Lourenco Jorge, Liliana; Garcia Marchi, Flavia Helena; Portela Hara, Ana Clara; Battistella, Linamara R.
The objective of this prospective study was to perform a cross-cultural adaptation of the Functional Assessment Measure (FAM) into Brazilian Portuguese, and to assess the test-retest reliability. The instrument was translated, back-translated, pretested, and reviewed by a committee. The Brazilian version was assessed in 61 brain-injury patients.…
An approach is developed for the evaluation of the reliability of logic of adaptive control strategies, taking into account logic structural complexity and potential failure of programming modules. Flaws in the control system algorithm may not be discovered during debugging or initial testing and may only affect the performance under abnormal situations although the system may appear reliable in normal operations. Considering an adaptive control system designed for use in control of equipment employed in nuclear power stations, logic reliability evaluation is demonstrated. The approach given is applicable to any other designs and may be used to compare different control system logic structures from the reliability viewpoint. Evaluation of the reliability of control systems is essential to automated operation of equipment used in nuclear power plants. (author)
Adaptive control strategies carry a promise for on-line design of control actions in automation of nuclear power plants and components. Operational reliability analysis of a typical adaptive control algorithm is performed using failure modes and effects analysis. The adaptive controller is susceptible to failure characteristic of the process of model identification involved in the on-line design of the control. Means of failure detection and enhancement of the controller fault tolerance are sought as well as means of placing the controlled process and the plant into a safe state, or termination of the process in case of encountering control failure. Those means are incorporated in a supervisory system to monitor the control system performance, mitigate some of the failure consequences and alert the operator of the state of the plant. Recommendations are given of design improvement to upgrade the adaptive control system performance in nuclear environments. (author)
White, Gareth R
This thesis presents the playthrough evaluation framework, a novel framework for the reliable usability evaluation of first-person shooter console video games. The framework includes playthrough evaluation, a structured usability evaluation method adapted from heuristic evaluation. Usability evaluation can help guide developers by pointing out design issues that cause users problems. However, usability evaluation methods suffer from the evaluator effect, where separate evaluations of the s...
Enevoldsen, I.; Faber, M. H.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard
Problems in connection with estimation of the reliability of a component modelled by a limit state function including noise or first order discontinuitics are considered. A gradient free adaptive response surface algorithm is developed. The algorithm applies second order polynomial surfaces...... determined from central composite designs. In a two phase algorithm the second order surface is adjusted to the domain of the most likely failure point and both FORM and SORM estimates are obtained. The algorithm is implemented as a safeguard algorithm so non-converged solutions are avoided. Furthermore, a...
Sun Baolin; Li Layuan
In wireless ad hoc network environments, every link is wireless and every node is mobile. Those features make data lost easily as well as multicasting inefficient and unreliable. Moreover, Efficient and reliable multicast in wireless ad hoc network is a difficult issue. It is a major challenge to transmission delays and packet losses due to link changes of a multicast tree at the provision of high delivery ratio for each packet transmission in wireless ad hoc network environment.In this paper, we propose and evaluate Reliable Adaptive Multicast Protocol (RAMP) based on a relay node concept. Relay nodes are placed along the multicast tree. Data recovery is done between relay nodes. RAMP supports a reliable multicasting suitable for mobile ad hoc network by reducing the number of packet retransmissions. We compare RAMP with SRM (Scalable Reliable Multicast). Simulation results show that the RAMP has high delivery ratio and low end-to-end delay for packet transmission.
Reliability data plays an important role in Nuclear Power Plant safety and availability. In plant design reliability data are used to evaluate the safety implications of various redundancy strategies. In plant operation reliability data are needed for the evaluation of maintenance schedules, allowable outage times and to optimize test intervals. It is clear that the establishment and the maintenance of a reliability data bank based on specific NPP operational experience requires considerable commitment from the organization managing the work. Experience shows, however, that benefits clearly compensate for the costs involved, particularly if one considers the multiple uses of the collected data in NPP safety and availability analysis. In order to ensure that this wealth of experience can be made use of, a Technical Committee Meeting was convened by the IAEA in Vienna, 1-5 February 1988. The general objective of the meeting was to compile and to disseminate ongoing work and experience with reliability data sources including aspects of data collection, analysis and retrieval. This Technical Document, prepared by the participants in the meeting, highlights the issues discussed during the meeting. The document reviews, based on the information available in the group of participants, the experience in Member States and identifies areas where further work is needed. A separate abstract was prepared for the 15 papers presented at the meeting by the participants. Refs, figs and tabs
The problems of the evaluation of reliability in electrical networks of the different class of voltage a have probabilistic nature, they discretely change and depend on the number of factors both definite and indefinite and have importance by selection of electric equipment, graph of development of electrical networks and voltage levels. The definition of the major factors, which have determining significance on their value and speed of their change allow to elaborate method...
Full Text Available The problems of the evaluation of reliability in electrical networks of the different class of voltage a have probabilistic nature, they discretely change and depend on the number of factors both definite and indefinite and have importance by selection of electric equipment, graph of development of electrical networks and voltage levels. The definition of the major factors, which have determining significance on their value and speed of their change allow to elaborate methods of their optimization and to elaborate effective methods of their growth limitation in electrical networks with the different class of voltage. The present work is devoted to problems of calculation and assessment of indicators of reliability of distribution systems and supply of electricity to consumers, both agricultural and industrial.
Programmable Logic Devices (PLD) are widely used as basic building modules in high integrity systems, considering their robust features such as gate density, performance, speed etc. PLDs are used to implement digital design such as bus interface logic, control logic, sequencing logic, glue logic etc. Due to semiconductor evolution, new PLDs with state-of-the-art features are arriving to the market. Since these devices are reliable as per the manufacturer's specification, they were used in the design of safety systems. But due to their reduced market life, the availability of performance data is limited. So evaluating the PLD before deploying in a safety system is very important. This paper presents a survey on the use of PLDs in the nuclear domain and the steps involved in the evaluation of PLD using Quantitative Accelerated Life Testing. (author)
Farkhooi, Farzad; Froese, Anja; Muller, Eilif; Menzel, Randolf; Nawrot, Martin P.
Most neurons in peripheral sensory pathways initially respond vigorously when a preferred stimulus is presented, but adapt as stimulation continues. It is unclear how this phenomenon affects stimulus coding in the later stages of sensory processing. Here, we show that a temporally sparse and reliable stimulus representation develops naturally in sequential stages of a sensory network with adapting neurons. As a modeling framework we employ a mean-field approach together with an adaptive popul...
Modular High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (MHTGR) concepts that house the reactor vessel in a tight but unsealed reactor building place heightened importance on the reliability of the fuel particle coatings as fission product barriers. Though accident consequence analyses continue to show favorable results, the increased dependence on one type of barrier, in addition to a number of other factors, has caused the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to consider conservative assumptions regarding fuel behavior. For this purpose, the concept termed ''weak fuel'' has been proposed on an interim basis. ''Weak fuel'' is a penalty imposed on consequence analyses whereby the fuel is assumed to respond less favorably to environmental conditions than predicted by behavioral models. The rationale for adopting this penalty, as well as conditions that would permit its reduction or elimination, are examined in this report. The evaluation includes an examination of possible fuel-manufacturing defects, quality-control procedures for defect detection, and the mechanisms by which fuel defects may lead to failure
Wichner, R.P. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Barthold, W.P. [Barthold Associates, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States)
Modular High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (MHTGR) concepts that house the reactor vessel in a tight but unsealed reactor building place heightened importance on the reliability of the fuel particle coatings as fission product barriers. Though accident consequence analyses continue to show favorable results, the increased dependence on one type of barrier, in addition to a number of other factors, has caused the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to consider conservative assumptions regarding fuel behavior. For this purpose, the concept termed ``weak fuel`` has been proposed on an interim basis. ``Weak fuel`` is a penalty imposed on consequence analyses whereby the fuel is assumed to respond less favorably to environmental conditions than predicted by behavioral models. The rationale for adopting this penalty, as well as conditions that would permit its reduction or elimination, are examined in this report. The evaluation includes an examination of possible fuel-manufacturing defects, quality-control procedures for defect detection, and the mechanisms by which fuel defects may lead to failure.
Balasubramanian, Vineeth; Vovk, Vladimir
The conformal predictions framework is a recent development in machine learning that can associate a reliable measure of confidence with a prediction in any real-world pattern recognition application, including risk-sensitive applications such as medical diagnosis, face recognition, and financial risk prediction. Conformal Predictions for Reliable Machine Learning: Theory, Adaptations and Applications captures the basic theory of the framework, demonstrates how to apply it to real-world problems, and presents several adaptations, including active learning, change detection, and anomaly detecti
Zhao, Menghua; Blåbjerg, Frede; Chen, Zhe
In this paper, a new reliability index - Loss Of Generation Ratio Probability (LOGRP) is proposed for evaluating the reliability of an electrical system for offshore wind farms, which emphasizes the design of wind farms rather than the adequacy for specific load demand. A practical method...... to calculate LOGRP of offshore wind farms is proposed and evaluated....
Chavaillaz, Alain; Wastell, David; Sauer, Jürgen
The present study examined the effects of reduced system reliability on operator performance and automation management in an adaptable automation environment. 39 operators were randomly assigned to one of three experimental groups: low (60%), medium (80%), and high (100%) reliability of automation support. The support system provided five incremental levels of automation which operators could freely select according to their needs. After 3 h of training on a simulated process control task (AutoCAMS) in which the automation worked infallibly, operator performance and automation management were measured during a 2.5-h testing session. Trust and workload were also assessed through questionnaires. Results showed that although reduced system reliability resulted in lower levels of trust towards automation, there were no corresponding differences in the operators' reliance on automation. While operators showed overall a noteworthy ability to cope with automation failure, there were, however, decrements in diagnostic speed and prospective memory with lower reliability. PMID:26360226
Chen, Jiangping; Feng, Wanshu; Luo, Minghai
In mining association rules, the evaluation of the rules is a highly important work because it directly affects the usability and applicability of the output results of mining. In this paper, the concept of reliability was imported into the association rule evaluation. The reliability of association rules was defined as the accordance degree that reflects the rules of the mining data set. Such degree contains three levels of measurement, namely, accuracy, completeness, and consistency of rules. To show its effectiveness, the "accuracy-completeness-consistency" reliability evaluation system was applied to two extremely different data sets, namely, a basket simulation data set and a multi-source lightning data fusion. Results show that the reliability evaluation system works well in both simulation data set and the actual problem. The three-dimensional reliability evaluation can effectively detect the useless rules to be screened out and add the missing rules thereby improving the reliability of mining results. Furthermore, the proposed reliability evaluation system is applicable to many research fields; using the system in the analysis can facilitate obtainment of more accurate, complete, and consistent association rules.
Uwe K. Rakowsky
This contribution discusses the concept of Reliability-Adaptive Systems (RAS) to multi-system operation. A fleet of independently operating systems and a single maintenance unit are considered. It is the objective in this paper to increase overall performance or workload respectively by avoiding delay due to busy maintenance units. This is achieved by concerted and coordinated derating of individual system performance, which increases reliability. Quantification is carried out by way of a convolution-based approach. The approach is tailored to fleets of ships, aeroplanes, spacecraft, and vehicles (trains, trams, buses, cars, trucks, etc.) - Finally, the effectiveness of derating is validated using different criteria. The RAS concept makes sense if average system output loss due to lowered performance level (yielding longer time to failure) is smaller than average loss due to waiting for maintenance in a non-adaptive case.
Turhan Erkmen,; Emel Esen
The purpose of the study is to adapt Organizational Virtuousness Scale which was developed by Cameron, Bright and Caza (2004) into Turkish and investigate the validity and reliability analysis of the scale. It can be referred to the studies in our country as organizational virtuousness has become an important and popular concept in the field of Organizational Behavior with its relationship to other organizational variables. The study was conducted with 290 employees from different subsectors ...
Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to adapt Organizational Virtuousness Scale which was developed by Cameron, Bright and Caza (2004 into Turkish and investigate the validity and reliability analysis of the scale. It can be referred to the studies in our country as organizational virtuousness has become an important and popular concept in the field of Organizational Behavior with its relationship to other organizational variables. The study was conducted with 290 employees from different subsectors of service industry (education, finance, health. Exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis were conducted for validity studies; reliability analyses were conducted to understand the internal validity of the model. According to the results of the study, it was found that Organizational Virtuousness Scale is a valid and reliable and it is explained by integrity and forgiveness, trust and courtesy and optimism dimensions.
Haubrick, H.-J.; Hinz, H.-J.; Landeck, E. [Dept. of Power Systems and Power Economics (Germany)
This report describes a new developed probabilistic approach for steady-state composite system reliability evaluation and its exemplary application to a bulk power test system. The new computer program called PHOENIX takes into consideration transmission limitations, outages of lines and power stations and, as a central element, a highly sophisticated model to the dispatcher performing remedial actions after disturbances. The kernel of the new method is a procedure for optimal power flow calculation that has been specially adapted for the use in reliability evaluations under the above mentioned conditions. (author) 11 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.
The purpose of this paper is to establish a periodic verification testing schedule based on the expected long term reliability of gate or globe motor operated valves (MOVs). The methodology in this position paper determines the nominal (best estimate) design margin for any MOV based on the best available information pertaining to the MOVs design requirements, design parameters, existing hardware design, and present setup. The uncertainty in this margin is then determined using statistical means. By comparing the nominal margin to the uncertainty, the reliability of the MOV is estimated. The methodology is appropriate for evaluating the reliability of MOVs in the GL 89-10 program. It may be used following periodic testing to evaluate and trend MOV performance and reliability. It may also be used to evaluate the impact of proposed modifications and maintenance activities such as packing adjustments. In addition, it may be used to assess the impact of new information of a generic nature which impacts safety related MOVs.
Full Text Available In process of software architecture design, different decisions with system-wide impacts are made. An important decision of design stage is the selection of appropriate software architecture style. Since quantitative impacts of styles on quality attributes have not been studied yet, their application is not systematic. Since Reliability is one of the essential quality requirements of software systems, especially for life critical ones, one of the main criteria in choosing architecture style of these systems is high reliability. The goal of this study is to quantify the impact of architecture styles on software reliability that is desired quality of life critical software. We evaluate styles through reliability block diagram method. First, the reliability equation of each architectural style was computed using of Reliability block diagram approach. Then, reliability rank of architectural styles is computed by setting of the number of effective components in a transaction parameter in reliability equation of architectural styles. The main innovation of this article is quantification of impact of styles on software reliability that is essential for style selection.
Dynamic reliability measures reliability of an engineered system considering time-variant operation condition and component deterioration. Due to high computational costs, conducting dynamic reliability analysis at an early system design stage remains challenging. This paper presents a confidence-based meta-modeling approach, referred to as double-loop adaptive sampling (DLAS), for efficient sensitivity-free dynamic reliability analysis. The DLAS builds a Gaussian process (GP) model sequentially to approximate extreme system responses over time, so that Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) can be employed directly to estimate dynamic reliability. A generic confidence measure is developed to evaluate the accuracy of dynamic reliability estimation while using the MCS approach based on developed GP models. A double-loop adaptive sampling scheme is developed to efficiently update the GP model in a sequential manner, by considering system input variables and time concurrently in two sampling loops. The model updating process using the developed sampling scheme can be terminated once the user defined confidence target is satisfied. The developed DLAS approach eliminates computationally expensive sensitivity analysis process, thus substantially improves the efficiency of dynamic reliability analysis. Three case studies are used to demonstrate the efficacy of DLAS for dynamic reliability analysis. - Highlights: • Developed a novel adaptive sampling approach for dynamic reliability analysis. • POD Developed a new metric to quantify the accuracy of dynamic reliability estimation. • Developed a new sequential sampling scheme to efficiently update surrogate models. • Three case studies were used to demonstrate the efficacy of the new approach. • Case study results showed substantially enhanced efficiency with high accuracy
Full Text Available A reliable video communication system is proposed based on data partitioning feature of H.264/AVC, used to create a layered stream, and LT codes for erasure protection. The proposed scheme termed rate adaptive selective segment assignment (RASSA is an adaptive low-complexity solution to varying channel conditions. The comparison of the results of the proposed scheme is also provided for slice-partitioned H.264/AVC data. Simulation results show competitiveness of the proposed scheme compared to optimized unequal and equal error protection solutions. The simulation results also demonstrate that a high visual quality video transmission can be maintained despite the adverse effect of varying channel conditions and the number of decoding failures can be reduced.
Organisations that have undertaken adaptation activities now face the challenge of evaluating what worked, what didn’t, how and why. This toolkit responds to a growing demand for practical support in evaluating adaptation progress and performance. AdaptME will help you to think through some of the factors that can make an evaluation of adaptation activities inherently challenging, and equip you to design a robust evaluation. You will be able to ‘tweak’ a single part of your evaluation des...
Circadian oscillation provides selection advantages through synchronization to the daylight cycle. However, a reliable clock must be designed through two conflicting properties: entrainability to properly respond to external stimuli such as sunlight, and regularity to oscillate with a precise period. These two aspects do not easily coexist because better entrainability favors higher sensitivity, which may sacrifice the regularity. To investigate conditions for satisfying the two properties, we analytically calculated the optimal phase-response curve with a variational method. Our result indicates an existence of a dead zone, i.e., a time during which external stimuli neither advance nor delay the clock. This result is independent of model details and a dead zone appears only when the input stimuli obey the time course of actual insolation. Our calculation demonstrates that every circadian clock with a dead zone is optimally adapted to the daylight cycle. Our result also explains the lack of a dead zone in osc...
This paper describes a procedure of structural reliability evaluation of passive components of fast breeder reactors for a failure due to fatigue-creep interaction damage, and also reports results of benchmark evaluation conducted by using two independently developed codes. The structural integrity of a reactor vessel was evaluated deterministically and probabilistically. The results estimated by two codes agree well for both of deterministic and probabilistic evaluations, which shows that these codes are programmed properly according to the evaluation procedure. (author)
Li, Hongzhou; Yang, Zhaojun; Xu, Binbin; Chen, Chuanhai; Kan, Yingnan; Liu, Guofei
Reliability evaluation is the basis for reliability design of NC machine tools. Since traditional reliability evaluation methods do not consider the working conditions’ effects on reliability, there is a great error of a result of a traditional method compared with an actual value. A new reliability evaluation model of NC machine tools is proposed based on the Cox proportional hazards model, which describes the mathematical relation between the working condition covariates and the reliability...
Full Text Available Validation of land cover products is a fundamental task prior to data applications. Current validation schemes and methods are, however, suited only for assessing classification accuracy and disregard the reliability of land cover products. The reliability evaluation of land cover products should be undertaken to provide reliable land cover information. In addition, the lack of high-quality reference data often constrains validation and affects the reliability results of land cover products. This study proposes a validation schema to evaluate the reliability of land cover products, including two methods, namely, result reliability evaluation and process reliability evaluation. Result reliability evaluation computes the reliability of land cover products using seven reliability indicators. Process reliability evaluation analyzes the reliability propagation in the data production process to obtain the reliability of land cover products. Fuzzy fault tree analysis is introduced and improved in the reliability analysis of a data production process. Research results show that the proposed reliability evaluation scheme is reasonable and can be applied to validate land cover products. Through the analysis of the seven indicators of result reliability evaluation, more information on land cover can be obtained for strategic decision-making and planning, compared with traditional accuracy assessment methods. Process reliability evaluation without the need for reference data can facilitate the validation and reflect the change trends of reliabilities to some extent.
王晓滨; 郭瑞鹏; 曹一家; 余秀月; 杨桂钟
提出了电力系统可靠性评估的自适应分层重要抽样算法,将系统状态空间分割成无故障状态子空间和各重故障状态子空间,避免对无故障状态子空间抽样,对各重故障状态子空间的抽样次数进行最优分配,并不断修正最优重要抽样概率密度函数,可以显著提高计算效率并解决了以往蒙特卡洛方法在高可靠性系统中效率低下的问题.对IEEE-RTS系统的发输电部分进行可靠性评估,结果表明该方法合理、高效,且不会出现退化现象.%A new method for power system reliability evaluation called self-adapting stratified and importance sampling (SASIS) is presented. With the SASIS, the system state space is partitioned into one contingency-free state subspace and various contingency order state subspaces. As contingency-free state subspace sampling is completely avoided, the SASIS converges fast in the system with high reliability. The number of sampling is optimally allocated among the contingency order state subspaces and the probability density function is steadily rectified. This method will markedly increase the calculating efficiency while eradicating the problem of low efficiency with the Monte Carlo method in high efficiency systems as reported in the past. Compared with other Monte Carlo methods, the results of the IEEE-RTS test system show that the method proposed is rational and highly effective and free from degradation.This work is supported by Important Zhejiang Science & Technology Specific Projects (No. 2007C11098).
A lot of research work has been proposed over the last two decades to evaluate the probability of failure of a structure involving a very time-consuming mechanical model. Surrogate model approaches based on Kriging, such as the Efficient Global Reliability Analysis (EGRA) or the Active learning and Kriging-based Monte-Carlo Simulation (AK-MCS) methods, are very efficient and each has advantages of its own. EGRA is well suited to evaluating small probabilities, as the surrogate can be used to classify any population. AK-MCS is built in relation to a given population and requires no optimization program for the active learning procedure to be performed. It is therefore easier to implement and more likely to spend computational effort on areas with a significant probability content. When assessing system reliability, analytical approaches and first-order approximation are widely used in the literature. However, in the present paper we rather focus on sampling techniques and, considering the recent adaptation of the EGRA method for systems, a strategy is presented to adapt the AK-MCS method for system reliability. The AK-SYS method, “Active learning and Kriging-based SYStem reliability method”, is presented. Its high efficiency and accuracy are illustrated via various examples
This document presents procedures for conducting analyses of a scope similar to those performed in Phase II of the Interim Reliability Evaluation Program (IREP). It documents the current state of the art in performing the plant systems analysis portion of a probabilistic risk assessment. Insights gained into managing such an analysis are discussed. Step-by-step procedures and methodological guidance constitute the major portion of the document. While not to be viewed as a cookbook, the procedures set forth the principal steps in performing an IREP analysis. Guidance for resolving the problems encountered in previous analyses is offered. Numerous examples and representative products from previous analyses clarify the discussion
G. Maria kalavathy; N. Edison Rathinam; P. Seethalakshmi
The main objective of this paper is to design and develop the Self-Adaptive Media Service Architecture (SAMSA) for providing reliable multimedia services through policy-based actions. The distributed multimedia services deployed using SOA can be accessed in heterogeneous environments that are prone to changes during run-time. To provide reliable multimedia services, a powerful self-adaptable architecture is necessary to adapt at run time and react to the environment. The adaptability in this ...
JIANG; John; N
Understanding reliability value for electricity customer is important to market-based reliability management. This paper proposes a novel approach to evaluate the reliability for electricity customers by using indifference curve between economic compensation for power interruption and service reliability of electricity. Indifference curve is formed by calculating different planning schemes of network expansion for different reliability requirements of customers, which reveals the information about economic values for different reliability levels for electricity customers, so that the reliability based on market supply demand mechanism can be established and economic signals can be provided for reliability management and enhancement.
Abdel-Ghaly, A. A.; Chan, P. Y.; Littlewood, B.
Different software reliability models can produce very different answers when called upon to predict future reliability in a reliability growth context. Users need to know which, if any, of the competing predictions are trustworthy. Some techniques are presented which form the basis of a partial solution to this problem. Rather than attempting to decide which model is generally best, the approach adopted here allows a user to decide upon the most appropriate model for each application.
Andressa M. Lamarão
Full Text Available Background: Observational instruments, such as the Rapid Entire Body Assessment, quickly assess biomechanical risks present in the workplace. However, in order to use these instruments, it is necessary to conduct the translational/cross-cultural adaptation of the instrument and test its measurement properties. Objectives: To perform the translation and the cross-cultural adaptation to Brazilian-Portuguese and test the reliability of the REBA instrument. Method: The procedures of translation and cross-cultural adaptation to Brazilian-Portuguese were conducted following proposed guidelines that involved translation, synthesis of translations, back translation, committee review and testing of the pre-final version. In addition, reliability and the intra- and inter-rater percent agreement were obtained with the Linear Weighted Kappa Coefficient that was associated with the 95% Confidence Interval and the cross tabulation 2×2. Results : The procedures for translation and adaptation were adequate and the necessary adjustments were conducted on the instrument. The intra- and inter-rater reliability showed values of 0.104 to 0.504, respectively, ranging from very poor to moderate. The percentage agreement values ranged from 5.66% to 69.81%. The percentage agreement was closer to 100% at the item 'upper arm' (69.81% for the Intra-rater 1 and at the items 'legs' and 'upper arm' for the Intra-rater 2 (62.26%. Conclusions: The processes of translation and cross-cultural adaptation were conducted on the REBA instrument and the Brazilian version of the instrument was obtained. However, despite the reliability of the tests used to correct the translated and adapted version, the reliability values are unacceptable according to the guidelines standard, indicating that the reliability must be re-evaluated. Therefore, caution in the interpretation of the biomechanical risks measured by this instrument should be taken.
Eldred, Michael Scott; Subia, Samuel Ramirez; Neckels, David; Hopkins, Matthew Morgan; Notz, Patrick K.; Adams, Brian M.; Carnes, Brian; Wittwer, Jonathan W.; Bichon, Barron J.; Copps, Kevin D.
This report documents the results for an FY06 ASC Algorithms Level 2 milestone combining error estimation and adaptivity, uncertainty quantification, and probabilistic design capabilities applied to the analysis and design of bistable MEMS. Through the use of error estimation and adaptive mesh refinement, solution verification can be performed in an automated and parameter-adaptive manner. The resulting uncertainty analysis and probabilistic design studies are shown to be more accurate, efficient, reliable, and convenient.
Sakaguchi, Yutaka; Takano, Mitsuo
This article proposes an adaptive action-selection method for a model-free reinforcement learning system, based on the concept of the 'reliability of internal prediction/estimation'. This concept is realized using an internal variable, called the Reliability Index (RI), which estimates the accuracy of the internal estimator. We define this index for a value function of a temporal difference learning system and substitute it for the temperature parameter of the Boltzmann action-selection rule. Accordingly, the weight of exploratory actions adaptively changes depending on the uncertainty of the prediction. We use this idea for tabular and weighted-sum type value functions. Moreover, we use the RI to adjust the learning coefficient in addition to the temperature parameter, meaning that the reliability becomes a general basis for meta-learning. Numerical experiments were performed to examine the behavior of the proposed method. The RI-based Q-learning system demonstrated its features when the adaptive learning coefficient and large RI-discount rate (which indicate how the RI values of future states are reflected in the RI value of the current state) were introduced. Statistical tests confirmed that the algorithm spent more time exploring in the initial phase of learning, but accelerated learning from the midpoint of learning. It is also shown that the proposed method does not work well with the actor-critic models. The limitations of the proposed method and its relationship to relevant research are discussed. PMID:15312837
Cizmar, Dean; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning
and steel. However, reliability models applied to timber were always related to individual components but not the systems. as any real structure is a complex system, system behaviour must be of a particular interest. In the chapter 1 of this document an overview of stochastic models for strength and...... loads parameters is given. System models (series and parallel) are discused and methods for reliability calculation are given. Special attention is drawn upon brittle/ductile modelling of timber and connections. In chapter 2 robustness requirements implemended in codes are presented. State of the art...... definitions (deterministic, probabilistic and risk based approaches) of the robustness are given. Chapter 3 deals more detailed with the robustness of timber structures....
Grandhi, Ramana V.; Hopkins, Dale A.
Use of approximations for calculating the structural failure probability under uncertainties is a necessary aspect. But efficient use of suitable approximations at different stages of reliability prediction and design makes this valuable tool practical for many large scale structures. This research addresses the modern approximation concepts and their utility in structural reliability estimation. Emphasis is placed on building higher order approximations using intervening variables to closely represent the nonlinear limit state functions. Several test problems with highly nonlinear performance functions are used to demonstrate the accuracy of the proposed method. Many of the structural problems are modeled and simulated using the finite element methods (FEM) for obtaining a detailed structural response. FEM is a computationally intensive numerical procedure with a large number of degrees of freedom. With an increase in the complexity of the structural model and the multidisciplinary nature of analyses, the number of limit states and their computation increases very significantly. The requirement of frequent repetitive analysis of the structure hinders the utility of any tool and discourages that approach from being used. One particular tool which faces this difficulty is the computation of the structural reliability under parametric uncertainties.
Full Text Available To identify the optimal route is a complex task in packet switched network because optimization depends upon a number of parameters. In this paper Genetic Algorithm is used to locate the optimal route. Genetic Algorithm starts with a number of solutions where each solution is represented in the form of chromosome using the permutation encoding scheme. The success of Genetic Algorithm depends upon the number of operators such as selection, mutation and crossover. Needless to say crossover is most innovative. In this paper crossover operators proposed namely 1-point, 2-point, and adaptive, have been customized according to the need of computer network. The fitness of each solution is evaluated in terms of historical reliability factor, node success/failure and delay. The performance of the proposed approach has been compared with Dijkstra Algorithm and improvement has been observed.
Zhang, Tingting; Yin, Anchun; Sun, Xiaohong; Liu, Qigui; Song, Guirong; Li, Lianhong
Objective: To develop psychosocial adaptation scale for Parkinson’s disease (PD) in Chinese population and evaluate its reliability and validity. Methods: The items were designed by literature review, expert consultation and semi-structured interview. The methods of corrected item-total correlation, discrimination analysis and exploratory factor analysis were used for items selection. 427 valid scales from PD patients were collected in the study to test the reliability and validity. Results: The scale incorporated six dimensions: anxiety, self-esteem, attitude, self-acceptance, self-efficacy and social support, a total of 32 items. The scale possessed good internal consistency. The test-retest correlation coefficient was 0.99 and average content validation rate was 0.97. The Hoehn and Yahr stage were correlated with total score of the scale. Conclusions: The psychosocial adaptation scale in this study showed good reliability and validity, it can be used as a reliable and valid instrument to evaluate the psychosocial adaptation of PD objectively and effectively. PMID:26770638
Burcharth, H. F.
. In order to overcome t his problem more advanced probabilistic methods must be applied where the uncertainties (the stochastic properties) of the involved loading and strength variables are considered. Methods where the actual distribution functions for the variables are taken into account are denoted...... reliability. Both Level ll and Ill methods are discussed in the following. Described is also an advanced partial coefficient system which takes into account the stochastic properties of the variables and makes it possible to design to a specific failure probability level....... of the encounter probability, i. e. the probability that the design load value is exceeded during the structure lifetime. This is an important step towards a consistent probabilistic approach. A safety factor or a conventional partial coefficient (as given in some national standards) might be applied too, in which...
Basalamah, Anas; Sato, Takuro
For wireless multicast applications like multimedia conferencing, voice over IP and video/audio streaming, a reliable transmission of packets within short delivery delay is needed. Moreover, reliability is crucial to the performance of error intolerant applications like file transfer, distributed computing, chat and whiteboard sharing. Forward Error Correction (FEC) is frequently used in wireless multicast to enhance Packet Error Rate (PER) performance, but cannot assure full reliability unless coupled with Automatic Repeat Request forming what is knows as Hybrid-ARQ. While reliable FEC can be deployed at different levels of the protocol stack, it cannot be deployed on the MAC layer of the unreliable IEEE802.11 WLAN due to its inability to exchange ACKs with multiple recipients. In this paper, we propose a Multicast MAC protocol that enhances WLAN reliability by using Adaptive FEC and study it's performance through mathematical analysis and simulation. Our results show that our protocol can deliver high reliability and throughput performance.
When engineering complex plants questions relating to reliability and availability should be included in the contract between customer and supplier in order to increase the technical performance of such plants. The author gives advices for carrying out a reliability analysis and discusses some essential reliability characteristics such as, e.g., long-term availability, medium-term active repair time, medium-term failure intervals, resp. failure rate and probability of survival. Furthermore, the scope of simulations concerning the numerical evaluation of reliability characteristics is given with regard to their time dependence. (orig.)
The JUPITER (Joint Universal Parameter IdenTification and Evaluation of Reliability) project builds on the technology of two widely used codes for sensitivity analysis, data assessment, calibration, and uncertainty analysis of environmental models: PEST and UCODE.
Yirci, Ramazan; Karakose, Turgut; Uygun, Harun; Ozdemir, Tuncay Yavuz
The purpose of this study is to adapt the Mentoring Relationship Effectiveness Scale to Turkish, and to conduct validity and reliability tests regarding the scale. The study group consisted of 156 university science students receiving graduate education. Construct validity and factor structure of the scale was analyzed first through exploratory…
Kerimova, Melek; Gunuc, Selim
The purpose of the present paper was to adapt Gunuc and Kayri's (2010) "Internet Addiction Scale," with show validity and reliability for many various sampling groups, into the Azerbaijani language. Another objective of the study is to determine the prevalence of Internet addiction among Azerbaijani adolescents and youth, which…
Full Text Available Motion reliability as a criterion can reflect the accuracy of manipulator in completing operations. Since path planning task takes a significant role in operations of manipulator, the motion reliability evaluation of path planning task is discussed in the paper. First, a modeling method for motion reliability is proposed by taking factors related to position accuracy of manipulator into account. In the model, multidimensional integral for PDF is carried out to calculate motion reliability. Considering the complex of multidimensional integral, the approach of equivalent extreme value is introduced, with which multidimensional integral is converted into one dimensional integral for convenient calculation. Then a method based on the maximum entropy principle is proposed for model calculation. With the method, the PDF can be obtained efficiently at the state of maximum entropy. As a result, the evaluation of motion reliability can be achieved by one dimensional integral for PDF. Simulations on a particular path planning task are carried out, with which the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed methods are verified. In addition, the modeling method which takes the factors related to position accuracy into account can represent the contributions of these factors to motion reliability. And the model calculation method can achieve motion reliability evaluation with high precision and efficiency.
Full Text Available This paper introduces a complex plan for a complete system of individualized electronic instruction. The core of the system is a computer program to control teaching, the so called “virtual teacher”. The virtual teacher automatically adapts to individual student’s characteristics and their learning style. It adapts to static as well as to dynamic characteristics of the student. To manage all this it needs a database of various styles and forms of teaching as well as a sufficient amount of information about the learning style, type of memory and other characteristics of the student. The information about these characteristics, the structure of data storage and its use by the virtual teacher are also part of this paper. We also outline a methodology of adaptive study materials. We define basic rules and forms to create adaptive study materials. This adaptive e-learning system was pilot tested in learning of more than 50 students. These students filled in a learning style questionnaire at the beginning of the study and they had the option to fill in an adaptive evaluation questionnaire at the end of the study. Results of these questionnaires were analyzed. Several conclusions were concluded from this analysis to alter the methodology of adaptive study materials.
The inherent uncertainties of vehicle suspension systems challenge not only the capability of ride comfort and handling performance, but also the reliability requirement. In this research, a dynamic-reliable multiple model adaptive (MMA) controller is developed to overcome the difficulty of suspension uncertainties while considering performance and reliability at the same time. The MMA system consists of a finite number of optimal sub-controllers and employs a continuous-time based Markov chain to guide the jumping among the sub-controllers. The failure mode considered is the bottoming and topping of suspension components. A limitation on the failure probability is imposed to penalize the performance of the sub-controllers and a gradient-based genetic algorithm yields their optimal feedback gains. Finally, the dynamic reliability of the MMA controller is approximated by using the integration of state covariances and a judging condition is induced to assert that the MMA system is dynamic-reliable. In numerical simulation, a long scheme with piecewise time-invariant parameters is employed to examine the performance and reliability under the uncertainties of sprung mass, road condition and driving velocity. It is shown that the dynamic-reliable MMA controller is able to trade a small amount of model performance for extra reliability
Golterman, Linda; Banasiak, Nancy C
This article describes a framework for evaluating the quality of health care information on the Internet and identifies strategies for accessing reliable child health resources. A number of methods are reviewed, including how to evaluate Web sites for quality using the Health Information Technology Institute evaluation criteria, how to identify trustworthy Web sites accredited by Health On the Net Foundation Code of Conduct, and the use of portals to access prescreened Web sites by organizations, such as the Medical Library Association. Pediatric nurses can use one or all of these strategies to develop a list of reliable Web sites as a supplement to patient and family teaching. PMID:21661608
Wagner, Stefan; Toftegaard, Thomas Skjødeberg; Bertelsen, Olav W.
The need for a non-intrusive evaluation infrastructure platform to support research on reliable pervasive healthcare in the unsupervised setting is analyzed and challenges and possibilities are identified. A list of requirements is presented and a solution is suggested that would allow researchers...... to more easily build and evaluate prototypes for measuring and quantifying the use-context of patients using current state-of-the-art biomedical devices in the unsupervised setting. An initial implementation is introduced as the reliable evaluation infrastructure (RELEI) platform. Several research...
A wireless mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a collection of solely independent nodes (that can move randomly around the area of deployment) making the topology highly dynamic; nodes communicate with each other by forming a single hop/multi-hop network and maintain connectivity in decentralized manner. MANET is modelled using geometric random graphs rather than random graphs because the link existence in MANET is a function of the geometric distance between the nodes and the transmission range of the nodes. Among many factors that contribute to the MANET reliability, the reliability of these networks also depends on the robustness of the link between the mobile nodes of the network. Recently, the reliability of such networks has been evaluated for imperfect nodes (transceivers) with binary model of communication links based on the transmission range of the mobile nodes and the distance between them. However, in reality, the probability of successful communication decreases as the signal strength deteriorates due to noise, fading or interference effects even up to the nodes' transmission range. Hence, in this paper, using a propagation-based link reliability model rather than a binary-model with nodes following a known failure distribution to evaluate the network reliability (2TRm, ATRmand AoTRm) of MANET through Monte Carlo Simulation is proposed. The method is illustrated with an application and some imperative results are also presented
Shepherd, J. Brad; Britton, Paula J.; Kress, Victoria E.
The definition and measurement of counsellor trainee competency is an issue that has received increased attention yet lacks quantitative study. This research evaluates item responses, scale reliability and intercorrelations, interrater agreement, and criterion-related validity of the Professional Performance Fitness Evaluation/Professional…
Lam T H; Ho S Y; Fong Daniel YT
Abstract Background We aimed to assess the impact of inconsistent responses on the internal reliability of a multi-item scale by developing a procedure to adjust Cronbach's alpha. Methods A procedure for adjusting Cronbach's alpha when there are inconsistent responses was developed and used to assess the impact of inconsistent responses on internal reliability by evaluating the standard Chinese 12-item Short Form Health Survey in adolescents. Results Contrary to common belief, random response...
Fong, DYT; Ho, SY; Lam, TH
Background: We aimed to assess the impact of inconsistent responses on the internal reliability of a multi-item scale by developing a procedure to adjust Cronbach's alpha.Methods: A procedure for adjusting Cronbach's alpha when there are inconsistent responses was developed and used to assess the impact of inconsistent responses on internal reliability by evaluating the standard Chinese 12-item Short Form Health Survey in adolescents.Results: Contrary to common belief, random responses may in...
There are various limitations to existing methods of studying plantarflexor stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) function and muscle-tendon unit (MTU) mechanics, predominantly related to measurement validity and reliability. This study utilizes an innovative adaptation to a force sledge which isolates the plantarflexors and ankle for analysis. The aim of this study was to determine the sledge loading protocol to be used, most appropriate method of data analysis and measurement reliability in a group of healthy, non-injured subjects. Twenty subjects (11 males, 9 females; age: 23.5 ±2.3 years; height: 1.73 ±0.08 m; mass: 74.2 ±11.3 kg) completed 11 impacts at five different loadings rated on a scale of perceived exertion from 1 to 5, where 5 is a loading that the subject could only complete the 11 impacts using the adapted sledge. Analysis of impacts 4–8 or 5–7 using loading 2 provided consistent results that were highly reliable (single intra-class correlation, ICC > 0.85, average ICC > 0.95) and replicated kinematics found in hopping and running. Results support use of an adapted force sledge apparatus as an ecologically valid, reliable method of investigating plantarflexor SSC function and MTU mechanics in a dynamic controlled environment. (paper)
Acar, Serap; Savci, Sema; Keskinoğlu, Pembe; Akdeniz, Bahri; Özpelit, Ebru; Özcan Kahraman, Buse; Karadibak, Didem; Sevinc, Can
Purpose Individuals with cardiac problems avoid physical activity and exercise because they expect to feel shortness of breath, dizziness, or chest pain. Assessing kinesiophobia related to heart problems is important in terms of cardiac rehabilitation. The Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia Swedish Version for the Heart (TSK-SV Heart) is reliable and has been validated for cardiac diseases in the Swedish population. The aim of this study was to investigate the reliability, parallel-form validity, and exploratory factor analysis of the TSK for the Heart Turkish Version (TSK Heart Turkish Version) for evaluating kinesiophobia in patients with heart failure and pulmonary arterial hypertension. Methods This cross-sectional study involved translation, back translation, and cross-cultural adaptation (localization). Forty-three pulmonary arterial hypertension and 32 heart failure patients were evaluated using the TSK Heart Turkish Version. The 17-item scale, originally composed for the Swedish population, has four factors: perceived danger for heart problem, avoidance of exercise, fear of injury, and dysfunctional self. Cronbach’s alpha (internal consistency) and exploratory factor analysis were used to assess the questionnaire’s reliability. Results of the patients in the 6-minute walk test, International Physical Activity Questionnaire, and Nottingham Health Profile were analyzed by Pearson’s correlation analysis with the TSK Heart Turkish Version to indicate the convergent validity. Results Cronbach’s alpha for the TSK Heart Turkish Version was 0.75, indicating acceptable internal consistency. Although exploratory factor analysis showed a different subgroup distribution than the original questionnaire, the model was acceptable for the four-factor model hypothesis. Therefore, the questionnaire was rated as reliable. Conclusion These results supported the reliability of the TSK Heart Turkish Version. Since the acceptable four-factor model fits the subgroups and
Full Text Available Although many algorithms and techniques have been developed for estimating the reliability of component-based software systems (CBSSs, much more research is needed. Accurate estimation of the reliability of a CBSS is difficult because it depends on two factors: component reliability and glue code reliability. Moreover, reliability is a real-world phenomenon with many associated real-time problems. Soft computing techniques can help to solve problems whose solutions are uncertain or unpredictable. A number of soft computing approaches for estimating CBSS reliability have been proposed. These techniques learn from the past and capture existing patterns in data. The two basic elements of soft computing are neural networks and fuzzy logic. In this paper, we propose a model for estimating CBSS reliability, known as an adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system (ANFIS, that is based on these two basic elements of soft computing, and we compare its performance with that of a plain FIS (fuzzy inference system for different data sets.
Risucci, D A; Lutsky, L; Rosati, R J; Tortolani, A J
This study examines the reliability and accuracy of ratings by general surgery residents of surgical faculty. Twenty-three of 33 residents anonymously and voluntarily evaluated 62 surgeons in June, 1988; 24 of 28 residents evaluated 64 surgeons in June, 1989. Each resident rated each surgeon on a 5-point scale for each of 10 areas of performance: technical ability, basic science knowledge, clinical knowledge, judgment, peer relations, patient relations, reliability, industry, personal appearance, and reaction to pressure. Reliability analyses evaluated internal consistency and interrater correlation. Accuracy analyses evaluated halo error, leniency/severity, central tendency, and range restriction. Ratings had high internal consistency (coefficient alpha = 0.97). Interrater correlations were moderately high (average Pearson correlation = 0.63 among raters). Ratings were generally accurate, with halo error most prevalent and some evidence of leniency. Ratings by chief residents had the least halo. Results were generally replicable across the two academic years. We conclude that anonymous ratings of surgical faculty by groups of residents can provide a reliable and accurate evaluation method, ratings by chief residents are most accurate, and halo error may pose the greatest threat to accuracy, pointing to the need for greater definition of evaluation items and scale points. PMID:10121283
Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel approach to analyze the impacts of cyber layer failures (i.e., protection failures and monitoring failures on the reliability evaluation of composite power systems. The reliability and availability of the cyber layer and its protection and monitoring functions with various topologies are derived based on a reliability block diagram method. The availability of the physical layer components are modified via a multi-state Markov chain model, in which the component protection and monitoring strategies, as well as the cyber layer topology, are simultaneously considered. Reliability indices of composite power systems are calculated through non-sequential Monte-Carlo simulation. Case studies demonstrate that operational reliability downgrades in cyber layer function failure situations. Moreover, protection function failures have more significant impact on the downgraded reliability than monitoring function failures do, and the reliability indices are especially sensitive to the change of the cyber layer function availability in the range from 0.95 to 1.
Robert W. Booth
Full Text Available The rapid, objective measurement of spider fear is important for clinicians, and for researchers studying fear. To facilitate this, we adapted the Fear of Spiders Questionnaire (FSQ into Turkish. The FSQ is quick to complete and easy to understand. Compared to the commonly used Spider Phobia Questionnaire, it has shown superior test-retest reliability and better discrimination of lower levels of spider fear, facilitating fear research in non-clinical samples. In two studies, with 137 and 105 undergraduates and unselected volunteers, our adapted FSQ showed excellent internal consistency (Cronbach’s α = .95 and .96 and test-retest reliability (r = .90, and good discriminant validity against the State–Trait Anxiety Inventory—Trait (r = .23 and Beck Anxiety Inventory—Trait (r = .07. Most importantly, our adapted FSQ significantly predicted 26 students’ self-reported discomfort upon approaching a caged tarantula; however, a measure of behavioural avoidance of the tarantula yielded little variability, so a more sensitive task will be required for future behavioural testing. Based on this initial testing, we recommend our adapted FSQ for research use. Further research is required to verify that our adapted FSQ discriminates individuals with and without phobia effectively. A Turkish-language report of the studies is included as supplementary material.
Shen, Shigen; Huang, Longjun; Liu, Jianhua; Champion, Adam C; Yu, Shui; Cao, Qiying
We consider a clustered wireless sensor network (WSN) under epidemic-malware propagation conditions and solve the problem of how to evaluate its reliability so as to ensure efficient, continuous, and dependable transmission of sensed data from sensor nodes to the sink. Facing the contradiction between malware intention and continuous-time Markov chain (CTMC) randomness, we introduce a strategic game that can predict malware infection in order to model a successful infection as a CTMC state transition. Next, we devise a novel measure to compute the Mean Time to Failure (MTTF) of a sensor node, which represents the reliability of a sensor node continuously performing tasks such as sensing, transmitting, and fusing data. Since clustered WSNs can be regarded as parallel-serial-parallel systems, the reliability of a clustered WSN can be evaluated via classical reliability theory. Numerical results show the influence of parameters such as the true positive rate and the false positive rate on a sensor node's MTTF. Furthermore, we validate the method of reliability evaluation for a clustered WSN according to the number of sensor nodes in a cluster, the number of clusters in a route, and the number of routes in the WSN. PMID:27294934
Anastasi, Giuseppe; Borgia, Eleonora; Conti, Marco; Gregori, Enrico
In this paper we deal with reliable and energy-efficient data delivery in sparse Wireless Sensor Networks with multiple Mobile Sinks (MSs). This is a critical task, especially when MSs move randomly, as interactions with sensor nodes are unpredictable, typically of short duration, and affected by message losses. In this paper we propose an adaptive data delivery protocol that combines efficiently erasure coding with an ARQ scheme. The key features of the proposed protocol are: (i) the use of ...
This study investigates the reliability and validity of the Turkish adaptation of “Resilience Scale”. The sample consisted of 155 undergraduates from the Faculty of Education, Gazi University, Ankara. Scale used in the research was a 24-item Likert-type revised “Resilience Scale” (RS) with 7-point response format. The construct validity of RS was examined by factor analysis. To test concurrent validity, correlations between scores on RS and “Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale” were calculated. T...
Meral, Bekir Fatih; Sakarya Üniversitesi, Eğitim Fakültesi, Özel Eğitim Bölümü; Cavkaytar, Atilla; Anadolu Üniversitesi, Eğitim Fakültesi, Özel Eğitim Bölümü
The aim of this study is to adapt the Beach Center Family Quality of Life Scale to Turkish by examining its psychometric properties. Participants were 368 mothers of children with disabilities from 7 cities of Turkey. In this study firstly, the language equivalency between English and Turkish forms were tested. After that confirmatory factor analysis, criterion validity, the Cronbach’s alpha correlation coefficients, and split-half reliabilities, corrected item-total correlations and t-tests ...
[Objective] The aim was to test the reliability and validity of questionnaire on the adaptation strategy of cryosphere changes in arid inland river basin. [Method] A questionnaire on "the adaptation strategy of cryosphere changes in arid inland river basin" was carried out in Urumchi River basin and Aksu River basin, and its reliability and validity were tested by means of statistical method, so as to investigate the stability and accuracy of questionnaire. [Result] Reliability analysis of questionnaire sho...
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to adapt The Early Childhood Curricular Beliefs Inventory (ECCBI questionnaire into Turkish. The ECCBI is a tool designed for exploring curricular beliefs of pre-service teachers in the area of early childhood education. A subscale named “behavioural approach” is not in the Turkish adaptation of the scale according to expert opinions, three subtests meaning 54 items out of 72 items have been included in the adapted version of scale. After the equivalence test of Turkish form, instrument has been applied to 30 preschool teachers and 200 preservice preschool teachers and total 230 person. In order to test construct validity of Turkish instrument, confirmatory and exploratory factor analysis have been applied; to identify reliability, Cronbach Alpha reliability coefficient, Sperman-Brown formula and Guttmann split-half reliability formula have been employed and corrected item-total correlation has been examined. Results show that this scale is a suitable assessment tool for the pre-service teachers to determine their related beliefs about early childhood approaches.
This paper first proposes a random effects generalized linear model to evaluate the storage life of one kind of high reliable and small sample-sized products by combining multi-sources information of products coming from the same population but stored at different environments. The relevant algorithms are also provided. Simulation results manifest the soundness and effectiveness of the proposed model.
Mansour, A.E.; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Olsen, Anders Smærup
operational profile and a scatter diagram for the specific route, taking into account the effect of weather routing. Wind forces are added to the wave inertia and gravity loads to determine the limit state equations for evaluating the re-liability of a stack of containers against damage or loss. Several modes...
The Aerial Gamma Spectrometry System (AGSS) is a field instrument developed in Bhabha Atomic Research Centre for quick qualitative and quantitative assessment of radioactive contamination over large area on ground in case of a major nuclear/radiological emergency. This necessitates the system to be operated for aerial surveys above complex topography and harsh environmental conditions. The AGSS has been designed taking into consideration all operational aspects with allowance for variations in parameters such as current, voltage, temperature, humidity etc. The measures taken at the design stage of the AGSS are intended to ensure the reliability of the system during the survey operations under various environmental conditions. The AGSS has been built around an Industrial Computer and consists of NaI(Tl) Detector, Signal Processing Module and Data Storage and Interface Module, which are PC add-on cards and a Global Positioning System (GPS). The Industrial Computer, GPS and the detector are commercially available and they have undergone reliability assessment by the manufacturer. The reliability assessment studies of the Signal Processing and the Data storage and Interface modules have been done in-house. This paper describes the details of the reliability study carried out on AGSS components. The results of reliability evaluation show that the AGSS will provide reliable service if operated well within the limits of operating conditions during aerial/field surveys. The chances of functional failure of AGSS are found to be less than two times in thousand operations of eight hours duration each. (author)
Full Text Available For the purpose of enhancing reliability of aileron of Airbus new-generation A350XWB, an evaluation of aileron reliability on the basis of maintenance data is presented in this paper. Practical maintenance data contains large number of censoring samples, information uncertainty of which makes it hard to evaluate reliability of aileron actuator. Considering that true lifetime of censoring sample has identical distribution with complete sample, if censoring sample is transformed into complete sample, conversion frequency of censoring sample can be estimated according to frequency of complete sample. On the one hand, standard life table estimation and product limit method are improved on the basis of such conversion frequency, enabling accurate estimation of various censoring samples. On the other hand, by taking such frequency as one of the weight factors and integrating variance of order statistics under standard distribution, weighted least square estimation is formed for accurately estimating various censoring samples. Large amounts of experiments and simulations show that reliabilities of improved life table and improved product limit method are closer to the true value and more conservative; moreover, weighted least square estimate (WLSE, with conversion frequency of censoring sample and variances of order statistics as the weights, can still estimate accurately with high proportion of censored data in samples. Algorithm in this paper has good effect and can accurately estimate the reliability of aileron actuator even with small sample and high censoring rate. This research has certain significance in theory and engineering practice.
Liu, W. (Wenwei); Yuan, S. (Suwei); Wei, F. (Fengqing); Yang, J. (Jing); Zhang, Z. (Zhe); Zhu, C. (Changbin); Ma, J. (Jin)
textabstractObjective: To adapt the Appropriateness Evaluation Protocol (AEP) to the specific settings of health care in China and to validate the Chinese version AEP (C-AEP). Methods: Forward and backward translations were carried out to the original criteria. Twenty experts participated in the con
Douce, Christopher; Porch, Wendy
Two different approaches can increase the accessibility of digital educational materials: content that has been built with the widest possible set of users in mind (universal design), or content that has been designed in such a way that it can be personalised to individual user needs and preferences (personalised design). This paper outlines a number of approaches that could be used to evaluate the provision of learning materials that have been adapted to or chosen for individual learners. A ...
Chau D.P.; Badie J.; Bremond F.; Thonnat M.
International audience Parameter tuning is a common issue for many tracking algorithms. In order to solve this problem, this paper proposes an online parameter tuning to adapt a tracking algorithm to various scene contexts. In an offline training phase, this approach learns how to tune the tracker parameters to cope with different contexts. In the online control phase, once the tracking quality is evaluated as not good enough, the proposed approach computes the current context and tunes th...
Shin, Je-Seok; Cha, Seung-Tae; Wu, Qiuwei;
Wind energy is one of the most widely used renewable energy resources. Wind power has been connected to the grid as large scale wind farm which is made up of dozens of wind turbines, and the scale of wind farm is more increased recently. Due to intermittent and variable wind source, reliability...... wind farm which is able to enhance a capability of delivering a power instead of controlling an uncontrollable output of wind power. Therefore, this paper introduces a method to evaluate the reliability depending upon structures of wind farm and to reflect the result to the planning stage of wind farm....
The sophisticated technology system was not assured the reliability system itself because it has contained a part of human dependence affected successfully of reactor operation either how work smoothly and safe or failure ac cured and then accident appears promptly. The evaluation of operator reliability factor on ABWR power reactor has been carried out which consist of criterion skill and workload according to NUREG/CR-2254, NUREG/CR-4016 and NUREG-0835 the reactor operation reliability emphasize to the operator are synergic between skill and workload themselves. The employee's skill will affect to the type and level of their tasks. The operator's skill depend on education and experiences, position or responsibility of tasks, physical conditions (age uninvalid of physic/mental
Marini, Vinicius Kaster; Restrepo-Giraldo, John Dairo; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema
This paper aims to characterize the information needed to perform methods for robustness and reliability, and verify their applicability to early design stages. Several methods were evaluated on their support to synthesis in engineering design. Of those methods, FMEA, FTA and HAZOP were selected on...... their insight on design risks and wide spread application. A pilot case study has been performed with a washing machine in using these methods to assess design risks, following a reverse engineering approach. The study has shown the methods can be initiated at early design stages, but cannot be...... concluded. For that reason, new methods are needed to assist assessing robustness and reliability at early design stages. A specific taxonomy on robustness and reliability information in design could support classifying available design information to orient new techniques assessing innovative designs....
Escala Razões para Fumar Modificada: tradução e adaptação cultural para o português para uso no Brasil e avaliação da confiabilidade teste-reteste Modified Reasons for Smoking Scale: translation to Portuguese, cross-cultural adaptation for use in Brazil and evaluation of test-retest reliability
Elisa Sebba Tosta de Souza
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Traduzir, fazer a adaptação cultural e testar a confiabilidade teste-reteste de uma versão em língua portuguesa da Escala Razões Para Fumar Modificada (ERPFM para uso no Brasil. MÉTODOS: Uma versão em língua inglesa da ERPFM foi traduzida por médicos brasileiros com profundo conhecimento sobre a língua inglesa. Uma versão de consenso foi obtida por grupo multidisciplinar composto por dois pneumologistas, um psiquiatra e um psicólogo. Essa versão foi traduzida de volta ao inglês por um tradutor americano. A avaliação da adaptação cultural da versão final foi efetuada em uma amostra de 20 fumantes saudáveis. A avaliação da confiabilidade teste-reteste foi feita pela aplicação da versão traduzida da escala em 54 fumantes saudáveis em duas ocasiões separadas por 15 dias. RESULTADOS: Essa versão traduzida da ERPFM exibiu excelente identidade cultural, sendo bem compreendida por 95% dos fumantes. Os graus de concordância das respostas em duas ocasiões distintas foram quase perfeito para duas questões, substancial para dez questões, moderado para oito questões e discreto para uma questão. Os valores dos coeficientes de correlação intraclasse dos fatores motivacionais em duas ocasiões, empregando-se modelos teóricos previamente publicados, foram superiores a 0,7 em seis dos sete domínios. CONCLUSÕES: A presente versão da ERPFM exibe identidade cultural e confiabilidade teste-reteste satisfatórias, podendo ser de utilidade no tratamento e na avaliação de tabagistas em nosso meio.OBJECTIVE: To translate the Modified Reasons for Smoking Scale (MRSS to Portuguese, to submit it to cross-cultural adaptation for use in Brazil and to evaluate the test-retest reliability of the translated version. METHODS: An English-language version of the MRSS was translated to Portuguese by Brazilian doctors who have thorough knowledge of the English language. A consensus version was produced by a multidisciplinary group
This document presents a shortened version of the procedure, models, and data for human reliability analysis (HRA) which are presented in the Handbook of Human Reliability Analysis With emphasis on Nuclear Power Plant Applications (NUREG/CR-1278, August 1983). This shortened version was prepared and tried out as part of the Accident Sequence Evaluation Program (ASEP) funded by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and managed by Sandia National Laboratories. The intent of this new HRA procedure, called the ''ASEP HRA Procedure,'' is to enable systems analysts, with minimal support from experts in human reliability analysis, to make estimates of human error probabilities and other human performance characteristics which are sufficiently accurate for many probabilistic risk assessments. The ASEP HRA Procedure consists of a Pre-Accident Screening HRA, a Pre-Accident Nominal HRA, a Post-Accident Screening HRA, and a Post-Accident Nominal HRA. The procedure in this document includes changes made after tryout and evaluation of the procedure in four nuclear power plants by four different systems analysts and related personnel, including human reliability specialists. The changes consist of some additional explanatory material (including examples), and more detailed definitions of some of the terms. 42 refs
This document presents a shortened version of the procedure, models, and data for human reliability analysis (HRA) which are presented in the Handbook of Human Reliability Analysis With emphasis on Nuclear Power Plant Applications (NUREG/CR-1278, August 1983). This shortened version was prepared and tried out as part of the Accident Sequence Evaluation Program (ASEP) funded by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and managed by Sandia National Laboratories. The intent of this new HRA procedure, called the ''ASEP HRA Procedure,'' is to enable systems analysts, with minimal support from experts in human reliability analysis, to make estimates of human error probabilities and other human performance characteristics which are sufficiently accurate for many probabilistic risk assessments. The ASEP HRA Procedure consists of a Pre-Accident Screening HRA, a Pre-Accident Nominal HRA, a Post-Accident Screening HRA, and a Post-Accident Nominal HRA. The procedure in this document includes changes made after tryout and evaluation of the procedure in four nuclear power plants by four different systems analysts and related personnel, including human reliability specialists. The changes consist of some additional explanatory material (including examples), and more detailed definitions of some of the terms. 42 refs.
Nemours scientific measurement results are flooded from the paper, data book, etc. as fast growing of internet. We meet many different measurement results on the same measurand. In this moment, we are face to choose most reliable one out of them. But it is not easy to choose and use the accurate and reliable data as we do at an ice cream parlor. Even expert users feel difficult to distinguish the accurate and reliable scientific data from huge amount of measurement results. For this reason, the data evaluation is getting more important as the fast growing of internet and globalization. Furthermore the expressions of measurement results are not in standardi-zation. As these need, the international movement has been enhanced. At the first step, the global harmonization of terminology used in metrology and the expression of uncertainty in measurement were published in ISO. These methods are wide spread to many area of science on their measurement to obtain the accuracy and reliability. In this paper, it is introduced that the GUM, SRD and data evaluation on atomic collisions.
Adaptable design, as a new design paradigm, involves creating designs and products that can be easily changed to satisfy different requirements. In this paper, two types of product adaptability are proposed as essential adaptability and behavioral adaptability, and through measuring which respectively a model for product adaptability evaluation is developed. The essential adaptability evaluation proceeds with analyzing the independencies of function requirements and function modules firstly based on axiomatic design, and measuring the adaptability of interfaces secondly with three indices. The behavioral adaptability reflected by the performance of adaptable requirements after adaptation is measured based on Kano model. At last, the effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated by an illustrative example of the motherboard of a personal computer. The results show that the method can evaluate and reveal the adaptability of a product in essence, and is of directive significance to improving design and innovative design
Caudell, Thomas P. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); He, Hongbo (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Menicucci, David F. (Building Specialists, Inc., Albuquerque, NM); Mammoli, Andrea A. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Burch, Jay (National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO)
Solar hot water (SHW) systems are being installed by the thousands. Tax credits and utility rebate programs are spurring this burgeoning market. However, the reliability of these systems is virtually unknown. Recent work by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has shown that few data exist to quantify the mean time to failure of these systems. However, there is keen interest in developing new techniques to measure SHW reliability, particularly among utilities that use ratepayer money to pay the rebates. This document reports on an effort to develop and test new, simplified techniques to directly measure the state of health of fielded SHW systems. One approach was developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and is based on the idea that the performance of the solar storage tank can reliably indicate the operational status of the SHW systems. Another approach, developed by the University of New Mexico (UNM), uses adaptive resonance theory, a type of neural network, to detect and predict failures. This method uses the same sensors that are normally used to control the SHW system. The NREL method uses two additional temperature sensors on the solar tank. The theories, development, application, and testing of both methods are described in the report. Testing was performed on the SHW Reliability Testbed at UNM, a highly instrumented SHW system developed jointly by SNL and UNM. The two methods were tested against a number of simulated failures. The results show that both methods show promise for inclusion in conventional SHW controllers, giving them advanced capability in detecting and predicting component failures.
Christodoulou Evangelos A
Full Text Available Abstract Background The SRS-22 is a valid instrument for the assessment of the health related quality of life of patients with Idiopathic scoliosis. The SRS-22 questionnaire was developed in USA and has been widely used in the English speaking countries. Recently it has been translated and validated in many other languages. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the reliability and validity of the adapted Greek version of the refined Scoliosis Research Society-22 Questionnaire. Methods Following the steps of cross – cultural adaptation the adapted Greek version of the SRS-22 questionnaire and a validated Greek version of the SF-36 questionnaire were mailed to 68 patients treated surgically for Idiopathic Scoliosis. 51 out of the 68 patients returned the 1st set of questionnaires, while a second set was emailed to 30 randomly selected patients of the first time responders. 20 out of the 30 patients returned the 2nd set. The mean age at the time of operation was16,2 years and the mean age at the time of evaluation was 21,2 years. Descriptive statistics for content analysis were calculated. Reliability assessment was determined by estimating Cronbach's α and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC respectively. Concurrent validity was evaluated by comparing SRS-22 domains with relevant domains in the SF-36 questionnaire using Pearson's Correlation Coefficient (r. Results The calculated Cronbach's α of internal consistency for three of the corresponding domains (pain 0.85; mental health 0.87; self image 0.83 were very satisfactory and for two domains (function/activity 0.72 and satisfaction 0.67 were good. The ICC of all domains of SRS-22 questionnaire was high (ICC>0.70, demonstrating very satisfactory or excellent test/retest reproducibility. Considering concurrent validity all correlations were found to be statistically significant at the 0.01 level among related domains and generally demonstrated high correlation coefficient. Conclusion
Marianna Mendonca Brandão; Marcio Costal Sobral; Carlos Jorge Vogel
Objective: The present study aimed at evaluating the reliability of Bolton analysis in tridimensional virtual models, comparing it with the manual method carried out with dental casts. Methods: The present investigation was performed using 56 pairs of dental casts produced from the dental arches of patients in perfect conditions and randomly selected from Universidade Federal da Bahia, School of Dentistry, Orthodontics Postgraduate Program. Manual measurements were obtained with the aid of a ...
Gómez HUGO FERNEY; ALEXEI, Morgounov; Abugalieva AIGUL
The investigation was carried out to determine the stability and adaptability patterns of a set of 40 promising spring wheat genotypes from Kazakhstan and Siberia evaluated in a multievironment yield trial across 22 environments. Some of the most widely known parametric stability parameters were used as well as the less frequently cited reliability index (I). Grain yield correlated significantly and positively with the stability parameters b and S2 and the reliability index (I); but did not c...
There is an increasing demand for supporting high-quality real-time audiovisual services for the next generation wired and wireless networks. However, due to variety of bandwidths of different networks, it is a great challenge for deployment. In this paper, a novel high-definition (HD) video transmission system was proposed which depends upon reliable compound multicast protocols and QoS control over the various kinds of networks.This system detects client's network condition and assigns it to a proper proxy. Each proxy is capable of detecting network parameters and adaptively tuning such transport parameters as bit rate, video resolution, frame rate and QoS mechanisms to this condition. It also provides FEC error recovery under consideration of characteristics of MPEG4 video codec. Our simulation demonstrates that different network clients such as ADSL, CERNET, and CERNET2 can receive more video reliability with less delay.
Rathinavel, Sathiyaseelan; Pandi, Vijayakumar; Sivaraman, Audithan
Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are used in almost every sensing and detection environment instead of wired devices in the current world, all the more in power plant monitoring applications. In such a kind of environment, providing reliability is a challenging task, since WSN makes use of low powered sensors. There are many existing works that provide reliable transmission in WSN (predominantly via multipath routing). However, most of the existing works take additional delay, excessive packet loss, and energy consumption, and hence they provide less packet delivery and throughput. Adaptive Priority Routing (APR) is first proposed during the initial design to provide efficiency in next hop selection. APR computes the priority value for selecting the intermediate nodes during the data transmission in order to improve the packet delivery, throughput, and energy efficiency. In addition to this, APR is developed into QAPR protocol to provide reliability which can operate in two modes, D representing distance mode and Q representing quality of service (QoS) mode. The proposed work is simulated in both flat topology and hierarchical topologies and the simulation analysis shows that the reliability is increased significantly in comparison with existing works. PMID:26885548
This study investigates the validity and reliability of the Turkish adaptation of Acceptance of Couple Violence Scale ACVS The data of research has been attained from 474 M =243 F=231 high school students who were attending 1st 2nd and 3th class and coming from middle socio economic levels in Malatya Acceptance of Couple Violence Scale has 11 items Likert type and 4 point response format The construct validity of ACVS was conducted by using exploratory factor analysis and varimax ro...
Delgado-Gonzalo, Ricard; Parak, Jakub; Tarniceriu, Adrian; Renevey, Philippe; Bertschi, Mattia; Korhonen, Ilkka
PulseOn is a wrist-worn optical heart rate (HR) monitor based on photoplethysmography. It utilizes multi-wavelength technology and optimized sensor geometry to monitor blood flow at different depths of skin tissue, and it dynamically adapts to an optimal measurement depth in different conditions. Movement artefacts are reduced by adaptive movement-cancellation algorithms and optimized mechanics, which stabilize the sensor-to-skin contact. In this paper, we evaluated the accuracy and reliability of PulseOn technology against ECG-derived HR in laboratory conditions during a wide range of physical activities and also during outdoor sports. In addition, we compared the performance to another on-the-shelf wrist-worn consumer product Mio LINK(®). The results showed PulseOn reliability (% of time with error <;10bpm) of 94.5% with accuracy (100% - mean absolute percentage error) 96.6% as compared to ECG (vs 86.6% and 94.4% for Mio LINK(®), correspondingly) during laboratory protocol. Similar or better reliability and accuracy was seen during normal outdoor sports activities. The results show that PulseOn provides reliability and accuracy similar to traditional chest strap ECG HR monitors during cardiovascular exercise. PMID:26736291
Full Text Available Serap Acar,1 Sema Savci,1 Pembe Keskinoğlu,2 Bahri Akdeniz,3 Ebru Özpelit,3 Buse Özcan Kahraman,1 Didem Karadibak,1 Can Sevinc4 1School of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation, 2Department of Biostatistics, Faculty of Medicine, 3Department of Cardiology, Faculty of Medicine, 4Department of Chest Disease, Faculty of Medicine, Dokuz Eylul University, İzmir, Turkey Purpose: Individuals with cardiac problems avoid physical activity and exercise because they expect to feel shortness of breath, dizziness, or chest pain. Assessing kinesiophobia related to heart problems is important in terms of cardiac rehabilitation. The Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia Swedish Version for the Heart (TSK-SV Heart is reliable and has been validated for cardiac diseases in the Swedish population. The aim of this study was to investigate the reliability, parallel-form validity, and exploratory factor analysis of the TSK for the Heart Turkish Version (TSK Heart Turkish Version for evaluating kinesiophobia in patients with heart failure and pulmonary arterial hypertension.Methods: This cross-sectional study involved translation, back translation, and cross-cultural adaptation (localization. Forty-three pulmonary arterial hypertension and 32 heart failure patients were evaluated using the TSK Heart Turkish Version. The 17-item scale, originally composed for the Swedish population, has four factors: perceived danger for heart problem, avoidance of exercise, fear of injury, and dysfunctional self. Cronbach’s alpha (internal consistency and exploratory factor analysis were used to assess the questionnaire’s reliability. Results of the patients in the 6-minute walk test, International Physical Activity Questionnaire, and Nottingham Health Profile were analyzed by Pearson’s correlation analysis with the TSK Heart Turkish Version to indicate the convergent validity.Results: Cronbach’s alpha for the TSK Heart Turkish Version was 0.75, indicating acceptable internal
Hao, Lichao; Huang, Aibo; Lai, Canxiong; Chen, Xing; Hao, Mingming; Chen, Honglei; Lu, Guoguang; Huang, Yun; En, Yunfei
Reliability is an important index to ensure the application of infrared focal plane arrays (IRFPAs) in complex environment, and it becomes a major bottleneck problem of IRFPAs' development. Because of the characteristics such as type, nature, quantity, location and distribution et al, bad pixel which contains initial bad pixel and used bad pixel has outstanding advantage for failure analysis and reliability evaluation of IRFPAs. In this paper, the structure of IRPFAs has been introduced in detail, and the damage mechanisms of used bad pixel also have been analyzed deeply. At the same time, the feasibility to study IRPFAs' damage stress, failure position, damage mechanism has been discussed all around. The research of bad pixel can be used to optimize the structure and process, meanwhile it also can improve the accuracy of bad pixel identification and replacements.
Laronde, Rémi; Charki, Abdérafi; Bigaud, David; Excoffier, Philippe
Many photovoltaic modules are installed all around the world. However, the reliability of this product is not enough really known. The electrical power decreases in time due mainly to corrosion, encapsulation discoloration and solder bond failure. The failure of a photovoltaic module is obtained when the electrical power degradation reaches a threshold value. Accelerated life tests are commonly used to estimate the reliability of the photovoltaic module. However, using accelerated life tests, few data on the failure of this product are obtained and the realization of this kind of tests is expensive. As a solution, an accelerated degradation test can be carried out using only one stress if parameters of the acceleration model are known. The Wiener process associated with the accelerated failure time model permits to carry out many simulations and to determine the failure time distribution when the threshold value is reached. So, the failure time distribution and the lifetime (mean and uncertainty) can be evaluated.
To develop the communication network architecture of a safety system of nuclear power plant, the five essence in the design requirements of a communication network for safety-critical systems are determined such as status based architecture, deterministic scheme, separation and isolation, high reliability, verification and validation. In this paper, the data communication network switching scheme for safety systems is proposed based on the circuit switched network with time division multiplexing bus technology considered adequate to the essence of the design requirements and the design elements. The proposed communication network switching scheme was applied to the network design of the SMART protection system, and the reliability was evaluated with the data of components failure rates to determine the applicability of the proposed switching scheme. The proposed switching scheme will be applied as basic communication network architecture of safety system
Evaluation of eddy current data collected during inspection of VVER steam generators is very complex task because of numerous parameters which have affect on eddy current signals. That was the reason that recently ago INETEC has started related scientific project in order to evaluate the reliability of eddy current (EC) inspection of VVER steam generator (SG) tubing. In the scope of project the following objectives will be investigated: 1. Determination of POD (Probability of detection) of various types degradation cracks, where their basic parameters are variables (basic parameters are depth, length, width, orientation, number) on three different sets of tubes (clean ideal tubes, tubes with pilgering, tubes electroplated with copper) 2. Sizing quality (accuracy, repeatability) (same data sets as defined in 1.) 3. Effect of fill factor on POD and sizing quality. 4. Effect of tube bends on POD and sizing quality. 5. Effect of other tube geometry variations on POD and sizing quality (tube ovality, transition zone region, expanded (rolled) part of tube, dents, dings). Investigation will start with bobbin probe technique which is the most used technique for general purpose VVER tube examination. Since INETEC is the only world company which successfully developed and applied rotating probe technique for VVER SG tubes, scope of the project will be extended on rotating probe technique utilizing 'pancake' and 'point' coil. Method reliability will be investigated first on the huge set of EDM notches representing various defect morphologies and simulating different factors, and the second part will be investigated on sets of degradation defects obtained by artificial corrosion. In the scope of the project the measures for enhancing the method reliability have to be determined. This considers the proper definition of parameters of examination system, as well as establishment of the suitable analysis procedures. This article presents the temporary results of the first part of
A system where the components and system itself are allowed to have a number of performance levels is called the Multi-state system (MSS). A multi-state node network (MNN) is a generalization of the MSS without satisfying the flow conservation law. Evaluating the MNN reliability arises at the design and exploitation stage of many types of technical systems. Up to now, the known existing methods can only evaluate a special MNN reliability called the multi-state node acyclic network (MNAN) in which no cyclic is allowed. However, no method exists for evaluating the general MNN reliability. The main purpose of this article is to show first that each MNN reliability can be solved using any the traditional binary-state networks (TBSN) reliability algorithm with a special code for the state probability. A simple heuristic SDP algorithm based on minimal cuts (MC) for estimating the MNN reliability is presented as an example to show how the TBSN reliability algorithm is revised to solve the MNN reliability problem. To the author's knowledge, this study is the first to discuss the relationships between MNN and TBSN and also the first to present methods to solve the exact and approximated MNN reliability. One example is illustrated to show how the exact MNN reliability is obtained using the proposed algorithm
Full Text Available Single subject fMRI has proved to be a useful tool for mapping functional areas in clinical procedures such as tumour resection. Using fMRI data, clinicians assess the risk, plan and execute such procedures based on thresholded statistical maps. However, because current thresholding methods were developed mainly in the context of cognitive neuroscience group studies, most single subject fMRI maps are thresholded manually to satisfy specific criteria related to single subject analyses. Here, we propose a new adaptive thresholding method which combines Gamma-Gaussian mixture modelling with topological thresholding to improve cluster delineation. In a series of simulations we show that by adapting to the signal and noise properties, the new method performs well in terms of the trade-off between false negative and positive cluster error rates as well as in terms of over and underestimation of the true activation border. We also show through simulations and a motor test-retest study on ten volunteer subjects that adaptive thresholding improves reliability, mainly by accounting for the global signal variance. This in turn increases the likelihood that the true activation pattern can be determined.
This paper propose electronic speckle pattern interferometry(ESPI) for reliability evaluation of electronic device. Especially, vibration problem in a fan of air conditioner, motor of washing machine and etc. is important factor to design the devices. But, it is difficult to apply previous method, accelerometer to the devices with complex geometry. ESPI, non-contact measurement technique applies a commercial fan of air conditioner to vibration analysis. Vibration mode shapes, natural frequency and the range of the frequency are decided and compared with that of FEM analysis. In mechanical deign of new product, ESPI adds weak point of previous method to supply effective design information
Youn, Cheong; Baek, Y. W.; Kim, H. C.; Han, H. C.; Choi, C. R. [Chungnam National Univ., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)
The Study of activities to solve software safety and quality must be executed in base of establishing software development process for digitalized nuclear plant. Especially study of software testing and Verification and Validation must executed. For this purpose methodologies and tools which can improve software qualities are evaluated and software Testing, V and V and Configuration Management which can be applied to software life cycle are investigated. This study establish a guideline that can be used to assure software safety and reliability requirements in digitalized nuclear plant systems.
Dutka, V.A. [Inst. of Ultrahard Materials, Kiev (Ukraine)
A variant of the statistical theory of brittle fracture proposed earlier by V. T. Golovchan is used to calculate the probability of fracture of annular graphite specimens with allowance for the volumetric distribution of thermal stresses in the specimens. The calculated results are compared with data from laboratory studies of the heat resistance of graphite within a broad range of temperatures. It is established that the given variant of the theory is suited for evaluating the reliability of products made of structural graphite when subjected to thermomechanical loading.
The Study of activities to solve software safety and quality must be executed in base of establishing software development process for digitalized nuclear plant. Especially study of software testing and Verification and Validation must executed. For this purpose methodologies and tools which can improve software qualities are evaluated and software Testing, V and V and Configuration Management which can be applied to software life cycle are investigated. This study establish a guideline that can be used to assure software safety and reliability requirements in digitalized nuclear plant systems
The development and application of mathematical models for predicting the consequences of releases of radionuclides into the environment from normal operations in the nuclear fuel cycle and in hypothetical accident conditions has increased dramatically in the last two decades. This Safety Practice publication has been prepared to provide guidance on the available methods for evaluating the reliability of environmental transfer model predictions. It provides a practical introduction of the subject and a particular emphasis has been given to worked examples in the text. It is intended to supplement existing IAEA publications on environmental assessment methodology. 60 refs, 17 figs, 12 tabs
Shin, Je-Seok; Cha, Seung-Tae; Wu, Qiuwei; Kim, Jin-O
Wind energy is one of the most widely used renewable energy resources. Wind power has been connected to the grid as large scale wind farm which is made up of dozens of wind turbines, and thescale of wind farm is more increased recently. Due to intermittent and variable wind source, reliability evaluation on wind farm is necessarily required. Also, because large scale offshore wind farm has along repair time and a high repair cost as well as a high investment cost, it is essential to take into...
Andersson, Björn; Persson, Marie
Along with continuously increasing computerization, our expectations on software and hardware reliability increase considerably. Therefore, software reliability has become one of the most important software quality attributes. Software reliability modeling based on test data is done to estimate whether the current reliability level meets the requirements for the product. Software reliability modeling also provides possibilities to predict reliability. Costs of software developing and tests to...
Aysegül KART; M. Hakan TÜRKÇAPAR
Objective: In this study, it is aimed to evaluate the validity and reliability of Body Sensations Questionnaire (BSQ). Method: BSQ was administered to 122 patients with panic disorder. BSQ Turkish version completed by translation, back-translation and pilot assessment. Socio-demographic Data Form and BSQ Turkish version were administered to participants. Construct validity was assesed by factor analysis after Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) and Bartlett tests applied. Principal compon...
Hatami, Nima; Armano, Giuliano
Hierarchical Text Categorization (HTC) is becoming increasingly important with the rapidly growing amount of text data available in the World Wide Web. Among the different strategies proposed to cope with HTC, the Local Classifier per Node (LCN) approach attains good performance by mirroring the underlying class hierarchy while enforcing a top-down strategy in the testing step. However, the problem of embedding hierarchical information (parent-child relationship) to improve the performance of HTC systems still remains open. A confidence evaluation method for a selected route in the hierarchy is proposed to evaluate the reliability of the final candidate labels in an HTC system. In order to take into account the information embedded in the hierarchy, weight factors are used to take into account the importance of each level. An acceptance/rejection strategy in the top-down decision making process is proposed, which improves the overall categorization accuracy by rejecting a few percentage of samples, i.e., thos...
de Vasconcellos, Ilmeire Ramos Rosembach; Griep, Rosane Härter; Portela, Luciana; Alves, Márcia Guimarães de Mello; Rotenberg, Lúcia
ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the steps in the transcultural adaptation of the scale in the Effort-reward imbalance model to household and family work to the Brazilian context. METHODS We performed the translation, back-translation, and initial psychometric evaluation of the questionnaire that comprised three dimensions: (i) effort (eight items, emphasizing quantitative workload), (ii) reward (11 items that seek to capture the intrinsic value of family and household work, societal esteem, recognition from the spouse/partner, and affection from the children), and (iii) overcommitment (four items related to intrinsic effort). The scale was included in a sectional study conducted with 1,045 nursing workers. A subsample of 222 subjects answered the questionnaire for a second time, seven to 15 days thereafter. The data were collected between October 2012 and May 2013. The internal consistency of the scale was evaluated using Cronbach’s alpha and test-retest reliability analysis, square weighted kappa, prevalence and bias adjusted Kappa, and intraclass correlation coefficient. RESULTS Prevalence and bias-adjusted Kappa (ka) of the scale dimensions ranged from 0.80-0.83 for overcommitment, 0.78-0.90 for effort, and 0.76-0.93 for reward. In most dimensions, the values of minimum and maximum scores, average, standard deviation, and Cronbach’s alpha were similar in test and retest scores. Only on societal esteem subdimension (reward) was there little variation in standard deviation (test score of 2.24 and retest score of 3.36) and in Cronbach’s alpha coefficient (test score of 0.38 and retest score of 0.59). CONCLUSIONS The Brazilian version of the scale was found to have proper reliability indices regarding time stability, which suggests adapting it to be used in population with characteristics that are similar to the one in this study. PMID:27355466
Jacobsen, Julie Sandell; Sørensen, Lotte; Mikkelsen, Lone Ramer;
Background: There is abundant evidence that physical activity has a fundamental role in the prevention and treatment of chronic disease. Questionnaires are simple and inexpensive to apply to measure physical activity. Purpose / Aim of Study: Translate and cross-cultural adapt the short...... questionnaire to assess health-enhancing physical activity (SQUASH) to Danish and to investigate the reliability and discriminative validity of the Danish version. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted according to the COSMIN guidelines. The reliability was evaluated in 50 healthy individuals, mean age...... 47.2 � 12.6 years and mean period 37.1 � 14.9 days between test and retest. The relative reliability was assessed with intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and the absolute reliability with standard error of measurement (SEM) and smallest detectable change (SDC). The discriminative validity was...
Boring, Ronald Laurids [Idaho National Laboratory
ABSTRACT: Human reliability analysis (HRA), as currently used in risk assessments, largely derives its methods and guidance from application in the nuclear energy domain. While there are many similarities be-tween nuclear energy and other safety critical domains such as oil and gas, there remain clear differences. This paper provides an overview of HRA state of the practice in nuclear energy and then describes areas where refinements to the methods may be necessary to capture the operational context of oil and gas. Many key distinctions important to nuclear energy HRA such as Level 1 vs. Level 2 analysis may prove insignifi-cant for oil and gas applications. On the other hand, existing HRA methods may not be sensitive enough to factors like the extensive use of digital controls in oil and gas. This paper provides an overview of these con-siderations to assist in the adaptation of existing nuclear-centered HRA methods to the petroleum sector.
Full Text Available As a multimedia information acquisition and processing method, wireless multimedia sensor network(WMSN has great application potential in military and civilian areas. Compared with traditional wireless sensor network, the routing design of WMSN should obtain more attention on the quality of transmission. This paper proposes an adaptive reliable routing based on clustering hierarchy named ARCH, which includes energy prediction and power allocation mechanism. To obtain a better performance, the cluster structure is formed based on cellular topology. The introduced prediction mechanism makes the sensor nodes predict the remaining energy of other nodes, which dramatically reduces the overall information needed for energy balancing. ARCH can dynamically balance the energy consumption of nodes based on the predicted results provided by power allocation. The simulation results prove the efficiency of the proposed ARCH routing.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to adapt “Instructional Materials Motivation Survey [IMMS]”, developed by J. M. Keller, to Turkish and investigate validity and reliability of the Turkish version of the survey. The original version of the survey was composed of 36 items gathered under four factors (attention, relevance, confidence, satisfaction. The survey was translated into Turkish. Views of 15 faculty members who were expert in Turkish and foreign language were sought in terms of correctness of meaning in Turkish and integrity of items into culture of Turkish education system. Turkish version of the survey was administered to total of 262 university students from Education Faculties of Ataturk and Erzincan Universities. The item-total correlations were calculated, and items which had negative or low correlation with the total survey score (r<.30 were excluded from the survey. The construct validity of the survey was examined by exploratory factor analysis. Varimax rotation technique was used due to the separation into irrelevant factors. Finally the survey was constructed from 24 item gathered under two factors. The reliability coefficient (Cronbach Alpha for the whole survey was calculated as 0.83, and 0.79 and 0.69 for the two sub-factors respectively.
Gearhart, Jared Lee [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kurtz, Nolan Scot [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
The majority of current societal and economic needs world-wide are met by the existing networked, civil infrastructure. Because the cost of managing such infrastructure is high and increases with time, risk-informed decision making is essential for those with management responsibilities for these systems. To address such concerns, a methodology that accounts for new information, deterioration, component models, component importance, group importance, network reliability, hierarchical structure organization, and efficiency concerns has been developed. This methodology analyzes the use of new information through the lens of adaptive Importance Sampling for structural reliability problems. Deterioration, multi-scale bridge models, and time-variant component importance are investigated for a specific network. Furthermore, both bridge and pipeline networks are studied for group and component importance, as well as for hierarchical structures in the context of specific networks. Efficiency is the primary driver throughout this study. With this risk-informed approach, those responsible for management can address deteriorating infrastructure networks in an organized manner.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to adapt the Implicit Theory of Intelligence Scale (ITIS by Abd-El-Fattah and Yates (2006 to Turkish and to investigate its psychometric properties. The study was conducted on four different samples which consisted of 689 students who studied different subjects at the Ziya Gokalp Faculty of Education, Dicle University, during the Fall Term of the 2012-2013 Academic Year. The findings on the linguistic equivalence indicated that the correlation between the items included in the Turkish and original form varied between .81 and .96. The factor analysis concluded that the Turkish version had a two-factor structure in parallel with the original one. As for the concurrent validity, the calculation of correlation between the ITIS and AGOS reported findings similar to the ones in the literature. The reliability coefficients were over .70 for both the entity theory and incremental theory. The item analysis reported that the corrected item total correlations ranged from .33 and .63 and the differences between the top and bottom 27% groups were significant for all the items included in the scale. All these findings suggest that the Turkish version of the ITIS is a valid and reliable instrument that can be used to measure university students’ beliefs about intelligence.
Weijs, Steven; van de Giesen, Nick
Ensemble forecasts are increasingly popular for the communication of uncertainty towards the public and decision makers. Ideally, an ensemble forecast reflects both the uncertainty and the information in a forecast, which means that the spread in the ensemble should accurately represent the true uncertainty. For ensembles to be useful, they should be probabilistic, as probability is the language to precisely describe an incomplete state of knowledge, that is typical for forecasts. Information theory provides the ideal tools to deal with uncertainty and information in forecasts. Essential to the use and development of models and forecasts are ways to evaluate their quality. Without a proper definition of what is good, it is impossible to improve forecasts. In contrast to forecast value, which is user dependent, forecast quality, which is defined as the correspondence between forecasts and observations, can be objectively defined, given the question that is asked. The evaluation of forecast quality is known as forecast verification. Numerous techniques for forecast verification have been developed over the past decades. The Brier score (BS) and the derived Ranked Probability Score (RPS) are among the most widely used scores for measuring forecast quality. Both of these scores can be split into three additive components: uncertainty, reliability and resolution. While the first component, uncertainty, just depends on the inherent variability in the forecasted event, the latter two measure different aspects of the quality of forecasts themselves. Resolution measures the difference between the conditional probabilities and the marginal probabilities of occurrence. The third component, reliability, measures the conditional bias in the probability estimates, hence unreliability would be a better name. In this work, we argue that information theory should be adopted as the correct framework for measuring quality of probabilistic ensemble forecasts. We use the information
The importance of structural and construction safety is associated with the adverse consequences that may result from a structural failure and a construction accident. One of the most important objectives of any construction team is to minimize and control the risk levels of failure and accident of construction operations, as well as to determine the various critical factors which might lead to the increase of the probability of failure and accident of the operations. There are several uncertainty events and factors that contribute to the failure and accident of construction operations. The factors are associated with random, human-based or system uncertainty. Some of these factors include the level of engineering knowledge and experience, level of workmanship and attitude, level of communication procedures, methods and sequence of construction. Most of these factors are subjective, vague, and imprecisely defined, and therefore, they are expressed in semantic terms rather than mathematical measures. The subjectivity of the factors needs to be incorporated into the reliability estimation processes. The objective of this paper is to present a reliability evaluation methodology for construction operations that considers the effect of the factors and their uncertainties on the estimation of the risk measures for construction operations. The methodology is based on a deductive tree analysis approach which involves identifying a possible condition of the construction system and determining the various events and combination of the factors that contribute to the occurrence of that condition
Swen P.M. Bos
Full Text Available The climate analogue approach is often considered a valuable tool for climate change impact projection and adaptation planning, especially for complex systems that cannot be modelled reliably. Important examples are smallholder farming systems using agroforestry or other mixed-cropping approaches. For the projected climate at a particular site of interest, the analogue approach identifies locations where the current climate is similar to these projected conditions. By comparing baseline-analogue site pairs, information on climate impacts and opportunities for adaptation can be obtained. However, the climate analogue approach is only meaningful, if climate is a dominant driver of differences between baseline and analogue site pairs. For a smallholder farming setting on Mt. Elgon in Kenya, we tested this requirement by comparing yield potentials of maize and coffee (obtained from the IIASA Global Agro-ecological Zones dataset among 50 close analogue sites for different future climate scenarios and models, and by comparing local ecological knowledge and farm characteristics for one baseline-analogue pair.Yield potentials among the 50 closest analogue locations varied strongly within all climate scenarios, hinting at factors other than climate as major drivers of what the analogue approach might interpret as climate effects. However, on average future climatic conditions seemed more favourable to maize and coffee cultivation than current conditions. The detailed site comparison revealed substantial differences between farms in important characteristics, such as farm size and presence of cash crops, casting doubt on the usefulness of the comparison for climate change analysis. Climatic constraints were similar between sites, so that no apparent lessons for adaptation could be derived. Pests and diseases were also similar, indicating that climate change may not lead to strong changes in biotic constraints at the baseline site in the near future. From
A field experiment was undertaken to evaluate the accuracy, usefulness, and resources requirements of five human reliability quantification techniques (Techniques for Human Error Rate Prediction (THERP); Paired Comparisons, Human Error Assessment and Reduction Technique (HEART), Success Liklihood Index Method (SLIM)-Multi Attribute Utility Decomposition (MAUD), and Absolute Probability Judgement). This was achieved by assessing technique predictions against a set of known human error probabilities, and by comparing their predictions on a set of five realistic Probabilisitc Risk Assessment (PRA) human error. On a combined measure of accuracy THERP and Absolute Probability Judgement performed best, whilst HEART showed indications of accuracy and was lower in resources usage than other techniques. HEART and THERP both appear to benefit from using trained assessors in order to obtain the best results. SLIM and Paired Comparisons require further research on achieving a robust calibration relationship between their scale values and absolute probabilities. (author)
Patrícia Pinto Fonseca
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Patients' perception about their health condition, mainly involving chronic diseases, has been investigated in many studies and it has been associated to depression, compliance with the treatment, quality of life and prognosis. The Illness Effects Questionnaire (IEQ is a tool which makes the standardized evaluation of patients' perception about their illness possible, so that it is brief and accessible to the different clinical settings. This work aims to begin the transcultural adaptation of the IEQ to Brazil through the validated translation and the reliability study. METHODS: The back-translation method and the test-retest reliability study were used in a sample of 30 adult patients under chronic hemodialysis. The reliability indexes were estimated using the Pearson, Spearman, Weighted Kappa and Cronbach's alpha coefficients. RESULTS: The semantic equivalence was reached through the validated translation. In this study, the reliability indexes obtained were respectively: 0.85 and 0.75 (p < 0.001; 0.68 and 0.92 (p < 0.0001. DISCUSSION: The reliability indexes obtained attest to the stability of responses in both evaluations. Additional procedures are necessary for the transcultural adaptation of the IEQ to be complete. CONCLUSION: The results indicate the translation validity and the reliability of the Brazilian version of the IEQ for the sample studied.
Full Text Available Objective: In this study, it is aimed to evaluate the validity and reliability of Body Sensations Questionnaire (BSQ. Method: BSQ was administered to 122 patients with panic disorder. BSQ Turkish version completed by translation, back-translation and pilot assessment. Socio-demographic Data Form and BSQ Turkish version were administered to participants. Construct validity was assesed by factor analysis after Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO and Bartlett tests applied. Principal component analysis and varimax rotation used for factor analysis. Results: 66% (n=80 of the participants were female and 34% (n=42 were male. The mean age of participants was 31,7±10,8 years and age range was 18-58 years. Internal consistency of the questionnaire was calculated 0,921 by Cronbach alpha. In analysis performed by split-half method reliability coefficients of half questionnaire were found as 0,889 and 0,850. Again spearmen-brown coefficient was found as 0,849 by the same analysis. Factor analysis revealed five basic factors. 75,2% of the total variance was explained with these five factors. Conclusion: The results of this study show that the Turkish version of BSQ is a reliable and valid scale for measuring the fear of the bodily sensations associated with panic.
Wenzhong Guo; Wei Hong; Bin Zhang; Yuzhong Chen; Naixue Xiong
Mobile security is one of the most fundamental problems in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). The data transmission path will be compromised for some disabled nodes. To construct a secure and reliable network, designing an adaptive route strategy which optimizes energy consumption and network lifetime of the aggregation cost is of great importance. In this paper, we address the reliable data aggregation route problem for WSNs. Firstly, to ensure nodes work properly, we propose a data aggregati...
Full Text Available Background: The most frequently used measuring instrument for determination of dental fear in children nowadays is the children’s fear survey schedule-dental scale (CFSS-DS. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore the reliability and validity of the scale with Indonesian trans adapted version of the scale, thus the scale can be reliable to be used in other similar research in Indonesia. Methods: Total of 113 participants, who were parent’s 3 to 12 years old children. Children were divided into two age groups, group I 3-6 year old (83 children and group II 7-12 year old (30 children. Eighty three children from the first group were divided into first dental visit group (30 children and non first dental visit group (53 children. Test-retest approach was applied to 30 first dental visit children aged 3-6 year old. Original scale was translated to Indonesian language. Result: The result showed the high value of the Cronbach’s coefficient of internal consistency α=0.956. Three factors were extracted by screen test method with Eigen values higher than 1, which explained 93.05% variance of results. Conclusion: CFSS-DS scale is reliable and valid psychometric instrument for dental fear evaluation in children in Bahasa Indonesia. The differences between this study and those of others may appear due to many factors. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE
Andressa M. Lamarão; Costa, Lucíola C. M.; Comper, Maria L. C.; Padula, Rosimeire S.
Background: Observational instruments, such as the Rapid Entire Body Assessment, quickly assess biomechanical risks present in the workplace. However, in order to use these instruments, it is necessary to conduct the translational/cross-cultural adaptation of the instrument and test its measurement properties. Objectives: To perform the translation and the cross-cultural adaptation to Brazilian-Portuguese and test the reliability of the REBA instrument. Method: The procedures of trans...
VILLIEUX, A; Delhomme, P.
The aims of this study were to provide further evidence of validity and reliability for the Driving Anger Expression Inventory (DAX) French adaptation (Villieux & Delhomme, 2008, Le Travail Humain, 71(4), 359-384) and to investigate the relationships between driving anger, how people express their anger while driving, and traffic violations among young drivers in France. Method: The French adaptations of the DAX, of the Driving Anger Scale (DAS), and of the Extended Violations Scale were admi...
Koch, Michael S; DeSesso, John M; Williams, Amy Lavin; Michalek, Suzanne; Hammond, Bruce
To determine the reliability of food safety studies carried out in rodents with genetically modified (GM) crops, a Food Safety Study Reliability Tool (FSSRTool) was adapted from the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods' (ECVAM) ToxRTool. Reliability was defined as the inherent quality of the study with regard to use of standardized testing methodology, full documentation of experimental procedures and results, and the plausibility of the findings. Codex guidelines for GM crop safety evaluations indicate toxicology studies are not needed when comparability of the GM crop to its conventional counterpart has been demonstrated. This guidance notwithstanding, animal feeding studies have routinely been conducted with GM crops, but their conclusions on safety are not always consistent. To accurately evaluate potential risks from GM crops, risk assessors need clearly interpretable results from reliable studies. The development of the FSSRTool, which provides the user with a means of assessing the reliability of a toxicology study to inform risk assessment, is discussed. Its application to the body of literature on GM crop food safety studies demonstrates that reliable studies report no toxicologically relevant differences between rodents fed GM crops or their non-GM comparators. PMID:25208336
High performance pulse trigger can enhance performance and stability of the PPS. It is necessary to evaluate the reliability of the LTGS pulse trigger, so we establish the reliability analysis model of this pulse trigger based on CARMES software, the reliability evaluation is accord with the statistical results. (authors)
Ahmad Ali Eslami
Full Text Available Background: The main purpose of this study was to assess the factorial validity and reliability of the Iranian versions of the personality and behavior system scales (49 items of the AHDQ (The Adolescent Health and Development Questionnaire and interrelations among them based on Jessor′s PBT (Problem Behavior Theory. Methods: A multi-staged approach was employed. The cross-cultural adaptation was performed according to the internationally recommended methodology, using the following guidelines: translation, back-translation, revision by a committee, and pretest. After modifying and identifying of the best items, a cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the psychometric properties of Persian version using calibration and validation samples of adolescents. Also 113 of them completed it again two weeks later for stability. Results: The findings of the exploratory factor analysis suggested that the 7-factor solution with low self concept, emotional distress, general delinquency, cigarette, hookah, alcohol, and hard drugs use provided a better fitting model. The a range for these identified factors was 0.69 to 0.94, the ICC range was 0.73 to 0.93, and there was a significant difference in mean scores for these instruments in compare between the male normative and detention adolescents. The first and second-order measurement models testing found good model fit for the 7-factor model. Conclusions: Factor analyses provided support of existence internalizing and externalizing problem behavior syndrome. With those qualifications, this model can be applied for studies among Persian adolescents.
Lemmens, Jessie; Bours, Gerrie J. J. W.; Limburg, Martien; Beurskens, Anna J. H. M.
Purpose The adaptation of the Dutch Swal-Qol questionnaire to an interview format suitable for dysphagic patients with communicative and/or cognitive problems and evaluation of the feasibility and test–retest reliability. Methods An observational study with two measurements within a 2-week time period in a sample of 57 stroke patients with dysphagia in a nursing home environment. The interview version of the Swal-Qol was evaluated in the total group and in subgroups of patients with and witho...
Chen, Y.; Nguyen, D.; Guertin, S.; Berstein, J.; White, M.; Menke, R.; Kayali, S.
This paper presents a reliability evaluation methodology to obtain the statistical reliability information of memory chips for space applications when the test sample size needs to be kept small because of the high cost of the radiation hardness memories.
Oyeyemi Adewale L
Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate assessment of physical activity is important in determining the risk for chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, stroke, type 2 diabetes, cancer and obesity. The absence of culturally relevant measures in indigenous languages could pose challenges to epidemiological studies on physical activity in developing countries. The purpose of this study was to translate and cross-culturally adapt the Short International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ-SF to the Hausa language, and to evaluate the validity and reliability of the Hausa version of IPAQ-SF in Nigeria. Methods The English IPAQ-SF was translated into the Hausa language, synthesized, back translated, and subsequently subjected to expert committee review and pre-testing. The final product (Hausa IPAQ-SF was tested in a cross-sectional study for concurrent (correlation with the English version and construct validity, and test-retest reliability in a sample of 102 apparently healthy adults. Results The Hausa IPAQ-SF has good concurrent validity with Spearman correlation coefficients (ρ ranging from 0.78 for vigorous activity (Min Week-1 to 0.92 for total physical activity (Metabolic Equivalent of Task [MET]-Min Week-1, but poor construct validity, with cardiorespiratory fitness (ρ = 0.21, p = 0.01 and body mass index (ρ = 0.22, p = 0.04 significantly correlated with only moderate activity and sitting time (Min Week-1, respectively. Reliability was good for vigorous (ICC = 0.73, 95% C.I = 0.55-0.84 and total physical activity (ICC = 0.61, 95% C.I = 0.47-0.72, but fair for moderate activity (ICC = 0.33, 95% C.I = 0.12-0.51, and few meaningful differences were found in the gender and socioeconomic status specific analyses. Conclusions The Hausa IPAQ-SF has acceptable concurrent validity and test-retest reliability for vigorous-intensity activity, walking, sitting and total physical activity, but demonstrated only fair construct validity for moderate and
Adaptation was defined as the responses by stakeholders to actual or expected climatic stimuli or their effects to reduce vulnerability to adverse impacts or damage potential, or to realize opportunities associated with climate change. Planned policy initiatives representing change in the agricultural system were discussed in this report. An evaluation of adaptation options needed to be carried out before one could determine which adaptations should be promoted or implemented. The overall merit, suitability, utility or appropriateness of potential adaptation strategies or measures were examined. One interesting methodology was the Multiple Criteria Evaluation (MCE), which is designed to assess alternatives using more than one criterion. The criteria selected for this evaluation were: effectiveness, economic efficiency, flexibility, institutional compatibility, farmer implementation, and independent benefits. A selection of three adaptation options was made to better illustrate the utility of the evaluation framework., as follows: crop diversification, adoption of irrigation, and increase use of crop insurance. 122 refs., 6 tabs., 6 figs
Bernard, Franck Tarpin; Habieb-Mammar, Halima
This paper presents the online AnAmeter framework that helps characterize the different types of adaptations a system features by helping the evaluator fill in a simple form. The provided information is then processed to obtain a quantitative evaluation of three parameters called global, semi-global and local adaptation degrees. By characterizing and quantifying adaptation, AnAmeter provides the first steps towards the evaluation of the quality of a system's adaptation. AnAmeter is an open tool available as freeware on the web and has been applied to a selection of well known systems. To build this evaluation grid we also collected a number of systems that cover the full range of adaptation types.
Kocatürk, Emek; Weller, Karsten; Martus, Peter; Aktas, Selin; Kavala, Mukaddes; Sarigul, Sükran; Baiardini, Ilaria; Canonica, Giorgio W; Brzoza, Zenon; Kalogeromitros, Dimitrios; Maurer, Marcus
Chronic spontaneous urticaria has a substantial impact on patients' quality of life. The first disease-specific tool to assess quality of life impairment in this condition, the Chronic Urticaria Quality of Life Questionnaire (CU-Q2oL), was developed recently. The aim of this study was to adapt the original Italian version to the Turkish language and to evaluate its reliability, validity, and sensitivity to change. The Turkish version was developed by performing forward- and back-translation. It was then applied to 140 consecutive patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria, along with the Dermatology Life Quality Index and the Skindex-29. Disease activity was assessed using the Urticaria Activity Score. Sensitivity to change was measured in 101 patients, who completed the instruments twice at intervals of 4 weeks. Confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated that the six-scale structure of the original Italian version ("pruritus", "swelling", "impact on life activities", "sleep problems", "limits", "looks") can be retained in the Turkish instrument. Analysis regarding convergent validity showed good correlations of the Turkish CU-Q2oL with the other instruments. In addition, it was found to discriminate well between patients with different levels of urticaria activity, and to be sensitive to change. In conclusion, the Turkish version of CU-Q2oL is a reliable, valid, and sensitive instrument, which will help to characterize better the clinical impact of chronic spontaneous urticaria and treatment outcomes in Turkish patients. Its identical scale structure to that of other CU-Q2oL instruments makes it ideal for cross-cultural comparisons and for its application in future national and multinational studies. PMID:21918791
Incidents and accidents at nuclear power plants (NPP) have been and always will be considered as undesired occurrences. Human error (REASON, 1990) is probably the major contributor to serious accidents as those that occurred at Three Mile Island NPP, Unit 2 (TMI-2), in 1979, and Chernobyl, Unit 4, in 1986, and (AEOD/E95-01, 1995 at others NPPs. Reviews and analysis of those accidents and others near-misses have shown operators performing actions that are not required for the accident response and, in fact, worsen the plant's condition. This action, where a person does something that it's not supposed to do, believing that it was the right thing to do, resulting in changes in the plant that may be worse than if he had done nothing, is called Error of Commission (EOC). These inappropriate actions are rightly affected (NUREG-1624, Rev.1, 2000) by the off-normal context (i.e., the combination of plant conditions and performance shaping factors) of the event scenario that virtually forces the operator to fail. Considering that this kind of human intervention could be an important failure mode and precursor to more serious events, aggravated by the fact that actual probabilistic risk assessment (PRA), does not consider this kind of error, a new methodology (NUREG-1624, Rev.1, 2000) was developed of Human Reliability Analysis (HRA), called 'A Technique for Human Event Analysis' (ATHEANA). ATHEANA is a multidisciplinary second-generation HRA method and provides an HRA quantification process and PRA modeling interface that can accommodate and represent human performance in real nuclear power plant accidents. This paper presents this new methodology in order to identified its weak and strong points, to evaluate its advantages and disadvantages and its benefits to safety, and finally, to analyze its application to Angra NPP. (author)
Mark Ndubuka NWOHU
Full Text Available The reliability standards for electricity supply in a developing country, like Nigeria, have to be determined on past engineering principles and practice. Because of the high demand of electrical power due to rapid development, industrialization and rural electrification; the economic, social and political climate in which the electric power supply industry now operates should be critically viewed to ensure that the production of electrical power should be augmented and remain uninterrupted. This paper presents an economic framework that can be used to optimize electric power system reliability. Finally the cost models are investigated to take into account the economic analysis of system reliability, which can be periodically updated to improve overall reliability of electric power system.
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to present a reliability comparison of two types of city transport buses. Case study on the example of the well-known brands of city buses: Solaris Urbino 12 and Mercedes-Benz 628 Conecto L used at Municipal Transport Company in Lublin was presented in details. A reliability index for the most failure parts and complex systems for the period of time failures was determined. The analysis covered damages of the following systems: engine, electrical system, pneumatic system, brake system, driving system, central heating and air-conditioning and doors. Reliability was analyzed based on Weibull model. It has been demonstrated, that during the operation significant reliability differences occur between the buses produced nowadays.
Full Text Available Physical inactivity is the fourth leading risk factor for global mortality, with most of these deaths occurring in low and middle-income countries (LMICs like India. Research from developed countries has consistently demonstrated associations between built environment features and physical activity levels of populations. The development of culturally sensitive and reliable measures of the built environment is a necessary first step for accurate analysis of environmental correlates of physical activity in LMICs. This study systematically adapted the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale (NEWS for India and evaluated aspects of test-retest reliability of the adapted version among Indian adults. Cultural adaptation of the NEWS was conducted by Indian and international experts. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with local residents and key informants in the city of Chennai, India. At baseline, participants (N = 370; female = 47.2% from Chennai completed the adapted NEWS-India surveys on perceived residential density, land use mix-diversity, land use mix-access, street connectivity, infrastructure and safety for walking and cycling, aesthetics, traffic safety, and safety from crime. NEWS-India was administered for a second time to consenting participants (N = 62; female = 53.2% with a gap of 2–3 weeks between successive administrations. Qualitative findings demonstrated that built environment barriers and constraints to active commuting and physical activity behaviors intersected with social ecological systems. The adapted NEWS subscales had moderate to high test-retest reliability (ICC range 0.48–0.99. The NEWS-India demonstrated acceptable measurement properties among Indian adults and may be a useful tool for evaluation of built environment attributes in India. Further adaptation and evaluation in rural and suburban settings in India is essential to create a version that could be used throughout India.
Adlakha, Deepti; Hipp, J Aaron; Brownson, Ross C
Physical inactivity is the fourth leading risk factor for global mortality, with most of these deaths occurring in low and middle-income countries (LMICs) like India. Research from developed countries has consistently demonstrated associations between built environment features and physical activity levels of populations. The development of culturally sensitive and reliable measures of the built environment is a necessary first step for accurate analysis of environmental correlates of physical activity in LMICs. This study systematically adapted the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale (NEWS) for India and evaluated aspects of test-retest reliability of the adapted version among Indian adults. Cultural adaptation of the NEWS was conducted by Indian and international experts. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with local residents and key informants in the city of Chennai, India. At baseline, participants (N = 370; female = 47.2%) from Chennai completed the adapted NEWS-India surveys on perceived residential density, land use mix-diversity, land use mix-access, street connectivity, infrastructure and safety for walking and cycling, aesthetics, traffic safety, and safety from crime. NEWS-India was administered for a second time to consenting participants (N = 62; female = 53.2%) with a gap of 2-3 weeks between successive administrations. Qualitative findings demonstrated that built environment barriers and constraints to active commuting and physical activity behaviors intersected with social ecological systems. The adapted NEWS subscales had moderate to high test-retest reliability (ICC range 0.48-0.99). The NEWS-India demonstrated acceptable measurement properties among Indian adults and may be a useful tool for evaluation of built environment attributes in India. Further adaptation and evaluation in rural and suburban settings in India is essential to create a version that could be used throughout India. PMID:27049394
Adlakha, Deepti; Hipp, J. Aaron; Brownson, Ross C.
Physical inactivity is the fourth leading risk factor for global mortality, with most of these deaths occurring in low and middle-income countries (LMICs) like India. Research from developed countries has consistently demonstrated associations between built environment features and physical activity levels of populations. The development of culturally sensitive and reliable measures of the built environment is a necessary first step for accurate analysis of environmental correlates of physical activity in LMICs. This study systematically adapted the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale (NEWS) for India and evaluated aspects of test-retest reliability of the adapted version among Indian adults. Cultural adaptation of the NEWS was conducted by Indian and international experts. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with local residents and key informants in the city of Chennai, India. At baseline, participants (N = 370; female = 47.2%) from Chennai completed the adapted NEWS-India surveys on perceived residential density, land use mix-diversity, land use mix-access, street connectivity, infrastructure and safety for walking and cycling, aesthetics, traffic safety, and safety from crime. NEWS-India was administered for a second time to consenting participants (N = 62; female = 53.2%) with a gap of 2–3 weeks between successive administrations. Qualitative findings demonstrated that built environment barriers and constraints to active commuting and physical activity behaviors intersected with social ecological systems. The adapted NEWS subscales had moderate to high test-retest reliability (ICC range 0.48–0.99). The NEWS-India demonstrated acceptable measurement properties among Indian adults and may be a useful tool for evaluation of built environment attributes in India. Further adaptation and evaluation in rural and suburban settings in India is essential to create a version that could be used throughout India. PMID:27049394
The future of metering networks requires adaptation of different sensor technology while reducing energy exploitation. In this paper, a routing protocol with the ability to adapt and communicate reliably over varied IEEE standards is proposed. Due to sensor's resource constraints, such as memory, energy, processing power an algorithm that balances resources without compromising performance is preferred. The proposed A-PEARL protocol is tested under harsh simulated scenarios such as sensor failure and fading conditions. The inherent features of A-PEARL protocol such as data aggregation, fusion and channel hopping enables minimal resource consumption and secure communication.
Matthias Maisch; Bernd Bertsche; Ralf Hettich
New development trends in electronic operating data logging systems enable classification, recording and storage of load spectrums of mechanical transmission components during usage. Based on this fact, the application of online reliability evaluation and reliability prediction procedures are presented. Different methods are considered to calculate reliability, depending on actual load spectrum and a Wohler curve. The prediction of a reliability trend is analyzed by the application of time series models. For this purpose, exponential smoothing model, regression model, and the ARIMA model are considered to evaluate data and predict an decreasing reliability trends during usage.
Marini, Vinicius Kaster; Restrepo-Giraldo, John Dairo; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema
their insight on design risks and wide spread application. A pilot case study has been performed with a washing machine in using these methods to assess design risks, following a reverse engineering approach. The study has shown the methods can be initiated at early design stages, but cannot be...... concluded. For that reason, new methods are needed to assist assessing robustness and reliability at early design stages. A specific taxonomy on robustness and reliability information in design could support classifying available design information to orient new techniques assessing innovative designs....
Reliability analysis of hydrothermal generating systems usually includes the calculation of annual reliability indicators. This work describes a methodology to evaluate annual reliability taking into account the maintenance program of thermal units and the allocation of hydroenergy to the different subperiods of the year. The procedure takes advantage of the flexibility of hydro units to level the usual reliability indicators along the period of analysis. As an example, the analysis of the Spanish power system is presented
Gonzalez, C.; Juan, J
Reliability analysis of hydrothermal generating systems usually includes the calculation of annual reliability indicators. This work describes a methodology to evaluate annual reliability taking into account the maintenance program of thermal units and the allocation of hydroenergy to the different subperiods of the year. The procedure takes advantage of the flexibility of hydro units to level the usual reliability indicators along the period of analysis. As an example, the analysis of the Spanish power system is presented.
Sulzen, James; Young, Michael F.
This study describes a rubric supporting fast and reliable assessment of preservice teacher electronic portfolios. The assessment calls for raters to quickly scan a portfolio to gain an overall impression, then dichotomously score a large number of indicators (e.g., educational philosophy, educational technology use, imaginative use of…
Fleishman, John; Benson, Jeri
LISREL program was used to examine measurement model assumptions and to assess reliability of Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory for Children, Form B. Data on 722 third-sixth graders from over 70 schools in large urban school district were used. LISREL program assessed (1) nature of basic measurement model for scale, (2) scale invariance across…
Kember, David; Leung, Doris Y. P.
This article uses the case of designing a new course questionnaire to discuss the issues of validity, reliability and diagnostic power in good questionnaire design. Validity is often not well addressed in course questionnaire design as there are no straightforward tests that can be applied to an individual instrument. The authors propose the…
The purpose of this study is to adapt “Chemistry Perception Questionnaire (CPQ)”, developed by Wells (2003), into Turkish and investigate validity and reliability of the Turkish version of the scale. The original version of the scale was composed of 35 items gathered under seven factors (aptitude, chemophobia, discipline, ethnicity, gender, instruction and value). First, permission from the developers of the scale was sought. Then, the items of the scale were translated into Turkish by resear...
Aiming at reliability evaluation of condition identification of mechanical equipment, it is necessary to analyze condition monitoring information. A new method of reliability evaluation based on wavelet information entropy extracted from vibration signals of mechanical equipment is proposed. The method is quite different from traditional reliability evaluation models that are dependent on probability statistics analysis of large number sample data. The vibration signals of mechanical equipment were analyzed by means of second generation wavelet package (SGWP). We take relative energy in each frequency band of decomposed signal that equals a percentage of the whole signal energy as probability. Normalized information entropy (IE) is obtained based on the relative energy to describe uncertainty of a system instead of probability. The reliability degree is transformed by the normalized wavelet information entropy. A successful application has been achieved to evaluate the assembled quality reliability for a kind of dismountable disk-drum aero-engine. The reliability degree indicates the assembled quality satisfactorily.
Park, J. K; Sung, T. Y.; Eom, H. S.; Jeong, H. S.; Park, J. H.; Kang, H. G.; Lee, K. Y.
To develop the methodology for evaluating the software reliability included in digital instrumentation and control system (I and C), many kinds of methodologies/techniques that have been proposed from the software reliability engineering fuel are analyzed to identify the strong and week points of them. According to analysis results, methodologies/techniques that can be directly applied for the evaluation of the software reliability are not exist. Thus additional researches to combine the most appropriate methodologies/techniques from existing ones would be needed to evaluate the software reliability. (author)
To develop the methodology for evaluating the software reliability included in digital instrumentation and control system (I and C), many kinds of methodologies/techniques that have been proposed from the software reliability engineering fuel are analyzed to identify the strong and week points of them. According to analysis results, methodologies/techniques that can be directly applied for the evaluation of the software reliability are not exist. Thus additional researches to combine the most appropriate methodologies/techniques from existing ones would be needed to evaluate the software reliability. (author)
There is a wide range of criteria and features for evaluating reliability in engineering; but as many as there are, only one of them has been chosen to evaluate reliability of Digital Protective Relays (DPR) in the technical documentation: Mean (operating) Time Between Failures (MTBF), which has gained universal currency and has been specified in technical manuals, information sheets, tender documentation as the key indicator of DPR reliability. But is the choice of this criterion...
The mechanism proposed by Del Giudice by which adult attachment style is adapted to the extrinsic risk in the local environment via attachment style during the early years does not fulfill important criteria of an adaptation. The proposed mechanism is neither specific, nor developmentally reliable, nor effective. Therefore, it should not be considered an adaptation.
Groves, D.; Bloom, E.; Fischbach, J. R.; Knopman, D.
The U.S. Bureau of Reclamation and water management agencies representing the seven Colorado River Basin States initiated the Colorado River Basin Study in January 2010 to evaluate the resiliency of the Colorado River system over the next 50 years and compare different options for ensuring successful management of the river's resources. RAND was asked to join this Basin Study Team in January 2012 to help develop an analytic approach to identify key vulnerabilities in managing the Colorado River basin over the coming decades and to evaluate different options that could reduce this vulnerability. Using a quantitative approach for planning under uncertainty called Robust Decision Making (RDM), the RAND team assisted the Basin Study by: identifying future vulnerable conditions that could lead to imbalances that could cause the basin to be unable to meet its water delivery objectives; developing a computer-based tool to define 'portfolios' of management options reflecting different strategies for reducing basin imbalances; evaluating these portfolios across thousands of future scenarios to determine how much they could improve basin outcomes; and analyzing the results from the system simulations to identify key tradeoffs among the portfolios. This talk will describe RAND's contribution to the Basin Study, focusing on the methodologies used to to identify vulnerabilities for Upper Basin and Lower Basin water supply reliability and to compare portfolios of options. Several key findings emerged from the study. Future Streamflow and Climate Conditions Are Key: - Vulnerable conditions arise in a majority of scenarios where streamflows are lower than historical averages and where drought conditions persist for eight years or more. - Depending where the shortages occur, problems will arise for delivery obligations for the upper river basin and the lower river basin. The lower river basin is vulnerable to a broader range of plausible future conditions. Additional Investments in
Bhat, Mehraj A.
This paper is based on the construction and evaluation of reliability and validity of reasoning ability test at secondary school students. In this paper an attempt was made to evaluate validity, reliability and to determine the appropriate standards to interpret the results of reasoning ability test. The test includes 45 items to measure six types…
Morley, Donald D.
This article reports and demonstrates two SPSS macros for calculating Krippendorff's alpha and intraclass reliability coefficients in repetitive situations where numerous coefficients are needed. Specifically, the reported SPSS macros were used to evaluate the interrater agreement and reliability of student evaluations of teaching in thousands of…
Many of the studies used to support the claim that student evaluations of teaching are reliable measures of teaching effectiveness have frequently calculated inappropriate reliability coefficients. This paper points to three coefficients that would be appropriate depending on if student evaluations were used for formative or summative purposes.…
Reitz, Orin Edward
A cross sectional correlational mailed survey was used to assess the validity and reliability of the Job Embeddedness (JE) instrument for predicting nurse retention. A regression model using the variables of JE and age were predictive of nurse retention in a sample of Registered Nurses (RNs) working in long term care (LTC) settings. This study supports the multi-dimensionality, validity and reliability of the underlying JE construct. However a different factor structure was suggested that better fit the data. Long term care organizations (LTC) may benefit from a strategy of increasing the embeddedness of their existing employees in order to increase nurse retention. Job embbededness could be used as a foundation to provide effective nurse retention strategies in LTC settings. PMID:25012988
This paper presents a viewpoint on the state-of-the-art in human reliability. The bases for this viewpoint are, by and large, research projects conducted by the NUS for the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) primarily with the objective of further enhancing the credibility of PRA methodology. The presentation is divided into the following key sections: Background and Overview, Methodology and Data Base with emphasis on the simulator data base
Mark Ndubuka NWOHU
The reliability standards for electricity supply in a developing country, like Nigeria, have to be determined on past engineering principles and practice. Because of the high demand of electrical power due to rapid development, industrialization and rural electrification; the economic, social and political climate in which the electric power supply industry now operates should be critically viewed to ensure that the production of electrical power should be augmented and remain uninterrupted. ...
Man Zhu; Y.Q. Wen; Zhou, C. H.; C.S. Xiao
In this paper, using cloud model and Delphi, we build a comprehensive evaluation cloud model to solve the problems of qualitative description and quantitative transformation in ship navigation adaptability comprehensive evaluation. In the model, the normal cloud generator is used to find optimal cloud models of reviews and evaluation factors. The weight of each evaluation factor is determined by cloud model and Delphi. The floating cloud algorithm is applied to aggregate the bottom level’s ev...
Khalim A.R.; Sagar D.; Kumruzzaman M.D.; Hasan A.S.M.Z.
Non-destructive evaluation (NDE) has offered unprecedented utilize for bridge management body to monitor structural health. None of these evaluation methods can provide all the damage information (damage category, quantitative assessment) alone which is required for necessary repair activity and condition rating of structure. In most of the cases, the response of one evaluation method implies the presence of a defect among the multiple defects to which the evaluation method is sensitive. This...
Lane, Norman E.; Kennedy, Robert S.
The Preflight Adaptation Trainer (PAT) is intended to reduce or alleviate space adaptation syndrome by providing opportunities for portions of that adaptation to occur under normal gravity conditions prior to space flight. Since the adaptation aspects of the PAT objectives involve modification not only of the behavior of the trainee, but also of sensiomotor skills which underly the behavioral generation, the defining of training objectives of the PAT utilizes four mechanisms: familiarization, demonstration, training and adaptation. These mechanisms serve as structural reference points for evaluation, drive the content and organization of the training procedures, and help to define the roles of the PAT instructors and operators. It was determined that three psychomotor properties are most critical for PAT evaluation: reliability; sensitivity; and relevance. It is cause for concern that the number of measures available to examine PAT effects exceed those that can be properly studied with the available sample sizes; special attention will be required in selection of the candidate measure set. The issues in PAT use and application within a training system context are addressed through linking the three training related mechanisms of familiarization, demonstration and training to the fourth mechanism, adaptation.
Hermans, L.M.; Maat, J.; Haasnoot, M.; Kwakkel, J.H.
New planning approaches put new requirements on evaluation. A recent innovation in the water domain is adaptive delta management (ADM). ADM supports long-term planning in the face of uncertainty. This paper discusses the main considerations for the design of an evaluation system for ADM, departing f
Snajder, Maja; Verlic, Mateja; Povalej, Petra; Debevc, Matjaž
E-learning is becoming an important part of education and it can provide new possibilities for disabled people. Critical evaluation is becoming indispensable, especially in e-learning systems supporting disabled people, as very little has been done in this area. This paper describes the development of adapted pedagogical index (AdaPI), which demonstrates the pedagogical effectiveness of different courses created and adapted for disabled.
In the last few years, more and more attention has been focused on energy issues, as it is pointed out, for example, by the Directive 2002/91/EC on the Energy Performance of Buildings and Directive 2009/28/EC on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources. However, in order to do that, reliable tools for technicians to design systems for such topics should be provided. Nowadays, several software are available; the weak point is the availability of reliable climatic data and, above all, the ones referring to solar radiation. In this work, after a short overview of the world climatic databases, a description of three statistical methods for the elaboration of a climatic reduced set of data is reported. Then, referring to the climatic station of Palermo, Italy, we build three different sets of data utilizing the three statistical methods and compare these sets of data by means of two applications, namely the energy consumption of a simple building and the energy produced by a photovoltaic (PV) system.
Celle-Jeanton, Hélène; Schemberg, Dimitri; Mohammed, Nabaz; Huneau, Frédéric; Bertrand, Guillaume; Lavastre, Véronique; Le Coustumer, Philippe
Due to the current analytical processes that are not able to measure all the pharmaceutical molecules and to the high costs and the consumption of time to sample and analyze PhACs, models to calculate Predicted Environmental Concentrations (PECs) have been developed. However a comparison between MECs and PECs, taking into account the methods of calculations and peculiarly the parameters included in the calculation (consumption data, pharmacokinetic parameters, elimination rate in STPs and in the environment), is necessary to assess the validity of PECs. MEC variations of sixteen target PhACs [acetaminophen (ACE), amlodipine (AML), atenolol (ATE), caffeine (CAF), carbamazepine (CAR), doxycycline (DOX), epoxycarbamazepine (EPO), fluvoxamine (FLU), furosemide (FUR), hydrochlorothiazide (HYD), ifosfamide (IFO), losartan (LOS), pravastatin (PRA), progesterone (PROG), ramipril (RAM), trimetazidine (TRI)] have been evaluated during one hydrological cycle, from October 2011 to October 2012 and compared to PECs calculated by using an adaptation of the models proposed by Heberer and Feldmann (2005) and EMEA (2006). Comparison of PECs and MECS has been achieved for six molecules: ATE, CAR, DOX, FUR, HYD and PRA. DOX, FUR and HYD present differences between PECs and MECs on an annual basis but their temporal evolutions follow the same trends. PEC evaluation for these PhACs could then be possible but need some adjustments of consumption patterns, pharmacokinetic parameters and/or mechanisms of (bio)degradation. ATE, CAR and PRA are well modeled; PECs can then be used as reliable estimation of concentrations without any reserve. PMID:25080069
Researchers in Canada and the United States have been collaborating to develop and implement genomic evaluations aiming to fully integrate them into their national genetic evaluations for dairy cattle in 2009. A total of 44 Canadian traits were analyzed for 12,913 Holstein animals. For 43 out of 44...
Guo, Wenzhong; Hong, Wei; Zhang, Bin; Chen, Yuzhong; Xiong, Naixue
Mobile security is one of the most fundamental problems in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). The data transmission path will be compromised for some disabled nodes. To construct a secure and reliable network, designing an adaptive route strategy which optimizes energy consumption and network lifetime of the aggregation cost is of great importance. In this paper, we address the reliable data aggregation route problem for WSNs. Firstly, to ensure nodes work properly, we propose a data aggregation route algorithm which improves the energy efficiency in the WSN. The construction process achieved through discrete particle swarm optimization (DPSO) saves node energy costs. Then, to balance the network load and establish a reliable network, an adaptive route algorithm with the minimal energy and the maximum lifetime is proposed. Since it is a non-linear constrained multi-objective optimization problem, in this paper we propose a DPSO with the multi-objective fitness function combined with the phenotype sharing function and penalty function to find available routes. Experimental results show that compared with other tree routing algorithms our algorithm can effectively reduce energy consumption and trade off energy consumption and network lifetime. PMID:25215944
Full Text Available Mobile security is one of the most fundamental problems in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs. The data transmission path will be compromised for some disabled nodes. To construct a secure and reliable network, designing an adaptive route strategy which optimizes energy consumption and network lifetime of the aggregation cost is of great importance. In this paper, we address the reliable data aggregation route problem for WSNs. Firstly, to ensure nodes work properly, we propose a data aggregation route algorithm which improves the energy efficiency in the WSN. The construction process achieved through discrete particle swarm optimization (DPSO saves node energy costs. Then, to balance the network load and establish a reliable network, an adaptive route algorithm with the minimal energy and the maximum lifetime is proposed. Since it is a non-linear constrained multi-objective optimization problem, in this paper we propose a DPSO with the multi-objective fitness function combined with the phenotype sharing function and penalty function to find available routes. Experimental results show that compared with other tree routing algorithms our algorithm can effectively reduce energy consumption and trade off energy consumption and network lifetime.
Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this work was to assess robustness and reliability of an adaptive thresholding algorithm for the biological target volume estimation incorporating reconstruction parameters. Method. In a multicenter study, a phantom with spheres of different diameters (6.5–57.4 mm was filled with 18F-FDG at different target-to-background ratios (TBR: 2.5–70 and scanned for different acquisition periods (2–5 min. Image reconstruction algorithms were used varying number of iterations and postreconstruction transaxial smoothing. Optimal thresholds (TS for volume estimation were determined as percentage of the maximum intensity in the cross section area of the spheres. Multiple regression techniques were used to identify relevant predictors of TS. Results. The goodness of the model fit was high (R2: 0.74–0.92. TBR was the most significant predictor of TS. For all scanners, except the Gemini scanners, FWHM was an independent predictor of TS. Significant differences were observed between scanners of different models, but not between different scanners of the same model. The shrinkage on cross validation was small and indicative of excellent reliability of model estimation. Conclusions. Incorporation of postreconstruction filtering FWHM in an adaptive thresholding algorithm for the BTV estimation allows obtaining a robust and reliable method to be applied to a variety of different scanners, without scanner-specific individual calibration.
To determine reliability of preliminary evaluations for canine hip dysplasia (CHD) performed by the Orthopedic Foundation for Animals on dogs between 3 and 18 months of age. Retrospective analysis of data from the Orthopedic Foundation for Animals database. 2,332 Golden Retrievers, Labrador Retrievers, German Shepherd Dogs, and Rottweilers for which preliminary evaluation had been performed between 3 and 18 months of age and for which results of a definitive evaluation performed after 24 months of age were available. Each radiograph was evaluated, and hip joint status was graded as excellent, good, fair, or borderline phenotype or mild, moderate, or severe dysplasia. Preliminary evaluations were performed by 1 radiologist; definitive evaluations were the consensus of 3 radiologists. Reliability of preliminary evaluations was calculated as the percentage of definitive evaluations (normal vs dysplastic) that were unchanged from preliminary evaluations. Reliability of a preliminary evaluation of normal hip joint phenotype decreased significantly as the preliminary evaluation changed from excellent (100%) to good (97.9%) to fair (76.9%) phenotype. Reliability of a preliminary evaluation of CHD increased significantly as the preliminary evaluation changed from mild (84.4%) to moderate (97.4%) CHD. Reliability of preliminary evaluations increased significantly as age at the time of preliminary evaluation increased, regardless of whether dogs received a preliminary evaluation of normal phenotype or CHD. Results suggest that preliminary evaluations of hip joint status in dogs are generally reliable. However, dogs that receive a preliminary evaluation of fair phenotype of mild CHD should be reevaluated after 24 months of age
The role and the development of Sensory Evaluation in food industry are indicated briefly and the importance of reliability of Sensory Evaluation results are stressed. The purpose and methods of Sensory Valuation, Panel, physical requirements and statistical evaluation of data constitute the main factors which have to be considered in Sensory Evaluation, and were explained and discussed in detail.
Full Text Available Non-destructive evaluation (NDE has offered unprecedented utilize for bridge management body to monitor structural health. None of these evaluation methods can provide all the damage information (damage category, quantitative assessment alone which is required for necessary repair activity and condition rating of structure. In most of the cases, the response of one evaluation method implies the presence of a defect among the multiple defects to which the evaluation method is sensitive. This paper is concerned with the combination of different non-destructive testing to find out the type of damage with the most efficient way. The different response (positive or negative obtained from each combination and how it confirms the defect is shown through the mathematical set operation. Thus, this study would assist field investigator to ascertain the type of defect which subsequently aids to rate structure based on damage type.
Korhonen, Jari; Burini, Nino; You, Junyong;
The typical procedure for evaluating the performance of different objective quality metrics and indices involves comparisons between subjective quality ratings and the quality indices obtained using the objective metrics in question on the known video sequences. Several correlation indicators can...
Trintis, Ionut; Munk-Nielsen, Stig; Abrahamsen, Flemming;
and generator side. Operating in this way, the electrical and thermal stress factors are decreased on the power electronic devices, increasing their lifetime. The simulation results using this method show efficiency increase and devices temperature cycles slightly decreased. Experimental results on a...... wind turbine power stack shows efficiency increase in the high power region.......This paper presents a control method that reduces the losses in wind turbine converters adaptively controlling the grid converter. The dc-link voltage adapts its reference based on the system state and therefore reduces the stored energy, and is therefore kept at the minimum necessary for the grid...
M, Thirumaran; Abarna, S; P, Lakshmi
Now-a-days they are very much considering about the changes to be done at shorter time since the reaction time needs are decreasing every moment. Business Logic Evaluation Model (BLEM) are the proposed solution targeting business logic automation and facilitating business experts to write sophisticated business rules and complex calculations without costly custom programming. BLEM is powerful enough to handle service manageability issues by analyzing and evaluating the computability and traceability and other criteria of modified business logic at run time. The web service and QOS grows expensively based on the reliability of the service. Hence the service provider of today things that reliability is the major factor and any problem in the reliability of the service should overcome then and there in order to achieve the expected level of reliability. In our paper we propose business logic evaluation model for web service reliability analysis using Finite State Machine (FSM) where FSM will be extended to analy...
This report describes the results of research into the effects of environment-induced noise on the evaluation process for anomaly detectors in the cyber security domain. This research was conducted during a 10-week summer internship program from the 19th of August, 2012 to the 23rd of August, 2012 at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California. The research performed lies within the larger context of the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power (LADWP) Smart Grid cyber security project, a Department of Energy (DoE) funded effort involving the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology and the University of Southern California/ Information Sciences Institute. The results of the present effort constitute an important contribution towards building more rigorous evaluation paradigms for anomaly-based intrusion detectors in complex cyber physical systems such as the Smart Grid. Anomaly detection is a key strategy for cyber intrusion detection and operates by identifying deviations from profiles of nominal behavior and are thus conceptually appealing for detecting "novel" attacks. Evaluating the performance of such a detector requires assessing: (a) how well it captures the model of nominal behavior, and (b) how well it detects attacks (deviations from normality). Current evaluation methods produce results that give insufficient insight into the operation of a detector, inevitably resulting in a significantly poor characterization of a detectors performance. In this work, we first describe a preliminary taxonomy of key evaluation constructs that are necessary for establishing rigor in the evaluation regime of an anomaly detector. We then focus on clarifying the impact of the operational environment on the manifestation of attacks in monitored data. We show how dynamic and evolving environments can introduce high variability into the data stream perturbing detector performance. Prior research has focused on understanding the impact of this
Raaij, van W. Fred; Pruyn, Ad Th.H.
A control and attribution model of service production and evaluation is proposed. Service production consists of the stages specification (input), realization (throughput), and outcome (output). Customers may exercise control over all three stages of the service. Critical factors of service producti
Rahim, A.; Javaid, N.; M Aslam; Qasim, U.; Khan, Z. A.
Extensive energy is consumed by Transceiver communication operation . Existing research on MAC layer focuses to maximize battery-powered sensor node's life. Bottleneck of MAC layer protocol design for WBAN is to achieve high reliability and energy minimization. Majority of MAC protocols designed for WBANs are based upon TDMA approach. However, a new protocol needs to be defined to achieve high energy efficiency, fairness and avoid extra energy consumption due to synchronization.
Alba-Ruiz, Ruben; Bermúdez-Tamayo, Clara; Pernett, Jaime Jiménez; Garcia-Gutierrez, Jose Francisco; Cózar-Olmo, José Manuel; Valero-Aguilera, Beatriz
Background: People who use the Internet to research health topics do not usually find all the information they need and do not trust what they read. This study was designed to assess the reliability, accessibility, readability, and popularity of cancer Web sites in Spanish and to analyze the suitability of Web site content in accordance with the specific information needs of cancer patients. Materials and Methods: This was a two-phase, cross-sectional, descriptive study. The first ph...
The open-source, public domain JUPITER (Joint Universal Parameter IdenTification and Evaluation of Reliability) API (Application Programming Interface) provides conventions and Fortran-90 modules to develop applications (computer programs) for analyzing process models. The input ...
Full Text Available Evaluate the reliability and validity of the Youth Self-Report (YSR as a screening tool for mental health problems among young people vulnerable to HIV in Ethiopia.A cross-sectional assessment of young people currently receiving social services.Young people age 15-18 participated in a study where a translated and adapted version of the YSR was administered by trained nurses, followed by an assessment by Ethiopian psychiatrists. Internal reliability of YSR syndrome scales were assessed using Chronbach's alpha. Test-retest reliability was assessed through repeating the YSR one month later. To assess validity, analysis of the sensitivity and specificity of the YSR compared to the psychiatrist assessment was conducted.Across the eight syndrome scales, the YSR best measured the diagnosis of anxiety/depression and social problems among young women, and attention problems among young men. Among individual YSR syndrome scales, internal reliability ranged from unacceptable (Chronback's alpha = 0.11, rule-breaking behavior among young women to good (α≥0.71, anxiety/depression among young women. Anxiety/depression scores of ≥8.5 among young women also had good sensitivity (0.833 and specificity (0.754 to predict a true diagnosis. The YSR syndrome scales for social problems among young women and attention problems among young men also had fair consistency and validity measurements. Most YSR scores had significant positive correlations between baseline and post-one month administration. Measures of reliability and validity for most other YSR syndrome scales were fair to poor.The adapted, personally administered, Amharic version of the YSR has sufficient reliability and validity in identifying young vulnerable women with anxiety/depression and/or social problems, and young men with attention problems; which were the most common mental health disorders observed by psychiatrists among the migrant populations in this study. Further assessment of the
Meyer, K.; Sprott, H.; Mannion, A. F.
OBJECTIVE: In patients with chronic pain, catastrophizing is a significant determinant of self-rated pain intensity and disability. The Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS) was developed to assist with both treatment planning and outcome assessment; to date, no German version has been validated. METHODS: A cross-cultural adaptation of the PCS into German was carried out, strictly according to recommended methods. A questionnaire booklet containing the PCS, visual analogue scales (numeric rating s...
Grønbæk, Lars Jesper; Schwefel, Hans-Peter; Ceccarelli, Andrea;
In future inhomogeneous, pervasive and highly dynamic networks, end-nodes may often only rely on unreliable and uncertain observations to diagnose hidden network states and decide upon possible remediation actions. Inherent challenges exists to identify good and timely decision strategies...... to improve resilience of end-node services. In this paper we present a framework, called ODDR (Observation, Diagnosis, Decision, Remediation), for improving resilience of network based services through integration of self-adaptive monitoring services, network diagnosis, decision actions, and finally...
İlhan, Mustafa; Bayram ÇETİN
The purpose of this study is to adapt the Implicit Theory of Intelligence Scale (ITIS) by Abd-El-Fattah and Yates (2006) to Turkish and to investigate its psychometric properties. The study was conducted on four different samples which consisted of 689 students who studied different subjects at the Ziya Gokalp Faculty of Education, Dicle University, during the Fall Term of the 2012-2013 Academic Year. The findings on the linguistic equivalence indicated that the correlation between the items ...
This study aims at developing a comprehensive teaching evaluation system, a more useful educational technology, for achieving relatively reliable and valid results that can be well acknowledged by instructors, students, and by administrators. Adopting multi-method approaches, the study integrates student evaluation, expert evaluation and regular…
Qualitative indices in multi-objective decision can usually be evaluated and measured by mathematical methods or models, but the obtained results are sometimes inaccurate because of fuzziness of indices. To improve the accuracy and reliability of the evaluation results, set-value statistic principle is applied, and accordingly four evaluation methods are obtained. Meanwhile, these methods are compared briefly.
There is a wide range of criteria and features for evaluating reliability in engineering; but as many as there are, only one of them has been chosen to evaluate reliability of Digital Protective Relays (DPR) in the technical documentation: Mean (operating) Time Between Failures (MTBF), which has gained universal currency and has been specified in technical manuals, information sheets, tender documentation as the key indicator of DPR reliability. But is the choice of this criterion indeed wise? The answer to this question is being sought by the author of this article.
Full Text Available There is a great diversity in the transmission technologies in current data networks. Individual technologies are in most cases incompatible at physical and partially also at the link layer of the reference ISO/OSI model. Network compatibility, as the ability to transmit data, is realizable through the third layer, which is able to guarantee the operation of the different devices across their technological differences. The proposed inverse packet multiplexer addresses increase of the speed and reliability of packet transmission to the third layer, and at the same time it increases the stability of the data communication by the regulation of the delay value during the transmission. This article presents implementation of a communication system and its verification in real conditions. The conclusion compares the strengths and weaknesses of the proposed control system.
Electric power systems are experiencing dramatic changes with respect to structure, operation and regulation and are facing increasing pressure due to environmental and societal constraints. Bulk electric system reliability is an important consideration in power system planning, design and operation particularly in the new competitive environment. A wide range of methods have been developed to perform bulk electric system reliability evaluation. Theoretically, sequential Monte Carlo simulation can include all aspects and contingencies in a power system and can be used to produce an informative set of reliability indices. It has become a practical and viable tool for large system reliability assessment technique due to the development of computing power and is used in the studies described in this thesis. The well-being approach used in this research provides the opportunity to integrate an accepted deterministic criterion into a probabilistic framework. This research work includes the investigation of important factors that impact bulk electric system adequacy evaluation and security constrained adequacy assessment using the well-being analysis framework. Load forecast uncertainty is an important consideration in an electrical power system. This research includes load forecast uncertainty considerations in bulk electric system reliability assessment and the effects on system, load point and well-being indices and reliability index probability distributions are examined. There has been increasing worldwide interest in the utilization of wind power as a renewable energy source over the last two decades due to enhanced public awareness of the environment. Increasing penetration of wind power has significant impacts on power system reliability, and security analyses become more uncertain due to the unpredictable nature of wind power. The effects of wind power additions in generating and bulk electric system reliability assessment considering site wind speed
Wahawisan J; Salazar M; Walters R; Alkhateeb FM; Attarabeen O
Objective: To evaluate the reliability of a peer evaluation instrument in a longitudinal team-based learning setting. Methods: Student pharmacists were instructed to evaluate the contributions of their peers. Evaluations were analyzed for the variance of the scores by identifying low, medium, and high scores. Agreement between performance ratings within each group of students was assessed via intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). Results: We found little variation in the standard ...
This paper discusses a development of the quantitative method to evaluate the reliability for the maintenance plan with respect to the risk impact both for Core Damage Frequency and Plant Trip Frequency. The quantitative approach includes the considerations for the effect of the Condition Based Maintenance (CBM) changing in addition to the Time Based Maintenance (TBM), and the reliability for the maintenance plan is evaluated using the actual plant-specific maintenance information collected in the plant. In this paper, the developed method to evaluate the reliability for the maintenance plan using the risk information is described. And, the tested evaluation to confirm the effectiveness of this quantitative method is also described. And Furthermore, the necessary condition for the plant-specific maintenance information to use this quantitative method is described. (author)
Reneman, MF; Dijkstra, PU; Westmaas, M; Goeken, LNH; Göeken, L.N.H.
The objectives of this study were to establish test-retest reliability of lifting and carrying of a functional capacity evaluation (FCE) on two consecutive days and to verify the need for a 2-day protocol. A cohort of 50 patients (39 men, 11 women) with nonspecific low back pain were evaluated using
Mannion, A. F.; Junge, A.; Fairbank, J. C. T.; Dvorak, J.; Grob, D.
Patient-orientated assessment methods are of paramount importance in the evaluation of treatment outcome. The Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) is one of the condition-specific questionnaires recommended for use with back pain patients. To date, no German version has been published in the peer-reviewed literature. A cross-cultural adaptation of the ODI for the German language was carried out, according to established guidelines. One hundred patients with chronic low-back pain (35 conservative, ...
Heylen, Evelyn; Labeeuw, Wouter; Deconinck, Geert; van Hertem, Dirk
Evolutions in the power system challenge the manner in which power system reliability is managed. In particular, currently used reliability criteria, typically the deterministic N-1 criterion, are increasingly inadequate. Moving to an alternative approach is difficult as quantifying benefits is hard in a multifaceted environment and system operators are reluctant to move away from the easy and transparent existing criterion. This paper presents a generic framework to evaluate and compare soci...
Conklin, Michael J.
This thesis is an independent partial evaluation of the Safety Reliability and Maintainability Program (SR&M). The two Measures of effectiveness which were used to see if the goals of this program were realized in the areas of maintainability and reliability are the Maintenance Manhours per Flight Hour and the Mean Flight Hours Between failures. Standard statistical analysis was performed utilizing the software packages GRAFSTAT and MINITAB.
Patnana, Arun Kumar; Vabbalareddy, Raja Sekhar; V Vanga, Narasimha Rao
ABSTRACT% Dental age is important for treatment planning in the specialities of pedodontics and orthodontics. Although, Demirjian's method was considered standard for dental age estimation, it may not be reliable for all population. Aim: The goal of the study was to evaluate the reliability of Demir-jian's, Haavikko's and Willems method of dental age estimation methods in Visakhapatnam (Andhra Pradesh, India) children. Study design: One hundred and two children of 6 to 14 years old who underw...
Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the reliability of a peer evaluation instrument in a longitudinal team-based learning setting. Methods: Student pharmacists were instructed to evaluate the contributions of their peers. Evaluations were analyzed for the variance of the scores by identifying low, medium, and high scores. Agreement between performance ratings within each group of students was assessed via intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC. Results: We found little variation in the standard deviation (SD based on the score means among the high, medium, and low scores within each group. The lack of variation in SD of results between groups suggests that the peer evaluation instrument produces precise results. The ICC showed strong concordance among raters. Conclusions: Findings suggest that our student peer evaluation instrument provides a reliable method for peer assessment in team-based learning settings.
Wahawisan, Joy; Salazar, Miguel; Walters, Robin; Alkhateeb, Fadi M.; Attarabeen, Omar
Objective: To evaluate the reliability of a peer evaluation instrument in a longitudinal team-based learning setting. Methods: Student pharmacists were instructed to evaluate the contributions of their peers. Evaluations were analyzed for the variance of the scores by identifying low, medium, and high scores. Agreement between performance ratings within each group of students was assessed via intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). Results: We found little variation in the standard deviation (SD) based on the score means among the high, medium, and low scores within each group. The lack of variation in SD of results between groups suggests that the peer evaluation instrument produces precise results. The ICC showed strong concordance among raters. Conclusions: Findings suggest that our student peer evaluation instrument provides a reliable method for peer assessment in team-based learning settings. PMID:27011776
Full Text Available This paper presents evidence on the reliability and validity of the Serbian adaptation of the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQue, an instrument designed to comprehensively assess emotional intelligence conceived as a constellation of emotionrelated self-perceptions. Study participants were 254 adults, who completed the Serbian TEIQue, NEO-FFI, MSCEIT, EQ-short, and RSPWB. The results indicate that the adapted TEIQue is a psychometrically sound assessment tool: internal consistencies were mostly acceptable at facet, generally good at factor, and excellent at whole-scale level; the fourfactor structure was confirmed by means of CFA; convergent-discriminant validity was established through meaningful associations with related constructs, indicating that trait EI is closely aligned with affect and self-efficacy related constructs from the realm of personality (i.e., E, N, C, and Empathy, but shows only moderate overlap with ability EI; finally, incremental validity was demonstrated in the prediction of psychological wellbeing, over and above the Big Five. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179018
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The Psoriatic Arthritis Quality of Life (PsAQoL questionnaire is a disease- specific instrument developed to measure quality of life (QoL in patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA. The aim of this study was to translate the measure into Dutch and to determine its psychometric properties. METHOD: Translation of the original English PsAQoL into Dutch was performed by bilingual and lay panel. Ten field-test interviews with PsA patients were performed to assess face and content validity. In total, 211 PsA patients were included in a test-retest postal survey to investigate the reliability and construct validity of the Dutch adaptation of the PsAQoL. The PsAQoL, Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ and Skindex-17 were administered on two different occasions approximately two weeks apart. RESULTS: The Dutch version of the PsAQoL was found to be relevant, understandable and easy to complete in only a few minutes. It correlated as expected with the HAQ (Spearman's ρ = 0.72 and the 2 subscales of the Skindex-17 (ρ = 0.40 for the psychosocial and ρ = 0.46 for the symptom scale. Furthermore, the measure had good internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.92 and test-retest reliability (ρ = 0.89. The PsAQoL was able to define groups of patients based on self-reported general health status, self-reported severity of PsA and flare of arthritis. Duration of PsA did not influence PsAQoL scores. CONCLUSIONS: The Dutch version of the PsAQoL is a valid and reliable questionnaire suitable for use in clinical or research settings to asses PsA-specific QoL.
Full Text Available Abstract Background In the Global postural re-education (GPR evaluation, posture alterations are associated with anterior or posterior muscular chain impairments. Our goal was to assess the reliability of the GPR muscular chain evaluation. Methods Design: Inter-rater reliability study. Fifty physical therapists (PTs and two experts trained in GPR assessed the standing posture from photographs of five youths with idiopathic scoliosis using a posture analysis grid with 23 posture indices (PI. The PTs and experts indicated the muscular chain associated with posture alterations. The PTs were also divided into three groups according to their experience in GPR. Experts’ results (after consensus were used to verify agreement between PTs and experts for muscular chain and posture assessments. We used Kappa coefficients (K and the percentage of agreement (%A to assess inter-rater reliability and intra-class coefficients (ICC for determining agreement between PTs and experts. Results For the muscular chain evaluation, reliability was moderate to substantial for 12 PI for the PTs (%A: 56 to 82; K: 0.42 to 0.76 and perfect for 19 PI for the experts. For posture assessment, reliability was moderate to substantial for 12 PI for the PTs (%A > 60%; K: 0.42 to 0.75 and moderate to perfect for 18 PI for the experts (%A: 80 to 100; K: 0.55 to 1.00. The agreement between PTs and experts was good for most muscular chain evaluations (18 PI; ICC: 0.82 to 0.99 and PI (19 PI; ICC: 0.78 to 1.00. Conclusions The GPR muscular chain evaluation has good reliability for most posture indices. GPR evaluation should help guide physical therapists in targeting affected muscles for treatment of abnormal posture patterns.
This standards, codes and practices survey is devoted to the problem of reliability of R and D especially research reactor fuel (RRF) performance-related processes. Regulatory R and D evaluations were based on one standard and just few of them provide correlation to other relative standards whereas synthetic process approach reflects actual status of particular R and D practices. Fuel performance regulatory parameters are based on quality standards. A reliability process-based method similar to PSA/FMEA is proposed to evaluate RRF performance- related parameters in terms of reactor safety. (author)
Full Text Available In allusion to the randomness of output power of distributed generation (DG, a reliability evaluation model based on sequential Monte Carlo simulation (SMCS for distribution system with DG is proposed. Operating states of the distribution system can be sampled by SMCS in chronological order thus the corresponding output power of DG can be generated. The proposed method has been tested on feeder F4 of IEEE-RBTS Bus 6. The results show that reliability evaluation of distribution system considering the uncertainty of output power of DG can be effectively implemented by SMCS.
For the analysis of Czechoslovak nuclear power plant safety systems the fault tree method has been used. For the evaluation of availability or probability of the first failure of repairable complex systems with periodical testing, the direct simulation Monte Carlo method has been applied. In parallel, several analytical codes were developed. Results of the analyses have shown the availability of safety systems. They have revealed some components and events where increased reliability is essential for the increase of the system reliability. Effects of periodical testing carried out on these systems were also evaluated. (author)
This paper presents a reliability evaluation model based on the 'phased mission method' combined with the Markov model and the results of its application to the decay heat removal system (DHRS) of a large tank-type FBR. The new approach divides the mission time into several time phases and the unreliability value in each time phase is calculated by solving simultaneous differential equations based on the Markov model. An application to an FBR decay heat removal system evaluation has shown that this realistic approach offers a methodology for improving reliability values by a factor of 10 as compared with the conventional fault tree method. (author)
Full Text Available A new Digital Reactor Protection System (DRPS based on VME bus Single Board Computer has been developed by KOPEC to prevent software Common Mode Failure(CMF inside digital system. The new DRPS has been proved to be an effective digital safety system to prevent CMF by Defense-in-Depth and Diversity (DID&D analysis. However, for practical use in Nuclear Power Plants, the performance test and the reliability test are essential for the digital system qualification. In this study, a single channel of DRPS prototype has been manufactured for the evaluation of DRPS capabilities. The integrated functional tests are performed and the system reliability is analyzed and tested. The results of reliability test show that the application software of DRPS has a very high reliability compared with the analog reactor protection systems.
Lee, Go-Eun; Cha, Seung-Tae; Shin, Je-Seok;
Wind power is ideally a renewable energy with no fuel cost, but has a risk to reduce reliability of the whole system because of uncertainty of the output. If the reserve of the system is increased, the reliability of the system may be improved. However, the cost would be increased. Therefore the...... reserve needs to be estimated considering the trade-off between reliability and economic aspects. This paper suggests a methodology to estimate the appropriate reserve, when wind power is connected to the power system. As a case study, when wind power is connected to power system of Korea, the effects on...... reliability and economic aspects according to various reserve capacity is evaluated at HLII level and the appropriate reserve is determined....
Full Text Available The two-terminal reliability calculation for wireless sensor networks (WSNs is a #P-hard problem. The reliability calculation of WSNs on the multicast model provides an even worse combinatorial explosion of node states with respect to the calculation of WSNs on the unicast model; many real WSNs require the multicast model to deliver information. This research first provides a formal definition for the WSN on the multicast model. Next, a symbolic OBDD_Multicast algorithm is proposed to evaluate the reliability of WSNs on the multicast model. Furthermore, our research on OBDD_Multicast construction avoids the problem of invalid expansion, which reduces the number of subnetworks by identifying the redundant paths of two adjacent nodes and s-t unconnected paths. Experiments show that the OBDD_Multicast both reduces the complexity of the WSN reliability analysis and has a lower running time than Xing’s OBDD- (ordered binary decision diagram- based algorithm.
In the nuclear power industry, digital technology has been introduced recently for the Instrumentation and Control (I and C) of reactor systems. For its application to the safety critical system such as Reactor Protection System(RPS), a reliability assessment is indispensable. Unlike traditional reliability models, software reliability is hard to evaluate, and should be evaluated throughout development lifecycle. In the development process of Digital Plant Protection System(DPPS), the concept of verification and validation (V and V) was introduced to assure the quality of the product. Also, test should be performed to assure the reliability. Verification procedure with model checking is relatively well defined, however, test is labor intensive and not well organized. In this paper, we developed the methodological process of combining the verification with validation test case generation. For this, we used PVS for the table specification and for the theorem proving. As a result, we could not only save time to design test case but also get more effective and complete verification related test case set. Add to this, we could extract some meaningful factors useful for the reliability evaluation both from the V and V and verification combined tests
Nazila Salary Majd
Full Text Available Background and Aim: Auditory-perceptual assessment of voice a main approach in the diagnosis and therapy improvement of voice disorders. Despite, there are few Iranian studies about auditory-perceptual assessment of voice. The aim of present study was development and determination of validity and rater reliability of Persian version of the Consensus Auditory Perceptual Evaluation of Voice (CAPE -V.Methods: The qualitative content validity was detected by collecting 10 questionnaires from 9 experienced speech and language pathologists and a linguist. For reliability purposes, the voice samples of 40 dysphonic (neurogenic, functional with and without laryngeal lesions adults (20-45 years of age and 10 normal healthy speakers were recorded. The samples included sustain of vowels and reading the 6 sentences of Persian version of the consensus auditory perceptual evaluation of voice called the ATSHA.Results: The qualitative content validity was proved for developed Persian version of the consensus auditory perceptual evaluation of voice. Cronbach’s alpha was high (0.95. Intra-rater reliability coefficients ranged from 0.86 for overall severity to 0.42 for pitch; inter-rater reliability ranged from 0.85 for overall severity to 0.32 for pitch (p<0.05.Conclusion: The ATSHA can be used as a valid and reliable Persian scale for auditory perceptual assessment of voice in adults.
Halsaa, K E; Sødring, K M; Bjelland, E; Finsrud, K; Bautz-Holter, E
The Sødring Motor Evaluation of Stroke patients is an instrument for physiotherapists to evaluate motor function and activities in stroke patients. The rating reflects quality as well as quantity of the patient's unassisted performance within three domains: leg, arm and gross function. The inter-rater reliability of the method was studied in a sample of 30 patients admitted to a stroke rehabilitation unit. Three therapists were involved in the study; two therapists assessed the same patient on two consecutive days in a balanced design. Cohen's weighted kappa and McNemar's test of symmetry were used as measures of item reliability, and the intraclass correlation coefficient was used to express the reliability of the sumscores. For 24 out of 32 items the weighted kappa statistic was excellent (0.75-0.98), while 7 items had a kappa statistic within the range 0.53-0.74 (fair to good). The reliability of one item was poor (0.13). The intraclass correlation coefficient for the three sumscores was 0.97, 0.91 and 0.97. We conclude that the Sødring Motor Evaluation of Stroke patients is a reliable measure of motor function in stroke patients undergoing rehabilitation. PMID:10599901
Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of multiple centroids to study the adaptability of alfalfa genotypes (Medicago sativa L.. In this method, the genotypes are compared with ideotypes defined by the bissegmented regression model, according to the researcher's interest. Thus, genotype classification is carried out as determined by the objective of the researcher and the proposed recommendation strategy. Despite the great potential of the method, it needs to be evaluated under the biological context (with real data. In this context, we used data on the evaluation of dry matter production of 92 alfalfa cultivars, with 20 cuttings, from an experiment in randomized blocks with two repetitions carried out from November 2004 to June 2006. The multiple centroid method proved efficient for classifying alfalfa genotypes. Moreover, it showed no unambiguous indications and provided that ideotypes were defined according to the researcher's interest, facilitating data interpretation.
Ding, Yi; Cheng, Lin; Zhang, Yonghong;
increased the burden of system operator for securing power system reliability during the operational phase. Moreover, the power system restructuring and deregulation have not only introduced the competition for reducing cost but also changed the strategy of reliability evaluation and management of power...... systems. The conventional long-term reliability evaluation techniques have been well developed, which have been more focused on planning and expansion rather than operation of power systems. This paper proposes a new technique for evaluating operational reliabilities of restructured power systems with...... reserve provides, fast reserve providers and transmission network in restructured power systems. A contingency management schema for real time operation considering its coupling with the day-ahead market is proposed. The time-sequential Monte Carlo simulation is used to model the chronological...
Hydraulic fracturing stress measurement technique is the most well-known method for in situ stress measurements. However, a general method has not yet been established for estimating the reliability of the evaluated in situ stress. This paper presents a new method for estimating the reliability of the in situ stress evaluated by hydraulic fracturing stress measurement technique which utilizes a shut-in pressure and an orientation of cracks induced by hydraulic fracturing. The validity of the method was examined by applying it to two sets of artificial data constructed for eight cracks under a given stress state. The shut-in pressure for each crack was given by assuming the shut-in pressure to be equal to the normal stress acting perpendicularly to the crack. It was revealed that the shut-in pressure for each crack was most crucial for obtaining reliable results. (author)
Full Text Available The smart grid concept has emerged as a result of the requirement for renewable energy resources and application of new techniques. It is proposed as a practical future form of power distribution system. Evaluating the reliability of smart grids is of great importance and significance. Focusing on the perspective of the consumers, this paper proposes a layered fault tree model to distinguish and separate two different smart grid power supply modes. Revised importance measures for the components in the fault tree are presented considering load priority, aiming to find the weak parts of the system and to improve the design and using. A corresponding hierarchical Monte Carlo simulation procedure for reliability evaluation is proposed based on the layered fault tree model. The method proposed in this paper is tested on a case of reliability assessment for the Future Renewable Electric Energy Delivery and Management (FREEDM system. The proposed technique can be applicable to other forms of smart grids.
XIAO Yu-feng; CHEN Shan-zhi; LI Xin; LI Yu-hong
An enhanced ordered binary decision diagram (EOBDD) algorithm is proposed to evaluate the reliability of wireless sensor networks (WSNs), based on the considerations of the common cause failure (CCF) and a large number of nodes in WSNs. The EOBDD algorithm analyzes the common cause event (CCE) and the network structure when CCE takes place according to the stochastic graph and the CCF model of WSNs. After constructing the ordered binary decision diagram (OBDD) of the original network with node expansion, it uses a set of OBDD variables (SOV) to guide reliability computations along this OBDD. The two steps about OBDD can decrease the cost of OBDD constructions and storage. Furthermore, the efficient OBDD structure and Hash tables can greatly decrease redundant computations of isomorphs. The experiment results show that the EOBDD can be used to evaluate the reliability of WSN efficiently.
Full Text Available There is a growing amount of evidence that alteration in pain processing by the peripheral and central nervous system play a role in osteoarthritis pain, leading to neuropathic-like symptoms. It is essential to identify knee and hip osteoarthritis patients with a neuropathic pain profile in order to offer such patients education and additional treatment options besides conventional pain treatment. The painDETECT Questionnaire is a self-report questionnaire developed to discriminate between nociceptive and neuropathic pain. This questionnaire was modified to fit patients suffering from knee osteoarthritis. The aim of this study was to translate and cross-culturally adapt the modified painDETECT Questionnaire to the Dutch language and to provide a modified version to fit patients with hip osteoarthritis. Reliability for internal consistency, repeatability and floor and ceiling effects were subsequently assessed. A total of 278 patients were included in the reliability study and 123 patients in the repeatability analysis. The Dutch modified painDETECT Questionnaire shows good internal consistency and small relative measurement errors, represented by a good intraclass correlation coefficient. Absolute measurement error, represented by the Standard Error of Measurement, was acceptable. However, a measurement bias might be present when it comes to repeatability. To our knowledge, this study is the first to provide a Dutch modified painDETECT Questionnaire to fit hip and knee osteoarthritis patients and to assess internal consistency, reliability and agreement. International guidelines were followed in the translation process and this study has ample sample size with an adequate time interval for repeatability. Based on this study, the Dutch modified painDETECT Questionnaire seems to be fit as a discriminative tool to identify knee and hip osteoarthritis patients with a neuropathic pain profile. Whether it is also suitable as an evaluative tool to
Martinková, Patrícia; Zvára jr., K.; Zvárová, Jana; Zvára, K.
Roč. 45, č. 2 (2006), s. 310-315. ISSN 0026-1270 Grant ostatní: Evropské sociální fondy CZ04307/42011/0013 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : education * evaluation * Internet * reliability * bioinformatics Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science Impact factor: 1.684, year: 2006
Wang Wuhong; Zhang Dianye; Cao Qi
In this paper,the technique for human error rate prediction (THERP) is first presented to discuss rationale and principal advantages and disadvantages.Then, based on operator behaviour paradigm which can describe human characteristics,an approach is formulated in a mathematical way as a means of evaluating the effect of operator erroneous actions on reliability of manmachine systems in dynamical evolving environment.
Boring and Gertman (2005) introduced a novel method that augments heuristic usability evaluation methods with that of the human reliability analysis method of SPAR-H. By assigning probabilistic modifiers to individual heuristics, it is possible to arrive at the usability error probability (UEP). Although this UEP is not a literal probability of error, it nonetheless provides a quantitative basis to heuristic evaluation. This method allows one to seamlessly prioritize and identify usability issues (i.e., a higher UEP requires more immediate fixes). However, the original version of this method required the usability evaluator to assign priority weights to the final UEP, thus allowing the priority of a usability issue to differ among usability evaluators. The purpose of this paper is to explore an alternative approach to standardize the priority weighting of the UEP in an effort to improve the method's reliability. (authors)
Perillo, Anthony D; Spada, Ashley H; Calkins, Cynthia; Jeglic, Elizabeth L
Research has suggested questionable reliability of diagnosing mental abnormality during Sexually Violent Predator (SVP) evaluations, despite this being a necessary requirement for SVP commitment. Findings have been inconsistent across studies, and little is known about the extent of such trends across diagnoses and clinicians. The current study includes data from 375 sex offenders referred for evaluation for SVP commitment in New Jersey. Clinicians (n = 128) rendered a variety of diagnoses, most commonly Pedophilia. Results suggested questionable agreement across paraphilic and non-paraphilic diagnoses, although agreement was fair for diagnoses of Pedophilia. Further analyses of cases (n = 49) involving clinicians receiving a large number of referrals (n = 14) were generally consistent with these findings, with no outlier effect apparent. Findings suggest questionable diagnostic reliability to be a widespread issue in SVP evaluations, present across a variety of diagnoses and across the general body of clinicians involved in evaluations. PMID:24274914
Song, Guang-Ying; Zhao, Zhi-He; Ding, Yin; Bai, Yu-Xing; Lin WANG; He, Hong; Shen, Gang; Li, Wei-Ran; Baumrind, Sheldon; Geng, Zhi; XU, TIAN-MIN
This study aimed to assess the reliability of experienced Chinese orthodontists in evaluating treatment outcome and to determine the correlations between three diagnostic information sources. Sixty-nine experienced Chinese orthodontic specialists each evaluated the outcome of orthodontic treatment of 108 Chinese patients. Three different information sources: study casts (SC), lateral cephalometric X-ray images (LX) and facial photographs (PH) were generated at the end of treatment for 108 pat...
Technique for evaluating reliability of various flowsheets for NPPs with WWER reactors in the case of power decrease is developed and based. Possibility of using mathematics apparatus of the normal Markov model to evaluate the effect of the minimal (zero) load at partial (complete) failure and getting into iodine pit is proved. The suggested technique can be used for solving the problems of structural optimization with allowance for time dynamics of WWER reactor manoeuvrability
Software Reliability reviews some fundamental issues of software reliability as well as the techniques, models, and metrics used to predict the reliability of software. Topics covered include fault avoidance, fault removal, and fault tolerance, along with statistical methods for the objective assessment of predictive accuracy. Development cost models and life-cycle cost models are also discussed. This book is divided into eight sections and begins with a chapter on adaptive modeling used to predict software reliability, followed by a discussion on failure rate in software reliability growth mo
Darby, John L.
As the nuclear weapon stockpile ages, there is increased concern about common degradation ultimately leading to common cause failure of multiple weapons that could significantly impact reliability or safety. Current acceptable limits for the reliability and safety of a weapon are based on upper limits on the probability of failure of an individual item, assuming that failures among items are independent. We expanded the current acceptable limits to apply to situations with common cause failure. Then, we developed a simple screening process to quickly assess the importance of observed common degradation for both reliability and safety to determine if further action is necessary. The screening process conservatively assumes that common degradation is common cause failure. For a population with between 100 and 5000 items we applied the screening process and conclude the following. In general, for a reliability requirement specified in the Military Characteristics (MCs) for a specific weapon system, common degradation is of concern if more than 100(1-x)% of the weapons are susceptible to common degradation, where x is the required reliability expressed as a fraction. Common degradation is of concern for the safety of a weapon subsystem if more than 0.1% of the population is susceptible to common degradation. Common degradation is of concern for the safety of a weapon component or overall weapon system if two or more components/weapons in the population are susceptible to degradation. Finally, we developed a technique for detailed evaluation of common degradation leading to common cause failure for situations that are determined to be of concern using the screening process. The detailed evaluation requires that best estimates of common cause and independent failure probabilities be produced. Using these techniques, observed common degradation can be evaluated for effects on reliability and safety.
In this paper, we consider the problem of the evaluation of system reliability using statistical data obtained from reliability tests of its elements, in which the lifetimes of elements are described using an exponential distribution. We assume that this lifetime data may be reported imprecisely and that this lack of precision may be described using fuzzy sets. As the direct application of the fuzzy sets methodology leads in this case to very complicated and time consuming calculations, we propose simple approximations of fuzzy numbers using shadowed sets introduced by Pedrycz (1998). The proposed methodology may be simply extended to the case of general lifetime probability distributions.
This paper describes further work on the Success Likelihood Index Methodology (SLIM), a procedure for quantitatively evaluating human reliability in nuclear power plants and other systems. SLIM was originally developed by Human Reliability Associates during an earlier contract with Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). A further development of SLIM, SLIM-MAUD (Multi-Attribute Utility Decomposition) is also described. This is an extension of the original approach using an interactive, computer-based system. All of the work described in this report was supported by the Human Factors and Safeguards Branch of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission
Reliability study of electronic system with the physics-of-failure method has been promoted due to the increase knowledge of electronic failure mechanisms. System failure initiates from independent failure mechanisms, have effect on or affect by other failure mechanisms and finally result in system failure. Failure mechanisms in a non-repairable system have many kinds of correlation. One failure mechanism developing to a certain degree will trigger, accelerate or inhibit another or many other failure mechanisms, some kind of failure mechanisms may have the same effect on the failure site, component or system. The destructive effect will be accumulated and result in early failure. This paper presents a reliability evaluation method considering correlativity among failure mechanisms, which includes trigger, acceleration, inhibition, accumulation, and competition. Based on fundamental rule of physics of failure, decoupling methods of these correlations are discussed. With a case, reliability of electronic system is evaluated considering failure mechanism dependence. - Highlights: • Five types of failure mechanism correlations are described. • Decoupling methods of these correlations are discussed. • A reliability evaluation method considering mechanism dependence is proposed. • Results are quite different to results under failure independence assumption
Bakkiyaraj, Ashok; Kumarappan, N.
This paper presents a new approach for evaluating the reliability indices of a composite power system that adopts binary differential evolution (BDE) algorithm in the search mechanism to select the system states. These states also called dominant states, have large state probability and higher loss of load curtailment necessary to maintain real power balance. A chromosome of a BDE algorithm represents the system state. BDE is not applied for its traditional application of optimizing a non-linear objective function, but used as tool for exploring more number of dominant states by producing new chromosomes, mutant vectors and trail vectors based on the fitness function. The searched system states are used to evaluate annualized system and load point reliability indices. The proposed search methodology is applied to RBTS and IEEE-RTS test systems and results are compared with other approaches. This approach evaluates the indices similar to existing methods while analyzing less number of system states.
Avci, Rasit; Çolakkadioglu, Oguzhan; Öz, Aysegül Sükran; Akbas, Turan
The purpose of this study was to adapt "The Boundary Violations Scale" (Madden et al., 2002), which was created to measure the intergenerational boundary violations in families from the perspective of children, to Turkish and to test the validity and reliability of the Turkish version of this instrument. This instrument was developed…
Zhao, Qian; Wang, Peng; Goel, Lalit;
simulation technique has been proposed to evaluate the reserve deployment and customers' nodal reliability with high PV power penetration. The proposed method can effectively model the chronological aspects and stochastic characteristics of PV power and system operation with high computation efficiency. An...... auto-regressive and moving average model has also been developed for simulating the chronological characteristics of the solar radiation. Customers' reliability preferences have been considered in the generation and reserve deployment. Moreover, the correlation between PV power and load has been......Owing to the intermittent characteristic of solar radiation, power system reliability may be affected with high photovoltaic (PV) power penetration. To reduce large variation of PV power, additional system balancing reserve would be needed. In deregulated power systems, deployment of reserves and...
Nemeth, Noel N.; Powers, Lynn M.; Janosik, Lesley A.; Gyekenyesi, John P.
The computer program CARES/LIFE calculates the time-dependent reliability of monolithic ceramic components subjected to thermomechanical and/or proof test loading. This program is an extension of the CARES (Ceramics Analysis and Reliability Evaluation of Structures) computer program. CARES/LIFE accounts for the phenomenon of subcritical crack growth (SCG) by utilizing the power law, Paris law, or Walker equation. The two-parameter Weibull cumulative distribution function is used to characterize the variation in component strength. The effects of multiaxial stresses are modeled using either the principle of independent action (PIA), Weibull's normal stress averaging method (NSA), or Batdorf's theory. Inert strength and fatigue parameters are estimated from rupture strength data of naturally flawed specimens loaded in static, dynamic, or cyclic fatigue. Two example problems demonstrating cyclic fatigue parameter estimation and component reliability analysis with proof testing are included.
Full Text Available Today’s world economy demands that both market access and customer service be available anytime and anywhere. The Web is the only way to supply global economic needs and, due to expand the development of comprehensive web service, it does so relatively inexpensively. The ability of web service is to provide a relatively inexpensive way to deploy customer services. As days goes on the business logic of a systememerges out at a great extent where it has to react to several different competitors under different situations. Through means of a business logic system we can able to achieve faster communication of information, rampant change and increasing business complexity. As competitors gets increased, so it causes the business parties to improve by promoting the business process management to the standard level by incorporating the higher-end technology solution such as service oriented business communication and business rule management automation. Now-a-days they are very much considering about the changes to be done at shorter time since the reaction time needs are decreasing every moment. Business Logic Evaluation Model (BLEM are the proposed solution targeting business logic automation and facilitatingbusiness experts to write sophisticated business rules and complex calculations without costly custom programming. BLEM is powerful enough to handle service manageability issues by analyzing and evaluating the computability and traceability and other criteria of modified business logic at run time. The web service and QOS grows expensively based on the reliability of the service. Hence the service provider of today things that reliability is the major factor and any problem in the reliability of the service should overcome then and there in order to achieve the expected level of reliability. In our paper we proposebusiness logic evaluation model for web service reliability analysis using Finite State Machine (FSM where FSM will be extended to
Reliability based structural design insures a uniformly designed structure, in terms of safety. By considering an adequate reliability index (or probability of failure) for different parts of a structure, a reasonable balance between cost and safety of the structure can be achieved. In this study, the reliability of steel tension and compression members designed with AASHTO LRFD bridge design specifications (2007) is evaluated. These members are prevalent in different types of truss or arch bridges. Various conditions such as redundancy, ductility and importance of the bridge are taken into account by changing the load modification factor, η. To include the effect of the span length, a variable ratio of dead load to total load is considered. Current load factors in AASHTO LRFD code are accepted due to their verification in a comprehensive study for reliability of girder-type bridges. Furthermore, load and resistance distribution models are chosen based on the latest existing experimental data. The Monte Carlo simulation technique with randomly generated samples is applied in numerical calculations. For tension members, analysis results show relatively high reliability indices in yielding design, while having slightly low reliabilities for the fracture mode. For fracture design of steel tension members, an increase in vehicular dynamic load allowance (IM) from 33% to 75% is suggested to insure a safer behavior. Also, it is shown that the resistance factor for yielding of gross section, φy, can be increased from 0.95 to 1.00 while maintaining enough safety for designed tension members. In addition, obtained reliability curves for steel compression members show a safe behavior of designed compression members with conservative response in some cases. More results and plotted curves are discussed in detail and possible adjustments in code criteria are presented in this paper
The appearance of new service types and the convergence tendency of the communication networks have endowed the networks more and more P2P (peer to peer) properties. These networks can be more robust and tolerant for a series of non-perfect operational states due to the non-deterministic server-client distributions. Thus a reliability model taking into account of the multi-state and non-deterministic server-client distribution properties is needed for appropriate evaluation of the networks. In this paper, two new performance measures are defined to quantify the overall and local states of the networks. A new time-evolving state-transition Monte Carlo (TEST-MC) simulation model is presented for the reliability analysis of P2P networks in multiple states. The results show that the model is not only valid for estimating the traditional binary-state network reliability parameters, but also adequate for acquiring the parameters in a series of non-perfect operational states, with good efficiencies, especially for highly reliable networks. Furthermore, the model is versatile for the reliability and maintainability analyses in that both the links and the nodes can be failure-prone with arbitrary life distributions, and various maintainability schemes can be applied.
Japanese regulations for thermal fatigue issues are mainly based on the guideline of the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers (JSME). However, the methods of the guideline include unclear safety margins, owing to existing uncertainties on loading and strength parameters. As a first step toward improving the JSME guideline to quantify safety margins with probabilistic approaches, a reliability evaluation procedure for thermal fatigue of mixing tees suitable for codes and standards has been discussed in this paper. While Monte Carlo simulations would be unsuitable for engineering use due to its cumbersome process and requirement for professional knowledge of probabilistic theory, simplified reliability analysis methods, such as the advanced first-order second-moment method, are more applicable in code designs. In addition, partial safety factors are easier to create a simpler measure of safety margins for code users who are unfamiliar with probabilistic reliability analysis methods. Thus, this paper has proposed a practical reliability evaluation procedure, which is based on the load and resistance factor design concept, for the thermal fatigue induced by random fluid temperature fluctuations in a mixing tee. (author)
Sridhar, B.; Dr.K.V.V.S.Reddy
In this paper, we present the performance analysis of adaptive bilateral filter by pixel to noise ratio and mean square errors. It was evaluate changing the parameters of the adaptive filter half width values and standard deviations. In adaptive bilateral filter, the edge slope is enhanced by transforming the histogram via a range filter with adaptive offset and width. The variance of range filter can also be adaptive. The filter is applied to improve the sharpens of a gray level and color im...
In the multistage reliability growth tests with instant and delayed fix modes, the failure data can be assumed to follow Weibull processes with different parameters at different stages. For the Weibull process within a stage, by the proper selection of prior distribution form and the parameters, a concise posterior distribution form is obtained, thus simplifying the Bayesian analysis. In the multistage tests, the improvement factor is used to convert the posterior of one stage to the prior of the subsequent stage. The conversion criterion is carefully analyzed to determine the distribution parameters of the subsequent stage's variable reasonably. Based on the mentioned results, a new synthetic Bayesian evaluation program and algorithm framework is put forward to evaluate the multistage reliability growth tests with instant and delayed fix modes. The example shows the effectiveness and flexibility of this method.
Cast stainless steel (CSS) is thermally aged by a long term exposure in the range of nuclear power plant operating temperature, and the thermal aging in CSS is a cause of concern for the continued safe and reliable operation of these nuclear components. Therefore, an assessment of degradation in material properties of these components has been importantly considered. In this study the automated ball indentation (ABI) tests were performed on four cast stainless steels aged at 400 .deg. C for 3600 hours, to investigate the applicability of ABI test to the assessment of aging degradation of cast stainless steels. Thus, the reliability of ABI test for aged CSS was analyzed by evaluating the scattering of data tested from each material and by comparing tensile properties obtained from ABI test and standard tensile test. Also, the tensile properties of aged CSS obtained from ABI test CSS were compared with those predicted by evaluation procedure developed on the basis of material database for aged CSS
Kjeldsen, Lene Juel; Birkholm, Trine; Fischer, Hanne Lis;
Background A drug related problems database (DRP-database) was developed on request by clinical pharmacists. The information from the DRP-database has only been used locally e.g. to identify focus areas and to communicate identified DRPs to the hospital wards. Hence the quality of the data...... at the national level is unknown, which may compromise national analyses for benchmarking and identification of national focus areas. Objective The aim of the study was to evaluate the use in practice, reliability and reproducibility of the DRPs documented in the Danish drug related problems database. Setting...... Danish hospital pharmacies. Methods Practice use of the DRP-database was explored by an electronic questionnaire distributed to hospital pharmacies, and consisted of questions regarding current and previous use of the DRP-database. The reliability was evaluated by comparing the categorization of 24 cases...
Adriana N. Santos
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The isokinetic dynamometer has been considered the gold-standard measurement of muscle performance. However, the reliability for the passive mode in children has not been reported to date. OBJECTIVES: The purpose was to evaluate the reliability of the isokinetic dynamometer in passive mode in children. METHOD: Twenty-one healthy children (ten girls, eleven boys, aged 5 to 12 years (age: 8.5±2.2 years, were evaluated using an isokinetic dynamometer. Each participant was tested twice with a one-week interval and performed five consecutive cycles of knee extension and flexion. The test was performed at 60º/s in the concentric passive mode and the children performed maximal contractions. The measured variables were peak torque, average peak torque, total work, and average power, time to peak torque and angle of peak torque for dominant and non-dominant lower limbs. Reliabilities were determined using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC3,1, standard error of measurement (SEM and SEM%, and coefficient of variation (CV. RESULTS: We found good reliability in both lower limbs for peak torque, average peak torque, total work and average power of knee flexors and extensors, with ICC3,1 values greater than 0.80; SEM ranging from 6.7 to 79.2; SEM% ranging from 10.4% to 16.8%; CV lower than 15%. Bland-Altman analysis showed that the bias was low than 10% and limits of agreement (LOAs ranging from 33.9% to 59.2%, and -28.8% and -52.8%, showing that measures tended to disagree. However, time to peak torque (ICC3,1 0.34; SEM%>37.4%; CV>41.7%; bias >24.0%; LOA>101.0% and angle of peak torque (ICC3,19.3; SEM%>27.6%; CV>15.3%; bias>11.0%; LOA>61.0% were not reliable. CONCLUSIONS: The findings indicate that isokinetic evaluation in passive mode for knee extensors and flexors of dominant and non-dominant lower limbs of children without disabilities was reliable for peak torque, average peak torque, work, and power. However, average time to peak
In this work we propose novel algorithms for storing and evaluating sparse grid functions, operating on regular (not spatially adaptive), yet potentially dimensionally adaptive grid types. Besides regular sparse grids our approach includes truncated grids, both with and without boundary grid points. Similar to the implicit data structures proposed in Feuersänger (Dünngitterverfahren für hochdimensionale elliptische partielle Differntialgleichungen. Diploma Thesis, Institut für Numerische Simulation, Universität Bonn, 2005) and Murarasu et al. (Proceedings of the 16th ACM Symposium on Principles and Practice of Parallel Programming. Cambridge University Press, New York, 2011, pp. 25–34) we also define a bijective mapping from the multi-dimensional space of grid points to a contiguous index, such that the grid data can be stored in a simple array without overhead. Our approach is especially well-suited to exploit all levels of current commodity hardware, including cache-levels and vector extensions. Furthermore, this kind of data structure is extremely attractive for today’s real-time applications, as it gives direct access to the hierarchical structure of the grids, while outperforming other common sparse grid structures (hash maps, etc.) which do not match with modern compute platforms that well. For dimensionality d ≤ 10 we achieve good speedups on a 12 core Intel Westmere-EP NUMA platform compared to the results presented in Murarasu et al. (Proceedings of the International Conference on Computational Science—ICCS 2012. Procedia Computer Science, 2012). As we show, this also holds for the results obtained on Nvidia Fermi GPUs, for which we observe speedups over our own CPU implementation of up to 4.5 when dealing with moderate dimensionality. In high-dimensional settings, in the order of tens to hundreds of dimensions, our sparse grid evaluation kernels on the CPU outperform any other known implementation.
Bieniek, Sebastian; Bethge, Matthias
Background Functional capacity evaluation (FCE) determines a person’s ability to perform work-related tasks and is a major component of the rehabilitation process. The WorkWell Systems (WWS) FCE (formerly known as Isernhagen Work Systems FCE) is currently the most commonly used FCE tool in German rehabilitation centres. Our systematic review investigated the inter-rater, intra-rater and test-retest reliability of the WWS FCE. Methods We performed a systematic literature search of studies on t...
Guopeng Song; Hao Chen; Bo Guo
The smart grid concept has emerged as a result of the requirement for renewable energy resources and application of new techniques. It is proposed as a practical future form of power distribution system. Evaluating the reliability of smart grids is of great importance and significance. Focusing on the perspective of the consumers, this paper proposes a layered fault tree model to distinguish and separate two different smart grid power supply modes. Revised importance measures for the componen...
Nik Abdullah, N. M.; Shahrum, A.; Dzuraidah, A. W.; Asri, Y. M.; Azrulhisham, E. A.; Che Hassan, C. H.
Steering module is a part of automotive suspension system which provides a means for an accurate vehicle placement and stability control. Components such as steering knuckle are subjected to fatigue failures due to cyclic loads arising from various driving conditions. This paper intends to give a description of a method used in the fatigue life reliability evaluation of the knuckle used in a passenger car steering system. An accurate representation of Belgian pave service loads in terms of re...
Liu Wei; Li Jie
The seismic reliability evaluation of lifeline networks has received considerable attention and been widely studied. In this paper, on the basis of an original recursive decomposition algorithm, an improved analytical approach to evaluate the seismic reliability of large lifeline systems is presented. The proposed algorithm takes the shortest path from the source to the sink of a network as decomposition policy. Using the Boolean laws of set operation and the probabilistic operation principal, a recursive decomposition process is constructed in which the disjoint minimal path set and the disjoint minimal cut set are simultaneously enumerated. As the result, a probabilistic inequality can be used to provide results that satisfy a prescribed error bound. During the decomposition process, different from the original recursive decomposition algorithm which only removes edges to simplify the network, the proposed algorithm simplifies the network by merging nodes into sources and removing edges. As a result, the proposed algorithm can obtain simpler networks. Moreover, for a network owning s-independent components in its component set, two network reduction techniques are introduced to speed up the proposed algorithm. A series of case studies, including an actual water distribution network and a large urban gas system, are calculated using the proposed algorithm. The results indicate that the proposed algorithm provides a useful probabilistic analysis method for the seismic reliability evaluation of lifeline networks.