bülbül, M. Ş.; Yiğit, N.; Garip, B.
Today, most of necessary equipment in a physics laboratory are available for smartphone users via applications. Physics teachers may measure from acceleration to sound volume with its internal sensors. These sensors collect data and smartphone applications make the raw data visible. Teachers who do not have well-equipped laboratories at their schools may have an opportunity to conduct experiments with the help of smart phones. In this study, we analyzed possible open source physics education applications in terms of blind users in inclusive learning environments. All apps are categorized as partially, full or non-supported. The roles of blind learner’s friend during the application are categorized as reader, describer or user. Mentioned apps in the study are compared with additional opportunities like size and downloading rates. Out of using apps we may also get information about whether via internet and some other extra information for different experiments in physics lab. Q-codes reading or augmented reality are two other opportunity provided by smart phones for users in physics labs. We also summarized blind learner’s smartphone experiences from literature and listed some suggestions for application designers about concepts in physics.
Full Text Available Over the last several years, physical inactivity has increasingly been recognized as a major health risk among Malaysians. The Government of Malaysia under the Ministry of Youth has adopted many programs aiming at keeping the nation healthy. Among such programs are Malaysia Cergas and RakanSukan. Trends in the physical activity levels and participation patterns of Malaysians has never been researched or monitored. Thus, there is no available evidence to serve as a foundation for decision making regarding this matter. This research was conducted with the aim of providing a unique insight into the physical activity patterns and fitness levels of Malaysian youths, as well as providing a detailed baseline data that can be use for developing policy and planning physical activity strategies for the youths. This article provides insights into the current physical activity levels among Malaysian youths in the Klang Valley and the prognosis for change; the individual and collective benefits of a more active Malaysia; and, the type of strategies needed to help Malaysians especially the youths, become and remain active.
Lipnowski, Stan; LeBlanc, Claire MA
The epidemic of childhood obesity is rising globally. Although the risk factors for obesity are multifactorial, many are related to lifestyle and may be amenable to intervention. These factors include sedentary time and non-exercise activity thermogenesis, as well as the frequency, intensity, amounts and types of physical activity. Front-line health care practitioners are ideally suited to monitor children, adolescents and their families’ physical activity levels, to evaluate lifestyle choice...
Physical activity (PA) is an important part of a healthy lifestyle and reduces risk of certain chronic diseases. Many youth do not currently meet PA guidelines; evidence suggests that girls are less active than boys are at all ages. PA differences need to be understood, so that gender-specific inter...
Landau Ioan Doré
The paper will review a number of recent developments for adaptive feedback compensation of multiple unknown and time-varying narrow band disturbances and for adaptive feedforward compensation of broad band disturbances in the presence of the inherent internal positive feedback caused by the coupling between the compensator system and the measurement of the image of the disturbance. Some experimental results obtained on a relevant active vibration control system will illustrate the performance of the various algorithms presented.
Objective. To explore elderly women's physical activity in relation to their perception of the risk of osteoporosis. Design. Qualitative study using in-depth interviews. Setting. Informants were purposely selected from a Danish population-based, age-specific cohort study conducted in the county of...... Copenhagen with people born in 1936. Subjects. Women in their sixties. Results. Women who perceived a current risk of osteoporosis tended to reduce their physical activity in an attempt to reduce the risk of bone damage. This behaviour was related to the imagined fragility of the bones (the risk inside the...... body), and the actual situations (the risk outside the body), including places and activities. Knowledge of a reduced bone mass reinforced the women's uncertainty about what their bones could endure. Experiences managing physical activity without injury resulted in reinterpretations of their risk of...
Gao, Zan; Newton, Maria; Carson, Russell L.
This study examines the predictive utility of students' motivation (self-efficacy and task values) to their physical activity levels and health-related physical fitness (cardiovascular fitness and muscular strength/endurance) in middle school fitness activity classes. Participants (N = 305) responded to questionnaires assessing their self-efficacy…
Achamrah, Najate; Coëffier, Moïse; Déchelotte, Pierre
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is often associated with physical hyperactivity. Recent studies have established links between anorexia and hyperactivity, suggesting the existence of commonalities in neural pathways. How physical activity should be managed during the clinical care of patients with anorexia remains controversial. This review first focuses on the implication of hyperactivity in the pathophysiology of AN. Hyperactivity during refeeding of patients with AN has been associated with increased energy needs to achieve weight gain, poorer clinical outcome, longer hospitalization, and increased psychiatric comorbidity. This typically leads to the prescription of bed rest. However, current knowledge suggests that preserving some kind of physical activity during refeeding of patients with AN should be safe and beneficial for the restoration of body composition, the preservation of bone mineral density, and the management of mood and anxiety. In the absence of standardized guidelines, it is suggested here that physical activity during refeeding of patients with AN should be personalized according to the physical and mental status of each patient. More research is needed to assess whether programmed physical activity may be a beneficial part of the treatment of AN. PMID:27052638
Amy Z Fan
Full Text Available Amy Z Fan1, Sandra A Ham2, Shravani Reddy Muppidi3, Ali H Mokdad41Behavioral Surveillance Branch, Division of Adult and Community Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion; 2Physical Activity and Health Branch, Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA; 3College of Public Health, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA; 4Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USAAbstract: The National Cholesterol Education Program recommends increasing physical activity to improve cholesterol levels and overall cardiovascular health. We examined whether US adults who reported increasing their physical activity to control or lower blood cholesterol following physician’s advice or on their own efforts had higher levels of physical activity than those who reported that they did not. We used data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2004, which implemented two physical activity assessment instruments. The physical activity questionnaire (PAQ assessed self-reported frequency, intensity, and duration of leisure-time, household, and transportation-related physical activity in the past month. Physical movement was objectively monitored using a waist accelerometer that assessed minute-by-minute intensity (counts of movement/minute during waking time over a 7-day period. We adjusted our analysis for age, gender, race/ethnicity, educational attainment, and body mass index. Participants who reported increasing physical activity to control blood cholesterol had more PAQ-assessed physical activity and more accelerometer-assessed active days per week compared to those who did not. However, there were no significant differences in cholesterol levels between comparison groups. These findings suggest that self-report of exercising