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Sample records for adaptation reliability evaluation

  1. Brazilian Version of the Functional Assessment Measure: Cross-Cultural Adaptation and Reliability Evaluation

    Lourenco Jorge, Liliana; Garcia Marchi, Flavia Helena; Portela Hara, Ana Clara; Battistella, Linamara R.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this prospective study was to perform a cross-cultural adaptation of the Functional Assessment Measure (FAM) into Brazilian Portuguese, and to assess the test-retest reliability. The instrument was translated, back-translated, pretested, and reviewed by a committee. The Brazilian version was assessed in 61 brain-injury patients.…

  2. Logic reliability analysis of adaptive control strategies

    An approach is developed for the evaluation of the reliability of logic of adaptive control strategies, taking into account logic structural complexity and potential failure of programming modules. Flaws in the control system algorithm may not be discovered during debugging or initial testing and may only affect the performance under abnormal situations although the system may appear reliable in normal operations. Considering an adaptive control system designed for use in control of equipment employed in nuclear power stations, logic reliability evaluation is demonstrated. The approach given is applicable to any other designs and may be used to compare different control system logic structures from the reliability viewpoint. Evaluation of the reliability of control systems is essential to automated operation of equipment used in nuclear power plants. (author)

  3. Operational reliability assessment of adaptive control strategies

    Adaptive control strategies carry a promise for on-line design of control actions in automation of nuclear power plants and components. Operational reliability analysis of a typical adaptive control algorithm is performed using failure modes and effects analysis. The adaptive controller is susceptible to failure characteristic of the process of model identification involved in the on-line design of the control. Means of failure detection and enhancement of the controller fault tolerance are sought as well as means of placing the controlled process and the plant into a safe state, or termination of the process in case of encountering control failure. Those means are incorporated in a supervisory system to monitor the control system performance, mitigate some of the failure consequences and alert the operator of the state of the plant. Recommendations are given of design improvement to upgrade the adaptive control system performance in nuclear environments. (author)

  4. The playthrough evaluation framework reliable usability evaluation for video games

    White, Gareth R

    2014-01-01

    This thesis presents the playthrough evaluation framework, a novel framework for the reliable usability evaluation of first-person shooter console video games. The framework includes playthrough evaluation, a structured usability evaluation method adapted from heuristic evaluation. Usability evaluation can help guide developers by pointing out design issues that cause users problems. However, usability evaluation methods suffer from the evaluator effect, where separate evaluations of the s...

  5. Adaptive Response Surface Techniques in Reliability Estimation

    Enevoldsen, I.; Faber, M. H.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    1993-01-01

    Problems in connection with estimation of the reliability of a component modelled by a limit state function including noise or first order discontinuitics are considered. A gradient free adaptive response surface algorithm is developed. The algorithm applies second order polynomial surfaces...... determined from central composite designs. In a two phase algorithm the second order surface is adjusted to the domain of the most likely failure point and both FORM and SORM estimates are obtained. The algorithm is implemented as a safeguard algorithm so non-converged solutions are avoided. Furthermore, a...

  6. Reliable adaptive multicast protocol in wireless Ad hoc networks

    Sun Baolin; Li Layuan

    2006-01-01

    In wireless ad hoc network environments, every link is wireless and every node is mobile. Those features make data lost easily as well as multicasting inefficient and unreliable. Moreover, Efficient and reliable multicast in wireless ad hoc network is a difficult issue. It is a major challenge to transmission delays and packet losses due to link changes of a multicast tree at the provision of high delivery ratio for each packet transmission in wireless ad hoc network environment.In this paper, we propose and evaluate Reliable Adaptive Multicast Protocol (RAMP) based on a relay node concept. Relay nodes are placed along the multicast tree. Data recovery is done between relay nodes. RAMP supports a reliable multicasting suitable for mobile ad hoc network by reducing the number of packet retransmissions. We compare RAMP with SRM (Scalable Reliable Multicast). Simulation results show that the RAMP has high delivery ratio and low end-to-end delay for packet transmission.

  7. Evaluation of reliability data sources

    Reliability data plays an important role in Nuclear Power Plant safety and availability. In plant design reliability data are used to evaluate the safety implications of various redundancy strategies. In plant operation reliability data are needed for the evaluation of maintenance schedules, allowable outage times and to optimize test intervals. It is clear that the establishment and the maintenance of a reliability data bank based on specific NPP operational experience requires considerable commitment from the organization managing the work. Experience shows, however, that benefits clearly compensate for the costs involved, particularly if one considers the multiple uses of the collected data in NPP safety and availability analysis. In order to ensure that this wealth of experience can be made use of, a Technical Committee Meeting was convened by the IAEA in Vienna, 1-5 February 1988. The general objective of the meeting was to compile and to disseminate ongoing work and experience with reliability data sources including aspects of data collection, analysis and retrieval. This Technical Document, prepared by the participants in the meeting, highlights the issues discussed during the meeting. The document reviews, based on the information available in the group of participants, the experience in Member States and identifies areas where further work is needed. A separate abstract was prepared for the 15 papers presented at the meeting by the participants. Refs, figs and tabs

  8. Reliability Evaluation of Electrical Networks

    Victor Popescu

    2014-01-01

    The problems of the evaluation of reliability in electrical networks of the different class of voltage a have probabilistic nature, they discretely change and depend on the number of factors both definite and indefinite and have importance by selection of electric equipment, graph of development of electrical networks and voltage levels. The definition of the major factors, which have determining significance on their value and speed of their change allow to elaborate method...

  9. Reliability Evaluation of Electrical Networks

    Victor Popescu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The problems of the evaluation of reliability in electrical networks of the different class of voltage a have probabilistic nature, they discretely change and depend on the number of factors both definite and indefinite and have importance by selection of electric equipment, graph of development of electrical networks and voltage levels. The definition of the major factors, which have determining significance on their value and speed of their change allow to elaborate methods of their optimization and to elaborate effective methods of their growth limitation in electrical networks with the different class of voltage. The present work is devoted to problems of calculation and assessment of indicators of reliability of distribution systems and supply of electricity to consumers, both agricultural and industrial.

  10. Reliability evaluation programmable logic devices

    Programmable Logic Devices (PLD) are widely used as basic building modules in high integrity systems, considering their robust features such as gate density, performance, speed etc. PLDs are used to implement digital design such as bus interface logic, control logic, sequencing logic, glue logic etc. Due to semiconductor evolution, new PLDs with state-of-the-art features are arriving to the market. Since these devices are reliable as per the manufacturer's specification, they were used in the design of safety systems. But due to their reduced market life, the availability of performance data is limited. So evaluating the PLD before deploying in a safety system is very important. This paper presents a survey on the use of PLDs in the nuclear domain and the steps involved in the evaluation of PLD using Quantitative Accelerated Life Testing. (author)

  11. Cellular Adaptation Facilitates Sparse and Reliable Coding in Sensory Pathways

    Farkhooi, Farzad; Froese, Anja; Muller, Eilif; Menzel, Randolf; Nawrot, Martin P.

    2013-01-01

    Most neurons in peripheral sensory pathways initially respond vigorously when a preferred stimulus is presented, but adapt as stimulation continues. It is unclear how this phenomenon affects stimulus coding in the later stages of sensory processing. Here, we show that a temporally sparse and reliable stimulus representation develops naturally in sequential stages of a sensory network with adapting neurons. As a modeling framework we employ a mean-field approach together with an adaptive popul...

  12. Evaluation of MHTGR fuel reliability

    Modular High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (MHTGR) concepts that house the reactor vessel in a tight but unsealed reactor building place heightened importance on the reliability of the fuel particle coatings as fission product barriers. Though accident consequence analyses continue to show favorable results, the increased dependence on one type of barrier, in addition to a number of other factors, has caused the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to consider conservative assumptions regarding fuel behavior. For this purpose, the concept termed ''weak fuel'' has been proposed on an interim basis. ''Weak fuel'' is a penalty imposed on consequence analyses whereby the fuel is assumed to respond less favorably to environmental conditions than predicted by behavioral models. The rationale for adopting this penalty, as well as conditions that would permit its reduction or elimination, are examined in this report. The evaluation includes an examination of possible fuel-manufacturing defects, quality-control procedures for defect detection, and the mechanisms by which fuel defects may lead to failure

  13. Evaluation of MHTGR fuel reliability

    Wichner, R.P. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Barthold, W.P. [Barthold Associates, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1992-07-01

    Modular High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (MHTGR) concepts that house the reactor vessel in a tight but unsealed reactor building place heightened importance on the reliability of the fuel particle coatings as fission product barriers. Though accident consequence analyses continue to show favorable results, the increased dependence on one type of barrier, in addition to a number of other factors, has caused the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to consider conservative assumptions regarding fuel behavior. For this purpose, the concept termed ``weak fuel`` has been proposed on an interim basis. ``Weak fuel`` is a penalty imposed on consequence analyses whereby the fuel is assumed to respond less favorably to environmental conditions than predicted by behavioral models. The rationale for adopting this penalty, as well as conditions that would permit its reduction or elimination, are examined in this report. The evaluation includes an examination of possible fuel-manufacturing defects, quality-control procedures for defect detection, and the mechanisms by which fuel defects may lead to failure.

  14. Conformal prediction for reliable machine learning theory, adaptations and applications

    Balasubramanian, Vineeth; Vovk, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    The conformal predictions framework is a recent development in machine learning that can associate a reliable measure of confidence with a prediction in any real-world pattern recognition application, including risk-sensitive applications such as medical diagnosis, face recognition, and financial risk prediction. Conformal Predictions for Reliable Machine Learning: Theory, Adaptations and Applications captures the basic theory of the framework, demonstrates how to apply it to real-world problems, and presents several adaptations, including active learning, change detection, and anomaly detecti

  15. Reliability evaluation for offshore wind farms

    Zhao, Menghua; Blåbjerg, Frede; Chen, Zhe

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a new reliability index - Loss Of Generation Ratio Probability (LOGRP) is proposed for evaluating the reliability of an electrical system for offshore wind farms, which emphasizes the design of wind farms rather than the adequacy for specific load demand. A practical method...... to calculate LOGRP of offshore wind farms is proposed and evaluated....

  16. System reliability, performance and trust in adaptable automation.

    Chavaillaz, Alain; Wastell, David; Sauer, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of reduced system reliability on operator performance and automation management in an adaptable automation environment. 39 operators were randomly assigned to one of three experimental groups: low (60%), medium (80%), and high (100%) reliability of automation support. The support system provided five incremental levels of automation which operators could freely select according to their needs. After 3 h of training on a simulated process control task (AutoCAMS) in which the automation worked infallibly, operator performance and automation management were measured during a 2.5-h testing session. Trust and workload were also assessed through questionnaires. Results showed that although reduced system reliability resulted in lower levels of trust towards automation, there were no corresponding differences in the operators' reliance on automation. While operators showed overall a noteworthy ability to cope with automation failure, there were, however, decrements in diagnostic speed and prospective memory with lower reliability. PMID:26360226

  17. a Reliability Evaluation System of Association Rules

    Chen, Jiangping; Feng, Wanshu; Luo, Minghai

    2016-06-01

    In mining association rules, the evaluation of the rules is a highly important work because it directly affects the usability and applicability of the output results of mining. In this paper, the concept of reliability was imported into the association rule evaluation. The reliability of association rules was defined as the accordance degree that reflects the rules of the mining data set. Such degree contains three levels of measurement, namely, accuracy, completeness, and consistency of rules. To show its effectiveness, the "accuracy-completeness-consistency" reliability evaluation system was applied to two extremely different data sets, namely, a basket simulation data set and a multi-source lightning data fusion. Results show that the reliability evaluation system works well in both simulation data set and the actual problem. The three-dimensional reliability evaluation can effectively detect the useless rules to be screened out and add the missing rules thereby improving the reliability of mining results. Furthermore, the proposed reliability evaluation system is applicable to many research fields; using the system in the analysis can facilitate obtainment of more accurate, complete, and consistent association rules.

  18. Modelling Reliability-adaptive Multi-system Operation

    Uwe K. Rakowsky

    2006-01-01

    This contribution discusses the concept of Reliability-Adaptive Systems (RAS) to multi-system operation. A fleet of independently operating systems and a single maintenance unit are considered. It is the objective in this paper to increase overall performance or workload respectively by avoiding delay due to busy maintenance units. This is achieved by concerted and coordinated derating of individual system performance, which increases reliability. Quantification is carried out by way of a convolution-based approach. The approach is tailored to fleets of ships, aeroplanes, spacecraft, and vehicles (trains, trams, buses, cars, trucks, etc.) - Finally, the effectiveness of derating is validated using different criteria. The RAS concept makes sense if average system output loss due to lowered performance level (yielding longer time to failure) is smaller than average loss due to waiting for maintenance in a non-adaptive case.

  19. Adaptation of the Organizational Virtuousness Scale: Validity and Reliability Studies

    Turhan Erkmen,; Emel Esen

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to adapt Organizational Virtuousness Scale which was developed by Cameron, Bright and Caza (2004) into Turkish and investigate the validity and reliability analysis of the scale. It can be referred to the studies in our country as organizational virtuousness has become an important and popular concept in the field of Organizational Behavior with its relationship to other organizational variables. The study was conducted with 290 employees from different subsectors ...

  20. Adaptation of the Organizational Virtuousness Scale: Validity and Reliability Studies

    Turhan Erkmen,

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to adapt Organizational Virtuousness Scale which was developed by Cameron, Bright and Caza (2004 into Turkish and investigate the validity and reliability analysis of the scale. It can be referred to the studies in our country as organizational virtuousness has become an important and popular concept in the field of Organizational Behavior with its relationship to other organizational variables. The study was conducted with 290 employees from different subsectors of service industry (education, finance, health. Exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis were conducted for validity studies; reliability analyses were conducted to understand the internal validity of the model. According to the results of the study, it was found that Organizational Virtuousness Scale is a valid and reliable and it is explained by integrity and forgiveness, trust and courtesy and optimism dimensions.

  1. Composite system reliability evaluation by stochastic calculation of system operation

    Haubrick, H.-J.; Hinz, H.-J.; Landeck, E. [Dept. of Power Systems and Power Economics (Germany)

    1994-12-31

    This report describes a new developed probabilistic approach for steady-state composite system reliability evaluation and its exemplary application to a bulk power test system. The new computer program called PHOENIX takes into consideration transmission limitations, outages of lines and power stations and, as a central element, a highly sophisticated model to the dispatcher performing remedial actions after disturbances. The kernel of the new method is a procedure for optimal power flow calculation that has been specially adapted for the use in reliability evaluations under the above mentioned conditions. (author) 11 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  2. MOV reliability evaluation and periodic verification scheduling

    Bunte, B.D.

    1996-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to establish a periodic verification testing schedule based on the expected long term reliability of gate or globe motor operated valves (MOVs). The methodology in this position paper determines the nominal (best estimate) design margin for any MOV based on the best available information pertaining to the MOVs design requirements, design parameters, existing hardware design, and present setup. The uncertainty in this margin is then determined using statistical means. By comparing the nominal margin to the uncertainty, the reliability of the MOV is estimated. The methodology is appropriate for evaluating the reliability of MOVs in the GL 89-10 program. It may be used following periodic testing to evaluate and trend MOV performance and reliability. It may also be used to evaluate the impact of proposed modifications and maintenance activities such as packing adjustments. In addition, it may be used to assess the impact of new information of a generic nature which impacts safety related MOVs.

  3. RELIABILITY EVALUATION OF SOFTWARE ARCHITECTURE STYLES

    Gholamreza Shahmohammadi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In process of software architecture design, different decisions with system-wide impacts are made. An important decision of design stage is the selection of appropriate software architecture style. Since quantitative impacts of styles on quality attributes have not been studied yet, their application is not systematic. Since Reliability is one of the essential quality requirements of software systems, especially for life critical ones, one of the main criteria in choosing architecture style of these systems is high reliability. The goal of this study is to quantify the impact of architecture styles on software reliability that is desired quality of life critical software. We evaluate styles through reliability block diagram method. First, the reliability equation of each architectural style was computed using of Reliability block diagram approach. Then, reliability rank of architectural styles is computed by setting of the number of effective components in a transaction parameter in reliability equation of architectural styles. The main innovation of this article is quantification of impact of styles on software reliability that is essential for style selection.

  4. A double-loop adaptive sampling approach for sensitivity-free dynamic reliability analysis

    Dynamic reliability measures reliability of an engineered system considering time-variant operation condition and component deterioration. Due to high computational costs, conducting dynamic reliability analysis at an early system design stage remains challenging. This paper presents a confidence-based meta-modeling approach, referred to as double-loop adaptive sampling (DLAS), for efficient sensitivity-free dynamic reliability analysis. The DLAS builds a Gaussian process (GP) model sequentially to approximate extreme system responses over time, so that Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) can be employed directly to estimate dynamic reliability. A generic confidence measure is developed to evaluate the accuracy of dynamic reliability estimation while using the MCS approach based on developed GP models. A double-loop adaptive sampling scheme is developed to efficiently update the GP model in a sequential manner, by considering system input variables and time concurrently in two sampling loops. The model updating process using the developed sampling scheme can be terminated once the user defined confidence target is satisfied. The developed DLAS approach eliminates computationally expensive sensitivity analysis process, thus substantially improves the efficiency of dynamic reliability analysis. Three case studies are used to demonstrate the efficacy of DLAS for dynamic reliability analysis. - Highlights: • Developed a novel adaptive sampling approach for dynamic reliability analysis. • POD Developed a new metric to quantify the accuracy of dynamic reliability estimation. • Developed a new sequential sampling scheme to efficiently update surrogate models. • Three case studies were used to demonstrate the efficacy of the new approach. • Case study results showed substantially enhanced efficiency with high accuracy

  5. Rate Adaptive Selective Segment Assignment for Reliable Wireless Video Transmission

    Sajid Nazir

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A reliable video communication system is proposed based on data partitioning feature of H.264/AVC, used to create a layered stream, and LT codes for erasure protection. The proposed scheme termed rate adaptive selective segment assignment (RASSA is an adaptive low-complexity solution to varying channel conditions. The comparison of the results of the proposed scheme is also provided for slice-partitioned H.264/AVC data. Simulation results show competitiveness of the proposed scheme compared to optimized unequal and equal error protection solutions. The simulation results also demonstrate that a high visual quality video transmission can be maintained despite the adverse effect of varying channel conditions and the number of decoding failures can be reduced.

  6. AdaptME toolkit : adaptation monitoring and evaluation

    Pringle, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Organisations that have undertaken adaptation activities now face the challenge of evaluating what worked, what didn’t, how and why. This toolkit responds to a growing demand for practical support in evaluating adaptation progress and performance. AdaptME will help you to think through some of the factors that can make an evaluation of adaptation activities inherently challenging, and equip you to design a robust evaluation. You will be able to ‘tweak’ a single part of your evaluation des...

  7. Circadian clocks optimally adapt to sunlight for reliable synchronization

    Hasegawa, Yoshihiko

    2014-01-01

    Circadian oscillation provides selection advantages through synchronization to the daylight cycle. However, a reliable clock must be designed through two conflicting properties: entrainability to properly respond to external stimuli such as sunlight, and regularity to oscillate with a precise period. These two aspects do not easily coexist because better entrainability favors higher sensitivity, which may sacrifice the regularity. To investigate conditions for satisfying the two properties, we analytically calculated the optimal phase-response curve with a variational method. Our result indicates an existence of a dead zone, i.e., a time during which external stimuli neither advance nor delay the clock. This result is independent of model details and a dead zone appears only when the input stimuli obey the time course of actual insolation. Our calculation demonstrates that every circadian clock with a dead zone is optimally adapted to the daylight cycle. Our result also explains the lack of a dead zone in osc...

  8. Benchmark evaluation of structural reliability evaluation codes for FBR

    This paper describes a procedure of structural reliability evaluation of passive components of fast breeder reactors for a failure due to fatigue-creep interaction damage, and also reports results of benchmark evaluation conducted by using two independently developed codes. The structural integrity of a reactor vessel was evaluated deterministically and probabilistically. The results estimated by two codes agree well for both of deterministic and probabilistic evaluations, which shows that these codes are programmed properly according to the evaluation procedure. (author)

  9. Reliability Evaluation of NC Machine Tools considering Working Conditions

    Li, Hongzhou; Yang, Zhaojun; Xu, Binbin; Chen, Chuanhai; Kan, Yingnan; Liu, Guofei

    2016-01-01

    Reliability evaluation is the basis for reliability design of NC machine tools. Since traditional reliability evaluation methods do not consider the working conditions’ effects on reliability, there is a great error of a result of a traditional method compared with an actual value. A new reliability evaluation model of NC machine tools is proposed based on the Cox proportional hazards model, which describes the mathematical relation between the working condition covariates and the reliability...

  10. Validation of Land Cover Products Using Reliability Evaluation Methods

    Wenzhong Shi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Validation of land cover products is a fundamental task prior to data applications. Current validation schemes and methods are, however, suited only for assessing classification accuracy and disregard the reliability of land cover products. The reliability evaluation of land cover products should be undertaken to provide reliable land cover information. In addition, the lack of high-quality reference data often constrains validation and affects the reliability results of land cover products. This study proposes a validation schema to evaluate the reliability of land cover products, including two methods, namely, result reliability evaluation and process reliability evaluation. Result reliability evaluation computes the reliability of land cover products using seven reliability indicators. Process reliability evaluation analyzes the reliability propagation in the data production process to obtain the reliability of land cover products. Fuzzy fault tree analysis is introduced and improved in the reliability analysis of a data production process. Research results show that the proposed reliability evaluation scheme is reasonable and can be applied to validate land cover products. Through the analysis of the seven indicators of result reliability evaluation, more information on land cover can be obtained for strategic decision-making and planning, compared with traditional accuracy assessment methods. Process reliability evaluation without the need for reference data can facilitate the validation and reflect the change trends of reliabilities to some extent.

  11. 电力系统可靠性评估的自适应分层重要抽样法%A Self-adapting Stratified and Importance Sampling Method for Power System Reliability Evaluation

    王晓滨; 郭瑞鹏; 曹一家; 余秀月; 杨桂钟

    2011-01-01

    提出了电力系统可靠性评估的自适应分层重要抽样算法,将系统状态空间分割成无故障状态子空间和各重故障状态子空间,避免对无故障状态子空间抽样,对各重故障状态子空间的抽样次数进行最优分配,并不断修正最优重要抽样概率密度函数,可以显著提高计算效率并解决了以往蒙特卡洛方法在高可靠性系统中效率低下的问题.对IEEE-RTS系统的发输电部分进行可靠性评估,结果表明该方法合理、高效,且不会出现退化现象.%A new method for power system reliability evaluation called self-adapting stratified and importance sampling (SASIS) is presented. With the SASIS, the system state space is partitioned into one contingency-free state subspace and various contingency order state subspaces. As contingency-free state subspace sampling is completely avoided, the SASIS converges fast in the system with high reliability. The number of sampling is optimally allocated among the contingency order state subspaces and the probability density function is steadily rectified. This method will markedly increase the calculating efficiency while eradicating the problem of low efficiency with the Monte Carlo method in high efficiency systems as reported in the past. Compared with other Monte Carlo methods, the results of the IEEE-RTS test system show that the method proposed is rational and highly effective and free from degradation.This work is supported by Important Zhejiang Science & Technology Specific Projects (No. 2007C11098).

  12. AK-SYS: An adaptation of the AK-MCS method for system reliability

    A lot of research work has been proposed over the last two decades to evaluate the probability of failure of a structure involving a very time-consuming mechanical model. Surrogate model approaches based on Kriging, such as the Efficient Global Reliability Analysis (EGRA) or the Active learning and Kriging-based Monte-Carlo Simulation (AK-MCS) methods, are very efficient and each has advantages of its own. EGRA is well suited to evaluating small probabilities, as the surrogate can be used to classify any population. AK-MCS is built in relation to a given population and requires no optimization program for the active learning procedure to be performed. It is therefore easier to implement and more likely to spend computational effort on areas with a significant probability content. When assessing system reliability, analytical approaches and first-order approximation are widely used in the literature. However, in the present paper we rather focus on sampling techniques and, considering the recent adaptation of the EGRA method for systems, a strategy is presented to adapt the AK-MCS method for system reliability. The AK-SYS method, “Active learning and Kriging-based SYStem reliability method”, is presented. Its high efficiency and accuracy are illustrated via various examples

  13. Interim Reliability Evaluation Program procedures guide

    This document presents procedures for conducting analyses of a scope similar to those performed in Phase II of the Interim Reliability Evaluation Program (IREP). It documents the current state of the art in performing the plant systems analysis portion of a probabilistic risk assessment. Insights gained into managing such an analysis are discussed. Step-by-step procedures and methodological guidance constitute the major portion of the document. While not to be viewed as a cookbook, the procedures set forth the principal steps in performing an IREP analysis. Guidance for resolving the problems encountered in previous analyses is offered. Numerous examples and representative products from previous analyses clarify the discussion

  14. Policy-based Self-Adaptive Media Service Architecture for Reliable Multimedia Service Provisioning

    G. Maria kalavathy; N. Edison Rathinam; P. Seethalakshmi

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to design and develop the Self-Adaptive Media Service Architecture (SAMSA) for providing reliable multimedia services through policy-based actions. The distributed multimedia services deployed using SOA can be accessed in heterogeneous environments that are prone to changes during run-time. To provide reliable multimedia services, a powerful self-adaptable architecture is necessary to adapt at run time and react to the environment. The adaptability in this ...

  15. Novel approach for evaluation of service reliability for electricity customers

    JIANG; John; N

    2009-01-01

    Understanding reliability value for electricity customer is important to market-based reliability management. This paper proposes a novel approach to evaluate the reliability for electricity customers by using indifference curve between economic compensation for power interruption and service reliability of electricity. Indifference curve is formed by calculating different planning schemes of network expansion for different reliability requirements of customers, which reveals the information about economic values for different reliability levels for electricity customers, so that the reliability based on market supply demand mechanism can be established and economic signals can be provided for reliability management and enhancement.

  16. Evaluation of competing software reliability predictions

    Abdel-Ghaly, A. A.; Chan, P. Y.; Littlewood, B.

    1986-01-01

    Different software reliability models can produce very different answers when called upon to predict future reliability in a reliability growth context. Users need to know which, if any, of the competing predictions are trustworthy. Some techniques are presented which form the basis of a partial solution to this problem. Rather than attempting to decide which model is generally best, the approach adopted here allows a user to decide upon the most appropriate model for each application.

  17. Translation, cross-cultural adaptation to Brazilian- Portuguese and reliability analysis of the instrument Rapid Entire Body Assessment-REBA

    Andressa M. Lamarão

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Observational instruments, such as the Rapid Entire Body Assessment, quickly assess biomechanical risks present in the workplace. However, in order to use these instruments, it is necessary to conduct the translational/cross-cultural adaptation of the instrument and test its measurement properties. Objectives: To perform the translation and the cross-cultural adaptation to Brazilian-Portuguese and test the reliability of the REBA instrument. Method: The procedures of translation and cross-cultural adaptation to Brazilian-Portuguese were conducted following proposed guidelines that involved translation, synthesis of translations, back translation, committee review and testing of the pre-final version. In addition, reliability and the intra- and inter-rater percent agreement were obtained with the Linear Weighted Kappa Coefficient that was associated with the 95% Confidence Interval and the cross tabulation 2×2. Results : The procedures for translation and adaptation were adequate and the necessary adjustments were conducted on the instrument. The intra- and inter-rater reliability showed values of 0.104 to 0.504, respectively, ranging from very poor to moderate. The percentage agreement values ranged from 5.66% to 69.81%. The percentage agreement was closer to 100% at the item 'upper arm' (69.81% for the Intra-rater 1 and at the items 'legs' and 'upper arm' for the Intra-rater 2 (62.26%. Conclusions: The processes of translation and cross-cultural adaptation were conducted on the REBA instrument and the Brazilian version of the instrument was obtained. However, despite the reliability of the tests used to correct the translated and adapted version, the reliability values are unacceptable according to the guidelines standard, indicating that the reliability must be re-evaluated. Therefore, caution in the interpretation of the biomechanical risks measured by this instrument should be taken.

  18. Solution-verified reliability analysis and design of bistable MEMS using error estimation and adaptivity.

    Eldred, Michael Scott; Subia, Samuel Ramirez; Neckels, David; Hopkins, Matthew Morgan; Notz, Patrick K.; Adams, Brian M.; Carnes, Brian; Wittwer, Jonathan W.; Bichon, Barron J.; Copps, Kevin D.

    2006-10-01

    This report documents the results for an FY06 ASC Algorithms Level 2 milestone combining error estimation and adaptivity, uncertainty quantification, and probabilistic design capabilities applied to the analysis and design of bistable MEMS. Through the use of error estimation and adaptive mesh refinement, solution verification can be performed in an automated and parameter-adaptive manner. The resulting uncertainty analysis and probabilistic design studies are shown to be more accurate, efficient, reliable, and convenient.

  19. Reliability of internal prediction/estimation and its application. I. Adaptive action selection reflecting reliability of value function.

    Sakaguchi, Yutaka; Takano, Mitsuo

    2004-09-01

    This article proposes an adaptive action-selection method for a model-free reinforcement learning system, based on the concept of the 'reliability of internal prediction/estimation'. This concept is realized using an internal variable, called the Reliability Index (RI), which estimates the accuracy of the internal estimator. We define this index for a value function of a temporal difference learning system and substitute it for the temperature parameter of the Boltzmann action-selection rule. Accordingly, the weight of exploratory actions adaptively changes depending on the uncertainty of the prediction. We use this idea for tabular and weighted-sum type value functions. Moreover, we use the RI to adjust the learning coefficient in addition to the temperature parameter, meaning that the reliability becomes a general basis for meta-learning. Numerical experiments were performed to examine the behavior of the proposed method. The RI-based Q-learning system demonstrated its features when the adaptive learning coefficient and large RI-discount rate (which indicate how the RI values of future states are reflected in the RI value of the current state) were introduced. Statistical tests confirmed that the algorithm spent more time exploring in the initial phase of learning, but accelerated learning from the midpoint of learning. It is also shown that the proposed method does not work well with the actor-critic models. The limitations of the proposed method and its relationship to relevant research are discussed. PMID:15312837

  20. Reliability and Robustness Evaluation of Timber Structures

    Cizmar, Dean; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    and steel. However, reliability models applied to timber were always related to individual components but not the systems. as any real structure is a complex system, system behaviour must be of a particular interest. In the chapter 1 of this document an overview of stochastic models for strength and...... loads parameters is given. System models (series and parallel) are discused and methods for reliability calculation are given. Special attention is drawn upon brittle/ductile modelling of timber and connections. In chapter 2 robustness requirements implemended in codes are presented. State of the art...... definitions (deterministic, probabilistic and risk based approaches) of the robustness are given. Chapter 3 deals more detailed with the robustness of timber structures....

  1. Efficient Evaluation and Optimization of Structural Reliability

    Grandhi, Ramana V.; Hopkins, Dale A.

    1997-01-01

    Use of approximations for calculating the structural failure probability under uncertainties is a necessary aspect. But efficient use of suitable approximations at different stages of reliability prediction and design makes this valuable tool practical for many large scale structures. This research addresses the modern approximation concepts and their utility in structural reliability estimation. Emphasis is placed on building higher order approximations using intervening variables to closely represent the nonlinear limit state functions. Several test problems with highly nonlinear performance functions are used to demonstrate the accuracy of the proposed method. Many of the structural problems are modeled and simulated using the finite element methods (FEM) for obtaining a detailed structural response. FEM is a computationally intensive numerical procedure with a large number of degrees of freedom. With an increase in the complexity of the structural model and the multidisciplinary nature of analyses, the number of limit states and their computation increases very significantly. The requirement of frequent repetitive analysis of the structure hinders the utility of any tool and discourages that approach from being used. One particular tool which faces this difficulty is the computation of the structural reliability under parametric uncertainties.

  2. Reliable and Efficient Routing Using Adaptive Genetic Algorithm in Packet Switched Networks

    Rakesh Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To identify the optimal route is a complex task in packet switched network because optimization depends upon a number of parameters. In this paper Genetic Algorithm is used to locate the optimal route. Genetic Algorithm starts with a number of solutions where each solution is represented in the form of chromosome using the permutation encoding scheme. The success of Genetic Algorithm depends upon the number of operators such as selection, mutation and crossover. Needless to say crossover is most innovative. In this paper crossover operators proposed namely 1-point, 2-point, and adaptive, have been customized according to the need of computer network. The fitness of each solution is evaluated in terms of historical reliability factor, node success/failure and delay. The performance of the proposed approach has been compared with Dijkstra Algorithm and improvement has been observed.

  3. Development, reliability and validity of the psychosocial adaptation scale for Parkinson’s disease in Chinese population

    Zhang, Tingting; Yin, Anchun; Sun, Xiaohong; Liu, Qigui; Song, Guirong; Li, Lianhong

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To develop psychosocial adaptation scale for Parkinson’s disease (PD) in Chinese population and evaluate its reliability and validity. Methods: The items were designed by literature review, expert consultation and semi-structured interview. The methods of corrected item-total correlation, discrimination analysis and exploratory factor analysis were used for items selection. 427 valid scales from PD patients were collected in the study to test the reliability and validity. Results: The scale incorporated six dimensions: anxiety, self-esteem, attitude, self-acceptance, self-efficacy and social support, a total of 32 items. The scale possessed good internal consistency. The test-retest correlation coefficient was 0.99 and average content validation rate was 0.97. The Hoehn and Yahr stage were correlated with total score of the scale. Conclusions: The psychosocial adaptation scale in this study showed good reliability and validity, it can be used as a reliable and valid instrument to evaluate the psychosocial adaptation of PD objectively and effectively. PMID:26770638

  4. Reliability Evaluation of a Structure at Sea

    Burcharth, H. F.

    1994-01-01

    . In order to overcome t his problem more advanced probabilistic methods must be applied where the uncertainties (the stochastic properties) of the involved loading and strength variables are considered. Methods where the actual distribution functions for the variables are taken into account are denoted...... reliability. Both Level ll and Ill methods are discussed in the following. Described is also an advanced partial coefficient system which takes into account the stochastic properties of the variables and makes it possible to design to a specific failure probability level....... of the encounter probability, i. e. the probability that the design load value is exceeded during the structure lifetime. This is an important step towards a consistent probabilistic approach. A safety factor or a conventional partial coefficient (as given in some national standards) might be applied too, in which...

  5. An FEC Adaptive Multicast MAC Protocol for Providing Reliability in WLANs

    Basalamah, Anas; Sato, Takuro

    For wireless multicast applications like multimedia conferencing, voice over IP and video/audio streaming, a reliable transmission of packets within short delivery delay is needed. Moreover, reliability is crucial to the performance of error intolerant applications like file transfer, distributed computing, chat and whiteboard sharing. Forward Error Correction (FEC) is frequently used in wireless multicast to enhance Packet Error Rate (PER) performance, but cannot assure full reliability unless coupled with Automatic Repeat Request forming what is knows as Hybrid-ARQ. While reliable FEC can be deployed at different levels of the protocol stack, it cannot be deployed on the MAC layer of the unreliable IEEE802.11 WLAN due to its inability to exchange ACKs with multiple recipients. In this paper, we propose a Multicast MAC protocol that enhances WLAN reliability by using Adaptive FEC and study it's performance through mathematical analysis and simulation. Our results show that our protocol can deliver high reliability and throughput performance.

  6. Definition and numerical evaluation of important reliability characteristics

    When engineering complex plants questions relating to reliability and availability should be included in the contract between customer and supplier in order to increase the technical performance of such plants. The author gives advices for carrying out a reliability analysis and discusses some essential reliability characteristics such as, e.g., long-term availability, medium-term active repair time, medium-term failure intervals, resp. failure rate and probability of survival. Furthermore, the scope of simulations concerning the numerical evaluation of reliability characteristics is given with regard to their time dependence. (orig.)

  7. JUPITER PROJECT - JOINT UNIVERSAL PARAMETER IDENTIFICATION AND EVALUATION OF RELIABILITY

    The JUPITER (Joint Universal Parameter IdenTification and Evaluation of Reliability) project builds on the technology of two widely used codes for sensitivity analysis, data assessment, calibration, and uncertainty analysis of environmental models: PEST and UCODE.

  8. Turkish Adaptation of the Mentorship Effectiveness Scale: A Validity and Reliability Study

    Yirci, Ramazan; Karakose, Turgut; Uygun, Harun; Ozdemir, Tuncay Yavuz

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to adapt the Mentoring Relationship Effectiveness Scale to Turkish, and to conduct validity and reliability tests regarding the scale. The study group consisted of 156 university science students receiving graduate education. Construct validity and factor structure of the scale was analyzed first through exploratory…

  9. Adaptation of Internet Addiction Scale in Azerbaijani Language: A Validity-Reliability and Prevalence Study

    Kerimova, Melek; Gunuc, Selim

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper was to adapt Gunuc and Kayri's (2010) "Internet Addiction Scale," with show validity and reliability for many various sampling groups, into the Azerbaijani language. Another objective of the study is to determine the prevalence of Internet addiction among Azerbaijani adolescents and youth, which…

  10. Motion Reliability Modeling and Evaluation for Manipulator Path Planning Task

    Tong Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Motion reliability as a criterion can reflect the accuracy of manipulator in completing operations. Since path planning task takes a significant role in operations of manipulator, the motion reliability evaluation of path planning task is discussed in the paper. First, a modeling method for motion reliability is proposed by taking factors related to position accuracy of manipulator into account. In the model, multidimensional integral for PDF is carried out to calculate motion reliability. Considering the complex of multidimensional integral, the approach of equivalent extreme value is introduced, with which multidimensional integral is converted into one dimensional integral for convenient calculation. Then a method based on the maximum entropy principle is proposed for model calculation. With the method, the PDF can be obtained efficiently at the state of maximum entropy. As a result, the evaluation of motion reliability can be achieved by one dimensional integral for PDF. Simulations on a particular path planning task are carried out, with which the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed methods are verified. In addition, the modeling method which takes the factors related to position accuracy into account can represent the contributions of these factors to motion reliability. And the model calculation method can achieve motion reliability evaluation with high precision and efficiency.

  11. ADAPTIVE E-LEARNING AND ITS EVALUATION

    KOSTOLÁNYOVÁ, Katerina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a complex plan for a complete system of individualized electronic instruction. The core of the system is a computer program to control teaching, the so called “virtual teacher”. The virtual teacher automatically adapts to individual student’s characteristics and their learning style. It adapts to static as well as to dynamic characteristics of the student. To manage all this it needs a database of various styles and forms of teaching as well as a sufficient amount of information about the learning style, type of memory and other characteristics of the student. The information about these characteristics, the structure of data storage and its use by the virtual teacher are also part of this paper. We also outline a methodology of adaptive study materials. We define basic rules and forms to create adaptive study materials. This adaptive e-learning system was pilot tested in learning of more than 50 students. These students filled in a learning style questionnaire at the beginning of the study and they had the option to fill in an adaptive evaluation questionnaire at the end of the study. Results of these questionnaires were analyzed. Several conclusions were concluded from this analysis to alter the methodology of adaptive study materials.

  12. A dynamic-reliable multiple model adaptive controller for active vehicle suspension under uncertainties

    The inherent uncertainties of vehicle suspension systems challenge not only the capability of ride comfort and handling performance, but also the reliability requirement. In this research, a dynamic-reliable multiple model adaptive (MMA) controller is developed to overcome the difficulty of suspension uncertainties while considering performance and reliability at the same time. The MMA system consists of a finite number of optimal sub-controllers and employs a continuous-time based Markov chain to guide the jumping among the sub-controllers. The failure mode considered is the bottoming and topping of suspension components. A limitation on the failure probability is imposed to penalize the performance of the sub-controllers and a gradient-based genetic algorithm yields their optimal feedback gains. Finally, the dynamic reliability of the MMA controller is approximated by using the integration of state covariances and a judging condition is induced to assert that the MMA system is dynamic-reliable. In numerical simulation, a long scheme with piecewise time-invariant parameters is employed to examine the performance and reliability under the uncertainties of sprung mass, road condition and driving velocity. It is shown that the dynamic-reliable MMA controller is able to trade a small amount of model performance for extra reliability

  13. Evaluating web sites: reliable child health resources for parents.

    Golterman, Linda; Banasiak, Nancy C

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a framework for evaluating the quality of health care information on the Internet and identifies strategies for accessing reliable child health resources. A number of methods are reviewed, including how to evaluate Web sites for quality using the Health Information Technology Institute evaluation criteria, how to identify trustworthy Web sites accredited by Health On the Net Foundation Code of Conduct, and the use of portals to access prescreened Web sites by organizations, such as the Medical Library Association. Pediatric nurses can use one or all of these strategies to develop a list of reliable Web sites as a supplement to patient and family teaching. PMID:21661608

  14. Requirements for an evaluation infrastructure for reliable pervasive healthcare research

    Wagner, Stefan; Toftegaard, Thomas Skjødeberg; Bertelsen, Olav W.

    The need for a non-intrusive evaluation infrastructure platform to support research on reliable pervasive healthcare in the unsupervised setting is analyzed and challenges and possibilities are identified. A list of requirements is presented and a solution is suggested that would allow researchers...... to more easily build and evaluate prototypes for measuring and quantifying the use-context of patients using current state-of-the-art biomedical devices in the unsupervised setting. An initial implementation is introduced as the reliable evaluation infrastructure (RELEI) platform. Several research...

  15. Evaluation of mobile ad hoc network reliability using propagation-based link reliability model

    A wireless mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a collection of solely independent nodes (that can move randomly around the area of deployment) making the topology highly dynamic; nodes communicate with each other by forming a single hop/multi-hop network and maintain connectivity in decentralized manner. MANET is modelled using geometric random graphs rather than random graphs because the link existence in MANET is a function of the geometric distance between the nodes and the transmission range of the nodes. Among many factors that contribute to the MANET reliability, the reliability of these networks also depends on the robustness of the link between the mobile nodes of the network. Recently, the reliability of such networks has been evaluated for imperfect nodes (transceivers) with binary model of communication links based on the transmission range of the mobile nodes and the distance between them. However, in reality, the probability of successful communication decreases as the signal strength deteriorates due to noise, fading or interference effects even up to the nodes' transmission range. Hence, in this paper, using a propagation-based link reliability model rather than a binary-model with nodes following a known failure distribution to evaluate the network reliability (2TRm, ATRmand AoTRm) of MANET through Monte Carlo Simulation is proposed. The method is illustrated with an application and some imperative results are also presented

  16. Reliability and Validity of the Professional Counseling Performance Evaluation

    Shepherd, J. Brad; Britton, Paula J.; Kress, Victoria E.

    2008-01-01

    The definition and measurement of counsellor trainee competency is an issue that has received increased attention yet lacks quantitative study. This research evaluates item responses, scale reliability and intercorrelations, interrater agreement, and criterion-related validity of the Professional Performance Fitness Evaluation/Professional…

  17. Evaluation of internal reliability in the presence of inconsistent responses

    Lam T H; Ho S Y; Fong Daniel YT

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background We aimed to assess the impact of inconsistent responses on the internal reliability of a multi-item scale by developing a procedure to adjust Cronbach's alpha. Methods A procedure for adjusting Cronbach's alpha when there are inconsistent responses was developed and used to assess the impact of inconsistent responses on internal reliability by evaluating the standard Chinese 12-item Short Form Health Survey in adolescents. Results Contrary to common belief, random response...

  18. Evaluation of internal reliability in the presence of inconsistent responses

    Fong, DYT; Ho, SY; Lam, TH

    2010-01-01

    Background: We aimed to assess the impact of inconsistent responses on the internal reliability of a multi-item scale by developing a procedure to adjust Cronbach's alpha.Methods: A procedure for adjusting Cronbach's alpha when there are inconsistent responses was developed and used to assess the impact of inconsistent responses on internal reliability by evaluating the standard Chinese 12-item Short Form Health Survey in adolescents.Results: Contrary to common belief, random responses may in...

  19. Reliability and consistency of plantarflexor stretch-shortening cycle function using an adapted force sledge apparatus

    There are various limitations to existing methods of studying plantarflexor stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) function and muscle-tendon unit (MTU) mechanics, predominantly related to measurement validity and reliability. This study utilizes an innovative adaptation to a force sledge which isolates the plantarflexors and ankle for analysis. The aim of this study was to determine the sledge loading protocol to be used, most appropriate method of data analysis and measurement reliability in a group of healthy, non-injured subjects. Twenty subjects (11 males, 9 females; age: 23.5 ±2.3 years; height: 1.73 ±0.08 m; mass: 74.2 ±11.3 kg) completed 11 impacts at five different loadings rated on a scale of perceived exertion from 1 to 5, where 5 is a loading that the subject could only complete the 11 impacts using the adapted sledge. Analysis of impacts 4–8 or 5–7 using loading 2 provided consistent results that were highly reliable (single intra-class correlation, ICC > 0.85, average ICC > 0.95) and replicated kinematics found in hopping and running. Results support use of an adapted force sledge apparatus as an ecologically valid, reliable method of investigating plantarflexor SSC function and MTU mechanics in a dynamic controlled environment. (paper)

  20. Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia for Heart Turkish Version Study: cross-cultural adaptation, exploratory factor analysis, and reliability

    Acar, Serap; Savci, Sema; Keskinoğlu, Pembe; Akdeniz, Bahri; Özpelit, Ebru; Özcan Kahraman, Buse; Karadibak, Didem; Sevinc, Can

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Individuals with cardiac problems avoid physical activity and exercise because they expect to feel shortness of breath, dizziness, or chest pain. Assessing kinesiophobia related to heart problems is important in terms of cardiac rehabilitation. The Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia Swedish Version for the Heart (TSK-SV Heart) is reliable and has been validated for cardiac diseases in the Swedish population. The aim of this study was to investigate the reliability, parallel-form validity, and exploratory factor analysis of the TSK for the Heart Turkish Version (TSK Heart Turkish Version) for evaluating kinesiophobia in patients with heart failure and pulmonary arterial hypertension. Methods This cross-sectional study involved translation, back translation, and cross-cultural adaptation (localization). Forty-three pulmonary arterial hypertension and 32 heart failure patients were evaluated using the TSK Heart Turkish Version. The 17-item scale, originally composed for the Swedish population, has four factors: perceived danger for heart problem, avoidance of exercise, fear of injury, and dysfunctional self. Cronbach’s alpha (internal consistency) and exploratory factor analysis were used to assess the questionnaire’s reliability. Results of the patients in the 6-minute walk test, International Physical Activity Questionnaire, and Nottingham Health Profile were analyzed by Pearson’s correlation analysis with the TSK Heart Turkish Version to indicate the convergent validity. Results Cronbach’s alpha for the TSK Heart Turkish Version was 0.75, indicating acceptable internal consistency. Although exploratory factor analysis showed a different subgroup distribution than the original questionnaire, the model was acceptable for the four-factor model hypothesis. Therefore, the questionnaire was rated as reliable. Conclusion These results supported the reliability of the TSK Heart Turkish Version. Since the acceptable four-factor model fits the subgroups and

  1. An adaptive neuro fuzzy model for estimating the reliability of component-based software systems

    Kirti Tyagi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although many algorithms and techniques have been developed for estimating the reliability of component-based software systems (CBSSs, much more research is needed. Accurate estimation of the reliability of a CBSS is difficult because it depends on two factors: component reliability and glue code reliability. Moreover, reliability is a real-world phenomenon with many associated real-time problems. Soft computing techniques can help to solve problems whose solutions are uncertain or unpredictable. A number of soft computing approaches for estimating CBSS reliability have been proposed. These techniques learn from the past and capture existing patterns in data. The two basic elements of soft computing are neural networks and fuzzy logic. In this paper, we propose a model for estimating CBSS reliability, known as an adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system (ANFIS, that is based on these two basic elements of soft computing, and we compare its performance with that of a plain FIS (fuzzy inference system for different data sets.

  2. Reliability and accuracy of resident evaluations of surgical faculty.

    Risucci, D A; Lutsky, L; Rosati, R J; Tortolani, A J

    1992-09-01

    This study examines the reliability and accuracy of ratings by general surgery residents of surgical faculty. Twenty-three of 33 residents anonymously and voluntarily evaluated 62 surgeons in June, 1988; 24 of 28 residents evaluated 64 surgeons in June, 1989. Each resident rated each surgeon on a 5-point scale for each of 10 areas of performance: technical ability, basic science knowledge, clinical knowledge, judgment, peer relations, patient relations, reliability, industry, personal appearance, and reaction to pressure. Reliability analyses evaluated internal consistency and interrater correlation. Accuracy analyses evaluated halo error, leniency/severity, central tendency, and range restriction. Ratings had high internal consistency (coefficient alpha = 0.97). Interrater correlations were moderately high (average Pearson correlation = 0.63 among raters). Ratings were generally accurate, with halo error most prevalent and some evidence of leniency. Ratings by chief residents had the least halo. Results were generally replicable across the two academic years. We conclude that anonymous ratings of surgical faculty by groups of residents can provide a reliable and accurate evaluation method, ratings by chief residents are most accurate, and halo error may pose the greatest threat to accuracy, pointing to the need for greater definition of evaluation items and scale points. PMID:10121283

  3. Incorporating Cyber Layer Failures in Composite Power System Reliability Evaluations

    Yuqi Han

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel approach to analyze the impacts of cyber layer failures (i.e., protection failures and monitoring failures on the reliability evaluation of composite power systems. The reliability and availability of the cyber layer and its protection and monitoring functions with various topologies are derived based on a reliability block diagram method. The availability of the physical layer components are modified via a multi-state Markov chain model, in which the component protection and monitoring strategies, as well as the cyber layer topology, are simultaneously considered. Reliability indices of composite power systems are calculated through non-sequential Monte-Carlo simulation. Case studies demonstrate that operational reliability downgrades in cyber layer function failure situations. Moreover, protection function failures have more significant impact on the downgraded reliability than monitoring function failures do, and the reliability indices are especially sensitive to the change of the cyber layer function availability in the range from 0.95 to 1.

  4. Turkish adaptation of the Fear of Spiders Questionnaire: Reliability and validity in non-clinical samples

    Robert W. Booth

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The rapid, objective measurement of spider fear is important for clinicians, and for researchers studying fear. To facilitate this, we adapted the Fear of Spiders Questionnaire (FSQ into Turkish. The FSQ is quick to complete and easy to understand. Compared to the commonly used Spider Phobia Questionnaire, it has shown superior test-retest reliability and better discrimination of lower levels of spider fear, facilitating fear research in non-clinical samples. In two studies, with 137 and 105 undergraduates and unselected volunteers, our adapted FSQ showed excellent internal consistency (Cronbach’s α = .95 and .96 and test-retest reliability (r = .90, and good discriminant validity against the State–Trait Anxiety Inventory—Trait (r = .23 and Beck Anxiety Inventory—Trait (r = .07. Most importantly, our adapted FSQ significantly predicted 26 students’ self-reported discomfort upon approaching a caged tarantula; however, a measure of behavioural avoidance of the tarantula yielded little variability, so a more sensitive task will be required for future behavioural testing. Based on this initial testing, we recommend our adapted FSQ for research use. Further research is required to verify that our adapted FSQ discriminates individuals with and without phobia effectively. A Turkish-language report of the studies is included as supplementary material.

  5. Reliability Evaluation for Clustered WSNs under Malware Propagation.

    Shen, Shigen; Huang, Longjun; Liu, Jianhua; Champion, Adam C; Yu, Shui; Cao, Qiying

    2016-01-01

    We consider a clustered wireless sensor network (WSN) under epidemic-malware propagation conditions and solve the problem of how to evaluate its reliability so as to ensure efficient, continuous, and dependable transmission of sensed data from sensor nodes to the sink. Facing the contradiction between malware intention and continuous-time Markov chain (CTMC) randomness, we introduce a strategic game that can predict malware infection in order to model a successful infection as a CTMC state transition. Next, we devise a novel measure to compute the Mean Time to Failure (MTTF) of a sensor node, which represents the reliability of a sensor node continuously performing tasks such as sensing, transmitting, and fusing data. Since clustered WSNs can be regarded as parallel-serial-parallel systems, the reliability of a clustered WSN can be evaluated via classical reliability theory. Numerical results show the influence of parameters such as the true positive rate and the false positive rate on a sensor node's MTTF. Furthermore, we validate the method of reliability evaluation for a clustered WSN according to the number of sensor nodes in a cluster, the number of clusters in a route, and the number of routes in the WSN. PMID:27294934

  6. A Hybrid Adaptive Protocol for Reliable Data Delivery in WSNs with Multiple Mobile Sinks

    Anastasi, Giuseppe; Borgia, Eleonora; Conti, Marco; Gregori, Enrico

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we deal with reliable and energy-efficient data delivery in sparse Wireless Sensor Networks with multiple Mobile Sinks (MSs). This is a critical task, especially when MSs move randomly, as interactions with sensor nodes are unpredictable, typically of short duration, and affected by message losses. In this paper we propose an adaptive data delivery protocol that combines efficiently erasure coding with an ARQ scheme. The key features of the proposed protocol are: (i) the use of ...

  7. ADAPTATION OF RESILIENCE SCALE (RS) TO THE TURK CULTURE: IT’S RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY

    TERZİ, Şerife

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates the reliability and validity of the Turkish adaptation of “Resilience Scale”. The sample consisted of 155 undergraduates from the Faculty of Education, Gazi University, Ankara. Scale used in the research was a 24-item Likert-type revised “Resilience Scale” (RS) with 7-point response format. The construct validity of RS was examined by factor analysis. To test concurrent validity, correlations between scores on RS and “Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale” were calculated. T...

  8. Turkish Adaptation, Validity and Reliability Study of the Beach Center Family Quality of Life Scale

    Meral, Bekir Fatih; Sakarya Üniversitesi, Eğitim Fakültesi, Özel Eğitim Bölümü; Cavkaytar, Atilla; Anadolu Üniversitesi, Eğitim Fakültesi, Özel Eğitim Bölümü

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to adapt the Beach Center Family Quality of Life Scale to Turkish by examining its psychometric properties. Participants were 368 mothers of children with disabilities from 7 cities of Turkey. In this study firstly, the language equivalency between English and Turkish forms were tested. After that confirmatory factor analysis, criterion validity, the Cronbach’s alpha correlation coefficients, and split-half reliabilities, corrected item-total correlations and t-tests ...

  9. Reliability and Validity Test of Questionnaire on the Adaptation Strategy of Cryosphere Changes in Arid Inland River Basin

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to test the reliability and validity of questionnaire on the adaptation strategy of cryosphere changes in arid inland river basin. [Method] A questionnaire on "the adaptation strategy of cryosphere changes in arid inland river basin" was carried out in Urumchi River basin and Aksu River basin, and its reliability and validity were tested by means of statistical method, so as to investigate the stability and accuracy of questionnaire. [Result] Reliability analysis of questionnaire sho...

  10. Adaptation of The Early Childhood Curricular Beliefs Inventory into Turkish: Validity and Reliability Study

    Sema SOYDAN

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to adapt The Early Childhood Curricular Beliefs Inventory (ECCBI questionnaire into Turkish. The ECCBI is a tool designed for exploring curricular beliefs of pre-service teachers in the area of early childhood education. A subscale named “behavioural approach” is not in the Turkish adaptation of the scale according to expert opinions, three subtests meaning 54 items out of 72 items have been included in the adapted version of scale. After the equivalence test of Turkish form, instrument has been applied to 30 preschool teachers and 200 preservice preschool teachers and total 230 person. In order to test construct validity of Turkish instrument, confirmatory and exploratory factor analysis have been applied; to identify reliability, Cronbach Alpha reliability coefficient, Sperman-Brown formula and Guttmann split-half reliability formula have been employed and corrected item-total correlation has been examined. Results show that this scale is a suitable assessment tool for the pre-service teachers to determine their related beliefs about early childhood approaches.

  11. A random effects generalized linear model for reliability compositive evaluation

    2009-01-01

    This paper first proposes a random effects generalized linear model to evaluate the storage life of one kind of high reliable and small sample-sized products by combining multi-sources information of products coming from the same population but stored at different environments. The relevant algorithms are also provided. Simulation results manifest the soundness and effectiveness of the proposed model.

  12. Fast Evaluation of the Reliability of Container Securing Arrangements

    Mansour, A.E.; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Olsen, Anders Smærup

    2004-01-01

    operational profile and a scatter diagram for the specific route, taking into account the effect of weather routing. Wind forces are added to the wave inertia and gravity loads to determine the limit state equations for evaluating the re-liability of a stack of containers against damage or loss. Several modes...

  13. Reliability evaluation studies of aerial gamma spectrometry system

    The Aerial Gamma Spectrometry System (AGSS) is a field instrument developed in Bhabha Atomic Research Centre for quick qualitative and quantitative assessment of radioactive contamination over large area on ground in case of a major nuclear/radiological emergency. This necessitates the system to be operated for aerial surveys above complex topography and harsh environmental conditions. The AGSS has been designed taking into consideration all operational aspects with allowance for variations in parameters such as current, voltage, temperature, humidity etc. The measures taken at the design stage of the AGSS are intended to ensure the reliability of the system during the survey operations under various environmental conditions. The AGSS has been built around an Industrial Computer and consists of NaI(Tl) Detector, Signal Processing Module and Data Storage and Interface Module, which are PC add-on cards and a Global Positioning System (GPS). The Industrial Computer, GPS and the detector are commercially available and they have undergone reliability assessment by the manufacturer. The reliability assessment studies of the Signal Processing and the Data storage and Interface modules have been done in-house. This paper describes the details of the reliability study carried out on AGSS components. The results of reliability evaluation show that the AGSS will provide reliable service if operated well within the limits of operating conditions during aerial/field surveys. The chances of functional failure of AGSS are found to be less than two times in thousand operations of eight hours duration each. (author)

  14. Evaluation of aileron actuator reliability with censored data

    Li Huaiyuan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available For the purpose of enhancing reliability of aileron of Airbus new-generation A350XWB, an evaluation of aileron reliability on the basis of maintenance data is presented in this paper. Practical maintenance data contains large number of censoring samples, information uncertainty of which makes it hard to evaluate reliability of aileron actuator. Considering that true lifetime of censoring sample has identical distribution with complete sample, if censoring sample is transformed into complete sample, conversion frequency of censoring sample can be estimated according to frequency of complete sample. On the one hand, standard life table estimation and product limit method are improved on the basis of such conversion frequency, enabling accurate estimation of various censoring samples. On the other hand, by taking such frequency as one of the weight factors and integrating variance of order statistics under standard distribution, weighted least square estimation is formed for accurately estimating various censoring samples. Large amounts of experiments and simulations show that reliabilities of improved life table and improved product limit method are closer to the true value and more conservative; moreover, weighted least square estimate (WLSE, with conversion frequency of censoring sample and variances of order statistics as the weights, can still estimate accurately with high proportion of censored data in samples. Algorithm in this paper has good effect and can accurately estimate the reliability of aileron actuator even with small sample and high censoring rate. This research has certain significance in theory and engineering practice.

  15. Reliability and validity of the Chinese version Appropriateness Evaluation Protocol

    Liu, W. (Wenwei); Yuan, S. (Suwei); Wei, F. (Fengqing); Yang, J. (Jing); Zhang, Z. (Zhe); Zhu, C. (Changbin); Ma, J. (Jin)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractObjective: To adapt the Appropriateness Evaluation Protocol (AEP) to the specific settings of health care in China and to validate the Chinese version AEP (C-AEP). Methods: Forward and backward translations were carried out to the original criteria. Twenty experts participated in the con

  16. Evaluating accessible adaptable e-learning

    Douce, Christopher; Porch, Wendy

    2009-01-01

    Two different approaches can increase the accessibility of digital educational materials: content that has been built with the widest possible set of users in mind (universal design), or content that has been designed in such a way that it can be personalised to individual user needs and preferences (personalised design). This paper outlines a number of approaches that could be used to evaluate the provision of learning materials that have been adapted to or chosen for individual learners. A ...

  17. Online Tracking Parameter Adaptation based on Evaluation

    Chau D.P.; Badie J.; Bremond F.; Thonnat M.

    2013-01-01

    International audience Parameter tuning is a common issue for many tracking algorithms. In order to solve this problem, this paper proposes an online parameter tuning to adapt a tracking algorithm to various scene contexts. In an offline training phase, this approach learns how to tune the tracker parameters to cope with different contexts. In the online control phase, once the tracking quality is evaluated as not good enough, the proposed approach computes the current context and tunes th...

  18. Reliability Evaluation considering Structures of a Large Scale Wind Farm

    Shin, Je-Seok; Cha, Seung-Tae; Wu, Qiuwei;

    2012-01-01

    Wind energy is one of the most widely used renewable energy resources. Wind power has been connected to the grid as large scale wind farm which is made up of dozens of wind turbines, and the scale of wind farm is more increased recently. Due to intermittent and variable wind source, reliability...... wind farm which is able to enhance a capability of delivering a power instead of controlling an uncontrollable output of wind power. Therefore, this paper introduces a method to evaluate the reliability depending upon structures of wind farm and to reflect the result to the planning stage of wind farm....

  19. The evaluation of operator reliability factors on power reactor

    The sophisticated technology system was not assured the reliability system itself because it has contained a part of human dependence affected successfully of reactor operation either how work smoothly and safe or failure ac cured and then accident appears promptly. The evaluation of operator reliability factor on ABWR power reactor has been carried out which consist of criterion skill and workload according to NUREG/CR-2254, NUREG/CR-4016 and NUREG-0835 the reactor operation reliability emphasize to the operator are synergic between skill and workload themselves. The employee's skill will affect to the type and level of their tasks. The operator's skill depend on education and experiences, position or responsibility of tasks, physical conditions (age uninvalid of physic/mental

  20. Evaluation of Information Requirements of Reliability Methods in Engineering Design

    Marini, Vinicius Kaster; Restrepo-Giraldo, John Dairo; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to characterize the information needed to perform methods for robustness and reliability, and verify their applicability to early design stages. Several methods were evaluated on their support to synthesis in engineering design. Of those methods, FMEA, FTA and HAZOP were selected on...... their insight on design risks and wide spread application. A pilot case study has been performed with a washing machine in using these methods to assess design risks, following a reverse engineering approach. The study has shown the methods can be initiated at early design stages, but cannot be...... concluded. For that reason, new methods are needed to assist assessing robustness and reliability at early design stages. A specific taxonomy on robustness and reliability information in design could support classifying available design information to orient new techniques assessing innovative designs....

  1. Escala Razões para Fumar Modificada: tradução e adaptação cultural para o português para uso no Brasil e avaliação da confiabilidade teste-reteste Modified Reasons for Smoking Scale: translation to Portuguese, cross-cultural adaptation for use in Brazil and evaluation of test-retest reliability

    Elisa Sebba Tosta de Souza

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Traduzir, fazer a adaptação cultural e testar a confiabilidade teste-reteste de uma versão em língua portuguesa da Escala Razões Para Fumar Modificada (ERPFM para uso no Brasil. MÉTODOS: Uma versão em língua inglesa da ERPFM foi traduzida por médicos brasileiros com profundo conhecimento sobre a língua inglesa. Uma versão de consenso foi obtida por grupo multidisciplinar composto por dois pneumologistas, um psiquiatra e um psicólogo. Essa versão foi traduzida de volta ao inglês por um tradutor americano. A avaliação da adaptação cultural da versão final foi efetuada em uma amostra de 20 fumantes saudáveis. A avaliação da confiabilidade teste-reteste foi feita pela aplicação da versão traduzida da escala em 54 fumantes saudáveis em duas ocasiões separadas por 15 dias. RESULTADOS: Essa versão traduzida da ERPFM exibiu excelente identidade cultural, sendo bem compreendida por 95% dos fumantes. Os graus de concordância das respostas em duas ocasiões distintas foram quase perfeito para duas questões, substancial para dez questões, moderado para oito questões e discreto para uma questão. Os valores dos coeficientes de correlação intraclasse dos fatores motivacionais em duas ocasiões, empregando-se modelos teóricos previamente publicados, foram superiores a 0,7 em seis dos sete domínios. CONCLUSÕES: A presente versão da ERPFM exibe identidade cultural e confiabilidade teste-reteste satisfatórias, podendo ser de utilidade no tratamento e na avaliação de tabagistas em nosso meio.OBJECTIVE: To translate the Modified Reasons for Smoking Scale (MRSS to Portuguese, to submit it to cross-cultural adaptation for use in Brazil and to evaluate the test-retest reliability of the translated version. METHODS: An English-language version of the MRSS was translated to Portuguese by Brazilian doctors who have thorough knowledge of the English language. A consensus version was produced by a multidisciplinary group

  2. Accident Sequence Evaluation Program: Human reliability analysis procedure

    This document presents a shortened version of the procedure, models, and data for human reliability analysis (HRA) which are presented in the Handbook of Human Reliability Analysis With emphasis on Nuclear Power Plant Applications (NUREG/CR-1278, August 1983). This shortened version was prepared and tried out as part of the Accident Sequence Evaluation Program (ASEP) funded by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and managed by Sandia National Laboratories. The intent of this new HRA procedure, called the ''ASEP HRA Procedure,'' is to enable systems analysts, with minimal support from experts in human reliability analysis, to make estimates of human error probabilities and other human performance characteristics which are sufficiently accurate for many probabilistic risk assessments. The ASEP HRA Procedure consists of a Pre-Accident Screening HRA, a Pre-Accident Nominal HRA, a Post-Accident Screening HRA, and a Post-Accident Nominal HRA. The procedure in this document includes changes made after tryout and evaluation of the procedure in four nuclear power plants by four different systems analysts and related personnel, including human reliability specialists. The changes consist of some additional explanatory material (including examples), and more detailed definitions of some of the terms. 42 refs

  3. Accident Sequence Evaluation Program: Human reliability analysis procedure

    Swain, A.D.

    1987-02-01

    This document presents a shortened version of the procedure, models, and data for human reliability analysis (HRA) which are presented in the Handbook of Human Reliability Analysis With emphasis on Nuclear Power Plant Applications (NUREG/CR-1278, August 1983). This shortened version was prepared and tried out as part of the Accident Sequence Evaluation Program (ASEP) funded by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and managed by Sandia National Laboratories. The intent of this new HRA procedure, called the ''ASEP HRA Procedure,'' is to enable systems analysts, with minimal support from experts in human reliability analysis, to make estimates of human error probabilities and other human performance characteristics which are sufficiently accurate for many probabilistic risk assessments. The ASEP HRA Procedure consists of a Pre-Accident Screening HRA, a Pre-Accident Nominal HRA, a Post-Accident Screening HRA, and a Post-Accident Nominal HRA. The procedure in this document includes changes made after tryout and evaluation of the procedure in four nuclear power plants by four different systems analysts and related personnel, including human reliability specialists. The changes consist of some additional explanatory material (including examples), and more detailed definitions of some of the terms. 42 refs.

  4. The Data Evaluation for Obtaining Accuracy and Reliability

    Nemours scientific measurement results are flooded from the paper, data book, etc. as fast growing of internet. We meet many different measurement results on the same measurand. In this moment, we are face to choose most reliable one out of them. But it is not easy to choose and use the accurate and reliable data as we do at an ice cream parlor. Even expert users feel difficult to distinguish the accurate and reliable scientific data from huge amount of measurement results. For this reason, the data evaluation is getting more important as the fast growing of internet and globalization. Furthermore the expressions of measurement results are not in standardi-zation. As these need, the international movement has been enhanced. At the first step, the global harmonization of terminology used in metrology and the expression of uncertainty in measurement were published in ISO. These methods are wide spread to many area of science on their measurement to obtain the accuracy and reliability. In this paper, it is introduced that the GUM, SRD and data evaluation on atomic collisions.

  5. A structure-based approach to evaluation product adaptability in adaptable design

    Adaptable design, as a new design paradigm, involves creating designs and products that can be easily changed to satisfy different requirements. In this paper, two types of product adaptability are proposed as essential adaptability and behavioral adaptability, and through measuring which respectively a model for product adaptability evaluation is developed. The essential adaptability evaluation proceeds with analyzing the independencies of function requirements and function modules firstly based on axiomatic design, and measuring the adaptability of interfaces secondly with three indices. The behavioral adaptability reflected by the performance of adaptable requirements after adaptation is measured based on Kano model. At last, the effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated by an illustrative example of the motherboard of a personal computer. The results show that the method can evaluate and reveal the adaptability of a product in essence, and is of directive significance to improving design and innovative design

  6. Final report : testing and evaluation for solar hot water reliability.

    Caudell, Thomas P. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); He, Hongbo (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Menicucci, David F. (Building Specialists, Inc., Albuquerque, NM); Mammoli, Andrea A. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Burch, Jay (National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO)

    2011-07-01

    Solar hot water (SHW) systems are being installed by the thousands. Tax credits and utility rebate programs are spurring this burgeoning market. However, the reliability of these systems is virtually unknown. Recent work by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has shown that few data exist to quantify the mean time to failure of these systems. However, there is keen interest in developing new techniques to measure SHW reliability, particularly among utilities that use ratepayer money to pay the rebates. This document reports on an effort to develop and test new, simplified techniques to directly measure the state of health of fielded SHW systems. One approach was developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and is based on the idea that the performance of the solar storage tank can reliably indicate the operational status of the SHW systems. Another approach, developed by the University of New Mexico (UNM), uses adaptive resonance theory, a type of neural network, to detect and predict failures. This method uses the same sensors that are normally used to control the SHW system. The NREL method uses two additional temperature sensors on the solar tank. The theories, development, application, and testing of both methods are described in the report. Testing was performed on the SHW Reliability Testbed at UNM, a highly instrumented SHW system developed jointly by SNL and UNM. The two methods were tested against a number of simulated failures. The results show that both methods show promise for inclusion in conventional SHW controllers, giving them advanced capability in detecting and predicting component failures.

  7. Reliability and validity of the adapted Greek version of scoliosis research society – 22 (SRS-22 questionnaire

    Christodoulou Evangelos A

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The SRS-22 is a valid instrument for the assessment of the health related quality of life of patients with Idiopathic scoliosis. The SRS-22 questionnaire was developed in USA and has been widely used in the English speaking countries. Recently it has been translated and validated in many other languages. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the reliability and validity of the adapted Greek version of the refined Scoliosis Research Society-22 Questionnaire. Methods Following the steps of cross – cultural adaptation the adapted Greek version of the SRS-22 questionnaire and a validated Greek version of the SF-36 questionnaire were mailed to 68 patients treated surgically for Idiopathic Scoliosis. 51 out of the 68 patients returned the 1st set of questionnaires, while a second set was emailed to 30 randomly selected patients of the first time responders. 20 out of the 30 patients returned the 2nd set. The mean age at the time of operation was16,2 years and the mean age at the time of evaluation was 21,2 years. Descriptive statistics for content analysis were calculated. Reliability assessment was determined by estimating Cronbach's α and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC respectively. Concurrent validity was evaluated by comparing SRS-22 domains with relevant domains in the SF-36 questionnaire using Pearson's Correlation Coefficient (r. Results The calculated Cronbach's α of internal consistency for three of the corresponding domains (pain 0.85; mental health 0.87; self image 0.83 were very satisfactory and for two domains (function/activity 0.72 and satisfaction 0.67 were good. The ICC of all domains of SRS-22 questionnaire was high (ICC>0.70, demonstrating very satisfactory or excellent test/retest reproducibility. Considering concurrent validity all correlations were found to be statistically significant at the 0.01 level among related domains and generally demonstrated high correlation coefficient. Conclusion

  8. Reliability of Bolton analysis evaluation in tridimensional virtual models

    Marianna Mendonca Brandão; Marcio Costal Sobral; Carlos Jorge Vogel

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The present study aimed at evaluating the reliability of Bolton analysis in tridimensional virtual models, comparing it with the manual method carried out with dental casts. Methods: The present investigation was performed using 56 pairs of dental casts produced from the dental arches of patients in perfect conditions and randomly selected from Universidade Federal da Bahia, School of Dentistry, Orthodontics Postgraduate Program. Manual measurements were obtained with the aid of a ...

  9. EVALUATION OF GRAIN YIELD STABILITY, RELIABILITY AND CULTIVAR RECOMMENDATIONS IN SPRING WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) FROM KAZAKHSTAN AND SIBERIA

    Gómez HUGO FERNEY; ALEXEI, Morgounov; Abugalieva AIGUL

    2007-01-01

    The investigation was carried out to determine the stability and adaptability patterns of a set of 40 promising spring wheat genotypes from Kazakhstan and Siberia evaluated in a multievironment yield trial across 22 environments. Some of the most widely known parametric stability parameters were used as well as the less frequently cited reliability index (I). Grain yield correlated significantly and positively with the stability parameters b and S2 and the reliability index (I); but did not c...

  10. A Reliable Adaptive High-Definition Transmission System for Distance Learning

    2007-01-01

    There is an increasing demand for supporting high-quality real-time audiovisual services for the next generation wired and wireless networks. However, due to variety of bandwidths of different networks, it is a great challenge for deployment. In this paper, a novel high-definition (HD) video transmission system was proposed which depends upon reliable compound multicast protocols and QoS control over the various kinds of networks.This system detects client's network condition and assigns it to a proper proxy. Each proxy is capable of detecting network parameters and adaptively tuning such transport parameters as bit rate, video resolution, frame rate and QoS mechanisms to this condition. It also provides FEC error recovery under consideration of characteristics of MPEG4 video codec. Our simulation demonstrates that different network clients such as ADSL, CERNET, and CERNET2 can receive more video reliability with less delay.

  11. On the Exploration of Adaptive Mechanisms Providing Reliability in Clustered WSNs for Power Plant Monitoring.

    Rathinavel, Sathiyaseelan; Pandi, Vijayakumar; Sivaraman, Audithan

    2016-01-01

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are used in almost every sensing and detection environment instead of wired devices in the current world, all the more in power plant monitoring applications. In such a kind of environment, providing reliability is a challenging task, since WSN makes use of low powered sensors. There are many existing works that provide reliable transmission in WSN (predominantly via multipath routing). However, most of the existing works take additional delay, excessive packet loss, and energy consumption, and hence they provide less packet delivery and throughput. Adaptive Priority Routing (APR) is first proposed during the initial design to provide efficiency in next hop selection. APR computes the priority value for selecting the intermediate nodes during the data transmission in order to improve the packet delivery, throughput, and energy efficiency. In addition to this, APR is developed into QAPR protocol to provide reliability which can operate in two modes, D representing distance mode and Q representing quality of service (QoS) mode. The proposed work is simulated in both flat topology and hierarchical topologies and the simulation analysis shows that the reliability is increased significantly in comparison with existing works. PMID:26885548

  12. The Adaptation of Acceptance of Couple Violence Scale into Turkish: Validity and Reliability Studies

    SEZER, Özcan

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the validity and reliability of the Turkish adaptation of Acceptance of Couple Violence Scale ACVS The data of research has been attained from 474 M =243 F=231 high school students who were attending 1st 2nd and 3th class and coming from middle socio economic levels in Malatya Acceptance of Couple Violence Scale has 11 items Likert type and 4 point response format The construct validity of ACVS was conducted by using exploratory factor analysis and varimax ro...

  13. Evaluation of accuracy and reliability of PulseOn optical heart rate monitoring device.

    Delgado-Gonzalo, Ricard; Parak, Jakub; Tarniceriu, Adrian; Renevey, Philippe; Bertschi, Mattia; Korhonen, Ilkka

    2015-08-01

    PulseOn is a wrist-worn optical heart rate (HR) monitor based on photoplethysmography. It utilizes multi-wavelength technology and optimized sensor geometry to monitor blood flow at different depths of skin tissue, and it dynamically adapts to an optimal measurement depth in different conditions. Movement artefacts are reduced by adaptive movement-cancellation algorithms and optimized mechanics, which stabilize the sensor-to-skin contact. In this paper, we evaluated the accuracy and reliability of PulseOn technology against ECG-derived HR in laboratory conditions during a wide range of physical activities and also during outdoor sports. In addition, we compared the performance to another on-the-shelf wrist-worn consumer product Mio LINK(®). The results showed PulseOn reliability (% of time with error <;10bpm) of 94.5% with accuracy (100% - mean absolute percentage error) 96.6% as compared to ECG (vs 86.6% and 94.4% for Mio LINK(®), correspondingly) during laboratory protocol. Similar or better reliability and accuracy was seen during normal outdoor sports activities. The results show that PulseOn provides reliability and accuracy similar to traditional chest strap ECG HR monitors during cardiovascular exercise. PMID:26736291

  14. Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia for Heart Turkish Version Study: cross-cultural adaptation, exploratory factor analysis, and reliability

    Acar S

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Serap Acar,1 Sema Savci,1 Pembe Keskinoğlu,2 Bahri Akdeniz,3 Ebru Özpelit,3 Buse Özcan Kahraman,1 Didem Karadibak,1 Can Sevinc4 1School of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation, 2Department of Biostatistics, Faculty of Medicine, 3Department of Cardiology, Faculty of Medicine, 4Department of Chest Disease, Faculty of Medicine, Dokuz Eylul University, İzmir, Turkey Purpose: Individuals with cardiac problems avoid physical activity and exercise because they expect to feel shortness of breath, dizziness, or chest pain. Assessing kinesiophobia related to heart problems is important in terms of cardiac rehabilitation. The Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia Swedish Version for the Heart (TSK-SV Heart is reliable and has been validated for cardiac diseases in the Swedish population. The aim of this study was to investigate the reliability, parallel-form validity, and exploratory factor analysis of the TSK for the Heart Turkish Version (TSK Heart Turkish Version for evaluating kinesiophobia in patients with heart failure and pulmonary arterial hypertension.Methods: This cross-sectional study involved translation, back translation, and cross-cultural adaptation (localization. Forty-three pulmonary arterial hypertension and 32 heart failure patients were evaluated using the TSK Heart Turkish Version. The 17-item scale, originally composed for the Swedish population, has four factors: perceived danger for heart problem, avoidance of exercise, fear of injury, and dysfunctional self. Cronbach’s alpha (internal ­consistency and exploratory factor analysis were used to assess the questionnaire’s reliability. Results of the patients in the 6-minute walk test, International Physical Activity Questionnaire, and Nottingham Health Profile were analyzed by Pearson’s correlation analysis with the TSK Heart Turkish Version to indicate the convergent validity.Results: Cronbach’s alpha for the TSK Heart Turkish Version was 0.75, indicating acceptable internal

  15. Research of IRFPAs' reliability evaluation by bad pixel

    Hao, Lichao; Huang, Aibo; Lai, Canxiong; Chen, Xing; Hao, Mingming; Chen, Honglei; Lu, Guoguang; Huang, Yun; En, Yunfei

    2015-10-01

    Reliability is an important index to ensure the application of infrared focal plane arrays (IRFPAs) in complex environment, and it becomes a major bottleneck problem of IRFPAs' development. Because of the characteristics such as type, nature, quantity, location and distribution et al, bad pixel which contains initial bad pixel and used bad pixel has outstanding advantage for failure analysis and reliability evaluation of IRFPAs. In this paper, the structure of IRPFAs has been introduced in detail, and the damage mechanisms of used bad pixel also have been analyzed deeply. At the same time, the feasibility to study IRPFAs' damage stress, failure position, damage mechanism has been discussed all around. The research of bad pixel can be used to optimize the structure and process, meanwhile it also can improve the accuracy of bad pixel identification and replacements.

  16. Reliability evaluation of a photovoltaic module using accelerated degradation model

    Laronde, Rémi; Charki, Abdérafi; Bigaud, David; Excoffier, Philippe

    2011-09-01

    Many photovoltaic modules are installed all around the world. However, the reliability of this product is not enough really known. The electrical power decreases in time due mainly to corrosion, encapsulation discoloration and solder bond failure. The failure of a photovoltaic module is obtained when the electrical power degradation reaches a threshold value. Accelerated life tests are commonly used to estimate the reliability of the photovoltaic module. However, using accelerated life tests, few data on the failure of this product are obtained and the realization of this kind of tests is expensive. As a solution, an accelerated degradation test can be carried out using only one stress if parameters of the acceleration model are known. The Wiener process associated with the accelerated failure time model permits to carry out many simulations and to determine the failure time distribution when the threshold value is reached. So, the failure time distribution and the lifetime (mean and uncertainty) can be evaluated.

  17. Reliability evaluation of communication network switching scheme for safety systems

    To develop the communication network architecture of a safety system of nuclear power plant, the five essence in the design requirements of a communication network for safety-critical systems are determined such as status based architecture, deterministic scheme, separation and isolation, high reliability, verification and validation. In this paper, the data communication network switching scheme for safety systems is proposed based on the circuit switched network with time division multiplexing bus technology considered adequate to the essence of the design requirements and the design elements. The proposed communication network switching scheme was applied to the network design of the SMART protection system, and the reliability was evaluated with the data of components failure rates to determine the applicability of the proposed switching scheme. The proposed switching scheme will be applied as basic communication network architecture of safety system

  18. Evaluation of reliability of EC inspection of VVER SG tubes

    Evaluation of eddy current data collected during inspection of VVER steam generators is very complex task because of numerous parameters which have affect on eddy current signals. That was the reason that recently ago INETEC has started related scientific project in order to evaluate the reliability of eddy current (EC) inspection of VVER steam generator (SG) tubing. In the scope of project the following objectives will be investigated: 1. Determination of POD (Probability of detection) of various types degradation cracks, where their basic parameters are variables (basic parameters are depth, length, width, orientation, number) on three different sets of tubes (clean ideal tubes, tubes with pilgering, tubes electroplated with copper) 2. Sizing quality (accuracy, repeatability) (same data sets as defined in 1.) 3. Effect of fill factor on POD and sizing quality. 4. Effect of tube bends on POD and sizing quality. 5. Effect of other tube geometry variations on POD and sizing quality (tube ovality, transition zone region, expanded (rolled) part of tube, dents, dings). Investigation will start with bobbin probe technique which is the most used technique for general purpose VVER tube examination. Since INETEC is the only world company which successfully developed and applied rotating probe technique for VVER SG tubes, scope of the project will be extended on rotating probe technique utilizing 'pancake' and 'point' coil. Method reliability will be investigated first on the huge set of EDM notches representing various defect morphologies and simulating different factors, and the second part will be investigated on sets of degradation defects obtained by artificial corrosion. In the scope of the project the measures for enhancing the method reliability have to be determined. This considers the proper definition of parameters of examination system, as well as establishment of the suitable analysis procedures. This article presents the temporary results of the first part of

  19. An evaluation of the multi-state node networks reliability using the traditional binary-state networks reliability algorithm

    A system where the components and system itself are allowed to have a number of performance levels is called the Multi-state system (MSS). A multi-state node network (MNN) is a generalization of the MSS without satisfying the flow conservation law. Evaluating the MNN reliability arises at the design and exploitation stage of many types of technical systems. Up to now, the known existing methods can only evaluate a special MNN reliability called the multi-state node acyclic network (MNAN) in which no cyclic is allowed. However, no method exists for evaluating the general MNN reliability. The main purpose of this article is to show first that each MNN reliability can be solved using any the traditional binary-state networks (TBSN) reliability algorithm with a special code for the state probability. A simple heuristic SDP algorithm based on minimal cuts (MC) for estimating the MNN reliability is presented as an example to show how the TBSN reliability algorithm is revised to solve the MNN reliability problem. To the author's knowledge, this study is the first to discuss the relationships between MNN and TBSN and also the first to present methods to solve the exact and approximated MNN reliability. One example is illustrated to show how the exact MNN reliability is obtained using the proposed algorithm

  20. Adaptive thresholding for reliable topological inference in single subject fMRI analysis

    Krzysztof eGorgolewski

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Single subject fMRI has proved to be a useful tool for mapping functional areas in clinical procedures such as tumour resection. Using fMRI data, clinicians assess the risk, plan and execute such procedures based on thresholded statistical maps. However, because current thresholding methods were developed mainly in the context of cognitive neuroscience group studies, most single subject fMRI maps are thresholded manually to satisfy specific criteria related to single subject analyses. Here, we propose a new adaptive thresholding method which combines Gamma-Gaussian mixture modelling with topological thresholding to improve cluster delineation. In a series of simulations we show that by adapting to the signal and noise properties, the new method performs well in terms of the trade-off between false negative and positive cluster error rates as well as in terms of over and underestimation of the true activation border. We also show through simulations and a motor test-retest study on ten volunteer subjects that adaptive thresholding improves reliability, mainly by accounting for the global signal variance. This in turn increases the likelihood that the true activation pattern can be determined.

  1. Non-destructive Reliability Evaluation of Electronic Device by ESPI

    This paper propose electronic speckle pattern interferometry(ESPI) for reliability evaluation of electronic device. Especially, vibration problem in a fan of air conditioner, motor of washing machine and etc. is important factor to design the devices. But, it is difficult to apply previous method, accelerometer to the devices with complex geometry. ESPI, non-contact measurement technique applies a commercial fan of air conditioner to vibration analysis. Vibration mode shapes, natural frequency and the range of the frequency are decided and compared with that of FEM analysis. In mechanical deign of new product, ESPI adds weak point of previous method to supply effective design information

  2. Study of evaluation techniques of software configuration management and reliability

    Youn, Cheong; Baek, Y. W.; Kim, H. C.; Han, H. C.; Choi, C. R. [Chungnam National Univ., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-03-15

    The Study of activities to solve software safety and quality must be executed in base of establishing software development process for digitalized nuclear plant. Especially study of software testing and Verification and Validation must executed. For this purpose methodologies and tools which can improve software qualities are evaluated and software Testing, V and V and Configuration Management which can be applied to software life cycle are investigated. This study establish a guideline that can be used to assure software safety and reliability requirements in digitalized nuclear plant systems.

  3. Evaluating the reliability of products made of structural graphite

    Dutka, V.A. [Inst. of Ultrahard Materials, Kiev (Ukraine)

    1995-12-01

    A variant of the statistical theory of brittle fracture proposed earlier by V. T. Golovchan is used to calculate the probability of fracture of annular graphite specimens with allowance for the volumetric distribution of thermal stresses in the specimens. The calculated results are compared with data from laboratory studies of the heat resistance of graphite within a broad range of temperatures. It is established that the given variant of the theory is suited for evaluating the reliability of products made of structural graphite when subjected to thermomechanical loading.

  4. Study of evaluation techniques of software configuration management and reliability

    The Study of activities to solve software safety and quality must be executed in base of establishing software development process for digitalized nuclear plant. Especially study of software testing and Verification and Validation must executed. For this purpose methodologies and tools which can improve software qualities are evaluated and software Testing, V and V and Configuration Management which can be applied to software life cycle are investigated. This study establish a guideline that can be used to assure software safety and reliability requirements in digitalized nuclear plant systems

  5. Evaluating the reliability of predictions made using environmental transfer models

    The development and application of mathematical models for predicting the consequences of releases of radionuclides into the environment from normal operations in the nuclear fuel cycle and in hypothetical accident conditions has increased dramatically in the last two decades. This Safety Practice publication has been prepared to provide guidance on the available methods for evaluating the reliability of environmental transfer model predictions. It provides a practical introduction of the subject and a particular emphasis has been given to worked examples in the text. It is intended to supplement existing IAEA publications on environmental assessment methodology. 60 refs, 17 figs, 12 tabs

  6. Reliability Evaluation considering Structures of a Large Scale Wind Farm

    Shin, Je-Seok; Cha, Seung-Tae; Wu, Qiuwei; Kim, Jin-O

    2012-01-01

    Wind energy is one of the most widely used renewable energy resources. Wind power has been connected to the grid as large scale wind farm which is made up of dozens of wind turbines, and thescale of wind farm is more increased recently. Due to intermittent and variable wind source, reliability evaluation on wind farm is necessarily required. Also, because large scale offshore wind farm has along repair time and a high repair cost as well as a high investment cost, it is essential to take into...

  7. Software Reliability Prediction – An Evaluation of a Novel Technique

    Andersson, Björn; Persson, Marie

    2004-01-01

    Along with continuously increasing computerization, our expectations on software and hardware reliability increase considerably. Therefore, software reliability has become one of the most important software quality attributes. Software reliability modeling based on test data is done to estimate whether the current reliability level meets the requirements for the product. Software reliability modeling also provides possibilities to predict reliability. Costs of software developing and tests to...

  8. Adaptation, Validity and Reliability of the Body Sensations Questionnaire Turkish Version

    Aysegül KART; M. Hakan TÜRKÇAPAR

    2014-01-01

    Objective: In this study, it is aimed to evaluate the validity and reliability of Body Sensations Questionnaire (BSQ). Method: BSQ was administered to 122 patients with panic disorder. BSQ Turkish version completed by translation, back-translation and pilot assessment. Socio-demographic Data Form and BSQ Turkish version were administered to participants. Construct validity was assesed by factor analysis after Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) and Bartlett tests applied. Principal compon...

  9. A Route Confidence Evaluation Method for Reliable Hierarchical Text Categorization

    Hatami, Nima; Armano, Giuliano

    2012-01-01

    Hierarchical Text Categorization (HTC) is becoming increasingly important with the rapidly growing amount of text data available in the World Wide Web. Among the different strategies proposed to cope with HTC, the Local Classifier per Node (LCN) approach attains good performance by mirroring the underlying class hierarchy while enforcing a top-down strategy in the testing step. However, the problem of embedding hierarchical information (parent-child relationship) to improve the performance of HTC systems still remains open. A confidence evaluation method for a selected route in the hierarchy is proposed to evaluate the reliability of the final candidate labels in an HTC system. In order to take into account the information embedded in the hierarchy, weight factors are used to take into account the importance of each level. An acceptance/rejection strategy in the top-down decision making process is proposed, which improves the overall categorization accuracy by rejecting a few percentage of samples, i.e., thos...

  10. Transcultural adaptation to Brazilian Portuguese and reliability of the effort-reward imbalance in household and family work

    de Vasconcellos, Ilmeire Ramos Rosembach; Griep, Rosane Härter; Portela, Luciana; Alves, Márcia Guimarães de Mello; Rotenberg, Lúcia

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the steps in the transcultural adaptation of the scale in the Effort-reward imbalance model to household and family work to the Brazilian context. METHODS We performed the translation, back-translation, and initial psychometric evaluation of the questionnaire that comprised three dimensions: (i) effort (eight items, emphasizing quantitative workload), (ii) reward (11 items that seek to capture the intrinsic value of family and household work, societal esteem, recognition from the spouse/partner, and affection from the children), and (iii) overcommitment (four items related to intrinsic effort). The scale was included in a sectional study conducted with 1,045 nursing workers. A subsample of 222 subjects answered the questionnaire for a second time, seven to 15 days thereafter. The data were collected between October 2012 and May 2013. The internal consistency of the scale was evaluated using Cronbach’s alpha and test-retest reliability analysis, square weighted kappa, prevalence and bias adjusted Kappa, and intraclass correlation coefficient. RESULTS Prevalence and bias-adjusted Kappa (ka) of the scale dimensions ranged from 0.80-0.83 for overcommitment, 0.78-0.90 for effort, and 0.76-0.93 for reward. In most dimensions, the values of minimum and maximum scores, average, standard deviation, and Cronbach’s alpha were similar in test and retest scores. Only on societal esteem subdimension (reward) was there little variation in standard deviation (test score of 2.24 and retest score of 3.36) and in Cronbach’s alpha coefficient (test score of 0.38 and retest score of 0.59). CONCLUSIONS The Brazilian version of the scale was found to have proper reliability indices regarding time stability, which suggests adapting it to be used in population with characteristics that are similar to the one in this study. PMID:27355466

  11. Translation, cross-cultural adaptation, reliability and discriminative validity of the Danish version of the short questionnaire to assess health-enhancing physical activity (SQUASH)

    Jacobsen, Julie Sandell; Sørensen, Lotte; Mikkelsen, Lone Ramer;

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is abundant evidence that physical activity has a fundamental role in the prevention and treatment of chronic disease. Questionnaires are simple and inexpensive to apply to measure physical activity. Purpose / Aim of Study: Translate and cross-cultural adapt the short...... questionnaire to assess health-enhancing physical activity (SQUASH) to Danish and to investigate the reliability and discriminative validity of the Danish version. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted according to the COSMIN guidelines. The reliability was evaluated in 50 healthy individuals, mean age...... 47.2 � 12.6 years and mean period 37.1 � 14.9 days between test and retest. The relative reliability was assessed with intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and the absolute reliability with standard error of measurement (SEM) and smallest detectable change (SDC). The discriminative validity was...

  12. Adapting Human Reliability Analysis from Nuclear Power to Oil and Gas Applications

    Boring, Ronald Laurids [Idaho National Laboratory

    2015-09-01

    ABSTRACT: Human reliability analysis (HRA), as currently used in risk assessments, largely derives its methods and guidance from application in the nuclear energy domain. While there are many similarities be-tween nuclear energy and other safety critical domains such as oil and gas, there remain clear differences. This paper provides an overview of HRA state of the practice in nuclear energy and then describes areas where refinements to the methods may be necessary to capture the operational context of oil and gas. Many key distinctions important to nuclear energy HRA such as Level 1 vs. Level 2 analysis may prove insignifi-cant for oil and gas applications. On the other hand, existing HRA methods may not be sensitive enough to factors like the extensive use of digital controls in oil and gas. This paper provides an overview of these con-siderations to assist in the adaptation of existing nuclear-centered HRA methods to the petroleum sector.

  13. Adaptive Reliable Routing Based on Cluster Hierarchy for Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks

    Chen Min

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available As a multimedia information acquisition and processing method, wireless multimedia sensor network(WMSN has great application potential in military and civilian areas. Compared with traditional wireless sensor network, the routing design of WMSN should obtain more attention on the quality of transmission. This paper proposes an adaptive reliable routing based on clustering hierarchy named ARCH, which includes energy prediction and power allocation mechanism. To obtain a better performance, the cluster structure is formed based on cellular topology. The introduced prediction mechanism makes the sensor nodes predict the remaining energy of other nodes, which dramatically reduces the overall information needed for energy balancing. ARCH can dynamically balance the energy consumption of nodes based on the predicted results provided by power allocation. The simulation results prove the efficiency of the proposed ARCH routing.

  14. Adaptation of Instructional Materials Motivation Survey to Turkish: A Validity and Reliability Study

    Hülya Kutu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to adapt “Instructional Materials Motivation Survey [IMMS]”, developed by J. M. Keller, to Turkish and investigate validity and reliability of the Turkish version of the survey. The original version of the survey was composed of 36 items gathered under four factors (attention, relevance, confidence, satisfaction. The survey was translated into Turkish. Views of 15 faculty members who were expert in Turkish and foreign language were sought in terms of correctness of meaning in Turkish and integrity of items into culture of Turkish education system. Turkish version of the survey was administered to total of 262 university students from Education Faculties of Ataturk and Erzincan Universities. The item-total correlations were calculated, and items which had negative or low correlation with the total survey score (r<.30 were excluded from the survey. The construct validity of the survey was examined by exploratory factor analysis. Varimax rotation technique was used due to the separation into irrelevant factors. Finally the survey was constructed from 24 item gathered under two factors. The reliability coefficient (Cronbach Alpha for the whole survey was calculated as 0.83, and 0.79 and 0.69 for the two sub-factors respectively.

  15. Time-Varying, Multi-Scale Adaptive System Reliability Analysis of Lifeline Infrastructure Networks

    Gearhart, Jared Lee [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kurtz, Nolan Scot [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-09-01

    The majority of current societal and economic needs world-wide are met by the existing networked, civil infrastructure. Because the cost of managing such infrastructure is high and increases with time, risk-informed decision making is essential for those with management responsibilities for these systems. To address such concerns, a methodology that accounts for new information, deterioration, component models, component importance, group importance, network reliability, hierarchical structure organization, and efficiency concerns has been developed. This methodology analyzes the use of new information through the lens of adaptive Importance Sampling for structural reliability problems. Deterioration, multi-scale bridge models, and time-variant component importance are investigated for a specific network. Furthermore, both bridge and pipeline networks are studied for group and component importance, as well as for hierarchical structures in the context of specific networks. Efficiency is the primary driver throughout this study. With this risk-informed approach, those responsible for management can address deteriorating infrastructure networks in an organized manner.

  16. The Turkish Adaptation of Implicit Theory of Intelligence Scale: The Validity and Reliability Study

    Mustafa İLHAN

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to adapt the Implicit Theory of Intelligence Scale (ITIS by Abd-El-Fattah and Yates (2006 to Turkish and to investigate its psychometric properties. The study was conducted on four different samples which consisted of 689 students who studied different subjects at the Ziya Gokalp Faculty of Education, Dicle University, during the Fall Term of the 2012-2013 Academic Year. The findings on the linguistic equivalence indicated that the correlation between the items included in the Turkish and original form varied between .81 and .96. The factor analysis concluded that the Turkish version had a two-factor structure in parallel with the original one. As for the concurrent validity, the calculation of correlation between the ITIS and AGOS reported findings similar to the ones in the literature. The reliability coefficients were over .70 for both the entity theory and incremental theory. The item analysis reported that the corrected item total correlations ranged from .33 and .63 and the differences between the top and bottom 27% groups were significant for all the items included in the scale. All these findings suggest that the Turkish version of the ITIS is a valid and reliable instrument that can be used to measure university students’ beliefs about intelligence.

  17. Evaluating reliability and resolution of ensemble forecasts using information theory

    Weijs, Steven; van de Giesen, Nick

    2010-05-01

    Ensemble forecasts are increasingly popular for the communication of uncertainty towards the public and decision makers. Ideally, an ensemble forecast reflects both the uncertainty and the information in a forecast, which means that the spread in the ensemble should accurately represent the true uncertainty. For ensembles to be useful, they should be probabilistic, as probability is the language to precisely describe an incomplete state of knowledge, that is typical for forecasts. Information theory provides the ideal tools to deal with uncertainty and information in forecasts. Essential to the use and development of models and forecasts are ways to evaluate their quality. Without a proper definition of what is good, it is impossible to improve forecasts. In contrast to forecast value, which is user dependent, forecast quality, which is defined as the correspondence between forecasts and observations, can be objectively defined, given the question that is asked. The evaluation of forecast quality is known as forecast verification. Numerous techniques for forecast verification have been developed over the past decades. The Brier score (BS) and the derived Ranked Probability Score (RPS) are among the most widely used scores for measuring forecast quality. Both of these scores can be split into three additive components: uncertainty, reliability and resolution. While the first component, uncertainty, just depends on the inherent variability in the forecasted event, the latter two measure different aspects of the quality of forecasts themselves. Resolution measures the difference between the conditional probabilities and the marginal probabilities of occurrence. The third component, reliability, measures the conditional bias in the probability estimates, hence unreliability would be a better name. In this work, we argue that information theory should be adopted as the correct framework for measuring quality of probabilistic ensemble forecasts. We use the information

  18. Deductive tree analysis for evaluating the reliability of construction operations

    The importance of structural and construction safety is associated with the adverse consequences that may result from a structural failure and a construction accident. One of the most important objectives of any construction team is to minimize and control the risk levels of failure and accident of construction operations, as well as to determine the various critical factors which might lead to the increase of the probability of failure and accident of the operations. There are several uncertainty events and factors that contribute to the failure and accident of construction operations. The factors are associated with random, human-based or system uncertainty. Some of these factors include the level of engineering knowledge and experience, level of workmanship and attitude, level of communication procedures, methods and sequence of construction. Most of these factors are subjective, vague, and imprecisely defined, and therefore, they are expressed in semantic terms rather than mathematical measures. The subjectivity of the factors needs to be incorporated into the reliability estimation processes. The objective of this paper is to present a reliability evaluation methodology for construction operations that considers the effect of the factors and their uncertainties on the estimation of the risk measures for construction operations. The methodology is based on a deductive tree analysis approach which involves identifying a possible condition of the construction system and determining the various events and combination of the factors that contribute to the occurrence of that condition

  19. Climate Analogues for agricultural impact projection and adaptation – a reliability test

    Swen P.M. Bos

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The climate analogue approach is often considered a valuable tool for climate change impact projection and adaptation planning, especially for complex systems that cannot be modelled reliably. Important examples are smallholder farming systems using agroforestry or other mixed-cropping approaches. For the projected climate at a particular site of interest, the analogue approach identifies locations where the current climate is similar to these projected conditions. By comparing baseline-analogue site pairs, information on climate impacts and opportunities for adaptation can be obtained. However, the climate analogue approach is only meaningful, if climate is a dominant driver of differences between baseline and analogue site pairs. For a smallholder farming setting on Mt. Elgon in Kenya, we tested this requirement by comparing yield potentials of maize and coffee (obtained from the IIASA Global Agro-ecological Zones dataset among 50 close analogue sites for different future climate scenarios and models, and by comparing local ecological knowledge and farm characteristics for one baseline-analogue pair.Yield potentials among the 50 closest analogue locations varied strongly within all climate scenarios, hinting at factors other than climate as major drivers of what the analogue approach might interpret as climate effects. However, on average future climatic conditions seemed more favourable to maize and coffee cultivation than current conditions. The detailed site comparison revealed substantial differences between farms in important characteristics, such as farm size and presence of cash crops, casting doubt on the usefulness of the comparison for climate change analysis. Climatic constraints were similar between sites, so that no apparent lessons for adaptation could be derived. Pests and diseases were also similar, indicating that climate change may not lead to strong changes in biotic constraints at the baseline site in the near future. From

  20. A comparative evaluation of five human reliability assessment techniques

    A field experiment was undertaken to evaluate the accuracy, usefulness, and resources requirements of five human reliability quantification techniques (Techniques for Human Error Rate Prediction (THERP); Paired Comparisons, Human Error Assessment and Reduction Technique (HEART), Success Liklihood Index Method (SLIM)-Multi Attribute Utility Decomposition (MAUD), and Absolute Probability Judgement). This was achieved by assessing technique predictions against a set of known human error probabilities, and by comparing their predictions on a set of five realistic Probabilisitc Risk Assessment (PRA) human error. On a combined measure of accuracy THERP and Absolute Probability Judgement performed best, whilst HEART showed indications of accuracy and was lower in resources usage than other techniques. HEART and THERP both appear to benefit from using trained assessors in order to obtain the best results. SLIM and Paired Comparisons require further research on achieving a robust calibration relationship between their scale values and absolute probabilities. (author)

  1. A questionnaire to evaluate the impact of chronic diseases: validated translation and Illness Effects Questionnaire (IEQ reliability study

    Patrícia Pinto Fonseca

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Patients' perception about their health condition, mainly involving chronic diseases, has been investigated in many studies and it has been associated to depression, compliance with the treatment, quality of life and prognosis. The Illness Effects Questionnaire (IEQ is a tool which makes the standardized evaluation of patients' perception about their illness possible, so that it is brief and accessible to the different clinical settings. This work aims to begin the transcultural adaptation of the IEQ to Brazil through the validated translation and the reliability study. METHODS: The back-translation method and the test-retest reliability study were used in a sample of 30 adult patients under chronic hemodialysis. The reliability indexes were estimated using the Pearson, Spearman, Weighted Kappa and Cronbach's alpha coefficients. RESULTS: The semantic equivalence was reached through the validated translation. In this study, the reliability indexes obtained were respectively: 0.85 and 0.75 (p < 0.001; 0.68 and 0.92 (p < 0.0001. DISCUSSION: The reliability indexes obtained attest to the stability of responses in both evaluations. Additional procedures are necessary for the transcultural adaptation of the IEQ to be complete. CONCLUSION: The results indicate the translation validity and the reliability of the Brazilian version of the IEQ for the sample studied.

  2. Adaptation, Validity and Reliability of the Body Sensations Questionnaire Turkish Version

    Aysegül KART

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this study, it is aimed to evaluate the validity and reliability of Body Sensations Questionnaire (BSQ. Method: BSQ was administered to 122 patients with panic disorder. BSQ Turkish version completed by translation, back-translation and pilot assessment. Socio-demographic Data Form and BSQ Turkish version were administered to participants. Construct validity was assesed by factor analysis after Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO and Bartlett tests applied. Principal component analysis and varimax rotation used for factor analysis. Results: 66% (n=80 of the participants were female and 34% (n=42 were male. The mean age of participants was 31,7±10,8 years and age range was 18-58 years. Internal consistency of the questionnaire was calculated 0,921 by Cronbach alpha. In analysis performed by split-half method reliability coefficients of half questionnaire were found as 0,889 and 0,850. Again spearmen-brown coefficient was found as 0,849 by the same analysis. Factor analysis revealed five basic factors. 75,2% of the total variance was explained with these five factors. Conclusion: The results of this study show that the Turkish version of BSQ is a reliable and valid scale for measuring the fear of the bodily sensations associated with panic.

  3. Reliable Adaptive Data Aggregation Route Strategy for a Trade-off between Energy and Lifetime in WSNs

    Wenzhong Guo; Wei Hong; Bin Zhang; Yuzhong Chen; Naixue Xiong

    2014-01-01

    Mobile security is one of the most fundamental problems in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). The data transmission path will be compromised for some disabled nodes. To construct a secure and reliable network, designing an adaptive route strategy which optimizes energy consumption and network lifetime of the aggregation cost is of great importance. In this paper, we address the reliable data aggregation route problem for WSNs. Firstly, to ensure nodes work properly, we propose a data aggregati...

  4. Trans-adapted, reliability, and validity of children fear survey schedule-dental subscale in Bahasa Indonesia

    Arlette Suzy

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The most frequently used measuring instrument for determination of dental fear in children nowadays is the children’s fear survey schedule-dental scale (CFSS-DS. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore the reliability and validity of the scale with Indonesian trans adapted version of the scale, thus the scale can be reliable to be used in other similar research in Indonesia. Methods: Total of 113 participants, who were parent’s 3 to 12 years old children. Children were divided into two age groups, group I 3-6 year old (83 children and group II 7-12 year old (30 children. Eighty three children from the first group were divided into first dental visit group (30 children and non first dental visit group (53 children. Test-retest approach was applied to 30 first dental visit children aged 3-6 year old. Original scale was translated to Indonesian language. Result: The result showed the high value of the Cronbach’s coefficient of internal consistency α=0.956. Three factors were extracted by screen test method with Eigen values higher than 1, which explained 93.05% variance of results. Conclusion: CFSS-DS scale is reliable and valid psychometric instrument for dental fear evaluation in children in Bahasa Indonesia. The differences between this study and those of others may appear due to many factors. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE

  5. Translation, cross-cultural adaptation to Brazilian- Portuguese and reliability analysis of the instrument Rapid Entire Body Assessment-REBA

    Andressa M. Lamarão; Costa, Lucíola C. M.; Comper, Maria L. C.; Padula, Rosimeire S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Observational instruments, such as the Rapid Entire Body Assessment, quickly assess biomechanical risks present in the workplace. However, in order to use these instruments, it is necessary to conduct the translational/cross-cultural adaptation of the instrument and test its measurement properties. Objectives: To perform the translation and the cross-cultural adaptation to Brazilian-Portuguese and test the reliability of the REBA instrument. Method: The procedures of trans...

  6. Driving anger and its expressions: further evidence of validity and reliability for the driving anger expression inventory french adaptation

    VILLIEUX, A; Delhomme, P.

    2010-01-01

    The aims of this study were to provide further evidence of validity and reliability for the Driving Anger Expression Inventory (DAX) French adaptation (Villieux & Delhomme, 2008, Le Travail Humain, 71(4), 359-384) and to investigate the relationships between driving anger, how people express their anger while driving, and traffic violations among young drivers in France. Method: The French adaptations of the DAX, of the Driving Anger Scale (DAS), and of the Extended Violations Scale were admi...

  7. Adaptation of the ToxRTool to Assess the Reliability of Toxicology Studies Conducted with Genetically Modified Crops and Implications for Future Safety Testing.

    Koch, Michael S; DeSesso, John M; Williams, Amy Lavin; Michalek, Suzanne; Hammond, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    To determine the reliability of food safety studies carried out in rodents with genetically modified (GM) crops, a Food Safety Study Reliability Tool (FSSRTool) was adapted from the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods' (ECVAM) ToxRTool. Reliability was defined as the inherent quality of the study with regard to use of standardized testing methodology, full documentation of experimental procedures and results, and the plausibility of the findings. Codex guidelines for GM crop safety evaluations indicate toxicology studies are not needed when comparability of the GM crop to its conventional counterpart has been demonstrated. This guidance notwithstanding, animal feeding studies have routinely been conducted with GM crops, but their conclusions on safety are not always consistent. To accurately evaluate potential risks from GM crops, risk assessors need clearly interpretable results from reliable studies. The development of the FSSRTool, which provides the user with a means of assessing the reliability of a toxicology study to inform risk assessment, is discussed. Its application to the body of literature on GM crop food safety studies demonstrates that reliable studies report no toxicologically relevant differences between rodents fed GM crops or their non-GM comparators. PMID:25208336

  8. Reliability model analysis and primary experimental evaluation of laser triggered pulse trigger

    High performance pulse trigger can enhance performance and stability of the PPS. It is necessary to evaluate the reliability of the LTGS pulse trigger, so we establish the reliability analysis model of this pulse trigger based on CARMES software, the reliability evaluation is accord with the statistical results. (authors)

  9. Health problem behaviors in Iranian adolescents: A study of cross-cultural adaptation, reliability, and validity

    Ahmad Ali Eslami

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The main purpose of this study was to assess the factorial validity and reliability of the Iranian versions of the personality and behavior system scales (49 items of the AHDQ (The Adolescent Health and Development Questionnaire and interrelations among them based on Jessor′s PBT (Problem Behavior Theory. Methods: A multi-staged approach was employed. The cross-cultural adaptation was performed according to the internationally recommended methodology, using the following guidelines: translation, back-translation, revision by a committee, and pretest. After modifying and identifying of the best items, a cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the psychometric properties of Persian version using calibration and validation samples of adolescents. Also 113 of them completed it again two weeks later for stability. Results: The findings of the exploratory factor analysis suggested that the 7-factor solution with low self concept, emotional distress, general delinquency, cigarette, hookah, alcohol, and hard drugs use provided a better fitting model. The a range for these identified factors was 0.69 to 0.94, the ICC range was 0.73 to 0.93, and there was a significant difference in mean scores for these instruments in compare between the male normative and detention adolescents. The first and second-order measurement models testing found good model fit for the 7-factor model. Conclusions: Factor analyses provided support of existence internalizing and externalizing problem behavior syndrome. With those qualifications, this model can be applied for studies among Persian adolescents.

  10. The feasibility and test–retest reliability of the Dutch Swal-Qol adapted interview version for dysphagic patients with communicative and/or cognitive problems

    Lemmens, Jessie; Bours, Gerrie J. J. W.; Limburg, Martien; Beurskens, Anna J. H. M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The adaptation of the Dutch Swal-Qol questionnaire to an interview format suitable for dysphagic patients with communicative and/or cognitive problems and evaluation of the feasibility and test–retest reliability. Methods An observational study with two measurements within a 2-week time period in a sample of 57 stroke patients with dysphagia in a nursing home environment. The interview version of the Swal-Qol was evaluated in the total group and in subgroups of patients with and witho...

  11. A reliability evaluation methodology for memory chips for space applications when sample size is small

    Chen, Y.; Nguyen, D.; Guertin, S.; Berstein, J.; White, M.; Menke, R.; Kayali, S.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a reliability evaluation methodology to obtain the statistical reliability information of memory chips for space applications when the test sample size needs to be kept small because of the high cost of the radiation hardness memories.

  12. The short international physical activity questionnaire: cross-cultural adaptation, validation and reliability of the Hausa language version in Nigeria

    Oyeyemi Adewale L

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate assessment of physical activity is important in determining the risk for chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, stroke, type 2 diabetes, cancer and obesity. The absence of culturally relevant measures in indigenous languages could pose challenges to epidemiological studies on physical activity in developing countries. The purpose of this study was to translate and cross-culturally adapt the Short International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ-SF to the Hausa language, and to evaluate the validity and reliability of the Hausa version of IPAQ-SF in Nigeria. Methods The English IPAQ-SF was translated into the Hausa language, synthesized, back translated, and subsequently subjected to expert committee review and pre-testing. The final product (Hausa IPAQ-SF was tested in a cross-sectional study for concurrent (correlation with the English version and construct validity, and test-retest reliability in a sample of 102 apparently healthy adults. Results The Hausa IPAQ-SF has good concurrent validity with Spearman correlation coefficients (ρ ranging from 0.78 for vigorous activity (Min Week-1 to 0.92 for total physical activity (Metabolic Equivalent of Task [MET]-Min Week-1, but poor construct validity, with cardiorespiratory fitness (ρ = 0.21, p = 0.01 and body mass index (ρ = 0.22, p = 0.04 significantly correlated with only moderate activity and sitting time (Min Week-1, respectively. Reliability was good for vigorous (ICC = 0.73, 95% C.I = 0.55-0.84 and total physical activity (ICC = 0.61, 95% C.I = 0.47-0.72, but fair for moderate activity (ICC = 0.33, 95% C.I = 0.12-0.51, and few meaningful differences were found in the gender and socioeconomic status specific analyses. Conclusions The Hausa IPAQ-SF has acceptable concurrent validity and test-retest reliability for vigorous-intensity activity, walking, sitting and total physical activity, but demonstrated only fair construct validity for moderate and

  13. Adaptation to climate change in agriculture: evaluation of options

    Adaptation was defined as the responses by stakeholders to actual or expected climatic stimuli or their effects to reduce vulnerability to adverse impacts or damage potential, or to realize opportunities associated with climate change. Planned policy initiatives representing change in the agricultural system were discussed in this report. An evaluation of adaptation options needed to be carried out before one could determine which adaptations should be promoted or implemented. The overall merit, suitability, utility or appropriateness of potential adaptation strategies or measures were examined. One interesting methodology was the Multiple Criteria Evaluation (MCE), which is designed to assess alternatives using more than one criterion. The criteria selected for this evaluation were: effectiveness, economic efficiency, flexibility, institutional compatibility, farmer implementation, and independent benefits. A selection of three adaptation options was made to better illustrate the utility of the evaluation framework., as follows: crop diversification, adoption of irrigation, and increase use of crop insurance. 122 refs., 6 tabs., 6 figs

  14. AnAmeter: The First Steps to Evaluating Adaptation

    Bernard, Franck Tarpin; Habieb-Mammar, Halima

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the online AnAmeter framework that helps characterize the different types of adaptations a system features by helping the evaluator fill in a simple form. The provided information is then processed to obtain a quantitative evaluation of three parameters called global, semi-global and local adaptation degrees. By characterizing and quantifying adaptation, AnAmeter provides the first steps towards the evaluation of the quality of a system's adaptation. AnAmeter is an open tool available as freeware on the web and has been applied to a selection of well known systems. To build this evaluation grid we also collected a number of systems that cover the full range of adaptation types.

  15. Turkish version of the chronic urticaria quality of life questionnaire: cultural adaptation, assessment of reliability and validity.

    Kocatürk, Emek; Weller, Karsten; Martus, Peter; Aktas, Selin; Kavala, Mukaddes; Sarigul, Sükran; Baiardini, Ilaria; Canonica, Giorgio W; Brzoza, Zenon; Kalogeromitros, Dimitrios; Maurer, Marcus

    2012-07-01

    Chronic spontaneous urticaria has a substantial impact on patients' quality of life. The first disease-specific tool to assess quality of life impairment in this condition, the Chronic Urticaria Quality of Life Questionnaire (CU-Q2oL), was developed recently. The aim of this study was to adapt the original Italian version to the Turkish language and to evaluate its reliability, validity, and sensitivity to change. The Turkish version was developed by performing forward- and back-translation. It was then applied to 140 consecutive patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria, along with the Dermatology Life Quality Index and the Skindex-29. Disease activity was assessed using the Urticaria Activity Score. Sensitivity to change was measured in 101 patients, who completed the instruments twice at intervals of 4 weeks. Confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated that the six-scale structure of the original Italian version ("pruritus", "swelling", "impact on life activities", "sleep problems", "limits", "looks") can be retained in the Turkish instrument. Analysis regarding convergent validity showed good correlations of the Turkish CU-Q2oL with the other instruments. In addition, it was found to discriminate well between patients with different levels of urticaria activity, and to be sensitive to change. In conclusion, the Turkish version of CU-Q2oL is a reliable, valid, and sensitive instrument, which will help to characterize better the clinical impact of chronic spontaneous urticaria and treatment outcomes in Turkish patients. Its identical scale structure to that of other CU-Q2oL instruments makes it ideal for cross-cultural comparisons and for its application in future national and multinational studies. PMID:21918791

  16. Evaluation of ATHEANA methodology a second generation human reliability analysis

    Incidents and accidents at nuclear power plants (NPP) have been and always will be considered as undesired occurrences. Human error (REASON, 1990) is probably the major contributor to serious accidents as those that occurred at Three Mile Island NPP, Unit 2 (TMI-2), in 1979, and Chernobyl, Unit 4, in 1986, and (AEOD/E95-01, 1995 at others NPPs. Reviews and analysis of those accidents and others near-misses have shown operators performing actions that are not required for the accident response and, in fact, worsen the plant's condition. This action, where a person does something that it's not supposed to do, believing that it was the right thing to do, resulting in changes in the plant that may be worse than if he had done nothing, is called Error of Commission (EOC). These inappropriate actions are rightly affected (NUREG-1624, Rev.1, 2000) by the off-normal context (i.e., the combination of plant conditions and performance shaping factors) of the event scenario that virtually forces the operator to fail. Considering that this kind of human intervention could be an important failure mode and precursor to more serious events, aggravated by the fact that actual probabilistic risk assessment (PRA), does not consider this kind of error, a new methodology (NUREG-1624, Rev.1, 2000) was developed of Human Reliability Analysis (HRA), called 'A Technique for Human Event Analysis' (ATHEANA). ATHEANA is a multidisciplinary second-generation HRA method and provides an HRA quantification process and PRA modeling interface that can accommodate and represent human performance in real nuclear power plant accidents. This paper presents this new methodology in order to identified its weak and strong points, to evaluate its advantages and disadvantages and its benefits to safety, and finally, to analyze its application to Angra NPP. (author)

  17. Reliability Evaluation for Optimizing Electricity Supply in a Developing Country

    Mark Ndubuka NWOHU

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The reliability standards for electricity supply in a developing country, like Nigeria, have to be determined on past engineering principles and practice. Because of the high demand of electrical power due to rapid development, industrialization and rural electrification; the economic, social and political climate in which the electric power supply industry now operates should be critically viewed to ensure that the production of electrical power should be augmented and remain uninterrupted. This paper presents an economic framework that can be used to optimize electric power system reliability. Finally the cost models are investigated to take into account the economic analysis of system reliability, which can be periodically updated to improve overall reliability of electric power system.

  18. Reliability Evaluation Of The City Transport Buses Under Actual Conditions

    Rymarz Joanna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to present a reliability comparison of two types of city transport buses. Case study on the example of the well-known brands of city buses: Solaris Urbino 12 and Mercedes-Benz 628 Conecto L used at Municipal Transport Company in Lublin was presented in details. A reliability index for the most failure parts and complex systems for the period of time failures was determined. The analysis covered damages of the following systems: engine, electrical system, pneumatic system, brake system, driving system, central heating and air-conditioning and doors. Reliability was analyzed based on Weibull model. It has been demonstrated, that during the operation significant reliability differences occur between the buses produced nowadays.

  19. Adaptation and Evaluation of the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale in India (NEWS-India

    Deepti Adlakha

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Physical inactivity is the fourth leading risk factor for global mortality, with most of these deaths occurring in low and middle-income countries (LMICs like India. Research from developed countries has consistently demonstrated associations between built environment features and physical activity levels of populations. The development of culturally sensitive and reliable measures of the built environment is a necessary first step for accurate analysis of environmental correlates of physical activity in LMICs. This study systematically adapted the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale (NEWS for India and evaluated aspects of test-retest reliability of the adapted version among Indian adults. Cultural adaptation of the NEWS was conducted by Indian and international experts. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with local residents and key informants in the city of Chennai, India. At baseline, participants (N = 370; female = 47.2% from Chennai completed the adapted NEWS-India surveys on perceived residential density, land use mix-diversity, land use mix-access, street connectivity, infrastructure and safety for walking and cycling, aesthetics, traffic safety, and safety from crime. NEWS-India was administered for a second time to consenting participants (N = 62; female = 53.2% with a gap of 2–3 weeks between successive administrations. Qualitative findings demonstrated that built environment barriers and constraints to active commuting and physical activity behaviors intersected with social ecological systems. The adapted NEWS subscales had moderate to high test-retest reliability (ICC range 0.48–0.99. The NEWS-India demonstrated acceptable measurement properties among Indian adults and may be a useful tool for evaluation of built environment attributes in India. Further adaptation and evaluation in rural and suburban settings in India is essential to create a version that could be used throughout India.

  20. Adaptation and Evaluation of the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale in India (NEWS-India).

    Adlakha, Deepti; Hipp, J Aaron; Brownson, Ross C

    2016-01-01

    Physical inactivity is the fourth leading risk factor for global mortality, with most of these deaths occurring in low and middle-income countries (LMICs) like India. Research from developed countries has consistently demonstrated associations between built environment features and physical activity levels of populations. The development of culturally sensitive and reliable measures of the built environment is a necessary first step for accurate analysis of environmental correlates of physical activity in LMICs. This study systematically adapted the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale (NEWS) for India and evaluated aspects of test-retest reliability of the adapted version among Indian adults. Cultural adaptation of the NEWS was conducted by Indian and international experts. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with local residents and key informants in the city of Chennai, India. At baseline, participants (N = 370; female = 47.2%) from Chennai completed the adapted NEWS-India surveys on perceived residential density, land use mix-diversity, land use mix-access, street connectivity, infrastructure and safety for walking and cycling, aesthetics, traffic safety, and safety from crime. NEWS-India was administered for a second time to consenting participants (N = 62; female = 53.2%) with a gap of 2-3 weeks between successive administrations. Qualitative findings demonstrated that built environment barriers and constraints to active commuting and physical activity behaviors intersected with social ecological systems. The adapted NEWS subscales had moderate to high test-retest reliability (ICC range 0.48-0.99). The NEWS-India demonstrated acceptable measurement properties among Indian adults and may be a useful tool for evaluation of built environment attributes in India. Further adaptation and evaluation in rural and suburban settings in India is essential to create a version that could be used throughout India. PMID:27049394

  1. Adaptation and Evaluation of the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale in India (NEWS-India)

    Adlakha, Deepti; Hipp, J. Aaron; Brownson, Ross C.

    2016-01-01

    Physical inactivity is the fourth leading risk factor for global mortality, with most of these deaths occurring in low and middle-income countries (LMICs) like India. Research from developed countries has consistently demonstrated associations between built environment features and physical activity levels of populations. The development of culturally sensitive and reliable measures of the built environment is a necessary first step for accurate analysis of environmental correlates of physical activity in LMICs. This study systematically adapted the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale (NEWS) for India and evaluated aspects of test-retest reliability of the adapted version among Indian adults. Cultural adaptation of the NEWS was conducted by Indian and international experts. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with local residents and key informants in the city of Chennai, India. At baseline, participants (N = 370; female = 47.2%) from Chennai completed the adapted NEWS-India surveys on perceived residential density, land use mix-diversity, land use mix-access, street connectivity, infrastructure and safety for walking and cycling, aesthetics, traffic safety, and safety from crime. NEWS-India was administered for a second time to consenting participants (N = 62; female = 53.2%) with a gap of 2–3 weeks between successive administrations. Qualitative findings demonstrated that built environment barriers and constraints to active commuting and physical activity behaviors intersected with social ecological systems. The adapted NEWS subscales had moderate to high test-retest reliability (ICC range 0.48–0.99). The NEWS-India demonstrated acceptable measurement properties among Indian adults and may be a useful tool for evaluation of built environment attributes in India. Further adaptation and evaluation in rural and suburban settings in India is essential to create a version that could be used throughout India. PMID:27049394

  2. Ant-based power efficient, adaptive, reliable, and load balanced (A-PEARL) routing for smart metering networks

    Muraleedharan, Rajani

    2011-06-01

    The future of metering networks requires adaptation of different sensor technology while reducing energy exploitation. In this paper, a routing protocol with the ability to adapt and communicate reliably over varied IEEE standards is proposed. Due to sensor's resource constraints, such as memory, energy, processing power an algorithm that balances resources without compromising performance is preferred. The proposed A-PEARL protocol is tested under harsh simulated scenarios such as sensor failure and fading conditions. The inherent features of A-PEARL protocol such as data aggregation, fusion and channel hopping enables minimal resource consumption and secure communication.

  3. An Approach to Online Reliability Evaluation and Prediction of Mechanical Transmission Components

    Matthias Maisch; Bernd Bertsche; Ralf Hettich

    2006-01-01

    New development trends in electronic operating data logging systems enable classification, recording and storage of load spectrums of mechanical transmission components during usage. Based on this fact, the application of online reliability evaluation and reliability prediction procedures are presented. Different methods are considered to calculate reliability, depending on actual load spectrum and a Wohler curve. The prediction of a reliability trend is analyzed by the application of time series models. For this purpose, exponential smoothing model, regression model, and the ARIMA model are considered to evaluate data and predict an decreasing reliability trends during usage.

  4. Evaluation of Information Requirements of Reliability Methods in Engineering Design

    Marini, Vinicius Kaster; Restrepo-Giraldo, John Dairo; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema

    2010-01-01

    their insight on design risks and wide spread application. A pilot case study has been performed with a washing machine in using these methods to assess design risks, following a reverse engineering approach. The study has shown the methods can be initiated at early design stages, but cannot be...... concluded. For that reason, new methods are needed to assist assessing robustness and reliability at early design stages. A specific taxonomy on robustness and reliability information in design could support classifying available design information to orient new techniques assessing innovative designs....

  5. Reliability evaluation for hydrothermal generating systems: Application to the Spanish case

    Reliability analysis of hydrothermal generating systems usually includes the calculation of annual reliability indicators. This work describes a methodology to evaluate annual reliability taking into account the maintenance program of thermal units and the allocation of hydroenergy to the different subperiods of the year. The procedure takes advantage of the flexibility of hydro units to level the usual reliability indicators along the period of analysis. As an example, the analysis of the Spanish power system is presented

  6. Reliability evaluation for hydrothermal generating systems: Application to the Spanish case

    Gonzalez, C.; Juan, J

    1999-04-01

    Reliability analysis of hydrothermal generating systems usually includes the calculation of annual reliability indicators. This work describes a methodology to evaluate annual reliability taking into account the maintenance program of thermal units and the allocation of hydroenergy to the different subperiods of the year. The procedure takes advantage of the flexibility of hydro units to level the usual reliability indicators along the period of analysis. As an example, the analysis of the Spanish power system is presented.

  7. Fast and Reliable Evaluation of Preservice Teacher Electronic Portfolios

    Sulzen, James; Young, Michael F.

    2007-01-01

    This study describes a rubric supporting fast and reliable assessment of preservice teacher electronic portfolios. The assessment calls for raters to quickly scan a portfolio to gain an overall impression, then dichotomously score a large number of indicators (e.g., educational philosophy, educational technology use, imaginative use of…

  8. Using LISREL to Evaluate Measurement Models and Scale Reliability.

    Fleishman, John; Benson, Jeri

    1987-01-01

    LISREL program was used to examine measurement model assumptions and to assess reliability of Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory for Children, Form B. Data on 722 third-sixth graders from over 70 schools in large urban school district were used. LISREL program assessed (1) nature of basic measurement model for scale, (2) scale invariance across…

  9. Establishing the Validity and Reliability of Course Evaluation Questionnaires

    Kember, David; Leung, Doris Y. P.

    2008-01-01

    This article uses the case of designing a new course questionnaire to discuss the issues of validity, reliability and diagnostic power in good questionnaire design. Validity is often not well addressed in course questionnaire design as there are no straightforward tests that can be applied to an individual instrument. The authors propose the…

  10. Adaptation of Chemistry Perception Questionnaire into Turkish: A Validity and Reliability Study with Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analysis

    Cemal Tosun

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to adapt “Chemistry Perception Questionnaire (CPQ)”, developed by Wells (2003), into Turkish and investigate validity and reliability of the Turkish version of the scale. The original version of the scale was composed of 35 items gathered under seven factors (aptitude, chemophobia, discipline, ethnicity, gender, instruction and value). First, permission from the developers of the scale was sought. Then, the items of the scale were translated into Turkish by resear...

  11. A New Method of Reliability Evaluation Based on Wavelet Information Entropy for Equipment Condition Identification

    Aiming at reliability evaluation of condition identification of mechanical equipment, it is necessary to analyze condition monitoring information. A new method of reliability evaluation based on wavelet information entropy extracted from vibration signals of mechanical equipment is proposed. The method is quite different from traditional reliability evaluation models that are dependent on probability statistics analysis of large number sample data. The vibration signals of mechanical equipment were analyzed by means of second generation wavelet package (SGWP). We take relative energy in each frequency band of decomposed signal that equals a percentage of the whole signal energy as probability. Normalized information entropy (IE) is obtained based on the relative energy to describe uncertainty of a system instead of probability. The reliability degree is transformed by the normalized wavelet information entropy. A successful application has been achieved to evaluate the assembled quality reliability for a kind of dismountable disk-drum aero-engine. The reliability degree indicates the assembled quality satisfactorily.

  12. A technical survey on issues of the quantitative evaluation of software reliability

    Park, J. K; Sung, T. Y.; Eom, H. S.; Jeong, H. S.; Park, J. H.; Kang, H. G.; Lee, K. Y.

    2000-04-01

    To develop the methodology for evaluating the software reliability included in digital instrumentation and control system (I and C), many kinds of methodologies/techniques that have been proposed from the software reliability engineering fuel are analyzed to identify the strong and week points of them. According to analysis results, methodologies/techniques that can be directly applied for the evaluation of the software reliability are not exist. Thus additional researches to combine the most appropriate methodologies/techniques from existing ones would be needed to evaluate the software reliability. (author)

  13. A technical survey on issues of the quantitative evaluation of software reliability

    To develop the methodology for evaluating the software reliability included in digital instrumentation and control system (I and C), many kinds of methodologies/techniques that have been proposed from the software reliability engineering fuel are analyzed to identify the strong and week points of them. According to analysis results, methodologies/techniques that can be directly applied for the evaluation of the software reliability are not exist. Thus additional researches to combine the most appropriate methodologies/techniques from existing ones would be needed to evaluate the software reliability. (author)

  14. A NEW CRITERION NEEDED TO EVALUATE RELIABILITY OF DIGITAL PROTECTIVE RELAYS

    Gurevich, Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    There is a wide range of criteria and features for evaluating reliability in engineering; but as many as there are, only one of them has been chosen to evaluate reliability of Digital Protective Relays (DPR) in the technical documentation: Mean (operating) Time Between Failures (MTBF), which has gained universal currency and has been specified in technical manuals, information sheets, tender documentation as the key indicator of DPR reliability. But is the choice of this criterion...

  15. Pre-adjustment of adult attachment style to extrinsic risk levels via early attachment style is neither specific, nor reliable, nor effective, and is thus not an adaptation

    Honekopp, Johannes

    2009-01-01

    The mechanism proposed by Del Giudice by which adult attachment style is adapted to the extrinsic risk in the local environment via attachment style during the early years does not fulfill important criteria of an adaptation. The proposed mechanism is neither specific, nor developmentally reliable, nor effective. Therefore, it should not be considered an adaptation.

  16. Adapting to a Changing Colorado River: Making Future Water Deliveries More Reliable Through Robust Management Strategies

    Groves, D.; Bloom, E.; Fischbach, J. R.; Knopman, D.

    2013-12-01

    The U.S. Bureau of Reclamation and water management agencies representing the seven Colorado River Basin States initiated the Colorado River Basin Study in January 2010 to evaluate the resiliency of the Colorado River system over the next 50 years and compare different options for ensuring successful management of the river's resources. RAND was asked to join this Basin Study Team in January 2012 to help develop an analytic approach to identify key vulnerabilities in managing the Colorado River basin over the coming decades and to evaluate different options that could reduce this vulnerability. Using a quantitative approach for planning under uncertainty called Robust Decision Making (RDM), the RAND team assisted the Basin Study by: identifying future vulnerable conditions that could lead to imbalances that could cause the basin to be unable to meet its water delivery objectives; developing a computer-based tool to define 'portfolios' of management options reflecting different strategies for reducing basin imbalances; evaluating these portfolios across thousands of future scenarios to determine how much they could improve basin outcomes; and analyzing the results from the system simulations to identify key tradeoffs among the portfolios. This talk will describe RAND's contribution to the Basin Study, focusing on the methodologies used to to identify vulnerabilities for Upper Basin and Lower Basin water supply reliability and to compare portfolios of options. Several key findings emerged from the study. Future Streamflow and Climate Conditions Are Key: - Vulnerable conditions arise in a majority of scenarios where streamflows are lower than historical averages and where drought conditions persist for eight years or more. - Depending where the shortages occur, problems will arise for delivery obligations for the upper river basin and the lower river basin. The lower river basin is vulnerable to a broader range of plausible future conditions. Additional Investments in

  17. Construction and Evaluation of Reliability and Validity of Reasoning Ability Test

    Bhat, Mehraj A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper is based on the construction and evaluation of reliability and validity of reasoning ability test at secondary school students. In this paper an attempt was made to evaluate validity, reliability and to determine the appropriate standards to interpret the results of reasoning ability test. The test includes 45 items to measure six types…

  18. SPSS Macros for Assessing the Reliability and Agreement of Student Evaluations of Teaching

    Morley, Donald D.

    2009-01-01

    This article reports and demonstrates two SPSS macros for calculating Krippendorff's alpha and intraclass reliability coefficients in repetitive situations where numerous coefficients are needed. Specifically, the reported SPSS macros were used to evaluate the interrater agreement and reliability of student evaluations of teaching in thousands of…

  19. Assessing the Reliability of Student Evaluations of Teaching: Choosing the Right Coefficient

    Morley, Donald

    2014-01-01

    Many of the studies used to support the claim that student evaluations of teaching are reliable measures of teaching effectiveness have frequently calculated inappropriate reliability coefficients. This paper points to three coefficients that would be appropriate depending on if student evaluations were used for formative or summative purposes.…

  20. The Job Embeddedness instrument: an evaluation of validity and reliability.

    Reitz, Orin Edward

    2014-01-01

    A cross sectional correlational mailed survey was used to assess the validity and reliability of the Job Embeddedness (JE) instrument for predicting nurse retention. A regression model using the variables of JE and age were predictive of nurse retention in a sample of Registered Nurses (RNs) working in long term care (LTC) settings. This study supports the multi-dimensionality, validity and reliability of the underlying JE construct. However a different factor structure was suggested that better fit the data. Long term care organizations (LTC) may benefit from a strategy of increasing the embeddedness of their existing employees in order to increase nurse retention. Job embbededness could be used as a foundation to provide effective nurse retention strategies in LTC settings. PMID:25012988

  1. Human reliability: an evaluation of its understanding and prediction

    This paper presents a viewpoint on the state-of-the-art in human reliability. The bases for this viewpoint are, by and large, research projects conducted by the NUS for the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) primarily with the objective of further enhancing the credibility of PRA methodology. The presentation is divided into the following key sections: Background and Overview, Methodology and Data Base with emphasis on the simulator data base

  2. Reliability Evaluation for Optimizing Electricity Supply in a Developing Country

    Mark Ndubuka NWOHU

    2007-01-01

    The reliability standards for electricity supply in a developing country, like Nigeria, have to be determined on past engineering principles and practice. Because of the high demand of electrical power due to rapid development, industrialization and rural electrification; the economic, social and political climate in which the electric power supply industry now operates should be critically viewed to ensure that the production of electrical power should be augmented and remain uninterrupted. ...

  3. Comprehensive Evaluation Cloud Model for Ship Navigation Adaptability

    Man Zhu; Y.Q. Wen; Zhou, C. H.; C.S. Xiao

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, using cloud model and Delphi, we build a comprehensive evaluation cloud model to solve the problems of qualitative description and quantitative transformation in ship navigation adaptability comprehensive evaluation. In the model, the normal cloud generator is used to find optimal cloud models of reviews and evaluation factors. The weight of each evaluation factor is determined by cloud model and Delphi. The floating cloud algorithm is applied to aggregate the bottom level’s ev...

  4. Combination of nondestructive evaluations for reliable assessment of bridge deck

    Khalim A.R.; Sagar D.; Kumruzzaman M.D.; Hasan A.S.M.Z.

    2011-01-01

    Non-destructive evaluation (NDE) has offered unprecedented utilize for bridge management body to monitor structural health. None of these evaluation methods can provide all the damage information (damage category, quantitative assessment) alone which is required for necessary repair activity and condition rating of structure. In most of the cases, the response of one evaluation method implies the presence of a defect among the multiple defects to which the evaluation method is sensitive. This...

  5. Issues in development, evaluation, and use of the NASA Preflight Adaptation Trainer (PAT)

    Lane, Norman E.; Kennedy, Robert S.

    1988-01-01

    The Preflight Adaptation Trainer (PAT) is intended to reduce or alleviate space adaptation syndrome by providing opportunities for portions of that adaptation to occur under normal gravity conditions prior to space flight. Since the adaptation aspects of the PAT objectives involve modification not only of the behavior of the trainee, but also of sensiomotor skills which underly the behavioral generation, the defining of training objectives of the PAT utilizes four mechanisms: familiarization, demonstration, training and adaptation. These mechanisms serve as structural reference points for evaluation, drive the content and organization of the training procedures, and help to define the roles of the PAT instructors and operators. It was determined that three psychomotor properties are most critical for PAT evaluation: reliability; sensitivity; and relevance. It is cause for concern that the number of measures available to examine PAT effects exceed those that can be properly studied with the available sample sizes; special attention will be required in selection of the candidate measure set. The issues in PAT use and application within a training system context are addressed through linking the three training related mechanisms of familiarization, demonstration and training to the fourth mechanism, adaptation.

  6. Considerations in designing an evaluation system for adaptive delta management

    Hermans, L.M.; Maat, J.; Haasnoot, M.; Kwakkel, J.H.

    2014-01-01

    New planning approaches put new requirements on evaluation. A recent innovation in the water domain is adaptive delta management (ADM). ADM supports long-term planning in the face of uncertainty. This paper discusses the main considerations for the design of an evaluation system for ADM, departing f

  7. Pedagogical evaluation of e-learning courses - Adapted pedagogical index

    Snajder, Maja; Verlic, Mateja; Povalej, Petra; Debevc, Matjaž

    2007-01-01

    E-learning is becoming an important part of education and it can provide new possibilities for disabled people. Critical evaluation is becoming indispensable, especially in e-learning systems supporting disabled people, as very little has been done in this area. This paper describes the development of adapted pedagogical index (AdaPI), which demonstrates the pedagogical effectiveness of different courses created and adapted for disabled.

  8. The importance of reliable climatic data in the energy evaluation

    In the last few years, more and more attention has been focused on energy issues, as it is pointed out, for example, by the Directive 2002/91/EC on the Energy Performance of Buildings and Directive 2009/28/EC on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources. However, in order to do that, reliable tools for technicians to design systems for such topics should be provided. Nowadays, several software are available; the weak point is the availability of reliable climatic data and, above all, the ones referring to solar radiation. In this work, after a short overview of the world climatic databases, a description of three statistical methods for the elaboration of a climatic reduced set of data is reported. Then, referring to the climatic station of Palermo, Italy, we build three different sets of data utilizing the three statistical methods and compare these sets of data by means of two applications, namely the energy consumption of a simple building and the energy produced by a photovoltaic (PV) system.

  9. Evaluation of pharmaceuticals in surface water: reliability of PECs compared to MECs.

    Celle-Jeanton, Hélène; Schemberg, Dimitri; Mohammed, Nabaz; Huneau, Frédéric; Bertrand, Guillaume; Lavastre, Véronique; Le Coustumer, Philippe

    2014-12-01

    Due to the current analytical processes that are not able to measure all the pharmaceutical molecules and to the high costs and the consumption of time to sample and analyze PhACs, models to calculate Predicted Environmental Concentrations (PECs) have been developed. However a comparison between MECs and PECs, taking into account the methods of calculations and peculiarly the parameters included in the calculation (consumption data, pharmacokinetic parameters, elimination rate in STPs and in the environment), is necessary to assess the validity of PECs. MEC variations of sixteen target PhACs [acetaminophen (ACE), amlodipine (AML), atenolol (ATE), caffeine (CAF), carbamazepine (CAR), doxycycline (DOX), epoxycarbamazepine (EPO), fluvoxamine (FLU), furosemide (FUR), hydrochlorothiazide (HYD), ifosfamide (IFO), losartan (LOS), pravastatin (PRA), progesterone (PROG), ramipril (RAM), trimetazidine (TRI)] have been evaluated during one hydrological cycle, from October 2011 to October 2012 and compared to PECs calculated by using an adaptation of the models proposed by Heberer and Feldmann (2005) and EMEA (2006). Comparison of PECs and MECS has been achieved for six molecules: ATE, CAR, DOX, FUR, HYD and PRA. DOX, FUR and HYD present differences between PECs and MECs on an annual basis but their temporal evolutions follow the same trends. PEC evaluation for these PhACs could then be possible but need some adjustments of consumption patterns, pharmacokinetic parameters and/or mechanisms of (bio)degradation. ATE, CAR and PRA are well modeled; PECs can then be used as reliable estimation of concentrations without any reserve. PMID:25080069

  10. Reliability of Genomic Evaluation of Holstein Cattle in Canada

    Researchers in Canada and the United States have been collaborating to develop and implement genomic evaluations aiming to fully integrate them into their national genetic evaluations for dairy cattle in 2009. A total of 44 Canadian traits were analyzed for 12,913 Holstein animals. For 43 out of 44...

  11. Reliable adaptive data aggregation route strategy for a trade-off between energy and lifetime in WSNs.

    Guo, Wenzhong; Hong, Wei; Zhang, Bin; Chen, Yuzhong; Xiong, Naixue

    2014-01-01

    Mobile security is one of the most fundamental problems in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). The data transmission path will be compromised for some disabled nodes. To construct a secure and reliable network, designing an adaptive route strategy which optimizes energy consumption and network lifetime of the aggregation cost is of great importance. In this paper, we address the reliable data aggregation route problem for WSNs. Firstly, to ensure nodes work properly, we propose a data aggregation route algorithm which improves the energy efficiency in the WSN. The construction process achieved through discrete particle swarm optimization (DPSO) saves node energy costs. Then, to balance the network load and establish a reliable network, an adaptive route algorithm with the minimal energy and the maximum lifetime is proposed. Since it is a non-linear constrained multi-objective optimization problem, in this paper we propose a DPSO with the multi-objective fitness function combined with the phenotype sharing function and penalty function to find available routes. Experimental results show that compared with other tree routing algorithms our algorithm can effectively reduce energy consumption and trade off energy consumption and network lifetime. PMID:25215944

  12. Reliable Adaptive Data Aggregation Route Strategy for a Trade-off between Energy and Lifetime in WSNs

    Wenzhong Guo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Mobile security is one of the most fundamental problems in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs. The data transmission path will be compromised for some disabled nodes. To construct a secure and reliable network, designing an adaptive route strategy which optimizes energy consumption and network lifetime of the aggregation cost is of great importance. In this paper, we address the reliable data aggregation route problem for WSNs. Firstly, to ensure nodes work properly, we propose a data aggregation route algorithm which improves the energy efficiency in the WSN. The construction process achieved through discrete particle swarm optimization (DPSO saves node energy costs. Then, to balance the network load and establish a reliable network, an adaptive route algorithm with the minimal energy and the maximum lifetime is proposed. Since it is a non-linear constrained multi-objective optimization problem, in this paper we propose a DPSO with the multi-objective fitness function combined with the phenotype sharing function and penalty function to find available routes. Experimental results show that compared with other tree routing algorithms our algorithm can effectively reduce energy consumption and trade off energy consumption and network lifetime.

  13. An Adaptive Thresholding Method for BTV Estimation Incorporating PET Reconstruction Parameters: A Multicenter Study of the Robustness and the Reliability

    M. Brambilla

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this work was to assess robustness and reliability of an adaptive thresholding algorithm for the biological target volume estimation incorporating reconstruction parameters. Method. In a multicenter study, a phantom with spheres of different diameters (6.5–57.4 mm was filled with 18F-FDG at different target-to-background ratios (TBR: 2.5–70 and scanned for different acquisition periods (2–5 min. Image reconstruction algorithms were used varying number of iterations and postreconstruction transaxial smoothing. Optimal thresholds (TS for volume estimation were determined as percentage of the maximum intensity in the cross section area of the spheres. Multiple regression techniques were used to identify relevant predictors of TS. Results. The goodness of the model fit was high (R2: 0.74–0.92. TBR was the most significant predictor of TS. For all scanners, except the Gemini scanners, FWHM was an independent predictor of TS. Significant differences were observed between scanners of different models, but not between different scanners of the same model. The shrinkage on cross validation was small and indicative of excellent reliability of model estimation. Conclusions. Incorporation of postreconstruction filtering FWHM in an adaptive thresholding algorithm for the BTV estimation allows obtaining a robust and reliable method to be applied to a variety of different scanners, without scanner-specific individual calibration.

  14. Reliability of early radiographic evaluations for canine hip dysplasia obtained from the standard ventrodorsal radiographic projection

    To determine reliability of preliminary evaluations for canine hip dysplasia (CHD) performed by the Orthopedic Foundation for Animals on dogs between 3 and 18 months of age. Retrospective analysis of data from the Orthopedic Foundation for Animals database. 2,332 Golden Retrievers, Labrador Retrievers, German Shepherd Dogs, and Rottweilers for which preliminary evaluation had been performed between 3 and 18 months of age and for which results of a definitive evaluation performed after 24 months of age were available. Each radiograph was evaluated, and hip joint status was graded as excellent, good, fair, or borderline phenotype or mild, moderate, or severe dysplasia. Preliminary evaluations were performed by 1 radiologist; definitive evaluations were the consensus of 3 radiologists. Reliability of preliminary evaluations was calculated as the percentage of definitive evaluations (normal vs dysplastic) that were unchanged from preliminary evaluations. Reliability of a preliminary evaluation of normal hip joint phenotype decreased significantly as the preliminary evaluation changed from excellent (100%) to good (97.9%) to fair (76.9%) phenotype. Reliability of a preliminary evaluation of CHD increased significantly as the preliminary evaluation changed from mild (84.4%) to moderate (97.4%) CHD. Reliability of preliminary evaluations increased significantly as age at the time of preliminary evaluation increased, regardless of whether dogs received a preliminary evaluation of normal phenotype or CHD. Results suggest that preliminary evaluations of hip joint status in dogs are generally reliable. However, dogs that receive a preliminary evaluation of fair phenotype of mild CHD should be reevaluated after 24 months of age

  15. Factors Affecting the Reliability of Results in Sensory Evaluation (Turkish with English Abstract)

    Gönül, Meral

    1983-01-01

    The role and the development of Sensory Evaluation in food industry are indicated briefly and the importance of reliability of  Sensory Evaluation results are stressed. The purpose and methods of Sensory Valuation, Panel, physical requirements and statistical evaluation of data constitute the main factors which have to be considered in Sensory Evaluation, and were explained and discussed in detail. 

  16. Combination of nondestructive evaluations for reliable assessment of bridge deck

    Khalim A.R.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-destructive evaluation (NDE has offered unprecedented utilize for bridge management body to monitor structural health. None of these evaluation methods can provide all the damage information (damage category, quantitative assessment alone which is required for necessary repair activity and condition rating of structure. In most of the cases, the response of one evaluation method implies the presence of a defect among the multiple defects to which the evaluation method is sensitive. This paper is concerned with the combination of different non-destructive testing to find out the type of damage with the most efficient way. The different response (positive or negative obtained from each combination and how it confirms the defect is shown through the mathematical set operation. Thus, this study would assist field investigator to ascertain the type of defect which subsequently aids to rate structure based on damage type.

  17. How to evaluate objective video quality metrics reliably

    Korhonen, Jari; Burini, Nino; You, Junyong;

    2012-01-01

    The typical procedure for evaluating the performance of different objective quality metrics and indices involves comparisons between subjective quality ratings and the quality indices obtained using the objective metrics in question on the known video sequences. Several correlation indicators can...

  18. Efficiency and reliability improvement in wind turbine converters by grid converter adaptive control

    Trintis, Ionut; Munk-Nielsen, Stig; Abrahamsen, Flemming;

    2013-01-01

    and generator side. Operating in this way, the electrical and thermal stress factors are decreased on the power electronic devices, increasing their lifetime. The simulation results using this method show efficiency increase and devices temperature cycles slightly decreased. Experimental results on a...... wind turbine power stack shows efficiency increase in the high power region.......This paper presents a control method that reduces the losses in wind turbine converters adaptively controlling the grid converter. The dc-link voltage adapts its reference based on the system state and therefore reduces the stored energy, and is therefore kept at the minimum necessary for the grid...

  19. Finite State Machine Based Evaluation Model for Web Service Reliability Analysis

    M, Thirumaran; Abarna, S; P, Lakshmi

    2011-01-01

    Now-a-days they are very much considering about the changes to be done at shorter time since the reaction time needs are decreasing every moment. Business Logic Evaluation Model (BLEM) are the proposed solution targeting business logic automation and facilitating business experts to write sophisticated business rules and complex calculations without costly custom programming. BLEM is powerful enough to handle service manageability issues by analyzing and evaluating the computability and traceability and other criteria of modified business logic at run time. The web service and QOS grows expensively based on the reliability of the service. Hence the service provider of today things that reliability is the major factor and any problem in the reliability of the service should overcome then and there in order to achieve the expected level of reliability. In our paper we propose business logic evaluation model for web service reliability analysis using Finite State Machine (FSM) where FSM will be extended to analy...

  20. Towards Reliable Evaluation of Anomaly-Based Intrusion Detection Performance

    Viswanathan, Arun

    2012-01-01

    This report describes the results of research into the effects of environment-induced noise on the evaluation process for anomaly detectors in the cyber security domain. This research was conducted during a 10-week summer internship program from the 19th of August, 2012 to the 23rd of August, 2012 at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California. The research performed lies within the larger context of the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power (LADWP) Smart Grid cyber security project, a Department of Energy (DoE) funded effort involving the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology and the University of Southern California/ Information Sciences Institute. The results of the present effort constitute an important contribution towards building more rigorous evaluation paradigms for anomaly-based intrusion detectors in complex cyber physical systems such as the Smart Grid. Anomaly detection is a key strategy for cyber intrusion detection and operates by identifying deviations from profiles of nominal behavior and are thus conceptually appealing for detecting "novel" attacks. Evaluating the performance of such a detector requires assessing: (a) how well it captures the model of nominal behavior, and (b) how well it detects attacks (deviations from normality). Current evaluation methods produce results that give insufficient insight into the operation of a detector, inevitably resulting in a significantly poor characterization of a detectors performance. In this work, we first describe a preliminary taxonomy of key evaluation constructs that are necessary for establishing rigor in the evaluation regime of an anomaly detector. We then focus on clarifying the impact of the operational environment on the manifestation of attacks in monitored data. We show how dynamic and evolving environments can introduce high variability into the data stream perturbing detector performance. Prior research has focused on understanding the impact of this

  1. Customer control and evaluation of service validity and reliability

    Raaij, van W. Fred; Pruyn, Ad Th.H.

    1998-01-01

    A control and attribution model of service production and evaluation is proposed. Service production consists of the stages specification (input), realization (throughput), and outcome (output). Customers may exercise control over all three stages of the service. Critical factors of service producti

  2. Adaptive-Reliable Medium Access Control Protocol for Wireless Body Area Networks

    Rahim, A.; Javaid, N.; M Aslam; Qasim, U.; Khan, Z. A.

    2012-01-01

    Extensive energy is consumed by Transceiver communication operation [1]. Existing research on MAC layer focuses to maximize battery-powered sensor node's life. Bottleneck of MAC layer protocol design for WBAN is to achieve high reliability and energy minimization. Majority of MAC protocols designed for WBANs are based upon TDMA approach. However, a new protocol needs to be defined to achieve high energy efficiency, fairness and avoid extra energy consumption due to synchronization.

  3. Adapting the Content of Cancer Web Sites to the Information Needs of Patients: Reliability and Readability

    Alba-Ruiz, Ruben; Bermúdez-Tamayo, Clara; Pernett, Jaime Jiménez; Garcia-Gutierrez, Jose Francisco; Cózar-Olmo, José Manuel; Valero-Aguilera, Beatriz

    2013-01-01

    Background: People who use the Internet to research health topics do not usually find all the information they need and do not trust what they read. This study was designed to assess the reliability, accessibility, readability, and popularity of cancer Web sites in Spanish and to analyze the suitability of Web site content in accordance with the specific information needs of cancer patients. Materials and Methods: This was a two-phase, cross-sectional, descriptive study. The first ph...

  4. BUILDING MODEL ANALYSIS APPLICATIONS WITH THE JOINT UNIVERSAL PARAMETER IDENTIFICATION AND EVALUATION OF RELIABILITY (JUPITER) API

    The open-source, public domain JUPITER (Joint Universal Parameter IdenTification and Evaluation of Reliability) API (Application Programming Interface) provides conventions and Fortran-90 modules to develop applications (computer programs) for analyzing process models. The input ...

  5. Reliability and Validity of an Interviewer-Administered Adaptation of the Youth Self-Report for Mental Health Screening of Vulnerable Young People in Ethiopia.

    Scott Geibel

    Full Text Available Evaluate the reliability and validity of the Youth Self-Report (YSR as a screening tool for mental health problems among young people vulnerable to HIV in Ethiopia.A cross-sectional assessment of young people currently receiving social services.Young people age 15-18 participated in a study where a translated and adapted version of the YSR was administered by trained nurses, followed by an assessment by Ethiopian psychiatrists. Internal reliability of YSR syndrome scales were assessed using Chronbach's alpha. Test-retest reliability was assessed through repeating the YSR one month later. To assess validity, analysis of the sensitivity and specificity of the YSR compared to the psychiatrist assessment was conducted.Across the eight syndrome scales, the YSR best measured the diagnosis of anxiety/depression and social problems among young women, and attention problems among young men. Among individual YSR syndrome scales, internal reliability ranged from unacceptable (Chronback's alpha = 0.11, rule-breaking behavior among young women to good (α≥0.71, anxiety/depression among young women. Anxiety/depression scores of ≥8.5 among young women also had good sensitivity (0.833 and specificity (0.754 to predict a true diagnosis. The YSR syndrome scales for social problems among young women and attention problems among young men also had fair consistency and validity measurements. Most YSR scores had significant positive correlations between baseline and post-one month administration. Measures of reliability and validity for most other YSR syndrome scales were fair to poor.The adapted, personally administered, Amharic version of the YSR has sufficient reliability and validity in identifying young vulnerable women with anxiety/depression and/or social problems, and young men with attention problems; which were the most common mental health disorders observed by psychiatrists among the migrant populations in this study. Further assessment of the

  6. Cross-cultural adaptation, reliability, and validity of the German version of the Pain Catastrophizing Scale

    Meyer, K.; Sprott, H.; Mannion, A. F.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In patients with chronic pain, catastrophizing is a significant determinant of self-rated pain intensity and disability. The Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS) was developed to assist with both treatment planning and outcome assessment; to date, no German version has been validated. METHODS: A cross-cultural adaptation of the PCS into German was carried out, strictly according to recommended methods. A questionnaire booklet containing the PCS, visual analogue scales (numeric rating s...

  7. Towards a Framework for Self-Adaptive Reliable Network Services in Highly-Uncertain Environments

    Grønbæk, Lars Jesper; Schwefel, Hans-Peter; Ceccarelli, Andrea;

    2010-01-01

    In future inhomogeneous, pervasive and highly dynamic networks, end-nodes may often only rely on unreliable and uncertain observations to diagnose hidden network states and decide upon possible remediation actions. Inherent challenges exists to identify good and timely decision strategies...... to improve resilience of end-node services. In this paper we present a framework, called ODDR (Observation, Diagnosis, Decision, Remediation), for improving resilience of network based services through integration of self-adaptive monitoring services, network diagnosis, decision actions, and finally...

  8. The Turkish Adaptation of Implicit Theory of Intelligence Scale: The Validity and Reliability Study

    İlhan, Mustafa; Bayram ÇETİN

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to adapt the Implicit Theory of Intelligence Scale (ITIS) by Abd-El-Fattah and Yates (2006) to Turkish and to investigate its psychometric properties. The study was conducted on four different samples which consisted of 689 students who studied different subjects at the Ziya Gokalp Faculty of Education, Dicle University, during the Fall Term of the 2012-2013 Academic Year. The findings on the linguistic equivalence indicated that the correlation between the items ...

  9. Developing a Comprehensive Teaching Evaluation System for Foundation Courses with Enhanced Validity and Reliability

    Xu, Yueyu

    2012-01-01

    This study aims at developing a comprehensive teaching evaluation system, a more useful educational technology, for achieving relatively reliable and valid results that can be well acknowledged by instructors, students, and by administrators. Adopting multi-method approaches, the study integrates student evaluation, expert evaluation and regular…

  10. Study on the Reliability Evaluation of Qualitative Indices in Multi-Objective Decision

    2002-01-01

    Qualitative indices in multi-objective decision can usually be evaluated and measured by mathematical methods or models, but the obtained results are sometimes inaccurate because of fuzziness of indices. To improve the accuracy and reliability of the evaluation results, set-value statistic principle is applied, and accordingly four evaluation methods are obtained. Meanwhile, these methods are compared briefly.

  11. A new criterion needed to evaluate reliability of digital protective relays

    Gurevich, Vladimir

    2012-11-01

    There is a wide range of criteria and features for evaluating reliability in engineering; but as many as there are, only one of them has been chosen to evaluate reliability of Digital Protective Relays (DPR) in the technical documentation: Mean (operating) Time Between Failures (MTBF), which has gained universal currency and has been specified in technical manuals, information sheets, tender documentation as the key indicator of DPR reliability. But is the choice of this criterion indeed wise? The answer to this question is being sought by the author of this article.

  12. Adaptable System Increasing the Transmission Speed and Reliability in Packet Network by Optimizing Delay

    Zbynek Kocur

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a great diversity in the transmission technologies in current data networks. Individual technologies are in most cases incompatible at physical and partially also at the link layer of the reference ISO/OSI model. Network compatibility, as the ability to transmit data, is realizable through the third layer, which is able to guarantee the operation of the different devices across their technological differences. The proposed inverse packet multiplexer addresses increase of the speed and reliability of packet transmission to the third layer, and at the same time it increases the stability of the data communication by the regulation of the delay value during the transmission. This article presents implementation of a communication system and its verification in real conditions. The conclusion compares the strengths and weaknesses of the proposed control system.

  13. Bulk electric system reliability evaluation incorporating wind power and demand side management

    Huang, Dange

    Electric power systems are experiencing dramatic changes with respect to structure, operation and regulation and are facing increasing pressure due to environmental and societal constraints. Bulk electric system reliability is an important consideration in power system planning, design and operation particularly in the new competitive environment. A wide range of methods have been developed to perform bulk electric system reliability evaluation. Theoretically, sequential Monte Carlo simulation can include all aspects and contingencies in a power system and can be used to produce an informative set of reliability indices. It has become a practical and viable tool for large system reliability assessment technique due to the development of computing power and is used in the studies described in this thesis. The well-being approach used in this research provides the opportunity to integrate an accepted deterministic criterion into a probabilistic framework. This research work includes the investigation of important factors that impact bulk electric system adequacy evaluation and security constrained adequacy assessment using the well-being analysis framework. Load forecast uncertainty is an important consideration in an electrical power system. This research includes load forecast uncertainty considerations in bulk electric system reliability assessment and the effects on system, load point and well-being indices and reliability index probability distributions are examined. There has been increasing worldwide interest in the utilization of wind power as a renewable energy source over the last two decades due to enhanced public awareness of the environment. Increasing penetration of wind power has significant impacts on power system reliability, and security analyses become more uncertain due to the unpredictable nature of wind power. The effects of wind power additions in generating and bulk electric system reliability assessment considering site wind speed

  14. Reliability assessment of a peer evaluation instrument in a team-based learning course

    Wahawisan J; Salazar M; Walters R; Alkhateeb FM; Attarabeen O

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the reliability of a peer evaluation instrument in a longitudinal team-based learning setting. Methods: Student pharmacists were instructed to evaluate the contributions of their peers. Evaluations were analyzed for the variance of the scores by identifying low, medium, and high scores. Agreement between performance ratings within each group of students was assessed via intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). Results: We found little variation in the standard ...

  15. A study on the reliability evaluation method for maintenance planning using risk information

    This paper discusses a development of the quantitative method to evaluate the reliability for the maintenance plan with respect to the risk impact both for Core Damage Frequency and Plant Trip Frequency. The quantitative approach includes the considerations for the effect of the Condition Based Maintenance (CBM) changing in addition to the Time Based Maintenance (TBM), and the reliability for the maintenance plan is evaluated using the actual plant-specific maintenance information collected in the plant. In this paper, the developed method to evaluate the reliability for the maintenance plan using the risk information is described. And, the tested evaluation to confirm the effectiveness of this quantitative method is also described. And Furthermore, the necessary condition for the plant-specific maintenance information to use this quantitative method is described. (author)

  16. Test-retest reliability of lifting and carrying in a 2-day functional capacity evaluation

    Reneman, MF; Dijkstra, PU; Westmaas, M; Goeken, LNH; Göeken, L.N.H.

    2002-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to establish test-retest reliability of lifting and carrying of a functional capacity evaluation (FCE) on two consecutive days and to verify the need for a 2-day protocol. A cohort of 50 patients (39 men, 11 women) with nonspecific low back pain were evaluated using

  17. Development of a German version of the Oswestry Disability Index. Part 1: cross-cultural adaptation, reliability, and validity

    Mannion, A. F.; Junge, A.; Fairbank, J. C. T.; Dvorak, J.; Grob, D.

    2005-01-01

    Patient-orientated assessment methods are of paramount importance in the evaluation of treatment outcome. The Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) is one of the condition-specific questionnaires recommended for use with back pain patients. To date, no German version has been published in the peer-reviewed literature. A cross-cultural adaptation of the ODI for the German language was carried out, according to established guidelines. One hundred patients with chronic low-back pain (35 conservative, ...

  18. Framework for Evaluating and Comparing Performance of Power System Reliability Criteria

    Heylen, Evelyn; Labeeuw, Wouter; Deconinck, Geert; van Hertem, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Evolutions in the power system challenge the manner in which power system reliability is managed. In particular, currently used reliability criteria, typically the deterministic N-1 criterion, are increasingly inadequate. Moving to an alternative approach is difficult as quantifying benefits is hard in a multifaceted environment and system operators are reluctant to move away from the easy and transparent existing criterion. This paper presents a generic framework to evaluate and compare soci...

  19. An independent evaluation of the CH-46 safety reliability and maintainability program (SR&M)

    Conklin, Michael J.

    1987-01-01

    This thesis is an independent partial evaluation of the Safety Reliability and Maintainability Program (SR&M). The two Measures of effectiveness which were used to see if the goals of this program were realized in the areas of maintainability and reliability are the Maintenance Manhours per Flight Hour and the Mean Flight Hours Between failures. Standard statistical analysis was performed utilizing the software packages GRAFSTAT and MINITAB.

  20. Evaluating the Reliability of Three Different Dental Age Estimation Methods in Visakhapatnam Children

    Patnana, Arun Kumar; Vabbalareddy, Raja Sekhar; V Vanga, Narasimha Rao

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT% Dental age is important for treatment planning in the specialities of pedodontics and orthodontics. Although, Demirjian's method was considered standard for dental age estimation, it may not be reliable for all population. Aim: The goal of the study was to evaluate the reliability of Demir-jian's, Haavikko's and Willems method of dental age estimation methods in Visakhapatnam (Andhra Pradesh, India) children. Study design: One hundred and two children of 6 to 14 years old who underw...

  1. Reliability assessment of a peer evaluation instrument in a team-based learning course

    Wahawisan J

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the reliability of a peer evaluation instrument in a longitudinal team-based learning setting. Methods: Student pharmacists were instructed to evaluate the contributions of their peers. Evaluations were analyzed for the variance of the scores by identifying low, medium, and high scores. Agreement between performance ratings within each group of students was assessed via intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC. Results: We found little variation in the standard deviation (SD based on the score means among the high, medium, and low scores within each group. The lack of variation in SD of results between groups suggests that the peer evaluation instrument produces precise results. The ICC showed strong concordance among raters. Conclusions: Findings suggest that our student peer evaluation instrument provides a reliable method for peer assessment in team-based learning settings.

  2. Reliability assessment of a peer evaluation instrument in a team-based learning course

    Wahawisan, Joy; Salazar, Miguel; Walters, Robin; Alkhateeb, Fadi M.; Attarabeen, Omar

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the reliability of a peer evaluation instrument in a longitudinal team-based learning setting. Methods: Student pharmacists were instructed to evaluate the contributions of their peers. Evaluations were analyzed for the variance of the scores by identifying low, medium, and high scores. Agreement between performance ratings within each group of students was assessed via intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). Results: We found little variation in the standard deviation (SD) based on the score means among the high, medium, and low scores within each group. The lack of variation in SD of results between groups suggests that the peer evaluation instrument produces precise results. The ICC showed strong concordance among raters. Conclusions: Findings suggest that our student peer evaluation instrument provides a reliable method for peer assessment in team-based learning settings. PMID:27011776

  3. Reliability, construct and criterion-related validity of the Serbian adaptation of the trait emotional intelligence questionnaire (TEIQue

    Jolić-Marjanović Zorana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents evidence on the reliability and validity of the Serbian adaptation of the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQue, an instrument designed to comprehensively assess emotional intelligence conceived as a constellation of emotionrelated self-perceptions. Study participants were 254 adults, who completed the Serbian TEIQue, NEO-FFI, MSCEIT, EQ-short, and RSPWB. The results indicate that the adapted TEIQue is a psychometrically sound assessment tool: internal consistencies were mostly acceptable at facet, generally good at factor, and excellent at whole-scale level; the fourfactor structure was confirmed by means of CFA; convergent-discriminant validity was established through meaningful associations with related constructs, indicating that trait EI is closely aligned with affect and self-efficacy related constructs from the realm of personality (i.e., E, N, C, and Empathy, but shows only moderate overlap with ability EI; finally, incremental validity was demonstrated in the prediction of psychological wellbeing, over and above the Big Five. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179018

  4. Validity and reliability of the Dutch adaptation of the Psoriatic Arthritis Quality of Life (PsAQoL Questionnaire.

    Freke Wink

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The Psoriatic Arthritis Quality of Life (PsAQoL questionnaire is a disease- specific instrument developed to measure quality of life (QoL in patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA. The aim of this study was to translate the measure into Dutch and to determine its psychometric properties. METHOD: Translation of the original English PsAQoL into Dutch was performed by bilingual and lay panel. Ten field-test interviews with PsA patients were performed to assess face and content validity. In total, 211 PsA patients were included in a test-retest postal survey to investigate the reliability and construct validity of the Dutch adaptation of the PsAQoL. The PsAQoL, Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ and Skindex-17 were administered on two different occasions approximately two weeks apart. RESULTS: The Dutch version of the PsAQoL was found to be relevant, understandable and easy to complete in only a few minutes. It correlated as expected with the HAQ (Spearman's ρ = 0.72 and the 2 subscales of the Skindex-17 (ρ = 0.40 for the psychosocial and ρ = 0.46 for the symptom scale. Furthermore, the measure had good internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.92 and test-retest reliability (ρ = 0.89. The PsAQoL was able to define groups of patients based on self-reported general health status, self-reported severity of PsA and flare of arthritis. Duration of PsA did not influence PsAQoL scores. CONCLUSIONS: The Dutch version of the PsAQoL is a valid and reliable questionnaire suitable for use in clinical or research settings to asses PsA-specific QoL.

  5. Inter-rater reliability of the evaluation of muscular chains associated with posture alterations in scoliosis

    Fortin Carole

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the Global postural re-education (GPR evaluation, posture alterations are associated with anterior or posterior muscular chain impairments. Our goal was to assess the reliability of the GPR muscular chain evaluation. Methods Design: Inter-rater reliability study. Fifty physical therapists (PTs and two experts trained in GPR assessed the standing posture from photographs of five youths with idiopathic scoliosis using a posture analysis grid with 23 posture indices (PI. The PTs and experts indicated the muscular chain associated with posture alterations. The PTs were also divided into three groups according to their experience in GPR. Experts’ results (after consensus were used to verify agreement between PTs and experts for muscular chain and posture assessments. We used Kappa coefficients (K and the percentage of agreement (%A to assess inter-rater reliability and intra-class coefficients (ICC for determining agreement between PTs and experts. Results For the muscular chain evaluation, reliability was moderate to substantial for 12 PI for the PTs (%A: 56 to 82; K: 0.42 to 0.76 and perfect for 19 PI for the experts. For posture assessment, reliability was moderate to substantial for 12 PI for the PTs (%A > 60%; K: 0.42 to 0.75 and moderate to perfect for 18 PI for the experts (%A: 80 to 100; K: 0.55 to 1.00. The agreement between PTs and experts was good for most muscular chain evaluations (18 PI; ICC: 0.82 to 0.99 and PI (19 PI; ICC: 0.78 to 1.00. Conclusions The GPR muscular chain evaluation has good reliability for most posture indices. GPR evaluation should help guide physical therapists in targeting affected muscles for treatment of abnormal posture patterns.

  6. Evaluation of research reactor fuel reliability in support of regulatory requirements

    This standards, codes and practices survey is devoted to the problem of reliability of R and D especially research reactor fuel (RRF) performance-related processes. Regulatory R and D evaluations were based on one standard and just few of them provide correlation to other relative standards whereas synthetic process approach reflects actual status of particular R and D practices. Fuel performance regulatory parameters are based on quality standards. A reliability process-based method similar to PSA/FMEA is proposed to evaluate RRF performance- related parameters in terms of reactor safety. (author)

  7. Reliability Evaluation of Distribution System Considering Sequential Characteristics of Distributed Generation

    Sheng Wanxing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In allusion to the randomness of output power of distributed generation (DG, a reliability evaluation model based on sequential Monte Carlo simulation (SMCS for distribution system with DG is proposed. Operating states of the distribution system can be sampled by SMCS in chronological order thus the corresponding output power of DG can be generated. The proposed method has been tested on feeder F4 of IEEE-RBTS Bus 6. The results show that reliability evaluation of distribution system considering the uncertainty of output power of DG can be effectively implemented by SMCS.

  8. The application of reliability studies to the evaluation of safety-related systems in Czechoslovakia

    For the analysis of Czechoslovak nuclear power plant safety systems the fault tree method has been used. For the evaluation of availability or probability of the first failure of repairable complex systems with periodical testing, the direct simulation Monte Carlo method has been applied. In parallel, several analytical codes were developed. Results of the analyses have shown the availability of safety systems. They have revealed some components and events where increased reliability is essential for the increase of the system reliability. Effects of periodical testing carried out on these systems were also evaluated. (author)

  9. A probabalistic reliability evaluation of decay heat removal system using phased mission method and Markov model

    This paper presents a reliability evaluation model based on the 'phased mission method' combined with the Markov model and the results of its application to the decay heat removal system (DHRS) of a large tank-type FBR. The new approach divides the mission time into several time phases and the unreliability value in each time phase is calculated by solving simultaneous differential equations based on the Markov model. An application to an FBR decay heat removal system evaluation has shown that this realistic approach offers a methodology for improving reliability values by a factor of 10 as compared with the conventional fault tree method. (author)

  10. Digital System Reliability Test for the Evaluation of safety Critical Software of Digital Reactor Protection System

    Hyun-Kook Shin

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available A new Digital Reactor Protection System (DRPS based on VME bus Single Board Computer has been developed by KOPEC to prevent software Common Mode Failure(CMF inside digital system. The new DRPS has been proved to be an effective digital safety system to prevent CMF by Defense-in-Depth and Diversity (DID&D analysis. However, for practical use in Nuclear Power Plants, the performance test and the reliability test are essential for the digital system qualification. In this study, a single channel of DRPS prototype has been manufactured for the evaluation of DRPS capabilities. The integrated functional tests are performed and the system reliability is analyzed and tested. The results of reliability test show that the application software of DRPS has a very high reliability compared with the analog reactor protection systems.

  11. Reliability/Cost Evaluation on Power System connected with Wind Power for the Reserve Estimation

    Lee, Go-Eun; Cha, Seung-Tae; Shin, Je-Seok;

    2012-01-01

    Wind power is ideally a renewable energy with no fuel cost, but has a risk to reduce reliability of the whole system because of uncertainty of the output. If the reserve of the system is increased, the reliability of the system may be improved. However, the cost would be increased. Therefore the...... reserve needs to be estimated considering the trade-off between reliability and economic aspects. This paper suggests a methodology to estimate the appropriate reserve, when wind power is connected to the power system. As a case study, when wind power is connected to power system of Korea, the effects on...... reliability and economic aspects according to various reserve capacity is evaluated at HLII level and the appropriate reserve is determined....

  12. A Novel OBDD-Based Reliability Evaluation Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks on the Multicast Model

    Zongshuai Yan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The two-terminal reliability calculation for wireless sensor networks (WSNs is a #P-hard problem. The reliability calculation of WSNs on the multicast model provides an even worse combinatorial explosion of node states with respect to the calculation of WSNs on the unicast model; many real WSNs require the multicast model to deliver information. This research first provides a formal definition for the WSN on the multicast model. Next, a symbolic OBDD_Multicast algorithm is proposed to evaluate the reliability of WSNs on the multicast model. Furthermore, our research on OBDD_Multicast construction avoids the problem of invalid expansion, which reduces the number of subnetworks by identifying the redundant paths of two adjacent nodes and s-t unconnected paths. Experiments show that the OBDD_Multicast both reduces the complexity of the WSN reliability analysis and has a lower running time than Xing’s OBDD- (ordered binary decision diagram- based algorithm.

  13. Software reliability evaluation of digital plant protection system development process using V and V

    In the nuclear power industry, digital technology has been introduced recently for the Instrumentation and Control (I and C) of reactor systems. For its application to the safety critical system such as Reactor Protection System(RPS), a reliability assessment is indispensable. Unlike traditional reliability models, software reliability is hard to evaluate, and should be evaluated throughout development lifecycle. In the development process of Digital Plant Protection System(DPPS), the concept of verification and validation (V and V) was introduced to assure the quality of the product. Also, test should be performed to assure the reliability. Verification procedure with model checking is relatively well defined, however, test is labor intensive and not well organized. In this paper, we developed the methodological process of combining the verification with validation test case generation. For this, we used PVS for the table specification and for the theorem proving. As a result, we could not only save time to design test case but also get more effective and complete verification related test case set. Add to this, we could extract some meaningful factors useful for the reliability evaluation both from the V and V and verification combined tests

  14. Validity and rater reliability of Persian version of the Consensus Auditory Perceptual Evaluation of Voice

    Nazila Salary Majd

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Auditory-perceptual assessment of voice a main approach in the diagnosis and therapy improvement of voice disorders. Despite, there are few Iranian studies about auditory-perceptual assessment of voice. The aim of present study was development and determination of validity and rater reliability of Persian version of the Consensus Auditory Perceptual Evaluation of Voice (CAPE -V.Methods: The qualitative content validity was detected by collecting 10 questionnaires from 9 experienced speech and language pathologists and a linguist. For reliability purposes, the voice samples of 40 dysphonic (neurogenic, functional with and without laryngeal lesions adults (20-45 years of age and 10 normal healthy speakers were recorded. The samples included sustain of vowels and reading the 6 sentences of Persian version of the consensus auditory perceptual evaluation of voice called the ATSHA.Results: The qualitative content validity was proved for developed Persian version of the consensus auditory perceptual evaluation of voice. Cronbach’s alpha was high (0.95. Intra-rater reliability coefficients ranged from 0.86 for overall severity to 0.42 for pitch; inter-rater reliability ranged from 0.85 for overall severity to 0.32 for pitch (p<0.05.Conclusion: The ATSHA can be used as a valid and reliable Persian scale for auditory perceptual assessment of voice in adults.

  15. Inter-rater reliability of the Sødring Motor Evaluation of Stroke patients (SMES).

    Halsaa, K E; Sødring, K M; Bjelland, E; Finsrud, K; Bautz-Holter, E

    1999-12-01

    The Sødring Motor Evaluation of Stroke patients is an instrument for physiotherapists to evaluate motor function and activities in stroke patients. The rating reflects quality as well as quantity of the patient's unassisted performance within three domains: leg, arm and gross function. The inter-rater reliability of the method was studied in a sample of 30 patients admitted to a stroke rehabilitation unit. Three therapists were involved in the study; two therapists assessed the same patient on two consecutive days in a balanced design. Cohen's weighted kappa and McNemar's test of symmetry were used as measures of item reliability, and the intraclass correlation coefficient was used to express the reliability of the sumscores. For 24 out of 32 items the weighted kappa statistic was excellent (0.75-0.98), while 7 items had a kappa statistic within the range 0.53-0.74 (fair to good). The reliability of one item was poor (0.13). The intraclass correlation coefficient for the three sumscores was 0.97, 0.91 and 0.97. We conclude that the Sødring Motor Evaluation of Stroke patients is a reliable measure of motor function in stroke patients undergoing rehabilitation. PMID:10599901

  16. Multiple centroid method to evaluate the adaptability of alfalfa genotypes

    Moysés Nascimento

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of multiple centroids to study the adaptability of alfalfa genotypes (Medicago sativa L.. In this method, the genotypes are compared with ideotypes defined by the bissegmented regression model, according to the researcher's interest. Thus, genotype classification is carried out as determined by the objective of the researcher and the proposed recommendation strategy. Despite the great potential of the method, it needs to be evaluated under the biological context (with real data. In this context, we used data on the evaluation of dry matter production of 92 alfalfa cultivars, with 20 cuttings, from an experiment in randomized blocks with two repetitions carried out from November 2004 to June 2006. The multiple centroid method proved efficient for classifying alfalfa genotypes. Moreover, it showed no unambiguous indications and provided that ideotypes were defined according to the researcher's interest, facilitating data interpretation.

  17. Operational reliability evaluation of restructured power systems with wind power penetration utilizing reliability network equivalent and time-sequential simulation approaches

    Ding, Yi; Cheng, Lin; Zhang, Yonghong;

    2014-01-01

    increased the burden of system operator for securing power system reliability during the operational phase. Moreover, the power system restructuring and deregulation have not only introduced the competition for reducing cost but also changed the strategy of reliability evaluation and management of power...... systems. The conventional long-term reliability evaluation techniques have been well developed, which have been more focused on planning and expansion rather than operation of power systems. This paper proposes a new technique for evaluating operational reliabilities of restructured power systems with...... reserve provides, fast reserve providers and transmission network in restructured power systems. A contingency management schema for real time operation considering its coupling with the day-ahead market is proposed. The time-sequential Monte Carlo simulation is used to model the chronological...

  18. Reliability of in situ stress evaluated by hydraulic fracturing stress measurement

    Hydraulic fracturing stress measurement technique is the most well-known method for in situ stress measurements. However, a general method has not yet been established for estimating the reliability of the evaluated in situ stress. This paper presents a new method for estimating the reliability of the in situ stress evaluated by hydraulic fracturing stress measurement technique which utilizes a shut-in pressure and an orientation of cracks induced by hydraulic fracturing. The validity of the method was examined by applying it to two sets of artificial data constructed for eight cracks under a given stress state. The shut-in pressure for each crack was given by assuming the shut-in pressure to be equal to the normal stress acting perpendicularly to the crack. It was revealed that the shut-in pressure for each crack was most crucial for obtaining reliable results. (author)

  19. A Layered Fault Tree Model for Reliability Evaluation of Smart Grids

    Guopeng Song

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The smart grid concept has emerged as a result of the requirement for renewable energy resources and application of new techniques. It is proposed as a practical future form of power distribution system. Evaluating the reliability of smart grids is of great importance and significance. Focusing on the perspective of the consumers, this paper proposes a layered fault tree model to distinguish and separate two different smart grid power supply modes. Revised importance measures for the components in the fault tree are presented considering load priority, aiming to find the weak parts of the system and to improve the design and using. A corresponding hierarchical Monte Carlo simulation procedure for reliability evaluation is proposed based on the layered fault tree model. The method proposed in this paper is tested on a case of reliability assessment for the Future Renewable Electric Energy Delivery and Management (FREEDM system. The proposed technique can be applicable to other forms of smart grids.

  20. Reliability evaluation of wireless sensor networks using an enhanced OBDD algorithm

    XIAO Yu-feng; CHEN Shan-zhi; LI Xin; LI Yu-hong

    2009-01-01

    An enhanced ordered binary decision diagram (EOBDD) algorithm is proposed to evaluate the reliability of wireless sensor networks (WSNs), based on the considerations of the common cause failure (CCF) and a large number of nodes in WSNs. The EOBDD algorithm analyzes the common cause event (CCE) and the network structure when CCE takes place according to the stochastic graph and the CCF model of WSNs. After constructing the ordered binary decision diagram (OBDD) of the original network with node expansion, it uses a set of OBDD variables (SOV) to guide reliability computations along this OBDD. The two steps about OBDD can decrease the cost of OBDD constructions and storage. Furthermore, the efficient OBDD structure and Hash tables can greatly decrease redundant computations of isomorphs. The experiment results show that the EOBDD can be used to evaluate the reliability of WSN efficiently.

  1. The Modified painDETECT Questionnaire for Patients with Hip or Knee Osteoarthritis: Translation into Dutch, Cross-Cultural Adaptation and Reliability Assessment.

    Wietske Rienstra

    Full Text Available There is a growing amount of evidence that alteration in pain processing by the peripheral and central nervous system play a role in osteoarthritis pain, leading to neuropathic-like symptoms. It is essential to identify knee and hip osteoarthritis patients with a neuropathic pain profile in order to offer such patients education and additional treatment options besides conventional pain treatment. The painDETECT Questionnaire is a self-report questionnaire developed to discriminate between nociceptive and neuropathic pain. This questionnaire was modified to fit patients suffering from knee osteoarthritis. The aim of this study was to translate and cross-culturally adapt the modified painDETECT Questionnaire to the Dutch language and to provide a modified version to fit patients with hip osteoarthritis. Reliability for internal consistency, repeatability and floor and ceiling effects were subsequently assessed. A total of 278 patients were included in the reliability study and 123 patients in the repeatability analysis. The Dutch modified painDETECT Questionnaire shows good internal consistency and small relative measurement errors, represented by a good intraclass correlation coefficient. Absolute measurement error, represented by the Standard Error of Measurement, was acceptable. However, a measurement bias might be present when it comes to repeatability. To our knowledge, this study is the first to provide a Dutch modified painDETECT Questionnaire to fit hip and knee osteoarthritis patients and to assess internal consistency, reliability and agreement. International guidelines were followed in the translation process and this study has ample sample size with an adequate time interval for repeatability. Based on this study, the Dutch modified painDETECT Questionnaire seems to be fit as a discriminative tool to identify knee and hip osteoarthritis patients with a neuropathic pain profile. Whether it is also suitable as an evaluative tool to

  2. The New Features of the Exame Evaluation System and Reliability of Its Fixed Tests

    Martinková, Patrícia; Zvára jr., K.; Zvárová, Jana; Zvára, K.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 2 (2006), s. 310-315. ISSN 0026-1270 Grant ostatní: Evropské sociální fondy CZ04307/42011/0013 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : education * evaluation * Internet * reliability * bioinformatics Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science Impact factor: 1.684, year: 2006

  3. An Approach for Evaluating Reliability of Man-Machine System in Evolving Environment

    Wang Wuhong; Zhang Dianye; Cao Qi

    1996-01-01

    In this paper,the technique for human error rate prediction (THERP) is first presented to discuss rationale and principal advantages and disadvantages.Then, based on operator behaviour paradigm which can describe human characteristics,an approach is formulated in a mathematical way as a means of evaluating the effect of operator erroneous actions on reliability of manmachine systems in dynamical evolving environment.

  4. A human reliability based usability evaluation method for safety-critical software

    Boring and Gertman (2005) introduced a novel method that augments heuristic usability evaluation methods with that of the human reliability analysis method of SPAR-H. By assigning probabilistic modifiers to individual heuristics, it is possible to arrive at the usability error probability (UEP). Although this UEP is not a literal probability of error, it nonetheless provides a quantitative basis to heuristic evaluation. This method allows one to seamlessly prioritize and identify usability issues (i.e., a higher UEP requires more immediate fixes). However, the original version of this method required the usability evaluator to assign priority weights to the final UEP, thus allowing the priority of a usability issue to differ among usability evaluators. The purpose of this paper is to explore an alternative approach to standardize the priority weighting of the UEP in an effort to improve the method's reliability. (authors)

  5. Examining the scope of questionable diagnostic reliability in Sexually Violent Predator (SVP) evaluations.

    Perillo, Anthony D; Spada, Ashley H; Calkins, Cynthia; Jeglic, Elizabeth L

    2014-01-01

    Research has suggested questionable reliability of diagnosing mental abnormality during Sexually Violent Predator (SVP) evaluations, despite this being a necessary requirement for SVP commitment. Findings have been inconsistent across studies, and little is known about the extent of such trends across diagnoses and clinicians. The current study includes data from 375 sex offenders referred for evaluation for SVP commitment in New Jersey. Clinicians (n = 128) rendered a variety of diagnoses, most commonly Pedophilia. Results suggested questionable agreement across paraphilic and non-paraphilic diagnoses, although agreement was fair for diagnoses of Pedophilia. Further analyses of cases (n = 49) involving clinicians receiving a large number of referrals (n = 14) were generally consistent with these findings, with no outlier effect apparent. Findings suggest questionable diagnostic reliability to be a widespread issue in SVP evaluations, present across a variety of diagnoses and across the general body of clinicians involved in evaluations. PMID:24274914

  6. Reliability assessment and correlation analysis of evaluating orthodontic treatment outcome in Chinese patients

    Song, Guang-Ying; Zhao, Zhi-He; Ding, Yin; Bai, Yu-Xing; Lin WANG; He, Hong; Shen, Gang; Li, Wei-Ran; Baumrind, Sheldon; Geng, Zhi; XU, TIAN-MIN

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the reliability of experienced Chinese orthodontists in evaluating treatment outcome and to determine the correlations between three diagnostic information sources. Sixty-nine experienced Chinese orthodontic specialists each evaluated the outcome of orthodontic treatment of 108 Chinese patients. Three different information sources: study casts (SC), lateral cephalometric X-ray images (LX) and facial photographs (PH) were generated at the end of treatment for 108 pat...

  7. Technique for evaluation of reliability of flowsheets for NPPs with the WWER reactors

    Technique for evaluating reliability of various flowsheets for NPPs with WWER reactors in the case of power decrease is developed and based. Possibility of using mathematics apparatus of the normal Markov model to evaluate the effect of the minimal (zero) load at partial (complete) failure and getting into iodine pit is proved. The suggested technique can be used for solving the problems of structural optimization with allowance for time dynamics of WWER reactor manoeuvrability

  8. Software reliability

    Bendell, A

    1986-01-01

    Software Reliability reviews some fundamental issues of software reliability as well as the techniques, models, and metrics used to predict the reliability of software. Topics covered include fault avoidance, fault removal, and fault tolerance, along with statistical methods for the objective assessment of predictive accuracy. Development cost models and life-cycle cost models are also discussed. This book is divided into eight sections and begins with a chapter on adaptive modeling used to predict software reliability, followed by a discussion on failure rate in software reliability growth mo

  9. Techniques to evaluate the importance of common cause degradation on reliability and safety of nuclear weapons.

    Darby, John L.

    2011-05-01

    As the nuclear weapon stockpile ages, there is increased concern about common degradation ultimately leading to common cause failure of multiple weapons that could significantly impact reliability or safety. Current acceptable limits for the reliability and safety of a weapon are based on upper limits on the probability of failure of an individual item, assuming that failures among items are independent. We expanded the current acceptable limits to apply to situations with common cause failure. Then, we developed a simple screening process to quickly assess the importance of observed common degradation for both reliability and safety to determine if further action is necessary. The screening process conservatively assumes that common degradation is common cause failure. For a population with between 100 and 5000 items we applied the screening process and conclude the following. In general, for a reliability requirement specified in the Military Characteristics (MCs) for a specific weapon system, common degradation is of concern if more than 100(1-x)% of the weapons are susceptible to common degradation, where x is the required reliability expressed as a fraction. Common degradation is of concern for the safety of a weapon subsystem if more than 0.1% of the population is susceptible to common degradation. Common degradation is of concern for the safety of a weapon component or overall weapon system if two or more components/weapons in the population are susceptible to degradation. Finally, we developed a technique for detailed evaluation of common degradation leading to common cause failure for situations that are determined to be of concern using the screening process. The detailed evaluation requires that best estimates of common cause and independent failure probabilities be produced. Using these techniques, observed common degradation can be evaluated for effects on reliability and safety.

  10. An Evaluation of the Reliability of Complex Systems Using Shadowed Sets and Fuzzy Lifetime Data

    Olgierd Hryniewicz

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the problem of the evaluation of system reliability using statistical data obtained from reliability tests of its elements, in which the lifetimes of elements are described using an exponential distribution. We assume that this lifetime data may be reported imprecisely and that this lack of precision may be described using fuzzy sets. As the direct application of the fuzzy sets methodology leads in this case to very complicated and time consuming calculations, we propose simple approximations of fuzzy numbers using shadowed sets introduced by Pedrycz (1998). The proposed methodology may be simply extended to the case of general lifetime probability distributions.

  11. Development of slim-maud: a multi-attribute utility approach to human reliability evaluation

    This paper describes further work on the Success Likelihood Index Methodology (SLIM), a procedure for quantitatively evaluating human reliability in nuclear power plants and other systems. SLIM was originally developed by Human Reliability Associates during an earlier contract with Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). A further development of SLIM, SLIM-MAUD (Multi-Attribute Utility Decomposition) is also described. This is an extension of the original approach using an interactive, computer-based system. All of the work described in this report was supported by the Human Factors and Safeguards Branch of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission

  12. Failure mechanism dependence and reliability evaluation of non-repairable system

    Reliability study of electronic system with the physics-of-failure method has been promoted due to the increase knowledge of electronic failure mechanisms. System failure initiates from independent failure mechanisms, have effect on or affect by other failure mechanisms and finally result in system failure. Failure mechanisms in a non-repairable system have many kinds of correlation. One failure mechanism developing to a certain degree will trigger, accelerate or inhibit another or many other failure mechanisms, some kind of failure mechanisms may have the same effect on the failure site, component or system. The destructive effect will be accumulated and result in early failure. This paper presents a reliability evaluation method considering correlativity among failure mechanisms, which includes trigger, acceleration, inhibition, accumulation, and competition. Based on fundamental rule of physics of failure, decoupling methods of these correlations are discussed. With a case, reliability of electronic system is evaluated considering failure mechanism dependence. - Highlights: • Five types of failure mechanism correlations are described. • Decoupling methods of these correlations are discussed. • A reliability evaluation method considering mechanism dependence is proposed. • Results are quite different to results under failure independence assumption

  13. Differential Evolution Based Intelligent System State Search Method for Composite Power System Reliability Evaluation

    Bakkiyaraj, Ashok; Kumarappan, N.

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents a new approach for evaluating the reliability indices of a composite power system that adopts binary differential evolution (BDE) algorithm in the search mechanism to select the system states. These states also called dominant states, have large state probability and higher loss of load curtailment necessary to maintain real power balance. A chromosome of a BDE algorithm represents the system state. BDE is not applied for its traditional application of optimizing a non-linear objective function, but used as tool for exploring more number of dominant states by producing new chromosomes, mutant vectors and trail vectors based on the fitness function. The searched system states are used to evaluate annualized system and load point reliability indices. The proposed search methodology is applied to RBTS and IEEE-RTS test systems and results are compared with other approaches. This approach evaluates the indices similar to existing methods while analyzing less number of system states.

  14. Adaptation of the Boundary Violations Scale Developed Based on Structural Family Therapy to the Turkish Context: A Study of Validity and Reliability

    Avci, Rasit; Çolakkadioglu, Oguzhan; Öz, Aysegül Sükran; Akbas, Turan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to adapt "The Boundary Violations Scale" (Madden et al., 2002), which was created to measure the intergenerational boundary violations in families from the perspective of children, to Turkish and to test the validity and reliability of the Turkish version of this instrument. This instrument was developed…

  15. Evaluation of nodal reliability risk in a deregulated power system with photovoltaic power penetration

    Zhao, Qian; Wang, Peng; Goel, Lalit;

    2014-01-01

    simulation technique has been proposed to evaluate the reserve deployment and customers' nodal reliability with high PV power penetration. The proposed method can effectively model the chronological aspects and stochastic characteristics of PV power and system operation with high computation efficiency. An...... auto-regressive and moving average model has also been developed for simulating the chronological characteristics of the solar radiation. Customers' reliability preferences have been considered in the generation and reserve deployment. Moreover, the correlation between PV power and load has been......Owing to the intermittent characteristic of solar radiation, power system reliability may be affected with high photovoltaic (PV) power penetration. To reduce large variation of PV power, additional system balancing reserve would be needed. In deregulated power systems, deployment of reserves and...

  16. Lifetime Reliability Evaluation of Structural Ceramic Parts with the CARES/LIFE Computer Program

    Nemeth, Noel N.; Powers, Lynn M.; Janosik, Lesley A.; Gyekenyesi, John P.

    1993-01-01

    The computer program CARES/LIFE calculates the time-dependent reliability of monolithic ceramic components subjected to thermomechanical and/or proof test loading. This program is an extension of the CARES (Ceramics Analysis and Reliability Evaluation of Structures) computer program. CARES/LIFE accounts for the phenomenon of subcritical crack growth (SCG) by utilizing the power law, Paris law, or Walker equation. The two-parameter Weibull cumulative distribution function is used to characterize the variation in component strength. The effects of multiaxial stresses are modeled using either the principle of independent action (PIA), Weibull's normal stress averaging method (NSA), or Batdorf's theory. Inert strength and fatigue parameters are estimated from rupture strength data of naturally flawed specimens loaded in static, dynamic, or cyclic fatigue. Two example problems demonstrating cyclic fatigue parameter estimation and component reliability analysis with proof testing are included.

  17. Finite State Machine Based Evaluation Model for Web Service Reliability Analysis

    Thirumaran.M

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Today’s world economy demands that both market access and customer service be available anytime and anywhere. The Web is the only way to supply global economic needs and, due to expand the development of comprehensive web service, it does so relatively inexpensively. The ability of web service is to provide a relatively inexpensive way to deploy customer services. As days goes on the business logic of a systememerges out at a great extent where it has to react to several different competitors under different situations. Through means of a business logic system we can able to achieve faster communication of information, rampant change and increasing business complexity. As competitors gets increased, so it causes the business parties to improve by promoting the business process management to the standard level by incorporating the higher-end technology solution such as service oriented business communication and business rule management automation. Now-a-days they are very much considering about the changes to be done at shorter time since the reaction time needs are decreasing every moment. Business Logic Evaluation Model (BLEM are the proposed solution targeting business logic automation and facilitatingbusiness experts to write sophisticated business rules and complex calculations without costly custom programming. BLEM is powerful enough to handle service manageability issues by analyzing and evaluating the computability and traceability and other criteria of modified business logic at run time. The web service and QOS grows expensively based on the reliability of the service. Hence the service provider of today things that reliability is the major factor and any problem in the reliability of the service should overcome then and there in order to achieve the expected level of reliability. In our paper we proposebusiness logic evaluation model for web service reliability analysis using Finite State Machine (FSM where FSM will be extended to

  18. Reliability evaluation of axially loaded steel members design criteria in AASHTO LRFD bridge design code

    Reliability based structural design insures a uniformly designed structure, in terms of safety. By considering an adequate reliability index (or probability of failure) for different parts of a structure, a reasonable balance between cost and safety of the structure can be achieved. In this study, the reliability of steel tension and compression members designed with AASHTO LRFD bridge design specifications (2007) is evaluated. These members are prevalent in different types of truss or arch bridges. Various conditions such as redundancy, ductility and importance of the bridge are taken into account by changing the load modification factor, η. To include the effect of the span length, a variable ratio of dead load to total load is considered. Current load factors in AASHTO LRFD code are accepted due to their verification in a comprehensive study for reliability of girder-type bridges. Furthermore, load and resistance distribution models are chosen based on the latest existing experimental data. The Monte Carlo simulation technique with randomly generated samples is applied in numerical calculations. For tension members, analysis results show relatively high reliability indices in yielding design, while having slightly low reliabilities for the fracture mode. For fracture design of steel tension members, an increase in vehicular dynamic load allowance (IM) from 33% to 75% is suggested to insure a safer behavior. Also, it is shown that the resistance factor for yielding of gross section, φy, can be increased from 0.95 to 1.00 while maintaining enough safety for designed tension members. In addition, obtained reliability curves for steel compression members show a safe behavior of designed compression members with conservative response in some cases. More results and plotted curves are discussed in detail and possible adjustments in code criteria are presented in this paper

  19. A multi-state reliability evaluation model for P2P networks

    The appearance of new service types and the convergence tendency of the communication networks have endowed the networks more and more P2P (peer to peer) properties. These networks can be more robust and tolerant for a series of non-perfect operational states due to the non-deterministic server-client distributions. Thus a reliability model taking into account of the multi-state and non-deterministic server-client distribution properties is needed for appropriate evaluation of the networks. In this paper, two new performance measures are defined to quantify the overall and local states of the networks. A new time-evolving state-transition Monte Carlo (TEST-MC) simulation model is presented for the reliability analysis of P2P networks in multiple states. The results show that the model is not only valid for estimating the traditional binary-state network reliability parameters, but also adequate for acquiring the parameters in a series of non-perfect operational states, with good efficiencies, especially for highly reliable networks. Furthermore, the model is versatile for the reliability and maintainability analyses in that both the links and the nodes can be failure-prone with arbitrary life distributions, and various maintainability schemes can be applied.

  20. Reliability based thermal fatigue evaluation method against random fluid temperature fluctuations

    Japanese regulations for thermal fatigue issues are mainly based on the guideline of the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers (JSME). However, the methods of the guideline include unclear safety margins, owing to existing uncertainties on loading and strength parameters. As a first step toward improving the JSME guideline to quantify safety margins with probabilistic approaches, a reliability evaluation procedure for thermal fatigue of mixing tees suitable for codes and standards has been discussed in this paper. While Monte Carlo simulations would be unsuitable for engineering use due to its cumbersome process and requirement for professional knowledge of probabilistic theory, simplified reliability analysis methods, such as the advanced first-order second-moment method, are more applicable in code designs. In addition, partial safety factors are easier to create a simpler measure of safety margins for code users who are unfamiliar with probabilistic reliability analysis methods. Thus, this paper has proposed a practical reliability evaluation procedure, which is based on the load and resistance factor design concept, for the thermal fatigue induced by random fluid temperature fluctuations in a mixing tee. (author)

  1. Performance Evaluation of 2D Adaptive Bilateral Filter For Removal of Noise From Robust Images

    Sridhar, B.; Dr.K.V.V.S.Reddy

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present the performance analysis of adaptive bilateral filter by pixel to noise ratio and mean square errors. It was evaluate changing the parameters of the adaptive filter half width values and standard deviations. In adaptive bilateral filter, the edge slope is enhanced by transforming the histogram via a range filter with adaptive offset and width. The variance of range filter can also be adaptive. The filter is applied to improve the sharpens of a gray level and color im...

  2. Bayesian synthetic evaluation of multistage reliability growth with instant and delayed fix modes

    2008-01-01

    In the multistage reliability growth tests with instant and delayed fix modes, the failure data can be assumed to follow Weibull processes with different parameters at different stages. For the Weibull process within a stage, by the proper selection of prior distribution form and the parameters, a concise posterior distribution form is obtained, thus simplifying the Bayesian analysis. In the multistage tests, the improvement factor is used to convert the posterior of one stage to the prior of the subsequent stage. The conversion criterion is carefully analyzed to determine the distribution parameters of the subsequent stage's variable reasonably. Based on the mentioned results, a new synthetic Bayesian evaluation program and algorithm framework is put forward to evaluate the multistage reliability growth tests with instant and delayed fix modes. The example shows the effectiveness and flexibility of this method.

  3. An evaluation of reliability on the ball indentation test for aged cast stainless steel

    Cast stainless steel (CSS) is thermally aged by a long term exposure in the range of nuclear power plant operating temperature, and the thermal aging in CSS is a cause of concern for the continued safe and reliable operation of these nuclear components. Therefore, an assessment of degradation in material properties of these components has been importantly considered. In this study the automated ball indentation (ABI) tests were performed on four cast stainless steels aged at 400 .deg. C for 3600 hours, to investigate the applicability of ABI test to the assessment of aging degradation of cast stainless steels. Thus, the reliability of ABI test for aged CSS was analyzed by evaluating the scattering of data tested from each material and by comparing tensile properties obtained from ABI test and standard tensile test. Also, the tensile properties of aged CSS obtained from ABI test CSS were compared with those predicted by evaluation procedure developed on the basis of material database for aged CSS

  4. A national drug related problems database: evaluation of use in practice, reliability and reproducibility

    Kjeldsen, Lene Juel; Birkholm, Trine; Fischer, Hanne Lis;

    2014-01-01

    Background A drug related problems database (DRP-database) was developed on request by clinical pharmacists. The information from the DRP-database has only been used locally e.g. to identify focus areas and to communicate identified DRPs to the hospital wards. Hence the quality of the data...... at the national level is unknown, which may compromise national analyses for benchmarking and identification of national focus areas. Objective The aim of the study was to evaluate the use in practice, reliability and reproducibility of the DRPs documented in the Danish drug related problems database. Setting...... Danish hospital pharmacies. Methods Practice use of the DRP-database was explored by an electronic questionnaire distributed to hospital pharmacies, and consisted of questions regarding current and previous use of the DRP-database. The reliability was evaluated by comparing the categorization of 24 cases...

  5. Reliability of isokinetic evaluation in passive mode for knee flexors and extensors in healthy children

    Adriana N. Santos

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The isokinetic dynamometer has been considered the gold-standard measurement of muscle performance. However, the reliability for the passive mode in children has not been reported to date. OBJECTIVES: The purpose was to evaluate the reliability of the isokinetic dynamometer in passive mode in children. METHOD: Twenty-one healthy children (ten girls, eleven boys, aged 5 to 12 years (age: 8.5±2.2 years, were evaluated using an isokinetic dynamometer. Each participant was tested twice with a one-week interval and performed five consecutive cycles of knee extension and flexion. The test was performed at 60º/s in the concentric passive mode and the children performed maximal contractions. The measured variables were peak torque, average peak torque, total work, and average power, time to peak torque and angle of peak torque for dominant and non-dominant lower limbs. Reliabilities were determined using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC3,1, standard error of measurement (SEM and SEM%, and coefficient of variation (CV. RESULTS: We found good reliability in both lower limbs for peak torque, average peak torque, total work and average power of knee flexors and extensors, with ICC3,1 values greater than 0.80; SEM ranging from 6.7 to 79.2; SEM% ranging from 10.4% to 16.8%; CV lower than 15%. Bland-Altman analysis showed that the bias was low than 10% and limits of agreement (LOAs ranging from 33.9% to 59.2%, and -28.8% and -52.8%, showing that measures tended to disagree. However, time to peak torque (ICC3,1 0.34; SEM%>37.4%; CV>41.7%; bias >24.0%; LOA>101.0% and angle of peak torque (ICC3,19.3; SEM%>27.6%; CV>15.3%; bias>11.0%; LOA>61.0% were not reliable. CONCLUSIONS: The findings indicate that isokinetic evaluation in passive mode for knee extensors and flexors of dominant and non-dominant lower limbs of children without disabilities was reliable for peak torque, average peak torque, work, and power. However, average time to peak

  6. Efficient Pseudorecursive Evaluation Schemes for Non-adaptive Sparse Grids

    Buse, Gerrit

    2014-01-01

    In this work we propose novel algorithms for storing and evaluating sparse grid functions, operating on regular (not spatially adaptive), yet potentially dimensionally adaptive grid types. Besides regular sparse grids our approach includes truncated grids, both with and without boundary grid points. Similar to the implicit data structures proposed in Feuersänger (Dünngitterverfahren für hochdimensionale elliptische partielle Differntialgleichungen. Diploma Thesis, Institut für Numerische Simulation, Universität Bonn, 2005) and Murarasu et al. (Proceedings of the 16th ACM Symposium on Principles and Practice of Parallel Programming. Cambridge University Press, New York, 2011, pp. 25–34) we also define a bijective mapping from the multi-dimensional space of grid points to a contiguous index, such that the grid data can be stored in a simple array without overhead. Our approach is especially well-suited to exploit all levels of current commodity hardware, including cache-levels and vector extensions. Furthermore, this kind of data structure is extremely attractive for today’s real-time applications, as it gives direct access to the hierarchical structure of the grids, while outperforming other common sparse grid structures (hash maps, etc.) which do not match with modern compute platforms that well. For dimensionality d ≤ 10 we achieve good speedups on a 12 core Intel Westmere-EP NUMA platform compared to the results presented in Murarasu et al. (Proceedings of the International Conference on Computational Science—ICCS 2012. Procedia Computer Science, 2012). As we show, this also holds for the results obtained on Nvidia Fermi GPUs, for which we observe speedups over our own CPU implementation of up to 4.5 when dealing with moderate dimensionality. In high-dimensional settings, in the order of tens to hundreds of dimensions, our sparse grid evaluation kernels on the CPU outperform any other known implementation.

  7. The reliability of WorkWell Systems Functional Capacity Evaluation: a systematic review

    Bieniek, Sebastian; Bethge, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Background Functional capacity evaluation (FCE) determines a person’s ability to perform work-related tasks and is a major component of the rehabilitation process. The WorkWell Systems (WWS) FCE (formerly known as Isernhagen Work Systems FCE) is currently the most commonly used FCE tool in German rehabilitation centres. Our systematic review investigated the inter-rater, intra-rater and test-retest reliability of the WWS FCE. Methods We performed a systematic literature search of studies on t...

  8. A Layered Fault Tree Model for Reliability Evaluation of Smart Grids

    Guopeng Song; Hao Chen; Bo Guo

    2014-01-01

    The smart grid concept has emerged as a result of the requirement for renewable energy resources and application of new techniques. It is proposed as a practical future form of power distribution system. Evaluating the reliability of smart grids is of great importance and significance. Focusing on the perspective of the consumers, this paper proposes a layered fault tree model to distinguish and separate two different smart grid power supply modes. Revised importance measures for the componen...

  9. Evaluation of Fatigue Life Reliability of Steering Knuckle Using Pearson Parametric Distribution Model

    Nik Abdullah, N. M.; Shahrum, A.; Dzuraidah, A. W.; Asri, Y. M.; Azrulhisham, E. A.; Che Hassan, C. H.

    2010-01-01

    Steering module is a part of automotive suspension system which provides a means for an accurate vehicle placement and stability control. Components such as steering knuckle are subjected to fatigue failures due to cyclic loads arising from various driving conditions. This paper intends to give a description of a method used in the fatigue life reliability evaluation of the knuckle used in a passenger car steering system. An accurate representation of Belgian pave service loads in terms of re...

  10. An improved recursive decomposition algorithm for reliability evaluation of lifeline networks

    Liu Wei; Li Jie

    2009-01-01

    The seismic reliability evaluation of lifeline networks has received considerable attention and been widely studied. In this paper, on the basis of an original recursive decomposition algorithm, an improved analytical approach to evaluate the seismic reliability of large lifeline systems is presented. The proposed algorithm takes the shortest path from the source to the sink of a network as decomposition policy. Using the Boolean laws of set operation and the probabilistic operation principal, a recursive decomposition process is constructed in which the disjoint minimal path set and the disjoint minimal cut set are simultaneously enumerated. As the result, a probabilistic inequality can be used to provide results that satisfy a prescribed error bound. During the decomposition process, different from the original recursive decomposition algorithm which only removes edges to simplify the network, the proposed algorithm simplifies the network by merging nodes into sources and removing edges. As a result, the proposed algorithm can obtain simpler networks. Moreover, for a network owning s-independent components in its component set, two network reduction techniques are introduced to speed up the proposed algorithm. A series of case studies, including an actual water distribution network and a large urban gas system, are calculated using the proposed algorithm. The results indicate that the proposed algorithm provides a useful probabilistic analysis method for the seismic reliability evaluation of lifeline networks.

  11. Reliability, risk and availability analysis and evaluation of a port oil pipeline transportation system in constant operation conditions

    Kolowrocki, Krzysztof [Gdynia Maritime University, Gdynia (Poland)

    2009-07-01

    In the paper the multi-state approach to the analysis and evaluation of systems' reliability, risk and availability is practically applied. Theoretical definitions and results are illustrated by the example of their application in the reliability, risk and availability evaluation of an oil pipeline transportation system. The pipeline transportation system is considered in the constant in time operation conditions. The system reliability structure and its components reliability functions are not changing in constant operation conditions. The system reliability structure is fixed with a high accuracy. Whereas, the input reliability characteristics of the pipeline components are not sufficiently exact because of the lack of statistical data necessary for their estimation. The results may be considered as an illustration of the proposed methods possibilities of applications in pipeline systems reliability analysis. (author)

  12. Reliable tool life measurements in turning - an application to cutting fluid efficiency evaluation

    Axinte, Dragos A.; Belluco, Walter; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2001-01-01

    ) provides efficiency evaluation. Six cutting oils, five of which formulated from vegetable basestock, were evaluated in turning. Experiments were run in a range of cutting parameters. according to a 2, 3-1 factorial design, machining AISI 316L stainless steel with coated carbide tools. Tool life......The paper proposes a method to obtain reliable measurements of tool life in turning, discussing some aspects related to experimental procedure and measurement accuracy. The method (i) allows and experimental determination of the extended Taylor's equation, with a limited set of experiments and (ii...

  13. Reliability Evaluation of Distributed Computer Systems Subject to Imperfect Coverage and Dependent Common-Cause Failures

    Liudong Xing

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Imperfect coverage (IPC occurs when a malicious component failure causes extensive damage due to inadequate fault detection, fault location or fault recovery. Common-cause failures (CCF are multiple dependent component failures within a system due to a shared root cause. Both imperfect coverage and common-cause failures can exist in distributed computer systems and can contribute significantly to the overall system unreliability. Moreover they can complicate the reliability analysis. In this study, we propose an efficient approach to the reliability analysis of distributed computer systems (DCS with both IPC and CCF. The proposed methodology is to decouple the effects of IPC and CCF from the combinatorics of the solution. The resulting approach is applicable to the computationally efficient binary decision diagrams (BDD based method for the reliability analysis of DCS. We provide a concrete analysis of an example DCS to illustrate the application and advantages of our approach. Due to the consideration of IPC and CCF, our approach can evaluate a wider class of DCS as compared with existing approaches. Due to the nature of the BDD and the separation of IPC and CCF from the solution combinatorics, our approach has high computational efficiency and is easy to implement, which means that it can be easily applied to the accurate reliability analysis of large-scale DCS subject to IPC and CCF. The DCS without IPC or CCF appear to be special cases of our approach.

  14. Evaluating the safety risk of roadside features for rural two-lane roads using reliability analysis.

    Jalayer, Mohammad; Zhou, Huaguo

    2016-08-01

    The severity of roadway departure crashes mainly depends on the roadside features, including the sideslope, fixed-object density, offset from fixed objects, and shoulder width. Common engineering countermeasures to improve roadside safety include: cross section improvements, hazard removal or modification, and delineation. It is not always feasible to maintain an object-free and smooth roadside clear zone as recommended in design guidelines. Currently, clear zone width and sideslope are used to determine roadside hazard ratings (RHRs) to quantify the roadside safety of rural two-lane roadways on a seven-point pictorial scale. Since these two variables are continuous and can be treated as random, probabilistic analysis can be applied as an alternative method to address existing uncertainties. Specifically, using reliability analysis, it is possible to quantify roadside safety levels by treating the clear zone width and sideslope as two continuous, rather than discrete, variables. The objective of this manuscript is to present a new approach for defining the reliability index for measuring roadside safety on rural two-lane roads. To evaluate the proposed approach, we gathered five years (2009-2013) of Illinois run-off-road (ROR) crash data and identified the roadside features (i.e., clear zone widths and sideslopes) of 4500 300ft roadway segments. Based on the obtained results, we confirm that reliability indices can serve as indicators to gauge safety levels, such that the greater the reliability index value, the lower the ROR crash rate. PMID:27177395

  15. Reliability evaluation of alumina-blasted/acid-etched versus laser-sintered dental implants.

    Almeida, Erika O; Júnior, Amilcar C Freitas; Bonfante, Estevam A; Silva, Nelson R F A; Coelho, Paulo G

    2013-05-01

    Step-stress accelerated life testing (SSALT) and fractographic analysis were performed to evaluate the reliability and failure modes of dental implant fabricated by machining (surface treated with alumina blasting/acid etching) or laser sintering for anterior single-unit replacements. Forty-two dental implants (3.75 × 10 mm) were divided in two groups (n=21 each): laser sintered (LS) and alumina blasting/acid etching (AB/AE). The abutments were screwed to the implants and standardized maxillary central incisor metallic crowns were cemented and subjected to SSALT in water. Use-level probability Weibull curves and reliability for a mission of 50,000 cycles at 200 N were calculated. Polarized light and scanning electron microscopes were used for failure analyses. The Beta (β) value derived from use-level probability Weibull calculation of 1.48 for group AB/AE indicated that damage accumulation likely was an accelerating factor, whereas the β of 0.78 for group LS indicated that load alone likely dictated the failure mechanism for this group, and that fatigue damage did not appear to accumulate. The reliability was not significantly different (p>0.9) between AB/AE (61 %) and LS (62 %). Fracture of the abutment and fixation screw was the chief failure mode. No implant fractures were observed. No differences in reliability and fracture mode were observed between LS and AB/AE implants used for anterior single-unit crowns. PMID:22843309

  16. Evaluation for Confidence Interval of Reliability of Rolling Bearing Lifetime with Type I Censoring

    Xintao Xia

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the lifetime test of rolling bearings under type I censoring with a small sample, the confidence interval of reliability needs to be evaluated to ensure safe and reliable operation of a system like an aerospace system. Thus the probability density function of Weibull distribution parameters must be attained. Owing to very few test data and for lack of prior knowledge, it is difficult to take it out for prevailing methods like the moment method, the maximum likelihood method and the Harris method. For this end, the bootstrap likelihood maximum-entropy method is proposed by fusing the bootstrap method, the maximum likelihood method and the Harris method. The lifetime test data with the small sample are made into the simulated parameter data with the large sample to obtain the probability density function on the parameters. The confidence intervals of the Weibull distribution parameters are estimated and the confidence interval of reliability is calculated. The tests of the complete large-sample data, the complete small-sample data and the incomplete small-sample data are produced to prove effectiveness of the proposed method. Results show that the proposed method can assess the confidence interval of the reliability without any prior information on the Weibull distribution parameters.

  17. HTGR plant availability and reliability evaluations. Volume I. Summary of evaluations

    The report (1) describes a reliability assessment methodology for systematically locating and correcting areas which may contribute to unavailability of new and uniquely designed components and systems, (2) illustrates the methodology by applying it to such components in a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor [Public Service Company of Colorado's Fort St. Vrain 330-MW(e) HTGR], and (3) compares the results of the assessment with actual experience. The methodology can be applied to any component or system; however, it is particularly valuable for assessments of components or systems which provide essential functions, or the failure or mishandling of which could result in relatively large economic losses

  18. Evaluating and categorizing the reliability of distribution coefficient values in the sorption database (3)

    Sorption of radionuclides in bentonites and rocks is one of the key processes in the safe geological disposal of radioactive waste. Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has developed sorption database (JAEA-SDB) which includes extensive compilation of sorption Kd data by batch experiments, extracted from published literatures. JAEA published the first SDB as an important basis for the H12 performance assessment (PA), and has been continuing to improve and update the SDB in view of potential future data needs, focusing on assuring the desired quality level and practical applications to Kd-setting for the geological environment. The JAEA-SDB includes more than 24,000 Kd data which are related with various conditions and methods, and different reliabilities. Accordingly, the quality assuring (QA) and classifying guideline/criteria has been developed in order to evaluate the reliability of each Kd value. The reliability of Kd values of key radionuclides for bentonite and mudstone system has been already evaluated. To use these QA information, the new web-based JAEA-SDB was published in March, 2009. In this report, the QA/classification of selected entries for key radionuclides (Th, Np, Am, Se and Cs) in the JAEA-SDB was done following the approach/guideline defined in our previous report focusing granite rocks which are related to reference systems in H12 PA and possible applications in the context of URL activities, and Fe-oxide/hydroxide, Al-oxide/hydroxide existing widely in geological environment. As a result, the reliability of 1,373 Kd values was evaluated and classified. This classification scheme is expected to make it possible to obtain quick overview of the available data from the SDB, and to have suitable access to the respective data for Kd-setting in PA. (author)

  19. Evaluating and categorizing the reliability of distribution coefficient values in the sorption database (4)

    Sorption of radionuclides in bentonites and rocks is one of the key processes in the safe geological disposal of radioactive waste. Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has developed sorption database (JAEA-SDB) which includes extensive compilation of sorption Kd data by batch experiments, extracted from published literatures. JAEA published the first SDB as an important basis for the H12 performance assessment (PA), and has been continuing to improve and update the SDB in view of potential future data needs, focusing on assuring the desired quality level and practical applications to Kd-setting for the geological environment. The JAEA-SDB includes more than 24,000 Kd data which are related with various conditions and methods, and different reliabilities. Accordingly, the quality assuring (QA) and classifying guideline/criteria has been developed in order to evaluate the reliability of each Kd value. The reliability of Kd values of key radionuclides for bentonite, mudstone, granite and Fe-oxide/hydroxide, Al-oxide/hydroxide has been already evaluated. These QA information has been made available to access through the web-based JAEA-SDB since March, 2009. In this report, the QA/classification of selected entries in the JAEA-SDB, focusing on key radionuclides (Th, Np, Am, Se and Cs) sorption on tuff existing widely in geological environment, was done following the approach/guideline defined in our previous report. As a result, the reliability of 560 Kd values was evaluated and classified. This classification scheme is expected to make it possible to obtain quick overview of the available data from the SDB, and to have suitable access to the respective data for Kd-setting in PA. (author)

  20. Application of an evaluation method for I and C system reliability in nuclear power plants

    There are several major factors to cause nuclear power plant to shut down. The I and C system failure is one of them and has come to over 25% in Korea for last 15 years. Therefore, to enhance plant availability as well as I and C system reliability, it is necessary to evaluate the current status of I and C system in detail in a systematic approach. This paper presents a methodology of reliability assessment of each I and C system to support making an I and C upgrade plan. The method is performed through the 6-phase such as 1) the determination of evaluation factors which include 6 items of importance of the system, maintenance, performance, system aging, economic efficiency, and discontinuance of equipment supply, 2) the development of question-sheet for each evaluation factor, 3) weighting allocation among questions on each 6-factor, 4) selecting candidate system for evaluation, 5) completion of the questionnaire for each candidate system, 6) finally finding out quantitative score from evaluation factors. The guideline proposed here is to be applied to YongGwang Units(YGN) 1,2, and UIChin Unit(UCN) 1,2 to support making an upgrade plan or a maintenance plan

  1. Reliability evaluation of emergency AC power systems based on operating experience at U.S. nuclear power plants

    The reliability of emergency AC power Systems has been under study at the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and by its contractors for several years. This paper provides the results of work recently performed to evaluate past U.S. nuclear power plant emergency AC power System reliability performance using system level data. Operating experience involving multiple diesel generator failures, unavailabilities, and simultaneous occurrences of failures and out of service diesel generators were used to evaluate reliability performance at individual nuclear power plants covering a 9 year period from 1976 through 1984. The number and nature of failures and distributions of reliability evaluation results are provided. The results show that plant specific performance varied considerably during the period with a large number achieving high reliability performance and a smaller number accounting for lower levels of reliability performance. (author)

  2. Evaluation of Fatigue Life Reliability of Steering Knuckle Using Pearson Parametric Distribution Model

    E. A. Azrulhisham

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Steering module is a part of automotive suspension system which provides a means for an accurate vehicle placement and stability control. Components such as steering knuckle are subjected to fatigue failures due to cyclic loads arising from various driving conditions. This paper intends to give a description of a method used in the fatigue life reliability evaluation of the knuckle used in a passenger car steering system. An accurate representation of Belgian pave service loads in terms of response-time history signal was obtained from accredited test track using road load data acquisition. The acquired service load data was replicated on durability test rig and the SN method was used to estimate the fatigue life. A Pearson system was developed to evaluate the predicted fatigue life reliability by considering the variations in material properties. Considering random loads experiences by the steering knuckle, it is found that shortest life appears to be in the vertical load direction with the lowest fatigue life reliability between 14000–16000 cycles. Taking into account the inconsistency of the material properties, the proposed method is capable of providing the probability of failure of mass-produced parts.

  3. The evaluation of equipment and Instrumentation Reliability Factors on Power Reactor

    Equipment and instrumentation reliability on type power reactor control room was determined by its pattern and design. the principle of ergonomy applied on equipment and instrumentation layout in this ABWR type reactor are geometric pattern appropriate with economic body motion, average anthropometry data of operator especially operator hand-reach, range of vision, angle of vision, lighting, color arrangement and harmony as will as operator case in operating the equipment system. Limitation criteria of the parameter mentioned above are based on EPRI NP-3659, NURG 0700, and NUREG/CR-3331 documents. Besides that, the (working) physical environment parameter factor of the control room must be designed in order to fulfil the standard criteria of ergonomic condition based on NUREG-0800. The reliability evaluation of equipment and instrumentation system also occurs observed from man machine interaction side which happen between operator and equipment and instrumentation in the ABWR type power reactor control room. From the MMI analysis can be known the working failure possibility which is caused by the operator. The evaluation result of equipment and instrumentation reliability on ABWR type power reactor control room showed that the design of this ABWR control room is good and fulfils the ergonomy standard criteria have been determined

  4. A framework for evaluating wavelet based watermarking for scalable coded digital item adaptation attacks

    Bhowmik, D.; Abhayaratne, C.

    2009-01-01

    A framework for evaluating wavelet based watermarking schemes against scalable coded visual media content adaptation attacks is presented. The framework, Watermark Evaluation Bench for Content Adaptation Modes (WEBCAM), aims to facilitate controlled evaluation of wavelet based watermarking schemes under MPEG-21 part-7 digital item adaptations (DIA). WEBCAM accommodates all major wavelet based watermarking in single generalised framework by considering a global parameter space, from which t...

  5. Evaluation of reliability of on-site A.C. power systems based on maintenance records

    To the end of ascertain in what extent the evaluation of reliability of emergency diesel generators (D.G.) can be improved by means of a deeper knowledge of their operating history a study has been carried-out on 21 D.G. sets: 4 D.G. of the Caorso nuclear plant (BWR, 870 MWe) and 17 D.G. in service at 6 steam-electric fossil-fuelled plants. The major points of interest resulting from this study are: 1) reliability assessments of A.C. on-site power Systems, made on the basis of outcomes of surveillance tests, may lead to results which overestimate the real performance. 2) the unreliability of a redundant System of stand-by components is determined in large extent by unavailabilities due to scheduled and unscheduled maintenance, latent failures, tests. (authors)

  6. Development and evaluation of a highly reliable assay for SUMO-specific protease inhibitors.

    Xie, Wenjuan; Wang, Zhongli; Zhang, Jianchen; Wang, Lie; Zhao, Yaxue; Zhou, Huchen

    2016-05-01

    SUMOylation, as a post-translational modification of proteins, plays essential regulatory roles in a variety of pathological conditions. In the dynamic process of SUMOylation and deSUMOylation, SENPs (SUMO-specific proteases), in charge of deconjugation of SUMO (small ubiquitin-related modifier) from substrate proteins, have recently been found to be potential therapeutic targets for cancer treatment. A reliable and practical assay is much needed to accelerate the discovery of SENPs inhibitors. We established a quantitative assay based on readily available SDS-PAGE-Coomassie system using RanGAP-SUMO as the substrate, thus avoiding the use of expensive fluorescent dyes or the error-prone fluorescent reporter. Its reproducibility and reliability were also evaluated in this report. PMID:27032332

  7. Reliability and validity of the cross-culturally adapted Italian version of the Core Outcome Measures Index.

    Mannion, A F; Boneschi, M; Teli, M; Luca, A; Zaina, F; Negrini, S; Schulz, P J

    2012-08-01

    Patient-orientated outcome questionnaires are essential for the assessment of treatment success in spine care. Standardisation of the instruments used is necessary for comparison across studies and in registries. The Core Outcome Measures Index (COMI) is a short, multidimensional outcome instrument validated for patients with spinal disorders and is the recommended outcome instrument in the Spine Society of Europe Spine Tango Registry; currently, no validated Italian version exists. A cross-cultural adaptation of the COMI into Italian was carried out using established guidelines. 96 outpatients with chronic back problems (>3 months) were recruited from five practices in Switzerland and Italy. They completed the newly translated COMI, the Roland Morris disability (RM), adjectival pain rating, WHO Quality of Life (WHOQoL), EuroQoL-5D, and EuroQoL-VAS scales. Reproducibility was assessed in a subgroup of 63 patients who returned a second questionnaire within 1 month and indicated no change in back status on a 5-point Likert-scale transition question. The COMI scores displayed no floor or ceiling effects. On re-test, the responses for each individual domain of the COMI were within one category in 100% patients for "function", 92% for "symptom-specific well-being", 100% for "general quality of life", 90% for "social disability", and 98% for "work disability". The intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC(2,1)) for the COMI back and leg pain items were 0.78 and 0.82, respectively, and for the COMI summary index, 0.92 (95% CI 0.86-0.95); this compared well with 0.84 for RM, 0.87 for WHOQoL, 0.79 for EQ-5D, and 0.77 for EQ-VAS. The standard error of measurement (SEM) for COMI was 0.54 points, giving a ''minimum detectable change'' for the COMI of 1.5 points. The scores for most of the individual COMI domains and the COMI summary index correlated to the expected extent (0.4-0.8) with the corresponding full-length reference questionnaires (r = 0.45-0.72). The reproducibility

  8. The Evaluation of Students’ Academic Achievements in Adaptive Environments

    Eryılmaz, Meltem; Atılım Üniversitesi; Şimşek, Nurettin; Ankara Üniversitesi

    2014-01-01

    In this experimental research, academic performance of the students who were grouped according to their prior knowledge levels. In the research, three different environments were developed on the Moodle platform. The environments were designed without adaptations, with content adaptations that contain changes pertaining to the presentation style of the information that is to be included on pages, and with navigation adaptations which offer the suitable links by changing the link structure. Th...

  9. Macroscopic technique for the evaluation of oral tongue tumour thickness: a reliable intraoperative method.

    Pandey, M; Vidhyadharan, S; Puthalath, U; Veeraraghavan, R; Sukumaran, S V; Prasad, C; Iyer, S; Thankappan, K

    2016-08-01

    There is no reliable method to assess tumour thickness preoperatively or intraoperatively in cases of oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a macroscopic technique to measure tumour thickness. This was a prospective study of 51 consecutive patients with T1/T2 primary SCC of the oral tongue. All patients underwent primary resection with ipsilateral neck dissection. Thickness measurements were obtained using Vernier calipers on the fresh specimen. The technique was correlated with the microscopic evaluation statistically using (1) Pearson's correlation coefficient, (2) intra-class correlation, and (3) Bland-Altman plot with 95% confidence intervals. On comparing the macroscopic technique to the microscopic evaluation, Pearson's correlation (r) was 0.915 (Pplot to test the agreement between the techniques showed the average difference between macroscopic thickness and microscopic thickness (bias) to be -0.421, with 95% limits of agreement of -3.166 and 2.82. There was a significant correlation and agreement between the macroscopic and microscopic measures of tumour thickness. The macroscopic technique could be used as a reliable tool to measure tumour thickness intraoperatively, prior to neck dissection. PMID:27034158

  10. Reliability and risk analysis and evaluation of a port oil pipeline transportation system in variable operation conditions

    Soszynska, Joanna [Gdynia Maritime University, Gdynia (Poland)

    2009-07-01

    In the paper the semi-Markov model is applied to describe the port oil pipeline transportation system operation processes and its selected parameters are determined. Multi-state systems are considered and their reliability and risk are found. Next, the joint model of the systems' operation process and the systems' multi-state reliability is applied to the reliability and risk evaluation of the port oil pipeline transportation system. (author)

  11. Ischiofemoral impingement: evaluation with new MRI parameters and assessment of their reliability

    The aim of this study was to describe the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in patients with ischiofemoral impingement (IFI) and to evaluate the reliability of these MRI findings. Seventy hips of 50 patients with hip pain and quadratus femoris muscle (QFM) edema and 38 hips of 30 control cases were included in the study. The QFM edema and fatty replacement were assessed visually. Ischiofemoral space (IFS), quadratus femoris space (QFS), inclination angle (IA), hamstring tendon area (HTA), and total quadratus femoris muscle volume (TQFMV) measurements were performed independently by two musculoskeletal radiologists. The intra- and interobserver reliabilities were obtained for quantitative variables. IFS, QFS, and TQFMV values of the patient group were significantly lower than those of controls (P < 0.001). HTA and IA measurements of the patient group were also significantly higher than in controls (P < 0.05). The QFM fatty replacement grades were significantly higher in the patient group than in the control group (P < 0.001). Inter- and intra-observer reliabilities were strong for all continuous variables. Clinicians and radiologists should be aware of IFI in patients with hip or groin pain, and MRI should be obtained for the presence of the QFM edema/fatty replacement, narrowing of the IFS-QFS, and other features that may help in the clinical diagnosis of IFI for the proper diagnosis and treatment of the disease. (orig.)

  12. Ischiofemoral impingement: evaluation with new MRI parameters and assessment of their reliability

    Tosun, Ozgur; Algin, Oktay; Cay, Nurdan; Karaoglanoglu, Mustafa [Ankara Ataturk Education and Research Hospital, Department of Radiology, Ankara (Turkey); Yalcin, Nadir [University of California, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, San Francisco, CA (United States); Ocakoglu, Gokhan [Uludag University Medical Faculty, Biostatistics Department, Bursa (Turkey)

    2012-05-15

    The aim of this study was to describe the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in patients with ischiofemoral impingement (IFI) and to evaluate the reliability of these MRI findings. Seventy hips of 50 patients with hip pain and quadratus femoris muscle (QFM) edema and 38 hips of 30 control cases were included in the study. The QFM edema and fatty replacement were assessed visually. Ischiofemoral space (IFS), quadratus femoris space (QFS), inclination angle (IA), hamstring tendon area (HTA), and total quadratus femoris muscle volume (TQFMV) measurements were performed independently by two musculoskeletal radiologists. The intra- and interobserver reliabilities were obtained for quantitative variables. IFS, QFS, and TQFMV values of the patient group were significantly lower than those of controls (P < 0.001). HTA and IA measurements of the patient group were also significantly higher than in controls (P < 0.05). The QFM fatty replacement grades were significantly higher in the patient group than in the control group (P < 0.001). Inter- and intra-observer reliabilities were strong for all continuous variables. Clinicians and radiologists should be aware of IFI in patients with hip or groin pain, and MRI should be obtained for the presence of the QFM edema/fatty replacement, narrowing of the IFS-QFS, and other features that may help in the clinical diagnosis of IFI for the proper diagnosis and treatment of the disease. (orig.)

  13. An experimental evaluation of software redundancy as a strategy for improving reliability

    Eckhardt, Dave E.; Caglayan, Alper K.; Knight, John C.; Lee, Larry D.; Mcallister, David F.; Vouk, Mladen A.; Kelly, John P. J.

    1991-01-01

    The strategy of using multiple versions of independently developed software as a means to tolerate residual software design faults is suggested by the success of hardware redundancy for tolerating hardware failires. Although, as generally accepted, the independence of hardware failures resulting from physical wearout can lead to substantial increases in reliability for redundant hardware structures, a similar conclusion is not immediate for software. The degree to which design faults are manifested as independent failures determines the effectiveness of redundancy as a method for improving software reliability. Interest in multi-version software centers on whether it provides an adequate measure of increased reliability to warrant its use in critical applications. The effectiveness of multi-version software is studied by comparing estimates of the failure probabilities of these systems with the failure probabilities of single versions. The estimates are obtained under a model of dependent failures and compared with the estimates obtained when failures are assumed to be independent. The experimental results are based on twenty versions of an aerospace application developed and certified by sixty programmers from four universities. Descriptions of the application, development and certifications processes, and operational evaluation are given together with an analysis of the twenty versions.

  14. Reliability of a Two-Scan Ultrasonography Method for Evaluating Patellar Tendon Stiffness

    Hsin-Yi Liu

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Studies have suggested that the unwanted movement of the tibia during isometric knee extension tasks caused substantial errors in evaluating patellar tendon stiffness with in vivo ultrasonographic methods. Methods have been used to adjust for the displacement at the tibial end of the patellar tendon, including a longer probe approach that can cover both ends of the patellar tendon during maximal muscle contraction of quadriceps. However, due to the limited accessibility of such a probe, a more accessible method would be useful. Therefore, we proposed a two-scan method with a standard ultrasound transducer to replace the conventional ultrasound method. The purpose of this study is to compare the reliability of the conventional ultrasound measurement method, which measures only the displacement of patellar insertion of the tendon, to a two-scan method that adjusts for tibial movement. Patellar tendon stiffness of thirteen healthy subjects was examined twice at different days with two methods. Tendon stiffness was compared between the methods as was between-day reliability of each method. Our results showed that the conventional ultrasound method tends to overestimate the stiffness of the tendon. The two-scan method has similar results of the long probe approach and higher between-day reliability than the conventional method.

  15. Is Near-Infrared Spectroscopy a Reliable Method to Evaluate Clamping Ischemia during Carotid Surgery?

    Luciano Pedrini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Guidelines do not include cerebral oximetry among monitoring for carotid endarterectomy (CEA. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reliability of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS in the detection of clamping ischemia and in the prevention of clamping-related neurologic deficits using, as a cutoff for shunting, a 20% regional cerebral oxygen saturation (rSO2 decrease if persistent more than 4 minutes, otherwise a 25% rSO2 decrease. Bilateral rSO2 was monitored continuously in patients undergoing CEA under general anesthesia (GA. Data was recorded after clamping, declamping, during shunting and lowest values achieved. Preoperative neurologic, CT-scan, and vascular lesions were recorded. We reviewed 473 cases: 305 males (64.5% mean age 73.3±7.3. Three patients presented transient ischemic deficits at awakening, no perioperative stroke or death; 41 (8.7% required shunting: 30 based on the initial rSO2 value and 11 due to a decrease during surgery. Using the ROC curve analysis we found, for a >25% reduction from baseline value, a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 90.6%. Reliability, PPV, and NPV were 95.38%, 9%, and 100%, respectively. In conclusion, this study indicates the potential reliability of NIRS monitoring during CEA under GA, using a cutoff of 25% or a cutoff of 20% for prolonged hypoperfusion.

  16. State of the art of Monte Carlo technics for reliable activated waste evaluations

    This paper presents the calculation scheme used for many studies to assess the activities inventory of French shutdown reactors (including Pressurized Water Reactor, Heavy Water Reactor, Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor and Natural Uranium Gas Cooled or UNGG). This calculation scheme is based on Monte Carlo calculations (MCNP) and involves advanced technique for source modeling, geometry modeling (with Computer-Aided Design integration), acceleration methods and depletion calculations coupling on 3D meshes. All these techniques offer efficient and reliable evaluations on large scale model with a high level of details reducing the risks of underestimation or conservatisms. (authors)

  17. Evaluation of flaw characteristics and their influence on inservice inspection reliability

    This report describes the results of the first year's effort of a five year program which is being conducted by Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories, on behalf of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This initial effort was directed toward identification and quantification of inspection uncertainties, which are likely to occur during inservice inspection of LWR primary piping systems, and their influence on inspection reliability. These experiments were conducted on 304 stainless steel samples, however, the results are equally applicable to other materials. Later portions of the program will extend these measurements and evaluations to other materials and conditions

  18. Systems Analysis Programs for Hands-on Integrated Reliability Evaluations (SAPHIRE) Quality Assurance Manual

    C. L. Smith; R. Nims; K. J. Kvarfordt; C. Wharton

    2008-08-01

    The Systems Analysis Programs for Hands-on Integrated Reliability Evaluations (SAPHIRE) is a software application developed for performing a complete probabilistic risk assessment using a personal computer running the Microsoft Windows operating system. SAPHIRE is primarily funded by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The role of the INL in this project is that of software developer and tester. This development takes place using formal software development procedures and is subject to quality assurance (QA) processes. The purpose of this document is to describe how the SAPHIRE software QA is performed for Version 6 and 7, what constitutes its parts, and limitations of those processes.

  19. Reliability and cost evaluation of small isolated power systems containing photovoltaic and wind energy

    Karki, Rajesh

    Renewable energy application in electric power systems is growing rapidly worldwide due to enhanced public concerns for adverse environmental impacts and escalation in energy costs associated with the use of conventional energy sources. Photovoltaics and wind energy sources are being increasingly recognized as cost effective generation sources. A comprehensive evaluation of reliability and cost is required to analyze the actual benefits of utilizing these energy sources. The reliability aspects of utilizing renewable energy sources have largely been ignored in the past due the relatively insignificant contribution of these sources in major power systems, and consequently due to the lack of appropriate techniques. Renewable energy sources have the potential to play a significant role in the electrical energy requirements of small isolated power systems which are primarily supplied by costly diesel fuel. A relatively high renewable energy penetration can significantly reduce the system fuel costs but can also have considerable impact on the system reliability. Small isolated systems routinely plan their generating facilities using deterministic adequacy methods that cannot incorporate the highly erratic behavior of renewable energy sources. The utilization of a single probabilistic risk index has not been generally accepted in small isolated system evaluation despite its utilization in most large power utilities. Deterministic and probabilistic techniques are combined in this thesis using a system well-being approach to provide useful adequacy indices for small isolated systems that include renewable energy. This thesis presents an evaluation model for small isolated systems containing renewable energy sources by integrating simulation models that generate appropriate atmospheric data, evaluate chronological renewable power outputs and combine total available energy and load to provide useful system indices. A software tool SIPSREL+ has been developed which generates

  20. Reliability and economic evaluation of feeder pump station for WWER-1000 nuclear power plants

    Three feedwater pumps driven by a steam turbine will be provided for each WWER-1000 reactor of the Temelin nuclear power plant. Two pumps cover 50% each of the reactor power, the third is a standby. To justify the necessity of installing a standby pump, an analysis was made of EEDB-IAEA data on the reliability of foreign feedwater pumps of corresponding specifications. Evaluation of the financial effect of the reduction of lost available power caused by the failure rate of the pumps showed that it will be useful to install the standby pump at the Temelin plant. (Z.M.)

  1. Reliability and Discriminative Ability of a New Method for Soccer Kicking Evaluation

    Radman, Ivan; Wessner, Barbara; Bachl, Norbert; Ruzic, Lana; Hackl, Markus; Baca, Arnold; Markovic, Goran

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the test–retest reliability of a newly developed 356 Soccer Shooting Test (356-SST), and the discriminative ability of this test with respect to the soccer players' proficiency level and leg dominance. Sixty-six male soccer players, divided into three groups based on their proficiency level (amateur, n = 24; novice semi-professional, n = 18; and experienced semi-professional players, n = 24), performed 10 kicks following a two-step run up. Forty-eight of them repea...

  2. Evaluation on lung cancer patients' adaptive planning of TomoTherapy utilising radiobiological measures and Planned Adaptive module.

    Su, Fan-Chi; Shi, Chengyu; Mavroidis, Panayiotis; Rassiah-Szegedi, Prema; Papanikolaou, Niko

    2009-01-01

    Adaptive radiation therapy is a promising concept that allows individualised, dynamic treatment planning based on feedback of measurements. The TomoTherapy Planned Adaptive application, integrated to the helical TomoTherapy planning system, enables calculation of actual dose delivered to the patient for each treatment fraction according to the pretreatment megavoltage computed tomography (MVCT) scan and image registration. As a result, new fractionation treatment plans are available if correction is necessary. In order to evaluate therealclinicaleffect,biologicaldoseis preferred to physical dose. A biological parameter, biologically effective uniform dose ([Formula: see text]), has the advantages of not only reporting delivered dose but also facilitating the analysis of dose-response relations, which link radiation dose to the clinical effect. Therefore, in this study, four lung patients' adaptive plans were evaluated using the [Formula: see text] in addition to physical doses estimated from the TomoTherapy Planned Adaptive module. Higher complication-free tumour control probability (P(+))(of about 8%) was observed in patients treated with larger dose-per-fraction by using the [Formula: see text] in addition to the physical dose. Moreover, a significant increase of 13.2% in the P(+) for the adaptive TomoTherapy plan in one of the lung cancer patients was also observed, which indicates the clinical benefit of adaptive TomoTherapy. PMID:20376282

  3. Performance Evaluation of Adaptive Filters Structures for Acoustic Echo Cancellation

    Sanjeev Dhull

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available We have designed and simulated an acoustic echo cancellation system for conferencing. Thissystem is based upon a least-mean-square (LMS adaptive algorithm and uses multi filtertechnique. A comparative study of both structure has been carried out and it is found that thisnew multi-filter converge faster than similar single long adaptive filter.

  4. Reliability of the Matson Evaluation of Social Skills with Youngsters (MESSY) for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Matson, Johnny L.; Horovitz, Max; Mahan, Sara; Fodstad, Jill

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to update the psychometrics of the "Matson Evaluation of Social Skills for Youngsters" ("MESSY") with children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), specifically with respect to internal consistency, split-half reliability, and inter-rater reliability. In Study 1, 114 children with ASD (Autistic Disorder, Asperger's…

  5. A multicenter reliability study of extremity-magnetic resonance imaging in the longitudinal evaluation of rheumatoid arthritis

    Conaghan, Philip G; Ejbjerg, Bo; Lassere, Marissa; Bird, Paul; Peterfy, Charles; Emery, Paul; McQueen, Fiona; Haavardsholm, Espen; O'Connor, Philip; Edmonds, John; Genant, Harry; Østergaard, Mikkel

    2007-01-01

    There are limited data on the reliability of extremity magnetic resonance imaging (E-MRI) in the longitudinal evaluation of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Our aim was to assess the interreader reliability of the OMERACT RA MRI score in the assessment of change in disease activity and bone erosion sco...

  6. The Evaluation of a Moodle Based Adaptive e-Learning System

    Herman Dwi Surjono

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the evaluation of an adaptive e-learning system based on student’s learning styles that has been developed using LMS Moodle. Two popular models of learning styles used are VAK and Felder. The VAK learning styles include visual, auditory, and kinesthetic, whereas the Felder learning styles include global and sequential. The evaluation focuses on the alpha and beta testing. The result shows that the adaptive e-learning system and all adaptation functionalities have performe...

  7. Human reliability analysis as an evaluation tool of the emergency evacuation process on industrial installation

    Human reliability is the probability that a person correctly performs some required activity by the system in a required time period and performs no extraneous activity that can degrade the system. Human reliability analysis (HRA) is the analysis, prediction and evaluation of work-oriented human performance using some indices as human error likelihood and probability of task accomplishment. The human error concept must not have connotation of guilt and punishment, having to be treated as a natural consequence, that emerges due to the not continuity between the human capacity and the system demand. The majority of the human error is a consequence of the work situation and not of the responsibility lack of the worker. The anticipation and the control of potentially adverse impacts of human action or interactions between the humans and the system are integral parts of the process safety, where the factors that influence the human performance must be recognized and managed. The aim of this paper is to propose a methodology to evaluate the emergency evacuation process on industrial installations including SLIM-MAUD, a HRA first-generation method, and using virtual reality and simulation software to build and to simulate the chosen emergency scenes. (author)

  8. Reliability evaluation of generalized phased-mission systems with repairable components

    Existing methodologies for generalized phased-mission system (GPMS) are applicable mainly to non-reparable systems. This paper proposes an analytical approach to evaluate the reliability of phased-mission systems (PMS) considering both combinatorial phase requirements (CPR) and repairable components. The CPR is analyzed by decomposing the overall mission success into the corresponding system behavior in each phase. The system behavior is further decomposed into components' behaviors which can be described by continuous time Markov chains (CTMC). As a result, a large number of redundant states can be excluded from the model, rather than incorporating all states like traditional Markovian approaches do. Therefore, the size of the resulting model does not grow exponentially as the number of components increases. In the case study, the effectiveness and correctness of our approach is demonstrated through the comparison with the traditional CTMC approach. - Highlights: ●This paper evaluates the reliability of phased-mission systems considering both combinatorial phase requirements and repairable components. ●A large number of redundant states can be excluded from our model. ●The size of our model does not grow exponentially as the number of components increases. ●The BDD–Markov combined method is a special case of our approach for the conventional phase-OR phased-mission systems

  9. Evaluation of a new clinical performance assessment tool : A reliability study

    C. Joseph

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Clinical practice is an essential requirement of any graduatephysiotherapy programme. For this purpose, valid and reliable assessment toolsare paramount for the measurement of key competencies in the real-worldsetting. This study aims to determine the internal consistency and inter-raterreliability of a newly developed and validated clinical performance assessmentform. A cross-sectional quantitative research design was used, which includedpaired evaluations of 32 (17 treatment and 15 assessment student examinationsperformed by two independent clinical educators. Chronbachs alpha was computedto assess internal consistency and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC’s withconfidence intervals of 95% were computed to determine the percentage agreement between paired examiners. Thedegree of internal consistency was substantial for all key performance areas of both examinations, except for timeand organisational management (0.21 and professionalism (0.42 in the treatment and evaluation examinationsrespectively. The overall internal consistency was 0.89 and 0.73 for both treatment and assessment examinations,indicating substantial agreement. With regard to agreement between raters, the ICC’s for the overall marks were0.90 and 0.97 for both treatment and assessment examinations. Clinical educators demonstrated a high level ofreliability in the assessment of students’ competence using the newly developed clinical performance assessment form.These findings greatly underscore the reliability of results obtained through observation of student examinations, andadd another tool to the basket of ensuring quality assurance in physiotherapy clinical practice assessment.

  10. A Novel Evaluation Method for Building Construction Project Based on Integrated Information Entropy with Reliability Theory

    Xiao-ping Bai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Selecting construction schemes of the building engineering project is a complex multiobjective optimization decision process, in which many indexes need to be selected to find the optimum scheme. Aiming at this problem, this paper selects cost, progress, quality, and safety as the four first-order evaluation indexes, uses the quantitative method for the cost index, uses integrated qualitative and quantitative methodologies for progress, quality, and safety indexes, and integrates engineering economics, reliability theories, and information entropy theory to present a new evaluation method for building construction project. Combined with a practical case, this paper also presents detailed computing processes and steps, including selecting all order indexes, establishing the index matrix, computing score values of all order indexes, computing the synthesis score, sorting all selected schemes, and making analysis and decision. Presented method can offer valuable references for risk computing of building construction projects.

  11. Evaluation of an Investment Opportunity from the Perspective of Reliability Enhancement

    Yun, Tae Sik; Park, Jong Hyuk; Park, Jong Eun [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-05-15

    We study the evaluation methodology to reflect investment risks invoked by uncertainties using the real option approach, that is, how to evaluate the investment opportunity with the consideration of reliability enhancement. We try to suggest potential investment opportunities from the perspective of the traditional Discount Cash Flow, DCF, methodology and the real option approach, and eventually compare results between them to demonstrate the aptitude of Real Option Approach, ROA, for a power sector investment (Dixit and Pindyck 1994). In the traditional discount cash flow contexts, a wide range of uncertainties and flexibilities inherent in the electricity industry influence as the negative factors which would finally damage a future project value, while the real options approach can deal with those uncertainties in a different fashion by providing flexibilities when a prospective investment goes under consideration.

  12. Methodology for evaluation of the reliability and safety of interim and final repositories for radioactive waste

    The methodology is based on a set of macro models, mathematical methods and computer codes describing events and processes of radionuclide migration from the repository to the biosphere and evaluating the exposure doses to the population from the area in case of an emergency scenario. The basic macromodels are: Near Field; Intermediate Field; Far Field and Biosphere. The development and effects of corrosion processes, considering complex corrosion as well as local corrosion, are emphasized. The basic modules in the set of computer codes used are: FEMWATER (Sandia NL, USA) modelling radionuclide migration from the repository; PAGAN, which includes the codes DISPERSE and SURFACE, modelling radionuclide migration by surface waters; and GEN II PRESTO, which evaluates the direct dispersion of radioactivity into the atmosphere by the Gaussian model. On the basis of methodology proposed a qualitative assessment of the safety and reliability of the radwaste repository can be made. 5 figs., 45 refs. (author)

  13. PROOF OF CONCEPT FOR A HUMAN RELIABILITY ANALYSIS METHOD FOR HEURISTIC USABILITY EVALUATION OF SOFTWARE

    An ongoing issue within human-computer interaction (HCI) is the need for simplified or ''discount'' methods. The current economic slowdown has necessitated innovative methods that are results driven and cost effective. The myriad methods of design and usability are currently being cost-justified, and new techniques are actively being explored that meet current budgets and needs. Recent efforts in human reliability analysis (HRA) are highlighted by the ten-year development of the Standardized Plant Analysis Risk HRA (SPAR-H) method. The SPAR-H method has been used primarily for determining human centered risk at nuclear power plants. The SPAR-H method, however, shares task analysis underpinnings with HCI. Despite this methodological overlap, there is currently no HRA approach deployed in heuristic usability evaluation. This paper presents an extension of the existing SPAR-H method to be used as part of heuristic usability evaluation in HCI

  14. Evaluation of an Investment Opportunity from the Perspective of Reliability Enhancement

    We study the evaluation methodology to reflect investment risks invoked by uncertainties using the real option approach, that is, how to evaluate the investment opportunity with the consideration of reliability enhancement. We try to suggest potential investment opportunities from the perspective of the traditional Discount Cash Flow, DCF, methodology and the real option approach, and eventually compare results between them to demonstrate the aptitude of Real Option Approach, ROA, for a power sector investment (Dixit and Pindyck 1994). In the traditional discount cash flow contexts, a wide range of uncertainties and flexibilities inherent in the electricity industry influence as the negative factors which would finally damage a future project value, while the real options approach can deal with those uncertainties in a different fashion by providing flexibilities when a prospective investment goes under consideration

  15. NeuroMapping: Inflight Evaluation of Cognition and Adaptability

    Kofman, I. S.; De Dios, Y. E.; Lawrence, K.; Schade, A.; Reschke, M. F.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Wood, S. J.; Mulavara, A. P.; Seidler, R. D.

    2016-01-01

    In consideration of the health and performance of crewmembers during flight and postflight, we are conducting a controlled prospective longitudinal study to investigate the effects of spaceflight on the extent, longevity and neural bases of sensorimotor, cognitive, and neural changes. Previous studies investigating sensorimotor adaptation to the microgravity environment longitudinally inflight have shown reduction in the ability to perform complex dual tasks. In this study we perform a series of tests investigating the longitudinal effects of adaptation to the microgravity environment and how it affects spatial cognition, manual visuo-motor adaption and dual tasking.

  16. SOFC temperature evaluation based on an adaptive fuzzy controller

    Xiao-juan WU; Xin-jian ZHU; Guang-yi CAO; Heng-yong TU

    2008-01-01

    The operating temperature of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stack is a very important parameter to be controlled, which impacts the performance of the SOFC due to thermal cycling. In this paper, an adaptive fuzzy control method based on an affine nonlinear temperature model is developed to control the temperature of the SOFC within a specified range. Fuzzy logic systems are used to approximate nonlinear functions in the SOFC system and an adaptive technique is employed to construct the controller. Compared with the traditional fuzzy and proportion-integral-derivative (PID) control, the simulation results show that the designed adaptive fuzzy control method performed much better. So it is feasible to build an adaptive fuzzy controller for temperature control of the SOFC.

  17. Performance Evaluation of Adaptive Filters Structures for Acoustic Echo Cancellation

    Sanjeev Dhull

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available We have designed and simulated an acoustic echo cancellation system for conferencing. This system is based upon a least-mean-square (LMS adaptive algorithm and uses multi filter technique. A comparative study of both structure has been carried out and it is found that this new multi-filter converge faster than similar single long adaptive filter. Index Terms: LMS,Multiple sub filter ,Echo cancellation

  18. Non-specific Adaptive Reactions of Athletes: Evaluation and Correction

    K. N. Naumova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This work studies changes in non-specific adaptive reactions (NSAR of athletes who practice Wushu and Qigong and take Kladorod, a biological product made from plant material. The results of our study demonstrate the effectiveness of Kladorod as a remedy to enhance adaptive capacity with the possibility of application for training of athletes without any restrictions within the criteria of doping control.

  19. Validity, Reliability, and Potential Bias of Short Forms of Students' Evaluation of Teaching: The Case of UAE University

    Dodeen, Hamzeh

    2013-01-01

    Students' opinions continue to be a significant factor in the evaluation of teaching in higher education institutions. The purpose of this study was to psychometrically assess short students evaluation of teaching (SET) forms using the UAE University form as a model. The study evaluated the form validity, reliability, the overall question,…

  20. Application case study of AP1000 automatic depressurization system (ADS) for reliability evaluation by GO-FLOW methodology

    Highlights: • Discussion on reasons why AP1000 equipped with ADS system comparatively to PWR. • Clarification of full and partial depressurization of reactor coolant system by ADS system. • Application case study of four stages ADS system for reliability evaluation in LBLOCA. • GO-FLOW tool is capable to evaluate dynamic reliability of passive safety systems. • Calculated ADS reliability result significantly increased dynamic reliability of PXS. - Abstract: AP1000 nuclear power plant (NPP) utilized passive means for the safety systems to ensure its safety in events of transient or severe accidents. One of the unique safety systems of AP1000 to be compared with conventional PWR is the “four stages Automatic Depressurization System (ADS)”, and ADS system originally works as an active safety system. In the present study, authors first discussed the reasons of why four stages ADS system is added in AP1000 plant to be compared with conventional PWR in the aspect of reliability. And then explained the full and partial depressurization of RCS system by four stages ADS in events of transient and loss of coolant accidents (LOCAs). Lastly, the application case study of four stages ADS system of AP1000 has been conducted in the aspect of reliability evaluation of ADS system under postulated conditions of full RCS depressurization during large break loss of a coolant accident (LBLOCA) in one of the RCS cold legs. In this case study, the reliability evaluation is made by GO-FLOW methodology to determinate the influence of ADS system in dynamic reliability of passive core cooling system (PXS) of AP1000, i.e. what will happen if ADS system fails or successfully actuate. The GO-FLOW is success-oriented reliability analysis tool and is capable to evaluating the systems reliability/unavailability alternatively to Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) and Event Tree Analysis (ETA) tools. Under these specific conditions of LBLOCA, the GO-FLOW calculated reliability results indicated

  1. A review of the models for evaluating organizational factors in human reliability analysis

    Human factors should be evaluated in three hierarchical levels. The first level should concern the cognitive behavior of human beings during the control of processes that occur through the man-machine interface. Here, one evaluates human errors through human reliability models of first and second generation, like THERP, ASEP and HCR (first generation) and ATHEANA and CREAM (second generation). In the second level, the focus is in the cognitive behavior of human beings when they work in groups, as in nuclear power plants. The focus here is in the anthropological aspects that govern the interaction among human beings. In the third level, one is interested in the influence that the organizational culture exerts on human beings as well as on the tasks being performed. Here, one adds to the factors of the second level the economical and political aspects that shape the company organizational culture. Nowadays, the methodologies of HRA incorporate organizational factors in the group and organization levels through performance shaping factors. This work makes a critical evaluation of the deficiencies concerning human factors and evaluates the potential of quantitative techniques that have been proposed in the last decade to model organizational factors, including the interaction among groups, with the intention of eliminating this chronic deficiency of HRA models. Two important techniques will be discussed in this context: STAMP, based on system theory and FRAM, which aims at modeling the nonlinearities of socio-technical systems. (author)

  2. A review of the models for evaluating organizational factors in human reliability analysis

    Alvarenga, Marco Antonio Bayout; Fonseca, Renato Alves da [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: bayout@cnen.gov.br, e-mail: rfonseca@cnen.gov.br; Melo, Paulo Fernando Ferreira Frutuoso e [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear], e-mail: frutuoso@con.ufrj.br

    2009-07-01

    Human factors should be evaluated in three hierarchical levels. The first level should concern the cognitive behavior of human beings during the control of processes that occur through the man-machine interface. Here, one evaluates human errors through human reliability models of first and second generation, like THERP, ASEP and HCR (first generation) and ATHEANA and CREAM (second generation). In the second level, the focus is in the cognitive behavior of human beings when they work in groups, as in nuclear power plants. The focus here is in the anthropological aspects that govern the interaction among human beings. In the third level, one is interested in the influence that the organizational culture exerts on human beings as well as on the tasks being performed. Here, one adds to the factors of the second level the economical and political aspects that shape the company organizational culture. Nowadays, the methodologies of HRA incorporate organizational factors in the group and organization levels through performance shaping factors. This work makes a critical evaluation of the deficiencies concerning human factors and evaluates the potential of quantitative techniques that have been proposed in the last decade to model organizational factors, including the interaction among groups, with the intention of eliminating this chronic deficiency of HRA models. Two important techniques will be discussed in this context: STAMP, based on system theory and FRAM, which aims at modeling the nonlinearities of socio-technical systems. (author)

  3. Adapt

    Bargatze, L. F.

    2015-12-01

    Active Data Archive Product Tracking (ADAPT) is a collection of software routines that permits one to generate XML metadata files to describe and register data products in support of the NASA Heliophysics Virtual Observatory VxO effort. ADAPT is also a philosophy. The ADAPT concept is to use any and all available metadata associated with scientific data to produce XML metadata descriptions in a consistent, uniform, and organized fashion to provide blanket access to the full complement of data stored on a targeted data server. In this poster, we present an application of ADAPT to describe all of the data products that are stored by using the Common Data File (CDF) format served out by the CDAWEB and SPDF data servers hosted at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. These data servers are the primary repositories for NASA Heliophysics data. For this purpose, the ADAPT routines have been used to generate data resource descriptions by using an XML schema named Space Physics Archive, Search, and Extract (SPASE). SPASE is the designated standard for documenting Heliophysics data products, as adopted by the Heliophysics Data and Model Consortium. The set of SPASE XML resource descriptions produced by ADAPT includes high-level descriptions of numerical data products, display data products, or catalogs and also includes low-level "Granule" descriptions. A SPASE Granule is effectively a universal access metadata resource; a Granule associates an individual data file (e.g. a CDF file) with a "parent" high-level data resource description, assigns a resource identifier to the file, and lists the corresponding assess URL(s). The CDAWEB and SPDF file systems were queried to provide the input required by the ADAPT software to create an initial set of SPASE metadata resource descriptions. Then, the CDAWEB and SPDF data repositories were queried subsequently on a nightly basis and the CDF file lists were checked for any changes such as the occurrence of new, modified, or deleted

  4. Evaluation of neck muscle size: long-term reliability and comparison of methods

    Although it is important for prospective studies, the reliability of quantitative measures of cervical muscle size on magnetic resonance imaging is not well established. The aim of the current work was to assess the long-term reliability of measurements of cervical muscle size. In addition, we examined the utility of selecting specific sub-regions of muscles at each vertebral level, averaging between sides of the body, and pooling muscles into larger groups. Axial scans from the base of skull to the third thoracic vertebra were performed in 20 healthy male subjects at baseline and 1.5 years later. We evaluated the semi-spinalis capitis, splenius capitis, spinalis cervicis, longus capitis, longus colli, levator scapulae, sternocleidomastoid, anterior scalenes and middle with posterior scalenes. Bland–Altman analysis showed all measurements to be repeatable between testing-days. Reliability was typically best when entire muscle volume was measured (co-efficients of variation (CVs): 3.3–8.1% depending on muscle). However, when the size of the muscle was assessed at specific vertebral levels, similar measurement precision was achieved (CVs: 2.7–7.6%). A median of 4–6 images were measured at the specific vertebral levels versus 18–37 images for entire muscle volume. This would represent considerable time saving. Based on the findings we also recommend measuring both sides of the body and calculating an average value. Pooling specific muscles into the deep neck flexors (CV: 3.5%) and neck extensors (CV: 2.7%) can serve to reduce variability further. The results of the current study help to establish outcome measures for interventional studies and for sample size estimation. (paper)

  5. Economic Evaluation of Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation in Italy

    The paper deals with the social and economic dimensions of climate change impacts and adaptation in Italy. The ultimate aim of the paper is to provide policy makers and experts with a conceptual framework, as well as methodological and operational tools for dealing with climate change impacts and adaptation from an economic perspective. In order to do so, first a conceptual and theoretical framework of the economic assessment of climate change impacts is presented and the state of the art about impact assessment studies is briefly analysed. Then, the Italian case is taken into account, by underlying the main impacts and adaptation challenges that are likely to be implied by climate change in the next decades. The analysis of the Italian case is particularly addressed through the description of the methodology and results of two case studies. The first one, dealing mainly with impact assessment, is carried out at the national level and is part of a EC funded project on Weather Impacts on Natural, Social and Economic Systems (WISE). The second one is carried out at the local level and focuses on sea level rise impacts and adaptation in a plane south of Rome. The two case studies allow to propose simple and flexible methodologies for the economic impact assessment and the economic valuation of adaptation strategies

  6. Gearbox Reliability Collaborative Analytic Formulation for the Evaluation of Spline Couplings

    Guo, Y.; Keller, J.; Errichello, R.; Halse, C.

    2013-12-01

    Gearboxes in wind turbines have not been achieving their expected design life; however, they commonly meet and exceed the design criteria specified in current standards in the gear, bearing, and wind turbine industry as well as third-party certification criteria. The cost of gearbox replacements and rebuilds, as well as the down time associated with these failures, has elevated the cost of wind energy. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Gearbox Reliability Collaborative (GRC) was established by the U.S. Department of Energy in 2006; its key goal is to understand the root causes of premature gearbox failures and improve their reliability using a combined approach of dynamometer testing, field testing, and modeling. As part of the GRC program, this paper investigates the design of the spline coupling often used in modern wind turbine gearboxes to connect the planetary and helical gear stages. Aside from transmitting the driving torque, another common function of the spline coupling is to allow the sun to float between the planets. The amount the sun can float is determined by the spline design and the sun shaft flexibility subject to the operational loads. Current standards address spline coupling design requirements in varying detail. This report provides additional insight beyond these current standards to quickly evaluate spline coupling designs.

  7. Reliability of clinical tests to evaluate nerve function and mechanosensitivity of the upper limb peripheral nervous system

    Bachmann Lucas M

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical tests to assess peripheral nerve disorders can be classified into two categories: tests for afferent/efferent nerve function such as nerve conduction (bedside neurological examination and tests for increased mechanosensitivity (e.g. upper limb neurodynamic tests (ULNTs and nerve palpation. Reliability reports of nerve palpation and the interpretation of neurodynamic tests are scarce. This study therefore investigated the intertester reliability of nerve palpation and ULNTs. ULNTs were interpreted based on symptom reproduction and structural differentiation. To put the reliability of these tests in perspective, a comparison with the reliability of clinical tests for nerve function was made. Methods Two experienced clinicians examined 31 patients with unilateral arm and/or neck pain. The examination included clinical tests for nerve function (sensory testing, reflexes and manual muscle testing (MMT and mechanosensitivity (ULNTs and palpation of the median, radial and ulnar nerve. Kappa statistics were calculated to evaluate intertester reliability. A meta-analysis determined an overall kappa for the domains with multiple kappa values (MMT, ULNT, palpation. We then compared the difference in reliability between the tests of mechanosensitivity and nerve function using a one-sample t-test. Results We observed moderate to substantial reliability for the tests for afferent/efferent nerve function (sensory testing: kappa = 0.53; MMT: kappa = 0.68; no kappa was calculated for reflexes due to a lack of variation. Tests to investigate mechanosensitivity demonstrated moderate reliability (ULNT: kappa = 0.45; palpation: kappa = 0.59. When compared statistically, there was no difference in reliability for tests for nerve function and mechanosensitivity (p = 0.06. Conclusion This study demonstrates that clinical tests which evaluate increased nerve mechanosensitivity and afferent/efferent nerve function have comparable moderate to

  8. Economic evaluation of reliability-centred maintenance (RCM): an electricity transmission industry perspective

    Traditional approaches to appraising the introduction of reliability centred maintenance (RCM) are shown to exhibit severe limitations. In particular, the economic implications surrounding its adoption are repeatedly mis-stated, with the consequence that organisations may be investing in unprofitable RCM ventures. Previously quoted benefits are examined and, contrary to established opinion, it is shown that these 'generalised' statements, once redeemed, are able to be quantified. The paper then proceeds to describe a financial methodology, developed by NGC and UMIST, by which the introduction of RCM can be evaluated. Moreover, it shows that, by regarding RCM as an investment decision, rather than an 'act of faith', the economic viability of a potential application can be determined before vital resources are committed. Finally, it is demonstrated that when the methodology is applied within the context of the electricity transmission industry, the economic case underlying the adoption of RCM can be realistically appraised. (author)

  9. Systems reliability evaluation under aging by the device of stages optimized through genetic algorithms

    A methodology is developed based on the method of stages optimized through genetic algorithms to allow reliability evaluation of plant stand by systems. This methodology allows the transformation of on-Markovian models into equivalent Markovian ones by considering a set of fictitious states, called stages. Therefore, a state with a time-dependent transition rate is represented by a combination of stages (series, parallel or series/parallel) with constant transition rate. The optimization is necessary to overlap the difficulties presented to find the identification parameter of the device of stages, which is a complex optimization problem and requires a robust and efficient optimization tool, e.g the genetic algorithms. results concerning initial applications to Auxiliary Feedwater Systems (AFW) pumps are shown and commented, for which Weibull and lognormal distribution are employed respectively for modeling failures and repair times. (author)

  10. Considerations of uncertainties in evaluating dynamic reliability by GO-FLOW methodology - example study of reliability monitor for PWR safety system in the risk-monitor system

    The uncertainty analyses have been considered as a relevant topic since WASH-1400 and analysis was performed for identifying the risk measure, e.g. plant- and core-damage frequency or the frequency of a large early release of radioactivity in the probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) or probabilistic risk assessment. There are two main sources of uncertainty such as aleatory uncertainty and epistemic uncertainty (parameter uncertainty, model uncertainty and completeness uncertainty) for risk analysis in PSA or risk-monitor system. A sensitivity analysis is related field to uncertainty, which can provide information of the most effective on those inputs of PSA, which are mostly contributed to the uncertainty. In this paper, uncertainty analysis (epistemic) has been conducted in the evaluation of dynamic reliability of safety-related subsystem for risk analysis. GO-FLOW methodology has been employed for the procedure of uncertainty analysis alternatively to Fault Tree Analysis and Even Tree because it is success-oriented system-analysis technique and comparatively easy to conduct the reliability analysis of the complex system. The method used sample data from Monte Carlo simulation to quantify uncertainty in terms of appropriate estimates for analysis results. Pressurized water reactor containment spray system has been taken as an example of safety-related subsystem. The results of this paper show that the uncertainty analysis is an important part for the practical evaluation of the system dynamic reliability and makes the reliability prediction more accurate compared with the result without the uncertainty analysis. The GO-FLOW methodology can be employed easily for uncertainty analysis with its advance functions. (author)

  11. Cross-cultural adaptation and reliability testing of the Tilburg Frailty Indicator for optimizing care of Polish patients with frailty syndrome

    Uchmanowicz I

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Izabella Uchmanowicz,1 Beata Jankowska-Polańska,1 Maria Łoboz-Rudnicka,2 Stanislaw Manulik,3 Krystyna Łoboz-Grudzień,1,2 Robbert JJ Gobbens4 1Department of Clinical Nursing, Wroclaw Medical University, 2Department of Cardiology, T Marciniak Memorial Hospital, 3Primary Care Practice, Wroclaw, Poland; 4Research and Development Center Innovations in Care, Rotterdam University of Applied Sciences, Rotterdam, the Netherlands Background: Frail older people are at high risk of developing adverse outcomes, such as disability, mortality, hospitalization, and institutionalization. Previous research suggests that the Tilburg Frailty Indicator (TFI is a valid and reliable instrument for measuring frailty. The aim of this study was to adapt and to test the reliability of the Polish version of the TFI. Method: A standard guideline was used for translation and cultural adaptation of the English version of the TFI into Polish. The study included 100 Polish patients (mean age 68.2±6.5 years, among them 42 men and 58 women. Cronbach’s alpha was used for analysis of the internal consistency of the TFI. Results: The mean total TFI score was 6.7±3.1. Forty patients scored ≥5, which corresponded to being frail. Cronbach’s alpha reliability coefficients of the instrument ranged from 0.68 to 0.72 and item-total correlation ranged from 0.12 to 0.52. Conclusion: The TFI is valid and reproducible for assessment of frailty syndrome among a Polish population. The Polish adaptation of the TFI proved a useful and fast tool for assessing frailty. Keywords: internal consistency, validity, older individuals, aging

  12. Results from the translation and adaptation of the Iranian Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire (I-SF-MPQ: preliminary evidence of its reliability, construct validity and sensitivity in an Iranian pain population

    Adelmanesh Farhad

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Short Form McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ is one of the most widely used instruments to assess pain. The aim of this study was to translate and culturally adapt the questionnaire for Farsi (the official language of Iran speakers in order to test its reliability and sensitivity. Methods We followed Guillemin's guidelines for cross-cultural adaption of health-related measures, which include forward-backward translations, expert committee meetings, and face validity testing in a pilot group. Subsequently, the questionnaire was administered to a sample of 100 diverse chronic pain patients attending a tertiary pain and rehabilitation clinic. In order to evaluate test-retest reliability, patients completed the questionnaire in the morning and early evening of their first visit. Finally, patients were asked to complete the questionnaire for the third time after completing a standardized treatment protocol three weeks later. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC was used to evaluate reliability. We used principle component analysis to assess construct validity. Results Ninety-two subjects completed the questionnaire both in the morning and in the evening of the first visit (test-retest reliability, and after three weeks (sensitivity to change. Eight patients who did not finish treatment protocol were excluded from the study. Internal consistency was found by Cronbach's alpha to be 0.951, 0.832 and 0.840 for sensory, affective and total scores respectively. ICC resulted in 0.906 for sensory, 0.712 for affective and 0.912 for total pain score. Item to subscale score correlations supported the convergent validity of each item to its hypothesized subscale. Correlations were observed to range from r2 = 0.202 to r2 = 0.739. Sensitivity or responsiveness was evaluated by pair t-test, which exhibited a significant difference between pre- and post-treatment scores (p Conclusion The results of this study indicate that the Iranian

  13. Systems analysis programs for hands-on integrated reliability evaluations (SAPHIRE), Version 5.0

    The Systems Analysis Programs for Hands-on Integrated Reliability Evaluations (SAPHIRE) refers to a set of several microcomputer programs that were developed to create and analyze probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs), primarily for nuclear power plants. The Graphical Evaluation Module (GEM) is a special application tool designed for evaluation of operational occurrences using the Accident Sequence Precursor (ASP) program methods. GEM provides the capability for an analyst to quickly and easily perform conditional core damage probability (CCDP) calculations. The analyst can then use the CCDP calculations to determine if the occurrence of an initiating event or a condition adversely impacts safety. It uses models and data developed in the SAPHIRE specially for the ASP program. GEM requires more data than that normally provided in SAPHIRE and will not perform properly with other models or data bases. This is the first release of GEM and the developers of GEM welcome user comments and feedback that will generate ideas for improvements to future versions. GEM is designated as version 5.0 to track GEM codes along with the other SAPHIRE codes as the GEM relies on the same, shared database structure

  14. Evaluation of safety and reliability in an infant reciprocal walking orthosis.

    Miller, K; Woollam, P J; Jones, N; Poiner, R; Farmer, I R; Stallard, J

    2002-08-01

    In response to new demands for infant walking orthoses consideration was given to the development of a device for this category of patient. A specially developed hip joint with the required structural properties (Woollam et al., 2001) provided an opportunity for this development. Earlier structural assessment, and limited cyclic load testing of key elements of the orthosis (primarily the body brace), confirmed that a safe device for evaluation with patients could, theoretically, be produced. A provisional prototype was therefore designed and manufactured for initial structural testing of the complete infant orthosis (Stallard et al., 2001). Efficiency of walking is strongly influenced by the lateral rigidity of the orthosis. Monitoring the structural performance of the provisional infant design indicated it would equal or improve on the stiffness of that achieved in the adult specification. Additionally, relative strength was comparable with the adult version, which has proven to be safe and reliable in many years of routine prescription. This, together with the limited cyclic testing of the complete orthosis (Stallard et al., 2001), gave confidence that it was safe to proceed with controlled field evaluation of the infant design when supplied as a rehabilitation engineering device within the provisions of an ISO9001 and EN46001 QA System. This additional study of controlled patient use, and further representative cyclic load testing in parallel with the field evaluation, had established the long-term structural safety of the orthosis. Wider application is now to be introduced through completion of the EC (European Community) Medical Devices Directive formalities. PMID:12227452

  15. L(sub 1) Adaptive Flight Control System: Flight Evaluation and Technology Transition

    Xargay, Enric; Hovakimyan, Naira; Dobrokhodov, Vladimir; Kaminer, Isaac; Gregory, Irene M.; Cao, Chengyu

    2010-01-01

    Certification of adaptive control technologies for both manned and unmanned aircraft represent a major challenge for current Verification and Validation techniques. A (missing) key step towards flight certification of adaptive flight control systems is the definition and development of analysis tools and methods to support Verification and Validation for nonlinear systems, similar to the procedures currently used for linear systems. In this paper, we describe and demonstrate the advantages of L(sub l) adaptive control architectures for closing some of the gaps in certification of adaptive flight control systems, which may facilitate the transition of adaptive control into military and commercial aerospace applications. As illustrative examples, we present the results of a piloted simulation evaluation on the NASA AirSTAR flight test vehicle, and results of an extensive flight test program conducted by the Naval Postgraduate School to demonstrate the advantages of L(sub l) adaptive control as a verifiable robust adaptive flight control system.

  16. Evaluating the Content Validity of Multistage-Adaptive Tests

    Crotts, Katrina; Sireci, Stephen G.; Zenisky, April

    2012-01-01

    Validity evidence based on test content is important for educational tests to demonstrate the degree to which they fulfill their purposes. Most content validity studies involve subject matter experts (SMEs) who rate items that comprise a test form. In computerized-adaptive testing, examinees take different sets of items and test "forms" do not…

  17. Evaluating adaptive cruise control strategies in worst-case scenarios

    Willigen, W.H. van; Schut, M.C.; Kester, L.J.H.M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper is concerned with safety in (cooperative) adaptive cruise control systems. In these systems, the speed of the cars is maintained automatically, based on the preferred speed of the driver and the speed of the preceding car. Technologies that are used in these systems, such as radar and rad

  18. Fading Performance Evaluation of Adaptive MSER Beamforming Receiver for QAM Systems

    Livingstone, A; Chen, S.; Hanzo, L

    2007-01-01

    The ever-increasing demand for mobile communication capacity has motivated the development of adaptive antenna array assisted spatial processing techniques for bandwidth efficiency, high-throughput quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) systems. We evaluate performance of adaptive beamforming assisted detection for QAM systems in Rayleigh fading environments. An adaptive minimum symbol error rate design, referred to as the least symbol error rate, is shown to be capable of successfully operati...

  19. Systematic evaluation of the teaching qualities of Obstetrics and Gynecology faculty: reliability and validity of the SETQ tools.

    Renée van der Leeuw

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The importance of effective clinical teaching for the quality of future patient care is globally understood. Due to recent changes in graduate medical education, new tools are needed to provide faculty with reliable and individualized feedback on their teaching qualities. This study validates two instruments underlying the System for Evaluation of Teaching Qualities (SETQ aimed at measuring and improving the teaching qualities of obstetrics and gynecology faculty. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This cross-sectional multi-center questionnaire study was set in seven general teaching hospitals and two academic medical centers in the Netherlands. Seventy-seven residents and 114 faculty were invited to complete the SETQ instruments in the duration of one month from September 2008 to September 2009. To assess reliability and validity of the instruments, we used exploratory factor analysis, inter-item correlation, reliability coefficient alpha and inter-scale correlations. We also compared composite scales from factor analysis to global ratings. Finally, the number of residents' evaluations needed per faculty for reliable assessments was calculated. A total of 613 evaluations were completed by 66 residents (85.7% response rate. 99 faculty (86.8% response rate participated in self-evaluation. Factor analysis yielded five scales with high reliability (Cronbach's alpha for residents' and faculty: learning climate (0.86 and 0.75, professional attitude (0.89 and 0.81, communication of learning goals (0.89 and 0.82, evaluation of residents (0.87 and 0.79 and feedback (0.87 and 0.86. Item-total, inter-scale and scale-global rating correlation coefficients were significant (P<0.01. Four to six residents' evaluations are needed per faculty (reliability coefficient 0.60-0.80. CONCLUSIONS: Both SETQ instruments were found reliable and valid for evaluating teaching qualities of obstetrics and gynecology faculty. Future research should examine improvement of

  20. FORENSIC-CLINICAL INTERVIEW: RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY FOR THE EVALUATION OF PSYCHOLOGICAL INJURY

    Francisca Fariña

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Forensic evaluation of psychological injury involves the use of a multimethod approximation i.e., a psychometric instrument, normally the MMPI-2, and a clinical interview. In terms of the clinical interview, the traditional clinical interview (e.g., SCID is not valid for forensic settings as it does not fulfil the triple objective of forensic evaluation: diagnosis of psychological injury in terms of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD, a differential diagnosis of feigning, and establishing a causal relationship between allegations of intimate partner violence (IPV and psychological injury. To meet this requirement, Arce and Fariña (2001 created the forensic-clinical interview based on two techniques that do not contaminate the contents i.e., reinstating the contexts and free recall, and a methodic categorical system of contents analysis for the diagnosis of psychological injury and a differential diagnosis of feigning. The reliability and validity of the forensic-clinical interview designed for the forensic evaluation of psychological injury was assessed in 51 genuine cases of (IPV and 54 mock victims of IPV who were evaluated using a forensic-clinical interview and the MMPI-2. The result revealed that the forensic-clinical interview was a reliable instrument (α = .85 for diagnostic criteria of psychological injury, and α = .744 for feigning strategies. Moreover, the results corroborated the predictive validity (the diagnosis of PTSD was similar to the expected rate; the convergence validity (the diagnosis of PTSD in the interview strongly correlated with the Pk Scale of the MMPI-2, and discriminant validity (the diagnosis of PTSD in the interview did not correlate with the Pk Scale in feigners. The feigning strategies (differential diagnosis also showed convergent validity (high correlation with the Scales and indices of the MMPI2 for the measure of feigning and discriminant validity (no genuine victim was classified as a feigner

  1. Evaluation framework based on fuzzy measured method in adaptive learning systems

    Houda Zouari Ounaies, ,

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, e-learning systems are mainly web-based applications and tackle a wide range of users all over the world. Fitting learners’ needs is considered as a key issue to guaranty the success of these systems. Many researches work on providing adaptive systems. Nevertheless, evaluation of the adaptivity is still in an exploratory phase. Adaptation methods are a basic factor to guaranty an effective adaptation. This issue is referred as meta-adaptation in numerous researches. In our research on the development of an evaluation framework of adaptive web-based learning systems, adaptation method assessment is a fundamental aspect. Currently, measures significantly lack to express the adaptive systems features and need to be explored. Consequently, we propose a three-fold approach. Firstly, specific adaptation measurement criteria are suggested. Secondly, experts and learners assess these criteria and both current learning situation and similar past experiences are considered. Finally, fuzzy group decision making theory is adopted to integrate different perceptions related to the adaptive system.

  2. Cross Cultural Adaptation, Validity, and Reliability of the Farsi Breastfeeding Attrition Prediction Tools in Iranian Pregnant Women

    Mortazavi, Forough; MOUSAVI, Seyed Abbas; Chaman, Reza; Khosravi, Ahmad; Janke, Jill R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The rate of exclusive breastfeeding in Iran is decreasing. The breastfeeding attrition prediction tools (BAPT) have been validated and used in predicting premature weaning. Objectives: We aimed to translate the BAPT into Farsi, assess its content validity, and examine its reliability and validity to identify exclusive breastfeeding discontinuation in Iran. Materials and Methods: The BAPT was translated into Farsi and the content validity of the Farsi version of the BAPT was assess...

  3. Reliability and Validity of a Physical Capacity Evaluation Used to Assess Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities and Mental Illness

    Jang, Yuh; Chang, Tzyh-Chyang; Lin, Keh-Chung

    2009-01-01

    Physical capacity evaluations (PCEs) are important and frequently offered services in work practice. This study investigates the reliability and validity of the National Taiwan University Hospital Physical Capacity Evaluation (NTUH PCE) on a sample of 149 participants consisted of three groups: 45 intellectual disability (ID), 56 mental illness…

  4. Performance Evaluation Of Different Adaptive Filters For ECG Signal Processing

    Sachin singh,

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the main problem in biomedical data processing like electrocardiography is the separation of the wanted signal from noises caused by power line interference, external electromagnetic fields and random body movements and respiration. Different types of digital filters are used to remove signal components from unwanted frequency ranges. It is difficult to apply filters with fixed coefficients to reduce Biomedical Signal noises, because human behavior is not exact known depending on the time. Adaptive filter technique is required to overcome this problem. In this paper two types of adaptive filters are considered to reduce the ECG signal noises like PLI and Base Line Interference. Results of simulations inMATLAB are presented.

  5. Evaluating the reliability of the Attitudes to Randomized Trial Questionnaire (ARTQ) in a predominantly African American sample

    Ford, Marvella E.; Wei, Wei; Moore, Leslie A; Burshell, Dana R; Cannady, Kimberly; Mack, Franshawn; Ezerioha, Nnadozie; Ercole, Kelley; Garrett-Mayer, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the reliability of the Attitudes to Randomized Trial Questionnaire (ARTQ) in measuring perceptions of cancer clinical trials in a predominantly African American (AA) sample in South Carolina (SC). Methods Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Cronbach’s alpha estimates were used to assess the reliability of the ARTQ in a convenience sample of 315 participants (81.4 % AA) who were recruited from 2008 to 2013, and who live in eleven different counties in South Carolina with...

  6. Cardiovascular reactivity and adaptation to recurrent psychological stress: the moderating effects of evaluative observation.

    Kelsey, R M; Blascovich, J; Leitten, C L; Schneider, T R; Tomaka, J; Wiens, S

    2000-11-01

    The impact of evaluative observation on cardiovascular reactivity and adaptation to recurrent psychological stress was evaluated in 162 undergraduate men and women. All participants performed three mental arithmetic tasks with or without evaluative observation. Impedance cardiographic, blood pressure, task performance, and stress appraisal measures were recorded for each task. Evaluative observation moderated the effects of task repetition on cardiac reactivity but not vascular reactivity. The introduction of evaluative observation disrupted cardiac adaptation, resulting in a resurgence of beta-adrenergic cardiac reactivity (p < .005), whereas the removal of evaluative observation promoted cardiac adaptation. Evaluative observation also increased stress appraisals and slowed task performance. The results support the dual process theory of habituation, rather than stimulus comparator theory, but only partially support cognitive appraisal theory. PMID:11117455

  7. Evaluating Architecture Implementation Alternatives based on Adaptibility Concerns

    Aksit, Mehmet; Tekinerdogan, Bedir

    1999-01-01

    Software is rarely designed for ultimate adaptability, performance or reusability but rather it is a compromise of multiple considerations. Even for a simple architecture specification, one may identify many alternative implementations. This paper makes an attempt to depict the space of implementation alternatives of architectures, and to define rules for selecting them. The applicability of this approach is illustrated by means of a simple design problem.

  8. Therapeutic evaluation criterion of inoperable hepatocellular carcinomas: modified RECIST as a more reliable standard

    Nowadays, interventional therapy is the most popular treatment for inoperable hepatocellular carcinomas. For recent years, Sorafenib, used as a molecular targeting drug, has been employed in the clinical practice, and at present it has already occupied a certain tiny space in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinomas. The anti-tumor mechanism of both interventional therapy and molecular targeting drugs is to cause tumor necrosis. Nevertheless, after the treatment the total volume of the lesions usually remains the same as that before treatment, or even becomes enlarged. Therefore, traditional response evaluation criterion in solid tumor (RECIST) can't accurately and comprehensively assess the therapeutic efficacy, as RECIST frequently underestimates the clinical efficacy or even makes a false judgment of positive progress. Modified RECIST evaluates the lesion's response based on the index of 'viable tumor'. Therefore, modified RECIST can assess the changes within the tumor more precisely and more comprehensively. Thus, the more reliable judgment for the therapeutic results of interventional therapy and targeting drug can be obtained. (authors)

  9. Approach to evaluating health level and adaptation possibilities in schoolchildren

    Andrieieva O.V.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: substantiate the results of theoretical and practical investigations aimed at improving the health of students. Material: the study involved 187 children including 103 boys and 84 girls aged 7-10 years. Results: through a rapid assessment of physical health it was found that pupils of primary school age have an average level of the functional state of the organism, with a minimum resistance to risk factors (chronic non-infective diseases, etc.. For the first time, a technique for determining the level of adaptation and reserve capacity of school students proposed by Ukrainian hygienists was used in physical culture and sports practice. Conclusions: the technique reveals strain in adaptation mechanisms that corresponds to donozological condition. An idea is proposed that Nordic walking, through the positive impact on the body of aerobic mode of energy supply, is able to increase the reserve-adaptive capabilities of primary school students by improvement of their health as well as to solve the problems of health formation and health care in the physical education of youth.

  10. [Multicenter evaluation of the reliability of five blood glucose monitoring systems].

    Jday-Daly, Ismahen; Augereau-Vacher, Christine; De Curraize, Claire; Fonfrède, Michèle; Lefevre, Guillaume; Lacour, Bernard; Hennequin-Le Meur, Carole

    2011-01-01

    As part of a tender AP-HP Paris Hospitals, an assessment of the reliability record of five blood glucose monitoring systems (BGMSs) (Optium Xceed (Abbott), Contour TS (Bayer), One Touch Ultra (Lifescan), Stat Strip Xpress (Nova) and Accu Check (Roche) and an evaluation of their sensitivity to changes in hematocrit were conducted in 4 hospitals of Paris. In terms of inaccuracy, all BGMSs have submitted CV repetability under the limits of acceptability. One BGMS (Lifescan) presented a CV of reproducibility outside limit of acceptability (13.1%). The inaccuracy was measured by a comparison method on multiparameter analyser relative to the hexokinase method for two sites, the glucose oxidase for the two others. The coefficients of correlation varied from 0.8405 to 0.9303. However, according to both defined acceptability criteria (absolute value difference between the result acquired on analyzer and those determined with the BGMS), the percentage of results outside acceptability was above 20% for two BGMSs (Abbott and Lifescan). Similarly, a net effect of changes in hematocrit was observed on the results of those two BGMSs. BGMS Nova was the most reliable, because of the correction device for hematocrit and blank substractions owed to interferences. In terms of expertise, BGMSs Nova and Roche have been selected with the best analytical performance and practicability satisfactory. In the future, accreditation with standard NF/EN 22870 requested for point of care testing, will require a close collaboration between biologists and clinicians to establish a system of strict quality control to detect deviations of these BGMSs. PMID:21463996

  11. Reliability and Discriminative Ability of a New Method for Soccer Kicking Evaluation.

    Ivan Radman

    Full Text Available The study aimed to evaluate the test-retest reliability of a newly developed 356 Soccer Shooting Test (356-SST, and the discriminative ability of this test with respect to the soccer players' proficiency level and leg dominance. Sixty-six male soccer players, divided into three groups based on their proficiency level (amateur, n = 24; novice semi-professional, n = 18; and experienced semi-professional players, n = 24, performed 10 kicks following a two-step run up. Forty-eight of them repeated the test on a separate day. The following shooting variables were derived: ball velocity (BV; measured via radar gun, shooting accuracy (SA; average distance from the ball-entry point to the goal centre, and shooting quality (SQ; shooting accuracy divided by the time elapsed from hitting the ball to the point of entry. No systematic bias was evident in the selected shooting variables (SA: 1.98±0.65 vs. 2.00±0.63 m; BV: 24.6±2.3 vs. 24.5±1.9 m s-1; SQ: 2.92±1.0 vs. 2.93±1.0 m s-1; all p>0.05. The intra-class correlation coefficients were high (ICC = 0.70-0.88, and the coefficients of variation were low (CV = 5.3-5.4%. Finally, all three 356-SST variables identify, with adequate sensitivity, differences in soccer shooting ability with respect to the players' proficiency and leg dominance. The results suggest that the 356-SST is a reliable and sensitive test of specific shooting ability in men's soccer. Future studies should test the validity of these findings in a fatigued state, as well as in other populations.

  12. Reliability and Discriminative Ability of a New Method for Soccer Kicking Evaluation.

    Radman, Ivan; Wessner, Barbara; Bachl, Norbert; Ruzic, Lana; Hackl, Markus; Baca, Arnold; Markovic, Goran

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the test-retest reliability of a newly developed 356 Soccer Shooting Test (356-SST), and the discriminative ability of this test with respect to the soccer players' proficiency level and leg dominance. Sixty-six male soccer players, divided into three groups based on their proficiency level (amateur, n = 24; novice semi-professional, n = 18; and experienced semi-professional players, n = 24), performed 10 kicks following a two-step run up. Forty-eight of them repeated the test on a separate day. The following shooting variables were derived: ball velocity (BV; measured via radar gun), shooting accuracy (SA; average distance from the ball-entry point to the goal centre), and shooting quality (SQ; shooting accuracy divided by the time elapsed from hitting the ball to the point of entry). No systematic bias was evident in the selected shooting variables (SA: 1.98±0.65 vs. 2.00±0.63 m; BV: 24.6±2.3 vs. 24.5±1.9 m s-1; SQ: 2.92±1.0 vs. 2.93±1.0 m s-1; all p>0.05). The intra-class correlation coefficients were high (ICC = 0.70-0.88), and the coefficients of variation were low (CV = 5.3-5.4%). Finally, all three 356-SST variables identify, with adequate sensitivity, differences in soccer shooting ability with respect to the players' proficiency and leg dominance. The results suggest that the 356-SST is a reliable and sensitive test of specific shooting ability in men's soccer. Future studies should test the validity of these findings in a fatigued state, as well as in other populations. PMID:26812247

  13. Self-evaluation and School Adaptation in Adolescence.

    Bourcet, Claude

    1998-01-01

    Investigates how adolescent's self-evaluation in junior high school (global self-esteem and self-evaluation related to school) influences the way he/she copes when experiencing a first difficulty in high school. Reveals the low predictive power of contextual self-evaluation on functional and dysfunctional factors and the importance of global…

  14. Web服务组合的可靠性动态评估模型%Reliability dynamic evaluation model of Web services composition

    梁员宁; 陈喆; 谢立军

    2012-01-01

    composition, and evaluate the reliability of Web services composition with strong dynamic and flexible adaptability.

  15. Comparative evaluation of cell culture-adapted and chicken embryo-adapted fowl pox vaccine strains.

    Baxi, M K; Oberoi, M S

    1999-01-01

    Two types of vaccines, chicken embryo adapted (VacCE) and cell culture adapted (VacCC), were tested for their efficacy to elicite the immune response in birds vaccinated at 2 and 8 wk of age. The cell-mediated immune response studied by blastogenesis assay showed that birds vaccinated at the second week of age by both VacCE and VacCC vaccines had significant increase in T-lymphocyte count at 21 days postvaccination (PV) and 7 days postchallenge (PC), whereas in birds vaccinated at 8 wk of age, a significant increase was seen at 21 days PV and 7 days PC with the VacCC vaccine. The rise in passive hemagglutination titers was observed up to 21 days PV and 7 days PC in birds vaccinated at 2 wk of age. However, only the birds vaccinated with VacCC at 8 wk of age showed rise in titers at days 21 PV and 7 PC. Birds were challenged 90 days PV by scarification on the thigh region, and the birds vaccinated with VacCC showed 90% and 70% protection when vaccinated at 2 and 8 wk, respectively. The birds vaccinated with VacCE showed only 60% and 20% protection at the corresponding levels, respectively. PMID:10216755

  16. Translation, cultural adaptation assessment, and both validity and reliability testing of the kidney disease quality of life - short form version 1.3 for use with Iranian patients

    Pakpour, Amir; Yekaninejad, Mirsaeed; Mølsted, Stig;

    2011-01-01

    AIM: The aims of the study were to translate the Kidney Disease Quality of Life--Short Form version 1.3 (KDQOL-SF ver. 1.3) questionnaire into Iranian (Farsi), and to then assess it in terms of validity and reliability on Iranian patients. METHODS: The questionnaire was first translated into Farsi...... by two independent translators, and then subsequently translated back into English. After translation disparities had been reconciled, the final Iranian questionnaire was tested. An initial test-retest reliability evaluation was performed over a 10 day period on a sample of 20 patients recruited from...... a larger group (212 patients with end-stage renal disease on haemodialysis). Afterwards, reliability was estimated by internal consistency, and validity was assessed using known group comparisons and constructs for the patient group as a whole. Finally, the factor structure of the questionnaire was...

  17. An Appropriate Wind Model for Wind Integrated Power Systems Reliability Evaluation Considering Wind Speed Correlations

    Rajesh Karki

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Adverse environmental impacts of carbon emissions are causing increasing concerns to the general public throughout the world. Electric energy generation from conventional energy sources is considered to be a major contributor to these harmful emissions. High emphasis is therefore being given to green alternatives of energy, such as wind and solar. Wind energy is being perceived as a promising alternative. This source of energy technology and its applications have undergone significant research and development over the past decade. As a result, many modern power systems include a significant portion of power generation from wind energy sources. The impact of wind generation on the overall system performance increases substantially as wind penetration in power systems continues to increase to relatively high levels. It becomes increasingly important to accurately model the wind behavior, the interaction with other wind sources and conventional sources, and incorporate the characteristics of the energy demand in order to carry out a realistic evaluation of system reliability. Power systems with high wind penetrations are often connected to multiple wind farms at different geographic locations. Wind speed correlations between the different wind farms largely affect the total wind power generation characteristics of such systems, and therefore should be an important parameter in the wind modeling process. This paper evaluates the effect of the correlation between multiple wind farms on the adequacy indices of wind-integrated systems. The paper also proposes a simple and appropriate probabilistic analytical model that incorporates wind correlations, and can be used for adequacy evaluation of multiple wind-integrated systems.

  18. Reliability assessment and correlation analysis of evaluating orthodontic treatment outcome in Chinese patients.

    Song, Guang-Ying; Zhao, Zhi-He; Ding, Yin; Bai, Yu-Xing; Wang, Lin; He, Hong; Shen, Gang; Li, Wei-Ran; Baumrind, Sheldon; Geng, Zhi; Xu, Tian-Min

    2014-03-01

    This study aimed to assess the reliability of experienced Chinese orthodontists in evaluating treatment outcome and to determine the correlations between three diagnostic information sources. Sixty-nine experienced Chinese orthodontic specialists each evaluated the outcome of orthodontic treatment of 108 Chinese patients. Three different information sources: study casts (SC), lateral cephalometric X-ray images (LX) and facial photographs (PH) were generated at the end of treatment for 108 patients selected randomly from six orthodontic treatment centers throughout China. Six different assessments of treatment outcome were made by each orthodontist using data from the three information sources separately and in combination. Each assessment included both ranking and grading for each patient. The rankings of each of the 69 judges for the 108 patients were correlated with the rankings of each of the other judges yielding 13 873 Spearman rs values, ranging from -0.08 to +0.85. Of these, 90% were greater than 0.4, showing moderate-to-high consistency among the 69 orthodontists. In the combined evaluations, study casts were the most significant predictive component (R(2)=0.86, P<0.000 1), while the inclusion of lateral cephalometric films and facial photographs also contributed to a more comprehensive assessment (R(2)=0.96, P<0.000 1). Grading scores for SC+LX and SC+PH were highly significantly correlated with those for SC+LX+PH (r(SC+LX)vs.(SC+LX+PH)=0.96, r(SC+PH)vs.(SC+LX+PH)=0.97), showing that either SC+LX or SC+PH is an excellent substitute for all three combined assessment. PMID:24136673

  19. JUPITER Project - Joint Universal Parameter IdenTification and Evaluation of Reliability

    Poeter, E.; Hill, M.; Doherty, J.; Banta, E.; Babendreier, J.

    2003-12-01

    The JUPITER (Joint Universal Parameter IdenTification and Evaluation of Reliability) project builds on the technology of two widely used codes for sensitivity analysis, data assessment, calibration, and uncertainty analysis of environmental models: PEST and UCODE. These programs are universal in that they can be applied to any computer model; and both have very flexible methods for interacting with application models through ASCII files. Their combination in an Application Programming Interface (API) will yield a full-featured, well-designed, flexible, stable, modular, thoroughly documented foundation for advancing the technology incorporated in UCODE and PEST. Phase 1 of the project is development of the JUPITER API, which will include (1) conventions for program input and output and internal data production and consumption, and (2) subroutines that support commonly used calculations and manipulations, to facilitate use of the API by many researchers in the field. Phase 2 is development of the first applications of the JUPITER API, J_UCODE, J_PEST, and J_MMRI, where J_MMRI is an alternative conceptual model evaluation tool for ranking and weighting models to facilitate multi-model inference. Applications developed using the JUPITER API will provide the opportunity for users to readily: (1) experiment with a number of techniques for generating conceptual models (e.g. geostatistical methods, geologic process modeling, upscaling); (2) compare alternative parameter-estimation algorithms (for example, the algorithms in J_PEST and J_UCODE); (3) "mine" results from various conceptual models for model evaluation, ranking and multi-model inferential analysis, as well as use these results to evolve the conceptual model (e.g. unreasonable parameter-value estimates provide clues to hydrogeologic structure; residual bias provides clues to conceptual model error); and (4) assess data needs to improve the calibration in light of the predictions.

  20. 26+ Year Old Photovoltaic Power Plant: Degradation and Reliability Evaluation of Crystalline Silicon Modules -- South Array

    Olakonu, Kolapo

    As the use of photovoltaic (PV) modules in large power plants continues to increase globally, more studies on degradation, reliability, failure modes, and mechanisms of field aged modules are needed to predict module life expectancy based on accelerated lifetime testing of PV modules. In this work, a 26+ year old PV power plant in Phoenix, Arizona has been evaluated for performance, reliability, and durability. The PV power plant, called Solar One, is owned and operated by John F. Long's homeowners association. It is a 200 kW dc, standard test conditions (STC) rated power plant comprised of 4000 PV modules or frameless laminates, in 100 panel groups (rated at 175 kW ac). The power plant is made of two center-tapped bipolar arrays, the north array and the south array. Due to a limited time frame to execute this large project, this work was performed by two masters students (Jonathan Belmont and Kolapo Olakonu) and the test results are presented in two masters theses. This thesis presents the results obtained on the south array and the other thesis presents the results obtained on the north array. Each of these two arrays is made of four sub arrays, the east sub arrays (positive and negative polarities) and the west sub arrays (positive and negative polarities), making up eight sub arrays. The evaluation and analyses of the power plant included in this thesis consists of: visual inspection, electrical performance measurements, and infrared thermography. A possible presence of potential induced degradation (PID) due to potential difference between ground and strings was also investigated. Some installation practices were also studied and found to contribute to the power loss observed in this investigation. The power output measured in 2011 for all eight sub arrays at STC is approximately 76 kWdc and represents a power loss of 62% (from 200 kW to 76 kW) over 26+ years. The 2011 measured power output for the four south sub arrays at STC is 39 kWdc and represents a power

  1. Intra- and interobserver reliability of gray scale/dynamic range evaluation of ultrasonography using a standardized phantom

    To evaluate intra- and interobserver reliability of the gray scale/dynamic range of the phantom image evaluation of ultrasonography using a standardized phantom, and to assess the effect of interactive education on the reliability. Three radiologists (a resident, and two board-certified radiologists with 2 and 7 years of experience in evaluating ultrasound phantom images) performed the gray scale/dynamic range test for an ultrasound machine using a standardized phantom. They scored the number of visible cylindrical structures of varying degrees of brightness and made a pass or fail decision. First, they scored 49 phantom images twice from a 2010 survey with limited knowledge of phantom images. After this, the radiologists underwent two hours of interactive education for the phantom images and scored another 91 phantom images from a 2011 survey twice. Intra- and interobserver reliability before and after the interactive education session were analyzed using K analyses. Before education, the K-value for intraobserver reliability for the radiologist with 7 years of experience, 2 years of experience, and the resident was 0.386, 0.469, and 0.465, respectively. After education, the K-values were improved (0.823, 0.611, and 0.711, respectively). For interobserver reliability, the K-value was also better after the education for the 3 participants (0.067, 0.002, and 0.547 before education; 0.635, 0.667, and 0.616 after education, respectively). The intra- and interobserver reliability of the gray scale/dynamic range was fair to substantial. Interactive education can improve reliability. For more reliable results, double- checking of phantom images by multiple reviewers is recommended.

  2. SU-E-J-67: Evaluation of Adaptive MLC Morphing for Online Correction of Prostate Cancer Radiotherapy

    Purpose: Online adaptive MLC morphing is desirable over translational couch shifts to accommodate target position as well as anatomic changes. A reliable method of adaptive MLC segment to target during prostate cancer IMRT treatment is proposed and evaluated by comparison with daily online-image guidance (IGRT) correction and online-IMRT planning. Methods: The MLC adaptive algorithm involves following steps; move the MLC segments according to target translational shifts, and then morph the segment shape to maintain the spatial relationship between the planning-target contour and MLC segment. Efficacy of this method was evaluated retrospectively using daily-CBCT images on seven prostate patients treated with seven-beam IMRT treatment to deliver 64Gy in 20 fractions. Daily modification was simulated with three approaches; daily-IGRT correction based on implanted radio-markers, adaptive MLC morphing, and online-IMRT planning, with no-residual variation. The selected dosimetric endpoints and nEUD (normalized equivalent uniform dose to online-IMRT planning) of each organ of interest were determined for evaluation and comparison. Results: For target(prostate), bladder and rectal-wall, the mean±sd of nEUD were 97.6%+3.2%, 103.9%±4.9% and 97.4%±1.1% for daily-IGRT correction; and 100.2%+0.2%, 108.9%±5.1% and 99.8%±1.2% for adaptive MLC morphing, respectively. For daily-IGRT correction, adaptive MLC morphing and online-IMRT planning, target D99 was <95% of the prescription dose in 30%, 0% and 0% of 140 fractions, respectively. For the rectal-wall, D5 exceeded 105% of the planned-D5 in 2.8%, 11.4% and 0% of 140 fractions, respectively. For the bladder, Dmax exceeded 105% of the planned-D5 in 2.8%, 5.6% and 0% of 140 fractions, respectively. D30 of bladder and rectal-wall were well within the planned-D30 for all three approaches. Conclusion: The proposed method of adaptive MLC morphing can be beneficial for the prostate patient population with large deformation and

  3. Good validity and reliability of the forgotten joint score in evaluating the outcome of total knee arthroplasty

    Thomsen, Morten G; Latifi, Roshan; Kallemose, Thomas; Barfod, Kristoffer W; Husted, Henrik; Troelsen, Anders

    strong correlation between the FJS and the OKS (intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) = 0.81, 95% CI: 0.77-0.85;p < 0.001). The test-retest evaluation showed almost perfect reliability for the FJS total score (ICC = 0.91, 95% CI: 0.88-0.94) and substantial reliability or better for individual items of......Background and purpose - When evaluating the outcome after total knee arthroplasty (TKA), increasing emphasis has been put on patient satisfaction and ability to perform activities of daily living. To address this, the forgotten joint score (FJS) for assessment of knee awareness has been developed...... validity study and 150 in a reliability study. Correlation between the Oxford knee score (OKS) and the FJS was examined and test-retest evaluation was performed. A ceiling effect was defined as participants reaching a score within 15% of the maximum achievable score. Results - The validity study revealed a...

  4. Analysis Of The Performance Evaluation Scale For Strıng Instruments In Terms Of Validity And Reliability

    ÇİFTCİ, Ersan; KURTULDU, M KAYHAN

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the performance evaluation scale developed for the string instrument classes was analysed in terms of validity and reliability. The scale, constructed with the help of the evaluation degrees designed by the researchers; was used in evaluating students in final examinations in two different departments by 6 instructors in total. Statistical measurements related to the resulting data were made and reliabilitiy of the scale was tested. In the statistical process, firstly alpha fac...

  5. Evaluation of the adaptation of zirconia-based fixed partial dentures using micro-CT technology.

    Borba, Márcia; Miranda, Walter Gomes; Cesar, Paulo Francisco; Griggs, Jason Allan; Bona, Alvaro Della

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study was to measure the marginal and internal fit of zirconia-based all-ceramic three-unit fixed partial dentures (FPDs) (Y-TZP - LAVA, 3M-ESPE), using a novel methodology based on micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) technology. Stainless steel models of prepared abutments were fabricated to design FPDs. Ten frameworks were produced with 9 mm2 connector cross-sections using a LAVATM CAD-CAM system. All FPDs were veneered with a compatible porcelain. Each FPD was seated on the original model and scanned using micro-CT. Files were processed using NRecon and CTAn software. Adobe Photoshop and Image J software were used to analyze the cross-sectional images. Five measuring points were selected, as follows: MG - marginal gap; CA - chamfer area; AW - axial wall; AOT - axio-occlusal transition area; OA - occlusal area. Results were statistically analyzed by Kruskall-Wallis and Tukey's post hoc test (α= 0.05). There were significant differences for the gap width between the measurement points evaluated. MG showed the smallest median gap width (42 µm). OA had the highest median gap dimension (125 µm), followed by the AOT point (105 µm). CA and AW gap width values were statistically similar, 66 and 65 µm respectively. Thus, it was possible to conclude that different levels of adaptation were observed within the FPD, at the different measuring points. In addition, the micro-CT technology seems to be a reliable tool to evaluate the fit of dental restorations. PMID:24036977

  6. Evaluation of the adaptation of zirconia-based fixed partial dentures using micro-CT technology

    The objective of the study was to measure the marginal and internal fit of zirconia-based all-ceramic three-unit fixed partial dentures (FPDs) (Y-TZP - LAVA, 3M-ESPE), using a novel methodology based on micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) technology. Stainless steel models of prepared abutments were fabricated to design FPDs. Ten frameworks were produced with 9 mm² connector cross-sections using a LAVA® CAD-CAM system. All FPDs were veneered with a compatible porcelain. Each FPD was seated on the original model and scanned using micro-CT. Files were processed using NRecon and CTAn software. Adobe Photoshop and Image J software were used to analyze the cross sectional images. Five measuring points were selected, as follows: MG- marginal gap; CA - chamfer area; AW - axial wall; AOT - axio-occlusal transition area; OA - occlusal area. Results were statistically analyzed by Kruskall-Wallis and Tukey's post hoc test (α = 0.05). There were significant differences for the gap width between the measurement points evaluated. MG showed the smallest median gap width (42 μm). OA had the highest median gap dimension (125 μm), followed by the AOT point (105 μm). CA and AW gap width values were statistically similar, 66 and 65 μm respectively. Thus, it was possible to conclude that different levels of adaptation were observed within the FPD, at the different measuring points. In addition, the micro-CT technology seems to be a reliable tool to evaluate the fit of dental restorations. (author)

  7. Evaluation of the adaptation of zirconia-based fixed partial dentures using micro-CT technology

    Marcia Borba

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to measure the marginal and internal fit of zirconia-based all-ceramic three-unit fixed partial dentures (FPDs (Y-TZP - LAVA, 3M-ESPE, using a novel methodology based on micro-computed tomography (micro-CT technology. Stainless steel models of prepared abutments were fabricated to design FPDs. Ten frameworks were produced with 9 mm2 connector cross-sections using a LAVATM CAD-CAM system. All FPDs were veneered with a compatible porcelain. Each FPD was seated on the original model and scanned using micro-CT. Files were processed using NRecon and CTAn software. Adobe Photoshop and Image J software were used to analyze the cross-sectional images. Five measuring points were selected, as follows: MG - marginal gap; CA - chamfer area; AW - axial wall; AOT - axio-occlusal transition area; OA - occlusal area. Results were statistically analyzed by Kruskall-Wallis and Tukey's post hoc test (α= 0.05. There were significant differences for the gap width between the measurement points evaluated. MG showed the smallest median gap width (42 µm. OA had the highest median gap dimension (125 µm, followed by the AOT point (105 µm. CA and AW gap width values were statistically similar, 66 and 65 µm respectively. Thus, it was possible to conclude that different levels of adaptation were observed within the FPD, at the different measuring points. In addition, the micro-CT technology seems to be a reliable tool to evaluate the fit of dental restorations.

  8. Evaluation of the adaptation of zirconia-based fixed partial dentures using micro-CT technology

    Borba, Marcia; Bona, Alvaro Della, E-mail: marcia_borb@hotmail.com [Universidade de Passo Fundo (UPF), RS (Brazil). Fac. de Odontologia; Miranda Junior, Walter Gomes; Cesar, Paulo Francisco [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Odontologia. Dept. de Biomateriais e Bioquimica Oral; Griggs, Jason Allan [Department of Biomedical Materials Science, Dental School, University of Mississippi Medical Center - UMMC, Jackson, MS (United States)

    2013-09-15

    The objective of the study was to measure the marginal and internal fit of zirconia-based all-ceramic three-unit fixed partial dentures (FPDs) (Y-TZP - LAVA, 3M-ESPE), using a novel methodology based on micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) technology. Stainless steel models of prepared abutments were fabricated to design FPDs. Ten frameworks were produced with 9 mm² connector cross-sections using a LAVA® CAD-CAM system. All FPDs were veneered with a compatible porcelain. Each FPD was seated on the original model and scanned using micro-CT. Files were processed using NRecon and CTAn software. Adobe Photoshop and Image J software were used to analyze the cross sectional images. Five measuring points were selected, as follows: MG- marginal gap; CA - chamfer area; AW - axial wall; AOT - axio-occlusal transition area; OA - occlusal area. Results were statistically analyzed by Kruskall-Wallis and Tukey's post hoc test (α = 0.05). There were significant differences for the gap width between the measurement points evaluated. MG showed the smallest median gap width (42 μm). OA had the highest median gap dimension (125 μm), followed by the AOT point (105 μm). CA and AW gap width values were statistically similar, 66 and 65 μm respectively. Thus, it was possible to conclude that different levels of adaptation were observed within the FPD, at the different measuring points. In addition, the micro-CT technology seems to be a reliable tool to evaluate the fit of dental restorations. (author)

  9. A study on the quantitative evaluation of the reliability for safety critical software using Bayesian belief nets

    Despite the efforts to avoid undesirable risks, or at least to bring them under control in the world, new risks that are highly difficult to manage continue to emerge from the use of new technologies, such as the use of digital instrumentation and control (I and C) components in nuclear power plant. Whenever new risk issues came out by now, we have endeavored to find the most effective ways to reduce risks, or to allocate limited resources to do this. One of the major challenges is the reliability analysis of safety-critical software associated with digital safety systems. Though many activities such as testing, verification and validation (V and V) techniques have been carried out in the design stage of software, however, the process of quantitatively evaluating the reliability of safety-critical software has not yet been developed because of the irrelevance of the conventional software reliability techniques to apply for the digital safety systems. This paper focuses on the applicability of Bayesian Belief Net (BBN) techniques to quantitatively estimate the reliability of safety-critical software adopted in digital safety system. In this paper, a typical BBN model was constructed using the dedication process of the Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS) installed by KAERI. In conclusion, the adoption of BBN technique can facilitate the process of evaluating the safety-critical software reliability in nuclear power plant, as well as provide very useful information (e.g., 'what if' analysis) associated with software reliability in the viewpoint of practicality

  10. Adapting Job Analysis Methodology to Improve Evaluation Practice

    Jenkins, Susan M.; Curtin, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    This article describes how job analysis, a method commonly used in personnel research and organizational psychology, provides a systematic method for documenting program staffing and service delivery that can improve evaluators' knowledge about program operations. Job analysis data can be used to increase evaluators' insight into how staffs…

  11. Systems Analysis Programs for Hands-On Integrated Reliability Evaluations (SAPHIRE) Technical Reference Manual

    C. L. Smith; W. J. Galyean; S. T. Beck

    2006-07-01

    The Systems Analysis Programs for Hands-on Integrated Reliability Evaluations (SAPHIRE) is a software application developed for performing a complete probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) using a personal computer (PC) running the Microsoft Windows? operating system. Herein information is provided on the principles used in the construction and operation of Version 6.0 and 7.0 of the SAPHIRE system. This report summarizes the fundamental mathematical concepts of sets and logic, fault trees, and probability. This volume then describes the algorithms used to construct a fault tree and to obtain the minimal cut sets. It gives the formulas used to obtain the probability of the top event from the minimal cut sets, and the formulas for probabilities that apply for various assumptions concerning reparability and mission time. It defines the measures of basic event importance that SAPHIRE can calculate. This volume gives an overview of uncertainty analysis using simple Monte Carlo sampling or Latin Hypercube sampling, and states the algorithms used by this program to generate random basic event probabilities from various distributions. Also covered are enhance capabilities such as seismic analysis, cut set "recovery," end state manipulation, and use of "compound events."

  12. Evaluation of solder joint reliability in flip-chip packages during accelerated testing

    Kim, Jong-Woong; Kim, Dae-Gon; Hong, Won Sik; Jung, Seung-Boo

    2005-12-01

    The microstructural investigation and thermomechanical reliability evaluation of the Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu solder bumped flip-chip package were carried out during the thermal shock test of the package. In the initial reaction, the reaction product between the solder and Cu mini bump of chip side was Cu6Sn5 intermetallic compound (IMC) layer, while the two phases which were (Cu,Ni)6Sn5 and (Ni,Cu)3Sn4 were formed between the solder and electroless Ni-P layer of the package side. The cracks occurred at the corner solder joints after the thermal shocks of 400 cycles. The primary failure mechanism of the solder joints in this type of package was confirmed to be thermally-activated solder fatigue failure. The premature brittle interfacial failure sometimes occurred in the package side, but nearly all of the failed packages showed the occurrence of the typical fatigue cracks. The finite-element analyses were conducted to interpret the failure mechanisms of the packages, and revealed that the cracks were induced by the accumulation of the plastic work and viscoplastic shear strains.

  13. Evaluation of the reliability of measurements in cephalograms generated from cone beam computed tomography

    Maurício Barbosa Guerra da Silva

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose was to compare angular and linear measurements generated in digital cephalometric radiographs and cephalograms synthesized from three-dimensional images. METHODS: Twenty-six individuals (12 men and 14 women with mean age of 26.3 years were selected. Digital cephalometric radiographs and CBCTs were taken on the same day. The images were imported and analyzed on Dolphin Imaging V.10.5 software, which synthesized cephalograms in perspective projection and magnification of 9.7%. A single observer marked the points and repeated the procedure with an interval of time of ten days to evaluate intraexaminer error. In the statistical analysis paired Student's t test was used to establish the correlation between the measurements. RESULTS: The angular measurements GoGn.SN and IMPA, which involved the Gonial point (Go and the linear measurements that involved the lips presented significant difference (p < 0.05. The other measurements presented good correlation. CONCLUSION: The measurements in the synthesized cephalograms proved to be reliable.

  14. Systems Analysis Programs for Hands-On Integrated Reliability Evaluations (SAPHIRE) Technical Reference

    C. L. Smith; W. J. Galyean; S. T. Beck

    2008-08-01

    The Systems Analysis Programs for Hands-on Integrated Reliability Evaluations (SAPHIRE) is a software application developed for performing a complete probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) using a personal computer (PC) running the Microsoft Windows? operating system. Herein information is provided on the principles used in the construction and operation of Version 6.0 and 7.0 of the SAPHIRE system. This report summarizes the fundamental mathematical concepts of sets and logic, fault trees, and probability. This volume then describes the algorithms used to construct a fault tree and to obtain the minimal cut sets. It gives the formulas used to obtain the probability of the top event from the minimal cut sets, and the formulas for probabilities that apply for various assumptions concerning reparability and mission time. It defines the measures of basic event importance that SAPHIRE can calculate. This volume gives an overview of uncertainty analysis using simple Monte Carlo sampling or Latin Hypercube sampling, and states the algorithms used by this program to generate random basic event probabilities from various distributions. Also covered are enhance capabilities such as seismic analysis, cut set "recovery," end state manipulation, and use of "compound events."

  15. A Correlated Model for Evaluating Performance and Energy of Cloud System Given System Reliability

    Hongli Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The serious issue of energy consumption for high performance computing systems has attracted much attention. Performance and energy-saving have become important measures of a computing system. In the cloud computing environment, the systems usually allocate various resources (such as CPU, Memory, Storage, etc. on multiple virtual machines (VMs for executing tasks. Therefore, the problem of resource allocation for running VMs should have significant influence on both system performance and energy consumption. For different processor utilizations assigned to the VM, there exists the tradeoff between energy consumption and task completion time when a given task is executed by the VMs. Moreover, the hardware failure, software failure and restoration characteristics also have obvious influences on overall performance and energy. In this paper, a correlated model is built to analyze both performance and energy in the VM execution environment given the reliability restriction, and an optimization model is presented to derive the most effective solution of processor utilization for the VM. Then, the tradeoff between energy-saving and task completion time is studied and balanced when the VMs execute given tasks. Numerical examples are illustrated to build the performance-energy correlated model and evaluate the expected values of task completion time and consumed energy.

  16. Fuzzy sets as extension of probabilistic models for evaluating human reliability

    On the base of a survey of established quantification methodologies for evaluating human reliability, a new computerized methodology was developed in which a differential consideration of user uncertainties is made. In this quantification method FURTHER (FUzzy Sets Related To Human Error Rate Prediction), user uncertainties are quantified separately from model and data uncertainties. As tools fuzzy sets are applied which, however, stay hidden to the method's user. The user in the quantification process only chooses an action pattern, performance shaping factors and natural language expressions. The acknowledged method HEART (Human Error Assessment and Reduction Technique) serves as foundation of the fuzzy set approach FURTHER. By means of this method, the selection of a basic task in connection with its basic error probability, the decision how correct the basic task's selection is, the selection of a peformance shaping factor, and the decision how correct the selection and how important the performance shaping factor is, were identified as aspects of fuzzification. This fuzzification is made on the base of data collection and information from literature as well as of the estimation by competent persons. To verify the ammount of additional information to be received by the usage of fuzzy sets, a benchmark session was accomplished. In this benchmark twelve actions were assessed by five test-persons. In case of the same degree of detail in the action modelling process, the bandwidths of the interpersonal evaluations decrease in FURTHER in comparison with HEART. The uncertainties of the single results could not be reduced up to now. The benchmark sessions conducted so far showed plausible results. A further testing of the fuzzy set approach by using better confirmed fuzzy sets can only be achieved in future practical application. Adequate procedures, however, are provided. (orig.)

  17. Systems Analysis Programs for Hands-on Integrated Reliability Evaluations (SAPHIRE) Code Reference Manual

    The Systems Analysis Programs for Hands-on Integrated Reliability Evaluations (SAPHIRE) is a software application developed for performing a complete probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) using a personal computer. SAPHIRE is funded by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and developed by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The INL's primary role in this project is that of software developer. However, the INL also plays an important role in technology transfer by interfacing and supporting SAPHIRE users comprised of a wide range of PRA practitioners from the NRC, national laboratories, the private sector, and foreign countries. SAPHIRE can be used to model a complex system's response to initiating events, quantify associated damage outcome frequencies, and identify important contributors to this damage (Level 1 PRA) and to analyze containment performance during a severe accident and quantify radioactive releases (Level 2 PRA). It can be used for a PRA evaluating a variety of operating conditions, for example, for a nuclear reactor at full power, low power, or at shutdown conditions. Furthermore, SAPHIRE can be used to analyze both internal and external initiating events and has special features for ansforming models built for internal event analysis to models for external event analysis. It can also be used in a limited manner to quantify risk in terms of release consequences to both the public and the environment (Level 3 PRA). SAPHIRE includes a separate module called the Graphical Evaluation Module (GEM). GEM provides a highly specialized user interface with SAPHIRE that automates SAPHIRE process steps for evaluating operational events at commercial nuclear power plants. Using GEM, an analyst can estimate the risk associated with operational events in a very efficient and expeditious manner. This reference guide will introduce the SAPHIRE Version 7.0 software. A brief discussion of the purpose and history of the software is included along with general

  18. Systems Analysis Programs for Hands-on Integrated Reliability Evaluations (SAPHIRE) Code Reference Manual

    C. L. Smith; K. J. Kvarfordt; S. T. Wood

    2006-07-01

    The Systems Analysis Programs for Hands-on Integrated Reliability Evaluations (SAPHIRE) is a software application developed for performing a complete probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) using a personal computer. SAPHIRE is funded by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and developed by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The INL's primary role in this project is that of software developer. However, the INL also plays an important role in technology transfer by interfacing and supporting SAPHIRE users comprised of a wide range of PRA practitioners from the NRC, national laboratories, the private sector, and foreign countries. SAPHIRE can be used to model a complex system’s response to initiating events, quantify associated damage outcome frequencies, and identify important contributors to this damage (Level 1 PRA) and to analyze containment performance during a severe accident and quantify radioactive releases (Level 2 PRA). It can be used for a PRA evaluating a variety of operating conditions, for example, for a nuclear reactor at full power, low power, or at shutdown conditions. Furthermore, SAPHIRE can be used to analyze both internal and external initiating events and has special features for ansforming models built for internal event analysis to models for external event analysis. It can also be used in a limited manner to quantify risk in terms of release consequences to both the public and the environment (Level 3 PRA). SAPHIRE includes a separate module called the Graphical Evaluation Module (GEM). GEM provides a highly specialized user interface with SAPHIRE that automates SAPHIRE process steps for evaluating operational events at commercial nuclear power plants. Using GEM, an analyst can estimate the risk associated with operational events in a very efficient and expeditious manner. This reference guide will introduce the SAPHIRE Version 7.0 software. A brief discussion of the purpose and history of the software is included along with

  19. Systems Analysis Programs for Hands-on Integrated Reliability Evaluations (SAPHIRE) Code Reference Manual

    C. L. Smith; K. J. Kvarfordt; S. T. Wood

    2008-08-01

    The Systems Analysis Programs for Hands-on Integrated Reliability Evaluations (SAPHIRE) is a software application developed for performing a complete probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) using a personal computer. SAPHIRE is funded by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and developed by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The INL's primary role in this project is that of software developer. However, the INL also plays an important role in technology transfer by interfacing and supporting SAPHIRE users comprised of a wide range of PRA practitioners from the NRC, national laboratories, the private sector, and foreign countries. SAPHIRE can be used to model a complex system’s response to initiating events, quantify associated damage outcome frequencies, and identify important contributors to this damage (Level 1 PRA) and to analyze containment performance during a severe accident and quantify radioactive releases (Level 2 PRA). It can be used for a PRA evaluating a variety of operating conditions, for example, for a nuclear reactor at full power, low power, or at shutdown conditions. Furthermore, SAPHIRE can be used to analyze both internal and external initiating events and has special features for transforming models built for internal event analysis to models for external event analysis. It can also be used in a limited manner to quantify risk in terms of release consequences to both the public and the environment (Level 3 PRA). SAPHIRE includes a separate module called the Graphical Evaluation Module (GEM). GEM provides a highly specialized user interface with SAPHIRE that automates SAPHIRE process steps for evaluating operational events at commercial nuclear power plants. Using GEM, an analyst can estimate the risk associated with operational events in a very efficient and expeditious manner. This reference guide will introduce the SAPHIRE Version 7.0 software. A brief discussion of the purpose and history of the software is included along with

  20. Low-Field Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Lumbar Spine: Reliability of Qualitative Evaluation of Disc and Muscle Parameters

    Solgaard Sorensen, J.; Kjaer, P.; Jensen, S.T.; Andersen, P. [Univ. of Southern Denmark, Ringe (Denmark). Clinical Locomotion Science

    2006-11-15

    Purpose: To determine the intra- and interobserver reliability in grading disc and muscle parameters using low-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Material and Methods: MRI scans of 100 subjects representative of the general population were evaluated blindly by two radiologists. Criteria for grading lumbar discs were based on the spinal nomenclature of the Combined Task Force and the literature. Consensus in rating was achieved by evaluating 50 MRI examinations in tandem. The remaining 50 examinations were evaluated independently by the observers to determine interobserver agreement and re-evaluated by one of the observers to determine intra-observer agreement. Results: Intra- and interobserver agreement was substantial when grading changes in the lumbar discs. Interobserver agreement was fair to moderate in grading the lumbar muscles, whereas intra-observer agreement was almost perfect. Conclusion: Convincing reliability was found in the evaluation of disc- and muscle-related MRI variables.

  1. Application of factor analysis in evaluation of financial reliability of life insurance companies

    Malynych, Anna Mykolayivna

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of factor analysis of the financial reliability of life insurance companies in Ukraine. It was found out the latent factors explaining the so called case and result the mechanism of forming of the financial reliability of the native life-insurance companies at different phases of functioning the life insurance market in Ukraine.

  2. Evaluating mallard adaptive management models with time series

    Conn, P.B.; Kendall, W.L.

    2004-01-01

    Wildlife practitioners concerned with midcontinent mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) management in the United States have instituted a system of adaptive harvest management (AHM) as an objective format for setting harvest regulations. Under the AHM paradigm, predictions from a set of models that reflect key uncertainties about processes underlying population dynamics are used in coordination with optimization software to determine an optimal set of harvest decisions. Managers use comparisons of the predictive abilities of these models to gauge the relative truth of different hypotheses about density-dependent recruitment and survival, with better-predicting models giving more weight to the determination of harvest regulations. We tested the effectiveness of this strategy by examining convergence rates of 'predictor' models when the true model for population dynamics was known a priori. We generated time series for cases when the a priori model was 1 of the predictor models as well as for several cases when the a priori model was not in the model set. We further examined the addition of different levels of uncertainty into the variance structure of predictor models, reflecting different levels of confidence about estimated parameters. We showed that in certain situations, the model-selection process favors a predictor model that incorporates the hypotheses of additive harvest mortality and weakly density-dependent recruitment, even when the model is not used to generate data. Higher levels of predictor model variance led to decreased rates of convergence to the model that generated the data, but model weight trajectories were in general more stable. We suggest that predictive models should incorporate all sources of uncertainty about estimated parameters, that the variance structure should be similar for all predictor models, and that models with different functional forms for population dynamics should be considered for inclusion in predictor model! sets. All of these

  3. On the reliability evaluation of communication equipment for SMART using FMEA

    This report describes the reliability analysis method for communication equipment using FMEA and FTA. The major equipments to be applicable for SMART communication networks are repeater, bridge, router and gateway and we can apply the FMEA or FTA technique. In the FMEA process, analysis of tagged system, decision of the level of analysis of the target system, drawing reliability block diagram according to the function, decision of failure mode, writing the fault reasons, writing on the FMEA sheet and FMEA level decision are included. Also, the FTA, it is possible to figure out top event reasons and system reliability. We have considered these in mind and we did the FMEA and FTA for NIC, hub, client server and router. Also, we suggested and integrated network model for nuclear power plant and we have shown the reliability analysis procedure according to FTA. If any proprietary communication device is developed, the reliability can be easily determined with proposed procedures

  4. Reliability Engineering

    Lazzaroni, Massimo

    2012-01-01

    This book gives a practical guide for designers and users in Information and Communication Technology context. In particular, in the first Section, the definition of the fundamental terms according to the international standards are given. Then, some theoretical concepts and reliability models are presented in Chapters 2 and 3: the aim is to evaluate performance for components and systems and reliability growth. Chapter 4, by introducing the laboratory tests, puts in evidence the reliability concept from the experimental point of view. In ICT context, the failure rate for a given system can be

  5. Adapting Binary Information Retrieval Evaluation Metrics for Segment-based Retrieval Tasks

    Aly, Robin; Eskevich, Maria; Ordelman, Roeland; Jones, Gareth J.F.

    2013-01-01

    This report describes metrics for the evaluation of the effectiveness of segment-based retrieval based on existing binary information retrieval metrics. This metrics are described in the context of a task for the hyperlinking of video segments. This evaluation approach re-uses existing evaluation measures from the standard Cranfield evaluation paradigm. Our adaptation approach can in principle be used with any kind of effectiveness measure that uses binary relevance, and for other segment-bae...

  6. A critical evaluation of deterministic methods in size optimisation of reliable and cost effective standalone hybrid renewable energy systems

    cost-effective system cannot be quantified without employing probabilistic methods of analysis. It is also shown that deterministic cost analysis yields inaccurate results for all of the investigated configurations. - Graphical abstract: Deterministic size optimisation methods are unreliable in design of reliable and cost effective wind–PV–battery hybrid renewable systems irrespective of selected worst-case-scenarios and safety factors. - Highlights: • Deterministic design optimisation methods do not predict the cost of standalone HRES accurately. • Deterministic methods do not evaluate power reliability of standalone HRES directly. • Deterministic methods of design of HRES lead to solutions with unpredictable power reliability. • New robust design methods are required to be developed for standalone HRES

  7. Assessing Reliability and Validity of the "GroPromo" Audit Tool for Evaluation of Grocery Store Marketing and Promotional Environments

    Kerr, Jacqueline; Sallis, James F.; Bromby, Erica; Glanz, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate reliability and validity of a new tool for assessing the placement and promotional environment in grocery stores. Methods: Trained observers used the "GroPromo" instrument in 40 stores to code the placement of 7 products in 9 locations within a store, along with other promotional characteristics. To test construct validity,…

  8. Nutrition and Physical Activity Knowledge Assessment: Development of Questionnaires and Evaluation of Reliability in African American and Latino Children

    Roberts, Lindsay S.; Sharma, Sushma; Hudes, Mark L.; Fleming, Sharon E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: African-American and Latino children living in neighborhoods with a low-socioeconomic index are more at risk of obesity-associated metabolic disease than their higher socioeconomic index and/or white peers. Currently, consistent and reliable questionnaires to evaluate nutrition and physical activity knowledge in these children are…

  9. Reliability Evaluation of Monolithic Vertical Wall Breakwaters Considering Impulsive Wave Breaking Forces and Failure Modes of the Foundation

    Burcharth, H. F.; Sørensen, Jørgen S.; Christiani, E.

    1994-01-01

    a caisson structure. A reliability evaluation of the same structure is then performed using a level II FORM analysis. In this only the failure modes sliding and overturning are taken into account. The various modes of the foundation slip failures are presented. The method of probabilistic foundation...

  10. Reliability and agreement of 5 ergo-kit functional capacity evaluation lifting tests in subjects with low back pain

    V. Gouttebarge; H. Wind; P. Kuijer; J.K. Sluiter; M.H. Frings-Dresen

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To assess interrater reliability and agreement of 5 Ergo-Kit functional capacity evaluation lifting tests in subjects with low back pain (LBP). Design: Within-subjects design, with 2 repeated measurements. Setting: Academic medical center in The Netherlands. Participants: Twenty-four subj

  11. Increased Reliability Of Genetic Evaluations For Dairy Cattle In The United States From Use Of Genomic Information

    Use of genomic information increased reliability of genetic evaluations compared to parent averages by 28.4% for Holsteins, 20.7% for Jerseys and 12.8% for Brown Swiss when averaged across milk, fat and protein yields and three functional traits. Correlations of genomic predictions based on evaluati...

  12. Agricultural Catchments: Evaluating Policies and Monitoring Adaptive Management

    Jordan, P.; Shortle, G.; Mellander, P. E.; Shore, M.; McDonald, N.; Buckley, C.

    2014-12-01

    Agricultural management in river catchments must combine the objectives of economic profit and environmental stewardship and, in many countries, mitigate the decline of water quality and/or maintain high water quality. Achieving these objectives is, amongst other activities, in the remit of 'sustainable intensification'. Of concern is the efficient use of crop nutrients, phosphorus and nitrogen, and minimising or offsetting the effects of transfers from land to water - corner-stone requirements of many agri-environmental regulations. This requires a robust monitoring programme that can audit the stages of nutrient inputs and outputs in river catchments and indicate where the likely points of successful policy interventions can be observed - or confounded. In this paper, a catchment, or watershed, experimental design and results are described for monitoring the nutrient transfer continuum in the Irish agricultural landscape against the backdrop of the European Union Nitrates and Water Framework Directives. This Agricultural Catchments Programme experimental design also serves to indicate water quality pressure-points that may be catchment specific as agricultural activities intensify to adapt to national efforts to build important parts of the post-recession economy.

  13. Adaptive Work Strategy for Evaluating a Conceptual Site Model

    Dietrich, P.; Utom, A. U.; Werban, U.

    2015-12-01

    A comprehensive, diagnostic, procedural and adaptive scheme involving a combination of geophysical and direct push methods was developed and applied in the Wurmlingen study site situated within the region of Baden-Württemberg (southwest Germany). The goal of the study was to test the applicability of electrical resistivity method in imaging resistivity contrasts, and mapping the depth to and lateral extent of field-scale subsurface structures and existence of flow paths that may control concentration gradients of groundwater solution contents. Based on a relatively fast and cost-effective areal mapping with vertical electrical sounding technique, a northwest-southeast trending stream-channel-like depression (low apparent resistivity feature) through a Pleistocene aquifer was detected. For a more detailed characterization, we implemented electrical resistivity tomography method followed by direct push (DP) technologies. Beside the use of DP for verification of structures identified by geophysical tools, we used it for multi-level groundwater sampling. Results from groundwater chemistry indicate zones of steep nitrate concentration gradients associated with the feature.

  14. Evaluating Written Patient Information for Eczema in German: Comparing the Reliability of Two Instruments, DISCERN and EQIP.

    Megan E McCool

    Full Text Available Patients actively seek information about how to cope with their health problems, but the quality of the information available varies. A number of instruments have been developed to assess the quality of patient information, primarily though in English. Little is known about the reliability of these instruments when applied to patient information in German. The objective of our study was to investigate and compare the reliability of two validated instruments, DISCERN and EQIP, in order to determine which of these instruments is better suited for a further study pertaining to the quality of information available to German patients with eczema. Two independent raters evaluated a random sample of 20 informational brochures in German. All the brochures addressed eczema as a disorder and/or therapy options and care. Intra-rater and inter-rater reliability were assessed by calculating intra-class correlation coefficients, agreement was tested with weighted kappas, and the correlation of the raters' scores for each instrument was measured with Pearson's correlation coefficient. DISCERN demonstrated substantial intra- and inter-rater reliability. It also showed slightly better agreement than EQIP. There was a strong correlation of the raters' scores for both instruments. The findings of this study support the reliability of both DISCERN and EQIP. However, based on the results of the inter-rater reliability, agreement and correlation analyses, we consider DISCERN to be the more precise tool for our project on patient information concerning the treatment and care of eczema.

  15. Evaluation and Adaptation of Mine-Hunting Operations with AUVs

    Vossen, R. van; Giodini, S.; Hunter, A.J.; Beckers, A.L.D.; Williams, D.F.

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness and efficiency of mine-hunting operations with autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) are greatly influenced by environmental conditions, such as seabed, turbidity, currents, and tides. Therefore accurate environmental information is needed for the planning and evaluation of mine-hu

  16. Pediatric evaluation of disability inventory : the Dutch adaption

    Custers, J.W.H.

    2002-01-01

    In Chapter 1 the theoretical concept of childhood disablement is explained. In addition, a brief introduction is presented, regarding pediatric functional status measurement, and more specifically the subject of this thesis: the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory. The aims and outline of t

  17. Adoption? Adaptation? Evaluating the Formation of Educational Expectations

    Andrew, Megan; Hauser, Robert M.

    2011-01-01

    Sociologists have long used educational expectations to understand the complex mental processes underlying individuals' educational decision making. Yet, little research evaluates how students actually formulate their educational expectations. Status attainment theory asserts that students adopt their educational expectations early based on family…

  18. A new method to evaluate the sealing reliability of the flanged connections for Molten Salt Reactors

    Li, Qiming, E-mail: liqiming@sinap.ac.cn [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Key Laboratory of Nuclear Radiation and Nuclear Energy Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Tian, Jian; Zhou, Chong [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Key Laboratory of Nuclear Radiation and Nuclear Energy Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Wang, Naxiu, E-mail: wangnaxiu@sinap.ac.cn [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Key Laboratory of Nuclear Radiation and Nuclear Energy Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China)

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • We novelly valuate the sealing reliability of the flanged connections for MSRs. • We focus on the passive decrease of the leak impetus in flanged connections. • The modified flanged connections are acquired a sealing ability of self-adjustment. • Effects of redesigned flange configurations on molten salt leakage are discussed. - Abstract: The Thorium based Molten Salt Reactor (TMSR) project is a future Generation IV nuclear reactor system proposed by the Chinese Academy of Sciences with the strategic goal of meeting the growing energy needs in the Chinese economic development and social progress. It is based on liquid salts served as both fuel and primary coolant and consequently great challenges are brought into the sealing of the flanged connections. In this study, an improved prototype flange assembly is performed on the strength of the Freeze-Flange initially developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The calculation results of the finite element model established to analyze the temperature profile of the Freeze-Flange agree well with the experimental data, which indicates that the numerical simulation method is credible. For further consideration, the ideal-gas thermodynamic model, together with the mathematical approximation, is novelly borrowed to theoretically evaluate the sealing performance of the modified Freeze-Flange and the traditional double gaskets bolted flange joint. This study focuses on the passive decrease of the leak driving force due to multiple gaskets introduced in flanged connections for MSR. The effects of the redesigned flange configuration on molten salt leakage resistance are discussed in detail.

  19. Identification and Evaluation of Reliable Reference Genes in the Medicinal Fungus Shiraia bambusicola.

    Song, Liang; Li, Tong; Fan, Li; Shen, Xiao-Ye; Hou, Cheng-Lin

    2016-04-01

    The stability of reference genes plays a vital role in real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis, which is generally regarded as a convenient and sensitive tool for the analysis of gene expression. A well-known medicinal fungus, Shiraia bambusicola, has great potential in the pharmaceutical, agricultural and food industries, but its suitable reference genes have not yet been determined. In the present study, 11 candidate reference genes in S. bambusicola were first evaluated and validated comprehensively. To identify the suitable reference genes for qRT-PCR analysis, three software-based algorithms, geNorm, NormFinder and Best Keeper, were applied to rank the tested genes. RNA samples were collected from seven fermentation stages using different media (potato dextrose or Czapek medium) and under different light conditions (12-h light/12-h dark and all-dark). The three most appropriate reference genes, ubi, tfc and ags, were able to normalize the qRT-PCR results under the culturing conditions of 12-h light/12-h dark, whereas the other three genes, vac, gke and acyl, performed better in the culturing conditions of all-dark growth. Therefore, under different light conditions, at least two reference genes (ubi and vac) could be employed to assure the reliability of qRT-PCR results. For both the natural culture medium (the most appropriate genes of this group: ubi, tfc and ags) and the chemically defined synthetic medium (the most stable genes of this group: tfc, vac and ef), the tfc gene remained the best gene used for normalizing the gene expression found with qRT-PCR. It is anticipated that these results would improve the selection of suitable reference genes for qRT-PCR assays and lay the foundation for an accurate analysis of gene expression in S. bambusicola. PMID:26721832

  20. A new method to evaluate the sealing reliability of the flanged connections for Molten Salt Reactors

    Highlights: • We novelly valuate the sealing reliability of the flanged connections for MSRs. • We focus on the passive decrease of the leak impetus in flanged connections. • The modified flanged connections are acquired a sealing ability of self-adjustment. • Effects of redesigned flange configurations on molten salt leakage are discussed. - Abstract: The Thorium based Molten Salt Reactor (TMSR) project is a future Generation IV nuclear reactor system proposed by the Chinese Academy of Sciences with the strategic goal of meeting the growing energy needs in the Chinese economic development and social progress. It is based on liquid salts served as both fuel and primary coolant and consequently great challenges are brought into the sealing of the flanged connections. In this study, an improved prototype flange assembly is performed on the strength of the Freeze-Flange initially developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The calculation results of the finite element model established to analyze the temperature profile of the Freeze-Flange agree well with the experimental data, which indicates that the numerical simulation method is credible. For further consideration, the ideal-gas thermodynamic model, together with the mathematical approximation, is novelly borrowed to theoretically evaluate the sealing performance of the modified Freeze-Flange and the traditional double gaskets bolted flange joint. This study focuses on the passive decrease of the leak driving force due to multiple gaskets introduced in flanged connections for MSR. The effects of the redesigned flange configuration on molten salt leakage resistance are discussed in detail

  1. RELIABILITY EVALUATION OF PHOTOVOLTAIC TECHNOLOGIES RELEVANT TO SPACE AND TERRESTRIAL APPLICATIONS

    FERNANDEZ LISBONA Emilio; Taylor, Nigel

    2013-01-01

    The reliability of PV devices and systems is a key factor in both space and terrestrial applications, although the approaches used to date are fundamentally different. Space solar array reliability is the ability to perform the required functions for specific mission environment and duration. Performance is calculated taking into account the different parameters correlated to expected losses and random failures that might occur. For this reason “on ground” life testing of flight representativ...

  2. Adaptation and Evaluation of the WillTry Tool Among Children in Guam

    Aflague, Tanisha F.; Rachael T. Leon Guerrero; Boushey, Carol J

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Fruit and vegetable consumption may reduce risk for chronic disease and obesity. Children’s fruit and vegetable intake is mediated by a preference or willingness to try them. This study’s primary objective was to adapt the previously validated WillTry tool and to evaluate the adapted version among children in Guam. Methods Adaptations to the WillTry tool included both novel fruits and vegetables unique to Guam and common ones. Children aged 3 to 11 years who attended 2 community-...

  3. AN EVALUATION OF FARMERS’ PERCEPTIONS OF AND ADAPTATION TO THE EFFECTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE IN KENYA

    Hilary K. Ndambiri; Cecilia N. Ritho; Stephen G. Mbogoh

    2013-01-01

    The study was carried out to evaluate how farmers in Kyuso District have perceived and adapted to climate change. Data was collected from 246 farmers from six locations sampled out through a multistage and simple random sampling procedure. The Heckman probit model was fitted to the data to avoid sample selection bias since not every farmer who may perceive climate change responds by adapting. The analysis revealed that 94% of farmers in Kyuso District had a perception that clim...

  4. Adapting the Locales Framework for Heuristic Evaluation of Groupware

    Saul Greenberg

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Heuristic evaluation is a rapid, cheap and effective way for identifying usability problems in single user systems. However, current heuristics do not provide guidance for discovering problems specific to groupware usability. In this paper, we take the Locales Framework and restate it as heuristics appropriate for evaluating groupware. These are: 1 Provide locales; 2 Provide awareness within locales; 3 Allow individual views; 4 Allow people to manage and stay aware of their evolving interactions; and 5 Provide a way to organize and relate locales to one another. To see if these new heuristics are useful in practice, we used them to inspect the interface of Teamwave Workplace, a commercial groupware product. We were successful in identifying the strengths of Teamwave as well as both major and minor interface problems.

  5. Pediatric evaluation of disability inventory : the Dutch adaption

    Custers, J.W.H.

    2002-01-01

    In Chapter 1 the theoretical concept of childhood disablement is explained. In addition, a brief introduction is presented, regarding pediatric functional status measurement, and more specifically the subject of this thesis: the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory. The aims and outline of the thesis are formulated. In Chapter 2 the applicability of the PEDI in the Netherlands is studied involving a sample of 20 Dutch children without disabilities. Their functional status outcome is c...

  6. Reliability of measures used in radiographic evaluation of the adult hip

    Bjarnason, J.A.; Reikeras, O. [Oslo University Hospital, Department of Orthopedics, Oslo (Norway); Pripp, A.H. [Oslo University Hospital, Department of Biostatistics, Oslo (Norway)

    2015-02-20

    The reliability of radiographic measurements has been studied in pediatric hips, but less has been published on the adult hip, and none have examined the reliability of measurements for the location of the center of rotation (COR) of the hip joint. We have investigated the reliability of various radiographic variables with a focus on the COR. The study was carried out on a standardized format for anterior-posterior radiographs of the pelvis. The measured variables were; (A) the distance from a sagittal reference line to the COR, (B) the distance from the sagittal reference line to the proximal end of the lateral cortical line of the femur, (C) the distance from the sagittal reference line to the medial rim of the acetabulum, (D) the distance from the horizontal reference line to the roof of the acetabulum, and (E) the distance from the horizontal reference line to the COR. One observer (JAB) conducted the measurements twice separated by a time interval of 45-60 days to assess intra-observer reliability, and the first measurements of JAB were compared to those performed by another observer (OR) to assess inter-observer reliability. Intraclass correlation coefficients were above 0.98 for all measurements, and the minimum and maximum values that statistically include 95 % of the observer differences were all within -3 to +3 mm. These measurements proved to have high reliability and agreement of both within the same observer and between two observers. They should therefore be reproducible in a clinical setting. (orig.)

  7. Brazilian version of the instrument of environmental assessment Craig Hospital Inventory of Environmental Factors (CHIEF: translation, cross-cultural adaptation and reliability

    Sheyla R. C. Furtado

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Environmental factors are essential for the characterization of human functioning and disability; however, the shortage of standardized instruments to assess environmental factors has limited the design of scientific investigations directed at identifying barriers to and facilitators of social participation of people with disabilities. Objectives : To translate to Brazilian Portuguese, cross-culturally adapt, and verify the reliability of an environmental assessment questionnaire, entitled Craig Hospital Inventory of Environmental Factors (CHIEF. Method : The questionnaire was translated to Portuguese, analyzed, translated back to English, and compared with the original version. The final version (CHIEF-BR was submitted to 47 caregivers of children and adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP. The intra-rater reliability was tested using quadratic kappa and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC, through interviews of 23 caregivers drawn from the total sample, on two occasions 10 days apart. Results : During submission of the questionnaires, it was observed that examples were needed in order to facilitate the understanding of the questions related to the politics sub-scale. Quadratic kappa showed that test-retest reliability of each question varied from 0.28 to 1.0 for the frequency score and from 0.30 to 0.98 for the magnitude score. Intraclass correlation coefficients for total scores showed high consistency indices (ICC≥0.92 for test-retest. Conclusion : The Brazilian version of the CHIEF was reproducible and applicable to the study sample. It may serve as an instrument to characterize the environmental barriers as well as a way to document the effects of interventions aimed at minimizing the impact of such barriers on the participation of children and adolescents with CP.

  8. Good validity and reliability of the forgotten joint score in evaluating the outcome of total knee arthroplasty.

    Thomsen, Morten G; Latifi, Roshan; Kallemose, Thomas; Barfod, Kristoffer W; Husted, Henrik; Troelsen, Anders

    2016-06-01

    Background and purpose - When evaluating the outcome after total knee arthroplasty (TKA), increasing emphasis has been put on patient satisfaction and ability to perform activities of daily living. To address this, the forgotten joint score (FJS) for assessment of knee awareness has been developed. We investigated the validity and reliability of the FJS. Patients and methods - A Danish version of the FJS questionnaire was created according to internationally accepted standards. 360 participants who underwent primary TKA were invited to participate in the study. Of these, 315 were included in a validity study and 150 in a reliability study. Correlation between the Oxford knee score (OKS) and the FJS was examined and test-retest evaluation was performed. A ceiling effect was defined as participants reaching a score within 15% of the maximum achievable score. Results - The validity study revealed a strong correlation between the FJS and the OKS (intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) = 0.81, 95% CI: 0.77-0.85; p evaluation showed almost perfect reliability for the FJS total score (ICC = 0.91, 95% CI: 0.88-0.94) and substantial reliability or better for individual items of the FJS (ICC? 0.79). We found a high level of internal consistency (Cronbach's? = 0.96). The ceiling effect for the FJS was 16%, as compared to 37% for the OKS. Interpretation - The FJS showed good construct validity and test-retest reliability. It had a lower ceiling effect than the OKS. The FJS appears to be a promising tool for evaluation of small differences in knee performance in groups of patients with good clinical results after TKA. PMID:26937689

  9. Generating a Domain Specific Inspection Evaluation Method through an Adaptive Framework

    Roobaea AlRoobaea

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The electronic information revolution and the use of computers as an essential part of everyday life are now more widespread than ever before, as the Internet is exploited for the speedy transfer of data and business. Social networking sites (SNSs, such as LinkedIn, Ecademy and Google+ are growing in use worldwide, and they present popular business channels on the Internet. However, they need to be continuously evaluated and monitored to measure their levels of efficiency, effectiveness and user satisfaction, ultimately to improve quality. Nearly all previous studies have used Heuristic Evaluation (HE and User Testing (UT methodologies, which have become the accepted methods for the usability evaluation of User Interface Design (UID; however, the former is general, and unlikely to encompass all usability attributes for all website domains. The latter is expensive, time consuming and misses consistency problems. To address this need, a new evaluation method is developed using traditional evaluations (HE and UT in novel ways. The lack of an adaptive methodological framework that can be used to generate a domain- specific evaluation method, which can then be used to improve the usability assessment process for a product in any chosen domain, represents a missing area in usability testing. This paper proposes an adaptive framework that is readily capable of adaptation to any domain, and then evaluates it by generating an evaluation method for assessing and improving the usability of products in a particular domain. The evaluation method is called Domain Specific Inspection (DSI, and it is empirically, analytically and statistically tested by applying it on three websites in the social networks domain. Our experiments show that the adaptive framework is able to build a formative and summative evaluation method that provides optimal results with regard to our newly identified set of comprehensive usability problem areas as well as relevant usability

  10. Systems Analysis Programs for Hands-on Integrated Reliability Evaluations (SAPHIRE)

    The Systems Analysis Programs for Hands-on Integrated Reliability Evaluations (SAPHIRE) is a software application developed for performing a complete probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) using a personal computer (PC) running the Microsoft Windows operating system. SAPHIRE is primarily funded by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and developed by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). INL's primary role in this project is that of software developer and tester. However, INL also plays an important role in technology transfer by interfacing and supporting SAPHIRE users, who constitute a wide range of PRA practitioners from the NRC, national laboratories, the private sector, and foreign countries. SAPHIRE can be used to model a complex system's response to initiating events and quantify associated consequential outcome frequencies. Specifically, for nuclear power plant applications, SAPHIRE can identify important contributors to core damage (Level 1 PRA) and containment failure during a severe accident which lead to releases (Level 2 PRA). It can be used for a PRA where the reactor is at full power, low power, or at shutdown conditions. Furthermore, it can be used to analyze both internal and external initiating events and has special features for transforming an internal events model to a model for external events, such as flooding and fire analysis. It can also be used in a limited manner to quantify risk in terms of release consequences to the public and environment (Level 3 PRA). SAPHIRE also includes a separate module called the Graphical Evaluation Module (GEM). GEM is a special user interface linked to SAPHIRE that automates the SAPHIRE process steps for evaluating operational events at commercial nuclear power plants. Using GEM, an analyst can estimate the risk associated with operational events (for example, to calculate a conditional core damage probability) very efficiently and expeditiously. This report provides an overview of the functions

  11. Systems Analysis Programs for Hands-on Intergrated Reliability Evaluations (SAPHIRE) Summary Manual

    C. L. Smith

    2008-08-01

    The Systems Analysis Programs for Hands-on Integrated Reliability Evaluations (SAPHIRE) is a software application developed for performing a complete probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) using a personal computer (PC) running the Microsoft Windows operating system. SAPHIRE is primarily funded by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and developed by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). INL's primary role in this project is that of software developer and tester. However, INL also plays an important role in technology transfer by interfacing and supporting SAPHIRE users, who constitute a wide range of PRA practitioners from the NRC, national laboratories, the private sector, and foreign countries. SAPHIRE can be used to model a complex system’s response to initiating events and quantify associated consequential outcome frequencies. Specifically, for nuclear power plant applications, SAPHIRE can identify important contributors to core damage (Level 1 PRA) and containment failure during a severe accident which lead to releases (Level 2 PRA). It can be used for a PRA where the reactor is at full power, low power, or at shutdown conditions. Furthermore, it can be used to analyze both internal and external initiating events and has special features for transforming an internal events model to a model for external events, such as flooding and fire analysis. It can also be used in a limited manner to quantify risk in terms of release consequences to the public and environment (Level 3 PRA). SAPHIRE also includes a separate module called the Graphical Evaluation Module (GEM). GEM is a special user interface linked to SAPHIRE that automates the SAPHIRE process steps for evaluating operational events at commercial nuclear power plants. Using GEM, an analyst can estimate the risk associated with operational events (for example, to calculate a conditional core damage probability) very efficiently and expeditiously. This report provides an overview of the functions

  12. Quality evaluation of adaptive optical image based on DCT and Rényi entropy

    Xu, Yuannan; Li, Junwei; Wang, Jing; Deng, Rong; Dong, Yanbing

    2015-04-01

    The adaptive optical telescopes play a more and more important role in the detection system on the ground, and the adaptive optical images are so many that we need find a suitable method of quality evaluation to choose good quality images automatically in order to save human power. It is well known that the adaptive optical images are no-reference images. In this paper, a new logarithmic evaluation method based on the use of the discrete cosine transform(DCT) and Rényi entropy for the adaptive optical images is proposed. Through the DCT using one or two dimension window, the statistical property of Rényi entropy for images is studied. The different directional Rényi entropy maps of an input image containing different information content are obtained. The mean values of different directional Rényi entropy maps are calculated. For image quality evaluation, the different directional Rényi entropy and its standard deviation corresponding to region of interest is selected as an indicator for the anisotropy of the images. The standard deviation of different directional Rényi entropy is obtained as the quality evaluation value for adaptive optical image. Experimental results show the proposed method that the sorting quality matches well with the visual inspection.

  13. Evaluation of the reliability of a conventional platform installed in South Pass Block 47 of the Mississippi River delta

    Bea, R.G. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1996-12-31

    In August 1995, the Energy Development Corporation (EDC) installed a conventional drilling and production platform in South Pass Block 47 (SP 47). Due to its proximity to the delta of the Mississippi River, this platform will be subject to the environmental forces developed by hurricanes and movements of the sea floor. This paper summarizes results from probability based study of the reliability characteristics of a conventional platform installed in SP 47. Bases for evaluation of the acceptability of the reliability of the platform are developed. This paper shows how reliability methods can be used to help improve the efficiency of offshore platforms. Application of traditional engineering approaches indicated the need for a mudslide resistant platform. Given that a mudslide resistant platform was required, then the gas reserves could not have been developed.

  14. Principles of performance and reliability modeling and evaluation essays in honor of Kishor Trivedi on his 70th birthday

    Puliafito, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    This book presents the latest key research into the performance and reliability aspects of dependable fault-tolerant systems and features commentary on the fields studied by Prof. Kishor S. Trivedi during his distinguished career. Analyzing system evaluation as a fundamental tenet in the design of modern systems, this book uses performance and dependability as common measures and covers novel ideas, methods, algorithms, techniques, and tools for the in-depth study of the performance and reliability aspects of dependable fault-tolerant systems. It identifies the current challenges that designers and practitioners must face in order to ensure the reliability, availability, and performance of systems, with special focus on their dynamic behaviors and dependencies, and provides system researchers, performance analysts, and practitioners with the tools to address these challenges in their work. With contributions from Prof. Trivedi's former PhD students and collaborators, many of whom are internationally recognize...

  15. Functional reliability evaluation of an MTR-pool type research reactor core using the load–capacity interference model

    Highlights: • Load–capacity concept is used for reliability evaluation. • Functional Reliability is evaluated in normal operation. • Status of reactor core in normal operation is considered as multiple states. • Latin Hypercube Sampling is used for sampling in uncertainty propagation. • Core heat transfer coefficient is identified as the dominant parameter. - Abstract: This paper presents the functional reliability evaluation of Tehran Research Reactor (TRR) core in normal operation. The concept of functional reliability, borrowed from reliability physics, uses the well-known resistance–stress or load–capacity interference model that is used in the structural reliability framework. To use the load–capacity interference model, uncertainties of significant parameters in system performance are propagated into system dynamics modeled with RELAP5/Mod 3.2 using Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS) method and exceedance probability (EP) model is used as quantification method. The proposed method in this paper solves a common problem in reliability analysis, i.e., lack of sufficient failure data in specific operating conditions. Although defining failure criteria in normal operation are difficult, this paper focuses on the application of multiple states criteria to determine the status of a system. The status of the reactor core in normal operation is considered multiple states regarding to a performance representative parameter that is temperature in this work. Outlet temperatures of fuel hot and average channels were selected to be performance indicators in normal operation. Consulting with TRR engineers and operators as well as safety analysis report, two failure states were considered exceeding 65.1 °C and 58.9 °C for the hot channel and 50.4 °C and 45.6 °C for the average channel as upper and lower limits respectively. The calculated reliability was 9.1e−01 with 95% of confidence interval, which is in good agreement with experimental results. Using

  16. Credit risk evaluation using adaptive Lq penalty SVM with Gauss kernel

    2008-01-01

    In order to improve the performance of support vector machine (SVM) applications in the field of credit risk evaluation, an adaptive Lq SVM model with Gauss kernel (ALqG-SVM) is proposed to evaluate credit risks. The non-adaptive penalty of the object function is extended to (0, 2] to increase classification accuracy. To further improve the generalization performance of the proposed model, the Gauss kernel is introduced, thus the non-linear classification problem can be linearly separated in higher dimensio...

  17. Examples of fatigue lifetime and reliability evaluation of larger wind turbine components

    Tarp-Johansen, N.J.

    2003-03-01

    This report is one out of several that constitute the final report on the ELSAM funded PSO project 'Vindmoellekomponenters udmattelsesstyrke og levetid', project no. 2079, which regards the lifetime distribution of larger wind turbine components in a generic turbine that has real life dimensions. Though it was the initial intention of the project to consider only the distribution of lifetimes the work reported in this document provides also calculations of reliabilities and partial load safety factors under specific assumptions about uncertainty sources, as reliabilities are considered to be of interest to potential readers too. (au)

  18. Reliability database development for use with an object-oriented fault tree evaluation program

    Heger, A. Sharif; Harringtton, Robert J.; Koen, Billy V.; Patterson-Hine, F. Ann

    1989-01-01

    A description is given of the development of a fault-tree analysis method using object-oriented programming. In addition, the authors discuss the programs that have been developed or are under development to connect a fault-tree analysis routine to a reliability database. To assess the performance of the routines, a relational database simulating one of the nuclear power industry databases has been constructed. For a realistic assessment of the results of this project, the use of one of existing nuclear power reliability databases is planned.

  19. Online Identification with Reliability Criterion and State of Charge Estimation Based on a Fuzzy Adaptive Extended Kalman Filter for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Zhongwei Deng

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the field of state of charge (SOC estimation, the Kalman filter has been widely used for many years, although its performance strongly depends on the accuracy of the battery model as well as the noise covariance. The Kalman gain determines the confidence coefficient of the battery model by adjusting the weight of open circuit voltage (OCV correction, and has a strong correlation with the measurement noise covariance (R. In this paper, the online identification method is applied to acquire the real model parameters under different operation conditions. A criterion based on the OCV error is proposed to evaluate the reliability of online parameters. Besides, the equivalent circuit model produces an intrinsic model error which is dependent on the load current, and the property that a high battery current or a large current change induces a large model error can be observed. Based on the above prior knowledge, a fuzzy model is established to compensate the model error through updating R. Combining the positive strategy (i.e., online identification and negative strategy (i.e., fuzzy model, a more reliable and robust SOC estimation algorithm is proposed. The experiment results verify the proposed reliability criterion and SOC estimation method under various conditions for LiFePO4 batteries.

  20. Reliability of semi-pronated ulnar deviation PA view (billiard view) of the wrist in evaluating the scaphoid.

    Park, Ho Youn; Yoon, Jun O; Kim, Keonghwan; Bae, Kunhyung; Sohn, Dong Wook; Kim, Jin Sam

    2016-07-01

    Various methods assessing the scaphoid have been reported because of its unique position. In our hospital, pre- and postoperative evaluation of the scaphoid alignment has been carried out in the billiard view, a combination of 45° pronated oblique with ulnar deviation posteroanterior (PA) view, in addition to 3DCT scan and PA and lateral view. This study compared the intra- and inter-observer reliabilities of the lateral intrascaphoid angle and scaphoid length (SL) and scaphoid height (SH) on the billiard view. A total of 60 patients who underwent surgery for scaphoid nonunion were identified and the preoperative and the final follow-up postoperative plain radiographs were used for measurement. Three observers assessed each image. Intra- and inter-observer reliability was determined using intra-class correlation (ICC) coefficients. Intra-observer reliability was all excellent ranging between 0.855 and 0.992. Inter-observer reliability ranged between 0.292 and 0.983. SL and SH demonstrated excellent agreement, while ISA demonstrated poor to moderate agreement. The best method for assessing the scaphoid in simple radiograph remains debatable, but our current data suggest that measuring SL and SH on the billiard view is reproducible and can be used for evaluating restoration of scaphoid alignment. PMID:27053512

  1. Reliable evaluation of acceptability of weld for final disposal based on the canister copper weld inspection using different NDT methods

    The inspection of the sealing weld is an important phase for the evaluation of the acceptability of final disposal canister, but the weld is only a part of the 3D shielding of copper shell. The main tasks for reliable NDT evaluation requires an extensive evaluation of the parameters - which contains typical inspection related items like repeatability, S/N ratio, POD, setting up the equipment for inspection, and all practices for inspections. The other parameters are material parameters, their variation must be taken into account in the evaluation of NDT reliability. Further parameters include human factors, i. e. human inspectors and their interaction with technical systems; their effects were studied on an example of the evaluation of eddy current data. Final parameters are related to evaluation of detected defects, which means sizing and base for acceptance and this can be done in different ways. Some examples are given and results are compared with different methods for instance between radiographic testing and ultrasonic testing by raw data analysis and PA-SAFT results. Also, preliminary curves for the evaluation of metallographic results of 55 defects will be shown by EB weld measurements. Some practical items concerning copper inspections will be also discussed related to acceptability.

  2. Evaluation of conventional electric power generating industry quality assurance and reliability practices

    Anderson, R.T.; Lauffenburger, H.A.

    1981-03-01

    The techniques and practices utilized in an allied industry (electric power generation) that might serve as a baseline for formulating Quality Assurance and Reliability (QA and R) procedures for photovoltaic solar energy systems were studied. The study results provide direct near-term input for establishing validation methods as part of the SERI performance criteria and test standards development task.

  3. A Quantitative Risk Analysis Framework for Evaluating and Monitoring Operational Reliability of Cloud Computing

    Islam, Muhammad Faysal

    2013-01-01

    Cloud computing offers the advantage of on-demand, reliable and cost efficient computing solutions without the capital investment and management resources to build and maintain in-house data centers and network infrastructures. Scalability of cloud solutions enable consumers to upgrade or downsize their services as needed. In a cloud environment,…

  4. The Reliability and Validity of a Performance Task for Evaluating Science Process Skills.

    Adams, Cheryll M.; Callahan, Carolyn M.

    1995-01-01

    The Diet Cola Test was designed as a process assessment of science aptitude in intermediate grade students. Investigations of the instrument's reliability and validity indicated that data did not support use of the instrument for identifying individual students' aptitude. However, results suggested the test's appropriateness for evaluating…

  5. An Evaluation of the Reliability of the Food Label Literacy Questionnaire in Russian

    Gurevich, Konstantin G.; Reynolds, Jesse; Bifulco, Lauren; Doughty, Kimberly; Njike, Valentine; Katz, David L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: School-based nutrition education can promote the development of skills, such as food label reading, that can contribute to making healthier food choices. The purpose of this study was to assess the reliability of a Russian language version of the previously validated Food Label Literacy for Applied Nutrition Knowledge (FLLANK)…

  6. Evaluating software development characteristics: Assessment of software measures in the Software Engineering Laboratory. [reliability engineering

    Basili, V. R.

    1981-01-01

    Work on metrics is discussed. Factors that affect software quality are reviewed. Metrics is discussed in terms of criteria achievements, reliability, and fault tolerance. Subjective and objective metrics are distinguished. Product/process and cost/quality metrics are characterized and discussed.

  7. A Validation and Reliability Study of Community Service Activities Scale in Turkey: A Social Evaluation

    Demir, Özden; Kaya, Halil Ibrahim; Tasdan, Murat

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to test the reliability and validity of Community Service Activities Scale (CSAS) developed by Demir, Kaya and Tasdan (2012) with a view to identify perceptions of Faculty of Education students regarding community service activities. The participants of the study are 313 randomly chosen students who attend six…

  8. ELECTRICAL SUBSTATION RELIABILITY EVALUATION WITH EMPHASIS ON EVOLVING INTERDEPENDENCE ON COMMUNICATION INFRASTRUCTURE.

    AZARM,M.A.; BARI,R.; YUE,M.; MUSICKI,Z.

    2004-09-12

    This study developed a probabilistic methodology for assessment of the reliability and security of electrical energy distribution networks. This included consideration of the future grid system, which will rely heavily on the existing digitally based communication infrastructure for monitoring and protection. Event tree and fault tree methods were utilized. The approach extensively modeled the types of faults that a grid could potentially experience, the response of the grid, and the specific design of the protection schemes. We demonstrated the methods by applying it to a small sub-section of a hypothetical grid based on an existing electrical grid system of a metropolitan area. The results showed that for a typical design that relies on communication network for protection, the communication network reliability could contribute significantly to the frequency of loss of electrical power. The reliability of the communication network could become a more important contributor to the electrical grid reliability as the utilization of the communication network significantly increases in the near future to support ''smart'' transmission and/or distributed generation.

  9. Reliability calculations

    Risk and reliability analysis is increasingly being used in evaluations of plant safety and plant reliability. The analysis can be performed either during the design process or during the operation time, with the purpose to improve the safety or the reliability. Due to plant complexity and safety and availability requirements, sophisticated tools, which are flexible and efficient, are needed. Such tools have been developed in the last 20 years and they have to be continuously refined to meet the growing requirements. Two different areas of application were analysed. In structural reliability probabilistic approaches have been introduced in some cases for the calculation of the reliability of structures or components. A new computer program has been developed based upon numerical integration in several variables. In systems reliability Monte Carlo simulation programs are used especially in analysis of very complex systems. In order to increase the applicability of the programs variance reduction techniques can be applied to speed up the calculation process. Variance reduction techniques have been studied and procedures for implementation of importance sampling are suggested. (author)

  10. Academic-industry partnership in R and D activities on aging management and seismic reliability evaluation of BWRs

    In recent years, the formulation of reasonable methodologies to manage and evaluate the safety and integrity of aging nuclear power facilities is the matter of importance for Japanese power utilities to secure stable power supply in the next few decades. Among possible concerns about aging problems, stress corrosion cracking (SCC) is the one of critical problems to ensure the integrity of boiling water reactors (BWR) and extensive R and D activities are being conducted. The seismic reliability of nuclear power plants is also attracting increasing attention after Kashiwazaki-Kariwa nuclear power station suffered from Niigataken-Chuetsuoki earthquake in July 2007. Intensive seismic evaluations and reinforcements have been being conducted from then on. This paper will provide an introductory review on research activities on SCC mechanism and seismic reliability of BWRs that are conducted in academic-industry partnership. (author)

  11. A multicenter reliability study of extremity-magnetic resonance imaging in the longitudinal evaluation of rheumatoid arthritis

    Conaghan, Philip G; Ejbjerg, Bo; Lassere, Marissa;

    2007-01-01

    scores using 0.2 T E-MRI hand and wrist images from 2 timepoints, evaluated by 3 readers at different international centers. The intraclass correlation coefficients and smallest detectable difference results for the change scores were generally good for erosions and synovitis, but were not acceptable for......There are limited data on the reliability of extremity magnetic resonance imaging (E-MRI) in the longitudinal evaluation of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Our aim was to assess the interreader reliability of the OMERACT RA MRI score in the assessment of change in disease activity and bone erosion...... bone edema. Overall, E-MRI demonstrated ability to detect change comparable to that reported for high-field MRI for erosion and synovitis....

  12. A Step by Step Approach for Evaluating the Reliability of the Main Engine Lube Oil System for a Ship's Propulsion System

    Mohan Anantharaman

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Effective and efficient maintenance is essential to ensure reliability of a ship's main propulsion system, which in turn is interdependent on the reliability of a number of associated sub- systems. A primary step in evaluating the reliability of the ship's propulsion system will be to evaluate the reliability of each of the sub- system. This paper discusses the methodology adopted to quantify reliability of one of the vital sub-system viz. the lubricating oil system, and development of a model, based on Markov analysis thereof. Having developed the model, means to improve reliability of the system should be considered. The cost of the incremental reliability should be measured to evaluate cost benefits. A maintenance plan can then be devised to achieve the higher level of reliability. Similar approach could be considered to evaluate the reliability of all other sub-systems. This will finally lead to development of a model to evaluate and improve the reliability of the main propulsion system.

  13. Study on team evaluation (3). Reliability and validity of behavior observation based team work evaluation method of power plant operator team

    This report discusses a method to evaluate team work through behavior observation under the view points of 12 which consist of the Team Work Element Model proposed in the series of this study. The method includes a check list with which users evaluate team work 5 rating scale for each viewpoint. The check lists are developed and applied to several real operator teams of power plants under the corporation with two training centers of thermal and nuclear power plants, respectively. Evaluators evaluate team work with watching the video-taped team behavior responding to abnormal conditions. This paper discusses the reliability from whether repeated evaluations shows the same result and multi-evaluators' results show the same result. This also discusses the validity of this method form whether the results from this method matches the evaluators' intuition. As a result, this method is applicable to evaluate team work through behavior observation. (author)

  14. A multistage framework for reliability-based distribution expansion planning considering distributed generations by a self-adaptive global-based harmony search algorithm

    In this paper, the authors present a new multistage framework for reliability-based Distribution Expansion Planning (DEP) in which expansion options are a reinforcement and/or installation of substations, feeders, and Distributed Generations (DGs). The proposed framework takes into account not only costs associated with investment, maintenance, and operation, but also expected customer interruption cost in the optimization as four problem objectives. At the same time, operational restrictions, Kirchhoff's laws, radial structure limitation, voltage limits, and capital expenditure budget restriction are considered as problem constraints. The proposed model is a non-convex optimization problem having a non-linear, mixed-integer nature. Hence, a hybrid Self-adaptive Global-based Harmony Search Algorithm (SGHSA) and Optimal Power Flow (OPF) were used and followed by a fuzzy satisfying method in order to obtain the final optimal solution. The SGHSA is a recently developed optimization algorithm which imitates the music improvisation process. In this process, the harmonists improvise their instrument pitches, searching for the perfect state of harmony. The planning methodology was demonstrated on the 27-node, 13.8-kV test system in order to demonstrate the feasibility and capability of the proposed model. Simulation results illustrated the sufficiency and profitableness of the newly developed framework, when compared with other methods. - Highlights: • A new multistage framework is presented for reliability-based DEP problem. • In this paper, DGs are considered as an expansion option to increase the flexibility of the proposed model. • In this paper, effective factors of DEP problem are incorporated as a multi-objective model. • In this paper, three new algorithms HSA, IHSA and SGHSA are proposed. • Results obtained by the proposed SGHSA algorithm are better than others

  15. Reliability Evaluation of Base-Metal-Electrode Multilayer Ceramic Capacitors for Potential Space Applications

    Liu, David (Donhang); Sampson, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Base-metal-electrode (BME) ceramic capacitors are being investigated for possible use in high-reliability spacelevel applications. This paper focuses on how BME capacitors construction and microstructure affects their lifetime and reliability. Examination of the construction and microstructure of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) BME capacitors reveals great variance in dielectric layer thickness, even among BME capacitors with the same rated voltage. Compared to PME (precious-metal-electrode) capacitors, BME capacitors exhibit a denser and more uniform microstructure, with an average grain size between 0.3 and 0.5 m, which is much less than that of most PME capacitors. BME capacitors can be fabricated with more internal electrode layers and thinner dielectric layers than PME capacitors because they have a fine-grained microstructure and do not shrink much during ceramic sintering. This makes it possible for BME capacitors to achieve a very high capacitance volumetric efficiency. The reliability of BME and PME capacitors was investigated using highly accelerated life testing (HALT). Most BME capacitors were found to fail with an early avalanche breakdown, followed by a regular dielectric wearout failure during the HALT test. When most of the early failures, characterized with avalanche breakdown, were removed, BME capacitors exhibited a minimum mean time-to-failure (MTTF) of more than 105 years at room temperature and rated voltage. Dielectric thickness was found to be a critical parameter for the reliability of BME capacitors. The number of stacked grains in a dielectric layer appears to play a significant role in determining BME capacitor reliability. Although dielectric layer thickness varies for a given rated voltage in BME capacitors, the number of stacked grains is relatively consistent, typically around 12 for a number of BME capacitors with a rated voltage of 25V. This may suggest that the number of grains per dielectric layer is more critical than the

  16. Adaptation and Psychometric Evaluation of the Young Diagnostic Questionnaire (YDQ) for Parental Assessment of Adolescent Problematic Internet Use.

    Wartberg, Lutz; Kriston, Levente; Kegel, Katharina; Thomasius, Rainer

    2016-06-01

    Background and aims The surge of problematic Internet use in adolescents is a continuously growing problem across the globe. To our knowledge, to date valid questionnaire-based measurement of problematic Internet use is possible only by self-assessment. The objective for the present study was to adapt an established instrument for a parental assessment of adolescent problematic Internet use and to evaluate the psychometric properties of this questionnaire. Methods Data were collected from a representative German sample of 1,000 parents of adolescents aged between 12 and 17 years using a standardized questionnaire. To assess problematic Internet use, we adapted the established Young Diagnostic Questionnaire by rewording the items to survey a parental rating instead of a self-report ("Parental version of the Young Diagnostic Questionnaire," PYDQ). Additionally, we assessed the Internet usage time, parental monitoring, family functioning, school performance of the adolescent, and parent-adolescent conflicts. We conducted a confirmatory factor analysis based on the 8 items of the PYDQ modeled as categorical indicators and one latent factor using a robust weighted least squares estimator. We also calculated a reliability coefficient, the acceptance of the instrument, and performed correlation analyses. Results The unidimensional model showed excellent global goodness-of-fit (χ(2)/df = 1.65, RMSEA = 0.03, CFI = 0.99, TLI = 0.99) and satisfactory factor loadings (standardized values ranged from 0.60 to 0.77). We observed a reliability coefficient of 0.70, a good acceptance of the instrument, and the correlation analyses indicated the construct validity of the PYDQ. Discussion and conclusion The proposed PYDQ is a suitable instrument for parental assessment of adolescent problematic Internet use. PMID:27363465

  17. An Adaptation of Dual Labor Market Theory to the Evaluation of an Youth Employment Project.

    Spiessl, Ronald W.

    This paper reports the problems arising out of, and the solution developed, in adapting dual labor market theory to the evaluation of a CETA youth employment demonstration project. The theory posits that some jobs operate within a primary labor market, and are characterized by good wages and benefits, job security and potential for within firm…

  18. Adaptive Importance Sampling for Performance Evaluation and Parameter Optimization of Communication Systems

    Remondo, David; Srinivasan, Rajan; Nicola, Victor F.; Etten, van Wim C.; Tattje, Henk E.P.

    2000-01-01

    We present new adaptive importance sampling techniques based on stochastic Newton recursions. Their applicability to the performance evaluation of communication systems is studied. Besides bit-error rate (BER) estimation, the techniques are used for system parameter optimization. Two system models t

  19. The application of cognitive models to the evaluation and prediction of human reliability

    The first section of the paper provides a brief overview of a number of important principles relevant to human reliability modeling that have emerged from cognitive models, and presents a synthesis of these approaches in the form of a Generic Error Modeling System (GEMS). The next section illustrates the application of GEMS to some well known nuclear power plant (NPP) incidents in which human error was a major contributor. The way in which design recommendations can emerge from analyses of this type is illustrated. The third section describes the use of cognitive models in the classification of human errors for prediction and data collection purposes. The final section addresses the predictive modeling of human error as part of human reliability assessment in Probabilistic Risk Assessment

  20. Development of advanced methods and related software for human reliability evaluation within probabilistic safety analyses

    Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) is an important part of Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA). The first part of this report consists of an overview of types of human behaviour and human error including the effect of significant performance shaping factors on human reliability. Particularly with regard to safety assessments for nuclear power plants a lot of HRA methods have been developed. The most important of these methods are presented and discussed in the report, together with techniques for incorporating HRA into PSA and with models of operator cognitive behaviour. Based on existing HRA methods the concept of a software system is described. For the development of this system the utilization of modern programming tools is proposed; the essential goal is the effective application of HRA methods. A possible integration of computeraided HRA within PSA is discussed. The features of Expert System Technology and examples of applications (PSA, HRA) are presented in four appendices. (orig.)

  1. Evaluation and Design Tools for the Reliability of Wind Power Converter System

    Ma, Ke; Zhou, Dao; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    mission profiles in wind turbines. Potential methodologies, challenges, and technology trends involved in this tool structure are also discussed. Finally, a simplified version of the tool is demonstrated on a wind power converter based on Double Fed Induction Generator system. With the proposed tool...... structure, more detailed information of reliability performances in a wind power converter can be obtained before the converter can actually fail in the field and many potential research topics can also be initiated....... grid. As a result, the correct assessment of reliable performance for power electronics is a crucial and emerging need; the assessment is essential for design improvement, as well as for the extension of converter lifetime and reduction of energy cost. Unfortunately, there still exists a lack of...

  2. Reliability evaluation of NDT techniques for Cu-welds for risk assessment of nuclear waste encapsulation

    In order to handle the long living radioactive waste (spent nuclear fuel) SKB is planning to build a deep repository that requires no monitoring by future generations. The spent nuclear fuel will be encapsulated in copper canisters consisting of a graphite cast iron insert shielded by an outer 30-50 mm thick copper cylinder for corrosion protection. The most critical part of the encapsulation process is the sealing of the canister, which is done by welding the copper lid to the cylindrical part of the copper shell using friction stir welding and electron beam welding. The quality of the welding process and the reliability of the NDT system - radiographic and ultrasonic testing - must be satisfactorily determined and combined to derive assumptions regarding the frequency of undetected welding defects for a set of canisters as input for the risk assessment. This is done using the POD method according to the ''Reliability Handbook MIL 1823'' and its generalization

  3. Evaluating the reliability cost of computer system interruptions due to power system disturbances

    Koval, D.O. (Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Electrical Engineering); Beristain, J.R. (Univ. of Alberta, Computing Services, Edmonton, AB (CA)); Bent, D.H. (Western Ontario Univ., London, ON (Canada))

    1989-03-01

    The definition of what is a power system disturbance is a complex issue. The measurement and assessment of the impact of these disturbances is a difficult task because of the diversity of power system operating configurations and the varying sensitivity characteristics of computer systems. A modeling and simulation approach for estimating the cost of computer system failures due to power system disturbances are presented and discussed in some detail. Actual monitored power system disturbances and outages (i.e. an 11-year study) of the University of Alberta's computer center's reliability performance are used in the model. The advantages and limitations of the reliability costing methodology are discussed in detail with reference to existing methods.

  4. Project evaluation and lessons learned using ISO 21500 as an adaptive framework

    Anna Katrín Einarsdóttir 1969

    2014-01-01

    Project Management and Total Quality Management methodologies have a close resemblance in fundamental areas such as leadership, customer focus and aiming for continuous improvements. Continuous improvement is considered to be the highest level of project management maturity where organizations evaluate and identify the information obtained with processes such as project evaluation and lessons learned. An investigation whether ISO 21500 can be used as an adaptive framework for systematic i...

  5. ELECTRICAL SUBSTATION RELIABILITY EVALUATION WITH EMPHASIS ON EVOLVING INTERDEPENDENCE ON COMMUNICATION INFRASTRUCTURE.

    AZARM,M.A.BARI,R.A.MUSICKI,Z.

    2004-01-15

    The objective of this study is to develop a methodology for a probabilistic assessment of the reliability and security of electrical energy distribution networks. This includes consideration of the future grid system, which will rely heavily on the existing digitally based communication infrastructure for monitoring and protection. Another important objective of this study is to provide information and insights from this research to Consolidated Edison Company (Con Edison) that could be useful in the design of the new network segment to be installed in the area of the World Trade Center in lower Manhattan. Our method is microscopic in nature and relies heavily on the specific design of the portion of the grid being analyzed. It extensively models the types of faults that a grid could potentially experience, the response of the grid, and the specific design of the protection schemes. We demonstrate that the existing technology can be extended and applied to the electrical grid and to the supporting communication network. A small subsection of a hypothetical grid based on the existing New York City electrical grid system of Con Edison is used to demonstrate the methods. Sensitivity studies show that in the current design the frequency for the loss of the main station is sensitive to the communication network reliability. The reliability of the communication network could become a more important contributor to the electrical grid reliability as the utilization of the communication network significantly increases in the near future to support ''smart'' transmission and/or distributed generation. The identification of potential failure modes and their likelihood can support decisions on potential modifications to the network including hardware, monitoring instrumentation, and protection systems.

  6. Soil-structure interaction effects on the reliability evaluation of reactor containments

    The probability-based method for the seismic reliability assessment of nuclear structures, which has been developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), is extended to include the effects of soil-structure interaction. A reinforced concrete containment building is analyzed in order to examine soil-structure interaction effects on: (1) structural fragilities; (2) floor response spectra statistics; and (3) correlation coefficients for total acceleration responses at specified structural locations

  7. Reliability assessments of railway signaling systems: A comparison and evaluation of approaches

    Tang, Lichao

    2015-01-01

    The railway signaling system is the key system to ensure the safe operation of railway traffic. It is therefore important to have a safe and reliable railway signaling system. The railway authority defines requirements that should be complied with. The technical safety report is a vital documentation for the demonstration of fulfillment of requirements to the railway authority. A literature review of the signaling system is presented first. It describes the different technologies used for ...

  8. Evaluation of the comprehensiveness and reliability of the chromium composition of foods in the literature ☆

    Thor, Mayly Y.; Harnack, Lisa; King, Denise; Jasthi, Bhaskarani; Pettit, Janet

    2011-01-01

    In the early 1960s, trivalent chromium Cr3+ became recognized as an essential trace element due to its potential metabolic and cardiovascular benefits. No comprehensive chromium database currently exists; thus a thorough review of the literature was conducted to examine the availability and reliability of chromium data for foods. A number of key issues were identified that challenge the feasibility of adding chromium to a food and nutrient database. Foremost, dietary chromium data reported in...

  9. An evaluation of the reliability and usefulness of external-initiator PRA [probabilistic risk analysis] methodologies

    The discipline of probabilistic risk analysis (PRA) has become so mature in recent years that it is now being used routinely to assist decision-making throughout the nuclear industry. This includes decision-making that affects design, construction, operation, maintenance, and regulation. Unfortunately, not all sub-areas within the larger discipline of PRA are equally ''mature,'' and therefore the many different types of engineering insights from PRA are not all equally reliable. 93 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  10. Use of simulation methods in the evaluation of reliability and availability of complex system

    After a short review of the available standard methods in the reliability field like Boolean algebra for fault tree and the semi-regeneration theory for Markov, this paper shows how the BIAF code based on state description of a system and simulation techique can solve many problems. It also shows how the use of importance sampling and biasing techniques allows us to deal with the rare event problem

  11. Applying mechanistic models to reliability evaluation of mechanical components - An illustration

    Highlights: → The mechanistic model approach can be used to handle multi state problems. → The mechanistic model approach is based on the first principles of science and engineering. → A general methodology for performing analysis has been highlighted. → A case study on reliability analysis of control valve and feed water system has been discussed. - Abstract: The traditional reliability analyses, considers components to be in binary state, either functional or faulty, and does not consider the concept of multi state or intermediate states between these two binary states. However, there are several components, which need to be operated in different states and their failure criterion also depend on these states. Hence, when dealing with these types of components one should use multi state concept. This can be achieved by modeling the components with mechanistic models, which can give a new dimension for reliability analysis for multiple states. The mechanistic model approach is based on the first principles of science and engineering which provides details about the various failure mechanisms and thereby improved understanding of the associated root causes of the failure and driving forces responsible for component failures. In this paper a general methodology for modeling the components with mechanistic models has been explained and is further illustrated with an example component. A case study on feed water system (consisting of control valves and other mechanical components) of a typical nuclear reactor has been presented.

  12. AN EVALUATION OF FARMERS’ PERCEPTIONS OF AND ADAPTATION TO THE EFFECTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE IN KENYA

    Hilary K. Ndambiri

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to evaluate how farmers in Kyuso District have perceived and adapted to climate change. Data was collected from 246 farmers from six locations sampled out through a multistage and simple random sampling procedure. The Heckman probit model was fitted to the data to avoid sample selection bias since not every farmer who may perceive climate change responds by adapting. The analysis revealed that 94% of farmers in Kyuso District had a perception that climate was changing and as a result, 85% of these farmers had responded by adapting. In this regard, age of the household head, gender, education, farm experience, household size, distance to the nearest market, access to irrigation water, local agro-ecology, on and off farm income, access to information on climate change through extension services, access to credit, changes in temperature and precipitation were found to have significant influence on the probability of farmers to perceive and/or adapt to climate change. With the level of perception to climate change being more than that of adaptation, the study suggests that more policy efforts should be geared towards helping farmers to adapt to climate change

  13. Reliability Evaluation Indices for Microgrid%微网可靠性评估指标研究

    罗奕; 王钢; 汪隆君

    2013-01-01

    微网是充分发挥分布式电源综合效能的关键技术,其可靠性研究在微网应用中发挥了基础性作用,而可靠性指标研究是可靠性评估的先决条件.通过分析微网对可靠性指标的要求,说明仅仅引用配电系统的可靠性指标对微网进行评估分析具有其局限性,必须针对微网特性提出新的具体可行的可靠性评估指标.为此,从微网作为等值电源或负荷体现的特性、间歇性电源出力、储能装置特性、孤岛运行状态以及效益等方面提出了微网可靠性评估指标及其计算方法,并明确了各指标的具体含义.通过算例阐明了所提出的指标能有效反映微网在电源配置、运行状态、可再生电源应用等方面的特性,为微网可靠性指标体系的建立进行了有益探索.%The microgrid is the crucial technology that brings the comprehensive efficiency of various distributed generators into full play, the reliability study of which having played a basic role in its application. Meanwhile, reliability indices are prerequisite for microgrid reliability evaluation. By analyzing the reliability requirements of the microgrid, it is found that there are limitations in merely applying the reliability indices of the distribution system to evaluate microgrid reliability. It is necessary to put forward a new set of specific and feasible indices for microgrid reliability evaluation. For this reason, microgrid reliability indices for four main aspects are presented, namely, the equivalent features of microgrid, the characteristics of intermittent power source, the islanding state of microgrid, and the benefits of microgrid. Meanwhile, a series of definitions and formulas for calculating the indices is proposed, and their meanings are discussed. Numerical results of the case demonstrate that the proposed indices can reflect the effect of power source configuration, operation state, and renewable energy application on microgrid

  14. Generating an Educational Domain Checklist through an Adaptive Framework for Evaluating Educational Systems

    Roobaea S. AlRoobaea

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The growth of the Internet and related technologies has enabled the development of a new breed of dynamic websites that is growing rapidly in use and that has had a huge impact on many businesses. One type of websites that have been widely spread and are being widely adopted is the educational websites. There are many forms of educational websites, such as free online websites and Web-based server software. This creates challenges regarding their continuing evaluation and monitoring in order to measure their efficiency and effectiveness, to assess user satisfaction and, ultimately, to improve their quality. The lack of an adaptive usability checklist for improvement of the usability assessment process for educational systems represents a missing piece in ‘usability testing’. This paper presents an adaptive Domain-Specific Inspection (DSI checklist as a tool for evaluating the usability of educational systems. The results show that the adaptive educational usability checklist helped evaluators to facilitate the evaluation process. It also provides an opportunity for website owners to choose the usability area(s that they think need to be evaluated. Moreover, this method was more efficient and effective than user testing (UT and heuristics evaluation (HE methods.

  15. Human reliability

    This book resulted from the activity of Task Force 4.2 - 'Human Reliability'. This group was established on February 27th, 1986, at the plenary meeting of the Technical Reliability Committee of VDI, within the framework of the joint committee of VDI on industrial systems technology - GIS. It is composed of representatives of industry, representatives of research institutes, of technical control boards and universities, whose job it is to study how man fits into the technical side of the world of work and to optimize this interaction. In a total of 17 sessions, information from the part of ergonomy dealing with human reliability in using technical systems at work was exchanged, and different methods for its evaluation were examined and analyzed. The outcome of this work was systematized and compiled in this book. (orig.)

  16. The Reliability and Validity of the Clinical Competence Evaluation Scale in Physical Therapy

    Yoshino, Jun; Usuda, Shigeru

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] To examine the internal consistency, criterion-related validity, factorial validity, and content validity of the Clinical Competence Evaluation Scale in Physical Therapy (CEPT). [Subjects] The subjects were 278 novice physical therapy trainees and 119 tutors from 21 medical facilities. [Methods] The trainees self-evaluated their clinical competences and the tutors evaluated trainee competences using the CEPT. Overall trainee autonomy was evaluated using a visual analog scale (VAS) f...

  17. Research on the evaluation model of the software reliability for nuclear safety class digital instrumentation and control system

    The method of evaluating software reliability (SR) of nuclear safety class digital instrumentation and control system (I and C) is investigated by reviewing international software design standards in order to build up the framework of the relevant standards. As the result of review of the NRC NUREG-0800 requirements it is first found out that the Digital I and C software standards should follow Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants (NUREG-0800 BTP7-14). Secondly, the quantitative evaluation models of SR should be constituted by using Bayesian Belief Network (BBN) to establish thirteen sub-model frameworks. Thirdly, each sub-models and the weight of corresponding indexes in the evaluation model are analyzed based on BBN. Finally the safety case was introduced. The reduced models are expected to lay a foundation for review and quantitative evaluation on the SR in nuclear safety class digital I and C. (author)

  18. An overview of the IAEA Safety Series on procedures for evaluating the reliability of predictions made by environmental transfer models

    The International Atomic Energy Agency is preparing a Safety Series publication on practical approaches for evaluating the reliability of the predictions made by environmental radiological assessment models. This publication identifies factors that affect the reliability of these predictions and discusses methods for quantifying uncertainty. Emphasis is placed on understanding the quantity of interest specified by the assessment question and distinguishing between stochastic variability and lack of knowledge about either the true value or the true distribution of values for quantity of interest. Among the many approaches discussed, model testing using independent data sets (model validation) is considered the best method for evaluating the accuracy in model predictions. Analytical and numerical methods for propagating the uncertainties in model parameters are presented and the strengths and weaknesses of model intercomparison exercises are also discussed. It is recognized that subjective judgment is employed throughout the entire modelling process, and quantitative reliability statements must be subjectively obtained when models are applied to different situations from those under which they have been tested. (6 refs.)

  19. Reliability evaluation of NDT techniques for Cu-welds for risk assessment of nuclear waste encapsulation

    planning to build a deep repository that requires no monitoring by future generations. The spent nuclear fuel will be encapsulated in copper canisters consisting of a nodular cast iron insert shielded by an outer 30-50 mm thick copper cylinder for corrosion protection. The canisters will then be deposited in the bedrock, embedded in bentonite clay, at a depth of 500 metres where the spent fuel will be isolated from the environment more than 100.000 years. The most critical part of the encapsulation process is the sealing of the canister, which is done by welding the copper lid to the cylindrical part of the copper shell. The welding techniques studied are electron beam welding (EBW) and friction stir welding (FSW). Both techniques are developed in parallel at the SKB Canister Laboratory in Oskarshamn Sweden. A subpart of the final risk assessment of the deep repository construction is to determine the risk of premature canister leak coursed by defects in the sealing weld. Therefore the quality of the welding process and the reliability of the NDT system must be satisfactorily determined and combined to derive assumptions regarding the frequency of undetected welding defects for the ensemble of canisters. The reliability of the NDT systems can be derived from ordinary POD curves. Those POD curves are investigated for X-ray in terms of a 10 MeV linear accelerator and ultrasonic testing using phased array techniques applied by SKB. The ''truth'' about the defect situation is determined by a reference high energy CT investigation and other means. These copper welds are not only a challenge for the NDT techniques but also for the reliability investigation requiring a further development of the common ''a versus a'' approach due to the complex multidimensional situation and risk assessment. (Published in summary form only)

  20. Probabilistic safety assessment of Tehran Research Reactor using systems analysis programs for hands-on integrated reliability evaluations

    Probabilistic safety assessment application is found to be a practical tool for research reactor safety due to intense involvement of human interactions in an experimental facility. In this document the application of the probabilistic safety assessment to the Tehran Research Reactor is presented. The level 1 practicabilities safety assessment application involved: Familiarization with the plant, selection of accident initiators, mitigating functions and system definitions, event tree constructions and quantifications, fault tree constructions and quantification, human reliability, component failure data base development and dependent failure analysis. Each of the steps of the analysis given above is discussed with highlights from the selected results. Quantification of the constructed models is done using systems analysis programs for hands-on integrated reliability evaluations software

  1. Regression analysis of the structure function for reliability evaluation of continuous-state system

    Gamiz, M.L., E-mail: mgamiz@ugr.e [Departamento de Estadistica e I.O., Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Granada, Granada 18071 (Spain); Martinez Miranda, M.D. [Departamento de Estadistica e I.O., Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Granada, Granada 18071 (Spain)

    2010-02-15

    Technical systems are designed to perform an intended task with an admissible range of efficiency. According to this idea, it is permissible that the system runs among different levels of performance, in addition to complete failure and the perfect functioning one. As a consequence, reliability theory has evolved from binary-state systems to the most general case of continuous-state system, in which the state of the system changes over time through some interval on the real number line. In this context, obtaining an expression for the structure function becomes difficult, compared to the discrete case, with difficulty increasing as the number of components of the system increases. In this work, we propose a method to build a structure function for a continuum system by using multivariate nonparametric regression techniques, in which certain analytical restrictions on the variable of interest must be taken into account. Once the structure function is obtained, some reliability indices of the system are estimated. We illustrate our method via several numerical examples.

  2. Quantification of the reliability of personnel actions from the evaluation of actual German operational experience. Final report

    The results and their uncertainty bounds of PSA studies are considerably impacted by the assessment of human reliability. But the amount of available, generic data is not sufficient to evaluate all human actions considered in a modern PSA study adequately. Further the data are not sufficiently validated and rely as well as the proposed uncertainty bounds on expert judgement. This research project as well as the preceding project /GRS 10/ validated data recommended by the German PSA Guidelines and enlarged the amount of available data. The findings may contribute to an update of the German PSA Guidelines. In a first step of the project information about reportable events in German nuclear power plants with observed human errors (event reports, expert statements, technical documents, interviews and plant walk downs with subject matter experts from the plants) were analysed. The investigation resulted in 67 samples describing personal activities, performance conditions, the number of observed errors and the number of action performance. In a second step a new methodology was developed and applied in a pilot plant. The objective was to identify undoubtedly error free safety relevant actions, their performance conditions, and frequency as well as to prove and demonstrate that probabilistic data can be derived from that operational experience (OE). The application in the pilot plant resulted in 18 ''error free'' samples characterizing human reliability. All available samples were evaluated by use of the method of Bayes. That commonly accepted methodology was applied in order to derive probabilistic data based on samples taken from operational experience. A thorough analysis of the obtained results shows that both data sources (OE reportable events, OE with undoubtedly error free action performance) provide data with comparable quality and validity. At the end of the research project the following products are available. - Methods to select samples

  3. Reliability evaluation of pool venting system and low pressure system of RSG Gas using fault tree analysis method

    Pool venting system and low pressure system are subsystem of the ventilation system of the intermediate radiation zone in the RSG GAS research reactor. Pool venting system works to prevent the spread of contamination that may occur in the air of the reactor pool into the reactor hall and returns the result of condensation of water vapor into the reactor pool. Low pressure system serves to maintain the pressure gradient in the areas of the intermediate radiation zone and between the intermediate radiation zone and the atmosphere in the events of closure of the area isolation dampers and confinement isolation dampers. This paper discusses about the reliability evaluation of pool venting system and low pressure system using the fault tree analysis method (FTA). Evaluation begins with an understanding of how the system works, reliability modeling of the systems, reliability data retrieval for the related components in the system, quantifying the model based on the component reliability data and determine the components that are dominant in causing the failure of the system operation. Using generic data, the quantification results give the unavailability of pool venting system to operate on demand is 6.00E-03 and low pressure systems of 1.84E-05. On the other hand, unreliability in carrying out its functions for pool venting system is 1.93E-06 and low pressure, systems is 1.30E-07. Actually the failure rate of the following components are very low, however, based on the analysis of the minimum cut-set and the importance value, it can be concluded that the dominant components in causing the system failure for pool venting system are isolation damper KLA60AA01 and KLA60AA05, while for the low-pressure system are filter modules KLA41 and KLA42. (author)

  4. Evaluation of Online/Offline Image Guidance/Adaptation Approaches for Prostate Cancer Radiation Therapy

    Qin, An [Department of Radiation Oncology, Beaumont Health System, Royal Oak, Michigan (United States); Sun, Ying [Department of Radiotherapy, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Liang, Jian [Department of Radiation Oncology, Beaumont Health System, Royal Oak, Michigan (United States); Yan, Di, E-mail: dyan@beaumont.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Beaumont Health System, Royal Oak, Michigan (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Purpose: To evaluate online/offline image-guided/adaptive treatment techniques for prostate cancer radiation therapy with daily cone-beam CT (CBCT) imaging. Methods and Materials: Three treatment techniques were evaluated retrospectively using daily pre- and posttreatment CBCT images on 22 prostate cancer patients. Prostate, seminal vesicles (SV), rectal wall, and bladder were delineated on all CBCT images. For each patient, a pretreatment intensity modulated radiation therapy plan with clinical target volume (CTV) = prostate + SV and planning target volume (PTV) = CTV + 3 mm was created. The 3 treatment techniques were as follows: (1) Daily Correction: The pretreatment intensity modulated radiation therapy plan was delivered after online CBCT imaging, and position correction; (2) Online Planning: Daily online inverse plans with 3-mm CTV-to-PTV margin were created using online CBCT images, and delivered; and (3) Hybrid Adaption: Daily Correction plus an offline adaptive inverse planning performed after the first week of treatment. The adaptive plan was delivered for all remaining 15 fractions. Treatment dose for each technique was constructed using the daily posttreatment CBCT images via deformable image registration. Evaluation was performed using treatment dose distribution in target and critical organs. Results: Treatment equivalent uniform dose (EUD) for the CTV was within [85.6%, 100.8%] of the pretreatment planned target EUD for Daily Correction; [98.7%, 103.0%] for Online Planning; and [99.2%, 103.4%] for Hybrid Adaptation. Eighteen percent of the 22 patients in Daily Correction had a target dose deficiency >5%. For rectal wall, the mean ± SD of the normalized EUD was 102.6% ± 2.7% for Daily Correction, 99.9% ± 2.5% for Online Planning, and 100.6% ± 2.1% for Hybrid Adaptation. The mean ± SD of the normalized bladder EUD was 108.7% ± 8.2% for Daily Correction, 92.7% ± 8.6% for Online Planning, and 89.4% ± 10.8% for Hybrid

  5. Evaluation of Online/Offline Image Guidance/Adaptation Approaches for Prostate Cancer Radiation Therapy

    Purpose: To evaluate online/offline image-guided/adaptive treatment techniques for prostate cancer radiation therapy with daily cone-beam CT (CBCT) imaging. Methods and Materials: Three treatment techniques were evaluated retrospectively using daily pre- and posttreatment CBCT images on 22 prostate cancer patients. Prostate, seminal vesicles (SV), rectal wall, and bladder were delineated on all CBCT images. For each patient, a pretreatment intensity modulated radiation therapy plan with clinical target volume (CTV) = prostate + SV and planning target volume (PTV) = CTV + 3 mm was created. The 3 treatment techniques were as follows: (1) Daily Correction: The pretreatment intensity modulated radiation therapy plan was delivered after online CBCT imaging, and position correction; (2) Online Planning: Daily online inverse plans with 3-mm CTV-to-PTV margin were created using online CBCT images, and delivered; and (3) Hybrid Adaption: Daily Correction plus an offline adaptive inverse planning performed after the first week of treatment. The adaptive plan was delivered for all remaining 15 fractions. Treatment dose for each technique was constructed using the daily posttreatment CBCT images via deformable image registration. Evaluation was performed using treatment dose distribution in target and critical organs. Results: Treatment equivalent uniform dose (EUD) for the CTV was within [85.6%, 100.8%] of the pretreatment planned target EUD for Daily Correction; [98.7%, 103.0%] for Online Planning; and [99.2%, 103.4%] for Hybrid Adaptation. Eighteen percent of the 22 patients in Daily Correction had a target dose deficiency >5%. For rectal wall, the mean ± SD of the normalized EUD was 102.6% ± 2.7% for Daily Correction, 99.9% ± 2.5% for Online Planning, and 100.6% ± 2.1% for Hybrid Adaptation. The mean ± SD of the normalized bladder EUD was 108.7% ± 8.2% for Daily Correction, 92.7% ± 8.6% for Online Planning, and 89.4% ± 10.8% for Hybrid

  6. State and Local Efforts to Investigate the Validity and Reliability of Scores from Teacher Evaluation Systems

    Herlihy, Corinne; Karger, Ezra; Pollard, Cynthia; Hill, Heather C.; Kraft, Matthew A.; Williams, Megan; Howard, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Context: In the past two years, states have implemented sweeping reforms to their teacher evaluation systems in response to Race to the Top legislation and, more recently, NCLB waivers. With these new systems, policymakers hope to make teacher evaluation both more rigorous and more grounded in specific job performance domains such as teaching…

  7. Development and evaluation of a method of calibrating medical displays based on fixed adaptation

    Sund, Patrik, E-mail: patrik.sund@vgregion.se; Månsson, Lars Gunnar; Båth, Magnus [Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg SE-41345, Sweden and Department of Radiation Physics, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg SE-41345 (Sweden)

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this work was to develop and evaluate a new method for calibration of medical displays that includes the effect of fixed adaptation and by using equipment and luminance levels typical for a modern radiology department. Methods: Low contrast sinusoidal test patterns were derived at nine luminance levels from 2 to 600 cd/m{sup 2} and used in a two alternative forced choice observer study, where the adaptation level was fixed at the logarithmic average of 35 cd/m{sup 2}. The contrast sensitivity at each luminance level was derived by establishing a linear relationship between the ten pattern contrast levels used at every luminance level and a detectability index (d′) calculated from the fraction of correct responses. A Gaussian function was fitted to the data and normalized to the adaptation level. The corresponding equation was used in a display calibration method that included the grayscale standard display function (GSDF) but compensated for fixed adaptation. In the evaluation study, the contrast of circular objects with a fixed pixel contrast was displayed using both calibration methods and was rated on a five-grade scale. Results were calculated using a visual grading characteristics method. Error estimations in both observer studies were derived using a bootstrap method. Results: The contrast sensitivities for the darkest and brightest patterns compared to the contrast sensitivity at the adaptation luminance were 37% and 56%, respectively. The obtained Gaussian fit corresponded well with similar studies. The evaluation study showed a higher degree of equally distributed contrast throughout the luminance range with the calibration method compensated for fixed adaptation than for the GSDF. The two lowest scores for the GSDF were obtained for the darkest and brightest patterns. These scores were significantly lower than the lowest score obtained for the compensated GSDF. For the GSDF, the scores for all luminance levels were statistically

  8. A planning quality evaluation tool for prostate adaptive IMRT based on machine learning

    Purpose: To ensure plan quality for adaptive IMRT of the prostate, we developed a quantitative evaluation tool using a machine learning approach. This tool generates dose volume histograms (DVHs) of organs-at-risk (OARs) based on prior plans as a reference, to be compared with the adaptive plan derived from fluence map deformation. Methods: Under the same configuration using seven-field 15 MV photon beams, DVHs of OARs (bladder and rectum) were estimated based on anatomical information of the patient and a model learned from a database of high quality prior plans. In this study, the anatomical information was characterized by the organ volumes and distance-to-target histogram (DTH). The database consists of 198 high quality prostate plans and was validated with 14 cases outside the training pool. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to DVHs and DTHs to quantify their salient features. Then, support vector regression (SVR) was implemented to establish the correlation between the features of the DVH and the anatomical information. Results: DVH/DTH curves could be characterized sufficiently just using only two or three truncated principal components, thus, patient anatomical information was quantified with reduced numbers of variables. The evaluation of the model using the test data set demonstrated its accuracy ∼80% in prediction and effectiveness in improving ART planning quality. Conclusions: An adaptive IMRT plan quality evaluation tool based on machine learning has been developed, which estimates OAR sparing and provides reference in evaluating ART.

  9. Evaluation of the reliability concerning the identification of human factors as contributing factors by a computer supported event analysis (CEA)

    The project's objectives are the evaluation of the reliability concerning the identification of Human Factors as contributing factors by a computer supported event analysis (CEA). CEA is a computer version of SOL (Safety through Organizational Learning). Parts of the first step were interviews with experts from the nuclear power industry and the evaluation of existing computer supported event analysis methods. This information was combined to a requirement profile for the CEA software. The next step contained the implementation of the software in an iterative process of evaluation. The completion of this project was the testing of the CEA software. As a result the testing demonstrated that it is possible to identify contributing factors with CEA validly. In addition, CEA received a very positive feedback from the experts. (orig.)

  10. Attenuation length measurements of liquid scintillator with LabVIEW and reliability evaluation of the device

    Gao, L; Ding, YY; Zhou, L; Wen, LJ; Xie, YG; Wang, ZG; Cai, X; Sun, XL; Fang, J; Xue, Z; Zhang, AW; LÜ, QW; Sun, LJ; Ge, YS; Liu, YB; Niu, SL; Hu, T; Cao, J; LÜ, JG

    2013-01-01

    The attenuation length measuring device was constructed by using oscilloscope and LabVIEW for signal acquisition and processing. The performance of the device has been tested with a variety of ways, the test results show that the set-up has a good stability and high precision (sigma/mean reached 0.4 percent). Besides, the accuracy of the measurement system will decrease by about 17 percent if a filter is used. The attenuation length of gadolinium-loaded liquid scintillator (Gd-LS) was measured as 15.10 plus or minus 0.35 m where Gd-LS was heavily used in Daya Bay Neutrino Experiment. In addition, one method based on the Beer-Lambert law was proposed to investigate the reliability of the measurement device, the R-square reached 0.9995. Moreover, three purification methods for Linear Alkyl Benzene (LAB) production were compared in the experiment.

  11. Design and implementation of reliability evaluation of SAS hard disk based on RAID card

    Ren, Shaohua; Han, Sen

    2015-10-01

    Because of the huge advantage of RAID technology in storage, it has been widely used. However, the question associated with this technology is that the hard disk based on the RAID card can not be queried by Operating System. Therefore how to read the self-information and log data of hard disk has been a problem, while this data is necessary for reliability test of hard disk. In traditional way, this information can be read just suitable for SATA hard disk, but not for SAS hard disk. In this paper, we provide a method by using LSI RAID card's Application Program Interface, communicating with RAID card and analyzing the feedback data to solve the problem. Then we will get the necessary information to assess the SAS hard disk.

  12. Evaluation of the efficiency and reliability of software generated by code generators

    Schreur, Barbara

    1994-01-01

    There are numerous studies which show that CASE Tools greatly facilitate software development. As a result of these advantages, an increasing amount of software development is done with CASE Tools. As more software engineers become proficient with these tools, their experience and feedback lead to further development with the tools themselves. What has not been widely studied, however, is the reliability and efficiency of the actual code produced by the CASE Tools. This investigation considered these matters. Three segments of code generated by MATRIXx, one of many commercially available CASE Tools, were chosen for analysis: ETOFLIGHT, a portion of the Earth to Orbit Flight software, and ECLSS and PFMC, modules for Environmental Control and Life Support System and Pump Fan Motor Control, respectively.

  13. Puget Sound Area Electric Reliability Plan. Appendix B : Local Generation Evaluation : Draft Environmental Impact Statement.

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1991-09-01

    The information and data contained in this Appendix was extracted from numerous sources. The principle sources used for technical data were Bonneville Power Administration's 1990 Resource Program along with its technical appendix, and Chapter 8 of the Draft 1991 Northwest Conservation and Electric Power Plan. All cost data is reported 1988 dollars unless otherwise noted. This information was supplemented by other data developed by Puget Sound utilities who participated on the Local Generation Team. Identifying generating resources available to the Puget Sound area involved a five step process: (1) listing all possible resources that might contribute power to the Puget Sound area, (2) characterizing the technology/resource status, cost and operating characteristics of these resources, (3) identifying exclusion criteria based on the needs of the overall Puget Sound Electric Reliability Plan study, (4) applying these criteria to the list of resources, and (5) summarizing of the costs and characteristics of the final list of resources. 15 refs., 20 tabs.

  14. Evaluation of reliability of Coats-Redfern method for kinetic analysis of non-isothermal TGA

    R. Ebrahimi-Kahrizsangi; M. H. Abbasi

    2008-01-01

    A critical examination was made on the reliability of kinetic parameters of nonisothermal thermoanalytical rate measurement by the widely applied Coats-Redfern(CR) equation. For this purpose, simulated TGA curves were made for reactions with different kinetic models, including chemical, diffusion (Janders) and mixed mechanism at different heating rates. The results show that, for reactions controlled kinetically by one mechanism, all solid state reaction models show linear trends by use of CR method and this method can not distinct the correct reaction model. For reactions with mixed mechanism, the CR method shows nonlinear trends and the reaction models and kinetic parameters can not be extracted from CR curves. The overall conclusion from this comparative appraisal of the characteristics of the CR approach to kinetic analysis of TGA data is that the CR approach is generally unsuitable for determination of kinetic parameters.

  15. Evaluation of influence parameters on measurement reliability of coordinated measuring arms

    Cuesta, E.; Álvarez, B. J.; Martínez, S.; Barreiro, J.; González-Madruga, D.

    2012-04-01

    Coordinate Measuring Arms (PCMAs or CMAs), despite using three-dimensional measurement techniques conceptually similar to the CMMs, are still manual measuring instruments for contact and their reliability requires an analysis of the most significant parameters of influence. In this work two types of tests were performed: in first place measurements of gauge blocks and ring gauges were made using the same CMA by several inspectors, thus simulating a study of repeatability and reproducibility (r&R). Based on preliminary results, a new study was carried out with more geometric features, over a "feature's master part" designed accordingly, and comparing the results with the measurements obtained in a CMM with traceability. This comparison has proven that measurement results are influenced not only by the operator (number and distribution of points, contact force, etc.) but also by the measured feature type and the probe type, thus by the CMA feasibility for measurement.

  16. Reliability attributes. Survey

    Starting from an integral system technical concept, the paper gives a survey concerning the treatment of risks relating to reliability by means of the VDI-manual 'Technical Reliability'. Various kinds of reliability characteristics necessary for the determination of risks are explained. Assumed aspects for the evaluation and influencing of attributed risks relating to reliability are stated. Herewith, the formation and application of reliability factors are prepared, which are described on page 2 to 4 of this guideline. (orig./HP)

  17. FORENSIC-CLINICAL INTERVIEW: RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY FOR THE EVALUATION OF PSYCHOLOGICAL INJURY

    Francisca Fariña; Manuel Vilariño; Ramón Arce

    2013-01-01

    Forensic evaluation of psychological injury involves the use of a multimethod approximation i.e., a psychometric instrument, normally the MMPI-2, and a clinical interview. In terms of the clinical interview, the traditional clinical interview (e.g., SCID) is not valid for forensic settings as it does not fulfil the triple objective of forensic evaluation: diagnosis of psychological injury in terms of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), a differential diagnosis of feigning, and establishing...

  18. An evaluation of the reliability of muscle fiber cross-sectional area and fiber number measurements in rat skeletal muscle

    Ceglia, Lisa; Niramitmahapanya, Sathit; Price, Lori L; Harris, Susan S.; FIELDING, ROGER A.; Dawson-Hughes, Bess

    2013-01-01

    Background The reliability of estimating muscle fiber cross-sectional area (measure of muscle fiber size) and fiber number from only a subset of fibers in rat hindlimb muscle cross-sections has not been systematically evaluated. This study examined the variability in mean estimates of fiber cross-sectional area as a function of the number of fibers measured, and tested whether counting a subset of fibers in a cross-section could predict total fiber number in middle-aged rats. Results Soleus a...

  19. Reliability of a tool for measuring theory of planned behaviour constructs for use in evaluating research use in policymaking

    2011-01-01

    Background Although measures of knowledge translation and exchange (KTE) effectiveness based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB) have been used among patients and providers, no measure has been developed for use among health system policymakers and stakeholders. A tool that measures the intention to use research evidence in policymaking could assist researchers in evaluating the effectiveness of KTE strategies that aim to support evidence-informed health system decision-making. Therefore, we developed a 15-item tool to measure four TPB constructs (intention, attitude, subjective norm and perceived control) and assessed its face validity through key informant interviews. Methods We carried out a reliability study to assess the tool's internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Our study sample consisted of 62 policymakers and stakeholders that participated in deliberative dialogues. We assessed internal consistency using Cronbach's alpha and generalizability (G) coefficients, and we assessed test-retest reliability by calculating Pearson correlation coefficients (r) and G coefficients for each construct and the tool overall. Results The internal consistency of items within each construct was good with alpha ranging from 0.68 to alpha = 0.89. G-coefficients were lower for a single administration (G = 0.34 to G = 0.73) than for the average of two administrations (G = 0.79 to G = 0.89). Test-retest reliability coefficients for the constructs ranged from r = 0.26 to r = 0.77 and from G = 0.31 to G = 0.62 for a single administration, and from G = 0.47 to G = 0.86 for the average of two administrations. Test-retest reliability of the tool using G theory was moderate (G = 0.5) when we generalized across a single observation, but became strong (G = 0.9) when we averaged across both administrations. Conclusion This study provides preliminary evidence for the reliability of a tool that can be used to measure TPB constructs in relation to research use in policymaking

  20. Reliability of a tool for measuring theory of planned behaviour constructs for use in evaluating research use in policymaking

    Dobbins Maureen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although measures of knowledge translation and exchange (KTE effectiveness based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB have been used among patients and providers, no measure has been developed for use among health system policymakers and stakeholders. A tool that measures the intention to use research evidence in policymaking could assist researchers in evaluating the effectiveness of KTE strategies that aim to support evidence-informed health system decision-making. Therefore, we developed a 15-item tool to measure four TPB constructs (intention, attitude, subjective norm and perceived control and assessed its face validity through key informant interviews. Methods We carried out a reliability study to assess the tool's internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Our study sample consisted of 62 policymakers and stakeholders that participated in deliberative dialogues. We assessed internal consistency using Cronbach's alpha and generalizability (G coefficients, and we assessed test-retest reliability by calculating Pearson correlation coefficients (r and G coefficients for each construct and the tool overall. Results The internal consistency of items within each construct was good with alpha ranging from 0.68 to alpha = 0.89. G-coefficients were lower for a single administration (G = 0.34 to G = 0.73 than for the average of two administrations (G = 0.79 to G = 0.89. Test-retest reliability coefficients for the constructs ranged from r = 0.26 to r = 0.77 and from G = 0.31 to G = 0.62 for a single administration, and from G = 0.47 to G = 0.86 for the average of two administrations. Test-retest reliability of the tool using G theory was moderate (G = 0.5 when we generalized across a single observation, but became strong (G = 0.9 when we averaged across both administrations. Conclusion This study provides preliminary evidence for the reliability of a tool that can be used to measure TPB constructs in relation to research

  1. Objective Evaluation of the Audibility of Transient Errors in an Adaptive A/D Conversion Channel

    Marker-Villumsen, Niels; Jørgensen, Ivan Harald Holger; Bruun, Erik

    An adaptive analog-to-digital conversion channel for audio, using automatic gain control, generates transient errors that may be audible. Evaluating the audibility of such errors requires subjective evaluation using listening tests. From an electrical circuit design point-of-view this is not...... feasible, due to design time constraints. This paper investigates the use of the model output variables (MOVs) from the Perceptual Evaluation of Audio Quality (PEAQ) method, for objectively evaluating the transient errors of the conversion channel, in order to optimize the design and reduce design time....... The objective method is compared with results from an alternative forced choice listening test. The comparison shows that the objective method can be used to evaluate the audibility of the transient errors; thus the method can be applied when designing the circuit implementing the channel....

  2. Training evaluation models: The experience of the European project ADAPT-FIT

    V. Carbone; MORVILLO,A

    2003-01-01

    This article illustrates the experience gained in relation to training evaluation models at the institute for services industry research (IRAT) of the national research council of Italy and the university of Naples 'Parthenope', through an intensive training and research activity implemented as part of the transnational integrated training project (FIT - formazione integrata transnazionale). The fit project, funded by the European programme adapt, is a joint action implemented by the academic...

  3. Developing and Evaluating an Adaptive Business English Self-Learning System for EFL Vocabulary Learning

    Yen-Hui Wang

    2014-01-01

    This paper developed an adaptive Business English self-learning system for EFL vocabulary learning. The components of word reoccurrence and learner engagement have been built into the system where the amount of unknown word reexposure in various customized texts increases and vocabulary enhancement tasks are added to promote learner engagement with wanted words. To evaluate the system effectiveness on EFL vocabulary learning, the experimental group read system-screened texts with immediate an...

  4. Virtual reality coupled with adapted physical interface for a better evaluation of the innovative surgical instrument

    Phan Nguyen, Duy Minh; Tonetti, Jérôme; THOMANN, Guillaume

    2013-01-01

    10 pages International audience In the domain of designing innovative products in the medical field, investigations are often oriented towards communication between actors and needs comprehension. In the DESTIN (DEsign of Surgical/Technological INnovation) project, User Centered Design methodology with concrete experi-ments is applied. Researchers propose emulations in an operating room for co-evaluation of innovative products and new adapted surgical procedures. In this paper, they int...

  5. Adaptive Importance Sampling for Performance Evaluation and Parameter Optimization of Communication Systems

    Remondo, David; Srinivasan, Rajan; Nicola, Victor F.; Etten, van, WC Wim; Tattje, Henk E.P.

    2000-01-01

    We present new adaptive importance sampling techniques based on stochastic Newton recursions. Their applicability to the performance evaluation of communication systems is studied. Besides bit-error rate (BER) estimation, the techniques are used for system parameter optimization. Two system models that are analytically tractable are employed to demonstrate the validity of the techniques. As an application to situations that are analytically intractable and numerically intensive, the influence...

  6. Responsible Climate Change Adaptation : Exploring, analysing and evaluating public and private responsibilities for urban adaptation to climate change

    Mees, Heleen

    2014-01-01

    Cities are vulnerable to climate change. To deal with climate change, city governments and private actors such as businesses and citizens need to adapt to its effects, such as sea level rise, storm surges, intense rainfall and heatwaves. However, adaptation planning and action is often hampered when

  7. Reliability evaluation of I-123 ADAM SPECT imaging using SPM software and AAL ROI methods

    Yang, Bang-Hung [Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Nuclear Medicine, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Sung-Yi [Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Imaging Medical, St.Martin De Porres Hospital, Chia-Yi, Taiwan (China); Wang, Shyh-Jen [Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Nuclear Medicine, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taiwan (China); Su, Tung-Ping; Chou, Yuan-Hwa [Department of Psychiatry, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chia-Chieh [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Longtan, Taiwan (China); Chen, Jyh-Cheng, E-mail: jcchen@ym.edu.tw [Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2011-08-21

    The level of serotonin was regulated by serotonin transporter (SERT), which is a decisive protein in regulation of serotonin neurotransmission system. Many psychiatric disorders and therapies were also related to concentration of cerebral serotonin. I-123 ADAM was the novel radiopharmaceutical to image SERT in brain. The aim of this study was to measure reliability of SERT densities of healthy volunteers by automated anatomical labeling (AAL) method. Furthermore, we also used statistic parametric mapping (SPM) on a voxel by voxel analysis to find difference of cortex between test and retest of I-123 ADAM single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images. Twenty-one healthy volunteers were scanned twice with SPECT at 4 h after intravenous administration of 185 MBq of {sup 123}I-ADAM. The image matrix size was 128x128 and pixel size was 3.9 mm. All images were obtained through filtered back-projection (FBP) reconstruction algorithm. Region of interest (ROI) definition was performed based on the AAL brain template in PMOD version 2.95 software package. ROI demarcations were placed on midbrain, pons, striatum, and cerebellum. All images were spatially normalized to the SPECT MNI (Montreal Neurological Institute) templates supplied with SPM2. And each image was transformed into standard stereotactic space, which was matched to the Talairach and Tournoux atlas. Then differences across scans were statistically estimated on a voxel by voxel analysis using paired t-test (population main effect: 2 cond's, 1 scan/cond.), which was applied to compare concentration of SERT between the test and retest cerebral scans. The average of specific uptake ratio (SUR: target/cerebellum-1) of {sup 123}I-ADAM binding to SERT in midbrain was 1.78{+-}0.27, pons was 1.21{+-}0.53, and striatum was 0.79{+-}0.13. The cronbach's {alpha} of intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was 0.92. Besides, there was also no significant statistical finding in cerebral area using SPM2

  8. Reliability evaluation of I-123 ADAM SPECT imaging using SPM software and AAL ROI methods

    Yang, Bang-Hung; Tsai, Sung-Yi; Wang, Shyh-Jen; Su, Tung-Ping; Chou, Yuan-Hwa; Chen, Chia-Chieh; Chen, Jyh-Cheng

    2011-08-01

    The level of serotonin was regulated by serotonin transporter (SERT), which is a decisive protein in regulation of serotonin neurotransmission system. Many psychiatric disorders and therapies were also related to concentration of cerebral serotonin. I-123 ADAM was the novel radiopharmaceutical to image SERT in brain. The aim of this study was to measure reliability of SERT densities of healthy volunteers by automated anatomical labeling (AAL) method. Furthermore, we also used statistic parametric mapping (SPM) on a voxel by voxel analysis to find difference of cortex between test and retest of I-123 ADAM single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images.Twenty-one healthy volunteers were scanned twice with SPECT at 4 h after intravenous administration of 185 MBq of 123I-ADAM. The image matrix size was 128×128 and pixel size was 3.9 mm. All images were obtained through filtered back-projection (FBP) reconstruction algorithm. Region of interest (ROI) definition was performed based on the AAL brain template in PMOD version 2.95 software package. ROI demarcations were placed on midbrain, pons, striatum, and cerebellum. All images were spatially normalized to the SPECT MNI (Montreal Neurological Institute) templates supplied with SPM2. And each image was transformed into standard stereotactic space, which was matched to the Talairach and Tournoux atlas. Then differences across scans were statistically estimated on a voxel by voxel analysis using paired t-test (population main effect: 2 cond's, 1 scan/cond.), which was applied to compare concentration of SERT between the test and retest cerebral scans.The average of specific uptake ratio (SUR: target/cerebellum-1) of 123I-ADAM binding to SERT in midbrain was 1.78±0.27, pons was 1.21±0.53, and striatum was 0.79±0.13. The cronbach's α of intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was 0.92. Besides, there was also no significant statistical finding in cerebral area using SPM2 analysis. This finding might help us

  9. Reliability evaluation of I-123 ADAM SPECT imaging using SPM software and AAL ROI methods

    The level of serotonin was regulated by serotonin transporter (SERT), which is a decisive protein in regulation of serotonin neurotransmission system. Many psychiatric disorders and therapies were also related to concentration of cerebral serotonin. I-123 ADAM was the novel radiopharmaceutical to image SERT in brain. The aim of this study was to measure reliability of SERT densities of healthy volunteers by automated anatomical labeling (AAL) method. Furthermore, we also used statistic parametric mapping (SPM) on a voxel by voxel analysis to find difference of cortex between test and retest of I-123 ADAM single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images. Twenty-one healthy volunteers were scanned twice with SPECT at 4 h after intravenous administration of 185 MBq of 123I-ADAM. The image matrix size was 128x128 and pixel size was 3.9 mm. All images were obtained through filtered back-projection (FBP) reconstruction algorithm. Region of interest (ROI) definition was performed based on the AAL brain template in PMOD version 2.95 software package. ROI demarcations were placed on midbrain, pons, striatum, and cerebellum. All images were spatially normalized to the SPECT MNI (Montreal Neurological Institute) templates supplied with SPM2. And each image was transformed into standard stereotactic space, which was matched to the Talairach and Tournoux atlas. Then differences across scans were statistically estimated on a voxel by voxel analysis using paired t-test (population main effect: 2 cond's, 1 scan/cond.), which was applied to compare concentration of SERT between the test and retest cerebral scans. The average of specific uptake ratio (SUR: target/cerebellum-1) of 123I-ADAM binding to SERT in midbrain was 1.78±0.27, pons was 1.21±0.53, and striatum was 0.79±0.13. The cronbach's α of intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was 0.92. Besides, there was also no significant statistical finding in cerebral area using SPM2 analysis. This finding might help

  10. The evolution of Rare Pride: using evaluation to drive adaptive management in a biodiversity conservation organization.

    Jenks, Brett; Vaughan, Peter W; Butler, Paul J

    2010-05-01

    Rare Pride is a social marketing program that stimulates human behavior change in order to promote biodiversity conservation in critically threatened regions in developing countries. A series of formal evaluation studies, networking strategies, and evaluative inquiries have driven a 20-year process of adaptive management that has resulted in extensive programmatic changes within Pride. This paper describes the types of evaluation that Rare used to drive adaptive management and the changes it caused in Pride's theory-of-change and programmatic structure. We argue that (a) qualitative data gathered from partners and staff through structured interviews is most effective at identifying problems with current programs and procedures, (b) networking with other organizations is the most effective strategy for learning of new management strategies, and (c) quantitative data gathered through surveys is effective at measuring program impact and quality. Adaptive management has allowed Rare to increase its Pride program from implementing about two campaigns per year in 2001 to more than 40 per year in 2009 while improving program quality and maintaining program impact. PMID:19733908

  11. Reliability and Validity of Simplified Chinese Version of Roland-Morris Questionnaire in Evaluating Rural and Urban Patients with Low Back Pain

    Chen, Ziqiang; Wang, Xinhui; Zhu, Xiaodong; Zhang, Wei; Chen, Jiayu; Zhang, Diqing; Li, Ming

    2012-01-01

    Objective The causes of low back pain in China and Western countries are extremely different. We attempted to analyze the risk factors of low back pain in urban and rural patients under the dual economy with the simplified Chinese version of Roland-Morris disability questionnaire (SC-RMDQ) to demonstrate that SC-RMDQ could evaluate patients with low back pain arising from different causes. Methods Roland-Morris disability questionnaire was translated into SCRMDQ according to international guidelines for questionnaire adaptation. In this study, causes of low back pain of 187 outpatients and inpatients (99 urban patients and 88 rural patients) were analyzed. All patients underwent simplified Chinese version of Roland-Morris disability questionnaire (SC-RMDQ), simplified Chinese Oswestry disability index (SCODI) and visual analogue scale (VAS). Reliability was tested using reproducibility (intraclass coefficient of correlation – ICC) and internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha). Validity was tested using Pearson correlation analysis. Results The leading causes for low back pain were sedentariness (38.4%) and vibration (18.1%) in urban patients and waist bending (48.9%) and spraining (25%) in rural patients. Although causes of low back pain in the two groups of population were completely different, SCRMDQ had high internal consistency (Cronbach's α value of 0.874 in urban patients and 0.883 in rural patients) and good reproducibility (ICC value of .952 in urban patients and 0.949 in rural patients, P<0.01). SCRMDQ also showed significant correlation with Simplified Chinese version of Oswestry disability index (SCODI) and visual analogue scale (VAS) in rural areas (SCRMDQ-SCODI r = 0.841; SCRMDQ -VAS: r = 0.685, P<0.01) and in urban areas (SCRMDQ-SCODI: r = 0.818, P<0.01; SCRMDQ –VAS: r = 0.666, P<0.01). Conclusions Although causes of low back pain are completely different in rural and urban patients, SCRMDQ has a good reliability and validity, which

  12. A Simple and Reliable Method for the Evaluation of the Exposed Field Near the GSM Antenna

    Algenti Lala

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to present a simple, accurate and very efficient method for the evaluation of the field in the vicinity of GSM antennas of the radio base-station in urban areas. The method is based on the replacement of the antenna panel with a group of discrete source emitters. A geometrical approximation is used for the evaluation of the environment’s influence also. The calculated results are compared with results taken from the use of NARDA SRM 3000 measuring equipment. The presented method could be successfully used for the exposure evaluation of the electromagnetic field emitted by GSM antennas of the base-station in urban areas.

  13. Capacity Expansion and Reliability Evaluation on the Networks Flows with Continuous Stochastic Functional Capacity

    F. Hamzezadeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In many systems such as computer network, fuel distribution, and transportation system, it is necessary to change the capacity of some arcs in order to increase maximum flow value from source s to sink t, while the capacity change incurs minimum cost. In real-time networks, some factors cause loss of arc’s flow. For example, in some flow distribution systems, evaporation, erosion or sediment in pipes waste the flow. Here we define a real capacity, or the so-called functional capacity, which is the operational capacity of an arc. In other words, the functional capacity of an arc equals the possible maximum flow that may pass through the arc. Increasing the functional arcs capacities incurs some cost. There is a certain resource available to cover the costs. First, we construct a mathematical model to minimize the total cost of expanding the functional capacities to the required levels. Then, we consider the loss of flow on each arc as a stochastic variable and compute the system reliability.

  14. Evaluation of structural reliability for vacuum vessel under external pressure and electromagnetic force

    Static and dynamic structural analyses of the vacuum vessel for a Swimming Pool Type Tokamak Reactor (SPTR) have been conducted under the external pressure (hydraulic and atmospheric pressure) during normal operation or the electromagnetic force due to plasma disruption. The reactor structural design is based on the concept that the adjacent modules of the vacuum vessel are not connected mechanically with bolts in the torus inboard region each other, so as to save the required space for inserting the remote handling machine for tightenning and untightenning bolts in the region and to simplify the repair and maintenance of the reactor. The structural analyses of the vacuum vessel have been carried out under the external pressure and the electromagnetic force and the structural reliability against the static and dynamic loads is estimated. The several configurations of the lip seal between the modules, which is required to make a plasma vacuum boundary, have been proposed and the structural strength under the forced displacements due to the deformation of the vacuum vessel is also estimated. (author)

  15. Evaluation of an adaptive filtering algorithm for CT cardiac imaging with EKG modulated tube current

    Li, Jianying; Hsieh, Jiang; Mohr, Kelly; Okerlund, Darin

    2005-04-01

    We have developed an adaptive filtering algorithm for cardiac CT scans with EKG-modulated tube current to optimize resolution and noise for different cardiac phases and to provide safety net for cases where end-systole phase is used for coronary imaging. This algorithm has been evaluated using patient cardiac CT scans where lower tube currents are used for the systolic phases. In this paper, we present the evaluation results. The results demonstrated that with the use of the proposed algorithm, we could improve image quality for all cardiac phases, while providing greater noise and streak artifact reduction for systole phases where lower CT dose were used.

  16. What Response Rates Are Needed to Make Reliable Inferences from Student Evaluations of Teaching?

    Zumrawi, Abdel Azim; Bates, Simon P.; Schroeder, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses the determination of statistically desirable response rates in students' surveys, with emphasis on assessing the effect of underlying variability in the student evaluation of teaching (SET). We discuss factors affecting the determination of adequate response rates and highlight challenges caused by non-response and lack…

  17. Is Wikipedia a Reliable Learning Resource for Medical Students? Evaluating Respiratory Topics

    Azer, Samy A.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to critically evaluate the accuracy and readability of English Wikipedia articles on the respiratory system and its disorders and whether they can be a suitable resource for medical students. On April 27, 2014, English Wikipedia was searched for articles on respiratory topics. Using a modified DISCERN instrument,…

  18. Reliability of Professional Judgments in Forensic Child Sexual Abuse Evaluations: Unsettled or Unsettling Science?

    Everson, Mark D.; Sandoval, Jose Miguel; Berson, Nancy; Crowson, Mary; Robinson, Harriet

    2012-01-01

    In the absence of photographic or DNA evidence, a credible eyewitness, or perpetrator confession, forensic evaluators in cases of alleged child sexual abuse must rely on psychosocial or "soft" evidence, often requiring substantial professional judgment for case determination. This article offers a three-part rebuttal to Herman's (2009) argument…

  19. Reliability and concurrent validity between two-dimensional and three-dimensional evaluations of knee valgus during drop jumps

    Ortiz, Alexis; Rosario-Canales, Martin; Rodríguez, Alejandro; Seda, Alexie; Figueroa, Carla; Venegas-Ríos, Heidi L

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to establish the concurrent validity and reliability of four different two-dimensional (2D) video-based techniques for quantifying frontal plane knee kinematics during a 40 cm double-legged drop jump. Participants and methods A convenience sample of 16 healthy participants (nine males and seven females; age: [mean ± standard deviation] 25.5±2 years; body mass index: 24.33±2.98 kg/m2) participated in this investigation. A total of five trials during a 40 cm drop jump maneuver with a countermovement jump were used as the functional task. Four knee valgus measures, such as two different frontal plane projection angle measures, knee-to-ankle separation ratio (KASR), and knee separation distance (KSD), were measured using 2D and three-dimensional (3D) systems. To generalize to the greater population of possible evaluators, the testers performing the biomechanical analyses were three novice physical therapists. Intra- and intertester intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were estimated for 2D analysis variables. ICCs were estimated for all measures between systems to determine concurrent validity of the 2D system. Results All four 2D measures showed good to excellent reliability (ICC: 0.89–0.99). KASR and KSD showed excellent correlation (ICC: 0.96; 95% CI: 0.82–0.98 and ICC: 0.94; 95% CI: 0.90–0.96, respectively) with the 3D system, while both methods of frontal plane projection angle showed poor to moderate correlation (ICC: 0–0.57) with the 3D system. Conclusion 2D KASR and KSD measures are cost effective, reliable, and highly correlated with the same measures using 3D techniques for the evaluation of knee valgus. PMID:27313480

  20. Evaluation of MCF10A as a Reliable Model for Normal Human Mammary Epithelial Cells.

    Ying Qu

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women and a leading cause of cancer-related deaths for women worldwide. Various cell models have been developed to study breast cancer tumorigenesis, metastasis, and drug sensitivity. The MCF10A human mammary epithelial cell line is a widely used in vitro model for studying normal breast cell function and transformation. However, there is limited knowledge about whether MCF10A cells reliably represent normal human mammary cells. MCF10A cells were grown in monolayer, suspension (mammosphere culture, three-dimensional (3D "on-top" Matrigel, 3D "cell-embedded" Matrigel, or mixed Matrigel/collagen I gel. Suspension culture was performed with the MammoCult medium and low-attachment culture plates. Cells grown in 3D culture were fixed and subjected to either immunofluorescence staining or embedding and sectioning followed by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence staining. Cells or slides were stained for protein markers commonly used to identify mammary progenitor and epithelial cells. MCF10A cells expressed markers representing luminal, basal, and progenitor phenotypes in two-dimensional (2D culture. When grown in suspension culture, MCF10A cells showed low mammosphere-forming ability. Cells in mammospheres and 3D culture expressed both luminal and basal markers. Surprisingly, the acinar structure formed by MCF10A cells in 3D culture was positive for both basal markers and the milk proteins β-casein and α-lactalbumin. MCF10A cells exhibit a unique differentiated phenotype in 3D culture which may not exist or be rare in normal human breast tissue. Our results raise a question as to whether the commonly used MCF10A cell line is a suitable model for human mammary cell studies.

  1. A critical evaluation of the validity and the reliability of global competency constructs for supervisor assessment of junior medical trainees.

    McGill, D A; van der Vleuten, C P M; Clarke, M J

    2013-10-01

    Supervisor assessments are critical for both formative and summative assessment in the workplace. Supervisor ratings remain an important source of such assessment in many educational jurisdictions even though there is ambiguity about their validity and reliability. The aims of this evaluation is to explore the: (1) construct validity of ward-based supervisor competency assessments; (2) reliability of supervisors for observing any overarching domain constructs identified (factors); (3) stability of factors across subgroups of contexts, supervisors and trainees; and (4) position of the observations compared to the established literature. Evaluated assessments were all those used to judge intern (trainee) suitability to become an unconditionally registered medical practitioner in the Australian Capital Territory, Australia in 2007-2008. Initial construct identification is by traditional exploratory factor analysis (EFA) using Principal component analysis with Varimax rotation. Factor stability is explored by EFA of subgroups by different contexts such as hospital type, and different types of supervisors and trainees. The unit of analysis is each assessment, and includes all available assessments without aggregation of any scores to obtain the factors. Reliability of identified constructs is by variance components analysis of the summed trainee scores for each factor and the number of assessments needed to provide an acceptably reliable assessment using the construct, the reliability unit of analysis being the score for each factor for every assessment. For the 374 assessments from 74 trainees and 73 supervisors, the EFA resulted in 3 factors identified from the scree plot, accounting for only 68 % of the variance with factor 1 having features of a "general professional job performance" competency (eigenvalue 7.630; variance 54.5 %); factor 2 "clinical skills" (eigenvalue 1.036; variance 7.4 %); and factor 3 "professional and personal" competency (eigenvalue 0

  2. Ultrasound nondestructive evaluation (NDE) imaging with transducer arrays and adaptive processing.

    Li, Minghui; Hayward, Gordon

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the challenging problem of ultrasonic non-destructive evaluation (NDE) imaging with adaptive transducer arrays. In NDE applications, most materials like concrete, stainless steel and carbon-reinforced composites used extensively in industries and civil engineering exhibit heterogeneous internal structure. When inspected using ultrasound, the signals from defects are significantly corrupted by the echoes form randomly distributed scatterers, even defects that are much larger than these random reflectors are difficult to detect with the conventional delay-and-sum operation. We propose to apply adaptive beamforming to the received data samples to reduce the interference and clutter noise. Beamforming is to manipulate the array beam pattern by appropriately weighting the per-element delayed data samples prior to summing them. The adaptive weights are computed from the statistical analysis of the data samples. This delay-weight-and-sum process can be explained as applying a lateral spatial filter to the signals across the probe aperture. Simulations show that the clutter noise is reduced by more than 30 dB and the lateral resolution is enhanced simultaneously when adaptive beamforming is applied. In experiments inspecting a steel block with side-drilled holes, good quantitative agreement with simulation results is demonstrated. PMID:22368457

  3. Evaluation of Galactose Adapted Yeasts for Bioethanol Fermentation from Kappaphycus alvarezii Hydrolyzates.

    Nguyen, Trung Hau; Ra, Chae Hun; Sunwoo, In Yung; Jeong, Gwi-Taek; Kim, Sung-Koo

    2016-07-28

    Bioethanol was produced from Kappaphycus alvarezii seaweed biomass using separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF). Pretreatment was evaluated for 60 min at 121°C using 12% (w/v) biomass slurry with 364 mM H2SO4. Enzymatic saccharification was then carried out at 45°C for 48 h using Celluclast 1.5 L. Ethanol fermentation with 12% (w/v) K. alvarezii hydrolyzate was performed using the yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae KCTC1126, Kluyveromyces marxianus KCTC7150, and Candida lusitaniae ATCC42720 with or without prior adaptation to high concentrations of galactose. When non-adapted S. cerevisiae, K. marxianus, and C. lusitaniae were used, 11.5 g/l, 6.7 g/l, and 6.0 g/l of ethanol were produced, respectively. When adapted S. cerevisiae, K. marxianus, and C. lusitaniae were used, 15.8 g/l, 11.6 g/l, and 13.4 g/l of ethanol were obtained, respectively. The highest ethanol concentration was 15.8 g/l, with YEtOH = 0.43 and YT% = 84.3%, which was obtained using adapted S. cerevisiae. PMID:27056472

  4. EVALUATION OF GRAY INTENSITY VALUE FOR RELIABLE DIGITIZATION OF DIGITAL RADIOGRAPHY IN DEFECT DETECTION

    P.Chitra

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Radiography is one of the oldest NDT technique used for evaluation of weld defects in metal. Radiographic defects are classified based on the shape, location, orientation, depth, width etc. Once a radiographof a weld is taken, the radiographer examines the same for identifying the defects and quantitatively evaluating the same based on codes and specifications. In recent years digital imaging has superseded conventional imaging, which has led to a profound change in interpretation of radiographic images. A change in the Gray values of the digital image (edges indicates the flaws on the radiographic image. This paper discusses the Gray level distribution of a test piece radiograph. The test piece considered is a stainless steel metal plate on which a square hole is drilled with different area and depth. The plate is radiographed using X-ray and gamma rays (IR192.

  5. The need for standardized tests to evaluate the reliability of data transport in wireless medical systems

    Fernández-López, Helena; Afonso, José A.; Correia, J.H.; Simões, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    Wireless medical systems are comprised of four stages, namely the medical device, the data transport, the data collection and the data evaluation stages. Whereas the performance of the first stage is highly regulated, the others are not. This paper concentrates on the data transport stage and argues that it is necessary to establish standardized tests to be used by medical device manufacturers to provide comparable results concerning the communication performance of the wire...

  6. Validity and reliability of a self-administered foot evaluation questionnaire (SAFE-Q)

    Niki, Hisateru; Tatsunami, Shinobu; Haraguchi, Naoki; Aoki, Takafumi; Okuda, Ryuzo; Suda, Yasunori; Takao, Masato; Tanaka, Yasuhito

    2013-01-01

    Background The Japanese Society for Surgery of the Foot (JSSF) is developing a QOL questionnaire instrument for use in pathological conditions related to the foot and ankle. The main body of the outcome instrument (the Self-Administered Foot Evaluation Questionnaire, SAFE-Q version 2) consists of 34 questionnaire items, which provide five subscale scores (1: Pain and Pain-Related; 2: Physical Functioning and Daily Living; 3: Social Functioning; 4: Shoe-Related; and 5: General Health and Well-...

  7. Extracting an evaluative feedback from the brain for adaptation of motor neuroprosthetic decoders.

    Mahmoudi, Babak; Principe, Jose C; Sanchez, Justin C

    2010-01-01

    The design of Brain-Machine Interface (BMI) neural decoders that have robust performance in changing environments encountered in daily life activity is a challenging problem. One solution to this problem is the design of neural decoders that are able to assist and adapt to the user by participating in their perception-action-reward cycle (PARC). Using inspiration both from artificial intelligence and neurobiology reinforcement learning theories, we have designed a novel decoding architecture that enables a symbiotic relationship between the user and an Intelligent Assistant (IA). By tapping into the motor and reward centers in the brain, the IA adapts the process of decoding neural motor commands into prosthetic actions based on the user's goals. The focus of this paper is on extraction of goal information directly from the brain and making it accessible to the IA as an evaluative feedback for adaptation. We have recorded the neural activity of the Nucleus Accumbens in behaving rats during a reaching task. The peri-event time histograms demonstrate a rich representation of the reward prediction in this subcortical structure that can be modeled on a single trial basis as a scalar evaluative feedback with high precision. PMID:21096396

  8. Evaluation of the dentinal wall adaptation ability of MTA Fillapex using stereo electron microscope

    Demiriz, Levent; Koçak, Mustafa Murat; Koçak, Sibel; Sağlam, Baran Can; Türker, Sevinç Aktemur

    2016-01-01

    Background: An ideal root canal obturation requires a complete dentinal wall adaptation of sealer and Gutta-percha combinations without any gap formations. Aims: The aim of the study was to evaluate the dentinal wall adaptation ability of MTA Fillapex root canal sealer using stereo electron microscope (SEM). Methods: Twenty-four, single-rooted, human maxillary incisor teeth were used. All canals were prepared with a rotary nickel–titanium (Ni–Ti) instrument to a size F3 file. Teeth divided into two equal groups and one of the experimental groups was filled with AH Plus, and the other group was filled with MTA Fillapex using Gutta-percha single cone as a core material. The roots were prepared for SEM evaluation, and serial scanning electron photomicrographs were taken at ×50, ×100, ×500, and ×1000 magnifications. The gaps between the root canal sealer and canal walls were detected and measured in coronal, middle, and apical thirds. For each section, the highest value among the detected gap formations was recorded. Statistical Analysis: Mann–Whitney U-test, Freidman, and Wilcoxon tests were used. Results: The statistical analysis showed no significant difference between two sealers in terms of gap formation (P > 0.05). Conclusions: MTA Fillapex has a similar dentinal wall adaptation ability as AH Plus does. PMID:27217633

  9. Responsible Climate Change Adaptation : Exploring, analysing and evaluating public and private responsibilities for urban adaptation to climate change

    Mees, Heleen

    2014-01-01

    Cities are vulnerable to climate change. To deal with climate change, city governments and private actors such as businesses and citizens need to adapt to its effects, such as sea level rise, storm surges, intense rainfall and heatwaves. However, adaptation planning and action is often hampered when the relevant public and private actors have only vague and ambiguous responsibilities. Some exploration on the issue of public and private responsibilities has been undertaken in the literature, b...

  10. ETGAR - an information service for abnormal occurences used for evaluating the reliability of nuclear power plants

    ETGAR is an information service for abnormal occurrences in N.P.P. In view of the future erection of nuclear power plants in Israel information has been gathered on specific accidents and incidents that had occurred since 1972 in the operating nuclear power plants around the world. The ETGAR program carries out the dissemination of this information for the benefit of those working in planning, licensing and safety evaluations; it offers them the causes of the accident, their consequences and the conclusions reached. (B.G.)

  11. Evaluating Success Criteria and Project Monitoring in River Enhancement Within an Adaptive Management Framework

    O'Donnell, T. Kevin; Galat, David L.

    2008-01-01

    Objective setting, performance measures, and accountability are important components of an adaptive-management approach to river-enhancement programs. Few lessons learned by river-enhancement practitioners in the United States have been documented and disseminated relative to the number of projects implemented. We conducted scripted telephone surveys with river-enhancement project managers and practitioners within the Upper Mississippi River Basin (UMRB) to determine the extent of setting project success criteria, monitoring, evaluation of monitoring data, and data dissemination. Investigation of these elements enabled a determination of those that inhibited adaptive management. Seventy river enhancement projects were surveyed. Only 34% of projects surveyed incorporated a quantified measure of project success. Managers most often relied on geophysical attributes of rivers when setting project success criteria, followed by biological communities. Ninety-one percent of projects that performed monitoring included biologic variables, but the lack of data collection before and after project completion and lack of field-based reference or control sites will make future assessments of ecologic success difficult. Twenty percent of projects that performed monitoring evaluated ≥1 variable but did not disseminate their evaluations outside their organization. Results suggest greater incentives may be required to advance the science of river enhancement. Future river-enhancement programs within the UMRB and elsewhere can increase knowledge gained from individual projects by offering better guidance on setting success criteria before project initiation and evaluation through established monitoring protocols.

  12. Evaluating success criteria and project monitoring in river enhancement within an adaptive management framework

    O'Donnell, T. K.; Galat, D.L.

    2008-01-01

    Objective setting, performance measures, and accountability are important components of an adaptive-management approach to river-enhancement programs. Few lessons learned by river-enhancement practitioners in the United States have been documented and disseminated relative to the number of projects implemented. We conducted scripted telephone surveys with river-enhancement project managers and practitioners within the Upper Mississippi River Basin (UMRB) to determine the extent of setting project success criteria, monitoring, evaluation of monitoring data, and data dissemination. Investigation of these elements enabled a determination of those that inhibited adaptive management. Seventy river enhancement projects were surveyed. Only 34% of projects surveyed incorporated a quantified measure of project success. Managers most often relied on geophysical attributes of rivers when setting project success criteria, followed by biological communities. Ninety-one percent of projects that performed monitoring included biologic variables, but the lack of data collection before and after project completion and lack of field-based reference or control sites will make future assessments of ecologic success difficult. Twenty percent of projects that performed monitoring evaluated ???1 variable but did not disseminate their evaluations outside their organization. Results suggest greater incentives may be required to advance the science of river enhancement. Future river-enhancement programs within the UMRB and elsewhere can increase knowledge gained from individual projects by offering better guidance on setting success criteria before project initiation and evaluation through established monitoring protocols. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  13. Land-based approach to evaluate sustainable land management and adaptive capacity of ecosystems/lands

    Kust, German; Andreeva, Olga

    2015-04-01

    A number of new concepts and paradigms appeared during last decades, such as sustainable land management (SLM), climate change (CC) adaptation, environmental services, ecosystem health, and others. All of these initiatives still not having the common scientific platform although some agreements in terminology were reached, schemes of links and feedback loops created, and some models developed. Nevertheless, in spite of all these scientific achievements, the land related issues are still not in the focus of CC adaptation and mitigation. The last did not grow much beyond the "greenhouse gases" (GHG) concept, which makes land degradation as the "forgotten side of climate change" The possible decision to integrate concepts of climate and desertification/land degradation could be consideration of the "GHG" approach providing global solution, and "land" approach providing local solution covering other "locally manifesting" issues of global importance (biodiversity conservation, food security, disasters and risks, etc.) to serve as a central concept among those. SLM concept is a land-based approach, which includes the concepts of both ecosystem-based approach (EbA) and community-based approach (CbA). SLM can serve as in integral CC adaptation strategy, being based on the statement "the more healthy and resilient the system is, the less vulnerable and more adaptive it will be to any external changes and forces, including climate" The biggest scientific issue is the methods to evaluate the SLM and results of the SLM investments. We suggest using the approach based on the understanding of the balance or equilibrium of the land and nature components as the major sign of the sustainable system. Prom this point of view it is easier to understand the state of the ecosystem stress, size of the "health", range of adaptive capacity, drivers of degradation and SLM nature, as well as the extended land use, and the concept of environmental land management as the improved SLM approach

  14. Two-criteria approach to reactor pressure vessel safety and reliability evaluation

    The crack-initiation approach and the crack-arrest approach are the two techniques most often used nowadays for evaluating the safety of pressure vessels. The former is based on the methods of Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics and Fracture Toughness, while the Fracture Analysis Diagram and the Crack Arrest Temperature underlie the latter. By introducing some formalism and the unified temperature (Tsub(R)), a formal unification of both approaches mentioned above is sought for. Experimental data suggest using the Nil Ductility Temperature as a reference temperature for both approaches. Using the theoretical background of linear elastic fracture mechanics it is possible to construct the Defect Analysis Diagram which summarizes the dependencies of critical sizes of flaws. The dependence on the crack arrest temperature is also included, which seems to be highly advantageous. In this way it is possible with the use of only one diagram to determine all necessary parameters either for critical or allowable state of the pressure vessel (or of other type of equipment) in the stage of design, manufacture and exploitation. This process is easy as the inlet of the changes in mechanical properties or flaw size induced in material by exploitation means only some shift of scales. This diagram is applicable also for the evaluation of results received from the in-service inspections of pressure vessels. (author)

  15. COBRA-EN code/EPRI correlation-style DNBR calculation reliability evaluation

    As a part of studies to evaluate core integrity during transient and accident conditions, a prediction method of DNB (departure from nucleate boiling) and DNBR (DNB ratio) using the subchannel code, COBRA-EN, and the EPRI correlation for critical heat fluxes has been maintained. In this paper, experimental analyses were performed for the DNB database obtained at Columbia University, in order to confirm the predicting accuracy. As the result, the ratios of measured and predicted DNB, M/P, were large and 1.067 in the average. Therefore, the turbulent mixing coefficient, which is one of thermal-hydraulic parameter, was changed from the recommended value of 0.02 to 0.42. Then, the average value of M/P improved to be 1.019. The result showed that prediction accuracy was equivalent to that of the analysis method using in the licensing process. Accordingly, the combination of the COBRA-EN code and EPRI correlation is considered valid for evaluating core integrity during transient and accident conditions. (author)

  16. Evaluation of professional knowledge and attitudes on dementia patient care: a trans-cultural adaptation of an evaluation instrument

    Gislaine Desani da Costa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective To describe the trans-cultural adaptation of the evaluation instrument entitled Atenció Sanitària de Les Demències: la visió de L' Atenció Primarià from Catalan into versions in Portuguese for doctors and nurses. This study evaluates the knowledge and perspectives of these professionals in their treatment of patients diagnosed with dementia in cases of primary care. Method The adaptation followed internationally accepted rules, which include the following steps: translation, synthesis, back-translation, revision by a committee of specialists, and a test run with 35 practicing doctors and 35 practicing nurses in Brazil's Family Health Strategy (Estratégia Saúde da Família, or ESF in Portuguese. Results The translation, synthesis, and back-translation steps were performed satisfactorily; only small adjustments were required. The committee of specialists verified the face validity in the version translated into Portuguese, and all of the items that received an agreement score lower than 80% during the initial evaluation were revised. In the test run, the difficulties presented by the health care professionals did not reach 15% of the sample, and therefore, no changes were made. Conclusion The Portuguese translation of the instrument can be considered semantically, idiomatically, culturally, and conceptually equivalent to the original Catalan version and is, therefore, appropriate for use in Brazil.

  17. Dosimetric evaluation of three adaptive strategies for prostate cancer treatment including pelvic lymph nodes irradiation

    Purpose: The movements of the prostate relative to the pelvic lymph nodes during intensity-modulated radiation therapy treatment can limit margin reduction and affect the protection of the organs at risk (OAR). In this study, the authors performed an analysis of three adaptive treatment strategies that combine information from both bony and gold marker registrations. The robustness of those treatments against the interfraction prostate movements was evaluated. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted on five prostate cancer patients with 7–13 daily cone-beam CTs (CBCTs). The clinical target volumes (CTVs) consisting of pelvic lymph nodes, prostate, and seminal vesicles as well as the OARs were delineated on each CBCT and the initial CT. Three adaptive strategies were analyzed. Two of these methods relied on a two-step patient positioning at each fraction. First step: a bony registration was used to deliver the nodal CTV prescription. Second step: a gold marker registration was then used either to (1) complete the dose delivered to the prostate (complement); (2) or give almost the entire prescription to the prostate with a weak dose gradient between the targets to compensate for possible motions (gradient). The third method (COR) used a pool of precalculated plans based on images acquired at previous treatment fractions. At each new fraction, a plan is selected from that pool based on the daily position of prostate center-of-mass. The dosimetric comparison was conducted and results are presented with and without the systematic shift in the prostate position on the CT planning. The adaptive strategies were compared to the current clinical standard where all fractions are treated with the initial nonadaptive plan. Results: The minimum daily prostate D95% is improved by 2%, 9%, and 6% for the complement, the gradient, and the COR approaches, respectively, compared to the nonadaptive method. The average nodal CTV D95% remains constant across the strategies, except

  18. Dosimetric evaluation of three adaptive strategies for prostate cancer treatment including pelvic lymph nodes irradiation

    Cantin, Audrey; Gingras, Luc; Archambault, Louis, E-mail: louis.archambault@phy.ulaval.ca [Département de Physique, de génie Physique et d’optique et Centre de Recherche sur le Cancer, Université Laval, Québec, Québec G1V 0A6, Canada and Département de Radio-Oncologie et Centre de Recherche du CHU de Québec, CHU de Québec—Université Laval, 11 côte du Palais, Québec, Québec G1R 2J6 (Canada); Lachance, Bernard; Foster, William [Département de Radio-Oncologie et Centre de Recherche du CHU de Québec, CHU de Québec—Université Laval, 11 côte du Palais, Québec, Québec G1R 2J6 (Canada); Goudreault, Julie [Département de Radio-Oncologie et Centre de Recherche du CHU de Québec, CHU de Québec—Université Laval, 11 côte du Palais, Québec, Québec G1R 2J6, Canada and Département de Radio-Oncologie, CSSS de Gatineau–Hôpital de Gatineau, 909 Boulevard La Vérendrye, Gatineau, Québec J8P 7H2 (Canada)

    2015-12-15

    Purpose: The movements of the prostate relative to the pelvic lymph nodes during intensity-modulated radiation therapy treatment can limit margin reduction and affect the protection of the organs at risk (OAR). In this study, the authors performed an analysis of three adaptive treatment strategies that combine information from both bony and gold marker registrations. The robustness of those treatments against the interfraction prostate movements was evaluated. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted on five prostate cancer patients with 7–13 daily cone-beam CTs (CBCTs). The clinical target volumes (CTVs) consisting of pelvic lymph nodes, prostate, and seminal vesicles as well as the OARs were delineated on each CBCT and the initial CT. Three adaptive strategies were analyzed. Two of these methods relied on a two-step patient positioning at each fraction. First step: a bony registration was used to deliver the nodal CTV prescription. Second step: a gold marker registration was then used either to (1) complete the dose delivered to the prostate (complement); (2) or give almost the entire prescription to the prostate with a weak dose gradient between the targets to compensate for possible motions (gradient). The third method (COR) used a pool of precalculated plans based on images acquired at previous treatment fractions. At each new fraction, a plan is selected from that pool based on the daily position of prostate center-of-mass. The dosimetric comparison was conducted and results are presented with and without the systematic shift in the prostate position on the CT planning. The adaptive strategies were compared to the current clinical standard where all fractions are treated with the initial nonadaptive plan. Results: The minimum daily prostate D{sub 95%} is improved by 2%, 9%, and 6% for the complement, the gradient, and the COR approaches, respectively, compared to the nonadaptive method. The average nodal CTV D{sub 95%} remains constant across the

  19. Evaluating the Validity and Reliability of PDQ-II and Comparison with DDST-II for Two Step Developmental Screening

    Anooshirvan Kazemnejad

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective:This research was designed to identify the validity and reliability of the Prescreening Developmental Questionnaire 2 (PDQ-II in Tehran in comparison with the Denver Developmental Screening Test-II (DDST-II. Methods: After translation and back translation, the final Persian version of test was verified by three pediatricians and also by reviewing relevant literature for content validity. The test was performed on 237 children ranging from 0 to 6 years old, recruited by convenient sampling, from four health care clinics in Tehran city. They were also evaluated by DDST II simultaneously. Interrater methods and Cronbachs α were used to determine reliability of the test. The Kappa agreement coefficient between PDQ and DDST II was determined. The data was analyzed by SPSS software. Findings:All of the questions in PDQ had satisfactory content validity. The total Cronbachs α coefficient of 0-9 months, 9-24 months, 2-4 years and 4-6 years questionnaires were 0.951, 0.926, 0.950 and 0.876, respectively. The Kappa measure of agreement for interrater tests was 0.89. The estimated agreement coefficient between PDQ and DDST II was 0.383. Based on two different categorizing possibilities for questionable scores, that is, "Delayed" or "Normal", sensitivity and specificity of PDQ was determined to be 35.7-63% and 75.8-92.2%, respectively. Conclusion:PDQ has a good content validity and reliability and moderate sensitivity and specificity in comparison with the DDST-II, but by considering their relatively weak agreement coefficient, using it along with DDST-II for a two-stage developmental screening process, remains doubtful.

  20. The Karlsruhe computer program for the evaluation of the availability and reliability of complex repairable systems

    A very fast analytical computer program for fault tree evaluation has already been developed at the german nuclear research center of Karlsruhe. This program can solve coherent systems in binary logic. Four different classes of components can be handled by the program: 1. Unrepairable components. 2. Repairable components with failures which are immediately detected (revealed faults). 3. Repairable components with failures which are detected upon demand (faults remain unrevealed until next demand occurs). 4. Repairable components with failures which are detected upon inspection (faults remain unrevealed until next inspection is carried out). The program can perform also time dependent calculations. In particular the program can analyse systems characterized by two phases one following the other in time (two time axis). A numerical example is also included. (Auth.)